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1

Freezing in confined geometries

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of detailed structural studies, using elastic neutron scattering, of the freezing of liquid O2 and D2 in porous vycor glass, are presented. The experimental studies have been complemented by computer simulations of the dynamics of freezing of a Lennard-Jones liquid in narrow channels bounded by molecular walls. Results point to a new simple physical interpretation of freezing in confined geometries.

Sokol, P. E.; Ma, W. J.; Herwig, K. W.; Snow, W. M.; Wang, Y.; Koplik, Joel; Banavar, Jayanth R.

1992-01-01

2

PREFACE: Water in confined geometries

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of water confined in complex systems in solid or gel phases and/or in contact with macromolecules is relevant to many important processes ranging from industrial applications such as catalysis and soil chemistry, to biological processes such as protein folding or ionic transport in membranes. Thermodynamics, phase behaviour and the molecular mobility of water have been observed to change upon confinement depending on the properties of the substrate. In particular, polar substrates perturb the hydrogen bond network of water, inducing large changes in the properties upon freezing. Understanding how the connected random hydrogen bond network of bulk water is modified when water is confined in small cavities inside a substrate material is very important for studies of stability and the enzymatic activity of proteins, oil recovery or heterogeneous catalysis, where water-substrate interactions play a fundamental role. The modifications of the short-range order in the liquid depend on the nature of the water-substrate interaction, hydrophilic or hydrophobic, as well as on its spatial range and on the geometry of the substrate. Despite extensive study, both experimentally and by computer simulation, there remain a number of open problems. In the many experimental studies of confined water, those performed on water in Vycor are of particular interest for computer simulation and theoretical studies since Vycor is a porous silica glass characterized by a quite sharp distribution of pore sizes and a strong capability to absorb water. It can be considered as a good candidate for studying the general behaviour of water in hydrophilic nanopores. But there there have been a number of studies of water confined in more complex substrates, where the interpretation of experiments and computer simulation is more difficult, such as in zeolites or in aerogels or in contact with membranes. Of the many problems to consider we can mention the study of supercooled water. It is particularly important to understand whether the glass transition temperature could be experimentally accessible for confined water. In this respect the modifications induced by the confinement on the dynamics of water on supercooling are of extreme interest and a number of experimental and computer simulation studies have been devoted in recent years to this topic. This special section contains papers from different groups which have contributed with various experimental and computer simulation techniques to the progress made in the study of water in confined geometry. I thank all of the authors for their stimulating contributions. I am very pleased in particular that Sow-Hsin Chen agreed to contribute since he has done pioneering experimental work on the dynamical properties of confined water upon supercooling, and he is still very active in the field. The work presented by the group of J Swenson concerns also the glass transition of confined water. The Messina group (Crupi et al) is very active in the study of dynamical properties of confined water and they present their results on water in zeolites. From the experimental side there is also a contribution from J Dore's group, one of the first to perform neutron scattering studies on confined water. The work of J Klein looks at the mobility of water molecules confined in subnanometre films. Important contributions on the computer simulation side come from the Geiger group (Brovchenko et al). They performed very accurate simulations of water in nanopores, exploring a large portion of the phase space. Puibasset et al were able to build a very realistic model to simulate water inside Vycor. Zangi et al review the extensive work performed on confined water. Jedlovszky is an expert on the model potential for water and studied how the hydrogen bond network of water can be modified by the presence of an interface. The special issue is intended to stimulate interest and future work on this important subject.

Rovere, Mauro

2004-11-01

3

The dynamics of water molecules in the vicinity of a hydrophilic interface is modified as compared to that of bulk water. Recent experiments performed in porous silica show that water dynamics is well described by a stretched-exponential intermediate-scattering function. The behaviour of confined water is similar to that of supercooled water at lower (≈ 30 K) temperature. This temperature shift

J. Teixeira; J.-M. Zanotti; M.-C. Bellissent-Funel; S.-H. Chen

1997-01-01

4

The dynamics of water molecules in the vicinity of a hydrophilic interface is modified as compared to that of bulk water. Recent experiments performed in porous silica show that water dynamics is well described by a stretched-exponential intermediate-scattering function. The behaviour of confined water is similar to that of supercooled water at lower (? 30 K) temperature. This temperature shift

J. Teixeira; J.-M. Zanotti; M.-C. Bellissent-Funel; S.-H. Chen

1997-01-01

5

Glass Transition in Confined Geometry

Extending mode-coupling theory, we elaborate a microscopic theory for the glass transition of liquids confined between two parallel flat hard walls. The theory contains the standard MCT equations in bulk and in two dimensions as limiting cases and requires as input solely the equilibrium density profile and the structure factors of the fluid in confinement. We evaluate the phase diagram as a function of the distance of the plates for the case of a hard sphere fluid and obtain an oscillatory behavior of the glass transtion line as a result of the structural changes related to layering.

Simon Lang; Vitalie Botan; Martin Oettel; David Hajnal; Thomas Franosch; Rolf Schilling

2010-08-23

6

Dynamics of ultracold molecules in confined geometry and electric field

We present a time-independent quantum formalism to describe the dynamics of molecules with permanent electric dipole moments in a two-dimensional confined geometry such as a one-dimensional optical lattice, in the presence of an electric field. Bose versus Fermi statistics and selection rules play a crucial role in the dynamics. As examples, we compare the dynamics of confined fermionic and bosonic polar KRb molecules under different confinements and electric fields. We show how chemical reactions can be suppressed, either by a 'statistical suppression' which applies for fermions at small electric fields and confinements, or by a 'potential energy suppression', which applies for both fermions and bosons at high electric fields and confinements. We also explore collisions that transfer molecules from one state of the confining potential to another. Although these collisions can be significant, we show that they do not play a role in the loss of the total number of molecules in the gas.

Quemener, Goulven; Bohn, John L. [JILA, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0440 (United States)

2011-01-15

7

Effective confining potentials for QCD

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We observe that the linear potential used as a leading approximation for describing color confinement in the instant form of dynamics corresponds to a quadratic confining potential in the front form of dynamics. In particular, the instant-form potentials obtained from lattice gauge theory and string models of hadrons agree with the potentials determined from models using front-form dynamics and light-front holography, not only in their shape, but also in their numerical strength.

Trawi?ski, Arkadiusz P.; G?azek, Stanis?aw D.; Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Téramond, Guy F.; Dosch, Hans Günter

2014-10-01

8

Helically forced MHD flows in confined cylindrical geometries

Helically forced MHD flows in confined cylindrical geometries Malcolm Roberts1 , Matthieu Leroy1 the resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. A helical magnetic field is imposed via boundary conditions be used in complex geometries is also proposed. Keywords: MHD, self-organization, confined geometry

Boyer, Edmond

9

Limiting Spectra from Confining Potentials.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author explains that, for confining potentials and large quantum numbers, the bound-state energies rise more rapidly as a function of n the more rapidly the potential rises with distance. However, the spectrum can rise no faster than n squared in the nonrelativistic case, or n in the relativistic case. (Author/GA)

Nieto, Michael Martin; Simmons, L. M., Jr.

1979-01-01

10

Plasma confinement. [Physics for magnetic geometries

The physics of plasma confinement by a magnetic field is developed from the basic properties of plasmas through the theory of equilibrium, stability, and transport in toroidal and open-ended configurations. The close relationship between the theory of plasma confinement and Hamiltonian mechanics is emphasized, and the modern view of macroscopic instabilities as three-dimensional equilibria is given.

Boozer, A.H.

1985-03-01

11

Layer-by-layer assembly in confined geometries

The fundamental nature of layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly in confined geometries was investigated for a number of different chemical systems. The first part of this thesis concerns the modification of microfluidic and ...

DeRocher, Jonathan P

2011-01-01

12

Lévy flights in confining potentials.

We analyze confining mechanisms for Lévy flights. When they evolve in suitable external potentials their variance may exist and show signatures of a superdiffusive transport. Two classes of stochastic jump-type processes are considered: those driven by Langevin equation with Lévy noise and those, named topological Lévy processes (occurring in systems with topological complexity such as folded polymers or complex networks), whose Langevin representation is unknown and possibly nonexistent. Our major finding is that both above classes of processes stay in affinity and may share common stationary probability density, even if their detailed dynamical behavior look different. This near-equilibrium observation seems to be generic to a broad class of Lévy noise-driven processes, such as e.g., superdiffusion on folded polymers, geophysical flows, and even climatic changes. PMID:19905068

Garbaczewski, Piotr; Stephanovich, Vladimir

2009-09-01

13

Hertz Potentials and Differential Geometry

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 C. Non-Trivial Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 V HERTZ POTENTIALS AND DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY : 36 A. Hertz Potential 2-Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 B. Gauge Invariance... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 C. Scalar Hertz Potentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 D. Higher-Order Gauge Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 E. Non-Trivial Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 v CHAPTER Page VI APPLICATIONS...

Bouas, Jeffrey David

2011-08-08

14

On the nonlinear instability of confined geometries

The discovery of a "weakly-turbulent" instability of anti-de Sitter spacetime supports the idea that confined fluctuations eventually collapse to black holes and suggests that similar phenomena might be possible in asymptotically-flat spacetime, for example in the context of spherically symmetric oscillations of stars or nonradial pulsations of ultracompact objects. Here we present a detailed study of the evolution of the Einstein-Klein-Gordon system in a cavity, with different types of deformations of the spectrum, including a mass term for the scalar and Neumann conditions at the boundary. We provide numerical evidence that gravitational collapse always occurs, at least for amplitudes that are three orders of magnitude smaller than Choptuik's critical value and corresponding to more than $10^5$ reflections before collapse. The collapse time scales as the inverse square of the initial amplitude in the small-amplitude limit. In addition, we find that fields with nonresonant spectrum collapse earlier than in t...

Okawa, Hirotada; Pani, Paolo

2014-01-01

15

Solutal convection in confined geometries: enhancement of colloidal transport.

We evidence experimentally and theoretically that natural convection driven by solutal density differences in a molecular binary mixture can boost the transport of colloids. We demonstrate that such buoyancy-driven flows have a negligible influence on the gradients that generate them, for moderate Rayleigh numbers in a confined geometry. These flows therefore do not homogenize the binary mixture but can disperse very efficiently large solutes. We illustrate the relevance of such effects thanks to several original experiments: drying of confined droplets, microfluidic evaporation, and interdiffusion in microfluidic flows. PMID:23003096

Selva, B; Daubersies, L; Salmon, J-B

2012-05-11

16

Random close packing of disks and spheres in confined geometries

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of random close packing of spheres have advanced our knowledge about the structure of systems such as liquids, glasses, emulsions, granular media, and amorphous solids. In confined geometries, the structural properties of random-packed systems will change. To understand these changes, we study random close packing in finite-sized confined systems, in both two and three dimensions. Each packing consists of a 50-50 binary mixture with particle size ratio of 1.4. The presence of confining walls significantly lowers the overall maximum area fraction (or volume fraction in three dimensions). A simple model is presented, which quantifies the reduction in packing due to wall-induced structure. This wall-induced structure decays rapidly away from the wall, with characteristic length scales comparable to the small particle diameter.

Desmond, Kenneth W.; Weeks, Eric R.

2009-11-01

17

Confining potential in momentum space

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is presented for the solution in momentum space of the bound state problem with a linear potential in r space. The potential is unbounded at large r leading to a singularity at small q. The singularity is integrable, when regulated by exponentially screening the r-space potential, and is removed by a subtraction technique. The limit of zero screening is taken analytically, and the numerical solution of the subtracted integral equation gives eigenvalues and wave functions in good agreement with position space calculations.

Norbury, John W.; Kahana, David E.; Maung, Khin M.

1992-01-01

18

Crystallization features of normal alkanes in confined geometry.

How polymers crystallize can greatly affect their thermal and mechanical properties, which influence the practical applications of these materials. Polymeric materials, such as block copolymers, graft polymers, and polymer blends, have complex molecular structures. Due to the multiple hierarchical structures and different size domains in polymer systems, confined hard environments for polymer crystallization exist widely in these materials. The confined geometry is closely related to both the phase metastability and lifetime of polymer. This affects the phase miscibility, microphase separation, and crystallization behaviors and determines both the performance of polymer materials and how easily these materials can be processed. Furthermore, the size effect of metastable states needs to be clarified in polymers. However, scientists find it difficult to propose a quantitative formula to describe the transition dynamics of metastable states in these complex systems. Normal alkanes [CnH2n+2, n-alkanes], especially linear saturated hydrocarbons, can provide a well-defined model system for studying the complex crystallization behaviors of polymer materials, surfactants, and lipids. Therefore, a deeper investigation of normal alkane phase behavior in confinement will help scientists to understand the crystalline phase transition and ultimate properties of many polymeric materials, especially polyolefins. In this Account, we provide an in-depth look at the research concerning the confined crystallization behavior of n-alkanes and binary mixtures in microcapsules by our laboratory and others. Since 2006, our group has developed a technique for synthesizing nearly monodispersed n-alkane containing microcapsules with controllable size and surface porous morphology. We applied an in situ polymerization method, using melamine-formaldehyde resin as shell material and nonionic surfactants as emulsifiers. The solid shell of microcapsules can provide a stable three-dimensional (3-D) confining environment. We have studied multiple parameters of these microencapsulated n-alkanes, including surface freezing, metastability of the rotator phase, and the phase separation behaviors of n-alkane mixtures using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), temperature-dependent X-ray diffraction (XRD), and variable-temperature solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Our investigations revealed new direct evidence for the existence of surface freezing in microencapsulated n-alkanes. By examining the differences among chain packing and nucleation kinetics between bulk alkane solid solutions and their microencapsulated counterparts, we also discovered a mechanism responsible for the formation of a new metastable bulk phase. In addition, we found that confinement suppresses lamellar ordering and longitudinal diffusion, which play an important role in stabilizing the binary n-alkane solid solution in microcapsules. Our work also provided new insights into the phase separation of other mixed system, such as waxes, lipids, and polymer blends in confined geometry. These works provide a profound understanding of the relationship between molecular structure and material properties in the context of crystallization and therefore advance our ability to improve applications incorporating polymeric and molecular materials. PMID:23947401

Su, Yunlan; Liu, Guoming; Xie, Baoquan; Fu, Dongsheng; Wang, Dujin

2014-01-21

19

Critical comparison between magnetic and inertial confinement schemes and their geometries

The interaction mechanism between the plasma and magnetic field in a tokamak does not provide complete magnetic confinement as is usually imagined. Also, the toroidal geometry itself is not particularly well suited for containing a hot plasma. Qualitative arguments reveal an intrinsic superiority of the inertial confinement spherical geometry over any geometry of magnetic confinement for fusion purposes. Moreover, from the point of view of applications, spherical devices such as the inertial electrostatic confinement device and the inertial confinement fusion-spherical pinch are giving immediate spin-offs of industrial interest. 12 refs., 1 fig.

Salingaros, N.A. [Univ. of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States)

1995-05-01

20

Clustering of branching Brownian motions in confined geometries

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the evolution of a collection of individuals subject to Brownian diffusion, reproduction, and disappearance. In particular, we focus on the case where the individuals are initially prepared at equilibrium within a confined geometry. Such systems are widespread in physics and biology and apply for instance to the study of neutron populations in nuclear reactors and the dynamics of bacterial colonies, only to name a few. The fluctuations affecting the number of individuals in space and time may lead to a strong patchiness, with particles clustered together. We show that the analysis of this peculiar behavior can be rather easily carried out by resorting to a backward formalism based on the Green's function, which allows the key physical observables, namely, the particle concentration and the pair correlation function, to be explicitly derived.

Zoia, A.; Dumonteil, E.; Mazzolo, A.; de Mulatier, C.; Rosso, A.

2014-10-01

21

Hubbard Models in Confined Geometries: Statistical Mechanics of Inhomogeneous Systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical lattice experiments (OLE) with cold atoms provide an exciting new testing ground for quantum many body models, like the fermion Hubbard model. The conditions of OLE experiments, however, differ in significant ways from our current theoretical models- such as 1) the use of an inhomogeneous potential for trapping atoms and 2) an environment characterized by constant entropy, rather than constant temperature. For experimenters, these differences complicate the identification of phase transitions and comparisons of experimental results with numerical simulations. This research simulates the effects of these experimental constraints with current numerical models and analyzes the impact of these effects on identifying critical phases and phase transitions in OLEs. The results provide potential guidance for OLE experimenters in the exploration of important theoretical questions like the nature and onset of Mott insulating or d-wave super-conducting phases. For the 2D fermion Hubbard model, the research analyzes the impact of several current and proposed methods for trapping atoms in OLEs. Using Quantum Monte Carlo results under constant entropy, we evaluate the effects of these trapping methods on magnetic order and d-wave pairing correlations for the resulting inhomogeneous systems. The goal is to identify the confinement techniques which maximize the likelihood for observing magnetic order or superconductivity in optical lattices

Cone, James David

22

Random Close Packing of Disks and Spheres in Confined Geometries

Studies of random close packing of spheres have advanced our knowledge about the structure of systems such as liquids, glasses, emulsions, granular media, and amorphous solids. When these systems are confined their structural properties change. To understand these changes we study random close packing in finite-sized confined systems, in both two and three dimensions. Each packing consists of a 50-50 binary mixture with particle size ratio 1.4. The presence of confining walls significantly lowers the overall maximum area fraction (or volume fraction in three dimensions). A simple model is presented which quantifies the reduction in packing due to wall-induced structure. This wall-induced structure decays rapidly away from the wall, with characteristic length scales comparable to the small particle diameter.

Kenneth W. Desmond; Eric R. Weeks

2009-03-05

23

Observations on the potential confinement of a light fermion

We consider possible dynamical models for a light fermion confined by a potential field. With the Dirac equation only Lorentz scalar confinement yields normalizable wave functions, while with the ``no pair`` variant of the Dirac equation only Lorentz vector confinement has normal Regge behavior. A systematic investigation of Regge properties and phenomenological properties is carried out, including calculations of the Isgur-Wise (IW) function. We point out that the Isgur-Wise function provides a sensitive test of confinement models. In particular, the slope of the IW function at the zero recoil point is found to be {xi}{prime}(1){congruent}{minus}0.90 for the Dirac equation with scalar confinement and {xi}{prime}(1){congruent}{minus}1.20 for the no pair equation with vector confinement. Using heavy-light meson data alone we argue against scalar confinement.

Olsson, M.G.; Veseli, S. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Williams, K. [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 29606 (United States)] [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 29606 (United States); [Physics Department, Hampton University, Hampton, Virginia 29668 (United States)

1995-05-01

24

Dynamics of laser-blow-off induced Li plume in confined geometry

Dynamics of Li plasma plume created by laser-blow-off technique in air ambient is reported. Plasma plume dynamics and its optical emission are investigated in planar and confined geometries using time resolved shadowgraph imaging and optical emission spectroscopy. Significant differences in the plasma characteristics in confined geometry are quantitatively investigated by comparing the plasma parameters (temperature and density) in free expansion and confined geometry configurations. Dynamics and physical parameters of the primary as well as the reflected shock waves (in confined geometry) and their interactions with expanding plasma are briefly addressed. A large enhancement in the emission intensities of Li I 610.3 nm (2p {sup 2}P{sub 1/2,3/2}? 3d {sup 2}P{sub 3/2,5/2}) and 670.8 nm (2s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2}? 2p {sup 2}P{sub 1/2,3/2}) is correlated with the shock wave dynamics in the two geometries. Strong self reversal in the neutral emission infers an increase in the population density of neutrals within the confined plasma plume.

Kumar, Bhupesh; Singh, R K; Kumar, Ajai [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar-382 428 (India)] [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar-382 428 (India)

2013-08-15

25

Dynamics of laser-blow-off induced Li plume in confined geometry

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamics of Li plasma plume created by laser-blow-off technique in air ambient is reported. Plasma plume dynamics and its optical emission are investigated in planar and confined geometries using time resolved shadowgraph imaging and optical emission spectroscopy. Significant differences in the plasma characteristics in confined geometry are quantitatively investigated by comparing the plasma parameters (temperature and density) in free expansion and confined geometry configurations. Dynamics and physical parameters of the primary as well as the reflected shock waves (in confined geometry) and their interactions with expanding plasma are briefly addressed. A large enhancement in the emission intensities of Li I 610.3 nm (2p 2P1/2, 3/2 ? 3d 2P3/2, 5/2) and 670.8 nm (2s 2S1/2 ? 2p 2P1/2, 3/2) is correlated with the shock wave dynamics in the two geometries. Strong self reversal in the neutral emission infers an increase in the population density of neutrals within the confined plasma plume.

Kumar, Bhupesh; Singh, R. K.; Kumar, Ajai

2013-08-01

26

Theoretical studies on colloid suspensions in confined geometry

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a colloidal system is constrained to occupy confined spaces, it displays many interesting new static and dynamic properties. In this dissertation, we present the results of our studies on the influence of the confinement. For the static properties, our analysis focuses on the liquid-crystal phase transitions as a function of the thickness of the Quasi-2-Dimensional colloid suspension. A bifurcation analysis is used and the transitions are found to be weakly first order, in very good agreement with the earlier simulation results. As to the dynamical behavior, the influence of the hydrodynamic interactions on particles' diffusion processes in a Quasi-1-Dimensional suspension is evaluated using the so-called method of reflections. The comparison between our theoretical predictions and earlier experimental observations shows very good agreement.

Xu, Xinliang

27

Crystals and liquid crystals confined to curved geometries

This review introduces the elasticity theory of two-dimensional crystals and nematic liquid crystals on curved surfaces, the energetics of topological defects (disclinations, dislocations and pleats) in these ordered phases, and the interaction of defects with the underlying curvature. This chapter concludes with two cases of three-dimensional nematic phases confined to spaces with curved boundaries, namely a torus and a spherical shell.

Vinzenz Koning; Vincenzo Vitelli

2014-01-20

28

Spectra generated by a confined softcore Coulomb potential

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analytic and approximate solutions for the energy eigenvalues generated by a confined softcore Coulomb potentials of the form a/(r + ?) in d > 1 dimensions are constructed. The confinement is effected by linear and harmonic-oscillator potential terms, and also through "hard confinement" by means of an impenetrable spherical box. A byproduct of this work is the construction of polynomial solutions for a number of linear differential equations with polynomial coefficients, along with the necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of such solutions. Very accurate approximate solutions for the general problem with arbitrary potential parameters are found by use of the asymptotic iteration method.

Hall, Richard L.; Saad, Nasser

2014-08-01

29

Pressure effects on the anisotrophic rotational diffusion of acetonitrile- d3 in confined geometry

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NMR relaxation behavior of a polar molecular liquid, acetonitrile- d3, confined to porous silica glasses prepared by a sol- gel process, was studied at pressures up to 5 kbar at 300 K. Analysis of the relaxation data in terms of the two-state fast exchange model and the classical rotational diffusion equation allowed us to determine the pressure effects on the anisotropic rotational diffusion of acetonitrile- d3 in confined geometry.

Xu, Shu; Kim, Yoo Joong; Jonas, J.

1994-02-01

30

DNA confined in a two-dimensional strip geometry

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semiflexible polymers characterized by the contour length L and persistent length \\ell_p confined in a spatial region D have been described as a series of “spherical blobs” and “deflecting lines” by de Gennes and Odjik for \\ell_p < D and \\ell_p \\gg D , respectively. Recently new intermediate regimes (extended de Gennes and Gauss-de Gennes) have been investigated by Tree et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., 110 (2013) 208103). In this letter we derive scaling relations to characterize these transitions in terms of universal scaled fluctuations in d-dimension as a function of L,\\,\\ell_p , and D, and show that the Gauss-de Gennes regime is absent and the extended de Gennes regime is vanishingly small for polymers confined in a 2D strip. We validate our claim by an extensive Brownian dynamics (BD) simulation which also reveals that the prefactor A used to describe the chain extension in the Odjik limit is independent of the physical dimension d and is the same as previously found by Yang et al. (Phys. Rev. E, 76 (2007) 011804). Our studies are relevant for optical maps of DNA stretched inside a nanostrip.

Huang, Aiqun; Bhattacharya, Aniket

2014-04-01

31

Lateral confinement in quantum nanostructures: Self-consistent screening potentials

Self-consistent lateral confining potentials and carrier density functions are computed for quantum nanostructures utilizing a finite-temperature Thomas–Fermi approximation for the conduction electrons and the assumption of a uniform background of donor charges. The formation of the confining potential is the result of a nonlinear, electrostatic screening process which is determined by the Fermi level pinning properties of the lateral surfaces,

James H. Luscombe; Marshall Luban

1990-01-01

32

Topological superfluids confined in a nanoscale slab geometry

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanofluidic samples of superfluid ^3He provide a route to explore odd-parity topological superfluids and their surface, edge and defect-bound excitations under well controlled conditions. We have cooled superfluid ^3He confined in a precisely defined nano-fabricated cavity to well below 1 mK for the first time. We fingerprint the order parameter by nuclear magnetic resonance, exploiting a SQUID NMR spectrometer of exquisite sensitivity. We demonstrate that dimensional confinement, at length scales comparable to the superfluid Cooper-pair diameter, has a profound influence on the superfluid order of ^3He. The chiral A-phase is stabilized at low pressures, in a cavity of height 650 nm. At higher pressures we observe ^3He-B with a surface induced planar distortion. ^3He-B is a time-reversal invariant topological superfluid, supporting gapless Majorana surface states. In the presence of the small symmetry breaking NMR static magnetic field we observe two possible B-phase states of the order parameter manifold, which can coexist as domains. Non-linear NMR on these states enables a measurement of the surface induced planar distortion, which determines the spectral weight of the surface excitations. The expected structure of the domain walls is such that, at the cavity surface, the line separating the two domains is predicted to host fermion zero modes, protected by symmetry and topology. Increasing confinement should stabilize new p-wave superfluid states of matter, such as the quasi-2D gapped A phase, which breaks time reversal symmetry, has a protected chiral edge mode, and may host half-quantum vortices with a Majorana zero-mode at the core. We discuss experimental progress toward this phase, through measurements on a 100 nm cavity. On the other hand, a cavity height of 1000 nm may stabilize a novel ``striped'' superfluid with spatially modulated order parameter.[4pt] In collaboration with L.V. Levitin, R.G. Bennett, A.J. Casey, B. Cowan, J. Parpia, E.V. Surovtsev

Saunders, John

2013-03-01

33

Deformable cells in confined geometries: From hemolysis to hydrodynamic interactions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments in microfluidics allow a wide range of possibilities for studying cellular-scale hydrodynamics. Here we use microfluidic technology to address several open questions in the blood flow literature where cell deformation and hydrodynamic interactions are significant. In particular, we investigate the pressure-driven flow of a dilute suspension in a channel and characterize the transition from steady axisymmetric cell shapes (for which numerical calculations exist) to asymmetric, highly extended shapes, which are precursors to hemolysis (i.e. destruction of the cell). In addition, we examine the influence of geometry on hydrodynamic interactions of deformable cells by contrasting one-dimensional motion of a train of particles in a channel with two-dimensional motions in a Hele-Shaw cell. This study can help to understand flow of cells in microcirculation from the unidirectional flow in capillaries to the two-dimensional flow in the lung alveoli and provides the basic steps to understand certain aspects of microcirculatory deseases like sickle cell anemia for example.

Abkarian, Manouk; Faivre, Magalie; Stone, Howard A.

2004-11-01

34

Attractive potential between confined colloids at low ionic strength

Digital video microscopy is used to locate the positions of 1.27 mum diameter polystyrene spheres suspended in low ionic strength water and confined between two glass plates. A method is developed to obtain the pair potential of the colloidal particles from measurements of the pair-correlation function of both dilute and moderately concentrated dispersions. We find that the measured pair potential

Grace Martinelli Kepler; Seth Fraden

1994-01-01

35

Potential Well Structures in Spherical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Devices

Inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) devices are of interest as neutron generators for many applications. Experiments by Hirsch inspired further efforts to decipher the potential distribution within IEC devices. In this paper, previous analyzes of potential distributions in IEC devices are reviewed and extended. Three types of IEC systems are classified and analyzed according to the arrangement of electrodes and the

Ryan M. Meyer; Sudarshan K. Loyalka; Mark A. Prelas

2005-01-01

36

Lateral confinement in quantum nanostructures: Self-consistent screening potentials

Self-consistent lateral confining potentials and carrier density functions are computed for quantum nanostructures utilizing a finite-temperature Thomas--Fermi approximation for the conduction electrons and the assumption of a uniform background of donor charges. The formation of the confining potential is the result of a nonlinear, electrostatic screening process which is determined by the Fermi level pinning properties of the lateral surfaces, the doping level, and the lateral dimensions. We find that the ability to populate nanostructures with carriers depends sensitively upon the details of the system.

Luscombe, J.H. (Central Research Laboratories, Texas Instruments, Inc., Dallas, Texas 75265 (USA)); Luban, M. (Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA (USA) Department of Physics, Iowa State University, Ames, IA (USA))

1990-07-02

37

Lateral confinement in quantum nanostructures: Self-consistent screening potentials

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-consistent lateral confining potentials and carrier density functions are computed for quantum nanostructures utilizing a finite-temperature Thomas-Fermi approximation for the conduction electrons and the assumption of a uniform background of donor charges. The formation of the confining potential is the result of a nonlinear, electrostatic screening process which is determined by the Fermi level pinning properties of the lateral surfaces, the doping level, and the lateral dimensions. We find that the ability to populate nanostructures with carriers depends sensitively upon the details of the system.

Luscombe, James H.; Luban, Marshall

1990-07-01

38

In the photoionization of an atom endohedrally confined in a fullerene the electrons directly ionized from the atom partially reflect from the cage. However, the valence atomic electrons can also eject from the cage collaterally with their direct emission. The reflective and the collateral amplitudes oscillate in the electron's momentum space with frequencies determined by their path differences from the direct amplitude. Resulting cross sections reveal the confining geometry in the Fourier conjugate domain. The frequency pattern distinguishes the atomic emission from the fullerene emission.

McCune, Matthew A.; Chakraborty, Himadri S. [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Northwest Missouri State University, Maryville, Missouri 64468 (United States); Madjet, Mohamed E. [Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Free University, Fabeckstrasse 36a, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)

2009-07-15

39

The capillarity of nanometric water menisci confined inside closed-geometry viral cages

We present an investigation of water menisci confined in closed geometries by studying the structural effects of their capillary forces on viruses during the final stage of desiccation. We used individual particles of the bacteriophage ?29 and the minute virus of mice. In both cases the genomic DNA was ejected from the capsid. However, although the structural integrity of the minute virus of mice was essentially preserved, the ?29 capsid underwent a wall-to-wall collapse. We provide evidence that the capillary forces of water confined inside the viruses are mainly responsible for these effects. Moreover, by performing theoretical simulations with a lattice gas model, we found that some structural differences between these 2 viruses may be crucial to explain the different ways in which they are affected by water menisci forces confined at the nanoscale. PMID:19307554

Carrasco, C.; Douas, M.; Miranda, R.; Castellanos, M.; Serena, P. A.; Carrascosa, J. L.; Mateu, M. G.; Marques, M. I.; de Pablo, P. J.

2009-01-01

40

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) offer new opportunities for realizing quantum dots (QDs) in the ultimate two-dimensional (2D) limit. Given the rich control possibilities of electron valley pseudospin discovered in the monolayers, this quantum degree of freedom can be a promising carrier of information for potential quantum spintronics exploiting single electrons in TMD QDs. An outstanding issue is to identify the degree of valley hybridization, due to the QD confinement, which may significantly change the valley physics in QDs from its form in the 2D bulk. Here we perform a systematic study of the intervalley coupling by QD confinement potentials on extended TMD monolayers. We find that the intervalley coupling in such geometry is generically weak due to the vanishing amplitude of the electron wavefunction at the QD boundary, and hence valley hybridization will be well quenched by the much stronger spin–valley coupling in monolayer TMDs and the QDs can well inherit the valley physics of the 2D bulk. We also discover sensitive dependence of intervalley coupling strength on the central position and the lateral length scales of the confinement potentials, which may possibly allow tuning of intervalley coupling by external controls.

Liu, Gui-Bin; Pang, Hongliang; Yao, Yugui; Yao, Wang

2014-10-01

41

Semiclassical analysis of the Schrodinger equation with a partially confining potential

Semiclassical analysis of the SchrÂ¨odinger equation with a partially confining potential Naoufel in the confined direction is of the order of magnitude of the electron de Broglie length whereas the non confined lengthscale is larger. A partial semiclassical limit of the SchrÂ¨odinger equation (in the non confined

MÃ©hats, Florian

42

We study the time and length scales of hydrodynamic dispersion in confined monodisperse sphere packings as a function of the conduit geometry. By a modified Jodrey-Tory algorithm, we generated packings at a bed porosity (interstitial void fraction) of ?=0.40 in conduits with circular, rectangular, or semicircular cross section of area 100?d(p)(2) (where d(p) is the sphere diameter) and dimensions of about 20d(p) (cylinder diameter) by 6553.6d(p) (length), 25d(p) by 12.5d(p) (rectangle sides) by 8192d(p) or 14.1d(p) (radius of semicircle) by 8192d(p), respectively. The fluid-flow velocity field in the generated packings was calculated by the lattice Boltzmann method for Péclet numbers of up to 500, and convective-diffusive mass transport of 4×10(6) inert tracers was modelled with a random-walk particle-tracking technique. We present lateral porosity and velocity distributions for all packings and monitor the time evolution of longitudinal dispersion up to the asymptotic (long-time) limit. The characteristic length scales for asymptotic behaviour are explained from the symmetry of each conduit's velocity field. Finally, we quantify the influence of the confinement and of a specific conduit geometry on the velocity dependence of the asymptotic dispersion coefficients. PMID:21576163

Khirevich, Siarhei; Höltzel, Alexandra; Tallarek, Ulrich

2011-06-28

43

Heavy quarks, gluons and the confinement potential in Coulomb gauge

We consider the heavy quark limit of Coulomb gauge QCD, with the truncation of the Yang-Mills sector to include only (dressed) two-point functions. We find that the rainbow-ladder approximation to the gap and Bethe-Salpeter equations is nonperturbatively exact and moreover, we provide a direct connection between the temporal gluon propagator and the quark confinement potential. Further, we show that only bound states of color singlet quark-antiquark (meson) and quark-quark (SU(2) baryon) pairs are physically allowed.

Popovici, Carina; Watson, Peter; Reinhardt, Hugo [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

2011-05-23

44

Spectral singularity in confined PT symmetric optical potential

We present an analytical study for the scattering amplitudes (Reflection ?R? and Transmission ?T?), of the periodic PT symmetric optical potential V(x)=W{sub 0}cos{sup 2}x+iV{sub 0}sin2x confined within the region 0 ?x?L, embedded in a homogeneous medium having uniform potential W{sub 0}. The confining length L is considered to be some integral multiple of the period ?. We give some new and interesting results. Scattering is observed to be normal (?T?{sup 2}? 1, ?R?{sup 2}? 1) for V{sub 0}? 0.5, when the above potential can be mapped to a Hermitian potential by a similarity transformation. Beyond this point (V{sub 0} > 0.5) scattering is found to be anomalous (?T?{sup 2}, ?R?{sup 2} not necessarily ?1). Additionally, in this parameter regime of V{sub 0}, one observes infinite number of spectral singularities E{sub SS} at different values of V{sub 0}. Furthermore, for L= 2n?, the transition point V{sub 0}= 0.5 shows unidirectional invisibility with zero reflection when the beam is incident from the absorptive side (Im[V(x)] < 0) but with finite reflection when the beam is incident from the emissive side (Im[V(x)] > 0), transmission being identically unity in both cases. Finally, the scattering coefficients ?R?{sup 2} and ?T?{sup 2} always obey the generalized unitarity relation : ?T|{sup 2}?1|=?(|R{sub R}|{sup 2}|R{sub L}|{sup 2}), where subscripts R and L stand for right and left incidence, respectively.

Sinha, Anjana [Department of Instrumentation Science, Jadavpur University, Kolkata - 700 032 (India)] [Department of Instrumentation Science, Jadavpur University, Kolkata - 700 032 (India); Roychoudhury, R. [Department of Mathematics, Bethune College, Kolkata - 700 006, India and Advanced Centre for Nonlinear and Complex Phenomena, 1175 Survey Park, Kolkata - 700075 (India)] [Department of Mathematics, Bethune College, Kolkata - 700 006, India and Advanced Centre for Nonlinear and Complex Phenomena, 1175 Survey Park, Kolkata - 700075 (India)

2013-11-15

45

The problem of projecting the energy confinement properties of future devices is a lonf standing one in toroidal confinement research. While substantial progress has been made in characterizing the transport properties of tokamaks and stellarators, no definitive understanding of the mechanism(s) of cross-field transport has been achieved. The BPX physics groups, in collaboration with the Transport Task Force and the Doublet III-D (DIII-D) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) experimental teams, has recently begun to explore another avenue of approach, in which dimensionally scaled confinement (eg. confinement time normalized by gyrofrequency [omega][sub c][tau][sub E]) is expressed in terms of key dimensionless variables such a [beta], collisionality [nu], and gyroradius divided by plasma half width [rho]/a. This paper presents the full range of different approaches to projecting the confinement performance of BPX.

Goldston, R.J.; Stotler, D.P.; Bateman, G. (PPPL (United States)); Waltz, R.E. (GA (United States)); Singer, C.E.; Kinsey, J. (Univ. of Illinois (United States))

1992-05-01

46

Protection from Potential Exposure for the Chernobyl New Safe Confinement

The Bechtel/EDF/Battelle Consortium has recently completed developing the conceptual design for the Chernobyl New Safe Confinement (NSC). Battelle has the scope of work related to environment and safety of the design. As part of the safety analysis, an analysis was performed to determine the degree of protection to be provided during the construction and 100-year operation period for expected upsets and lower-probability events that would occur from errors, procedures, other human factors, and equipment failures, i.e., ''potential exposures'' other than normal operations. The analysis was based on results of the Preliminary Hazards Analysis. The potential exposure analysis was performed in accordance with existing Ukranian regulations and working processes and procedures in place at the Shelter Object. KSK (a Ukranian Consortium), a subcontractor to the Bechtel/EDF/Battelle Consortium, performed much of the dose analysis. The analysis concluded that potential exposures, outside of those expected during normal operations, would be acceptable and that design criteria and features, and preventative and mitigative measures currently in place at the Shelter would be sufficient to meet operating exposure limits.

Shipler, Dillard B.; Rudko, Vladimir; Batiy, Valeriy; Timmins, Douglas C.; Brothers, Alan J.; Schmidt, John P.; Swearingen, Gary L.; Schmieman, Eric A.

2004-03-24

47

Magnetic properties of electrons confined in an anisotropic cylindrical potential

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper a theoretical model, describing the effects of external electric and magnetic fields on an electron confined in an anisotropic parabolic potential, is considered. The exact wave functions are used to calculate electron current and orbital magnetic dipole momentum for the single electron. Exact expressions, giving the force and energy of the dipole-dipole interaction, are also determined. Further, the system is coupled to a heat bath, and mean values and fluctuations of the magnetic dipole momentum, utilizing the canonical ensemble are calculated. Influences of the temperature, as well as the external magnetic field, expressed via the Larmor frequency are analyzed. We also include the dependencies of the magnetic dipole momentum and its fluctuations on the effective mass of the electron, considering some experimental values for low-dimensional systems, that are extensively studied for various applications in electronics. Our results suggest that the average momentum or its fluctuations are strongly related to the effective mass of the electron. Having on mind that parabolically shaped potentials have very wide area of application in the low-dimensional systems, such as quantum dots and rings, carbon nanotubes, we believe that the proposed model and the consequent analysis is of general importance, since it offers exact analytical approach.

Nedelkoski, Zlatko; Petreska, Irina

2014-11-01

48

Expected and observed effects of volume exclusion on the free energy of rigid and flexible macromolecules in crowded and confined systems, and consequent effects of crowding and confinement on macromolecular reaction rates and equilibria are summarized. Findings from relevant theoretical/simulation and experimental literature published from 2004 onward are reviewed. Additional complexity arising from the heterogeneity of local environments in biological media, and the presence of nonspecific interactions between macromolecules over and above steric repulsion are discussed. Theoretical and experimental approaches to the characterization of crowding- and confinement-induced effects in systems approaching the complexity of living organisms are suggested. PMID:18573087

Zhou, Huan-Xiang; Rivas, German; Minton, Allen P.

2009-01-01

49

Chiral symmetry breaking in the truncated Coulomb Gauge II. Non-confining power law potentials

In this paper we study the breaking of chiral symmetry with non-confining power-like potentials. The region of allowed exponents is identified and, after the previous study of confining (positive exponent) potentials, we now specialize in shorter range non-confining potentials, with a negative exponent. These non-confining potentials are close to the Coulomb potential, and they are also relevant as corrections to the linear confinement, and as models for the quark potential at the deconfinement transition. The mass-gap equation is constructed and solved, and the quarks mass, the chiral angle and the quark energy are calculated analytically with a exponent expansion in the neighbourhood of the Coulomb potential. It is demonstrated that chiral symmetry breaking occurs, but only the chiral invariant false vacuum and a second non-trivial vacuum exist. Moreover chiral symmetry breaking is led by the UV part of the potential, with no IR enhancement of the quark mass. Thus the breaking of chiral symmetry driven by non-confining potentials differs from the one lead by confining potentials.

P. Bicudo

2008-11-04

50

Solution of Two-Body Bound State Problems with Confining Potentials

The homogeneous Lippmann-Schwinger integral equation is solved in momentum space by using confining potentials. Since the confining potentials are unbounded at large distances, they lead to a singularity at small momentum. In order to remove the singularity of the kernel of the integral equation, a regularized form of the potentials is used. As an application of the method, the mass spectra of heavy quarkonia, mesons consisting from heavy quark and antiquark ({Upsilon}(bb-bar), {psi}(cc-bar)), are calculated for linear and quadratic confining potentials. The results are in good agreement with configuration space and experimental results.

Hadizadeh, M. R. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica (IFT), Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Barra Funda, 01140-070, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Tomio, Lauro [Instituto de Fisica Teorica (IFT), Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Barra Funda, 01140-070, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24210-346, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

2010-11-12

51

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Paper I [A. F. Ghobadi and J. R. Elliott, J. Chem. Phys. 139(23), 234104 (2013)], we showed that how a third-order Weeks-Chandler-Anderson (WCA) Thermodynamic Perturbation Theory and molecular simulation can be integrated to characterize the repulsive and dispersive contributions to the Helmholtz free energy for realistic molecular conformations. To this end, we focused on n-alkanes to develop a theory for fused and soft chains. In Paper II [A. F. Ghobadi and J. R. Elliott, J. Chem. Phys. 141(2), 024708 (2014)], we adapted the classical Density Functional Theory and studied the microstructure of the realistic molecular fluids in confined geometries and vapor-liquid interfaces. We demonstrated that a detailed consistency between molecular simulation and theory can be achieved for both bulk and inhomogeneous phases. In this paper, we extend the methodology to molecules with partial charges such as carbon dioxide, water, 1-alkanols, nitriles, and ethers. We show that the electrostatic interactions can be captured via an effective association potential in the framework of Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (SAFT). Implementation of the resulting association contribution in assessing the properties of these molecules at confined geometries and interfaces presents satisfactory agreement with molecular simulation and experimental data. For example, the predicted surface tension deviates less than 4% comparing to full potential simulations. Also, the theory, referred to as SAFT-? WCA, is able to reproduce the specific orientation of hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail of 1-alkanols at the vapor-liquid interface of water.

Ghobadi, Ahmadreza F.; Elliott, J. Richard

2014-09-01

52

Spectral properties of quantum dots influenced by a confining potential model

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We obtain the exact energy spectra and corresponding wave functions of the spherical quantum dots for any (n,l) state in the presence of a combination of pseudo-harmonic, Coulomb and linear confining potential terms within the exact analytical iteration method (EAIM). The interaction potential model under consideration is labeled as the Cornell modified-plus-harmonic (CMpH) type which is a correction form to the harmonic, Coulomb and linear confining potential terms.

Ikhdair, Sameer M.; Hamzavi, Majid

2012-12-01

53

The potential role of electric fields and plasma barodiffusion on the inertial confinement fusion. Related Articles Investigating inertial confinement fusion target fuel conditions through x-ray spectroscopy Phys. Plasmas 19, 056312 (2012) Analytic criteria for shock ignition of fusion reactions

54

Self-consistent screening potentials in quantum nanostructures: role of confined states

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We obtain the finite-temperature density function and confining potential for electrons in a laterally-confined cylindrical quantum wire from a self-consistent solution of the coupled Poisson-Schrödinger equations. Except in special regimes, the results are remarkably similar to those we obtained previously with a Thomas-Fermi approximation.

Luscombe, James H.; Bouchard, Ann M.; Luban, Marshall

55

Space potential profiles in relativistic spherical inertial electrostatic confinement (SIEC) devices

Summary form only given. Spherical inertial electrostatic confinement (SIEC) devices could potentially be used as neutron generators for a number of applications. Since Hirsch put forward the hypothesis that a number of alternating virtual electrodes at the center of these devices could be acting as a confinement mechanism, a modest amount of research has been dedicated to verify the existence

Ryan M. Meyer; Sudarshan K. Loyalka; Mark A. Prelas

2006-01-01

56

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pattern recognition is becoming an increasingly important tool for making inferences from the massive amounts of data produced in fusion experiments. The purpose is to contribute to physics studies and plasma control. In this work, we address the visualization of plasma confinement data and their dynamics, the identification of confinement regimes and the establishment of a scaling law for the energy confinement time. We take an intrinsically probabilistic approach, modeling data from the International Global H-mode Confinement Database with Gaussian distributions. We show that pattern recognition operations working in the associated probability space are considerably more powerful than their counterparts in a Euclidean data space. This opens up new possibilities for analyzing confinement data and for fusion data processing in general.

Verdoolaege, Geert; Karagounis, Giorgos; Van Oost, Guido

2013-08-01

57

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple mathematical model based on atomic drift and diffusion is advanced to describe electromigration-induced stress in confined metal lines. Using a finite element approach, a MATLAB program was developed to simulate stress evolution in lines with variable geometry and microstructure under different boundary conditions. The simulation results show that the contact pads connected to the line end in the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) test structure postpone the stress buildup in a microstructurally homogeneous line and the time to reach a certain stress is proportional to the pad sizes when the pads are much wider than the line. Subtractive defects are not the preferred failure sites when the defects fall on a wide polycrystalline line or a bamboo structure line. In a narrow polycrystalline conductor with a distribution of grain size, a subtractive defect may result in an abrupt change in the effective diffusion coefficient (blocking effect) along the line and quick buildup of the stress at the defect site. The stress at a center blocking site in a 190 ?m line reaches maximum in 146 h, under 1 MA/cm2 and at 200 °C. Electromigration lifetime is most sensitive to distribution of grain size and variation of the linewidth when the linewidth is a few times average grain size. For a near bamboo structure line, the evolution of the stress after local quasisteady state is affected by line end conditions as well as by distribution of the polygranular clusters. Under a constant source boundary condition, the maximum stress at final steady state depends on the length and distribution of individual polygranular clusters in a line. Under blocking end conditions, the stress distribution in final global steady state (if it exists) is determined by electrical current density and is independent of microstructure of a line. The cluster/bamboo juncture is the most severely stressed site in the early stages, and the blocking line end will finally become the most severely stressed site if the line does not fail at an early time. The magnitude of the maximum stress at the cluster/bamboo juncture at the local steady state depends on the ratio of the effective diffusivity of the cluster to that of the bamboo segment, Dg/Db, as well as on the cluster length and current density.

