Freezing in confined geometries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sokol, P. E.; Ma, W. J.; Herwig, K. W.; Snow, W. M.; Wang, Y.; Koplik, Joel; Banavar, Jayanth R.
1992-01-01
Results of detailed structural studies, using elastic neutron scattering, of the freezing of liquid O2 and D2 in porous vycor glass, are presented. The experimental studies have been complemented by computer simulations of the dynamics of freezing of a Lennard-Jones liquid in narrow channels bounded by molecular walls. Results point to a new simple physical interpretation of freezing in confined geometries.
Diffusion in confined geometries.
Burada, P Sekhar; Hänggi, Peter; Marchesoni, Fabio; Schmid, Gerhard; Talkner, Peter
2009-01-12
Diffusive transport of particles or, more generally, small objects, is a ubiquitous feature of physical and chemical reaction systems. In configurations containing confining walls or constrictions, transport is controlled both by the fluctuation statistics of the jittering objects and the phase space available to their dynamics. Consequently, the study of transport at the macro- and nanoscales must address both Brownian motion and entropic effects. Herein we report on recent advances in the theoretical and numerical investigation of stochastic transport occurring either in microsized geometries of varying cross sections or in narrow channels wherein the diffusing particles are hindered from passing each other (single-file diffusion). For particles undergoing biased diffusion in static suspension media enclosed by confining geometries, transport exhibits intriguing features such as 1) a decrease in nonlinear mobility with increasing temperature or also 2) a broad excess peak of the effective diffusion above the free diffusion limit. These paradoxical aspects can be understood in terms of entropic contributions resulting from the restricted dynamics in phase space. If, in addition, the suspension medium is subjected to external, time-dependent forcing, rectification or segregation of the diffusing Brownian particles becomes possible. Likewise, the diffusion in very narrow, spatially modulated channels is modified via contact particle-particle interactions, which induce anomalous sub-diffusion. The effective sub-diffusion constant for a driven single file also develops a resonance-like structure as a function of the confining coupling constant. PMID:19025741
Amoeboid motion in confined geometry
Wu, Hao; Hu, Wei-Fan; Farutin, Alexander; Rafaï, Salima; Lai, Ming-Chih; Peyla, Philippe; Misbah, Chaouqi
2015-01-01
Cells of the immune system, as well as cancer cells, migrating in confined environment of tissues undergo frequent shape changes (described as amoeboid motion) that enable them to move forward through these porous media without the assistance of adhesion sites. In other words, they perform amoeboid swimming (AS) while using extracellular matrices and cells of tissues as support. We introduce a simple model of AS in a confined geometry solved by means of 2D numerical simulations. We find that confinement promotes AS, unless being so strong that it restricts shape change amplitude. A straight AS trajectory in the channel is found to be unstable, and ample lateral excursions of the swimmer prevail. For weak confinement, these excursions are symmetric, while they become asymmetric at stronger confinement, whereby the swimmer is located closer to one of the two walls. This is a spontaneous symmetry-breaking bifurcation. We find that there exists an optimal confinement for migration. We provide numerical results as...
Amoeboid motion in confined geometry
Hao Wu; M. Thiébaud; W. -F. Hu; A. Farutin; S. Rafaï; M. -C. Lai; P. Peyla; C. Misbah
2015-11-04
Many eukaryotic cells undergo frequent shape changes (described as amoeboid motion) that enable them to move forward. We investigate the effect of confinement on a minimal model of amoeboid swimmer. Complex pictures emerge: (i) The swimmer's nature (i.e., either pusher or puller) can be modified by confinement, thus suggesting that this is not an intrinsic property of the swimmer. This swimming nature transition stems from intricate internal degrees of freedom of membrane deformation. (ii) The swimming speed might increase with increasing confinement before decreasing again for stronger confinements. (iii) A straight amoeoboid swimmer's trajectory in the channel can become unstable, and ample lateral excursions of the swimmer prevail. This happens for both pusher- and puller-type swimmers. For weak confinement, these excursions are symmetric, while they become asymmetric at stronger confinement, whereby the swimmer is located closer to one of the two walls. In this study, we combine numerical and theoretical analyses.
Amoeboid motion in confined geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Hao; Thiébaud, M.; Hu, W.-F.; Farutin, A.; Rafaï, S.; Lai, M.-C.; Peyla, P.; Misbah, C.
2015-11-01
Many eukaryotic cells undergo frequent shape changes (described as amoeboid motion) that enable them to move forward. We investigate the effect of confinement on a minimal model of amoeboid swimmer. A complex picture emerges: (i) The swimmer's nature (i.e., either pusher or puller) can be modified by confinement, thus suggesting that this is not an intrinsic property of the swimmer. This swimming nature transition stems from intricate internal degrees of freedom of membrane deformation. (ii) The swimming speed might increase with increasing confinement before decreasing again for stronger confinements. (iii) A straight amoeoboid swimmer's trajectory in the channel can become unstable, and ample lateral excursions of the swimmer prevail. This happens for both pusher- and puller-type swimmers. For weak confinement, these excursions are symmetric, while they become asymmetric at stronger confinement, whereby the swimmer is located closer to one of the two walls. In this study, we combine numerical and theoretical analyses.
Glass Transition in Confined Geometry
Simon Lang; Vitalie Botan; Martin Oettel; David Hajnal; Thomas Franosch; Rolf Schilling
2010-08-23
Extending mode-coupling theory, we elaborate a microscopic theory for the glass transition of liquids confined between two parallel flat hard walls. The theory contains the standard MCT equations in bulk and in two dimensions as limiting cases and requires as input solely the equilibrium density profile and the structure factors of the fluid in confinement. We evaluate the phase diagram as a function of the distance of the plates for the case of a hard sphere fluid and obtain an oscillatory behavior of the glass transtion line as a result of the structural changes related to layering.
Dynamics of ultracold molecules in confined geometry and electric field
Quemener, Goulven; Bohn, John L.
2011-01-15
We present a time-independent quantum formalism to describe the dynamics of molecules with permanent electric dipole moments in a two-dimensional confined geometry such as a one-dimensional optical lattice, in the presence of an electric field. Bose versus Fermi statistics and selection rules play a crucial role in the dynamics. As examples, we compare the dynamics of confined fermionic and bosonic polar KRb molecules under different confinements and electric fields. We show how chemical reactions can be suppressed, either by a 'statistical suppression' which applies for fermions at small electric fields and confinements, or by a 'potential energy suppression', which applies for both fermions and bosons at high electric fields and confinements. We also explore collisions that transfer molecules from one state of the confining potential to another. Although these collisions can be significant, we show that they do not play a role in the loss of the total number of molecules in the gas.
Planar geometry inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knapp, Daniel R.
2015-03-01
In the classic gridded inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion reactor, ion bombardment of the grid leads to heating, thermionic electron emission, significant power loss, and ultimately melting of the grid. Gridless IEC devices have sought to overcome these limitations. Klein reported a gridless device in which ions are circulated as a linear beam in an electrostatic analogue of an optical resonator. To overcome limits of stored ions due to space charge effects at the turning regions, the device employed multiple overlapping traps. The work reported here seeks to further increase the turning region space in a gridless trap by employing a planar geometry. Ion trapping in the planar device was examined by simulating trajectories of 2H+ ions with SIMION 8.1 software. Simulations were carried out using multiple potentials as in Klein's device and for a single potential trap as a planar analogue of the anharmonic ion trap. Scattering by background gas was simulated using a hard sphere collision model, and the results suggested the device will require operation at low pressure with a separate ion source.
Compaction of granular material inside confined geometries
Benjy Marks; Bjørnar Sandnes; Guillaume Dumazer; Jon Alm Eriksen; Knut Jørgen Måløy
2015-05-15
In both nature and engineering, loosely packed granular materials are often compacted inside confined geometries. Here, we explore such behaviour in a quasi-two dimensional geometry, where parallel rigid walls provide the confinement. We use the discrete element method to investigate the stress distribution developed within the granular packing as a result of compaction due to the displacement of a rigid piston. We observe that the stress within the packing increases exponentially with the length of accumulated grains, and show an extension to current analytic models which fits the measured stress. The micromechanical behaviour is studied for a range of system parameters, and the limitations of existing analytic models are described. In particular, we show the smallest sized systems which can be treated using existing models. Additionally, the effects of increasing piston rate, and variations of the initial packing fraction, are described.
Layer-by-layer assembly in confined geometries
DeRocher, Jonathan P
2011-01-01
The fundamental nature of layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly in confined geometries was investigated for a number of different chemical systems. The first part of this thesis concerns the modification of microfluidic and ...
Hertz Potentials and Differential Geometry
Bouas, Jeffrey David
2011-08-08
I review the construction of Hertz potentials in vector calculus starting from Maxwell's equations. From here, I lay the minimal foundations of differential geometry to construct Hertz potentials for a general (spatially compact) Lorentzian...
Levy flights in confining potentials
Piotr Garbaczewski; Vladimir Stephanovich
2009-06-22
We analyze confining mechanisms for L\\'{e}vy flights. When they evolve in suitable external potentials their variance may exist and show signatures of a superdiffusive transport. Two classes of stochastic jump - type processes are considered: those driven by Langevin equation with L\\'{e}vy noise and those, named by us topological L\\'{e}vy processes (occurring in systems with topological complexity like folded polymers or complex networks and generically in inhomogeneous media), whose Langevin representation is unknown and possibly nonexistent. Our major finding is that both above classes of processes stay in affinity and may share common stationary (eventually asymptotic) probability density, even if their detailed dynamical behavior look different. That generalizes and offers new solutions to a reverse engineering (e.g. targeted stochasticity) problem due to I. Eliazar and J. Klafter [J. Stat. Phys. 111, 739, (2003)]: design a L\\'{e}vy process whose target pdf equals a priori preselected one. Our observations extend to a broad class of L\\'{e}vy noise driven processes, like e.g. superdiffusion on folded polymers, geophysical flows and even climatic changes.
Temperature-resonant cyclotron spectra in confined geometries
Andrey Pototsky; Peter Hänggi; Fabio Marchesoni; Sergey Savel'ev
2011-05-22
We consider a two-dimensional gas of colliding charged particles confined to finite size containers of various geometries and subjected to a uniform orthogonal magnetic field. The gas spectral densities are characterized by a broad peak at the cyclotron frequency. Unlike for infinitely extended gases, where the amplitude of the cyclotron peak grows linearly with temperature, here confinement causes such a peak to go through a maximum for an optimal temperature. In view of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, the reported resonance effect has a direct counterpart in the electric susceptibility of the confined magnetized gas.
Dislocation dynamics in confined geometry D. Gomez-Garcia
Devincre, Benoit
Dislocation dynamics in confined geometry D. G´omez-Garc´ia , B. Devincre and L. Kubin LEM, CNRS of dislocation dynamics has been used to calculate the critical stress for a threading dislocation moving and numerical estimates for the problem of dislocation motion in capped layers. Keywords: Dislocation Dynamics
Taming Lévy flights in confined crowded geometries.
Cie?la, Micha?; Dybiec, Bart?omiej; Sokolov, Igor; Gudowska-Nowak, Ewa
2015-04-28
We study two-dimensional diffusive motion of a tracer particle in restricted, crowded anisotropic geometries. The underlying medium is formed from a monolayer of elongated molecules [Cie?la J. Chem. Phys. 140, 044706 (2014)] of known concentration. Within this mesh structure, a tracer molecule is allowed to perform a Cauchy random walk with uncorrelated steps. Our analysis shows that the presence of obstacles significantly influences the motion, which in an obstacle-free space would be of a superdiffusive type. At the same time, the selfdiffusive process reveals different anomalous properties, both at the level of a single trajectory realization and after the ensemble averaging. In particular, due to obstacles, the sample mean squared displacement asymptotically grows sublinearly in time, suggesting a non-Markov character of motion. Closer inspection of survival probabilities indicates, however, that the underlying diffusion is memoryless over long time scales despite a strong inhomogeneity of the motion induced by the orientational ordering. PMID:25933788
Schwinger effect and entanglement entropy in confining geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghodrati, Mahdis
2015-09-01
By using AdS /CFT , we study the critical electric field, the Schwinger pair creation rate and the potential phase diagram for the quark and antiquark in four confining supergravity backgrounds which are the Witten QCD (WQCD), the Maldacena-Nunez (MN), the Klebanov-Tseytlin (KT) and the Klebanov-Strassler (KS) models. We compare the rate of phase transition in these models and compare it also with the conformal case. We then present the phase diagrams of the entanglement entropy of a strip in these geometries and find the predicted butterfly shape in the diagrams. We found that the phase transitions have a higher rate in WQCD and KT relative to MN and KS. Finally we show the effect of turning on an additional magnetic field on the rate of pair creation by using the imaginary part of the Euler-Heisenberg effective Lagrangian. The result is increasing the parallel magnetic field would increase the pair creation rate and increasing the perpendicular magnetic field would decrease the rate.
Charge Transport through Organized Organic Assemblies in Confined Geometries
Schuckman, Amanda Eileen
2012-07-16
of Department, David H. Russell May 2011 Major Subject: Chemistry iii ABSTRACT Charge Transport through Organized Organic Assemblies in Confined Geometries. (May 2011) Amanda Eileen Schuckman, B.S., Texas Lutheran University Chair of Advisory.... ........................... 9 1.2 (A) Structure of the porphyrin macrocycles with a cadre of common meso (5,10,15,20) aryl derivatives. Note the meso alkane compounds are also readily accessible synthetically. (B) Much of the supramolecular chemistry of porphyrins uses...
Confining potential in momentum space
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Norbury, John W.; Kahana, David E.; Maung, Khin Maung
1992-01-01
A method is presented for the solution in momentum space of the bound state problem with a linear potential in r space. The potential is unbounded at large r leading to a singularity at small q. The singularity is integrable, when regulated by exponentially screening the r-space potential, and is removed by a subtraction technique. The limit of zero screening is taken analytically, and the numerical solution of the subtracted integral equation gives eigenvalues and wave functions in good agreement with position space calculations.
A molecular dynamics study of freezing in a confined geometry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ma, Wen-Jong; Banavar, Jayanth R.; Koplik, Joel
1992-01-01
The dynamics of freezing of a Lennard-Jones liquid in narrow channels bounded by molecular walls is studied by computer simulation. The time development of ordering is quantified and a novel freezing mechanism is observed. The liquid forms layers and subsequent in-plane ordering within a layer is accompanied by a sharpening of the layer in the transverse direction. The effects of channel size, the methods of quench, the liquid-wall interaction and the roughness of walls on the freezing mechanism are elucidated. Comparison with recent experiments on freezing in confined geometries is presented.
Binding of two helium atoms in confined geometries
Kilic, S.; Krotscheck, E.; Zillich, R.
1999-08-01
The authors carry out a comprehensive study of the binding of two helium atoms in unrestricted and, in particular, in restricted geometries in both two and three dimensions. Besides the well known binding of the {sup 4}He dimer in unrestricted geometry in two and three dimensions, the authors also find weakly bound states of the {sup 3}He-{sup 4}He molecule and the {sup 3}He dimer in 2 dimensions. Furthermore, any combination of two {sup 4}He or {sup 3}He atoms can form a molecule if their motion is sufficiently confined. The calculations are carried out by numerically solving the Schroedinger equation as well as by constructing a suitable variational wave function.
Degeneracies and fluctuations of Néel skyrmions in confined geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keesman, Rick; Leonov, A. O.; van Dieten, P.; Buhrandt, Stefan; Barkema, G. T.; Fritz, Lars; Duine, R. A.
2015-10-01
The recent discovery of tunable Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions in layered magnetic materials with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy makes them promising candidates for stabilization and manipulation of skyrmions at elevated temperatures. In this article, we use Monte Carlo simulations to investigate the robustness of skyrmions in these materials against thermal fluctuations and finite-size effects. We find that in confined geometries and at finite temperatures skyrmions are present in a large part of the phase diagram. Moreover, we find that the confined geometry favors the skyrmion over the spiral phase when compared to infinitely large systems. Upon tuning the magnetic field through the skyrmion phase, the system undergoes a cascade of transitions in the magnetic structure through states of different number of skyrmions, elongated and half-skyrmions, and spiral states. We consider how quantum and thermal fluctuations lift the degeneracies that occur at these transitions, and find that states with more skyrmions are typically favored by fluctuations over states with less skyrmions. Finally, we comment on electrical detection of the various phases through the topological and anomalous Hall effects.
Crystallization features of normal alkanes in confined geometry.
Su, Yunlan; Liu, Guoming; Xie, Baoquan; Fu, Dongsheng; Wang, Dujin
2014-01-21
How polymers crystallize can greatly affect their thermal and mechanical properties, which influence the practical applications of these materials. Polymeric materials, such as block copolymers, graft polymers, and polymer blends, have complex molecular structures. Due to the multiple hierarchical structures and different size domains in polymer systems, confined hard environments for polymer crystallization exist widely in these materials. The confined geometry is closely related to both the phase metastability and lifetime of polymer. This affects the phase miscibility, microphase separation, and crystallization behaviors and determines both the performance of polymer materials and how easily these materials can be processed. Furthermore, the size effect of metastable states needs to be clarified in polymers. However, scientists find it difficult to propose a quantitative formula to describe the transition dynamics of metastable states in these complex systems. Normal alkanes [CnH2n+2, n-alkanes], especially linear saturated hydrocarbons, can provide a well-defined model system for studying the complex crystallization behaviors of polymer materials, surfactants, and lipids. Therefore, a deeper investigation of normal alkane phase behavior in confinement will help scientists to understand the crystalline phase transition and ultimate properties of many polymeric materials, especially polyolefins. In this Account, we provide an in-depth look at the research concerning the confined crystallization behavior of n-alkanes and binary mixtures in microcapsules by our laboratory and others. Since 2006, our group has developed a technique for synthesizing nearly monodispersed n-alkane containing microcapsules with controllable size and surface porous morphology. We applied an in situ polymerization method, using melamine-formaldehyde resin as shell material and nonionic surfactants as emulsifiers. The solid shell of microcapsules can provide a stable three-dimensional (3-D) confining environment. We have studied multiple parameters of these microencapsulated n-alkanes, including surface freezing, metastability of the rotator phase, and the phase separation behaviors of n-alkane mixtures using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), temperature-dependent X-ray diffraction (XRD), and variable-temperature solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Our investigations revealed new direct evidence for the existence of surface freezing in microencapsulated n-alkanes. By examining the differences among chain packing and nucleation kinetics between bulk alkane solid solutions and their microencapsulated counterparts, we also discovered a mechanism responsible for the formation of a new metastable bulk phase. In addition, we found that confinement suppresses lamellar ordering and longitudinal diffusion, which play an important role in stabilizing the binary n-alkane solid solution in microcapsules. Our work also provided new insights into the phase separation of other mixed system, such as waxes, lipids, and polymer blends in confined geometry. These works provide a profound understanding of the relationship between molecular structure and material properties in the context of crystallization and therefore advance our ability to improve applications incorporating polymeric and molecular materials. PMID:23947401
Collisional aspects of bosonic and fermionic dipoles in quasi-two-dimensional confining geometries
D'Incao, Jose P.; Greene, Chris H.
2011-03-15
Fundamental aspects of ultracold collisions between identical bosonic or fermionic dipoles are studied under quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) confinement. In the strongly dipolar regime, bosonic and fermion species are found to share important collisional properties as a result of the confining geometry, which suppresses the inelastic rates irrespective of the quantum statistics obeyed. A potential negative is that the confinement causes dipole-dipole resonances to be extremely narrow, which could make it difficult to explore Q2D dipolar gases with tunable interactions. Such properties are shown to be universal, and a simple WKB model reproduces most of our numerical results. In order to shed light on the many-body behavior of dipolar gases in Q2D we have analyzed the scattering amplitude and developed an energy-analytic form of the pseudopotentials for dipoles.
Yukawa particles in a confining potential
Girotto, Matheus Levin, Yan; Santos, Alexandre P. dos; Colla, Thiago
2014-07-07
We study the density distribution of repulsive Yukawa particles confined by an external potential. In the weak coupling limit, we show that the mean-field theory is able to accurately account for the particle distribution. In the strong coupling limit, the correlations between the particles become important and the mean-field theory fails. For strongly correlated systems, we construct a density functional theory which provides an excellent description of the particle distribution, without any adjustable parameters.
Clustering of branching Brownian motions in confined geometries.
