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Sample records for conejos norfolk oryctolagus

  1. Las Manas de Tio Conejo (Uncle Conejo's Tricks).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, James H.

    A lesson is presented that is designed to assist intermediate and advanced students of Spanish in both language proficiency and cultural understanding. Entirely in Spanish, the lesson focuses on the character of Tio Conejo, a well-known figure in Latin American folklore, offering insight into the significant contribution made to Hispanic…

  2. 78 FR 16816 - Television Broadcasting Services; Hampton-Norfolk, Virginia; Norfolk, Virginia-Elizabeth City...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Hampton-Norfolk, Virginia; Norfolk, Virginia..., North Carolina, and to modify its television station, WHRO-TV's license to specify Norfolk,...

  3. EXTERIOR ELEVATION, LOOKING SOUTH, ALSO SHOWING THE NORFOLK SOUTHERN STEAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR ELEVATION, LOOKING SOUTH, ALSO SHOWING THE NORFOLK SOUTHERN STEAM RESTORATION FLOOR INTERIOR WITH A DRILL PRESS (LEFT) AND BORING MILL (RIGHT). - Norfolk & Southern Steam Locomotive No. 1218, Norris Yards, East of Ruffner Road, Irondale, Jefferson County, AL

  4. 33 CFR 334.300 - Hampton Roads and Willoughby Bay, Norfolk Naval Base, naval restricted area, Norfolk, Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hampton Roads and Willoughby Bay, Norfolk Naval Base, naval restricted area, Norfolk, Virginia. 334.300 Section 334.300 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.300 Hampton Roads and Willoughby Bay, Norfolk Naval Base, naval...

  5. 33 CFR 334.300 - Hampton Roads and Willoughby Bay, Norfolk Naval Base, naval restricted area, Norfolk, Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hampton Roads and Willoughby Bay, Norfolk Naval Base, naval restricted area, Norfolk, Virginia. 334.300 Section 334.300 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.300 Hampton Roads and Willoughby Bay, Norfolk Naval Base, naval...

  6. 33 CFR 334.300 - Hampton Roads and Willoughby Bay, Norfolk Naval Base, naval restricted area, Norfolk, Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hampton Roads and Willoughby Bay, Norfolk Naval Base, naval restricted area, Norfolk, Virginia. 334.300 Section 334.300 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.300 Hampton Roads and Willoughby Bay, Norfolk Naval Base, naval...

  7. 78 FR 49920 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Elizabeth River, Eastern Branch, Norfolk, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... Norfolk Southern 5 Railroad Bridge, across the Elizabeth River Eastern Branch, mile 1.1, at Norfolk, VA... operating schedule, the Norfolk Southern 5 Railroad Bridge, mile 1.1, in Norfolk, VA, the draw must open... maintenance. The Norfolk Southern 5 railroad Bridge, at mile 1.1, across the Elizabeth River (Eastern...

  8. SIGN: Science, Inclusion and Growth in Norfolk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefever, David; Symonds, Lynne

    2000-01-01

    Science, Inclusion, and Growth in Norfolk (SIGN) is a Public Understanding of Science project that seeks to use the understanding of plant and soil science to demonstrate that people with severe learning difficulties can find the scientific method of inquiry a relevant and rewarding route to self-confidence and an understanding of the events that…

  9. 76 FR 70345 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Elizabeth River, Eastern Branch, Norfolk, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... operation of the Norfolk Southern 5 Railroad Bridge, mile 1.1, Norfolk, VA. Under this temporary deviation... for train crossings or periodic maintenance. The Norfolk Southern 5 Bridge, at mile 1.1, across...

  10. Norfolk and environs: A land use perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, Robert H.; Buzzanell, Peter J.; Fitzpatrick, Katherine A.; Lins, Harry F.; McGinty, Herbert K., III

    1975-01-01

    The Norfolk-Portsmouth Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA) in southeastern Virginia was the site of intensive testing of a number of land resources assessment methods, built around the availability of remotely sensed data from the Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-I), later renamed LANDSAT I. The Norfolk tests were part of a larger experiment known as the Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site (CARETS), designed to test the extent to which LANDSAT and associated high-altitude aircraft data could be used as cost-effective inputs to a regional land use information system. The Norfolk SMSA contains a variety of land uses typical of the urbanized eastern seaboard, along with typical associated problems: rapid urbanization; heavy recreational, commercial, and residential demands on fragile beaches and coastal marsh environments; industrial, transportation, and governmental land and water uses impacting on residential and agricultural areas; drainage and land stability difficulties affecting construction and other uses; and increasing difficulties in maintaining satisfactory air and water quality.

  11. 76 FR 54189 - Television Broadcasting Services; Hampton-Norfolk, Virginia; Norfolk, Virginia-Elizabeth City, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... Association (``HRETA''), the licensee of noncommercial educational television station WHRO-TV, channel *16... City, North Carolina, as Elizabeth City's first local TV service. HRETA also requests modification of station WHRO-TV's license to specify Norfolk, Virginia-Elizabeth City, North Carolina as its community...

  12. Authentic Intellectual Work on School Desegregation: The Digital History of Massive Resistance in Norfolk, Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manfra, Meghan McGlinn

    2009-01-01

    This year marks the fiftieth anniversary of the integration of Norfolk Public Schools. On February 2, 1959, the "Norfolk 17" integrated the formerly all-white public middle and high schools in Norfolk, Virginia. Less known than their counterparts in Little Rock, Arkansas, the stories of the Norfolk 17 underscore the struggle schools faced after…

  13. 78 FR 34892 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Elizabeth River, Eastern Branch, Norfolk, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... the Norfolk Southern 5 Railroad Bridge, across the Elizabeth River Eastern Branch, mile 1.1, Norfolk... navigation position. DATES: This deviation is effective from 11 a.m. on July 8, 2013 to 1 p.m. July 16, 2013... Norfolk Southern 5 Railroad Bridge, mile 1.1, in Norfolk, VA, the draw must open promptly and fully...

  14. Radiological survey of the Norfolk Naval Station, the Norfolk Naval Shipyard, and Newport News Shipbuilding

    SciTech Connect

    Sensintaffar, E.L.; Blanchard, R.L.

    1988-10-01

    Since 1963, the Eastern Environmental Radiation Facility (EERF), US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), in cooperation with the US Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA) has surveyed facilities serving nuclear-powered warships on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts and the Gulf of Mexico. These surveys assess whether the operation of nuclear-powered warships, during construction, maintenance, overhaul, or refueling, have created elevated levels of radioactivity. The surveys emphasize sampling those areas and pathways that could expose the public. In 1984, NAVSEA requested that EPA survey all active facilities servicing nuclear-powered warships over the next three years. This report contains the results of surveys conducted at Norfolk Naval Shipyard, Norfolk Naval Station and Newport News Shipbuilding during the period July 28 to August 1, 1986. Some of these same areas were previously surveyed by EERF personnel (at that time US Public Health Service) in January 1968. 1 ref., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. VIEW OF ELM DRIVE WITH NORFOLK PINE ON RIGHT. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF ELM DRIVE WITH NORFOLK PINE ON RIGHT. VIEW FACING WEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. Applications of satellite snow cover in computerized short-term streamflow forecasting. [Conejos River, Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leaf, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    A procedure is described whereby the correlation between: (1) satellite derived snow-cover depletion and (2) residual snowpack water equivalent, can be used to update computerized residual flow forecasts for the Conejos River in southern Colorado.

  17. 75 FR 61835 - Jackson & Lansing Railroad Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board Jackson & Lansing Railroad Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Norfolk Southern Railway Company Pursuant to a written Assignment of Trackage Rights and Other Joint Facility Agreements (Trackage Agreement) dated September 16, 2010, Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) has...

  18. 77 FR 74586 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Elizabeth River, Eastern Branch, Norfolk, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ...The Coast Guard has issued a temporary deviation from the operating schedule that governs the operation of the Norfolk Southern V2.8 Railroad Bridge across the Elizabeth River (Eastern Branch), mile 2.7, at Norfolk, VA. This deviation is necessary to facilitate replacing bearings on the Norfolk Southern V2.8 Railroad Bridge. This temporary deviation will allow the drawbridge......

  19. Boron movement in a Norfolk loamy sand

    SciTech Connect

    Pinyerd, C.A.; Odom, J.W.; Long, F.L.; Dane, J.H.

    1984-06-01

    The authors studied the movement of B in a Norfolk loamy sand (Typic Paleudult) and its uptake by soybeans (Glycine max, (L.) Merr.) after 0 to 10 kg/ha B with and without 1000 kg/ha gypsum had been applied. Boron movement was monitored by periodic profile sampling and in situ soil solution sampling. Water movement was monitored by tensiometers, neutron moisture probe, and daily rainfall measurements. Boron application resulted in a linear increase in leaf tissue B and a linear decrease in yield. Gypsum application did not alleviate B toxicity or affect soil B movement. A linear relationship was found between cumulative rainfall and loss of hot-water-soluble B from the Ap and its accumulation in the BA and Btl horizons. Soil solution B collected in the Btl horizon was not affected by treatments, although we noted an increase in hot-water-soluble B in this horizon during the period of soil solution sampling. This constant soil solution B concentration with leaching suggests precipitation from a saturated solution. During a 393-d period, 85% of the B lost from the Ap was recovered in the BA and Btl horizons. This indicates that applied B may not be completely lost from the rooting zone of an Ultisol during the first year following application, even though hot-water-soluble B in the Ap horizon may be little different from areas not treated with B. 26 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  20. Atmospheric particulate measurements in Norfolk, Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storey, R. W., Jr.; Sentell, R. J.; Woods, D. C.; Smith, J. R.; Harris, F. S., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Characterization of atmospheric particulates was conducted at a site near the center of Norfolk, Virginia. Air quality was measured in terms of atmospheric mass loading, particle size distribution, and particulate elemental composition for a period of 2 weeks. The objectives of this study were (1) to establish a mean level of air quality and deviations about this mean, (2) to ascertain diurnal changes or special events in air quality, and (3) to evaluate instrumentation and sampling schedules. Simultaneous measurements were made with the following instruments: a quartz crystal microbalance particulate monitor, a light-scattering multirange particle counter, a high-volume air sampler, and polycarbonate membrane filters. To assess the impact of meteorological conditions on air quality variations, continuous data on temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and wind direction were recorded. Particulate elemental composition was obtained from neutron activation and scanning electron microscopy analyses of polycarbonate membrane filter samples. The measured average mass loading agrees reasonably well with the mass loadings determined by the Virginia State Air Pollution Control Board. There are consistent diurnal increases in atmospheric mass loading in the early morning and a sample time resolution of 1/2 hour seems necessary to detect most of the significant events.

  1. 9. Boston & Providence Railroad: Canton Viaduct. Canton, Norfolk Co., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Boston & Providence Railroad: Canton Viaduct. Canton, Norfolk Co., MA. (Not on NEC). (See HAER No. MA-27 for further documentation on this site). - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between RI/MA State Line & South Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  2. 7. BOSTON & PROVIDENCE RAILROAD: CANTON VIADUCT. CANTON, NORFOLK CO., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. BOSTON & PROVIDENCE RAILROAD: CANTON VIADUCT. CANTON, NORFOLK CO., MA. (Not on NEC). (See HAER No. MA-27 for further documentation on this site.) - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between RI/MA State Line & South Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  3. 8. BOSTON & PROVIDENCE RAILROAD: CANTON VIADUCT. CANTON, NORFOLK CO., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. BOSTON & PROVIDENCE RAILROAD: CANTON VIADUCT. CANTON, NORFOLK CO., MA. (Not on NEC). (See HAER No. MA-27 for further documentation on this site.) - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between RI/MA State Line & South Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  4. An Analysis of the Dropout Problem in Norfolk Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Edwin C.

    The Norfolk, Virginia, city school system had the highest secondary school dropout rate in the State for the 1975-76 academic year. In the study discussed in this paper student dropouts are described from data in their academic files. The wish is expressed that by characterizing dropout prone students, something can be done to save them before…

  5. 78 FR 66265 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Elizabeth River, Eastern Branch, Norfolk, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ...The Coast Guard has issued a temporary deviation from the operating schedule that governs the draw of the Norfolk Southern 5 Railroad Bridge, across the Elizabeth River Eastern Branch, mile 1.1, at Norfolk, VA. This deviation is necessary to facilitate replacing the broken tread plates and milling the top of the plates and webs to create a flat surface on the Norfolk Southern......

  6. Conejo Valley Unified School District Master Plan for an Educational Results Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Dorothy

    The Conejo Valley (CA) Unified School District Educational Results Information System (ERIS), a generalized District master program assessment plan to obtain results information for decision-makers at all levels, has been developed. This plan establishes guidelines, evaluates the current status of the use of educational results information and…

  7. Quaternary geology and waste disposal in South Norfolk, England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, J. M.

    South Norfolk is dominated by the till plain of the Anglian Glaciation in eastern England, and therefore there are very few disused gravel pits and quarries suitable for the landfilling of municipal waste. Consequently, in May 1991, Norfolk County Council applied for planning permission to develop an above ground or 'landraise' waste disposal site at a disused U.S. World War II Airfield at Hardwick in South Norfolk. The proposal involved excavating a pit 2-4 m deep into the Lowestoft Till and overfilling it to create a hill of waste up to 10 m above the existing till plain. In general, leachate containment was to be achieved by utilising the relatively low permeability till on the floor of the site, but with reworking of the till around the site perimeter because of sand lenses in the upper part of the till. This paper examines three aspects of the proposal and the wider issues relating to Quaternary geology and waste disposal planning in South Norfolk: (i) the suitability of the till as a natural leachate containment system; (ii) the appropriateness of the landraise landform; and (iii) alternative sites. A Public Inquiry into the proposals was held in January/February 1993 and notification of refusal of planning permission was published in August 1993. Among the grounds for refusal were an inadequate knowledge of the site's geology and hydrogeology and the availability of alternative sites. The paper concludes by stressing that a knowledge of Quaternary geology is crucial to both the planning and design of landfill sites in areas of glacial/Quaternary sediments.

  8. 75 FR 47461 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Elizabeth River, Eastern Branch, Norfolk, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... Register (74 FR 52143) and a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) entitled ``Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Elizabeth River, Eastern Branch, Norfolk, VA'' in the Federal Register (74 FR 52158). We received..., Eastern Branch, Norfolk, VA'' in the Federal Register (75 FR 9521) and a supplemental notice of...

  9. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - UNITED STATES NAVAL BASE NORFOLK NAVAL AIR STATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes work conducted at the U.S. Navy's Naval Base Norfolk, Naval Air Station (NAS) located at Sewells Point in Norfolk, Virginia, under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Waste Reduction Evaluations at Federal Sites (WREAFS) Program. This project w...

  10. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT - U.S. NAVAL BASE, NORFOLK NAVAL AIR STATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the Chesapeake Bay Agreement, Naval Base Norfolk is a member of the Tidewater interagency Pollution Prevention Program (TIPPP). t Norfolk, the Navy and the EPA have evaluated techniques and technologies to reduce waste generation from cooling tower operations. POA was condu...

  11. 76 FR 47645 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board CSX Transportation, Inc.--Trackage Rights Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) has agreed to grant approximately 3,290...

  12. 78 FR 2719 - BNSF Railway Company-Lease Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ... TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Lease Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway.... 11323-25 for BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) to lease from Norfolk Southern Railway Company approximately 1... approximately 600 feet north of the Chicago SAG Canal on the southern end in Chicago, Ill. Under the lease,...

  13. 76 FR 24084 - Atlantic and Western Railway, Limited Partnership-Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Atlantic and Western Railway, Limited Partnership--Trackage Rights Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) has agreed to...

  14. 77 FR 47922 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board CSX Transportation, Inc.--Trackage Rights Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated May 18, 2012, Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) has agreed to...

  15. 78 FR 79726 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Gaston County, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Gaston County, NC Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part 1152 subpart F-Exempt Abandonments...

  16. 75 FR 63540 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Illinois Central Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Illinois Central Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated August 17, 2010, Illinois Central Railroad Company (IC) has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to Norfolk Southern...

  17. NORSTAR Project: Norfolk public schools student team for acoustical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortunato, Ronald C.

    1987-01-01

    Development of the NORSTAR (Norfolk Public Student Team for Acoustical Research) Project includes the definition, design, fabrication, testing, analysis, and publishing the results of an acoustical experiment. The student-run program is based on a space flight organization similar to the Viking Project. The experiment will measure the scattering transfer of momentum from a sound field to spheres in a liquid medium. It is hoped that the experimental results will shed light on a difficult physics problem - the difference in scattering cross section (the overall effect of the sound wave scattering) for solid spheres and hollow spheres of differing wall thicknesses.

  18. Novel picornavirus in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus var. domestica).

    PubMed

    Pankovics, Péter; Boros, Ákos; Bíró, Hunor; Horváth, Katalin Barbara; Phan, Tung Gia; Delwart, Eric; Reuter, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    Picornaviruses (family Picornaviridae) are small, non-enveloped viruses with positive sense, single-stranded RNA genomes. The numbers of the novel picornavirus species and genera are continuously increasing. Picornaviruses infect numerous vertebrate species from fish to mammals, but have not been identified in a member of the Lagomorpha order (pikas, hares and rabbits). In this study, a novel picornavirus was identified in 16 (28.6%) out of 56 faecal samples collected from clinically healthy rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus var. domestica) in two (one commercial and one family farms) of four rabbit farms in Hungary. The 8364 nucleotide (2486 amino acid) long complete genome sequence of strain Rabbit01/2013/HUN (KT325852) has typical picornavirus genome organization with type-V IRES at the 5'UTR, encodes a leader (L) and a single 2A(H-box/NC) proteins, contains a hepatitis-A-virus-like cis-acting replication element (CRE) in the 2A, but it does not contain the sequence forming a "barbell-like" secondary structure in the 3'UTR. Rabbit01/2013/HUN has 52.9%, 52% and 57.2% amino acid identity to corresponding proteins of species Aichivirus A (genus Kobuvirus): to murine Kobuvirus (JF755427) in P1, to canine Kobuvirus (JN387133) in P2 and to feline Kobuvirus (KF831027) in P3, respectively. The sequence and phylogenetic analysis indicated that Rabbit01/2013/HUN represents a novel picornavirus species possibly in genus Kobuvirus. This is the first report of detection of picornavirus in rabbit. Further study is needed to clarify whether this novel picornavirus plays a part in any diseases in domestic or wild rabbits. PMID:26588888

  19. 33 CFR 334.300 - Hampton Roads and Willoughby Bay, Norfolk Naval Base, naval restricted area, Norfolk, Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., longitude 76°20′02″ W; thence northwesterly to latitude 36°56′00″ N, longitude 76°20′08″ W; thence northerly along the eastern limit of Norfolk Harbor Channel to latitude 36°57′52″ N, longitude 76°20′00″ W; thence easterly to latitude 36°57′52″ N, longitude 76°19′35″ W; thence to latitude 36°57′47.7″ N, 76°18′57″...

  20. 33 CFR 334.300 - Hampton Roads and Willoughby Bay, Norfolk Naval Base, naval restricted area, Norfolk, Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., longitude 76°20′02″ W; thence northwesterly to latitude 36°56′00″ N, longitude 76°20′08″ W; thence northerly along the eastern limit of Norfolk Harbor Channel to latitude 36°57′52″ N, longitude 76°20′00″ W; thence easterly to latitude 36°57′52″ N, longitude 76°19′35″ W; thence to latitude 36°57′47.7″ N, 76°18′57″...

  1. Flows in the Tasman Front south of Norfolk Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Philip J. H.; Bowen, Melissa

    2014-05-01

    The Tasman Front is a narrow band of eastward flowing subtropical water crossing the Tasman Sea from Australia to North Cape, New Zealand. It is the link between the two subtropical western boundary currents of the South Pacific, the East Australian Current (EAC) off eastern Australia, and the East Auckland Current (EAUC) off northeastern New Zealand. Here we report the first direct measurements of flow in the Tasman Front from a moored array deployed across gaps in the submarine ridges south of Norfolk Island and hydrographic and ADCP measurements during the deployment and recovery voyages. The mean flow through the array over July 2003 to August 2004 was found to be eastward only in the upper 800 m with a transport of ˜6 Sv. Below 800 m a weak westward mean flow (˜1.5 Sv) was measured, associated with Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW). Using sea surface height to account for additional transport south of the moored array results in a total mean eastward transport between Norfolk Island and North Cape, New Zealand of ˜8 Sv, varying between -4 and 18 Sv. The measurements show that the Tasman Front is much shallower than either the EAC or EAUC, both of which extend below 2000 m depth, has less transport than either the EAC or EAUC and has instances of flow reversal. Thus, the Tasman Front is a weaker connection between the EAC and EAUC than the paradigm of a contiguous South Pacific western boundary current system would suggest.

  2. Digestive utilization of ozone-exposed forage by rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A mixture of common Southern Piedmont (USA) grassland species (Lolium arundinacea, Paspalum dilatatum, Cynodon dactylon and Trifolium repens) was exposed to ozone [ambient (non-filtered; NF) and twice-ambient (2X) concentrations] and fed to individually caged New Zealand white rabbits (Oryctolagus c...

  3. 54. Virginia Route 615/Norfolk Southern Railroad. This example of a ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. Virginia Route 615/Norfolk Southern Railroad. This example of a prestressed concrete girder grade separation structure was built in 1959. View to the west. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  4. 75 FR 12594 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Discontinuance of Service Exemption in Hamilton County, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... Hamilton County, OH On February 24, 2010, Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) filed with the Surface... discontinue service over 5.70 miles of railroad between milepost CT 2.10 and milepost CT 7.80, in...

  5. The Medicines of Katherine, Duchess of Norfolk, 1463–71

    PubMed Central

    Kleineke, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the medicinal remedies consumed at the court of the Yorkist kings of England in the light of a lawsuit in the court of common pleas (edited in an appendix) between John Clerk, king’s apothecary to Edward IV, and Katherine Neville, Duchess of Norfolk, over the partial non-payment of the apothecary’s bills. It argues that the consumption of apothecaries’ wares in large quantities was not merely a direct result of the excessive diet of the late medieval aristocracy, but in itself represented a facet of the conspicuous consumption inherent in the lifestyle of this particular social class. The remedies supplied by Clerk over a period of several years and listed in the legal record are set in the context of contemporary collections of medical recipes, particularly a ‘dispensary’ in the British Library’s Harleian collection generally attributed to the king’s apothecary. PMID:26352302

  6. The Medicines of Katherine, Duchess of Norfolk, 1463-71.

    PubMed

    Kleineke, Hannes

    2015-10-01

    This article discusses the medicinal remedies consumed at the court of the Yorkist kings of England in the light of a lawsuit in the court of common pleas (edited in an appendix) between John Clerk, king's apothecary to Edward IV, and Katherine Neville, Duchess of Norfolk, over the partial non-payment of the apothecary's bills. It argues that the consumption of apothecaries' wares in large quantities was not merely a direct result of the excessive diet of the late medieval aristocracy, but in itself represented a facet of the conspicuous consumption inherent in the lifestyle of this particular social class. The remedies supplied by Clerk over a period of several years and listed in the legal record are set in the context of contemporary collections of medical recipes, particularly a 'dispensary' in the British Library's Harleian collection generally attributed to the king's apothecary. PMID:26352302

  7. Genetic diversity comparison of the DQA gene in European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) populations.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Vanessa; Abrantes, Joana; Munõz-Pajares, Antonio Jesús; Esteves, Pedro J

    2015-10-01

    The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) natural populations within the species native region, the Iberian Peninsula, are considered a reservoir of genetic diversity. Indeed, the Iberia was a Pleistocene refuge to the species and currently two subspecies are found in the peninsula (Oryctolagus cuniculus cuniculus and Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus). The genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) have been substantially studied in wild populations due to their exceptional variability, believed to be pathogen driven. They play an important function as part of the adaptive immune system affecting the individual fitness and population viability. In this study, the MHC variability was assessed by analysing the exon 2 of the DQA gene in several European rabbit populations from Portugal, Spain and France and in domestic breeds. Twenty-eight DQA alleles were detected, among which 18 are described for the first time. The Iberian rabbit populations are well differentiated from the French population and domestic breeds. The Iberian populations retained the higher allelic diversity with the domestic breeds harbouring the lowest; in contrast, the DQA nucleotide diversity was higher in the French population. Signatures of positive selection were detected in four codons which are putative peptide-binding sites and have been previously detected in other mammals. The evolutionary relationships showed instances of trans-species polymorphism. Overall, our results suggest that the DQA in European rabbits is evolving under selection and genetic drift. PMID:26307416

  8. Australian and Pacific contributions to the genetic diversity of Norfolk Island feral chickens

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Norfolk Island has a population of feral chickens which could be the result of domestic stock introduced onto the island by British settlers in 1788. However, there is ongoing debate about their origins because multiple human arrivals to the island may have brought chickens with them. Here we investigate the genetic origins of these feral chickens by sequencing their mitochondrial control region. We infer their phylogenetic relationships using a large dataset of novel sequences from Australian mainland domestic chickens and published sequences from around the world. Results Eleven control region haplotypes were found among the Norfolk Island feral and Australian mainland domestic chickens. Six of the Norfolk Island haplotypes fall within haplogroup E, but given the worldwide distribution of this haplogroup, the putative European origin of these chickens requires further investigation. One haplotype common among Norfolk Island and Australian samples belonged to a subgroup of haplogroup D, which appears to be restricted to chickens from Indonesia, Vanuatu and Guam. Conclusions Our data show that at least two mitochondrial DNA haplogroups (D and E) have contributed to the genetic make-up of Norfolk Island feral chickens. In addition, we have provided insights into the discrete geographical distribution and diversity of the chicken haplogroup D. In view of the worldwide interest in the characterisation of poultry resources, further assessment of chicken populations of Island Southeast Asia and the Pacific region is warranted. PMID:24063717

  9. Norfolk QOL-DN: validation of a patient reported outcome measure in transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Vinik, Etta J; Vinik, Aaron I; Paulson, James F; Merkies, Ingemar S J; Packman, Jeff; Grogan, Donna R; Coelho, Teresa

    2014-06-01

    The Norfolk Quality of Life-Diabetic Neuropathy (QOL-DN) questionnaire is an instrument to assess QOL in diabetic polyneuropathy. The objective of this observational, cross-sectional study in 61 patients with V30M transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR-FAP) and 16 healthy volunteers was to validate the Norfolk QOL-DN for assessment of QOL in TTR-FAP. Comparisons were conducted to identify the best items to discriminate disease stages and assess which individual Norfolk domains (symptoms, large fiber, small fiber, autonomic, and activities of daily living) would be most affected by disease stage. Analysis of individual items revealed a significant pattern of discrimination among disease stages (p < 0.001). Total QOL scores increased (indicating worsening) with duration of symptoms, with a steeper increase observed earlier in the course of disease. Significant correlations were observed between each Norfolk domain and other measures of neurological function. Limitations include cross-sectional study design, low patient numbers in this rare disease, and the ordinal-based character of the metric used; future areas to explore include item response theory approaches such as Rasch analysis. These results suggest the Norfolk QOL-DN is a reliable indicator of the impact of disease severity on QOL in patients with TTR-FAP. PMID:24738700

  10. 76 FR 39978 - Virginia Port Authority-Acquisition Exemption-Norfolk and Portsmouth Belt Line Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Virginia Port Authority--Acquisition Exemption--Norfolk and Portsmouth Belt... exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from the Norfolk and Portsmouth Belt Line Railroad Company...

  11. 77 FR 25229 - Adams-Warnock Railway, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... Surface Transportation Board Adams-Warnock Railway, Inc.--Lease and Operation Exemption-- Norfolk Southern... exemption under ] 49 CFR 1150.31 to lease from Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR), and to operate, a... the lease agreement that is expected to be completed prior to the effective date of the...

  12. 78 FR 49605 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Discontinuance of Service Exemption-in Ontario, Seneca, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Discontinuance of Service Exemption--in Ontario, Seneca, and Wayne Counties, NY Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) has filed a verified...

  13. 78 FR 76192 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Discontinuance of Service Exemption-in Isle of Wight...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Discontinuance of Service Exemption--in Isle of Wight, Southampton, Greensville, and Brunswick Counties, VA. On November 26, 2013, Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) filed with...

  14. 75 FR 64392 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Polk County, IA; Iowa Interstate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Polk County, IA; Iowa Interstate Railroad--Discontinuance of Service Exemption--in Polk County, IA Norfolk Southern... Interstate Railroad, Ltd., 5900 6th Street, SW., Cedar Rapids, IA 52404. If the verified notice...

  15. 75 FR 32839 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-The West Tennessee Railroad, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--The West Tennessee Railroad, LLC Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, The West Tennessee Railroad, LLC (WTNN) has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) \\1\\...

  16. 76 FR 12224 - Autauga Northern Railroad, L.L.C.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Surface Transportation Board Autauga Northern Railroad, L.L.C.--Lease and Operation Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company Autauga Northern Railroad, L.L.C. (ANRR), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire by lease from Norfolk Southern Railway Company...

  17. 75 FR 7537 - Elkhart & Western Railroad Co.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... Surface Transportation Board Elkhart & Western Railroad Co.--Lease and Operation Exemption-- Norfolk Southern Railway Company Elkhart & Western Railroad Co. (EWR), a Class III rail carrier,\\1\\ has filed a... (Agreement) \\2\\ with Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR), approximately 23.0 miles of NSR's rail...

  18. 75 FR 71487 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Crawford County, GA; Georgia Midland...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Crawford County, GA; Georgia Midland Railroad, Inc.\\1\\--Discontinuance of Service Exemption--in Crawford County... discontinuing railroad-- not Georgia Midland Railroad Company, as indicated in the notice. Norfolk...

  19. 77 FR 17122 - Indiana Southern Railroad, LLC-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... Surface Transportation Board Indiana Southern Railroad, LLC--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR), pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement (Agreement), has agreed to grant overhead temporary trackage rights to Indiana Southern...

  20. 76 FR 75602 - Hilton & Albany Railroad, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Hilton & Albany Railroad, Inc.--Lease and Operation Exemption-- Norfolk Southern Railway Company Hilton & Albany Railroad, Inc. (HAL), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to lease from Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) and...

  1. A new, rare type of oceanic islands: The case of Norfolk Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebel, O.; Whan, T.; Arculus, R. J.; O'Neill, H. S.; Yaxley, G. M.; McAlpine, S.; Smith, I. E.

    2014-12-01

    Most intra-plate oceanic islands are considered to be expressions of partial melting of hot, ascending mantle plumes. Mantle plume activity is often evident by progressively-aged volcanic island chains, early flood basalts, or elevated mantle temperatures (hot-spots). However, some isolated volcanic islands lack these characteristics. Their mantle sources, causes of melting, and geodynamic settings remain elusive. Here we present petrologic and geochemical data for an example of this type of ocean island: Norfolk Island and neighbouring Phillip Island. These islands are only 7 km apart and are located in the Southwest Pacific. They are the only sub-aerial volcanic islands on the Norfolk Ridge, which extends roughly linearly south from New Caledonia and north from New Zealand. The Norfolk Ridge is a continental slice rifted from the eastern Australian margin during opening of the Tasman Sea and the on-going break-up of Gondwana. There are a few isolated, unexplored volcanic edifices trending NNW from the Norfolk Ridge north of Norfolk Island that may be a hot spot trace. Norfolk and Phillip islands are both composed of young (ca. 2-3 Ma), primitive basalts and basaltic andesites containing abundant phenocrysts of olivine and rare pyroxene and feldspar. Major element systematics are unique among the global spectrum of ocean island basalts, with low CaO, high Al2O3, and high Na/Ti indicating that melting processes and/or the mantle source differs from that of any other OIB. However, Fe/Mn are high, similar to other OIB, and REE patterns carry the typical OIB garnet signature. The highest MgO contents approach 9 wt%. The unusual major-element chemistry results in olivine-dominated crystallization extending to low MgO (ca. 6-7 wt%), hence little increase of incompatible elements with decreasing MgO, but surprisingly Ni and Cr also remain nearly constant with MgO. Isotopic compositions (Sr-Nd-Hf) indicate either a primitive mantle source composition (ɛNd=6

  2. Norfolk State University Research Experience in Earth System Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaudhury, Raj

    2002-01-01

    The truly interdisciplinary nature of Earth System Science lends itself to the creation of research teams comprised of people with different scientific and technical backgrounds. In the annals of Earth System Science (ESS) education, the lack of an academic major in the discipline might be seen as a barrier to the involvement of undergraduates in the overall ESS-enterprise. This issue is further compounded at minority-serving institutions by the rarity of departments dedicated to Atmospheric Science, Oceanography or even the geosciences. At Norfolk State University, a Historically Black College, a six week, NASA-supported, summer undergraduate research program (REESS - Research Experience in Earth System Science) is creating a model that involves students with majors in diverse scientific disciplines in authentic ESS research coupled with a structured education program. The project is part of a wider effort at the University to enhance undergraduate education by identifying specific areas of student weaknesses regarding the content and process of science. A pre- and post-assessment test, which is focused on some fundamental topics in global climate change, is given to all participants as part of the evaluation of the program. Student attitudes towards the subject and the program's approach are also surveyed at the end of the research experience. In 2002, 11 undergraduates participated in REESS and were educated in the informed use of some of the vast remote sensing resources available through NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE). The program ran from June 3rd through July 12, 2002. This was the final year of the project.

  3. Geologic Map of the San Luis Hills Area, Conejos and Costilla Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Ren A.; Machette, Michael N.

    1989-01-01

    This report is a digital image of the U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-1906, 'Geologic map of the San Luis Hills area, Conejos and Costilla Counties, Colorado,' which was published in 1989 by Thompson and Machette, scale 1:50,000 but has been unavailable in a digital version. The map area represents the southwestern portion of the Alamosa 30' x 60' quadrangle, which is currently being remapped by the U.S. Geological Survey. The northern and eastern margins of the San Luis Hills area have been remapped at greater detail and thus small portions of the map area have been updated. The northern margin is shown on U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005-1392, the northeastern portion is shown on U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1124, and the eastern margin is shown on U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2007-1074. The most significant changes to the 1989 map area are recognition of Lake Alamosa and its deposits (Alamosa Formation), remapping of bedrock in the northeastern San Luis Hills, and redating of volcanic units in the San Luis Hills. Although unpublished, new 40Ar/39Ar ages for volcanic units in the Conejos and Hinsdale Formations add precision to the previous K/Ar-dated rocks, but do not change the basic chronology of the units. The digital version of this map was prepared by Theodore R. Brandt by scanning the original map at 300 pixels per inch, prior to creating the press-quality (96 Mb) and standard (5 Mb) .pdf files.

  4. Associations between flavan-3-ol intake and CVD risk in the Norfolk cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk).

    PubMed

    Vogiatzoglou, Anna; Mulligan, Angela A; Bhaniani, Amit; Lentjes, Marleen A H; McTaggart, Alison; Luben, Robert N; Heiss, Christian; Kelm, Malte; Merx, Marc W; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Schroeter, Hagen; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kuhnle, Gunter G C

    2015-07-01

    Dietary intervention studies suggest that flavan-3-ol intake can improve vascular function and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). However, results from prospective studies failed to show a consistent beneficial effect. Associations between flavan-3-ol intake and CVD risk in the Norfolk arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Norfolk) were investigated. Data were available from 24,885 (11,252 men; 13,633 women) participants, recruited between 1993 and 1997 into the EPIC-Norfolk study. Flavan-3-ol intake was assessed using 7-day food diaries and the FLAVIOLA Flavanol Food Composition database. Missing data for plasma cholesterol and vitamin C were imputed using multiple imputation. Associations between flavan-3-ol intake and blood pressure at baseline were determined using linear regression models. Associations with CVD risk were estimated using Cox regression analyses. Median intake of total flavan-3-ols was 1034mg/d (range: 0-8531mg/d) for men and 970mg/d (0-6695mg/d) for women, median intake of flavan-3-ol monomers was 233mg/d (0-3248mg/d) for men and 217 (0-2712mg/d) for women. There were no consistent associations between flavan-3-ol monomer intake and baseline systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP). After 286,147 person-years of follow-up, there were 8463 cardiovascular events and 1987 CVD related deaths; no consistent association between flavan-3-ol intake and CVD risk (HR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.87; 1.00; Q1 vs Q5) or mortality was observed (HR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.84; 1.04). Flavan-3-ol intake in EPIC-Norfolk is not sufficient to achieve a statistically significant reduction in CVD risk. PMID:25795512

  5. Associations between flavan-3-ol intake and CVD risk in the Norfolk cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk)

    PubMed Central

    Vogiatzoglou, Anna; Mulligan, Angela A.; Bhaniani, Amit; Lentjes, Marleen A.H.; McTaggart, Alison; Luben, Robert N.; Heiss, Christian; Kelm, Malte; Merx, Marc W.; Spencer, Jeremy P.E.; Schroeter, Hagen; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kuhnle, Gunter G.C.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary intervention studies suggest that flavan-3-ol intake can improve vascular function and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). However, results from prospective studies failed to show a consistent beneficial effect. Associations between flavan-3-ol intake and CVD risk in the Norfolk arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Norfolk) were investigated. Data were available from 24,885 (11,252 men; 13,633 women) participants, recruited between 1993 and 1997 into the EPIC-Norfolk study. Flavan-3-ol intake was assessed using 7-day food diaries and the FLAVIOLA Flavanol Food Composition database. Missing data for plasma cholesterol and vitamin C were imputed using multiple imputation. Associations between flavan-3-ol intake and blood pressure at baseline were determined using linear regression models. Associations with CVD risk were estimated using Cox regression analyses. Median intake of total flavan-3-ols was 1034 mg/d (range: 0–8531 mg/d) for men and 970 mg/d (0–6695 mg/d) for women, median intake of flavan-3-ol monomers was 233 mg/d (0–3248 mg/d) for men and 217 (0–2712 mg/d) for women. There were no consistent associations between flavan-3-ol monomer intake and baseline systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP). After 286,147 person-years of follow-up, there were 8463 cardiovascular events and 1987 CVD related deaths; no consistent association between flavan-3-ol intake and CVD risk (HR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.87; 1.00; Q1 vs Q5) or mortality was observed (HR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.84; 1.04). Flavan-3-ol intake in EPIC-Norfolk is not sufficient to achieve a statistically significant reduction in CVD risk. PMID:25795512

  6. 75 FR 9557 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Elizabeth River, Eastern Branch, Norfolk, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... Register (74 FR 52143) and a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) entitled ``Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Elizabeth River, Eastern Branch, Norfolk, VA, in the Federal Register (74 FR 52158). We received... dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not...

  7. 77 FR 63920 - New Jersey Transit Corporation-Acquisition Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... Surface Transportation Board New Jersey Transit Corporation--Acquisition Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company The New Jersey Transit Corporation (NJ Transit), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice..., N.J., from milepost 8.616 to milepost 9.905 (the Line). NJ Transit states that, under the...

  8. 78 FR 67216 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Lake County, Ind.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Lake County, Ind... Munster and the City of Schererville), in Lake County, Ind. (the Line). The Line traverses United...

  9. 78 FR 41993 - Ann Arbor Railroad, Inc.-Lease Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... Surface Transportation Board Ann Arbor Railroad, Inc.--Lease Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company... authority to determine whether to issue notices of exemption under 49 U.S.C. 10502 for lease and operation... for lease and operation of the rail line at issue in this case. The Board determines that this...

  10. 78 FR 40268 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Lease Exemption-BNSF Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Lease Exemption--BNSF Railway Company... Part 1121 for exemption from the provisions of 49 U.S.C. 11323(a)(2) to lease from BNSF Railway Company....\\1\\ \\1\\ NSR has requested expedited handling, asserting that the proposed lease and upgrade of...

  11. 75 FR 34367 - Safety Zone; Shore Thing & Independence Day Fireworks, Chesapeake Bay, Norfolk, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... Register (75 FR 26155). We received no comments on the proposed rule. No public meeting was requested, and... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Shore Thing & Independence Day Fireworks... Park, Norfolk, VA in support of the Shore Thing & Independence Day Fireworks event. This action...

  12. 76 FR 27967 - Safety Zone; Shore Thing and Independence Day Fireworks, Chesapeake Bay, Norfolk, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Shore Thing and Independence Day Fireworks... View Beach Park, Norfolk, VA in support of the Shore Thing and Independence Day Fireworks event....

  13. 75 FR 26155 - Safety Zone; Shore Thing & Independence Day Fireworks, Chesapeake Bay, Norfolk, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Shore Thing & Independence Day Fireworks... View Beach Park, Norfolk, VA in support of the Shore Thing & Independence Day Fireworks event....

  14. New species of Nuuanu (Amphipoda: Nuuanuidae) from Norfolk Island, Torres Strait and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands.

    PubMed

    Hughes, L E; Bopiah, A

    2013-01-01

    Three new species of Nuuanu, N. quintalana sp. nov., N. stuckeyorun sp. nov. and N. titaseyi sp. nov. are described from Norfolk Island, Tasman Sea; Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Indian Ocean and the Torres Strait, Australia, respectively. There are currently 17 described species of Nuuanu with the genus distributed world-wide. PMID:26287075

  15. 78 FR 76382 - Notice of Cancellation of Environmental Impact Statement for the Norfolk International Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ...) and hold a Public Scoping Meeting at Norfolk International Airport (Volume 66, Number 125, FR 34508..., runway safety area construction, new airfield lighting, improvements to existing lighting, relocation of the VORTAC facility, installation of a Medium Intensity Approach Lighting System with Runway...

  16. 75 FR 44728 - Safety Zone; Elizabeth River Private Fireworks, Elizabeth River, Norfolk, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Elizabeth River Private Fireworks, Elizabeth River, Norfolk, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY:...

  17. 78 FR 57681 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Polk County, Iowa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Polk County, Iowa... line segments either is pending with the Surface Transportation Board (Board) or with any U.S. District... filed by October 9, 2013, with the Surface Transportation Board, 395 E Street SW., Washington, DC...

  18. 78 FR 66801 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in St. Joseph County, Ind.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in St. Joseph County... 1152 subpart F-Exempt Abandonments to abandon a total of approximately 1.5 miles of rail line located in the City of ] South Bend, St. Joseph County, Ind., extending easterly from milepost PY 1.90...

  19. Heritability and genome-wide linkage analysis of migraine in the genetic isolate of Norfolk Island.

    PubMed

    Cox, Hannah C; Lea, Rod A; Bellis, Claire; Nyholt, Dale R; Dyer, Thomas D; Haupt, Larisa M; Charlesworth, Jac; Matovinovic, Elizabeth; Blangero, John; Griffiths, Lyn R

    2012-02-15

    Migraine is a common neurovascular disorder with a complex envirogenomic aetiology. In an effort to identify migraine susceptibility genes, we conducted a study of the isolated population of Norfolk Island, Australia. A large portion of the permanent inhabitants of Norfolk Island are descended from 18th Century English sailors involved in the infamous mutiny on the Bounty and their Polynesian consorts. In total, 600 subjects were recruited including a large pedigree of 377 individuals with lineage to the founders. All individuals were phenotyped for migraine using International Classification of Headache Disorders-II criterion. All subjects were genotyped for a genome-wide panel of microsatellite markers. Genotype and phenotype data for the pedigree were analysed using heritability and linkage methods implemented in the programme SOLAR. Follow-up association analysis was performed using the CLUMP programme. A total of 154 migraine cases (25%) were identified indicating the Norfolk Island population is high-risk for migraine. Heritability estimation of the 377-member pedigree indicated a significant genetic component for migraine (h(2)=0.53, P=0.016). Linkage analysis showed peaks on chromosome 13q33.1 (P=0.003) and chromosome 9q22.32 (P=0.008). Association analysis of the key microsatellites in the remaining 223 unrelated Norfolk Island individuals showed evidence of association, which strengthen support for the linkage findings (P≤0.05). In conclusion, a genome-wide linkage analysis and follow-up association analysis of migraine in the genetic isolate of Norfolk Island provided evidence for migraine susceptibility loci on chromosomes 9q22.22 and 13q33.1. PMID:22197687

  20. Prenatal ultrasound heating impacts on fluctuations in haematological analysis of Oryctolagus cuniculus

    PubMed Central

    Md. Dom, Sulaiman; Abdul Razak, Hairil Rashmizal; Hassan, Hamzah Fansuri

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal Ultrasound (US) is commonly used as a routine procedure on pregnant women. It is generally perceived as a safe procedure due to the use of non-ionizing radiation. However, the neurotoxicity of diagnostic prenatal US was detected to have a correlation with high susceptibility to early developing fetus. This research involved in vivo experimental model by using 3rd trimester pregnant Oryctolagus cuniculus and exposing them to US exposures for 30, 60, and 90 minutes at their gestational day (GD) 28-29. The output power and intensities, spatial peak temporal average intensity (ISPTA) of US were varied from 0.4 to 0.7 W and 0.13 to 0.19 W/cm2 respectively were tested initially in free-field, water. Haematological analysis was carried out to detect any changes in blood constituents. Statistically significant differences were detected in red blood cell (RBC) count (P<0.001), haemoglobin (Hb) concentration (P<0.001) and also platelet (PLT) count (P<0.001) in newborn of Oryctolagus cuniculus. These findings indicate the possibility of US heating in causing defects on studied animal. PMID:24273744

  1. CARETS: A prototype regional environmental information system. Volume 7: Land use information and air quality planning. [Norfolk and Portsmouth, Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H. (Principal Investigator); Reed, W. E.; Lewis, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The pilot air quality system provided data for updating information on the sources of point and area emissions of SO2 and particulate matter affecting the Norfolk-Portsmouth area of Virginia for 1971-72 winter and the annual 1972 period. During the 1971-72 winter, estimated SO2 amounts over an area with a SW-NE axis in the central section of Norfolk exceeded both primary and secondary levels.

  2. 76 FR 38300 - Safety Zone; Shore Thing and Independence Day Fireworks, Chesapeake Bay, Norfolk, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Chesapeake Bay in the vicinity of Ocean View Beach Park, Norfolk, VA in support of the Shore Thing and Independence Day Fireworks event. This action is necessary to provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during the Shore Thing and Independence Day Fireworks show. This action is intended to restrict vessel traffic......

  3. Spontaneous Extraskeletal Osteosarcoma in a Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus): Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Findings

    PubMed Central

    Wijesundera, Kavindra Kumara; Izawa, Takeshi; Fujita, Daisuke; Denda, Yuki; Seto, Eiko; Sasai, Hiroshi; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Yamate, Jyoji

    2013-01-01

    A spontaneously occurring subcutaneous mass in the left forelimb of a nine-year-old rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) was examined histopathologically and immunohistochemically. Clinically, edema and hemorrhage were seen around the mass. No connection of the tumor mass to the appendicular skeleton was found. The tumor was arranged in a solid growth pattern and irregular bundles, and neoplastic cells were polygonal to spindle-shape. Osteoid (positive for osteocalcin) and multinucleated giant cells were diffusely or focally seen. Neoplastic cells were positive for vimentin, osterix and Ki-67, indicating the nature of osteoblasts with proliferating activity, but negative for α-smooth muscle actin, desmin or CD204. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of extraskeletal osteosarcoma was made, a very rare tumor both in laboratory and pet rabbits. PMID:24155564

  4. Factors affecting the seroprevalence of lagovirus infection in wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Southern Spain.

    PubMed

    García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Astorga, Rafael J; Napp, Sebastián; Huerta, Belén; Carbonero, Alfonso; Perea, Anselmo; Arenas, Antonio

    2011-07-01

    Cross-sectional studies were carried out on wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) populations in Southern Spain to assess the prevalence of lagovirus infection and to identify potentially associated risk factors. A total of 619 blood and 487 liver samples from wild rabbits were collected from seven hunting areas with different Mediterranean ecosystems. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations between seropositivity and an extensive set of variables. The seroprevalence was 29.2% (95% CI: 25.6-32.8) and lagoviruses were not detected in liver samples. Logistic regression indicated that seropositivity to lagoviruses was associated with seropositivity to myxomatosis, wild rabbit density, the existence of artificial feeding sites, mean maximum monthly temperatures of 20-30 °C, and annual accumulated rainfall of >600 mm. PMID:20643566

  5. Seroprevalence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi and Toxoplasma gondii in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in China

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Qing-Feng; Wang, Wei-Lin; Ni, Xiao-Ting; Li, Hai-Bin; Yao, Gui-Zhe; Sun, Xiao-Lin; Wang, Wei-Li; Cong, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The breeding of domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) for human consumption has a long tradition in China. Infections that can affect the production of meat or even be transmitted from animals to humans are important to monitor, especially for public health reasons as well as for their impact on animal health. Thus, a total of 1,132 domestic rabbit sera from 4 regions in China were collected for serological screening for Encephalitozoon cuniculi and for Toxoplasma gondii by ELISA and modified agglutination test (MAT), respectively. Antibodies to E. cuniculi were detected in 248/1,132 (21.9%) sera tested while antibodies against T. gondii revealed a seroprevalence of 51/1,132 (4.5%). We believe that the present results are of epidemiological implications and public health importance due to the acknowledged susceptibility of humans to E. cuniculi and T. gondii infections. Therefore, routine screening tests of domestic rabbits are proposed considering the zoonotic potential of these parasites. PMID:26797446

  6. Linkage Mapping of CVD Risk Traits in the Isolated Norfolk Island Population

    PubMed Central

    Bellis, C.; Cox, H.C; Dyer, T. D.; Charlesworth, J. C.; Begley, K.N; Quinlan, S.; Lea, R.A; Heath, S.C; Blangero, J.; Griffiths, L.R

    2009-01-01

    To understand the underlying genetic architecture of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk traits, we undertook a genome-wide linkage scan to identify CVD quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in 377 individuals from the Norfolk Island population. The central aim of this research focused on the utilization of a genetically and geographically isolated population of individuals from Norfolk Island for the purposes of variance component linkage analysis to identify QTLs involved in CVD risk traits. Substantial evidence supports the involvement of traits such as systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP and DBP), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), body mass index (BMI) and triglycerides (TG) as important risk factors for CVD pathogenesis. In addition to the environmental influences of poor diet, reduced physical activity, increasing age, cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, many studies have illustrated a strong involvement of genetic components in the CVD phenotype through family and twin studies. We undertook a genome scan using 400 markers spaced approximately 10cM in 600 individuals from Norfolk Island. Genotype data was analyzed using the variance components methods of SOLAR. Our results gave a peak LOD score of 2.01 localizing to chromosome 1p36 for systolic blood pressure and replicated previously implicated loci for other CVD relevant QTLs. PMID:18975005

  7. Neogene-Quaternary depositional history of the eastern US continental rise seaward of the Washington-Norfolk Canyon systems

    SciTech Connect

    Locker, S.D.; Laine, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    High quality, digitally recorded and processed, water gun and air gun seismic reflection data collected seaward of the present position of the Washington-Norfolk canyon systems reveals new information on the development of the continental rise. This includes insight into the depositional history of the Washington-Norfolk fan system and the relative importance of gravity flow depositional processes versus abyssal bottom current reworking during rise development. Three major post-Horizon A/sup u/ accretionary sequences describe major changes in depositional processes and history within the region. Accretionary sequence I (early to middle Miocene) is characterized by the initial development of a depositional bulge seaward of the Washington-Norfolk canyon systems which is modified by bottom currents on the lower-most rise to form a proto-Hatteras Outer Ridge. The predominance of chaotic and hummocky seismic facies suggests widespread reworking by abyssal bottom currents. Accretionary sequence II (middle Miocene to late Pliocene) in this area is characterized by sediment waves (lower rise) and smooth, southward dipping, parallel reflectors associated with a thick central rise drift(.) deposit off the Hudson system to the North. Washington-Norfolk fan development appears less important during this time. Bottom currents are active, but more depositional in nature than during accretionary sequence I. Accretionary sequence III (late Pliocene to Present) is marked by gravity flow processes and distinct development of the Washington-Norfolk fan on the central rise.