Liu, Yongkun; Cox, C. L.; Diefendorf, R. J.

1998-04-01

58

Effect of confining wall potential on charged collimated dust beam in low-pressure plasma

The effect of confining wall potential on charged collimated dust beam in low-pressure plasma has been studied in a dusty plasma experimental setup by applying electrostatic field to each channel of a multicusp magnetic cage. Argon plasma is produced by hot cathode discharge method at a pressure of 5×10{sup ?4} millibars and is confined by a full line cusped magnetic field confinement system. Silver dust grains are produced by gas-evaporation technique and move upward in the form of a collimated dust beam due to differential pressure maintained between the dust and plasma chambers. The charged grains in the beam after coming out from the plasma column enter into the diagnostic chamber and are deflected by a dc field applied across a pair of deflector plates at different confining potentials. Both from the amount of deflection and the floating potential, the number of charges collected by the dust grains is calculated. Furthermore, the collimated dust beam strikes the Faraday cup, which is placed above the deflector plates, and the current (?pA) so produced is measured by an electrometer at different confining potentials. The experimental results demonstrate the significant effect of confining wall potential on charging of dust grains.

Kausik, S. S.; Kakati, B.; Saikia, B. K. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Sonapur 782 402 (India)] [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Sonapur 782 402 (India)

2013-05-15

59

Chiral symmetry breaking in the truncated Coulomb Gauge II. Non-confining power law potentials

In this paper we study the breaking of chiral symmetry with non-confining power-like potentials. The region of allowed exponents is identified and, after the previous study of confining (positive exponent) potentials, we now specialize in shorter range non-confining potentials, with a negative exponent. These non-confining potentials are close to the Coulomb potential, and they are also relevant as corrections to the linear confinement, and as models for the quark potential at the deconfinement transition. The mass-gap equation is constructed and solved, and the quarks mass, the chiral angle and the quark energy are calculated analytically with a exponent expansion in the neighbourhood of the Coulomb potential. It is demonstrated that chiral symmetry breaking occurs, but only the chiral invariant false vacuum and a second non-trivial vacuum exist. Moreover chiral symmetry breaking is led by the UV part of the potential, with no IR enhancement of the quark mass. Thus the breaking of chiral symmetry driven by n...

Bicudo, P

2008-01-01

60

Confined quantum time of arrival for the vanishing potential

We give full account of our recent report in E. A. Galapon, R. Caballar, and R. Bahague, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 180406 (2004), where it is shown that formulating the free quantum time of arrival problem in a segment of the real line suggests rephrasing the quantum time of arrival problem to finding a complete set of states that evolve to unitarily arrive at a given point at a definite time. For a spatially confined particle, here it is shown explicitly that the problem admits a solution in the form of an eigenvalue problem of a class of compact and self-adjoint time of arrival operators derived by a quantization of the classical time of arrival. The eigenfunctions of these operators are numerically demonstrated to unitarily arrive at the origin at their respective eigenvalues.

Galapon, Eric A. [Theoretical Physics Group, National Institute of Physics, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City, 1101 (Philippines); Theoretical Physics, University of the Basque Country, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Chemical Physics, University of the Basque Country, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Caballar, Roland F.; Bahague, Ricardo [Theoretical Physics Group, National Institute of Physics, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City, 1101 (Philippines)

2005-12-15

61

Electrical Double-Layer Interaction between Charged Particles near Surfaces and in Confined The proximity effect of one or two flat surfaces on the double- layer interaction between two identically. INTRODUCTION The electrical double-layer interaction between two charged spheres immersed in an unbounded

Chan, Derek Y C

62

Recent experiments in the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) [Fusion Technol. 10, 179 (1986)] have been directed toward investigations of the basic physics mechanisms that control confinement in this device. Measurements of the density fluctuations throughout the plasma volume have provided indications for the existence of theoretically predicted dissipative trapped electron and resistive interchange instabilities. These identifications are supported by results

R. C. Isler; S. Aceto; L. R. Baylor; T. S. Bigelow; G. L. Bell; J. D. Bell; B. A. Carreras; R. J. Colchin; E. C. Crume; N. Dominguez; R. A. Dory; J. L. Dunlap; G. R. Dyer; A. C. England; R. F. Gandy; G. R. Hanson; J. H. Harris; S. Hiroe; L. D. Horton; T. C. Jernigan; H. Ji; R. A. Langley; D. K. Lee; K. M. Likin; J. F. Lyon; C. H. Ma; S. Morimoto; M. Murakami; H. Okada; A. L. Qualls; D. A. Rasmussen; J. A. Rome; M. Sato; J. G. Schwelberger; M. G. Shats; J. E. Simpkins; C. E. Thomas; T. Uckan; M. R. Wade; J. B. Wilgen; W. R. Wing; H. Yamada; J. J. Zielinski

1992-01-01

63

The attainment of ultrahigh electric potentials by suppressing the stepped leader breakdown of a highly charged conductor levitated in a spiraling Taylor flow opens up the possibility of order of magnitude larger driver energies for the ignition of thermonuclear reactions by inertial confinement. In reaching gigavolt potentials, intense 1016 Watt, GeV ion beams become possible. Together with their large self-magnetic

Friedwardt Winterberg

2008-01-01

64

Prior Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) studies have assumed that very low angular momentum (zero in the ideal case) is necessary to achieve a potential well structure capable of trapping energetic ions in the center of a spherical device. However, the present study shows that high-current ion beams having large-angular-momentum spread can also form deep potential well traps.

Tzonev, I.V.; DeMora, J.M.; Miley, G.H. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

1995-12-31

65

The electrostatic potential well in inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) is studied using two approaches. First, the equilibrium potential profile is obtained by solving the charge neutrality condition, i.e. ni=ne, assuming the appropriate distribution functions for the ions and the electrons. The formation of a double well structure is demonstrated, with a depth depending upon the ratio between the focus radii

M. Ohnishi; K. H. Sato; Y. Yamamoto; K. Yoshikawa

1997-01-01

66

Prior inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) studies have assumed that very low angular momentum (zero in the ideal case) is necessary to achieve a potential well structure capable of trapping energetic ions in the center of a spherical device. However, the present study shows that high-current ion beams having large-angular-momentum spread can also form deep potential well traps

Ivon V. Tzonev; John M. DeMora; George H. Miley

1995-01-01

67

Reply to "Comment on `Vortex distribution in a confining potential' "

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We argue that contrary to recent suggestions, nonextensive statistical mechanics has no relevance for inhomogeneous systems of particles interacting by short-range potentials. We show that these systems are perfectly well described by the usual Boltzmann-Gibbs statistical mechanics.

Girotto, Matheus; dos Santos, Alexandre P.; Pakter, Renato; Levin, Yan

2014-08-01

68

Reply to "Comment on 'Vortex distribution in a confining potential' ".

We argue that contrary to recent suggestions, nonextensive statistical mechanics has no relevance for inhomogeneous systems of particles interacting by short-range potentials. We show that these systems are perfectly well described by the usual Boltzmann-Gibbs statistical mechanics. PMID:25215853

Girotto, Matheus; dos Santos, Alexandre P; Pakter, Renato; Levin, Yan

2014-08-01

69

Modeling of bubble coalescence in bubbly co-current flows restricted by confined geometry

Principles of kinetic theory are used to model the coalescence of bubbles in horizontal and vertical upflows where bubble movements are restricted by channel geometry. There are four critical variables that determine the rate at which a swarm of small bubbles will coalesce: the initial bubble population, the average initial bubble diameter, the average relative velocity of the bubbles, and

Michael D. Lundin; Mark J. McCready

2009-01-01

70

Accidental blast wave generation and propagation in the surroundings poses severe threats for people and property. The prediction of overpressure maxima and its change with time at specified distances can lead to useful conclusions in quantitative risk analysis applications. In this paper, the use of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code CFX-5.6 on dense explosive detonation events is described. The work deals with the three-dimensional simulation of overpressure wave propagation generated by the detonation of a dense explosive within a small-scale branched tunnel. It also aids at validating the code against published experimental data as well as to study the way that the resulting shock wave propagates in a confined space configuration. Predicted overpressure histories were plotted and compared versus experimental measurements showing a reasonably good agreement. Overpressure maxima and corresponding times were found close to the measured ones confirming that CFDs may constitute a useful tool in explosion hazard assessment procedures. Moreover, it was found that blast wave propagates preserving supersonic speed along the tunnel accompanied by high overpressure levels, and indicating that space confinement favors the formation and maintenance of a shock rather than a weak pressure wave. PMID:15885402

Rigas, Fotis; Sklavounos, Spyros

2005-05-20

71

Free energy and extension of a semiflexible polymer in cylindrical confining geometries

We consider a long, semiflexible polymer, with persistence length $P$ and contour length $L$, fluctuating in a narrow cylindrical channel of diameter $D$. In the regime $D\\ll P\\ll L$ the free energy of confinement $\\Delta F$ and the length of the channel $R_\\parallel$ occupied by the polymer are given by Odijk's relations $\\Delta F/R_\\parallel=A_\\circ k_BTP^{-1/3}D^{-2/3}$ and $R_\\parallel=L[1-\\alpha_\\circ(D/P)^{2/3}]$, where $A_\\circ$ and $\\alpha_\\circ$ are dimensionless amplitudes. Using a simulation algorithm inspired by PERM (Pruned Enriched Rosenbluth Method), which yields results for very long polymers, we determine $A_\\circ$ and $\\alpha_\\circ$ and the analogous amplitudes for a channel with a rectangular cross section. For a semiflexible polymer confined to the surface of a cylinder, the corresponding amplitudes are derived with an exact analytic approach. The results are relevant for interpreting experiments on biopolymers in microchannels or microfluidic devices.

Yingzi Yang; Theodore W. Burkhardt; Gerhard Gompper

2007-04-19

72

INFLUENCE OF END POTENTIAL PLATES ON PLASMA HEATING AND CONFINEMENT Sergey Yu. Taskaev

temperature. It was detected that this Â«non-jouleÂ» non-turbulent effective heating of electrons was relatedW) and Joule heating concerning Spitzer conductivity (1 kW) -- are not enough for balance. Does that meanINFLUENCE OF END POTENTIAL PLATES ON PLASMA HEATING AND CONFINEMENT Sergey Yu. Taskaev Budker

Taskaev, Sergey Yur'evich

73

On the generation of nonlinear travelling waves in confined geometries using electric fields.

We investigate electrostatically induced interfacial instabilities and subsequent generation of nonlinear coherent structures in immiscible, viscous, dielectric multi-layer stratified flows confined in small-scale channels. Vertical electric fields are imposed across the channel to produce interfacial instabilities that would normally be absent in such flows. In situations when the imposed vertical fields are constant, interfacial instabilities emerge due to the presence of electrostatic forces, and we follow the nonlinear dynamics via direct numerical simulations. We also propose and illustrate a novel pumping mechanism in microfluidic devices that does not use moving parts. This is achieved by first inducing interfacial instabilities using constant background electric fields to obtain fully nonlinear deformations. The second step involves the manipulation of the imposed voltage on the lower electrode (channel wall) to produce a spatio-temporally varying voltage there, in the form of a travelling wave with pre-determined properties. Such travelling wave dielectrophoresis methods are shown to generate intricate fluid-surface-structure interactions that can be of practical value since they produce net mass flux along the channel and thus are candidates for microfluidic pumps without moving parts. We show via extensive direct numerical simulations that this pumping phenomenon is a result of an externally induced nonlinear travelling wave that forms at the fluid-fluid interface and study the characteristics of the generated velocity field inside the channel. PMID:24936019

Cimpeanu, R; Papageorgiou, D T

2014-07-28

74

High-density plasma production with potential confinement in the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The improvement of potential confinement was attained in the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror [Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 939 (1985); Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Washington, 1990 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1991), Vol. 2, p. 539] by axisymmetrization of heating systems for the plasma production, heating, and potential formation. A significant increase of the density and diamagnetism by the potential confinement was observed. In the previous experiment, it was difficult to increase the central cell density higher than 2.7×1018m-3. One of the possible mechanisms is the density clamping due to the eigenmode formation of the ion-cyclotron-range of frequency (ICRF) waves in the axial direction. With high harmonic ICRF waves (RF3), the experiments to overcome this problem have been performed. In preliminary experiments with RF3 and NBI the maximum density of 4×1018m-3 was attained.

Ichimura, M.; Cho, T.; Hirata, M.; Hojo, H.; Ishii, K.; Itakura, A.; Katanuma, I.; Kohagura, J.; Nakashima, Y.; Saito, T.; Tamano, T.; Tanaka, S.; Tatematsu, Y.; Yatsu, K.; Yoshikawa, M.

2001-05-01

75

Nonlinear Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations for ion flux through confined geometries

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mathematical modelling and simulation of ion transport through biological and synthetic channels (nanopores) is a challenging problem, with direct application in biophysics, physiology and chemistry. At least two major effects have to be taken into account when creating such models: the electrostatic interaction of ions and the effects due to size exclusion in narrow regions. While mathematical models and methods for electrostatic interactions are well-developed and can be transferred from other flow problems with charged particles, e.g. semiconductor devices, less is known about the appropriate macroscopic modelling of size exclusion effects. Recently several papers proposed simple or sophisticated approaches for including size exclusion effects into entropies, in equilibrium as well as off equilibrium. The aim of this paper is to investigate a second potentially important modification due to size exclusion, which often seems to be ignored and is not implemented in currently used models, namely the modification of mobilities due to size exclusion effects. We discuss a simple model derived from a self-consisted random walk and investigate the stationary solutions as well as the computation of conductance. The need of incorporating nonlinear mobilities in high density situations is demonstrated in an investigation of conductance as a function of bath concentrations, which does not lead to obvious saturation effects in the case of linear mobility.

Burger, M.; Schlake, B.; Wolfram, M.-T.

2012-04-01

76

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Geometry is the branch of mathematics which investigates the relations, properties, and measurement of solids, surfaces, lines, and angles. It is the science of the relations of space. Sourse: Webster's Dictionary

K-12 Outreach,

77

A simple method for estimating potential source term bypass fractions from confinement structures

Confinement structures house many of the operating processes at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Under normal operating conditions, a confinement structure in conjunction with its associated ventilation systems prevents the release of radiological material to the environment. However, under potential accident conditions, the performance of the ventilation systems and integrity of the structure may be challenged. In order to calculate the radiological consequences associated with a potential accident (e.g. fires, explosion, spills, etc.), it is necessary to determine the fraction of the source term initially generated by the accident that escapes from the confinement structure to the environment. While it would be desirable to estimate the potential bypass fraction using sophisticated control-volume/flow path computer codes (e.g. CONTAIN, MELCOR, etc.) in order to take as much credit as possible for the mitigative effects of the confinement structure, there are many instances where using such codes is not tractable due to limits on the level-of-effort allotted to perform the analysis. Moreover, the current review environment, with its emphasis on deterministic/bounding-versus probabilistic/best-estimate-analysis discourages using analytical techniques that require the consideration of a large number of parameters. Discussed herein is a simplified control-volume/flow path approach for calculating source term bypass fraction that is amenable to solution in a spreadsheet or with a commercial mathematical solver (e.g. MathCad or Mathematica). It considers the effects of wind and fire pressure gradients on the structure, ventilation system operation, and Halon discharges. Simple models are used to characterize the engineered and non-engineered flow paths. By making judicious choices for the limited set of problem parameters, the results from this approach can be defended as bounding and conservative.

Kalinich, D.A.; Paddleford, D.F.

1997-07-01

78

A collimated proton detector has been developed for spatial resolved proton measurements in inertial-electrostatic plasma confinement (IEC) fusion experiments. These are the first proton measurements used to infer potential well profiles on an IEC device. This paper describes a new technique for investigating the existence of multiple potential wells inside IEC devices. Analysis of the observed proton energy and source profile indicates that (for a 12-mA cathode current, a 30-kV cathode voltage in a 4-mTorr D{sub 2} background) predominantly beam-background fusion occurs. Computer simulation suggests that a positive space charge potential approximately half that of the applied voltage is formed inside the cathode. These results establish the first measurement of a positive potential well structure inside an ion-injected IEC device.

Nadler, J.H. (U.S. Department of Energy, Field Office, Idaho, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83401 (United States)); Gu, Y.B.; Miley, G.H. (Fusion Studies Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States))

1992-10-01

79

Molecular dynamic simulations were employed to study a water-like model confined between hydrophobic and hydrophilic plates. The phase behavior of this system is obtained for different distances between the plates and particle-plate potentials. For both hydrophobic and hydrophilic walls there are the formation of layers. Crystallization occurs at lower temperature at the contact layer than at the middle layer. In addition, the melting temperature decreases as the plates become more hydrophobic. Similarly, the temperatures of maximum density and extremum diffusivity decrease with hydrophobicity.

Leandro B. Krott; Marcia C. Barbosa

2013-09-24

80

For extremely confined fluids with two-dimensional density $n$ in slit geometry of accessible width $L$, we prove that in the limit $L\\to 0$ the lateral and transversal degrees of freedom decouple, and the latter become ideal-gas-like. For small wall separation the transverse degrees of freedom can be integrated out and renormalize the interaction potential. We identify $n L^2 $ as hidden smallness parameter of the confinement problem and evaluate the effective two-body potential analytically, which allows calculating the leading correction to the free energy exactly. Explicitly, we map a fluid of hard spheres in extreme confinement onto a 2d-fluid of disks with an effective hard-core diameter and a soft boundary layer. Two-dimensional phase transitions are robust and the transition point experiences a shift ${\\cal O}(n L^2)$.

Thomas Franosch; Simon Lang; Rolf Schilling

2012-11-08

81

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Shapes, lines, and more! Here are some fun games to practice geometry and not get bored! Here\\'s a review to help you through the fun... Identify Geometric Shapes and then you will be on your way! After you have reviewed...show me all you know with this Shape Quiz and then all the fun begins!!! Is it a polygon or not? You tell me. Drag them into the bins and we will see! ...

Walker, Ms.

2008-03-31

82

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We are going to review and sharpen our geometry skills with these fun activities and websites! This game is similar to memory. Practice making making matches with this fun memory game. Match the shape to its definition! Think back to what we have learned and practice identifying geometric shapes and lines by the clues given. This game is timed! Re-arrange the colored pieces given to fit them into the square in ...

Jackson, Ms.

2008-03-24

83

Spectral geometry of power-law potentials in quantum mechanics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is supposed that a single particle moves in openR3 in an attractive central power-law potential V(q)(r)=sgn(q)rq, q>-2, and obeys nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. This paper is concerned with the question: How do the discrete eigenvalues Enl(q) of the Hamiltonian H=-?+V(q) depend on the power parameter q\\? Pure power-law potentials have the elementary property that, for ppotentials'' to construct a global geometrical theory for the spectrum of H and also for more general operators of the form H'=-?+, A(q)?openR. This geometrical approach greatly simplifies the description of the spectra and also facilitates the construction of some general eigenvalue bounds and approximation formulas.

Hall, Richard L.

1989-06-01

84

Microtubules or microtubule bundles in cells often grow longer than the size of the cell, which causes their shape and organization to adapt to constraints imposed by the cell geometry. We test the reciprocal role of elasticity and confinement in the organization of growing microtubules in a confining box-like geometry, in the absence of other (active) microtubule organizing processes. This is inspired, for example, by the cortical microtubule array of elongating plant cells, where microtubules are typically organized in an aligned array transverse to the cell elongation axis. The method we adopt is a combination of analytical calculations, in which the polymers are modeled as inextensible filaments with bending elasticity confined to a two-dimensional surface that defines the limits of a three-dimensional space, and in vitro experiments, in which microtubules are polymerized from nucleation seeds in microfabricated chambers. We show that these features are sufficient to organize the polymers in aligned, coiling configurations as for example observed in plant cells. Though elasticity can account for the regularity of these arrays, it cannot account for a transverse orientation of microtubules to the cell's long axis. We therefore conclude that an additional active, force-generating process is necessary to create a coiling configuration perpendicular to the long axis of the cell. PMID:17098802

Lagomarsino, Marco Cosentino; Tanase, Catalin; Vos, Jan W.; Emons, Anne Mie C.; Mulder, Bela M.; Dogterom, Marileen

2007-01-01

85

Monte Carlo study of one-dimensional confined fluids with Gay-Berne intermolecular potential

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermodynamic quantities of a one dimensional system of particles with Gay-Berne model potential confined between walls have been obtained by means of Monte Carlo computer simulations. For a number of temperatures, the systems were considered and their density profiles, order parameter, pressure, configurational temperature and average potential energy per particle are reported. The results show that by decreasing the temperature, the soft particles become more ordered and they align to the walls and also they don't show any tendency to be near the walls at very low temperatures. We have also changed the structure of the walls by embedding soft ellipses in them, this change increases the total density near the wall whereas, increasing or decreasing the order parameter depend on the angle of embedded ellipses.

Moradi, M.; Hashemi, S.

2011-11-01

86

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy spectra of spherically confined hydrogen atom embedded in an exponential-cosine-screened Coulomb potential is worked out by using the Bernstein-polynomial method. The interaction of short laser pulses in the femtosecond range with the system is studied in detail. The effect of shape of laser pulse, confinement radius, Debye screening length as well as different laser parameters on the dynamics of the system has been explored and analyzed.

Lumb, Shalini; Lumb, Sonia; Prasad, Vinod

2014-09-01

87

Optical properties in a two-dimensional quantum ring: Confinement potential and Aharonov-Bohm effect

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical properties of a two-dimensional quantum ring with pseudopotential in the presence of an external magnetic field and magnetic flux have been theoretically investigated. Our results show that both of the pseudopotential and magnetic field can affect the third non-linear susceptibility and oscillator strength. In addition, we found that the oscillator strength and the absolute value of the resonant peak of the linear, non-linear and total absorption coefficient demonstrates the Aharonov-Bohm oscillation with magnetic flux, moreover, changes in confinement potential can influence the Aharonov-Bohm oscillation in peak while the resonant peak value of the linear, non-linear and total refractive index changes decreases as magnetic flux increases.

Liang, Shijun; Xie, Wenfang; Shen, Huaya

2011-12-01

88

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adequately identifying and managing hazards at the workplace can be a tedious task which extends into the realm of uncertainty, probability and prediction models in order to fully comprehend the nature of the hazard. As such, organizations cannot be blamed for knowledge gaps in the training of personnel they contract to ensure a safe and healthy work environment, especially where there are latent hazards. Electromagnetic wave propagation at frequencies in the SAR (specific absorption rate) region is a special concern to authorities involved in setting RF (radiofrequency) and microwave exposure guidelines. Despite that there is no conclusive evidence to suggest that non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation causes adverse health effects other than thermal, no effort should be lost to ensure that workers and the public at large are adequately protected from unnecessary exposure to radiation. Standards however set exposure limits for free space, plane wave propagation but fall short in compiling information on intensities of these waves after they undergo reflection and diffraction from wall surfaces. Waveguide technology has managed to constrain microwaves to remain within set boundaries, with fixed frequencies that force the waves to behave differently to if they were moving in free space. This technology has offered the ability to transport more energy for communication purposes other than transmission lines. The size of a waveguide may be to the order of a few centimetres and can guide RF of wavelengths of the order of centimetres also but what if spaces of larger dimensions are capable of being waveguides and can guide waves of larger wavelengths such as those that correspond to frequencies between 30MHz to 300MHz? Such RF waves belong to the SAR region of the spectrum where strict exposure limits are set for health and safety protection since a standing man acts as a dipole antenna for this radiation and can absorb maximum energy from propagating RF waves. This review visits the likelihood for potential energy build-up due to RF propagation in confined spaces that are of waveguide design but with larger dimensions. Such confined spaces include silos, tanks, pipes, manholes, air-condition ducts, tunnels, wells, engine rooms and operator rooms on board vessels. In these confined spaces waves reflect off of the walls and combine constructively or destructively with incident waves producing reinforcement or cancellation respectively. Where there is reinforcement, the intensity of the wave for a particular distance in accordance with the standard, may exceed the exposure limit for this distance from the source thereby exposing the worker to larger intensities than the accepted limit and presenting a potential health and safety threat.

Rodriguez, Ricardo; Lewis, Winston G.

2014-07-01

89

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Documented is an aeronautical geometry conversion package which translates wave-drag geometry into the Langley Wireframe Geometry Standard (LaWGS) format and then into a format which is used by the Supersonic Implicit Marching Potential (SIMP) program. The programs described were developed by Computer Sciences Corporation for the Advanced Vehicles Division/Advanced Concepts Branch at NASA Langley Research Center. Included also are the input and output from a benchmark test case.

Wiese, Michael R.

1987-01-01

90

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The best way to estimate ionization potentials (I) for confined atoms is by using the same Hamiltonian for the neutral and the corresponding hypothetical ionized atom. For this purpose, we have implemented the electron propagator to second order (EP2) by using parallel programming techniques on graphic processing units (GPUs). These programming techniques exploit the GPUs for the evaluation of two-electron integrals, which is required for a self- consistent process and because of the reduction involved in the four-index integral transformation. As an example, we present results for confined helium, beryllium and neon atoms, and these are contrasted with previously reported results. Although Koopmans’ theorem (KT) provides good estimates for ionization potentials, it is evident that EP2 corrects these estimates. Unfortunately, the correction made by EP2 does not reveal a trend for confined atoms because in the case of certain confinement regions KT overestimates, whereas for other regions, KT underestimates the ionization potential. The orbital crossing between unoccupied orbitals is responsible for this behavior. In particular, if the lowest unoccupied atomic orbital (LUMO) crosses a virtual orbital, the difference {{I}_{EP2}}-{{I}_{KT}} will change its sign. Thus, EP2 approximation is required when the ionization potential is estimated for confined atoms.

García-Hernández, Erwin; Díaz-García, Cecilia; Vargas, Rubicelia; Garza, Jorge

2014-09-01

91

The potential impact of flooding on confined animal feeding operations in eastern North Carolina.

Thousands of confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have been constructed in eastern North Carolina. The fecal waste pit and spray field waste management systems used by these operations are susceptible to flooding in this low-lying region. To investigate the potential that flood events can lead to environmental dispersion of animal wastes containing numerous biologic and chemical hazards, we compared the geographic coordinates of 2,287 CAFOs permitted by the North Carolina Division of Water Quality (DWQ) with estimates of flooding derived from digital satellite images of eastern North Carolina taken approximately 1 week after Hurricane Floyd dropped as much as 15-20 inches of rain in September 1999. Three cattle, one poultry, and 237 swine operations had geographic coordinates within the satellite-based flooded area. DWQ confirmed 46 operations with breached or flooded fecal waste pits in the same area. Only 20 of these 46 CAFOs were within the satellite-based estimate of the inundated area. CAFOs within the satellite-based flood area were located in 132 census block groups with a population of 171,498 persons in the 2000 census. African Americans were more likely than whites to live in areas with flooded CAFOs according to satellite estimates, but not according to DWQ reports. These areas have high poverty rates and dependence on wells for drinking water. Our analysis suggests that flood events have a significant potential to degrade environmental health because of dispersion of wastes from industrial animal operations in areas with vulnerable populations. PMID:11940456

Wing, Steve; Freedman, Stephanie; Band, Lawrence

2002-01-01

92

The potential impact of flooding on confined animal feeding operations in eastern North Carolina.

Thousands of confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have been constructed in eastern North Carolina. The fecal waste pit and spray field waste management systems used by these operations are susceptible to flooding in this low-lying region. To investigate the potential that flood events can lead to environmental dispersion of animal wastes containing numerous biologic and chemical hazards, we compared the geographic coordinates of 2,287 CAFOs permitted by the North Carolina Division of Water Quality (DWQ) with estimates of flooding derived from digital satellite images of eastern North Carolina taken approximately 1 week after Hurricane Floyd dropped as much as 15-20 inches of rain in September 1999. Three cattle, one poultry, and 237 swine operations had geographic coordinates within the satellite-based flooded area. DWQ confirmed 46 operations with breached or flooded fecal waste pits in the same area. Only 20 of these 46 CAFOs were within the satellite-based estimate of the inundated area. CAFOs within the satellite-based flood area were located in 132 census block groups with a population of 171,498 persons in the 2000 census. African Americans were more likely than whites to live in areas with flooded CAFOs according to satellite estimates, but not according to DWQ reports. These areas have high poverty rates and dependence on wells for drinking water. Our analysis suggests that flood events have a significant potential to degrade environmental health because of dispersion of wastes from industrial animal operations in areas with vulnerable populations. PMID:11940456

Wing, Steve; Freedman, Stephanie; Band, Lawrence

2002-04-01

93

We present a stochastic, swarm intelligence-based optimization algorithm for the prediction of global minima on potential energy surfaces of molecular cluster structures. Our optimization approach is a modification of the artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm which is inspired by the foraging behavior of honey bees. We apply our modified ABC algorithm to the problem of global geometry optimization of molecular cluster structures and show its performance for clusters with 2-57 particles and different interatomic interaction potentials. PMID:23181297

Wehmeyer, Christoph; Falk von Rudorff, Guido; Wolf, Sebastian; Kabbe, Gabriel; Schärf, Daniel; Kühne, Thomas D; Sebastiani, Daniel

2012-11-21

94

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a stochastic, swarm intelligence-based optimization algorithm for the prediction of global minima on potential energy surfaces of molecular cluster structures. Our optimization approach is a modification of the artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm which is inspired by the foraging behavior of honey bees. We apply our modified ABC algorithm to the problem of global geometry optimization of molecular cluster structures and show its performance for clusters with 2-57 particles and different interatomic interaction potentials.

Wehmeyer, Christoph; Falk von Rudorff, Guido; Wolf, Sebastian; Kabbe, Gabriel; Schärf, Daniel; Kühne, Thomas D.; Sebastiani, Daniel

2012-11-01

95

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a molecule is placed as a guest inside a zeolite pore, its electronic structure will be altered, among others by the effect of the so-called ``confinement". It has been established that the compression of the molecular orbitals influences a system's reactivity. In this work we use a simple potential barrier method to quantify the importance of confinement effects on chemical reactivity. In the first part, excitation energies and molecular orbital energy gaps are evaluated for molecules placed in cavities of different sizes. Our results for ethylene and formaldehyde reveal an increase in excitation energy and the gap between the occupied and the unoccupied levels. In the case of the larger molecules naphthalene and anthracene, the HOMO-LUMO gap shows very little sensitivity to the confinement. To investigate the role of confinement effects on local aspects of chemical reactivity and on regioselectivity, we evaluated its effect on the Fukui function and the molecular electrostatic potential, reactivity indices that are central in the description of orbital and charge controlled reactions. The results indicate that confinement can influence the regioselectivity and that the reactivity of anions is expected to change, due to the artificial binding of the exess electron.

Borgoo, Alex; Tozer, David; Geerlings, Paul; de Proft, Frank

2009-03-01

96

Short and long time behavior of the Fokker-Planck equation in a confining potential and applications

Short and long time behavior of the Fokker-Planck equation in a confining potential Introduction and results In this article, we consider the linear Fokker-Planck equation in R2d x,v for d 3 the following result about the (short and) long time behavior of the solution of the Fokker- Planck equation: 2

HÃ©rau, FrÃ©dÃ©ric

97

The formation and behavior of double potential wells in an IEC fusion device was investigated using IXL--a one-dimensional code that solves the Poisson-Vlasov equations for a collisionless spherical plasma. IXL results represent an important limiting case where space charge effects dominate. The formation of a deep and stable double well is essential for good ion confinement, hence successful development of the IEC device as a future power source. The dependence of the double well depth and width on the plasma parameters was studied. The changes of the ion and electron densities and the fusion rate in the presence of the double well were investigated. The fusion core radius and its variation with plasma parameters were evaluated. The most favorable conditions for 80%--100% deep second well formation were shown to be high perpendicular ion energy spread, low perpendicular electron energy spread, low radial ion energy spread, and high ion and electron currents. The observed double well structures and ion densities follow the ideal model developed by Hirsch, despite the introduced high angular momentum. The ion core radius varies in the range 0.2 cm--1.3 cm. This confirms that the IEC dense plasma core can be maintained at high perpendicular ion energies.

Tzonev, I.V.; Miley, G.H. [NEL, Urbana, IL (United States). Fusion Studies Lab.; Nebel, R.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1995-12-31

98

We consider a classical system of two-dimensional (2D) charged particles, interacting through a repulsive Yukawa potential exp(-r\\/lambda)\\/r, and confined in a parabolic channel that limits the motion of the particles in the y direction. Along the x direction, the particles are subject to a periodic potential. The ground-state configurations and the normal-mode spectra of the system are obtained as a

J. C. N. Carvalho; W. P. Ferreira; G. A. Farias; F. M. Peeters

2011-01-01

99

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the arising of bound states solutions to the Schrödinger equation due to the presence of a Coulomb-type potential induced by the interaction between a moving particle possessing an electric quadrupole moment and an electric field. Besides, we study the influence of the Coulomb-type potential on the harmonic oscillator by showing a quantum effect characterized by the dependence of the angular frequency on the quantum numbers of the system. Finally, we consider the quantum particle subject to harmonic and linear confining potentials and investigate the influence of the analogue of the Coulomb potential.

Bakke, K.

2014-08-01

100

Numerical simulation of a laterally confined double dot with tunable interaction potential

Recent technological advances have allowed for the construction of small (on the order of 100-1000 nm) systems of confined electrons called quantum dots. Often kept within semiconductor heterostructures, these systems are ...

Finck, Aaron David Kiyoshi

2005-01-01

101

pH dependence of copper geometry, reduction potential, and nitrite affinity in nitrite reductase.

Many properties of copper-containing nitrite reductase are pH-dependent, such as gene expression, enzyme activity, and substrate affinity. Here we use x-ray diffraction to investigate the structural basis for the pH dependence of activity and nitrite affinity by examining the type 2 copper site and its immediate surroundings in nitrite reductase from Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.3. At active pH the geometry of the substrate-free oxidized type 2 copper site shows a near perfect tetrahedral geometry as defined by the positions of its ligands. At higher pH values the most favorable copper site geometry is altered toward a more distorted tetrahedral geometry whereby the solvent ligand adopts a position opposite to that of the His-131 ligand. This pH-dependent variation in type 2 copper site geometry is discussed in light of recent computational results. When co-crystallized with substrate, nitrite is seen to bind in a bidentate fashion with its two oxygen atoms ligating the type 2 copper, overlapping with the positions occupied by the solvent ligand in the high and low pH structures. Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy is used to assign the pH dependence of the binding of nitrite to the active site, and EPR spectroscopy is used to characterize the pH dependence of the reduction potential of the type 2 copper site. Taken together, these spectroscopic and structural observations help to explain the pH dependence of nitrite reductase, highlighting the subtle relationship between copper site geometry, nitrite affinity, and enzyme activity. PMID:17148448

Jacobson, Frida; Pistorius, Arthur; Farkas, Daniel; De Grip, Willem; Hansson, Orjan; Sjölin, Lennart; Neutze, Richard

2007-03-01

102

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The worldwide known Annot Sandstone Formation has been considered as a reference of confined siliciclastic turbidite system. This formation crops out in SE France and represents the Upper Eocene to Lower Oligocene gravitary infill of complex foreland basins, developed in front of the Alpine thrusts. This system can be assimilated as a sand-rich turbidite ramp, sourced by multiple fan deltas leading to topographically complex sub-basins. Highly bypassing channelized systems dominate in the most proximal and most confined areas. They distally evolve to relatively less confined areas, in which sedimentary bodies appear to be more continuous and homogenous on a regional scale. These last architectural elements, defined as sheet-sands or depositional lobes, have been the focus of this study in poorly documented areas. From an important dataset made of very high resolution outcrop correlations (gathered mainly in the Trois Evêchés and Lauzanier sub-basins), we have quantified the complex distribution of sedimentary facies and structures, grain-size and key surfaces in sand-rich sheets. This was done to understand their variability from depositional event to architectural element scales and to better characterize dimensions and characteristics of their components. Six main types of architectural elements were defined, composed of both channelized and unchannelized elements. Channelized units show a high variability in terms of facies, geometry and patterns of infill that are related to multiple erosional and depositional processes, which will be discussed. We notably relate some evidences of sinuous channels, represented by lateral accretion deposits in the channel complex axis and by low angle cross-bedded facies. We interpret this particular facies as the result of flow deconfinement and overbanks above channel margins. The stratigraphic analysis of elementary objects allows us to propose a genetic model and a spatial distribution model of sheet-sand architectural elements. The latter provides their longitudinal repartition, from proximal vertically stacked internal channels to distal compensating sheets. Those features have not been accurately described in relatively distal sand-rich turbidite deposits so far and this high internal variability necessarily implies heterogeneities both in terms of petrophysical characteristics and reservoir connection. Besides, it also implies reconsidering sedimentary processes involved in these environments. Key Words: Annot Sandstones, Confined Systems, Reservoir Heterogeneities, Turbidite Sheet-sands.

Etienne, S.; Mulder, T.; Pace, A.; Bez, M.; Desaubliaux, G.

2012-04-01

103

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the excitation kinetics of a repulsive impurity doped quantum dot as the dopant is propagating. The study assumes importance because of its intimate connection with impurity drift in nanodevices. The problem has been made more realistic by considering the dopant propagation to be damped. For simplicity, we have considered an inherently linear motion of the dopant with a Gaussian potential. The damping strength and the dot confinement sources of electric and magnetic origin have been found to fabricate the said kinetics in a delicate way. The present study sheds light on how the individual or combined variation of different confinement sources could design the excitation kinetics in presence of damping. However, in the overdamped region, we find attainment of stabilization in the excitation rate. The present investigation is believed to provide some useful perceptions in the phenomenon of damping that has potential importance in nanoelectronic applications.

Pal, Suvajit; Ghosh, Manas

2013-09-01

104

The electrostatic potential well in an inertial-electrostatic confinement (IEC) is calculated by performing the numerical simulations based on the particle-in-cell method. The single, double and triple wells, depending on the amount of the injected ion current, are observed to be formed for the ions with a mono-energetic distribution. The well in the center of the multi-well structure is unstable and

M. Ohnishi; Y. Yamamoto; K. Yoshikawa; K. Sato

1995-01-01

105

Background Extensive use of antibiotics as growth promoters in the livestock industry constitutes strong selection pressure for evolution and selection of antibiotic resistant bacterial strains. Unfortunately, the microbial ecology and spread of these bacteria in the agricultural, urban, and suburban environments are poorly understood. Insects such as house flies (Musca domestica) and German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) can move freely between animal waste and food and may play a significant role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistant bacteria within and between animal production farms and from farms to residential settings. Results Enterococci from the digestive tract of house flies (n = 162), and feces of German cockroaches (n = 83) and pigs (n = 119), collected from two commercial swine farms were isolated, quantified, identified, and screened for antibiotic resistance and virulence. The majority of samples (93.7%) were positive for enterococci with concentrations 4.2 ± 0.7 × 104 CFU/house fly, 5.5 ± 1.1 × 106 CFU/g of cockroach feces, and 3.2 ± 0.8 × 105 CFU/g of pig feces. Among all the identified isolates (n = 639) Enterococcus faecalis was the most common (55.5%), followed by E. hirae (24.9%), E. faecium (12.8%), and E. casseliflavus (6.7%). E. faecalis was most prevalent in house flies and cockroaches, and E. hirae was most common in pig feces. Our data showed that multi-drug (mainly tetracycline and erythromycin) resistant enterococci were common from all three sources and frequently carried antibiotic resistance genes including tet(M) and erm(B) and Tn916/1545 transposon family. E. faecalis frequently harbored virulence factors gelE, esp, and asa1. PFGE analysis of selected E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates demonstrated that cockroaches and house flies shared some of the same enterococcal clones that were detected in the swine manure indicating that insects acquired enterococci from swine manure. Conclusions This study shows that house flies and German cockroaches in the confined swine production environment likely serve as vectors and/or reservoirs of antibiotic resistant and potentially virulent enterococci and consequently may play an important role in animal and public health. PMID:21269466

2011-01-01

106

We have simulated an IECF (inertial electrostatic confinement fusion) device by developing and using a particle code. Because a virtual anode is built up at large current region, which decelerates ions and reduces neutron yield, suppression of this virtual anode by supply of electrons from an additional electrode inside the cathode has been tried in the simulations. The simulation results

K. Noborio; Y. Yamamoto; Y. Ueno; S. Konishi

2005-01-01

107

We track single toxin receptors on the apical cell membrane of MDCK cells with Eu-doped oxide nanoparticles coupled to two toxins of the pore-forming toxin family: ?-toxin of Clostridium septicum and ?-toxin of Clostridium perfringens. These nonblinking and photostable labels do not perturb the motion of the toxin receptors and yield long uninterrupted trajectories with mean localization precision of 30 nm for acquisition times of 51.3 ms. We were thus able to study the toxin-cell interaction at the single-molecule level. Toxins bind to receptors that are confined within zones of mean area 0.40 ± 0.05 ?m(2). Assuming that the receptors move according to the Langevin equation of motion and using Bayesian inference, we determined mean diffusion coefficients of 0.16 ± 0.01 ?m(2)/s for both toxin receptors. Moreover, application of this approach revealed a force field within the domain generated by a springlike confining potential. Both toxin receptors were found to experience forces characterized by a mean spring constant of 0.30 ± 0.03 pN/?m at 37°C. Furthermore, both toxin receptors showed similar distributions of diffusion coefficient, domain area, and spring constant. Control experiments before and after incubation with cholesterol oxidase and sphingomyelinase show that these two enzymes disrupt the confinement domains and lead to quasi-free motion of the toxin receptors. Our control data showing cholesterol and sphingomyelin dependence as well as independence of actin depolymerization and microtubule disruption lead us to attribute the confinement of both receptors to lipid rafts. These toxins require oligomerization to develop their toxic activity. The confined nature of the toxin receptors leads to a local enhancement of the toxin monomer concentration and may thus explain the virulence of this toxin family. PMID:22677383

Türkcan, Silvan; Masson, Jean-Baptiste; Casanova, Didier; Mialon, Geneviève; Gacoin, Thierry; Boilot, Jean-Pierre; Popoff, Michel R; Alexandrou, Antigoni

2012-05-16

108

Stability and control of a 1D quantum system with confining time dependent delta potentials

The evolution problem for a quantum particle confined in a 1D box and interacting with one fixed point through a time dependent point interaction is considered. Under suitable assumptions of regularity for the time profile of the Hamiltonian, we prove the existence of strict solutions to the corresponding Schr\\"odinger equation. The result is used to discuss the stability and the steady-state local controllability of the wavefunction when the strenght of the interaction is used as a control parameter.

Andrea Mantile

2010-06-16

109

In the past few years, we have presented a new way of considering quark confinement. Through a careful choice of a Cho-Duan-Ge Abelian Decomposition, we can construct the QCD Wilson Loop in terms of an Abelian restricted field. The relationship between the QCD and restricted string tensions is exact; and we do not need to gauge fix, apply any path ordering of gauge links, or additional path integrals. This hints at why mesons are colour neutral. Furthermore, the Abelian restricted field contains two parts: a Maxwell term, and a topological term. The topological term can describe magnetic monopoles and other topological objects, which can be studied both numerically and theoretically. By examining the topological part of the restricted field strength we have found evidence suggesting that these objects, which will contribute to confinement if present, are indeed there. Previous studies have used simplifications, breaking the exact relationship between the restricted and QCD string tensions, but it was found that the topological term dominated the restricted string tension. Here we remove those simplifications, and show that the Abelian restricted field does indeed fully explain confinement. However, our results for how much of the restricted string tension arises from the topological objects show strong dependence on the lattice spacing and level of smearing, so we are not yet able to draw a definitive conclusion.

Nigel Cundy; Yongmin Cho; Weonjong Lee

2014-11-04

110

Exploiting individual primary visual cortex geometry to boost steady state visual evoked potentials

Objective The steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) is an electroencephalographic response to flickering stimuli generated partly in primary visual area V1. The typical “cruciform” geometry and retinotopic organization of V1 is such that certain neighboring visual regions project to neighboring cortical regions of opposite orientation. Here, we explored ways to exploit this organization in order to boost scalp SSVEP amplitude via oscillatory summation. Approach We manipulated flicker-phase offsets among angular segments of a large annular stimulus in three ways, and compared the resultant SSVEP power to a conventional condition with no temporal phase offsets. 1) we divided the annulus into standard octants for all subjects, and flickered upper horizontal octants with opposite temporal phase to the lower horizontal ones, and left vertical octants opposite to the right vertical ones; 2) we individually adjusted the boundaries between the 8 contiguous segments of the standard octants condition to coincide with cruciform-consistent, early-latency topographical shifts in pattern-pulse multifocal visual-evoked potentials (PPMVEP) derived for each of 32 equal-sized segments; 3) we assigned phase offsets to stimulus segments following an automatic algorithm based on the relative amplitudes of vertically- and horizontally-oriented PPMVEP components. Main results The three flicker-phase manipulations resulted in a significant enhancement of normalized SSVEP power of 1) 202%, 2) 383%, and 3) 300%, respectively. Significance We have thus demonstrated a means to obtain more reliable measures of visual evoked activity purely through consideration of cortical geometry. This principle stands to impact both basic and clinical research using SSVEPs. PMID:23548662

Vanegas, M Isabel; Blangero, Annabelle; Kelly, Simon P

2013-01-01

111

We investigate the effect of an external magnetic field on the carrier states that are localized at a potential kink and a kink-antikink in bilayer graphene. These chiral states are localized at the interface between two potential regions with opposite signs. PACS numbers: 71.10.Pm, 73.21.-b, 81.05.Uw PMID:21756331

2011-01-01

112

Diffuse versus square-well confining potentials in modelling A@C60 atoms

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A perceived advantage for the replacement of a discontinuous square-well pseudo-potential, which is often used by various researchers as an approximation to the actual C60 cage potential in calculations of endohedral atoms A@C60, by a more realistic diffuse potential is explored. The photoionization of endohedral H@C60 and Xe@C60 is chosen as the case study. The diffuse potential is modelled by a combination of two Woods-Saxon potentials. It is demonstrated that photoionization spectra of A@C60 atoms are largely insensitive to the degree ? of diffuseness of the potential borders, in a reasonably broad range of ?s. These spectra are found to be insensitive to discontinuity of the square-well potential as well. Both potentials result in practically identical calculated spectra. New numerical values for the set of square-well parameters, which lead to a better agreement between experimental and theoretical data for A@C60 spectra, are recommended for future studies.

Dolmatov, V. K.; King, J. L.; Oglesby, J. C.

2012-05-01

113

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a classical system of two-dimensional (2D) charged particles, interacting through a repulsive Yukawa potential exp(-r/?)/r, and confined in a parabolic channel that limits the motion of the particles in the y direction. Along the x direction, the particles are subject to a periodic potential. The ground-state configurations and the normal-mode spectra of the system are obtained as a function of the periodicity and strength of the periodic potential (V0) and density. An interesting set of tunable ground-state configurations are found, with first- or second-order structural transitions between them. A configuration with particles aligned, perpendicular to the x direction, in each minimum of the periodic potential is obtained for V0 larger than some critical value that has a power-law dependence on the density. The phonon spectrum of different configurations was also calculated. A localization of the modes into a small frequency interval is observed for sufficiently large strength of the periodic potential, and a tunable gap in the phonon spectrum is found as a function of V0.