Zoia, A; Dumonteil, E; Mazzolo, A; de Mulatier, C; Rosso, A
2014-10-01
We study the evolution of a collection of individuals subject to Brownian diffusion, reproduction, and disappearance. In particular, we focus on the case where the individuals are initially prepared at equilibrium within a confined geometry. Such systems are widespread in physics and biology and apply for instance to the study of neutron populations in nuclear reactors and the dynamics of bacterial colonies, only to name a few. The fluctuations affecting the number of individuals in space and time may lead to a strong patchiness, with particles clustered together. We show that the analysis of this peculiar behavior can be rather easily carried out by resorting to a backward formalism based on the Green's function, which allows the key physical observables, namely, the particle concentration and the pair correlation function, to be explicitly derived. PMID:25375449
Statistical geometry of cavities in a metastable confined fluid Aleksey Vishnyakov,1
Statistical geometry of cavities in a metastable confined fluid Aleksey Vishnyakov,1 Pablo G The statistical geometry of cavities in a confined Lennard-Jones LJ fluid is investigated with the focus of molecules, a cavity is defined as a connected region where there is sufficient space to accommodate
Polymer escape from a confining potential
Harri Mökkönen; Timo Ikonen; Tapio Ala-Nissila; Hannes Jónsson
2015-03-26
The rate of escape of polymers from a two-dimensionally confining potential well has been evaluated using self-avoiding as well as ideal chain representations of varying length, up to 80 beads. Long timescale Langevin trajectories were calculated using the path integral hyperdynamics method to evaluate the escape rate. A minimum is found in the rate for self-avoiding polymers of intermediate length while the escape rate decreases monotonically with polymer length for ideal polymers. The increase in the rate for long, self-avoiding polymers is ascribed to crowding in the potential well which reduces the free energy escape barrier. An effective potential curve obtained using the centroid as an independent variable was evaluated by thermodynamic averaging and Kramers rate theory then applied to estimate the escape rate. While the qualitative features are well reproduced by this approach, it significantly overestimates the rate, especially for the longer polymers. The reason for this is illustrated by constructing a two-dimensional effective energy surface using the radius of gyration as well as the centroid as controlled variables. This shows that the description of a transition state dividing surface using only the centroid fails to confine the system to the region corresponding to the free energy barrier and this problem becomes more pronounced the longer the polymer is. A proper definition of a transition state for polymer escape needs to take into account the shape as well as the location of the polymer.
Polymer escape from a confining potential
Mökkönen, Harri; Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavík ; Ikonen, Timo; VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT ; Jónsson, Hannes; Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavík; Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912-1843 ; Ala-Nissila, Tapio; Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912-1843
2014-02-07
The rate of escape of polymers from a two-dimensionally confining potential well has been evaluated using self-avoiding as well as ideal chain representations of varying length, up to 80 beads. Long timescale Langevin trajectories were calculated using the path integral hyperdynamics method to evaluate the escape rate. A minimum is found in the rate for self-avoiding polymers of intermediate length while the escape rate decreases monotonically with polymer length for ideal polymers. The increase in the rate for long, self-avoiding polymers is ascribed to crowding in the potential well which reduces the free energy escape barrier. An effective potential curve obtained using the centroid as an independent variable was evaluated by thermodynamic averaging and Kramers rate theory then applied to estimate the escape rate. While the qualitative features are well reproduced by this approach, it significantly overestimates the rate, especially for the longer polymers. The reason for this is illustrated by constructing a two-dimensional effective energy surface using the radius of gyration as well as the centroid as controlled variables. This shows that the description of a transition state dividing surface using only the centroid fails to confine the system to the region corresponding to the free energy barrier and this problem becomes more pronounced the longer the polymer is. A proper definition of a transition state for polymer escape needs to take into account the shape as well as the location of the polymer.
Confined H(1s) and H(2p) under different geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Micca Longo, G.; Longo, S.; Giordano, D.
2015-08-01
In this paper the diffusion Monte Carlo method is applied to the confined hydrogen atom with different confinement geometries. This approach is validated using the much studied spherical and cylindrical confinements and then applied to cubical and squared ones, for which data are not available, as new applications of the method relevant to solid state physics. The energy eigenvalues of the ground state and one low-lying excited state are reported as a function of the characteristic confinement length.
Stark, Holger
2002-09-01
Particles suspended in a nematic liquid crystal exhibit characteristic dipolar and Saturn-ring configurations. Using results on the magnetic-field behavior of these configurations, we explain the recent observation of the Saturn-ring defect in confined geometries based on the idea that a confining geometry and a magnetic field generate a similar "confinement" for the nematic phase. PMID:12366166
Random Close Packing of Disks and Spheres in Confined Geometries
Kenneth W. Desmond; Eric R. Weeks
2009-03-05
Studies of random close packing of spheres have advanced our knowledge about the structure of systems such as liquids, glasses, emulsions, granular media, and amorphous solids. When these systems are confined their structural properties change. To understand these changes we study random close packing in finite-sized confined systems, in both two and three dimensions. Each packing consists of a 50-50 binary mixture with particle size ratio 1.4. The presence of confining walls significantly lowers the overall maximum area fraction (or volume fraction in three dimensions). A simple model is presented which quantifies the reduction in packing due to wall-induced structure. This wall-induced structure decays rapidly away from the wall, with characteristic length scales comparable to the small particle diameter.
Quantum gray solitons in confining potentials
Dominic C. Wadkin-Snaith; Dimitri M. Gangardt
2012-04-20
We define and study hole-like excitations (the Lieb II mode) in a weakly interacting Bose liquid subject to external confinement. These excitations are obtained by semiclassical quantization of gray solitons propagating on top of a Thomas-Fermi background. Radiation of phonons by an accelerated gray soliton leads to a finite life-time for the trapped Lieb II mode. It is shown that, for a large number of trapped atoms, most of the Lieb II levels can be experimentally resolved.
Modeling exact exchange potential in spherically confined atoms.
Vyboishchikov, Sergei F
2015-10-15
In this work, local exchange potentials corresponding to the Hartree-Fock (HF) electron density have been obtained using the Zhao-Morrison-Parr method for a number of closed-shell confined atoms and ions. The exchange potentials obtained and the resulting density were compared with those given by the Becke-Johnson (BJ) model potential. It is demonstrated that introducing a scaling factor to the BJ potential allows improving the quality of the resulting density. The optimum scaling factor increases with decreasing confinement radius. The performance of Karasiev and Ludeña's SC?-LDA method as well as of the Becke-88 exchange potential for reproducing the HF electron densities in confined atoms has been also examined. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26255863
Deformable cells in confined geometries: From hemolysis to hydrodynamic interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abkarian, Manouk; Faivre, Magalie; Stone, Howard A.
2004-11-01
Recent developments in microfluidics allow a wide range of possibilities for studying cellular-scale hydrodynamics. Here we use microfluidic technology to address several open questions in the blood flow literature where cell deformation and hydrodynamic interactions are significant. In particular, we investigate the pressure-driven flow of a dilute suspension in a channel and characterize the transition from steady axisymmetric cell shapes (for which numerical calculations exist) to asymmetric, highly extended shapes, which are precursors to hemolysis (i.e. destruction of the cell). In addition, we examine the influence of geometry on hydrodynamic interactions of deformable cells by contrasting one-dimensional motion of a train of particles in a channel with two-dimensional motions in a Hele-Shaw cell. This study can help to understand flow of cells in microcirculation from the unidirectional flow in capillaries to the two-dimensional flow in the lung alveoli and provides the basic steps to understand certain aspects of microcirculatory deseases like sickle cell anemia for example.
Polymer chains in confined geometries: massive field theory approach.
Romeis, D; Usatenko, Z
2009-10-01
The massive field theory approach in fixed space dimensions d<4 is applied to investigate a dilute solution of long-flexible polymer chains in a good solvent between two parallel repulsive walls, two inert walls, and for the mixed case of one inert and one repulsive wall. The well-known correspondence between the field theoretical phi4 O(n) -vector model in the limit n-->0 and the behavior of long-flexible polymer chains in a good solvent is used to calculate the depletion interaction potential and the depletion force up to one-loop order. In order to make the theory UV finite in renormalization-group sense in 3
McCune, Matthew A.; Chakraborty, Himadri S.; Madjet, Mohamed E.
2009-07-15
In the photoionization of an atom endohedrally confined in a fullerene the electrons directly ionized from the atom partially reflect from the cage. However, the valence atomic electrons can also eject from the cage collaterally with their direct emission. The reflective and the collateral amplitudes oscillate in the electron's momentum space with frequencies determined by their path differences from the direct amplitude. Resulting cross sections reveal the confining geometry in the Fourier conjugate domain. The frequency pattern distinguishes the atomic emission from the fullerene emission.
The capillarity of nanometric water menisci confined inside closed-geometry viral cages
Carrasco, C.; Douas, M.; Miranda, R.; Castellanos, M.; Serena, P. A.; Carrascosa, J. L.; Mateu, M. G.; Marqués, M. I.; de Pablo, P. J.
2009-01-01
We present an investigation of water menisci confined in closed geometries by studying the structural effects of their capillary forces on viruses during the final stage of desiccation. We used individual particles of the bacteriophage ?29 and the minute virus of mice. In both cases the genomic DNA was ejected from the capsid. However, although the structural integrity of the minute virus of mice was essentially preserved, the ?29 capsid underwent a wall-to-wall collapse. We provide evidence that the capillary forces of water confined inside the viruses are mainly responsible for these effects. Moreover, by performing theoretical simulations with a lattice gas model, we found that some structural differences between these 2 viruses may be crucial to explain the different ways in which they are affected by water menisci forces confined at the nanoscale. PMID:19307554
Ma, Minglin
The self-assembly of gyroid-forming diblock copolymers confined in cylindrical geometry is studied using a combination of computer simulations and experiments. The simulations, based on a system qualitatively representative ...
Mixtures of Bose Gases Confined in a Ring Potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smyrnakis, J.; Bargi, S.; Kavoulakis, G. M.; Magiropoulos, M.; Kärkkäinen, K.; Reimann, S. M.
2009-09-01
The rotational properties of a mixture of two distinguishable Bose gases that are confined in a ring potential provide novel physical effects that we demonstrate in this study. Persistent currents are shown to be stable for a range of the population imbalance between the two components at low angular momentum. At higher values of the angular momentum, even small admixtures of a second species of atoms make the persistent currents highly fragile.
Mixtures of Bose gases confined in a ring potential.
Smyrnakis, J; Bargi, S; Kavoulakis, G M; Magiropoulos, M; Kärkkäinen, K; Reimann, S M
2009-09-01
The rotational properties of a mixture of two distinguishable Bose gases that are confined in a ring potential provide novel physical effects that we demonstrate in this study. Persistent currents are shown to be stable for a range of the population imbalance between the two components at low angular momentum. At higher values of the angular momentum, even small admixtures of a second species of atoms make the persistent currents highly fragile. PMID:19792289
Dynamics of ultracold dipolar particles in a confined geometry and tilted fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quéméner, Goulven; Lepers, Maxence; Dulieu, Olivier
2015-10-01
We develop a collisional formalism adapted for the dynamics of ultracold dipolar particles in a confined geometry and in fields tilted relative to the confinement axis. Using tesseral harmonics instead of the usual spherical harmonics to expand the scattering wave function, we recover a good quantum number ? =±1 which is conserved during the collision. We derive the general expression of the dipole-dipole interaction in this convenient basis set as a function of the polar and azimuthal angles of the fields. We apply the formalism to the collision of fermionic and bosonic polar KRb molecules in a tilted electric field and in a one-dimensional optical lattice. The presence of a tilted field drastically changes the magnitude of the reactive and inelastic rates as well as the inelastic threshold properties at vanishing collision energies. Setting an appropriate strength of the confinement for the fermionic system, we show that the ultracold particles can even further reduce their kinetic energy by inelastic excitation to higher states of the confinement trap.
S. Condamin; V. Tejedor; O. Benichou
2008-06-03
We consider a random walk in confined geometry, starting from a site and eventually reaching a target site. We calculate analytically the distribution of the occupation time on a third site, before reaching the target site. The obtained distribution is exact, and completely explicit in the case or parallepipedic confining domains. We discuss implications of these results in two different fields: The mean first passage time for the random trap model is computed in dimensions greater than 1, and is shown to display a non-trivial dependence with the source and target positions ; The probability of reaction with a given imperfect center before being trapped by another one is also explicitly calculated, revealing a complex dependence both in geometrical and chemical parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Datta, Preeta; Efimenko, Kirill; Genzer, Jan
2014-03-01
Bulk free radical polymerization reactions lead to highly polydisperse polymers (polydispersity index, PDI >> 1.5). In the past, researchers have shown that polymerization in porous microreactors can lower polydispersity (PDI ~1.5-1.7) by promoting gelation. We employ free-radical thermal frontal polymerization reaction of acrylamide (AAm) in DMSO in highly confined reactors (height <1mm) to produce high molecular weight (~300 kDa) PAAm of relatively low PDI (~1.2). In frontal polymerization systems, a localized reaction zone propagates in space along the direction of heat transfer, sustained by the interplay of heat diffusion and Arrhenius reaction kinetics. The directional heat transfer assists in maintaining the uniformity of the front temperature. While convection improves thermal transport, it causes inhomogeneity in the propagating front in horizontal reactors. In highly confined systems, convection is heavily suppressed, as manifested by the ``flattening'' of the reaction front and the absence of ``fingering''. Gelation lowers termination rate and increases the life time of the active reaction centers. Elimination of convection in confined geometries coupled with directional heat transfer and gelation results in polymers with high molecular weights and low PDIs.
Gauss-Bonnet brane gravity with a confining potential
Heydari-Fard, M.; Sepangi, H. R.
2007-03-15
A brane scenario is envisaged in which the m-dimensional bulk is endowed with a Gauss-Bonnet term and localization of matter on the brane is achieved by means of a confining potential. The resulting Friedmann equations on the brane are modified by various extra terms that may be interpreted as the X-matter, providing a possible phenomenological explanation for the accelerated expansion of the Universe. The age of the Universe in this scenario is studied and shown to be consistent with the present observational data.
Spectral singularity in confined PT symmetric optical potential
Sinha, Anjana; Roychoudhury, R.
2013-11-15
We present an analytical study for the scattering amplitudes (Reflection ?R? and Transmission ?T?), of the periodic PT symmetric optical potential V(x)=W{sub 0}cos{sup 2}x+iV{sub 0}sin2x confined within the region 0 ?x?L, embedded in a homogeneous medium having uniform potential W{sub 0}. The confining length L is considered to be some integral multiple of the period ?. We give some new and interesting results. Scattering is observed to be normal (?T?{sup 2}? 1, ?R?{sup 2}? 1) for V{sub 0}? 0.5, when the above potential can be mapped to a Hermitian potential by a similarity transformation. Beyond this point (V{sub 0} > 0.5) scattering is found to be anomalous (?T?{sup 2}, ?R?{sup 2} not necessarily ?1). Additionally, in this parameter regime of V{sub 0}, one observes infinite number of spectral singularities E{sub SS} at different values of V{sub 0}. Furthermore, for L= 2n?, the transition point V{sub 0}= 0.5 shows unidirectional invisibility with zero reflection when the beam is incident from the absorptive side (Im[V(x)] < 0) but with finite reflection when the beam is incident from the emissive side (Im[V(x)] > 0), transmission being identically unity in both cases. Finally, the scattering coefficients ?R?{sup 2} and ?T?{sup 2} always obey the generalized unitarity relation : ?T|{sup 2}?1|=?(|R{sub R}|{sup 2}|R{sub L}|{sup 2}), where subscripts R and L stand for right and left incidence, respectively.
Light-Front Holographic QCD and the Confinement Potential
Stanley J. Brodsky; Guy F. de Téramond; Hans Günter Dosch
2013-08-23
Light-Front Hamiltonian theory, derived from the quantization of the QCD Lagrangian at fixed light-front time \\tau = t+z/c, provides a rigorous frame-independent framework for solving nonperturbative QCD. The eigenvalues of the light-front QCD Hamiltonian predict the hadronic mass spectrum, and the eigensolutions provide the light-front wavefunctions describing hadron structure. The valence Fock-state wavefunctions of the light-front QCD Hamiltonian satisfy a single-variable relativistic equation of motion, analogous to the nonrelativistic radial Schrodinger equation, with an effective confining potential U which systematically incorporates the effects of higher quark and gluon Fock states. The potential U has a unique form if one requires that the action for zero quark mass remains conformally invariant. The holographic mapping of gravity in AdS space to QCD with a specific soft-wall dilaton yields the same light-front Schrodinger equation. It also gives a precise relation between the bound-state amplitudes in the fifth dimension z of AdS space and the boost-invariant light-front wavefunctions describing the internal structure of hadrons in physical space-time. The elastic and transition form factors of the pion and the nucleons are found to be well described in this framework. The predictions include a zero-mass pion in the chiral limit, and linear Regge trajectories with the same slope in the radial quantum number n and orbital angular momentum L. The light-front AdS/QCD holographic approach thus gives a frame-independent representation of color-confining dynamics and the excitation spectra of light-quark hadrons in terms of a single mass parameter. We also discuss the implications of the underlying conformal template of QCD for renormalization scale-setting and the implications of light-front quantization for the value of the cosmological constant.
Protection from Potential Exposure for the Chernobyl New Safe Confinement
Shipler, Dillard B.; Rudko, Vladimir; Batiy, Valeriy; Timmins, Douglas C.; Brothers, Alan J.; Schmidt, John P.; Swearingen, Gary L.; Schmieman, Eric A.
2004-03-24
The Bechtel/EDF/Battelle Consortium has recently completed developing the conceptual design for the Chernobyl New Safe Confinement (NSC). Battelle has the scope of work related to environment and safety of the design. As part of the safety analysis, an analysis was performed to determine the degree of protection to be provided during the construction and 100-year operation period for expected upsets and lower-probability events that would occur from errors, procedures, other human factors, and equipment failures, i.e., ''potential exposures'' other than normal operations. The analysis was based on results of the Preliminary Hazards Analysis. The potential exposure analysis was performed in accordance with existing Ukranian regulations and working processes and procedures in place at the Shelter Object. KSK (a Ukranian Consortium), a subcontractor to the Bechtel/EDF/Battelle Consortium, performed much of the dose analysis. The analysis concluded that potential exposures, outside of those expected during normal operations, would be acceptable and that design criteria and features, and preventative and mitigative measures currently in place at the Shelter would be sufficient to meet operating exposure limits.
Baxamusa, S. Field, J.; Dylla-Spears, R.; Kozioziemski, B.; Suratwala, T.; Sater, J.
2014-03-28
Growth of high-quality single-crystal hydrogen in confined geometries relies on the in situ formation of seed crystals. Generation of deuterium-tritium seed crystals in a confined geometry is governed by three effects: self-heating due to tritium decay, external thermal environment, and latent heat of phase change at the boundary between hydrogen liquid and vapor. A detailed computation of the temperature profile for liquid hydrogen inside a hollow shell, as is found in inertial confinement fusion research, shows that seeds are likely to form at the equatorial plane of the shell. Radioactive decay of tritium to helium slowly alters the composition of the hydrogen vapor, resulting in a modified temperature profile that encourages seed formation at the top of the shell. We show that the computed temperature profile is consistent with a variety of experimental observations.
Magnetic properties of electrons confined in an anisotropic cylindrical potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nedelkoski, Zlatko; Petreska, Irina
2014-11-01
In the present paper a theoretical model, describing the effects of external electric and magnetic fields on an electron confined in an anisotropic parabolic potential, is considered. The exact wave functions are used to calculate electron current and orbital magnetic dipole momentum for the single electron. Exact expressions, giving the force and energy of the dipole-dipole interaction, are also determined. Further, the system is coupled to a heat bath, and mean values and fluctuations of the magnetic dipole momentum, utilizing the canonical ensemble are calculated. Influences of the temperature, as well as the external magnetic field, expressed via the Larmor frequency are analyzed. We also include the dependencies of the magnetic dipole momentum and its fluctuations on the effective mass of the electron, considering some experimental values for low-dimensional systems, that are extensively studied for various applications in electronics. Our results suggest that the average momentum or its fluctuations are strongly related to the effective mass of the electron. Having on mind that parabolically shaped potentials have very wide area of application in the low-dimensional systems, such as quantum dots and rings, carbon nanotubes, we believe that the proposed model and the consequent analysis is of general importance, since it offers exact analytical approach.
Mihalcea, Bogdan M; Stan, Cristina; Visan, Gina T; Ganciu, Mihai; Filinov, Vladimir E; Lapitsky, Dmitry S; Deputatova, Lidiya V; Syrovatka, Roman A
2015-01-01
Trapping of microparticles and aerosols is of great interest for physics and chemistry. We report microparticle trapping in multipole linear Paul trap geometries, operating under Standard Ambient Temperature and Pressure (SATP) conditions. An 8-electrode and a 12-electrode linear trap geometries have been designed and tested with an aim to achieve trapping for larger number of particles and to study microparticle dynamical stability in electrodynamic fields. We report emergence of planar and volume ordered structures of the microparticles, depending on the a.c. trapping frequency and particle specific charge ratio. The electric potential within the trap was mapped using the electrolytic tank method. Particle dynamics was simulated using a stochastic Langevin equation. We emphasize extended regions of stable trapping with respect to quadrupole traps, as well as good agreement between experiment and numerical simulations.