  8. Comparison of side effects between buprenorphine and meloxicam used postoperatively in Dutch belted rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Cooper, Coreen S; Metcalf-Pate, Kelly A; Barat, Christopher E; Cook, Judith A; Scorpio, Diana G

    2009-05-01

    One of the challenges facing veterinarians and investigators who use rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) as a surgical model in biomedical research is choosing an appropriate and efficacious postoperative analgesic without systemic complications and side effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the gastrointestinal side effects associated with the postoperative use of buprenorphine in Dutch Belted rabbits. We also evaluated the analgesic meloxicam as an alternative to opioid administration during the postoperative period. Rabbits were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups during the postoperative period after routine ovariohysterectomy: buprenorphine (n = 10), meloxicam (n = 10), and incisional infiltration with bupivicaine (no treatment control; n = 10). Feed intake, fecal production, weight loss, urine output, and other physiologic parameters were monitored and behavior and pain assessments were performed for 7 d after surgery and compared with baseline values collected before surgery. All rabbits showed decreased pellet consumption, fecal production, and weight on day 1 after surgery. This effect was severe in some rabbits that received bupivicaine; therefore treatment of this entire group with metoclopramide, fluids, and hay was instituted to reverse gut stasis. No significant difference in feed consumption and fecal production was present between the buprenorphine- and meloxicam-treated groups. On the basis of these results, meloxicam appears to be a suitable alternative or adjunct to buprenorphine for alleviating postoperative pain with minimal risk of anorexia and gastrointestinal ileus. PMID:19476717

  9. A case of interscapular fibrosarcoma in a dwarf rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Petterino, Claudio; Modesto, Paola; Strata, Daniela; Vascellari, Marta; Mutinelli, Franco; Ferrari, Angelo; Ratto, Alessandra

    2009-11-01

    A 1-year-old, intact, male dwarf rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) was vaccinated against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease in February 1999, and a localized reaction appeared in the same anatomic site within a few days. No regression was observed after subcutaneous antibiotic treatment. The rabbit was kept under observation, and the swelling apparently disappeared in 3 months. The owner then decided to avoid any further subcutaneous drug administration. The referring veterinarian examined the animal on July 2006 for the sudden appearance of a nodular, 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm x 2.0 cm, subcutaneous mass located over the interscapular space. Fine-needle aspiration was performed, and a population of neoplastic spindle cells, rare pleomorphic multinucleated cells, and rare leukocytes were observed. The mass was surgically removed, fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin, and routinely processed for histologic, histochemical, and immunohistochemical diagnostic investigation. The neoplastic tissue exhibited fascicles composed of malignant spindle-shaped cells with elongated to oval hyperchromatic nuclei and scant cytoplasm. Occasional multinucleated cells were also observed. The neoplastic cells were immunoreactive for vimentin but did not stain for smooth muscle actin, desmin, myoglobin, and cytokeratins (AE1/AE3). Moreover, the histochemical stain for aluminum was positive. The diagnosis was fibrosarcoma based on morphologic and immunohistochemical results. The histologic features of this neoplasm were remarkably similar to feline injection-site sarcoma. PMID:19901300

  10. Vaccination of free-living juvenile wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) against myxomatosis improved their survival.

    PubMed

    Guitton, Jean-Sébastien; Devillard, Sébastien; Guénézan, Michel; Fouchet, David; Pontier, Dominique; Marchandeau, Stéphane

    2008-04-17

    For several decades, the populations of the European wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) have declined, which is partly due to myxomatosis. Vaccination against this disease is expected to contribute to restoration of rabbit populations but the actual impact of myxomatosis is not well known and vaccination might have some negative effects. We analyzed the capture-mark-recapture data obtained in a 4-year field experiment (1991-1994) in a park near Paris, France wherein 300 out of 565 seronegative juvenile rabbits were vaccinated at first capture against myxomatosis with the nontransmissible Dervaximyxo SG33 vaccine. After accounting for weight at first capture, age-class (juvenile/adult), "trap-happiness" and season (spring/autumn) of the capture event, vaccinated rabbits had 1.8-fold greater odds of surviving than the unvaccinated rabbits. The average summer survival risk for vaccinated juveniles was 0.63 (+/-0.08 S.E.) whereas it was 0.48 (+/-0.08 S.E.) for unvaccinated juvenile rabbits. PMID:18045714

  11. Could wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) be reservoirs for Leishmania infantum in the focus of Madrid, Spain?

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Maribel; González, Estela; Martín-Martín, Inés; Hernández, Sonia; Molina, Ricardo

    2014-05-28

    Xenodiagnosis has previously proved that hares (Lepus granatensis) from a focus of leishmaniasis in the southwestern Madrid region (Spain) are infective to Phlebotomus perniciosus, the only vector in the area, thus playing a probable role as active reservoirs in a sylvatic transmission cycle linked to the usual domestic one. Although actions have been taken to reduce the population of this lagomorph, a high population of wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is present in the area, which shows detectable anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies and a large number of individuals with DNA of this parasite. With the aim to elucidate the role of this lagomorph in the focus, xenodiagnostic studies carried out with wild rabbits captured in the area demonstrate that they are able to transmit L. infantum to P. perniciosus. Moreover, the study of blood meal preferences of P. perniciosus caught in the focus during and entomological survey shows strong evidence that rabbits are contributing to the maintenance of a high sand fly population in the area. These findings suggest that wild rabbits could play some role in Leishmania transmission. PMID:24774435

  12. Evidence of Leishmania infantum infection in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in a natural area in Madrid, Spain.

    PubMed

    García, Nerea; Moreno, Inmaculada; Alvarez, Julio; de la Cruz, María Luisa; Navarro, Alejandro; Pérez-Sancho, Marta; García-Seco, Teresa; Rodríguez-Bertos, Antonio; Conty, María Luisa; Toraño, Alfredo; Prieto, Antonio; Domínguez, Lucas; Domínguez, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is one of the most important neglected zoonosis and remains endemic in at least 88 developing countries in the world. In addition, anthropogenic environmental changes in urban areas are leading to its emergency world wide. Zoonotic leishmaniasis control might only be achieved by an integrated approach targeting both the human host and the animal reservoirs, which in certain sylvatic cycles are yet to be identified. Recently, hares have been pointed out as competent reservoirs of Leishmania infantum in Spain, but the role of other lagomorphs has not been clarified. Here, 69 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from a natural area in Madrid in which a high density was present were analyzed using indirect (immunofluorescence antibody test, IFAT) and direct (PCR, culture) techniques. Fifty-seven (82.6%) of the animals were positive to at least one technique, with IFAT yielding the highest proportion of positive samples. L. infantum was isolated in 13% animals demonstrating the occurrence of infection in this setting. Our results suggest that rabbits could play a role of competent reservoir of L. infantum and demonstrate that the prevalence of infection is high in the analyzed area. PMID:24724079

  13. Evidence of Leishmania infantum Infection in Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in a Natural Area in Madrid, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Alejandro; Pérez-Sancho, Marta; García-Seco, Teresa; Rodríguez-Bertos, Antonio; Conty, María Luisa; Toraño, Alfredo; Prieto, Antonio; Domínguez, Lucas; Domínguez, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is one of the most important neglected zoonosis and remains endemic in at least 88 developing countries in the world. In addition, anthropogenic environmental changes in urban areas are leading to its emergency world wide. Zoonotic leishmaniasis control might only be achieved by an integrated approach targeting both the human host and the animal reservoirs, which in certain sylvatic cycles are yet to be identified. Recently, hares have been pointed out as competent reservoirs of Leishmania infantum in Spain, but the role of other lagomorphs has not been clarified. Here, 69 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from a natural area in Madrid in which a high density was present were analyzed using indirect (immunofluorescence antibody test, IFAT) and direct (PCR, culture) techniques. Fifty-seven (82.6%) of the animals were positive to at least one technique, with IFAT yielding the highest proportion of positive samples. L. infantum was isolated in 13% animals demonstrating the occurrence of infection in this setting. Our results suggest that rabbits could play a role of competent reservoir of L. infantum and demonstrate that the prevalence of infection is high in the analyzed area. PMID:24724079

  14. Experimental Infection of New Zealand White Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculi) with Leporid herpesvirus 4

    PubMed Central

    Sunohara-Neilson, Janet R; Brash, Marina; Carman, Susy; Nagy, Éva; Turner, Patricia V

    2013-01-01

    Leporid herpesvirus 4 (LHV4) is a novel alphaherpesvirus recently identified in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculi). Little is known about the pathogenesis or time course of disease induced by this virus. We therefore intranasally inoculated 22 female New Zealand white rabbits with 8.4 × 104 CCID50 of a clinical viral isolate. Rabbits were monitored for clinical signs, viral shedding in oculonasal secretions, and development and persistence of serum antibodies. Rabbits were euthanized at 3, 5, 7, 14, and 22 d postinfection (dpi) to evaluate gross and microscopic changes. Clinical signs were apparent between 3 to 8 dpi, and included oculonasal discharge, respiratory distress, and reduced appetite, and viral shedding occurred between 2 and 8 dpi. Seroconversion was seen at 11 dpi and persisted to the end of the study (day 22). Severe necrohemorrhagic bronchopneumonia and marked pulmonary edema were noted by 5 dpi and were most severe at 7 dpi. Pulmonary changes largely resolved by 22 dpi. In addition, multifocal splenic necrosis was present at 5 dpi and progressed to submassive necrosis by 7 dpi. Eosinophilic herpesviral intranuclear inclusion bodies were detected in the nasal mucosa, skin, spleen, and lung between 3 to 14 dpi. LHV4 is a pathogen that should be considered for rabbits that present with acute respiratory disease. LHV4 infection can be diagnosed based on characteristic microscopic changes in the lungs and spleen and by virus isolation. Serum antibody levels may be used to monitor viral prevalence in colonies. PMID:24210019

  15. Copy number polymorphism in the α-globin gene cluster of European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    PubMed Central

    Campos, R; Storz, J F; Ferrand, N

    2012-01-01

    Comparative genomic studies have revealed that mammals typically possess two or more tandemly duplicated copies of the α-globin (HBA) gene. The domestic rabbit represents an exception to this general rule, as this species was found to possess a single HBA gene. Previous electrophoretic surveys of HBA polymorphism in natural populations of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) revealed extensive geographic variation in the frequencies of three main electromorphs. The variation in frequency of two electromorphs is mainly partitioned between two distinct subspecies of European rabbit, and a third is restricted to the hybrid zone between the two rabbit subspecies in Iberia. Here we report the results of a survey of nucleotide polymorphism, which revealed HBA copy number polymorphism in Iberian populations of the European rabbit. By characterizing patterns of HBA polymorphism in populations from the native range of the European rabbit, we were able to identify the specific amino-acid substitutions that distinguish the previously characterized electromorphs. Within the hybrid zone, we observed the existence of a second HBA gene duplicate, named HBA2, that mostly represents a novel sequence haplotype, which occurs in higher frequency within the hybrid zone, and thus appears to have arisen in hybrids of the two distinct subspecies. Although this novel gene is also present in other wild Iberian populations, it is almost absent from French populations, which suggest a recent ancestry, associated with the establishment of the post-Pleistocene contact zone between the two European rabbit subspecies. PMID:22146981

  16. Enzymatic Modification of Soluble Cyanophycin Using the Type II Peptidyl Arginine Deiminase from Oryctolagus cuniculus.

    PubMed

    Wiefel, Lars; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    An increased structural variety expands the number of putative applications for cyanophycin (multi-l-arginyl-poly-[l-aspartic acid], CGP). Therefore, structural modifications of CGP are of major interest; these are commonly obtained by modification and optimization of the bacterial producing strain or by chemical modification. In this study, an enzymatic modification of arginine side chains from lysine-rich CGP is demonstrated using the peptidyl arginine deiminase from Oryctolagus cuniculus, purified from Escherichia coli after heterologous expression. About 10% of the arginine side chains are converted to citrulline which corresponds to 4% of the polymer's total side chains. An inhibition of the reaction in the presence of small amounts of l-citrulline is observed, thereby explaining the low conversion rate. CGP dipeptides can be modified with about 7.5 mol% of the Asp-Arg dipeptides being converted to Asp-Cit. These results show that the enzymatic modification of CGP is feasible, opening up a whole new area of possible CGP modifications for further research. PMID:26953800

  17. Neuropathological observation of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) affected with raccoon roundworm (Baylisascaris procyonis) larva migrans in Japan.

    PubMed

    Furuoka, Hidefumi; Sato, Hiroshi; Kubo, Midori; Owaki, Shigeo; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Matsui, Takane; Kamiya, Haruo

    2003-06-01

    Larvae of the raccoon roundworm, Baylisascaris procyonis (B. procyonis) are a known cause of cerebrospinal larva migrans in animals and humans. The present paper described details of the central nervous lesion in the rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) affected with B. procyonis larva migrans in Japan. Clinically affected animals showed neurological signs including circling, torticollis, tremor of head, or ataxic gait. The most characteristic pathological alterations were large malacic lesions associated with an activated astroglial proliferation which was seen at the corpus medullare in the cerebellum including the cerebellar peduncle. Moreover, focal malacic lesions with perivascular cuffing and infiltration by lymphocytes and heterophiles were scattered everywhere throughout the brain. In these lesions or normal-appearing areas away from obvious lesions, ascarid larvae, about a maximum 65-75 micro m in diameter, were recognized. Other prominent features were minute lesions (we call them migration tract-like lesions) composed of lymphocytes, hemosiderin-laden macrophages and reactive astrocytes scattering throughout the cerebrum. In this study, we demonstrated ascarid larvae in only eight out of 23 animals diagnosed as B. procyonis larva migrans. Since it is not always possible to detect the larvae, the possibility of B. procyonis larva migrans must be given serious consideration to the characteristic lesions described above. PMID:12867729

  18. An individual-based model of rabbit viral haemorrhagic disease on European wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fa, John E.; Sharples, Colin M.; Bell, Diana J.; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2001-01-01

    We developed an individual-based model of Rabbit Viral Hemorrhagic Disease (RVHD) for European wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.), representing up to 1000 rabbits in four hectares. Model output for productivity and recruitment matched published values. The disease was density-dependent and virulence affected outcome. Strains that caused death after several days produced greater overall mortality than strains in which rabbits either died or recovered very quickly. Disease effect also depended on time of year. We also elaborated a larger scale model representing 25 km2 and 100,000+ rabbits, split into a number of grid-squares. This was a more traditional model that did not represent individual rabbits, but employed a system of dynamic equations for each grid-square. Disease spread depended on probability of transmission between neighboring grid-squares. Potential recovery from a major population crash caused by the disease relied on disease virulence and frequency of recurrence. The model's dependence on probability of disease transmission between grid-squares suggests the way that the model represents the spatial distribution of the population affects simulation. Although data on RVHD in Europe are lacking, our models provide a basis for describing the disease in realistic detail and for assessing influence of various social and spatial factors on spread.

  19. Computational identification and microarray-based validation of microRNAs in Oryctolagus cuniculus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guiming; Fang, Yongjun; Zhang, Hongming; Li, Yan; Li, Xingang; Yu, Jun; Wang, Xumin

    2010-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) belong to a class of small non-coding RNAs that play important roles in complex biological processes through degradation of target mRNAs or repression of their translation. We exploited cross-species comparison to predict miRNAs and identified 266 genes encoding 274 mature miRNAs in Oryctolagus cuniculus. Comparative analyses among mammalian genomes demonstrated that most of the identified miRNAs and their clusters are ancient in origin and conserved among mammals but a few clades as well as some species-specific miRNAs exhibit an ongoing evolutionary process where gain and loss of individual miRNAs have occurred through tandem duplications and random mutations. Our microarray- and RT-PCR-based analyses and target prediction reveal specific expression patterns in brain, spleen, muscle, heart, and ovary, and significant over-representations in certain GO categories as regarded to their mRNA targets include genes that play key roles in signal transduction and transcriptional regulation. PMID:20213505

  20. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment United States Naval Base Norfolk Naval Air Station. Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, D.; DeWaters, J.

    1995-09-01

    The purposes of the WREAFS Program are to identify new technologies and techniques for reducing wastes from process operations and other activities at Federal sites, and to enhance the implementation of pollution prevention/waste minimization through technology transfer. New techniques and technologies for reducing waste generation are identified through waste minimization opportunity assessments and may be further evaluated through joint research, development, and demonstration projects. A cooling tower is an enclosed device designed for the evaporative cooling of water by direct contact with air. Cooling towers are used in conjunction with air conditioning and industrial process equipment, acting as the heat sink for these systems by providing a continuous source of cool water for process operations. Open-system recirculating cooling towers are typically chosen for operation with air conditioning and refrigeration equipment because they are relatively inexpensive and minimize heat rejection costs while conserving water. All of the cooling towers at the Norfolk Naval Air Station identified in this PPOA are of the recirculating, open-system type. The Navy and EPA are currently evaluating techniques and technologies to reduce wastes generated from cooling tower operations within the Norfolk NAS. Approximately 28 open-system recirculating cooling towers are currently operated at 18 buildings within the NAS. These units range in size from 5 to 300 tons, and are all associated with comfort cooling systems that operate on a seasonal basis (approximately 6 mo/yr).

  1. Endemics and adventives: Thysanoptera (Insecta) biodiversity of Norfolk, a tiny Pacific Island.

    PubMed

    Mound, Laurence A; Wells, Alice

    2015-01-01

    The thrips fauna of Norfolk Island is a curious mix of endemics and adventives, with notable absences that include one major trophic group. A brief introduction is provided to the history of human settlement and its ecological impact on this tiny land mass in the western Pacific Ocean. The Thysanoptera fauna comprises about 20% endemic and almost 50% widespread invasive species, and shows limited faunal relationships to the nearest territories, Australia, New Caledonia and New Zealand. This fauna, comprising 66 species, includes among named species 29 Terebrantia and 33 Tubulifera, with four Tubulifera remaining undescribed. At least 12 species are endemics, of which 10 are mycophagous, and up to 10 further species are possibly native to the island. As with the thrips fauna of most Pacific islands, many species are widespread invasives. However, most of the common thrips of eastern Australia have not been found on Norfolk Island, and the complete absence of leaf-feeding Phlaeothripinae is notable. The following new taxa are described: in the Phlaeothripidae, Buffettithrips rauti gen. et sp. n. and Priesneria akestra sp. n.; and in the Thripidae, Scirtothrips araucariae sp. n. and Thrips merae sp. n. PMID:26249431

  2. 77 FR 58909 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment and Discontinuance of Service Exemption-In Lake...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... Exemption--In Lake County, Ind., and Cook County, Ill. Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) has filed a... Lake County, Ind., and Cook County, Ill., and to discontinue service over a contiguous line segment of approximately 1.2 miles (the Western Line Segment) located in Cook County, Ill.\\1\\ The roughly 6.30-mile...

  3. 76 FR 42163 - East Penn Railroad, L.L.C.; Lease and Operation Exemption; Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... Surface Transportation Board East Penn Railroad, L.L.C.; Lease and Operation Exemption; Norfolk Southern... delegated the authority to determine whether to issue notices of exemption for lease transactions under 49 U... has determined that this lease and operation notice of exemption should be issued, and does so...

  4. 77 FR 43557 - Safety Zone; Gilmerton Bridge Center Span Float-in, Elizabeth River; Norfolk, Portsmouth, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ...The Coast Guard proposes establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of the Elizabeth River in Norfolk, Portsmouth, and Chesapeake, VA. This action is necessary to provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during the Gilmerton Bridge Center Span Float- in and bridge construction of span placement. This action is intended to restrict vessel traffic movement to protect mariners......

  5. 77 FR 44544 - Safety Zone; Gilmerton Bridge Center Span Float-In, Elizabeth River; Norfolk, Portsmouth, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Gilmerton Bridge Center Span Float-In... notice of proposed rulemaking entitled ``Safety Zone; Gilmerton Bridge Center Span Float-in, Elizabeth River; Norfolk, Portsmouth, and Chesapeake, Virginia'' in the Federal Register (77 FR 43557)....

  6. 76 FR 65319 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Discontinuance of Service Exemption-in Forsyth County, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Discontinuance of Service Exemption--in... over approximately 10.0 miles of rail line between mileposts L-0.0 (near Trade Street in Winston-Salem) and L-10.0 (near the intersection of Hampton Road and Idols Road in Clemmons), in Forsyth County,...

  7. 75 FR 61817 - Jackson & Lansing Railroad Company-Lease and Operation Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board Jackson & Lansing Railroad Company--Lease and Operation Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company Under 49 CFR 1011.7(b)(10), the Director of the Office of Proceedings (Director... & Lansing Railroad Company (JAIL), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR...

  8. The Norfolk Decision: The Effects of Converting from a Unitary Educational System to a Dual Educational System upon Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikpa, Vivian W.

    As a means of achieving a unitary school system, a mandated busing policy was implemented by the Norfolk, Virginia, public school system in 1986. This study examined the extent to which individual characteristics, school characteristics, and busing affected the student achievement gap between the busing and postbusing years. Methodology involved…

  9. Sarcocystis and related organisms in Australian Wildlife: IV. Studies on Sarcocystis cuniculi in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Munday, B L; Smith, D D; Frenkel, J K

    1980-04-01

    The role of the cat (Felis domestica) as a definitive host for Sarcocystis cuniculi of European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) was confirmed. It was shown that after dosing with sporocysts from cats, rabbits developed sarcocysts and these became infective for cats at not less than 93 days post-infection (p.i.). The earliest infection detected was at 142 days p.i. Infected muscle from an experimental rabbit did not transmit Sarcocystis when fed to other rabbits. Microscopically, sarcocysts in European rabbits (O. cuniculus) were morphologically indistinguishable from those in cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus). PMID:6776293

  10. Widespread exposure to Sarcoptes scabiei in wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Spain.

    PubMed

    Millán, J; Casáis, R; Delibes-Mateos, M; Calvete, C; Rouco, C; Castro, F; Colomar, V; Casas-Díaz, E; Ramírez, E; Moreno, S; Prieto, J M; Villafuerte, R

    2012-02-10

    Sarcoptic mange was recently described in the wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in north-eastern Mediterranean Spain, the first such infection reported in this species anywhere in the world. This finding has created concern in conservationists and game managers given that an outbreak of mange after a translocation would have catastrophic consequences for naïve rabbit populations in other parts of Spain. A retrospective serosurvey using an 'in house' ELISA test based on the use of a recombinant antigen aimed at determining the rates of contact with Sarcoptes scabiei was carried out on sera from 966 rabbits collected between 1993 and 2010 in Spain. Antibodies were found in 13% of wild rabbits in 60% of the 53 areas surveyed, as well as in 16 of the 17 Spanish provinces and islands studied. Seropositive rabbits were found amongst the oldest samples analyzed and in all studied years. Antibodies were also detected in 36% of rabbits from the protected island of Dragonera, where rabbits have probably not been released since the 1970s. On Mallorca, where 89 rabbits were inspected for both lesions and antibodies, the prevalence of lesions (5.6%) was much lower than the seroprevalence (22.5%), indicating that rabbits often survive infection or that ELISA detects infected rabbits before they develop visible lesions. Seroprevalence was higher in areas with medium levels of rabbit abundance, no restocking and high rainfall. The results show that mange is widespread in rabbits and that the mite is not a recent introduction. Thus, sarcoptic mange could be considered as an enzootic disease in the wild rabbit and so prophylactic measures implemented during rabbit translocations are to be encouraged to avoid local outbreaks in naïve populations. PMID:21852039

  11. Measuring Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) Tooth Growth and Eruption by Fluorescence Markers and Bur Marks.

    PubMed

    Wyss, Fabia; Müller, Jacqueline; Clauss, Marcus; Kircher, Patrick; Geyer, Hans; von Rechenberg, Brigitte; Hatt, Jean-Michel

    2016-03-01

    Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and rodents possess continuously growing teeth, and dental problems are a major health issue in these species. Knowledge of tooth growth characteristics is required to adequately treat dental problems and advise owners concerning diets. Most research was performed using bur marks and measuring eruption and wear manually. However, this method cannot be applied to teeth less rostral than the first premolar; therefore, for evaluation of molars, other methods are needed. We evaluated the use of fluorochromes xylenol orange and calcein green to measure growth rates of rabbit teeth and compared this method to results obtained by manually measuring the distance between a bur mark and the gingival margin of the same tooth (eruption) and by measuring the distance between the bur mark and the apex of the same tooth on computed tomography scans (growth). Apical fluorochrome measurements correlated well with eruption and growth rates obtained with bur marks, whereas measurements coronal to the pulp cavity did not. Growth rates were approximately 1.9 mm/wk for maxillary and 2.2 mm/wk for mandibular incisors. Growth rates of premolars were 2.14 ± 0.28 mm/wk in rabbits on a grass/rice hulls/sand pelleted diet and 0.93 ± 0.18 mm/wk in rabbits on a hay diet. Growth of molars could only be assessed using the measurement in dentin on the wall of the pulp cavity, which does not account for the real growth. However, being similar to this measurement in premolars, one could hypothesize similar growth in molars as in premolars. We conclude that the application of fluorochrome staining can be used to measure tooth growth in teeth that are not accessible for bur marks or in animals that are too small to assess tooth eruption or growth by bur marks. PMID:27487654

  12. Strontium calcium phosphate for the repair of leporine (Oryctolagus cuniculus) ulna segmental defect.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Beena G; Shenoy, Sachin J; Babu, Suresh S; Varma, H K; John, Annie

    2013-01-01

    Scaffolds to aid in repair, replacement, or regeneration of bony tissues have been developed using a wide spectra of materials. Under clinical conditions, assessment of healing and implant placement is guided radiographically. In this context, strontium's role in osteostimulation and its relevance in radio-opacity are known. Therefore to aid in assessment and to ensure tissue regeneration, a bone mimetic porous strontium calcium phosphate (SrCaPO(4) ) was synthesized in-house, which was non-cytotoxic (ISO 10993 (Part V) and subsequently characterized for its crystallinity, functional groups, and 3D porous topography. Furthermore, to assess the feasibility of the bioactive ceramic scaffolds in bone repair, SrCaPO(4) and hydroxyapatite (HA-Control) scaffolds were implanted in the segmental ulna bone critical-sized defect (1.5 cm) of New Zealand White Rabbits (leporine model-Oryctolagus cuniculus) for a period of 4 and 12 weeks, respectively. Healing of the defects was uneventful without any inflammation or infection. Radio-opacity of SrCaPO(4) within the defect site enabled easy assessment of implant placement and osteointegration. Again, histological evaluation coupled with micro-CT and histomorphometrical analysis indicated that SrCaPO(4) favored significant de novo bone formation in par with material degradation at 4 and 12 weeks post-implantation compared to HA at 4 and 12 weeks. Investigations on this radio-opaque SrCaPO(4) established its role in the repair of critical-sized segmental defects, proposing it as a suitable bone substitute for clinical reconstructive surgery with easy radiographic evaluation. PMID:22941787

  13. Organic matter and macromineral digestibility in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) as compared to other hindgut fermenters.

    PubMed

    Hagen, K B; Tschudin, A; Liesegang, A; Hatt, J-M; Clauss, M

    2015-12-01

    It is generally assumed that animal species differ in physiological characteristics of their digestive tract. Because investigating digestive processes is often labour-intensive, requiring lengthy adaptation and collection periods, comparisons are often made on the basis of data collated from different studies. We added a new data set on dietary crude fibre (CF) and macromineral (Na, K, Ca, P, Mg) composition and apparent digestibility (aD) of organic matter (OM) and macrominerals in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus; a total of 180 measurements with 12 individuals and 10 different diets) to a literature data collection for rodents and domestic horses (Equus caballus). Significant negative relationships between dietary CF and aD OM were obtained, but the significant difference in digestive efficiency between rabbits and guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) reported from studies where both species had been investigated under identical conditions were not detectable in the larger data collection. However, the 95% confidence interval of the negative slope of the CF-aD OM relationship did not overlap between domestic horses on the one hand, and rabbits and guinea pigs on the other hand, indicating a less depressing effect of CF in horses. Akaike's information criterion indicated that aD of a macromineral did not only depend on its concentration in the diet, but also on the individual and various other diet characteristics and the presence of other macrominerals, indicating complex interactions. The data indicate similar mechanisms in the absorption of macrominerals amongst rabbits, rodents and horses, with the exception of Na and K in guinea pigs and Ca in chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger) that should be further corroborated. In particular, the occurrence of high aD Ca in hindgut fermenters, regardless of whether they employ a digestive strategy of coprophagy or whether they have fossorial habits, suggests that this peculiarity might represent an adaptation to hindgut

  14. Evidence for Widespread Positive and Purifying Selection Across the European Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) Genome

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Miguel; Albert, Frank W.; Melo-Ferreira, José; Galtier, Nicolas; Gayral, Philippe; Blanco-Aguiar, Jose A.; Villafuerte, Rafael; Nachman, Michael W.; Ferrand, Nuno

    2012-01-01

    The nearly neutral theory of molecular evolution predicts that the efficacy of both positive and purifying selection is a function of the long-term effective population size (Ne) of a species. Under this theory, the efficacy of natural selection should increase with Ne. Here, we tested this simple prediction by surveying ∼1.5 to 1.8 Mb of protein coding sequence in the two subspecies of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus and O. c. cuniculus), a mammal species characterized by high levels of nucleotide diversity and Ne estimates for each subspecies on the order of 1 × 106. When the segregation of slightly deleterious mutations and demographic effects were taken into account, we inferred that >60% of amino acid substitutions on the autosomes were driven to fixation by positive selection. Moreover, we inferred that a small fraction of new amino acid mutations (<4%) are effectively neutral (defined as 0 < Nes < 1) and that this fraction was negatively correlated with a gene’s expression level. Consistent with models of recurrent adaptive evolution, we detected a negative correlation between levels of synonymous site polymorphism and the rate of protein evolution, although the correlation was weak and nonsignificant. No systematic X chromosome–autosome difference was found in the efficacy of selection. For example, the proportion of adaptive substitutions was significantly higher on the X chromosome compared with the autosomes in O. c. algirus but not in O. c. cuniculus. Our findings support widespread positive and purifying selection in rabbits and add to a growing list of examples suggesting that differences in Ne among taxa play a substantial role in determining rates and patterns of protein evolution. PMID:22319161

  15. Potential geothermal energy use at the Naval Air Rework Facilities, Norfolk, Virginia and Jacksonville, Florida, and at the naval shipyard, Charleston, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Costain, J.K.; Glover, L. III; Newman, R.W.

    1984-05-01

    The feasibility of geothermal energy use at naval installations in Norfolk, VA, Jacksonville, FL, and Charleston, SC was assessed. Geophysical and geological studies of the above areas were performed. Engineering and economic factors, affecting potential energy use, were evaluated. The Norfolk and Jacksonville facilities are identified as candidates for geothermal systems. System costs are predicted. Economic benefits of the proposed geothermal systems are forecast, using the net present value method of predicting future income.

  16. Uncorrected refractive error in older British adults: the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Sherwin, Justin C; Khawaja, Anthony P; Broadway, David; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Dalzell, Nichola; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    Aim To investigate the prevalence of, and demographic associations with, uncorrected refractive error (URE) in an older British population. Methods Data from 4428 participants, aged 48–89 years, who attended an eye examination in the third health check of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk study and had also undergone an ophthalmic examination were assessed. URE was defined as ≥1 line improvement of visual acuity with pinhole-correction in the better eye in participants with LogMar presenting visual acuity (PVA) <0.3 (PVA <6/12). Refractive error was measured using an autorefractor without cycloplegia. Myopia was defined as spherical equivalent ≤−0.5 dioptre, and hypermetropia ≥0.5 dioptre. Results Adjusted to the 2010 midyear British population, the prevalence of URE in this Norfolk population was 1.9% (95% CI 0.6% to 3.1%). Lower self-rated distance vision was correlated with higher prevalence of URE (ptrend<0.001). In a multivariate logistic regression model adjusting for age, gender, retirement status, educational level and social class, independent significant associations with URE were increasing age (ptrend<0.001) and having hypermetropic or myopic refractive error. Wearing distance spectacles was inversely associated with URE (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.55, p<0.001). There were 3063 people (69.2%) who wore spectacles/contact lenses for distance vision. Spectacle wear differed according to type of refractive error (p<0.001), and use rose with increasing severity of refractive error (ptrend<0.001). Conclusion Although refractive error is common, the prevalence of URE was found to be low in this population reflecting a low prevalence of PVA<0.3. PMID:22535330

  17. Shoreline responses to storm impacts: North Norfolk coast, southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Sue; Spencer, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Recent phases of enhanced mid-latitude storminess (e.g. NW European winter of 2013 - 14) have led to a growing awareness of the considerable impacts of storms on coastal landscapes and their communities. Using aerial photography, bi-annual cross-shore profiles, detailed alongshore ground survey, and offshore/inshore wave buoy and regional tide gauge datasets, this paper considers storm impacts on the barrier coastline of North Norfolk, UK. Firstly, at Scolt Head Island, we show that the barrier dune crest has been progressively set back landwards since 2006 in three storm-related phases, with each shoreline translation being of the order of 5-8 m. However, a fourth storm produced no significant shoreline change, demonstrating that the threshold for morphological change is a function of the combined effects of still water level and wave height at the shore, the magnitude and duration of these components, and the timing of their interaction. Secondly, we consider recovery times in the system against periods of quiescence and heightened storm activity on this coast. Thirdly, it has been argued that future changes in extreme water level will be governed by mean sea level rise. Long-term rates of North Norfolk barrier retreat (1.15 m a-1, 1891-2013) have occurred under a regional rate of relative sea level rise over the 20th century of 2.7 ± 0.4 mm a-1 (Lowestoft tide gauge, 1900-2014). If there is a broad correlation between rates of barrier retreat and sea level rise, then recent increases in the rate of regional sea level rise (4.4 ± 1.1 mm a-1, 1993-2011) imply a considerable acceleration in the rate of barrier migration over the remainder of the 21st century.

  18. Geologic map and digital database of the Conejo Well 7.5 minute quadrangle, Riverside County, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    This data set maps and describes the geology of the Conejo Well 7.5 minute quadrangle, Riverside County, southern California. The quadrangle, situated in Joshua Tree National Park in the eastern Transverse Ranges physiographic and structural province, encompasses part of the northern Eagle Mountains and part of the south flank of Pinto Basin. It is underlain by a basement terrane comprising Proterozoic metamorphic rocks, Mesozoic plutonic rocks, and Mesozoic and Mesozoic or Cenozoic hypabyssal dikes. The basement terrane is capped by a widespread Tertiary erosion surface preserved in remnants in the Eagle Mountains and buried beneath Cenozoic deposits in Pinto Basin. Locally, Miocene basalt overlies the erosion surface. A sequence of at least three Quaternary pediments is planed into the north piedmont of the Eagle Mountains, each in turn overlain by successively younger residual and alluvial deposits. The Tertiary erosion surface is deformed and broken by north-northwest-trending, high-angle, dip-slip faults in the Eagle Mountains and an east-west trending system of high-angle dip- and left-slip faults. In and adjacent to the Conejo Well quadrangle, faults of the northwest-trending set displace Miocene sedimentary rocks and basalt deposited on the Tertiary erosion surface and Pliocene and (or) Pleistocene deposits that accumulated on the oldest pediment. Faults of this system appear to be overlain by Pleistocene deposits that accumulated on younger pediments. East-west trending faults are younger than and perhaps in part coeval with faults of the northwest-trending set. The Conejo Well database was created using ARCVIEW and ARC/INFO, which are geographical information system (GIS) software products of Envronmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI). The database consists of the following items: (1) a map coverage showing faults and geologic contacts and units, (2) a separate coverage showing dikes, (3) a coverage showing structural data, (4) a point coverage

  19. SeepC: Preliminary Characterization of Atlantic Margin Seep Ecosystems from Norfolk Canyon to New England Seep Sites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, P. J.; Ball, B.; Cole, E.; LaBella, A.; Wagner, J.; Van Dover, C. L.; Skarke, A. D.; Ruppel, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2013, more than 500 seep sites have been located along the continental margin of the eastern US using acoustic signals of gas plumes in the water column. During a July 2015 R/V Atlantis expedition, scientists used the submersible Alvin to explore seep sites at depths of 300 to 1500 m. Study sites ranged from Norfolk Canyon north to New England Seep 2 and included Baltimore, Veatch, and Shallop Canyon sites, as well as new unnamed sites between Norfolk and Baltimore Canyons. Mussels dominated the seep sites (cf ''Bathymodiolus'' childressi) but only small populations (<10s of individuals) were observed at seep sites associated with Shallop Canyon. B. heckerae, the dominant mussel at the Blake Ridge and Cape Fear seep sites (sites associated with salt diapirs off the Carolinas), appear to be present at only one of the Atlantic Margin seeps. At the Norfolk Canyon site, dead B. heckerae shells were observed and live individuals may be within the explored area. The abundant vesicomyid clam of Blake Ridge and Cape Fear sites was absent at the continental margin seeps. Apart from B. childressi, the most conspicuous megafaunal invertebrate species at the newly explored seeps was the red crab, Chaceon sp. and the rock crab, Cancer sp. These crabs are not seep endemic but they were especially abundant at the seeps and were observed to feed and mate on the seep grounds. Molecular tools will be used to explore the genetic structure of mussel populations from Norfolk to New England seeps, and stable isotope methods will be used to test for differences among sites in the source of carbon used by mussels. Alvin video transects and photo-mosaics will be used to collect data on macrofauna associated with seeps and to test the hypothesis that shallow seeps (300-500m) support more diverse assemblages than deep sites (1000-1500m).

  20. Petrogenesis of the Conejo volcanic suite, southern California: Evidence for mid-ocean ridge continental margin interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, Richard W.

    1982-05-01

    The evolution of the southern California Borderland during mid-Miocene time was dependent on the interactions between the North American continent and the converging East Pacific Rise. Evidence from geological and geochemical investigations of the Conejo volcanic suite, whose petrogenesis is linked to these interactions, suggests an intimate relation between the subducting ridge and the volcanic rocks. The whole-rock chemistry of this suite (K2O < 0.4%; 87Sr/86Sr = 0.70248 0.70372, average = 0.70306; TiO2 = 1.2% 1.8%) and restricted range of pyroxene and plagioclase compositions support a model in which active ridge volcanism, fractionation, and mixing of primitive liquids with later differentiates can account for the observed petrologic evolution. The interaction of the ridge with the subduction zone may result in the cessation of subduction, the preferential subduction of the trenchward ridge flank, or localized volcanism in the vicinity of the ridge subduction zone intersection.

  1. The effect of single and concomitant pathogen infections on condition and fecundity of the wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Lello, J; Boag, B; Hudson, P J

    2005-12-01

    We assessed the effect of two pathogens (myxoma virus and Eimeria stiedae) and five macroparasites (gastrointestinal helminth species) of the wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) upon total host body mass and abdominal fat level. Additionally, we assessed the effects of these organisms on the number of foetuses in adult females during the peak breeding period. Both mass of abdominal fat and total body mass of the rabbit were negatively associated with myxoma virus infection and increasing helminth species richness. Total body mass was also negatively associated with the protozoan parasite E. steidae. No relationship was found between any of the parasites/pathogens and the number of foetuses in adult females, although only relatively small sample sizes were available for this section of the analysis. Increasing host body mass was positively associated with number of foetuses and we propose that mass reduction caused by the pathogen and parasite species could also have the consequence of reducing foetal number. PMID:16051247

  2. Evolution of viral sensing RIG-I-like receptor genes in Leporidae genera Oryctolagus, Sylvilagus, and Lepus.

    PubMed

    Lemos de Matos, Ana; McFadden, Grant; Esteves, Pedro J

    2014-01-01

    One of the most severe European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) pathogens is myxoma virus (MYXV), a rabbit-specific leporipoxvirus that causes the highly lethal disease myxomatosis. Other leporid genera, Sylvilagus and Lepus, encompass species with variable susceptibilities to MYXV, but these do not develop the lethal form of the disease. The protective role of the retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I/DDX58) in sensing MYXV in nonpermissive human myeloid cells prompted the study of the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) family evolution in the three leporid genera. This viral-sensor family also includes the melanoma differentiation-associated factor 5 (MDA5/IFIH1), and the laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 (LGP2/DHX58). Considering specifically the MYXV susceptible host (European rabbit) and one of the virus natural long-term hosts (Sylvilagus bachmani, brush rabbit), the amino acid differences of positively selected sites in RIG-I between the two species were located in the protein region responsible for viral RNA recognition and binding, the repressor domain. Such differences might play a determinant role in how MYXV is sensed. When looking for episodic selection on MDA5 and LGP2 of the eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus), we also uncovered evidence of selective pressures that might be exerted by a species-specific leporipoxvirus, the Shope fibroma virus. Finally, a putative alternative splicing case was identified in Oryctolagus and Lepus MDA5 isoforms, corresponding to the deletion of one specific exon. This study provided the first insights into the evolution of the leporid RLR gene family that helps illuminate the origins of the species-specific innate responses to pathogens and more specifically to MYXV. PMID:24220721

  3. A land use and environmental impact analysis of the Norfolk-Portsmouth SMSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchel, W. B.; Berlin, G. L.

    1973-01-01

    The feasibility of using remote sensing techniques for land use and environmental assessment in the Norfolk-Portsmouth area is discussed. Data cover the use of high altitude aircraft and satellite remote sensing data for: (1) identifying various heirarchial levels of land use, (2) monitoring land use changes for repetitive basis, (3) assessing the impact of competing land uses, and (4) identifying areas of potential environmental deterioration. High altitude aircraft photographs (scale 1:120,000) acquired in 1959, 1970, and 1972, plus Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-1) color composite images acquired in 1972 were used for the land use and environmental assessments. The high altitude aircraft photography, as expected, was successfully used to map Level 1, Level 2, as well as some urban Level 3 land use categories. However, the detail of land use analysis obtainable from the ERTS imagery exceeded the expectations for the U.S. Geological Survey's land use classification scheme. Study results are consistent with the initial investigation which determined Level 1 land use change to be 16.7 square km per year.

  4. Visual acuity, self-reported vision and falls in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye study

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Jennifer L Y; Khawaja, Anthony P; Broadway, David; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Dalzell, Nichola; Bhaniani, Amit; Wareham, Nicholas; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship between visual acuity (VA) and self-reported vision (SRV) in relation to falls in 8317 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk Eye study. Methods All participants completed a health questionnaire that included a question regarding SRV and questions regarding the number of falls in the past year. Distance VA was measured using a logMAR chart for each eye. Poor SRV was defined as those reporting fair or poor distance vision. The relationship between VA and SRV and self-rated falls was analysed by logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, physical activity, body mass index, chronic disease, medication use and grip strength. Results Of 8317 participants, 26.7% (95% CI 25.7% to 27.7%) had fallen in the past 12 months. Worse VA and poorer SRV were associated with one or more falls in multivariable analysis (OR for falls=1.31, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.66 and OR=1.32, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.61, respectively). Poorer SRV was significantly associated with falls even after adjusting for VA (OR=1.28, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.57). Conclusions SRV was associated with falls independently of VA and could be used as a simple proxy measure for other aspects of visual function to detect people requiring vision-related falls interventions. PMID:24338086

  5. Legacy of mutiny on the Bounty: founder effect and admixture on Norfolk Island

    PubMed Central

    Macgregor, Stuart; Bellis, Claire; Lea, Rod A; Cox, Hannah; Dyer, Tom; Blangero, John; Visscher, Peter M; Griffiths, Lyn R

    2010-01-01

    The population of Norfolk Island, located off the eastern coast of Australia, possesses an unusual and fascinating history. Most present-day islanders are related to a small number of the ‘Bounty' mutineer founders. These founders consisted of Caucasian males and Polynesian females and led to an admixed present-day population. By examining a single large pedigree of 5742 individuals, spanning >200 years, we analyzed the influence of admixture and founder effect on various cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related traits. On account of the relative isolation of the population, on average one-third of the genomes of present-day islanders (single large pedigree individuals) is derived from 17 initial founders. The proportion of Polynesian ancestry in the present-day individuals was found to significantly influence total triglycerides, body mass index, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. For various cholesterol traits, the influence of ancestry was less marked but overall the direction of effect for all CVD-related traits was consistent with Polynesian ancestry conferring greater CVD risk. Marker-derived homozygosity was computed and agreed with measures of inbreeding derived from pedigree information. Founder effect (inbreeding and marker-derived homozygosity) significantly influenced height. In conclusion, both founder effect and extreme admixture have substantially influenced the genetic architecture of a variety of CVD-related traits in this population. PMID:19584896

  6. GRM crustal magnetic anomalies: Separating the Lord Howe Rise and Norfolk Ridge submarine structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, H.

    1985-01-01

    Multiple source bodies often lie within the resolution element of the MAGSAT and POGO data. Small weak sources lying near larger stronger sources will tend to be missed, although they do contribute to the total observed anomaly. Lower elevation magnetic anomaly surveys such as GRM alleviate this problem through the combined effects of significantly greater resolution and stronger signal amplitude. This permits the detection of smaller source bodies, and analysis of their structure and nature. The improvement a GRM will provide is demonstrated in the Lord Howe Rise/Norfolk Ridge area east of Australia, between the Tasman Sea and south Fiji Basin. The submarine features origin have important plate tectonic implications. The Lord Howe Rise (LHR) is a continental fragment broken off from Australia by the opening of the Tasman Sea. It is a wide, shallow structure lying between 160 and 165 deg longitude at 23 to 37 deg S latitude. Seismic refraction data show the LHR crust extending to depths in excess of 20 km.

  7. Area deprivation and age related macular degeneration in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Jennifer L.Y.; Khawaja, Anthony P.; Chan, Michelle P.Y.; Broadway, David C.; Peto, Tunde; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Bhaniani, Amit; Wareham, Nick; Foster, Paul J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the relationship between area deprivation, individual socio-economic status (SES) and age related macular degeneration (AMD). Study design Cross sectional study nested within a longitudinal cohort study. Methods Data were collected in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study by trained nurses, using standardized protocols and lifestyle questionnaires. The English Index of multiple deprivation 2010 (IMD) was derived from participants' postcodes. AMD was identified from standardized grading of fundus photographs. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between IMD, SES and AMD. Results 5344 pairs (62.0% of total 8623) of fundus photographs were of sufficient quality for grading of AMD. Of 5182 participants with complete data, AMD was identified in 653 participants (12.60%, 95%CI = 11.7–13.5%). Multivariable logistic regression showed that people living in the most affluent 5% of areas had nearly half the odds of AMD compared to those living in comparatively more deprived areas (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.36–0.89, P = 0.02), after adjusting for age, sex, education, social class and smoking. Conclusions The authors found that living in the most affluent areas exerted a protective effect on AMD, independently of education and social class. Further investigation into underlying mechanisms will inform potential interventions to reduce health inequalities relating to AMD. PMID:25687711

  8. Infectious gastroenteritis in Norfolk Island and recovery of viruses from drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, A. M.; Grohmann, G. S.; Sexton, M. F.

    1983-01-01

    A high incidence of gastroenteritis in both islanders and tourists has been recorded in recent years on Norfolk Island--a popular tourist resort for Australians and New Zealanders. No bacterial cause has been found. However, electron microscopic examination of 28 faecal specimens revealed viruses associated with gastroenteritis in 21 (75%). No viruses were isolated in cell cultures. Bore water is used for drinking purposes on the island and 32 samples from 15 bores were examined for viruses by electron microscopy and culture as well as for bacterial contamination. Seven polioviruses (all type 1 vaccine strain) and adenoviruses 1 and 5 were isolated in cell cultures. In addition one rotavirus, one adenovirus and two small round viruses were detected by electron microscopy. Six of 21 samples tested showed unacceptably high levels of bacteria for drinking water. The deep ground water has apparently become contaminated with sewage effluent and is almost certainly the main cause of the high level of gastroenteritis on the island. Images Plate 1 PMID:6309956

  9. Pseudogenization of the MCP-2/CCL8 chemokine gene in European rabbit (genus Oryctolagus), but not in species of Cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus) and Hare (Lepus)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies in human have highlighted the importance of the monocyte chemotactic proteins (MCP) in leukocyte trafficking and their effects in inflammatory processes, tumor progression, and HIV-1 infection. In European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) one of the prime MCP targets, the chemokine receptor CCR5 underwent a unique structural alteration. Until now, no homologue of MCP-2/CCL8a, MCP-3/CCL7 or MCP-4/CCL13 genes have been reported for this species. This is interesting, because at least the first two genes are expressed in most, if not all, mammals studied, and appear to be implicated in a variety of important chemokine ligand-receptor interactions. By assessing the Rabbit Whole Genome Sequence (WGS) data we have searched for orthologs of the mammalian genes of the MCP-Eotaxin cluster. Results We have localized the orthologs of these chemokine genes in the genome of European rabbit and compared them to those of leporid genera which do (i.e. Oryctolagus and Bunolagus) or do not share the CCR5 alteration with European rabbit (i.e. Lepus and Sylvilagus). Of the Rabbit orthologs of the CCL8, CCL7, and CCL13 genes only the last two were potentially functional, although showing some structural anomalies at the protein level. The ortholog of MCP-2/CCL8 appeared to be pseudogenized by deleterious nucleotide substitutions affecting exon1 and exon2. By analyzing both genomic and cDNA products, these studies were extended to wild specimens of four genera of the Leporidae family: Oryctolagus, Bunolagus, Lepus, and Sylvilagus. It appeared that the anomalies of the MCP-3/CCL7 and MCP-4/CCL13 proteins are shared among the different species of leporids. In contrast, whereas MCP-2/CCL8 was pseudogenized in every studied specimen of the Oryctolagus - Bunolagus lineage, this gene was intact in species of the Lepus - Sylvilagus lineage, and was, at least in Lepus, correctly transcribed. Conclusion The biological function of a gene was often revealed in situations of

  10. Principal Component and Linkage Analysis of Cardiovascular Risk Traits in the Norfolk Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Hannah C.; Bellis, Claire; Lea, Rod A.; Quinlan, Sharon; Hughes, Roger; Dyer, Thomas; Charlesworth, Jac; Blangero, John; Griffiths, Lyn R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective(s) An individual's risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) is influenced by genetic factors. This study focussed on mapping genetic loci for CVD-risk traits in a unique population isolate derived from Norfolk Island. Methods This investigation focussed on 377 individuals descended from the population founders. Principal component analysis was used to extract orthogonal components from 11 cardiovascular risk traits. Multipoint variance component methods were used to assess genome-wide linkage using SOLAR to the derived factors. A total of 285 of the 377 related individuals were informative for linkage analysis. Results A total of 4 principal components accounting for 83% of the total variance were derived. Principal component 1 was loaded with body size indicators; principal component 2 with body size, cholesterol and triglyceride levels; principal component 3 with the blood pressures; and principal component 4 with LDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol levels. Suggestive evidence of linkage for principal component 2 (h2 = 0.35) was observed on chromosome 5q35 (LOD = 1.85; p = 0.0008). While peak regions on chromosome 10p11.2 (LOD = 1.27; p = 0.005) and 12q13 (LOD = 1.63; p = 0.003) were observed to segregate with principal components 1 (h2 = 0.33) and 4 (h2 = 0.42), respectively. Conclusion(s): This study investigated a number of CVD risk traits in a unique isolated population. Findings support the clustering of CVD risk traits and provide interesting evidence of a region on chromosome 5q35 segregating with weight, waist circumference, HDL-c and total triglyceride levels. PMID:19339786

  11. Plant uptake and soil retention of phthalic acid applied to Norfolk sandy loam

    SciTech Connect

    Dorney, J.R.; Weber, J.B.; Overcash, M.R.; Strek, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    Plant uptake and soil retention of /sup 14/C carboxyl-labeled phthalic acid were studied at application rates of 0.6, 6.0, 60.0, and 600.0 ppm (soil dry weight) to Norfolk sandy loam (Typic Paleudult, fine loamy, kaolinitic, thermic). Height and dry weight of corn (Zea mays L. Pioneer 3368A) (21 day), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. Kentucky 31) (45 day) immature soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr. Altoona) (21 day) plant, mature soybean plant, and mature wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Butte) straw were not affected by phthalic acid applied to soil. In addition, soybean seed and wheat seed dry weight were unaffected. Immature wheat (40 day) height decreased at the 600 ppm rate. Plant uptake of phthalic acid ranged from 0 to 23 ppm and was significantly above background for all plants and plant materials except soybean pods. Fescue and immature plants exhibited the highest concentration of phthalic acid while mature wheat plants and wheat seeds exhibited the least. Most of the phthalic acid volatilized or was decomposed from the soil by the end of the study; an average of only 5.7% of the originally applied chemical was recovered in both soil or plants. An average of 0.02% of the originally applied phthalic acid leached out of the treated zone. Considering the low toxicity of phthalic acid and its relatively rapid disappearance from soil, it is unlikely to become a health hazard from contaminated plants. However, plant uptake of other toxic organics could potentially become a hazard on soils treated with sludge containing significant quantities of these substances.