Carvalho, J. C. N.; Ferreira, W. P.; Farias, G. A.; Peeters, F. M.

2011-03-01

114

We consider a classical system of two-dimensional (2D) charged particles, which interact through a repulsive Yukawa potential $exp(-r/\\lambda)/r$, confined in a parabolic channel which limits the motion of the particles in the $y$-direction. Along the $x$-direction, the particles are also subject to a periodic potential substrate. The ground state configurations and the normal mode spectra of the system are obtained as function of the periodicity and strength of the periodic potential ($V_0$), and density. An interesting set of tunable ground state configurations are found, with first and second order structural transitions between them. A magic configuration with particles aligned in each minimum of the periodic potential is obtained for V_0 larger than some critical value which has a power law dependence on the density. The phonon spectrum of different configurations were also calculated. A localization of the modes into a small frequency interval is observed for a sufficient strength of the periodic potential. A tunable band-gap is found as a function of $V_0$. This model system can be viewed as a generalization of the Frenkel and Kontorova model.

J. C. N. Carvalho; W. P. Ferreira; G. A. Farias; F. M. Peeters

2010-06-10

115

The extended-nanospace, a space on the scale of 10(1)-10(3) nm, is mostly unexplored due to the lack of sufficient experimental technology. Recently, the research of liquid properties in the extended-nanospace has gathered much interest, because the behavior of water molecules in this space is between that of liquid-like bulk phase water molecules and single molecules. Due to the large surface-to-volume ratio in the channel, the surface charge of the wall directly affects the water structure and ion distribution. The streaming potential/current measurement method, which is used to evaluate surface states directly, is an important and useful method to investigate the liquid properties. In this paper, we report a new method for measuring the streaming potential/current in size-controlled 2D extended-nanospace on glass substrate. Nano-in-microfluidic systems were fabricated on fused-silica glass substrates, and the liquid was air-driven using a pressure controller. An equivalent circuit of the detection system was designed to selectively detect the potential and current in the extended-nanospace. The basic measurement principle was verified using several different experiments. The absolute values obtained for the potential and current were also compared with the theoretical values for various channel sizes (360-1650 nm), and good agreement was observed for micrometre-scale channels. This technique will be valuable for the investigation of chemistry and fluidics in the extended-nanospace. PMID:20379568

Morikawa, Kyojiro; Mawatari, Kazuma; Kato, Masaru; Tsukahara, Takehiko; Kitamori, Takehiko

2010-04-01

116

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three naturally inspired meta-heuristic algorithms—the genetic algorithm (GA), simulated annealing (SA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO)—were used to invert some of the self-potential (SP) anomalies originated by some polarized bodies with simple geometries. Both synthetic and field data sets were considered. The tests with the synthetic data comprised of the solutions with both noise-free and noisy data; in the tests with the field data some SP anomalies observed over a copper belt (India), graphite deposits (Germany) and metallic sulfide (Turkey) were inverted. The model parameters included the electric dipole moment, polarization angle, depth, shape factor and origin of the anomaly. The estimated parameters were compared with those from previous studies using various optimization algorithms, mainly least-squares approaches, on the same data sets. During the test studies the solutions by GA, PSO and SA were characterized as being consistent with each other; a good starting model was not a requirement to reach the global minimum. It can be concluded that the global optimization algorithms considered in this study were able to yield compatible solutions with those from widely used local optimization algorithms.

Göktürkler, G.; Balkaya, Ç.

2012-10-01

117

Persistent currents in a two-component Bose–Einstein condensate confined in a ring potential

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present variational and numerical solutions for the problem of stability of persistent currents in a two-component Bose–Einstein condensate of distinguishable atoms which rotate in a ring potential. We consider the general class of solutions of constant density in the two components separately, thus providing an alternative approach to the solution of the same problem given recently by Wu and Zaremba (2013 Phys. Rev. A 88 063640). Our approach provides a physically transparent solution for this delicate problem. Finally, we give a unified and simple picture of the lowest energy state of the system for large values of the coupling.

Smyrnakis, J.; Magiropoulos, M.; Efremidis, Nikolaos K.; Kavoulakis, G. M.

2014-11-01

118

A field survey was conducted following the Deepwater Horizon blowout and it was noted that resulting coastal petroleum deposits possessed distinct geometries, ranging from small tar balls to expansive horizontal oil sheets. A subsequent laboratory study evaluated the effect of oil deposit geometry on localized gradients of electron acceptors and microbial community composition, factors that are critical to accurately estimating biodegradation rates. One-dimensional top-flow sand columns with 12-h simulated tidal cycles compared two contrasting geometries (isolated tar "balls" versus horizontal "sheets") relative to an oil-free control. Significant differences in the effluent dissolved oxygen and sulfate concentrations were noted among the columns, indicating presence of anaerobic zones in the oiled columns, particularly in the sheet condition. Furthermore, quantification of genetic markers of terminal electron acceptor and catabolic processes via quantitative polymerase chain reaction of dsrA (sulfate-reduction), mcrA (methanogenesis), and cat23 (oxygenation of aromatics) genes in column cores suggested more extensive anaerobic conditions induced by the sheet relative to the ball geometry. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis similarly revealed that distinct gradients of bacterial communities established in response to the different geometries. Thus, petroleum deposit geometry impacts local dominant electron acceptor conditions and may be a key factor for advancing attenuation models and prioritizing cleanup. PMID:22574781

Singh, Gargi; Pruden, Amy; Widdowson, Mark A

2012-06-01

119

The classical dynamics of ballistic non-interacting electrons confined to a narrow electrostatic potential well with corrugated barriers in uniform magnetic field was numerically studied. Trajectories in phase space were analyzed and longitudinal and transversal resistivities were calculated. Commensurability oscillations and negative magnetoresistance similar to those found in antidot lattice devices were observed.

Sotomayor, N. M.; Davila, L. Y. D.; Lima, B. C. [Universidade Federal do Tocantins, Campus de Araguaina, Araguaina TO (Brazil); Gusev, G. M. [Instituto de Física da Universidade de São Paulo, 135960-170, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2013-12-04

120

In three experiments, rats were trained to locate a submerged platform in one of the base corners of a triangular arena above each of which was suspended one of two distinctive landmarks. In Experiment 1, it was established that these landmarks differed in their salience by the differential control they gained over behavior after training in compound with geometric cues. In Experiment 2, it was shown that locating the platform beneath the less salient landmark potentiated learning based on geometry compared with control rats for which landmarks provided ambiguous information about the location of the platform. The presence of the more salient landmark above the platform for another group of animals appeared to have no effect on learning based on geometry. Experiment 3 established that these landmark and geometry cues entered into within-compound associations during compound training. We argue that these within-compound associations can account for the potentiation seen in Experiment 2, as well as previous failures to demonstrate overshadowing of geometric cues. We also suggest that these within-compound associations need not be of different magnitudes, despite the different effects of each of the landmarks on learning based on geometry seen in Experiment 2. Instead, within-compound associations appear to mitigate the overshadowing effects that traditional theories of associative learning would predict. PMID:23627798

Austen, Joe M; Kosaki, Yutaka; McGregor, Anthony

2013-07-01

121

The electrostatic potential well in an inertial-electrostatic confinement (IEC) is calculated by performing the numerical simulations based on the particle-in-cell method. The single, double and triple wells, depending on the amount of the injected ion current, are observed to be formed for the ions with a mono-energetic distribution. The well in the center of the multi-well structure is unstable and oscillates at the period much longer than the ion plasma frequency. A double well structure can be formed even for the ions with a spread energy distribution when the ion current is larger than the threshold value. The time-averaged neutron production in D-D fusion events is found to be proportional to the third power of the ion current where the double well structure is formed. The numerical simulation reveals that an IEC possesses the favorable dependence of fusion reactions on the injected ion current for the application to a neutron source or a fusion reactor.

Ohnishi, Masami; Yamamoto, Yasushi; Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi [Kyoto Univ., Uji, Kyoto (Japan). Inst. of Atomic Energy; Sato, Kunihiro [Himeji Inst. of Tech., Himeji, Hyogo (Japan)

1995-12-31

122

Quantum point contacts (QPCs) have shown promise as nanoscale spin-selective components for spintronic applications and are of fundamental interest in the study of electron many-body effects such as the 0.7 × 2e(2)/h anomaly. We report on the dependence of the 1D Landé g-factor g and 0.7 anomaly on electron density and confinement in QPCs with two different top-gate architectures. We obtain g values up to 2.8 for the lowest 1D subband, significantly exceeding previous in-plane g-factor values in AlGaAs/GaAs QPCs and approaching that in InGaAs/InP QPCs. We show that g is highly sensitive to confinement potential, particularly for the lowest 1D subband. This suggests careful management of the QPC's confinement potential may enable the high g desirable for spintronic applications without resorting to narrow-gap materials such as InAs or InSb. The 0.7 anomaly and zero-bias peak are also highly sensitive to confining potential, explaining the conflicting density dependencies of the 0.7 anomaly in the literature. PMID:22830617

Burke, A M; Klochan, O; Farrer, I; Ritchie, D A; Hamilton, A R; Micolich, A P

2012-09-12

123

Models using cable equations are increas- ingly employed in neurophysiological analyses, but the amount of computer time and memory required for their implementation are prohibitively large for many purposes and many laboratories. A mathematical procedure for determining the transient voltage re- sponse to injected current or synaptic input in a passive dendritic tree of known geometry is presented that is

W. R. Holmes

1986-01-01

124

Although it has been known throughout this century that a complex sequence of electrical events is produced on the body surface by the electrophysiological properties of the heart, the question of how well these body surface events can be explained mathematically on the basis of experimental measurements of cardiac geometry and electrical activity remains unanswered. Recent advances in experimental capabilities

Roger C. Barr; Maynard Ramsey; Madison S. Spach

1977-01-01

125

Turbulence in Magnetically Confined Plasmas

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental characterization of plasma fluctuations has lead to significant insights into the dynamics of turbulent transport processes in magnetically confined fusion plasmas. Fluctuations on the scale of the ion gyroradius result in cross-field transport of particles, energy and momentum at rates that significantly exceed collisional (neoclassical) transport. The energy confinement time and, ultimately, fusion power are thus strongly dependent on this turbulent-driven transport. Turbulent eddy structures are found to be highly anisotropic (k||k), with the magnetic field defining a symmetry direction: parallel wavelengths scale with machine size, while perpendicular wavelengths scale with gyroradius. Measurement techniques using optical, microwave, beam, and laser-based methods have been developed to remotely probe relevant fluctuations in density, temperature, potential and velocity, including density imaging. Measured fluctuation characteristics are generally consistent with gyrokinetic simulations of drift wave turbulence: correlation lengths scale with ion gyroradius (?I); amplitudes scale with &*circ;(=?I/a); decorrelation rates scale with the acoustic timescale, ?c˜a/cs; and wavenumber spectra peak near k??I˜0.25 and kr?I˜0. Measurements of potential fluctuations and poloidal turbulence flows show evidence for n=0, m=0 zonal flows, including the coherent geodesic acoustic mode. These nonlinearly driven flows saturate turbulence via flow shearing. Such flows appear crucial to L-H confinement transitions and core barrier formation. Dependencies of turbulence on critical transport parameters will be reviewed in tokamak, stellarator and spherical torus geometries. Understanding these dependencies, as well as challenging and validating simulations, will be crucial to confidently predicting transport and confinement in burning plasmas.

McKee, G. R.

2012-10-01

126

The invention provides a method and apparatus for raising the potential of a magnetic mirror cell by pumping charged particles of the opposite sign of the potential desired out of the mirror cell through excitation, with the pumping being done by an externally imposed field at the bounce frequency of the above charged particles. These pumped simple mirror cells then provide end stoppering for a center mirror cell for the tandem mirror plasma confinement apparatus. For the substantially complete pumping case, the end plugs of a tandem mirror can be up to two orders of magnitude lower in density for confining a given center mirror cell plasma than in the case of end plugs without pumping. As a result the decrease in recirculating power required to keep the system going, the technological state of the art required, and the capital cost are all greatly lowered.

Baldwin, David E. (Danville, CA); Logan, B. Grant (Danville, CA)

1981-01-01

127

Minimizing manganin/system noise for potential use in small geometry experiments

Manganin gauges are piezo resistive devices often used for pressure measurements on larger, planer impact experiments. These gauges function in this capacity as a result of their ability to change resistance in a consistent fashion relative to the pressure exerted against them. Pressures to 400 kbar have been reliably recorded (H.C. Vantine et al.[1]). Because the mini-manganin is significantly physically smaller than other types, there has been interest in the ability to place these gauges on small geometry (detonator) type experiments. Of primary concern is that the detonator shock front has significant curvature associated with it--especially at small geometries--and that this curvature will cause unknown distortion (stretching) of the manganin gauge and therefore may indicate erroneous data. A problem encountered while configuring this experiment was noise as a result of the proximity and high current levels of the fireset to the manganin gauge. Initial results indicate noise on the order of 130 mV peak-to-peak (p-p) and running as long as the CVR signal from the ringdown charge voltage of 775 V. These noise problems significantly worsened while discharging the full charge voltage of 1500 V on the fireset through the chip slapper.

Phillips, D; May, C; Vandersall, K; Garcia, F

2008-10-02

128

Diffusion Geometry Diffusion Geometry

Diffusion Geometry Diffusion Geometry for High Dimensional Data Matthew J. Hirn July 3, 2013 #12;Diffusion Geometry Introduction Embedding of closed curve Figure: Left: A closed, non-self-intersecting curve in 3 dimensions. Right: Its embedding as a circle. #12;Diffusion Geometry Introduction Cartoon

Hirn, Matthew

129

Hydrodynamics of confined membranes.

We calculate the hydrodynamic interaction Lambdak (Oseen interaction kernel) and relaxation frequency omegak for the fluctuations of a membrane that is harmonically bounded to a permeable or impermeable wall. We show that due to the confining wall there is an increase in the effective viscosity of the fluid surrounding the membrane. This has been observed in experiments on confined membranes, such as lamellar phases and the red-blood cell membrane. Our results allow a quantitative analysis of these experiments, in terms of the strength of the membrane confining potential and dislocations. PMID:15324039

Gov, N; Zilman, A G; Safran, S

2004-07-01

130

Global geometry optimization of silicon clusters described by three empirical potentials

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The "basic-hopping" global optimization technique developed by Wales and Doye is employed to study the global minima of silicon clusters Sin(3?n?30) with three empirical potentials: the Stillinger-Weber (SW), the modified Stillinger-Weber (MSW), and the Gong potentials. For the small-sized SW and Gong clusters (3?n?15), it is found that the global minima obtained based on the basin-hopping method are identical to those reported by using the genetic algorithm [Iwamatsu, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 10976 (2000)], as well as with those by using molecular dynamics and the steepest-descent quench (SDQ) method [Feuston, Kalia, and Vashishta, Phys. Rev. B 37, 6297 (1988)]. However, for the mid-sized SW clusters (16?n?20), the global minima obtained differ from those based on the SDQ method, e.g., the appearance of the endohedral atom with fivefold coordination starting at n=17, as opposed to n=19. For larger SW clusters (20?n?30), it is found that the "bulklike" endohedral atom with tetrahedral coordination starts at n=20. In particular, the overall structural features of SW Si21, Si23, Si25, and Si28 are nearly identical to the MSW counterparts. With the SW Si21 as the starting structure, a geometric optimization at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of density-functional theory yields an isomer similar to the ground-state- isomer of Si21 reported by Pederson et al. [Phys. Rev. B 54, 2863 (1996)].

Yoo, S.; Zeng, X. C.

2003-07-01

131

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous improvements in shallow-focused, high-resolution, marine seismic-reflection technology has provided the opportunity to evaluate geologic structures that breach confining units of the Floridan aquifer system within the southeastern Florida Platform. The Floridan aquifer system is comprised mostly of Tertiary platform carbonates. In southeastern Florida, hydrogeologic confinement is important to sustainable use of the Floridan aquifer system, where the saline lower part is used for injection of wastewater and the brackish upper part is an alternative source of drinking water. Between 2007 and 2011, approximately 275 km of 24- and 48-channel seismic-reflection profiles were acquired in canals of peninsular southeastern Florida, Biscayne Bay, present-day Florida shelf margin, and the deeply submerged Miami Terrace. Vertical to steeply dipping offsets in seismic reflections indicate faults, which range from Eocene to possible early Pliocene age. Most faults are associated with karst collapse structures; however, a few tectonic faults of early Miocene to early Pliocene age are present. The faults may serve as a pathway for vertical groundwater flow across relatively low-permeability carbonate strata that separate zones of regionally extensive high-permeability in the Floridan aquifer system. The faults may collectively produce a regional confinement bypass system. In early 2011, twenty seismic-reflection profiles were acquired near the Key Biscayne submarine sinkhole located on the seafloor of the Miami Terrace. Here the water depth is about 365 m. A steeply dipping (eastward) zone of mostly deteriorated quality of seismic-reflection data underlies the sinkhole. Correlation of coherent seismic reflections within and adjacent to the disturbed zone indicates a series of faults occur within the zone. It is hypothesized that upward movement of groundwater within the zone contributed to development of a hypogenic karst system and the resultant overlying sinkhole. Study of this modern seafloor sinkhole may provide clues to the genesis of the more deeply buried Tertiary karst collapse structures. Three-dimensional geomodeling of the seismic-reflection data from the Key Biscayne sinkhole further aids visualization of the seismic stratigraphy and structural system that underlies the sinkhole.

Cunningham, K. J.; Walker, C.; Westcott, R. L.

2011-12-01

132

Colloidal glass transition observed in confinement

We study a colloidal suspension confined between two quasi-parallel walls as a model system for glass transitions in confined geometries. The suspension is a mixture of two particle sizes to prevent wall-induced crystallization. We use confocal microscopy to directly observe the motion of colloidal particles. This motion is slower in confinement, thus producing glassy behavior in a sample which is a liquid in an unconfined geometry. For higher volume fraction samples (closer to the glass transition), the onset of confinement effects occurs at larger length scales.

Carolyn R. Nugent; Kazem V. Edmond; Hetal N. Patel; Eric R. Weeks

2006-01-28

133

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among recent proposals for next-generation, non-charge-based logic is the notion that a single electron can be trapped and its spin can be manipulated through the application of gate voltages (Rev. Mod. Phys.79, 1217 (2007)). In this talk we present numerical simulations of Berry Phase of electron spins in single electron devices for realistic asymmetric confining potentials in support of experimental work at the University at Albany, State University of New York aimed at the practical development of post-CMOS concepts and devices. We solve the Schr"odinger equation including spin-orbit effects using a numerical finite-element based technique. We will discuss the calculation of Berry Phase for electrons (Phys. Rev. B 73, 125330 (2006)) in electrostatically defined quantum dots including the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions computed numerically from realistic asymmetric confining potentials. The new simulation results open the possibility of spin manipulation through the gate induced Berry phase. This work is supported through funding from the DARPA/NRI INDEX center.

Prabhakar, Sanjay; Raynolds, James

2009-03-01

134

Gaussian deformations in graphene ribbons: Flowers and confinement

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coupling of geometrical and electronic properties is a promising venue to engineer conduction properties in graphene. Confinement added to strain allows for interplay of different transport mechanisms with potential device applications. To investigate strain signatures on transport in confined geometries, we focus on graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with circularly symmetric deformations. In particular, we study GNRs with an inhomogeneous out-of-plane Gaussian deformation, connected to reservoirs. We observe an enhancement of the density of states in the deformed region, accompanied with a decrease in the conductance, signaling the presence of confined states. The local density of states exhibits a sixfold symmetric structure with an oscillating sublattice occupation asymmetry that persists for a wide range of energy and model parameters.

Carrillo-Bastos, R.; Faria, D.; Latgé, A.; Mireles, F.; Sandler, N.

2014-07-01

135

The Greater Confinement Disposal location is being evaluated to determine whether defense-generated transuranic waste buried at this location complies with the Containment Requirements established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. One step in determining compliance is to identify those combinations of events and processes (scenarios) that define possible future states of the disposal system for which performance assessments must be performed. An established scenario-development procedure was used to identify a comprehensive set of mutually exclusive scenarios. To assure completeness, 761 features, events, processes, and other listings (FEPS) were compiled from 11 references. This number was reduced to 205 primarily through the elimination of duplications. The 205 FEPs were screened based on site-specific, goal-specific, and regulatory criteria. Four events survived screening and were used in preliminary scenario development: (1) exploratory drilling penetrates a GCD borehole, (2) drilling of a withdrawal/injection well penetrates a GCD borehole, (3) subsidence occurs at the RWMS, and (4) irrigation occurs at the RWMS. A logic diagram was used to develop 16 scenarios from the four events. No screening of these scenarios was attempted at this time. Additional screening of the currently retained events and processes will be based on additional data and information from site-characterization activities. When screening of the events and processes is completed, a final set of scenarios will be developed and screened based on consequence and probability of occurrence.

Guzowski, R.V. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Newman, G. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-12-01

136

Currently there is intense interest in decreasing the operating potential for hydrogen evolution in water electrolysis to considerably decrease the energy cost. In this work we report a significant decrease of the operating potential for hydrogen evolution from neutral water mediated by an iron based soft coordination polymer (Fe(III)-SCSP). The creation of a local acidic environment with a thickness in the range of ~40 nm on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode allows enrichment of H(+) on the GCE, so that the operating potentials were effectively decreased. This strategy thus generates a new paradigm for lowering the operating potential of hydrogen generation from neutral water without the use of additional acids and organic cosolvents. PMID:23949627

Liang, Yawei; Xu, Limin; Zhou, Yinglin; Zhang, Xinxiang; Huang, Jianbin; Yan, Yun

2013-10-14

137

We consider a classical system of two-dimensional (2D) charged particles,\\u000awhich interact through a repulsive Yukawa potential $exp(-r\\/\\\\lambda)\\/r$,\\u000aconfined in a parabolic channel which limits the motion of the particles in the\\u000a$y$-direction. Along the $x$-direction, the particles are also subject to a\\u000aperiodic potential substrate. The ground state configurations and the normal\\u000amode spectra of the system are obtained

J. C. N. Carvalho; W. P. Ferreira; G. A. Farias; F. M. Peeters

2010-01-01

138

Tropical geometric interpretation of ultradiscrete singularity confinement

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the interpretation of the ultradiscretization procedure as a non-Archimedean valuation, we use results of tropical geometry to show how roots and poles manifest themselves in piece-wise linear systems as points of non-differentiability. This will allow us to demonstrate a correspondence between singularity confinement for discrete integrable systems and ultradiscrete singularity confinement for ultradiscrete integrable systems.

Ormerod, Christopher M.

2013-08-01

139

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of isothermal confinement is presented. The idea is a revival of the early magnetic fusion concepts with new insight. The plasma core is confined magnetically and is surrounded by a quasi-vacuum region. The temperature of the core is uniform and the turbulence associated with the temperature gradient is absent. The quasi-vacuum region is unstable against the pressure gradient and the turbulent transport rate is much larger than that of the core. Two modes of operation, pulsed and steady state, are considered. Recent experimental results in LHD and CDX-U appear to support the concept.

Ohkawa, Tihiro

140

Liquid-film instabilities in confined geometries

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sol-gel methods combined with specific thermal treatments were used to fabricate porous glasses with extremely uniform pore diameters and high internal surface areas. Low-temperature adsorption isotherm measurements reveal the dynamic and thermodynamic stability limits of the liquid films as a function of evolving pore diameter. Contrary to classical predictions, the results are in remarkable agreement with a universal hydrodynamic theory of film behavior which includes substrate interactions.

Awschalom, D. D.; Warnock, J.; Shafer, M. W.

1986-09-01

141

Spiral Evolution in a Confined Geometry

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supported nanoscale lead crystallites with a step emerging from a noncentered screw dislocation on the circular top facet were prepared by rapid cooling from just above the melting temperature. STM observations of the top facet show a nonuniform rotation rate and shape of the spiral step as the crystallite relaxes. These features can be accurately modeled using curvature driven dynamics, as in classical models of spiral growth, with boundary conditions fixing the dislocation core and regions of the step lying along the outer facet edge.

Ranganathan, Madhav; Dougherty, D. B.; Cullen, W. G.; Zhao, Tong; Weeks, John D.; Williams, E. D.

2005-11-01

142

Thermal noise in confined fluids.

In this work, we discuss a combined memory function equation (MFE) and generalized Langevin equation (GLE) approach (referred to as MFE/GLE formulation) to characterize thermal noise in confined fluids. Our study reveals that for fluids confined inside nanoscale geometries, the correlation time and the time decay of the autocorrelation function of the thermal noise are not significantly different across the confinement. We show that it is the strong cross-correlation of the mean force with the molecular velocity that gives rise to the spatial anisotropy in the velocity-autocorrelation function of the confined fluids. Further, we use the MFE/GLE formulation to extract the thermal force a fluid molecule experiences in a MD simulation. Noise extraction from MD simulation suggests that the frequency distribution of the thermal force is non-Gaussian. Also, the frequency distribution of the thermal force near the confining surface is found to be different in the direction parallel and perpendicular to the confinement. We also use the formulation to compute the noise correlation time of water confined inside a (6,6) carbon-nanotube (CNT). It is observed that inside the (6,6) CNT, in which water arranges itself in a highly concerted single-file arrangement, the correlation time of thermal noise is about an order of magnitude higher than that of bulk water. PMID:25381537

Sanghi, T; Aluru, N R

2014-11-01

143

Subwavelength metallic waveguides as a tool for extreme confinement of THz surface waves

Research on surface waves supported by metals at THz frequencies is experiencing a tremendous growth due to their potential for imaging, biological sensing and high-speed electronic circuits. Harnessing their properties is, however, challenging because these waves are typically poorly confined and weakly bound to the metal surface. Many design strategies have been introduced to overcome these limitations and achieve increased modal confinement, including patterned surfaces, coated waveguides and a variety of sub-wavelength geometries. Here we provide evidence, using a combination of numerical simulations and time-resolved experiments, that shrinking the transverse size of a generic metallic structure always leads to solutions with extreme field confinement. The existence of such a general behavior offers a new perspective on energy confinement and should benefit future developments in THz science and technology. PMID:23463351

Gacemi, D.; Mangeney, J.; Colombelli, R.; Degiron, A.

2013-01-01

144

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Is it possible to extract the size and structure of chromosomal territories (confined domain) from the encounter frequencies of chromosomal loci? To answer this question, we estimate the mean time for two monomers located on the same polymer to encounter, which we call the mean first encounter time in a confined microdomain (MFETC). We approximate the confined domain geometry by a harmonic potential well and obtain an asymptotic expression that agrees with Brownian simulations for the MFETC as a function of the polymer length, the radius of the confined domain, and the activation distance radius ? at which the two searching monomers meet. We illustrate the present approach using chromosome capture data for the encounter rate distribution of two loci depending on their distances along the DNA. We estimate the domain size that restricts the motion of one of these loci for chromosome II in yeast.

Amitai, A.; Holcman, D.

2013-06-01

145

Experimental study of flame propagation in semiconfined geometries with obstacles

Accidents in which large quantities of liquefied natural gas (LNG) or other combustible materials are spilled can potentially lead to disastrous consequences, especially if the dispersing combustible cloud finds a suitable ignition source. So far, very little is known about the detailed behavior of a large burning cloud. Full-scale experiments are economically prohibitive, and therefore one must rely on laboratory and field experiments of smaller size, scaling up the results to make predictions about larger spill accidents. In this paper we describe our laboratory-scale experiments with a combustible propane/air mixture in various partially confined geometries. We summarize the experimental results and compare them with calculated results based on numerical simulations of the experiments. Our observations suggest that the geometry of the partial confinement is of primary importance; turbulence-producing obstacles can cause acceleration in the flame front and, more important, can cause a faster burnout of the combustible vapor.

Urtiew, P.A.; Brandeis, J.; Hogan, W.J.

1982-02-08

146

Friend and Moloney murine leukemia viruses (F- and M-MuLV) induce distinct diseases in hematopoietic tissues following inoculation of newborn mice of susceptible strains. F-MuLV induces erythroleukemia preceded by severe early hemolytic anemia; M-MuLV induces thymomas and only very mild hemolysis. The major viral determinant of severe early hemolytic anemia residues in the env gene, but sequences located outside this gene can modulate this effect. By means of genetic chimeras of F- and M-MuLV, we have found that although they are confined to the 5' portion of the env gene intron, sequences that determine the distinctive hemolytic potentials of F- and M-MuLV are widely distributed over a region spanning the RNA encapsidation domain, the gag gene, and the portion of the pol gene encoding the viral protease. Within this large region, two fragments of M-MuLV, a 1.3-kb region encoding the matrix, pp12, and capsid proteins and a 0.8-kb region encoding the nucleocapsid and the viral protease, were capable, individually, of partially attenuating the capacity of F-MuLV for induction of severe early hemolytic anemia. In association, these two fragments conferred complete attenuation. Moreover, a second pair of adjacent fragments within this large region appeared to behave cooperatively to confer complete attenuation; a 0.36-kb region roughly corresponding to the encapsidation domain, although not detectably altering hemolytic potential on its own, deepened the attenuation conferred by the adjacent 1.3-kb region. Whether capable of inducing severe early hemolytic anemia or not and despite different efficiencies of induction of recombinant polytropic viruses, all chimeric viruses retained the erythroleukemogenicity of the F-MuLV parent. PMID:8350407

Richardson, J; Corbin, A; Pozo, F; Orsoni, S; Sitbon, M

1993-01-01

147

Elmo bumpy square plasma confinement device

The invention is an Elmo bumpy type plasma confinement device having a polygonal configuration of closed magnet field lines for improved plasma confinement. In the preferred embodiment, the device is of a square configuration which is referred to as an Elmo bumpy square (EBS). The EBS is formed by four linear magnetic mirror sections each comprising a plurality of axisymmetric assemblies connected in series and linked by 90/sup 0/ sections of a high magnetic field toroidal solenoid type field generating coils. These coils provide corner confinement with a minimum of radial dispersion of the confined plasma to minimize the detrimental effects of the toroidal curvature of the magnetic field. Each corner is formed by a plurality of circular or elliptical coils aligned about the corner radius to provide maximum continuity in the closing of the magnetic field lines about the square configuration confining the plasma within a vacuum vessel located within the various coils forming the square configuration confinement geometry.

Owen, L.W.

1985-01-01

148

Alternative approaches to plasma confinement

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential applications of fusion reactors, the desirable properties of reactors intended for various applications, and the limitations of the Tokamak concept are discussed. The principles and characteristics of 20 distinct alternative confinement concepts are described, each of which may be an alternative to the Tokamak. The devices are classed as Tokamak-like, stellarator-like, mirror machines, bumpy tori, electrostatically assisted, migma concept, and wall-confined plasma.

Roth, J. R.

1977-01-01

149

Bose-Einstein condensation transition studies for atoms confined in Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes

Multiply-connected traps for cold, neutral atoms fix vortex cores of quantum gases. Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes are ideal for such traps due to their phase stability. We report theoretical calculations of the Bose-Einstein condensation transition properties and thermal characteristics of neutral atoms trapped in multiply connected geometries formed by Laguerre-Gaussian LG{p}{l} beams. Specifically, we consider atoms confined to the anti-node of a LG{0}{1} laser mode detuned to the red of an atomic resonance frequency, and those confined in the node of a blue-detuned LG{1}{1} beam. We compare the results of using the full potential to those approximating the potential minimum with a simple harmonic oscillator potential. We find that deviations between calculations of the full potential and the simple harmonic oscillator can be up to 3%-8% for trap parameters consistent with typical experiments.

Akin, T G; Dribus, Ben; Marzuola, Jeremy; Johnson, Lise; Alexander, Jason; Abraham, E R I

2011-01-01

150

Hydrogen-bonded complexes upon spatial confinement: structural and energetic aspects.

In the present study we consider structural and energetic aspects of spatial confinement of the H-bonded systems. The model dimeric systems: HF···HF, HCN···HCN and HCN···HCCH have been chosen for a case study. Two-dimensional harmonic oscillator potential, mimicking a cylindrical confinement, was applied in order to render the impact of orbital compression on the analyzed molecular complexes. The calculations have been performed employing the MP2 method as well as the Kohn-Sham formulation of density functional theory. In the latter case, two exchange-correlation potentials have been used, namely B3LYP and M06-2X. The geometries of studied complexes have been optimized (without any constraints) in the presence of the applied model confining potential. A thorough analysis of topological parameters characterizing hydrogen bonds upon orbital compression has been performed within the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM). Furthermore, an energetic analysis performed for the confined H-bonded complexes has shown a different trend in the interaction energy changes. Additionally, a variational-perturbational decomposition scheme was applied to study the interaction energy components in the presence of spatial confinement. PMID:24296646

Lipkowski, Pawe?; Koz?owska, Justyna; Roztoczy?ska, Agnieszka; Bartkowiak, Wojciech

2014-01-28

151

The growth of normal faults in periodically layered sequences with varying strength contrast and at varying confining pressure is modeled using the distinct element method. The normal faulting models are composed of strong layers (bonded particles) and weak layers (nonbonded particles) that are deformed using a predefined fault at the base of the sequence. The model results suggest that faults

Martin P. J. Schöpfer; Conrad Childs; John J. Walsh

2007-01-01

152

Confinement induced instability of thin elastic film

A confined incompressible elastic film does not deform uniformly when subjected to adhesive interfacial stresses but with undulations which have a characteristic wavelength scaling linearly with the thickness of the film. In the classical peel geometry, undulations appear along the contact line below a critical film thickness or below a critical curvature of the plate. Perturbation analysis of the stress equilibrium equations shows that for a critically confined film the total excess energy indeed attains a minima for a finite amplitude of the perturbations which grow with further increase in the confinement.

Animangsu Ghatak

2005-05-02

153

Slow dynamics in cylindrically confined colloidal suspensions

We study bidisperse colloidal suspensions confined within glass microcapillary tubes to model the glass transition in confined cylindrical geometries. We use high speed three-dimensional confocal microscopy to observe particle motions for a wide range of volume fractions and tube radii. Holding volume fraction constant, we find that particles move slower in thinner tubes. The tube walls induce a gradient in particle mobility: particles move substantially slower near the walls. This suggests that the confinement-induced glassiness may be due to an interfacial effect.

Nabiha Saklayen; Gary L. Hunter; Kazem V. Edmond; Eric R. Weeks

2012-09-05

154

Mechanical collapse of confined fluid membrane vesicles.

Compact cylindrical and spherical invaginations are common structural motifs found in cellular and developmental biology. To understand the basic physical mechanisms that produce and maintain such structures, we present here a simple model of vesicles in confinement, in which mechanical equilibrium configurations are computed by energy minimization, balancing the effects of curvature elasticity, contact of the membrane with itself and the confining geometry, and adhesion. For cylindrical confinement, the shape equations are solved both analytically and numerically by finite element analysis. For spherical confinement, axisymmetric configurations are obtained numerically. We find that the geometry of invaginations is controlled by a dimensionless ratio of the adhesion strength to the bending energy of an equal area spherical vesicle. Larger adhesion produces more concentrated curvatures, which are mainly localized to the "neck" region where the invagination breaks away from its confining container. Under spherical confinement, axisymmetric invaginations are approximately spherical. For extreme confinement, multiple invaginations may form, bifurcating along multiple equilibrium branches. The results of the model are useful for understanding the physical mechanisms controlling the structure of lipid membranes of cells and their organelles, and developing tissue membranes. PMID:24700234

Rim, Jee E; Purohit, Prashant K; Klug, William S

2014-11-01

155

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the 3-D finite-element method, we develop dynamic spontaneous rupture models of earthquakes on the North Anatolian Fault system in the Sea of Marmara, Turkey, considering the geometrical complexity of the fault system in this region. We find that the earthquake size, rupture propagation pattern and ground motion all strongly depend on the interplay between the initial (static) regional pre-stress field and the dynamic stress field radiated by the propagating rupture. By testing several nucleation locations, we observe that those far from an oblique normal fault stepover segment (near Istanbul) lead to large through-going rupture on the entire fault system, whereas nucleation locations closer to the stepover segment tend to produce ruptures that die out in the stepover. However, this pattern can change drastically with only a 10° rotation of the regional stress field. Our simulations also reveal that while dynamic unclamping near fault bends can produce a new mode of supershear rupture propagation, this unclamping has a much smaller effect on the speed of the peak in slip velocity along the fault. Finally, we find that the complex fault geometry leads to a very complex and asymmetric pattern of near-fault ground motion, including greatly amplified ground motion on the insides of fault bends. The ground-motion pattern can change significantly with different hypocentres, even beyond the typical effects of directivity. The results of this study may have implications for seismic hazard in this region, for the dynamics and ground motion of geometrically complex faults, and for the interpretation of kinematic inverse rupture models.

Oglesby, David D.; Mai, P. Martin

2012-03-01

156

OAK-B135 The quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) is an ELM-free and stationary state mode of operation discovered on DIII-D. This mode achieves H-mode levels of confinement and pedestal pressure while maintaining constant density and radiated power. The elimination of edge localized modes (ELMs) and their large divertor loads while maintaining good confinement and good density control is of interest to next generation tokamaks. This paper reports on the correlations found between selected parameters in a QH-mode database developed from several hundred DIII-D counter injected discharges. Time traces of key plasma parameters from a QH-mode discharge are shown. On DIII-D the negative going plasma current (a) indicates that the beam injection direction is counter to the plasma current direction, a common feature of all QH-modes. The D{sub {alpha}} time behavior (c) shows that soon after high powered beam heating (b) is applied, the discharge makes a transition to ELMing H-mode, then the ELMs disappear, indicating the start of the QH period that lasts for the remainder of the high power beam heating (3.5 s). Previously published work showing density and temperature profiles indicates that long-pulse, high-triangularity QH discharges develop an internal transport barrier in combination with the QH edge barrier. These discharges are known as quiescent, double-barrier discharges (QDB). The H-factor (d) and stored energy (c) rise then saturate at a constant level and the measured axial and minimum safety factors remain above 1.0 for the entire QH duration. During QDB operation the performance of the plasma can be very good, with {beta}{sub N}*H{sub 89L} product reaching 7 for > 10 energy confinement times. These discharges show promise that a stationary state can be achieved.

WEST,WP; BURRELL,KH; deGRASSIE,JS; DOYLE,EJ; GREENFIELD,CM; LASNIER,CJ; SNYDER,PB; ZENG,L

2003-08-01

157

Random walks and polygons in tight confinement

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the effect of confinement on the topology and geometry of tightly confined random walks and polygons. Here the walks and polygons are confined in a sphere of radius R >= 1/2 and the polygons are equilateral with n edges of unit length. We illustrate numerically that for a fixed length of random polygons the knotting probability increases to one as the radius decreases to 1/2. We also demonstrate that for random polygons (walks) the curvature increases to ?n (?(n – 1)) as the radius approaches 1/2 and that the torsion decreases to ? ?n/3 (? ?(n – 1)/3). In addition we show the effect of length and confinement on the average crossing number of a random polygon.

Diao, Y.; Ernst, C.; Ziegler, U.

2014-10-01

158

Optimized confinement of fermions in two dimensions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the challenging features of studying model Hamiltonians with cold atoms in optical lattices is the presence of spatial inhomogeneities induced by the confining potential, which results in the coexistence of different phases.This paper presents quantum Monte Carlo results comparing methods for confining fermions in two dimensions, including conventional diagonal confinement, a recently proposed “off-diagonal confinement”, as well as a trap which produces uniform density in the lattice. At constant entropy and for currently accessible temperatures, we show that (1) diagonal confinement results in the strongest signature of magnetic order, primarily because of its judicious use of entropy sinks at the trap edge and that (2) for d-wave pairing, a trap with uniform density is optimal and can be effectively implemented via off-diagonal confinement. This feature is important to any prospective search for superconductivity in optical lattices.

Cone, J. D.; Chiesa, S.; Rousseau, V. R.; Batrouni, G. G.; Scalettar, R. T.

2012-02-01

159

A statistical analysis of a representative data set of 169 known protein structures was used to analyze the specificity of residue interactions between spatial neighboring strands in beta-sheets. Pairwise potentials were derived from the frequency of residue pairs in nearest contact, second nearest and third nearest contacts across neighboring beta-strands compared to the expected frequency of residue pairs in a random model. A pseudo-energy function based on these statistical pairwise potentials recognized native beta-sheets among possible alternative pairings. The native pairing was found within the three lowest energies in 73% of the cases in the training data set and in 63% of beta-sheets in a test data set of 67 proteins, which were not part of the training set. The energy function was also used to detect tripeptides, which occur frequently in beta-sheets of native proteins. The majority of native partners of tripeptides were distributed in a low energy range. Self-correcting distance geometry (SECODG) calculations using distance constraints sets derived from possible low energy pairing of beta-strands uniquely identified the native pairing of the beta-sheet in pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI). These results will be useful for predicting the structure of proteins from their amino acid sequence as well as for the design of proteins containing beta-sheets. PMID:10048326

Zhu, H.; Braun, W.

1999-01-01

160

Confinement from correlation functions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compute the Polyakov loop potential in Yang-Mills theory from the fully dressed primitively divergent correlation functions only. This is done in a variety of functional approaches ranging from functional renormalization group equations over Dyson-Schwinger equations to two-particle irreducible functionals. We present a confinement criterion that links the infrared behavior of propagators and vertices to the Polyakov loop expectation value. The present work extends the works of [J. Braun , Phys. Lett. B 684, 262 (2010)PYLBAJ0370-2693; F. Marhauser and J. M. Pawlowski, arXiv:0812.1144; J. Braun , Eur. Phys. J. C 70, 689 (2010)EPCFFB1434-6044] to general functional methods and sharpens the confinement criterion presented there. The computations are based on the thermal correlation functions in the Landau gauge calculated in [L. Fister and J. M. Pawlowski, arXiv:1112.5440; L. Fister and J. M. Pawlowski, arXiv:1112.5429; L. Fister, Ph.D. thesis, Heidelberg University, 2012].

Fister, Leonard; Pawlowski, Jan M.

2013-08-01

161

Noncommutative geometry induced by spin effects

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we study the nonlocal effects of noncommutative spacetime on simple physical systems. Our main point is the assumption that the noncommutative effects are consequences of a background field which generates a local spin structure. So, we reformulate some simple electrostatic models in the presence of a spin-deformation contribution to the geometry of the motion, and we obtain an interesting correlation amongst the deformed area vector, the 3D noncommutative effects, and the usual spin vector S? given in quantum mechanics framework. Remarkably we can observe that a spin-orbit coupling term comes to light on the spatial sector of a potential written in terms of noncommutative coordinates which indicates that bound states are particular cases in this procedure. Concerning confined or bounded particles in this noncommutative domain, we verify that the kinetic energy is modified by a deformation factor. Finally, we discuss perspectives.

Colatto, L. P.; Penna, A. L. A.; Santos, W. C.

2006-05-01

162

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site departs from the common themes taught in general geometry classes and introduces projective geometry, which has to do with special properties resulting from the intersection of lines, planes, and points. The coincidence of such elements is what is referred to as an incidence, and this is the basis of the topic. The site makes extensive use of animated figures to demonstrate principles involved in projective geometry, such as path curves, pivot transforms, and the curious concept of counter space. The author does a good job of explaining what is depicted in the figures as well as the underlying theory.

163

Industrial Applications to the Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Configuration

Since Fransworth's observation of inertial electrostatic confinement in the 1930's several applications have been proposed and studied with fusion being the main focus. Inertial electrostatic confinement is a scheme in which ions are focused and confined by means of either an electrostatic field or a combination of electrostatic and magnetic fields to produce an effective spherical potential well. Due to

Elijah Martin; Steve Shannon; Mohamed Bourham

2009-01-01

164

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Z-Beta (1-hexadecyl 4 quinolinium) alpha-cyano 4-styryldicyano methanide (C16H33-Q3CNQ) and the pyridinium analogue yryldicyanomethanide (C16H33P3CNQ) are two very promising candidates for molecular device design. We obtain the geometry of the ground and excited state of these systems using the PM3 quantum mechanical model. The absorption spectra in vacuum and in solution are calculated using the INDO/CI model, and compared to experimental spectra. The solvatochromic shift of the absorption spectra was calculated using a self-consistent reaction field approach. The observed bleaching of Langmuir-Blodgett films and solutions of C16H33-Q3CNQ and C16H33-P3CNQ is explained as resulting from a twisted configuration formed without barrier upon absorption into a twisted intramolecular charge transfer state. The observed rectification is explained from a ground state potential energy surface with two minima, one of which is characterized by a very large dipole moment. The relative energy of these minima is easily shifted by an electric field. The overall electron transport rate is found to be very small due to the small electronic coupling between the mono-layers of the L-B film. Thus, the electron transport through the sample is likely through defects of the L-B film. A way to increase the electronic coupling between the monolayers is also discussed.

Broo, Anders; Zerner, Michael C.

1995-04-01

165

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Geometry Sender at Keio University includes many 3D object data, including WebOOGL, off, rwx format, tutorial on data formats, and information about external viewers for 3D object on Web are available.

166

Bifurcated equilibria in centrifugally confined plasma

A bifurcation theory and associated computational model are developed to account for abrupt transitions observed recently on the Maryland Centrifugal eXperiment (MCX) [R. F. Ellis et al. Phys. Plasmas 8, 2057 (2001)], a supersonically rotating magnetized plasma that relies on centrifugal forces to prevent thermal expansion of plasma along the magnetic field. The observed transitions are from a well-confined, high-rotation state (HR-mode) to a lower-rotation, lesser-confined state (O-mode). A two-dimensional time-dependent magnetohydrodynamics code is used to simulate the dynamical equilibrium states of the MCX configuration. In addition to the expected viscous drag on the core plasma rotation, a momentum loss term is added that models the friction of plasma on the enhanced level of neutrals expected in the vicinity of the insulators at the throats of the magnetic mirror geometry. At small values of the external rotation drive, the plasma is not well-centrifugally confined and hence experiences the drag from near the insulators. Beyond a critical value of the external drive, the system makes an abrupt transition to a well-centrifugally confined state in which the plasma has pulled away from the end insulator plates; more effective centrifugal confinement lowers the plasma mass near the insulators allowing runaway increases in the rotation speed. The well-confined steady state is reached when the external drive is balanced by only the viscosity of the core plasma. A clear hysteresis phenomenon is shown.

Shamim, I.; Teodorescu, C.; Guzdar, P. N.; Hassam, A. B.; Clary, R.; Ellis, R.; Lunsford, R. [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

2008-12-15

167

Strongly interacting confined quantum systems in one dimension.

In one dimension, the study of magnetism dates back to the dawn of quantum mechanics when Bethe solved the famous Heisenberg model that describes quantum behaviour in magnetic systems. In the last decade, one-dimensional (1D) systems have become a forefront area of research driven by the realization of the Tonks-Girardeau gas using cold atomic gases. Here we prove that 1D fermionic and bosonic systems with strong short-range interactions are solvable in arbitrary confining geometries by introducing a new energy-functional technique and obtaining the full spectrum of energies and eigenstates. As a first application, we calculate spatial correlations and show how both ferro- and antiferromagnetic states are present already for small system sizes that are prepared and studied in current experiments. Our work demonstrates the enormous potential for quantum manipulation of magnetic correlations at the microscopic scale. PMID:25366925

Volosniev, A G; Fedorov, D V; Jensen, A S; Valiente, M; Zinner, N T

2014-01-01

168

129Xe NMR as a probe of the dynamics of gas confined in porous Vycor.