Light-Front Holographic QCD and the Confinement Potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Téramond, Guy F.; Dosch, Hans Günter
2014-06-01
Light-Front Hamiltonian theory, derived from the quantization of the QCD Lagrangian at fixed light-front time ? = t + z / c, provides a rigorous frame-independent framework for solving nonperturbative QCD. The eigenvalues of the light-front QCD Hamiltonian predict the hadronic mass spectrum, and the corresponding eigensolutions provide the light-front wavefunctions which describe hadron structure. The valence Fock-state wavefunctions of the light-front QCD Hamiltonian satisfy a single-variable relativistic equation of motion, analogous to the nonrelativistic radial Schrödinger equation, with an effective confining potential U which systematically incorporates the effects of higher quark and gluon Fock states. In fact, the potential U has a unique form if one requires that the action for zero quark mass remains conformally invariant. We also show that the holographic mapping of gravity in AdS space to QCD with a specific soft-wall dilaton yields the same light-front Schrödinger equation. Light-front holography also leads to a precise relation between the bound-state amplitudes in the fifth dimension z of AdS space and the boost-invariant light-front wavefunctions describing the internal structure of hadrons in physical space-time. The elastic and transition form factors of the pion and the nucleons are found to be well described in this framework. The predictions of the LF equations of motion include a zero-mass pion in the chiral mq ? 0 limit, and linear Regge trajectories M2 (n , L) ? n + L with the same slope in the radial quantum number n and orbital angular momentum L. The light-front AdS/QCD holographic approach thus gives a frame-independent representation of color-confining dynamics, Regge spectroscopy, and the excitation spectra of relativistic light-quark meson and baryon bound states in QCD in terms of a single mass parameter. We also briefly discuss the implications of the underlying conformal template of QCD for renormalization scale-setting and the implications of light-front quantization for the value of the cosmological constant.
Guillot, Pierre; Colin, Annie; Ajdari, Armand
2008-07-01
We adress the question of the stability of a confined coflowing jet at low Reynolds number in various geometries. Our study is motivated by recent experiments in microfluidic devices. When immiscible fluids flow in microchannels, either monodisperse droplets or parallel flows are obtained depending upon the flow rate of the aqueous phase and the oil phase. In these experiments, the confining and the shape of the geometry play a fundamental role. In a previous paper [Guillot, Phys. Rev. Lett 99, 104502 (2007)], we analyzed the stability of the jet in the framework of the lubrication approximation at low Reynolds number in a cylindrical geometry, and we related the transition between the droplets regime and the jet regime to the absolute-convective transition of the Rayleigh plateau instability. In this work, the effect of the channel geometry and the jet position within the microfluidic device are discussed. New flow patterns are pointed out. Bidimensional jets are encountered in square and rectangular geometry. Contrary to jets occuring in circular geometry, these two-dimensional jets are absolutely stable. Focusing on situations where the inner fluid is more viscous than the outer one, we evidence a range of parameters where droplets are produced through a blocking and pinching mechanism. In this particular case, the flow is unstable, the growing perturbations are convected upstream. This induces the clogging of the channel by the internal phase and its pinching by the external one. In a future presentation we will give a comparison between this model and experimental data. PMID:18764050
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saito, Fumikazu; Kishimura, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Takanori
2013-06-01
In order to characterize dynamic fracture of borosilicate glass, we performed laser-shock-experiments of both an aluminum-ablator mounted glass and a glass with plasma confinement geometry in pure water by Q-switched Nd3+:YAG laser. The incident beam with 440 mJ were focused onto the target approximately 300 ?m in diameter. The dynamic fracture of the glass targets is observed with high-speed digital framing-camera photography. For the aluminum-ablator mounted glass, propagation of the shock wave in water was observed, and the shock-wave velocity is obtained to be 1.65 +/- 0.02 km/s using image processing. Shock-pressure applied the target is estimated to be 180 MPa by Hugoniot relation. For the glass with plasma confinement geometry, generation of the micro-fragments from the rear side of the target was observed. This result indicates that shock-induced fragmentation by laser irradiation is enhanced by the plasma confinement effect. The soft-recovered fragments are separated according the size with PET mesh having deferent mesh size. As a result, the glass with plasma confinement geometry generated smaller fragment than the aluminum-ablator mounted glass.
Resonant dipole-dipole interaction in confined and strong-coupling dielectric geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El-Ganainy, Ramy; John, Sajeev
2013-08-01
Using the electromagnetic response function of an electric dipole located within a dielectric geometry, we derive the mathematical equivalence between the classical response and quantum mechanical resonant dipole-dipole interaction between two quantum objects (atoms, quantum dots, etc). Cooperative spontaneous emission likewise emerges from this equivalence. We introduce a practical numerical technique using finite difference time domain for calculating both dipole-dipole interaction and collective spontaneous emission in confined dielectric structures, where strong light-matter coupling might arise. This method is capable of obtaining resonant dipole-dipole interaction over a wide range of frequencies in a single run. Our method recaptures the results of quantum mechanical second order perturbation theory for weak light-matter coupling. In strong coupling situations such as near a photonic band edge, second order Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory leads to divergences, and instead Brillouin-Wigner perturbation theory is required. This is equivalent to the use of a variational wavefunction to describe the exciton transfer between initial and final states. We introduce a system of coupled classical oscillators, that describes resonant dipole-dipole interaction and vacuum Rabi splitting in the strong-coupling regime, and that provides an effective numerical scheme based on the finite difference time domain method. This includes the effects of quantum entanglement and the correlation of quantum fluctuations. We discuss the crossover to Forster energy transfer when quantum correlations between the dipoles are damped by strong environmental interactions.
Solution of Two-Body Bound State Problems with Confining Potentials
Hadizadeh, M. R.; Tomio, Lauro
2010-11-12
The homogeneous Lippmann-Schwinger integral equation is solved in momentum space by using confining potentials. Since the confining potentials are unbounded at large distances, they lead to a singularity at small momentum. In order to remove the singularity of the kernel of the integral equation, a regularized form of the potentials is used. As an application of the method, the mass spectra of heavy quarkonia, mesons consisting from heavy quark and antiquark ({Upsilon}(bb-bar), {psi}(cc-bar)), are calculated for linear and quadratic confining potentials. The results are in good agreement with configuration space and experimental results.
Directed self-assembly of field-responsive fluids in confined geometries Ramin Haghgooie*a
Doyle, Patrick S.
principles associated with the self-assembly of magnetorheological (MR) fluids in the microfluidic setting-assembly of magnetorheological (MR) fluids in microfluidic confinement and the important role of channel topology. We will focus
Unusual large-pitch banding in poly(L-lactic acid): Effects of composition and geometry confinement
Woo, Eamor M.; Lugito, Graecia; Hsieh, Ya-Ting; Nurkhamidah, Siti
2014-02-24
Lamellar patterns and orientations in blends of two crystalline polymers: poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and low-molecular-weight poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) were investigated using polarizing light optical microscopy (POM), and atomic and scanning electron microscopy (AFM, SEM). Specific etching off of PEO was used to reveal the complex earlier-grown PLLA lamellae patterns with various PEO content in blends. Banding of extremely long pitch (50 ?m) in crystallized PLLA spherulites was induced by two kinetic factors: geometry confinement by top cover and introduction of diluent such as PEO. The mechanisms and correlation among the lamellar assembly, ring bands, and cracks are exemplified. Lamellar patterns and ring-band types in blends were found to vary with respect to not only blend compositions, but also confinement of top-cover.
Effect of confining wall potential on charged collimated dust beam in low-pressure plasma
Kausik, S. S.; Kakati, B.; Saikia, B. K.
2013-05-15
The effect of confining wall potential on charged collimated dust beam in low-pressure plasma has been studied in a dusty plasma experimental setup by applying electrostatic field to each channel of a multicusp magnetic cage. Argon plasma is produced by hot cathode discharge method at a pressure of 5×10{sup ?4} millibars and is confined by a full line cusped magnetic field confinement system. Silver dust grains are produced by gas-evaporation technique and move upward in the form of a collimated dust beam due to differential pressure maintained between the dust and plasma chambers. The charged grains in the beam after coming out from the plasma column enter into the diagnostic chamber and are deflected by a dc field applied across a pair of deflector plates at different confining potentials. Both from the amount of deflection and the floating potential, the number of charges collected by the dust grains is calculated. Furthermore, the collimated dust beam strikes the Faraday cup, which is placed above the deflector plates, and the current (?pA) so produced is measured by an electrometer at different confining potentials. The experimental results demonstrate the significant effect of confining wall potential on charging of dust grains.
An x-ray setup to investigate the atomic order of confined liquids in slit geometry
Lippmann, M.; Ehnes, A.; Seeck, O. H.
2014-01-15
A setup has been designed to investigate thin films of confined liquids with the use of X-ray scattering methods. The confinement is realized between the flat culets of a pair of diamonds by positioning and orienting the lower diamond with nanometer and micro radian accuracy. We routinely achieve gaps between 5 and 50 nm at culet diameters of 200 ?m. With this setup and a micro focused X-ray beam we have investigated the in-plane and the out-off-plane atomic order of benzene with atomic resolution.
Free energy and extension of a semiflexible polymer in cylindrical confining geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yingzi; Burkhardt, Theodore W.; Gompper, Gerhard
2007-07-01
We consider a long, semiflexible polymer with persistence length P and contour length L fluctuating in a narrow cylindrical channel of diameter D . In the regime D?P?L the free energy of confinement ?F and the length of the channel R? occupied by the polymer are given by Odijk’s relations ?F/R?=A?kBTP-1/3D-2/3 and R?=L[1-??(D/P)2/3] , where A? and ?? are dimensionless amplitudes. Using a simulation algorithm inspired by the pruned enriched Rosenbluth method, which yields results for very long polymers, we determine A? and ?? and the analogous amplitudes for a channel with a rectangular cross section. For a semiflexible polymer confined to the surface of a cylinder, the corresponding amplitudes are derived with an exact analytic approach. The results are relevant for interpreting experiments on biopolymers in microchannels or microfluidic devices.
Quantum exotic: A repulsive and bottomless confining potential
Miloslav Znojil
2015-11-28
On a simple model $V(x,y)=A\\,x^2+B\\,y^2+C\\,x^2y^2+D\\,(x^2y^4+x^4y^2)$ we demonstrate that even in a classically repulsive regime (i.e., at couplings which make the potential decreasing to $-\\infty$ in some directions) quantum mechanics may still support the purely discrete spectrum of bound states. In our example, there exists a critical boundary of this domain of stability where a further increase of repulsion causes an explosive escape of particles in infinity.
Non-Newtonian flow of an ultralow-melting chalcogenide liquid in strongly confined geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Siyuan; Jain, Chhavi; Wondraczek, Lothar; Wondraczek, Katrin; Kobelke, Jens; Troles, Johann; Caillaud, Celine; Schmidt, Markus A.
2015-05-01
The flow of high-viscosity liquids inside micrometer-size holes can be substantially different from the flow in the bulk, non-confined state of the same liquid. Such non-Newtonian behavior can be employed to generate structural anisotropy in the frozen-in liquid, i.e., in the glassy state. Here, we report on the observation of non-Newtonian flow of an ultralow melting chalcogenide glass inside a silica microcapillary, leading to a strong deviation of the shear viscosity from its value in the bulk material. In particular, we experimentally show that the viscosity is radius-dependent, which is a clear indication that the microscopic rearrangement of the glass network needs to be considered if the lateral confinement falls below a certain limit. The experiments have been conducted using pressure-assisted melt filling, which provides access to the rheological properties of high-viscosity melt flow under previously inaccessible experimental conditions. The resulting flow-induced structural anisotropy can pave the way towards integration of anisotropic glasses inside hybrid photonic waveguides.
Free energy and extension of a semiflexible polymer in cylindrical confining geometries
Yingzi Yang; Theodore W. Burkhardt; Gerhard Gompper
2007-04-19
We consider a long, semiflexible polymer, with persistence length $P$ and contour length $L$, fluctuating in a narrow cylindrical channel of diameter $D$. In the regime $D\\ll P\\ll L$ the free energy of confinement $\\Delta F$ and the length of the channel $R_\\parallel$ occupied by the polymer are given by Odijk's relations $\\Delta F/R_\\parallel=A_\\circ k_BTP^{-1/3}D^{-2/3}$ and $R_\\parallel=L[1-\\alpha_\\circ(D/P)^{2/3}]$, where $A_\\circ$ and $\\alpha_\\circ$ are dimensionless amplitudes. Using a simulation algorithm inspired by PERM (Pruned Enriched Rosenbluth Method), which yields results for very long polymers, we determine $A_\\circ$ and $\\alpha_\\circ$ and the analogous amplitudes for a channel with a rectangular cross section. For a semiflexible polymer confined to the surface of a cylinder, the corresponding amplitudes are derived with an exact analytic approach. The results are relevant for interpreting experiments on biopolymers in microchannels or microfluidic devices.
Non-Newtonian flow of an ultralow-melting chalcogenide liquid in strongly confined geometry
Wang, Siyuan; Jain, Chhavi; Wondraczek, Katrin; Kobelke, Jens; Wondraczek, Lothar; Troles, Johann; Caillaud, Celine; Schmidt, Markus A.
2015-05-18
The flow of high-viscosity liquids inside micrometer-size holes can be substantially different from the flow in the bulk, non-confined state of the same liquid. Such non-Newtonian behavior can be employed to generate structural anisotropy in the frozen-in liquid, i.e., in the glassy state. Here, we report on the observation of non-Newtonian flow of an ultralow melting chalcogenide glass inside a silica microcapillary, leading to a strong deviation of the shear viscosity from its value in the bulk material. In particular, we experimentally show that the viscosity is radius-dependent, which is a clear indication that the microscopic rearrangement of the glass network needs to be considered if the lateral confinement falls below a certain limit. The experiments have been conducted using pressure-assisted melt filling, which provides access to the rheological properties of high-viscosity melt flow under previously inaccessible experimental conditions. The resulting flow-induced structural anisotropy can pave the way towards integration of anisotropic glasses inside hybrid photonic waveguides.
Exact Solutions of the Hydrogen-Like Atoms Confined by a Potential Step
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Shi-Hai; Lozada-Cassou, M.; Jiang, Yu; Qiang, Wen-Chao
2005-01-01
The exact solutions of the two-dimensional Schrödinger equation for the hydrogen-like atoms confined by a potential step are obtained. The eigenvalues can be calculated from the matching condition. We generalize this quantum system to arbitrary dimensional D case.
Heidbrink, William W.
Beam-ion confinement for different injection geometries This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article. 2009 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 51 125001.200.44.79 The article was downloaded on 01/07/2010 at 23:59 Please note that terms and conditions apply. View the table
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, A.; Sbragaglia, M.; Scagliarini, A.
2015-06-01
We propose numerical simulations of viscoelastic fluids based on a hybrid algorithm combining Lattice-Boltzmann models (LBM) and Finite Differences (FD) schemes, the former used to model the macroscopic hydrodynamic equations, and the latter used to model the polymer dynamics. The kinetics of the polymers is introduced using constitutive equations for viscoelastic fluids with finitely extensible non-linear elastic dumbbells with Peterlin's closure (FENE-P). The numerical model is first benchmarked by characterizing the rheological behavior of dilute homogeneous solutions in various configurations, including steady shear, elongational flows, transient shear and oscillatory flows. As an upgrade of complexity, we study the model in presence of non-ideal multicomponent interfaces, where immiscibility is introduced in the LBM description using the "Shan-Chen" interaction model. The problem of a confined viscoelastic (Newtonian) droplet in a Newtonian (viscoelastic) matrix under simple shear is investigated and numerical results are compared with the predictions of various theoretical models. The proposed numerical simulations explore problems where the capabilities of LBM were never quantified before.
A numerical study on the thermal initiation of a confined explosive in 2-D geometry.
Aydemir, Erdo?an; Ulas, Abdullah
2011-02-15
Insensitive munitions design against thermal stimuli like slow or fast cook-off has become a significant requirement for today's munitions. In order to achieve insensitive munitions characteristics, the response of the energetic material needs to be predicted against heating stimuli. In this study, a 2D numerical code was developed to simulate the slow and fast cook-off heating conditions of confined munitions and to obtain the response of the energetic materials. Computations were performed in order to predict the transient temperature distribution, the ignition time, and the location of ignition in the munitions. These predictions enable the designers to have an idea of when and at which location the energetic material ignites under certain adverse surrounding conditions. In the paper, the development of the code is explained and the numerical results are compared with available experimental and numerical data in the literature. Additionally, a parametric study was performed showing the effect of dimensional scaling of munitions and the heating rate on the ignition characteristics. PMID:21130568
Not Available
1993-12-31
The authors have been constructing a special purpose small angle neutron scattering spectrometer (SAND) in collaboration with IPNS of Argonne National Laboratory and Texaco Research Laboratories in Beacon, New York. The spectrometer, having a moderate neutron flux, will be uniquely suited for detailed studies of complex fluids in their various phases. This spectrometer will be fully available to general users of the small angle scattering community after a year of testing and upon installation of the auxiliary equipment. The general research objective of the MIT group is to continue studies of the microstructural relationship to phase-behavior in three-component microemulsion systems. Specifically, they shall study the (1) variation of bulk structures when a microemulsion undergoes a non-wetting to wetting transition, (2) correlating interfacial reflectivity measurements of these wetting transitions to the SANS results, (3) use the contrast variation technique they recently developed for measuring the mean and Gaussian curvatures of the surfactant sheet to study the structural inversion of water-in-oil to oil-in-water microemulsions and the transition of disordered bicontinuous microemulsion to ordered lamellar phases, (4) investigation of the effects of spatial confinement on the phase behavior and structure of bicontinuous microemulsions, and finally (5) they shall continue the study of the recently discovered non-exponential relaxation of droplet density fluctuations near the critical and percolation points in water-in-oil droplet microemulsions.
Morikawa, Kyojiro; Kazoe, Yutaka; Mawatari, Kazuma; Tsukahara, Takehiko; Kitamori, Takehiko
2015-02-01
Understanding liquid structure and the electrical properties of liquids confined in extended nanospaces (10-1000 nm) is important for nanofluidics and nanochemistry. To understand these liquid properties requires determination of the dielectric constant of liquids confined in extended nanospaces. A novel dielectric constant measurement method has thus been developed for extended nanospaces using a streaming potential method. We focused on the nonsteady-state streaming potential in extended nanospaces and successfully measured the dielectric constant of liquids within them without the use of probe molecules. The dielectric constant of water was determined to be significantly reduced by about 3 times compared to that of the bulk. This result contributes key information toward further understanding of the chemistry and fluidics in extended nanospaces. PMID:25569302
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campos, L. Q. Costa; Apolinario, S. W. S.
2015-01-01
We implement Brownian dynamics to investigate the static properties of colloidal particles confined anisotropically and interacting via a potential which can be tailored in a repulsive-attractive-respulsive fashion as the interparticle distance increases. A diverse number of structural phases are self-assembled, which were classified according to two aspects, that is, their macroscopic and microscopic patterns. Concerning the microscopic phases we found the quasicrystalline, triangular, square, and mixed orderings, where this latter is a combination of square and triangular cells in a 3 ×2 proportion, i.e., the so-called (33,42) Archimedian lattice. On the macroscopic level the system could self-organize in a compact or perforated single cluster surrounded or not by fringes. All the structural phases are summarized in detailed phases diagrams, which clearly show that the different phases are extended as the confinement potential becomes more anisotropic.
Structure and rheology of star polymers in confined geometries: a mesoscopic simulation study.
Zheng, Feiwo; Goujon, Florent; Mendonça, Ana C F; Malfreyt, Patrice; Tildesley, Dominic J
2015-11-01
Mesoscopic simulations of star polymer melts adsorbed onto solid surfaces are performed using the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) method. A set of parameters is developed to study the low functionality star polymers under shear. The use of a new bond-angle potential between the arms of the star creates more rigid chains and discriminates between different functionalities at equilibrium, but still allows the polymers to deform appropriately under shear. The rheology of the polymer melts is studied by calculating the kinetic friction and viscosity and there is good agreement with experimental properties of these systems. The study is completed with predictive simulations of star polymer solutions in an athermal solvent. PMID:26435466
Edge-mediated skyrmion chain and its collective dynamics in a confined geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Haifeng; Che, Renchao; Kong, Lingyao; Zhao, Xuebing; Jin, Chiming; Wang, Chao; Yang, Jiyong; Ning, Wei; Li, Runwei; Jin, Changqing; Chen, Xianhui; Zang, Jiadong; Zhang, Yuheng; Tian, Mingliang
2015-10-01
The emergence of a topologically nontrivial vortex-like magnetic structure, the magnetic skyrmion, has launched new concepts for memory devices. Extensive studies have theoretically demonstrated the ability to encode information bits by using a chain of skyrmions in one-dimensional nanostripes. Here, we report experimental observation of the skyrmion chain in FeGe nanostripes by using high-resolution Lorentz transmission electron microscopy. Under an applied magnetic field, we observe that the helical ground states with distorted edge spins evolve into individual skyrmions, which assemble in the form of a chain at low field and move collectively into the interior of the nanostripes at elevated fields. Such a skyrmion chain survives even when the width of the nanostripe is much larger than the size of single skyrmion. This discovery demonstrates a way of skyrmion formation through the edge effect, and might, in the long term, shed light on potential applications.
Edge-mediated skyrmion chain and its collective dynamics in a confined geometry.