  12. Management and valuation of an environmentally sensitive area: Norfolk Broadland, England, case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, R. Kerry; Brooke, Jan

    1988-03-01

    Wetlands, like any other environmentally sensitive resource, require very careful evaluation. While it is accepted that all wetlands may be equally valuable in terms of maintaining global life-support systems, individual areas may be ranked according to their uniqueness or the irreplaceability of the resource should the wetland be developed. The various techniques available for evaluating the wetland resource in the development versus conservation conflict situation are critically assessed. Indirect appraisal via the opportunity cost method can generate valuable data which have contributed to the mitigation of such conflict situations. The Broadland, in Norfolk, England, recently designated an environmentally sensitive area (ESA), provides a case study example of wetland management. The search for an “acceptable” flood alleviation strategy for the ESA is examined in detail. The economic and environmental asset structure of the study area is examined at two levels. A basic “screening” system is applied to each of the identified flood protection planning units to enable the rank ordering of the units. A more detailed appraisal is then made of the value of selected units so that the cost-effectiveness of any planned expenditure on flood protection works can be assessed. Specific management issues and their likely effect on the environment, in terms of land use for example, are also addressed. The 1986 Agriculture Act marks a potential watershed in British conservation policy. The ESA policy encompasses a dual management strategy that attempts to stimulate compatible agricultural and conservation practices and activities. Other countries that still retain significant unspoiled wetland resources may find that preemptive regulatory government intervention in favor of conservation would help to avoid the worst aspects of the British experience.

  13. Long-term mortality of hospitalized pneumonia in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort.

    PubMed

    Myint, P K; Hawkins, K R; Clark, A B; Luben, R N; Wareham, N J; Khaw, K-T; Wilson, A M

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about cause-specific long-term mortality beyond 30 days in pneumonia. We aimed to compare the mortality of patients with hospitalized pneumonia compared to age- and sex-matched controls beyond 30 days. Participants were drawn from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk prospective population study. Hospitalized pneumonia cases were identified from record linkage (ICD-10: J12-J18). For this study we excluded people with hospitalized pneumonia who died within 30 days. Each case identified was matched to four controls and followed up until the end June 2012 (total 15 074 person-years, mean 6·1 years, range 0·08-15·2 years). Cox regression models were constructed to examine the all-cause, respiratory and cardiovascular mortality using date of pneumonia onset as baseline with binary pneumonia status as exposure. A total of 2465 men and women (503 cases, 1962 controls) [mean age (s.d.) 64·5 (8·3) years] were included in the study. Between a 30-day to 1-year period, hazard ratios (HRs) of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were 7·3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 5·4-9·9] and 5·9 (95% CI 3·5-9·7), respectively (with very few respiratory deaths within the same period) in cases compared to controls after adjusting for age, sex, asthma, smoking status, pack years, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, diabetes, physical activity, waist-to-hip ratio, prevalent cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. All outcomes assessed also showed increased risk of death in cases compared to controls after 1 year; respiratory cause of death being the most significant during that period (HR 16·4, 95% CI 8·9-30·1). Hospitalized pneumonia was associated with increased all-cause and specific-cause mortality beyond 30 days. PMID:26300532

  14. Habitat use for warren building by European rabbits ( Oryctolagus cuniculus) in relation to landscape structure in a sand dune system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dellafiore, Claudia M.; Gallego Fernández, Juan B.; Vallés, Sara Muñoz

    2008-05-01

    Several conservation efforts are being made to recover European rabbit populations ( Oryctolagus cuniculus) on the Iberian Peninsula. Some of them focus on burrow management; others involve building different types of warren. A few studies have examined site selection for warren building, and these studies have considered only warren placement within sites and not the broader area surrounding these locations. The objective of this study was to evaluate how landscape pattern determines habitat selection by rabbits for warren building at different spatial scales. Landscape, home range scale, and microhabitat were the spatial scales used in this study. Warrens were not uniformly distributed over the study area but, rather were concentrated in areas with a high abundance and cover of Retama monosperma and high vegetation cover. Rabbits preferred digging warrens in areas with low fragmentation and where patches are few, large, and contiguous. Based on our results, we suggest that a study of landscape structure should be carried out before design habitat management, recovery or translocation programs. Such studies will need to take into account the physiognomy and size, shape, and continuity of patches in fragmented landscapes. Rabbit conservation programs must address areas that provide not only the maximum potential rate of intake, but also good soil and vegetation cover conditions for warren building and suitable surrounding areas.

  15. Cod liver oil supplement consumption and health: cross-sectional results from the EPIC-Norfolk cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lentjes, Marleen A H; Welch, Ailsa A; Mulligan, Angela A; Luben, Robert N; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2014-10-01

    Supplement users (SU) make healthy lifestyle choices; on the other hand, SU report more medical conditions. We hypothesised that cod liver oil (CLO) consumers are similar to non-supplement users, since CLO use might originate from historical motives, i.e., rickets prevention, and not health consciousness. CLO consumers were studied in order to identify possible confounders, such as confounding by indication. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC) investigates causes of chronic disease. The participants were 25,639 men and women, aged 40-79 years, recruited from general practices in Norfolk, East-Anglia (UK). Participants completed questionnaires and a health examination between 1993 and 1998. Supplement use was measured using 7-day diet diaries. CLO was the most common supplement used, more prevalent among women and associated with not smoking, higher physical activity level and more favourable eating habits. SU had a higher occurrence of benign growths and bone-related diseases, but CLO was negatively associated with cardiovascular-related conditions. Although the results of SU characteristics in EPIC-Norfolk are comparable with studies worldwide, the CLO group is different from SU in general. Confounding by indication takes place and will need to be taken into account when analysing prospective associations of CLO use with fracture risk and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25325252

  16. Cod Liver Oil Supplement Consumption and Health: Cross-sectional Results from the EPIC-Norfolk Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lentjes, Marleen A.H.; Welch, Ailsa A.; Mulligan, Angela A.; Luben, Robert N.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2014-01-01

    Supplement users (SU) make healthy lifestyle choices; on the other hand, SU report more medical conditions. We hypothesised that cod liver oil (CLO) consumers are similar to non-supplement users, since CLO use might originate from historical motives, i.e., rickets prevention, and not health consciousness. CLO consumers were studied in order to identify possible confounders, such as confounding by indication. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC) investigates causes of chronic disease. The participants were 25,639 men and women, aged 40–79 years, recruited from general practices in Norfolk, East-Anglia (UK). Participants completed questionnaires and a health examination between 1993 and 1998. Supplement use was measured using 7-day diet diaries. CLO was the most common supplement used, more prevalent among women and associated with not smoking, higher physical activity level and more favourable eating habits. SU had a higher occurrence of benign growths and bone-related diseases, but CLO was negatively associated with cardiovascular-related conditions. Although the results of SU characteristics in EPIC-Norfolk are comparable with studies worldwide, the CLO group is different from SU in general. Confounding by indication takes place and will need to be taken into account when analysing prospective associations of CLO use with fracture risk and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25325252

  17. The Content Validation and Resource Development For a Course in Materials and Processes of Industry Through the Use of NASA Experts at Norfolk State College. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, James A.

    In an effort to develop a course in materials and processes of industry at Norfolk State College using Barton Herrscher's model of systematic instruction, a group of 12 NASA-Langley Research Center's (NASA-LRC) research engineers and technicians were recruited. The group acted as consultants in validating the content of the course and aided in…

  18. Selected Papers & Abstracts from the Annual International Conference of the Association for Experiential Education (32nd, Norfolk, Virginia, November 4-7, 2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Nina S., Ed.; Galloway, Shayne, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    In an effort to persist with providing members--and interested others--with the content of workshops from the 32nd Annual Conference held in Norfolk, the Association for Experiential Education (AEE) has decided to develop a hybrid publication that has materialized in two parts. Part I includes 11 papers: (1) Adventure Coaching (Doug Gray); (2)…

  19. Anthropogenic contribution to the geological and geomorphological record: A case study from Great Yarmouth, Norfolk, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Hannah; Hamilton, Ken; Lawley, Russell; Price, Simon James

    2016-01-01

    Reconstruction of artificial or anthropogenic topographies, sediment thicknesses and volumes provides a mechanism for quantifying anthropogenic changes to sedimentary systems in the context of the proposed Anthropocene epoch. We present a methodology for determining the volumetric contribution of anthropogenic deposits to the geological and geomorphological record and apply it to the Great Yarmouth area of Norfolk, UK. 115 boreholes, drilled to a maximum depth of 6 m below ground level, were used to determine the thickness and distribution of seven geo-archaeological units comprising natural and anthropogenic deposits in the central Great Yarmouth area. This was supplemented by additional depth information derived from 467 existing ground investigation boreholes and published 1:50 000 scale geological maps. The top and base of each geo-archaeological unit were modelled from elevations recorded in the borehole data. Grids were produced using a natural neighbour analysis with a 25 m cell size using MapInfo 8.0 Vertical Mapper 3.1 to produce palaeotopographical surfaces. Maximum, minimum and average elevations for each geo-archaeological unit generally increase with decreasing age with the exception of the Early-Medieval palaeotopographical surface which locally occurs at higher elevations than that of the younger Late-Medieval unit. The total sediment volume for the combined Modern, Post-Medieval, Late-Medieval and Early-Medieval geo-archaeological units is 10.91 × 105 m3. The total sediment volume for the Aeolian, River Terrace and Marine geo-archaeological units combined is 65.58 × 105 m3. Anthropogenic sedimentation rates were calculated to increase from ~ 590 m3/yr during the Early-Medieval period, ~ 1500 m3/yr during the Post-Medieval period and ~ 2300 m3/yr during the Modern period. It is estimated that the combined anthropogenic geo-archaeological units contribute approximately 15% of the total volume of sediments that would have been traditionally

  20. Composition, distribution and regional affinities of the deepwater ichthyofauna of the Lord Howe Rise and Norfolk Ridge, south-west Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zintzen, Vincent; Roberts, Clive D.; Clark, Malcolm R.; Williams, Alan; Althaus, Franziska; Last, Peter R.

    2011-04-01

    Fishes were collected from seamounts and insular slopes of the northern Tasman and southern Coral Seas in the environs of the Reinga Ridge, Norfolk Ridge and Lord Howe Rise, at depths ranging from 49 to 1927 m. A total of 348 demersal fish species in 99 families, which were collected from 135 samples taken with a variety of sampling gear, greatly improved taxonomic knowledge of this poorly known area. Twenty five percent of the fish sampled are considered to be potentially new species. Relatively high levels of regional endemicity and diversity are attributed to geological history, and the complexity of contemporary climatology, hydrography and habitat diversity of the region. Fish assemblages were highly structured by depth, but across regions, deep-water fish faunas showed stronger taxonomic affinities than shallower faunas. Although less pronounced, spatial differences pointed towards distinct faunas between the southern and northern parts of the area. The distribution patterns and affinities to regions adjacent to the survey area indicate that (1) the fish fauna on the Lord Howe Rise near Lord Howe Island and further north is distinct from the rest of the survey regions, and exhibits eastern Australian and northern (Coral Sea) affinities, (2) the Northern Norfolk Ridge fauna is distinct from the other regions and has strong affinities with New Caledonia, (3) fishes on the Southern Norfolk Ridge, Western Norfolk Ridge and Lord Howe Plateau have more shared species compared to the other regions indicating a high level of connectedness and affinities with New Zealand fauna, and (4) some species have a wide distribution along the Norfolk Ridge providing a possible deepwater pathway between New Caledonia and New Zealand. Survey data is also useful for assessing the regions' conservation values by identifying rare or unusual components of the fauna, those with very limited distributions, those with low productivity that may be vulnerable to human disturbance (fishing

  1. High-throughput SNP discovery in the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) genome by next-generation semiconductor-based sequencing.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, F; Schiavo, G; Scotti, E; Ribani, A; Martelli, P L; Casadio, R; Fontanesi, L

    2014-04-01

    The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is a domesticated species with one of the broadest ranges of economic and scientific applications and fields of investigation. Rabbit genome information and assembly are available (oryCun2.0), but so far few studies have investigated its variability, and massive discovery of polymorphisms has not been published yet for this species. Here, we sequenced two reduced representation libraries (RRLs) to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the rabbit genome. Genomic DNA of 10 rabbits belonging to different breeds was pooled and digested with two restriction enzymes (HaeIII and RsaI) to create two RRLs which were sequenced using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine. The two RRLs produced 2 917 879 and 4 046 871 reads, for a total of 280.51 Mb (248.49 Mb with quality >20) and 417.28 Mb (360.89 Mb with quality >20) respectively of sequenced DNA. About 90% and 91% respectively of the obtained reads were mapped on the rabbit genome, covering a total of 15.82% of the oryCun2.0 genome version. The mapping and ad hoc filtering procedures allowed to reliably call 62 491 SNPs. SNPs in a few genomic regions were validated by Sanger sequencing. The Variant Effect Predictor Web tool was used to map SNPs on the current version of the rabbit genome. The obtained results will be useful for many applied and basic research programs for this species and will contribute to the development of cost-effective solutions for high-throughput SNP genotyping in the rabbit. PMID:24444082

  2. Combined effect of health behaviours and risk of first ever stroke in 20 040 men and women over 11 years’ follow-up in Norfolk cohort of European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC Norfolk): prospective population study

    PubMed Central

    Luben, Robert N; Wareham, Nicholas J; Bingham, Sheila A; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2009-01-01

    Objective To quantify the potential combined impact of four health behaviours on incidence of stroke in men and women living in the general community. Design Population based prospective study (EPIC-Norfolk). Setting Norfolk, United Kingdom. Participants 20 040 men and women aged 40-79 with no known stroke or myocardial infarction at baseline survey in 1993-7, living in the general community, and followed up to 2007. Main outcome measure Participants scored one point for each health behaviour: current non-smoking, physically not inactive, moderate alcohol intake (1-14 units a week), and plasma concentration of vitamin C ≥50 µmol/l, indicating fruit and vegetable intake of at least five servings a day, for a total score ranging from 0 to 4. Results There were 599 incident strokes over 229 993 person years of follow-up; the average follow-up was 11.5 years. After adjustment for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure, cholesterol concentration, history of diabetes and aspirin use, and social class, compared with people with the four health behaviours the relative risks for stroke for men and women were 1.15 (95% confidence interval 0.89 to 1.49) for three health behaviours, 1.58 (1.22 to 2.05) for two, 2.18 (1.63 to 2.92) for one, and 2.31 (1.33 to 4.02) for none (P<0.001 for trend). The relations were consistent in subgroups stratified by sex, age, body mass index, and social class, and after exclusion of deaths within two years. Conclusion Four health behaviours combined predict more than a twofold difference in incidence of stroke in men and women. PMID:19228771

  3. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment United States Naval Base Norfolk Naval Air Station. Project report, 20 June-30 September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, D.; DeWaters, J.; Smith, J.; Snow, S.; Thomas, R.

    1995-08-01

    The approach for conducting a Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) at the Norfolk NAS is described along with background information about the site. Section 2 provides background information related to cooling tower operations and water treatment processes. Section 3 describes the current cooling tower activities and operations that were observed during the NAS site visit. Possible alternative practices for minimizing these wastes are discussed in Section 4. Recommendations on potential follow-up activities are also included in Section 4. Appendices include PPOA worksheets (Appendix A), National Pollutant Discharge Elimination Systems (NPDES) discharge limits (Appendix B), discharge data (Appendix C), material safety data sheets (MSDS) (Appendix D), the Hampton Roads Sanitation District Cooling Tower Waste Discharge Policy with Industrial Wastewater Pollutant Limitations and Discharge Requirements (Appendix E), and the MSDS for DIAS-Aid Tower Treatment XP-300 (Appendix F).

  4. A new species of lithistid sponge hiding within the Isabella mirabilis species complex (Porifera: Demospongiae: Tetractinellida) from seamounts of the Norfolk Ridge.

    PubMed

    Ekins, Merrick; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Wörheide, Gert; Hooper, John N A

    2016-01-01

    A population level study of the lithistid ('rock') sponge, Isabella mirabilis, revealed a new species, Isabella tanoa sp. nov., living on five seamounts on the Norfolk Ridge, SW Pacific, and representing the third species to be discovered since the genus was first described in 2005. Comparisons between the three species showed significant differences in morphological characters that corresponded to differences in their respective CO1 barcoding sequences. Conversely, three of the four genotypes of Isabella mirabilis remain unresolved using morphological markers. PMID:27395728

  5. Geology and mineral resources of the Florence, Beaufort, Rocky Mount, and Norfolk 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ NTMS quadrangles. National Uranium Resource Evaluation program

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, W.B.

    1982-08-01

    This document provides geologic and mineral resources data for previously-issued Savannah River Laboratory hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reports of the Beaufort, Florence, Norfolk, and Rocky Mount 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ National Topographic Map Series quadrangles in the southeastern United States. This report is issued in draft form, without detailed technical and copy editing. This was done to make the report available to the public before the end of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program.

  6. A case of antibacterial-responsive mucocutaneous disease in a seven-year-old dwarf lop rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) resembling mucocutaneous pyoderma of dogs.

    PubMed

    Benato, L; Stoeckli, M R; Smith, S H; Dickson, S; Thoday, K L; Meredith, A

    2013-04-01

    A seven-year-old, ovariohysterectomised female dwarf lop rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) was referred with severe swelling and erythema of the mucocutaneous junctions of the lips, nares and vulva. Bilateral, severe periocular dermatitis was also present. Heavy pure growths of a member of the Staphylococcus intermedius group were cultured from nasal and aural swabs and skin biopsies. Other possible differential diagnoses were eliminated by standard tests. The clinical features and histopathological characteristics of the biopsies were most consistent with mucocutaneous pyoderma, a dermatosis previously reported in dogs but not in rabbits. Treatment of the bacterial infection with oral marbofloxacin and topical ofloxacin eye drops together with supportive therapy resulted in resolution of the lesions. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of mucocutaneous bacterial pyoderma, similar to mucocutaneous pyoderma of dogs, in a rabbit. PMID:23346925

  7. CARETS: A prototype regional environmental information system. Volume 2, parts A and B: Norfolk and environs; a land use perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H. (Principal Investigator); Buzzanell, P. J.; Fitzpatrick, K. A.; Lins, H. F., Jr.; Mcginty, H. K., III

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The Norfolk-Portsmouth metropolitan statistical area in southeastern Virginia was the site of intensive testing of a number of land resources assessment methods. Land use and land cover data at three levels of detail were derived by manual image interpretation from both aircraft and satellite sources and used to characterize the 1,766 sq km (682 sq mi) area from the perspective of its various resource-related activities and problems. Measurements at level 1 from 1:100, 000 scale maps revealed 42 percent of the test area (excluding bays and estuaries) to be forest, 28 percent agriculture, 23 percent urban and built-up, 4 percent nonforested wetlands, and 2 percent water. At the same scale and level of detail, 10 percent of the area underwent change from one land use category to another in the period 1959-70, 62 percent of which involved the relatively irreversible change from forest or agriculture to urban uses.

  8. Dietary intake measurement using 7 d diet diaries in British men and women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk study: a focus on methodological issues.

    PubMed

    Lentjes, Marleen A H; McTaggart, Alison; Mulligan, Angela A; Powell, Natasha A; Parry-Smith, David; Luben, Robert N; Bhaniani, Amit; Welch, Ailsa A; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the energy, nutrient and crude v. disaggregated food intake measured using 7 d diet diaries (7dDD) for the full baseline Norfolk cohort recruited for the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk) study, with emphasis on methodological issues. The first data collection took place between 1993 and 1998 in Norfolk, East Anglia (UK). Of the 30,445 men and women, aged 40-79 years, registered with a general practitioner invited to participate in the study, 25,639 came for a health examination and were asked to complete a 7dDD. Data from diaries with data recorded for at least 1 d were obtained for 99% members of the cohort; 10,354 (89·8%) of the men and 12,779 (91·5%) of the women completed the diet diaries for all 7 d. Mean energy intake (EI) was 9·44 (SD 2·22) MJ/d and 7·15 (SD 1·66) MJ/d, respectively. EI remained approximately stable across the days, but there was apparent under-reporting among the participants, especially among those with BMI >25 kg/m². Micronutrient density was higher among women than among men. In conclusion, under-reporting is an issue, but not more so than that found in national surveys. How foods were grouped (crude or disaggregated) made a difference to the estimates obtained, and comparison of intakes showed wide limits of agreement. The choice of variables influences estimates obtained from the food group data; while this may not alter the ranking of individuals within studies, this issue may be relevant when comparing absolute food intakes between studies. PMID:24041116

  9. Self-Rated Health and Cardiovascular Disease Incidence: Results from a Longitudinal Population-Based Cohort in Norfolk, UK

    PubMed Central

    van der Linde, Rianne M.; Mavaddat, Nahal; Luben, Robert; Brayne, Carol; Simmons, Rebecca K.; Khaw, Kay Tee; Kinmonth, Ann Louise

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Self-rated health (SRH) predicts chronic disease morbidity including cardiovascular disease (CVD). In a population-based cohort, we examined the association between SRH and incident CVD and whether this association was independent of socio-demographic, clinical and behavioural participant characteristics. Methods Population-based prospective cohort study (European Prospective Investigation of Cancer-Norfolk). 20,941 men and women aged 39–74 years without prevalent CVD attended a baseline health examination (1993–1998) and were followed for CVD events/death until March 2007 (mean 11 years). We used a Cox proportional hazards model to quantify the association between baseline SRH (reported on a four point scale – excellent, good, fair, poor) and risk of developing CVD at follow-up after adjusting for socio-demographic, clinical and behavioural risk factors. Results Baseline SRH was reported as excellent by 17.8% participants, good by 65.1%, fair by 16.0% and poor by 1.2%. During 225,508 person-years of follow-up, there were 55 (21.2%) CVD events in the poor SRH group and 259 (7.0%) in the excellent SRH group (HR 3.7, 95% CI 2.8–4.9). The HR remained significant after adjustment for behavioural risk factors (HR 2.6, 95% CI 1.9–3.5) and after adjustment for all socio-demographic, clinical and behavioural risk factors (HR 3.3, 95% CI 2.4–4.4). Associations were strong for both fatal and non-fatal events and remained strong over time. Conclusions SRH is a strong predictor of incident fatal and non-fatal CVD events in this healthy, middle-aged population. Some of the association is explained by lifestyle behaviours, but SRH remains a strong predictor after adjustment for socio-demographic, clinical and behavioural risk factors and after a decade of follow-up. This easily accessible patient-centred measure of health status may be a useful indicator of individual and population health for those working in primary care and public health. PMID

  10. Preliminary Geologic Map of the North-Central Part of the Alamosa 30' x 60' Quadrangle, Alamosa, Conejos and Costilla Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Machette, Michael N.; Thompson, Ren A.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2008-01-01

    This geologic map presents new polygon (geologic map unit contacts) and line (terrace and lacustrine spit/barrier bar) vector data for a map comprised of four 7.5' quadrangles in the north-central part of the Alamosa, Colorado, 30' x 60' quadrangle. The quadrangles include Baldy, Blanca, Blanca SE, and Lasauses. The map database, compiled at 1:50,000 scale from new 1:24,000-scale mapping, provides geologic coverage of an area of current hydrogeologic, tectonic, and stratigraphic interest. The mapped area is located primarily in Costilla County, but contains portions of Alamosa and Conejos Counties, and includes the town of Blanca in its northeastern part. The map area is mainly underlain by surficial geologic materials (fluvial and lacustrine deposits, and eolian sand), but Tertiary volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks crop out in the San Luis Hills, which are in the central and southern parts of the mapped area. The surficial geology of this area has never been mapped at any scale greater than 1:250,000 (broad reconnaissance), so this new map provides important data for ground-water assessments, engineering geology, and the Quaternary geologic history of the San Luis Basin. Newly discovered shoreline deposits are of particular interest (sands and gravels) that are associated with the high-water stand of Lake Alamosa, a Pliocene to middle Pleistocene lake that occupied the San Luis basin prior to its overflow and cutting of a river gorge through the San Luis Hills. After the lake drained, the Rio Grande system included Colorado drainages for the first time since the Miocene (>5.3 Ma). In addition, Servilleta Basalt, which forms the Basaltic Hills on the east margin of the map area, is dated at 3.79+or-0.17 Ma, consistent with its general age range of 3.67-4.84 Ma. This map provides new geologic information for better understanding ground-water flow paths in and adjacent to the Rio Grande system. The map abuts U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2005-1392 (a map of

  11. Selected water-quality characteristics and flow of ground water in the San Luis basin, including the Conejos River subbasin, Colorado and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, R.S., Jr.; Hammond, S.E.

    1989-01-01

    Chemical analyses of water from 99 wells and 19 springs in the San Luis basin in Colorado and New Mexico were evaluated to determine selected water quality characteristics as an aid in understanding the flow of groundwater in the basin. The evaluation shows that the distribution of chemical water types in the basin is consistent with chemical changes to be expected along flow paths in rocks typical of those in the basin. The San Luis basin area is underlain by a surficial (< 100-ft-thick) unconfined aquifer and, in turn, by a confining bed and a deeper confined aquifer. Previous studies have indicated that the groundwater system is recharged around the edges of the basin and that groundwater then moves toward discharge areas in the topographically closed part of the basin and along principal streams. The evaluation of water quality data showed that groundwater at the perimeter of the San Luis basin is primarily a calcium bicarbonate type, which is typical in recharge areas. Groundwater near the center of the basin is primarily a sodium bicarbonate type, which is typical of groundwater in downgradient areas. The change in principal cation from calcium to sodium indicates chemical evolution of the water along the groundwater flow path and supports previously developed concepts of groundwater movement in the basin. The exchange of calcium for sodium along the flow path also is assumed to occur in the Conejos River subbasin. Upgradient wells yield calcium bicarbonate type water, whereas downgradient wells yield sodium bicarbonate type water. However, an exception to this relation is found at McIntire Spring, which yields calcium bicarbonate type water from a downgradient location. The source of water discharging from the spring may be the confined aquifer, with hydraulic connection along the Manassa fault. The concentration of dissolved solids in water from both the unconfined and confined aquifers increases downgradient. The increase is dramatic in the closed basin

  12. Area deprivation and the food environment over time: A repeated cross-sectional study on takeaway outlet density and supermarket presence in Norfolk, UK, 1990–2008

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Eva R.; Burgoine, Thomas; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic disparities in the food environment are known to exist but with little understanding of change over time. This study investigated the density of takeaway food outlets and presence of supermarkets in Norfolk, UK between 1990 and 2008. Data on food retail outlet locations were collected from telephone directories and aggregated within electoral wards. Supermarket presence was not associated with area deprivation over time. Takeaway food outlet density increased overall, and was significantly higher in more deprived areas at all time points; furthermore, socioeconomic disparities in takeaway food outlet density increased across the study period. These findings add to existing evidence and help assess the need for environmental interventions to reduce disparities in the prevalence of unhealthy food outlets. PMID:25841285

  13. Primary and secondary experimental infestation of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) with Sarcoptes scabiei from a wild rabbit: factors determining resistance to reinfestation.

    PubMed

    Casais, Rosa; Dalton, Kevin P; Millán, Javier; Balseiro, Ana; Oleaga, Alvaro; Solano, Paloma; Goyache, Félix; Prieto, José Miguel; Parra, Francisco

    2014-06-16

    Studies of sarcoptic mange and immunity are hampered by lack of mite sources and natural infestation models. We have investigated the clinical and pathological signs, specific IgG response and acquired immunity in naïve New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) experimentally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei originally isolated from a clinically affected free-living European wild rabbit. Twenty rabbits were infested using two methods, direct contact for a 24 h period with a seeder rabbit simulating the natural process of infestation and application of a dressing holding approximately 1800 live mites on each hind limb (foot area) for a 24h period. Eight weeks post infestation, rabbits were treated with ivermectin and infestation cleared. Eight weeks later seventeen previously infested and four uninfested naïve controls were then re-exposed to the same S. scabiei variety using the same methods and followed for another 8 weeks. The progress of the disease was markedly more virulent in the animals infested by contact, indicating that the effective dose of mites managing to thrive and infest each rabbit by this method was higher. Nevertheless, infestation by contact resulted in partial protection to reexposure, rabbits developed high non-protective antibody titres upon reinfestation and presented severe clinical signs. However, rabbits reinfested by dressing developed lower IgG titres, and presented high levels of resistance to reinfestation, which might be due to induction of a strong local cellular response in the inoculation point that killed the mites and resulted in a lower mite effective dose, with subsequent reduced lesion development. Statistical analysis showed that sex, method of infestation and previous exposure are key factors determining the ability of rabbits to develop immunity to this disease. The rabbit-mange model developed will allow the further study of immunity and resistance to this neglected pathogen using a natural host system. PMID

  14. Assessing Animal Welfare Impacts in the Management of European Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), European Moles (Talpa europaea) and Carrion Crows (Corvus corone).

    PubMed

    Baker, Sandra E; Sharp, Trudy M; Macdonald, David W

    2016-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflict is a global issue. Attempts to manage this conflict impact upon wild animal welfare, an issue receiving little attention until relatively recently. Where human activities harm animal welfare these effects should be minimised where possible. However, little is known about the welfare impacts of different wildlife management interventions, and opinions on impacts vary widely. Welfare impacts therefore need to be assessed objectively. Our objectives were to: 1) establish whether an existing welfare assessment model could differentiate and rank the impacts of different wildlife management interventions (for decision-making purposes); 2) identify and evaluate any additional benefits of making formal welfare assessments; and 3) illustrate issues raised by application of the model. We applied the welfare assessment model to interventions commonly used with rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), moles (Talpa europaea) and crows (Corvus corone) in the UK. The model ranked interventions for rabbits (least impact first: fencing, head shot, chest shot) and crows (shooting, scaring, live trapping with cervical dislocation). For moles, managing molehills and tunnels scored least impact. Both spring trapping, and live trapping followed by translocation, scored greater impacts, but these could not be compared directly as they scored on different axes of the model. Some rankings appeared counter-intuitive, highlighting the need for objective formal welfare assessments. As well as ranking the humaneness of interventions, the model highlighted future research needs and how Standard Operating Procedures might be improved. The model is a milestone in assessing wildlife management welfare impacts, but our research revealed some limitations of the model and we discuss likely challenges in resolving these. In future, the model might be developed to improve its utility, e.g. by refining the time-scales. It might also be used to reach consensus among stakeholders about

  15. Intake, selection, digesta retention, digestion and gut fill of two coprophageous species, rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus), on a hay-only diet.

    PubMed

    Franz, R; Kreuzer, M; Hummel, J; Hatt, J-M; Clauss, M

    2011-10-01

    A colonic separation mechanism (CSM) is the prerequisite for the digestive strategy of coprophagy. Two different CSM are known in small herbivores, the 'wash-back' CSM of lagomorphs and the 'mucous-trap' CSM of rodents. Differences between these groups in their digestive pattern when fed exclusively hay were investigated in six rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and six guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Intake, digestibility (by total faecal collection), solute and particle mean retention times (MRT, using Co-EDTA and Cr-mordanted fibres) were measured. Rabbits selected less fibrous parts of the hay than guinea pigs, leaving orts with higher content of neutral detergent fibre [NDF; 721 ± 21 vs. 642 ± 31 g/kg dry matter (DM) in guinea pigs]. They also expressed a lower NDF digestibility (0.44 ± 0.10 vs. 0.55 ± 0.05 of total), a similar particle MRT (15 ± 3 vs. 18 ± 6 h), a longer solute MRT (51 ± 9 vs. 16 ± 4 h), and a lower calculated dry matter gut fill (19.6 ± 4.7 vs. 29.7 ± 4.1 g DM/kg body mass) than guinea pigs (p < 0.05 for each variable). These results support the assumption that the 'wash-back' CSM, exhibited in the rabbits, is more efficient in extracting bacterial matter from the colonic digesta plug than the 'mucous-trap' CSM found in the guinea pigs. Related to metabolic body mass, rabbits therefore need a less capacious colon for their CSM where a more efficient bacteria wash-out is reflected in the lower fibre digestibility. A lighter digestive tract could contribute to a peculiarity of lagomorphs: their ability to run faster than other similar-sized mammals. PMID:21091550

  16. Successful eradication of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and house mouse (Mus musculus) from the island of Selvagem Grande (Macaronesian archipelago), in the Eastern Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Olivera, Paulo; Menezes, Dilia; Trout, Roger; Buckle, Alan; Geraldes, Pedro; Jesus, José

    2010-03-01

    The Portuguese island of Selvagem Grande (Great Salvage) in Macaronesia is an important seabird breeding station in the eastern Atlantic. Significant populations of Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea (Scopoli, 1769), Bulwer's petrel Bulweria bulweria (Jardine & Selby, 1828) and little shearwater Puffinus assimilis baroli (Bonaparte, 1857) are present, and white-faced storm-petrel Pelagodroma marina (Latham, 1790) and Madeiran storm-petrel Oceanodroma castro (Harcourt, 1851) populations are of global significance. Selvagem Grande also provides diverse habitats for an extensive flora, including 11 endemic species. The 270-ha island was also inhabited by two alien invasive mammals: the European rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus (Linnaeus, 1758) and the house mouse Mus musculus (Linnaeus, 1758). Both are known to have had adverse impacts on breeding seabirds and island vegetation. In 2002, the Natural Park of Madeira conducted a program using brodifacoum bait formulations aimed at rabbit and mouse eradication. Approximately 17 000 individual baiting points were established on a 12.5 × 12.5 m grid. Baits were also applied by hand "seeding" on steep slopes and cliffs where bait stations could not be placed. Rabbits were removed after a month. However, mice persisted for considerably longer and strategic bait applications against them continued for a further six months. Subsequent assessments by trapping, bait takes and systematic observation of signs over three years, has confirmed the removal of both alien invasive species. This paper presents information on these operations, on measures adopted to mitigate adverse impacts of the eradication program on important vertebrate non-target species, including Berthelot's pipit Anthus berthelotii Bolle, 1862 and a species of gecko Tarentola bischoffi Joger, 1984 and on the initial response of the island's ecosystem to the eradication of rabbits and mice. PMID:21392324

  17. Assessing Animal Welfare Impacts in the Management of European Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), European Moles (Talpa europaea) and Carrion Crows (Corvus corone)

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Sandra E.; Sharp, Trudy M.; Macdonald, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflict is a global issue. Attempts to manage this conflict impact upon wild animal welfare, an issue receiving little attention until relatively recently. Where human activities harm animal welfare these effects should be minimised where possible. However, little is known about the welfare impacts of different wildlife management interventions, and opinions on impacts vary widely. Welfare impacts therefore need to be assessed objectively. Our objectives were to: 1) establish whether an existing welfare assessment model could differentiate and rank the impacts of different wildlife management interventions (for decision-making purposes); 2) identify and evaluate any additional benefits of making formal welfare assessments; and 3) illustrate issues raised by application of the model. We applied the welfare assessment model to interventions commonly used with rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), moles (Talpa europaea) and crows (Corvus corone) in the UK. The model ranked interventions for rabbits (least impact first: fencing, head shot, chest shot) and crows (shooting, scaring, live trapping with cervical dislocation). For moles, managing molehills and tunnels scored least impact. Both spring trapping, and live trapping followed by translocation, scored greater impacts, but these could not be compared directly as they scored on different axes of the model. Some rankings appeared counter-intuitive, highlighting the need for objective formal welfare assessments. As well as ranking the humaneness of interventions, the model highlighted future research needs and how Standard Operating Procedures might be improved. The model is a milestone in assessing wildlife management welfare impacts, but our research revealed some limitations of the model and we discuss likely challenges in resolving these. In future, the model might be developed to improve its utility, e.g. by refining the time-scales. It might also be used to reach consensus among stakeholders about

  18. A Phenomic Scan of the Norfolk Island Genetic Isolate Identifies a Major Pleiotropic Effect Locus Associated with Metabolic and Renal Disorder Markers

    PubMed Central

    Benton, Miles C.; Lea, Rodney A.; Macartney-Coxson, Donia; Hanna, Michelle; Eccles, David A.; Carless, Melanie A.; Chambers, Geoffrey K.; Bellis, Claire; Goring, Harald H.; Curran, Joanne E.; Harper, Jacquie L.; Gibson, Gregory; Blangero, John; Griffiths, Lyn R.

    2015-01-01

    Multiphenotype genome-wide association studies (GWAS) may reveal pleiotropic genes, which would remain undetected using single phenotype analyses. Analysis of large pedigrees offers the added advantage of more accurately assessing trait heritability, which can help prioritise genetically influenced phenotypes for GWAS analysis. In this study we performed a principal component analysis (PCA), heritability (h2) estimation and pedigree-based GWAS of 37 cardiovascular disease -related phenotypes in 330 related individuals forming a large pedigree from the Norfolk Island genetic isolate. PCA revealed 13 components explaining >75% of the total variance. Nine components yielded statistically significant h2 values ranging from 0.22 to 0.54 (P<0.05). The most heritable component was loaded with 7 phenotypic measures reflecting metabolic and renal dysfunction. A GWAS of this composite phenotype revealed statistically significant associations for 3 adjacent SNPs on chromosome 1p22.2 (P<1x10-8). These SNPs form a 42kb haplotype block and explain 11% of the genetic variance for this renal function phenotype. Replication analysis of the tagging SNP (rs1396315) in an independent US cohort supports the association (P = 0.000011). Blood transcript analysis showed 35 genes were associated with rs1396315 (P<0.05). Gene set enrichment analysis of these genes revealed the most enriched pathway was purine metabolism (P = 0.0015). Overall, our findings provide convincing evidence for a major pleiotropic effect locus on chromosome 1p22.2 influencing risk of renal dysfunction via purine metabolism pathways in the Norfolk Island population. Further studies are now warranted to interrogate the functional relevance of this locus in terms of renal pathology and cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:26474483

  19. Demersal fish distribution and habitat use within and near Baltimore and Norfolk Canyons, U.S. Middle Atlantic Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, Steve W.; Rhode, Mike; Quattrini, Andrea M.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous submarine canyons along the United States middle Atlantic continental margin support enhanced productivity, diverse and unique habitats, active fisheries, and are vulnerable to various anthropogenic disturbances. During two cruises (15 Aug–2 Oct 2012 and 30 Apr–27 May 2013), Baltimore and Norfolk canyons and nearby areas (including two cold seeps) were intensively surveyed to determine demersal fish distributions and habitat associations. Overall, 34 ROV dives (234–1612 m) resulted in 295 h of bottom video observations and numerous collections. These data were supplemented by 40, 30-min bottom trawl samples. Fish observations were assigned to five general habitat designations: 1) sand-mud (flat), 2) sloping sand-mud with burrows, 3) low profile gravel, rock, boulder, 4) high profile, canyon walls, rocks or ridges, and 5) seep-mixed hard and soft substrata, the later subdivided into seven habitats based on amounts of dead mussel and rock cover. The influence of corals, sponges and live mussels (seeps only) on fish distributions was also investigated. Both canyon areas supported abundant and diverse fish communities and exhibited a wide range of habitats, including extensive areas of deep-sea corals and sponges and two nearby methane seeps (380–430 m, 1455–1610 m). All methods combined yielded a total of 123 species of fishes, 12 of which are either new records for this region or have new range data. Depth was a major factor that separated the fish faunas into two zones with a boundary around 1400 m. Fishes defining the deeper zone included Lycodes sp.,Dicrolene introniger, Gaidropsaurus ensis, Hydrolagus affinis, Antimora rostrata, andAldrovandia sp. Fishes in the deep zone did not exhibit strong habitat affinities, despite the presence of a quite rugged, extensive methane seep. We propose that habitat specificity decreases with increasing depth. Fishes in the shallower zone, characterized by Laemonema sp., Phycis chesteri, Nezumia bairdii, Brosme

  20. NORFOLK'S VENTURE INTO EMPATHY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STEVENS, WILLIAM K.

    IN 1962, 43 FIRST-GRADE NEGRO CHILDREN IN AN INNER CITY SCHOOL WERE ENROLLED IN A SPECIAL EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM. TEACHERS VISITED PUPILS' HOMES, LEARNED THEIR SPECIAL INTERESTS, AND DEVELOPED CLOSE PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS WITH THEM. THE PUPILS ENGAGED IN VARIOUS ENRICHMENT ACTIVITIES AND LEARNED LANGUAGE SKILLS. THEY WERE TAUGHT IN "FLUID" GROUPS,…

  1. Insights into the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) innate immune system: genetic diversity of the toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) in wild populations and domestic breeds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Toll-like receptors (TLRs) belong to the innate immune system and are a major class of pattern recognition receptors representing the first line of the innate immune response. The TLR molecule is structurally composed by an ectodomain that contains leucine rich repeats (LRRs) that interact with pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), a transmembrane domain and a conserved cytoplasmic domain designated TIR (Toll-IL1 receptor) that is responsible for the intracellular signaling. TLR3 has been associated with the direct recognition of double-stranded viral RNA resulting from viral replication, while TLR7 and TLR8 target single-stranded viral RNA. In the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), TLR7 and TLR8 were reported to be absent and pseudogenised, respectively, making TLR3 the only available TLR for the recognition of viral RNA. Thus, the levels of diversity of TLR3 were evaluated in the European rabbit by analysing different genetic backgrounds and exposure to pathogen pressures. Results We detected 41 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding sequence of TLR3. The highest diversity was observed in the wild populations of Iberian Peninsula, between 22–33 polymorphic positions. In the French population, 18 SNPs were observed and only 4 polymorphic positions were detected in the domestic breeds. 14 non-synonymous substitutions were observed, most of them in the LRR molecules. The remaining were scattered across the transmembrane and TIR domains. Conclusion The study of TLR3 in European rabbit populations might be relevant to understand the interplay between RNA viruses and innate immunity. Wild rabbit populations presented more diversity than domestic breeds and other mammals previously studied. This might be linked to the absence of population bottlenecks during their evolution and to the almost inexistence of man-mediated selection. The observed variability might have also been potentiated by the contact of the wild populations

  2. Geothermal energy development in the eastern United States: technical assistance report no. 5. Geothermal space heating-naval air rework facility, Norfolk, Virginia. [Aircraft hangers

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, F.K.; Henderson, R.W.

    1980-06-01

    The electronic integration hangar, designated LP-167, was selected for study, as it was a single-story building with a large floor area. Because of the high ceiling and the sliding doors necessary to admit aircraft, the heat loss rate, based on floor area, was about twice that of commercial buildings. It was furnished with an oil-fired hot water heating system capable of high thermal output to meet heating requirements in the coldest weather. On the basis of the known characteristics of geothermal sources for the Atlantic Coastal Plain, and wells drilled and assayed in the Norfolk area, a reasonable estimate of the parameters of a well drilled at NARF was made. This included a low temperature output from the well of only 107/sup 0/F, so that direct transfer of warm water between the wellhead heat exchanger (HX) and the hot water radiating system in the building was not practical. Four design options are explored and calculations are presented on each one.

  3. Digital data and derivative products from a high-resolution aeromagnetic survey of the central San Luis basin, covering parts of Alamosa, Conejos, Costilla, and Rio Grande counties, Colorado, and Taos county, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bankey, Viki; Grauch, V.J.S.; Webbers, Ank; PRJ, Inc

    2005-01-01

    This report describes data collected from a high-resolution aeromagnetic survey flown over the central San Luis basin during October, 2004, by PRJ, Inc., on contract to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The survey extends from just north of Alamosa, Colorado, southward to just northwest of Taos, New Mexico. It covers large parts of the San Luis Valley in Alamosa, Conejos, Costilla, and Rio Grande Counties, southern Colorado, and the Taos Plateau in Taos County, northern New Mexico. The survey was designed to complement two surveys previously acquired along the eastern borders of the San Luis Basin over the vicinities of Taos, New Mexico (Bankey and others, 2004a) and Blanca, Colorado (Bankey and others, 2004b). Our overall objective in conducting these surveys is to improve knowledge of the subsurface geologic framework in order to understand ground-water systems in populated alluvial basins along the Rio Grande. These USGS efforts are conducted in collaboration with other federal, state, and local governmental entities where possible.

  4. Predictors and outcomes of sustained, intermittent or never achieving remission in patients with recent onset inflammatory polyarthritis: results from the Norfolk Arthritis Register

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Michael J.; Diffin, Janet; Scirè, Carlo A.; Lunt, Mark; MacGregor, Alex J.; Symmons, Deborah P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Early remission is the current treatment strategy for patients with inflammatory polyarthritis (IP) and RA. Our objective was to identify baseline factors associated with achieving remission: sustained (SR), intermittent (IR) or never (NR) over a 5-year period in patients with early IP. Methods. Clinical and demographic data of patients with IP recruited to the Norfolk Arthritis Register (NOAR) were obtained at baseline and years 1, 2, 3 and 5. Remission was defined as no tender or swollen joints (out of 51). Patients were classified as NR or PR, respectively, if they were in remission at: no assessment or ⩾3 consecutive assessments after baseline, and IR otherwise. Ordinal regression and a random effects model, respectively, were used to examine the association between baseline factors, remission group and HAQ scores over time. Results. A total of 868 patients (66% female) were included. Of these, 54%, 34% and 12% achieved NR, IR and SR, respectively. In multivariate analysis, female sex (odds ratio, OR 0.47, 95% CI: 0.35, 0.63), higher tender joint count (OR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.93, 0.96), higher HAQ (OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.48, 0.74), being obese (OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.50, 0.99), hypertensive (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.50, 0.90) or depressed (OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.55, 1.00) at baseline were independent predictors of being in a lower remission group. IR and SR were associated with lower HAQ scores over time and lower DAS28 at year 5. Conclusion. Women with higher tender joint count and disability at baseline, depression, obesity and hypertension were less likely to achieve remission. This information could help when stratifying patients for more aggressive therapy. PMID:27220594

  5. Population and assay thresholds for the predictive value of lipoprotein (a) for coronary artery disease: the EPIC-Norfolk Prospective Population Study.

    PubMed

    Verbeek, Rutger; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Stoekenbroek, Robert M; Hovingh, G Kees; Witztum, Joseph L; Wareham, Nicholas J; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Tsimikas, Sotirios

    2016-04-01

    Variable agreement exists between different lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] measurement methods, but their clinical relevance remains unclear. The predictive value of Lp(a) measured by two different assays [Randox and University of California, San Diego (UCSD)] was determined in 623 coronary artery disease (CAD) cases and 948 controls in a case-control study within the EPIC-Norfolk Prospective Population Study. Participants were divided into sex-specific quintiles, and by Lp(a) <50 versus ∼50 mg/dl, which represents the 80th percentile in northern European subjects. Randox and UCSD Lp(a) levels were strongly correlated; Spearman's correlation coefficients for men, women, and sexes combined were 0.905, 0.915, and 0.909, respectively (P< 0.001 for each). The >80th percentile cutoff values, however, were 36 mg/dl and 24 mg/dl for the Randox and UCSD assays, respectively. Despite this, Lp(a) levels were significantly associated with CAD risk, with odds ratios of 2.18 (1.58-3.01) and 2.35 (1.70-3.26) for people in the top versus bottom Lp(a) quintile for the Randox and UCSD assays, respectively. This study demonstrates that CAD risk is present at lower Lp(a) levels than the currently suggested optimal Lp(a) level of <50 mg/dl. Appropriate thresholds may need to be population and assay specific until Lp(a) assays are standardized and Lp(a) thresholds are evaluated broadly across all populations at risk for CVD and aortic stenosis. PMID:26828068

  6. Parapercis nigrodorsalis (Perciformes: Pinguipedidae), a new species of sandperch from northern New Zealand and the Norfolk Ridge, Tasman Sea and remarks on P. binivirgata (Waite, 1904).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeffrey W; Struthers, Carl D; Wilmer, Jessica Worthington

    2014-01-01

    A new species of pinguipedid fish, Parapercis nigrodorsalis, is described from 17 specimens collected off the North Island of New Zealand and Wanganella Bank, Norfolk Ridge, Tasman Sea, in depths of 56-280 m. The species has also been photographed underwater off the Poor Knights Islands Reserve and Burgess Island, Mokohinau Group, in New Zealand. It is most similar to Parapercis binivirgata (Waite, 1904) in morphology, coloration and meristic values, but is unique among the genus in having a combination of dorsal-fin rays V, 23, anal-fin rays I, 19, lateral-line scales 57-63, vomer with 1-2 irregular rows of robust conical teeth, palatines with 1-2 rows of small teeth, angle of subopercle smooth, 10 abdominal and 22 caudal vertebrae, and coloration, including seven broad reddish-brown bands on the upper body between the spinous dorsal-fin and the caudal peduncle, most bands bifurcated into close-set double bars with black smudge-like blotches below, and membrane of the spinous dorsal fin black. Comparison of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO 1) genetic marker utilised in DNA barcoding produced a genetic divergence of 5.38% and 7.63% between the new species and its two closest sampled congeners. The holotype of P. binivirgata is identified from two specimens previously regarded as syntypes, some revisions are made to meristic data in the original description of the latter, and a detailed description of the revised geographic range of P. binivirgata is provided.   PMID:25284671

  7. Cross Sectional and Longitudinal Associations between Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Age Related Macular Degeneration in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Jennifer L. Y.; Khawaja, Anthony P.; Chan, Michelle P. Y.; Broadway, David C.; Peto, Tunde; Tufail, Adnan; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Bhaniani, Amit; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine the cross sectional and longitudinal relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a large British cohort study. Methods The EPIC Norfolk Eye study is nested in a larger prospective cohort study. Data on cardiovascular risk factors were collected at baseline (1993-1997) and follow up (2006-2011) via clinical examination, validated lifestyle questionnaires and serum blood samples. AMD was ascertained using standardised grading of fundus photographs at the follow up. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between baseline and follow up risk factors with AMD. Results 5,344 pairs (62.0% of total 8623) of fundus photographs were of sufficient quality for grading of AMD in participants with mean age of 67.4 years old (range 44-91) at diagnosis. There were 28 cases of late AMD (0.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.3-0.8%) and 645 cases of early AMD (12.1%, 95%CI=11.2-13.0.%). In multivariable analysis, older people with higher levels of baseline high density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-C ) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were more likely to have any signs of AMD, after adjusting for sex, education, smoking, and systolic blood pressure. In cross sectional analysis, only older age and higher HDL were significantly associated with AMD. Conclusions We have found that older age and higher levels of CRP and HDL-C were associated with increased odds of AMD in this population in the longitudinal analysis, but older age and HDL-C, not CRP was significantly associated with AMD in the cross sectional analysis. The prevalence of AMD in this cohort was low compared to other cohorts in Europe, the US and Australia, and probably reflects the some selection biases in follow up participation as well as the low rate of smoking among our healthy participants. PMID:26176222

  8. Predicting admissions and time spent in hospital over a decade in a population-based record linkage study: the EPIC-Norfolk cohort

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Shabina; Khaw, K T

    2016-01-01

    Objective To quantify hospital use in a general population over 10 years follow-up and to examine related factors in a general population-based cohort. Design A prospective population-based study of men and women. Setting Norfolk, UK. Participants 11 228 men and 13 786 women aged 40–79 years in 1993–1997 followed between 1999 and 2009. Main outcomes measures Number of hospital admissions and total bed days for individuals over a 10-year follow-up period identified using record linkage; five categories for admissions (from zero to highest ≥7) and hospital bed days (from zero to highest ≥20 nights). Results Over a period of 10 years, 18 179 (72.7%) study participants had at least one admission to hospital, 13.8% with 7 or more admissions and 19.9% with 20 or more nights in hospital. In logistic regression models with outcome ≥7 admissions, low education level OR 1.14 (1.05 to 1.24), age OR per 10-year increase 1.75 (1.67 to 1.82), male sex OR 1.32 (1.22 to 1.42), manual social class 1.22 (1.13 to 1.32), current cigarette smoker OR 1.53 (1.37 to 1.71) and body mass index >30 kg/m² OR 1.41 (1.28 to 1.56) all independently predicted the outcome with p<0.0001. Results were similar for those with ≥20 hospital bed days. A risk score constructed using male sex, manual social class, no educational qualifications; current smoker and body mass index >30 kg/m², estimated percentages of the cohort in the categories of admission numbers and hospital bed days in stratified age bands with twofold to threefold differences in future hospital use between those with high-risk and low-risk scores. Conclusions The future probability of cumulative hospital admissions and bed days appears independently related to a range of simple demographic and behavioural indicators. The strongest of these is increasing age with high body mass index and smoking having similar magnitudes for predicting risk of future hospital usage. PMID:26792216

  9. Marital transitions and associated changes in fruit and vegetable intake: Findings from the population-based prospective EPIC-Norfolk cohort, UK

    PubMed Central

    Vinther, Johan L.; Conklin, Annalijn I.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Monsivais, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Background Diet is critical to health and social relationships are an important determinant of diet. We report the association between transitions in marital status and healthy eating behaviours in a UK population. Methods Longitudinal study of middle-age and older adults 39−78y (n = 11 577) in EPIC-Norfolk, a population-based cohort, who completed food frequency questionnaires in 1993–97 and 1998–2002. Multivariable linear regression analyses assessed gender-specific associations between five categories of marital transitions and changes in quantity (g/d), and variety (no/month) of fruits or vegetables. Results In 3.6 years of follow-up and relative to men who stayed married, widowed men showed significant declines (mean difference, 95% CI) in all four indicators of healthy eating including fruit quantity (−47.7, −80.6 to −14.9 g/d), fruit variety (−0.6, −1.1 to −0.2 no/month), vegetable quantity (−27.7, −50.5 to −4.9 g/d), and vegetable variety (−1.6, −2.2 to −0.9 no/month). Men who were separated or divorced or who remained single also showed significant declines in three of the indicators. Among women, only those who became separated/divorced or stayed single showed declines in one indicator, vegetable variety. Conclusion Unhealthy changes to diet accompanying divorce, separation and becoming widowed may be more common among men than women. Moreover, deterioration in fruit and vegetable intakes was more apparent for variety rather than quantity consumed. Programmes to promote healthy eating among older adults need to recognise these social determinants of diet and consider prioritising people who live alone and in particular men who have recently left relationships or who have been widowed. PMID:27082023

  10. Genetic variation at chemokine receptor CCR5 in leporids: alteration at the 2nd extracellular domain by gene conversion with CCR2 in Oryctolagus, but not in Sylvilagus and Lepus species.