We use 129Xe NMR to probe the diffusion of xenon gas in the porous network of Vycor glass, by monitoring its relaxation properties. When the mean free path of the diffusing gas is larger than the pore size (Knudsen conditions), both 129Xe chemical shifts and relaxation rates are sensitive to the confinement of xenon gas within a porous solid. The influence of both temperature and xenon pressure are recorded on the 129Xe chemical shifts and relaxation rates, in order to characterise the xenon/Vycor interactions. Monte Carlo (MC) and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations, using a numerical model of Vycor, are required to interpret the relaxation properties of xenon. MD simulations clearly establish the occurrence of confined diffusion of xenon within Vycor, related to the geometry of this porous media. This work shows the potentiality of NMR relaxation to obtain dynamical information on the diffusion within porous media. PMID:8970126

Pasquier, V; Levitz, P; Tinet, D; Delville, A

1996-01-01

169

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Advances in nanotechnology are due in part to the unique structure and properties of carbon nanotubes and buckyballs. These unusual structures are being studied for their potential use as vehicles for drug delivery, to strengthen materials, and as miniature circuits. Through an examination of the geometry of nanoscale materials, students explore the possibilities of nanoscale technologies.

Taylor, Amy R.; Broadwell, Bethany P.; Jones, M. G.; Falvo, Michael R.

2007-01-01

170

Soliton Stars as Holographic Confined Fermi Liquids

In this paper, we study a holographic dual of a confined fermi liquid state by putting a charged fluid of fermions in the AdS soliton geometry. This can be regarded as a confined analogue of electron stars. Depending on the parameters such as the mass and charge of the bulk fermion field, we found three different phase structures when we change the values of total charge density at zero temperature. In one of the three cases, our confined solution (called soliton star) is always stable and this solution approaches to the electron star away from the tip. In both the second and third case, we find a confinement/deconfinement phase transition. Moreover, in the third one, there is a strong indication that the soliton star decays into an inhomogeneous solution. We also analyze the probe fermion equations (in the WKB approximation) in the background of this soliton star geometry to confirm the presence of many fermi-surfaces in the system.

Jyotirmoy Bhattacharya; Noriaki Ogawa; Tadashi Takayanagi; Tomonori Ugajin

2012-01-03

171

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A short article designed to provide an introduction to algebraic geometry, which combines the algebraic with the geometric for the benefit of both. Thus the recent proof of "Fermat's Last Theorem" - ostensibly a statement in number theory - was proved with geometric tools. Conversely, the geometry of sets defined by equations is studied using quite sophisticated algebraic machinery. This is an enticing area but the important topics are quite deep. This area includes elliptic curves. Applications and related fields and subfields; textbooks, reference works, and tutorials; software and tables; other web sites with this focus.

Rusin, David J., 1957-

2007-12-18

172

Mechanism of diffusion slowdown in confined liquids.

With the aid of molecular dynamics simulation, we consider why the diffusivity of liquid becomes slower as the liquid is confined to a narrower space. The diffusion coefficient of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane liquid confined between two mica surfaces was calculated for a range of surface separations from 64 to 23 Å. The resulting separation dependence of the diffusion coefficient can be explained by considering that the molecular diffusion is an activated process. In particular, we find that the increase in the activation energy is closely correlated with the decrease of the potential energy per molecule, from which we propose a molecular-level mechanism of this confined-induced diffusion slowdown. PMID:23215427

Matsubara, Hiroki; Pichierri, Fabio; Kurihara, Kazue

2012-11-01

173

... NIOSH. www.cpwr.com What is a confined space? Ask questions It is the employer’s responsibility to ... union. Call OSHA 1-800-321-OSHA COnFIned SpACeS Get training Your employer must train you for ...

174

The three-dimensional structure of water confined in nanoporous vycor glass.

Neutron diffraction data, in conjunction with isotopic substitution of deuterium (D) for hydrogen (H), have been analyzed to determine the three-dimensional structure of water confined in vycor, an archetypal hydrophilic porous silica glass containing channels or pores of approximately 40 A diameter. The data have been incorporated into a Monte Carlo computer simulation of the confined water system, and the site-site potentials have been iteratively refined in order to produce a model ensemble which is consistent with both the neutron diffraction data and two possible geometries of the vycor pores (cylindrical and spherical). This approach has allowed us to investigate in detail the contributions to the experimentally accessible partial pair correlation functions, and ascertain whether particular features arise from interactions of the water molecules with the substrate surface, or from purely geometrical confinement effects. We observe a significant decrease in the first shell water oxygen-oxygen co-ordination number, and a decrease in the number of hydrogen bonds per water molecule from approximately 3.6 in bulk water to approximately 2.2 in confinement. In addition, we observe a significant shift inward of the second peak in the water oxygen-water oxygen coordination shell. Overall, we therefore find that the structure of the water in vycor is strongly perturbed relative to the bulk. PMID:17472364

Thompson, Helen; Soper, Alan K; Ricci, Maria Antonietta; Bruni, Fabio; Skipper, Neal T

2007-05-24

175

Negative ions in inertial electrostatic confinement devices

The UW-Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device is comprised of concentric, nearly transparent, spherical metallic grids within a cylindrical vacuum vessel. The central grid, which can be held at high negative potentials (~ -100 to -200 kV) is the device cathode, while the outer grid, held at ground potential, is the device anode. This configuration accelerates ions, created near the anode,

D. R. Boris; J. F. Santarius; G. L. Kulcinski

2009-01-01

176

Influence of Confinement on Dynamical Heterogeneities in Dense Colloidal Samples

We study a dense colloidal suspension confined between two quasiparallel glass plates as a model system for a supercooled liquid in confined geometries. We directly observe the three-dimensional Brownian motion of the colloidal particles using laser scanning confocal microscopy. The particles form dense layers along the walls, but crystallization is avoided as we use a mixture of two particle sizes. A normally liquid-like sample, when confined, exhibits slower diffusive motion. Particle rearrangements are spatially heterogeneous, and the shapes of the rearranging regions are strongly influenced by the layering. These rearranging regions become more planar upon confinement. The wall-induced layers and changing character of the spatially heterogeneous dynamics appear strongly connected to the confinement induced glassiness.

Kazem V. Edmond; Carolyn R. Nugent; Eric R. Weeks

2010-03-03

177

PURPOSE: Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin., common reed, is a plant species that is common to fresh- and brackish-water marshes of the world. P. australis has been recommended as one plant species that could survive and grow after being completely buried during dredged material disposal (Lee et al. 1976). P. australis can also serve as a physical barrier, because of its strong stems, to dredged material flow during hydraulic disposal. Decreasing dredged material flow helps to increase consolidation of hydraulically dredged material (Lee et al. 1976). P. australis is a plant species recommended for habitat development on dredged material disposal sites (Hunt et al. 1978). Plant establishment on marsh creation projects using uncontaminated dredged material poses little threat of increasing environmental cycling of contaminants. However, plant establishment or natural invasion of plants on contaminated dredged material has the potential for increased environmental cycling (mobility) of contaminants. Therefore, a literature review was conducted to determine contaminant uptake by P. australis since many dredged material disposal sites support lush stands of P. australis and contaminant uptake by this species was unknown.

Folsom, B.L.; VanDerWerff, M.

1988-12-01

178

Elementary framework for cold field emission: Incorporation of quantum-confinement effects

Although the Fowler-Nordheim (FN) equation serves as the foundation of cold field emission theory, it may not be suitable for predicting the emitted current density (ECD) from emitters with a quantum-confined electron supply. This work presents an analytical framework for treating cold field emission from metals that includes the effects of a quantum-confined electron supply. Within the framework, quantum confinement in emitters is classified into transverse and normal quantum confinement based on the orientation of the confinement relative to the emission direction. The framework is used to generate equations predicting the ECD from rectangular and cylindrical emitter geometries comprised of electron supplies of reduced dimensionality. Transverse quantum confinement of the electron supply leads to a reduction in the total ECD as transverse emitter dimensions decrease and normal quantum confinement results in an oscillatory ECD as a function of the normal quantum well width. Incorporating a geometry-dependent field enhancement factor into the model reveals an optimal transverse well width for which quantum confinement of the electron supply and field enhancement equally affect the ECD and a maximum total ECD for the emitter geometry at a given applied field is obtained. As a result, the FN equation over-predicts the ECD from emitters with transverse dimensions under approximately 5?nm, and in those cases, geometry-specific ECD equations incorporating quantum-confinement effects should be employed instead.

Patterson, A. A., E-mail: apatters@mit.edu; Akinwande, A. I. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Microsystems Technology Laboratories, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2013-12-21

179

Computer simulation studies of confined liquid-crystal films

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present results from molecular dynamics simulations performed using a system of Gay-Berne particles confined between two substrates in a slab geometry. We use a nonseparable anisotropic molecule-substrate interaction potential and investigate weak and moderate molecule-substrate coupling strengths. We find that for both coupling strengths a well-defined, tilted molecular layer forms at each wall and that the pretilt angle and layer density are only weakly dependent on temperature as the central region is cooled through isotropiclike and nematiclike regions. The orientationally ordered fluid formed at the center of the film is tilted in sympathy with the surface layers. At low temperatures, however, where the central region adopts a layered arrangement, a sharp change is observed in the pretilt angle. This transition is more marked in the weak-coupling system where the high-temperature tilted surface layers adopt an approximately planar arrangement at low temperatures and the system resembles a bookshelf-geometry smectic film. In the moderate-coupling system, the surface layers maintain some tilt in the presence of the layered central region, leading to a smectic-stripe phase arrangement.

Wall, Greg D.; Cleaver, Douglas J.

1997-10-01

180

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacterial cells can display differentiation between several developmental pathways, from planktonic to matrix-producing, depending upon the colony conditions. We study the confinement of bacteria in hydrogels as well as in liquid-liquid double emulsion droplets and observe the growth and morphology of these colonies as a function of time and environment. Our results can give insight into the behavior of bacterial colonies in confined spaces that can have applications in the areas of food science, cosmetics, and medicine.

Wilking, Connie; Weitz, David

2010-03-01

181

An overview is presented of the principles of magnetic confinement of plasmas for the purpose of achieving controlled fusion conditions. Sec. 1 discusses the different nuclear fusion reactions which can be exploited in prospective fusion reactors and explains why special technologies need to be developed for the supply of tritium or {sup 3}He, the probable fuels. In Sec. 2 the Lawson condition, a criterion that is a measure of the quality of confinement relative to achieving fusion conditions, is explained. In Sec. 3 fluid equations are used to describe plasma confinement. Specific confinement configurations are considered. In Sec. 4 the orbits of particle sin magneti and electric fields are discussed. In Sec. 5 stability considerations are discussed. It is noted that confinement systems usually need to satisfy stability constraints imposed by ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory. The paper culminates with a summary of experimental progress in magnetic confinement. Present experiments in tokamaks have reached the point that the conditions necessary to achieve fusion are being satisfied.

Berk, H.L.

1992-08-06

182

Dynamics and energetics of hydrophobically confined water

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of water confined in regions between self-assembling entities is relevant to numerous contexts such as macromolecular association, protein folding, protein-ligand association, and nanomaterials self-assembly. Thus assessing the impact of confined water, and the ability of current modeling techniques to capture the salient features of confined water is important and timely. We present molecular dynamics simulation results investigating the effect of confined water on qualitative features of potentials of mean force describing the free energetics of self-assembly of large planar hydrophobic plates. We consider several common explicit water models including the TIP3P, TIP4P, SPC/E, TIP4P-FQ, and SWM4-NDP, the latter two being polarizable models. Examination of the free energies for filling and unfilling the volume confined between the two plates (both in the context of average number of confined water molecules and “depth” of occupancy) suggests TIP4P-FQ water molecules generally occupy the confined volume at separation distances larger than observed for other models under the same conditions. The connection between this tendency of TIP4P-FQ water and the lack of a pronounced barrier in the potential of mean force for plate-plate association in TIP4P-FQ water is explored by artificially, but systematically, populating the confined volume with TIP4P-FQ water at low plate-plate separation distances. When the critical separation distance [denoting the crossover from an unoccupied (dry) confined interior to a filled (wet) interior] for TIP4P-FQ is reduced by 0.5 Å using this approach, a barrier is observed; we rationalize this effect based on increased resistant forces introduced by confined water molecules at these low separations. We also consider the dynamics of water molecules in the confined region between the hydrophobes. We find that the TIP4P-FQ water model exhibits nonbulklike dynamics, with enhanced lateral diffusion relative to bulk. This is consistent with the reduced intermolecular water-water interaction indicated by a decreased molecular dipole moment in the interplate region. Analysis of velocity autocorrelation functions and associated power spectra indicate that the interplate region for TIP4P-FQ at a plate separation of 14.4 Å approaches characteristics of the pure water liquid-vapor interface. This is in stark contrast to the other water models (including the polarizable SWM4-NDP model).

Bauer, Brad A.; Ou, Shuching; Patel, Sandeep; Siva, Karthik

2012-05-01

183

Dynamics and energetics of hydrophobically confined water.

The effects of water confined in regions between self-assembling entities is relevant to numerous contexts such as macromolecular association, protein folding, protein-ligand association, and nanomaterials self-assembly. Thus assessing the impact of confined water, and the ability of current modeling techniques to capture the salient features of confined water is important and timely. We present molecular dynamics simulation results investigating the effect of confined water on qualitative features of potentials of mean force describing the free energetics of self-assembly of large planar hydrophobic plates. We consider several common explicit water models including the TIP3P, TIP4P, SPC/E, TIP4P-FQ, and SWM4-NDP, the latter two being polarizable models. Examination of the free energies for filling and unfilling the volume confined between the two plates (both in the context of average number of confined water molecules and "depth" of occupancy) suggests TIP4P-FQ water molecules generally occupy the confined volume at separation distances larger than observed for other models under the same conditions. The connection between this tendency of TIP4P-FQ water and the lack of a pronounced barrier in the potential of mean force for plate-plate association in TIP4P-FQ water is explored by artificially, but systematically, populating the confined volume with TIP4P-FQ water at low plate-plate separation distances. When the critical separation distance [denoting the crossover from an unoccupied (dry) confined interior to a filled (wet) interior] for TIP4P-FQ is reduced by 0.5 Å using this approach, a barrier is observed; we rationalize this effect based on increased resistant forces introduced by confined water molecules at these low separations. We also consider the dynamics of water molecules in the confined region between the hydrophobes. We find that the TIP4P-FQ water model exhibits nonbulklike dynamics, with enhanced lateral diffusion relative to bulk. This is consistent with the reduced intermolecular water-water interaction indicated by a decreased molecular dipole moment in the interplate region. Analysis of velocity autocorrelation functions and associated power spectra indicate that the interplate region for TIP4P-FQ at a plate separation of 14.4 Å approaches characteristics of the pure water liquid-vapor interface. This is in stark contrast to the other water models (including the polarizable SWM4-NDP model). PMID:23004766

Bauer, Brad A; Ou, Shuching; Patel, Sandeep; Siva, Karthik

2012-05-01

184

It has been proposed that quantum mechanics and string theory share a common inner syntax, the relational logic of C. S. Peirce. Along this line of thought we consider the relations represented by spinors. Spinor composition leads to the emergence of Minkowski spacetime. Inversely the Minkowski spacetime is istantiated by the Weyl spinors, while the merge of two Weyl spinors gives rise to a Dirac spinor. Our analysis is applied also to the string geometry. The string constraints are represented by real spinors, which create a parametrization of the string worldsheet identical to the Enneper-Weierstass representation of minimal surfaces. Further, a spinorial study of the AdS3 spacetime reveals a Hopf fibration AdS3 \\rightarrow AdS2. The conformal symmetry inherent in AdS3 is pointed out. Our work indicates the hidden ties between logic-quantum mechanics-string theory-geometry and vindicates the Wheeler's proposal of pregeometry as a large network of logical propositions.

A. Nicolaidis; V. Kiosses

2012-01-03

185

It has been proposed that quantum mechanics and string theory share a common inner syntax, the relational logic of C. S. Peirce. Along this line of thought we consider the relations represented by spinors. Spinor composition leads to the emergence of Minkowski spacetime. Inversely the Minkowski spacetime is istantiated by the Weyl spinors, while the merge of two Weyl spinors gives rise to a Dirac spinor. Our analysis is applied also to the string geometry. The string constraints are represented by real spinors, which create a parametrization of the string worldsheet identical to the Enneper-Weierstass representation of minimal surfaces. Further, a spinorial study of the AdS3 spacetime reveals a Hopf fibration AdS3 \\rightarrow AdS2. The conformal symmetry inherent in AdS3 is pointed out. Our work indicates the hidden ties between logic-quantum mechanics-string theory-geometry and vindicates the Wheeler's proposal of pregeometry as a large network of logical propositions.

Nicolaidis, A

2012-01-01

186

Enrichment Activities for Geometry.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Enrichment activities that teach about geometry as they instruct in geometry are given for some significant topics. The facets of geometry included are tessellations, round robin tournaments, geometric theorems on triangles, and connections between geometry and complex numbers. (MNS)

Usiskin, Zalman

1983-01-01

187

The coordination modes and geometry assumed in solution by the potent antitumor oxidovanadium(IV) complexes formed by different flavonoids were studied by spectroscopic (Electron Paramagnetic Resonance, EPR) and computational (Density Functional Theory, DFT) methods. A series of bidentate flavonoid ligands (L) with increasing structural complexity was examined, which can involve (CO, O(-)) donors and formation of five- and six-membered chelate rings, or (O(-), O(-)) donors and five-membered chelate rings. The geometry corresponding to these coordination modes can be penta-coordinated, [VOL2], or cis-octahedral, cis-[VOL2(H2O)]. The results show that, at physiological pH, ligands provided with (CO, O(-)) donor set yield cis-octahedral species with "maltol-like" coordination when five-membered chelate rings are formed (as with 3-hydroxyflavone), while penta-coordinated structures with "acetylacetone-like" coordination are preferred when the chelate rings are six-membered (as with chrysin). When both the binding modes are possible, as with morin, the "acetylacetone-like" coordination is observed. For the ligands containing a catecholic donor set, such as 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, baicalein, fisetin, quercetin and rutin, the formation of square pyramidal complexes with (O(-), O(-)) "catechol-like" coordination and five-membered chelate rings is preferred at physiological pH. The determination of the different coordination modes and geometry is important to define the biotransformation in the blood and the interaction of these complexes with the biological membranes. PMID:25127230

Sanna, Daniele; Ugone, Valeria; Lubinu, Giuseppe; Micera, Giovanni; Garribba, Eugenio

2014-11-01

188

Acoustical Properties of Superfluid Helium in Confined Geometry

The problem studied in this paper is to obtain the equations describing sound propagation in a consolidated porous medium filled with superfluid, determine the elastic coefficients, appearing in the equations, in terms of physically measurable quantities, and calculate the propagation velocities of transverse and longitudinal waves at high and low oscillating frequencies. In general, the obtained equations describe all volume modes that can propagate in a porous medium saturated with superfluid for any values of the porosity and frequencies. The derived equations are applied to the most important particular case when the normal component of superfluid helium is locked inside a highly porous media (aerogel, Im-helium sample) by viscous forces. For this case the velocities of two longitudinal sound modes and transverse mode are calculated from the derived equations. There are established the coupling between temperature and pressure oscillations in these fast and slow modes.

Sh. E. Kekutia; N. D. Chkhaidze

2006-04-07

189

Capillary rise, wetting layers, and critical phenomena in confined geometry

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interferometric procedures have been used to measure the thickness of the wetting layers of liquid SF6 which intrude between SF6 vapor and the walls of an interferometer. Close to the critical temperature the measurements show that the layers become thicker as the height at which they are observed approaches the height of the bulk liquid-vapor meniscus. The functional form of the thickness increase agrees with the dependence expected from models in which the layers' thicknesses are governed by a competition between gravitational and van der Waals forces. The layers are a factor of three thicker than a simple estimate based on such models. No evidence is found of a transition from three-dimensional critical behavior towards two-dimensional critical behavior in the available temperature and size ranges. This contrasts with the interpretation of experiments in binary liquid mixtures carried out with comparable size and temperature resolution.

Moldover, M. R.; Gammon, R. W.

1984-01-01

190

Charge Transport through Organized Organic Assemblies in Confined Geometries

Ordered Pyrolytic Graphite CRLS Contact Radius to Line Step FWHM Full Width at Half Maximum x 3P1P 3-phenyl-1-propanol 16-MHA 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid xi TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT...-STM images of 5 day zinc bipodal porphyrin thiol/DDT mixed SAM; imaging conditions: 1.4 V and 20 pA. 158 6.1 (A ? H) Nanografted 16-MHA squares in DDT matrix (A ? D) in ethanol and (E ? H) in 3P1P. (A, E)- 0.5 mM 16-MHA; (B, F)- 1 mM 16-MHA; (C, G)- 2...

Schuckman, Amanda Eileen

2012-07-16

191

Rayleigh-Taylor mixing: confinement by stratification and geometry

dominated by attempts to quantify the rate coefficient ?. Read’s work used rocket propulsion to reverse the acceleration field on a quiescent gravita- tionally stable density stratification. Similar work has been done more recently with a linear electric... of energy flux leaving the resolved scales. Approaches range in complexity from inventing small scale velocity fields using an self-affine projection of the resolved fields (see Meneveau & Katz (2000)), through traditional local eddy-viscosity methods...

Lawrie, Andrew

2010-03-16

192

Magnetooscillations of electrons in nonparabolic confining potential

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations induced by the small additional perpendicular field are investigated in overfilled parabolic quantum well in the presence of the parallel magnetic field. The dispersion relation of the in-plane electron motion has a double minimum in contrast to the harmonic-oscillator model. Landau levels belonging to the additional subband minima are responsible for the observed behaviour of the SdH oscillations.

Gusev, G. M.; Leite, J. R.; Olshanetskii, E. B.; Maude, D. K.; Cassé, M.; Portal, J. C.; Moshegov, N. T.; Toropov, A. I.

2000-02-01

193

Micelle fragmentation and wetting in confined flow

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use coarse-grained molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the structural and dynamical properties of micelles under non-equilibrium Poiseuille flow in a nano-confined geometry. The effects of flow, confinement, and the wetting properties of die-channel walls on spherical sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles are explored when the micelle is forced through a die-channel slightly smaller than its equilibrium size. Inside the channel, the micelle may fragment into smaller micelles. In addition to the flow rate, the wettability of the channel surfaces dictates whether the micelle fragments and determines the size of the daughter micelles: The overall behavior is determined by the subtle balance between hydrodynamic forces, micelle-wall interactions and self-assembly forces.

Habibi, Mona; Denniston, Colin; Karttunen, Mikko

2014-10-01

194

Micelle fragmentation and wetting in confined flow

We use coarse-grained molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the structural and dynamical properties of micelles under non-equilibrium Poiseuille flow in a nano-confined geometry. The effects of flow, confinement, and the wetting properties of die-channel walls on spherical sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles are explored when the micelle is forced through a die-channel slightly smaller than its equilibrium size. Inside the channel, the micelle may fragment into smaller micelles. In addition to the flow rate, the wettability of the channel surfaces dictates whether the micelle fragments and determines the size of the daughter micelles: The overall behavior is determined by the subtle balance between hydrodynamic forces, micelle-wall interactions and self-assembly forces.

Mona Habibi; Colin Denniston; Mikko Karttunen

2014-09-30

195

Block copolymers confined in a nanopore: Pathfinding in a curving and frustrating flatland

We have studied structure formation in a confined block copolymer melt by means of dynamic density functional theory. The confinement is two dimensional, and the confined geometry is that of a cylindrical nanopore. Although the results of this study are general, our coarse-grained molecular model is inspired by an experimental lamella-forming polysterene-polybutadiene diblock copolymer system [K. Shin et al., Science

G. J. A. Sevink; A. V. Zvelindovsky

2008-01-01

196

Confinement and Mayer cluster expansions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we study a class of grand-canonical partition functions with a kernel depending on a small parameter ?. This class is directly relevant to Nekrasov partition functions of 𝒩 = 2 SUSY gauge theories on the 4d ?-background, for which ? is identified with one of the equivariant deformation parameter. In the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit ??0, we show that the free energy is given by an on-shell effective action. The equations of motion take the form of a TBA equation. The free energy is identified with the Yang-Yang functional of the corresponding system of Bethe roots. We further study the associated canonical model that takes the form of a generalized matrix model. Confinement of the eigenvalues by the short-range potential is observed. In the limit where this confining potential becomes weak, the collective field theory formulation is recovered. Finally, we discuss the connection with the alternative expression of instanton partition functions as sums over Young tableaux.

Bourgine, Jean-Emile

2014-05-01

197

Confinement property in SU(3) gauge theory

We study the confinement property of the pure SU(3) gauge theory, combining in this effort the nonperturbative gluon and ghost propagators obtained as solutions of Dyson-Schwinger equations with solutions of an integral ladder diagram summation type equation for the Wilson loop. We obtain the string potential and effective UV coupling.

Zayakin, A. V. [Department fuer Physik der Ludwig-Maximillians-Universitaet Muenchen, Maier-Leibniz-Laboratory, Am Coulombwall 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); ITEP, B. Cheremushkinskaya, 25, 117218, Moscow (Russian Federation); Rafelski, J. [Department fuer Physik der Ludwig-Maximillians-Universitaet Muenchen, Maier-Leibniz-Laboratory, Am Coulombwall 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, 85721 (United States)

2009-08-01

198

Inertial Confinement Fusion with Light Ion Beams

The Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II) is presently under construction and is the only existing facility with the potential of igniting thermonuclear fuel in the laboratory. The accelerator will generate up to 5 megamperes of lithium ions at 30 million electron volts and will focus them onto an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target after beam production and focusing

J. Pace Vandevender; Donald L. Cook

1986-01-01

199

Inertial confinement fusion with light ion beams

The Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II) is presently under construction and is the only existing facility with the potential of igniting thermonuclear fuel in the laboratory. The accelerator will generate up to 5 megamperes of lithium ions at 30 million electron volts and will focus them onto an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target after beam production and focusing

J. P. VanDevender; D. L. Cook

1986-01-01

200

Symmetries in confined classical Coulomb systems

The properties of charged particles confined in a harmonic oscillator potential have become of increased interest lately in view of the development of techniques in ion traps and storage rings. The symmetries in such systems intrigued the imagination of Ted Hecht in connection with the storage ring at Heidelberg, and so perhaps it is an appropriate subject for this symposium.

Schiffer, J.P.

1991-01-01

201

Beam optics in inertial electrostatic confinement fusion

We study the transport of ions and electrons near the cathode of the inertial electrostatic confinement fusion that is expected to be a portable neutron source. We carry out a PIC particle simulation in order to obtain the self-consistent electrostatic potential and the transparency of the cathode for the accelerated ions. The transparency is shown to be much less than

Masami Ohnishi; Chikara Hoshino; Kiyoshi Yoshikawa; Kai Masuda; Yasushi Yamamoto

2000-01-01

202

The Entropic Cost of Polymer Confinement

The confinement of a polymer into a small space is thermodynamically unfavorable, because of the reduction in the number of conformational states. The entropic penalty affects a variety of biological processes, and it plays an important role in polymer transport properties and in microfluidic devices. We determine the entropic penalty for the confinement of elastic polymer of persistence length P in the long-chain limit. We examine three geometries: (1) parallel planes separated by a distance d (a “slit”); (2) a circular tube of diameter d; and (3) a sphere of diameter d. We first consider infinitely thin ("ideal") chains. As d/P drops from 100 to 0.01, T?S rises from ~5×10?4kT to ~30kT per persistence length for cases (1) and (2), with the entropic penalty for case (2) being consistently about twice that for case (1). T?S is ~5kT per persistence length for confinement to a sphere when d = P, about twice the value predicted by mean field theory. For all three geometries, in the limit d/P ? 1, the asymptotic behavior of ?S vs. d is consistent with the d?2 behavior predicted by theory. In the limit d/P ? 1, the scaling of ?S for slits and tubes is also consistent with earlier predictions (d?2/3). Finally, we treat volume exclusion effects, examining chains of diameter D>0. Confinement to a narrow slit or tube (d/P?1) has the same entropic penalty as that for an ideal chain in a slit or tube with d’ = d-D; in the weak confinement regime (d/P?1), the entropic penalties are significantly larger than those for infinitely thin chains. When a chain of finite diameter is forced into a sphere or other closed cavity, the entropic confinement penalty rises without limit, because there are no configurations available to the chain once its volume exceeds that of the cavity. PMID:22905742

Smyda, Mark R.; Harvey, Stephen C.

2012-01-01

203

A general introduction to the topological mechanism responsible for the absolute confinement of quarks inside hadronic bound states is given, including the effects of a finite instanton angle. We then propose a calculational technique for computing these states and their properties, where instead of topology we rely on a perturbative mechanism. It assumes that already before the topological mechanism can

Gerard't Hooft

2003-01-01

204

Excitation of confined modes on particle arrays

We describe both theoretically and experimentally the existence and excitation of confined modes in planar arrays of gold nanodisks. Ordered 2D lattices of monodispersive nanoparticles are manufactured, embedded in a silica matrix, and exposed to evanescent prism-coupling illumination, leading to dark features in the reflectivity, which signal the presence of confined modes guided along the arrays. We find remarkable agreement between theory and experiment in the frequency-momentum dispersion of the resonances. Direct excitation of these modes reveals long propagation distances and deep extinction features. This characterization of guided modes shows the great potential of metallic particle arrays for optical signal processing and distant sensing applications.

Bendaña, Xesús Manoel; Pirruccio, Giuseppe; Rivas, Jaime Gómez; de Abajo, F Javier García

2012-01-01

205

The Regge behaviour of the solutions of a Dirac hamiltonian describing a heavy quark-light quark system in high orbital angular momentum states is analyzed. It is found that the solutions of a scalar confining potential are physically admissible while those of a vector confining potential are not. It is concluded that with a Dirac hamiltonian a scalar confining potential is preferred over a vector confining potential for any value of the orbital angular momentum.

Avila, M. A. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, UAEM, Cuernavaca 62210, Morelos (Mexico)

1998-10-05

206

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have derived a shallow subsurface 2-D tomographic P-wave velocity image of the Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP) of India using first-arrival traveltime data along a 90-km-long N-S trending seismic profile in the Deccan Syneclise region. The tomographic image depicts smooth velocity variations of Quaternary and Tertiary (2.0-3.0 km s-1) sediments, basalts/traps (5.0-5.5 km s-1), sub-trappean Mesozoic sediments (4.3-4.5 km s-1) as well as the basement (5.9-6.1 km s-1) geometry down to a maximum depth of 5.0 km. Due to Late Cretaceous volcanism and outpouring of basaltic lava flows, this region is affected by numerous dyke intrusions and thick basaltic trap (2-3 km) exposed on the surface and surrounded by graben structures due to deep basinal faults forming a large igneous province. Although sub-basalt imaging is a major challenge for the oil industry, with the help of tomographic imaging technique of first-arrival seismic refraction data, we were able to image sub-trappean Mesozoic sediments (<0.75 km) deposited below the two sequences of thick basaltic flows above the basement. The imaged Mesozoic sediments are expected to contain hydrocarbon because of their wide extension in this sedimentary basin with suitable trapping mechanism due to basalts. The robustness of the velocity image is assessed through numerous tests like velocity perturbations, ?2 estimates, rms residuals of traveltime fit, uncertainty estimates through computation of ray-density or hits and series of checkerboard resolution tests with velocity anomalies having different cell size. The thickness of the basalt and the sub-trappean Mesozoic sediments along with the basement geometry obtained from tomography are constrained through ray-trace modelling and pre-stack depth migration (PSDM) of the wide-angle reflection phases for different shot gathers along the profile.

Behera, Laxmidhar; Sen, Mrinal K.

2014-10-01

207

Electrokinetic confinement of axonal growth for dynamically configurable neural networks

Axons in the developing nervous system are directed via guidance cues, whose expression varies both spatially and temporally, to create functional neural circuits. Existing methods to create patterns of neural connectivity in vitro use only static geometries, and are unable to dynamically alter the guidance cues imparted on the cells. We introduce the use of AC electrokinetics to dynamically control axonal growth in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. We find that the application of modest voltages at frequencies on the order of 105 Hz can cause developing axons to be stopped adjacent to the electrodes while axons away from the electric fields exhibit uninhibited growth. By switching electrodes on or off, we can reversibly inhibit or permit axon passage across the electrodes. Our models suggest that dielectrophoresis is the causative AC electrokinetic effect. We make use of our dynamic control over axon elongation to create an axon-diode via an axon-lock system that consists of a pair of electrode `gates' that either permit or prevent axons from passing through. Finally, we developed a neural circuit consisting of three populations of neurons, separated by three axon-locks to demonstrate the assembly of a functional, engineered neural network. Action potential recordings demonstrate that the AC electrokinetic effect does not harm axons, and Ca2+ imaging demonstrated the unidirectional nature of the synaptic connections. AC electrokinetic confinement of axonal growth has potential for creating configurable, directional neural networks. PMID:23314575

Honegger, Thibault; Scott, Mark A.; Yanik, Mehmet F.; Voldman, Joel

2013-01-01

208

Holographic repulsion and confinement in gauge theory

We show that for asymptotically anti-deSitter backgrounds with negative energy, such as the AdS soliton and regulated negative mass AdS-Schwarzshild metrics, the Wilson loop expectation value in the AdS/CFT conjecture exhibits a Coulomb to confinement transition. We also show that the quark-antiquark ($q \\bar q$) potential can be interpreted as affine time along null geodesics on the minimal string world sheet,and that its intrinsic curvature provides a signature of transition to confinement phase. The result demonstrates a UV/IR relation in that the boundary separation of the $q \\bar{q}$ pair exhibits an inverse relationship with the radial descent of the world sheet into the bulk. Our results suggest a generic (holographic) relationship between confinement in gauge theory and repulsive gravity, which in turn is connected with singularity avoidance in quantum gravity.

Viqar Husain; Dawood Kothawala

2012-01-27

209

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Model potential parameters and basis sets are reported for the As atom. LCGTO MP LSD calculations employing both VWN and X? potentials were performed for the As 2 and As 4 molecules. For both molecules the geometrical and spectroscopic results are in very good agreement with the available experimental data and with other ab initio studies. The HeI photoelectron spectra have been reproduced for both the systems. The calculated spectra are in excellent agreement with the experiment and the use of the VWN potential gives the most accurate results.

Andzelm, Jan; Russo, Nino; Salahub, Dennis R.

1987-12-01

210

Geometry and Categoricity John T. Baldwin Introduction Canonicity of Fundamental Structures Quasiminimal excellence Generalized Amalgamation and Existence Examples Model Homogeneity Zariski Structures Analytic Structures Geometry and Categoricity John T. Baldwin January 8, 2012 #12;Geometry and Categoricity

Baldwin, John T.

211

Totally confined explosive welding

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The undesirable by-products of explosive welding are confined and the association noise is reduced by the use of a simple enclosure into which the explosive is placed and in which the explosion occurs. An infrangible enclosure is removably attached to one of the members to be bonded at the point directly opposite the bond area. An explosive is completely confined within the enclosure at a point in close proximity to the member to be bonded and a detonating means is attached to the explosive. The balance of the enclosure, not occupied by explosive, is filled with a shaped material which directs the explosive pressure toward the bond area. A detonator adaptor controls the expansion of the enclosure by the explosive force so that the enclosure at no point experiences a discontinuity in expansion which causes rupture. The use of the technique is practical in the restricted area of a space station.

Bement, L. J. (inventor)

1978-01-01

212

Dynamics of strongly confined self propelled particles in non convex boundaries

We study the dynamics of non-aligning, non-interacting self-propelled particles confined to a box in two dimensions. In the strong confinement limit, when the persistence length of the active particles is much larger than the size of the box, particles stay on the boundary and align with the local boundary normal. It is then possible to derive the steady-state density on the boundary for arbitrary box shapes. In non-convex boxes, the non-uniqueness of the boundary normal results in hysteretic dynamics and the density is non-local, i.e. it depends on the global geometry of the box. These findings establish a general connection between the geometry of a confining box and the behavior of the active suspension it confines, thus providing a powerful tool to understand and design such confinements.

Yaouen Fily; Aparna Baskaran; Michael F. Hagan

2014-10-20

213

Innovative confinement concepts workshop

The Innovative Confinement Concepts Workshop occurred in California during the week preceding the Second Symposium on Current Trends in International Fusion Research. An informal report was made to the Second Symposium. A summary of the Workshop concluded that some very promising ideas were presented, that innovative concept development is a central element of the restructured US DOE. Fusion Energy Sciences program, and that the Workshop should promote real scientific progress in fusion.

Kirkpatrick, R.C.

1998-06-01

214

Inertial Confinement fusion targets

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets are made as simple flat discs, as hollow shells or as complicated multilayer structures. Many techniques were devised for producing the targets. Glass and metal shells are made by using drop and bubble techniques. Solid hydrogen shells are also produced by adapting old methods to the solution of modern problems. Some of these techniques, problems, and solutions are discussed. In addition, the applications of many of the techniques to fabrication of ICF targets is presented.

Hendricks, C. D.

1982-01-01

215

Energy confinement in tokamaks

A straightforward generalization is made of the ohmic heating energy confinement scalings of Pfeiffer and Waltz and Blackwell et. al. The resulting model is systematically calibrated to published data from limiter tokamaks with ohmic, electron cyclotron, and neutral beam heating. With considerably fewer explicitly adjustable free parameters, this model appears to give a better fit to the available data for limiter discharges than the combined ohmic/auxiliary heating model of Goldston.

Sugihara, M.; Singer, C.

1986-08-01

216

Topological confinement and superconductivity

We derive a Kondo Lattice model with a correlated conduction band from a two-band Hubbard Hamiltonian. This mapping allows us to describe the emergence of a robust pairing mechanism in a model that only contains repulsive interactions. The mechanism is due to topological confinement and results from the interplay between antiferromagnetism and delocalization. By using Density-Matrix-Renormalization-Group (DMRG) we demonstrate that this mechanism leads to dominant superconducting correlations in aID-system.

Al-hassanieh, Dhaled A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batista, Cristian D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

217

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An alternative picture of classical many body mechanics is proposed. In this picture particles possess individual kinematics but are deprived from individual dynamics. Dynamics exists only for the many particle system as a whole. The theory is complete and allows to determine the trajectories of each particle. It is proposed to use our picture as a classical prototype for a realistic theory of confined particles.

Horzela, Andrzej; Kapuscik, Edward

1993-01-01

218

It is conjectured that a non-Abelian gauge theory based on the color SU(3) group will confine quarks. Various techniques that have been applied to this question are reviewed. These include approximate methods based on strong coupling expansions of Hamiltonian and Euclidian lattice theories, instanton improvements on perturbation theory, and solutions of truncated Dyson-Schwinger equations for the gauge field propagator. Formal

Myron Bander

1981-01-01

219

The Properties of Confined Water and Fluid Flow at the Nanoscale

This project has been focused on the development of accurate computational tools to study fluids in confined, nanoscale geometries, and the application of these techniques to probe the structural and electronic properties of water confined between hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates, including the presence of simple ions at the interfaces. In particular, we have used a series of ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations and quantum Monte Carlo calculations to build an understanding of how hydrogen bonding and solvation are modified at the nanoscale. The properties of confined water affect a wide range of scientific and technological problems - including protein folding, cell-membrane flow, materials properties in confined media and nanofluidic devices.

Schwegler, E; Reed, J; Lau, E; Prendergast, D; Galli, G; Grossman, J C; Cicero, G

2009-03-09

220

We report on the three-dimensional subwavelength confinement of the electromagnetic waves at a coupled metallic slit structure beyond diffraction limit in terahertz region. Lateral confinement behavior, leading to the three-dimensional confinement, is caused by a strong funneling effect of the light which occurs at the intersection of slits with a sharp metal geometry. Tunability of the resonant frequency and the position of the light confinement is achieved by controlling the slit length and the position of the intersection of slits, respectively. PMID:21997030

Yang, Jin-Kyu; Kee, Chul-Sik; Lee, Joong Wook

2011-10-10

221

The program objective is to demonstrate efficient removal of fine particulates to sufficiently low levels to meet proposed small scale coal combustor emission standards. This is to be accomplished using a novel particulate removal device, the Confined Vortex Scrubber (CVS). The CVS consists of a cylindrical vortex chamber with tangential flue gas inlets. The clean gas exit is via tangent slots in a central tube. Liquid is introduced into the chamber and is confined with the vortex chamber by the centrifugal force generated by the gas flow itself. This confined liquid forms a layer through which the flue gas is then forced to bubble, producing a strong gas/liquid interaction, high inertial separation forces and efficient particulate cleanup. In effect, each of the sub-millimeter diameter gas bubbles in the liquid layer acts as a micro-cyclone, inertially separating particles into the surrounding liquid. The CVS thus obtains efficient particle removal by forcing intimate and vigorous interaction between the particle laden flue gas and the liquid scrubbing medium.

Not Available

1990-05-01

222

Spatially confined assembly of nanoparticles.

Conspectus The ability to assemble NPs into ordered structures that are expected to yield collective physical or chemical properties has afforded new and exciting opportunities in the field of nanotechnology. Among the various configurations of nanoparticle assemblies, two-dimensional (2D) NP patterns and one-dimensional (1D) NP arrays on surfaces are regarded as the ideal assembly configurations for many technological devices, for example, solar cells, magnetic memory, switching devices, and sensing devices, due to their unique transport phenomena and the cooperative properties of NPs in assemblies. To realize the potential applications of NP assemblies, especially in nanodevice-related applications, certain key issues must still be resolved, for example, ordering and alignment, manipulating and positioning in nanodevices, and multicomponent or hierarchical structures of NP assemblies for device integration. Additionally, the assembly of NPs with high precision and high levels of integration and uniformity for devices with scaled-down dimensions has become a key and challenging issue. Two-dimensional NP patterns and 1D NP arrays are obtained using traditional lithography techniques (top-down strategies) or interfacial assembly techniques (bottom-up strategies). However, a formidable challenge that persists is the controllable assembly of NPs in desired locations over large areas with high precision and high levels of integration. The difficulty of this assembly is due to the low efficiency of small features over large areas in lithography techniques or the inevitable structural defects that occur during the assembly process. The combination of self-assembly strategies with existing nanofabrication techniques could potentially provide effective and distinctive solutions for fabricating NPs with precise position control and high resolution. Furthermore, the synergistic combination of spatially mediated interactions between nanoparticles and prestructures on surfaces may play an increasingly important role in the controllable assembly of NPs. In this Account, we summarize our approaches and progress in fabricating spatially confined assemblies of NPs that allow for the positioning of NPs with high resolution and considerable throughput. The spatially selective assembly of NPs at the desired location can be achieved by various mechanisms, such as, a controlled dewetting process, electrostatically mediated assembly of particles, and confined deposition and growth of NPs. Three nanofabrication techniques used to produce prepatterns on a substrate are summarized: the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) patterning technique, e-beam lithography (EBL), and nanoimprint lithography (NPL). The particle density, particle size, or interparticle distance in NP assemblies strongly depends on the geometric parameters of the template structure due to spatial confinement. In addition, with smart design template structures, multiplexed NPs can be assembled into a defined structure, thus demonstrating the structural and functional complexity required for highly integrated and multifunction applications. PMID:25244100

Jiang, Lin; Chen, Xiaodong; Lu, Nan; Chi, Lifeng

2014-10-21

223

Hohlraums of full ignition scale (6-mm diameter by 7-mm length) have been heated by x-rays from a z-pinch magnet on Z to a variety of temperatures and pulse shapes which can be used to simulate the early phases of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) temperature drive. The pulse shape is varied by changing the on-axis target of the z pinch in a static-wall-hohlraum geometry. A 2-{micro}m-thick walled Cu cylindrical target of 8-mm diameter filled with 10 mg/cm{sup 3} CH, for example, produces foot-pulse conditions of {approx}85 eV for a duration of {approx}10 ns, while a solid cylindrical target of 5-mm diameter and 14-mg/cm{sup 3} CH generates first-step-pulse conditions of {approx}122 eV for a duration of a few ns. Alternatively, reducing the hohlraum size (to 4-mm diameter by 4-mm length) with the latter target has increased the peak temperature to {approx}150 eV, which is characteristic of a second-step-pulse temperature. In general, the temperature T of these x-ray driven hohlraums is in agreement with the Planckian relation T{approx}(P/A){sup 1/4}. P is the measured x-ray input power and A is the surface area of the hohlraum. Fully-integrated 2-D radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of the z pinch and subsequent hohlraum heating show plasma densities within the useful volume of the hohlraums to be on the order of air or less.

BOWERS,RICHARD; CHANDLER,GORDON A.; HEBRON,DAVID E.; LEEPER,RAMON J.; MATUSLKA,WALTER; MOCK,RAYMOND CECIL; NASH,THOMAS J.; OLSON,CRAIG L.; PETERSON,BOB; PETERSON,DARRELL; RUGGLES,LAURENCE E.; SANFORD,THOMAS W. L.; SIMPSON,WALTER W.; STRUVE,KENNETH W.; VESEY,ROGER A.

1999-11-01

224

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Geometry provides a natural window into what it is like to do mathematics. In the world of geometry, playful experimentation is often more fruitful than following a procedure, and logic plus a few axioms can open new worlds. Nonetheless, teaching a geometry course in a way that combines both rigor and play can be difficult. Many geometry courses…

Cukier, Mimi; Asdourian, Tony; Thakker, Anand

2012-01-01

225

Plasma confinement studies in open systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies in open systems in the world are reviewed from viewpoints of the potential confinement and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability. The tandem mirror GAMMA 10 has shown the potential confinement of a high-ion-temperature plasma from an analysis of the time evolution of end-loss ion current and end-loss ion energy distributions. The central cell density was increased by 50% by the potential confinement. In the HIEI tandem mirror H-mode-like phenomena were observed with an increase in density and diamagnetic signal in a limiter biasing experiment. Potential formation phenomena in plasmas are studied by 0741-3335/41/3A/024/img1-like Upgrade under different magnetic field configurations and plasma conditions. The fully axisymmetric tandem mirror AMBAL-M is under construction and its end mirror system has been assembled. Heating experiments of a plasma gun produced plasma by neutral beam injection and ICRF heating are in progress. The gas dynamic trap (GDT) experiment has successfully produced an MHD-stable high-temperature, high-density plasma. In GOL-3-II, a high-density plasma with several 100 eV temperature is created by powerful relativistic electron beam injection. Construction of HANBIT has been completed and experiments on plasma production and ICRF heating have begun.