Du, Haifeng; Che, Renchao; Kong, Lingyao; Zhao, Xuebing; Jin, Chiming; Wang, Chao; Yang, Jiyong; Ning, Wei; Li, Runwei; Jin, Changqing; Chen, Xianhui; Zang, Jiadong; Zhang, Yuheng; Tian, Mingliang
2015-01-01
The emergence of a topologically nontrivial vortex-like magnetic structure, the magnetic skyrmion, has launched new concepts for memory devices. Extensive studies have theoretically demonstrated the ability to encode information bits by using a chain of skyrmions in one-dimensional nanostripes. Here, we report experimental observation of the skyrmion chain in FeGe nanostripes by using high-resolution Lorentz transmission electron microscopy. Under an applied magnetic field, we observe that the helical ground states with distorted edge spins evolve into individual skyrmions, which assemble in the form of a chain at low field and move collectively into the interior of the nanostripes at elevated fields. Such a skyrmion chain survives even when the width of the nanostripe is much larger than the size of single skyrmion. This discovery demonstrates a way of skyrmion formation through the edge effect, and might, in the long term, shed light on potential applications. PMID:26446692
Edge-mediated skyrmion chain and its collective dynamics in a confined geometry
Du, Haifeng; Che, Renchao; Kong, Lingyao; Zhao, Xuebing; Jin, Chiming; Wang, Chao; Yang, Jiyong; Ning, Wei; Li, Runwei; Jin, Changqing; Chen, Xianhui; Zang, Jiadong; Zhang, Yuheng; Tian, Mingliang
2015-01-01
The emergence of a topologically nontrivial vortex-like magnetic structure, the magnetic skyrmion, has launched new concepts for memory devices. Extensive studies have theoretically demonstrated the ability to encode information bits by using a chain of skyrmions in one-dimensional nanostripes. Here, we report experimental observation of the skyrmion chain in FeGe nanostripes by using high-resolution Lorentz transmission electron microscopy. Under an applied magnetic field, we observe that the helical ground states with distorted edge spins evolve into individual skyrmions, which assemble in the form of a chain at low field and move collectively into the interior of the nanostripes at elevated fields. Such a skyrmion chain survives even when the width of the nanostripe is much larger than the size of single skyrmion. This discovery demonstrates a way of skyrmion formation through the edge effect, and might, in the long term, shed light on potential applications. PMID:26446692
Nonlinear Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations for ion flux through confined geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burger, M.; Schlake, B.; Wolfram, M.-T.
2012-04-01
The mathematical modelling and simulation of ion transport through biological and synthetic channels (nanopores) is a challenging problem, with direct application in biophysics, physiology and chemistry. At least two major effects have to be taken into account when creating such models: the electrostatic interaction of ions and the effects due to size exclusion in narrow regions. While mathematical models and methods for electrostatic interactions are well-developed and can be transferred from other flow problems with charged particles, e.g. semiconductor devices, less is known about the appropriate macroscopic modelling of size exclusion effects. Recently several papers proposed simple or sophisticated approaches for including size exclusion effects into entropies, in equilibrium as well as off equilibrium. The aim of this paper is to investigate a second potentially important modification due to size exclusion, which often seems to be ignored and is not implemented in currently used models, namely the modification of mobilities due to size exclusion effects. We discuss a simple model derived from a self-consisted random walk and investigate the stationary solutions as well as the computation of conductance. The need of incorporating nonlinear mobilities in high density situations is demonstrated in an investigation of conductance as a function of bath concentrations, which does not lead to obvious saturation effects in the case of linear mobility.
Geometry and earthquake potential of the shoreline fault, central California
Hardebeck, Jeanne L.
2013-01-01
The Shoreline fault is a vertical strike?slip fault running along the coastline near San Luis Obispo, California. Much is unknown about the Shoreline fault, including its slip rate and the details of its geometry. Here, I study the geometry of the Shoreline fault at seismogenic depth, as well as the adjacent section of the offshore Hosgri fault, using seismicity relocations and earthquake focal mechanisms. The Optimal Anisotropic Dynamic Clustering (OADC) algorithm (Ouillon et al., 2008) is used to objectively identify the simplest planar fault geometry that fits all of the earthquakes to within their location uncertainty. The OADC results show that the Shoreline fault is a single continuous structure that connects to the Hosgri fault. Discontinuities smaller than about 1 km may be undetected, but would be too small to be barriers to earthquake rupture. The Hosgri fault dips steeply to the east, while the Shoreline fault is essentially vertical, so the Hosgri fault dips towards and under the Shoreline fault as the two faults approach their intersection. The focal mechanisms generally agree with pure right?lateral strike?slip on the OADC planes, but suggest a non?planar Hosgri fault or another structure underlying the northern Shoreline fault. The Shoreline fault most likely transfers strike?slip motion between the Hosgri fault and other faults of the Pacific–North America plate boundary system to the east. A hypothetical earthquake rupturing the entire known length of the Shoreline fault would have a moment magnitude of 6.4–6.8. A hypothetical earthquake rupturing the Shoreline fault and the section of the Hosgri fault north of the Hosgri–Shoreline junction would have a moment magnitude of 7.2–7.5.
Finite-geometry models of electric field noise from patch potentials in ion traps
Low, Guang Hao
We model electric field noise from fluctuating patch potentials on conducting surfaces by taking into account the finite geometry of the ion trap electrodes to gain insight into the origin of anomalous heating in ion traps. ...
Malet, F.; Reimann, S. M.; Kristensen, T.; Kavoulakis, G. M.
2011-03-15
We study the rotational properties of a dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate confined in a quasi-two-dimensional anisotropic trap for an arbitrary orientation of the dipoles with respect to their plane of motion. Within the mean-field approximation, we find that the lowest-energy state of the system depends strongly on the relative strength between the dipolar and the contact interactions, as well as on the size and the orientation of the dipoles and the size and the orientation of the deformation of the trapping potential.
) Magnetic equilibrium flux loops, Bp coils, Hall effect sensors, levitation system trackers Fast electrons Plasma DAQ System Effect of Plasma on Levitation System Confinement Improvement with Magnetic LevitationThe Levitated Dipole Experiment (LDX) investigates plasmas confined in the closed field line dipole
Cosentino Lagomarsino, Marco; Tanase, Catalin; Vos, Jan W; Emons, Anne Mie C; Mulder, Bela M; Dogterom, Marileen
2007-02-01
Microtubules or microtubule bundles in cells often grow longer than the size of the cell, which causes their shape and organization to adapt to constraints imposed by the cell geometry. We test the reciprocal role of elasticity and confinement in the organization of growing microtubules in a confining box-like geometry, in the absence of other (active) microtubule organizing processes. This is inspired, for example, by the cortical microtubule array of elongating plant cells, where microtubules are typically organized in an aligned array transverse to the cell elongation axis. The method we adopt is a combination of analytical calculations, in which the polymers are modeled as inextensible filaments with bending elasticity confined to a two-dimensional surface that defines the limits of a three-dimensional space, and in vitro experiments, in which microtubules are polymerized from nucleation seeds in microfabricated chambers. We show that these features are sufficient to organize the polymers in aligned, coiling configurations as for example observed in plant cells. Though elasticity can account for the regularity of these arrays, it cannot account for a transverse orientation of microtubules to the cell's long axis. We therefore conclude that an additional active, force-generating process is necessary to create a coiling configuration perpendicular to the long axis of the cell. PMID:17098802
Monte Carlo study of one-dimensional confined fluids with Gay-Berne intermolecular potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moradi, M.; Hashemi, S.
2011-11-01
The thermodynamic quantities of a one dimensional system of particles with Gay-Berne model potential confined between walls have been obtained by means of Monte Carlo computer simulations. For a number of temperatures, the systems were considered and their density profiles, order parameter, pressure, configurational temperature and average potential energy per particle are reported. The results show that by decreasing the temperature, the soft particles become more ordered and they align to the walls and also they don't show any tendency to be near the walls at very low temperatures. We have also changed the structure of the walls by embedding soft ellipses in them, this change increases the total density near the wall whereas, increasing or decreasing the order parameter depend on the angle of embedded ellipses.
Kei-Ichi Kondo; Akihiro Shibata
2015-11-18
We give an analytical derivation of the confinement/deconfinement phase transition at finite temperature in the $SU(N)$ Yang-Mills theory in the $D$-dimensional space time for $D>2$. For this purpose, we use a novel reformulation of the Yang-Mills theory which allows the gauge-invariant gluonic mass term, and calculate analytically the effective potential of the Polyakov loop average concretely for the $SU(2)$ and $SU(3)$ Yang-Mills theories by including the gauge-invariant dynamical gluonic mass $M$. For $D=4$, we give an estimate on the transition temperature $T_d$ as the ratio $T_d/M$ to the mass $M$ which has been measured on the lattice at zero temperature and is calculable also at finite temperature. We show that the order of the phase transition at $T_d$ is the second order for $SU(2)$ and weakly first order for $SU(3)$ Yang-Mills theory. We elucidate what is the mechanism for quark confinement and deconfinement at finite temperature and why the phase transition occurs at a certain temperature. These initial results are obtained easily based on the analytical calculations of the "one-loop type" in the first approximation. We discuss also how these results are improved to eliminate the artifacts obtained for some thermodynamic observables.
Kondo, Kei-Ichi
2015-01-01
We give an analytical derivation of the confinement/deconfinement phase transition at finite temperature in the $SU(N)$ Yang-Mills theory in the $D$-dimensional space time for $D>2$. For this purpose, we use a novel reformulation of the Yang-Mills theory which allows the gauge-invariant gluonic mass term, and calculate analytically the effective potential of the Polyakov loop average concretely for the $SU(2)$ and $SU(3)$ Yang-Mills theories by including the gauge-invariant dynamical gluonic mass $M$. For $D=4$, we give an estimate on the transition temperature $T_d$ as the ratio $T_d/M$ to the mass $M$ which has been measured on the lattice at zero temperature and is calculable also at finite temperature. We show that the order of the phase transition at $T_d$ is the second order for $SU(2)$ and weakly first order for $SU(3)$ Yang-Mills theory. We elucidate what is the mechanism for quark confinement and deconfinement at finite temperature and why the phase transition occurs at a certain temperature. These i...
Finite-geometry models of electric field noise from patch potentials in ion traps
Low, Guang Hao; Herskind, Peter F.; Chuang, Isaac L.
2011-11-15
We model electric field noise from fluctuating patch potentials on conducting surfaces by taking into account the finite geometry of the ion trap electrodes to gain insight into the origin of anomalous heating in ion traps. The scaling of anomalous heating rates with surface distance d is obtained for several generic geometries of relevance to current ion trap designs, ranging from planar to spheroidal electrodes. The influence of patch size is studied both by solving Laplace's equation in terms of the appropriate Green's function as well as through an eigenfunction expansion. Scaling with surface distance is found to be highly dependent on the choice of geometry and the relative scale between the spatial extent of the electrode, the ion-electrode distance, and the patch size. Our model generally supports the d{sup -4} dependence currently found by most experiments and models, but also predicts geometry-driven deviations from this trend.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodriguez, Ricardo; Lewis, Winston G.
2014-07-01
Adequately identifying and managing hazards at the workplace can be a tedious task which extends into the realm of uncertainty, probability and prediction models in order to fully comprehend the nature of the hazard. As such, organizations cannot be blamed for knowledge gaps in the training of personnel they contract to ensure a safe and healthy work environment, especially where there are latent hazards. Electromagnetic wave propagation at frequencies in the SAR (specific absorption rate) region is a special concern to authorities involved in setting RF (radiofrequency) and microwave exposure guidelines. Despite that there is no conclusive evidence to suggest that non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation causes adverse health effects other than thermal, no effort should be lost to ensure that workers and the public at large are adequately protected from unnecessary exposure to radiation. Standards however set exposure limits for free space, plane wave propagation but fall short in compiling information on intensities of these waves after they undergo reflection and diffraction from wall surfaces. Waveguide technology has managed to constrain microwaves to remain within set boundaries, with fixed frequencies that force the waves to behave differently to if they were moving in free space. This technology has offered the ability to transport more energy for communication purposes other than transmission lines. The size of a waveguide may be to the order of a few centimetres and can guide RF of wavelengths of the order of centimetres also but what if spaces of larger dimensions are capable of being waveguides and can guide waves of larger wavelengths such as those that correspond to frequencies between 30MHz to 300MHz? Such RF waves belong to the SAR region of the spectrum where strict exposure limits are set for health and safety protection since a standing man acts as a dipole antenna for this radiation and can absorb maximum energy from propagating RF waves. This review visits the likelihood for potential energy build-up due to RF propagation in confined spaces that are of waveguide design but with larger dimensions. Such confined spaces include silos, tanks, pipes, manholes, air-condition ducts, tunnels, wells, engine rooms and operator rooms on board vessels. In these confined spaces waves reflect off of the walls and combine constructively or destructively with incident waves producing reinforcement or cancellation respectively. Where there is reinforcement, the intensity of the wave for a particular distance in accordance with the standard, may exceed the exposure limit for this distance from the source thereby exposing the worker to larger intensities than the accepted limit and presenting a potential health and safety threat.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosal, Amit; Ash, Biswarup; Chakrabarti, Jaydeb
2015-03-01
We investigate the dynamics of Coulomb-interacting confined particles over a range of temperatures capturing the crossover from a Wigner molecule to a liquid-like phase. Dynamical signatures, derived from the Van-Hove correlations, develop pivotal understanding of the phases as well as the intervening crossover, which are inaccessible from the study of static correlations alone. The motion of the particles shows frustrations, produces heterogeneities depending on the observation time-scales and temperatures and results into a non-Gaussian behavior. The extent and nature of the departure of the behavior of spatio-temporal correlations from the conventional wisdom depends crucially on the symmetry of the confinements. In particular, we find that the decay of correlations follow a stretched-exponential form in traps that lack any symmetry. Our data offers a broad support to a theoretical model that integrates the non-Gaussian behavior arising from the convolution of Gaussian fluctuations weighted by appropriate diffusivities, consistent with local dynamics. The richness of information from the dynamic correlation will be shown to improve the understanding of melting in confined systems in a powerful manner.
Bent waveguides for matter-waves: supersymmetric potentials and reflectionless geometries
Campo, Adolfo del; Boshier, Malcolm G.; Saxena, Avadh
2014-01-01
Non-zero curvature in a waveguide leads to the appearance of an attractive quantum potential which crucially affects the dynamics in matter-wave circuits. Using methods of supersymmetric quantum mechanics, pairs of bent waveguides are found whose geometry-induced potentials share the same scattering properties. As a result, reflectionless waveguides, dual to the straight waveguide, are identified. Strictly isospectral waveguides are also found by modulating the depth of the trapping potential. Numerical simulations are used to demonstrate the efficiency of these approaches in tailoring and controlling curvature-induced quantum-mechanical effects. PMID:24919423
Bicudo, P.
2010-08-01
We study the string tension as a function of temperature, fitting the SU(3) lattice QCD finite temperature free energy potentials computed by the Bielefeld group. We compare the string tension points with order parameter curves of ferromagnets, superconductors, or string models, all related to confinement. We also compare the SU(3) string tension with the one of SU(2) lattice QCD. With the curve providing the best fit to the finite temperature string tensions, the spontaneous magnetization curve, we then show how to include finite temperature, in the state of the art confining and chiral invariant quark models.
Azaizeh, Hassan; Kurzbaum, Eyal; Said, Ons; Jaradat, Husain; Menashe, Ofir
2015-10-01
Olive mill wastewater (OMWW) is claimed to be one of the most polluting effluents produced by agro-food industries, providing high contaminants load that encase cytotoxic agents such as phenolic and polyphenolic compounds. Therefore, a significant and continuous stress episode is induced once the mixed liquor of the wastewater treatment plants (WWTP's) is being exposed to OMWW. The use of bio-augmentation treatment procedures can be useful to eliminate or reduce such stress episodes. In this study, we have estimated the use of autochthonous biomass implementation within small bioreactor platform (SBP) particles as a bio-augmentation method to challenge against WWTPs stress episodes. Our results showed that SBP particles significantly reduced the presence of various phenolics: tannic, gallic and caffeic acid in a synthetic medium and in crude OMWW matrix. Moreover, the SBP particles succeeded to biodegrade a very high concentration of phenol blend (3000 mg L(-1)). Our findings indicated that the presence of the SBP microfiltration membrane has reduced the phenol biodegradation rate by 50 % compared to the same suspended culture. Despite the observed reduction in biodegradation rate, encapsulation in a confined environment can offer significant values such as overcoming the grazing forcers and dilution, thus achieving a long-term sufficient biomass. The potential for reducing stress episodes caused by cytotoxic agents through bio-augmentation treatment procedure using the SBP technology is discussed. PMID:26250809
Geometry-induced potential on a two-dimensional section of a wormhole: Catenoid
Dandoloff, Rossen; Saxena, Avadh; Jensen, Bjoern
2010-01-15
We show that a two-dimensional wormhole geometry is equivalent to a catenoid, a minimal surface. We then obtain the curvature-induced geometric potential and show that the ground state with zero energy corresponds to a reflectionless potential. By introducing an appropriate coordinate system we also obtain bound states for different angular momentum channels. Our findings can be realized in suitably bent bilayer graphene sheets with a neck, in a honeycomb lattice with an array of dislocations, or in nanoscale waveguides in the shape of a catenoid.
Effective potential for quantum scalar fields in a de Sitter geometry.
Serreau, Julien
2011-11-01
We study the quantum theory of an O(N) scalar field on de Sitter geometry at leading order in a nonperturbative 1/N expansion. This resums the infinite series of so-called superdaisy loop diagrams. We obtain the de Sitter symmetric solutions of the corresponding, properly renormalized, dynamical field equations and compute the complete effective potential. Because of its self-interactions, the field acquires a strictly positive square mass which screens potential infrared divergences. Moreover, strongly enhanced ultralong-wavelength fluctuations prevent the existence of a spontaneously broken symmetry state in any dimension. PMID:22181592
Thermodynamics of confined gallium clusters.
Chandrachud, Prachi
2015-11-11
We report the results of ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of Ga13 and Ga17 clusters confined inside carbon nanotubes with different diameters. The cluster-tube interaction is simulated by the Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential. We discuss the geometries, the nature of the bonding and the thermodynamics under confinement. The geometries as well as the isomer spectra of both the clusters are significantly affected. The degree of confinement decides the dimensionality of the clusters. We observe that a number of low-energy isomers appear under moderate confinement while some isomers seen in the free space disappear. Our finite-temperature simulations bring out interesting aspects, namely that the heat capacity curve is flat, even though the ground state is symmetric. Such a flat nature indicates that the phase change is continuous. This effect is due to the restricted phase space available to the system. These observations are supported by the mean square displacement of individual atoms, which are significantly smaller than in free space. The nature of the bonding is found to be approximately jellium-like. Finally we note the relevance of the work to the problem of single file diffusion for the case of the highest confinement. PMID:26452011
Thermodynamics of confined gallium clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chandrachud, Prachi
2015-11-01
We report the results of ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of Ga13 and Ga17 clusters confined inside carbon nanotubes with different diameters. The cluster-tube interaction is simulated by the Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential. We discuss the geometries, the nature of the bonding and the thermodynamics under confinement. The geometries as well as the isomer spectra of both the clusters are significantly affected. The degree of confinement decides the dimensionality of the clusters. We observe that a number of low-energy isomers appear under moderate confinement while some isomers seen in the free space disappear. Our finite-temperature simulations bring out interesting aspects, namely that the heat capacity curve is flat, even though the ground state is symmetric. Such a flat nature indicates that the phase change is continuous. This effect is due to the restricted phase space available to the system. These observations are supported by the mean square displacement of individual atoms, which are significantly smaller than in free space. The nature of the bonding is found to be approximately jellium-like. Finally we note the relevance of the work to the problem of single file diffusion for the case of the highest confinement.
Patterned time-orbiting potentials for the confinement and assembly of magnetic dipoles
Chen, A.; Sooryakumar, R.
2013-01-01
We present an all-magnetic scheme for the assembly and study of magnetic dipoles within designed confinement profiles that are activated on micro-patterned permalloy films through a precessing magnetic field. Independent control over the confinement and dipolar interactions is achieved by tuning the strength and orientation of the revolving field. The technique is demonstrated with superparamagnetic microspheres field-driven to assemble into closely packed lattice sheets, quasi-1D and other planar structures expandable into dipolar arrays that mirror the patterned surface motifs. PMID:24185093
Lang, V; Merkely, B; Gellér, L; Kiss, O; Ströbel, J P; Schaldach, M
1998-01-01
This study investigates the influence of various lead geometry on intracardial signals like the monophasic action potential (MAP) to optimize the geometry of implantable MAP leads. The experimental results were compared with a field theoretical approach to the origin of MAP from the transmembrane potential (TAP). During the experiments several lead geometries (tip surface: 1.3 to 12 mm2; tip-ring distance: 0.8 mm to 25 cm; ring surface: 1.8 mm2 to 40 mm2) were investigated in endo- and epicardial positions in 12 dogs (17 +/- 9 kg). The electrodes were fixed passively (tines) or actively (screws). MAP was recorded during several interventions and correlated with MAP measured using an Ag-AgCl MAP catheter. The experimental results showed that small tips provided high MAP amplitudes with less pressure. No difference was observed using active and passive fixations. A tip-ring distance smaller than 5 mm with a ring surface smaller than the tip (< 5 mm2) avoided artifacts in the repolarization course. For the theoretical approach the quasistatic, anisotropic bidomain model was calculated in small unity volumes Vi where the TAP phi mi was constant and represented by the current density Ji. Two solutions for electrode positions at and outside the heart were achieved. By superposition of each solution phi ei the summed potential at the electrode position was calculated. The theoretical findings show in good correlation with the experimental results that a larger distance than 10 mm leads to distortions in repolarization course by signals proportional to phi out. PMID:9474677
Potential change in flaw geometry during pressurized-thermal-shock transients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shum, D. K. M.; Bryson, J. W.; Merkle, J. G.; Keeney-Walker, J.; Dickson, T. L.; Bass, B. R.