    PubMed

    Carmo, C R; Esteves, P J; Ferrand, N; van der Loo, W

    2006-06-01

    Whereas in its natural host (Sylvilagus sps.) the effects of myxoma virus infections are benign, in European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), it causes a highly infectious disease with very high mortality rate, known as myxomatosis. There is evidence that, as with HIV-1 virus in human, myxoma virus may use chemokine receptors such as CCR5 of the host target cell for entry and activation of pathways of immune avoidance. We have characterized and compared CCR5 genes of leporid species with different susceptibility levels to myxomatosis. The CCR5 protein of O. cuniculus differs markedly from all those known from other species. The most striking was the replacement of a specific peptide motif of the second extracellular loop (ECL2) by a motif, which in other species characterizes the CCR2 molecules. While absent in Sylvilagus and Lepus species, this CCR2 imposed CCR5-ECL2 alteration was observed in all genomes of 25 European rabbits, representing the subspecies O. cuniculus algirus and O. cuniculus cuniculus. Allelic variation at the rabbit CCR5 locus confirmed that the gene conversion predates the subspecies split (1-2 Ma). PMID:16596402

  11. Monitoring the spread of myxoma virus in rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus populations on the southern tablelands of New South Wales, Australia. III. Release, persistence and rate of spread of an identifiable strain of myxoma virus.

    PubMed

    Merchant, J C; Kerr, P J; Simms, N G; Hood, G M; Pech, R P; Robinson, A J

    2003-02-01

    An identifiable strain of myxoma virus was introduced into four local populations of wild rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus on the southern tablelands of New South Wales (NSW) and its spread in the presence of other field strains was monitored for 6 months. The main vector in this region was considered to be the European rabbit flea Spilopsyllis cuniculi. Each population of rabbits was of a high density and living in groups of warrens covering areas from 59 to 87 hectares. Rabbits occupying centrally located warrens were inoculated with the virus in late September or early October (spring) and the subsequent appearance of myxomatosis across the sites monitored by trapping, shooting and visual observations. Samples, taken from rabbits with myxomatosis, were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that allowed identification of the introduced strain. On all four sites the introduced virus spread from the inoculated rabbits in the centrally located warrens to rabbits in surrounding warrens. On Sites 1 and 3, this spread continued across the entire site persisting for at least 118 and 174 days respectively. On Sites 2 and 4, the virus was detected for 78 and 62 days respectively and the subsequent inability to detect the introduced virus correlated with the appearance of an unrelated field strain. Using three different methods of calculation, rates of spread ranged from 3.7 to 17.8 m d(-1). PMID:12613755

  12. Flood-inundation maps for Peachtree Creek from the Norfolk Southern Railway bridge to the Moores Mill Road NW bridge, Atlanta, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Musser, Jonathan W.

    2012-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 5.5-mile reach of the Peachtree Creek from the Norfolk Southern Railway bridge to the Moores Mill Road NW bridge, were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Atlanta, Georgia. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at Peachtree Creek at Atlanta, Georgia (02336300) and the USGS streamgage at Chattahoochee River at Georgia 280, near Atlanta, Georgia (02336490). Current water level (stage) at these USGS streamgages may be obtained at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ and can be used in conjunction with these maps to estimate near real-time areas of inundation. The National Weather Service (NWS) is incorporating results from this study into the Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system (http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that commonly are collocated at USGS streamgages. The forecasted peak-stage information for the USGS streamgage at Peachtree Creek, which is available through the AHPS Web site, may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. A one-dimensional step-backwater model was developed using the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers HEC–RAS software for a 6.5-mile reach of Peachtree Creek and was used to compute flood profiles for a 5.5-mile reach of the creek. The model was calibrated using the most current stage-discharge relations at the Peachtree Creek at Atlanta, Georgia, streamgage (02336300), and the Chattahoochee River at Georgia 280, near Atlanta, Georgia, streamgage (02336490) as well as high water marks collected during the 2010 annual peak flow event. The hydraulic model was then used to determine 50 water

  13. A composite six bp in-frame deletion in the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene is associated with the Japanese brindling coat colour in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In the domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), classical genetic studies have identified five alleles at the Extension locus: ED (dominant black), ES (steel, weaker version of ED), E (wild type, normal extension of black), eJ(Japanese brindling, mosaic distribution of black and yellow) and e (non-extension of black, yellow/red with white belly). Sequencing almost the complete coding sequence (CDS) of the rabbit MC1R gene, we recently identified two in-frame deletions associated with dominant black (c.280_285del6; alleles ED or ES) and recessive red (c.304_333del30; allele e) coat colours. It remained to characterize the eJallele whose phenotypic effect is similar to the Orange and Sex-linked yellow loci of cat and Syrian hamster. Results We sequenced the whole CDS in 25 rabbits of different coat colours including 10 Japanese and 10 Rhinelander (tricolour) rabbits and identified another 6 bp-in frame deletion flanked by a G > A transition in 5' (c.[124G>A;125_130del6]) that was present in all animals with Japanese brindling coat colour and pattern. These mutations eliminate two amino acids in the first transmembrane domain and, in addition, cause an amino acid substitution at position 44 of the wild type sequence. Genotyping 371 rabbits of 31 breeds with different coat colour this allele (eJ) was present in homozygous state in Japanese, Rhinelander and Dutch tricolour rabbits only (except one albino rabbit). Rabbits with eJ/eJ genotype were non fixed at the non-agouti mutation we previously identified in the ASIP gene. Segregation in F1 and F2 families confirmed the order of dominance already determined by classical genetic experiments with a possible dose effect evident comparing eJ/eJ and eJ/e animals. MC1R mRNA was expressed in black hair skin regions only. Conclusions The c.[124A;125_130del6] allele may be responsible for a MC1R variant determining eumelanin production in the black areas. However, the mechanism determining the presence of both red

  14. Relationship of IgG and IgM autoantibodies and immune complexes to oxidized LDL with markers of oxidation and inflammation and cardiovascular events: results from the EPIC-Norfolk Study.

    PubMed

    Ravandi, Amir; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Mallat, Ziad; Talmud, Philippa J; Kastelein, John J P; Wareham, Nicholas J; Miller, Elizabeth R; Benessiano, Joelle; Tedgui, Alain; Witztum, Joseph L; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Tsimikas, Sotirios

    2011-10-01

    Levels of IgG and IgM autoantibodies (AA) to malondialdehyde (MDA)-LDL and apoB-immune complexes (ICs) were measured in 748 cases and 1,723 controls in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort and their association to coronary artery disease (CAD) events determined. We evaluated whether AA and IC modify CAD risk associated with secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)) type IIA mass and activity, lipoprotein-associated PLA(2) activity, lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)], oxidized phospholipids on apoB-100 (OxPL/apoB), myeloperoxidase, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein. IgG ICs were higher in cases versus controls (P = 0.02). Elevated levels of IgM AA and IC were inversely associated with Framingham Risk Score and number of metabolic syndrome criteria (p range 0.02-0.001). In regression analyses adjusted for age, smoking, diabetes, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure, the highest tertiles of IgG and IgM AA and IC were not associated with higher risk of CAD events compared with the lowest tertiles. However, elevated levels of IgM IC reduced the risk of Lp(a) (P = 0.006) and elevated IgG MDA-LDL potentiated the risk of sPLA(2) mass (P = 0.018). This epidemiological cohort of initially healthy subjects shows that IgG and IgM AA and IC are not independent predictors of CAD events but may modify CAD risk associated with elevated levels of oxidative biomarkers. PMID:21821825

  15. Health survey of 167 pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Finland.

    PubMed

    Mäkitaipale, J; Harcourt-Brown, F M; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, O

    2015-10-24

    Only a limited amount of information is available about health status of pet rabbits. The aim of this study was to obtain data about the health status of pet rabbits considered healthy by the owners in Finland. Physical examination and lateral abdominal and lateral skull radiography were performed on 167 pet rabbits of which 118 (70.7 per cent) had abnormal findings in at least one examination. The most common findings were acquired dental disease (n=67, 40.1 per cent), vertebral column deformities and degenerative lesions (n=52, 31.1 per cent), skin disorders (n=28, 16.8 per cent) and eye disorders (n=12, 7.2 per cent). Vertebral column angulating deformities were significantly more common in dwarf lop rabbits (P≤0.001). The prevalence of health disorders was significantly higher in rabbits over three years of age of which 51 (82.3 per cent) had findings in at least one examination (P<0.05). Rabbits as prey animals hide their illness, which cause difficulties to owners to recognise health problems. Because of the high prevalence of clinical and radiological findings in apparently healthy pet rabbits, regular physical examinations are advised, especially for animals over three years old. PMID:26475828

  16. Deliberate introduction of the European rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus, into Australia.

    PubMed

    Fenner, F

    2010-04-01

    The European rabbit was brought to Australia as a companion animal by early settlers. It sometimes escaped, but failed to survive in the Australian bush. In 1879 wild rabbits were deliberately sent to Victoria to provide game for wealthy settlers to shoot. They soon spread all over Australia, except in the tropics, and became Australia's major animal pest. After careful testing in Australian wildlife and in humans, control by myxoma virus was introduced at various sites between 1937 and 1950, spreading all over the Murray-Darling Basin in 1950. Within one year mutations in the virus had led to slightly less virulence, and these continued for the next 50 years. In the early 21st Century testing viruses obtained from wild rabbits showed that the majority of these viruses were more virulent than the virus used to initiate the epidemic. In 1995 another virus specific for European rabbits, rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus, escaped from areas in which field trials were being carried out and spread around Australia. It was more successful than myxomatosis for rabbit control in arid regions. PMID:20617651

  17. Herpes simplex encephalitis in a domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Grest, P; Albicker, P; Hoelzle, L; Wild, P; Pospischil, A

    2002-05-01

    An adult domestic rabbit showing neurological signs was subjected to euthanasia. At necropsy, macroscopical lesions were absent. Histopathologically, extensive lesions were seen, particularly in the cerebral cortex. Non-suppurative meningitis was present and there was lymphocytic and plasmacytic perivascular cuffing in the neuropil. The cerebral cortex showed extensive segmental neuronal and glial necrosis. Within the necrotic areas, large amphophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were present in neurons and glial cells. Immunohistochemically, neurons and glial cells in the affected areas were labelled by polyclonal antibodies against both herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2. The agent was classified as HSV-1 by polymerase chain reaction analysis. This is only the second reported natural case of herpes simplex infection in a rabbit. PMID:12056779

  18. Cutaneous lymphomas in European pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Ritter, J M; von Bomhard, W; Wise, A G; Maes, R K; Kiupel, M

    2012-09-01

    Cutaneous lymphoma is a common skin neoplasm of pet rabbits in Europe but is rarely reported in pet rabbits in North America. These neoplasms have not been previously characterized, nor has the cause for the apparent predilection for cutaneous lymphoma in European pet rabbits compared with North American pet rabbits been investigated. In this retrospective study, the authors morphologically and immunohistochemically characterized 25 cutaneous lymphomas in European pet rabbits according to the World Health Organization classification. Tumors were classified as diffuse large B cell lymphomas, with 14 lymphomas exhibiting a centroblastic/centrocytic subtype and 11 tumors exhibiting a T cell-rich B cell subtype. To investigate a potential viral etiology of these lymphomas, 3 diffuse large B cell and 3 T cell-rich B cell lymphomas were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction for retroviral and herpesviral genes. Neither virus was detected. In contrast to other domestic animals, cutaneous lymphomas in European pet rabbits were highly pleomorphic and frequently contained multinucleated giant cells. Unexpectedly, the second most common subtype was T cell-rich B cell lymphoma, a subtype that is rare in species other than horses. Based on a limited number of samples, there was no support for a viral etiology that would explain the higher incidence of lymphoma in European pet rabbits compared with American pet rabbits. Further investigation into genetic and extrinsic factors associated with the development of these tumors is warranted. PMID:22308233

  19. Multiple Complex Congenital Malformations in a Rabbit Kit (Oryctolagus cuniculi)

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Jennifer L; Peng, Xuwen; Baccon, Jennifer; Cooper, Timothy K

    2013-01-01

    Congenital malformations may occur during early embryogenesis in cases of genetic abnormalities or various environmental factors. Affected subjects most often have only one or 2 abnormalities; subjects rarely have several unrelated congenital defects. Here we describe a case of a stillborn New Zealand white rabbit with multiple complex congenital malformations, including synophthalmia, holoprosencephaly, gastroschisis, and a supernumerary hindlimb, among other anomalies. There was no historical exposure to teratogens or other known environmental causes. Although not confirmed, this case was most likely a rare spontaneous genetic event. PMID:24209970

  20. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Belitardo, Donizeti Rodrigues; Calefi, Atilio Sersun; Sbeghen, Mônica Raquel; de Oliveira, Gabriela Gonçalves; Watanabe, Maria Angelica Ehara; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Ono, Mario Augusto

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the infection of domestic rabbits by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Initially two rabbits were experimentally infected with P. brasiliensis and the humoral immune response was evaluated by ELISA using gp43 as antigen. The two animals showed IgG response against gp43 although no signs of disease were observed. The seroepidemiological study was carried out in 170 rabbits (free range n = 81 and caged n = 89) living in an endemic area for human paracoccidioidomycosis and a positivity of 27% was observed in the ELISA using gp43 as antigen. The free-range rabbits showed a significantly higher positivity (34.6-51.7%) than the caged animals (11.1%). Sentinel rabbits exposed to natural infection with P. brasiliensis were followed up for 6 months and a seroconversion rate of 83.3% was observed. This is the first report of paracoccidioidomycosis in rabbits and suggests that this species can be useful sentinels for P. brasiliensis presence in the environment. PMID:24125519

  1. Welfare Impacts of Pindone Poisoning in Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Penny; Brown, Samantha; Arrow, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary The nature and duration of the effects of pindone poisoning in rabbits were evaluated through observational monitoring of affected animals and necropsy. Using the resulting data in a formal assessment framework, the welfare impacts of pindone poisoning were ranked as relatively higher than other vertebrate toxic agents currently used for rabbit control. Abstract Control methods used to manage unwanted impacts of the European rabbit in Australia and New Zealand include the use of toxic bait containing the anticoagulant pindone. Towards increased certainty in evaluating the animal welfare impacts of pindone poisoning in rabbits, we recorded behavioral and post-mortem data from rabbits which ingested lethal quantities of pindone bait in a laboratory trial. Pindone poisoning in rabbits resulted in welfare compromise, primarily through functional impairments related to internal haemorrhage over a maximum duration of 7 days. Applying this data to a formal assessment framework for ranking animal welfare impacts indicated that pindone had relatively high severity and also duration of welfare impacts in comparison to other rabbit control methods. PMID:26927192

  2. 78 FR 34151 - Notice of Public Hearing: Norfolk Southern Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... issued a public notice seeking comments from interested parties. See 77 FR 74736 (December 17, 2012... hearing will be conducted at the Moon Township Building, 1000 Beaver Grade Road, Moon Township, PA...

  3. 27 CFR 9.203 - Saddle Rock-Malibu.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Conejo land grant, section 3, T1S/R19W; then (3) Proceed straight east-southeast along the El Conejo land... mile along the El Conejo land grant boundary line to its second intersection with the...

  4. 78 FR 45495 - Conejos Peak Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; Colorado; Cumbres Vegetation Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ..., 2013. Andrea Jones, District Ranger. [FR Doc. 2013-17968 Filed 07/26/2013 at 8:45 a.m.; Publication... habitat structural needs of the local populati on of Canada Lynx, a Threatened species, and their...

  5. Physical and chemical characteristics of Terrace Reservoir, Conejos County, Colorado, May 1994 through May 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stogner, Robert W.; Edelmann, Patrick; Walton-Day, Katherine

    1997-01-01

    Terrace Reservoir receives drainage of low-pH, metal-enriched water from mineralized areas, including the Summitville Mine, within the AlamosaRiver Basin. Drainage from the Summitville Mine has contributed a substantial part of the metal load to Terrace Reservoir. From May 1994 through May 1995, a study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of Terrace Reservoir.Terrace Reservoir was thermally stratified from about mid-May through August 1994. Thermal stratification was absent from September\\x111994through March 1995. During periods of stratification, underflow of the Alamosa River was predominant, and residence times of the underflow were shortened by 40 to 75\\x11percent of the theoretical residence times for a well-mixed reservoir. Transport and deposition of suspended solids in Terrace Reservoir varied spatially and temporally. Most of the suspended solids were deposited in Terrace Reservoir. The concentration of dissolved oxygen in the reservoir varied little spatially or temporally and generally was within a few tenths of the dissolved-oxygen concentration of the inflow. The pH of water in the reservoir generally ranged from about 4.0 to about 7.0, depending on date, depth, and location. The largest pH values were measured during May. A markeddecrease of about 1.5\\x11pH units occurred at site T5 in the reservoir about mid-June. The pH of the reservoir remained at or below 5.5 from mid-June through November. Dissolved-metal concentrations varied spatially and temporally in response to several factors, which included inflow characteristics, reservoir stratification and mixing, inflow-routing and flow-through patterns, residence times, sedimentation, dissolved oxygen, and pH.Inflow chemistry is the dominant controlling factor of metal chemistry within Terrace Reservoir.During periods of stratification, large vertical variations in metal concentrations occurred. The highest metal concentrations in the reservoir generally were measured in the hypolimnion between June and August. During June, epilimnetic water of the reservoir had pH values greater than 6.0, and metal concentrations were lower than hypolimnetic concentrations. In the hypolimnion, pH values were less than 5.5. The difference between the chemistry of the epilimnion and the hypolimnion was due to differences in flow routing and residence times of water in those respective layers. The dissolved-metal concentrations were larger during July and August than during June.During September, small vertical variations in metalconcentrations occurred, and the dissolved-metal concentrations were nearly equivalent to the average August metal concentrations, indicatingthat the metal concentrations measured during September resulted largely from reservoir mixing.During March, the largest metal concentrationsoccurred in the epilimnion, where pH was about 5.5; in the hypolimnion, where the pH was about 6.0, dissolved-metal concentrations were substantially lower and reflected inflow concentrations.

  6. Molecular Characterization of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in Domestic Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Jiang, Jing; Cai, Ya-Nan; Wang, Chun-Feng; Xu, Peng; Yang, Gui-Lian; Zhao, Quan

    2016-01-01

    A study of 426 rabbits from 3 cities in Jilin province (Changchun City and Jilin City) and Liaoning province (Shenyang City) was conducted between May and June 2015. The overall prevalence of E. bieneusi in rabbits was 0.94% (4/426), with 0% (0/116), 1.72% (3/174), and 0.74% (1/136) in Jilin, Changchun, and Shenyang City, respectively. Only 3 farms (farm 1 and farm 3 in Changchun City, farm 8 in Shenyang City) were PCR-positive for E. bieneusi. Moreover, rabbits of more than 6 months (1.72%) had the highest E. bieneusi prevalence, followed by rabbits of 4-6 months (1.26%), 2-3 months (0.58%), and less than 1 month (0%). Analysis of ITS gene of E. bieneusi suggested that all 4 E. bieneusi isolates were genotype D, and were classified as group 1a. The present results first demonstrated the existence of zoonotic E. bieneusi in domestic rabbits in China. Effective control measures should be implemented to prevent E. bieneusi infection in domestic rabbits, other animals, and humans. PMID:26951984

  7. Timing and Cue Competition in Conditioning of the Nictitating Membrane Response of the Rabbit ("Oryctolagus Cuniculus")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehoe, E. James; Ludvig, Elliot A.; Sutton, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    Rabbits were classically conditioned using compounds of tone and light conditioned stimuli (CSs) presented with either simultaneous onsets (Experiment 1) or serial onsets (Experiment 2) in a delay conditioning paradigm. Training with the simultaneous compound reduced the likelihood of a conditioned response (CR) to the individual CSs ("mutual…

  8. A Three-Dimensional Reconstructive Study of Pelvic Cavity in the New Zealand Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    PubMed Central

    Eken, Emrullah; Kalaycı, İbrahim

    2014-01-01

    The present study has been performed to reveal biometrical aspects and diameter-related differences in terms of sexes regarding pelvic cavity via three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction by using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) images of pelvic cavity of the New Zealand rabbit. A total of 16 adult New Zealand rabbits, including 8 males and 8 females, were used in this study. Under anesthesia, the images obtained from MDCT were stacked and overlaid to reconstruct the 3D model of the pelvic cavity using 3D modeling software (Mimics 13.1). Measurements, such as the conjugate, transverse, and vertical diameters of the pelvic cavity, and the pelvic inclination were calculated and analyzed statistically. Biometrical differences of the pelvic diameters in New Zealand rabbits of both sexes were shown clearly. It was concluded that the pelvic diameters revealed by 3D modeling techniques can shed light on medical students who take both anatomy training and gynecological applications. The authors hope that the synchronization of medical approaches may give rise to novel diagnostic and therapeutic developments related to pelvic cavity. PMID:25379534

  9. Molecular Characterization of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in Domestic Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Jiang, Jing; Cai, Ya-Nan; Wang, Chun-Feng; Xu, Peng; Yang, Gui-Lian; Zhao, Quan

    2016-02-01

    A study of 426 rabbits from 3 cities in Jilin province (Changchun City and Jilin City) and Liaoning province (Shenyang City) was conducted between May and June 2015. The overall prevalence of E. bieneusi in rabbits was 0.94% (4/426), with 0% (0/116), 1.72% (3/174), and 0.74% (1/136) in Jilin, Changchun, and Shenyang City, respectively. Only 3 farms (farm 1 and farm 3 in Changchun City, farm 8 in Shenyang City) were PCR-positive for E. bieneusi. Moreover, rabbits of more than 6 months (1.72%) had the highest E. bieneusi prevalence, followed by rabbits of 4-6 months (1.26%), 2-3 months (0.58%), and less than 1 month (0%). Analysis of ITS gene of E. bieneusi suggested that all 4 E. bieneusi isolates were genotype D, and were classified as group 1a. The present results first demonstrated the existence of zoonotic E. bieneusi in domestic rabbits in China. Effective control measures should be implemented to prevent E. bieneusi infection in domestic rabbits, other animals, and humans. PMID:26951984

  10. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia Infection in Domestic Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in China

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Xiaoting; Qin, Siyuan; Lou, Zhilong; Ning, Hongrui; Sun, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria distributed all over the world, known to cause various forms of diseases in animals and humans. In the present study, a serological survey was conducted to detect the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with rabbit chlamydiosis in northeast China, including Liaoning province, Jilin province, Heilongjiang province, and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Antibodies to Chlamydia were determined by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 17.88% in total of 800 blood samples. The Chlamydia seroprevalence varied in domestic rabbits from different factors, and genders of domestic rabbits were considered as major risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in northeast China, with higher exposure risk in female domestic rabbits. These findings suggested the potential importance of domestic rabbits in the transmission of zoonotic Chlamydia infection, and thus Chlamydia should be taken into consideration in diagnosing rabbit diseases. To our knowledge, there is no report of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in China and the results extend the host range for Chlamydia, which has important implications for public health and the local economy. PMID:25945336

  11. An Incidence of Pseudopregnancy Associated with the Social Enrichment of Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculi)

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Christopher L; Adams, Joleen K; Czarra, Jane A; Coan, Patricia N

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe a case of pseudopregnancy in a New Zealand White rabbit as a result of pair housing with an aggressive conspecific. Clinical signs included fur pulling and nest building that developed shortly after separation from the aggressor. An ovariohysterectomy was performed, and histopathologic findings support the diagnosis of pseudopregnancy. When introducing adult female rabbits to pair housing, stable pairs may be difficult to achieve because of the dominance-associated behavior that can occur as hierarchal relationships are formed. Does that are pair-housed after puberty should be monitored for aggressive behavior. PMID:26817987

  12. Genetics of a tissue esterase polymorphism (Est-6) in the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    van Zutphen, L F; den Bieman, M G; von Deimling, O; Fox, R R

    1987-06-01

    Genetic analysis of a polymorphic tissue esterase revealed a new locus (Est-6) with two alleles (Est-6a and Est-6b) on linkage group VI of the rabbit. Est-6 is closely linked to the Est-1,2,4 cluster. Esterase of Est-6 is found in many organs, particularly in liver and small intestine, but not in erythrocytes and serum. Est-6 esterase hydrolyzes alpha-naphthyl acetate and butyrate, naphthol AS-D acetate, indoxyl acetate, and butyrate as well as 5-bromoindoxyl acetate, N-acetyl-L-alanine-alpha-naphthyl ester but not 4-methylumbelliferyl acetate and fluorescein diacetate. The enzyme is inhibited by bis-p-nitrophenyl phosphate and eserine but not by p-chloromercuribenzoate. It was classified as a carboxylesterase (EC 3.1.1.1). Based on chromosomal localization, tissue distribution, substrate specificity, inhibitor sensitivity, and range of pI's, rabbit Est-6 is assumed to be homologous with mouse Es-7. PMID:3619880

  13. [Peripheral keratinizing ameloblastoma in a dwarf rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus f. dom.)].

    PubMed

    Völker, I; Kammeyer, P; Hinzmann, B; Lüerssen, D; Baumgärtner, W; Wohlsein, P

    2014-01-01

    A 3.5-year-old, male, neutered dwarf rabbit was presented with a history of a fast-growing gingival mass at the maxilla. The neoplasm was surgically completely excised. Histopathologically, an expansively growing, multilobulated, partially cystic, peripheral, keratinizing ameloblastoma was diagnosed. The immunohistochemical phenotyping of the tumour cells resulted in cytoplasmic labelling with various pan-cytokeratin antibodies. The cytokeratins 5/6, 7, 10 and 14 were expressed variably. Cytokeratin 20 was not detected. Vimentin was expressed in the cytoplasm of mesenchymal cells of the tumour stroma. In addition, in the nuclei of approximately 10% of the tumour cells the protein of the tumour suppressor gene p53 was expressed while in approximately 5% the proliferation marker Ki67 was expressed. Odontogenic tumours should be considered as a differential diagnosis of oral masses in rabbits. PMID:25323216

  14. Control of Tick Infestations in Oryctolagus cuniculus (Lagomorpha: Leporidae) With Spinosad Under Laboratory and Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    ValcÁrcel, Félix; SÁnchez, J L Pérez; Jaime, J M Tercero; Basco-Basco, P I; Guajardo, S C Cota; Cutuli, M T; GonzÁlez, J; Olmeda, A S

    2015-03-01

    Because of great economic loss in the world's livestock industry, and the serious risks to human health, the control of ticks and tick-borne diseases is one of the most important health management issues today. Current methodology involves integrated tick control for preventing the development of resistance. Rabbits are hosts for immature stages of the three-host tick Hyalomma lusitanicum Koch; so, we focus on this host as a strategy to interrupt the tick life cycle. Spinosad is an insecticide-acaricide, produced by the fermentation of metabolites of the actinomycete bacterium Saccharopolyspora spinosa. We administered spinosad orally by force-feeding naturally and artificially infested rabbits, and under field conditions by administering treated food via a hopper during the period of peak infestation and reinfestation risk for rabbits. No living larvae were recovered from treated laboratory rabbits. In naturally infested rabbits, the number of live ticks collected from treated rabbits (mean = 0.62 ticks per ear) was significantly lower than those recovered from untreated rabbits (mean = 7.27; P < 0.001), whereas the number of dead ticks collected from untreated rabbits (mean = 6.53) was significantly lower than those recovered from treated rabbits (mean = 18.62; P < 0.001). In addition, free and continually reinfested rabbits freely ingested low doses of spinosad, reducing the tick burden from 48.00 (Day 0) to 26.09 ticks per ear in treated rabbits (Day 16), whereas controls maintained the infection (46.64). This strategy could be useful as an alternative or supplement to traditional acaricides in tick control programs. PMID:26336305

  15. Perineal striated muscles: Anatomy, spinal motoneurons, and participation on copulatory behavior in male rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Zempoalteca, R; Lucio, R A; Eguibar, J R

    2008-09-01

    Despite the importance of rabbits in reproductive studies, little information is available on the anatomy and participation of the striated-perineal muscles in male copulatory behavior. In our study, we describe the gross anatomy of two striated-perineal muscles: the ischiocavernosus (ICm) and the bulbospongiosus (BSm). Both muscles have their origin at the ischiadic arc, but the ICm is inserted into the penile crura and the BSm onto the ligamentum suspensorium of the penis. The motoneurons of both muscles were identified using retrograde labeling with horseradish peroxidase coupled to wheat-germ agglutinin. Motoneurons were dispersed in the lower-lumbar and upper-sacral spinal-cord segments, instead of being aggregated in the neuronal nucleus as in other species: the rat, mouse, gerbil, cat, and man. Bilateral dennervation of the ICm or BSm or both in sexually experienced male rabbits did not affect copulatory variables measured at 10, 20, and 30 days after surgery. However, muscular dennervation produced extravaginal ejaculations in 42% of copulatory tests and no ejaculation in 7% of tests, although male pelvic thrusting occurred. These results suggest the participation of the ICm and BSm perineal muscles in penile orientation during copulation but not in seminal emission as described in other mammalian species. PMID:18563835

  16. Classification and Epidemiology of Mammary Tumours in Pet Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Baum, B; Hewicker-Trautwein, M

    2015-05-01

    Mammary tumours are common in pet rabbits; however, published studies are predominantly derived from laboratory and meat rabbits. This study reports basic data on type and location of 119 separate tumours from 109 pet rabbits. The animals were aged 2-14 years (mean 5.5 years) and all 90 rabbits of known gender were female. Cranial and caudal mammary glands were affected equally. The majority of lesions (n = 105) were classified as carcinomas with 32 tubular, 16 papillary, 12 tubulopapillary, 11 solid, nine adenosquamous, nine comedo type, five complex, four ductal, three cribriform, three anaplastic and one spindle -cell carcinoma. Twelve percent of the lesions were benign, with eight intraductal papillary adenomas, three simple tubular adenomas and one complex adenoma. One non-neoplastic lesion was found in the form of cystic duct ectasia. PMID:25840882

  17. Acoustic Modal Patterns and Striations (AMPS) experiment G-325, Norfolk Public Schools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Joy W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper will describe how high school students with the guidance of volunteer mentors were able to successfully complete an acoustics space experiment. Some of the NORSTAR program strategies used to effectively accomplish this goal will be discussed. The experiment and present status of results will be explained.

  18. Effects of Polyacrylamide and Organic Matter on Microbes associated to Soil Aggregation of Norfolk Loamy Sand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyacrylamide (PAM, anionic formulation of molecular size 12 MDa and 35% charge density) has been reported to increase aggregation and improve soil physical properties in United States southeastern Coastal Plain loamy sand soils, but nothing is known about the effects of PAM on microbes associated ...

  19. 77 FR 74739 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... constructed and began operation on a rail line in Roanoke County, Va., which has been an active line since... line. According to NS, operations on its rail line predate the development of the neighborhood. APCO's property is adjacent to the rail line and lies between plaintiffs' properties and NS's rail line....

  20. A Description of the Computer Assisted Assessment Program in University Elementary Algebra at Norfolk State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Ronald L.; Myers, Shadana; Earl, Archie W., Sr.

    2008-01-01

    Many colleges and universities today are faced with the problem of low student academic achievement in math. Some of them are trying to improve student academic achievement through the use of technology. Their proposed solution is to teach children how to use the technological tools available to them and integrate that technology into the…

  1. 78 FR 21006 - Consolidated Rail Corporation, CSX Transportation, Inc., and Norfolk Southern Railway Company...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... this condition adequately protects affected employees, a petition for partial revocation under 49 U.S.C. 10502(d) must be filed. Provided no formal expression of intent to file an offer of financial...

  2. 77 FR 55898 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Beaufort County, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... affected employees, a petition for partial revocation under 49 U.S.C. 10502(d) must be filed. ] Provided no formal expression of intent to file an offer of financial assistance (OFA) has been received,...

  3. 75 FR 34530 - Nittany & Bald Eagle Railroad Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Nittany & Bald Eagle Railroad Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption... rights to Nittany & Bald Eagle Railroad Company (N&BE), between Lock Haven and Driftwood, Pa.,...

  4. 76 FR 24084 - Nittany & Bald Eagle Railroad Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Nittany & Bald Eagle Railroad Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption... rights to Nittany & Bald Eagle Railroad Company (N&BE) over a portion of NSR's line of railroad...

  5. 77 FR 18881 - Nittany & Bald Eagle Railroad Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Nittany & Bald Eagle Railroad Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption... rights to Nittany & Bald Eagle Railroad Company (N&BE), between Lock Haven, Pa. (milepost BR 194.2)...

  6. A Successful Transition from Mini- to Microcomputer-Assisted Instruction: The Norfolk Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gull, Randall L.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews reasons for the decision to change from a timeshare minicomputer to microcomputers, financial considerations involved, the purchase of hardware, the problem posed by the lack of compatible software for the microcomputers, and the development of the Assisted Instructional Development System (AIDS) for adapting minicomputer software and…

  7. 76 FR 56874 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company, Pennsylvania...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... milepost QAA 10.8 at Jenkin (also known as Jenkintown) and milepost QAA 21.1 at Neshaminy (also known as... follows: (1) Overhead and local trackage rights on the Stony Creek Branch between milepost QAC 3.0 near West Point and milepost QAC 5.0 at Belfrey, (2) overhead trackage rights on the Blue Line Branch...

  8. Artificial recharge to a freshwater-sensitive brackish-water sand aquifer, Norfolk, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Donald L.; Silvey, William Dudley

    1977-01-01

    Fresh water was injected into a brackish-water sand for storage and retrieval. The initial injection rate of 400 gpm decreased to 70 gpm during test 3. The specific capacity of the well decreased also, from 15.4 to 0.93 gpm. Current-meter surveys indicated uniform reduction in hydraulic conductivity of all contributing zones in the aquifer. Hydraulic and chemical data indicate this was caused by dispersion of the interstitial clay upon introduction of the calcium bicarbonate water into the sodium chloride bearing sand aquifer. The clay dispersion also caused particulate rearrangement and clogging of well screen. A pre-flush of 0.2 N calcium chloride solution injected in front of the fresh water at the start of test 4 stabilized the clay. However, it did not reverse the particulate clogging that permanently reduced permeability and caused sanding during redevelopment. Clogging can be prevented by stabilization of the clay using commercially available trivalent aluminum compounds. Test 1 and test 2 showed that 85 percent of the water injected can be recovered, and the water meets U.S. Public Health Standards. Storage of fresh water in a brackish-water aquifer appears feasible provided proper control measures are used. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. Proceedings of NECC/2 National Educational Computing Conference 1980 (Norfolk, Virginia, June 23-25, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Diana, Ed.; Collison, Beth, Ed.

    This proceedings, which includes 52 papers and abstracts of 13 invited and nine tutorial sessions, provides an overview of the current status of computer usage in education and offers substantive forecasts for academic computing. Papers are presented under the following headings: Business--Economics, Tools and Techniques for Instruction, Computers…

  10. Nanostructured materials for multifunctional applications under NSF-CREST research at Norfolk State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, A. K.; Mundle, R.; Zhang, K.; Holloway, T.; Amponsah, O.; Biswal, D.; Konda, R.; White, C.; Dondapati, H.; Santiago, K.; Birdsong, T.; Arslan, M.; Peeples, B.; Shaw, D.; Smak, J.; Samataray, C.; Bahoura, M.

    2012-04-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles of CoFe2O4 have been synthesized under an applied magnetic field through a co-precipitation method followed by thermal treatments at different temperatures, producing nanoparticles of varying size. The magnetic behavior of these nanoparticles of varying size was investigated. As-grown nanoparticles demonstrate superparamagnetism above the blocking temperature, which is dependent on the particle size. The anomalous magnetic behavior is attributed to the preferred Co ions and vacancies arrangements when the CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were synthesized under applied magnetic field. Furthermore, this magnetic property is strongly dependent on the high temperature heat treatments, which produce Co ions and vacancies disorder. We performed the fabrication of condensed and mesoporous silica coated CoFe2O4 magnetic nanocomposites. The CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles were encapsulated with well-defined silica layer. The mesopores in the shell were fabricated as a consequence of removal of organic group of the precursor through annealing. The NiO nanoparticles were loaded into the mesoporous silica. The mesoporous silica coated magnetic nanostructure loaded with NiO as a final product may have potential use in the field of biomedical applications. Growth mechanism of ZnO nanorod arrays on ZnO seed layer investigated by electric and Kelvin probe force microscopy. Both electric and Kelvin force probe microscopy was used to investigate the surface potentials on the ZnO seed layer, which shows a remarkable dependence on the annealing temperature. The optimum temperature for the growth of nanorod arrays normal to the surface was found to be at 600 °C, which is in the range of right surface potentials and energy measured between 500 °C and 700 °C. We demonstrated from both EFM and Kelvin force probe microscopy studies that surface potential controls the growth of ZnO nanorods. This study will provide important understanding of growth of other nanostructures. ZnO nanolayers were also grown by atomic layer deposition techniques. These nanolayers of ZnO demonstrate remarkable optical and electrical properties. These nanolayers were patterned by the Electron Beam Lithography (EBL) technique. A major goal of nanotechnology is to couple the self-assembly of molecular nanostructures with conventional lithography, using either or both bottom-up and top-down fabrication methods, that would enable us to register individual molecular nanostructures onto the functional devices. However, combining the nanofabrication technique with high resolution Electron Beam Lithography, we can achieve 3D bimolecular or/and DNA origami that will be able to identify nucleic acid sequences, antigen targets, and other molecules, as for a perfect nano-biosensor. We have explored some of the nanopatterning using EBL in order to fabricate biomolecule sensing on a single chip with sub nm pitch. The applications are not limited for the bioactivity, but for enhancing immunoreactions, cell culture dishes, and tissue engineering applications.

  11. 78 FR 49603 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Marengo County, Ala

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... 241.3 N (east of the line's crossing of the mouth of Devil's Run Slough where the slough joins the... railroad bridge over the mouth of Devil's Run Slough at the request of the United States Coast Guard...

  12. GOES Satellite Data Validation Via Hand-held 4 LED Sun Photometer at Norfolk State University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Arthur, Jr.; Jackson, Tyrone; Reynolds, Kevin; Davidson, Cassy; Coope-Pabis, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Sun photometry is a passive means of measuring a quantity of light radiation. The GIFTS- IOMI/GLOBE Water Vapor/Haze Sun photometer contains four light emitting diodes (LEDs), which are used to convert photocurrent to voltage. The intensity of the incoming and outgoing radiation as detected on the Earth s surface can be affected by aerosols and gases in the atmosphere. The focus of this research is primarily on aerosol and water vapor particles that absorb and reemit energy. Two LEDs in the photometer correspond to light scattered at 530 nm (green spectrum) and 620 nm (red spectrum). They collect data pertaining to aerosols that scatter light. The other two LEDs detect the light scattered by water vapor at wavelengths of 820 nm and 920 nm. The water vapor measurements will be compared to data collected by the Geostationary Observation Environmental Satellite (GOES). Before a comparison can be made, the extraterrestrial constant (ET), which is intrinsic to each sun photometer, must be measured. This paper will present determination of the ET constant, from which the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) can be computed for comparison to the GOES satellite to ascertain the reliability of the sun photometer.

  13. Influence of pecan-derived biochar on chemical properties of a Norfolk loamy sand soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sandy, Coastal Plain soils in the Southeastern USA are low (0.3 to 2%) in soil organic carbon contents (SOC) due to high soil temperatures, abundant rainfall, and a low physico-chemical protection of organic substances. Consequently, the soils have poor soil fertility characteristics. A strategy to ...

  14. Health-Hazard Evaluation Report HETA 85-195-1768, Dale Electronics, Incorporated, Norfolk, Nebraska

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    An evaluation was made of exposure to butyl cellosolve, epichlorohydrin, nickel, chromium, antimony, and total particulates for workers in an electronic resistor manufacturing process. No exposure to butyl cellosolve was detected among liquid coaters and no epichlorohydrin was detected in the process area air samples. No exposure to nickel or chromium was detected among mechanical-grinding spirallers. One laser spiraller was exposed to 8 micrograms/m/sup 3/ of nickel and 8 microg/m/sup 3/ chromium. Trace amounts of nickel were noted in the breathing zones of one plating lab worker and one calibrator. Total particulate exposures ranged from 0.1 to 0.9 mg/m/sup 3/. The author concludes that there were no known overexposures to contaminants at this facility and recommends further checking.

  15. Amino acid geochronology of the type Cromerian of West Runton, Norfolk, UK.

    PubMed

    Penkman, K E H; Preece, R C; Keen, D H; Collins, M J

    2010-12-01

    Aminostratigraphic studies of continental deposits in the UK have hitherto relied almost exclusively on data from the aragonitic shells of non-marine molluscs for dating Pleistocene sequences. This is usually based on the d/l value of a single amino acid, d-alloisoleucine/l-isoleucine (A/I), in the total shell proteins. Two genera of freshwater gastropods (Valvata and Bithynia) are used to explore the value of using multiple amino acids from the intra-crystalline fraction, which should be more protected from the effects of diagenesis than the inter-crystalline component. Results are compared from both the aragonitic shells and opercula composed of calcite, a more stable form of calcium carbonate. In order to put the amino acid data from the West Runton Freshwater Bed into perspective, statistical analyses are used to compare them with results from the Hoxnian (MIS 11) site at Clacton-on-Sea, Essex. Twelve protein decomposition indicators revealed that the results from the shells were not as clear-cut as those from the opercula. Five indicators from the Valvata shell suggest that West Runton is older than Clacton (at a 95% significance level), but two actually suggested a younger age. Seven indicators show that the Bithynia shells from West Runton are older than congeneric shells from Clacton. In marked contrast, all 12 indicators isolated from the opercula demonstrate that West Runton is significantly older than Clacton. The data are also compared with results from Waverley Wood, an important archaeological site in the English Midlands falling within the 'Cromerian Complex'. Contrary to earlier interpretations, the new amino acid data from Bithynia opercula indicate that West Runton is older than Waverley Wood, a relationship now consistent with the available biostratigraphy. PMID:21217810

  16. 77 FR 52599 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Elizabeth River, Eastern Branch, Norfolk, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ..., the Berkley Bridge experienced a seven percent (or 23,560-car) increase in vehicular traffic flow. The... public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We... Register (74 FR 52143) and a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) entitled ``Drawbridge...

  17. 78 FR 17090 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Elizabeth River, Eastern Branch, Norfolk, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ..., the Berkley Bridge experienced a seven percent (or 23,560-car) increase in vehicular traffic flow. The... FR Federal Register U.S.C. United States Code VDOT Virginia Department of Transportation VMA Virginia... the Federal Register (77 FR 52599). We received 545 comments on the proposed rule. No public...

  18. Assessment of metal transport into and out of Terrace Reservoir, Conejos County, Colorado, April 1994 through March 1995; interim report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferguson, Sheryl; Edelmann, Patrick

    1996-01-01

    Terrace Reservoir is the primary source of water for crops and livestock in the southwestern part of the San Luis Valley in southern Colorado. Mining activities have occurred in the basin for more than 100 years, and substantial mining of gold has occurred intermittently at the Summitville Mine.Historically, the Summitville Mine site has produced highly acidic, metal-enriched water that drained from the mine site into Wightman Fork and flowed to the Alamosa River and Terrace Reservoir. In 1994, a study was begun as part of risk-assessment and remediation efforts and to evaluate metal transport into and out of Terrace Reservoir. During the study period, the pH immediately upstream from Terrace Reservoir ranged from 4.3 to 7.8. The highest pH occurred during the pre-peak snowmelt period; the lowest pH occurred during storm runoff during summer. Downstream from Terrace Reservoir, the pH ranged from 4.6 to 7.6. The highest pH occurred during the pre-peak snowmelt period, and the lowest pH occurred during summer in mid-July. A comparison of the streamflow hydrographs upstream and downstream from Terrace Reservoir indicated that there was only a small difference between the annual volume of water that entered the reservoir and the annual volume of water that was released from the reservoir. Large spatial and temporal variations in concentrations of the metals of concern occurred during the study.The median and maximum concentrations of dissolved and total aluminum, iron, copper, cadmium, manganese, and zinc were larger upstream from the reservoir than downstream from the reservoir. The largest concentrations of dissolved aluminum, iron, copper, cadmium, manganese, and zinc generally occurred between mid-June and November. Throughout the study, aluminum was transported into the reservoir predominantly in the particulate or suspended form. Downstream from the reservoir, the suspended-aluminum fraction was predominant only during the pre-peak snowmelt and peak snowmelt periods. The temporal variations in the percentage of dissolved and suspended fraction of iron and copper downstream from Terrace Reservoir were similar to the temporal variations that occurred upstream from the reservoir. During the study period, cadmium, manganese, and zinc generally were transported into and out of the reservoir predominantly in the dissolved form. Metal loads varied considerably as a result of changes in streamflow or changes in metal concentrations, or both. The largest daily loads of aluminum, iron, and manganese were transported into and out of Terrace Reservoir during the peak snowmelt period.The reservoir was a sink for an estimated 294 tons of aluminum and 596 tons of iron. However, about 68.5 tons of total aluminum and about 194 tons of total iron were transported out of the reservoir during the study period. During the study period, about 22\\x11tons of total copper remained in the reservoir, and 39 tons was transported downstream from the reservoir. About 47 tons of total manganese and 18 tons of total-zinc loads were transported out of the reservoir; the reservoir was a sink for only a small fraction of total-manganese and -zinc.

  19. Geologic map of the Ute Mountain 7.5' quadrangle, Taos County, New Mexico, and Conejos and Costilla Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Ren A.; Turner, Kenzie J.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Cosca, Michael A.; Ruleman, Chester A.; Lee, John P.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2014-01-01

    The Ute Mountain 7.5' quadrangle is located in the south-central part of the San Luis Basin of northern New Mexico, in the Rio Grande del Norte National Monument, and contains deposits that record volcanic, tectonic, and associated alluvial and colluvial processes over the past four million years. Ute Mountain has the distinction of being one of the largest intermediate composition eruptive centers of the Taos Plateau, a largely volcanic tableland occupying the southern portion of the San Luis Basin. Ute Mountain rises to an elevation in excess of 3,000 m, nearly 700 m above the basaltic plateau at its base, and is characterized by three distinct phases of Pliocene eruptive activity recorded in the stratigraphy exposed on the flanks of the mountain and in the Rio Grande gorge. Unconformably overlain by largely flat-lying lava flows of Servilleta Basalt, the area surrounding Ute Mountain records a westward thickening of basin-fill volcanic deposits interstratified in the subsurface with Pliocene basin-fill sedimentary deposits derived from older Tertiary and Precambrian sources to the east. Superimposed on this volcanic stratigraphy are alluvial and colluvial deposits derived from the flanks of Ute Mountain and more distally-derived alluvium from the uplifted Sangre de Cristo Mountains to the east, that record a complex temporal and stratigraphic succession of Quaternary basin deposition and erosion. Pliocene and younger basin deposition was accommodated along predominantly north-trending fault-bounded grabens. These poorly exposed fault scarps cutting lava flows of Ute Mountain volcano. The Servilleta Basalt and younger surficial deposits record largely down-to-east basinward displacement. Faults are identified with varying confidence levels in the map area. Recognizing and mapping faults developed near the surface in young, brittle volcanic rocks is difficult because: (1) they tend to form fractured zones tens of meters wide rather than discrete fault planes, (2) the relative youth of the deposits has resulted in only modest displacements on most faults, and (3) some of the faults may have significant strike-slip components that do not result in large vertical offsets that are readily apparent in offset of sub-horizontal contacts. Those faults characterized as “certain” either have distinct offset of map units or had slip planes that were directly observed in the field. Lineaments defined from magnetic anomalies form an additional constraint on potential fault locations and are indicated as such on the map sheet.