Yatsu, Kiyoshi

1999-03-01

226

The paper describes the present (end of February 1985) status of the plasma confinement studies in the TFTR tokamak with emphasis on those with neutral beam injection (NBI). Recent improvements in the device capabilities have substantially extended operating parameters: B/sub T/ increased to 4.0 T, I/sub p/ to 2.0 MA, injection power (P/sub b/) to 5 MW with H/sup 0/ or D/sup 0/ beams anti n/sub e/ to 5 x 10/sup 19/ m/sup -3/, and Z/sub eff/ reduced to 1.4. With ohmic heating (OH) alone, the previously established scaling for gross energy confinement time (tau/sub E/ = anti n/sub e/q) has been confirmed at higher I/sub p/ and B/sub T/, and the maximum tau/sub E/ of 0.4 sec has been achieved. With NBI at P/sub b/ substantially (by factor >2) higher than P/sub OH/, excellent power and particle accountability have been established. This suggests that the less-than-expected increase in stored energy with NBI is not due to problems of power delivery, but due to problems of confinement deterioration. tau/sub E/ is observed to scale approximately as I/sub p/ P/sub b//sup -0.5/ (independent of anti n/sub e/), consistent with previous L-mode scalings. With NBI we have achieved the maximum tau/sub E/ of 0.2 sec and the maximum T/sub i/(o) of 4.4 keV in the normal operating regime, and even higher T/sub i/(o) in the energetic-ion regime with low-n/sub e/ and low-I/sub p/ operation.

Murakami, M.; Arunasalam, V.; Bell, J.D.; Bell, M.G.; Bitter, M.; Blanchard, W.R.; Boody, F.; Boyd, D.; Bretz, N.; Bush, C.E.

1985-06-01

227

The program objective is to demonstrate efficient removal of fine particulates to sufficiently low levels to meet proposed small scale coal combustor emission standards using a cleanup technology appropriate to small scale coal combustors. This to be accomplished using a novel particulate removal device, the Confined Vortex Scrubber (CVS), which consists of a cylindrical vortex chamber with tangential flue gas inlets. The clean gas exit is via vortex finder outlets, one at either end of the tube. Liquid is introduced into the chamber and is confined within the vortex chamber by the centrifugal force generated by the gas flow itself. This confined liquid forms a layer through which the flue gas is then forced to bubble, producing a strong gas/liquid interaction, high inertial separation forces and efficient particulate cleanup. During this quarter a comprehensive series of cleanup experiments have been made for three CVS configurations. The first CVS configuration tested gave very efficient fine particulate removal at the design air mass flow rate (1 MM BUT/hr combustor exhaust flow), but had over 20{double prime}WC pressure drop. The first CVS configuration was then re-designed to produce the same very efficient particulate collection performance at a lower pressure drop. The current CVS configuration produces 99.4 percent cleanup of ultra-fine fly ash at the design air mass flow at a pressure drop of 12 {double prime}WC with a liquid/air flow ratio of 0.31/m{sup 3}. Unlike venturi scrubbers, the collection performance of the CVS is insensitive to dust loading and to liquid/air flow ratio.

Not Available

1990-07-01

228

Confinement Contains Condensates

Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and its connection to the generation of hadron masses has historically been viewed as a vacuum phenomenon. We argue that confinement makes such a position untenable. If quark-hadron duality is a reality in QCD, then condensates, those quantities that have commonly been viewed as constant empirical mass-scales that fill all spacetime, are instead wholly contained within hadrons; i.e., they are a property of hadrons themselves and expressed, e.g., in their Bethe-Salpeter or light-front wave functions. We explain that this paradigm is consistent with empirical evidence, and incidentally expose misconceptions in a recent Comment.

Brodsky, Stanley J.; Roberts, Craig D.; Shrock, Robert; Tandy, Peter C.

2012-03-12

229

Dynamics of Confined Water Molecules in Aqueous Salt Hydrates

The unusual properties of water are largely dictated by the dynamics of the H bond network. A single water molecule has more H bonding sites than atoms, hence new experimental and theoretical investigations about this peculiar liquid have not ceased to appear. Confinement of water to nanodroplets or small molecular clusters drastically changes many of the liquid’s properties. Such confined water plays a major role in the solvation of macro molecules such as proteins and can even be essential to their properties. Despite the vast results available on bulk and confined water, discussions about the correlation between spectral and structural properties continue to this day. The fast relaxation of the OH stretching vibration in bulk water, and the variance of sample geometries in the experiments on confined water obfuscate definite interpretation of the spectroscopic results in terms of structural parameters. We present first time-resolved investigations on a new model system that is ideally suited to overcome many of the problems faced in spectroscopical investigation of the H bond network of water. Aqueous hydrates of inorganic salts provide water molecules in a crystal grid, that enables unambiguous correlations of spectroscopic and structural features. Furthermore, the confined water clusters are well isolated from each other in the crystal matrix, so different degrees of confinement can be achieved by selection of the appropriate salt.

Werhahn, Jasper C.; Pandelov, S.; Yoo, Soohaeng; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Iglev, H.

2011-04-01

230

Effect of confinement on the deformation of microfluidic drops.

We study the deformation of drops squeezed between the floor and ceiling of a microchannel and subjected to a hyperbolic flow. We observe that the maximum deformation of drops depends on both the drop size and the rate of strain of the external flow and can be described with power laws with exponents 2.59±0.28 and 0.91±0.05, respectively. We develop a theoretical model to describe the deformation of squeezed drops based on the Darcy approximation for shallow geometries and the use of complex potentials. The model describes the steady-state deformation of the drops as a function of a nondimensional parameter Ca?2, where Ca is the capillary number (proportional to the strain rate and the drop size) and ? is a confinement parameter equal to the drop size divided by the channel height. For small deformations, the theoretical model predicts a linear relationship between the deformation of drops and this parameter, in good agreement with the experimental observations. PMID:24730934

Ulloa, Camilo; Ahumada, Alberto; Cordero, María Luisa

2014-03-01

231

Theory of plasma confinement in non-axisymmetric magnetic fields.

The theory of plasma confinement by non-axisymmetric magnetic fields is reviewed. Such fields are used to confine fusion plasmas in stellarators, where in contrast to tokamaks and reversed-field pinches the magnetic field generally does not possess any continuous symmetry. The discussion is focussed on magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium conditions, collisionless particle orbits, and the kinetic theory of equilbrium and transport. Each of these topics is fundamentally affected by the absence of symmetry in the magnetic field: the field lines need not trace out nested flux surfaces, the particle orbits may not be confined, and the cross-field transport can be very large. Nevertheless, by tailoring the magnetic field appropriately, well-behaved equilibria with good confinement can be constructed, potentially offering an attractive route to magnetic fusion. In this article, the mathematical apparatus to describe stellarator plasmas is developed from first principles and basic elements underlying confinement optimization are introduced. PMID:25047050

Helander, Per

2014-08-01

232

Electromagnetic response of confined Dirac particles

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eigenstates of a single massless Dirac particle confined in a linear potential are calculated exactly by direct solution of the Dirac equation. The electromagnetic structure functions are calculated from the Dirac wave functions of the ground and excited states of the particle by coupling to its conserved vector current. We obtain the longitudinal and transverse structure functions as a function of y˜=?-|q|, where ? and |q| are the energy and momentum transferred to the target in its rest frame. At values of |q|?2.5 GeV, much larger than the characteristic energy scale ˜440 MeV of the confining potential, the response exhibits y˜ scaling, a generalization of Bjorken scaling. We compare the exact structure functions with those obtained from the ground state wave functions in the plane wave impulse approximation. The deviation from the Callan-Gross relation is compared with the parton model prediction.

Paris, Mark W.

2003-08-01

233

Inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) neutron sources

Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) is one of the earliest plasma confinement concepts, having first been suggested by P.T. Farnsworth in the 1950s. The concept involves a simple apparatus of concentric spherical electrostatic grids or a combination of grids and magnetic fields. An electrostatic structure is formed from the confluence of electron or ion beams. Gridded IEC systems have demonstrated neutron yields as high as 2 {times} 10{sup 10} neutrons/sec in steady state. These systems have considerable potential as small, inexpensive, portable neutron sources for assaying applications. Neutron tomography is also a potential application. This paper discusses the IEC concept and how it can be adapted to a steady-state assaying source and an intense pulsed neutron source. Theoretical modeling and experimental results are presented.

Nebel, R.A.; Barnes, D.C.; Caramana, E.J.; Janssen, R.D.; Nystrom, W.D.; Tiouririne, T.N.; Trent, B.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Miley, G.H.; Javedani, J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

1995-12-31

234

Inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) neutron sources

Inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) is one of the earliest plasma confinement concepts, having first been suggested by P.T. Farnsworth in the 1950s. The concept involves a simple apparatus of concentric spherical electrostatic grids or a combination of grids and magnetic fields. An electrostatic structure is formed from the confluence of electron or ion beams. Gridded IEC systems have demonstrated neutron yields as high as 2 x 10(exp 10) neutrons/sec in steady state. These systems have considerable potential as small, inexpensive, portable neutron sources for assaying applications. Neutron tomography is also a potential application. This paper discusses the IEC concept and how it can be adapted to a steady-state assaying source and an intense pulsed neutron source. Theoretical modeling and experimental results are presented.

Barnes, D.C.; Caramana, E.J.; Janssen, R.D.; Nystrom, W.D.; Tiouririne, T.N.; Trent, B.C.; Miley, G.H.; Javedani, J.

1995-01-01

235

Crystallization under nanoscale confinement.

Classical crystal growth models posit that crystallization outcomes are determined by nuclei that resemble mature crystal phases, but at a critical size where the volume free energy of nuclei begins to offset the unfavorable surface free energy arising from the interface with the growth medium. Crystallization under nanoscale confinement offers an opportunity to examine nucleation and phase transformations at length scales corresponding to the critical size, at which kinetics and thermodynamics of nucleation and growth intersect and dramatic departures in stability compared to bulk crystals can appear. This tutorial review focuses on recent investigations of the crystallization of organic compounds in nanoporous matrices that effectively provide millions of nanoscale reactors in a single sample, ranging from controlled porous glass (CPG) beads to nanoporous block-copolymer monoliths to anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. Confinement of crystal growth in this manner provides a snapshot of the earliest stages of crystal growth, with insights into nucleation, size-dependent polymorphism, and thermotropic behavior of nanoscale crystals. Moreover, these matrices can be used to screen for crystal polymorphs and assess their stability as nanocrystals. The well-aligned cylindrical nanoscale pores of polymer monoliths or AAO also allow determination of preferred orientation of embedded nanocrystals, affording insight into the competitive nature of nucleation, critical sizes, and phase transition mechanisms. Collectively, these investigations have increased our understanding of crystallization at length scales that are deterministic while suggesting strategies for controlling crystallization outcomes. PMID:24081010

Jiang, Qi; Ward, Michael D

2014-04-01

236

Statistical mechanics of confined quantum particles

We develop statistical mechanics and thermodynamics of Bose and Fermi systems in relativistic harmonic oscillator (RHO) confining potential, which may be applicable in quark gluon plasma (QGP), astrophysics, Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), condensed matter physics etc. Detailed study of QGP system is carried out and compared with lattice results. Further, as an application, our equation of state (EoS) of QGP is used to study compact stars like quark star.

Vishnu M. Bannur; K. M. Udayanandan

2006-02-02

237

Chiral Confinement in Quasirelativistic Bose-Einstein Condensates

In the presence of a laser-induced spin-orbit coupling an interacting ultracold spinor Bose-Einstein condensate may acquire a quasirelativistic character described by a nonlinear Dirac-like equation. We show that as a result of the spin-orbit coupling and the nonlinearity the condensate may become self-trapped, resembling the so-called chiral confinement, previously studied in the context of the massive Thirring model. We first consider 1D geometries where the self-confined condensates present an intriguing sinusoidal dependence on the interparticle interactions. We further show that multidimensional chiral confinement is also possible under appropriate feasible laser arrangements, and discuss the properties of 2D and 3D condensates, which differ significantly from the 1D case.

Merkl, M.; Zimmer, F. E.; Oehberg, P. [SUPA, Department of Physics, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Jacob, A.; Santos, L. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Appelstrasse 2, Leibniz University, Hannover (Germany)

2010-02-19

238

Inertial confinement fusion method producing line source radiation fluence

An inertial confinement fusion method in which target pellets are imploded in sequence by laser light beams or other energy beams at an implosion site which is variable between pellet implosions along a line. The effect of the variability in position of the implosion site along a line is to distribute the radiation fluence in surrounding reactor components as a line source of radiation would do, thereby permitting the utilization of cylindrical geometry in the design of the reactor and internal components.

Rose, Ronald P. (Peters Township, Washington County, PA)

1984-01-01

239

Plasma Flow Damping and Confinement Times on MCX

The Maryland Centrifugal eXperiment uses a sixteen-chord Halpha measurement system to measure absolute intensity levels of the Hydrogen Balmer- alpha line in a rotating plasma with mirror magnetic geometry. This newly enhanced multi-chord system has allowed us to characterize neutral Hydrogen behavior at the mid-plane and determine its affect on plasma flow and confinement times. We compare these results with

R. Clary; R. Ellis; A. Hassam; S. H. Choi; R. Elton; C. Teodorescu; I. Uzun-Kaymak; W. Young

2008-01-01

240

Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Modeling and Comparison to Experiments

In inertial-electrostatic confinement (IEC), a high voltage accelerates ions between concentric, nearly transparent grids, usually in spherical geometry. For typical parameters (˜0.3 Pa 2 mTorr, ˜100 kV, ˜30 mA, ˜0.5 m anode diameter), atomic and molecular processes dominate operation. A numerically solved integral equation[1,2] approach to modeling D^+, D2^+, D3^+, and D^- ions passing through D2 background gas will be

Gilbert Emmert; John Santarius; Eric Alderson; David Donovan

2010-01-01

241

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a comprehensive numerical investigation on the guiding properties of a nanotube based hybrid plasmonic waveguide, which comprises a high-index dielectric nanotube placed above a metallic substrate. It is shown that the incorporation of the nanotube offers additional freedom for tuning the optical performance of the hybrid plasmonic structure when compared to the traditional nanowire based hybrid counterparts, which enables further reduction of the propagation loss and enhanced field confinement inside the gap region, while simultaneously maintaining a subwavelength mode size at appropriate geometries. Systematic geometric parameters mapping considering the size of the nanotube and the dimension of the gap reveals that the tradeoff between the confinement and loss could be further balanced through optimizing key physical parameters. These investigations potentially lay the groundwork for the further applications of nanotube based hybrid structures.

Bian, Yusheng; Gong, Qihuang

2014-06-01

242

MHTGR confinement radiation releases

Investigations of the chemical form and transport of two fission products released during selected modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) postulated accidents have resulted in the conclusion that estimated doses are reduced by as much as 30% when aerosol deposition and chemical species effects are included. Applying chemical equilibrium principles and collision theory, aerosol removal rates were calculated with MHTGR-NAUA, a modified version of the NAUA Mod-4 light water reactor aerosol analysis computer program. The effect of input assumptions on fission product release and off-site dose was then evaluated with the SCIMCA computer program. Preliminary estimates of radiation releases from an MHTGR during credible accidents are well below existing limits. These low estimated releases provide both a safety and an economic incentive for MHTGR development. For example, it is calculated that a non-pressure-retaining building, such as the confinement design shown could adequately protect the public from radiological releases.

Maneke, J.L.; Lanning, D.D.; Lidsky, L.M.; Oddo, J.M.; Baron, J.S.; Drozd, A.

1986-01-01

243

Diamagnetism of Confined Dirac Fermions in Disordered Graphene

The diamagnetism of confined Dirac fermions submitted to a uniform magnetic field in disordered graphene is investigated. The solutions of the energy spectrum are used to discuss the orbital magnetism from a statistical mechanical point of view. More precisely, by the technique of Green functions the self-energy for short and long-ranged disorders is obtained. This allows us to determine the susceptibility for short and long-ranged disorders together with confinement. We compare our results with already published work and point out the relevance of these findings to a systematic formulation of the diamagnetism in a confining potential.

Ahmed Jellal; Malika Bellati; Michael Schreiber

2011-05-17

244

The performance of several two-step scoring approaches for molecular docking were assessed for their ability to predict binding geometries and free energies. Two new scoring functions designed for “step 2 discrimination” were proposed and compared to our CHARMM implementation of the linear interaction energy (LIE) approach using the Generalized-Born with Molecular Volume (GBMV) implicit solvation model. A scoring function S1 was proposed by considering only “interacting” ligand atoms as the “effective size” of the ligand, and extended to an empirical regression-based pair potential S2. The S1 and S2 scoring schemes were trained and five-fold cross validated on a diverse set of 259 protein-ligand complexes from the Ligand Protein Database (LPDB). The regression-based parameters for S1 and S2 also demonstrated reasonable transferability in the CSARdock 2010 benchmark using a new dataset (NRC HiQ) of diverse protein-ligand complexes. The ability of the scoring functions to accurately predict ligand geometry was evaluated by calculating the discriminative power (DP) of the scoring functions to identify native poses. The parameters for the LIE scoring function with the optimal discriminative power (DP) for geometry (step 1 discrimination) were found to be very similar to the best-fit parameters for binding free energy over a large number of protein-ligand complexes (step 2 discrimination). Reasonable performance of the scoring functions in enrichment of active compounds in four different protein target classes established that the parameters for S1 and S2 provided reasonable accuracy and transferability. Additional analysis was performed to definitively separate scoring function performance from molecular weight effects. This analysis included the prediction of ligand binding efficiencies for a subset of the CSARdock NRC HiQ dataset where the number of ligand heavy atoms ranged from 17 to 35. This range of ligand heavy atoms is where improved accuracy of predicted ligand efficiencies is most relevant to real-world drug design efforts. PMID:21644546

Rahaman, Obaidur; Estrada, Trilce P.; Doren, Douglas J.; Taufer, Michela; Brooks, Charles L.; Armen, Roger S.

2011-01-01

245

Landau Diamagnetism in a Dissipative and Confined System

Starting from a quantum Langevin equation of a charged particle in a magnetic field we present a fully dynamical calculation of the orbital diamagnetism, from which the effect of dissipation on Landau diamagnetism can be assessed. The treatment throws light on subtle issues of confined boundaries and the approach to equilibrium of a quantum dissipative system. Additional results are presented for the diamagnetism in a confined parabolic potential. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

Dattagupta, S.; Singh, J. [School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067 (India)] [School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067 (India)

1997-08-01

246

Performance of Polywell inertial-electrostatic confinement for applications

Summary form only given, as follows. Recent ideas have motivated a fresh look at fusion based on inertial-electrostatic confinement (IEC). Inertial-electrostatic-confinement devices electrostatically focus ions into a dense core. The electrostatic potential is generated by either grids or magnetically trapped electrons (the polywell concept). Work will be reported on modeling Polywell particle and power balance, with an emphasis on moderate-Q

J. F. Santarius; K. H. Simmons

1995-01-01

247

Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) devices

Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) is one of the earliest plasma confinement concepts, having first been suggested by P. T. Farnsworth in the 1950's. The concept involves a simple apparatus of concentric spherical electrostatic grids or a combination of grids and magnetic fields. An electrostatic structure is formed from the confluence of electron or ion beams. Gridded IEC systems have demonstrated

R. A. Nebel; L. Turner; T. N. Tiouririne; D. C. Barnes; W. D. Nystrom; R. W. Bussard; G. H. Miley; J. Javedani; Y. Yamamoto

1994-01-01

248

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Geometry and Topology is "a fully refereed international journal dealing with all aspects of geometry and topology and their applications." The publisher, Geometry & Topology Publications (GTP), is a non-profit organization based in the Mathematics Department of the University of Warwick at Coventry, UK. Visitors can browse the journal, available free of charge electronically, or search by keyword or author. The moderate collection within the Geometry and Topology Monographs series includes research monographs and refereed conference proceedings.

249

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gotta Getcha some Great Goofy Geometry Games! Billy Bug is so hungry! Move him to the right coordinate so that he can eat! Make the puzzle pieces bigger or smaller to fit the puzzle in Cyberchase Geometry! If you want a definition of any geometry term.. click the word Definition ...

Nieman, Ms.

2007-11-22

250

geometry texts in the U.S. came to be that way. #12;Geometry and Proof John T. Baldwin Background Hilbert. 2 Politics if the premises are political. #12;Geometry and Proof John T. Baldwin Background Hilbert Frameworks High School Curriculum Undefined terms Two kinds of definitions: 1 The `system' of basic notions

Baldwin, John T.

251

Chirally symmetric but confined hadrons at finite density

At a critical finite chemical potential and low temperature QCD undergoes the chiral restoration phase transition. The folklore tradition is that simultaneously hadrons are deconfined and there appears the quark matter. We demonstrate that it is possible to have confined but chirally symmetric hadrons at a finite chemical potential and hence beyond the chiral restoration point at a finite chemical potential and low temperature there could exist a chirally symmetric matter consisting of chirally symmetric but confined hadrons. If it does happen in QCD, then the QCD phase diagram should be reconsidered with obvious implications for heavy ion programs and astrophysics.

L. Ya. Glozman; R. F. Wagenbrunn

2008-02-03

252

Electron confinement in quantum nanostructures: Self-consistent Poisson-Schrödinger theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compute the self-consistent electron states and confining potential, V(r,T), for laterally confined cylindrical quantum wires at a temperature T from a numerical solution of the coupled Poisson and Schrödinger (PS) equations. Finite-temperature effects are included in the electron density function, n(r,T), via the single-particle density matrix in the grand-canonical ensemble using the self-consistent bound states. We compare our results for a GaAs quantum wire with those obtained previously [J. H. Luscombe and M. Luban, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 61 (1990)] from a finite-temperature Thomas-Fermi (TF) approximation. We find that the TF results agree well with those of the more realistic, but also more computationally intensive PS theory, except for low temperatures or for cases where the quantum wire is almost, but not totally, depleted due to a combination of either small geometry, surface boundary conditions, or low doping concentrations. In the latter situations, the number of subbands that are populated is relatively small, and both n(r,T) and V(r,T) exhibit Friedel-type oscillations. Otherwise the TF theory, which is based on free-particle states, is remarkably accurate. We also present results for the partial electron density functions associated with the angular momentum quantum numbers, and discuss their role in populating the quantum wire.

Luscombe, James H.; Bouchard, Ann M.; Luban, Marshall

1992-10-01

253

Electron confinement in quantum nanostructures: Self-consistent Poisson-Schroedinger theory

We compute the self-consistent electron states and confining potential, {ital V}({ital r},{ital T}), for laterally confined cylindrical quantum wires at a temperature {ital T} from a numerical solution of the coupled Poisson and Schroedinger (PS) equations. Finite-temperature effects are included in the electron density function, {ital n}({ital r},{ital T}), via the single-particle density matrix in the grand-canonical ensemble using the self-consistent bound states. We compare our results for a GaAs quantum wire with those obtained previously (J. H. Luscombe and M. Luban, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 61 (1990)) from a finite-temperature Thomas-Fermi (TF) approximation. We find that the TF results agree well with those of the more realistic, but also more computationally intensive PS theory, except for low temperatures or for cases where the quantum wire is almost, but not totally, depleted due to a combination of either small geometry, surface boundary conditions, or low doping concentrations. In the latter situations, the number of subbands that are populated is relatively small, and both {ital n}({ital r},{ital T}) and {ital V}({ital r},{ital T}) exhibit Friedel-type oscillations. Otherwise the TF theory, which is based on free-particle states, is remarkably accurate. We also present results for the partial electron density functions associated with the angular momentum quantum numbers, and discuss their role in populating the quantum wire.

Luscombe, J.H.; Bouchard, A.M. (Central Research Laboratories, Texas Instruments, Inc., Dallas, Texas 75265 (United States)); Luban, M. (Ames Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States))

1992-10-15

254

Trapping ultracold atoms in a time-averaged adiabatic potential

We report an experimental realization of ultracold atoms confined in a time-averaged, adiabatic potential (TAAP). This trapping technique involves using a slowly oscillating ({approx}kHz) bias field to time-average the instantaneous potential given by dressing a bare magnetic potential with a high-frequency ({approx}MHz) magnetic field. The resultant potentials provide a convenient route to a variety of trapping geometries with tunable parameters. We demonstrate the TAAP trap in a standard time-averaged orbiting potential trap with additional Helmholtz coils for the introduction of the radio frequency dressing field. We have evaporatively cooled 5x10{sup 4} atoms of {sup 87}Rb to quantum degeneracy and observed condensate lifetimes of longer than 3 s.

Gildemeister, M.; Nugent, E.; Sherlock, B. E.; Kubasik, M.; Sheard, B. T.; Foot, C. J. [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)

2010-03-15

255

Trapping ultracold atoms in a time-averaged adiabatic potential

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report an experimental realization of ultracold atoms confined in a time-averaged, adiabatic potential (TAAP). This trapping technique involves using a slowly oscillating (~kHz) bias field to time-average the instantaneous potential given by dressing a bare magnetic potential with a high-frequency (~MHz) magnetic field. The resultant potentials provide a convenient route to a variety of trapping geometries with tunable parameters. We demonstrate the TAAP trap in a standard time-averaged orbiting potential trap with additional Helmholtz coils for the introduction of the radio frequency dressing field. We have evaporatively cooled 5×104 atoms of Rb87 to quantum degeneracy and observed condensate lifetimes of longer than 3 s.

Gildemeister, M.; Nugent, E.; Sherlock, B. E.; Kubasik, M.; Sheard, B. T.; Foot, C. J.

2010-03-01

256

Ultrasonic interferometer for first-sound measurements of confined liquid He4

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new technique for probing the properties of quantum fluids in restricted geometries. We have confined liquid He4 within microfluidic devices formed from glass wafers, in which one dimension is on the micrometer scale. Using an ultrasonic analog to Fabry-Pérot interferometry, we have measured the first sound of the confined liquid He4, which can be a probe of critical behavior near the lambda point (T?). All thermodynamic properties of liquid He4 can be derived from first-sound and heat capacity measurements, and although quite a bit of experimental work has been done on the latter, no measurement of first sound has been reported for a precisely confined geometry smaller than a few tens of micrometers. In this work, we report measurements of isobaric first sound in liquid He4 confined in cavities as small as ˜5 ?m. Our experimental setup allows us to pressurize the liquid up to ˜25 bar without causing deformation of the confined geometry, a pressure which is about four times larger than previously reported with similar microfluidic devices. Our preliminary results indicate that one can possibly observe finite-size effects and verify scaling laws, by using similar devices with smaller confinement.

Rojas, X.; Hauer, B. D.; MacDonald, A. J. R.; Saberi, P.; Yang, Y.; Davis, J. P.

2014-05-01

257

A Complete Proof of the Confinement Limit of One-Dimensional Dirac Particles

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The validity of the confinement limit obtain by Unanyan et al. (Phys Rev A 79:044101, 2009) is extended by including non-symmetric vector and scalar potentials. It shows that the confinement limit of one-dimensional Dirac particles in vector and scalar potentials is , with being the Compton wavelength.

Cheng, Jian-Yuan

2014-09-01

258

Numerical Studies of Properties of Confined Helium

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We carry out state of the art simulations of properties of confined liquid helium near the superfluid transition to a degree of accuracy which allows to make predictions for the outcome of fundamental physics experiments in microgravity. First we report our results for the finite-size scaling behavior of heat capacity of superfluids for cubic and parallel-plate geometry. This allows us to study the crossover from zero and two dimensions to three dimensions. Our calculated scaling functions are in good agreement with recently measured specific heat scaling functions for the above mentioned geometries. We also present our results of a quantum simulation of submonolayer of molecular hydrogen deposited on an ideal graphite substrate using path-integral quantum Monte Carlo simulation. We find that the monolayer phase diagram is rich and very similar to that of helium monolayer. We are able to uncover the main features of the complex monolayer phase diagram, such as the commensurate solid phases and the commensurate to incommensurate transition, in agreement with the experiments and to find some features which are missing from the experimental analysis.

Manousakis, Efstratios

2003-01-01

259

Confinement of ultracold atoms in a Laguerre-Gaussian laser beam created with diffractive optics

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report 2D confinement of 87Rb atoms in a Laguerre-Gaussian laser beam. Changing of the sign of the detuning from the atomic resonance dramatically alters the geometry of the confinement. With the laser detuned to the blue, the atoms are confined to the dark, central node of the Laguerre-Gaussian laser mode. This trapping method leads to low ac Stark shifts to the atomic levels. Alternatively, by detuning the laser to the red of the resonance, we confine atoms to the high intensity outer ring in a multiply-connected, toroidal configuration. We model the confined atoms to determine azimuthal intensity variations of the trapping laser, caused by slight misalignments of the Laguerre-Gaussian mode generating optics.

Kennedy, Sharon A.; Biedermann, G. W.; Farrar, J. T.; Akin, T. G.; Krzyzewski, S. P.; Abraham, E. R. I.

2014-06-01

260

Confinement of ultracold atoms in a Laguerre-Gaussian laser beam created with diffractive optics

We report 2D confinement of Rb 87 atoms in a Laguerre-Gaussian laser beam. Changing of the sign of the detuning from the atomic resonance dramatically alters the geometry of the confinement. With the laser detuned to the blue, the atoms are confined to the dark, central node of the Laguerre-Gaussian laser mode. This trapping method leads to low ac Stark shifts to the atomic levels. Alternatively, by detuning the laser to the red of the resonance, we confine atoms to the high intensity outer ring in a multiply-connected, toroidal configuration. We model the confined atoms to determine azimuthal intensity variations of the trapping laser, caused by slight misalignments of the Laguerre-Gaussian mode generating optics.

Kennedy, Sharon A; Farrar, J Tom; Akin, T G; Krzyzewski, S; Abraham, E R I

2013-01-01

261

Alpha particle confinement in tokamaks

An assessment of diffusive tokamak transport mechanisms of concern for alpha particles indicates that the ''stochastic regime'' is the only one which appears to pose a real danger for adequate alpha confinement. This fact, in conjunction with the threshold character of that mechanism, allows one to decide whether an alpha born at a given location will be lost or confined, according to a very simple criterion. Implementing this criterion numerically results in a new code for the assessment of alpha confinement, which is orders of magnitude faster than earlier codes used for this purpose. 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

White, R.B.; Mynick, H.E.

1988-11-01

262

Partial confinement photonic crystal waveguides

One-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides with an incomplete photonic band gap are modeled and proposed for an integration application that exploits their property of partial angular confinement. Planar apodized photonic crystal structures are deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and characterized by reflectivity as a function of angle and polarization, validating a partial confinement design for light at 850 nm wavelength. Partial confinement identifies an approach for tailoring waveguide properties by the exploitation of conformal film deposition over a substrate with angularly dependent topology. An application for an optoelectronic transceiver is demonstrated.

Saini, S.; Hong, C.-Y.; Pfaff, N.; Kimerling, L. C.; Michel, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2008-12-29

263

This study uses nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulation to explore the rheology of confined liquid alkanes. Two alkanes that differ in molecular structural complexity are examined: tetracosane (C{sub 24}H{sub 50}), which is a linear alkane, and squalane (C{sub 30}H{sub 62}), which has six symmetrically placed methyl branches along a 24 carbon backbone. These model lubricants are confined between model walls that have short chains tethered to them, thus screening the wall details. This paper, the third of a three part series, compares the viscosities of the confined fluids to those of the bulk fluids. The alkanes are described by a well-documented potential model that has been shown to reproduce bulk experimental viscosity and phase equilibria measurements. Details of the simulation method, and structural information can be found in the preceding two papers of this series. The measured strain rates in these simulations range between 10{sup 8} and 10{sup 11} s{sup {minus}1}, which is typical of a number of practical applications. The confined fluids undergo extensive shear thinning, showing a power-law behavior. Comparison of results for the confined fluid to those for the bulk fluid reveal that, for the conditions examined, there is no difference between the bulk and confined viscosities for these alkanes. This observation is in contrast to experimental results at much lower strain rates (10{endash}10{sup 5} s{sup {minus}1}), which indicate the viscosities of the confined fluid to be much larger than the bulk viscosities. In making the comparison, we have carefully accounted for slip at the wall and have performed simulations of the bulk fluid at the same conditions of strain rate, temperature, and pressure as for the corresponding confined fluid. The viscosity is found to be independent of the wall spacing. The calculated power-law exponents are similar to experimentally observed values. We also note that the exponent increases with increasing density of the fluid. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Gupta, S.A.; Cochran, H.D.; Cummings, P.T. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-2200 (United States)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-2200 (United States); [Chemical Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6268 (United States)

1997-12-01

264

A confining quark model and new gauge symmetry

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss a confining model for quark-antiquark system with a new color SU3 gauge symmetry. New gauge transformations involve non-integrable phase factors and lead to the fourth-order gauge field equations and a linear potential. The massless gauge bosons have non-definite energies, which are not observable because they are permanently confined in quark systems by the linear potential. We use the empirical potentials of charmonium to determine the coupling strength of the color charge gs and find gs2/(4? ) ? 0.2. The rules for Feynman diagrams involve propagators with poles of order 2 associated with new gauge fields. The confining quark model may be renormalizable by power counting and compatible with perturbation theory.

Hsu, Jong-Ping

2014-07-01

265

Interplay of explosive thermal reaction dynamics and structural confinement

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explosives play a significant role in human affairs; however, their behavior in circumstances other than intentional detonation is poorly understood. Accidents may have catastrophic consequences, especially if additional hazardous materials are involved. Abnormal ignition stimuli, such as impact, spark, friction, and heat may lead to a very violent outcome, potentially including detonation. An important factor influencing the behavior subsequent to abnormal ignition is the strength and inertia of the vessel confining the explosive, i.e., the near-field structural/mechanical environment, also known as confinement (inertial or mechanical). However, a comprehensive and quantified understanding of how confinement affects reaction violence does not yet exist. In the research discussed here, we have investigated a wide range of confinement conditions and related the explosive response to the fundamentals of the combustion process in the explosive. In our experiments, a charge of an octahydrotetranitrotetrazine-based plastic bonded explosive (PBX 9501) was loaded into a gun assembly having variable confinement conditions and subjected to a heating profile. The exploding charge breached the confinement and accelerated a projectile down the gun barrel. High bandwidth pressure and volume measurements were made and a first-law analysis was used to obtain enthalpy and power from the raw data. These results were then used to quantify reaction violence. Enthalpy change and power ranged from 0-1.8 kJ and 0-12 MW for 300 mg charges, respectively. Below a confinement strength of 20 MPa, violence was found to decline precipitously with decreasing confinement, while the violence for the heaviest confinement experiments was found to be relatively constant. Both pressure and pressurization rate were found to have critical values to induce and sustain violent reaction.

Perry, W. Lee; Zucker, Jonathan; Dickson, Peter M.; Parker, Gary R.; Asay, Blaine W.

2007-04-01

266

Confined Hard Disk System Model

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Confined Hard Disk System is an idealized statistical mechanics model that simulates a two-dimensional system of hard disks confined to a box with a constant temperature thermal reservoir at one end and a movable piston at the other. Slow-moving particles are color-coded as blue and fast particles are color-coded as yellow. The model computes and plots the time evolution of the kinetic energy K per particle, the pressure P, andÂ the volume V. The model also displays histograms and mean values of these quantities. The Confined Hard Disk System was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_stp_hd_ConfinedHardDiskSystem.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Christian, Wolfgang

2010-12-27

267

Toolbox Safety Talk Confined Spaces

Toolbox Safety Talk Confined Spaces Environmental Health & Safety Facilities Safety & Health to Environmental Health & Safety for recordkeeping. Many Cornell University facilities and utilities Hazards Other hazards may include electrical hazards, mechanical hazards, chemical hazards, steam hazards

Pawlowski, Wojtek

268

An Index for Confined Monopoles

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compute the index and associated spectral density for fluctuation operators which are defined via the Lagrangian of SQCD in the background of non-abelian confined multimonopoles. To this end we generalize the standard index calculations of Callias and Weinberg to the case of asymptotically nontrivial backgrounds. The resulting index is determined by topological charges. We conjecture that this index counts one quarter of the dimension of the moduli space of confined multimonopoles.

Wimmer, Robert

2014-04-01

269

Confined flow of polymer blends.

The influence of confinement on the steady-state morphology of two different emulsions is investigated. The blends, made from polybutene (PB) in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polybutadiene (PBD) in PDMS, are sheared between two parallel plates, mostly with a standard gap spacing of 40 microm, in the range of shear rates at which the transition from "bulk" behavior toward "confined" behavior is observed. For both cases, the influence of the concentration was systematically investigated, as well as the shear rate effects on the final steady-state morphology. By decreasing the shear rate, for each blend, the increasing droplets, i.e., increasing confinement for a fixed gap spacing, arrange themselves first into two layers, and when the degree of confinement reaches an even higher value, a single layer of droplets is formed. The ratio between the drop diameters and the gap spacing at which this transition occurs is always lower than 0.5. While decreasing the shear rate, the degree of confinement increases due to drop coalescence. Droplets arrange themselves in superstructures like ordered pearl necklaces and, at the lower shear rates, strings. The aspect ratio and the width of the droplet obtained from optical micrographs are compared to predictions of the single droplet Maffettone-Minale model (MM model(1)). It is found that the theory, meant for unconfined shear flow, is not able to predict the drop deformation when the degree of confinement is above a critical value that depends on the blends considered and the shear rate applied. A recently developed extension of the MM model is reported by Minale (M model(2)) where the effect of the confinement is included by using the Shapira-Haber correction.3 Further extending this M model, by incorporating an effective viscosity as originally proposed by Choi and Showalter,4 we arrive at the mM model that accurately describes the experiments of blends in confined flow. PMID:18348582

Tufano, C; Peters, G W M; Meijer, H E H

2008-05-01

270

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by David Eppstein, professor of Information and Computer Science at the University of California-Irvine, the Geometry Junkyard is a metasite covering classical geometry theory and current research in the area of computation geometry. A few examples of the many topics included in the Geometry Junkyard are: combination geometry, fractals, multi-dimensional geometry, and open problems (most of which are illustrated with diagrams). Dr. Eppstein's thoughtful selection of links point users to numerous discussions and solutions to problems; in addition, he has added several pages on topics not well covered (My Own Junk), and has highlighted newly added material (New Junk). This site is more of a gold mine than a junkyard, based on the vast amount of information provided and the fun spin placed on many of the topics.

271

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generalized Kähler geometry is the natural analogue of Kähler geometry, in the context of generalized complex geometry. Just as we may require a complex structure to be compatible with a Riemannian metric in a way which gives rise to a symplectic form, we may require a generalized complex structure to be compatible with a metric so that it defines a second generalized complex structure. We prove that generalized Kähler geometry is equivalent to the bi-Hermitian geometry on the target of a 2-dimensional sigma model with (2, 2) supersymmetry. We also prove the existence of natural holomorphic Courant algebroids for each of the underlying complex structures, and that these split into a sum of transverse holomorphic Dirac structures. Finally, we explore the analogy between pre-quantum line bundles and gerbes in the context of generalized Kähler geometry.

Gualtieri, Marco

2014-10-01

272

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A volume penalization approach to simulate magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows in confined domains is presented. Here the incompressible visco-resistive MHD equations are solved using parallel pseudo-spectral solvers in Cartesian geometries. The volume penalization technique is an immersed boundary method which is characterized by a high flexibility for the geometry of the considered flow. In the present case, it allows to use other than periodic boundary conditions in a Fourier pseudo-spectral approach. The numerical method is validated and its convergence is assessed for two- and three-dimensional hydrodynamic (HD) and MHD flows, by comparing the numerical results with results from literature and analytical solutions. The test cases considered are two-dimensional Taylo-Couette flow, the z-pinch configuration, three dimensional Orszag-Tang flow, Ohmic-decay in a periodic cylinder, three-dimensional Taylo-Couette flow with and without axial magnetic field and three-dimensional Hartmann-instabilities in a cylinder with an imposed helical magnetic field. Finally, we present a magnetohydrodynamic flow simulation in toroidal geometry with non-symmetric cross section and imposing a helical magnetic field to illustrate the potential of the method.

Morales, Jorge A.; Leroy, Matthieu; Bos, Wouter J. T.; Schneider, Kai

2014-10-01

273

Topology and Geometry Software

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Topology and Geometry Software site provides downloads for games and interactive simulations. These help the user to understand finitely infinite systems. Many are available in multiple languages.

Weeks, Jeff

2009-06-15

274

Snyder-Yang algebra and confinement of color particles

A model of color particle confinement is considered. The model is based on the Snyder-Yang algebra, which takes into account a non-commutativity of generalized momenta and coordinates of a color particle and contains two new constants. An extended kinematical invariance in a quantum phase space of a color particle gives rise to an invariant equation with an oscillator rising potential. The presence of the oscillator rising potential can simulate a confinement of a color particle. Mass and lenght parameters involved in the Snyder-Yang commutation relations along with parameters of current and constituent quarks are estimated.

V. V. Khruschov

2010-12-21

275

Discrete nature of thermodynamics in confined ideal Fermi gases

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intrinsic discrete nature in thermodynamic properties of Fermi gases appears under strongly confined and degenerate conditions. For a rectangular confinement domain, thermodynamic properties of an ideal Fermi gas are expressed in their exact summation forms. For 1D, 2D and 3D nano domains, variations of both number of particles and internal energy per particle with chemical potential are examined. It is shown that their relation with chemical potential exhibits a discrete nature which allows them to take only some definite values. Furthermore, quasi-irregular oscillatory-like sharp peaks are observed in heat capacity. New nano devices can be developed based on these behaviors.

Aydin, Alhun; Sisman, Altug

2014-06-01

276

Isolation and confinement - Considerations for colonization

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses three types of isolation (sensory/perceptual, temporal, and social) that could adversely affect mankind in space. The literature dealing with laboratory and field experiments relevant to these areas is summarized and suggestions are given for dealing with these problems within the space colony community. Also, consideration is given to the potential effects of physical confinement and the need for usable space. Finally, a modification of Maslow's hierarchy of needs is proposed as a theoretical framework to understand and investigate mankind's psychological needs in space.

Akins, F. R.

1978-01-01

277

Perlite for permanent confinement of cesium

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the potential use of expanded perlite, a metastable amorphous hydrated aluminium silicate, as a permanent medium for the long-term confinement of cesium. The method requires simply a loading by mixing an aqueous cesium nitrate solution and expanded perlite at 300 K followed by densification by sintering. The formation of pollucite, CsAlSi 2O 6, a naturally occurring mineral phase, upon careful heat treatment is demonstrated by X-ray diffraction. Leaching tests on the resulting glass-ceramics reveal a very low Cs departure of 0.5 mg m -2 d -1.

Balencie, J.; Burger, D.; Rehspringer, J.-L.; Estournès, C.; Vilminot, S.; Richard-Plouet, M.; Boos, A.

2006-06-01

278

Adjoint ``Quarks'' and the Physics of Confinement

The quark-antiquark potential and the chromoelectric fields generated by ``quarks'' in the adjoint representation of SU(2) color are analyzed in the scaling region of the theory. New results with interesting implications for our understanding of the confinement mechanism are presented. In particular, the formation of color-electric flux-tubes between adjoint quarks is demonstrated in four-dimensional SU(2) color. The flux-tubes for fundamental and adjoint representation quarks are shown to have very similar cross-sections. This result could imply that the QCD vacuum is dual to a type I superconductor.

Howard D. Trottier

1995-11-04

279

‘Square root’ of the Maxwell Lagrangian versus confinement in general relativity

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We employ the 'square root' of the Maxwell Lagrangian (i.e. ?{F??F}), coupled with gravity to search for the possible linear potentials which are believed to play role in confinement. It is found that in the presence of magnetic charge no confining potential exists in such a model. Confining field solutions are found for radial geodesics in pure electrically charged Nariai-Bertotti-Robinson (NBR)-type spacetime with constant scalar curvature. Recently, Guendelman, Kaganovich, Nissimov and Pacheva (2011) [7] have shown that superposed square root with standard Maxwell Lagrangian yields confining potentials in spherically symmetric spacetimes with new generalized Reissner-Nordström-de Sitter/anti-de Sitter black hole solutions. In NBR spacetimes we show that confining potentials exist even when the standard Maxwell Lagrangian is relaxed.

Mazharimousavi, S. Habib; Halilsoy, M.

2012-04-01

280

Twistors to twisted geometries

In a previous paper we showed that the phase space of loop quantum gravity on a fixed graph can be parametrized in terms of twisted geometries, quantities describing the intrinsic and extrinsic discrete geometry of a cellular decomposition dual to the graph. Here we unravel the origin of the phase space from a geometric interpretation of twistors.

Freidel, Laurent [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street N, ON N2L 2Y5, Waterloo (Canada); Speziale, Simone [Centre de Physique Theorique, CNRS-Luminy Case 907, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France)

2010-10-15

281

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several interactive geometry software packages are available today to secondary school teachers. An example is The Geometer's Sketchpad[R] (GSP), also known as Dynamic Geometry[R] software, developed by Key Curriculum Press. This numeric based technology has been widely adopted in the last twenty years, and a vast amount of creativity has been…

Lyublinskaya, Irina; Funsch, Dan

2012-01-01

282

Single fiber transport in a confined channel: Microfluidic experiments and numerical study

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an experimental and numerical study on the transport of a single fiber confined in a microfluidic Hele-Shaw geometry. The fiber has a square cross-section and a typical aspect ratio of ten. We address the question of the fiber velocity as it is freely transported by the flow, and study in particular its dependence on the fiber orientation and confinement in the channel, defined as the ratio of the fiber height with the channel height. Both experiments and simulations are set so that the fiber suspended in the middle of the channel height does not interact with the lateral flow boundaries. At low confinements, the fiber velocity is independent of the fiber orientation with the flow direction and tends to the maximal velocity of the fluid when the confinement tends to zero. The fiber slows down as the confinement increases. We find that as the confinement reaches approximately 0.5, the orientation affects the fiber velocity: a fiber perpendicular to the flow direction moves faster than a parallel one. Consequently, a confined fiber transported in a microchannel at an angle different from 0° or 90° with the flow direction will drift towards a lateral wall, in the opposite direction found in sedimenting fibers. We also characterize the perturbation caused by the presence of the fiber on the flow field, and find that it drops very quickly as the fiber confinement decreases.

Berthet, Helene; Fermigier, Marc; Lindner, Anke

2013-10-01

283

This article reports an explicit function of confining classical Yang-Mills vector potentials as well as quantum fluctuations around the classical field. The classical vector potential, which is composed of a confining localized function and an unlocalized function, satisfies the classical Yang-Mills equation. The confining localized function contributes to the Wilson loop, while the unlocalized function has no contribution to this loop. The confining linear potential between a pair of a heavy fermion particle and an antiparticle is due to the Lie algebra and the form of the confining localized function, which have opposite signs at positions of the particle and antiparticles along the Wilson loop in the time direction. Some classical confining parts of vector potentials also have the opposite sign for the inversion of coordinate of the axis perpendicular to the axis between two particles. The localized functions of vector potentials are squeezed around the axis connecting two particles, and the string tensio...

Fukushima, Kimichika

2014-01-01

284

Confinement of conjugated polymers into soft nanoparticles: molecular dynamics simulations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure and dynamics of conjugated polymers confined into soft nanoparticles (SNPs) have been studies by molecular dynamic simulations. This new class of tunable luminescent SNPs exhibits an immense potential as bio-markers as well as targeted drug delivery agents where tethering specific groups to the surface particles offers a means to target specific applications. Of particular interest are SNPs that consist of non- crosslinked polymers, decorated with polar groups. These SNPs are potentially tunable through the dynamics of the polymer chains, whereas the polar entity serves as internal stabilizer and surface encore. Confinement of a polymer whose inherent conformation is extended impacts not only their dynamics and as a result their optical properties. Here we will present insight into the structure and dynamics of dialkyl poly para phenylene ethynylene (PPE), decorated by a carboxylate groups, confined into a soft particle. The conformation and dynamics of polymer within SNP will be discussed and compared with that of the linear chain in solution.