This study presents preliminary estimates on the potential change in flaw geometry of an initially shallow, axially oriented, inner-surface finite-length flaw in a PWR-RPV during the course of a postulated PTS transient. Specifically, the question being addressed is whether a shallow, axially oriented, finite-length surface flaw would tend to elongate in the axial direction and/or deepen into the wall of the vessel during the transient. In the first part of the study, estimates are obtained based on the assumptions of linear-elastic material response. The thermo-elastic properties of the cladding and base material are explicitly considered. The flaw geometry corresponds to a family of modified-elliptical flaws characterized by the flaw's half-length to maximum depth (aspect ratio). Requirements for numerical convergence of the finite element results are examined. In the second part of the study, the sensitivity of the numerical results and conclusions obtained in the first part of the study to the following three analysis assumptions are evaluated: (1) Reference flaw geometry along the entire crack front and especially within the cladding region; (2) Linear-elastic versus elastic-plastic description of material response; and (3) Base-material-only vs bi-material cladding-base vessel-model assumption.
database Peter Amendt, S. C. Wilks, C. Bellei, C. K. Li, and R. D. Petrasso Citation: Phys. Plasmas 18 databasea) Peter Amendt,1,b) S. C. Wilks,1 C. Bellei,1 C. K. Li,2 and R. D. Petrasso2 1 Lawrence Livermore. Related Articles Investigating inertial confinement fusion target fuel conditions through x
A three-dimensional potential-flow program with a geometry package for input data generation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Halsey, N. D.
1978-01-01
Information needed to run a computer program for the calculation of the potential flow about arbitrary three dimensional lifting configurations is presented. The program contains a geometry package which greatly reduces the task of preparing the input data. Starting from a very sparse set of coordinate data, the program automatically augments and redistributes the coordinates, calculates curves of intersection between components, and redistributes coordinates in the regions adjacent to the intersection curves in a suitable manner for use in the potential flow calculations. A brief summary of the program capabilities and options is given, as well as detailed instructions for the data input, a suggested structure for the program overlay, and the output for two test cases.
Magirl, Christopher S.; Olsen, Theresa D.
2009-01-01
Using discharge and channel geometry measurements from U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations and data from a geographic information system, regression relations were derived to predict river depth, top width, and bottom width as a function of mean annual discharge for rivers in the State of Washington. A new technique also was proposed to determine bottom width in channels, a parameter that has received relatively little attention in the geomorphology literature. These regression equations, when combined with estimates of mean annual discharge available in the National Hydrography Dataset, enabled the prediction of hydraulic geometry for any stream or river in the State of Washington. Predictions of hydraulic geometry can then be compared to thresholds established by the Washington State Department of Natural Resources to determine navigability potential of rivers. Rivers with a mean annual discharge of 1,660 cubic feet per second or greater are 'probably navigable' and rivers with a mean annual discharge of 360 cubic feet per second or less are 'probably not navigable'. Variance in the dataset, however, leads to a relatively wide range of prediction intervals. For example, although the predicted hydraulic depth at a mean annual discharge of 1,660 cubic feet per second is 3.5 feet, 90-percent prediction intervals indicate that the actual hydraulic depth may range from 1.8 to 7.0 feet. This methodology does not determine navigability - a legal concept determined by federal common law - instead, this methodology is a tool for predicting channel depth, top width, and bottom width for rivers and streams in Washington.
Crossover in domain wall potential polarity as a function of anti-notch geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sekhar, M. Chandra; Goolaup, S.; Purnama, I.; Lew, W. S.
2011-06-01
We have carried out a systematic study on domain wall (DW) pinning at an anti-notch in a Ni80Fe20 nanowire. Micromagnetic studies reveal that the potential polarity experienced by the DW at the anti-notch is a function of both DW chirality and anti-notch geometry. A transition in the potential disruption experienced by the DW is observed when the anti-notch height-to-width ratio (HAN/WAN) is 2. This transition is due to the relative orientation of the spins in the anti-notch with respect to the transverse component of the DW. When the anti-notch acts as a potential barrier, the DW undergoes damped oscillations prior to coming to an equilibrium position. The equilibrium position is a strong function of the anti-notch dimensions when the HAN/WAN ratio <2 and is constant for HAN/WAN >= 2. The effect of the relative orientation between the spins in the anti-notch and the transverse component of the DW on the shape of the potential is discussed.
Cunningham, Kevin J.; Walker, Cameron; Westcott, Richard L.
2012-01-01
Approximately 210 km of near-surface, high-frequency, marine seismic-reflection data were acquired on the southeastern part of the Florida Platform between 2007 and 2011. Many high-resolution, seismic-reflection profiles, interpretable to a depth of about 730 m, were collected on the shallow-marine shelf of southeastern Florida in water as shallow as 1 m. Landward of the present-day shelf-margin slope, these data image middle Eocene to Pleistocene strata and Paleocene to Pleistocene strata on the Miami Terrace. This high-resolution data set provides an opportunity to evaluate geologic structures that cut across confining units of the Paleocene to Oligocene-age carbonate rocks that form the Floridan aquifer system.Seismic profiles image two structural systems, tectonic faults and karst collapse structures, which breach confining beds in the Floridan aquifer system. Both structural systems may serve as pathways for vertical groundwater flow across relatively low-permeability carbonate strata that separate zones of regionally extensive high-permeability rocks in the Floridan aquifer system. The tectonic faults occur as normal and reverse faults, and collapse-related faults have normal throw. The most common fault occurrence delineated on the reflection profiles is associated with karst collapse structures. These high-frequency seismic data are providing high quality structural analogs to unprecedented depths on the southeastern Florida Platform. The analogs can be used for assessment of confinement of other carbonate aquifers and the sealing potential of deeper carbonate rocks associated with reservoirs around the world.
J. C. N. Carvalho; W. P. Ferreira; G. A. Farias; F. M. Peeters
2010-06-10
We consider a classical system of two-dimensional (2D) charged particles, which interact through a repulsive Yukawa potential $exp(-r/\\lambda)/r$, confined in a parabolic channel which limits the motion of the particles in the $y$-direction. Along the $x$-direction, the particles are also subject to a periodic potential substrate. The ground state configurations and the normal mode spectra of the system are obtained as function of the periodicity and strength of the periodic potential ($V_0$), and density. An interesting set of tunable ground state configurations are found, with first and second order structural transitions between them. A magic configuration with particles aligned in each minimum of the periodic potential is obtained for V_0 larger than some critical value which has a power law dependence on the density. The phonon spectrum of different configurations were also calculated. A localization of the modes into a small frequency interval is observed for a sufficient strength of the periodic potential. A tunable band-gap is found as a function of $V_0$. This model system can be viewed as a generalization of the Frenkel and Kontorova model.
Cioslowski, Jerzy; Albin, Joanna
2013-09-14
Energies E(N) of assemblies of equicharged particles subject to spherically symmetric power-law confining potentials vary in a convoluted fashion with the particle totalities N. Accurate rigorous upper bounds to these energies, which are amenable to detailed mathematical analysis, are found to comprise terms with smooth, oscillatory, and fluctuating dependences on N. The smooth energy component is obtained as a power series in N(-2/3) with the first two terms corresponding to the bulk and Madelung energies. The oscillatory component possesses the large-N asymptotics given by a product of N(1/(? + 1)), where ? is the power-law exponent, and a function periodic in N(1/3). The amplitude of the fluctuating component, which originates mostly from the irregular dependence of the Thomson energy E(Th)(n) on n, also scales like N(1/(? + 1)). PMID:24050343
Hysteresis and metastability of Bose-Einstein-condensed clouds of atoms confined in ring potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roussou, A.; Tsibidis, G. D.; Smyrnakis, J.; Magiropoulos, M.; Efremidis, Nikolaos K.; Jackson, A. D.; Kavoulakis, G. M.
2015-02-01
We consider a Bose-Einstein-condensed cloud of atoms which rotate in a toroidal or annular potential. Assuming one-dimensional motion, we evaluate the critical frequencies associated with the effect of hysteresis and the critical coupling for stability of the persistent currents. We perform these calculations using both the mean-field approximation and the method of numerical diagonalization of the many-body Hamiltonian which includes corrections due to the finiteness of the atom number.
McHargue, T.R.; Webb, J.E.
1986-02-01
The Indus Fan, the second largest submarine fan in the world, covers 1,250,000 km/sup 2/ (500,000 mi/sup 2/) and contains sediment more than 7 km (23,000 ft) thick. Multichannel (24-fold) CDP seismic data provide the bases for evaluating the Indus Fan and consist of four seismic facies. Of these, only the high-amplitude, discontinuous (H-D) facies is thought to contain reservoir-quality sandstones. The H-D facies is confined to the axes of leveed channels. Canyon-channel systems that fed the fan in the past can be divided into three zones. The degradational zone is composed of an erosional canyon complex filled by prodelta mud. The transitional zone, located near the canyon mouth, consists of superimposed channels that initially were erosional but eventually aggraded and developed levees. The headward termination of the H-D facies occurs in this zone. The aggradational zone consists of superimposed leveed channels confined solely by their own levees. The proximal termination of the H-D facies near canyon mouths implies the presence of reservoir-quality sandstone surrounded by source/seal mudstone in the transitional zone. This stratigraphic trapping geometry and structural leads may represent a vast, untapped petroleum province.
A geometry package for generation of input data for a three-dimensional potential-flow program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Halsey, N. D.; Hess, J. L.
1978-01-01
The preparation of geometric data for input to three-dimensional potential flow programs was automated and simplified by a geometry package incorporated into the NASA Langley version of the 3-D lifting potential flow program. Input to the computer program for the geometry package consists of a very sparse set of coordinate data, often with an order of magnitude of fewer points than required for the actual potential flow calculations. Isolated components, such as wings, fuselages, etc. are paneled automatically, using one of several possible element distribution algorithms. Curves of intersection between components are calculated, using a hybrid curve-fit/surface-fit approach. Intersecting components are repaneled so that adjacent elements on either side of the intersection curves line up in a satisfactory manner for the potential-flow calculations. Many cases may be run completely (from input, through the geometry package, and through the flow calculations) without interruption. Use of the package significantly reduces the time and expense involved in making three-dimensional potential flow calculations.
Lourenco, Stella F; Cabrera, Janine
2015-12-01
Accumulating evidence demonstrates that humans and other animals use geometric information, such as the shape of a surrounding space, to recover from disorientation. Less clear is to what extent human children integrate geometry with featural cues, such as the color of walls within an enclosed space, for this purpose. One view holds that reorientation relies on a cognitive module that processes geometric information independently of features. Here we provide evidence against this position by demonstrating that prior exposure to features within a kite-shaped space facilitated the use of geometry in 3- and 4-year-old children, as has been shown with nonhuman animals. Children were tasked with localizing a hidden object within a kite space following disorientation. Their performance was compared across two blocks of trials. We found that children first exposed to features (two black walls and two white walls) within the kite space (first block) were subsequently better at relying on the space's geometry to localize the target object (second block) than children not previously exposed to features. Follow-up experiments ruled out nonspecific effects of practice and attention. Not only did featural cues interact with the processing of geometry, but also features specifically enhanced children's representations of the space's geometry, which they used for reorientation. We suggest that this potentiation of geometry was possible because the placement of wall colors highlighted the major axis of the kite space, which may be critical for aiding the encoding of global shape or for maintaining the representation of a complex geometry in memory. PMID:26254274
Persistent currents in a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate confined in a ring potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smyrnakis, J.; Magiropoulos, M.; Efremidis, Nikolaos K.; Kavoulakis, G. M.
2014-11-01
We present variational and numerical solutions for the problem of stability of persistent currents in a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate of distinguishable atoms which rotate in a ring potential. We consider the general class of solutions of constant density in the two components separately, thus providing an alternative approach to the solution of the same problem given recently by Wu and Zaremba (2013 Phys. Rev. A 88 063640). Our approach provides a physically transparent solution for this delicate problem. Finally, we give a unified and simple picture of the lowest energy state of the system for large values of the coupling.
Exciton states and interband absorption of cylindrical quantum dot with Morse confining potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayrapetyan, D. B.; Kazaryan, E. M.; Kotanjyan, T. V.; Tevosyan, H. Kh.
2015-02-01
In this paper the exciton and electron sates in cylindrical quantum dot with Morse potential made of GaAs are studied. For the regime of strong size quantization, energy spectrum with the parabolic approximation case are compared. For strong and weak size quantization regimes analytic expressions for the particle energy spectrum, absorption coefficient and dependencies of effective threshold frequencies of absorption on the geometrical parameters quantum dot are obtained. For the intermediate size quantization regime the problem solved in the framework of variation method. The selection rules corresponding to different transitions between quantum levels are found. The size dispersion distribution of growing quantum dots by the radius and height by two experimentally realizing distribution functions have been taken into account. Distribution functions of Gauss, Lifshits-Slezov have been considered.
Soldatkina, E. I.; Bagryansky, P. A.; Solomakhin, A. L.
2008-04-15
One of the most important problems to be studied in the gas-dynamic trap (GDT) facility is the investigation of MHD stability and cross-field transport in a plasma with a relatively high value of {beta} = {pi}p/B{sup 2}. Recent experiments demonstrated that the radial electric field produced in the plasma by using radial limiters and coaxial end plasma collectors improves plasma stability in axisymmetric magnetic mirror systems without applying special MHD stabilizers. The experimental data presented in this work show that stable plasma confinement can be achieved by producing a radial potential drop across a narrow region near the plasma boundary. Creating radial electric fields of strength 15-40 V/cm causes a shear plasma flow, thereby substantially increasing the plasma confinement time. When all the radial electrodes were grounded, the confinement was unstable and the plasma confinement time was much shorter than the characteristic time of plasma outflow through the magnetic mirrors. Measurements of cross-field plasma fluxes with the use of a specially designed combined probe show that, in confinement modes with differential plasma rotation, transverse particle losses are negligibly small as compared to longitudinal ones and thus can be ignored. It is also shown that, when the GDT plasma is in electric contact with the radial limiters and end collectors, the growth rate of interchange instability decreases considerably; such a contact, however, does not ensure complete MHD stability when the electrodes are at the same potential.
Castro, Luis B.; Castro, Antonio S. de
2014-12-15
We point out a misleading treatment in the recent literature regarding confining solutions for a scalar potential in the context of the Duffin–Kemmer–Petiau theory. We further present the proper bound-state solutions in terms of the generalized Laguerre polynomials and show that the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions depend on the solutions of algebraic equations involving the potential parameter and the quantum number.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mandal, Arkajit; Sarkar, Sucharita; Ghosh, Arghya Pratim; Ghosh, Manas
2015-12-01
We make an extensive investigation of total optical absorption coefficient (TOAC) of impurity doped quantum dots (QDs) in presence and absence of Gaussian white noise. The TOAC profiles have been monitored against incident photon energy with special emphasis on the roles played by the electric field, magnetic field, and the dot confinement potential. Presence of impurity also influences the TOAC profile. In general, presence of noise causes enhancement of TOAC over that of noise-free condition. However, the interplay between the noise and the quantities like electric field, magnetic field, confinement potential and impurity potential bring about rich subtleties in the TOAC profiles. The said subtleties are often manifested by the alterations in TOAC peak intensity, extent of TOAC peak bleaching, and value of saturation intensity. The findings reveal some technologically relevant aspects of TOAC for the doped QD systems, specially in presence of noise.
Langenheim, V.E.; Griscom, Andrew; Jachens, R.C.; Hildenbrand, T.G.
2000-01-01
Gravity and magnetic data provide new insights on the structural underpinnings of the San Fernando Basin region, which may be important to ground motion models. Gravity data indicate that a deep basin (>5 km) underlies the northern part of the San Fernando Valley; this deep basin is required to explain the lowest gravity values over the Mission Hills thrust fault. Gravity modeling, constrained by well data and density information, shows that the basin may reach a thickness of 8 km, coinciding with the upper termination of the 1994 Northridge earthquake mainshock rupture. The basin is deeper than previous estimates by 2 to 4 km; this estimate is the result of high densities for the gravels of the Pliocene-Pleisocene Saugus Formation. The geometry of the southern margin of the deep basin is not well-constrained by the gravity data, but may dip to the south. Recently acquired seismic data along the LARSE (Los Angeles Regional Seismic Experiment) II profile may provide constraints to determine the location and attitude of the basin edge. Gravity and aeromagnetic models across the eastern margin of the San Fernando Valley indicate that the Verdugo fault may dip to the southwest along its southern extent and therefore have a normal fault geometry whereas it clearly has a thrust fault geometry along its northern strand.
E. Kiritsis; L. Mazzanti; F. Nitti
2014-12-03
We extend the holographic trailing string picture of a heavy quark to the case of a bulk geometry dual to a confining gauge theory. We compute the classical trailing confining string solution for a static as well as a uniformly moving quark. The trailing string is infinitely extended and approaches a confining horizon, situated at a critical value of the radial coordinate, along one of the space-time directions, breaking boundary rotational invariance. We compute the equations for the fluctuations around the classical solutions, which are used to obtain boundary force correlators controlling the Langevin dynamics of the quark. The imaginary part of the correlators has a non-trivial low-frequency limit, which gives rise to a viscous friction coefficient induced by the confining vacuum. The vacuum correlators are used to define finite-temperature dressed Langevin correlators with an appropriate high-frequency behavior.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glasser, M. L.; Nieto, L. M.
2015-12-01
Motivated by current interest in quantum confinement potentials, especially with respect to the Stark spectroscopy of new types of quantum wells, we examine several novel one-dimensional singular oscillators. A Green function method is applied, the construction of the necessary resolvents is reviewed and several new ones are introduced. In addition, previous work on the singular harmonic oscillator model, introduced by Avakian et al. is reproduced to verify the method and results. A novel features is the determination of the spectra of asymmetric hybrid linear and quadratic potentials. As in previous work, the singular perturbations are modeled by delta functions.
Diffusion Geometry Diffusion Geometry
Hirn, Matthew
Diffusion Geometry Diffusion Geometry for High Dimensional Data Matthew J. Hirn July 3, 2013 #12;Diffusion Geometry Introduction Embedding of closed curve Figure: Left: A closed, non-self-intersecting curve in 3 dimensions. Right: Its embedding as a circle. #12;Diffusion Geometry Introduction Cartoon
M. Billo; M. Caselle; F. Gliozzi; M. Meineri; R. Pellegrini
2013-09-26
We study the boundary contribution to the low energy effective action of the open string describing the confining flux tube in gauge theories. The form of the boundary terms is strongly constrained by the requirement of Lorentz symmetry, which is spontaneously broken by the formation of a long confining flux tube in the vacuum. Writing the boundary action as an expansion in the derivatives of the Nambu-Goldstone modes describing the transverse fluctuations of the string, we single out and put in a closed form the first few Lorentz invariant boundary terms. We also evaluate the leading deviation from the Nambu-Goto string produced by the boundary action on the vacuum expectation value of the Wilson loop and we test this prediction in the 3d Ising gauge model. Our simulation attains a level of precision which is sufficient to test the contribution of this term.
Naiedja, H.; Quentin, P.; Bartel, J.
2011-05-15
Making use of the Bloch density matrix technique, we derive exact analytical expressions for the density profile in Fourier space, for the current density and the so-called integrated current for fermionic systems confined by a two-dimensional harmonic oscillator, in the presence of a magnetic field or in a rotating trap of arbitrary strength. We present numerical, illustrative examples with or without magnetic field (with or without rotation).
NASA Ames potential flow analysis (POTFAN) geometry program (POTGEM), version 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Medan, R. T.; Bullock, R. B.
1976-01-01
A computer program known as POTGEM is reported which has been developed as an independent segment of a three-dimensional linearized, potential flow analysis system and which is used to generate a panel point description of arbitrary, three-dimensional bodies from convenient engineering descriptions consisting of equations and/or tables. Due to the independent, modular nature of the program, it may be used to generate corner points for other computer programs.
Davidson, R. L.; Earle, G. D.; Heelis, R. A.; Klenzing, J. H.
2010-08-15
Planar retarding potential analyzers (RPAs) have been utilized numerous times on high profile missions such as the Communications/Navigation Outage Forecast System and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program to measure plasma composition, temperature, density, and the velocity component perpendicular to the plane of the instrument aperture. These instruments use biased grids to approximate ideal biased planes. These grids introduce perturbations in the electric potential distribution inside the instrument and when unaccounted for cause errors in the measured plasma parameters. Traditionally, the grids utilized in RPAs have been made of fine wires woven into a mesh. Previous studies on the errors caused by grids in RPAs have approximated woven grids with a truly flat grid. Using a commercial ion optics software package, errors in inferred parameters caused by both woven and flat grids are examined. A flat grid geometry shows the smallest temperature and density errors, while the double thick flat grid displays minimal errors for velocities over the temperature and velocity range used. Wire thickness along the dominant flow direction is found to be a critical design parameter in regard to errors in all three inferred plasma parameters. The results shown for each case provide valuable design guidelines for future RPA development.