  20. Physical and chemical characteristics of Terrace Reservoir, Conejos County, Colorado, May 1994 through May 1995; interim report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stogner, Robert W.; Edelmann, Patrick; Walton-Day, Katherine

    1996-01-01

    Terrace Reservoir receives drainage of low-pH, metal-enriched water from mineralized areas, including the Summitville Mine, within the AlamosaRiver Basin. Drainage from the Summitville Mine has contributed a substantial part of the metal load to Terrace Reservoir. From May 1994 through May 1995, a study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of Terrace Reservoir.Terrace Reservoir was thermally stratified from about mid-May through August 1994. Thermal stratification was absent from September\\x111994through March 1995. During periods of stratification, underflow of the Alamosa River was predominant, and residence times of the underflow were shortened by 40 to 75\\x11percent of the theoretical residence times for a well-mixed reservoir. Transport and deposition of suspended solids in Terrace Reservoir varied spatially and temporally. Most of the suspended solids were deposited in Terrace Reservoir. The concentration of dissolved oxygen in the reservoir varied little spatially or temporally and generally was within a few tenths of the dissolved-oxygen concentration of the inflow. The pH of water in the reservoir generally ranged from about 4.0 to about 7.0, depending on date, depth, and location. The largest pH values were measured during May. A markeddecrease of about 1.5\\x11pH units occurred at site T5 in the reservoir about mid-June. The pH of the reservoir remained at or below 5.5 from mid-June through November. Dissolved-metal concentrations varied spatially and temporally in response to several factors, which included inflow characteristics, reservoir stratification and mixing, inflow-routing and flow-through patterns, residence times, sedimentation, dissolved oxygen, and pH.Inflow chemistry is the dominant controlling factor of metal chemistry within Terrace Reservoir.During periods of stratification, large vertical variations in metal concentrations occurred. The highest metal concentrations in the reservoir generally were measured in the hypolimnion between June and August. During June, epilimnetic water of the reservoir had pH values greater than 6.0, and metal concentrations were lower than hypolimnetic concentrations. In the hypolimnion, pH values were less than 5.5. The difference between the chemistry of the epilimnion and the hypolimnion was due to differences in flow routing and residence times of water in those respective layers. The dissolved-metal concentrations were larger during July and August than during June.During September, small vertical variations in metalconcentrations occurred, and the dissolved-metal concentrations were nearly equivalent to the average August metal concentrations, indicatingthat the metal concentrations measured during September resulted largely from reservoir mixing.During March, the largest metal concentrationsoccurred in the epilimnion, where pH was about 5.5; in the hypolimnion, where the pH was about 6.0, dissolved-metal concentrations were substantially lower and reflected inflow concentrations.

  1. One-trial object recognition memory in the domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is disrupted by NMDA receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Kurt Leroy; Basurto, Enrique

    2013-08-01

    The spontaneous response to novelty is the basis of one-trial object recognition tests for the study of object recognition memory (ORM) in rodents. We describe an object recognition task for the rabbit, based on its natural tendency to scent-mark ("chin") novel objects. The object recognition task comprised a 15min sample phase in which the rabbit was placed into an open field arena containing two similar objects, then removed for a 5-360min delay, and then returned to the same arena that contained one object similar to the original ones ("Familiar") and one that differed from the original ones ("Novel"), for a 15min test phase. Chin-marks directed at each of the objects were registered. Some animals received injections (sc) of saline, ketamine (1mg/kg), or MK-801 (37μg/kg), 5 or 20min before the sample phase. We found that chinning decreased across the sample phase, and that this response showed stimulus specificity, a defining characteristic of habituation: in the test phase, chinning directed at the Novel, but not Familiar, object was increased. Chinning directed preferentially at the novel object, which we interpret as novelty-induced sensitization and the behavioral correlate of ORM, was promoted by tactile/visual and spatial novelty. ORM deficits were induced by pre-treatment with MK-801 and, to a lesser extent, ketamine. Novel object discrimination was not observed after delays longer than 5min. These results suggest that short-term habituation and sensitization, not long-term memory, underlie novel object discrimination in this test paradigm. PMID:23651879

  2. Molecular analysis of the microbiota in hard feces from healthy rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) medicated with long term oral meloxicam

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Analgesia is often indicated in rabbits undergoing surgical procedures or suffering from various painful conditions and the most common adverse effects associated with NSAIDs occur in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The objective of this study was to determine the potential effect of long-term (21 days) meloxicam administration on the fecal bacterial microbiota in healthy rabbits. Samples of hard feces were collected from six rabbits treated with meloxicam (1 mg/kg orally once every 24 h) on days 0,6,14 and 21. Next generation sequencing of V4 16S rRNA gene products was performed. Results A total of 2589912 V4 rRNA gene sequences passed all quality control filters. Firmicutes predominated (82.0 ± 6.2%). Sixteen other phyla were also identified but other than Verrucomicrobia (4.4 ± 4.9%), all accounted for less than 1% of the identified sequences. Within Firmicutes, Clostridia was the dominant class, accounting for 76% of operational taxon units (OTUs). In general, there were only few differences observed between time points and different rabbits at the phylum level. A significant change was observed in the relative abundance of Proteobacteria over the 4 time points (P = 0.02). Conclusions The gastrointestinal tract of rabbits harbors dense and diverse microbiota. Significant alteration of the hard fecal microbiota does not appear to be a considerable adverse effect expected in rabbits treated for 21 days with oral meloxicam at a dose of 1 mg/kg. PMID:24618207

  3. Development of the Lacrimal Apparatus in the Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and Its Potential Role as an Animal Model for Humans

    PubMed Central

    Rehorek, S. J.; Holland, J. R.; Johnson, J. L.; Caprez, J. M.; Cray, J.; Mooney, M. P.; Hillenius, W. J.; Smith, T. D.

    2011-01-01

    Rabbits have been proposed as a model organism for the human lacrimal apparatus (LA), including the nasolacrimal duct (NLD), based principally on comparative studies of adult morphology; however, little is known about its development. The NLD first appears as an incomplete primordium in the subcutaneous region of the primordial eyelid and subsequently elongates to reach the naris. One posterior and three anterior orbital glands are present fetally although one of the anterior glands is soon lost. The NLD follows a tortuous path and passes through a bony canal consisting of lacrimal, maxilla, and maxilloturbinal bones at different regions. Although early developmental similarities exist to haplorhine primates, the narial opening of the NLD resembles strepsirrhines. This distinction, along with the ductal and glandular differences at the orbital end of the NLD, indicates that rabbits may be a poor model for LA drainage in primates, specifically humans. PMID:22567296

  4. Exogenous and endogenous stages of Eimeria perforans naturally infected domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Saudi Arabia: Light microscopic study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Quraishy, Saleh

    2011-01-01

    Exogenous and endogenous stages of Eimeria perforans naturally infected rabbits in Saudi Arabia were described. The prevalence of infection was 75%. Oocysts were ovoid to elliptical and measured 16 × 10 μm. The four dizoic sporocysts were ovoid and measured 7 × 5 μm. Endogenous stages were restricted to the duodenum. Meronts, microgamonts, macrogamonts and young oocysts were recorded and described. PMID:23961159

  5. Hormonal and behavioral changes induced by acute and chronic experimental infestation with Psoroptes cuniculi in the domestic rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Parasitic diseases are important in animal production because they cause high economic losses. Affected animals often exhibit stereotypical behavioral alterations such as anorexia and inactivity, among others. Among the diseases that commonly affect domestic rabbits is mange, which is caused by the mite Psoroptes cuniculi. Therefore, within the context of the host-parasite relationship, it is critical to understand the mechanisms involved in the alteration of host behavior, in order to better utilize sick animal behavior as a strategy for diagnosis and treatment of disease. Methods Rabbits were infested placing mites in the ear conduct. We characterized changes in exploratory behavior and scent marking evoked by acute (1-9 days) and chronic (25-33 days) experimental infestation. Behavior was recorded during ten minutes while the animals were in a 120 cm × 120 cm open field arena divided into 9 squares. Serum cortisol was measured individually using radioimmunoassay kits. Locomotor activity, chinning, rearing and body weight were compared using a Friedman test, the effect of treatment (infested versus non-infested) across time was analyzed using a repeated measures ANOVA, and the Pearson test was used to determine whether chinning and ambulation scores were significantly correlated. Serum cortisol levels and food consumption were analyzed with a Kruskal-Wallis test and body temperature was analyzed with an ANOVA test. Results We observed a significant decrease in rearing behavior as early as two days post-infestation, while chinning and locomotor activity were significantly decreased four days post-infestation. Chronic infestation was associated with decreased food intake, significant weight loss, and a trend toward increased serum cortisol levels, while no changes were observed in body temperature. Conclusions The presence of visible lesions within the ear canal is commonly used to detect mite infestation in rabbits, but this is possible only after chronic infestation. The behaviors described here may be a useful and economic tool in guiding the early diagnosis of parasitic infestation by P. cuniculi, allowing for early treatment and the application of control measures before significant weight loss occurs, thereby avoiding economic losses. PMID:24354923

  6. Molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance in enterococci and Escherichia coli isolates from European wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Silva, Nuno; Igrejas, Gilberto; Figueiredo, Nicholas; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Radhouani, Hajer; Rodrigues, Jorge; Poeta, Patrícia

    2010-09-15

    A total of 44 Escherichia coli and 64 enterococci recovered from 77 intestinal samples of wild European rabbits in Portugal were analyzed for resistance to antimicrobial agents. Resistance in E. coli isolates was observed for ampicillin, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, streptomycin, gentamicin, tobramycin, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol. None of the E. coli isolates produced extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs). The bla(TEM), aadA, aac(3)-II, tet(A) and/or tet(B), and the catA genes were demonstrated in all ampicillin, streptomycin, gentamicin, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol-resistant isolates respectively, and the sul1 and/or sul2 and/or sul3 genes in 4 of 5 sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim resistant isolates. Of the enterococcal isolates, Enterococcus faecalis was the most prevalent detected species (39 isolates), followed by E. faecium (21 isolates) and E. hirae (4 isolates). More than one-fourth (29.7%) of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline; 20.3% were resistant to erythromycin, 14.1% were resistant to ciprofloxacin and 10.9% were resistant to high-level-kanamycin. Lower level of resistance (<10%) was detected for ampicillin, quinupristin/dalfopristin and high-level-gentamicin, -streptomycin. No vancomycin-resistance was detected in the enterococci isolates. Resistance genes detected included aac(6')-aph(2''), ant(6)-Ia, tet(M) and/or tet(L) in all gentamicin, streptomycin and tetracycline-resistant isolates respectively. The aph(3')-IIIa gene was detected in 6 of 7 kanamycin-resistant isolates, the erm(B) gene in 11 of 13 erythromycin-resistant isolates and the vat(D) gene in the quinupristin/dalfopristin-resistant E. faecium isolate. This survey showed that faecal bacteria such as E. coli and enterococci of wild rabbits could be a reservoir of antimicrobial resistance genes. PMID:20624632

  7. Electrocardiograms corresponding to the development of myocardial infarction in anesthetized WHHLMI rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), an animal model for familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Ito, Takashi; Yamada, Satoshi; Kuniyoshi, Nobue; Shiomi, Masashi

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether features indicative of myocardial ischemia occur in the electrocardiograms (ECG) in myocardial infarction-prone Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHLMI) rabbits, an animal model for human familial hypercholesterolemia. ECG were recorded in 110 anesthetized WHHLMI rabbits (age, 10 to 39 mo) by using unipolar and bipolar limb leads with or without chest leads. We noted the following electrocardiographic changes: T wave inversion (37.4%), ST segment depression (31.8%), deep Q wave (16.3%), reduced R wave amplitude (7.3%), ST segment elevation (2.7%), and high T wave (1.8%). These ECG changes resembled those in human patients with coronary heart disease. Histopathologic examination revealed that the left ventricular wall showed acute myocardial lesions, including loss of cross-striations, vacuolar degeneration, coagulation necrosis of cardiac myocytes, and edema between myofibrils, in addition to chronic myocardial lesions such as myocardial fibrosis. The coronary arteries that caused these ECG changes were severely stenosed due to atherosclerotic lesions. Ischemic ECG changes corresponded to the locations of the myocardial lesions. Normal ECG waveforms were similar between WHHLMI rabbits and humans, in contrast to the large differences between rabbits and mice or rats. In conclusion, ischemic ECG changes in WHHLMI rabbits reflect the location of myocardial lesions, making this model useful for studying coronary heart disease. PMID:23114045

  8. Increased virulence of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus associated with genetic resistance in wild Australian rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    PubMed Central

    Elsworth, Peter; Cooke, Brian D.; Kovaliski, John; Sinclair, Ronald; Holmes, Edward C.; Strive, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    The release of myxoma virus (MYXV) and Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) in Australia with the aim of controlling overabundant rabbits has provided a unique opportunity to study the initial spread and establishment of emerging pathogens, as well as their co-evolution with their mammalian hosts. In contrast to MYXV, which attenuated shortly after its introduction, rapid attenuation of RHDV has not been observed. By studying the change in virulence of recent field isolates at a single field site we show, for the first time, that RHDV virulence has increased through time, likely because of selection to overcome developing genetic resistance in Australian wild rabbits. High virulence also appears to be favoured as rabbit carcasses, rather than diseased animals, are the likely source of mechanical insect transmission. These findings not only help elucidate the co-evolutionary interaction between rabbits and RHDV, but reveal some of the key factors shaping virulence evolution. PMID:25146599

  9. Reference intervals for coagulation times using two point-of-care analysers in healthy pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Mentré, V; Bulliot, C; Linsart, A; Ronot, P

    2014-06-28

    The purpose of this study was to establish reference intervals for prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial prothrombin time (aPTT) in healthy rabbits using two different point-of-care analysers (Idexx Coag DX and MS Quick Vet Coag Combo). These intervals would be useful in the diagnosis of coagulopathies and in the determination of coagulation status in critical patients. We are unaware of reports of coagulation values in pet rabbits. Blood samples were analysed from 81 clinically healthy pet rabbits under three years of age (49 females and 32 males). The reference intervals were as follows (non-parametric method for the MS Quick Vet Coag Combo and Box-Cox Robust method for the Idexx Coag DX, p<0.05 limit for statistical significance): PT (MS Quick Vet Coag Combo)=N=33, 17.2-28.5; PT (Idexx Coag DX)=N=48, 10.0-14.8, aPTT (MS Quick Vet Coag Combo)=N=33, 103.2-159.2 and aPTT (Idexx Coag DX)=N=48, 104.2-159.1. PT was significantly longer using the MS Quick Vet Coag Combo. aPTT was significantly shorter with the MS Quick Vet Coag Combo. On each type of analyser, there was no significant difference between sexes and blood sampling sites. A significant difference was present for the use or not of anaesthesia with the MS Quick Vet Coag Combo analyser. This study on healthy pet rabbits will be useful in point-of-care diagnosis of coagulopathies. PMID:24722233

  10. Timing in Trace Conditioning of the Nictitating Membrane Response of the Rabbit ("Oryctolagus Cuniculus"): Scalar, Nonscalar, and Adaptive Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehoe, E. James; Ludvig, Elliot A.; Sutton, Richard S.

    2010-01-01

    Using interstimulus intervals (ISIs) of 125, 250, and 500 msec in trace conditioning of the rabbit nictitating membrane response, the offset times and durations of conditioned responses (CRs) were collected along with onset and peak latencies. All measures were proportional to the ISI, but only onset and peak latencies conformed to the criterion…

  11. 77 FR 22389 - State of Michigan Department of Transportation-Acquisition Exemption-Certain Assets of Norfolk...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board State of Michigan Department of Transportation--Acquisition Exemption... milepost 7.60 at Townline in Wayne County, Mich. to approximately milepost 119.60 at CP Baron in...

  12. 78 FR 57682 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Discontinuance of Service Exemption-in Monroe County, Mich.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... service over an approximately 1.7-mile line of railroad extending between milepost XV 0.0 and milepost XV 1.7, in Monroe County, Mich. (the Line). The Line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Code 48161. NSR has certified that: (1) No local traffic has moved over the Line for at least two years;...

  13. Toward a Theory of Historically Black College and University (HBCU) Distinctiveness: A Case Study of Norfolk State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arroyo, Andrew Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Research into Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) tends to be repetitive, anecdotal, and derivative. A need exists for new lines of research into these institutions. One way to facilitate this is by using social scientific mechanisms to develop HBCU-specific theoretical models to describe, explain, and predict the full range of…

  14. 78 FR 60375 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Discontinuance of Service Exemption-in Claiborne County, TN, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... adequately protects affected employees, a petition for partial revocation under 49 U.S.C. 10502(d) must be filed. Provided no formal expression of intent to file an offer of financial assistance (OFA)...

  15. 78 FR 67215 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Fayette and Wayne Counties, Ind.; C&NC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... protects affected employees, a petition for partial revocation under 49 U.S.C. 10502(d) must be filed. Provided no formal expression of intent to file an offer of financial assistance (OFA) has been...

  16. Symposium on Parallel Computational Methods for Large-scale Structural Analysis and Design, 2nd, Norfolk, VA, US

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storaasli, Olaf O. (Editor); Housner, Jerrold M. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Computing speed is leaping forward by several orders of magnitude each decade. Engineers and scientists gathered at a NASA Langley symposium to discuss these exciting trends as they apply to parallel computational methods for large-scale structural analysis and design. Among the topics discussed were: large-scale static analysis; dynamic, transient, and thermal analysis; domain decomposition (substructuring); and nonlinear and numerical methods.

  17. Geothermal energy development in the eastern United States geothermal space heating - Naval Air Rework Facility, Norfolk, Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, F. K.; Henderson, R. W.

    1980-06-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of using geothermal energy for space heating the Naval Air Rework Facility (NARF) electronic integration hangar was evaluated. The warm water output from a single well was used in several modes: to heat via a floor radiation system or via heat pumps, with and without a ground water reservoir to store heat in off hours.

  18. 78 FR 18677 - Nittany and Bald Eagle Railroad Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Nittany and Bald Eagle Railroad Company--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption... Nittany and Bald Eagle Railroad Company (N&BE) over NS's line of railroad between milepost BR 194.2,...

  19. Understanding 2H/1H systematics of leaf wax n-alkanes in coastal plants at Stiffkey saltmarsh, Norfolk, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eley, Yvette; Dawson, Lorna; Black, Stuart; Andrews, Julian; Pedentchouk, Nikolai

    2014-03-01

    Interpretation of sedimentary n-alkyl lipid δ2H data is complicated by a limited understanding of factors controlling interspecies variation in biomarker 2H/1H composition. To distinguish between the effects of interrelated environmental, physical and biochemical controls on the hydrogen isotope composition of n-alkyl lipids, we conducted linked δ2H analyses of soil water, xylem water, leaf water and n-alkanes from a range of C3 and C4 plants growing at a UK saltmarsh (i) across multiple sampling sites, (ii) throughout the 2012 growing season, and (iii) at different times of the day. Soil waters varied isotopically by up to 35‰ depending on marsh sub-environment, and exhibited site-specific seasonal shifts in δ2H up to a maximum of 31‰. Maximum interspecies variation in xylem water was 38‰, while leaf waters differed seasonally by a maximum of 29‰. Leaf wax n-alkane 2H/1H, however, consistently varied by over 100‰ throughout the 2012 growing season, resulting in an interspecies range in the ɛwax/leaf water values of -79‰ to -227‰. From the discrepancy in the magnitude of these isotopic differences, we conclude that mechanisms driving variation in the 2H/1H composition of leaf water, including (i) spatial changes in soil water 2H/1H, (ii) temporal changes in soil water 2H/1H, (iii) differences in xylem water 2H/1H, and (iv) differences in leaf water evaporative 2H-enrichment due to varied plant life forms, cannot explain the range of n-alkane δ2H values we observed. Results from this study suggests that accurate reconstructions of palaeoclimate regimes from sedimentary n-alkane δ2H require further research to constrain those biological mechanisms influencing species-specific differences in 2H/1H fractionation during lipid biosynthesis, in particular where plants have developed biochemical adaptations to water-stressed conditions. Understanding how these mechanisms interact with environmental conditions will be crucial to ensure accurate interpretation of hydrogen isotope signals from the geological record.

  20. Newcomers health in Brantford and the counties of Brant, Haldimand and Norfolk: perspectives of newcomers and service providers.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Bharati

    2013-10-01

    The Canadian government's plan to support a balanced distribution of immigrants throughout the nation has contributed to newcomers' dispersion to small town communities and rural areas. However, very little work has examined the health experiences of immigrants settling in smaller urban and rural regions. Even less literature exists on the perspectives of service providers working with newcomers in Canada's urban-rural communities. This paper focuses on a part of a larger Community-based study on 'Newcomer Settlement and Integration in Education, Training, Employment, Health and Social Support' in Brantford--a middle-sized urban/rural region in Ontario, Canada--and discusses the findings in the health domain. Data were generated from 212 service providers and 237 newcomers using both qualitative and quantitative research tools. Newcomers identified several barriers in accessing mental and/or physical health services including lack of culturally appropriate services and discrimination. The striking differences between newcomers' and service providers' responses to the survey questionnaires bring to light cultural variations between the newcomers' and the service providers' perceptions of 'health'. The findings reinforce the need for including newcomers in developing more inclusive and culturally-appropriate health services and programs. PMID:22773073

  1. Chirp seismic-reflection data from the Baltimore, Washington, and Norfolk Canyons, U.S. mid-Atlantic margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Obelcz, Jeffrey B.; Brothers, Daniel S.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Chaytor, Jason D.; Worley, Charles R.; Moore, Eric M.

    2014-01-01

    A large number of high-resolution geophysical surveys between Cape Hatteras and Georges Bank have been conducted by federal, state, and academic institutions since the turn of the century. A major goal of these surveys is providing a continuous view of bathymetry and shallow stratigraphy at the shelf edge in order to assess levels of geological activity during the current sea level highstand. In 2012, chirp seismic-reflection data was collected by the U.S. Geologial Survey aboard the motor vessel Tiki XIV near three United States mid-Atlantic margin submarine canyons. These data can be used to further our understanding of passive continental margin processes during the Holocene, as well as providing valuable information regarding potential submarine geohazards.

  2. 33 CFR 110.72aa - Elizabeth River Spectator Vessel Anchorage Areas, between Norfolk and Portsmouth, Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... line drawn between Hospital Point at latitude Latitude 36°50′50.5″ North, longitude 76°18′09.0″ West, and the tip of the channelside pier at the Holiday Inn Marina at latitude 36°50′29.5″ North, longitude... the Elizabeth River, bounded by the shore and a line drawn between Hospital Point at latitude...

  3. 33 CFR 110.72aa - Elizabeth River Spectator Vessel Anchorage Areas, between Norfolk and Portsmouth, Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... line drawn between Hospital Point at latitude Latitude 36°50′50.5″ North, longitude 76°18′09.0″ West, and the tip of the channelside pier at the Holiday Inn Marina at latitude 36°50′29.5″ North, longitude... the Elizabeth River, bounded by the shore and a line drawn between Hospital Point at latitude...

  4. 33 CFR 110.72aa - Elizabeth River Spectator Vessel Anchorage Areas, between Norfolk and Portsmouth, Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... line drawn between Hospital Point at latitude Latitude 36°50′50.5″ North, longitude 76°18′09.0″ West, and the tip of the channelside pier at the Holiday Inn Marina at latitude 36°50′29.5″ North, longitude... the Elizabeth River, bounded by the shore and a line drawn between Hospital Point at latitude...

  5. 33 CFR 110.72aa - Elizabeth River Spectator Vessel Anchorage Areas, between Norfolk and Portsmouth, Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... line drawn between Hospital Point at latitude Latitude 36°50′50.5″ North, longitude 76°18′09.0″ West, and the tip of the channelside pier at the Holiday Inn Marina at latitude 36°50′29.5″ North, longitude... the Elizabeth River, bounded by the shore and a line drawn between Hospital Point at latitude...

  6. 33 CFR 110.72aa - Elizabeth River Spectator Vessel Anchorage Areas, between Norfolk and Portsmouth, Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... line drawn between Hospital Point at latitude Latitude 36°50′50.5″ North, longitude 76°18′09.0″ West, and the tip of the channelside pier at the Holiday Inn Marina at latitude 36°50′29.5″ North, longitude... the Elizabeth River, bounded by the shore and a line drawn between Hospital Point at latitude...

  7. 77 FR 75016 - Safety Zone: Gilmerton Bridge Center Span Float-in, Elizabeth River; Norfolk, Portsmouth, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... around the Gilmerton Bridge center span barge (77 FR 73541). Inadvertently, this rule included an error... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone: Gilmerton Bridge Center Span Float-in... Federal Register an interim temporary final rule establishing a safety zone around the Gilmerton...

  8. 77 FR 73541 - Safety Zone: Gilmerton Bridge Center Span Float-in, Elizabeth River; Norfolk, Portsmouth, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... Gilmerton Bridge Area (77 FR 43557) on September 5-9, 2012. We received no comments on the proposed rule... CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone: Gilmerton Bridge Center Span Float-in, Elizabeth River...-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR...

  9. 77 FR 35900 - Safety Zone; Gilmerton Bridge Center Span Float-in, Elizabeth River; Norfolk, Portsmouth, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Gilmerton Bridge Center Span Float-in... provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during the Gilmerton Bridge Center Span Float- in and... INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of...

  10. 76 FR 35508 - Alabama Southern Railroad, L.L.C.-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Alabama Southern Railroad, L.L.C.--Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption... to Alabama Southern Railroad, L.L.C. (ABS) over a portion of NSR's line of railroad between...

  11. 75 FR 56653 - Middletown & New Jersey Railroad, LLC-Lease and Operation Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ...) The Hudson Secondary located between mileposts LX 2.1 and LX 20.6 (18.5 miles in length); (2) the... 63.14, at Hudson Jct., NY, and milepost LX 2.1, at Hudson Jct. (approximately .35-miles in length... proceeding is revoked. 2. This decision is effective on the date of service. Decided: September 13, 2010....

  12. Proceedings of a National Multicultural Seminar on Mental Retardation among Minority Disadvantaged Populations (Norfolk, Virginia, October 10-12, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.

    The National Multicultural Seminar on Mental Retardation among Minority Disadvantaged Populations was initiated in response to concern about the root causes of mental retardation especially in mild forms which tend to be more prevalent and more devastating among persons living in depressed, disrupted, and impoverished environments. Nineteen papers…

  13. Combined Impact of Health Behaviours and Mortality in Men and Women: The EPIC-Norfolk Prospective Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Bingham, Sheila; Welch, Ailsa; Luben, Robert; Day, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    Background There is overwhelming evidence that behavioural factors influence health, but their combined impact on the general population is less well documented. We aimed to quantify the potential combined impact of four health behaviours on mortality in men and women living in the general community. Methods and Findings We examined the prospective relationship between lifestyle and mortality in a prospective population study of 20,244 men and women aged 45–79 y with no known cardiovascular disease or cancer at baseline survey in 1993–1997, living in the general community in the United Kingdom, and followed up to 2006. Participants scored one point for each health behaviour: current non-smoking, not physically inactive, moderate alcohol intake (1–14 units a week) and plasma vitamin C >50 mmol/l indicating fruit and vegetable intake of at least five servings a day, for a total score ranging from zero to four. After an average 11 y follow-up, the age-, sex-, body mass–, and social class–adjusted relative risks (95% confidence intervals) for all-cause mortality(1,987 deaths) for men and women who had three, two, one, and zero compared to four health behaviours were respectively, 1.39 (1.21–1.60), 1.95 (1.70–-2.25), 2.52 (2.13–3.00), and 4.04 (2.95–5.54) p < 0.001 trend. The relationships were consistent in subgroups stratified by sex, age, body mass index, and social class, and after excluding deaths within 2 y. The trends were strongest for cardiovascular causes. The mortality risk for those with four compared to zero health behaviours was equivalent to being 14 y younger in chronological age. Conclusions Four health behaviours combined predict a 4-fold difference in total mortality in men and women, with an estimated impact equivalent to 14 y in chronological age. PMID:18184033

  14. 78 FR 16913 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Temporary Trackage Rights Exemption-Grand Trunk Western Railroad...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ... ] trackage rights to expire 24 months after the commencement date of the agreement, or the date that the Gary City Track Connection, which is located at or near Gary, Ind., is completed and in use, whichever comes...; and (2) between milepost 36.1 in Griffith and CN's Kirk Yard at or near milepost 45.4 in Gary on...

  15. 78 FR 35659 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Discontinuance of Service Exemption-in Tipton and Howard...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... discontinue service over an approximately 10.8-mile rail line between milepost I-41.0 (north of Market Road near Tipton) and milepost ] I-51.8 (near the intersection of E. Lincoln Road and Home Avenue, in Kokomo... 49 CFR 1105.8(b), respectively. A copy of any petition filed with the Board should be sent to...

  16. Monitoring the spread of myxoma virus in rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus populations on the southern tablelands of New South Wales, Australia. I. Natural occurrence of myxomatosis.

    PubMed

    Merchant, J C; Kerr, P J; Simms, N G; Robinson, A J

    2003-02-01

    A survey of rabbit populations in the southern tablelands of New South Wales, Australia, was carried out to establish the pattern of occurrence of myxomatosis in preparation for a deliberate release of myxoma virus. Myxomatosis was first detected in December and cases were found on most sites through to May. The serological profiles of rabbit populations suggested that their susceptibility to myxoma virus was generally low in winter and highest in spring and summer reflecting the presence of increasing numbers of susceptible young rabbits. This was consistent with the pattern of rabbit breeding, as determined from the distribution of births and reproductive activity in females and males, which occurred maximally in spring and early summer. The serology and age structure of rabbit populations on sites suggested that some rabbit populations can escape an annual myxomatosis epizootic. Although fleas were present on rabbits throughout the year and therefore not considered to be a limiting factor in the spread of myxomatosis, their numbers peaked at times coincident with peak rabbit breeding. It was concluded that mid to late spring was an optimal time for a deliberate release. PMID:12613753

  17. Early infections by myxoma virus of young rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) protected by maternal antibodies activate their immune system and enhance herd immunity in wild populations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The role of maternal antibodies is to protect newborns against acute early infection by pathogens. This can be achieved either by preventing any infection or by allowing attenuated infections associated with activation of the immune system, the two strategies being based on different cost/benefit ratios. We carried out an epidemiological survey of myxomatosis, which is a highly lethal infectious disease, in two distant wild populations of rabbits to describe the epidemiological pattern of the disease. Detection of specific IgM and IgG enabled us to describe the pattern of immunity. We show that maternal immunity attenuates early infection of juveniles and enables activation of their immune system. This mechanism associated with steady circulation of the myxoma virus in both populations, which induces frequent reinfections of immune rabbits, leads to the maintenance of high immunity levels within populations. Thus, myxomatosis has a low impact, with most infections being asymptomatic. This work shows that infection of young rabbits protected by maternal antibodies induces attenuated disease and activates their immune system. This may play a major role in reducing the impact of a highly lethal disease when ecological conditions enable permanent circulation of the pathogen. PMID:24589193

  18. A deletion in exon 9 of the LIPH gene is responsible for the rex hair coat phenotype in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Diribarne, Mathieu; Mata, Xavier; Chantry-Darmon, Céline; Vaiman, Anne; Auvinet, Gérard; Bouet, Stéphan; Deretz, Séverine; Cribiu, Edmond-Paul; de Rochambeau, Hubert; Allain, Daniel; Guérin, Gérard

    2011-01-01

    The fur of common rabbits is constituted of 3 types of hair differing in length and diameter while that of rex animals is essentially made up of amazingly soft down-hair. Rex short hair coat phenotypes in rabbits were shown to be controlled by three distinct loci. We focused on the "r1" mutation which segregates at a simple autosomal-recessive locus in our rabbit strains. A positional candidate gene approach was used to identify the rex gene and the corresponding mutation. The gene was primo-localized within a 40 cM region on rabbit chromosome 14 by genome scanning families of 187 rabbits in an experimental mating scheme. Then, fine mapping refined the region to 0.5 cM (Z = 78) by genotyping an additional 359 offspring for 94 microsatellites present or newly generated within the first defined interval. Comparative mapping pointed out a candidate gene in this 700 kb region, namely LIPH (Lipase Member H). In humans, several mutations in this major gene cause alopecia, hair loss phenotypes. The rabbit gene structure was established and a deletion of a single nucleotide was found in LIPH exon 9 of rex rabbits (1362delA). This mutation results in a frameshift and introduces a premature stop codon potentially shortening the protein by 19 amino acids. The association between this deletion and the rex phenotype was complete, as determined by its presence in our rabbit families and among a panel of 60 rex and its absence in all 60 non-rex rabbits. This strongly suggests that this deletion, in a homozygous state, is responsible for the rex phenotype in rabbits. PMID:21552526

  19. Effects of Multimodal Analgesia with Low-Dose Buprenorphine and Meloxicam on Fecal Glucocorticoid Metabolites after Surgery in New Zealand White Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    PubMed Central

    Goldschlager, Gregg B; Gillespie, Virginia L; Palme, Rupert; Baxter, Mark G

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increasing use of rabbits as companion animals and models for biomedical research, rabbits have not been extensively studied to identify an efficacious postsurgical analgesic that does not cause systemic complications. The synergy of NSAID and systemic opioids is well-documented, and their combined use reduces the amount of either drug required for adequate analgesia. We measured fecal corticosterone metabolites (FCM) in rabbits after a minimally invasive vascular cut-down procedure. Rabbits received buprenorphine (0.03 mg/kg SC every 12 h for 3 d), meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg SC every 24 h for 3 d), buprenorphine–meloxicam (0.01 mg/kg–0.1 mg/kg SC every 24 h for 3 d), or a single dose of 0.5% bupivacaine (0.5 mL) infused locally at the incision site. By day 3 after surgery, buprenorphine, meloxicam, and bupivacaine groups showed elevated FCM levels, which continued to rise until day 7 and then gradually returned to baseline by day 28. In the buprenorphine–meloxicam group, FCM was relatively unchanged until day 3, when treatment was discontinued, and then began to rise. Rabbits in the buprenorphine–meloxicam group gained more weight over the 28-d study than did those in the other 3 treatment groups. This study shows that in rabbits low-dose buprenorphine administered with meloxicam effectively mitigates the FCM response that develops after surgery without the adverse effects associated with higher doses. PMID:24041213

  20. Compensatory Aspects of Allele Diversity at Immunoglobulin Loci: Gene Correlations in Rabbit Populations Devoid of Light Chain Diversity (Oryctolagus Cuniculus L.; Kerguelen Islands)

    PubMed Central

    van-der-Loo, W.; Bousses, P.; Arthur, C. P.; Chapuis, J. L.

    1996-01-01

    Is there a selective advantage of increased diversity at one immunoglobulin locus when diversity at another locus is low? A previous paper demonstrated excess heterozygosity at the rabbit light chain b locus when heterozygosity was low at the heavy chain constant region e locus. Here we consider the reverse situation by analyzing allele distributions at heavy chain loci in populations fixed for the light chain b locus. We analyzed the a locus that encodes the predominantly expressed heavy chain variable region, and the d and e loci that control different parts of the Ig gamma class constant region. While there was excess heterozygosity, genetic differentiation between localities was extensive and was most pronounced for females. This was in marked contrast with observations in areas where b-locus diversity was important and confirms a negative correlation between e- and b-locus heterozygosity. Trigenic disequilibria corresponded to a significant negative correlation between e- and a-locus heterozygosity due mainly to strong variation among localities within the context of pronounced (digenic) linkage disequilibria. Although substantial, the average increase in a/e-locus single heterozygosity implemented by higher order disequilibria within localities was not significant. PMID:8913759

  1. Comparative nuclear magnetic resonance studies of diffusional water permeability of red blood cells from different species. V--Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Benga, G; Matei, H; Borza, T; Poruţiu, D; Lupşe, C

    1993-10-01

    1. The diffusional water permeability (Pd) of rabbit red blood cell (RBC) membrane has been monitored by a doping nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique on control cells and following inhibition with p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonate (PCMBS). 2. The values of Pd were around 6.3 x 10(-3) cm/sec at 15 degrees C, 7.0 x 10(-3) cm/sec at 20 degrees C, 8.0 x 10(-3) cm/sec at 25 degrees C, 9.1 x 10(-3) cm/sec at 30 degrees C and 10.7 x 10(-3) cm/sec at 37 degrees C. 3. Systematic studies on the effects of PCMBS on water diffusion indicated that the maximal inhibition was reached in 15 min at 37 degrees C with 0.5 mM PCMBS. 4. The values of maximal inhibition were around 71-74% at all temperatures. 5. The basal permeability to water was estimated as 1.6 x 10(-3) cm/sec at 15 degrees C, 2.0 x 10(-3) cm/sec at 20 degrees C, 2.4 x 10(-3) cm/sec at 25 degrees C, 2.6 x 10(-3) cm/sec at 30 degrees C, and 3.1 x 10(-3) cm/sec at 37 degrees C. 6. The activation energy of water diffusion was around 18 kJ/mol and increased to 27 kcal/mol after incubation with PCMBS in conditions of maximal inhibition of water diffusion. 7. The membrane polypeptide electrophoretic pattern of rabbit RBCs has been compared with its human counterpart. 8. The rabbit membrane contained a higher amount of spectrin (bands 1 and 2), while the band 6 (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) was markedly less intense.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8243057

  2. A case of Tinea nigra associated to a bite from a European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus, Leporidae): the role of dermoscopy in diagnosis*

    PubMed Central

    Rossetto, André Luiz; Corrêa, Patricia Rossetto; Cruz, Rosana Cé Bella; Pereira, Eduardo Figueiredo; Haddad Junior, Vidal

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of Tinea nigra in an adolescent living in Itapema, Santa Catarina, Brazil, who presented a hyperchromic macule on the palm of the left hand, close to another erythematous macule caused by a rabbit bite. The patient received guidance on accidents and animal bites and evolved well treated with topical butenafine for the dermatomycosis. The authors also highlight the efficacy of the dermoscopic exam in diagnosing Tinea nigra with animal bite lesions and other traumas. PMID:24626667

  3. A case of Tinea nigra associated to a bite from a European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus, Leporidae): the role of dermoscopy in diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Rossetto, André Luiz; Corrêa, Patricia Rossetto; Cruz, Rosana Cé Bella; Pereira, Eduardo Figueiredo; Haddad Filho, Vidal

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of Tinea nigra in an adolescent living in Itapema, Santa Catarina, Brazil, who presented a hyperchromic macule on the palm of the left hand, close to another erythematous macule caused by a rabbit bite. The patient received guidance on accidents and animal bites and evolved well treated with topical butenafine for the dermatomycosis. The authors also highlight the efficacy of the dermoscopic exam in diagnosing Tinea nigra with animal bite lesions and other traumas. PMID:24626667

  4. Detection of the new emerging rabbit haemorrhagic disease type 2 virus (RHDV2) in Sicily from rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and Italian hare (Lepus corsicanus).

    PubMed

    Camarda, A; Pugliese, N; Cavadini, P; Circella, E; Capucci, L; Caroli, A; Legretto, M; Mallia, E; Lavazza, A

    2014-12-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), a member of the genus Lagovirus, causes rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD), a fatal hepatitis of rabbits, not previously reported in hares. Recently, a new RHDV-related virus emerged, called RHDV2. This lagovirus can cause RHD in rabbits and disease and mortality in Lepus capensis (Cape hare). Here we describe a case of RHDV2 infection in another hare species, Lepus corsicanus, during a concurrent RHD outbreak in a group of wild rabbits. The same RHDV2 strain infected rabbits and a hare, also causing a RHD-like syndrome in the latter. Our findings confirmed the capability of RHDV2 to infect hosts other than rabbits and improve the knowledge about the epidemiology and the host range of this new lagovirus. PMID:25458493

  5. In vitro study and comparison of caecal methanogenesis and fermentation pattern in the brown hare (Lepus europaeus) and domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Miśta, Dorota; Króliczewska, Bożena; Marounek, Milan; Pecka, Ewa; Zawadzki, Wojciech; Nicpoń, Józef

    2015-01-01

    The brown hare and the domestic rabbit are mid-sized herbivorous mammals and hindgut fermenters, though their digestive physiologies differ in some traits. The objective of this study was to estimate and compare the caecal microbial activity in hares and rabbits via an analysis of the following end-products of in vitro caecal fermentation: methane, total gas production, short chain fatty acids and ammonia concentration. Hare caecal methanogenesis occurred at a much lower level (0.25 mmol/kg for samples incubated without substrate and 0.22 mmol/kg for samples incubated with substrate) than that of the rabbit (15.49 and 11.73 mmol/kg, respectively) (P<0.001). The impact of the substrate's presence on caecal methanogenesis was not significant, though its presence increased the total gas production during fermentation (P<0.001). Hare caecal microflora produced a lower short chain fatty acids concentration than did rabbit microorganisms (P<0.05). In unincubated hare samples, the short chain fatty acids concentration was 28.4 mmol/kg, whereas in unincubated rabbit samples, the short chain fatty acids concentration was 51.8 mmol/kg. The caecal fermentation pattern of the hare was characterised by higher propionate and isobutyrate molar proportions compared with those observed in rabbit caecum (P<0.01). No significant changes in the ammonia concentration in either rabbit or hare caecum were found. The results obtained indicate some differences in the activity of the microbial populations colonising the hare and rabbit caecum, particularly in regards to methanogenic Archaea. PMID:25629411

  6. In Vitro Study and Comparison of Caecal Methanogenesis and Fermentation Pattern in the Brown Hare (Lepus europaeus) and Domestic Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    PubMed Central

    Miśta, Dorota; Króliczewska, Bożena; Marounek, Milan; Pecka, Ewa; Zawadzki, Wojciech; Nicpoń, Józef

    2015-01-01

    The brown hare and the domestic rabbit are mid-sized herbivorous mammals and hindgut fermenters, though their digestive physiologies differ in some traits. The objective of this study was to estimate and compare the caecal microbial activity in hares and rabbits via an analysis of the following end-products of in vitro caecal fermentation: methane, total gas production, short chain fatty acids and ammonia concentration. Hare caecal methanogenesis occurred at a much lower level (0.25 mmol/kg for samples incubated without substrate and 0.22 mmol/kg for samples incubated with substrate) than that of the rabbit (15.49 and 11.73 mmol/kg, respectively) (P<0.001). The impact of the substrate’s presence on caecal methanogenesis was not significant, though its presence increased the total gas production during fermentation (P<0.001). Hare caecal microflora produced a lower short chain fatty acids concentration than did rabbit microorganisms (P<0.05). In unincubated hare samples, the short chain fatty acids concentration was 28.4 mmol/kg, whereas in unincubated rabbit samples, the short chain fatty acids concentration was 51.8 mmol/kg. The caecal fermentation pattern of the hare was characterised by higher propionate and isobutyrate molar proportions compared with those observed in rabbit caecum (P<0.01). No significant changes in the ammonia concentration in either rabbit or hare caecum were found. The results obtained indicate some differences in the activity of the microbial populations colonising the hare and rabbit caecum, particularly in regards to methanogenic Archaea. PMID:25629411

  7. Early infections by myxoma virus of young rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) protected by maternal antibodies activate their immune system and enhance herd immunity in wild populations.

    PubMed

    Marchandeau, Stéphane; Pontier, Dominique; Guitton, Jean-Sébastien; Letty, Jérôme; Fouchet, David; Aubineau, Jacky; Berger, Francis; Léonard, Yves; Roobrouck, Alain; Gelfi, Jacqueline; Peralta, Brigitte; Bertagnoli, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    The role of maternal antibodies is to protect newborns against acute early infection by pathogens. This can be achieved either by preventing any infection or by allowing attenuated infections associated with activation of the immune system, the two strategies being based on different cost/benefit ratios. We carried out an epidemiological survey of myxomatosis, which is a highly lethal infectious disease, in two distant wild populations of rabbits to describe the epidemiological pattern of the disease. Detection of specific IgM and IgG enabled us to describe the pattern of immunity. We show that maternal immunity attenuates early infection of juveniles and enables activation of their immune system. This mechanism associated with steady circulation of the myxoma virus in both populations, which induces frequent reinfections of immune rabbits, leads to the maintenance of high immunity levels within populations. Thus, myxomatosis has a low impact, with most infections being asymptomatic. This work shows that infection of young rabbits protected by maternal antibodies induces attenuated disease and activates their immune system. This may play a major role in reducing the impact of a highly lethal disease when ecological conditions enable permanent circulation of the pathogen. PMID:24589193

  8. Phase II Characterization Survey of the USNS Bridge (T-AOE 10), Military Sealift Fleet Support Command, Naval Station, Norfolk, Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    ALTIC, NICK A

    2012-08-30

    In March 2011, the USNS Bridge was deployed off northeastern Honshu, Japan with the carrier USS Ronald Reagan to assist with relief efforts after the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami. During that time, the Bridge was exposed to air-borne radioactive materials leaking from the damaged Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant. The proximity of the Bridge to the air-borne impacted area resulted in the contamination of the ship’s air-handling systems and the associated components, as well as potential contamination of other ship surfaces due to either direct intake/deposition or inadvertent spread from crew/operational activities. Preliminary surveys in the weeks after the event confirmed low-level contamination within the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) ductwork and systems, and engine and other auxiliary air intake systems. Some partial decontamination was performed at that time. In response to the airborne contamination event, Military Sealift Fleet Support Command (MSFSC) contracted Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under provisions of the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, to assess the radiological condition of the Bridge. Phase I identified contamination within the CPS filters, ventilation systems, miscellaneous equipment, and other suspect locations that could not accessed at that time (ORAU 2011b). Because the Bridge was underway during the characterization, all the potentially impacted systems/spaces could not be investigated. As a result, MSFSC contracted with ORAU to perform Phase II of the characterization, specifically to survey systems/spaces previously inaccessible. During Phase II of the characterization, the ship was in port to perform routine maintenance operations, allowing access to the previously inaccessible systems/spaces.

  9. The taphonomy of a Middle Devensian (MIS 3) vertebrate assemblage from Lynford, Norfolk, UK, and its implications for Middle Palaeolithic subsistence strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreve, Danielle C.

    2006-07-01

    The association of a rich lithic assemblage with a Middle Devensian mammalian assemblage at Lynford was initially thought indicative of a mammoth butchery locality, a rare occurrence for a European Middle Palaeolithic open site. However, taphonomic analyses suggest that the specimens have very different depositional histories and were incorporated into a palaeochannel in several stages. Most specimens are extremely fragmentary, probably the result of extensive trampling, and signs of weathering and root-damage provide further indications of exposure before burial. Carnivore damage is minimal but establishing the degree of interaction between the mammal fauna and alternative predators, such as Neanderthals, is problematic. Direct evidence of butchery is not present and the best indication of any form of mammoth exploitation lies in more circumstantial evidence such as the virtual absence of long bones from the main channel deposit and the mammoth age profiles. Instances of pathologies are also unusually common in the mammoths, implying that their greater vulnerability may have led to an accelerated demise either naturally or at the hands of a predator. The best evidence for direct faunal exploitation at the site is from green bone fractures and broken teeth that suggest marrow extraction in horse, reindeer and woolly rhinoceros. Copyright

  10. Immunization of babies born to HBsAg positive mothers: An audit on the delivery and completeness of follow up in Norfolk and Suffolk, United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Keeble, Stuart; Quested, Jane; Barker, Deborah; Varadarajan, Abina; Shankar, Ananda Giri

    2015-01-01

    Perinatal transmission of hepatitis B infection has increased in the UK over the last decade. Routine antenatal screening of pregnant mothers (based on HBsAg) provides an effective means to identify 'at risk' babies. Follow up of babies born to infected mothers involves 4 doses of vaccination and/or a single dose of HBIG at birth. In this study we report the outcome of follow up of babies born to infected mothers over a 5 y period. One hundred sixty-three babies born to HBsAg positive mothers were followed up to ascertain the completeness for immunization and serological testing. Vaccination completion was 99.4% (162 of babies) at birth (1st dose), 95.6% (152 babies) for the second dose (at 1st month), 94.3 % (148 babies) for the 3rd dose (at 2nd month) and 83.4% (106 babies) for the 4th dose (at 12 months). Additionally, at 12 months 29.9% (38) of babies had their blood tested serologically to ascertain infection status; all babies receiving antigen testing were HBsAg negative. The overall vaccination coverage was good, although there is scope to improve the coverage of 4th dose. However, the proportion of children who were serologically tested for surface antigen at 12 months was considerably lower and there is a greater need to test babies concurrently at the time of giving the 4(th) dose. The proposed dried blood spot testing which will be rolled out from September 2014 should address this issue. PMID:25876072

  11. Crowdsourcing as a Novel Technique for Retinal Fundus Photography Classification: Analysis of Images in the EPIC Norfolk Cohort on Behalf of the UKBiobank Eye and Vision Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Mitry, Danny; Peto, Tunde; Hayat, Shabina; Morgan, James E.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Aim Crowdsourcing is the process of outsourcing numerous tasks to many untrained individuals. Our aim was to assess the performance and repeatability of crowdsourcing for the classification of retinal fundus photography. Methods One hundred retinal fundus photograph images with pre-determined disease criteria were selected by experts from a large cohort study. After reading brief instructions and an example classification, we requested that knowledge workers (KWs) from a crowdsourcing platform classified each image as normal or abnormal with grades of severity. Each image was classified 20 times by different KWs. Four study designs were examined to assess the effect of varying incentive and KW experience in classification accuracy. All study designs were conducted twice to examine repeatability. Performance was assessed by comparing the sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results Without restriction on eligible participants, two thousand classifications of 100 images were received in under 24 hours at minimal cost. In trial 1 all study designs had an AUC (95%CI) of 0.701(0.680–0.721) or greater for classification of normal/abnormal. In trial 1, the highest AUC (95%CI) for normal/abnormal classification was 0.757 (0.738–0.776) for KWs with moderate experience. Comparable results were observed in trial 2. In trial 1, between 64–86% of any abnormal image was correctly classified by over half of all KWs. In trial 2, this ranged between 74–97%. Sensitivity was ≥96% for normal versus severely abnormal detections across all trials. Sensitivity for normal versus mildly abnormal varied between 61–79% across trials. Conclusions With minimal training, crowdsourcing represents an accurate, rapid and cost-effective method of retinal image analysis which demonstrates good repeatability. Larger studies with more comprehensive participant training are needed to explore the utility of this compelling technique in large scale medical image analysis. PMID:23990935

  12. 19. General view showing garneting machine number eight on right, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. General view showing garneting machine number eight on right, and garneting machines numbers four through seven on left in background - Norfolk Manufacturing Company Cotton Mill, 90 Milton Street, Dedham, Norfolk County, MA

  13. 11. Power room, view of Westinghouse steam turbine: turbine RPM6,000, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Power room, view of Westinghouse steam turbine: turbine RPM-6,000, governor RPM-1017, turbine number 8695, manufactured by Westinghouse Electric Manufacturing company, East Pittsburg, Pennsylvania - Norfolk Manufacturing Company Cotton Mill, 90 Milton Street, Dedham, Norfolk County, MA

  14. Accuracy and coverage assessment of Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit) Genes Encoding Immunoglobulins in the Whole Genome Sequence Assembly (OryCun2.0) and Localization of the IGH Locus to Chromosome 20

    PubMed Central

    Gertz, E. Michael; Schäffer, Alejandro A.; Agarwala, Richa; Bonnet-Garnier, Amélie; Rogel-Gaillard, Claire; Hayes, Hélène; Mage, Rose G.

    2013-01-01

    We report analyses of genes encoding immunoglobulin heavy and light chains in the rabbit 6.51x whole genome assembly. This OryCun2.0 assembly confirms previous mapping of the duplicated IGK1 and IGK2 loci to chromosome 2 and the IGL lambda light chain locus to chromosome 21. The most frequently rearranged and expressed IGHV1 that is closest to IG DH and IGHJ genes encodes rabbit VHa allotypes. The partially inbred Thorbecke strain rabbit used for whole-genome sequencing was homozygous at the IGK but heterozygous with the IGHV1a1 allele in one of 79 IGHV-containing unplaced scaffolds and IGHV1a2, IGHM, IGHG and IGHE sequences in another. Some IGKV, IGLV and IGHA genes are also in other unplaced scaffolds. By fluorescence in situ hybridization, we assigned the previously unmapped IGH locus to the q-telomeric region of rabbit chromosome 20. An approximately 3 Mb segment of human chromosome 14 including IGH genes predicted to map to this telomeric region based on synteny analysis could not be located on assembled chromosome 20. Unplaced scaffold chrUn0053 contains some of the genes that comparative mapping predicts to be missing. We identified discrepancies between previous targeted studies and the OryCun2.0 assembly and some new BAC clones with IGH sequences that can guide other studies to further sequence and improve the OryCun2.0 assembly. Complete knowledge of gene sequences encoding variable regions of rabbit heavy, kappa and lambda chains will lead to better understanding of how and why rabbits produce antibodies of high specificity and affinity through gene conversion and somatic hypermutation. PMID:23925440

  15. Monitoring the spread of myxoma virus in rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus populations on the southern tablelands of New South Wales, Australia. II. Selection of a strain of virus for release.