Wijesinghe, Sidath; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.

2013-03-01

285

Practical Calculation of Nuclear Fusion Power for a Toroidal Plasma Device with Magnetic Confinement

An algorithm has been developed and realized as a FORTRAN code to calculate the volume integral power of a magnetic confinement nuclear fusion reactor and the fusion rate function in a general case taking as input data the nuclei energy distributions, fusion cross-sections and the magnetic surface geometry. Two fast and simple analytic models of practical magnetic flux surface shapes

P. R. Goncharov

286

Independent regulation of tumor cell migration by matrix stiffness and confinement

Independent regulation of tumor cell migration by matrix stiffness and confinement Amit Pathak of ECM stiffness on cell migration, adhesion, and contractility has been extensively studied in 2D cul of channels of defined wall stiffness and geometry that allows independent variation of ECM stiffness

Kumar, Sanjay

287

Supersolidity of Solid ^4He Confined in 25 Angstrom Nanopores

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been growing consensus that dislocations play an important role on the supersolid behaviors observed in torsional oscillator experiments for solid ^4He. When solid He is confined in nanopores, dislocations may not exist, or even if they exist their motion is suppressed, and supersolidity should therefore be greatly modified. Study of solid 4He in confined geometries may therefore give an important clue to elucidate the mechanism of supersolidity. Earlier studies of solid 4He in Vycor by Kim and Chan [1] found no difference in the supersolid behaviors from bulk solid. We have performed torsional oscillator experiments for solid 4He in a porous Gelsil glass that has nanopores of 25 angstroms in diameter. We have observed an increase in oscillator frequency indicating supersolidity below 200 mK. This result suggests that the existence of dislocations is not a necessary condition for supersolidity. [1] E. Kim, M. H. W. Chan, Nature 427, (2004) 225.

Shirahama, Keiya; Yoshimura, Hitomi; Shibayama, Yoshiyuki

2009-03-01

288

Transport in Fermi Liquids Confined by Rough Walls

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I present theoretical calculations of the thermal conductivity of Fermi liquid He confined to a slab of thickness of order 100 nm. The effect of the roughness of the confining surfaces is included directly in terms of the surface roughness power spectrum which may be determined experimentally. Transport at low temperatures is limited by scattering off rough surfaces and evolves into the known high-temperature limit in bulk through an anomalous regime in which both inelastic quasiparticle scattering and elastic scattering off the rough surface coexist. I show preliminary calculations for the coefficients of thermal conductivity. These studies are applicable in the context of electrical transport in metal nanowires as well as experiments that probe the superfluid phase diagram of liquid He in a slab geometry.

Sharma, Priya

2014-10-01

289

CORRELATIONS IN CONFINED QUANTUM PLASMAS

This is the final report for the project 'Correlations in Confined Quantum Plasmas', NSF-DOE Partnership Grant DE FG02 07ER54946, 8/1/2007 - 7/30/2010. The research was performed in collaboration with a group at Christian Albrechts University (CAU), Kiel, Germany. That collaboration, almost 15 years old, was formalized during the past four years under this NSF-DOE Partnership Grant to support graduate students at the two institutions and to facilitate frequent exchange visits. The research was focused on exploring the frontiers of charged particle physics evolving from new experimental access to unusual states associated with confinement. Particular attention was paid to combined effects of quantum mechanics and confinement. A suite of analytical and numerical tools tailored to the specific inquiry has been developed and employed

DUFTY J W

2012-01-11

290

Coronal Electron Confinement by Double Layers

In observations of flare-heated electrons in the solar corona, a longstanding problem is the unexplained prolonged lifetime of the electrons compared to their transit time across the source. This suggests confinement. Recent particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, which explored the transport of pre-accelerated hot electrons through ambient cold plasma, showed that the formation of a highly localized electrostatic potential drop, in the form of a double layer (DL), significantly inhibited the transport of hot electrons (T.C. Li, J.F. Drake, and M. Swisdak, 2012, ApJ, 757, 20). The effectiveness of confinement by a DL is linked to the strength of the DL as defined by its potential drop. In this work, we investigate the scaling of the DL strength with the hot electron temperature by PIC simulations, and find a linear scaling. We demonstrate that the strength is limited by the formation of parallel shocks. Based on this, we analytically determine the maximum DL strength, and find also a linear scaling with the hot e...

Li, T C; Swisdak, M

2014-01-01

291

Spatial Variations in Carbon Storage along Headwater Fluvial Networks with Differing Valley Geometry

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We distinguish multiple valley types along headwater fluvial networks in the Colorado Front Range based on valley geometry (downstream gradient and valley-bottom width relative to active channel width) and the presence of biotic drivers (beaver dams or channel-spanning logjams associated with old-growth forest) capable of creating a multi-thread channel pattern. Valley type influences storage of fine sediment, organic matter, and carbon. Deep, narrow valleys have limited storage potential, whereas wide, shallow valleys with multi-thread channels have substantial storage potential. Multi-thread channels only occur in the presence of a biotic driver. Given the importance of headwater streams in the global carbon cycle, it becomes important to understand the spatial distribution and magnitude of carbon storage along these streams, as well as the processes governing patterns of storage. We compare carbon stored in three reservoirs: riparian vegetation (live, dead, and litter), instream and floodplain large wood, and floodplain soils for 100-m-long valley segments in seven different valley types. The valley types are (i) laterally confined valleys in old-growth forest, (ii) partly confined valleys in old-growth forest, (iii) laterally unconfined valleys with multi-thread channels in old-growth forest, (iv) laterally unconfined valleys with single-thread channels in old-growth forest, (v) laterally confined valleys in younger forest, (vi) recently abandoned beaver-meadow complexes with multi-thread channels and willow thickets, and (vii) longer abandoned beaver-meadow complexes with single-thread channels and very limited woody vegetation. Preliminary results suggest that, although multi-thread channel segments driven by beavers or logjams cover less than 25 percent of the total length of headwater river networks in the study area, they account for more than three-quarters of the carbon stored along the river network. Historical loss of beavers and old-growth forest has thus likely resulted in continuing loss of carbon storage in these headwater river networks.

Wohl, E. E.; Dwire, K. A.; Polvi, L. E.; Sutfin, N. A.; Bazan, R. A.

2011-12-01

292

Polyelectrolyte stars in planar confinement

We employ monomer-resolved Molecular Dynamics simulations and theoretical considerations to analyze the conformations of multiarm polyelectrolyte stars close to planar, uncharged walls. We identify three mechanisms that contribute to the emergence of a repulsive star-wall force, namely: the confinement of the counterions that are trapped in the star interior, the increase in electrostatic energy due to confinement as well as a novel mechanism arising from the compression of the stiff polyelectrolyte rods approaching the wall. The latter is not present in the case of interaction between two polyelectrolyte stars and is a direct consequence of the impenetrable character of the planar wall.

Martin Konieczny; Christos N. Likos

2006-03-28

293

Magnetospheric Vortex Formation: Self-Organized Confinement of Charged Particles

A magnetospheric configuration gives rise to various peculiar plasma phenomena that pose conundrums to astrophysical studies; at the same time, innovative technologies may draw on the rich physics of magnetospheric plasmas. We have created a ''laboratory magnetosphere'' with a levitating superconducting ring magnet. Here we show that charged particles (electrons) self-organize a stable vortex, in which particles diffuse inward to steepen the density gradient. The rotating electron cloud is sustained for more than 300 s. Because of its simple geometry and self-organization, this system will have wide applications in confining single- and multispecies charged particles.

Yoshida, Z.; Saitoh, H.; Morikawa, J.; Yano, Y.; Watanabe, S.; Ogawa, Y. [Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan)

2010-06-11

294

Probing quantum confinement within single core-multishell nanowires.

Theoretically core-multishell nanowires under a cross-section of hexagonal geometry should exhibit peculiar confinement effects. Using a hard X-ray nanobeam, here we show experimental evidence for carrier localization phenomena at the hexagon corners by combining synchrotron excited optical luminescence with simultaneous X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Applied to single coaxial n-GaN/InGaN multiquantum-well/p-GaN nanowires, our experiment narrows the gap between optical microscopy and high-resolution X-ray imaging and calls for further studies on the underlying mechanisms of optoelectronic nanodevices. PMID:23030721

Martínez-Criado, Gema; Homs, Alejandro; Alén, Benito; Sans, Juan A; Segura-Ruiz, Jaime; Molina-Sánchez, Alejandro; Susini, Jean; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Yi, Gyu-Chul

2012-11-14

295

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website focuses on Native American use of the physical, proportional geometry that originates from the simple circle. Aimed at 4th to 9th grade teachers, the site is divided into four sections: foundations, anthropology, designs, and education. It was selected by Britannica.com, February 2000, as a best Internet site. Other keywords: geometric shapes, geometric constructions, proportional geometry, proportional constants, polygons, hexagons, equilateral triangles, dodecagons, squares, octagons, connect the dot, art, square roots, irrational numbers, non-random geometry. (Includes about 25 relevant website links and 50 published references)

2007-12-12

296

Light-ion beams for inertial confinement fusion

Inertial confinement fusion requires the generation and focusing of several megajoules of energy at > 100 TW power and > 100 TW·cm?2 power density onto a target for approximately 10 ns. Lasers and particle beam drivers have been developed for this purpose. Lightion beams offer the potential for a cost-effective, efficient and versatile driver with excellent energy deposition and no

J. P. Vandevender

1985-01-01

297

www.postersession.com Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion for Spacecraft

Laboratory, Fusion Power and Propulsion Group Nuclear fusion has been identified as a potentially abundant for fusion energy is focused on two primary means of achieving fusion energy: magnetically confined fusion Fusion Power and Propulsion Group (FPPG) views the probability of this sort of space activity as quite

de Weck, Olivier L.

298

Conceptual Design of the Chornobyl New Safe Confinement - an Overview

The Object Shelter, constructed over the Chornobyl nuclear power plant that was destroyed by a 1986 accident, is at risk of collapse. The Consortium of Bechtel, ElectricitÃ© De France, and Battelle, in cooperation with subcontractor ÐÐ¡Ð, recently completed the conceptual design for a New Safe Confinement (NSC) building to reduce Shelter corrosion, to mitigate the consequences of potential collapse, and

Valery N. Kulishenko; Charles Hogg; Eric A. Schmieman; Matthew W. Wrona; Philippe Convert; Yuriy I. Nemchinov; Victor Shenderovich; Vladimir Shcherbin; Pascal Belicard; Bruce M. Durst

2006-01-01

299

Inertial-electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion for space power

Fusion offers the potential for a very high specific power, providing a large specific impulse that can be traded-off with thrust for mission optimization. Thus fusion is a leading candidate for missions beyond the moon. Here we discuss a new approach for space fusion power, namely Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement (IEC). This method offers a high power density in a relatively small,

George H. Miley; Jonathon H. Nadler; Timothy K. Hochberg; Olivier Barnouin; Yibin Gu

1991-01-01

300

Inertial electrostatic confinement as a power source for electric propulsion

The potential use of an INERTIAL ELECTROSTATIC CONFINEMENT (IEC) power source for space propulsion has previously been suggested by the authors and others. In the past, these discussions have generally followed the charged-particle electric-discharge engine (QED) concept proposed by Bussard, in which the IEC is used to generate an electron beam which vaporizes liquid hydrogen for use as a propellant.

G. H. Miley; R. Burton; J. Javedani; Y. Yamamoto; A. Satsangi; Y. Gu; P. Heck; R. Nebel; N. Schulze; J. Christensen

1993-01-01

301

Improved virtual cathode formation in Inertial Electrostatic Confinement

Summary form only given. Continued experimentation on the inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) of ions in a virtual cathode potential well at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is presented. The IEC virtual cathode is formed by focusing six diametrically opposed electron beams to the center of a spherical vacuum chamber. The electrons are accelerated using two highly transparent, concentric spherical grids

A. M. McEvoy; Y. H. Kim; H. W. Herrmann

2009-01-01

302

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of non-reacting parametric experiments was conducted to investigate the effect of geometric and flow variations on mixing of cold jets in an axis-symmetric, heated cross flow. The confined, cylindrical geometries tested represent the quick mix region of a Rich-Burn/Quick-Mix/Lean-Burn (RQL) combustor. The experiments show that orifice geometry and jet to mainstream momentum-flux ratio significantly impact the mixing characteristic of jets in a cylindrical cross stream. A computational code was used to extrapolate the results of the non-reacting experiments to reacting conditions in order to examine the nitric oxide (NO) formation potential of the configurations examined. The results show that the rate of NO formation is highest immediately downstream of the injection plane. For a given momentum-flux ratio, the orifice geometry that mixes effectively in both the immediate vicinity of the injection plane, and in the wall regions at downstream locations, has the potential to produce the lowest NO emissions. The results suggest that further study may not necessarily lead to a universal guideline for designing a low NO mixer. Instead, an assessment of each application may be required to determine the optimum combination of momentum-flux ratio and orifice geometry to minimize NO formation. Experiments at reacting conditions are needed to verify the present results.

Samuelsen, G. S.; Sowa, W. A.; Hatch, M. S.

1996-01-01

303

DEVELOPMENT OF A METHODOLOGY FOR REGIONAL EVALUATION OF CONFINING BED INTEGRITY

For safe underground injection of liquid waste, confining formations must be thick, extensive, and have low permeability. Recognition of faults that extend from the potential injection zone to underground sources of drinking water is critical for evaluation of confining-bed integ...

304

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a sixth-grade interdisciplinary geometry unit based on Charles Dickens's "A Christmas Carol". Focuses on finding area, volume, and perimeter, and working with estimation, decimals, and fractions in the context of making gingerbread houses. (ASK)

Emenaker, Charles E.

1999-01-01

305

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Informal notes" by Kevin Brown on geometry: constructing the heptadecagon, what mirrors do, the golden pentagon, the grazing goat and the lune, Napoleon's theorem, chess boards, Diophantine geodesic boxes, Zeno's mice and the logarithmic spiral, and many more.

Brown, Kevin

2007-12-11

306

Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) review

During its 1996 winter study JASON reviewed the DOE Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program. This included the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and proposed studies. The result of the review was to comment on the role of the ICF program in support of the DOE Science Based Stockpile Stewardship program.

Hammer, D.; Dyson, F.; Fortson, N.; Novick, B.; Panofsky, W.; Rosenbluth, M.; Treiman, S.; York, H.

1996-03-01

307

Inertial Confinement Fusion Experiments & Modeling

Spectroscopy Ablator Characterization #12;What is Fusion? Fusion is the joining together of small, light nuclei-drive ICF delivers the energy of a laser (or ion beam) not directly to the fuel capsule, but ratherInertial Confinement Fusion Experiments & Modeling Using X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Thin

Cohen, David

308

Biased Diffusion in Confined Media

We study biased, diffusive transport of Brownian particles through narrow, spatially periodic structures in which the motion is constrained in lateral directions. The problem is analyzed using the Fick-Jacobs equation in which the effect of the lateral confinement is replaced by an entropic barrier. The validity of this approximation, being based on the assumption of an instantaneous equilibration of the

P. S. Burada; G. Schmid; D. Reguera; J. M. Rubi´

2007-01-01

309

Momentum Confinement at Low Torque

Momentum confinement was investigated on DIII-D as a function of applied neutral beam torque at constant normalized {beta}{sub N}, by varying the mix of co (parallel to the plasma current) and counter neutral beams. Under balanced neutral beam injection (i.e. zero total torque to the plasma), the plasma maintains a significant rotation in the co-direction. This 'intrinsic' rotation can be modeled as being due to an offset in the applied torque (i.e. an 'anomalous torque'). This anomalous torque appears to have a magnitude comparable to one co-neutral beam source. The presence of such an anomalous torque source must be taken into account to obtain meaningful quantities describing momentum transport, such as the global momentum confinement time and local diffusivities. Studies of the mechanical angular momentum in ELMing H-mode plasmas with elevated q{sub min} show that the momentum confinement time improves as the torque is reduced. In hybrid plasmas, the opposite effect is observed, namely that momentum confinement improves at high torque/rotation. The relative importance of E x B shearing between the two is modeled using GLF23 and may suggest a possible explanation.

Solomon, W M; Burrell, K H; deGrassie, J S; Budny, R; Groebner, R J; Heidbrink, W W; Kinsey, J E; Kramer, G J; Makowski, M A; Mikkelsen, D; Nazikian, R; Petty, C C; Politzer, P A; Scott, S D; Van Zeeland, M A; Zarnstorff, M C

2007-06-26

310

String theory and quark confinement

This article is based on a talk given at the “Strings '97” conference. It discusses the search for the universality class of confining strings. The key ingredients include the loop equations, the zigzag symmetry, the non-linear renormalization group. Some new tests for the equivalence between gauge fields and strings are proposed.

Alexandre M. Polyakov

1998-01-01

311

Scaling behaviour for the water transport in nanoconfined geometries

The transport of water in nanoconfined geometries is different from bulk phase and has tremendous implications in nanotechnology and biotechnology. Here molecular dynamics is used to compute the self-diffusion coefficient D of water within nanopores, around nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes and proteins. For almost 60 different cases, D is found to scale linearly with the sole parameter ? as D(?)=DB[1+(DC/DB?1)?], with DB and DC the bulk and totally confined diffusion of water, respectively. The parameter ? is primarily influenced by geometry and represents the ratio between the confined and total water volumes. The D(?) relationship is interpreted within the thermodynamics of supercooled water. As an example, such relationship is shown to accurately predict the relaxometric response of contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. The D(?) relationship can help in interpreting the transport of water molecules under nanoconfined conditions and tailoring nanostructures with precise modulation of water mobility. PMID:24699509

Chiavazzo, Eliodoro; Fasano, Matteo; Asinari, Pietro; Decuzzi, Paolo

2014-01-01

312

The behaviour of materials under spatial confinement is sensitively dependent on the nature of the confining boundaries. In two dimensions, confinement within a hard circular boundary inhibits the hexagonal ordering observed in bulk systems at high density. Using colloidal experiments and Monte Carlo simulations, we investigate two model systems of quasi hard discs under circularly symmetric confinement. The first system employs an adaptive circular boundary, defined experimentally using holographic optical tweezers. We show that deformation of this boundary allows, and indeed is required for, hexagonal ordering in the confined system. The second system employs a circularly symmetric optical potential to confine particles without a physical boundary. We show that, in the absence of a curved wall, near perfect hexagonal ordering is possible. We propose that the degree to which hexagonal ordering is suppressed by a curved boundary is determined by the `strictness' of that wall.

Ian Williams; Erdal C. O?uz; Robert L. Jack; Paul Bartlett; Hartmut Löwen; C. Patrick Royall

2013-11-19

313

Influence of confinement on polymer-electrolyte relaxational dynamics.

Conception and industrial production of viable high specific energy/power batteries is a central issue for the development of non-polluting vehicles. In terms of stored energy and safety, solid-state devices using polymer electrolytes are highly desirable. One of the most studied systems is PEO (polyethylene oxide) complexed by Li salts. Polymer segmental motions and ionic conductivity are closely related. Bulk PEO is actually a biphasic system where an amorphous and a crystalline state (Tm 335 K) coexist. To improve ionic conduction in those systems requires a significant increase of the amorphous phase fraction where lithium conduction is known to mainly take place. Confinement strongly affects properties of condensed matter and in particular the collective phenomena inducing crystallization. Confinement of the polymer matrix is therefore a possible alternative route to the unpractical use of high temperature. Results of a quasi-elastic incoherent neutron scattering study of the influence of confinement on polyethylene oxide (PEO) and (PEO)8Li+[(CF3SO2)2N]- (or (POE)8LiTFSI) dynamics are presented. The nano-confining media is Vycor, a silica based hydrophilic porous glass (characteristic size of the 3D pore network 50 {angstrom}). As expected, the presence of Li salt slows down the bulk polymer dynamics. The confinement also affects dramatically the apparent mean-square displacement of the polymer. Local relaxational PEO dynamics is described KWW model. We also present an alternate model and show how the detailed polymer dynamics (correlation times and local geometry of the motions) can be described without the use of such stretched exponentials so as to access a rheology-related meaningful physical quantity: the monomeric friction coefficient.

Zanotti, J.-M.; Smith, L. J.; Price, D. L.; Saboungi, M.-L.; Intense Pulsed Neutron Source; Lab. Leon Brillouin (CEA-CRNS); Clark Univ.; CRMHT (CNRS); CRMD (CNRS)

2004-01-01

314

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CMS faces real challenges with upgrade of the CMS detector through 2020 and beyond. One of the challenges, from the software point of view, is managing upgrade simulations with the same software release as the 2013 scenario. We present the CMS geometry description software model, its integration with the CMS event setup and core software. The CMS geometry configuration and selection is implemented in Python. The tools collect the Python configuration fragments into a script used in CMS workflow. This flexible and automated geometry configuration allows choosing either transient or persistent version of the same scenario and specific version of the same scenario. We describe how the geometries are integrated and validated, and how we define and handle different geometry scenarios in simulation and reconstruction. We discuss how to transparently manage multiple incompatible geometries in the same software release. Several examples are shown based on current implementation assuring consistent choice of scenario conditions. The consequences and implications for multiple/different code algorithms are discussed.

Osborne, I.; Brownson, E.; Eulisse, G.; Jones, C. D.; Lange, D. J.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.

2014-06-01

315

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When Mandelbrot, the father of modern fractal geometry, made this seemingly obvious statement he was trying to show that we should move out of our comfortable Euclidean space and adopt a fractal approach to geometry. The concepts and mathematical tools of fractal geometry provides insight into natural physical systems that Euclidean tools cannot do. The benet from applying fractal geometry to studies of Self-Organized Criticality (SOC) are even greater. SOC and fractal geometry share concepts of dynamic n-body interactions, apparent non-predictability, self-similarity, and an approach to global statistics in space and time that make these two areas into naturally paired research techniques. Further, the iterative generation techniques used in both SOC models and in fractals mean they share common features and common problems. This chapter explores the strong historical connections between fractal geometry and SOC from both a mathematical and conceptual understanding, explores modern day interactions between these two topics, and discusses how this is likely to evolve into an even stronger link in the near future.

McAteer, R. T. J.

2013-06-01

316

Quantum Computing in Non Euclidean Geometry

The recent debate on hyper-computation has raised new questions both on the computational abilities of quantum systems and the Church-Turing Thesis role in Physics. We propose here the idea of geometry of effective physical process as the essentially physical notion of computation. In Quantum mechanics we cannot use the traditional Euclidean geometry but we introduce more sophisticate non Euclidean geometry which include a new kind of information diffuse in the entire universe and that we can represent as Fisher information or active information. We remark that from the Fisher information we can obtain the Bohm and Hiley quantum potential and the classical Schrodinger equation. We can see the quantum phenomena do not affect a limited region of the space but is reflected in a change of the geometry of all the universe. In conclusion any local physical change or physical process is reflected in all the universe by the change of its geometry, This is the deepest meaning of the entanglement in Quantum mechanics and quantum computing. We stress the connection between metric and information as measure of change. Because computation is not restricted to calculus but is the environment changing via physical processes, super-Turing potentialities derive from an incomputable information source embedded into the geometry of the universe in accordance with Bell's constraints. In the general relativity we define the geometry of the space time. In our approach quantum phenomena define the geometry of the parameters of the probability distribution that include also the space time parameters. To study this new approach to the computation we use the new theory of Morphogenic systems.

Germano Resconi; Ignazio Licata

2009-11-04

317

Simulation of Spheromak Confinement Physics Using NIMROD*

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional, time-dependent, nonlinear resistive MHD equations are solved in the NIMROD code[1] addressing spheromak formation, evolution, and stability. We are using NIMROD to assess the quality of spheromak magnetic surfaces with pulsed electrostatic drive and making comparisons to the SSPX experiment. Many features in the simulations are quite similar to experimental observations. NIMROD shows that pulsing the driving electrostatic field can allow the field lines to close in between pulses, and larger closed flux volumes can be created on successive pulses. The results of a series of simulations exploring scaling with respect to decreasing resistivity and increasing Lundquist number, and the sensitivity to thermal conduction rates and kinematic viscosity are presented. Geometry is another important influence on MHD activity that is being explored. Of particular interest is the morphology of modes that break toroidal symmetry, which play a vital role in spheromak formation and affect confinement, but whose relaxation/suppression is required for closed flux surfaces to form. This work was performed at the Univ. Calif. LLNL under US DOE contract W-7405-ENG-48 and at U. Wisconsin under contract DE-FC02ER54668. [1] C.R. Sovinec, J.M. Finn, and D. Del-Castillo-Negrete, Phys. Plasmas 8, 475 (2001).

Cohen, B. I.; Cohen, R. H.; Fowler, T. K.; Ryutov, D. D.; Woodruff, S.; Sovinec, C. R.; Cone, G. A.

2003-10-01

318

Life-testing oxide confined VCSELs: Too good to last?

The use of native oxides (selective oxidation) in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers has produced dramatic improvements in these laser diodes but has also been suspected of causing poor reliability because of incidental reports of short lifetimes and physical considerations. Here we discuss the results of thousands of hours life-tests for oxide confined and implant confined devices at current densities from 1 to 12 kA/cm{sup 2}. There was a single infant mortality failure from a sample of 14 oxide confined lasers with the remainder showing relatively stable operation. The failed device is analyzed in terms of light current characteristics and near-field electroluminescence images, and potential screening criteria are proposed.

Lear, K.L.; Kilcoyne, S.P.; Schneider, R.P. Jr.; Nevers, J.A.

1996-03-01

319

Multiple reentrant glass transitions in confined hard-sphere glasses

Glass forming liquids exhibit a rich phenomenology upon confinement. This is often related to the effects arising from wall-fluid interactions. Here we focus on the interesting limit where the separation of the confining walls becomes of the order of a few particle diameters. For a moderately polydisperse, densely packed hard-sphere fluid confined between two smooth hard walls, we show via event-driven molecular dynamics simulations the emergence of a multiple reentrant glass transition scenario upon a variation of the wall separation. Using thermodynamic relations, this reentrant phenomenon is shown to persist also under constant chemical potential. This allows straightforward experimental investigation and opens the way to a variety of applications in micro- and nanotechnology, where channel dimensions are comparable to the size of the contained particles. The results are in-line with theoretical predictions obtained by a combination of density functional theory and the mode-coupling theory of the glass transition.

S. Mandal; S. Lang; M. Gross; M. Oettel; D. Raabe; T. Franosch; F. Varnik

2014-06-20

320

Multiple reentrant glass transitions in confined hard-sphere glasses

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glass-forming liquids exhibit a rich phenomenology upon confinement. This is often related to the effects arising from wall-fluid interactions. Here we focus on the interesting limit where the separation of the confining walls becomes of the order of a few particle diameters. For a moderately polydisperse, densely packed hard-sphere fluid confined between two smooth hard walls, we show via event-driven molecular dynamics simulations the emergence of a multiple reentrant glass transition scenario upon a variation of the wall separation. Using thermodynamic relations, this reentrant phenomenon is shown to persist also under constant chemical potential. This allows straightforward experimental investigation and opens the way to a variety of applications in micro- and nanotechnology, where channel dimensions are comparable to the size of the contained particles. The results are in line with theoretical predictions obtained by a combination of density functional theory and the mode-coupling theory of the glass transition.

Mandal, Suvendu; Lang, Simon; Gross, Markus; Oettel, Martin; Raabe, Dierk; Franosch, Thomas; Varnik, Fathollah

2014-07-01

321

Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) Fusion for Space Propulsion

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device was assembled at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Propulsion Research Center (PRC) to study the possibility of using EEC technology for deep space propulsion and power. Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement is capable of containing a nuclear fusion plasma in a series of virtual potential wells. These wells would substantially increase plasma confinement, possibly leading towards a high-gain, breakthrough fusion device. A one-foot in diameter IEC vessel was borrowed from the Fusion Studies Laboratory at the University of Illinois@Urbana-Champaign for the summer. This device was used in initial parameterization studies in order to design a larger, actively cooled device for permanent use at the PRC.

Nadler, Jon

1999-01-01

322

Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) Fusion For Space Propulsion

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device was assembled at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Propulsion Research Center (PRC) to study the possibility of using IEC technology for deep space propulsion and power. Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement is capable of containing a nuclear fusion plasma in a series of virtual potential wells. These wells would substantially increase plasma confinement, possibly leading towards a high-gain, breakthrough fusion device. A one-foot in diameter IEC vessel was borrowed from the Fusion Studies Laboratory at the University of Illinois @ Urbana-Champaign for the summer. This device was used in initial parameterization studies in order to design a larger, actively cooled device for permanent use at the PRC.

Nadler, Jon

1999-01-01

323

Deuterium anions in inertial electrostatic confinement devices.

A magnetic deflection-energy analyzer and Faraday trap diagnostic have been used to make measurements of divergent deuterium anion flow in the inertial electrostatic confinement experiment at the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW-IEC) [J. F. Santarius, G. L. Kulcinski, R. P. Ashley, D. R. Boris, B. B. Cipiti, S. K. Murali, G. R. Piefer, R. F. Radel, I. E. Radel, and A. L. Wehmeyer, Fusion Sci. Technol. 47, 1238 (2005)], a device to confine high-energy light ions in a spherically symmetric electrostatic potential well. Deuterium anion current densities as high as 8.5 microA/cm2 have been measured at the wall of the UW-IEC device, 40 cm from the surface of the device cathode with a detector assembly of admittance area 0.7 cm2. Energy spectra obtained using a magnetic deflection-energy analyzer diagnostic indicate the presence of D2(-), and D- ions produced through thermal electron attachment near the device cathode, as well as D- ions produced via charge-transfer processes between the anode and cathode of the device. PMID:19905231

Boris, D R; Alderson, E; Becerra, G; Donovan, D C; Egle, B; Emmert, G A; Garrison, L; Kulcinski, G L; Santarius, J F; Schuff, C; Zenobia, S J

2009-09-01

324

Detonation Diffraction into a Confined Volume

little attention. Experimental work needs to be conducted on detonation diffraction into a confined volume to better understand how the interaction of the diffracted shock wave with a confining wall impacts the detonation diffraction process. Therefore, a...

Polley, Nolan Lee

2012-02-14

325

A double-layer based model of ion confinement in electron cyclotron resonance ion sourcea)

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper proposes a new model of ion confinement in ECRIS, which can be easily generalized to any magnetic configuration characterized by closed magnetic surfaces. Traditionally, ion confinement in B-min configurations is ascribed to a negative potential dip due to superhot electrons, adiabatically confined by the magneto-static field. However, kinetic simulations including RF heating affected by cavity modes structures indicate that high energy electrons populate just a thin slab overlapping the ECR layer, while their density drops down of more than one order of magnitude outside. Ions, instead, diffuse across the electron layer due to their high collisionality. This is the proper physical condition to establish a double-layer (DL) configuration which self-consistently originates a potential barrier; this "barrier" confines the ions inside the plasma core surrounded by the ECR surface. The paper will describe a simplified ion confinement model based on plasma density non-homogeneity and DL formation.

Mascali, D.; Neri, L.; Celona, L.; Castro, G.; Torrisi, G.; Gammino, S.; Sorbello, G.; Ciavola, G.

2014-02-01

326

Integrable Background Geometries

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work has its origins in an attempt to describe systematically the integrable geometries and gauge theories in dimensions one to four related to twistor theory. In each such dimension, there is a nondegenerate integrable geometric structure, governed by a nonlinear integrable differential equation, and each solution of this equation determines a background geometry on which, for any Lie group G, an integrable gauge theory is defined. In four dimensions, the geometry is selfdual conformal geometry and the gauge theory is selfdual Yang-Mills theory, while the lower-dimensional structures are nondegenerate (i.e., non-null) reductions of this. Any solution of the gauge theory on a k-dimensional geometry, such that the gauge group H acts transitively on an ?-manifold, determines a (k+?)-dimensional geometry (k+??4) fibering over the k-dimensional geometry with H as a structure group. In the case of an ?-dimensional group H acting on itself by the regular representation, all (k+?)-dimensional geometries with symmetry group H are locally obtained in this way. This framework unifies and extends known results about dimensional reductions of selfdual conformal geometry and the selfdual Yang-Mills equation, and provides a rich supply of constructive methods. In one dimension, generalized Nahm equations provide a uniform description of four pole isomonodromic deformation problems, and may be related to the {SU}(?) Toda and dKP equations via a hodograph transformation. In two dimensions, the {Diff}(S^1) Hitchin equation is shown to be equivalent to the hyperCR Einstein-Weyl equation, while the {SDiff}(?^2) Hitchin equation leads to a Euclidean analogue of Plebanski's heavenly equations. In three and four dimensions, the constructions of this paper help to organize the huge range of examples of Einstein-Weyl and selfdual spaces in the literature, as well as providing some new ! ones. The nondegenerate reductions have a long ancestry. More ! recently , degenerate or null reductions have attracted increased interest. Two of these reductions and their gauge theories (arguably, the two most significant) are also described.

Calderbank, David M. J.

2014-03-01

327

Foundations of Dynamic Geometry

Although it is known that Calvin and Hobbes tell the truth about life, I was surprised that Bill Watterson knew in 1988 what Jürgen Richter-Gebert and I had to learn ten years later: Sometimes it is necessary to use imaginary numbers even for seemingly trivial tasks. This thesis shall explain the details of a method called complex tracing, and lay the foundations of Dynamic Geometry, a new field of research that opened up after we solved the continuity problem for interactive geometry software. I came into this project right after I decided not to write my thesis on Cinderella, the interactive geometry software which at that time was a project of Jürgen Richter-Gebert and Henry Crapo, but on neighborly polytopes. After the first few weeks of implementing the new version of Cinderella in Java I understood why it is really hard to write “just another geometry software. ” I had to try to implement a dynamic geometry software in order to understand why it is difficult to create a software that “behaves as expected. ” It needs a mathematical theory, and it was not clear to us what to do three years ago. It was in early 1998 when we had our “ultimate break-through. ” The time since then was spent for the implementation of the theory, and it is nice to see that this implementation

Ulrich Kortenkamp

1999-01-01

328

Confinement of high temperature plasmas

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A high temperature plasma is magnetically confined without leaks or cusps in a smooth toroidal configuration by tangential magnetic field lines on its surface which have a zero rotation number, and include a selected finite even non-zero number of closed toroidal magnetic field lines, which are limit cycles in the sense that all other surface field lines are asympototic to neighboring pairs of these closed field lines, and the poloidal cross-section of the plasma is non-convex. The resulting unique structure makes the confined plasma relatively insensitive to approximations, tolerances, and variations in the parameters of design, construction and operation. Furthermore, use of the sense of averaging appropriate to evaluation of interchange instabilities shows that the resulting magnetic bottle is an optimal toroidal magnetic well.

1980-12-02

329

The Common Geometry Module (CGM)

The Common Geometry Module (CGM) is a code library which provides geometry functionality used for mesh generation and other applications. This functionality includes that commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry creation, query and modification; CGM also includes capabilities not commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry decomposition tools and support for shared material interfaces. CGM is built

Tautges; Timothy James

2004-01-01

330

Fractal Energy Spectrum of a Polariton Gas in a Fibonacci Quasiperiodic Potential

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the study of a polariton gas confined in a quasiperiodic one-dimensional cavity, described by a Fibonacci sequence. Imaging the polariton modes both in real and reciprocal space, we observe features characteristic of their fractal energy spectrum such as the opening of minigaps obeying the gap labeling theorem and log-periodic oscillations of the integrated density of states. These observations are accurately reproduced solving an effective 1D Schrödinger equation, illustrating the potential of cavity polaritons as a quantum simulator in complex topological geometries.

Tanese, D.; Gurevich, E.; Baboux, F.; Jacqmin, T.; Lemaètre, A.; Galopin, E.; Sagnes, I.; Amo, A.; Bloch, J.; Akkermans, E.

2014-04-01

331

Fractal energy spectrum of a polariton gas in a Fibonacci quasiperiodic potential.

We report on the study of a polariton gas confined in a quasiperiodic one-dimensional cavity, described by a Fibonacci sequence. Imaging the polariton modes both in real and reciprocal space, we observe features characteristic of their fractal energy spectrum such as the opening of minigaps obeying the gap labeling theorem and log-periodic oscillations of the integrated density of states. These observations are accurately reproduced solving an effective 1D Schrödinger equation, illustrating the potential of cavity polaritons as a quantum simulator in complex topological geometries. PMID:24765996

Tanese, D; Gurevich, E; Baboux, F; Jacqmin, T; Lemaître, A; Galopin, E; Sagnes, I; Amo, A; Bloch, J; Akkermans, E

2014-04-11

332

Deriving confinement via RG decimations

We present the general framework and building blocks of a recent derivation of the fact that the SU(2) LGT is in a confining phase for all values of the coupling $0 < \\beta < \\infty$, for space-time dimension $d \\leq 4$. The method employs approximate but explicitly computable RG decimations that are shown to constrain the exact partition function and order parameters from above and below, and flow from the weak to the strong coupling regime without encountering a fixed point.

E. T. Tomboulis

2007-10-10

333

Nonlocal effects in a hybrid plasmonic waveguide for nanoscale confinement.

The effect of nonlocal optical response is studied for a novel silicon hybrid plasmonic waveguide (HPW). Finite element method is used to implement the hydrodynamic model and the propagation mode is analyzed for a hybrid plasmonic waveguide of arbitrary cross section. The waveguide has an inverted metal nano-rib over a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) structure. An extremely small mode area of~10???² is achieved together with several microns long propagation distance at the telecom wavelength of 1.55 ?m. The figure of merit (FoM) is also improved in the same time, compared to the pervious hybrid plasmonic waveguide. We demonstrate the validity of our method by comparing our simulating results with some analytical results for a metal cylindrical waveguide and a metal slab waveguide in a wide wavelength range. For the HPW, we find that the nonlocal effects can give less loss and better confinement. In particular, we explore the influence of the radius of the rib's tip on the loss and the confinement. We show that the nonlocal effects give some new fundamental limitation on the confinement, leaving the mode area finite even for geometries with infinitely sharp tips. PMID:23389124

Huang, Qiangsheng; Bao, Fanglin; He, Sailing

2013-01-28

334

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the application of geometry and conformal mappings to artificial materials (metamaterials) has attracted the attention in various research communities. These materials, characterized by a unique man-made structure, have unusual optical properties, which materials found in nature do not exhibit. By applying the geometry and conformal mappings theory to metamaterial science, it may be possible to realize so-called "Harry Potter cloaking device". Although such a device is still in the science fiction realm, several works have shown that by using such metamaterials it may be possible to control the direction of the electromagnetic field at will. We could then make an object hidden inside of a cloaking device. Here, we will explain how to design invisibility device using differential geometry and conformal mappings.

Ochiai, T.; Nacher, J. C.

2011-09-01

335

Quark confinement mechanism for baryons

The confinement mechanism proposed earlier and then successfully applied to meson spectroscopy by the author is extended over baryons. For this aim the wave functions of baryons are built as tensorial products of those corresponding to the 2-body problem underlying the confinement mechanism of two quarks. This allows one to obtain the Hamiltonian of the quark interactions in a baryon and, accordingly, the possible energy spectrum of the latter. Also one may construct the electric and magnetic form factors of baryon in a natural way which entails the expressions for the root-mean-square radius and anomalous magnetic moment. To ullustrate the formalism in the given Chapter for the sake of simplicity only symmetrical baryons (i.e., composed from three quarks of the same flavours) $\\Delta^{++}$, $\\Delta^{-}$, $\\Omega^-$ are considered. For them the masses, the root-mean-square radii and anomalous magnetic moments are expressed in an explicit analytical form through the parameters of the confining SU(3)-gluonic field among quarks and that enables one to get a number of numerical estimates for the mentioned parameters from experimental data. We also discuss chiral limit for the baryons under consideration and estimate the purely gluonic contribution to their masses. Further the problem of masses in particle physics is shortly discussed within the framework of the given approach. Finally, a few remarks are made about the so-called Yang-Mills Millennium problem and a possible way for proving it is outlined.

Yu. P. Goncharov

2013-12-14

336

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This metasite "collects various areas in which ideas from discrete and computational geometry (meaning mainly low-dimensional Euclidean geometry) meet some real world applications," according to the site's provider, Dr. David Eppstein of the University of California at Irvine. Categories available include Geometric References and Techniques, Design and Manufacturing, Graphics and Visualization, Information Systems, Medicine and Biology, Physical Sciences, Robotics, Other Applications, and Recent Additions. The types of links included are data sets, patents, journal articles, and research pages (note: a few of the links don't work, but overall the site is useful).

Eppstein, David

337

Spectral properties of a confined nonlinear quantum oscillator in one and three dimensions

We analyze the spectral behaviour of a nonlinear quantum oscillator model under confinement. The underlying potential is given by a harmonic oscillator interaction plus a nonlinear term that can be weakened or strengthened through a parameter. Numerical eigenvalues of the model in one and three dimensions are presented. The asymptotic behaviour of the eigenvalues for confinement relaxation and for vanishing nonlinear term in the potential is investigated. Our findings are compared with existing results.

Schulze-Halberg, Axel; Gordon, Christopher R. [Department of Mathematics and Actuarial Science, Indiana University Northwest, 3400 Broadway, Gary, Indiana 46408 (United States)] [Department of Mathematics and Actuarial Science, Indiana University Northwest, 3400 Broadway, Gary, Indiana 46408 (United States)

2013-04-15

338

Denaturation and renaturation behaviors of short DNA in a confined space

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A deep understanding to the denaturation and renaturation behaviors of DNA in a confined state is fundamentally important to control the self-assembly of DNA in a chamber or channel for various applications. In this report, we study the denaturation and renaturation behaviors of short DNA confined in cylindrical and spherical spaces with the 3-Site-Per-Nucleotide coarse-grained DNA model applying the replica exchange molecular dynamics technology. It is found that as the confinement size decreases, the melting temperature Tm increases and the transition becomes broad. The analysis of the potential of mean force shows that the confinement increases the relative free energy of the denatured state of DNA and decreases the renaturation energy barrier. Besides the denatured and native states, the metastable parallel-stranded structure is also found. The simulation results show that the shapes of the confinement spaces and the short DNA sequences remarkably affect the renaturation behavior. In the cylindrical space, the DNA renaturation changes from random-binding to slithering-binding with the size of the confinement space decreasing. In contrast, the DNA renaturation in the spherical and symmetrical confinement space proceeds through strand binding and rolling. The relationship between the melting temperature and the confinement size, ?Tm/Tm ˜ Rc-?, is estimated and the exponential index ? equals about 1.32 and 1.75 in the cylindrical and spherical confinements, respectively. It is further compared with the theoretical result of the rigid rod model and a qualitative agreement with the simulation is achieved.

Li, Huaping; Wang, Zilu; Li, Ningning; He, Xuehao; Liang, Haojun

2014-07-01

339

Study of the gluon-quark-antiquark static potential in SU(3) lattice QCD

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the long distance interaction for hybrid hadrons, with a static gluon, a quark and an antiquark with lattice QCD techniques. A Wilson loop adequate to the static hybrid three-body system is developed and, using a 243×48 periodic lattice with ?=6.2 and ã0.072fm, two different geometries for the gluon-quark segment and the gluon-antiquark segment are investigated. When these segments are perpendicular, the static potential is compatible with confinement realized with a pair of fundamental strings, one linking the gluon to the quark and another linking the same gluon to the antiquark. When the segments are parallel and superposed, the total string tension is larger and agrees with the Casimir scaling measured by Bali. This can be interpreted with a type-II superconductor analogy for the confinement in QCD, with repulsion of the fundamental strings.

Bicudo, P.; Cardoso, M.; Oliveira, O.

2008-05-01

340

Chirally symmetric but confining dense and cold matter

The folklore tradition about the QCD phase diagram is that at the chiral restoration phase transition at finite density hadrons are deconfined and there appears the quark matter. We address this question within the only known exactly solvable confining and chirally symmetric model. It is postulated within this model that there exists linear Coulomb-like confining interaction. The chiral symmetry breaking and the quark Green function are obtained from the Schwinger-Dyson (gap) equation while the color-singlet meson spectrum results from the Bethe-Salpeter equation. We solve this model at T=0 and finite chemical potential $\\mu$ and obtain a clear chiral restoration phase transition at the critical value \\mu_{cr}. Below this value the spectrum is similar to the previously obtained one at \\mu = 0. At \\mu > \\mu_{cr} the quarks are still confined and the physical spectrum consists of bound states which are arranged into a complete set of exact chiral multiplets. This explicitly demonstrates that a chirally symmetric matter consisting of confined but chirally symmetric hadrons at finite chemical potential is also possible in QCD. If so, there must be nontrivial implications for astrophysics.

L. Ya. Glozman; R. F. Wagenbrunn

2007-09-19

341

Thermodynamics, Structure, and Dynamics of Water Confined between Hydrophobic Plates

We perform molecular dynamics simulations of 512 water-like molecules that interact via the TIP5P potential and are confined between two smooth hydrophobic plates that are separated by 1.10 nm. We find that the anomalous thermodynamic properties of water are shifted to lower temperatures relative to the bulk by $\\approx 40$ K. The dynamics and structure of the confined water resemble bulk water at higher temperatures, consistent with the shift of thermodynamic anomalies to lower temperature. Due to this $T$ shift, our confined water simulations (down to $T = 220$ K) do not reach sufficiently low temperature to observe a liquid-liquid phase transition found for bulk water at $T\\approx 215$ K using the TIP5P potential. We find that the different crystalline structures that can form for two different separations of the plates, 0.7 nm and 1.10 nm, have no counterparts in the bulk system, and discuss the relevance to experiments on confined water.

Pradeep Kumar; Sergey V. Buldyrev; Francis W. Starr; Nicolas Giovambattista; H. Eugene Stanley

2005-07-05

342

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strongly confined active liquids are subject to unique hydrodynamic interactions due to momentum screening and lubricated friction by the confining walls. Using numerical simulations, we demonstrate that two-dimensional dilute suspensions of fore-aft asymmetric polar swimmers in a Hele-Shaw geometry can exhibit a rich variety of novel phase behaviors depending on particle shape, including coherent polarized density waves with global alignment, persistent counterrotating vortices, density shocks and rarefaction waves. We also explain these phenomena using a linear stability analysis and a nonlinear traffic flow model, both derived from a mean-field kinetic theory.

Lefauve, Adrien; Saintillan, David

2014-02-01

343

Photonic bandgap confinement in an all-solid tellurite-glass photonic crystal fiber.