Dhar, Jayabrata; Ghosh, Uddipta; Chakraborty, Suman
2014-03-01
We study the coupled effect of electrokinetic phenomena and fluid rheology in altering the induced streaming potential in narrow fluidic confinements, which is manifested by establishing a time periodic pressure-driven flow in presence of electrical double layer phenomenon. However, in sharp contrast with reported literature, we take into account nonelectrostatic ion-ion interactions toward estimating the same in addition to electrostatic interactions and steric effects. We employ power law based rheological model for estimating the induced streaming potential. We bring out an intricate interaction between nonelectrostatic interactions and fluid rheology on the concerned electrokinetic phenomena, bearing immense consequences toward designing of integrated lab-on-a-chip-based microdevices and nanodevices. PMID:24132646
Guzowski, R.V.; Newman, G.
1993-12-01
The Greater Confinement Disposal location is being evaluated to determine whether defense-generated transuranic waste buried at this location complies with the Containment Requirements established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. One step in determining compliance is to identify those combinations of events and processes (scenarios) that define possible future states of the disposal system for which performance assessments must be performed. An established scenario-development procedure was used to identify a comprehensive set of mutually exclusive scenarios. To assure completeness, 761 features, events, processes, and other listings (FEPS) were compiled from 11 references. This number was reduced to 205 primarily through the elimination of duplications. The 205 FEPs were screened based on site-specific, goal-specific, and regulatory criteria. Four events survived screening and were used in preliminary scenario development: (1) exploratory drilling penetrates a GCD borehole, (2) drilling of a withdrawal/injection well penetrates a GCD borehole, (3) subsidence occurs at the RWMS, and (4) irrigation occurs at the RWMS. A logic diagram was used to develop 16 scenarios from the four events. No screening of these scenarios was attempted at this time. Additional screening of the currently retained events and processes will be based on additional data and information from site-characterization activities. When screening of the events and processes is completed, a final set of scenarios will be developed and screened based on consequence and probability of occurrence.
Heavy Quark Potential at Finite Temperature in a Dual Gravity Closer to Large N QCD
Binoy Krishna Patra; Himanshu Khanchandani
2015-04-01
In gauge-gravity duality, the heavy quark potential at finite temperature is usually calculated with the pure AdS background, which does not capture the renormalization group (RG) running in the gauge theory part. In addition, the potential does not contain any confining term in the deconfined phase. Following the Klebanov-Strassler geometry, we employ a geometry, which captures the RG flow similar to QCD, to obtain the heavy quark potential by analytically continuing the string configurations into the complex plane. In addition to the attractive terms, the obtained potential has confining terms both at $T = 0$ and $T \
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malgaretti, Paolo; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Rubi, J. Miguel
2013-05-01
We analyze the dynamics of Brownian ratchets in a confined environment. The motion of the particles is described by a Fick-Jakobs kinetic equation in which the presence of boundaries is modeled by means of an entropic potential. The cases of a flashing ratchet, a two-state model, and a ratchet under the influence of a temperature gradient are analyzed in detail. We show the emergence of a strong cooperativity between the inherent rectification of the ratchet mechanism and the entropic bias of the fluctuations caused by spatial confinement. Net particle transport may take place in situations where none of those mechanisms leads to rectification when acting individually. The combined rectification mechanisms may lead to bidirectional transport and to new routes to segregation phenomena. Confined Brownian ratchets could be used to control transport in mesostructures and to engineer new and more efficient devices for transport at the nanoscale.
Effects of confinement on the thermodynamics of supercooled water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strekalova, Elena G.
The main focus of this thesis is to understand how confinement alters the phase diagram of supercooled liquid water by employing methods of statistical mechanics and numerical simulations. Water is very complex and anomalous when compared to simple liquids. For example, experimental data for liquid water reveals the presence of a temperature of maximum density (TMD) below which the density decreases under isobaric cooling. Another anomaly is the hypothesized liquid--liquid phase transition (LLPT) between two types of liquid water with different densities. In this thesis we study how confinement affects such anomalies as TMD and LLPT in supercooled liquid water. This thesis is separated into three parts: (i) Monte Carlo simulations of a 2D coarse-grained model of a water layer confined in a fixed disordered matrix of hydrophobic nanoparticles, (ii) molecular dynamics simulations of a Jagla ramp model of liquid confined in fixed ordered and disordered matrices of hydrophobic nanoparticles, and (iii) all-atom simulations of trehalose and maltose in aqueous solution of lysozyme. In Part (i), we perform Monte Carlo simulations and find that a nanoparticle concentration as small as 2.4% is enough to destroy the LLPT for pressure P > 0.14 GPa. Moreover, we find a substantial (more than 90%) decrease of compressibility, thermal expansion coefficient and specific heat at high P and low temperature T upon increase of nanoparticle concentration from 0% to 25%. In Part (ii), we ask how, for single component systems interacting via a soft-core isotropic potential with two characteristic length scales, the geometry of hydrophobic confinement affects the phase diagram. We use molecular dynamics simulations to study particles interacting through a ramp potential and a shoulder potential, each confined in a fixed matrix of nanoscopic particles with a fixed volume fraction. We find a substantial weakening of the LLPT and the disappearance of TMD upon the increase of disorder in the confining geometry. In Part (iii), we study aqueous systems with all-atom simulations. We are currently investigating the mechanism of water-trehalose-protein and water-maltose-protein interaction upon supercooling for its relevance to bioprotection.
Guzowski, R.V. |
1994-12-31
The Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) facility includes four boreholes that contain transuranic (TRLT) waste. Presence of the TRU waste means that this facility must comply with the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Waste-Final Rule 40 CFR Part 191. To comply with the Containment Requirements of this rule, all potentially disruptive events and processes, and by implication all potentially disruptive combinations of events and processes (scenarios), must be identified for possible inclusion in performance assessments. Screening of the FEPs identified four events for scenario development: exploratory drilling for natural resources, drilling withdrawal wells, irrigation, and subsidence. Recent environmental-isotope analyses of the vadose zone suggest that radionuclide transport from the boreholes to the water table by infiltration is not a feasible transport mechanism within the time frame of regulatory concern. For this reason, the event of drilling withdrawal wells was merged with exploratory drilling for resources. The descriptions of the remaining three events were modified slightly to aid in estimation of event probabilities and consequence analyses. The three events are: exploratory drilling for resources penetrates a TRU borehole, irrigation occurs at the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS), and subsidence occurs at the RWMS. Use of a logic diagram with these three events resulted in the construction of eight scenarios, including base-case (undisturbed) conditions. Screening these scenarios at this stage of scenario development was beyond the scope of this task. Based on the implementation assumptions, this scenario-development procedure produced a comprehensive set of mutually exclusive scenarios that are reproducible and auditable for use in GCD performance assessments.
Self-organization of supercooled liquids confined inside nano-porous materials
Victor Teboul
2007-02-23
Large scale molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate the structural and dynamical modifications of supercooled water when confined inside an hydrophilic nanopore. We then investigate the evolution of the auto-organization of the most and the least mobile molecules (dynamical heterogeneity and string-like cooperative motions) when supercooled water is confined. Our calculations use the recent TIP5P intermolecular potential for water. We observe a strong slowing down of the dynamical properties when the liquid is confined, although the liquid structure is found to remain unchanged when corrected from the pore geometry. We then study cooperative motions inside supercooled confined water in comparison with bulk water. We observe strong modifications of the cooperative motions when the liquid is confined. We observe that dynamical heterogeneities and the associated correlation lengths are strongly increased as well as string-like motions in the confined liquid. This result, which is in opposition with the expected limitation of the correlation length by the confinement procedure, may explain (or be explained by) the slowing down of the dynamics. However the comparison of the dynamical heterogeneities at constant diffusion coefficient shows that the slowing down of the dynamics is not sufficient to explain the increase of the correlation lengths.
Elmo bumpy square plasma confinement device
Owen, L.W.
1985-01-01
The invention is an Elmo bumpy type plasma confinement device having a polygonal configuration of closed magnet field lines for improved plasma confinement. In the preferred embodiment, the device is of a square configuration which is referred to as an Elmo bumpy square (EBS). The EBS is formed by four linear magnetic mirror sections each comprising a plurality of axisymmetric assemblies connected in series and linked by 90/sup 0/ sections of a high magnetic field toroidal solenoid type field generating coils. These coils provide corner confinement with a minimum of radial dispersion of the confined plasma to minimize the detrimental effects of the toroidal curvature of the magnetic field. Each corner is formed by a plurality of circular or elliptical coils aligned about the corner radius to provide maximum continuity in the closing of the magnetic field lines about the square configuration confining the plasma within a vacuum vessel located within the various coils forming the square configuration confinement geometry.
Fourier transform of confining potentials
Heiss, W.D.; Welke, G.M.
1986-04-01
The precise meaning of the Fourier transform of Vertical BarxVertical Bar/sup ..nu../ is examined. A general expression is given for real positive ..nu... For odd ..nu.., derivatives of principal value integrals are obtained, while even ..nu.. gives rise to derivatives of the delta function.
Confined helium on Lagrange meshes.
Baye, D; Dohet-Eraly, J
2015-11-25
The Lagrange-mesh method has the simplicity of a calculation on a mesh and can have the accuracy of a variational method. It is applied to the study of a confined helium atom. Two types of confinement are considered. Soft confinements by potentials are studied in perimetric coordinates. Hard confinement in impenetrable spherical cavities is studied in a system of rescaled perimetric coordinates varying in [0,1] intervals. Energies and mean values of the distances between electrons and between an electron and the helium nucleus are calculated. A high accuracy of 11 to 15 significant figures is obtained with small computing times. Pressures acting on the confined atom are also computed. For sphere radii smaller than 1, their relative accuracies are better than 10(-10). For larger radii up to 10, they progressively decrease to 10(-3), still improving the best literature results. PMID:25732054
Working safely in confined spaces
Bush, C.; Versweyveld, J. )
1992-08-13
Working in confined spaces is a delicate balance of the correct equipment, hazard knowledge, proper training, and common sense. Anything less has potentially deadly consequences. The dangerous atmospheric and physical hazards often encountered in confined spaces must be recognized and accounted for. In addition, procedures and practices must conform to Occupational Safety and health Administration (OSHA) confined space regulations. Last year, three men were asphyxiated while surveying beneath a manhole in Boulder, CO. An area newspaper called the deaths the result of a freak accident. Whatever the cause, entering a manhole without first monitoring the air and posting an outside attendant is both extremely dangerous and a violation of safe entry procedures. The National Institute for Health and Occupational Safety (NIOSH) estimates that millions of workers from a wide range of occupations and industries are exposed to confined space hazards every year. Although confined space deaths are not a new phenomenon, only recently has the problem received serious study. Government regulatory agencies are becoming more involved OSHA recently proposed ruling 1910.146, Permit Required Confined Spaces, to mandate safe entry practices and procedures. The ruling requires all employers to develop a specific action plan for confined space entry, including entry procedures, worker training, safety equipment, and emergency action. This first article defines a confined space and examines some common hazards, including toxic, combustible, and oxygen-deficient atmospheres and combustible dusts. A subsequent article will review the use of test instruments, personal protective equipment, worker training, and emergency response.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadykov, V. M.; Zimovets, I. V.
2014-05-01
A Green's function solution of Laplace's equation for the potential magnetic field in an external spherical region is found using the derivative of the potential along a selected direction as a boundary condition. A set of programs applying this solution to construct the potential magnetic-field lines in solar active regions based on the photospheric line-of-sight field component has been developed. The method is tested using some model fields, and the optimal step size is found for realistic conditions. The developed software is applied to four real solar active regions, adopting HMI/SDO magnetograms as the boundary conditions. The potential magnetic field in the chromosphere and corona have been reconstructed for the selected regions. The calculated field lines are compared with flux tubes observed by AIA/SDO in the EUV. This comparison is used as a basis to discuss the applicability of a potential field approximation to the magnetic fields in solar active regions.
Alternative approaches to plasma confinement
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roth, J. R.
1977-01-01
The potential applications of fusion reactors, the desirable properties of reactors intended for various applications, and the limitations of the Tokamak concept are discussed. The principles and characteristics of 20 distinct alternative confinement concepts are described, each of which may be an alternative to the Tokamak. The devices are classed as Tokamak-like, stellarator-like, mirror machines, bumpy tori, electrostatically assisted, migma concept, and wall-confined plasma.
Quark confinement and metric fluctuations
P. R. Silva
2009-08-23
We analyse, by doing very simple calculations, the internal degree of freedom leading to the de Broglie frequency associated to a material particle, as well, the confinement of quarks provided both by the Cornell potential and by the MIT bag model.We propose that the driving forces behind these confining models could be originated in the fluctuations of the metric, namely the particle interacting self-gravitationally, when its mass fluctuates in position throught of a distance equal to the Planck length.
A Review of Quantum Confinement
Connerade, Jean-Patrick
2009-12-03
A succinct history of the Confined Atom problem is presented. The hydrogen atom confined to the centre of an impenetrable sphere counts amongst the exactly soluble problems of physics, alongside much more noted exact solutions such as Black Body Radiation and the free Hydrogen atom in absence of any radiation field. It shares with them the disadvantage of being an idealisation, while at the same time encapsulating in a simple way particular aspects of physical reality. The problem was first formulated by Sommerfeld and Welker - henceforth cited as SW - in connection with the behaviour of atoms at very high pressures, and the solution was published on the occasion of Pauli's 60th birthday celebration. At the time, it seemed that there was not much other connection with physical reality beyond a few simple aspects connected to the properties of atoms in solids, for which more appropriate models were soon developed. Thus, confined atoms attracted little attention until the advent of the metallofullerene, which provided the first example of a confined atom with properties quite closely related to those originally considered by SW. Since then, the problem has received much more attention, and many more new features of quantum confinement, quantum compression, the quantum Faraday cage, electronic reorganisation, cavity resonances, etc have been described, which are relevant to real systems. Also, a number of other situations have been uncovered experimentally to which quantum confinement is relevant. Thus, studies of the confined atom are now more numerous, and have been extended both in terms of the models used and the systems to which they can be applied. Connections to thermodynamics are explored through the properties of a confined two-level atom adapted from Einstein's celebrated model, and issues of dynamical screening of electromagnetic radiation by the confining shell are discussed in connection with the Faraday cage produced by a confining conducting shell. The conclusions are shown to be relevant to a proposed 'quantum computer'. The description of the actual geometry of C{sub 60}, as opposed to a purely spherical approximation, leads to some qualification of the computed results.
Casimir effects for classical and quantum liquids in slab geometry: A brief review
Biswas, Shyamal
2015-05-15
We analytically explore Casimir effects for confinement of classical and quantum fluctuations in slab (film) geometry (i) for classical (critical) fluctuations over {sup 4}He liquid around the ? point, and (ii) for quantum (phonon) fluctuations of Bogoliubov excitations over an interacting Bose-Einstein condensate. We also briefly review Casimir effects for confinement of quantum vacuum fluctuations confined to two plates of different geometries.
Oie, Tetsuro
1980-01-01
A purpose of the present studies is twofold: (1) development of an empirical potential function (EPF) and (2) application of it to the studies of photoreaction center chlorophyll a dimer. The reliable estimate of geometric structures and energies of large molecules by quantum mechanical methods is not possible at the present time. An alternative method is, therefore, needed for the studies of large molecular systems, and Chapter I is dedicated to the development of this tool, i.e., an empirical potential function, which could suffice this purpose. Because of a large number of variable chemical compositions and functional groups characteristically present in a large molecule, it is important to include a large number of structurally diverse molecules in the development of the EPF. In Chapter II, the EPF is applied to study the geometrical structure of a chlorophyll a (Chl a) dimer, which is believed to exist at the photoreaction center of green plants and is known to play an essential role in photosynthetic energy conversion. Although various models have been proposed for this dimer structure, there is still a great need for information concerning the detailed geometric structure of this dimer. Therefore, in this chapter the structural stabilities of various dimer models are examined by the EPF, and detailed and quantitative information on the structure and stability of these models is provided.
Oie, Tetsuro
1980-07-28
A purpose of the present studies is twofold: (1) development of an empirical potential function (EDF) and (2) application of it to the studies of photoreaction center chlorophyll a dimer. The reliable estimate of geometric structures and energies of large molecules by quantum mechanical methods is not possible at the present time. An alternative method is, therefore, needed for the studies of large molecular systems, and Chapter I is dedicated to the development of this tool, i.e., an empirical potential function, which could suffice this purpose. Because of a large number of variable chemical compositions and functional groups characteristically present in a large molecule, it is important to include a large number of structurally diverse molecules in the development of the EPF. In Chapter II, the EPF is applied to study the geometrical structure of a chlorophyll a (Ch1 a) dimer, which is believed to exist at the photoreaction center of green plants and is known to play an essential role in photosynthetic energy conversion. Although various models have been proposed for this dimer structure, there is still a great need for information concerning the detailed geometric structure of this dimer. Therefore, in this chapter the structural stabilities of various dimer models are examined by the EPF, and detailed and quantitative information on the structure and stability of these models is provided.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gandhimathi, Rajendran; Dheivamalar, Sethuraman; Dhanasekaran, Ramasamy
2015-01-01
In the present work, the equilibrium geometry, HOMO-LUMO energy gap, chemical shifts, vibrational frequencies, IR and Raman intensities and thermodynamic parameters of 4-nitrophenol molecule was calculated using the methods of HF and DFT/B3YLP employing 6-311+G basis set. Theoretically calculated geometrical parameters such as bond length and bond angle were compared with the corresponding experimental X-ray diffraction values. The highest occupied (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMO) of the 4-NP molecule have been calculated. The study was extended to calculate the energy gap, ionization potential, electron affinity and chemical hardness. HOMO-LUMO electronic transition of 3.76 eV is obtained from the contribution of the bands. The reacting electrophilic and nucleophilic sites of the molecule were analyzed with the help of molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) surface analysis. The different proton and carbon environment of the grown crystal was analyzed by 1H and 13C NMR analyses. All vibrational frequencies were assigned and compared with the calculated frequencies in detail.
WEST,WP; BURRELL,KH; deGRASSIE,JS; DOYLE,EJ; GREENFIELD,CM; LASNIER,CJ; SNYDER,PB; ZENG,L
2003-08-01
OAK-B135 The quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) is an ELM-free and stationary state mode of operation discovered on DIII-D. This mode achieves H-mode levels of confinement and pedestal pressure while maintaining constant density and radiated power. The elimination of edge localized modes (ELMs) and their large divertor loads while maintaining good confinement and good density control is of interest to next generation tokamaks. This paper reports on the correlations found between selected parameters in a QH-mode database developed from several hundred DIII-D counter injected discharges. Time traces of key plasma parameters from a QH-mode discharge are shown. On DIII-D the negative going plasma current (a) indicates that the beam injection direction is counter to the plasma current direction, a common feature of all QH-modes. The D{sub {alpha}} time behavior (c) shows that soon after high powered beam heating (b) is applied, the discharge makes a transition to ELMing H-mode, then the ELMs disappear, indicating the start of the QH period that lasts for the remainder of the high power beam heating (3.5 s). Previously published work showing density and temperature profiles indicates that long-pulse, high-triangularity QH discharges develop an internal transport barrier in combination with the QH edge barrier. These discharges are known as quiescent, double-barrier discharges (QDB). The H-factor (d) and stored energy (c) rise then saturate at a constant level and the measured axial and minimum safety factors remain above 1.0 for the entire QH duration. During QDB operation the performance of the plasma can be very good, with {beta}{sub N}*H{sub 89L} product reaching 7 for > 10 energy confinement times. These discharges show promise that a stationary state can be achieved.
Current-induced skyrmion dynamics in constricted geometries.
Iwasaki, Junichi; Mochizuki, Masahito; Nagaosa, Naoto
2013-10-01
Magnetic skyrmions--vortex-like swirling spin structures with a quantized topological number that are observed in chiral magnets--are appealing for potential applications in spintronics because it is possible to control their motion with ultralow current density. To realize skyrmion-based spintronic devices, it is essential to understand skyrmion motions in confined geometries. Here we show by micromagnetic simulations that the current-induced motion of skyrmions in the presence of geometrical boundaries is very different from that in an infinite plane. In a channel of finite width, transverse confinement results in steady-state characteristics of the skyrmion velocity as a function of current that are similar to those of domain walls in ferromagnets, whereas the transient behaviour depends on the initial distance of the skyrmion from the boundary. Furthermore, we show that a single skyrmion can be created by an electric current in a simple constricted geometry comprising a plate-shaped specimen of suitable size and geometry. These findings could guide the design of skyrmion-based devices in which skyrmions are used as information carriers. PMID:24013132
Effect of geometry on the pressure induced donor binding energy in semiconductor nanostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalpana, P.; Jayakumar, K.; Nithiananthi, P.