    PubMed

    Kerr, P J; Merchant, J C; Silvers, L; Hood, G M; Robinson, A J

    2003-02-01

    To be able to study the dynamics of myxoma virus spread following a release in the field, a strain of virus is required that is both highly transmissible and readily differentiated from other field strains. Eight strains of virus of known virulence for laboratory rabbits and with previously mapped and sequenced restriction fragment length polymorphisms, were used to infect groups of seronegative wild rabbits. Based on these trials, and on the nature of the DNA polymorphism, a virus designated Brooklands/2-93 was chosen as a strain suitable for experimental release. These trials confirmed that resistance to myxomatosis within wild rabbit populations continues to be substantial and that some rabbits are highly resistant. These rabbits probably have little role in transmission of virus. Most of the virus strains tested induced very small or invisible primary lesions at the inoculation site. Thus the secondary skin sites such as eyelids, face and ears may be critical for transmission. PMID:12613754

  16. Variance Analysis of Immunoglobulin Alleles in Natural Populations of Rabbit (Oryctolagus Cuniculus): The Extensive Interallelic Divergence at the B Locus Could Be the Outcome of Overdominance-Type Selection

    PubMed Central

    van-der-Loo, W.

    1993-01-01

    Population genetic data are presented which should contribute to evaluation of the hypothesis that the extraordinary evolutionary patterns observed at the b locus of the rabbit immunoglobulin light chain constant region can be the outcome of overdominance-type selection. The analysis of allele correlations in natural populations revealed an excess of heterozygotes of about 10% at the b locus while heterozygote excess was not observed at loci determining the immunoglobulin heavy chain. Data from the published literature, where homozygote advantage was suggested, were reevaluated and found in agreement with data here presented. Gene diversity was evenly distributed among populations and showed similarities with patterns reported for histocompatibility loci. Analysis of genotypic disequilibria revealed strong digenic associations between the leading alleles of heavy and light chain constant region loci in conjunction with trigenic disequilibria corresponding to a preferential association of b locus heterozygosity with the predominant allele of the heavy chain e locus. It is argued that this may indicate compensatory or nonadditive aspects of a putative heterozygosity enhancing mechanism, implying that effects at the light chain might be more pronounced in populations fixed for the heavy chain polymorphism. PMID:8224818

  17. 76 FR 6517 - San Luis & Rio Grande Railroad-Petition for a Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... a.m. (local time), in Our Lady of Guadalupe Parish Hall, 6631 County Road 13, Conejos, Colorado... should place their names on the list of speakers upon arrival at the Parish Hall of Our Lady of...

  18. At the risk of floodwaters: historical flood risk and its social impacts in the area of the Wash in eastern England (Cambridgeshire, Norfolk, Lincolnshire) Mid 17th century-end of the 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, E.

    2015-07-01

    The floods were classified according to a severity scale derived from the contents of the historical sources. It enables an evaluation of these events in spite of the lack of instrumental data for the major part of period. It shows that the chronology and the severity of the floods in this part of England were contradictory from one century to another one and that their origins, as their seasonality, underwent not insignificant changes. The paper then shows that local societies (urban and rural) did not passively accept these extreme climate events. It shows that the flood questioned directly challenged the socioeconomic balance of the populations and that they tried to face it in a pragmatic and sustainable way.

  19. Empowering People through Technology. Proceedings of the International Conference of the Association for the Development of Computer-Based Instructional Systems (34th, Norfolk, Virginia, November 8-11, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for the Development of Computer-based Instructional Systems.

    These proceedings present 74 selected abstracts and 47 selected formal papers under 14 special interest group headings. Topics addressed by the papers include constructing multimedia; interactive video; computers in secondary school mathematics; access in computer-based instruction; implementing computer-based technology; advisor development;…

  20. Positive Academic and Behavioral Supports: Creating Safe, Effective, and Nurturing Schools for All Students. Highlights from the Forum on Positive Academic and Behavioral Supports (Norfolk, Virginia, February 18-19, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Lyndal M., Ed.; Gable, Robert A., Ed.

    This document presents major presentations and conference highlights from a February 2000 conference on providing positive academic and behavioral supports to students with behavior disorders to maximize education in the least restrictive environment as required under the 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. The…

  1. 76 FR 56196 - Notice of Agreement Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... Counsel & Environmental Officer, CMA CGM (America) LLC, 5701 Lake Wright Drive, Norfolk, VA 23502... the Federal Maritime Commission. Dated: September 7, 2011. Karen V. Gregory, Secretary. BILLING...

  2. RADIOLOGICAL SURVEY AT THE HAMPTON ROADS HARBOR FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A radiological survey done to assess levels of environmental radioactivity in and around harbor facilities located in the Hampton Roads Area in southeastern Virginia. The facilities surveyed were the Norfolk Naval Shipyard, the Norfolk Naval Station, and the Newport News Shipbui...

  3. 75 FR 66741 - Procurement List, Additions and Deletions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ...@AbilityOne.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 6/19/2009 (74 FR 29187-29189) and 9/10/2010 (75 FR 55309-55310), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled published... Norfolk, Norfolk, VA. Deletions On 8/27/2010 (75 FR 52723-52724) and 9/3/2010 (75 FR 54115), the...

  4. One Subject at a Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    As education reformers turn to the vexing task of improving high schools, Norfolk's approach is worth noting. It is bettering its high schools in part by capitalizing on their academic departments--an aspect of secondary schools often derided as hidebound and a primary obstacle to improvement. This article discusses the efforts of Norfolk,…

  5. 77 FR 68113 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Supplement to the 2008 Environmental Impact Statement for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... Record of Decision (ROD) was published in the Federal Register on January 2, 2009 (74 FR 100). At the... Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) Atlantic, 6506 Hampton Blvd., Norfolk, VA 23508. Dated: November...

  6. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July 16, 1940 (k) 8- MILE STONE, 741 CANTON AVE., MILTON - Milestones C, F, G, K, FFF & JJJ, Various Milton locations, Milton, Norfolk County, MA

  7. 42. VIEW OF THE DUDLEY STREET ENTRANCE, SPRUCE POLE FENCE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. VIEW OF THE DUDLEY STREET ENTRANCE, SPRUCE POLE FENCE, AND HISTORIC PARKING AREA WITH STORAGE SHED IN CENTER BACKGROUND. (NOTE: NEW CONCRETE SIDEWALK ALONG DUDLEY STREET IN RIGHT FOREGROUND). - Fairsted, 99 Warren Street, Brookline, Norfolk County, MA

  8. 24. VIEW IN THE HOLLOW ALONG THE PATH, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VIEW IN THE HOLLOW ALONG THE PATH, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. (NOTE: HISTORIC FLOWERING DOGWOOD AND MAXIMUM RHODODENDRON IN RIGHT FOREGROUND; EPIMEDIUM, FERNS, AND IRIS IN CENTER BED). - Fairsted, 99 Warren Street, Brookline, Norfolk County, MA

  9. 5. View of north elevation, including saw dust collector and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of north elevation, including saw dust collector and brick addition, looking south east. - General Dynamics Corporation Shipyard, Joiner & Sheet Metal Shops, 97 East Howard Street, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  10. 32 CFR 750.1 - Scope of subpart A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Norfolk, Virginia. For economy of language, Naval Legal Service Offices and Naval Legal Service Office Detachments are referred to as Naval Legal Service Command Activities. (3) Commanding officers of...

  11. 78 FR 30302 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... . Agreement No.: 011707-010. Title: Gulf/South America Discussion Agreement. Parties: Industrial Maritime....; Associate Counsel & Environmental Officer; CMA CGM (America) LLC; 5701 Lake Wright Drive; Norfolk, VA...

  12. 75 FR 51159 - Central Illinois Railroad Company-Discontinuance of Service Exemption-in Cook County, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... point of the frog on BNSF's crossover to the main line of the Norfolk Southern Railway Company, which... extends north from Cermak Road parallel to Sangamon Street to the point of the frog at Track No. 7...

  13. 78 FR 49515 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... Counsel; CMA CGM (America), LLC. 5701 Lake Wright Drive, Norfolk, VA 23502-1868. Synopsis: The amendment..., 2013. By Order of the Federal Maritime Commission. Karen V. Gregory, Secretary. BILLING CODE P...

  14. 15. Detail of window area, showing WoodSpenceBrown 1901 lathe, second ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail of window area, showing Wood-Spence-Brown 1901 lathe, second floor looking south. - General Dynamics Corporation Shipyard, Joiner & Sheet Metal Shops, 97 East Howard Street, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  15. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer June ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer June 3, 1941 (a) EXT.- FRONT & SIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST - John Quincy Adams Birthplace, 141 Franklin Street, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  16. 1. General view of the L.F. Fales Machinery Company complex, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view of the L.F. Fales Machinery Company complex, showing the older portion of the facility to the right of the photograph. - L. F. Fales Machine Company, East & Elm Streets, Walpole, Norfolk County, MA

  17. Dragons breathe life into organ campaign.

    PubMed

    2015-01-20

    A specialist nurse based at the Norfolk and Norwich University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust will be collaborating on an art project to promote organ donation among members of the public. PMID:25585734

  18. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Aug. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Aug. 3, 1938 (k) INT.- MANTLE, NORTHEAST ROOM, 2nd. FLOOR - Captain William Wildes House, 872 Commercial Street, Weymouth, Norfolk County, MA

  19. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July 10, 1940 (g) 8- MILE STONE, ADAMS ST., MILTON - Milestones C, F, G, K, FFF & JJJ, Various Milton locations, Milton, Norfolk County, MA

  20. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July 17, 1940 (kkk) 8- MILE STONE, BLUE HILL AVE., opp. ANNAPOLIS RD., MILTON - Milestones C, F, G, K, FFF & JJJ, Various Milton locations, Milton, Norfolk County, MA

  1. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July 17, 1940 (fff) 7- MILE STONE, RANDOLPH AVE., MILTON - Milestones C, F, G, K, FFF & JJJ, Various Milton locations, Milton, Norfolk County, MA

  2. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July 17, 1940 (jjj) 7- MILE STONE, BLUE HILL AVE., opp. CURTIS RD., MILTON - Milestones C, F, G, K, FFF & JJJ, Various Milton locations, Milton, Norfolk County, MA

  3. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July 17, 1940 (mmm) 10-MILE STONE, 1399 BLUE HILL AVE., MILTON - Milestones C, F, G, K, FFF & JJJ, Various Milton locations, Milton, Norfolk County, MA

  4. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July 17, 1940 (lll) 9- MILE STONE, BLUE HILL AVE. near ATHERTON ST., MILTON - Milestones C, F, G, K, FFF & JJJ, Various Milton locations, Milton, Norfolk County, MA

  5. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July 10, 1940 (c0 8- MILE STONE, 224 ADAMS ST., MILTON - Milestones C, F, G, K, FFF & JJJ, Various Milton locations, Milton, Norfolk County, MA

  6. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Frank O. Branzetti, Photographer July 10, 1940 (f) 7- MILE STONE, 247 ADAMS ST., MILTON - Milestones C, F, G, K, FFF & JJJ, Various Milton locations, Milton, Norfolk County, MA

  7. 4. Overview at top of crane showing crane bridge and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Overview at top of crane showing crane bridge and south truss full length, looking south east. - General Dynamics Corporation Shipyard, XYZ Crane & Towers, 97 East Howard Street, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  8. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, 1934. (c) Detail of track and set pulleys on quarry incline. - Granite Railway, Pine Hill Quarry to Neponset River, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  9. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, 1934. (a) General view of incline to Quarry from Northwest. - Granite Railway, Pine Hill Quarry to Neponset River, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  10. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, 1934. (e) Portion of old quarry wagon at head of incline. - Granite Railway, Pine Hill Quarry to Neponset River, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  11. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, 1934. (b) Detail of old railroad part way up incline to quarry. - Granite Railway, Pine Hill Quarry to Neponset River, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  12. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer. April, 1934. (d) Portion of old machinery now lying beside track. - Granite Railway, Pine Hill Quarry to Neponset River, Quincy, Norfolk County, MA

  13. 77 FR 64185 - Railroad Revenue Adequacy-2011 Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Revenue Adequacy--2011 Determination AGENCY: Surface Transportation... the 2011 revenue adequacy determinations for the Nation's Class I railroads. Two carriers, Norfolk Southern Combined Railroad Subsidiaries and Union Pacific Railroad Company, were found to be...

  14. 78 FR 62940 - Railroad Revenue Adequacy-2012 Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Revenue Adequacy--2012 Determination AGENCY: Surface Transportation... announcing the 2012 revenue adequacy determinations for the Nation's Class I railroads. Two carriers, Norfolk Southern Combined Railroad Subsidiaries and Union Pacific Railroad Company, were found to be...

  15. 76 FR 78335 - North Carolina & Virginia Railroad Company, LLC, Chesapeake & Albemarle Railroad Division-Lease...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... Surface Transportation Board North Carolina & Virginia Railroad Company, LLC, Chesapeake & Albemarle Railroad Division--Lease Amendment Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company North Carolina & Virginia Railroad, LLC, Chesapeake & Albemarle Railroad Division (NCVR), a Class III carrier, has filed a...

  16. 46. VIEW LOOKING EAST FROM THE OLMSTED ELM IN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. VIEW LOOKING EAST FROM THE OLMSTED ELM IN THE SOUTH LAWN TO THE ROCK GARDEN. (NOTE: HISTORIC ENGLISH YEW ON RIGHT, CRAB APPLE IN CENTER VIEW). - Fairsted, 99 Warren Street, Brookline, Norfolk County, MA

  17. 75 FR 3246 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ...., Building, (Ottumwa MPS) 222-224 E. 2nd St., Ottumwa, 10000003 MASSACHUSETTS Norfolk County Pond Street School, 235 Pond St., Weymouth, 10000004 MISSOURI Jackson County George, Todd M., Sr., House,...

  18. 75 FR 77655 - Notice of Proposed Supplementary Rules for Public Lands in Colorado: Saguache, Alamosa, Rio...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ...The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Colorado is proposing supplementary rules for public land included in the San Luis Resource Area Travel Management Plan (TMP), approved on June 4, 2009. These supplementary rules would apply to the public lands within Saguache, Alamosa, Rio Grande, Conejos, and Costilla Counties, Colorado, within the TMP, and under the management of the San Luis Valley......

  19. Differences and Commonalities: Farmer Stratifications in the San Luis Valley Research/Extension Project Area. ARE Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Jerry B.

    A research project in the San Luis Valley of Colorado sought to isolate a few unique farm types that could become target groups for the design and implementation of agricultural research and extension programs. Questionnaires were completed by 44 of 65 farmers in one watershed area of Conejos County. Analysis revealed a complex pattern of…

  20. Curing the Medical Manpower Shortage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Betty

    1973-01-01

    The OEO-funded Sangre de Cristo Comprehensive Health System in Costilla and Conejos Counties, Colorado, and northern Taos County, New Mexico, utilizes medical practitioners who are certified to practice a variety of medical techniques under the supervision of licensed physicians. (JM)

  1. Community Options for Transitional Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arterburn, Daniel; And Others

    A community based (Conejo Valley, California) vocational program was designed to give handicapped junior and senior high school students a variety of real world experiences in the natural setting. Advantages of the community based approach include immediate transfer of learning, opportunities for generalization, provision of role models by other…

  2. Mentoring New Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetzlaff, Judie A.; Wagstaff, Imelda

    1999-01-01

    Describes an approach to mentoring new teachers in California's Conejo Valley Unified School District that addresses five phases of new teacher development, explaining that, although it is not as structured nor comprehensive an approach as the California Formative Assessment and Support System for Teachers (CFASST), it has clearly demonstrated…

  3. Rural Poverty and the Law in Southern Colorado. American Bar Foundation Series on Legal Services for the Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Bar Foundation, Chicago, IL.

    Legal problems of the rural poor in 2 counties of southern Colorado (Conejos and Costilla) are examined in this 1970 report. The empirical research for this project consisted of 3 phases: (1) determination (by questionnaire) of attitudes of rural Colorado attorneys toward the legal problems of the indigenous poor; (2) the use of unstructured…

  4. Modeling Anisotropic Plasticity: 3D Eulerian Hydrocode Simulations of High Strain Rate Deformation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkett, Michael; Clancy, Sean; Maudlin, Paul; Holian, Kathleen

    2001-06-01

    : Previously developed constitutive models and solution algorithms for anisotropic elastoplastic material strength has been implemented in the three-dimensional CONEJO hydrodynamics code. CONEJO is an explicit, Eulerian continuum mechanics code that is utilized to predict formation processes associated with material deformation at elevated strain-rates and is a code development project under the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) program. Some special features of CONEJO include a high-order advection algorithm, a material interface tracking scheme, and van Leer monotonic advection-limiting. The anisotropic constitutive modeling is posed in an unrotated material frame using the theorem of polar decomposition to describe rigid body rotation. An Euler-Rodrigues description is used to quantify the rigid body rotations. Continuous quadratic yield functions fitted from polycrystal simulations for a metallic hexagonal-close-packed structure were utilized. Associative flow formulations incorporating these yield functions were solved using a geometric normal return method. Simple rectangular shear problems, "R-value" problems, and Taylor cylinder impact test data were utilized to verify and validate the implementation of the anisotropic model. A "stretching rod" problem (involving large strain and strain-rate deformation) was selected to investigate the effects of material anisotropy for this deformation process. The rod necking rate and topology was compared for CONEJO simulations using several isotropic and anisotropic descriptions that utilized the Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS) model.

  5. H.R. 1400--Veterans Educational Assistance Act of 1981. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Education, Training and Employment of the Committee on Veterans' Affairs, House of Representatives, Ninety-Seventh Congress, First Session (Norfolk, Virginia, April 6, 1981). Vol. III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Veterans' Affairs.

    This document is the third volume of a transcript of hearings before a U.S. House of Representatives Subcommittee of the Committee on Veteran's Affairs concerning proposed H.R. 1400--the Veterans' Educational Assistance Act of 1981. The proposed Educational Assistance Act, an updated GI Bill, would provide the following educational benefits: 80…

  6. Ascorbic acid and L-gulonolactone oxidase in lagomorphs.

    PubMed

    Jenness, R; Birney, E C; Ayaz, K L

    1978-01-01

    1. The activity of L-gulonolactone oxidase (EC 1.1.3.8) in the liver of eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) is about 10-fold greater in winter than in summer. 2. L-gulonolactone oxidase activity is low and tissue ascorbate high during all seasons in snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus). 3. Liver contents of ascorbate fall to low levels in L. americanus fed on rabbit chow in the laboratory. 4. The activity of L-gulonolactone oxidase in liver of Sylvilagus and Oryctolagus is depressed by feeding high levels of L-ascorbic acid. 5. The New Zealand White breed of domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) has considerably higher levels of L-gulonolactone oxidase and liver ascorbate than does the Dutch breed. 6. In a wild population of Oryctolagus sampled in Australia L-gulonolactone oxidase levels were intermediate between those of the two domestic breeds and more variable than either. PMID:318384

  7. Modeling anisotropy plasticity : 3D Eulerian hydrocode simulations of high strain rate deformation processes.

    SciTech Connect

    Burkett, M. W.; Clancy, S. P.; Maudlin, P. J.; Holian, K. S.

    2001-01-01

    Previously developed constitutive models and solution algorithms for anisotropic elastoplastic material strength have been implemented in the three-dimensional Conejo hydrodynamics code. The anisotropic constitutive modeling is posed in an unrotated material frame of reference using the theorem of polar decomposition to obtain rigid body rotation. Continuous quadratic yield functions fitted from polycrystal simulations for a metallic hexagonal-close-packed structure were utilized. Simple rectangular shear problems, R-value problems, and Taylor cylinder impact data were used to verify and validate the implementation of the anisotropic model. A stretching rod problem (involving large strain and high strain-rate deformation) was selected to investigate the effects of material anisotropy. Conejo simulations of rod topology were compared for two anisotropic cases.

  8. Modeling Anisotropic Plasticity: 3D Eulerian Hydrocode Simulations of High Strain Rate Deformation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkett, Michael W.; Clancy, Sean P.; Maudlin, Paul J.; Holian, Kathleen S.

    2002-07-01

    Previously developed constitutive models and solution algorithms for anisotropic elastoplastic material strength have been implemented in the three-dimensional Conejo hydrodynamics code. The anisotropic constitutive modeling is posed in an unrotated material frame of reference using the theorem of polar decomposition to obtain rigid body rotation. Continuous quadratic yield functions fitted from polycrystal simulations for a metallic hexagonal-close-packed structure were utilized. Simple rectangular shear problems, R-Value problems, and Taylor cylinder impact data were used to verify and validate the implementation of the anisotropic model. A stretching rod problem (involving large strain and high strain-rate deformation) was selected to investigate the effects of material anisotropy. Conejo simulations of rod topology were compared for two anisotropic cases.

  9. Toxoplasma gondii coinfection with diseases and parasites in wild rabbits in Scotland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) on an estate in Perthshire, central Scotland, the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii was 18/548 (3.3 %). The wild rabbit could be a T. gondii reservoir and it has potential value as a sentinel of T. gondii in environmental substrates. T. gondii was associated...

  10. European Rabbits as Reservoir for Coxiella burnetii

    PubMed Central

    González-Barrio, David; Maio, Elisa; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena

    2015-01-01

    We studied the role of European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) as a reservoir for Coxiella burnetii in the Iberian region. High individual and population seroprevalences observed in wild and farmed rabbits, evidence of systemic infections, and vaginal shedding support the reservoir role of the European rabbit for C. burnetii. PMID:25988670

  11. 76 FR 30827 - Temporary Change of Dates for Recurring Marine Event in the Fifth Coast Guard District; Elizabeth...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Temporary Change of Dates for Recurring Marine Event in the Fifth Coast Guard District; Elizabeth River, Norfolk, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will temporarily change the enforcement period of...

  12. Engaging Students in STEM Careers with Project-Based Learning--MarineTech Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verma, Alok K.; Dickerson, Daniel; McKinney, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Old Dominion University and Norfolk State University, in collaboration with the marine industry and local school systems, is improving STEM preparation using innovative experiences for students and teachers in the nation's major shipbuilding and repair areas through MarineTech and SBRCD (Shipbuilding Repair and Maritime Career Day) projects. The…

  13. Spellbinding Science: An Interview With Charlene Haviland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2005

    2005-01-01

    With Harry Potter fever gripping the globe again this year, Charlene Haviland recently scored national media attention for a new after-school program which ties science experiments into a certain young wizard's adventures--as well as other children's literature. An 8th-grade teacher at Norfolk, Virginia's Northside Middle School, Haviland has had…

  14. Police close unsolved 'climategate' investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavender, Gemma

    2012-09-01

    Police in Norfolk in the UK have closed an investigation into the hacking of e-mails at the University of East Anglia's Climate Research Unit (CRU) after admitting that they will not be able to find the hackers who broke into CRU computer servers.

  15. 75 FR 77598 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ....; Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1978, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 329; E.O. 12127, 44 FR 19367, 3 CFR, 1979 Comp., p. 376... regarding the proposed regulatory flood elevations for the reach described by the downstream and upstream... Cottleville, downstream of Norfolk City of O'Fallon, City Southern Railroad. of St. Peters, Town of...

  16. 78 FR 60852 - Marine Mammals; File Nos. 16239 and 17312

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... (77 FR 60966 and 78 FR 23538) for No. 16239 and No. 17312, respectively, that requests for permits to... issued to Dan Engelhaupt, Ph.D., HDR EOC, 5700 Lake Wright Drive, Norfolk, VA 23502- 1859, and Scripps Institution of Oceanography [Responsible Party: John Hildebrand, Ph.D.], University of California,...

  17. Preparing Teachers to Humanize the Multiracial School: Innovative Programs Involving Historical Black and Predominantly White Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Walter A.

    This document presents summaries of eight efforts made to provide teachers with the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors necessary to improve intergroup relations in desegregated schools. Projects covered are: (1) the Chapel Hill (North Carolina) schools' student teaching project; (2) interinstitutional seminars in Norfolk, Virginia; (3) biracial…

  18. Leda and the Swan--and other myths about rape.

    PubMed

    Norfolk, Guy A

    2011-07-01

    In his David Jenkins Memorial Lecture, Dr Norfolk discusses rape and some of the myths that surround the topic, exploring the research evidence about conviction rates, false allegations, clinician gender preferences of rape victims and the role of sexual assault referral centres in service delivery. PMID:21663872

  19. Dustman, Milliner and Watchcase Maker: Skilling Australia. Conference Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beddie, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    This paper was presented at the Professional Historians Association (NSW) Islands of History conference held on Norfolk Island in July 2010. It argues that the reliance on overseas workers to address skills shortages has been present ever since the first white settlement of Australia, which has, in turn, shaped attitudes to the governance of…

  20. 76 FR 61131 - Rhode Island Disaster #RI-00008

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... ADMINISTRATION Rhode Island Disaster RI-00008 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Rhode Island dated 09... Island: Bristol, Kent. Connecticut: Windham. Massachusetts: Bristol, Norfolk, Worcester. The...

  1. 59. VIEW IN THE HOLLOW ALONG THE PATH, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. VIEW IN THE HOLLOW ALONG THE PATH, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. VIEW INCLUDES HISTORIC FLOWERING DOGWOOD AND MAXIMUM RHODODENDRON IN RIGHT FOREGROUND; EPIMEDIUM, FERNS, AND IRIS IN CENTER BED. (DUPLICATE OF HABS No. MA-1168-24) - Fairsted, 99 Warren Street, Brookline, Norfolk County, MA

  2. Biochar impact on water infiltration and water quality through a compacted subsoil layer

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soils in the SE USA Coastal Plain region frequently have a compacted subsoil layer (E horizon), which is a barrier for water infiltration. Four different biochars were evaluated to increase water infiltration through a compacted horizon from a Norfolk soil (fine-loamy, kaolinitic...

  3. Biochars impact on water infiltration and water quality through a compacted subsoil layer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soils in the Southeastern United States Coastal Plain region frequently have a compacted subsoil layer, which is a barrier for water movement. Four different biochars were evaluated to increase water movement through a compacted horizon from a Norfolk soil (fine-loamy, kaolinitic, thermic, Typic Ka...

  4. MICROBIAL RESPONSES TO WHEEL-TRAFFIC IN CONVENTIONAL AND NO-TILLAGE SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traffic-induced soil compaction and tillage systems can impact the productivity and sustainability of agricultural soils. The objective of this study was to assess the response of soil microbial populations to wheel-traffic in two tillage systems on a Norfolk loamy sand (Typic Kandiudults; FAO clas...

  5. Developing Innovative Approaches to Teaching and Learning through Lesson Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runcieman, Andria

    2015-01-01

    The author, who teaches in a Norfolk comprehensive school, presents an account of her involvement with the new research practice of lesson study, and discusses its benefits as part of a continuing professional development programme designed to encourage teachers to become more reflective.

  6. Norview High School: Leadership Fosters Achievment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal Leadership, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Often little unsaid things demonstrate what is truly important in a school. When teachers have common planning time and all of the department chairs share a single space as they do at Norview High School in Norfolk, VA, the unmistakable message is that instructional collaboration and leadership are expected and valued. Norview, an urban,…

  7. 78 FR 59625 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Lake Pontchartrain, Near Slidell, LA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ...The Coast Guard has issued a temporary deviation from the operating schedule that governs the Norfolk Southern Railroad Bridge across Lake Pontchartrain, mile 4.80, near Slidell, St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana. The deviation is necessary to replace worn joints on the north draw of the bridge. This deviation allows the bridge to remain closed to vessel traffic for six hours on three consecutive......

  8. 65. VIEW OF THE OLMSTED ELM, SOUTH LAWN, AND WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. VIEW OF THE OLMSTED ELM, SOUTH LAWN, AND WEST SLOPE. SHOWN IN THE LEFT FOREGROUND ARE THE RESTORED LAWN EDGE AND THE HISTORIC ENGLISH YEW. (DUPLICATE OF HABS No. MA-1168-31) - Fairsted, 99 Warren Street, Brookline, Norfolk County, MA

  9. Searching Algorithm Using Bayesian Updates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudle, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    In late October 1967, the USS Scorpion was lost at sea, somewhere between the Azores and Norfolk Virginia. Dr. Craven of the U.S. Navy's Special Projects Division is credited with using Bayesian Search Theory to locate the submarine. Bayesian Search Theory is a straightforward and interesting application of Bayes' theorem which involves searching…

  10. 78 FR 29202 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... respondent groups. They are: (1) Members of participating crafts and supervisors at the pilot site; (2) Norfolk Southern personnel involved in implementing and managing the pilot; (3) Project team members in... forms/ 30 8 involved in implementing and questionnaires. managing the pilot. Project Team Members...

  11. 33 CFR 117.511 - West Pearl River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false West Pearl River. 117.511 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.511 West Pearl River. (a) The draw of the Norfolk Southern railroad bridge, mile 22.1 at Pearl River Station, shall open on signal if...

  12. 33 CFR 117.511 - West Pearl River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false West Pearl River. 117.511 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.511 West Pearl River. (a) The draw of the Norfolk Southern railroad bridge, mile 22.1 at Pearl River Station, shall open on signal if...

  13. 33 CFR 117.511 - West Pearl River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false West Pearl River. 117.511 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.511 West Pearl River. (a) The draw of the Norfolk Southern railroad bridge, mile 22.1 at Pearl River Station, shall open on signal if...

  14. 33 CFR 117.511 - West Pearl River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false West Pearl River. 117.511 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.511 West Pearl River. (a) The draw of the Norfolk Southern railroad bridge, mile 22.1 at Pearl River Station, shall open on signal if...

  15. 78 FR 45863 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (AICW), Elizabeth River, Southern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... operating schedule that governs the operation of the Belt Line Railroad Bridge, across the Elizabeth River... facilitate mechanical and electrical upgrades on the Belt Line Railroad drawbridge. This temporary deviation...: The Norfolk and Portsmouth Belt Line Railroad Company, who owns and operates this drawbridge,...

  16. Comparison of soil amendments to decrease high strength in SE USA Coastal Plain soils using fuzzy decision-making analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cemented subsurface layers restrict root growth in many southeastern USA Coastal Plain soils. Though cementation is usually reduced by tillage, soil amendments can offer a more permanent solution if they develop aggregation. To increase aggregation, we amended 450 g of a Norfolk soil blend of 90% E ...

  17. Plymouth Park, Chesapeake, Virginia air quality experiment, 20 June - 11 July 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, G. E.

    1975-01-01

    A detailed field study of the various air pollutants in the South Norfolk section of the City of Chesapeake during the last half of June and the first half of July 1975 is presented and the calibration and processing procedures are reported.

  18. Correctional Retraining in the Navy: An Evaluation. Final Report, FY80-81.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, Linda M.; Bacon, Steven F.

    A project evaluated the effectiveness of two pilot Correctional Custody Units (CCUs), at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, and Coronado, California, and the Behavioral Skills Training Unit (BEST) at Norfolk, Virginia. These units were intended to retrain errant, but potentially productive, first-term enlistees through a program of discipline, motivational and…

  19. Academy Rewards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnitzer, Denise K.

    2003-01-01

    Granby High School in Norfolk, Virginia, is a large comprehensive high school restructured into four smaller academies that allow students a more personal learning environment. Positive growth is shown in test scores, dropout rates, and the narrowing achievement gap between minority and majority students. (MLF)

  20. Greenhouse gas emission from soil amended with biochar made from hydrothermally carbonizing swine solids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar made from hydrothermally carbonizing swine solids was mixed with a 50/50 mixture of Norfolk Ap and E horizon at a rate of 20 g/kg. During the incubation period of 54 days, greenhouse gas (CO2 and N2O) emission fluxes were calculated by nonlinearly regressing time-series headspace gas concent...

  1. Vought F4U-1 Corsair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1943-01-01

    Vought F4U-1 Corsair: This is a 'Birdcage' Corsair, so called for the canopy framing around the cockpit. Several F4Us were flown by the NACA , but this F4U-1 only flew at Langley for two months in 1943 before going to the U. S. Navy at Norfolk Naval Air Station.

  2. Model Middle School Program for Consumer and Homemaking Education. Curriculum Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batten, Sharalyn L.; Feldt, Glenda D.

    The Norfolk, Virginia, Public Schools developed and implemented an innovative consumer and homemaking program for grades 6-8 based on the developmental characteristics of middle school children. This project was conducted under the Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act, Public Law 98-524. A committee of middle school teachers developed the…

  3. Ameliorating soil chemical properties of a hard setting subsoil layer in coastal plain USA with different designer biochars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Norfolk soils in the southeastern United States of America (USA) Coastal Plain region have meager soil fertility characteristics because of their sandy textures, acidic pH values, kaolinitic clays and with depleted organic carbon contents. Extensive clay mineral weathering and clay eluviation along ...

  4. 32 CFR 756.4 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Responsibility. 756.4 Section 756.4 National... INVOLVING NON-APPROPRIATED FUND ACTIVITIES AND THEIR EMPLOYEES § 756.4 Responsibility. (a) All claims... TCU Norfolk has primary responsibility for the negotiation and settlement of NAFI claims. This...

  5. 78 FR 49600 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Virginia Beach Transit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ...The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) and Hampton Roads Transit (HRT) are planning to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Virginia Beach Transit Extension Study (VBTES). The VBTES will examine extending transit service from the eastern terminus of Norfolk's existing Light Rail Transit (LRT) system, ``The Tide,'' at Newtown Road to the Virginia Beach Oceanfront either......

  6. Mapping Fiscal Resources in South Hampton Roads Virginia to Support School Readiness. Regional Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finance Project, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, committees of key stakeholders in the five cities of Chesapeake, Norfolk, Suffolk, Portsmouth, and Virginia Beach developed Collaborative Action Plans focused on key strategies to ensure that children in each city "arrive at kindergarten healthy and ready to succeed in school, and in life." With leadership from Smart Beginnings South…

  7. 75 FR 75493 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ..., 10000957 ] Onondaga County Shepard Settlement Cemetery, Stump & Foster Rds, Shepard Settlement, 10000938... Lebanon in the Forks Cemetery, (Knoxville and Knox County MPS) Asbury Rd N of Norfolk Southern Railroad, Knoxville, 10000934 TEXAS Harris County Near Northside Historic District, Roughly bounded by Little...

  8. Retraining Institute in Teacher Education

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, H.B.; Jennings, R.

    1992-07-31

    This endeavor was comprised of three companion projects. They are interdependent components which together provide a significant enhancement to the existing programs in the School of Education at Norfolk state University.The primary focus of the project was in instructing regular and special education undergraduate students and teachers. As a result of this endeavor, instruction in science and engineering majors was enhanced.

  9. Retraining Institute in Teacher Education. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, H.B.; Jennings, R.

    1992-07-31

    This endeavor was comprised of three companion projects. They are interdependent components which together provide a significant enhancement to the existing programs in the School of Education at Norfolk state University.The primary focus of the project was in instructing regular and special education undergraduate students and teachers. As a result of this endeavor, instruction in science and engineering majors was enhanced.

  10. All Different, All Equal. A Pack of Educational Materials for Schools To Develop an Understanding of Racism and Increase Awareness of the Many Cultures in Our World. For Key Stage 3 and 4 Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norfolk Education and Action for Development, Norwich (England).

    These curriculum materials have been designed to challenge the ignorance that causes prejudice and racism. They have been produced for use in a variety of educational settings and in conjunction with other curricula for students in Key Stages 3 and 4. They target students in British counties that are predominantly white, such as Norfolk (England),…

  11. Measuring Residential Segregation: An Application of Trend Surface Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spriggs, William

    1984-01-01

    Presents a measure of racial residential segregation which conforms to the traditional attributes of segregation indices, but includes sensitivity to the spatial patterns of White and non-White residence in a city. Reviews earlier measures, describes the new one, and applies it to racial housing patterns in Norfolk, Virginia, in 1890. (KH)

  12. 77 FR 59082 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (AIWW), Elizabeth River, Southern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ... lift joints on the Norfolk Southern 7 Railroad Bridge. This temporary deviation will allow the... 117.997(d), to accommodate lift joint replacement. Under the current operating schedule the bridge... vessels of 7 feet above mean high water. To facilitate lift joint replacement, the drawbridge will...

  13. 76 FR 69633 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (AIWW), Elizabeth River, Southern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ...The Commander, Fifth Coast Guard District, has issued a temporary deviation from the regulations governing the operation of the Norfolk Southern 7 Railroad Bridge across the Elizabeth River (Southern Branch), AIWW mile 5.8, at Chesapeake, VA. Under this temporary deviation, the drawbridge may remain in the closed position on specific dates and times to facilitate laying new...

  14. Oscar F. Smith Middle School: One Extra Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal Leadership, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article features Oscar F. Smith Middle School, a challenging school in Chesapeake, Virginia. When Principal Linda Scott exclaims, "Oscar F. Smith Middle School is "hot"!" to visitors, she is not referring to the inside temperature of the bustling school of grades 6-8 located in the historic South Norfolk borough of Chesapeake. She is…

  15. 33 CFR 334.290 - Elizabeth River, Southern Branch, Va., naval restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Va., naval restricted areas. 334.290 Section 334.290 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....290 Elizabeth River, Southern Branch, Va., naval restricted areas. (a) The areas—(1) St. Helena Annex Area. Beginning at a point at St. Helena Annex of the Norfolk Naval Shipyard, on the eastern shore...

  16. 77 FR 27116 - Safety Zone, Naval Helicopter Association Reunion Helicopter Demonstration, Elizabeth River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Naval Helicopter Association Reunion... Norfolk, VA to support the Naval Helicopter Association Reunion Helicopter Demonstration. This action is necessary to provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during the Naval Helicopter...

  17. 78 FR 69653 - Cancellation of the Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... 9, 2008 (73 FR 19196), the DoN announced its intent to prepare an EIS to evaluate the potential... Construction and Operation of an Outlying Landing Field To Support Carrier Air Wing Aircraft at Naval Air Station Oceana and Naval Station Norfolk, VA AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice....

  18. 33 CFR 334.290 - Elizabeth River, Southern Branch, Va., naval restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Va., naval restricted areas. 334.290 Section 334.290 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....290 Elizabeth River, Southern Branch, Va., naval restricted areas. (a) The areas—(1) St. Helena Annex Area. Beginning at a point at St. Helena Annex of the Norfolk Naval Shipyard, on the eastern shore...

  19. The Inner Urban Edge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferebee, Ann; Carpenter, Edward K.

    1974-01-01

    In this article, renewal of the inner urban edge is discussed. Norfolk (Virginia) is attempting to blur the difference between old and new neighbor hoods through zoning and architectural controls. Cincinnati (Ohio) is developing an environmentally sound hillside design. Reading (Pennsylvania) is utilizing old railyards for greenbelts of hiking and…

  20. Expanding the School's Role as Care Provider.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylor, Ellen C.; Snowden, Petra E.

    1992-01-01

    One elementary school located in a depressed area (Norfolk, Virginia) created a computerized service directory and referral system providing immediate, accurate information on available children's services. The principal or counselor accesses the database by indicating individual student characteristics, such as low achievement or family problems,…

  1. Ten-minute chat.

    PubMed

    Duncanson, Graham

    2016-05-01

    To celebrate 50 years as a practising vet, Graham Duncanson is planning to cycle from his home in Norfolk to Cape Town, South Africa - a journey of around 10,000 miles. He also plans to raise money for AWF and would be happy for cyclists to join him for part of the trip. PMID:27154957

  2. Preparing Paraprofessionals as Teachers for the Urban Classroom: A University/School Collaborative Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littleton, Denise M.

    This article describes efforts at Norfolk State University, Virginia, to train substitute teachers, teacher aides, and other paraprofessionals to become certified teachers. The program incorporates four recruitment principles: concern for various aspects of the issue and readiness to tackle them; commitment to the program; collaboration among all…

  3. Determined to Succeed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branch, Carol Hanna

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author presents Sharon I. Byrdsong, the 2006 MetLife/NASSP National Middle Level Principal of the Year, who believes that all students can achieve and makes it happen with programs and policies that support students and teachers. When Sharon I. Byrdsong took over as the principal of Azalea Gardens Middle School in Norfolk,…

  4. Sanctuaries for Tradition: Virginia's New Private Schools. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Mary Ellen

    Virginia's anti-integration massive resistance laws of 1956 resulted in the closing of the public schools and the establishment of private schools for white youngsters "Foundations" were organized in Warren and Prince Edward Counties as well as in Norfolk and Charlottesville, to perpetuate segregated, traditionally oriented education. This special…

  5. School Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Splitt, David A.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews four recent court decisions affecting school law. A Circuit Court of Appeals ruling upheld Norfolk Schools' decision to abolish busing and reinstate neighborhood schools. The United States Supreme Court dismissed appeals to lower court decisions involving a minimum grade prerequisite, a teacher's privacy rights, and an "adult" movie…

  6. Predicted soil management and climate change effects on SOC in South Carolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive use of inversion tillage has contributed to the loss of soil organic carbon (SOC) and degraded soil health in the southeast U.S.A. Our objective was to predict changes in SOC in a Norfolk loamy sand in Florence, SC under several crop rotations (corn (Zea mays L.)-cotton (Gossypium ssp.), C...

  7. Experiences in Systemic Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Scott; Clem, Joe; Battino, Wendy; Richter, Kurt; Reigeluth, Charles; Doll, Marcelle; Moore, Julie; Hoo, Janet; Malopinsky, Larissa V.

    2006-01-01

    This section describes the systemic change experiences in Norfolk Public Schools, Chugach School District, Indianapolis Metropolitan School District of Decatur Township, Ditmas Educational Complex, Georgia Systemic Teacher Education Program, Sun Microsystems, and Azerbaijan. It provides a description of the change process and discusses the…

  8. 77 FR 65256 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does... AIRWAY V139 Is Amended To Read in Part NEW BERN, NC VOR/DME PEARS, NC FIX *2000--GNSS MEA S BND *2000 N BND *6000 PEARS, NC FIX SUNNS, NC FIX *6000 *2100--MOCA *2100--GNSS MEA SUNNS, NC FIX NORFOLK,...

  9. Preliminary data for the 20 May 1974, simultaneous evaluation of remote sensors experiment. [water pollution monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.; Batten, C. E.; Bowker, D. E.; Bressette, W. E.; Grew, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    Several remote sensors were simultaneously used to collect data over the tidal James River from Hopewell to Norfolk, Virginia. Sensors evaluated included the Multichannel-Ocean Color Sensor, multispectral scanners, and multispectral photography. Ground truth measurements and remotely sensed data are given. Preliminary analysis indicates that suspended sediment and concentrated industrial effluent are observable from all sensors.

  10. No More "Sag Baggin'": School Uniforms Bring the Focus Back to Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffler-Riddick, Pamela Y.; Lassiter, Kathy J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes how Norfolk (Virginia) Public Schools formulated, implemented, and benefited from a mandatory student uniform policy. Student benefits include enhanced self-image, improved academic indicator ratings, and increased participation. School benefits include a dramatic decline in discipline infractions, improved attendance, and an improvement…

  11. 32 CFR 756.4 - Responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Responsibility. 756.4 Section 756.4 National... INVOLVING NON-APPROPRIATED FUND ACTIVITIES AND THEIR EMPLOYEES § 756.4 Responsibility. (a) All claims... TCU Norfolk has primary responsibility for the negotiation and settlement of NAFI claims. This...

  12. Dental Hygiene Students' Perceptions of Themselves and Their Professional Role in Regard to Feminism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Christine M.

    Dental hygiene students' perceptions of themselves and the "typical dental hygienist" were assessed in relation to feminist attitudes at Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia, and the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Dempewolff's (1972) 56-item Feminism II Scale was administered to all first-year, second-year, and post-certificate dental…

  13. 75. VIEW LOOKING EAST FROM THE OLMSTED ELM IN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    75. VIEW LOOKING EAST FROM THE OLMSTED ELM IN THE SOUTH LAWN TO THE ROCK GARDEN. VIEW INCLUDES HISTORIC ENGLISH YEW ON RIGHT, CRAB APPLE IN CENTER. (DUPLICATE OF HABS No. MA-1168-46) - Fairsted, 99 Warren Street, Brookline, Norfolk County, MA

  14. Embedded with the Military: It's All about the Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whited, Catrina; Frederick, Greg

    2015-01-01

    It's all about the relationships! How the librarian develops connections is key to the embedded process. This paper describes the path one librarian went through from January, 2010 through December, 2013 at the Joint Forces Staff College in Norfolk, Virginia. With a little help … ok, a lot of help from coworkers, faculty, IT and most of all…

  15. 4. ENVIRONMENT, FROM SOUTHEAST, SHOWING VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. ENVIRONMENT, FROM SOUTHEAST, SHOWING VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE NO. 6023 CARRYING STATE ROUTE 646 (ADEN ROAD) OVER RAILROAD TRACKS - Virginia Department of Transportation Bridge No. 6023, Spanning Norfolk Southern tracks at State Route 646, Nokesville, Prince William County, VA

  16. Efficacies of designer biochars in improving biomass and nutrient uptake of winter wheat grown in a hard setting subsoil layer.

    PubMed

    Sigua, G C; Novak, J M; Watts, D W; Johnson, M G; Spokas, K

    2016-01-01

    In the Coastal Plains region of the United States, the hard setting subsoil layer of Norfolk soils results in low water holding capacity and nutrient retention, which often limits root development. In this region, the Norfolk soils are under intensive crop production that further depletes nutrients and reduces organic carbon (C). Incorporation of pyrolyzed organic residues or "biochars" can provide an alternative recalcitrant C source. However, biochar quality and effect can be inconsistent and different biochars react differently in soils. We hypothesized that addition of different designer biochars will have variable effects on biomass and nutrient uptake of winter wheat. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of designer biochars on biomass productivity and nutrient uptake of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a Norfolk's hard setting subsoil layer. Biochars were added to Norfolk's hard setting subsoil layer at the rate of 40 Mg ha(-1). The different sources of biochars were: plant-based (pine chips, PC); animal-based (poultry litter, PL); 50:50 blend (50% PC:50% PL); 80:20 blend (80% PC:20% PL); and hardwood (HW). Aboveground and belowground biomass and nutrient uptake of winter wheat varied significantly (p⩽0.0001) with the different designer biochar applications. The greatest increase in the belowground biomass of winter wheat over the control was from 80:20 blend of PC:PL (81%) followed by HW (76%), PC (59%) and 50:50 blend of PC:PL (9%). However, application of PL resulted in significant reduction of belowground biomass by about 82% when compared to the control plants. The average uptake of P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Al, Fe, Cu and Zn in both the aboveground and belowground biomass of winter wheat varied remarkably with biochar treatments. Overall, our results showed promising significance for the treatment of a Norfolk's hard setting subsoil layer since designer biochars did improve both aboveground/belowground biomass and nutrient uptake

  17. Ground water in the Thousand Oaks area, Ventura County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, James J.

    1980-01-01

    The ground-water basin beneath the city of Thousand Oaks, Calif. , corresponds closely in area with the surface-water drainage basin of Conejo Valley. Before World War II there was little ground-water development. After World War II, urban development put a stress on the ground-water basin; many wells were drilled and water levels in wells were drawn down as much as 300 feet in places. Beginning in 1963, imported water replaced domestic and municipal ground-water systems, and water levels rapidly recovered to predevelopment levels or nearly so. Most of the ground water in the Thousand Oaks area is stored in fractured basalt of the middle Miocene Conejo Volcanics. Depending on the degree of occurrence of open fractures and cavities in the basalt, recoverable ground water in the upper 300 to 500 feet of aquifer is estimated to be between 400,000 and 600,000 acre-feet. The yield of water from wells in the area ranges from 17 to 1,080 gallons per minute. Most of the ground-water in the eastern part of the valley is high insulfate and has a dissolved-solids concentration greater than 1,000 milligrams per liter. In the western part of the valley the ground-water is mostly of a bicarbonate type, and the dissolved-solids concentration is less than 800 milligrams per liter. In most areas of Conejo Valley, ground-water is a viable resource for irrigation of public lands and recreation areas. (USGS)

  18. Genetic characterization of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 gene in lagomorphs: comparison between the families Ochotonidae and Leporidae.

    PubMed

    Abrantes, J; Esteves, P J; Carmo, C R; Müller, A; Thompson, G; van der Loo, W

    2008-04-01

    Chemokines receptors are transmembrane proteins that bind chemokines. Chemokines and their receptors are known to play a crucial role in the immune system and in pathogen entry. There is evidence that myxoma virus, the causative agent of myxomatosis, can use the chemokine receptor CXCR4 to infect cells. This virus causes a benign disease in its natural host, Sylvilagus, but in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) it causes a highly fatal and infectious disease known as myxomatosis. We have characterized the chemokine receptor CXCR4 gene in five genera of the order Lagomorpha, Ochotona (Ochotonidae), and Oryctolagus, Lepus, Bunolagus and Sylvilagus (Leporidae). In lagomorphs, the CXCR4 is highly conserved, with most of the protein diversity found at surface regions. Five amino acid replacements were observed, two in the intracellular loops, one in the transmembrane domain and two in the extracellular loops. Oryctolagus features unique amino acid changes at the intracellular domains, putting this genus apart of all other lagomorphs. Furthermore, in the 37 European rabbits analysed, which included healthy rabbits and rabbits with clinical symptoms of myxomatosis, 14 nucleotide substitutions were obtained but no amino acid differences were observed. PMID:18205827

  19. Immanuel Halton, the astronomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, P. M.

    1996-02-01

    Immanuel Halton was born in Cumberland, studied at Grays Inn, London during the later stages of the English Civil War and, during the Commonwealth, entered the service of Henry Howard, later 6th Duke of Norfolk. He pursued his mathematical and astronomical interests while auditor to the Duke of Norfolk. He met with John Flamsteed, encouraged the latter's interest in mathematics and astronomy and became his first patron, as well as contributing observations to Flamsteed's published works. Immanuel ended his days at Wingfield Manor, Derbyshire. A short biographical piece on Immanuel Halton appeared in the Journal in the early 1950s, consisting mostly of quotations from Flamsteed's 'Self Inspections' and Baily's 'Life of Flamsteed'. 1996 is the 350th anniversary of Flamsteed's birth, and it is hoped that this fuller account will flesh out the bones of his first patron.

  20. The 1979 Southeastern Virginia Urban Plume Study (SEV-UPS): Surface and airborne studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, J. H.; Eaton, W. C.; Saeger, M. L.; Strong, R. B.; Tommerdahl, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    The operation of two surface monitoring stations (one in downtown Norfolk, Virginia, one south of the city near the Great Dismal Swamp) and the collection of 40 hours of airborne measurements is described. Surface site measurements of ozone, oxides of nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, temperature, dew point, b sub seat, and condensation nuclei were made. Instrument calibrations, quality assurance audits, and preliminary data analysis in support of the Urban Plume Study were also made. The air pollution problems that were addressed are discussed. Data handling procedures followed for the surface stations are presented. The operation of the aircraft sampling platform is described. Aircraft sampling procedures are discussed. A preliminary descriptive analysis of the aircraft data is given along with data or plots for surface sites, airborne studies, hydrocarbon species, and instrument performance audits. Several of the aircraft flights clearly show the presence of an urban ozone plume downwind of Norfolk in the direction of the mean wind flow.

  1. Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) study of atmospheric particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillard, J. G.; Seals, R. D.; Wightman, J. P.

    1979-01-01

    The results of analyses by ESCA (Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis) on several Nuclepore filters which were exposed during air pollution studies are presented along with correlative measurements by Neutron Activation Analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy. Samples were exposed during air pollution studies at Norfolk, Virginia and the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC). It was demonstrated that with the ESCA technique it was possible to identify the chemical (bonding) state of elements contained in the atmospheric particulate matter collected on Nuclepore filters. Sulfur, nitrogen, mercury, chlorine, alkali, and alkaline earth metal species were identified in the Norfolk samples. ESCA binding energy data for aluminum indicated that three chemically different types of aluminum are present in the launch and background samples from NASA-KSC.