We report on the fabrication and optical assessment of an all-solid tellurite-glass photonic bandgap fiber. The manufacturing process via a preform drawing approach and the fiber characterization procedures are described and discussed. The fiber exhibits some minor morphological deformations that do not prevent the observation of optical confinement within the fiber by bandgap effects. The experimental fiber attenuation spectrum displays clear bandgap confinement regions whose positions are confirmed by modeling the guiding properties of the ideal geometry using a plane-wave expansion method. The model identifies the bound modes of the structure and provides confirmation of experimentally observed mode field profiles. PMID:23202091

Lousteau, Joris; Scarpignato, Gerardo; Athanasiou, Giorgos S; Mura, Emanuele; Boetti, Nadia; Olivero, Massimo; Benson, Trevor; Sewell, Phillip; Abrate, Silvio; Milanese, Daniel

2012-12-01

344

Proton radiography of PBX 9502 detonation shock dynamics confinement sandwich test

Recent results utilizing proton radiography (P-Rad) during the detonation of the high explosive PBX 9502 are presented. Specifically, the effects of confinement of the detonation are examined in the LANL detonation confinement sandwich geometry. The resulting detonation velocity and detonation shock shape are measured. In addition, proton radiography allows one to image the reflected shocks through the detonation products. Comparisons are made with detonation shock dynamics (DSD) and reactive flow models for the lead detonation shock and detonation velocity. In addition, predictions of reflected shocks are made with the reactive flow models.

Aslam, Tariq D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jackson, Scott I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morris, John S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

345

Effect of confinement during cookoff of TATB

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In practical scenarios, cookoff of explosives is a three-dimensional transient phenomenon where the rate limiting reactions may occur either in the condensed or gas phase. The effects of confinement are more dramatic when the rate-limiting reactions occur in the gas phase. Explosives can be self-confined, where the decomposing gases are contained within non-permeable regions of the explosive, or confined by a metal or composite container. In triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) based explosives, self-confinement is prevalent in plastic bonded explosives at full density. The time-to-ignition can be delayed by orders of magnitude if the reactive gases leave the confining apparatus. Delays in ignition can also occur when the confining apparatus has excess gas volume or ullage. Understanding the effects of confinement is required to accurately model explosive cookoff at various scales ranging from small laboratory experiments to large real systems.

Hobbs, M. L.; Kaneshige, M. J.

2014-05-01

346

Friedmann Thermodynamics and the Geometry of the Universe

In a recent article we have introduced Friedmann thermodynamics, where certain geometric parameters in Friedmann models are treated like their thermodynamic counterparts (temperature, entropy, Gibbs potential etc.). This model has the advantage of allowing us to determine the geometry of the universe by thermodynamic stability arguments. In this article we review connections between thermodynamics, geometry and cosmology.

Selcuk S. Bayin

2008-04-01

347

Spacetime and Euclidean geometry

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using only the principle of relativity and Euclidean geometry we show in this pedagogical article that the square of proper time or length in a two-dimensional spacetime diagram is proportional to the Euclidean area of the corresponding causal domain. We use this relation to derive the Minkowski line element by two geometric proofs of the spacetime Pythagoras theorem.

Brill, Dieter; Jacobson, Ted

2006-04-01

348

Music critics have compared Bach's music to the precision of mathematics. What "mathematics" and what "precision" are the questions for a curious scientist. The purpose of this short note is to suggest that the mathematics is, at least in part, Mandelbrot's fractal geometry and the precision is the deviation from a log-log linear plot. PMID:11607061

Hsü, K J; Hsü, A J

1990-01-01

349

We review the remarkably fruitful interactions between mathematics and quantum physics in the past decades, pointing out some general trends and highlighting several examples, such as the counting of curves in algebraic geometry, invariants of knots and four-dimensional topology. PMID:20123740

Atiyah, Michael; Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Hitchin, Nigel

2010-01-01

350

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Allowing students to use a polystyrene cutter to fashion their own three-dimensional models is suggested as a means of allowing individuals to experience problems and develop ideas related to solid geometry. A list of ideas that can lead to mathematical discovery is provided. (MP)

Hartz, Viggo

1981-01-01

351

Gallery of Interactive Geometry

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a collection of interactive geometry tools and applications. It includes tools such as WebPisces, Build a Rainbow, Escher-like tilings, projective conics, Cyberview-X (an application for 3D object viewing), and numerical integration. Some of the applications also feature simulations.

2009-06-06

352

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity allows learners to practice observation skills and to realize examples of geometric shapes are everywhere. This geometry scavenger hunt (PDF) contains a set of directions and a recording sheet to complete. Included also is a list of materials and extension ideas.

2010-01-01

353

Arithmetic, Geometry Calculus III

students. Calculus III goes by various names: Vector Calculus, Multivariable Calculus, CalculusArithmetic, Geometry and Calculus III by W. Stephen Wilson Department of Mathematics Johns to approach the problem. In both the fall of 2007 and the fall of 2008, I taught Calculus III to over 200

Wilson, W. Stephen

354

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of investigations into finite geometries, prompted by questions raised in a course for secondary school mathematics teachers, are presented. The discussion of points, lines, and incidences led to consideration of graphs of second-degree equations in finite projective planes. (MNS)

Shilgalis, Thomas W.

1985-01-01

355

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The cycloid has been called the Helen of Geometry, not only because of its beautiful properties but also because of the quarrels it provoked between famous mathematicians of the 17th century. This article surveys the history of the cycloid and its importance in the development of the calculus.

Martin, John

2010-01-01

356

Advanced geometries and regimes

We review and discuss different schemes of laser ion acceleration as well as advanced target geometries in connection with the development of the laser-driven proton source for hadron therapy of oncological diseases, which is a part of the ELIMED project.

Bulanov, S. S. [Univeristy of California, Berkeley, CA, 94720 (United States)] [Univeristy of California, Berkeley, CA, 94720 (United States); Bulanov, S. V. [Kansai Photon Science Institute, JAEA, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan)] [Kansai Photon Science Institute, JAEA, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Turchetti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Bologna and INFN Sezione di Bologna, Via Irnerio, 46-I-40126 Bologna (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Bologna and INFN Sezione di Bologna, Via Irnerio, 46-I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Limpouch, J.; Klimo, O.; Psikal, J. [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines/HiLASE project, Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague, Czech Republic and Czech Technical University in Prague, FNSPE, Brehova 7, 115 19 Prague (Czech Republic)] [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines/HiLASE project, Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague, Czech Republic and Czech Technical University in Prague, FNSPE, Brehova 7, 115 19 Prague (Czech Republic); Antici, P. [Dipartimento di Energetica ed INFM, Università di Roma, La Sapienza, 00165 Roma (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Energetica ed INFM, Università di Roma, La Sapienza, 00165 Roma (Italy); Margarone, D.; Korn, G. [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines/HiLASE project, Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague (Czech Republic)] [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines/HiLASE project, Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague (Czech Republic)

2013-07-26

357

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. The online resources featured in Geometry in 3-D actively engage students in exploring a variety of geometric shapes, at times through lessons that involve building models or creating paper nets that fold into three-dimensional shapes; at other times, through technology that allows students to rotate and zoom in on figures, noting their attributes and complexity. Other lessons offer problems on surface area and volume, a part of every middle school curriculum. The problems, each with a different twist on the subject, challenge students to reconsider their understanding of how to measure solids. Activities for developing spatial sense, another primary objective in teaching geometry, are also featured. Finally, there are online galleries of geometric solids, included for the rare opportunity they offer to show your students the beauty in mathematics. In Background Information, you will find workshop sessions developed for teachers and other materials that may interest you as a professional. Each resource deals specifically with three-dimensional geometry topics that align with the geometry and measurement standards recommended by NCTM.

Herrera, Terese

2006-09-01

358

Geometry of affine distributions

Bilinear affine distributions are considered from the point of view of their geometry in the time-frequency plane. General construction rules are established for interference terms, with further interpretations in terms of localization properties and generalized means. In the case of frequency modulated signals, it is shown how the pointwise application of these rules can be refined by the study of

Patrick Flandrin; P. Goncalves

1994-01-01

359

Dragon Shapes: Geometry Challenge

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This iOS app requires users to apply their knowledge of geometry to solve Tangram puzzles. The app introduces the challenge through a brief episode and then provides challenges of increasing difficulty throughout level 1. There are fourteen free puzzles in all, with additional puzzles available through an in app purchase.

Ltd, Lighthouse L.

2013-10-14

360

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photoionization cross sections of the outer 3s^2 shell of free and confined Mg have been calculated. The C60 confinement is modeled as an attractive spherical potential of inner radius 5.8 a.u., thickness of 1.89 a.u. and a depth U0 varying from 0.0 to 0.302 a.u. (corresponding to Mg@C60). Modified MCHF and HF codes have been used to obtain the single and multi-configuration wave functions, which were calculated self-consistently including the extra confining potential. The photoionization cross sections were calculated using the R-matrix method at both the LS coupling and Breit-Pauli (BP) approximation level. We found that the ionization energy of the Mg ground state increases somewhat with increasing well depth. Moreover the photoionization cross section of free Mg, which is dominated in the threshold region by doubly-excited nln^'l^' resonances, changes dramatically in the presence of the confining well; partially because many of the near-threshold resonances move below threshold with increasing well depth. In addition the BP calculation shows spin-orbit splitting, significant even at such low Z.

Padukka, P.; Zhou, H.-L.; Manson, S. T.

2012-06-01

361

Inertial confinement fusion with light ion beams.

The Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II) is presently under construction and is the only existing facility with the potential of igniting thermonuclear fuel in the laboratory. The accelerator will generate up to 5 megamperes of lithium ions at 30 million electron volts and will focus them onto an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target after beam production and focusing have been optimized. Since its inception, the light ion approach to ICF has been considered the one that combines low cost, high risk, and high payoff. The beams are of such high density that their self-generated electric and magnetic fields were thought to prohibit high focal intensities. Recent advances in beam production and focusing demonstrate that these self-forces can be controlled to the degree required for ignition, break-even, and high gain experiments. ICF has been pursued primarily for its potential military applications. However, the high efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the light ion approach enhance its potential for commercial energy application as well. PMID:17755963

Vandevender, J P; Cook, D L

1986-05-16

362

Modeling quark-hadron duality for relativistic, confined fermions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss a model for the study of quark-hadron duality in inclusive electron scattering based on solving the Dirac equation numerically for a scalar confining linear potential and a vector color Coulomb potential. We qualitatively reproduce the features of quark-hadron duality for all potentials considered, and discuss the similarities and differences to previous models that simplified the situation by treating either the quarks or all particles as scalars. We discuss the scaling results for the plane-wave impulse approximation and final-state interactions, and the approach to scaling using the analog of the Callan-Gross relation for y scaling.

Jeschonnek, Sabine; van Orden, J. W.

2004-03-01

363

Electromelting of Confined Monolayer Ice

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In sharp contrast to the prevailing view that electric fields promote water freezing, here we show by molecular dynamics simulations that monolayer ice confined between two parallel plates can melt into liquid water under a perpendicularly applied electric field. The melting temperature of the monolayer ice decreases with the increasing strength of the external field due to the field-induced disruption of the water-wall interaction induced well-ordered network of the hydrogen bond. This electromelting process should add an important new ingredient to the physics of water.

Qiu, Hu; Guo, Wanlin

2013-05-01

364

Fast particle confinement with optimized coil currents in the W7-X stellarator

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the principal goals of the W7-X stellarator is to demonstrate good confinement of energetic ions at finite ?. This confinement, however, is sensitive to the magnetic field configuration and is thus vulnerable to design modifications of the coil geometry. The collisionless drift orbit losses for 60 keV protons in W7-X are studied using the ANTS code. Particles in this energy range will be produced by the neutral beam injection (NBI) system being constructed for W7-X, and are particularly important because protons at this energy accurately mimick the behaviour of 3.5 MeV ?-particles in a HELIAS reactor. To investigate the possibility of improved fast particle confinement, several approaches to adjust the coil currents (5 main field coil currents +2 auxiliary coil currents) were explored. These strategies include simple rules of thumb as well as computational optimization of various properties of the magnetic field. It is shown that significant improvement of collisionless fast particle confinement can be achieved in W7-X for particle populations similar to ? particles produced in fusion reactions. Nevertheless, the experimental goal of demonstrating confinement improvement with rising plasma pressure using an NBI-generated population appears to be difficult based on optimization of the coil currents only. The principal reason for this difficulty is that the NBI deposition profile is broader than the region of good fast-ion confinement around the magnetic axis.

Drevlak, M.; Geiger, J.; Helander, P.; Turkin, Y.

2014-07-01

365

Molecular Dynamics simulation of evaporation processes of fluid bridges confined in slit-like pore

A simple fluid, described by point-like particles interacting via the Lennard-Jones potential, is considered under confinement in a slit geometry between two walls at distance Lz apart for densities inside the vapor-liquid coexistence curve. Equilibrium then requires the coexistence of a liquid "bridge" between the two walls, and vapor in the remaining pore volume. We study this equilibrium for several choices of the wall-fluid interaction (corresponding to the full range from complete wetting to complete drying, for a macroscopically thick film), and consider also the kinetics of state changes in such a system. In particular, we study how this equilibrium is established by diffusion processes, when a liquid is inserted into an initially empty capillary (partial or complete evaporation into vacuum), or when the volume available for the vapor phase increases. We compare the diffusion constants describing the rates of these processes in such inhomogeneous systems to the diffusion constants in the corresponding bulk liquid and vapor phases.

Katarzyna Bucior; Leonid Yelash; Kurt Binder

2009-01-23

366

Ion Extraction from a Helicon Plasma Source for an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HELIOS, an inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion device designed for advanced fuel studies [1], uses an external helicon plasma source, from which ions are extracted and subsequently accelerated radially into an electrostatic potential well set up by a semi-transparent cathode grid inside a spherical chamber. A campaign is underway to raise fusion rates to allow for diagnostic studies of IEC physics with helium-3 fuel, in order to benchmark the single-atomic-species formalism of VICTER, a Volterra integral-equation code on spherically convergent ion flow [2]. The helicon plasma has been characterized through double probe measurements of plasma density and electron temperature for various rf antenna and magnetic field geometries. Measurements of the extracted ion current using a witness plate and a Faraday cup are also presented.[4pt] [1] G.R. Piefer et al., Fusion Sci. Technol. 47, 1255 (2005).[0pt] [2] G.A. Emmert and J.F. Santarius, Phys. Plasmas 17, 013502 (2010).

Becerra, Gabriel; Kulcinski, Gerald; Santarius, John

2012-10-01

367

Galilean invariance leaves its imprint on the energy spectrum and eigenstates of N quantum particles, bosons, or fermions, confined in a bounded domain. It endows the spectrum with a recurrent structure, which in capillaries or elongated traps of length L and cross-section area s(?) leads to spectral gaps n(2)h(2)s(?)?/(2 mL) at wave numbers 2n?s(?)?, where ? is the number density and m is the particle mass. In zero temperature superfluids, in toroidal geometries, it causes the quantization of the flow velocity with the quantum h/(mL) or that of the circulation along the toroid with the known quantum h/m. Adding a "friction" potential, which breaks Galilean invariance, the Hamiltonian can have a superfluid ground state at low flow velocities but not above a critical velocity, which may be different from the velocity of sound. In the limit of infinite N and L, if N/L = s(?)? is kept fixed, translation invariance is broken, and the center of mass has a periodic distribution, while superfluidity persists at low flow velocities. This conclusion holds for the Lieb-Liniger model. PMID:24655263

Süt?, András

2014-03-01

368

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial confinement is known to influence the electronic structure, the energy spectra and the chemical properties of atoms and molecules. The influence of confinement effects on chemical properties has recently been confirmed via the calculation of global DFT reactivity descriptors (hardness and softness) of atoms and molecules under confined conditions. In this work we investigate for the first time the influence of confinement on the Fukui function—a local reactivity index which can serve as an indicator of regioselectivity. A case study of two molecules (H2CO and C2H4) is presented, by employing a simple potential barrier approach involving a single parameter. The results show an important influence of confinement on the topology of the Fukui function.

Borgoo, A.; De Proft, F.; Geerlings, P.; Tozer, D. J.

2009-08-01

369

On Confinement, Chiral Symmetry Breaking, and the UA(1) anomaly in Functional Approaches

The so-called decoupling and scaling solutions of functional equations of Landau gauge Yang-Mills theory are briefly reviewed. In both types of solutions the positivity violation seen in the gluon propagator is taken as an indication of gluon confinement. In the scaling solution the resulting infrared singularities of the quark-gluon vertex are responsible for the linear potential between static quarks and are therefore signaling quark confinement. A corresponding description of the UA(1) anomaly in functional approaches is only known for the scaling solution. Nevertheless, it seems puzzling at first sight that quark confinement is related to the dynamical and anomalous breaking of chiral symmetry in a self-consistent manner: One obtains either all these phenomena or none. For the scaling solution also fundamental scalar fields are confined. This provides evidence that within functional approaches static confinement is an universal property of the gauge sector even though it is formally represented in the fun...

Alkofer, Reinhard

2011-01-01

370

This article reports an explicit function form for confining classical Yang-Mills vector potentials and quantum fluctuations around the classical field. The classical vector potential, which is composed of a confining localized function and an unlocalized function, satisfies the classical Yang-Mills equation. The confining localized function contributes to the Wilson loop, while the unlocalized function makes no contribution to this loop. The confining linear potential between a heavy fermion and antifermion is due to (1) the Lie algebra and (2) the form of the confining localized function which has opposite signs at the positions of the particle and antiparticle along the Wilson loop in the time direction. Some classical confining parts of vector potentials also change sign on inversion of the coordinates of the axis perpendicular to the axis joining the two particles. The localized parts of the vector potentials are squeezed around the axis connecting the two particles, and the string tension of the confining linear potential is derived. Quantum fluctuations are formulated using a field expression in terms of local basis functions in real spacetime. The quantum path integral gives the Coulomb potential between the two particles in addition to the linear potential due to the classical fields.

Kimichika Fukushima; Hikaru Sato

2014-02-03

371

Symmetry-Adapted Rotator Functions for Molecules in Cylindrical Confinement

We present a general description of the formalism of symmetry-adapted rotator functions (SARFs) for molecules in cylindrical confinement. Molecules are considered as clusters of interaction centers (ICs), can have any symmetry, and can display different types of ICs. Cylindrical confinement can be realized by encapsulation in a carbon nanotube (CNT). The potential energy of a molecule surrounded by a CNT can be calculated by evaluating a limited number of terms of an expansion into SARFs, which offers a significant reduction of the computation time. Optimal molecular orientations can be deduced from the resulting potential energy landscape. Examples, including the case of a molecule with cubic symmetry inside a CNT, are discussed. PMID:21339988

Verberck, Bart

2011-01-01

372

Atomic processes in Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) devices

Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) is one of the earliest plasma confinement concepts, having first been suggested by P. T. Farnsworth in the 1950s. The concept involves a simple apparatus of concentric spherical electrostatic grids or a combination of grids and magnetic fields. An electrostatic structure is formed from the confluence of electron or ion beams. Gridded IEC systems have demonstrated neutron yields as high as 2*10{sup 10} neutrons/sec. These systems have considerable potential as small, inexpensive, portable neutron sources for assaying applications. Neutron tomography is also a potential application. Atomic physics effects strongly influence the performance of all of these systems. Important atomic effects include elastic scattering, ionization, excitation, and charge exchange. This paper discusses how an IEC system is influenced by these effects and how to design around them. Theoretical modeling and experimental results are presented.

Nebel, R.A.; Turner, L.; Tiouririne, T.N.; Barnes, D.C.; Nystrom, W.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Bussard, R.W. [Energy/Matter Conversion Corp., Manassas, VA (United States); Miley, G.H.; Javedani, J.; Yamamoto, Y. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States)

1993-12-31

373

Inertial electrostatic confinement I(IEC) neutron sources

Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) is one of the earliest plasma confinement concepts, having first been suggested by P.T. Farnsworth in the 1950s. The concept involves a simple apparatus of concentric spherical electrostatic grids or a combination of grids and magnetic fields. An electrostatic structure is formed from the confluence of electron or ion beams. Gridded IEC systems have demonstrated neutron yields as high as 2*10 [10]. neutrons/sec in steady state. These systems have considerable potential as small, inexpensive, portable neutron sources for assaying applications. Neutron tomography is also a potential application. This paper discusses the IEC concept and how it can be adapted to a steady-state assaying source and an intense pulsed neutron source. Theoretical modeling and experimental results are presented.

Nebel, R.A.; Barnes, D.C.; Caramana, E.J.; Janssen, R.D.; Nystrom, W.D.; Tiouririne, T.N.; Trent, B.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Miley, G.H.; Javedani, J. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States)

1995-12-01

374

Vortex Lattices and Crystalline Geometries

We consider $AdS_2 \\times R^2$ solutions supported by a magnetic field, such as those which arise in the near-horizon limit of magnetically charged $AdS_4$ Reissner-Nordstrom black branes. In the presence of an electrically charged scalar field, such magnetic solutions can be unstable to spontaneous formation of a vortex lattice. We solve the coupled partial differential equations which govern the charged scalar, gauge field, and metric degrees of freedom to lowest non-trivial order in an expansion around the critical point, and discuss the corrections to the free energy and thermodynamic functions arising from the formation of the lattice. We describe how such solutions can also be interpreted, via S-duality, as characterizing infrared crystalline phases of conformal field theories doped by a chemical potential, but in zero magnetic field; the doped conformal field theories are dual to geometries that exhibit dynamical scaling and hyperscaling violation.

Ning Bao; Sarah Harrison; Shamit Kachru; Subir Sachdev

2013-03-18

375

Soft confinement for polymer solutions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a model of soft confinement for polymers, we investigated equilibrium shapes of a flexible vesicle that contains a phase-separating polymer solution. To simulate such a system, we combined the phase field theory (PFT) for the vesicle and the self-consistent field theory (SCFT) for the polymer solution. We observed a transition from a symmetric prolate shape of the vesicle to an asymmetric pear shape induced by the domain structure of the enclosed polymer solution. Moreover, when a non-zero spontaneous curvature of the vesicle is introduced, a re-entrant transition between the prolate and the dumbbell shapes of the vesicle is observed. This re-entrant transition is explained by considering the competition between the loss of conformational entropy and that of translational entropy of polymer chains due to the confinement by the deformable vesicle. This finding is in accordance with the recent experimental result reported by Terasawa et al. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 108 (2011) 5249).

Oya, Yutaka; Kawakatsu, Toshihiro

2014-07-01

376

Controlling defects in nematic and smectic liquid crystals through boundary geometry

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid crystals (LCs), presently the basis of the dominant electronics display technology, also hold immense potential for the design of new self-assembling, self-healing, and "smart" responsive materials. Essential to many of these novel materials are liquid crystalline defects, places where the liquid crystalline order is forced to break down, replacing the LC locally with a higher-symmetry phase. Despite the energetic cost of this local melting, defects are often present at equilibrium when boundary conditions frustrate the material order. These defects provide micron-scale tools for organizing colloids, focusing light, and generating micropatterned materials. Manipulating the shapes of the boundaries thus offers a route to obtaining new and desirable self-assembly outcomes in LCs, but each added degree of complexity in the boundary geometry increases the complexity of the liquid crystal's response. Therefore, conceptually minimal changes to boundary geometry are investigated for their effects on the self-assembled defect arrangements that result in nematic and smectic-A LCs in three dimensions as well as two-dimensional smectic LCs on curved substrates. In nematic LCs, disclination loops are studied in micropost confining environments and in the presence of sharp-edged colloidal inclusions, using both numerical modeling and topological reasoning. In both scenarios, sharp edges add new possibilities for the shape or placement of disclinations, permitting new types of colloidal self-assembly beyond simple chains and hexagonal lattices. Two-dimensional smectic LCs on curved substrates are examined in the special cases where the substrate curvature is confined to points or curves, providing an analytically tractable route to demonstrate how Gaussian curvature is associated with disclinations and grain boundaries, as well as these defects' likely experimental manifestations. In three-dimensional smectic-A LCs, novel self-assembled arrangements of focal conic domains (FCDs) are shown to arise from geometric patterning or curvature in boundaries exhibiting so-called hybrid anchoring. These new arrangements allow control over both the packing of the FCDs and their eccentricities. In general, defect self-assembly behavior in LCs is shown to depend sensitively on the shapes of confining boundaries, colloidal inclusions, and substrates, and several broad, new geometrical principles for directing the assembly of nontrivial defect configurations are presented.

Beller, Daniel A.

377

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We probe doubled geometry with dual fundamental branes, i.e. solitons. Restricting ourselves first to solitonic branes with more than two transverse directions we find that the doubled geometry requires an effective wrapping rule for the solitonic branes which is dual to the wrapping rule for fundamental branes. This dual wrapping rule can be understood by the presence of Kaluza-Klein monopoles. Extending our analysis to supersymmetric solitonic branes with less than or equal to two transverse directions we show that such solitons are precisely obtained by applying the same dual wrapping rule to these cases as well. This extended wrapping rule cannot be explained by the standard Kaluza-Klein monopole alone. Instead, it suggests the existence of a class of generalized Kaluza-Klein monopoles in ten-dimensional string theory.

Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Riccioni, Fabio

2011-08-01

378

In this thesis I review the definition of topological quantum field theories through state sums on triangulated manifolds. I describe the construction of state sum invariants of 3-manifolds from a graphical calculus and show how to evaluate the invariants as boundary amplitudes. I review how to define such a graphical calculus through SU(2) representation theory. I then review various geometricity results for the representation theory of SU(2), Spin(4) and SL(2,C), and define coherent boundary manifolds for state sums based on these representations. I derive the asymptotic geometry of the SU(2) based Ponzano-Regge invariant in three dimensions, and the SU(2) based Ooguri models amplitude in four dimensions. As a corollary to the latter results I derive the asymptotic behaviour of various recently proposed spin foam models motivated from the Plebanski formulation of general relativity. Finally the asymptotic geometry of the SL(2,C) based model is derived.

Frank Hellmann

2011-02-08

379

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Entanglement entropy in even-dimensional conformal field theories (CFTs) contains well-known universal terms arising from the conformal anomaly. Rényi entropies are natural generalizations of the entanglement entropy that are much less understood. Above two spacetime dimensions, the universal terms in the Rényi entropies are unknown for general entangling geometries. We conjecture a new structure in the dependence of the four-dimensional Rényi entropies on the intrinsic and extrinsic geometry of the entangling surface. We provide evidence for this conjecture by direct numerical computations in the free scalar and fermion field theories. The computation involves relating the four-dimensional free massless Rényi entropies across cylindrical entangling surfaces to corresponding three-dimensional massive Rényi entropies across circular entangling surfaces. Our numerical technique also allows us to directly probe other interesting aspects of three-dimensional Rényi entropy, including the massless renormalized Rényi entropy and calculable contributions to the perimeter law.

Lee, Jeongseog; McGough, Lauren; Safdi, Benjamin R.

2014-06-01

380

Spinorial Geometry and Supergravity

In the main part of this thesis, we present the foundations and initial results of the Spinorial Geometry formalism for solving Killing spinor equations. This method can be used for any supergravity theory, although we largely focus on D=11 supergravity. The D=5 case is investigated in an appendix. The exposition provides a comprehensive introduction to the formalism, and contains background material on the complex spin representations which, it is hoped, will provide a useful bridge between the mathematical literature and our methods. Many solutions to the D=11 Killing spinor equations are presented, and the consequences for the spacetime geometry are explored in each case. Also in this thesis, we consider another class of supergravity solutions, namely heterotic string backgrounds with (2,0) world-sheet supersymmetry. We investigate the consequences of taking alpha-prime corrections into account in the field equations, in order to remain consistent with anomaly cancellation, while requiring that spacetime supersymmetry is preserved.

Joe Gillard

2006-08-19

381

Cylindrical geometry hall thruster

An apparatus and method for thrusting plasma, utilizing a Hall thruster with a cylindrical geometry, wherein ions are accelerated in substantially the axial direction. The apparatus is suitable for operation at low power. It employs small size thruster components, including a ceramic channel, with the center pole piece of the conventional annular design thruster eliminated or greatly reduced. Efficient operation is accomplished through magnetic fields with a substantial radial component. The propellant gas is ionized at an optimal location in the thruster. A further improvement is accomplished by segmented electrodes, which produce localized voltage drops within the thruster at optimally prescribed locations. The apparatus differs from a conventional Hall thruster, which has an annular geometry, not well suited to scaling to small size, because the small size for an annular design has a great deal of surface area relative to the volume.

Raitses, Yevgeny (Princeton, NJ); Fisch, Nathaniel J. (Princeton, NJ)

2002-01-01

382

Multilevel geometry optimization

Geometry optimization has been carried out for three test molecules using six multilevel electronic structure methods, in particular Gaussian-2, Gaussian-3, multicoefficient G2, multicoefficient G3, and two multicoefficient correlation methods based on correlation-consistent basis sets. In the Gaussian-2 and Gaussian-3 methods, various levels are added and subtracted with unit coefficients, whereas the multicoefficient Gaussian-x methods involve noninteger parameters as coefficients. The multilevel optimizations drop the average error in the geometry (averaged over the 18 cases) by a factor of about two when compared to the single most expensive component of a given multilevel calculation, and in all 18 cases the accuracy of the atomization energy for the three test molecules improves; with an average improvement of 16.7 kcal/mol. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

Rodgers, Jocelyn M. [Department of Chemistry and Supercomputer Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455-0431 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry and Supercomputer Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455-0431 (United States); Fast, Patton L. [Department of Chemistry and Supercomputer Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455-0431 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry and Supercomputer Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455-0431 (United States); Truhlar, Donald G. [Department of Chemistry and Supercomputer Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455-0431 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry and Supercomputer Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455-0431 (United States)

2000-02-15

383

Mixtures of Bose gases confined in concentrically coupled annular traps

A two-component Bose-Einstein condensate confined in an axially symmetric potential with two local minima, resembling two concentric annular traps, is investigated. The system shows a number of phase transitions that result from the competition between phase coexistence and radial-azimuthal phase separation. The ground-state phase diagram, as well as the rotational properties, including the (meta)stability of currents in this system, is analyzed.

Malet, F.; Reimann, S. M. [Mathematical Physics, LTH, Lund University, Post Office Box 118, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Kavoulakis, G. M. [Technological Education Institute of Crete, Post Office Box 1939, GR-71004, Heraklion (Greece)

2010-01-15

384

Electrostatic plasma-confinement experiments in a tandem mirror system

Results from the tandem mirror experiment are described. The configuration of axial density and potential profiles are created and sustained by neutral-beam injection and gas fueling. Plasma confinement in the center cell is shown to be improved by the end plugs by as much as a factor of 9. The electron temperature is higher than that achieved in our earlier 2XIIB single-cell mirror experiment.

Coensgen, F.H.; Anderson, C.A.; Casper, T.A.; Clauser, J.F.; Condit, W.C.; Correll, D.L.; Cummins, W.F.; Davis, J.C.; Drake, R.P.; Foote, J.H.; Futch, A.H.; Goodman, R.K.; Grubb, D.P.; Hallock, G.A.; Hornady, R.S.; Hunt, A.L.; Logan, B.G.; Munger, R.H.; Nexsen, W.E.; Simonen, T.C.; Slaughter, D.R.; Stallard, B.W.; Strand, O.T.

1980-04-28

385

Cyclically-Induced Pore Pressure at High Confining Stress

Experiments were conducted by the ERDC Centrifuge Research Team to investigate effective confining stress effects on liquefaction potential of fine, clean, Nevada sand, under the boundary and loading conditions of a centrifuge model. For this test series, twenty-six level ground models with either a dense layer over a loose layer or homogeneous profile were tested in an equivalent-shear-beam box. Some

Michael K. Sharp; R. Scott Steedman

386

Discharge characteristics of the spherical inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device

The inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device provides 10 7 2.5-MeV D-D neutrons\\/second, when operated with a deuterium discharge at 70 kV. This potentially provides an important portable neutron source for various activation analysis applications. The discharge involved is unique, in that it uses a spherical grid in a spherical vacuum vessel. The discharge is struck between the grid and the

G. H. Miley; Y. Gu; J. M. DeMora; R. A. Stubbers; T. A. Hochberg; J. H. Nadler; R. A. Anderl

1996-01-01

387

Discharge characteristics of the spherical inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device

The University of Illinois inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device provides 107 2.5 MeV D-D neutrons\\/second when operated with a steady-state deuterium discharge at 70 kV. Being compact and lightweight, the IEC potentially represents an attractive portable neutron source for activation analysis applications. The plasma discharge in the IEC is unique, using a spherical grid in a spherical vacuum vessel with

George H. Miley; Yibin Gu; John M. DeMora; Robert A. Stubbers; Timothy A. Hochberg; Jon H. Nadler; Robert A. Anderl

1997-01-01

388

NON COMMUTATIVE DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY

In commutative differential geometry the Frolicher-Nijenhuis bracket computes all kinds of curvatures and obstructions to integrability. In (1) the Frolicher- Nijenhuis bracket was developed for universal differential forms of non-commutative algebras, and several applications were given. In this paper this bracket and the Frolicher-Nijenhuis calculus will be developed for several kinds of differential graded algebras based on derivations, which were

Michel Dubois-Violette; Peter W. Michor

389

Confined Polystyrene Nanoparticles in Nanoblends Yahya Rharbi*, M. Yousfi Laboratoire de Rheologie, UMR 5520 PB 53 geometry. This work looks at the Tg of nanoconfined polystyrene in spherical nanoparticles (27- 200 nm agreed that the Tg of polystyrene (PS) decreases with decreasing film thickness for h

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de

390

Two-fluid magnetic island dynamics in slab geometry. I. Isolated islands

plasma confinement because heat and particles are able to travel radially from one side of an islandTwo-fluid magnetic island dynamics in slab geometry. I. Isolated islands Richard Fitzpatricka magnetic island propagating through a slab plasma with uniform but different ion and electron fluid

Fitzpatrick, Richard

391

Two-fluid magnetic island dynamics in slab geometry: I -Isolated islands

. Such islands degrade plasma confinement because heat and particles are able to travel ra- dially from one sideTwo-fluid magnetic island dynamics in slab geometry: I - Isolated islands Richard Fitzpatrick magnetic island propagating through a slab plasma with uniform but different ion and electron fluid veloc

Fitzpatrick, Richard

392

Novel Magnetic Geometries to Cure the Divertor Heat Flux Problem for Reactors

A novel magnetic divertor geometry with a second axi-symmetric x-point and flux expansion region along the separatrix is analysed. It can provide a stable, completely detached plasma state compatible with reactor operation; avoiding serious physics and engineering problems: 1) extreme divertor heat fluxes, 2) poor global confinement and high disruptivity due to low edge temperatures, 3) lack of access to

P. Valanju; M. Kotschenreuther; J. C. Wiley; M. Pekker

2004-01-01

393

Mixed confinement regimes during equilibrium confinement spectroscopy of DNA.

We have used a combination of fluorescence microscopy experiments and Pruned Enriched Rosenbluth Method simulations of a discrete wormlike chain model to measure the mean extension and the variance in the mean extension of ?-DNA in 100 nm deep nanochannels with widths ranging from 100 nm to 1000 nm in discrete 100 nm steps. The mean extension is only weakly affected by the channel aspect ratio. In contrast, the fluctuations of the chain extension qualitatively differ between rectangular channels and square channels with the same cross-sectional area, owing to the "mixing" of different confinement regimes in the rectangular channels. The agreement between experiment and simulation is very good, using the extension due to intercalation as the only adjustable parameter. PMID:24908035

Gupta, Damini; Sheats, Julian; Muralidhar, Abhiram; Miller, Jeremy J; Huang, Derek E; Mahshid, Sara; Dorfman, Kevin D; Reisner, Walter

2014-06-01

394

Matter in Toy Dynamical Geometries

One of the objectives of theories describing quantum dynamical geometry is to compute expectation values of geometrical observables. The results of such computations can be affected by whether or not matter is taken into account. It is thus important to understand to what extent and to what effect matter can affect dynamical geometries. Using a simple model, it is shown that matter can effectively mold a geometry into an isotropic configuration. Implications for "atomistic" models of quantum geometry are briefly discussed.

Tomasz Konopka

2009-03-25

395

Plasma confinement by a picket-fence

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that a current-produced line cusp field in a 'picket fence' configuration will confine both primary ionizing electrons and plasma. The 'picket fence' consists of a planar array of equally spaced water-cooled copper tubing with the current alternating in direction. The loss rates of both plasma and primary electrons are shown to be inversely proportional to the fence current. Plasma confinement is found to be much weaker than electron confinement.

Leung, K. N.; Romesser, T.; Hershkowitz, N.

1975-01-01

396

The identity of Thalictrum confine (Ranunculaceae)

A history of the collecting and naming ofThalictrum confine Fern, is detailed in an attempt to clear up long-standing nomenclatural and taxonomic confusions.Thalictrum confine has traditionally been distinguished fromT. venulosum Trel. on the basis of its larger, falcate fruits; however the lectotype ofT. confine consists only of a packet of terete, subcylindric fruits, even smaller than those of the type

Richard S. Mitchell

1988-01-01

397

Packing of charged chains on toroidal geometries.

We study a strongly adsorbed flexible polyelectrolyte chain on tori. In this generalized Thomson problem, the patterns of the adsorbed chain are analyzed in the space of the toroidal coordinates and in terms of the orientation of each chain segment. Various patterns are found, including double spirals, disclination-like structures, Janus tori, and uniform wrappings, arising from the long-range electrostatic interaction and the toroidal geometry. Their broken mirror symmetry is quantitatively characterized by introducing an order parameter, an integral of the torsion. The uniform packing, which breaks the mirror symmetry the least, has the lowest value of the order parameter. In addition, it is found that the electrostatic energy of confined chains on tori conforms to a power law regardless of the screening effect in some typical cases studied. Furthermore, we study random walks on tori that generate chain configurations in the large screening limit or at large thermal fluctuation; some features associated with the toroidal geometry are discussed. PMID:23410352

Yao, Zhenwei; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica

2013-01-01

398

How does confinement affect the dynamics of viscous vesicles and red blood cells?

Despite its significance in microfluidics, the effect of confinement on the transition from the tank-treading (steady motion) to the tumbling (unsteady motion) dynamical state of deformable micro-particles has not been studied in detail. In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of a single viscous vesicle under confining shear as a general model system for red blood cells, capsules, or viscous droplets. The transition from tank-treading to tumbling motion can be triggered by the ratio between internal and external fluid viscosities. Here, we show that the transition can be induced solely by reducing the confinement, keeping the viscosity contrast constant. The observed dynamics results from the variation of the relative importance of viscous-, pressure-, and lubrication-induced torques exerted upon the vesicle. Our findings are of interest for designing future experiments or microfluidic devices: the possibility to trigger the tumbling-to-tank-treading transition either by geometry or viscosity contrast alo...

Kaoui, Badr; Harting, Jens

2012-01-01

399

Discrete Differential Geometry Misha Kazhdan

: Â· Surface Evolution Â Mean-curvature flow Â Willmore flow #12;Why Discrete Differential Geometry? Differential Geometry: Â· Surface Evolution Â Mean-curvature flow Â Willmore flow Â· Dynamical Systems Â Twisting -= -= -= = - ktgv ga k k -= -= ( ) tvvg kk -=- - /1 #12;Why Discrete Differential Geometry? Example (Conservation

Kazhdan, Michael

400

Geometry in Cryptography Luca Giuzzi

Geometry in Cryptography Luca Giuzzi Summer School Giuseppe Tallini 9 July 2004 #12;Cryptosystems decryption k K : k K such that m M :d(e(m, k), k ) = m. Luca Giuzzi -- Geometry in Cryptography 1 #12;Discrete Logarithm Problem Â· G = g group Â· m G Determine N such that m = g Luca Giuzzi -- Geometry

Giuzzi, Luca

401

Gridded inertial-electrostatic confinement (IEC) de- vices interest fusion researchers owing to their ability to burn advanced fusion fuels and have many near-term applications. In these devices, a high voltage (10-180 kV) accelerates ions radially between nearly transparent electrodes in spherical or cylindrical geometry. In this paper, we report experiments that study fusion reactions within the microchannels formed between the wires

S. Krupakar Murali; John F. Santarius; Gerald L. Kulcinski

2011-01-01

402

The properties of fluids can be significantly altered by the geometry of their confining environments. While there has been significant work on the properties of such confined fluids, the properties of fluids under ultraconfinement, environments where, at least in one plane, the dimensions of the confining environment are similar to that of the confined molecule, have not been investigated. This paper investigates the dynamic properties of water in beryl (Be3Al2Si6O18), the structure of which contains approximately 5-A-diam channels parallel to the c axis. Three techniques, inelastic neutron scattering, quasielastic neutron scattering, and dielectric spectroscopy, have been used to quantify these properties over a dynamic range covering approximately 16 orders of magnitude. Because beryl can be obtained in large single crystals we were able to quantify directional variations, perpendicular and parallel to the channel directions, in the dynamics of the confined fluid. These are significantly anisotropic and, somewhat counterintuitively, show that vibrations parallel to the c-axis channels are significantly more hindered than those perpendicular to the channels. The effective potential for vibrations in the c direction is harder than the potential in directions perpendicular to it. There is evidence of single-file diffusion of water molecules along the channels at higher temperatures, but below 150 K this diffusion is strongly suppressed. No such suppression, however, has been observed in the channel-perpendicular direction. Inelastic neutron scattering spectra include an intramolecular stretching O-H peak at 465 meV. As this is nearly coincident with that known for free water molecules and approximately 30 meV higher than that in liquid water or ice, this suggests that there is no hydrogen bonding constraining vibrations between the channel water and the beryl structure. However, dielectric spectroscopic measurements at higher temperatures and lower frequencies yield an activation energy for the dipole reorientation of 16.4 0.14 kJ/mol, close to the energy required to break a hydrogen bond in bulk water. This may suggest the presence of some other form of bonding between the water molecules and the structure, but the resolution of the apparent contradiction between the inelastic neutron and dielectric spectroscopic results remains uncertain.

Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Mamontov, Eugene [ORNL] [ORNL; Ishai, Paul ben [The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel] [The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel; Kolesnikov, Alexander I [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01

403

Comment on "Vortex distribution in a confining potential".

A system of interacting vortices is considered as an appropriate model for describing properties of type-II superconductors, and it has been shown lately to be deeply associated with nonextensive statistical mechanics. Herein we comment on a recent investigation of this model [M. Girotto, A. P. dos Santos, and Y. Levin, Phys. Rev. E 88, 032118 (2013)], which tried to contradict this assertion, based on a mean-field type of solution, compared with numerical-simulation data that correspond typically to a regime characterized by low concentrations of particles, as well as very high temperatures. It is shown that the physical situations analyzed differ significantly from those of a real superconducting phase. The analytical solution obtained from such a mean-field approximation shows a discrepancy with respect to the results of molecular-dynamics numerical simulations, which increases as the temperature is lowered towards the superconducting phase, as expected. We demonstrate that these results, when interpreted properly by means of an analytical solution within the framework of nonextensive statistical mechanics, present a remarkable agreement between molecular-dynamics simulations and theoretical results, for all temperatures, specially for those temperatures associated with the existence of type-II superconductivity. PMID:25215852

Ribeiro, Mauricio S; Nobre, Fernando D; Curado, Evaldo M F

2014-08-01

404

Comment on "Vortex distribution in a confining potential"

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system of interacting vortices is considered as an appropriate model for describing properties of type-II superconductors, and it has been shown lately to be deeply associated with nonextensive statistical mechanics. Herein we comment on a recent investigation of this model [M. Girotto, A. P. dos Santos, and Y. Levin, Phys. Rev. E 88, 032118 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevE.88.032118], which tried to contradict this assertion, based on a mean-field type of solution, compared with numerical-simulation data that correspond typically to a regime characterized by low concentrations of particles, as well as very high temperatures. It is shown that the physical situations analyzed differ significantly from those of a real superconducting phase. The analytical solution obtained from such a mean-field approximation shows a discrepancy with respect to the results of molecular-dynamics numerical simulations, which increases as the temperature is lowered towards the superconducting phase, as expected. We demonstrate that these results, when interpreted properly by means of an analytical solution within the framework of nonextensive statistical mechanics, present a remarkable agreement between molecular-dynamics simulations and theoretical results, for all temperatures, specially for those temperatures associated with the existence of type-II superconductivity.

Ribeiro, Mauricio S.; Nobre, Fernando D.; Curado, Evaldo M. F.

2014-08-01

405

We present a theoretical study of the folding of small proteins inside confining potentials. Proteins are described in the framework of an effective potential model which contains the Ramachandran angles as degrees of freedom and does not need any {\\it a priori} information about the native state. Hydrogen bonds, dipole-dipole- and hydrophobic interactions are taken explicitly into account. An interesting feature displayed by this potential is the presence of some intermediates between the unfolded and native states. We consider different types of confining potentials in order to study the structural properties of proteins folding inside cages with repulsive or attractive walls. Using the Wang-Landau algorithm we determine the density of states (DOS) and analyze in detail the thermodynamical properties of the confined proteins for different sizes of the cages. We show that confinement dramatically reduces the phase space available to the protein and that the presence of intermediate states can be controlled by varying the properties of the confining potential. Cages with strongly attractive walls lead to the disappearance of the intermediate states and to a two-state folding into a less stable configuration. However, cages with slightly attractive walls make the native structure more stable than in the case of pure repulsive potentials, and the folding process occurs through intermediate configurations. In order to test the metastable states we analyze the free energy landscapes as a function of the configurational energy and of the end-to-end distance as an order parameter.

Pedro Ojeda; Aurora Londono; Nan-Yow Chen; Martin Garcia

2007-11-06

406

Two-dimensional simulations of the inertial electrostatic confinement device

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the application of the CELESTE simulation package to the simulation of the experiments conducted at the Los Alamos Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device. Recently considerable experimental advances have been made in understanding of the stability of the virtual cathode and in the physics of POPS. This momentous experimental advance requires a new simulation effort for explaining the new experimental findings, particularly in the area of stability of the configurations obtained experimentally. We have conducted a 2D stability study of the virtual cathode in the IEC device using the DEMOCRITUS package. DEMOCRITUS is a 2D general geometry electrostatic PIC code. In the present study we have done complete stability study and investigate the two-stream instability occuring in the IEC device.

Marocchino, Alberto; Lapenta, Giovanni; Evstatiev, Evstati; Nebel, Richard; Park, Jaeyoung

2006-04-01

407

Implicit Methods for the Magnetohydrodynamic Description of Magnetically Confined Plasmas

Implicit algorithms are essential for predicting the slow growth and saturation of global instabilities in today’s magnetically confined fusion plasma experiments. Present day algorithms for obtaining implicit solutions to the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations for highly magnetized plasma have their roots in algorithms used in the 1960s and 1970s. However, today’s computers and modern linear and non?linear solver techniques make practical much more comprehensive implicit algorithms than were previously possible. Combining these advanced implicit algorithms with highly accurate spatial representations of the vector fields describing the plasma flow and magnetic fields and with improved methods of calculating anisotropic thermal conduction now makes possible simulations of fusion experiments using realistic values of plasma parameters and actual configuration geometry.