2015-09-01
The effect of geometry on an on-center hydrogenic donor impurity in a GaAs/(Ga,Al)As quantum wire (QWW) and quantum dot (QD) under the influence of ?-X band mixing due to an applied hydrostatic pressure is theoretically studied. Numerical calculations are performed in an effective mass approximation. The ground state impurity energy is obtained by variational procedure. Both the effects of pressure and geometry are to exert an additional confinement on the impurity inside the wire as well as dot. We found that the donor binding energy is modified by the geometrical effects as well as by the confining potential when it is subjected to external pressure. The results are presented and discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pinet, Nicolas
2013-03-01
Geological information, seismic reflection profiles and potential field data are used to study the geometry of the Middle Paleozoic Gaspé Belt (eastern Canada) that has been interpreted in various ways in the past. On the western edge of the Gaspé Belt, in the Matapédia area, growth strata are imaged on seismic profiles and testify of normal (or transtensional) motion during the period spanning the Silurian (and possibly Late Ordovician) to earliest Devonian along several faults, including the Shickshock-Sud Fault. In this area, Acadian deformation during the Middle to Late Devonian is associated with relatively modest shortening (less than 20%) accommodated by broad open folds, steeply-dipping neo-formed faults and inversion of previously formed faults. Neo-formed faults cut the entire Middle Paleozoic succession and offset the Ordovician Taconian unconformity suggesting that no sedimentary interval acted as an efficient décollement level. Toward the SE, the Sainte-Florence Fault divides rock assemblages with different paleogeographic settings and structural styles. Increase in tectonic complexity and amount of shortening to the south of the fault is interpreted as resulting of a vise effect between two basement blocks.
Strongly interacting confined quantum systems in one dimension
A. G. Volosniev; D. V. Fedorov; A. S. Jensen; M. Valiente; N. T. Zinner
2015-05-24
In one dimension, the study of magnetism dates back to the dawn of quantum mechanics when Bethe solved the famous Heisenberg model that describes quantum behaviour in magnetic systems. In the last decade, one-dimensional systems have become a forefront area of research driven by the realization of the Tonks-Girardeau gas using cold atomic gases. Here we prove that one-dimensional fermionic and bosonic systems with strong short-range interactions are solvable in arbitrary confining geometries by introducing a new energy-functional technique and obtaining the full spectrum of energies and eigenstates. As a first application, we calculate spatial correlations and show how both ferro- and anti-ferromagnetic states are present already for small system sizes that are prepared and studied in current experiments. Our work demonstrates the enormous potential for quantum manipulation of magnetic correlations at the microscopic scale.
Hydrophobicity of protein surfaces: Separating geometry from chemistry
Hydrophobicity of protein surfaces: Separating geometry from chemistry Nicolas Giovambattista molecular dynamics simulation the structure and thermodynamics of water confined between two protein'' configuration. Furthermore, pe- ripheral charged groups are removed. Thus, the role of a rough surface
Protein Folding in Confined and Crowded Environments
Zhou, Huan-Xiang
2007-01-01
Confinement and crowding are two major factors that can potentially impact protein folding in cellular environments. Theories based on considerations of excluded volumes predict disparate effects on protein folding stability for confinement and crowding: confinement can stabilize proteins by over 10kBT but crowding has a very modest effect on stability. On the other hand, confinement and crowding are both predicted to favor conformations of the unfolded state which are compact, and consequently may increase the folding rate. These predictions are largely borne out by experimental studies of protein folding under confined and crowded conditions in the test tube. Protein folding in cellular environments is further complicated by interactions with surrounding surfaces and other factors. Concerted theoretical modeling and test-tube and in vivo experiments promise to elucidate the complexity of protein folding in cellular environments. PMID:17719556
Progress in toroidal confinement and fusion research
Furth, H.P.
1987-10-01
During the past 30 years, the characteristic T/sub i/n tau/sub E/-value of toroidal-confinement experiments has advanced by more than seven orders of magnitude. Part of this advance has been due to an increase of gross machine parameters. Most of this advance has been due to an increase of gross machine parameters. Most of the advance is associated with improvements in the ''quality of plasma confinement.'' The combined evidence of spherator and tokamak research clarifies the role of magnetic-field geometry in determining confinement and points to the importance of shielding out plasma edge effects. A true physical understanding of anomalous transport remains to be achieved. 39 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Desseyn, H. O.; And Others
1985-01-01
Compares linear-nonlinear and planar-nonplanar geometry through the valence-shell electron pairs repulsion (V.S.E.P.R.), Mulliken-Walsh, and electrostatic force theories. Indicates that although the V.S.E.P.R. theory has more advantages for elementary courses, an explanation of the best features of the different theories offers students a better…
Cooper, Patrick
2015-01-01
In this article we present exact calculations that substantiate a clear picture relating the confining force of QCD to the zero-modes of the Faddeev-Popov (FP) operator $\\mathcal{M}(A) = - \\partial \\cdot D(A)$. This is done in two steps. First we calculate the spectral decomposition of the FP operator and show that the ghost propagator $\\mathcal{G}(k; A) = \\langle \\vec{k}| \\mathcal{M}^{-1}(A) | \\vec{k} \\rangle$ in an external gauge potential $A$ is enhanced at low $k$ in Fourier space for configurations $A$ on the Gribov horizon. This results from the new formula in the low-$k$ regime $\\mathcal{G}^{ab}(k,A) = \\delta^{ab} \\lambda_{|\\vec{k}|}^{-1}(gA)$, where $\\lambda_{|\\vec{k}|}(gA)$ is the eigenvalue of the FP operator that emerges from $\\lambda_{|\\vec{k}|}(0) = \\vec{k}^2$ at $A$ = 0. Next we derive a strict inequality signaling the divergence of the color-Coulomb potential at low momentum $k$ namely, $\\widetilde{\\mathcal{V}}(k) \\geq k^2 G^2(k)$ for $k \\to 0$, where $\\widetilde{\\mathcal{V}}(k)$ is the Fourier...
Spectral properties of endohedrally confined helium atom
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Shuai-Shuai; Hao-Xue, Qiao
2015-08-01
Based on the B-spline basis method, the properties of the helium atom confined inside an endohedral environment, such as buckminster fullerene, are studied. In our calculations, the endohedral environment is a parabolic potential well. In this situation, the phenomenon of “mirror collapse” is exhibited for energy levels of a confined helium atom. The “giant resonance” of oscillator strength of the dipole transition emerges with the variation of depth of the confining well. The physical mechanisms of these phenomena are analyzed in this paper. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11274246.)
Galin Valchev; Daniel Dantchev
2015-06-10
We study the behavior of the critical Casimir force and its interplay with the van der Waals force acting between two parallel slabs separated at a distance $L$ from each other confining a non-polar simple fluid or a binary liquid mixture. The surfaces of the slabs are coated by thin layers exerting strong preference to the liquid phase of the fluid, or one of the components of the mixture. The slabs influence the fluid by long-range competing dispersion potentials. Under such conditions one usually expects {\\it attractive} Casimir force governed by universal scaling function to which the dispersion potentials provide only corrections to scaling. We demonstrate, however, that below a given $Lchange} of the Casimir force when one changes the temperature $T$, the chemical potential of the fluid $\\mu$, or $L$. The last implies that by choosing specific materials for the slabs, coatings and the fluid for $L \\lesssim L_{\\rm crit}$ one can realize {\\it repulsive} Casimir force with {\\it non-universal} behavior which, upon increasing $L$, gradually turns into an {\\it attractive} one described by an {\\it universal} scaling function for $L\\gg L_{\\rm crit}$. We presented arguments and relevant data for specific substances in support of the experimental feasibility of the predicted behavior of the force.
Programmed environment management of confined microsocieties
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Emurian, Henry H.
1988-01-01
A programmed environment is described that assists the implementation and management of schedules governing access to all resources and information potentially available to members of a confined microsociety. Living and work schedules are presented that were designed to build individual and group performance repertoires in support of study objectives and sustained adaptation by participants. A variety of measurement requirements can be programmed and standardized to assure continuous assessment of the status and health of a confined microsociety.
Non-Commutative Geometry, Spin and Quarks
B. G. Sidharth
2002-10-13
In this paper we use considerations of non-commutative geometry to deduce a model for QCD interactions. The model also explains within the same theoretical framework hitherto purely phenomenological characteristics of the quarks like their fractional charge, mass,handedness and confinement.
Hot electron confinement in a microwave heated spindle cusp
Prelas, M.A.
1991-08-01
The Plasma Research Laboratory at the University of Missouri-Columbia was established with awards from the McDonnel Douglas Foundation, ARMCO, Union Electric, Black and Vetch, Kansas City Power and Light, the National Science Foundation, and DOE. The Plasma Research Lab's major effort is the Missouri Magnetic Mirror (MMM or M{sup 3}) Project. The technical goals of MMM have been (1) Diagnostic Development, (2) Plasma Physics in the Cusp geometry, (3) plasma-wall interactions, (4) impurity effects in a steady-state plasma, and (5) Development of Diagnostics for use in harsh plasma processing environments. The other major goal of MMM has remained providing a facility for hands-on training in experimental plasma physics. The major experimental facility of MMM is the MMM Modified Experiment (M4X). Other research efforts in the Plasma Research Laboratory include small efforts in cold fusion, toroidal magnetic confinement, and inertial confinement and a potentially major effort in direct conversion of nuclear energy.
Hot electron confinement in a microwave heated spindle cusp
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prelas, M. A.
1991-08-01
The Plasma Research Laboratory at the University of Missouri-Columbia was established with awards from the McDonnell Douglas Foundation, ARMCO, Union Electric, Black and Vetch, Kansas City Power and Light, the National Science Foundation, and DOE. The Plasma Research Lab's major effort is the Missouri Magnetic Mirror (MMM or M(exp 3)) Project. The technical goals of MMM have been (1) Diagnostic Development, (2) Plasma Physics in the Cusp geometry, (3) plasma-wall interactions, (4) impurity effects in a steady-state plasma, and (5) Development of Diagnostics for use in harsh plasma processing environments. The other major goal of MMM has remained providing a facility for hands-on training in experimental plasma physics. The major experimental facility of MMM is the MMM Modified Experiment (M4X). Other research efforts in the Plasma Research Laboratory include small efforts in cold fusion, toroidal magnetic confinement, and inertial confinement and a potentially major effort in direct conversion of nuclear energy.
Patrick Cooper; Daniel Zwanziger
2015-12-17
In this article we present exact calculations that substantiate a clear picture relating the confining force of QCD to the zero-modes of the Faddeev-Popov (FP) operator $\\mathcal{M}(A) = - \\partial \\cdot D(A)$. This is done in two steps. First we calculate the spectral decomposition of the FP operator and show that the ghost propagator $\\mathcal{G}(k; A) = \\langle \\vec{k}| \\mathcal{M}^{-1}(A) | \\vec{k} \\rangle$ in an external gauge potential $A$ is enhanced at low $k$ in Fourier space for configurations $A$ on the Gribov horizon. This results from the new formula in the low-$k$ regime $\\mathcal{G}^{ab}(k,A) = \\delta^{ab} \\lambda_{|\\vec{k}|}^{-1}(gA)$, where $\\lambda_{|\\vec{k}|}(gA)$ is the eigenvalue of the FP operator that emerges from $\\lambda_{|\\vec{k}|}(0) = \\vec{k}^2$ at $A$ = 0. Next we derive a strict inequality signaling the divergence of the color-Coulomb potential at low momentum $k$ namely, $\\widetilde{\\mathcal{V}}(k) \\geq k^2 G^2(k)$ for $k \\to 0$, where $\\widetilde{\\mathcal{V}}(k)$ is the Fourier transform of the color-Coulomb potential $\\mathcal{V}(r)$ and $G(k)$ is the ghost propagator in momentum space. The first result holds in the Landau and Coulomb gauges, whereas the second holds in the Coulomb gauge only. We propose a new numerical lattice gauge fixing that should be closer to the present analytic approach than other numerical gauges.
Confinement of block copolymers
1995-12-31
The following were studied: confinement of block copolymers, free surface confinement, effects of substrate interactions, random copolymers at homopolymer interfaces, phase separation in thin film polymer mixtures, buffing of polymer surfaces, and near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy.
Grooms, Daniel L; Kroll, Lee Anne K
2015-07-01
Indoor confined feedlots offer advantages that make them desirable in northern climates where high rainfall and snowfall occur. These facilities increase the risk of certain health risks, including lameness and tail injuries. Closed confinement can also facilitate the rapid spread of infectious disease. Veterinarians can help to manage these health risks by implementing management practices to reduce their occurrence. PMID:26139194
Confinement Aquaculture. Final Report.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Delaplaine School District, AR.
The Delaplaine Agriculture Department Confinement Project, begun in June 1988, conducted a confinement aquaculture program by comparing the growth of channel catfish raised in cages in a pond to channel catfish raised in cages in the Black River, Arkansas. The study developed technology that would decrease costs in the domestication of fish, using…
Engaging All Students with "Impossible Geometry"
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wiest, Lynda R.; Ayebo, Abraham; Dornoo, Michael D.
2010-01-01
Geometry is an area in which Australian students performed particularly poorly on the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). One innovative area of recreational geometry that has rich potential to engage and challenge a wide variety of students is "impossible geometry." An impossible geometric object is a…
Mobility in geometrically confined membranes
Domanov, Yegor A.; Aimon, Sophie; Toombes, Gilman E. S.; Renner, Marianne; Quemeneur, François; Triller, Antoine; Turner, Matthew S.; Bassereau, Patricia
2011-01-01
Lipid and protein lateral mobility is essential for biological function. Our theoretical understanding of this mobility can be traced to the seminal work of Saffman and Delbrück, who predicted a logarithmic dependence of the protein diffusion coefficient (i) on the inverse of the size of the protein and (ii) on the “membrane size” for membranes of finite size [Saffman P, Delbrück M (1975) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 72:3111—3113]. Although the experimental proof of the first prediction is a matter of debate, the second has not previously been thought to be experimentally accessible. Here, we construct just such a geometrically confined membrane by forming lipid bilayer nanotubes of controlled radii connected to giant liposomes. We followed the diffusion of individual molecules in the tubular membrane using single particle tracking of quantum dots coupled to lipids or voltage-gated potassium channels KvAP, while changing the membrane tube radius from approximately 250 to 10 nm. We found that both lipid and protein diffusion was slower in tubular membranes with smaller radii. The protein diffusion coefficient decreased as much as 5-fold compared to diffusion on the effectively flat membrane of the giant liposomes. Both lipid and protein diffusion data are consistent with the predictions of a hydrodynamic theory that extends the work of Saffman and Delbrück to cylindrical geometries. This study therefore provides strong experimental support for the ubiquitous Saffman–Delbrück theory and elucidates the role of membrane geometry and size in regulating lateral diffusion. PMID:21768336
MFU-type metal-organic frameworks as host materials of confined supercooled liquids
J. K. H. Fischer; P. Sippel; D. Denysenko; P. Lunkenheimer; D. Volkmer; A. Loidl
2015-08-13
In this work we examine the use of metal-organic framework (MOF) systems as host materials for the investigation of glassy dynamics in confined geometry. We investigate the confinement of the molecular glass former glycerol in three MFU-type MOFs with different pore sizes and study the dynamics of the confined liquid via dielectric spectroscopy. In accord with previous reports on confined glass formers, we find different degrees of deviations from bulk behavior depending on pore size, demonstrating that MOFs are well-suited host systems for confinement investigations.
Metal-organic frameworks as host materials of confined supercooled liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fischer, J. K. H.; Sippel, P.; Denysenko, D.; Lunkenheimer, P.; Volkmer, D.; Loidl, A.
2015-10-01
In this work, we examine the use of metal-organic framework (MOF) systems as host materials for the investigation of glassy dynamics in confined geometry. We investigate the confinement of the molecular glass former glycerol in three MFU-type MOFs with different pore sizes (MFU stands for "Metal-Organic Framework Ulm-University") and study the dynamics of the confined liquid via dielectric spectroscopy. In accord with previous reports on confined glass formers, we find different degrees of deviations from bulk behavior depending on pore size, demonstrating that MOFs are well-suited host systems for confinement investigations.
Metal-organic frameworks as host materials of confined supercooled liquids.
Fischer, J K H; Sippel, P; Denysenko, D; Lunkenheimer, P; Volkmer, D; Loidl, A
2015-10-21
In this work, we examine the use of metal-organic framework (MOF) systems as host materials for the investigation of glassy dynamics in confined geometry. We investigate the confinement of the molecular glass former glycerol in three MFU-type MOFs with different pore sizes (MFU stands for "Metal-Organic Framework Ulm-University") and study the dynamics of the confined liquid via dielectric spectroscopy. In accord with previous reports on confined glass formers, we find different degrees of deviations from bulk behavior depending on pore size, demonstrating that MOFs are well-suited host systems for confinement investigations. PMID:26493913
Statics and dynamics of softly confined polymers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scagliarini, Andrea; Sbragaglia, Mauro; Sega, Marcello
2015-03-01
A variety of biological and technological problems where long chain molecules are constrained in spaces small compared to the molecule size (like membrane nanopores or nanofluidic slits) motivated recently a growing effort to understand the dynamics and structural scaling properties of polymers confined by solid walls. Our focus is, instead, on polymers confined in different geometries by soft interfaces, mimicking, e.g., DNA packaging inside cell nuclei or, mutatis mutandis, viral capsids. Soft-confinement is achieved by a proper choice of the solvation energies such that the polymer is trapped in one of the two phases of a binary mixture of immiscible liquids. We perform Molecular Dynamics simulations of polymers coupled with a fluctuating lattice Boltzmann method for the embedding matrix. Slab and droplet configurations are considered. In the former case we address the transition among various regimes of size scaling at changing the slab width. Under shear, the droplet is distorted from its equilibrium spherical shape and we explore how the transition from an isotropic geometry to a quasi-tube-like one affects polymer size scaling and knotting degree. Finally, we show how the feedback on the solvent induces viscoelastic rheology that can be related to polymer entanglement.
The importance of chemical potential in the determination of water slip in nanochannels
Marcello Sega; Mauro Sbragaglia; Luca Biferale; Sauro Succi
2015-07-28
We investigate the slip properties of water confined in graphite-like nano-channels by non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, with the aim of identifying and analyze separately the influence of different physical quantities on the slip length. In a system under confinement but connected to a reservoir of fluid, the chemical potential is the natural control parameter: we show that two nanochannels characterized by the same macroscopic contact angle -- but a different microscopic surface potential -- do not exhibit the same slip length unless the chemical potential of water in the two channels is matched. Some methodological issues related to the preparation of samples for the comparative analysis in confined geometries are also discussed.
Berk, H.L.
1992-08-06
An overview is presented of the principles of magnetic confinement of plasmas for the purpose of achieving controlled fusion conditions. Sec. 1 discusses the different nuclear fusion reactions which can be exploited in prospective fusion reactors and explains why special technologies need to be developed for the supply of tritium or {sup 3}He, the probable fuels. In Sec. 2 the Lawson condition, a criterion that is a measure of the quality of confinement relative to achieving fusion conditions, is explained. In Sec. 3 fluid equations are used to describe plasma confinement. Specific confinement configurations are considered. In Sec. 4 the orbits of particle sin magneti and electric fields are discussed. In Sec. 5 stability considerations are discussed. It is noted that confinement systems usually need to satisfy stability constraints imposed by ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory. The paper culminates with a summary of experimental progress in magnetic confinement. Present experiments in tokamaks have reached the point that the conditions necessary to achieve fusion are being satisfied.
Rayleigh-Taylor mixing: confinement by stratification and geometry
Lawrie, Andrew
2010-03-16
. The nylon cloth covering the barrier can be seen in (a). The Atwood number is A = 7× 10?4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.5 Comparison of interface perturbations with two barriers of the same nominal design: (a) shows an incorrectly... .8 Dissolved air is removed from solution by depressurisation in these stainless steel cylinders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 2.9 The high-aspect-ratio Rayleigh-Taylor instability experimental ap- paratus...
Connectivity in Dense Networks Confined within Right Prisms
Goussev, Arseni O.
Connectivity in Dense Networks Confined within Right Prisms Justin P. Coon1 , Orestis Georgiou2 the connectivity probability when the network resides within a convex right prism, a polyhedron that accurately within a convex right prism1 is connected. Right prism bounding geometries are interesting and useful
Ambipolar potential formation in TMX
Correll, D.L.; Allen, S.L.; Casper, T.A.
1981-05-05
TMX experimental data on ambipolar potential control and on the accompanying electrostatic confinement are reported. New results on the radial dependence of the central-cell confining potential are given. Radial and axial particle losses as well as scaling of the central-cell axial confinement are discussed.
Structure factor of a Gaussian chain confined between two parallel plates.
Liao, Yi; Miao, Bing
2015-04-28
We study the structure factor of a single Gaussian chain confined between two macroscopic parallel plates theoretically. The chain propagator is constructed in terms of the eigen-spectrum of the Laplace operator under the Dirichlet boundary condition enforced at the two plates, by which the confinement effect enters the treatment through size-dependent eigen-spectrum. In terms of the series expansion solution for the chain propagator, we first calculate the confinement free energy and the confinement force for an arbitrary confinement strength. It is found that the confinement force scales to the distance between the two confining surfaces with a power of -3 for strong confinements and of -2 for weak confinements. Based on the ground state dominance approximation for strong confinements and the Euler-Maclaurin formula for weak confinements, we develop approximation theories for the two limit situations, which agree with the numerical results well. We further calculate the structure factor of the confined Gaussian chain in this slit geometry. While the scattering function of the transverse chain fluctuations perpendicular to the confinement direction is still a Debye function form, the structure factor for the longitudinal fluctuations along the confinement dimension starts with the monotonic Debye function behavior for weak confinements and develops a decaying oscillation behavior with the increase of confinements. The numerical results for the structure factor are also interpreted by developing approximation theories in different confinement regimes. Finally, the orientational average of the anisotropic structure factor is performed and an analytic expression for the averaged structure factor is derived under the ground state dominance approximation for strong confinements. PMID:25933787
Structure factor of a Gaussian chain confined between two parallel plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liao, Yi; Miao, Bing
2015-04-01
We study the structure factor of a single Gaussian chain confined between two macroscopic parallel plates theoretically. The chain propagator is constructed in terms of the eigen-spectrum of the Laplace operator under the Dirichlet boundary condition enforced at the two plates, by which the confinement effect enters the treatment through size-dependent eigen-spectrum. In terms of the series expansion solution for the chain propagator, we first calculate the confinement free energy and the confinement force for an arbitrary confinement strength. It is found that the confinement force scales to the distance between the two confining surfaces with a power of -3 for strong confinements and of -2 for weak confinements. Based on the ground state dominance approximation for strong confinements and the Euler-Maclaurin formula for weak confinements, we develop approximation theories for the two limit situations, which agree with the numerical results well. We further calculate the structure factor of the confined Gaussian chain in this slit geometry. While the scattering function of the transverse chain fluctuations perpendicular to the confinement direction is still a Debye function form, the structure factor for the longitudinal fluctuations along the confinement dimension starts with the monotonic Debye function behavior for weak confinements and develops a decaying oscillation behavior with the increase of confinements. The numerical results for the structure factor are also interpreted by developing approximation theories in different confinement regimes. Finally, the orientational average of the anisotropic structure factor is performed and an analytic expression for the averaged structure factor is derived under the ground state dominance approximation for strong confinements.