  2. 33 CFR 334.290 - Elizabeth River, Southern Branch, Va., naval restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Southern Branch of Elizabeth River, at latitude 36°49′43″, longitude 76°17′26.5″; thence in a southwesterly...″, longitude 76°17′33″; thence in a southerly direction along the eastern boundary of Norfolk Harbor 40-foot channel to latitude 36°49′28″, longitude 76°17′27″; thence easterly to the shore at latitude...

  3. Molluskan species richness and endemism on New Caledonian seamounts: Are they enhanced compared to adjacent slopes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelin, Magalie; Puillandre, Nicolas; Lozouet, Pierre; Sysoev, Alexander; de Forges, Bertrand Richer; Samadi, Sarah

    2011-06-01

    Seamounts were often considered as 'hotspots of diversity' and 'centers of endemism', but recently this opinion has been challenged. After 25 years of exploration and the work of numerous taxonomists, the Norfolk Ridge (Southwest Pacific) is probably one of the best-studied seamount chains worldwide. However, even in this intensively explored area, the richness and the geographic patterns of diversity are still poorly characterized. Among the benthic organisms, the post-mortem remains of mollusks can supplement live records to comprehensively document geographical distributions. Moreover, the accretionary growth of mollusk shells informs us about the life span of the pelagic larva. To compare diversity and level of endemism between the Norfolk Ridge seamounts and the continental slopes of New Caledonia we used species occurrence data drawn from (i) the taxonomic literature on mollusks and (ii) a raw dataset of mainly undescribed deep-sea species of the hyperdiverse Turridae. Patterns of endemism and species richness were analyzed through quantitative indices of endemism and species richness estimator metrics. To date, 403 gastropods and bivalves species have been recorded on the Norfolk Ridge seamounts. Of these, at least 38 species (˜10%) are potentially endemic to the seamounts and nearly all of 38 species have protoconchs indicating lecithotrophic larval development. Overall, our results suggest that estimates of species richness and endemism, when sampling effort is taken into account, were not significantly different between slopes and seamounts. By including in our analyses 347 undescribed morphospecies from the Norfolk Ridge, our results also demonstrate the influence of taxonomic bias on our estimates of species richness and endemism.

  4. Governor's Youth Development Academy. Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Brandon; Ifekwunigwe, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Newport News is a city of 193,000 people, located between Williamsburg and Norfolk in Southeastern Virginia. Newport News Public Schools (NNPS) educates approximately 30,500 children, grades Pre-K to 12, of whom 55.7% are Black, 29% are White, 9.9% are Hispanic, 2.9% are Asian, and 2.5% are other races. Newport News Public Schools' (NNPS') Special…

  5. Land use information and air quality planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Wallace E.; Lewis, John E.

    1975-01-01

    The pilot national land use information system developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site project has provided an improved technique for estimating emissions, diffusion, and impact patterns of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and particulate matter. Implementation of plans to control air quality requires land use information, which, until this time, has been inadequate. The pilot system, however, provided data for updating information on the sources of point and area emissions of SO2 and particulate matter affecting the Norfolk-Portsmouth area of Virginia for the 1971-72 winter (Dec.-Jan.-Feb.) and the annual 1972 period, and for a future annual period 1985. This emission information is used as input to the Air Quality Display Model of the Environmental Protection Agency to obtain diffusion and impact patterns for the three periods previously mentioned. The results are: (1) During the 1971-72 winter, estimated S02 amounts over an area with a SW-NE axis in the central section of Norfolk exceeded both primary and secondary levels; (2) future annual levels of SO2, estimated by anticipated residential development and point-source changes, are not expected to cause serious deterioration of the region's present air quality; and (3) for the 1971-72 winter and annual 1972 period the diffusion results showed that both primary and secondary standards for particulate matter are regularly exceeded in central Norfolk and Portsmouth. In addition, on the basis of current control programs, the 1985 levels of particulate matter are expected to exceed the presently established secondary air quality standards through central Norfolk and Portsmouth and in certain areas of Virginia Beach.

  6. AmeriFlux US-GMF Great Mountain Forest

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Xuhui

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-GMF Great Mountain Forest. Site Description - The experimental site is in the Great Mountain Forest on moderately hilly terrain in Norfolk, Connecticut. The site is a naturally regenerating forest impacted by fires, logging, hurricanes, and cultivation over the past century. The site switched from a continuous measurement mode to a campaign mode on DOY 125, 2004.

  7. Uranium-series dating of mollusks and corals, and age of Pleistocene deposits, Chesapeake Bay area, Virginia and Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mixon, Robert B.; Szabo, B. J.; Owens, James Patrick

    1982-01-01

    Geologic mapping in conjunction with uranium-series dating of fossil mollusks and corals suggests that the low-lying ( < 17 m in altitude) terrace deposits in the central and southern Chesapeake Bay area include two main depositional sequences, each of which represents a high stand of the sea in late Pleistocene time. The older depositional sequence includes the Accomack and Omar beds of the Delmarva area, the fossiliferous deposits along the lower Rappahannock River, and the Norfolk Formation deposits west of the Suffolk scarp. These beds have yielded a single reliable coral age estimate of 184,000?20,000 years B.P., suggesting an early late Pleistocene age. The younger sequence, including the type beds of the Norfolk Formation and equivalent strata east of the Suffolk scarp, has yielded several coral ages ranging from about 62,000 to 86,000 years B.P. (including ages from our samples and previously reported age estimates); thus, it is clearly late Pleistocene in age. Groupings of ages obtained from our quahog analyses also suggest two transgressive sequences; however, the estimated quahog ages are consistently younger than ages based on coral samples from the same and equivalent stratigraphic units. Stratigraphic, paleoclimatic, and geomorphic data suggest that the estimated uranium-series age of 71,000?7,000 years B.P. for the type beds of the Norfolk, obtained by averaging our coral dates, may be too young by as much as several tens of thousands of years. A postulated equivalency of the type Norfolk beds, upper Pleistocene deposits near Charleston, S.C. (apparent uranium-series age = 95,000?5,000 years), and deposits in the Caribbean area thought to represent the highest sea stand during the last interglacial period (apparent age, 125,000?10,000 years) implies diagenetic modification of coralline material possibly in part because of regional differences in depositional and postdepositional environments.

  8. Role of urgent care staff in organ donation.

    PubMed

    Garside, Marie; Garside, Jules

    2010-10-01

    A detailed review of donation activity since the introduction of an embedded specialist nurse in organ donation (SNOD) in Norfolk and Norwich University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust has confirmed the benefits of this role for the identification and referral of potential donors by emergency department (ED) staff. This article argues that, as EDs across the U.K. introduce SNODs, more organs will become available for transplant. PMID:21066923

  9. Infrared view of Chesapeake Bay showing Virginia, Maryland and Delaware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An infrared, near view of the Chesapeake Bay area showing portions of Virginia, Maryland and Delaware, as photographed from the Apollo spacecraft in Earth orbit during the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) mission. Richmond and Norfolk can be seen in this picture. Tidewater, Virginia covers much of this view. The photograph was taken at an altitude of 217 kilometers (135 statute miles).

  10. Biochars impact on soil moisture storage in an Ultisol and two Aridisols

    SciTech Connect

    Novak, Jeffrey M.; Busscher, Warren J.; Watts, Don W.; Amonette, James E.; Ippolito, James I.; Lima, Isabel M.; Gaskin, Julia; Das, K. C.; Steiner, Christoph; Ahmedna, Mohamed; Rehrah, Djaafar; Schomberg, Harry

    2012-05-31

    Biochar additions to soils can improve soil water storage capability, however, there is sparse information identifying feedstocks and pyrolysis conditions that maximize this improvement. Nine biochars were pyrolyzed from five feedstocks at two temperatures and their physical and chemical properties were characterized. Biochars were mixed at 2% wt w{sup -1} into a Norfolk loamy sand (Fine-loamy, kaolinitic, thermic Typic Kandiudult), a Declo silt loam (Coarse-loamy, mixed, superactive, mesic xeric Haplocalcid), or a Warden silt loam (Coarse-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic xeric Haplocambid). Untreated soils served as controls. Soils were laboratory incubated in pots for 127 days and were leached about every 30 days with deionized water. Soil bulk densities were measured before each leaching event. For six days thereafter, pot holding capacities (PHC) for water were determined gravimetrically and were used as a surrogate for soil moisture contents. Water tension curves were also measured on the biochar treated and untreated Norfolk soil. Biochar surface area, surface tension, ash, C, and Si contents, in general, increased when produced under higher pyrolytic temperatures ({ge}500 C). Both switchgrass biochars caused the most significant water PHC improvements in the Norfolk, Declo and Warden soils compared to the controls. Norfolk soil water tension results at 5 and 60 kPa corroborated that biochar from switchgrass caused the most significant moisture storage improvements. Significant correlation occurred between the PHC for water with soil bulk densities. In general, biochar amendments enhanced the moisture storage capacity of Ultisols and Aridisols, but the effect varied with feedstock selection and pyrolysis temperature.

  11. Where have all the flowers gone? Are our woodland flowers disappearing?

    PubMed

    Kirby, K

    2001-08-01

    The owner of a wood in Norfolk once told me that he thought that the lily of the valley has declined over the last 20 years. In Wytham Woods near Oxford the dense bramble patches I studied in the 1970s didn't seem so thick ten years later. Were these slips of the memory or did Pete Seeger have a point with his 1961 song - Where have all the flowers gone? PMID:11509765

  12. NASA/NSU Pre-Service Teacher Program Report: Narrative and Program Outcomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The NASA/NSU Pre-Service Teacher Program seeks to address the critical role that NASA Langley Research Center and Norfolk State University, working in tandem with other institutions around the country, can play in support or pre-service teacher education. Pre-service teachers are selected from designated institutions that serve large minority populations.The program consists of a National Conference and a Summer Institute.

  13. The behavior and bioactivity of imazaquin in soils

    SciTech Connect

    McKinnon, E.J.

    1989-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the adsorption and relative mobility of {sup 14}C-labelled imazaquin (2-(4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-5-oxo-1H-imadazol-2-yl)-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid) and {sup 14}C labelled metolachlor (2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl) acetamide) on Norfolk sand loan (Typic Paleudult), Rion sandy clay loam (Typic Hapludult), Cape Fear sandy clay loam (Typic Umbraquult) and Webster clay loam (Typic Hapluquoll). Imazaquin was more mobile than metolachlor on all four soils. Soils high in humic matter content retained between 45 and 48% of the applied imazaquin and 93 and 97% of the applied metolachlor. The relative order of mobility of imazaquin in the soils was Rion = Norfolk > Cape Fear = Webster. The order for metolachlor in the soils was Rion > Norfolk > Cape Fear > Webster. Adsorption of imazaquin and metolachlor was inversely related to their mobility in the soil columns. Adsorption of imazaquin increased as the suspension pH decreased.

  14. Painful Diabetic Neuropathy Anxiety Rasch-Transformed Questionnaire (PART-Q30(©) ).

    PubMed

    Geelen, Charlotte C; Brouwer, Brigitte A; Hoeijmakers, Janneke G J; Faber, Catharina G; Merkies, Ingemar S J; Verbunt, Jeanine A

    2016-06-01

    The association between painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) and anxiety has been acknowledged using various anxiety scales capturing various fear entities. It has never been examined whether these generally applied anxiety questionnaires could be pooled to construct one overall anxiety metric. After completion by a cohort of 151 patients with PDN, data obtained from seven generally applied fear scales were stacked (n = 88 items) and subjected to Rasch analyses (pre-PART-Q88) to create the PDN overall Anxiety Questionnaire (PART-Q30(©) ). We subsequently examined the impact of the final constructed PART-Q30(©) on disability and Quality of Life (QoL) using the Rasch-Transformed Pain Disability Index (RT-PDI) and the Norfolk Quality of Life Questionnaire, Diabetic Neuropathy version (RT-Norfolk). The pre-PART-Q88 data did not meet Rasch model's expectations. Through stepwise examination for model fit, disordered thresholds, local dependency and item bias, we succeeded in reducing the data and constructing a 30 items overall anxiety scale (PART-Q30(©) ) that fulfilled all model's expectations, including unidimensionality. An acceptable internal reliability was found (person-separation-index: 0.90). PART-Q30(©) explained 36% of disability and combined with RT-PDI 63% of QoL (assessed with RT-Norfolk). PMID:26840031

  15. Influence of soil properties on heavy metal sequestration by biochar amendment: 1. Copper sorption isotherms and the release of cations.

    PubMed

    Uchimiya, Minori; Klasson, K Thomas; Wartelle, Lynda H; Lima, Isabel M

    2011-03-01

    The amendment of carbonaceous materials such as biochars and activated carbons is a promising in situ remediation strategy for both organic and inorganic contaminants in soils and sediments. Mechanistic understandings in sorption of heavy metals on amended soil are necessary for appropriate selection and application of carbonaceous materials for heavy metal sequestration in specific soil types. In this study, copper sorption isotherms were obtained for soils having distinct characteristics: clay-rich, alkaline San Joaquin soil with significant heavy metal sorption capacity, and eroded, acidic Norfolk sandy loam soil having low capacity to retain copper. The amendment of acidic pecan shell-derived activated carbon and basic broiler litter biochar lead to a greater enhancement of copper sorption in Norfolk soil than in San Joaquin soil. In Norfolk soil, the amendment of acidic activated carbon enhanced copper sorption primarily via cation exchange mechanism, i.e., release of proton, calcium, and aluminum, while acid dissolution of aluminum cannot be ruled out. For San Joaquin soil, enhanced copper retention by biochar amendment likely resulted from the following additional mechanisms: electrostatic interactions between copper and negatively charged soil and biochar surfaces, sorption on mineral (ash) components, complexation of copper by surface functional groups and delocalized π electrons of carbonaceous materials, and precipitation. Influence of biochar on the release of additional elements (e.g., Al, Ca) must be carefully considered when used as a soil amendment to sequester heavy metals. PMID:21147495

  16. Osteoblastic Osteosarcoma in a Rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Megumi; Kondo, Hirotaka; Onuma, Mamoru; Shibuya, Hisashi; Sato, Tsuneo

    2012-01-01

    An osteosarcoma developed in the tarsal joint region involving the distal tibia of a domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Micrometastases were present in the lungs. Histologically the tumor was composed of ovoid to short-spindle cells with abundant giant cells, producing irregular islands of osteoids. The tumor cells were immunopositive with antiosteocalcin monoclonal antibody, consistent with their derivation from osteoblasts. According to review of 10 published cases, productive osteoblasic osteosarcoma is the most common bone tumor in rabbits, with half of all cases developing in the skull or facial bones. PMID:22546918

  17. Sarcocystis leporum in cottontail rabbits and its transmission to carnivores.

    PubMed

    Fayer, R; Kradel, D

    1977-04-01

    Muscle from Sarcocystis-infected cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) was fed to coccidia-free cats (Felis domestica) and dogs (Canis familiaris). Only cats became infected and shed sporocysts in their feces. The prepatent period ranged from 10 to 25 days and the patent period from 3 to 46 days. Sporocysts were fully sporulated when shed. They contained 4 sporozoites and a coarse granular residuum and averaged 9.4 by 13.6 micron (N=55). Doses of 200-75,000 sporocysts were orally administered to 5 domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Domestic rabbits did not become infected, suggesting a strict host specificity for the intermediate host S. floridanus. PMID:405509

  18. Detection of RHDV strains in the Iberian hare (Lepus granatensis): earliest evidence of rabbit lagovirus cross-species infection.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ana M; Marques, Sara; Silva, Eliane; Magalhães, Maria J; Pinheiro, Ana; Alves, Paulo C; Le Pendu, Jacques; Esteves, Pedro J; Thompson, Gertrude; Abrantes, Joana

    2014-01-01

    Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a highly lethal Lagovirus, family Caliciviridae, that threatens European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Although a related virus severely affects hares, cross-species infection was only recently described for new variant RHDV in Cape hares (Lepus capensis mediterraneus). We sequenced two strains from dead Iberian hares (Lepus granatensis) collected in the 1990s in Portugal. Clinical signs were compatible with a Lagovirus infection. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete capsid gene positioned them in the RHDV genogroup that circulated on the Iberian Peninsula at that time. This is the earliest evidence of RHDV affecting a species other than European rabbits. PMID:25248407

  19. Geomorphic characterization of four shelf-sourced submarine canyons along the U.S. Mid-Atlantic continental margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Obelcz, Jeffrey; Brothers, Daniel S.; Chaytor, Jason D.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Ross, Steve W.; Brooke, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Shelf-sourced submarine canyons are common features of continental margins and are fundamental to deep-sea sedimentary systems. Despite their geomorphic and geologic significance, relatively few passive margin shelf-breaching canyons worldwide have been mapped using modern geophysical methods. Between 2007 and 2012 a series of geophysical surveys was conducted across four major canyons of the US Mid-Atlantic margin: Wilmington, Baltimore, Washington, and Norfolk canyons. More than 5700 km2 of high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and 890 line-km of sub-bottom CHIRP profiles were collected along the outer shelf and uppermost slope (depths of 80-1200 m). The data allowed us to compare and contrast the fine-scale morphology of each canyon system. The canyons have marked differences in the morphology and orientation of canyon heads, steepness and density of sidewall gullies, and the character of the continental shelf surrounding canyon rims. Down-canyon axial profiles for Washington, Baltimore and Wilmington canyons have linear shapes, and each canyon thalweg exhibits morphological evidence for recent, relatively small-scale sediment transport. For example, Washington Canyon displays extremely steep wall gradients and contains ~100 m wide, 5–10 m deep, v-shaped incisions down the canyon axis, suggesting modern or recent sediment transport. In contrast, the convex axial thalweg profile, the absence of thalweg incision, and evidence for sediment infilling at the canyon head, suggest that depositional processes strongly influence Norfolk Canyon during the current sea-level high-stand. The north walls of Wilmington, Washington and Norfolk canyons are steeper than the south walls due to differential erosion, though the underlying cause for this asymmetry is not clear. Furthermore, we speculate that most of the geomorphic features observed within the canyons (e.g., terraces, tributary canyons, gullies, and hanging valleys) were formed during the Pleistocene, and show only

  20. Benthic Community Structure and Sediment Geochemical Properties at Hydrocarbon Seeps Along the Continental Slope of the Western North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demopoulos, A. W.; Bourque, J. R.; Brooke, S.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrocarbon seeps support distinct benthic communities capable of utilizing reduced chemical compounds for nutrition. In recent years, methane seepage has been increasingly documented along the continental slope of the U.S. Atlantic margin. In 2012 and 2013, two seeps were investigated in this region: a shallow site near Baltimore Canyon (410-450 m) and a deep site near Norfolk Canyon (1600 m). Both sites contain extensive mussel beds and microbial mats. Sediment cores and grab samples were collected to quantify the abundance, diversity, and community structure of benthic macrofauna (>300 mm) in relationship to the associated sediment environment (organic carbon and nitrogen, stable isotopes 13C and 15N, grain size, and depth) of mussel beds, mats, and slope habitats. Macrofaunal densities in microbial mats were four times greater than those present in mussel beds and slope sediments. Macrofaunal communities were distinctly different both between depths and among habitat types. Specifically, microbial mat sediments were dominated by the annelid families Dorvilleidae, Capitellidae, and Tubificidae, while mussel habitats had higher proportions of crustaceans. Diversity was lower in Baltimore microbial mat habitats, but higher in mussel and slope sediments compared to Norfolk seep habitats found at deeper depths. Multivariate statistical analysis identified sediment carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratios and 13C values as important variables for structuring the macrofaunal communities. Higher C:N ratios were present within microbial mat habitats and depleted 13C values occurred in sediments adjacent to mussel beds found in Norfolk Canyon seeps. Differences in the quality and source of organic matter present in the seep habitats are known to be important drivers in macrofaunal community structure and associated food webs. The multivariate analysis provides new insight into the relative importance of the seep sediment quality in supporting dense macrofaunal communities compared

  1. Lessons learned from a whole hospital PACS installation. Picture Archiving and Communication System.

    PubMed

    Pilling, J R

    2002-09-01

    The Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital has incorporated a fully filmless Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) as part of a new hospital provision using PFI funding. The PACS project has been very successful and has met with unanimous acclaim from radiologists and clinicians. A project of this size cannot be achieved without learning some lessons from mistakes and recognising areas where attention to detail resulted in a successful implementation. This paper considers the successes and problems encountered in a large PACS installation. PMID:12384103

  2. Environmental engineering 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Schafran, G.C.

    1999-07-01

    These proceedings contain papers presented at the 1999 National Conference on Environmental Engineering held in Norfolk, Virginia, July 25--28, 1999. The conference papers address a wide range of topics including risk assessment and management, environmental system modeling, biological nutrient removal wastewater treatment processes, membrane applications and fouling, innovative biological and physiochemical soil and groundwater remediation processes, sludge (biosolids) treatment and transport, and copper discharges to estuarine systems. In addition, papers from sessions dealing with public health issues at federal facilities, ordinance treatment and disposal, leachate management, nonpoint source water management, and pollution prevention and waste minimization are included. Papers within scope have been processed separately for inclusion on the database.

  3. Land use and land cover information and air-quality planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, W.E.; Lewis, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    The land use and land cover information developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site project has been proven useful when used in an improved technique for estimating emissions, diffusion, and impact patterns of sulfur dioxide (S02) and particulate matter. Implementation of plans to control air quality requires land use and land cover information, which, until this time, has been inadequate. The land use and land cover data were used in updating information on the sources of point and area emissions of S02 and particulate matter affecting the Norfolk-Portsmouth area of Virginia for the 1971-72 winter (Dec.-Jan.-Feb.) and the annual 1972 period, and for a future annual period-1985. This emission information is used as input to the Air Quality Display Model of the Environmental Protection Agency to obtain diffusion and impact patterns for the three periods previously mentioned. The results are: (1) During the 1971-72 winter, estimated S02 amounts over an area with southwest-northeast axis in the central section of Norfolk exceeded both primary and secondary levels, (2) future annual levels of S02, estimated by anticipated residential development and point-source changes, are not expected to cause serious deterioration of the region's present air quality, and (3) for the 1971-72 winter, and annual 1972, period the diffusion results showed that both primary and secondary standards for particulate matter are regularly exceeded in central Norfolk and Portsmouth. In addition, on the basis of current control programs, the 1985 levels of particulate matter are expected to exceed the presently established secondary air-quality standards through central Norfolk and Portsmouth and in certain areas of Virginia Beach. Land use and land cover information can be used to estimate emissions for inputs to diffusion models and to interpret the implications of diffusion patterns for: (1) Implementing various control strategies, (2

  4. Ocean margins workshop

    SciTech Connect

    1990-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is announcing the refocusing of its marine research program to emphasize the study of ocean margins and their role in modulating, controlling, and driving Global Change phenomena. This is a proposal to conduct a workshop that will establish priorities and an implementation plan for a new research initiative by the Department of Energy on the ocean margins. The workshop will be attended by about 70 scientists who specialize in ocean margin research. The workshop will be held in the Norfolk, Virginia area in late June 1990.

  5. An overview of dredging operations in the Chesapeake Bay. [environment effects and coastal ecology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silver, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    Maintenance of the Baltimore and the Newport News/Norfolk harbors as well as of the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal is accomplished by different dredging operations which depend on the amount and type of material to be moved, water depth, and location of disposal sites. Methods for determining the physical or chemical-biological interactive effects of these activities on the environment and on the shellfish and finfish industries on the Bay are discussed. The types of dredges used are classed according to their mode of operation.

  6. Invisibility rules the waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavers, Chris

    2008-03-01

    In the autumn of 1943, according to some accounts, the US Navy succeeded in making a ship invisible, both to the naked eye and to radar systems. The USS Eldridge, so the story goes, was part of an experiment dubbed Project Rainbow - now more commonly known as the Philadelphia Experiment - which sought to test invisibility technology that used electromagnetic fields to bend space and time. Some "witnesses" have claimed that they saw the vessel disappear from view for several minutes, and it has even been suggested that during this time the Eldridge was "teleported" from the US port of Philadelphia in Pennsylvania, to Norfolk in Virginia, some hundreds of miles down the coast.

  7. Carbon mineralization in two ultisols amended with different sources and particle sizes of pyrolyzed biochar.

    PubMed

    Sigua, G C; Novak, J M; Watts, D W; Cantrell, K B; Shumaker, P D; Szögi, A A; Johnson, M G

    2014-05-01

    Biochar produced during pyrolysis has the potential to enhance soil fertility and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The influence of biochar properties (e.g., particle size) on both short- and long-term carbon (C) mineralization of biochar remains unclear. There is minimal information on the potential effects of biochar particle sizes on their breakdowns by soil microorganism, so it is unknown if the particle size of biochar influences C mineralization rate and/or stability in soils. In order to evaluate the effect of different sources (BS) and particle sizes (BF) of biochar on C loss and/or stability in soils, an incubation study on C mineralization of different biochar sources and particle sizes was established using two soils (ST): Norfolk soil (fine loamy, kaolinitic, thermic, typic Kandiudults) and Coxville soil (fine loamy kaolinitic, thermic, Paleaquults). In separate incubation vessels, these soils were amended with one of two manure-based biochars (poultry litters, PL; swine solids, SS) or one of two lignocellulosic-based biochars (switchgrass, SG; pine chips, PC) which were processed into two particle sizes (dust, <0.42 mm; pellet, >2 mm). The amount of CO2 evolved varied significantly between soils (p≤0.0001); particle sizes (p≤0.0001) and the interactions of biochar source (p≤0.001) and forms of biochars (p≤0.0001) with soil types. Averaged across soils and sources of biochar, CO2-C evolved from dust-sized biochar (281 mg kg(-1)) was significantly higher than pellet-sized biochar (226 mg kg(-1)). Coxville soils with SS biochar produced the greatest average CO2-C of 428 mg kg(-1) and Norfolk soils with PC had the lowest CO2-C production (93 mg kg(-1)). Measured rates of carbon mineralization also varied with soils and sources of biochar (Norfolk: PL>SS>SG≥PC; Coxville: PC>SG>SS>PL). The average net CO2-C evolved from the Coxville soils (385 mg kg(-1)) was about threefold more than the CO2-C evolved from the Norfolk soils (123 mg kg(-1)). Our

  8. The CHROME Honors Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Eleanor

    2002-01-01

    The CHROME Honors Program was designed as a two-week residential program for 9th and 1Oth grade students participating in CHROME clubs. The curriculum focused on the health sciences with instruction from: (1) the science and health curriculum of the Dozoretz National Program for Minorities in Applied Sciences (DNIMAS) Program of Norfolk State University (NSU); (2) the humanities curriculum of the NSU Honors Program; (3) NASA-related curriculum in human physiology. An Advisory Committee was formed to work with the Project Coordinator in the design of the summer program.

  9. New age of sail

    SciTech Connect

    Robb, D.

    1982-08-01

    Wind power activities currently underway in the United States are discussed, in particular, the American conference on sail-equipped working vessel technology at Norfolk, Virginia. Lloyd Bergeson, founder of Wind Sail, and keynote speaker, discussed factory-built sail rigs which would be retrofitted aboard cargo ships and would function as a form of auxiliary propulsion for fuel conservation. An expedition from Sea World intends to build a 67 meter sailing research vessel and conduct a 3-1/2 year oceanographic research cruise. (MJF)

  10. Railroading Powder River style: bigger investments and bigger trains

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2007-07-15

    The Joint Line, co-owned and operated by Union Pacific and Burlington Norfolk Santa Fe (BNSF) railroads, carried a record 354 million tons of coal from Wyoming's Powder River Basin, on 15,000 to 17,000 ton trains. The average haul is almost 1,000 miles. Torrential rainfall and coal dust caused derailment and buckling problems in 2005. The article reports progress in repairing the track and expanding railroad capacity since then. Many are anxious about the railroad's ability to move ever increasing amounts of coal. 3 photos.

  11. Effects of clay dispersion on aquifer storage and recovery in coastal aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konikow, L.F.; August, L.L.; Voss, C.I.

    2001-01-01

    Cyclic injection, storage, and withdrawal of freshwater in brackish aquifers is a form of aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) that can beneficially supplement water supplies in coastal areas. A 1970s field experiment in Norfolk, Virginia, showed that clay dispersion in the unconsolidated sedimentary aquifer occurred because of cation exchange on clay minerals as freshwater displaced brackish formation water. Migration of interstitial clay particles clogged pores, reduced permeability, and decreased recovery efficiency, but a calcium preflush was found to reduce clay dispersion and lead to a higher recovery efficiency. Column experiments were performed in this study to quantify the relations between permeability changes and clay mineralogy, clay content, and initial water salinity. The results of these experiments indicate that dispersion of montmorillonite clay is a primary contributor to formation damage. The reduction in permeability by clay dispersion may be expressed as a linear function of chloride content. Incorporating these simple functions into a radial, cross-sectional, variable-density, ground-water flow and transport model yielded a satisfactory simulation of the Norfolk field test - and represented an improvement over the model that ignored changes in permeability. This type of model offers a useful planning and design tool for ASR operations in coastal clastic aquifer systems.

  12. Virtual Epidemic in a Virtual City: Simulating the Spread of Influenza in a United States Metropolitan Area

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bruce Y.; Bedford, Virginia L.; Roberts, Mark S.; Carley, Kathleen M.

    2009-01-01

    A wide variety of biological, physiological, social, economic and geographic factors may affect the transmission, spread, and impact of influenza. Recent concerns about an impending influenza epidemic have generated a need for predictive computer simulation models to forecast the spread of influenza and the effectiveness of prevention and control strategies. We designed an agent-based computer simulation of a theoretical influenza epidemic in Norfolk (Virginia) that included extensive city-level details and computer representations of every Norfolk citizen, including their expected behavior and social interactions. The simulation introduced 200 people infected cases on November 27, 2002 (Day 87) and tracked the progress of the epidemic. On average, the prevalence peaked on Day 178 (12.2% of the population). Our model showed a cyclical variation in influenza cases by day of the week with fewer people being exposed on weekends, differences in emergency room and clinic visits by day of the week, an earlier peak in influenza cases and persistent high prevalence among people age 65 or older, and the daily prevalence of infection among health care workers. The level of detail included in our simulation model made these findings possible. Compared to other existing models, our model has a very extensive and detailed social network, which may be important since individuals with more social interactions and extensive social networks may be more likely to spread influenza. Our simulation may serve as a virtual laboratory to better understand the way different factors and interventions affect the spread of influenza. PMID:18514138

  13. Blood Vessel Tension Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    In the photo, a medical researcher is using a specially designed laboratory apparatus for measuring blood vessel tension. It was designed by Langley Research Center as a service to researchers of Norfolk General Hospital and Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, Virginia. The investigators are studying how vascular smooth muscle-muscle in the walls of blood vessels-reacts to various stimulants, such as coffee, tea, alcohol or drugs. They sought help from Langley Research Center in devising a method of measuring the tension in blood vessel segments subjected to various stimuli. The task was complicated by the extremely small size of the specimens to be tested, blood vessel "loops" resembling small rubber bands, some only half a millimeter in diameter. Langley's Instrumentation Development Section responded with a miniaturized system whose key components are a "micropositioner" for stretching a length of blood vessel and a strain gage for measuring the smooth muscle tension developed. The micropositioner is a two-pronged holder. The loop of Mood vessel is hooked over the prongs and it is stretched by increasing the distance between the prongs in minute increments, fractions of a millimeter. At each increase, the tension developed is carefully measured. In some experiments, the holder and specimen are lowered into the test tubes shown, which contain a saline solution simulating body fluid; the effect of the compound on developed tension is then measured. The device has functioned well and the investigators say it has saved several months research time.

  14. New genera, species and records of Maeridae from Australian Waters:
    Austromaera, Ceradocus, Glossomaera, Hamimaera, Huonella gen. nov.,
    Linguimaera and Maeraceterus gen. nov. (Crustacea: Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Hughes, Lauren E

    2016-01-01

    Thirty species of Maeridae are reported for Australian waters including the description of two new genera and nine new species. The new genus Huonella from southern Tasmanian seamounts is distinguished among the maerids by characters on the uropod 3, including elongation of both rami, inner ramus half the length of the outer ramus and outer ramus two articulate. The new genus Maeraceterus is establish for two new species, M. bramblensis from Western Australia and M. taaroa from Norfolk Island, which have a near transverse gnathopod 1 propodus palm and symmetrical male gnathopod 2. The new species Ceradocus baudini, Hamimaera thijsseni, Linguimaera boeckoides, L. daveyi, L. everardensis and L. mere are described here in. Additional distribution records are provided for eleven known Ceradocus and seven known Linguimaera, as well as three known maerids Austromaera mastersii (Haswell, 1879a), Glossomaera octodens (Sivaprakasam, 1969) and Hamimaera hamigera (Haswell, 1879b). Collections reported on here include material from Australia; Cocos (Keeling) and Christmas Islands, Indian Ocean; the Torres Strait; Papua New Guinea, Bismarck Sea and Norfolk Island, South Pacific. Keys to Ceradocus and Linguimaera sensu lato species in Australian waters are provided. PMID:27395154

  15. Modern Tasman Sea surface reservoir ages from deep-sea black corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komugabe, Aimée F.; Fallon, Stewart J.; Thresher, Ronald E.; Eggins, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    Marine reservoir ages are a key element in calculating and constraining uncertainty in radiocarbon age estimates and are also essential to better understand regional ocean circulation. In this study, we present a new method to reconstruct long-term, high-resolution sea surface reservoir ages based on analysis of the organic skeleton of deep-sea (560 m) black coral (Anthozoa, Antipatharia). Our results confirm that antipatharians are extremely slow growing (typical radial growth rate for a South Pacific specimen around 0.03 mm/yr). Coupled uranium series and radiocarbon measurements were made on black coral collected live from the Norfolk Ridge (north Tasman Sea) to provide the first modern reservoir ages for this region. At the Norfolk Ridge, the average reservoir age between 1790 AD and 1900 AD was ∼330 years. This was followed by a steep decrease over time of about 70 years to 1950 AD (our most modern value). This indicates an increase in surface ocean ventilation of water masses in this region. These results are consistent with observational studies for the early twentieth century, which suggest significant changes in regional circulation of the southwest pacific.

  16. Maeridae from the Indo-Pacific: Elasmopus, Leeuwinella gen. nov., Maeropsis, Pseudelasmopus and Quadrimaera (Amphipoda: Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Hughes, Lauren E

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-two species of Maeridae including the new genus, Leeuwinella, and eight new species are described from Indo-Pacific waters. Leeuwinella mistakensis gen. et sp. nov. from southern Western Australia has dorsal carinae and serrate epimeral margins on pleonites 1-3 and mandibular palp article 3 concave; this significant combination of characters justifies erection of a new genus. Elasmopus coxacallus sp. nov., with a castelloserrate posterior margin of pereopod 7 presents a novel character for the genus, which contains over 100 described species. Elasmopus incomptus sp. nov. and E. norfolkensis sp. nov. are also described from Norfolk Island, South Pacific, while new distribution records are provided for E. gracilis Schellenberg, 1938, E. integer Myers, 1989, and E. molokai J.L. Barnard, 1970 from northwestern Australia, and E. souillacensis Appadoo & Myers, 2003, from the Kermadec Islands. New distribution records for Maeropsis griffini (Berents, 1983) from Bedout Island in Western Australia are the first of the species outside the Queensland type locality and new records of M. thetis (Lowry & Springthorpe, 2005) from mainland Australia to Tasmania and across the Tasman Sea extending its range. Pseudelasmopus walkerae sp. nov. is described from Norfolk Island, and is the second species recorded in the genus, previously known only from Mauritius. Lastly, three new Quadrimaera species, Q. gregoryi, Q. brownorum and Q. vallaris, along with eight known Quadrimaera species, are reported from various locations extending their distributions in the Indo-Pacific. PMID:26701562

  17. Distinct Benthic Community Trends Driven by Particle Transport and Deposition in Mid-Atlantic Bight Canyons, NW Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demopoulos, A. W.; Robertson, C. M.; Bourque, J. R.; Mienis, F.; Duineveld, G.; Ross, S.; Brooke, S.; Davies, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) is a well-studied region of the U.S. East coast continental margin, rich in submarine canyons. Baltimore and Norfolk canyons were studied during the multidisciplinary Atlantic Deepwater Canyons project through funding from BOEM, NOAA, and USGS. Sediment and water column properties were assessed in the context of canyon physical dynamics and ecosystem ecology. Sediment samples were collected by NIOZ box corer in 2012 and 2013 along canyon axes and comparative adjacent slopes at standardized depths. Sediments were analyzed for grain size, organic content, stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes, chlorophyll a, and benthic infauna. Water column properties were sampled using CTD transects, and benthic landers and moorings positioned along canyon axes. Significant differences in sediment transport regimes were found for each canyon where observed nepheloid layers corresponded to shifts in infaunal community structure. Significant community shifts were observed in stations at depths > 900m in Baltimore Canyon, coinciding with higher organic matter concentrations at depths below the nepheloid layer. In contrast, adjacent slope communities exhibited a more uniform infaunal assemblage where distinct zonation patterns by depth were observed. Preliminary data for Norfolk Canyon suggest very different sediment deposition rates in the canyon and also show clear differences between canyon and slope benthic communities. Geological processes and canyon topography coupled with organic inputs and disturbance events are clear factors in determining benthic infaunal diversity and standing stock dynamics in and around these canyons.

  18. Myxoma virus in the European rabbit: interactions between the virus and its susceptible host.

    PubMed

    Stanford, Marianne M; Werden, Steven J; McFadden, Grant

    2007-01-01

    Myxoma virus (MV) is a poxvirus that evolved in Sylvilagus lagomorphs, and is the causative agent of myxomatosis in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). This virus is not a natural pathogen of O. cuniculus, yet is able to subvert the host rabbit immune system defenses and cause a highly lethal systemic infection. The interaction of MV proteins and the rabbit immune system has been an ideal model to help elucidate host/poxvirus interactions, and has led to a greater understanding of how other poxvirus pathogens are able to cause disease in their respective hosts. This review will examine how MV causes myxomatosis, by examining a selection of the identified immunomodulatory proteins that this virus expresses to subvert the immune and inflammatory pathways of infected rabbit hosts. PMID:17296158

  19. Molecular characterization of SG33 and Borghi vaccines used against myxomatosis.

    PubMed

    Cavadini, Patrizia; Botti, Giuliana; Barbieri, Ilaria; Lavazza, Antonio; Capucci, Lorenzo

    2010-07-26

    Myxoma virus is a poxvirus responsible for myxomatosis in European Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). The entire genome of the myxoma virus has been sequenced, allowing a systemic survey of the functions of a large number of putative pathogenic factors that this virus expresses to subvert the immune and inflammatory pathways of infected rabbit hosts. In Italy, industrial rabbits are mostly vaccinated against myxomatosis using the attenuated myxoma virus strains Borghi or SG33. We have identified genetic markers specific for Borghi or SG33 vaccine strains and established a PCR-based assay that could be used to: (a) rapidly diagnose the presence of myxoma virus in infected organs; (b) discriminate between field strain-infected and vaccinated rabbits and (c) differentiate between Borghi or SG33 vaccine strain. PMID:20598407

  20. Effects of vaccination against viral haemorrhagic disease and myxomatosis on long-term mortality rates of European wild rabbits.

    PubMed

    Calvete, C; Estrada, R; Lucientes, J; Osacar, J J; Villafuerte, R

    2004-09-25

    The effects of vaccination against myxomatosis and viral haemorrhagic disease (VHD) on long-term mortality rates in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were studied from 1993 to 1996 by radiotracking a free-living population of wild rabbits. During the three months after immunisation, unvaccinated young rabbits weighing between 180 and 600 g were 13.6 times more likely to die than vaccinated young rabbits. In adult rabbits, vaccination did not significantly decrease mortality, mainly owing to the high proportion of rabbits which had previously been exposed to the antigens of both diseases. Compared with adult rabbits with natural antibodies to VHD, rabbits without these antibodies were 5.2 times more likely to die of VHD during annual outbreaks. PMID:15499810

  1. Limitations of plasmid vaccines to complex viruses: selected myxoma virus antigens as DNA vaccines were not protective.

    PubMed

    Adams, Mathew M; van Leeuwen, Barbara H; Kerr, Peter J

    2004-11-25

    Myxoma virus, a poxvirus of the genus Leporipoxvirus, is the causative agent of the disease myxomatosis which is highly lethal in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Current vaccines to protect against myxomatosis are either attenuated live strains of the virus or the antigenically related rabbit fibroma virus. We examined the immune response of outbred domestic rabbits to the individual myxoma virus antigens M055R, M073R, M115L and M121R, delivered as DNA vaccines co-expressing rabbit interleukin-2 or interleukin-4. M115L and M121R were also delivered simultaneously. None of the vaccine constructs were able to protect the rabbits from disease or reduce mortality after challenge with virulent myxoma virus, despite induction of antigen-specific cell-mediated and humoral immune responses. PMID:15531037

  2. Possible interaction between myxomatosis and calicivirosis related to rabbit haemorrhagic disease affecting the European rabbit.

    PubMed

    Marchandeau, S; Bertagnoli, S; Peralta, B; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Letty, J; Reitz, F

    2004-11-01

    Serological data on myxoma virus, rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) virus and RHD-like viruses in juvenile rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) trapped in 1995, 1996 and 1997 in two areas of France were analysed. For each disease, the effects of bodyweight, year, month and seropositivity for the other disease were modelled by using logistic regressions. In one area, a model including RHD seropositivity was selected to explain the myxoma virus seropositivity. Models including myxoma virus seropositivity were selected to explain the RHD seropositivity in both areas, and the odds of a rabbit being seropositive to both viruses were 5.1 and 8.4 times higher than the odds of a rabbit being seronegative to myxoma virus and seropositive to RHD. The year and bodyweight had significant effects for myxomatosis in one area and for RHD in both areas. PMID:15573951

  3. Identification of a Bitter-Taste Receptor Gene Repertoire in Different Lagomorphs Species

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Ana M.; Marques, Andreia T.; Fontanesi, Luca; Thulin, Carl-Gustaf; Sales-Baptista, Elvira; Araújo, Susana S.; Almeida, André M.

    2016-01-01

    The repertoires of bitter-taste receptor (T2R) gene have been described for several animal species, but these data are still scarce for Lagomorphs. The aim of the present work is to identify potential repertoires of T2R in several Lagomorph species, covering a wide geographical distribution. We studied these genes in Lepus timidus, L. europaeus, Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus, Romerolagus diazi, and Sylvilagus floridanus, using O. cuniculus cuniculus as control species for PCR and DNA sequencing. We studied the identities of the DNA sequences and built the corresponding phylogenetic tree. Sequencing was successful for both subspecies of O. cuniculus for all T2R genes studied, for five genes in Lepus, and for three genes in R. diazi and S. floridanus. We describe for the first time the partial repertoires of T2R genes for Lagomorphs species, other than the common rabbit. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that sequence proximity levels follow the established taxonomic classification. PMID:27092177

  4. Identification of a Bitter-Taste Receptor Gene Repertoire in Different Lagomorphs Species.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ana M; Marques, Andreia T; Fontanesi, Luca; Thulin, Carl-Gustaf; Sales-Baptista, Elvira; Araújo, Susana S; Almeida, André M

    2016-01-01

    The repertoires of bitter-taste receptor (T2R) gene have been described for several animal species, but these data are still scarce for Lagomorphs. The aim of the present work is to identify potential repertoires of T2R in several Lagomorph species, covering a wide geographical distribution. We studied these genes in Lepus timidus, L. europaeus, Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus, Romerolagus diazi, and Sylvilagus floridanus, using O. cuniculus cuniculus as control species for PCR and DNA sequencing. We studied the identities of the DNA sequences and built the corresponding phylogenetic tree. Sequencing was successful for both subspecies of O. cuniculus for all T2R genes studied, for five genes in Lepus, and for three genes in R. diazi and S. floridanus. We describe for the first time the partial repertoires of T2R genes for Lagomorphs species, other than the common rabbit. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that sequence proximity levels follow the established taxonomic classification. PMID:27092177

  5. Latency of the nictitating membrane response to periocular electrostimulation in unanesthetized rabbits.

    PubMed

    Moore, J W; Desmond, J E

    1982-06-01

    The latency of the nictitating membrane response (NMR) in rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) to periocular electro-stimulation is a negative exponential function of stimulus current with an asymptote of approximately 17 msec. The NMR was recorded by means of a precision low-torque potentiometer like that employed in previous studies of NMR latency, and the criterion of response initiation employed here was similar to that employed in studies of classical conditioning in this preparation. Using estimates from physiological studies on surgically acute preparations, the minimum latency of the NMR of 17 msec can be decomposed as follows: 4 msec to fire motoneurons of the accessory abducens nucleus; 9 msec for conduction, synaptic transmission, and recruitment of retractor bulbi muscle fibers; 4 msec for the nictitating membrane to initiate its sweep after eyeball retraction. The implications of these estimates for chronic unit-recording studies of the conditioned NMR are discussed. PMID:7111447

  6. Rabbit Models for Studying Human Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xuwen; Knouse, John A; Hernon, Krista M

    2015-01-01

    Using an appropriate animal model is crucial for mimicking human disease conditions, and various facets including genetics, anatomy, and pathophysiology should be considered before selecting a model. Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are well known for their wide use in production of antibodies, eye research, atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. However, a systematic description of the rabbit as primary experimental models for the study of various human infectious diseases is unavailable. This review focuses on the human infectious diseases for which rabbits are considered a classic or highly appropriate model, including AIDS (caused by HIV1), adult T-cell leukemia–lymphoma (human T-lymphotropic virus type 1), papilloma or carcinoma (human papillomavirus) , herpetic stromal keratitis (herpes simplex virus type 1), tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis), and syphilis (Treponema pallidum). In addition, particular aspects of the husbandry and care of rabbits used in studies of human infectious diseases are described. PMID:26678367

  7. Rabbit Models for Studying Human Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xuwen; Knouse, John A; Hernon, Krista M

    2015-12-01

    Using an appropriate animal model is crucial for mimicking human disease conditions, and various facets including genetics, anatomy, and pathophysiology should be considered before selecting a model. Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are well known for their wide use in production of antibodies, eye research, atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. However, a systematic description of the rabbit as primary experimental models for the study of various human infectious diseases is unavailable. This review focuses on the human infectious diseases for which rabbits are considered a classic or highly appropriate model, including AIDS (caused by HIV1), adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (human T-lymphotropic virus type 1), papilloma or carcinoma (human papillomavirus) , herpetic stromal keratitis (herpes simplex virus type 1), tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis), and syphilis (Treponema pallidum). In addition, particular aspects of the husbandry and care of rabbits used in studies of human infectious diseases are described. PMID:26678367

  8. Late cataractogenesis caused by particulate radiations and photons in long-lived mammalian species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lett, J. T.; Lee, A. C.; Cox, A. B.; Wood, D. H.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation cataractogenesis induced by small acute doses of particulate radiations and photons in the New Zealand white rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), the beagle dog (Canis familiaris) and the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) is discussed in the context of the use of animal models to assess the radiation hazards faced by humans during lengthy sojourns in deep space. Attention is paid to (1) the importance of lifespan studies with long-lived species - the above animals have median lifespans in captivity of 5-7, 13-14 and 25 years, respectively; and (2) the magnitudes of possible dose thresholds for cataractogenesis from sparsely ionizing radiations and the modifications of those thresholds by the late degenerative phase of the phenomenon.

  9. Age dependency of base modification in rabbit liver DNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, O.; Fuji, I.; Yoshida, T.; Cox, A. B.; Lett, J. T.

    1988-01-01

    Age-related modifications of DNA bases have been observed in the liver of the New Zealand white (NZW) rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), a lagomorph with a median life span in captivity of 5-7 yr. The ages of the animals studied ranged from 6 wk to 9 yr. After the DNA had been extracted from the liver cell nuclei and hydrolyzed with acid, the bases were analyzed by column chromatography with Cellulofine gels (GC-15-m). Two peaks in the chromatogram, which eluted before the four DNA bases, contained modified bases. Those materials, which were obtained in relatively large amounts from old animals, were highly fluorescent, and were shown to be crosslinked base products by mass spectrometry. The yield of crosslinked products versus rabbit age (greater than 0.5 yr) can be fitted by an exponential function (correlation coefficient: 0.76 +/- 0.09).

  10. Induction of skin papillomas in the rabbit, Oryctologus cuniculus, by bites of a blood-sucking insect, Cimex lectularius, irradiated by gamma rays

    SciTech Connect

    el-Mofty, M.M.; Sakr, S.A.; Younis, M.W. )

    1989-11-01

    Bed bugs, Cimex lectularius, irradiated with gamma rays were allowed to suck blood from shaved areas of the skin of rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus, 2 times/week for 5 months and then once weekly for another 5 months. This significantly induced the formation of skin papillomas and sweat gland hyperplasia in five out of nine experimental animals. It is speculated that the saliva of the irradiated bugs was activated by gamma rays and was responsible for the induction of skin papillomas. Because bed bugs play a significant role in the transmission of virus, it is also speculated that there is a virus in the saliva of bugs; this virus may be activated by gamma radiation and causes the development of papillomas in the skin.

  11. Comparative analysis of ear-hole closure identifies epimorphic regeneration as a discrete trait in mammals.

    PubMed

    Gawriluk, Thomas R; Simkin, Jennifer; Thompson, Katherine L; Biswas, Shishir K; Clare-Salzler, Zak; Kimani, John M; Kiama, Stephen G; Smith, Jeramiah J; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Seifert, Ashley W

    2016-01-01

    Why mammals have poor regenerative ability has remained a long-standing question in biology. In regenerating vertebrates, injury can induce a process known as epimorphic regeneration to replace damaged structures. Using a 4-mm ear punch assay across multiple mammalian species, here we show that several Acomys spp. (spiny mice) and Oryctolagus cuniculus completely regenerate tissue, whereas other rodents including MRL/MpJ 'healer' mice heal similar injuries by scarring. We demonstrate ear-hole closure is independent of ear size, and closure rate can be modelled with a cubic function. Cellular and genetic analyses reveal that injury induces blastema formation in Acomys cahirinus. Despite cell cycle re-entry in Mus musculus and A. cahirinus, efficient cell cycle progression and proliferation only occurs in spiny mice. Together, our data unite blastema-mediated regeneration in spiny mice with regeneration in other vertebrates such as salamanders, newts and zebrafish, where all healthy adults regenerate in response to injury. PMID:27109826

  12. Feeding profile of Mepraia spinolai, a sylvatic vector of Chagas disease in Chile.

    PubMed

    Chacón, F; Bacigalupo, A; Quiroga, J F; Ferreira, A; Cattan, P E; Ramírez-Toloza, G

    2016-10-01

    American trypanosomiasis is a chronic disease transmitted mainly by vectors. The hematophagous triatomine vectors transmit Trypanosoma cruzi to a wide variety of mammals, which usually are their food source. This study determined the feeding profile of Mepraia spinolai, a sylvatic triatomine vector, present in endemic areas of Chile. Vectors were captured in the north-central area of Chile. Samples of intestinal contents were analyzed by an Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that identifies and discriminates the presence of serum antigens from Homo sapiens and nine animal species (Canis familiaris, Felis catus, Capra hircus, Mus musculus, Gallus gallus, Octodon degus, Thylamys elegans, Phyllotis darwini and Oryctolagus cuniculus). Our data indicate the most frequent feeding source in this area was P. darwini, followed by O. degus, O. cuniculus, M. musculus, G. gallus, T. elegans, C. familiaris, F. catus and C. hircus. Mixed food sources were also identified. PMID:27349188

  13. Late cataractogenesis caused by particulate radiations and photons in long-lived mammalian species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lett, J. T.; Lee, A. C.; Cox, A. B.; Wood, D. H.