S.C. Jardin

2010-09-28

408

Weapons Activities/ Inertial Confinement Fusion Ignition

Weapons Activities/ Inertial Confinement Fusion Ignition and High Yield Campaign FY 2012 a safe, secure, and reliable nuclear weapons stockpile without underground testing. Science-based weapons's Budget. Page 105 #12;Weapons Activities/ Inertial Confinement Fusion Ignition and High Yield Campaign FY

409

TRANSPORT AND DYNAMICS IN SUPERCOOLED CONFINED WATER

TRANSPORT AND DYNAMICS IN SUPERCOOLED CONFINED WATER FRANCESCO MALLAMACE,1,2 CARMELO CORSARO,2 SOW Water Dynamic Crossover IV. Recent Experiments on Confined Water A. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance B. Neutron Scattering V. The Breakdown of the StokesÂEinstein Relation VI. The LDL Phase and the Water

Stanley, H. Eugene

410

MHD-Limits to Plasma Confinement

Ideal MHD restricts both the current and the pressure which can be stably confined in a Tokamak. A pressure profile optimisation is carried out for a variety of equilibria, which include JET and INTOR-like plasmas, in order to obtain the maximum ? which can be stably confined at constant current. The current is limited to a value corresponding to a

F. Troyon; R. Gruber; H. Saurenmann; S. Semenzato; S. Succi

1984-01-01

411

Quark confinement and surface critical phenomena

Surface critical phenomena and the related onset of Goldstone modes probe the fundamental properties of the confining flux in Quantum Chromodynamics. New ideas on surface roughening and their implications for lattice studies of quark confinement are presented. Problems with the oversimplified string description of the Wilson flux sheet are discussed.

K.J. Juge, J. Kuti and C.J. Morningstar

1999-10-20

412

Inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) neutron sources

Inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) is one of the earliest plasma confinement concepts, having first been suggested by P.T. Farnsworth in the 1950s. The concept involves a simple apparatus of concentric spherical electrostatic grids or a combination of grids and magnetic fields. An electrostatic structure is formed from the confluence of electron or ion beams. Gridded IEC systems have demonstrated neutron

R. A. Nebel; D. C. Barnes; E. J. Caramana; R. D. Janssen; W. D. Nystrom; T. N. Tiouririne; B. C. Trent; G. H. Miley; J. Javedani

1995-01-01

413

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

T-branes are a non-abelian generalization of intersecting branes in which the matrix of normal deformations is nilpotent along some subspace. In this paper we study the geometric remnant of this open string data for six-dimensional F-theory vacua. We show that in the dual M-theory / IIA compactification on a smooth Calabi-Yau threefold X smth, the geometric remnant of T-brane data translates to periods of the three-form potential valued in the intermediate Jacobian of X smth. Starting from a smoothing of a singular Calabi-Yau, we show how to track this data in singular limits using the theory of limiting mixed Hodge structures, which in turn directly points to an emergent Hitchin-like system coupled to defects. We argue that the physical data of an F-theory compactification on a singular threefold involves specifying both a geometry as well as the remnant of three-form potential moduli and flux which is localized on the discriminant. We give examples of T-branes in compact F-theory models with heterotic duals, and comment on the extension of our results to four-dimensional vacua.

Anderson, Lara B.; Heckman, Jonathan J.; Katz, Sheldon

2014-05-01

414

T-branes are a non-abelian generalization of intersecting branes in which the matrix of normal deformations is nilpotent along some subspace. In this paper we study the geometric remnant of this open string data for six-dimensional F-theory vacua. We show that in the dual M-theory / IIA compactification on a smooth Calabi-Yau threefold X, the geometric remnant of T-brane data translates to periods of the three-form potential valued in the intermediate Jacobian of X. Starting from a smoothing of a singular Calabi-Yau, we show how to track this data in singular limits using the theory of limiting mixed Hodge structures, which in turn directly points to an emergent Hitchin-like system coupled to defects. We argue that the physical data of an F-theory compactification on a singular threefold involves specifying both a geometry as well as the remnant of three-form potential moduli and flux which is localized on the discriminant. We give examples of T-branes in compact F-theory models with heterotic duals, and comment on the extension of our results to four-dimensional vacua.

Lara B. Anderson; Jonathan J. Heckman; Sheldon Katz

2013-10-07

415

Analytic Coleman-de Luccia Geometries

We present the necessary and sufficient conditions for a Euclidean scale factor to be a solution of the Coleman-de Luccia equations for some analytic potential V ({psi}), with a Lorentzian continuation describing the growth of a bubble of lower-energy vacuum surrounded by higher-energy vacuum. We then give a set of explicit examples that satisfy the conditions and thus are closed-form analytic examples of Coleman-de Luccia geometries.

Dong, Xi; /Stanford U., ITP /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC; Harlow, Daniel; /Stanford U., ITP /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

2012-02-16

416

Results of particle-in-sell simulations of ion acceleration by using the KARAT code in a cylindrical geometry in the problem formulation corresponding to an actual experiment with a low-energy vacuum discharge with a hollow cathode are presented. The fundamental role of the formed virtual cathode is analyzed. The space-time dynamics of potential wells related to the formation of the virtual cathode is discussed. Quasi-steady potential wells (with a depth of {approx}80% of the applied voltage) cause acceleration of deuterium ions to energies about the electron beam energy ({approx}50 keV). In the well, a quasi-isotropic velocity distribution function of fast ions forms. The results obtained are compared with available data on inertial electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF). In particular, similar correlations between the structure of potential wells and the neutron yield, as well as the scaling of the fusion power density, which increases with decreasing virtual cathode radius and increasing potential well depth, are considered. The chosen electrode configuration and potential well parameters provide power densities of nuclear DD fusion in a nanosecond vacuum discharge noticeably higher than those achieved in other similar IECF systems.

Kurilenkov, Yu. K.; Tarakanov, V. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Gus'kov, S. Yu. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

2010-12-15

417

Transient coexisting nanophases in ultrathin films confined between corrugated walls

Grand-canonical Monte Carlo and microcanonical molecular dynamics methods have been used to simulate an ultrathin monatomic film confined to a slit-pore [i.e., between solid surfaces (walls)]. Both walls comprise atoms rigidly fixed in the face centered cubic (100) configuration; one wall is smooth on a nanoscale and the other is corrugated (i.e., scored with regularly spaced rectilinear grooves one to several nanometers wide). Properties of the film have been computed as a function of the lateral alignment (registry), with the temperature, chemical potential, and distance between the walls kept constant. Changing the registry carries the film through a succession of equilibrium states, ranging from all solid at one extreme to all fluid at the other. Over a range of intermediate registries the film consists of fluid and solid portions in equilibrium, that is fluid-filled nanocapillaries separated by solid strips. The range of registries over which such fluid--solid equilibria exist depends upon the width of the grooves and the frequency of the corrugation. For grooves of width comparable to the range of the interatomic potential, fluid and solid phases cease to coexist. In the limit of very wide grooves the character of the film is similar to that of the film confined by strictly smooth walls. The rich phase behavior of the confined film due to the coupling between molecular (registry) and nano (corrugation) scales has obvious implications for boundary lubrication.

Curry, J.E.; Zhang, F.; Cushman, J.H. (Lilly Hall of Life Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)); Schoen, M. (Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)); Diestler, D.J. (Department of Agronomy, Keim Hall, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68583-0915 (United States))

1994-12-15

418

Multicell Electrode Structure for Off-axis Plasma Confinement

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many potential applications of high-capacity and/or portable antimatter traps. One route towards this goal which we have been pursuing is the construction of a novel ``multicell'' trap acrchitecture, with the goal of storage of >=10^12 positrons using kV confinement potentials. Plasmas will be stored in separate Penning-Malmberg traps (``cells'') arranged in parallel off the magnetic axis. This utilizes efficiently the magnetic field volume, while minimizing the required confinement voltages. Other enabling techniques will be discussed including the excitation of autoresonant diocotron modes to inject plasmas into the off-axi cells, as well as novel beams that can be created from this type of trapped plasma. New experiements testing the confinement in off-axis cells will be presented. Anticipated uses of this device, including an experiment to create an electron-positron plasma in a stellerator,footnotetextT. S. Pedersen, et. al., NJP 14, 035010 (2012). will also be discussed.

Danielson, J. R.; Hurst, N. C.; Surko, C. M.

2012-10-01

419

Boundaries Matter for Confined Colloidal Glasses

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We confine dense colloidal suspensions within emulsion droplets to examine how confinement and properties of the confining medium affect the colloidal glass transition. Samples are imaged via fast confocal microscopy. By observing a wide range of droplet sizes and varying the viscosity of the external continuous phase, we separate finite size and boundary effects on particle motions within the droplet. Suspensions are composed of binary PMMA spheres in organic solvents while the external phases are simple mixtures of water and glycerol. In analogy with molecular super-cooled liquids and thin-film polymers, we find that confinement effects in colloidal systems are not merely functions of the finite size of the system, but are strongly dependent on the viscosity of the confining medium and interactions between particles and the interface of the two phases.

Hunter, Gary; Edmond, Kazem V.; Weeks, Eric R.

2012-02-01

420

Confinement-induced resonances in anharmonic waveguides

We develop the theory of anharmonic confinement-induced resonances (ACIRs). These are caused by anharmonic excitation of the transverse motion of the center of mass (c.m.) of two bound atoms in a waveguide. As the transverse confinement becomes anisotropic, we find that the c.m. resonant solutions split for a quasi-one-dimensional (1D) system, in agreement with recent experiments. This is not found in harmonic confinement theories. A new resonance appears for repulsive couplings (a{sub 3D}>0) for a quasi-two-dimensional (2D) system, which is also not seen with harmonic confinement. After inclusion of anharmonic energy corrections within perturbation theory, we find that these ACIRs agree extremely well with anomalous 1D and 2D confinement-induced resonance positions observed in recent experiments. Multiple even- and odd-order transverse ACIRs are identified in experimental data, including up to N=4 transverse c.m. quantum numbers.

Peng Shiguo [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Centre for Atom Optics and Ultrafast Spectroscopy, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne 3122 (Australia); Hu Hui; Liu Xiaji; Drummond, Peter D. [Centre for Atom Optics and Ultrafast Spectroscopy, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne 3122 (Australia)

2011-10-15

421

Adopting a purely two-dimensional relativistic equation for graphene's carriers contradicts the Heisenberg uncertainty principle since it requires setting the off-the-surface coordinate of a three-dimensional wavefunction to zero. Here we present a theoretical framework for describing graphene's massless relativistic carriers in accordance with this most fundamental of all quantum principles. A gradual confining procedure is used to restrict the dynamics onto a surface and normal to the surface parts, and in the process the embedding of this surface into the three-dimensional world is accounted for. As a result an invariant geometric potential arises in the surface part which scales linearly with the mean curvature and shifts the Fermi energy of the material proportional to bending. Strain induced modification of the electronic properties or 'straintronics' is clearly an important field of study in graphene. This opens an avenue to producing electronic devices: micro- and nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS), where the electronic properties are controlled by geometric means and no additional alteration of graphene is necessary. The appearance of this geometric potential also provides us with clues as to how quantum dynamics looks in the curved space-time of general relativity. In this context we explore a two-dimensional cross-section of the wormhole geometry, realized with graphene as a solid state thought experiment. PMID:21474883

Atanasov, Victor; Saxena, Avadh

2011-05-01

422

Confinement-Induced Quorum Sensing of Individual Staphylococcus aureus Bacteria

It is postulated that, in addition to cell density, other factors, such as the dimensions and diffusional characteristics of the environment, could influence quorum sensing (QS) and induction of genetic reprogramming. Modeling studies predict that QS may operate at the level of a single cell, but, due to experimental challenges, the potential benefits of QS by individual cells remain virtually unexplored. Here we report a physical system that mimics isolation of a bacterium, such as within an endosome or phagosome during infection, and maintains cell viability under conditions of complete chemical and physical isolation. For Staphylococcus aureus, we show quorum sensing and genetic re-programming to occur in a single isolated organism. Quorum sensing allows S. aureus to sense confinement and to activate virulence and metabolic pathways needed for survival. To demonstrate the benefit of confinement-induced quorum sensing to individuals, we showed quorum sensing bacteria to have significantly greater viability over non-QS bacteria. PMID:19935660

Carnes, Eric C; Lopez, DeAnna M; Donegan, Niles P; Cheung, Ambrose; Gresham, Hattie; Timmins, Graham S; Brinker, CJ

2014-01-01

423

Confined electronic states and their modulations in graphene nanorings

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Confined electronic states in quantum rings formed by spatially modulated finite Dirac gap (FDGQR) in graphene are systematically studied by series-expansion method, and are compared with those in infinite-mass-boundary and one-dimensional quantum rings. The shape-size effect of FDGQR is illustrated to be distinct from that in graphene quantum dots. The Aharonov-Bohm effect in FDGQR is clearly shown by the energy spectrum and the optical-transition probabilities. The FDGQR coupled with the electrostatic-potential induced nanoring is found useful for modulating the Dirac electronic states and the optical-transition probabilities. These results may help us to understand and to control the quantum behaviors of confined electronic states in graphene.

Zhu, Jia-Lin; Wang, Xingyuan; Yang, Ning

2012-09-01

424

Coulomb gauge confinement in the heavy quark limit

The relationship between the nonperturbative Green's functions of Yang-Mills theory and the confinement potential is investigated. By rewriting the generating functional of quantum chromodynamics in terms of a heavy quark mass expansion in Coulomb gauge, restricting to leading order in this expansion and considering only the two-point functions of the Yang-Mills sector, the rainbow-ladder approximation to the gap and Bethe-Salpeter equations is shown to be exact in this case and an analytic, nonperturbative solution is presented. It is found that there is a direct connection between the string tension and the temporal gluon propagator. Further, it is shown that for the 4-point quark correlation functions, only confined bound states of color-singlet quark-antiquark (meson) and quark-quark (baryon) pairs exist.

Popovici, C.; Watson, P.; Reinhardt, H. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

2010-05-15

425

Trinucleotide duplex formation inside a confined nanospace under supercooled conditions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-assembly of nucleotides of fewer than three base pairs is often found in protein–nucleotide conjugations, despite their energetic instability, and is regarded as the potential starting point for the creation of artificial hydrogen-bonded supramolecular complexes. Here we report duplex formation of 3-mer DNA fragments confined within silica mesopores modified with a positively charged trimethyl aminopropyl monolayer, and their further stabilization under supercooled conditions (T<273?K). We load 3-mer DNA fragments with donor- or acceptor-dye into modified silica mesopores and examine their hybridization behaviours using FRET measurements. The FRET results clearly reveal that efficient duplex formation through at least two A-T base pairs can be achieved at 233?K. Enthalpy changes for duplex formation are found to be nearly equal between complementary and single-mismatched 3-mer DNA duplexes. These results confirm confined mesoscale cavities to be a novel low-temperature reaction space for hydrogen-bonded supramolecular complexes.

Arafune, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Akira; Namekawa, Manato; Sato, Yusuke; Itoh, Tetsuji; Yoshida, Ryoko; Teramae, Norio

2014-10-01

426

The inertial electrostatic confinement approach to fusion power

Inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) of a non-Maxwellian beam-dominated plasma for fusion, originally proposed in the 1950s, has received little attention until recently. Experiments have shown that small IEC devices operating in a beam-background plasma mode are well-suited for a commercial portable low-level neutron source for activation analysis applications. However, the scaling to a high-power fusion reactor is uncertain, due to the lack of experimental data with the higher input currents necessary for beam-beam reactions. Three key issues need to be resolved: the stability of multiple potential well structures, the confinement time of energetic ions trapped in such wells, and the protection of grid structures during high-power operation. If these issues are positively resolved, conceptual design studies show that the resulting reactor would be economically and environmentally attractive and versatile.

Miley, G.H. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Fusion Studies Lab.

1995-12-31

427

Pulsed operation of spherical inertial-electrostatic confinement device

Inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion confines high energy ions in potential wells, where their increased energy and density yields a high fusion rate. Studies of the IEC at the University of Illinois (UI) initially concentrated on steady-state operation where neutron yields of approx.10{sup 6} D-D n/s are routinely obtained. However, the development of a pulsed configuration has been undertaken to provide higher neutron yields. Preliminary experiments have demonstrated I{sup 2} scaling during pulsed operation when the perveance threshold of 2.2 mA/kV{sup 3/2} is exceeded. Based on these results, it appears that the present IEC could be operated with 3-A, 100-kV repetitive pulses with a 10% duty factor to produce neutron yields of approx.10{sup 10} neutrons/second. 6 refs., 7 figs.

Gu, Y.; Williams, M.; Stubbers, R.; Miley, G. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

1996-12-31

428

Photon-assisted confinement-induced resonances for ultracold atoms

We solve the two-particle s-wave scattering for an ultracold atom gas confined in a quasi-one-dimensional trapping potential which is periodically modulated. The interaction between the atoms is included in terms of Fermi's pseudopotential. For a modulated isotropic transverse harmonic confinement, the atomic center of mass and relative degrees of freedom decouple and an exact solution is possible. We use the Floquet approach to show that additional photon-assisted resonant scattering channels open up due to the harmonic modulation. Applying the Bethe-Peierls boundary condition, we obtain the general scattering solution of the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation which is universal at low energies. The binding energies and the effective one-dimensional scattering length can be controlled by the external driving.

Leyton, Vicente; Peano, Vittorio; Thorwart, Michael

2014-01-01

429

Photon-assisted confinement-induced resonances for ultracold atoms.

We solve the two-particle s-wave scattering for an ultracold-atom gas confined in a quasi-one-dimensional trapping potential which is periodically modulated. The interaction between the atoms is included via Fermi's pseudopotential. For a modulated isotropic transverse harmonic confinement, the atomic center of mass and relative degrees of freedom decouple and an exact solution is possible. The modulation opens additional photon-assisted resonant scattering channels. Applying the Bethe-Peierls boundary condition, we obtain the general scattering solution of the time-dependent Floquet-Schrödinger equation which is universal at low energies. The effective one-dimensional scattering length can be controlled by the external driving. PMID:24972205

Leyton, Vicente; Roghani, Maryam; Peano, Vittorio; Thorwart, Michael

2014-06-13

430

Photon-Assisted Confinement-Induced Resonances for Ultracold Atoms

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We solve the two-particle s-wave scattering for an ultracold-atom gas confined in a quasi-one-dimensional trapping potential which is periodically modulated. The interaction between the atoms is included via Fermi's pseudopotential. For a modulated isotropic transverse harmonic confinement, the atomic center of mass and relative degrees of freedom decouple and an exact solution is possible. The modulation opens additional photon-assisted resonant scattering channels. Applying the Bethe-Peierls boundary condition, we obtain the general scattering solution of the time-dependent Floquet-Schrödinger equation which is universal at low energies. The effective one-dimensional scattering length can be controlled by the external driving.

Leyton, Vicente; Roghani, Maryam; Peano, Vittorio; Thorwart, Michael

2014-06-01

431

Inertial Confinement Fusion Materials Science

Demonstration of thermonuclear ignition and gain on a laboratory scale is one of science's grand challenges. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is committed to achieving inertial confinement fusion (ICF) by 2010. Success in this endeavor depends on four elements: the laser driver performance, target design, experimental diagnostics performance, and target fabrication and target materials performance. This article discusses the current state of target fabrication and target materials performance. The first three elements will only be discussed insofar as they relate to target fabrication specifications and target materials performance. Excellent reviews of the physics of ICF are given by Lindl [Lindl 1998] and Lindl et al. [Lindl 2004]. To achieve conditions under which inertial confinement is sufficient to achieve thermonuclear burn, an imploded fuel capsule is compressed to conditions of high density and temperature. In the laboratory a driver is required to impart energy to the capsule to effect an implosion. There are three drivers currently being considered for ICF in the laboratory: high-powered lasers, accelerated heavy ions, and x rays resulting from pulsed power machines. Of these, high-powered lasers are the most developed, provide the most symmetric drive, and provide the most energy. Laser drive operates in two configurations. The first is direct drive where the laser energy impinges directly on the ICF capsule and drives the implosion. The second is indirect drive, where the energy from the laser is first absorbed in a high-Z enclosure or hohlraum surrounding the capsule, and the resulting x-rays emitted by the hohlraum material drives the implosion. Using direct drive the laser beam energy is absorbed by the electrons in the outer corona of the target. The electrons transport the energy to the denser shell region to provide the ablation and the resulting implosion. Laser direct drive is generally less efficient and more hydrodynamically unstable than the x-ray driven ablation of indirect drive. The symmetry of the implosion depends sensitively on the balance of the intensity of the individual beams driving the target. Variations in intensity imprint perturbations on the target that are amplified by hydrodynamic instabilities. Indirect drive is less efficient at coupling energy to a capsule than direct drive because of the conversion to x-rays in the hohlraum. However, indirect drive is less sensitive to variations in beam intensity and hydrodynamic instabilities. The ignition threshold for directly-driven and indirectly-driven targets is about the same. However, the gain is calculated to be about a factor of 2 greater in directly driven targets.

Hamza, A V

2004-06-01

432

Wall-confined high beta spheromak

The spheromak could be extended into the high beta regime by supporting the pressure on flux-conserving walls, allowing the plasma to be in a Taylor state with zero pressure gradient and thus stable to ideal and resistive MHD. The concept yields a potentially attractive, pulsed reactor which would require no external magnets. The flux conserver would be shaped to be stable to the tilt and shift instabilities. We envision a plasma which is ohmically ignited at low beta, with the kinetic pressure growing to beta > 1 by fueling from the edge. The flux conserver would be designed such that the magnetic decay time = the fusion burn time. The thermal capacity of the flux conserver and blanket would exceed the fusion yield per discharge, so that they can be cooled steadily. Ignition is estimated to require minimum technology: 30-100 MJ of pulsed power applied at a 0.5 GW rate generates an estimated bum yield > 1 GJ. The concept thus provides an alternate route to a fusion plasma that is MHD stable at high beta, yielding a reactor that is simple and cheap. The major confinement issue is transport due to grad(T), e.g. driven by high beta modes related to the ITG instability.

Fowler, T.K.; Hopper, E.B.; Moir, R.W.; Pearlstein, L.D.

1998-03-16

433

Plasmid profiling of bacterial isolates from confined environments

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasmid profiling of bacterial isolates from confined environments R. Van Houdt, I. Coninx, A. Provoost, N. Leys, and M. Mergeay Expertise group for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Institute for Environment, Health and Safety, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK•CEN), Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol, Belgium. Human exploration of extreme and isolated hostile environments such as space requires special confined small volume habitats to protect and house the crew. However, human confinement in such small volume habitats has restrictions on waste disposal and personal hygiene and inevitably generates a particular community of microorganisms within the habitat. These microorganisms are mainly originating from the crew (skin, mucous membranes, upper respiratory tract, mouth, and gastrointestinal tract) but also include the residing environmental microorganisms. Earth-based confined habitats such as the Antarctic Research Station Concordia are used as test beds for long-duration spaceflights to study the physiologic and psychological adaptation to isolated environments. The dynamics of the environmental microbial population in such a test bed could render additional insights in assessing the potential health risks in long-duration space missions. Not only total bacterial contamination levels are important, but it is essential to identify also the predominant microbial taxa and their mobile genetic elements (MGE). These MGEs could be exchanged between bacteria by horizontal gene transfer and may alter the pathogenic potential since they often carry antibiotic resistance or more in general adaptation-enhancing traits. In this study several bacterial strains isolated in the Concordia research station were examined for their plasmid content. An optimized protocol for extraction of large plasmids showed the present of at least one plasmid in 50% of the strains. For all strains the minimal inhibitory concentration of a range of antibiotics was determined indicating resistance to different classes of antibiotics including aminoglycosides, penicillins, macrolides and chloramphenicol. Whether these antibiotic resistance determinants are plasmid-bound and whether these traits can be transferred to other bacteria is under investigation.

van Houdt, Rob; Provoost, Ann; Coninx, Ilse; Leys, Natalie; Mergeay, Max

434

Layering Transitions and Solvation Forces in an Asymmetrically Confined Fluid

We consider a simple fluid confined between two parallel walls (substrates), separated by a distance L. The walls exert competing surface fields so that one wall is attractive and may be completely wet by liquid (it is solvophilic) while the other is solvophobic. Such asymmetric confinement is sometimes termed a `Janus Interface'. The second wall is: (i) purely repulsive and therefore completely dry (contact angle 180 degrees) or (ii) weakly attractive and partially dry (the contact angle is typically in the range 160-170 degrees). At low temperatures, but above the bulk triple point, we find using classical density functional theory (DFT) that the fluid is highly structured in the liquid part of the density profile. In case (i) a sequence of layering transitions occurs: as L is increased at fixed chemical potential (mu) close to bulk gas--liquid coexistence, new layers of liquid-like density develop discontinuously. In contrast to confinement between identical walls, the solvation force is repulsive for all wall separations and jumps discontinuously at each layering transition and the excess grand potential exhibits many metastable minima as a function of the adsorption. For a fixed temperature T=0.56Tc, where Tc is the bulk critical temperature, we determine the transition lines in the L, mu plane. In case (ii) we do not find layering transitions and the solvation force oscillates about zero. We discuss how our mean-field DFT results might be altered by including effects of fluctuations and comment on how the phenomenology we have revealed might be relevant for experimental and simulation studies of water confined between hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates, emphasizing it is important to distinguish between cases (i) and (ii).

Maria C. Stewart; Robert Evans

2014-08-29

435

Geometric Modeling and Industrial Geometry

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Geometric Modeling and Industrial Geometry group is part of the Institute of Discrete Mathematics and Geometry at the Vienna University of Technology. The group's goal is "to bridge the gap between academic and industrial research in geometry" by "performing application oriented fundamental research and industrial research closely connected to geometry." Its work currently emphasizes the recognition, inspection, manipulation, and design of geometric shapes. Short descriptions of the group's work and some articles are available on the academic research, covering topics such as Computational Line Geometry, Laguerre Geometry, approximation in the space of planes, the isophotic metric, and swept volumes. Visitors can also read about the group's industrial research on 3-D Computer Vision, reverse Engineering, and Industrial Inspection. The Application Areas section includes more articles and provides actual data from some of the objects it has scanned along with the resulting 3-D images.

2005-11-03

436

Learning Geometry in Georgian England

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How did people learn geometry in Georgian England? It was different than in our own time, to be sure. This feature from Loci, the online publication of the MAA Mathematical Sciences Digital Library offers a bit of detail on the matter, courtesy of the geometry copybook of a boy named Thomas Porcher. This particular feature was written by Benjamin Wardhaugh from the University of Oxford. In the six-part feature, Wardhaugh looks into why such a boy would learn geometry and also what the existing texts were at the time. The article contains sections like "Geometry and Measuring" and "Geometry and Practical Geometry." It's a fascinating study, and one that will be intriguing to those with a penchant for the history of mathematics and pedagogy.

Porcher, Thomas; Wardhaugh, Benjamin, 1979-

2012-09-21

437

Cell migration in confined environments.

We describe a protocol for measuring the speed of human neutrophils migrating through small channels, in conditions of mechanical confinement comparable to those experienced by neutrophils migrating through tissues. In such conditions, we find that neutrophils move persistently, at constant speed for tens of minutes, enabling precise measurements at single cells resolution, for large number of cells. The protocol relies on microfluidic devices with small channels in which a solution of chemoattractant and a suspension of isolated neutrophils are loaded in sequence. The migration of neutrophils can be observed for several hours, starting within minutes after loading the neutrophils in the devices. The protocol is divided into four main steps: the fabrication of the microfluidic devices, the separation of neutrophils from whole blood, the preparation of the assay and cell loading, and the analysis of data. We discuss the practical steps for the implementation of the migration assays in biology labs, the adaptation of the protocols to various cell types, including cancer cells, and the supplementary device features required for precise measurements of directionality and persistence during migration. PMID:24560508

Irimia, Daniel

2014-01-01

438

Geometry of Periodic Monopoles

BPS monopoles on $\\mathbb{R}^2\\times S^1$ correspond, via the generalized Nahm transform, to certain solutions of the Hitchin equations on the cylinder $\\mathbb{R}\\times S^1$. The moduli space M of two monopoles with their centre-of-mass fixed is a 4-dimensional manifold with a natural hyperk\\"ahler metric, and its geodesics correspond to slow-motion monopole scattering. The purpose of this paper is to study the geometry of M in terms of the Nahm/Hitchin data, i.e. in terms of structures on $\\mathbb{R}\\times S^1$. In particular, we identify the moduli, derive the asymptotic metric on M, and discuss several geodesic surfaces and geodesics on M. The latter include novel examples of monopole dynamics.

Rafael Maldonado; R S Ward

2013-09-26

439

Quantum, Gravity, and Geometry

Recently, it is shown that, the quantum effects of matter are well described by the conformal degree of freedom of the space-time metric. On the other hand, it is a wellknown fact that according to Einstein's gravity theory, gravity and geometry are interconnected. In the new quantum gravity theory, matter quantum effects completely determine the conformal degree of freedom of the space-time metric, while the causal structure of the space-time is determined by the gravitational effects of the matter, as well as the quantum effects through back reaction effects. This idea, previousely, is realized in the framework of scalar-tensor theories. In this work, it is shown that quantum gravity theory can also be realized as a purely metric theory. Such a theory is developed, its consequences and its properties are investigated. The theory is applied, then, to black holes and the radiation-dominated universe. It is shown that the initial singularity can be avoided.

Ali Shojai

2000-10-04

440

We discuss how geometrical and topological aspects of certain (1/2)-BPS type IIB geometries are captured by their dual operators in N = 4 Super Yang-Mills theory. The type IIB solutions are characterized by arbitrary droplet pictures in a plane and we consider, in particular, axially symmetric droplets. The 1-loop anomalous dimension of the dual gauge theory operators probed with single traces is described by some bosonic lattice Hamiltonians. These Hamiltonians are shown to encode the topology of the droplets. In appropriate BMN limits, the Hamiltonians spectrum reproduces the spectrum of near-BPS string excitations propagating along each of the individual edges of the droplet. We also study semiclassical regimes for the Hamiltonians. For droplets having disconnected constituents, the Hamiltonian admits different complimentary semiclassical descriptions, each one replicating the semiclassical description for closed strings extending in each of the constituents.

Correa, Diego H. [DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Silva, Guillermo A. [IFLP-CCT-La Plata, CONICET and Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de La Plata CC 67, (1900) La Plata (Argentina)

2008-07-28

441

We define and investigate a quantisation of null hypersurfaces in the context of loop quantum gravity on a fixed graph. The main tool we use is the parametrisation of the theory in terms of twistors, which has already proved useful in discussing the interpretation of spin networks as the quantization of twisted geometries. The classical formalism can be extended in a natural way to null hypersurfaces, with the Euclidean polyhedra replaced by null polyhedra with space-like faces, and SU(2) by the little group ISO(2). The main difference is that the simplicity constraints present in the formalims are all first class, and the symplectic reduction selects only the helicity subgroup of the little group. As a consequence, information on the shapes of the polyhedra is lost, and the result is a much simpler, abelian geometric picture. It can be described by an Euclidean singular structure on the 2-dimensional space-like surface defined by a foliation of space-time by null hypersurfaces. This geometric structure is naturally decomposed into a conformal metric and scale factors, forming locally conjugate pairs. Proper action-angle variables on the gauge-invariant phase space are described by the eigenvectors of the Laplacian of the dual graph. We also identify the variables of the phase space amenable to characterize the extrinsic geometry of the foliation. Finally, we quantise the phase space and its algebra using Dirac's algorithm, obtaining a notion of spin networks for null hypersurfaces. Such spin networks are labelled by SO(2) quantum numbers, and are embedded non-trivially in the unitary, infinite-dimensional irreducible representations of the Lorentz group.

Simone Speziale; Mingyi Zhang

2013-11-13

442

Virtual Cathode in a Stationary Spherical Inertial Electrostatic Confinement

'Double-well' potential structure (virtual cathode formation) is studied in a stationary spherical inertial electrostatic confinement (SIEC) using the nonlinear Poisson's equation and particle densities derived from kinetic theory. A novel method to obtain a spherically symmetric stationary distribution function is introduced and an integral-differential equation is simplified by applying a relevant approximated formula for an integral. Electron and ion beams are collision-free, and their velocities are roughly aligned toward the spherical center, but with a slight divergence. Analyses show that the angular momentum of ions and the smaller one of electrons create a virtual cathode, i.e., a double-well structure, of the electrostatic potential on a potential hill near the center. The density limit of an SIEC is exhibited, and the condition relevant to form a deep potential well is presented.

Momota, Hiromu; Miley, George H. [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States)

2001-07-15

443

We study the phase behavior of a symmetric binary polymer blend that is confined in a thin film. The film surfaces interact with the monomers via short-range potentials. We calculate the phase behavior within the self-consistent field theory of Gaussian chains. Over a wide range of parameters we find strong first-order wetting transitions for the semi-infinite system, and the interplay between the wetting/prewetting behavior and the phase diagram in confined geometry is investigated. Antisymmetric boundaries, where one surface attracts the A component with the same strength as the opposite surface attracts the B component, are applied. The phase transition does not occur close to the bulk critical temperature but in the vicinity of the wetting transition. For very thin films or weak surface fields one finds a single critical point at straight phi(c)=1 / 2. For thicker films or stronger surface fields the phase diagram exhibits two critical points and two concomitant coexistence regions. Only below a triple point there is a single two-phase coexistence region. When we increase the film thickness the two coexistence regions become the prewetting lines of the semi-infinite system, while the triple temperature converges toward the wetting transition temperature from above. The behavior close to the tricritical point, which separates phase diagrams with one and two critical points, is studied in the framework of a Ginzburg-Landau ansatz. Two-dimensional profiles of the interface between the laterally coexisting phases are calculated, and the interfacial and line tensions analyzed. The effect of fluctuations and corrections to the self-consistent field theory are discussed. PMID:11089090

Muller; Albano; Binder

2000-10-01

444

It is well-known that the liquid properties in a strongly confined system can be very different from their ordinary behaviors in an extended system, due to the competition between the thermal energy and the interaction energy. Here we show that, in a low-dimensional self-assembled dipolar crystal, the parabolic optical confinement potential can also strongly affect the quantum many-body properties in the low temperature regime. For example, by changing the confinement aspect ratio, the bulk of the system can undergo a quantum phase transition between a liquid state and a solid state via a nonmonotonic pattern formation of the domain wall. Furthermore, the entropy of a trapped dipolar crystal can be much larger than the liquid state in the weak dipole limit, indicating an intrinsic polarization cooling mechanism via increasing the external field. These highly correlated confinement effects are very important to the experimental preparation of a self-assembled dipolar crystal using ultracold polar molecules.

Yi-Ya Tian; Daw-Wei Wang

2008-08-09

445

Unitary Thermodynamics from Thermodynamic Geometry

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Degenerate Fermi gases of atoms near a Feshbach resonance show universal thermodynamic properties, which are here calculated with the geometry of thermodynamics, and the thermodynamic curvature R. Unitary thermodynamics is expressed as the solution to a pair of ordinary differential equations, a "superfluid" one valid for small entropy per atom z? S/ Nk B , and a "normal" one valid for high z. These two solutions are joined at a second-order phase transition at z= z c . Define the internal energy per atom, in units of the Fermi energy, as Y= Y( z). For small z, Y( z)= y 0+ y 1 z ? + y 2 z 2 ? +⋯, where ? is a constant exponent, y 0 and y 1 are scaling factors, and the series coefficients y i ( i?2) are determined uniquely in terms of ( ?, y 0, y 1). For large z the solution follows if we also specify z c , with Y( z) diverging as z 5/3 for high z. The four undetermined parameters ( ?, y 0, y 1, z c ) were determined by fitting the theory to experimental data taken by a Duke University group on 6Li in an optical trap with a Gaussian potential. The very best fit of this theory to the data had ?=2.1, z c =4.7, y 0=0.277, and y 1=0.0735, with ? 2=0.95. The corresponding Bertsch parameter is ? B =0.462(40).

Ruppeiner, George

2014-01-01

446

Confinement of monopole field lines in a superconductor at T=/=0

We apply the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations to the confinement of a monopole-antimonopole pair in a superconductor. This is related to the problem of a quark-antiquark pair bound by a confining string, consisting of a colour-electric flux tube, dual to the magnetic vortex of type-II superconductors. We study the confinement of the field lines due to the superconducting state and calculate the effective potential between the two monopoles. At short distances the potential is Coulombic and at large distances the potential is linear, as previously determined solving the Ginzburg-Landau equations. The magnetic field lines and the string tension are also studied as a function of the temperature $T$. Because we take into account the explicit fermionic degrees of freedom, this work may open new perspectives to the breaking of chiral symmetry or to colour superconductivity.

Marco Cardoso; Pedro Bicudo; Pedro D. Sacramento

2006-07-20

447

Planetary Image Geometry Library

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Planetary Image Geometry (PIG) library is a multi-mission library used for projecting images (EDRs, or Experiment Data Records) and managing their geometry for in-situ missions. A collection of models describes cameras and their articulation, allowing application programs such as mosaickers, terrain generators, and pointing correction tools to be written in a multi-mission manner, without any knowledge of parameters specific to the supported missions. Camera model objects allow transformation of image coordinates to and from view vectors in XYZ space. Pointing models, specific to each mission, describe how to orient the camera models based on telemetry or other information. Surface models describe the surface in general terms. Coordinate system objects manage the various coordinate systems involved in most missions. File objects manage access to metadata (labels, including telemetry information) in the input EDRs and RDRs (Reduced Data Records). Label models manage metadata information in output files. Site objects keep track of different locations where the spacecraft might be at a given time. Radiometry models allow correction of radiometry for an image. Mission objects contain basic mission parameters. Pointing adjustment ("nav") files allow pointing to be corrected. The object-oriented structure (C++) makes it easy to subclass just the pieces of the library that are truly mission-specific. Typically, this involves just the pointing model and coordinate systems, and parts of the file model. Once the library was developed (initially for Mars Polar Lander, MPL), adding new missions ranged from two days to a few months, resulting in significant cost savings as compared to rewriting all the application programs for each mission. Currently supported missions include Mars Pathfinder (MPF), MPL, Mars Exploration Rover (MER), Phoenix, and Mars Science Lab (MSL). Applications based on this library create the majority of operational image RDRs for those missions. A Java wrapper around the library allows parts of it to be used from Java code (via a native JNI interface). Future conversions of all or part of the library to Java are contemplated.

Deen, Robert C.; Pariser, Oleg

2010-01-01

448

This paper discusses the fundamentals, applications, potential, limitations, and future perspectives of polarized light reflection techniques for the characterization of materials and related systems and devices at the nanoscale. These techniques include spectroscopic ellipsometry, polarimetry, and reflectance anisotropy. We give an overview of the various ellipsometry strategies for the measurement and analysis of nanometric films, metal nanoparticles and nanowires, semiconductor nanocrystals, and submicron periodic structures. We show that ellipsometry is capable of more than the determination of thickness and optical properties, and it can be exploited to gain information about process control, geometry factors, anisotropy, defects, and quantum confinement effects of nanostructures. PMID:21170135

Bergmair, Michael; Bruno, Giovanni; Cattelan, Denis; Cobet, Christoph; de Martino, Antonello; Fleischer, Karsten; Dohcevic-Mitrovic, Zorana; Esser, Norbert; Galliet, Melanie; Gajic, Rados; Hemzal, Dušan; Hingerl, Kurt; Humlicek, Josef; Ossikovski, Razvigor; Popovic, Zoran V.; Saxl, Ottilia

2009-01-01

449

Confinement free energy of flexible polyelectrolytes in spherical cavities

A weakly charged flexible polyelectrolyte chain in a neutral spherical cavity is analyzed by using self-consistent field theory within an explicit solvent model. Assuming the radial symmetry for the system, it is found that the confinement of the chain leads to creation of a charge density wave along with the development of a potential difference across the center of cavity and the surface. We show that the solvent entropy plays an important role in the free energy of the confined system. For a given radius of the spherical cavity and fixed charge density along the backbone of the chain, solvent and small ion entropies dominate over all other contributions when chain lengths are small. However, with the increase in chain length, chain conformational entropy and polymer-solvent interaction energy also become important. Our calculations reveal that energy due to electrostatic interactions plays a minor role in the free energy. Furthermore, we show that the total free energy under spherical confinement is not extensive in the number of monomers. Results for the osmotic pressure and mean activity coefficient for monovalent salt are presented. We demonstrate that fluctuations at one-loop level lower the free energy and corrections to the osmotic pressure and mean activity coefficient of the salt are discussed. Finite size corrections are shown to widen the range of validity of the fluctuation analysis. PMID:18532843

Kumar, Rajeev; Muthukumar, M.

2008-01-01

450

Random lasing in dye doped nematic liquid crystals: the role of confinement geometry

The first experimental evidence of random laser action in a partially ordered, dye doped nematic liquid crystal with long-range dielectric tensor fluctuations is reported. Above a given pump power the fluorescence curve collapses and discrete sharp peaks emerge above the residual spontaneous emission spectrum. The spectral linewidth of these emission peaks is narrow banded, typically around 0.5nm. The unexpected surviving

G. Strangi; S. Ferjani; V. Barna; A. De Luca; C. Versace; N. Scaramuzza; R. Bartolino

2007-01-01

451

Nano-Calorimetric Studies of Polymeric Phase Transitions in Confined Geometries

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the immense technological significance of phase transitions and thermodynamic properties of polymer thin films and other nano-structures, several fundamental issues remain unresolved. This is partly due to insufficient sensitivity and high thermal time constants of conventional thermal characterization techniques, e.g. differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). On the other hand, the sensitivity of nano-calorimetric devices (.1microW-1nW) has been demonstrated to be two-three orders of magnitude better than conventional DSC systems. Moreover, internal time constants on the order of 1 ms are readily achievable. In this work, MEMS fabrication technology is used to develop ultra-sensitive thin film differential scanning nano-calorimeters. Design optimization of the nano-calorimeter is achieved by numerical finite element simulation of heat transfer across its various constituents. Glass transition and melting behavior of polystyrene and polyethylene oxide thin films are studied using the nano-calorimeter.

Alizadeh, Azar; Zribi, Anis; Ganti, Surya; Sharma, Pradeep; Conway, Ken; Tsakalakos, Loucas; Malenfant, Patrick R. L.; Teetsov, Julie

2003-03-01

452

STATISTICAL GEOMETRY OF CAVITIES IN A METASTABLE CONFINED FLUID. (R825959)

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

453

Plastic ice in confined geometry: the evidence from neutron diffraction and NMR relaxation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron diffraction and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation studies have been made of water/ice in mesoporous SBA-15 silica with ordered structures of cylindrical mesopores with a pore diameter ~8.6 nm, over the temperature range 180-300 K. Both measurements show similar depressed freezing and melting points due to the Gibb-Thomson effect. The neutron diffraction measurements for fully filled pores show, in addition to cubic and hexagonal crystalline ice, the presence of a disordered water/ice component extending a further 50-80 K, down to around or below 200 K. NMR relaxation measurements over the same temperature range show a free induction decay that is partly Gaussian and characteristic of brittle ice but that also exhibits a longer exponential relaxation component. An argument has been made (Liu et al 2006 J. Phys:. Condens. Matter 18 10009-28 Webber et al 2007 Magn. Reson. Imag. 25 533-6) to suggest that this is an observation of ice in a plastic or rotationally mobile state, and that there is a fully reversible inter-conversion between brittle and plastic states of ice as the temperature is lowered or raised. More recent detailed NMR measurements are also discussed that allow the extraction of activation enthalpies and an estimate to be made of the equilibrium thickness, as a function of temperature, if the the assumption is made that the plastic component is in the form of a layer at the silica interface. The two different techniques suggest a maximum layer thickness of about 1.0-1.5 nm.

Webber, J. Beau W.; Dore, John C.; Strange, John H.; Anderson, Ross; Tohidi, Bahman

2007-10-01

454

Explorations of the size-dependent evolution of the properties of materials are at the frontier of modern con- densed matter and materials research. Indeed, investiga- tions of clusters containing a finite, well-defined, number of elementary building units (atoms, molecules, electrons or other elementary constituents), allow investigations of the transition from the atomic or molecular regime to the finite nano-aggregate domain, and

Constantine Yannouleas; Uzi Landman

455

the endoplasmic reticulum of endosperm cells are unresolved today. In this work, physical chemistry parameters of proteins within the endoplasmic reticulum, the dynamic behavior of -gliadins inserted inside lyotropic that the repeated domain could be considered as an anchor for the interaction with the endoplasmic reticulum

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de

456

The Physics Basis of ITER Confinement

ITER will be the first fusion reactor and the 50 year old dream of fusion scientists will become reality. The quality of magnetic confinement will decide about the success of ITER, directly in the form of the confinement time and indirectly because it decides about the plasma parameters and the fluxes, which cross the separatrix and have to be handled externally by technical means. This lecture portrays some of the basic principles which govern plasma confinement, uses dimensionless scaling to set the limits for the predictions for ITER, an approach which also shows the limitations of the predictions, and describes briefly the major characteristics and physics behind the H-mode--the preferred confinement regime of ITER.

Wagner, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik EURATOM Association Wendelsteinstr. 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany)

2009-02-19

457

Weapons Activities/ Inertial Confinement Fusion Ignition

Weapons Activities/ Inertial Confinement Fusion Ignition and High Yield Campaign FY 2011, and reliability of the Nation's nuclear weapons without nuclear testing. The program provides this capability and pulsed power facilities. Science- based weapons assessments and certification requires

458

Drift wave models of tokamak confinement

Drift wave models are used to explain the observed tokamak confinement scaling with density, power, size, and magnetic field. Some additional edge mechanism is required to obtain the observed scaling with safety factor and account for H-mode transitions.

Waltz, R.E.; Dominguez, R.R.; Wong, S.K.; Diamond, P.H.; Lee, G.S.; Hahm, T.S.; Mattor, N.

1986-09-01

459

The confinement energy of quantum dots

One of the most significant research interests in the field of electronics is that on quantum dot, because such materials have electronic properties intermediate between those of bulk semiconductors and those of discrete molecules. Confinement energy is a very important property of quantum dot. In this study, quantum confinement energy of a quantum dot is concluded to be h2/8md2 (d being the diameter of the confinement) and not h2/8ma2 (a being the radius of the confinement), as reported in the available literature. This is in the light of a recent study [1]. This finding should have a significant impact in the understanding of the physics of quantum dot and its technological application.

Dey, Samrat; Chakraborty, kishan; Dasgupta, Debasmita; Bordoloi, Darsana; Saikia, Rituja; Neog, Darsana; Shimray, Shishila; Paul, Supriyanka; Brahma, Kabita; Dey, Joydeep; Choudhury, Saurav

2012-01-01

460

A Localization Computation in Confining Phase

In this note we show that the gaugino condensation of 4d N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories in the confining phase can be computed by the localization technique with an appropriate choice of a supersymmetry generator.

Seiji Terashima

2014-10-14

461

Inertial confinement fusion reactor cavity analysis

This report discusses the following research topics on inertial confinement target chamber design: x-ray vaporization of first wall materials; liquid metal condensation experiment; droplet formation in ICF target chambers; and laboratory microfusion facility calculations.

MacFarlane, J.J.; Peterson, R.R.; Corradini, M.L.; Moses, G.A.; Bang, K.H.; Barry, J.J.

1989-07-01

462

Analytic Geometry, A Tentative Guide.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide for a semester course in analytic geometry is based on the text "Analytic Geometry" by W. K. Morrill. Included is a daily schedule of suggested topics and homework assignments. Specific teaching hints are also given. The content of the course includes point and plane vectors, straight lines, point and space vectors, planes,…

Helwig, G. Alfred; And Others

463

Information geometry of adaptive systems

An adaptive system works in a stochastic environment so that its behavior is represented by a probability distribution, e.g., a conditional probability density of the output conditioned on the input. Information geometry is a powerful tool to study the intrinsic geometry of parameter spaces related to probability distributions. The article investigates the local Riemannian metric and topological singular structures of

Shun-ichi Amari; Tomoko Ozeki; Hyeyoung Park

2000-01-01

464