    Radiation cataractogenesis induced by small acute doses of particulate radiations and photons in the New Zealand white (NZW) rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), the beagle dog (Canis familiaris) and the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) is discussed in the context of the use of animal models to assess the radiation hazards faced by humans during lengthy sojourns in deep space. Attention is paid to: 1) the importance of lifespan studies with long-lived species - the above animals have median lifespans in captivity of 5-7, 13-14 and -25 years, respectively; 2) the magnitudes of possible dose thresholds for cataractogenesis from sparsely ionizing radiations and the modifications of those thresholds by the late degenerative phase of the phenomenon.

  14. Induction of skin papillomas in the rabbit, Oryctologus cuniculus, by bites of a blood-sucking insect, Cimex lectularius, irradiated by gamma rays.

    PubMed

    el-Mofty, M M; Sakr, S A; Younis, M W

    1989-11-01

    Bed bugs, Cimex lectularius, irradiated with gamma rays were allowed to suck blood from shaved areas of the skin of rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus, 2 times/week for 5 months and then once weekly for another 5 months. This significantly induced the formation of skin papillomas and sweat gland hyperplasia in five out of nine experimental animals. It is speculated that the saliva of the irradiated bugs was activated by gamma rays and was responsible for the induction of skin papillomas. Because bed bugs play a significant role in the transmission of virus, it is also speculated that there is a virus in the saliva of bugs; this virus may be activated by gamma radiation and causes the development of papillomas in the skin. PMID:2794550

  15. Myxomatosis.

    PubMed

    Bertagnoli, S; Marchandeau, S

    2015-08-01

    Myxomatosis, a major disease of European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), is enzootic on several continents. The disease is infectious, virulent and contagious. The pathogen is a virus of the family Poxviridae, genus Leporipoxvirus. In its classic form the disease is often fatal, characterised by severe immunosuppression and the appearance of skin pseudotumours (myxomas); it is conducive to effective mechanical transmission by many biting arthropods. Atypical clinical forms, referred to as amyxomatous, of variable severity and with an apparent preference for direct transmission, have recently emerged in Europe. Virus-host interactions have been particularly well studied since the voluntary introduction of the myxoma virus into Australia and Europe, revealing a remarkable process of co-evolution. Molecular analysis has recently demonstrated the extraordinary evolutionary capacity of the myxoma virus. PMID:26601455

  16. Endogenous Hepatitis C Virus Homolog Fragments in European Rabbit and Hare Genomes Replicate in Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Eliane; Marques, Sara; Osório, Hugo; Carvalheira, Júlio; Thompson, Gertrude

    2012-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses, non-retroviral RNA viruses and DNA viruses have been found in the mammalian genomes. The origin of Hepatitis C virus (HCV), the major cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma in humans, remains unclear since its discovery. Here we show that fragments homologous to HCV structural and non-structural (NS) proteins present in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and hare (Lepus europaeus) genomes replicate in bovine cell cultures. The HCV genomic homolog fragments were demonstrated by RT-PCR, PCR, mass spectrometry, and replication in bovine cell cultures by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and immunogold electron microscopy (IEM) using specific MAbs for HCV NS3, NS4A, and NS5 proteins. These findings may lead to novel research approaches on the HCV origin, genesis, evolution and diversity. PMID:23185448

  17. Life Cycle of Amblyomma romitii (Acari: Ixodidae) Under Laboratory Conditions.

    PubMed

    Landulfo, G A; Luz, H R; Sampaio, J S; Faccini, J L H; Barros-Battesti, D M

    2016-01-01

    The life cycle of Amblyomma romitii Tonelli-Rondelli, 1939 is reported for the first time, using rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) for larvae and capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) for nymphs and adults, as experimental hosts. Developmental periods of free-living stages were observed in an incubator at 27 ± 1°C, 80 ± 10% relative humidity (RH), and 24-h darkness. The life cycle of A. romitii in the laboratory could be completed in an average period of 216.4 d. The overall sex ratio (M:F) was 1:1.4. The results showed that rabbits are quite suitable as experimental hosts for the larval stages of A. romitii, while capybaras are suitable experimental hosts for nymphs and adults. PMID:26487244

  18. Impairment of cingulothalamic learning-related neuronal coding in rabbits exposed to cocaine in utero: general and sex-specific effects.

    PubMed

    Taylor, C L; Freeman, J H; Holt, W; Gabriel, M

    1999-02-01

    Neuronal activity was recorded in the cingulate cortex and the limbic thalamus in Dutch-belted rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) exposed to cocaine (8 mg/kg/day i.v.) or saline in utero during acquisition and reversal learning of a discriminative avoidance response. Anterior cingulate cortical excitatory training-induced activity (TIA) was attenuated in cocaine-exposed female rabbits during acquisition and reversal learning, but only during reversal learning in male rabbits. Posterior cingulate cortical excitatory TIA was lessened in cocaine-exposed rabbits during acquisition, whereas discrimination between the positive and negative cues was enhanced. Neuronal firing was attenuated in the anterior ventral thalamus in cocaine-exposed rabbits during acquisition and reversal learning. Behavioral learning was normal in cocaine-exposed rabbits. Other data suggest that rabbits exposed to cocaine in utero exhibit a learning deficit when trained with nonsalient cues. PMID:10197907

  19. Structure and antigenicity analysis of the IgG gene for Nyctereutes procyonoides

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Cui; Guo, Shuyuan; Pang, Xiaoru; Song, Daozhen; Fu, Shijun

    2015-01-01

    Objective Nyctereutes procyonoides immunoglobulin G (IgG) gene is partially cloned. Material and methods In order to obtain a certain length (966bp) of Nyctereutes procyonoides immunoglobulin G (IgG), two pairs of primers are designed according to the conserved nucleotide sequence of canine (GenBank:AF354265, AF354265, AF354266, AF354267) and mink (GenBank: L07789). Using Bioinformatics technology and Western-blot to analyze antigenicity of Nyctereutes procyonoides IgG-B gene. Results The homology for nucleotide sequence of IgG between Nyctereutes procyonoides and canine (IgG A, IgG B, IgG C, IgG D), mink, Homo sapiens, Oryctolagus cuniculus, Mus musculus, Anas platyrhynchos and gallus were respectively (88.1%, 93.6%, 85.4%, 87.2%), 83.7%, 74.8%, 71.8%, 69.2%, 51.6%, 48.4%. It can be seen that there was high homology of aminoacid sequence between IgG of Nyctereutes procyonoides and IgG (A, B, C, D) of canine. And the serum antibody of Nyctereutes procyonoides had obviously cross-reaction with HRP conjugated rabbit anti-dog IgG, compared with those of canine, oryctolagus cuniculus, mus musculus, mink, gallus. Conclusions We successfully got Nyctereutes procyonoides immuneglobulin G (IgG) gene (Gen- Bank: KM010191). There is the closest ties of consanguinity of IgG exist between Nyctereutes procyonoides and canine among the mammal through the genetic evolution. The detection and treament of canine distemper can be used on Nyctereutes procyonoides. PMID:26648768

  20. Online Dietary Intake Estimation: The Food4Me Food Frequency Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Hannah; Fallaize, Rosalind; Gallagher, Caroline; O’Donovan, Clare B; Woolhead, Clara; Walsh, Marianne C; Macready, Anna L; Lovegrove, Julie A; Mathers, John C; Gibney, Michael J; Brennan, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    Background Dietary assessment methods are important tools for nutrition research. Online dietary assessment tools have the potential to become invaluable methods of assessing dietary intake because, compared with traditional methods, they have many advantages including the automatic storage of input data and the immediate generation of nutritional outputs. Objective The aim of this study was to develop an online food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for dietary data collection in the “Food4Me” study and to compare this with the validated European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC) Norfolk printed FFQ. Methods The Food4Me FFQ used in this analysis was developed to consist of 157 food items. Standardized color photographs were incorporated in the development of the Food4Me FFQ to facilitate accurate quantification of the portion size of each food item. Participants were recruited in two centers (Dublin, Ireland and Reading, United Kingdom) and each received the online Food4Me FFQ and the printed EPIC-Norfolk FFQ in random order. Participants completed the Food4Me FFQ online and, for most food items, participants were requested to choose their usual serving size among seven possibilities from a range of portion size pictures. The level of agreement between the two methods was evaluated for both nutrient and food group intakes using the Bland and Altman method and classification into quartiles of daily intake. Correlations were calculated for nutrient and food group intakes. Results A total of 113 participants were recruited with a mean age of 30 (SD 10) years (40.7% male, 46/113; 59.3%, 67/113 female). Cross-classification into exact plus adjacent quartiles ranged from 77% to 97% at the nutrient level and 77% to 99% at the food group level. Agreement at the nutrient level was highest for alcohol (97%) and lowest for percent energy from polyunsaturated fatty acids (77%). Crude unadjusted correlations for nutrients ranged between .43 and .86. Agreement at the

  1. The association between circulating lipoprotein(a) and type 2 diabetes: is it causal?

    PubMed

    Ye, Zheng; Haycock, Philip C; Gurdasani, Deepti; Pomilla, Cristina; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Forouhi, Nita G

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence supports a direct and causal association between lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels and coronary risk, but the nature of the association between Lp(a) levels and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is unclear. In this study, we assessed the association of Lp(a) levels with risk of incident T2D and tested whether Lp(a) levels are causally linked to T2D. We analyzed data on 18,490 participants from the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk cohort that included adults aged 40-79 years at baseline 1993-1997. During an average 10 years of follow-up, 593 participants developed incident T2D. Cox regression models were used to estimate the association between Lp(a) levels and T2D. In Mendelian randomization analyses, based on EPIC-Norfolk combined with DIAbetes Genetics Replication And Meta-analysis data involving a total of 10,088 diabetes case participants and 68,346 control participants, we used a genetic variant (rs10455872) as an instrument to test whether the association between Lp(a) levels and T2D is causal. In adjusted analyses, there was an inverse association between Lp(a) levels and T2D: hazard ratio was 0.63 (95% CI 0.49-0.81; P trend = 0.003) comparing the top versus bottom quintile of Lp(a). In EPIC-Norfolk, a 1-SD increase in logLp(a) was associated with a lower risk of T2D (odds ratio [OR] 0.88 [95% CI: 0.80-0.95]). However, in Mendelian randomization analyses, a 1-SD increase in logLp(a) due to rs10455872, which explained 26.8% of the variability in Lp(a) levels, was not associated with risk of T2D (OR 1.03 [0.96-1.10]; P = 0.41). These prospective findings demonstrate a strong inverse association of Lp(a) levels with risk of T2D. However, a genetic variant that elevated Lp(a) levels was not associated with risk of T2D, suggesting that elevated Lp(a) levels are not causally associated with a lower risk of T2D. PMID:24089516

  2. New High-Resolution Mapping of Submarine Canyons in the Mid-Atlantic Continental Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ten Brink, U. S.; Chaytor, J. D.; Brothers, D. S.; Twichell, D. C.; Ross, S. W.; Brooke, S.

    2011-12-01

    During June 2011, a BOEMRE/NOAA/USGS -funded multibeam bathymetry survey mapped the upper reaches (<900-m depths) of the Norfolk, Washington, and Baltimore canyons. Combined with existing multibeam bathymetry of the continental slope and rise, the new data provide a detailed view of the sedimentary processes that shaped the mid-Atlantic margin. The shelf-breaching canyon heads are surrounded by two terraces at depths of 95-100 m and 115-125 m in the Norfolk and Washington canyons and at depths of 115-125 m and 135-145 m in the Baltimore canyon. These terraces may represent paleo-shorelines formed during sea level stillstands. The canyon thalwegs within the shelf appear to be filled with sand in accord with old core results. The gradient of their thalweg profile is variable and relatively low across the shelf, slope, and upper rise, in contrast to the concave gradient of most non-shelf breaching canyons in the region. A few of the non-shelf breaching canyons in the mid-Atlantic margin also have relatively low and variable gradients suggesting that they once breached the shelf but are now completely filled. The seaward extensions of the Norfolk, Washington, and Baltimore canyons onto the continental rise are characterized by channels bordered by 100-200 m high levees. In places, these channels meander tightly. The extensions of other canyons onto the rise are either defined by subtle, linear depressions or cannot be traced. Channel-capture by adjacent canyons and channel abandonment originate in the lower slope and were prompted by either landslides or levee breaching. These observations indicate dynamic outer shelf deltas fed by large rivers, which were active at the last glacial maximum (LGM). The river channels on the shelf have been progressively filled during the Holocene. The clear expression of levied channels on the continental rise that extend from shelf-breaching canyons suggests that these canyons were the last ones to deliver turbidity flows to the rise

  3. Deliberative Mapping of options for tackling climate change: Citizens and specialists 'open up' appraisal of geoengineering.

    PubMed

    Bellamy, Rob; Chilvers, Jason; Vaughan, Naomi E

    2016-04-01

    Appraisals of deliberate, large-scale interventions in the earth's climate system, known collectively as 'geoengineering', have largely taken the form of narrowly framed and exclusive expert analyses that prematurely 'close down' upon particular proposals. Here, we present the findings from the first 'upstream' appraisal of geoengineering to deliberately 'open up' to a broader diversity of framings, knowledges and future pathways. We report on the citizen strand of an innovative analytic-deliberative participatory appraisal process called Deliberative Mapping. A select but diverse group of sociodemographically representative citizens from Norfolk (United Kingdom) were engaged in a deliberative multi-criteria appraisal of geoengineering proposals relative to other options for tackling climate change, in parallel to symmetrical appraisals by diverse experts and stakeholders. Despite seeking to map divergent perspectives, a remarkably consistent view of option performance emerged across both the citizens' and the specialists' deliberations, where geoengineering proposals were outperformed by mitigation alternatives. PMID:25224904

  4. Energy programs. Quarterly report, January-March 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, is engaged in developing energy resource, utilization concepts, and monitoring and storage methods. This Quarterly Report summarizes the work on the various tasks as of 31 March 1980. The Energy Quarterly Report is divided into four sections. The first, Geothermal Energy Development Planning and Technical Assistance, contains reports on the progress of geothermal-related tasks on which effort was concentrated during the quarter. The second section, Operational Research, Hydroelectric Power Development, contains reports on small-scale hydroelectric investigations in the southeastern states. The third section, Seismotectonic Investigation, reports on a neotectonic investigation in Connecticut. The fourth section, Energy Conversion and Storage Techniques, contains two articles, the first on OTEC core unit testing supported by the Department of Energy/Division of Central Solar Technology (DOE/CST), and the second on an analysis of the Community Annual Storage Energy System at the US Naval Air Station, Norfolk, Va.

  5. Modelling the long-term fate of mercury in a lowland tidal river. I. Description of two finite segment models.

    PubMed

    Braga, M Cristina B; Birkett, Jason W; Lester, John N; Shaw, George

    2010-02-01

    Crucial determinants of the potential effects of mercury in aquatic ecosystems are the speciation, partitioning, and cycling of its various species. These processes are affected by site-specific factors, such as water chemistry, sediment transport, and hydrodynamics. This study presents two different approaches to the development of one-dimensional/dynamic-deterministic models for the evaluation and prediction of mercury contamination in a lowland tidal river, the River Yare (Norfolk, UK). The models described here were developed to encompass the entire river system and address the mass balance of mercury in a multicompartment system, including tidal reversal and saline limit. The models were focused on river systems, with the River Yare being used as a case study because previous modelling studies have been centred on lakes and wetlands whilst there is a paucity of information for rivers. Initial comparisons with actual measured water parameters (salinity and suspended solids) indicate that both models exhibit good agreement with the actual values. PMID:19784806

  6. Test of a magnetic device for the amelioration of scale formation at Treatment Facility D

    SciTech Connect

    Krauter, P. W.; Harrar, J. E.; Orloff, S. P.; Bahowick, S. M.

    1996-12-01

    A commercial device (Descal-A-Matic{reg_sign}, Norfolk, VA) designed to treat water by means of a magnetic field has been evaluated for its effect on the formation of calcite scale at LLNL Treatment Facility D. At this facility, volatile organic contaminants (VOCs) are removed by air stripping, which raises the water pH, causing the deposition of calcium carbonate as calcite scale downstream. To evaluate the magnetic treatment technique, the ground water was passed through the Descal-A-Matic{reg_sign} device before treatment by the air stripping unit, and the resulting scale formation and other water characteristics were compared with those found during a test with no water treatment and a test with chemical treatment with a polyphosphate additive. No beneficial effect was found when using the magnetic device. 6 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Drainage divides, Massachusetts; Blackstone and Thames River basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krejmas, Bruce E.; Wandle, S. William

    1982-01-01

    Drainage boundaries for selected subbasins of the Blackstone and Thames River basins in eastern Hampden, eastern Hampshire, western Norfolk, southern Middlesex, and southern Worcester Counties, Massachusetts, are delineated on 12 topographic quadrangle maps at a scale of 1:24,000. Drainage basins are shown for all U.S. Geological Survey data-collection sites and for mouths of major rivers. Drainage basins are shown for the outlets of lakes or ponds and for streams where the drainage area is greater than 3 square miles. Successive sites along watercourses are indicated where the intervening area is at least 6 miles on tributary streams or 15 square miles along the Blackstone River, French River, or Quinebaug River. (USGS)

  8. OMEGA (Offshore Membrane for Enclosing Algae). NASA-NAVY: A Strategic Planning Discussion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trent, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    This briefing packet provides a short introduction to OMEGA and a truncated version of our project approach, with an example of the kind of work break down structure (WBS) used to guide our Phase I activities. It is meant to give you an impression of how we are approaching the challenge of creating the world's first marine photobioreactor (PBR) that will scale to address the strategic energy problems confronting the United States and the world. Some of our conceptual PBR designs and plans for logistics are included to communicate the path we have taken. We have also included an aerial photograph of the experimental tanks we are using at the Cal Fish and Game, followed by concluding remarks. The overarching purpose of the strategic planning discussion in Norfolk is to establish the relationship between the NASA OMEGA Team and the Navy, to unite the strengths of both agencies, and to map a mutual way forward along the project's established critical path.

  9. The effects of X irradiation on the metamorphosis and budding of Aurelia aurita.

    PubMed

    Prokopchak, M J; Spangenberg, D B; Shaeffer, J

    1990-10-01

    With the aid of the Aurelia metamorphosis test system, the acute and subtle developmental and behavioral effects of X irradiation in the presence and absence of thyroxine on the Norfolk Aurelia aurita were described. Radiation doses were 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, and 400 Gy. Morphology of the ephyrae, and statolith and rhopalia numbers were recorded using the light microscope. Developmental abnormalities of the polyps and ephyrae were recorded with the scanning electron microscope and light microscope. Major findings from this investigation were the absence of rhopalia and statoliths in ephyrae at 150 and 200 Gy, a reduction in pulses per minute in the ephyrae at 100, 150, and 200 Gy, a reduction in ephyrae released at 150, 200, and 400 Gy, and the development of polyp monsters. There was a significantly higher frequency of polyp monsters in the group exposed to thyroxine prior to radiation than in the thyroxine-free group prior to radiation. PMID:2236494

  10. Heterogeneous distributed databases: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Tracy R.; Mukkamala, Ravi

    1991-01-01

    Alternatives are reviewed for accessing distributed heterogeneous databases and a recommended solution is proposed. The current study is limited to the Automated Information Systems Center at the Naval Sea Combat Systems Engineering Station at Norfolk, VA. This center maintains two databases located on Digital Equipment Corporation's VAX computers running under the VMS operating system. The first data base, ICMS, resides on a VAX11/780 and has been implemented using VAX DBMS, a CODASYL based system. The second database, CSA, resides on a VAX 6460 and has been implemented using the ORACLE relational database management system (RDBMS). Both databases are used for configuration management within the U.S. Navy. Different customer bases are supported by each database. ICMS tracks U.S. Navy ships and major systems (anti-sub, sonar, etc.). Even though the major systems on ships and submarines have totally different functions, some of the equipment within the major systems are common to both ships and submarines.

  11. Misidentification of Carcharhinus galapagensis (Snodgrass & Heller, 1905) in the Southwest Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Clinton A J

    2016-01-01

    Although primarily a coral reef species the grey reef shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos has been recorded from a number of subtropical oceanic islands and reefs in the Southwest Pacific Ocean. Examination of all nominal C. amblyrhynchos voucher material collected from Lord Howe Island, Elizabeth and Middleton Reefs and Norfolk Island resulted in the re-identification of these specimens as Galapagos sharks, C. galapagensis. As C. amblyrhynchos superficially resembles C. galapagensis visual records of C. amblyrhynchos from Elizabeth and Middleton Reefs and the Kermadec Islands cannot be substantiated without voucher material. Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos therefore appears to be confined to waters north of about 25o S in the Southwest Pacific. Precaudal vertebral counts should be used to confirm the identification of nominal C. amblyrhynchos specimens that have an interdorsal ridge. PMID:27395655

  12. Summer of Seasons Workshop Program for Emerging Educators in Earth System Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaudhury, S. Raj

    2002-01-01

    Norfolk State University BEST Lab successfully hosted three Summer of Seasons programs from 1998-2001. The Summer of Seasons program combined activities during the summer with additional seminars and workshops to provide broad outreach in the number of students and teachers who participated. Lessons learned from the each of the first two years of this project were incorporated into the design of the final year's activities. The "Summer of Seasons" workshop program provided emerging educators with the familiarity and knowledge to utilize in the classroom curriculum materials developed through NASA sponsorship on Earth System Science. A special emphasis was placed on the use of advanced technologies to dispel the commonly held misconceptions regarding seasonal, climactic and global change phenomena.

  13. An evaluation of in situ ozone sensor performance during a cold frontal passage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, C. L.

    1978-01-01

    The capabilities of the electrochemical concentration cell ozonesonde for measuring the vertical profile of atmospheric ozone were studied during a three day experiment at Wallops Island, Virginia, and Norfolk, Virginia. Using ancillary measurements at the surface and the spectrophotometer, it was concluded that the ozonesonde measures the total ozone overburden to within 10% of the real value. By releasing the balloon-borne instruments at a rate of four per day at each of the two sites, an indication was obtained of the temporal and spatial scales of atmospheric ozone variability. No significant effects of a weak cold front passage or of the loss of insolation at night were seen. An isolated incident of anomalously high ozone concentration at the peak of the profile was attributed to sporadic instrument performance effects. The data base currently available is not adequate for determining an exact cause of the anomaly.

  14. Geochemistry and radiometric dating of a Middle Pleistocene peat

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, P.J.; Atkinson, T.C.; Richards, D.A.; Bottrell, S.H.; Cliff, R.A.

    1997-10-01

    Uranium, lead, and sulphur data for a Middle Pleistocene interglacial peat deposit from Norfolk, UK, suggest that uptake of these elements was synchronous and confined to a single early diagenetic episode, probably coeval with peat formation. Sulphur isotope data indicate that reducing conditions have been maintained within the deposit throughout its history. Both uranium and lead concentration profiles show a marked discontinuity near the middle of the bed, probably indicating an environmental change, possibly emergence. The lead isotope data are compatible with a single lead component below the discontinuity and two components above. Groundwater is thought to be the dominant source of lead with an additional airfall component present in the upper peat. The uranium and lead concentration profiles below the discontinuity and the sulfur isotope profile throughout the peat support the view that these elements were sequestered from upwelling groundwaters. 35 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Airborne lidar observations of long-range transport in the free troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipley, S. T.; Browell, E. V.; Mcdougal, D. S.; Orndorff, B. L.; Haagenson, P.

    1984-01-01

    Airborne lidar measurements of ozone and aerosols in the lower troposphere show the presence of pollutant layers above the mixed layer. Two case studies are analyzed to identify probable source regions and mechanisms for material injection into the free troposphere above local mixed layers. An elevated haze/oxidant layer observed over South Carolina on Aug. 2, 1980, was found to originate in cumulus convection over Georgia on Aug. 1, 1980. An extensive haze/oxidant layer observed over southeastern Virginia on July 31, 1981, is shown to have been in contact with the New England mixed layer on July 30, 1981. This transported air mass is estimated to contribute approximately 30 percent of the ozone maximum measured at the surface in the Norfolk, VA, area on July 31, 1981. Such elevated 'reservoir' layers are transported over long ranges and are not detected by sensors which are confined to the surface.

  16. Research, development, training, and education using the Ada programming language. Final report, 1 September 1987-31 May 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, G.C.

    1989-07-16

    The primary goal of this activity was to conduct research in the application and development of Ada, and in broader terms the objectives were as follows: (1) To develop numerical algorithms for parallel processing using the Ada language; (2) To develop new methodologies in reusing Ada software; (3) To solve select problems in applied mathematics using MACSYMA and Ada; (4) Simulate the interactions of nodes in a network using Ada; (5) To increase the cadre of educations available to provide Ada training by conducting Ada workshops for Norfolk State University faculty and staff; (6) To develop a series of in-class and individualized modules addressing Ada programming using computer-assisted instruction; and (7) To disseminate research and computer-aided instruction modules to other minority institutions through computer networking, workshops, and lecture series.

  17. Reid honored at Old Dominion University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, Larry

    Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Oceanography Robert O. Reid of Texas A&M University (College Station, Tex.) was awarded an honorary Doctor of Science degree by Old Dominion University in Norfolk, Va., at the university's spring commencement on May 7, 1988. Reid delivered the ceremony's keynote address to 1540 bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degree recipients.Reid, a native of Milford, Conn., earned a master's degree in oceanography from Scripps Institution of Oceanography (La Jolla, Calif.) in 1948. His professional interests include tides, tsunamis, wave mechanics, and ocean circulation. He taught at Texas A&M from 1951 until his retirement in 1987 and served as chairman of the Oceanography Department from 1981-1987.

  18. Summary of 1978 Southeastern Virginia Urban Plume study: Aircraft results for carbon monoxide, methane, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, G. F.; Sachse, G. W.; Cofer, W. R., III

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of the Southeastern Virginia urban plume were defined with emphasis on the photon-oxidant species. The measurement area was a rectangle, approximately 150 km by 100 km centered around Cape Charles, Virginia. Included in this area are the cities of Norfolk, Virginia Beach, Chesapeake, Newport News, and Hampton. The area is bounded on the north by Wallops Island, Virginia, and on the south by the Hampton Roads area of Tidewater Virginia. The major axis of the rectangle is oriented in the southwest-northeast direction. The data set includes aircraft measurements for carbon monoxide, methane, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and ozone. The experiment shows that CO can be successfully measured as a tracer gas and used as an index for determining localized and urban plumes. The 1978 data base provided sufficient data to assess an automated chromatograph with flame ionization detection used for measuring methane and nonmethane hydrocarbons in flight.

  19. Buildings rise from natural contours.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2014-09-01

    This October will see the completion of a pound 42 million, two-phase construction project by main contractor, Medicinq Osborne, to deliver a new 86-bed adult acute inpatient mental health unit for Hertfordshire Partnership University NHS Foundation Trust (HPFT) at Kingsley Green near Radlett. Recently named Kingfisher Court--after 150 staff, service-users, and members of the public made their suggestions, and a majority felt 'particularly engaged' with a bird theme--the new facility is a key element of a pound100 m, five-year 'Transformation Programme' through which the Trust is aiming to significantly improve the efficiency and quality of its services across Hertfordshire, North Essex, and Norfolk. As HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie reports, HPFT's goal is to incorporate into Kingfisher Court 'world-class, state-of-the-art facilities' that will help it achieve its 'vision' of becoming England's best provider of mental healthcare and specialist learning disability services. PMID:25282993

  20. Children and refusal of medical treatment: in urgent need of reform.

    PubMed

    Lennings, Nicholas

    2013-09-01

    The ability of children to refuse medical treatment is far from certain. The New South Wales Law Reform Commission report on this topic, released in 2008, addressed a number of key concerns. As yet, no action on that report has been taken. Neither the present statutory nor common law regime provides sufficient guidance on this issue. The case of Gillick v West Norfolk and Wisbech Area Health Authority [1986] AC 112, while important, is not as far-reaching as it first appeared and has been subject to substantial limitations regarding refusals of treatment. Specifically, the position in relation to the assessment of competency, and the weight of a competent decision, remains outstanding. The ability of children to refuse medical treatment is in urgent need of attention and rectification. PMID:24218787

  1. Uranium-series dating of fossil corals from marine sediments of southeastern United States Atlantic Coastal Plain.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, B. J.

    1985-01-01

    The average 230Th ages of samples from the Norfolk Formation, and from later- and earlier-deposited sediments of the Wando Formation are 71 000, 87 000, and 129 000 yr, and they appear to correlate with oxygen isotope substages 5a, 5c and 5e, respectively. The average 230 Th age of samples from beds of the Rappahannock Rver, Ponzer, and Ten Mile Hill localities is 212 000 yr, and they correlate with oxygen isotope stage 7. The sediment of the Canepatch Formation is 460 000 yr old, and it is tentatively correlated with oxygen isotope stage 11. There is general agreement between uranium-series and uranium-trend dates and between the quantitative trends of the amino acid data and uranium-series dates. The amino acid values, however, are unacceptably high in at least two groups of samples, those from localities near Charleston, South Carolina, and from central Virginia. -from Author

  2. Improving breastfeeding outcomes: the impact of tongue-tie.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Rosemary

    2012-06-01

    A tongue-tie (ankyloglossia) is defined as a lingual frenulum that is short, tight and restricts normal tongue movement. The tongue-tied newborn baby then has a mechanical difficulty attaching to his mum's breast and maintaining attachment to feed effectively. In the hands of skilled carers, this mechanical problem can be resolved by releasing the frenulum (frenulotomy) and the baby's access to his/her mother's breast milk be preserved. Published research on this subject has undergone justifiable criticism. Robust methodology was lacking in earlier studies. An overview of the course of researchers' response to critique is discussed. The care pathway in place in mid-Norfolk for mother and baby dyads where the baby's tongue-tie compromises efficient breastfeeding is outlined. PMID:22779397

  3. Ozone and water deficit effects on soybean

    SciTech Connect

    Flagler, R.B.; Heagle, A.S.; Heck, W.W.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine soil mositure effects on soybean yield response to 03 and to determine if treatments affected key enzymes in soybean nitrogen metabolism. This was a two year study conducted in a Norfolk sandy loam soil using standard agronomic practices for tillage, planting and weed control. Soil moisture regimes were well-watered (WW) and water-stressed (WS). The activities of two enzymes of nitrogen metabolism, nitrate reductase (NR) and nitrogenase (N2ase) were assayed regularly throughout the study. Seed yield was determined by hand harvesting two 1-meter row lengths in each plot. Seed weights were adjusted to 13% moisture. Both 03 and water stress reduced the actvities of NR and N2ase, two key cnzymes in soybean nitrogen metabolism. The reductions are correlated with lower yield in soybean but do not necessarily constitute a cause and effect relationship.

  4. Inspiring pupils in STEM through Tim Peake's Principia Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    This poster looks at a particular case study of how a science programme with a lot of media attention can be embedded into schools to inspire pupils in STEM subjects. In this case, the UK has become very excited about their first publicly funded British astronaut, Tim Peake, visiting the International Space Station between December 2015 and June 2016. Tim is particularly keen to dedicate a lot of his time to education initiatives including undertaking a live radio contact with a handful of UK schools so that pupils can ask him their questions. A group of schools in Norfolk have won this opportunity and will host a live radio contact in February 2015. As part of this initiative, local schools (primary and secondary) are being encouraged to embed the mission into their curriculum in various ways using many excellent resources developed by a number of agencies. The range of these and our proposed methods for judging their efficacies are explored in this poster.

  5. Patient-focused care pays hospital-wide dividends. Interview by Donald E. L. Johnson..

    PubMed

    Bernd, D L

    1992-12-01

    By decentralizing ancillary services, streamlining processes and cross training professional and paraprofessional employees, hospitals can improve patient satisfaction and staff efficiency, says David L. Bernd, executive vice president and chief operating officer of Sentara Health Systems, Norfolk, Virginia, in the following interview with Donald E. L. Johnson, editor and publisher of Health Care Strategic Management. But hospitals should not convert to patient-focused care primarily to cut costs, he warned. Cost savings could result, but only on a hospital-wide basis, as a result of new efficiencies and reduced lengths-of-stay. At the unit level, costs are likely to go up as ancillary services are moved to patient-focused units and more resources are devoted directly at each patient. PMID:10123251

  6. The effects of X irradiation on the metamorphosis and budding of Aurelia aurita

    SciTech Connect

    Prokopchak, M.J.; Spangenberg, D.B.; Shaeffer, J. )

    1990-10-01

    With the aid of the Aurelia metamorphosis test system, the acute and subtle developmental and behavioral effects of X irradiation in the presence and absence of thyroxine on the Norfolk Aurelia aurita were described. Radiation doses were 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, and 400 Gy. Morphology of the ephyrae, and statolith and rhopalia numbers were recorded using the light microscope. Developmental abnormalities of the polyps and ephyrae were recorded with the scanning electron microscope and light microscope. Major findings from this investigation were the absence of rhopalia and statoliths in ephyrae at 150 and 200 Gy, a reduction in pulses per minute in the ephyrae at 100, 150, and 200 Gy, a reduction in ephyrae released at 150, 200, and 400 Gy, and the development of polyp monsters. There was a significantly higher frequency of polyp monsters in the group exposed to thyroxine prior to radiation than in the thyroxine-free group prior to radiation.

  7. School grounds and physical activity: Associations at secondary schools, and over the transition from primary to secondary schools.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Flo; van Sluijs, Esther M F; Corder, Kirsten; Jones, Andy

    2016-05-01

    This paper aims to further understanding of the physical environments of secondary schools and their associations with young peoples' physical activity. Accelerometer-derived physical activity measurements from 299 participants in the SPEEDY study (Norfolk, UK) were obtained from baseline measurements (age 9-10y) and +4y follow-up. These were linked to objective measures of primary and secondary school environments as measured by the SPEEDY grounds audit tool. We saw considerable differences in the nature of school grounds between primary and secondary schools. Cross-sectional associations were seen between active travel provision scores and commuting time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) for 13-14 year old boys and adolescents living further from school. However, few associations were seen between changes in school grounds scores and changes in school-based MVPA. PMID:26922516

  8. Geologic map and digital database of the Pinto Mountain 7.5 minute quadrangle, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    The geologic map and digital database of the Pinto Mountain quadrangle are products of a regional geologic mapping effort undertaken in the eastern Transverse Ranges in and around Joshua Tree National Park. This investigation, part of the Southern California Areal Mapping Project (SCAMP), is conducted in cooperation with the California Geologic Survey and the National Park Service. In line with the goals of the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (NCGMP), mapping of the Pinto Mountain and other quadrangles has been directed toward generating a multipurpose digital geologic map database that is applicable to land-related investigations in the earth and biological sciences. This mapping is conducted to further understanding of bedrock geology and surficial processes in the region and to document evidence for seismotectonic activity in the eastern Transverse Ranges. It is also intended to serve as a base layer suitable for ecosystem and mineral resource assessment and for building a hydrogeologic framework for Pinto Basin. Initial investigations span Pinto Basin from the Hexie and Eagle Mountains northward into the Pinto Mountains. Quadrangles mapped include the Conejo Well 7.5-minute quadrangle (Powell, 2001a), the Porcupine Wash 7.5-minute quadrangle (Powell, 2001b), the Pinto Mountain 7.5-minute quadrangle, and the San Bernardino Wash 7.5-minute quadrangle (Powell, 2002). Parts of the Pinto Mountain quadrangle had been mapped previously at a variety of scales (Weir, and Bader, 1963; Hope, 1966, 1969; Jennings, 1967; Powell, 1981, 1993).

  9. Geologic map and digital database of the San Bernardino Wash 7.5 minute quadrangle, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Robert E.; digital preparation by Cossette, Pamela M.

    2002-01-01

    The geologic map and digital database of the San Bernardino Wash quadrangle are products of a regional geologic mapping effort undertaken in the eastern Transverse Ranges in and around Joshua Tree National Park. This investigation, part of the Southern California Areal Mapping Project (SCAMP), is conducted in cooperation with the California Geologic Survey and the National Park Service. In line with the goals of the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (NCGMP), mapping of the San Bernardino Wash and other quadrangles has been directed toward generating a multipurpose digital geologic map database that is applicable to land-related investigations in the earth and biological sciences. This mapping is conducted to further understanding of bedrock geology and surficial processes in the region and to document evidence for seismotectonic activity in the eastern Transverse Ranges. It is also intended to serve as a base layer suitable for ecosystem and mineral resource assessment and for building a hydrogeologic framework for Pinto Basin. Initial investigations span Pinto Basin from the Hexie and Eagle Mountains northward into the Pinto Mountains (see fig. 1). Quadrangles mapped include the Conejo Well 7.5-minute quadrangle (Powell, 2001a), the Porcupine Wash 7.5-minute quadrangle (Powell, 2001b), the Pinto Mountain 7.5-minute quadrangle (Powell, 2002), and the San Bernardino Wash 7.5-minute quadrangle. Parts of the San Bernardino Wash quadrangle had been mapped previously at a variety of scales (Weir, and Bader, 1963; Hope, 1966, 1969; Jennings, 1967; Powell, 1981, 1993).

  10. Post-glacial landscape response to climate variability in the southeastern San Juan Mountains of Colorado, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Bradley G.; Eppes, Martha Cary; Diemer, John A.; Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; Layzell, Anthony L.

    2011-11-01

    Geomorphic mapping in the upper Conejos River Valley of the San Juan Mountains has shown that three distinct periods of aggradation have occurred since the end of the last glacial maximum (LGM). The first occurred during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition (~ 12.5-9.5 ka) and is interpreted as paraglacial landscape response to deglaciation after the LGM. Evidence of the second period of aggradation is limited but indicates a small pulse of sedimentation at ~ 5.5 ka. A third, more broadly identifiable period of sedimentation occurred in the late Holocene (~ 2.2-1 ka). The latest two periods of aggradation are concurrent with increases in the frequency of climate change in the region suggesting that Holocene alpine and sub-alpine landscapes respond more to rapid changes in climate than to large singular climatic swings. Soil development and radiocarbon dating indicate that hillslopes were stable during the Holocene even while aggradation was occurring in valley bottoms. Thus, we can conclude that erosion does not occur equally throughout the landscape but is focused upslope of headwater streams, along tributary channels, or on ridge tops. This is in contrast to some models which assume equal erosion in headwater basins.

  11. Geologic Map of the Central San Juan Caldera Cluster, Southwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipman, Peter W.

    2006-01-01

    The San Juan Mountains are the largest erosional remnant of a composite volcanic field that covered much of the southern Rocky Mountains in middle Tertiary time. The San Juan field consists mainly of intermediate-composition lavas and breccias, erupted about 35-30 Ma from scattered central volcanoes (Conejos Formation) and overlain by voluminous ash-flow sheets erupted from caldera sources. In the central San Juan Mountains, eruption of at least 8,800 km3 of dacitic-rhyolitic magma as nine major ash flow sheets (individually 150-5,000 km3) was accompanied by recurrent caldera subsidence between 28.3 Ma and about 26.5 Ma. Voluminous andesitic-dacitic lavas and breccias erupted from central volcanoes prior to the ash-flow eruptions, and similar lava eruptions continued within and adjacent to the calderas during the period of more silicic explosive volcanism. Exposed calderas vary in size from 10 to 75 km in maximum dimension; the largest calderas are associated with the most voluminous eruptions.

  12. Geologic map of the Alamosa 30’ × 60’ quadrangle, south-central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Ren A.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Michael N. Machette; Fridrich, Christopher J.; Brandt, Theodore R.; Cosca, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    The Alamosa 30'× 60' quadrangle is located in the central San Luis Basin of southern Colorado and is bisected by the Rio Grande. The Rio Grande has headwaters in the San Juan Mountains of Colorado and ultimately discharges into the Gulf of Mexico 3,000 kilometers (km) downstream. Alluvial floodplains and associated deposits of the Rio Grande and east-draining tributaries, La Jara Creek and Conejos River, occupy the north-central and northwestern part of the map area. Alluvial deposits of west-draining Rio Grande tributaries, Culebra and Costilla Creeks, bound the Costilla Plain in the south-central part of the map area. The San Luis Hills, a northeast-trending series of flat-topped mesas and hills, dominate the landscape in the central and southwestern part of the map and preserve fault-bound Neogene basin surfaces and deposits. The Precambrian-cored Sangre de Cristo Mountains rise to an elevation of nearly 4,300 meters (m), almost 2,000 m above the valley floor, in the eastern part of the map area. In total, the map area contains deposits that record surficial, tectonic, sedimentary, volcanic, magmatic, and metamorphic processes over the past 1.7 billion years.

  13. Parallel language activation and cognitive control during spoken word recognition in bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Marian, Viorica

    2013-01-01

    Accounts of bilingual cognitive advantages suggest an associative link between cross-linguistic competition and inhibitory control. We investigate this link by examining English-Spanish bilinguals’ parallel language activation during auditory word recognition and nonlinguistic Stroop performance. Thirty-one English-Spanish bilinguals and 30 English monolinguals participated in an eye-tracking study. Participants heard words in English (e.g., comb) and identified corresponding pictures from a display that included pictures of a Spanish competitor (e.g., conejo, English rabbit). Bilinguals with higher Spanish proficiency showed more parallel language activation and smaller Stroop effects than bilinguals with lower Spanish proficiency. Across all bilinguals, stronger parallel language activation between 300–500ms after word onset was associated with smaller Stroop effects; between 633–767ms, reduced parallel language activation was associated with smaller Stroop effects. Results suggest that bilinguals who perform well on the Stroop task show increased cross-linguistic competitor activation during early stages of word recognition and decreased competitor activation during later stages of word recognition. Findings support the hypothesis that cross-linguistic competition impacts domain-general inhibition. PMID:24244842

  14. Re(de)fining the orthographic neighborhood: the role of addition and deletion neighbors in lexical decision and reading.

    PubMed

    Davis, Colin J; Perea, Manuel; Acha, Joana

    2009-10-01

    The influence of addition and deletion neighbors on visual word identification was investigated in four experiments. Experiments 1 and 2 used Spanish stimuli. In Experiment 1, lexical decision latencies were slower and less accurate for words and nonwords with higher-frequency deletion neighbors (e.g., jugar in juzgar), relative to control stimuli. Experiment 2 showed a similar interference effect for words and nonwords with higher-frequency addition neighbors (e.g., conejo, which has the addition neighbor consejo), relative to control stimuli. Experiment 3 replicated this addition neighbor interference effect in a lexical decision experiment with English stimuli. Across all three experiments, interference effects were always evident for addition/deletion neighbors with word-outer overlap, usually present for those with word-initial overlap, but never present for those with word-final overlap. Experiment 4 replicated the addition/deletion neighbor inhibitory effects in a Spanish sentence reading task in which the participants' eye movements were monitored. These findings suggest that conventional orthographic neighborhood metrics should be redefined. In addition to its methodological implications, this conclusion has significant theoretical implications for input coding schemes and the mechanisms underlying word recognition. PMID:19803656

  15. Parallel language activation and cognitive control during spoken word recognition in bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Blumenfeld, Henrike K; Marian, Viorica

    2013-01-01

    Accounts of bilingual cognitive advantages suggest an associative link between cross-linguistic competition and inhibitory control. We investigate this link by examining English-Spanish bilinguals' parallel language activation during auditory word recognition and nonlinguistic Stroop performance. Thirty-one English-Spanish bilinguals and 30 English monolinguals participated in an eye-tracking study. Participants heard words in English (e.g., comb) and identified corresponding pictures from a display that included pictures of a Spanish competitor (e.g., conejo, English rabbit). Bilinguals with higher Spanish proficiency showed more parallel language activation and smaller Stroop effects than bilinguals with lower Spanish proficiency. Across all bilinguals, stronger parallel language activation between 300-500ms after word onset was associated with smaller Stroop effects; between 633-767ms, reduced parallel language activation was associated with smaller Stroop effects. Results suggest that bilinguals who perform well on the Stroop task show increased cross-linguistic competitor activation during early stages of word recognition and decreased competitor activation during later stages of word recognition. Findings support the hypothesis that cross-linguistic competition impacts domain-general inhibition. PMID:24244842

  16. Coupled Plasticity and Damage Modeling and Their Applications in a Three-Dimensional Eulerian Hydrocode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkett, Michael W.; Clancy, Sean P.; Maudlin, Paul J.; Holian, Kathleen S.

    2004-07-01

    Previously developed constitutive models and solution algorithms for continuum-level anisotropic elastoplastic material strength and an isotropic damage model TEPLA have been implemented in the three-dimensional Eulerian hydrodynamics code known as CONEJO. The anisotropic constitutive modeling is posed in an unrotated material frame of reference using the theorem of polar decomposition to compute rigid-body rotation. TEPLA is based upon the Gurson flow surface (a potential function used in conjunction with the associated flow law). The original TEPLA equation set has been extended to include anisotropic elastoplasticity and has been recast into a new implicit solution algorithm based upon an eigenvalue scheme to accommodate the anisotropy. This algorithm solves a two-by-two system of nonlinear equations using a Newton-Raphson iteration scheme. Simulations of a shaped-charge jet formation, a Taylor cylinder impact, and an explosively loaded hemishell were selected to demonstrate the utility of this modeling capability. The predicted deformation topology, plastic strain, and porosity distributions are shown for the three simulations.

  17. ‘Keeping your body and mind active’: an ethnographic study of aspirations for healthy ageing

    PubMed Central

    Shefer, Guy; Griffin, Simon; Ogilvie, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe and explore perceptions, practices and motivations for active living in later life. Design Qualitative study with semistructured interviews and ‘semistructured’ participant observations of participant-selected activities, such as exercise classes, private or organised walks, shopping and gardening. Participants 27 participants (65–80 years) from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer Norfolk study, purposefully selected by gender, age, occupational class, living status and residential location; 19 of the participants agreed to be accompanied for observed activities. Setting Participants’ homes, neighbourhoods, places of leisure activities and workplaces in Norfolk, England. Results All participants regarded a positive attitude as important for healthy ageing; this included staying active, both physically and mentally through sedentary activities such as reading and crosswords. ‘Getting out of the house’, being busy, or following a variety of interests were regarded as both important motivators and descriptions of their ‘activeness’. Purposeful activities formed an important part of this, for example, still being engaged in paid or voluntary work, having caring responsibilities, or smaller incidental activities such as helping neighbours or walking for transport. Many also reported adapting previous, often lifelong, activity preferences and habits to their ageing body, or replacing them altogether with lower impact activities such as walking. This included adapting to the physical limitations of partners and friends which dictated the intensity and frequency of shared activities. The social context of activities could thus form a barrier to active living, but could also encourage it through companionship, social responsibilities and social pressures. Conclusions Promoting and maintaining physical activity among older people may require more attention to activeness as an attitude and way of life as well as to its

  18. A COMMON VARIANT OF THE p16INK4A GENETIC REGION IS ASSOCIATED WITH PHYSICAL FUNCTION IN OLDER PEOPLE

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, David; Frayling, Timothy M; Murray, Anna; Hurst, Alison J; Harries, Lorna W; Song, Honglin; Khaw, KayTee; Luben, Robert; Surtees, Paul G; Bandinelli, Stefania S; Corsi, Anna-Maria; Ferrucci, Luigi; Guralnik, Jack M; Wallace, Robert B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Pharoah, Paul D

    2007-01-01

    p16INK4a is active in cell senescence, ageing and tumor suppression. Deletion of the small p16INK4a / ARF / p15INK4b region occurs in many cancers. We screened 25 common polymorphisms across the region and 3 related genes for associations with physical functioning in older people. In an initial sample of 938 (aged 65 to 80yrs) from the EPIC study (Norfolk, UK) the rs2811712 SNP minor allele (located between the shared p16INK4a / ARF locus and p15INK4b) was associated with reduced physical impairment. This association remained after testing an additional 1319 EPIC-Norfolk samples (p-value=0.013, total n=2257), and on independent replication in the InCHIANTI Study (n=709, p=0.015), and at one sided significance in Iowa-EPESE (n=419, p=0.079). Overall (n=3372) the prevalence of severely limited physical function was 15.0% in common homozygotes and 7.0% in rare homozygotes (per minor allele Odds Ratio=1.48 95%CI: 1.17−1.88, p =0.001, adjusted for age, sex and study). This estimate was similar excluding screening set 1 (OR=1.45: 95%CI 1.09−1.92, p=0.010, n=2434). These findings require further replication, but provide the first direct evidence that the p16INK4a / ARF / p15INK4b genetic region and the senescence machinery are active in physical ageing in heterogeneous human populations. The mechanism involved may be via greater cellular restorative activity and reduced stem cell senescence. PMID:17459456

  19. Micropropagation of Araucaria excelsa R. Br. var. glauca Carrière from orthotropic stem explants.

    PubMed

    Sarmast, Mostafa Khoshhal; Salehi, Hassan; Khosh-Khui, Morteza

    2012-07-01

    The objectives of the present work were in vitro propagation of Araucaria excelsa R. Br. var. glauca Carrière (Norfolk Island pine) with focus on the evaluation of the mean number of shoots per explant (MNS/E) and mean length of shoots per explants (MLS/E) produced by different parts of the orthotropic stem of A. excelsa R. Br. var. glauca in response to plant growth regulators. Norfolk Island pine axillary meristems responded very well to the 2-iso-pentenyl adenine (2iP) and thidiazuron (TDZ) levels. Explants taken from stem upper segments in the media containing 2iP had a higher MNS/E (3.47) and MLS/E (6.27 mm) in comparison to those taken from stem lower segments, which were 0.71 and 0.51 mm, respectively. Using 0.045 μM TDZ in the MS medium not only resulted in 4.60 MNS/E with 7.08 mm MLS/E but proliferated shoots showed a good performance as well. Investigating the best position of stem explant on mother plant as well as the best concentrations of growth regulators were performed which were useful for efficient micropropagation of this plant. Thirty three percent of explants were rooted in the MS medium containing 3 % sucrose, supplemented with 7.5 μM of both NAA and IBA for 2 weeks before transferring to a half strength MS medium without any growth regulator. Plantlets obtained were acclimatized and transferred to the greenhouse with less than 20 % mortality. This procedure considered the first successful report for regeneration and acclimatization of A. excelsa R. Br. var. glauca plantlet through main stem explants. PMID:23814441

  20. Aerosol measurements over the Pacific Ocean in support of the IR aerosol backscatter program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prospero, Joseph M.; Savoie, Dennis L.

    1995-01-01

    The major efforts under NASA contract NAG8-841 included: (1) final analyses of the samples collected during the first GLOBE survey flight that occurred in November 1989 and collections and analysis of aerosol samples during the second GLOBE survey flight in May and June 1990. During the first GLOBE survey flight, daily samples were collected at four stations (Midway, Rarotonga, American Samoa, and Norfolk Island) throughout the month of November 1989. Weekly samples were collected at Shemya, Alaska, and at Karamea, New Zealand. During the second GLOBE survey flight, daily samples were collected at Midway, Oahu, American Samoa, Rarotonga, and Norfolk Island; weekly samples were collected at Shemya. These samples were all analyzed for sodium (sea-salt), chloride, nitrate, sulfate, and methanesulfonate at the University of Miami and for aluminum at the University of Rhode Island (under a subcontract). (2) Samples continued to be collected on a weekly basis at all stations during the periods between and after the survey flights. These weekly samples were also analyzed at the University of Miami for the suite of water-soluble species. (3) In August 1990, the results obtained from the above studies were submitted to the appropriate personnel at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to become part of the GLOBE data base for comparison with data from instruments used aboard the aircraft. In addition, the data will be compared with data previously obtained at these stations as part of the Sea-Air Exchange (SEAREX) Program. This comparison will provide valuable information on the representativeness of the periods in terms of the longer term aerosol climatology over the Pacific Ocean. (4) Several publications have been written using data from this grant. The data will continue to be used in the future as part of a continuing investigation of the long-term trends and interannual variations in aerosol species concentrations over the Pacific Ocean.