Glow discharges with electrostatic confinement of fast electrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolobov, V. I.; Metel, A. S.
2015-06-01
This review presents a unified treatment of glow discharges with electrostatic confinement of fast electrons. These discharges include hollow cathode discharges, wire and cage discharges, reflect discharges with brush and multirod cathodes, and discharges in crossed electric and magnetic fields. Fast electrons bouncing inside electrostatic traps provide efficient ionization of gas at very low gas pressures. The electrostatic trap effect (ETE) was first observed by Paschen in hollow cathode discharges almost a century ago. The key parameters that define fundamental characteristics of ETE discharges are the ionization length ?N, the penetration range, ?, and the diffusion length ? of the fast electrons, and two universal geometric parameters of the traps: effective width a and length L. Peculiarities of electron kinetics and ion collection mechanism explain experimental observations for different trap geometries. The ETE is observed only at ??>?a, when the penetration range of the ?-electrons emitted by the cathode exceeds the trap width. In the optimal pressure range, when ?N?>?a, and ??potential fall Uc is independent of gas pressure p. With increasing current, Uc tends to its upper limit W/e??, where ? is the percentage of ions arriving at the cathode and W is the gas ionization cost. In the low-pressure range, ??>?L, Uc rises from hundreds to thousands of volts. The sign of the anode potential fall, Ua, depends on the anode surface Sa and its position. When Sa is large compared to a critical value S*, Ua is negative and small. At Sa?confinement of fast electrons are described.
Magnetohydrodynamically generated velocities in confined plasma
Morales, Jorge A. Bos, Wouter J. T.; Schneider, Kai; Montgomery, David C.
2015-04-15
We investigate by numerical simulation the rotational flows in a toroid confining a conducting magnetofluid in which a current is driven by the application of externally supported electric and magnetic fields. The computation involves no microscopic instabilities and is purely magnetohydrodynamic (MHD). We show how the properties and intensity of the rotations are regulated by dimensionless numbers (Lundquist and viscous Lundquist) that contain the resistivity and viscosity of the magnetofluid. At the magnetohydrodynamic level (uniform mass density and incompressible magnetofluids), rotational flows appear in toroidal, driven MHD. The evolution of these flows with the transport coefficients, geometry, and safety factor are described.
Confined ring polymers as a model nucleoid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ha, Bae-Yeun; Jeon, C.; Kim, J.; Jeong, H.; Jun, S.; Jung, Y.
2014-03-01
The bacterial chromosome is tightly packed in an intracellular space called the nucleoid with its loci linearly and precisely positioned. Here we propose a model nucleoid: a ring polymer confined in a cylindrical space. When the cylinder-ring parameters are chosen properly, our model describes the observed locus distributions of the E. coli chromosome surprisingly well. Our results illustrate how the geometry and function of the nucleoid are interrelated. This work was supported by the collaborative research contract funded by Korea Institute of Science & Technology Information (KISTI, Korea) and NSERC (Canada).
Microstructure and viscoelasticity of confined semiflexible polymer networks
LETTERS Microstructure and viscoelasticity of confined semiflexible polymer networks M. M. A. E of polymers to external confinement has potential implications both for technology and for our understanding to emulsion droplets. We correlate observations of the microstructure, local rheological properties and single
Inverted critical adsorption of polyelectrolytes in confinement
de Carvalho, Sidney J; Cherstvy, Andrey G
2015-01-01
What are the fundamental laws for the adsorption of charged polymers onto oppositely charged surfaces, for convex, planar, and concave geometries? This question is at the heart of surface coating applications, various complex formation phenomena, as well as in the context of cellular and viral biophysics. It has been a long-standing challenge in theoretical polymer physics; for realistic systems the quantitative understanding is however often achievable only by computer simulations. In this study, we present the findings of such extensive Monte-Carlo in silico experiments for polymer-surface adsorption in confined domains. We study the inverted critical adsorption of finite-length polyelectrolytes in three fundamental geometries: planar slit, cylindrical pore, and spherical cavity. The scaling relations extracted from simulations for the critical surface charge density $\\sigma_c$-defining the adsorption-desorption transition-are in excellent agreement with our analytical calculations based on the ground-state...
Detection of confinement and jumps in single molecule membrane trajectories
N. Meilhac; L. Le Guyader; L. Salome; N. Destainville
2006-02-13
We propose a novel variant of the algorithm by Simson et al. [R. Simson, E.D. Sheets, K. Jacobson, Biophys. J. 69, 989 (1995)]. Their algorithm was developed to detect transient confinement zones in experimental single particle tracking trajectories of diffusing membrane proteins or lipids. We show that our algorithm is able to detect confinement in a wider class of confining potential shapes than Simson et al.'s one. Furthermore it enables to detect not only temporary confinement but also jumps between confinement zones. Jumps are predicted by membrane skeleton fence and picket models. In the case of experimental trajectories of $\\mu$-opioid receptors, which belong to the family of G-protein-coupled receptors involved in a signal transduction pathway, this algorithm confirms that confinement cannot be explained solely by rigid fences.
Isotopic Effects on Covalent Bond Confined in a Penetrable Sphere.
Sarsa, Antonio; Alcaraz-Pelegrina, José M; Le Sech, Claude
2015-11-12
A model of confinement of the covalent bond by a finite potential beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation is presented. A two-electron molecule is located at the center of a penetrable spherical cavity. The Schrödinger equation has been solved by using the diffusion Monte Carlo method. Total energies, internuclear distances, and vibrational frequencies of the confined molecular system have been obtained. Even for confining potentials of a few electronvolts, a noticeable increase in the bond energy and the nuclear vibrational frequency is observed, and the internuclear distance is lowered. The gap between the zero point energy of different molecular isotopes increases with confinement. The confinement of the electron pair might play a role in chemical reactivity, providing an alternative explanation for the tunnel effect, when large values of primary kinetic isotopic effect are observed. The Swain-Schaad relation is still verified when confinement changes the zero point energy. A semiquantitative illustration is proposed using the data relative to an hydrogen transfer involving a C-H cleavage catalyzed by the bovine serum amine oxidase. Changes on the confining conditions, corresponding to a confinement/deconfinement process, result in a significant decrease in the activation energy of the chemical transformation. It is proposed that confinement/deconfinement of the electron-pair bonding by external electrostatic forces inside the active pocket of an enzyme could be one of the basic mechanisms of the enzyme catalysis. PMID:26484576
Electrokinetic confinement of axonal growth for dynamically configurable neural networks
Honegger, Thibault; Scott, Mark A.; Yanik, Mehmet F.; Voldman, Joel
2013-01-01
Axons in the developing nervous system are directed via guidance cues, whose expression varies both spatially and temporally, to create functional neural circuits. Existing methods to create patterns of neural connectivity in vitro use only static geometries, and are unable to dynamically alter the guidance cues imparted on the cells. We introduce the use of AC electrokinetics to dynamically control axonal growth in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. We find that the application of modest voltages at frequencies on the order of 105 Hz can cause developing axons to be stopped adjacent to the electrodes while axons away from the electric fields exhibit uninhibited growth. By switching electrodes on or off, we can reversibly inhibit or permit axon passage across the electrodes. Our models suggest that dielectrophoresis is the causative AC electrokinetic effect. We make use of our dynamic control over axon elongation to create an axon-diode via an axon-lock system that consists of a pair of electrode `gates' that either permit or prevent axons from passing through. Finally, we developed a neural circuit consisting of three populations of neurons, separated by three axon-locks to demonstrate the assembly of a functional, engineered neural network. Action potential recordings demonstrate that the AC electrokinetic effect does not harm axons, and Ca2+ imaging demonstrated the unidirectional nature of the synaptic connections. AC electrokinetic confinement of axonal growth has potential for creating configurable, directional neural networks. PMID:23314575
On the Dirac structure of confinement
Szczepaniak, A.P.; Swanson, E.S.
1997-04-01
The Dirac structure of confinement is shown to be of a timelike-vector nature in the heavy quark limit of QCD. This stands in contradiction with the phenomenological success of the Dirac scalar confining potential. A resolution is achieved through the demonstration that an effective scalar interaction is dynamically generated by nonperturbative mixing between ordinary and hybrid Q{bar Q} states. The resolution depends crucially on the collective nature of the gluonic degrees of freedom. This implies that dynamical gluonic effects are vital when attempting to incorporate fine structure in models of the Q{bar Q} interaction. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Tension of Confining Strings at Low Temperature
Dimitrios Giataganas; Kevin Goldstein
2014-11-18
In the low temperature confining phase of QCD or QCD-like theories it is challenging to capture the temperature dependence of observables through AdS/CFT. Using the blackfold approach we compute the quark-antiquark linear static potential in the low temperature confining phase, taking into account the thermal excitations of the string. We find the explicit temperature dependence of the string tension and notice that, as naturally expected, tension decreases as temperature increases. We have also generalized the blackfold approach for the computation of the Wilson loops, making it directly applicable to a large class of backgrounds.
Shum, D.K.; Bryson, J.W.; Merkle, J.G.
1993-09-01
This study presents preliminary estimates on whether an shallow, axially oriented, inner-surface finite-length flaw in a PWR-RPV would tend to elongate in the axial direction and/or deepen into the wall of the vessel during a postulated PTS transient. Analysis results obtained based on the assumptions of (1) linear-elastic material response, and (2) cladding with same toughness as the base metal, indicate that a nearly semicircular flaw would likely propagate in the axial direction followed by propagation into the wall of the vessel. Note that these results correspond to initiation within the lower-shelf fracture toughness temperature range, and that their general validity within the lower-transition temperature range remains to be determined. The sensitivity of the numerical results aid conclusions to the following analysis assumptions are evaluated: (1) reference flaw geometry along the entire crack front and especially within the cladding region; (2) linear-elastic vs elastic-plastic description of material response; and (3) base-material-only vs bimaterial cladding-base vessel-model assumption. The sensitivity evaluation indicates that the analysis results are very sensitive to the above assumptions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nunes, I.; ">the JET Contributors,
Mauel, Michael E.
instabilities determines confinement in magnetic fusion systems. Confinement systems based on a levitated magnetic dipole have been proposed as an alter- nate path to a fusion reactor due to their relative in dipole geometry [3,4], the transport of thermal plasma confined by a dipole magnet has not been explored
Cruz, S.A.; Ley-Koo, E.; Marin, J.L.; Taylor-Armitage, A.
1995-04-05
Variational calculations for the lowest-energy states of the hydrogen atom confined in (A) semi-infinite spaces with paraboloidal boundaries, (B) symmetrical bodies with paraboloidal surfaces, and (C) prolate spheroidal boxes were performed with geometry-adapted trial wave functions. Comparisons of variational energies with the exact energies available for the respective geometries provide indications on the reliability of the trail wave functions. This is a necessary and preliminary step to investigate atoms with several electrons in the corresponding confining geometries. 32 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Stanley
We studied the self-organization of different-sized particles in different confined geometries. The structure formations of millimeter-sized granules confined to a solid substrate, micrometer-sized colloidal particles confined to a fluid-liquid interface, and nanometer-sized particles confined in the wedge film are discussed. We spread the steel particles (diameter: 1.59mm) on a silicon wafer and a polystyrene surface to form a two-dimensional (2D) hard-sphere system and a 2D charged-sphere system, respectively. The 2D granular structures versus the particle area fraction were monitored and analyzed through the radial distribution function, potential of the mean force, structure factor, and bond orientation order parameter or correlation functions. We observed the particle structural transition from liquid-like to triangular-lattice crystal-like with increasing particle coverage (A = 0.70--0.82) in the 2D hard-sphere system. In a 2D charged system, a 'fluid-like' structure was observed in the particle area fraction range of A = 0.01 to 0.18. We 'investigated' the structuring of micrometer-sized particles confined in a fluid-liquid interface through Monte Carlo simulations using the asymptotic pair potential proposed by Hurd (1985) which includes both the screened Coulomb contribution and the dipole-dipole interactions. The effects of the multi-particle effective interactions and of the particle charge on the 2D particle structuring were elucidated by the radial distribution function. The technological concept of the nanoparticle structuring in the wedge film was explored with regards to its application to the spreading, wetting, and soil removal phenomena. The experimental and theoretical investigations on the cleansing of canola oil from a glass substrate using commercially available nanofluids were pursued. The positive contributions of the nanoparticles to the soil cleaning performance were rationalized in terms of the decrease in the contact angle and the interfacial tension, positive second virial coefficient, and high osmotic pressure of the nanofluid. These results confirm the novel mechanism of detergency using nanofluids based on the normal force (i.e., disjoining pressure) arising from the ordered nanoparticle structure formation in the confined space between the soil and the solid substrate (i.e., the wedge film).
Workshop on Innovative Confinement Concepts
Washington at Seattle, University of
alternative approach to confined fusion Major physics issues Steady-state current drive and flux sustainment ash removal Blanket RMF Antenna Leads Confinement CoilsFirst Wall 13.5 m #12;4ICC May 2830, 2003
Guda, Sergey A; Guda, Alexander A; Soldatov, Mikhail A; Lomachenko, Kirill A; Bugaev, Aram L; Lamberti, Carlo; Gawelda, Wojciech; Bressler, Christian; Smolentsev, Grigory; Soldatov, Alexander V; Joly, Yves
2015-09-01
Accurate modeling of the X-ray absorption near-edge spectra (XANES) is required to unravel the local structure of metal sites in complex systems and their structural changes upon chemical or light stimuli. Two relevant examples are reported here concerning the following: (i) the effect of molecular adsorption on 3d metals hosted inside metal-organic frameworks and (ii) light induced dynamics of spin crossover in metal-organic complexes. In both cases, the amount of structural models for simulation can reach a hundred, depending on the number of structural parameters. Thus, the choice of an accurate but computationally demanding finite difference method for the ab initio X-ray absorption simulations severely restricts the range of molecular systems that can be analyzed by personal computers. Employing the FDMNES code [ Phys. Rev. B , 2001 , 63 , 125120 ] we show that this problem can be handled if a proper diagonalization scheme is applied. Due to the use of dedicated solvers for sparse matrices, the calculation time was reduced by more than 1 order of magnitude compared to the standard Gaussian method, while the amount of required RAM was halved. Ni K-edge XANES simulations performed by the accelerated version of the code allowed analyzing the coordination geometry of CO and NO on the Ni active sites in CPO-27-Ni MOF. The Ni-CO configuration was found to be linear, while Ni-NO was bent by almost 90°. Modeling of the Fe K-edge XANES of photoexcited aqueous [Fe(bpy)3](2+) with a 100 ps delay we identified the Fe-N distance elongation and bipyridine rotation upon transition from the initial low-spin to the final high-spin state. Subsequently, the X-ray absorption spectrum for the intermediate triplet state with expected 100 fs lifetime was theoretically predicted. PMID:26575941
Sandord, T.W.L.; Olson, R.E.; Chandler, G.A.; Hebron, D.E.; Mock, R.C.; Leeper, R.J.; Nash, T.J.; Ruggles, L.E.; Simpson, W.W.; Struve, K.W.; Vesey, R.A.; Bowers, R.L.; Matuska, W.; Peterson, D.L.; Peterson, R.R.
1999-08-25
Hohlraums of full ignition scale (6-mm diameter by 7-mm length) have been heated by x-rays from a z-pinch target on Z to a variety of temperatures and pulse shapes which can be used to simulate the early phases of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) temperature drive. The pulse shape is varied by changing the on-axis target of the z pinch in a static-wall-hohlraum geometry. A 2-{micro}m-thick walled Cu cylindrical target of 8-mm diameter filled with 10 mg/cm{sup 3} CH, for example, produces foot-pulse conditions of {minus}85 eV for a duration of {approximately} 10 ns, while a solid cylindrical target of 5-mm diameter and 14-mg/cm{sup 3} CH generates first-step-pulse conditions of {approximately} 122 eV for a duration of a few ns. Alternatively, reducing the hohlraum size (to 4-mm diameter by 4-mm length) with the latter target has increased the peak temperature to {approximately} 150 eV, which is characteristic of a second-step-pulse temperature. In general, the temperature T of these x-ray driven hohlraums is in agreement with the Planckian relation (T-(P/A){sup 1/4}). P is the measured x-ray input power and A is the surface area of the hohlraum. Fully-integrated 2-D radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of the z pinch and subsequent hohlraum heating show plasma densities within the useful volume of the hohlraums to be on the order of air or less.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yongxian; Yikilmaz, M. Burak; Rundle, John B.; Yin, Xiangchu; Liu, Yue; Zhang, Langping; Wang, Zijin
2015-08-01
Based on the load/unload response ratio (LURR) theory, spatial and temporal variation of Y/ Y c (value of LURR/critical value of LURR under 90 % confidence) in the western United States and its adjacent area (31°-44°N, -128° to -112°E) during the period from 1980 to 2011 was studied. The selected study area was zoned into 20 sub-regions, in each of which the fault geometry and the focal mechanisms were very similar such that the stress fields were almost uniform. The loading and unloading periods were determined by calculating perturbations in the Coulomb failure stress in each sub-regions induced by earth tides. Earthquakes occurring in these sub-regions were identified as a loading or unloading type, and the response rate was chosen as the Benioff strain that can be calculated from earthquake magnitude M. With a time window of 1 year, a time moving step of 1 month, a space window of a circle region with a radius of 100 km, and a space moving step of 0.5° latitudinally and longitudinally, snapshots of the evolution of Y/ Y c were generated. Scanning results show that obvious Y/ Y c anomalies can be detected near the epicenter of all big earthquakes larger than M6.5 in regions with reasonable seismic monitoring abilities. They also show Y/ Y c anomalies occurred several years prior to the big earthquakes and the lasting time of the anomaly is from one year to several years. For some LURR anomalous regions, however, no earthquakes occurred. According to the characteristics of LURR anomalies, two regions with a high risk of big earthquakes were detected. One is between the northern region of the Bay Area and the Mendocino triple junction (38°-40°N, -124° to -122°E) and the other is between Lake Tahoe and Mono Lake (37.5°-39.5°N, -120° to -118°E) along the border of California and Nevada.
BOWERS,RICHARD; CHANDLER,GORDON A.; HEBRON,DAVID E.; LEEPER,RAMON J.; MATUSLKA,WALTER; MOCK,RAYMOND CECIL; NASH,THOMAS J.; OLSON,CRAIG L.; PETERSON,BOB; PETERSON,DARRELL; RUGGLES,LAURENCE E.; SANFORD,THOMAS W. L.; SIMPSON,WALTER W.; STRUVE,KENNETH W.; VESEY,ROGER A.
1999-11-01
Hohlraums of full ignition scale (6-mm diameter by 7-mm length) have been heated by x-rays from a z-pinch magnet on Z to a variety of temperatures and pulse shapes which can be used to simulate the early phases of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) temperature drive. The pulse shape is varied by changing the on-axis target of the z pinch in a static-wall-hohlraum geometry. A 2-{micro}m-thick walled Cu cylindrical target of 8-mm diameter filled with 10 mg/cm{sup 3} CH, for example, produces foot-pulse conditions of {approx}85 eV for a duration of {approx}10 ns, while a solid cylindrical target of 5-mm diameter and 14-mg/cm{sup 3} CH generates first-step-pulse conditions of {approx}122 eV for a duration of a few ns. Alternatively, reducing the hohlraum size (to 4-mm diameter by 4-mm length) with the latter target has increased the peak temperature to {approx}150 eV, which is characteristic of a second-step-pulse temperature. In general, the temperature T of these x-ray driven hohlraums is in agreement with the Planckian relation T{approx}(P/A){sup 1/4}. P is the measured x-ray input power and A is the surface area of the hohlraum. Fully-integrated 2-D radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of the z pinch and subsequent hohlraum heating show plasma densities within the useful volume of the hohlraums to be on the order of air or less.
The Properties of Confined Water and Fluid Flow at the Nanoscale
Schwegler, E; Reed, J; Lau, E; Prendergast, D; Galli, G; Grossman, J C; Cicero, G
2009-03-09
This project has been focused on the development of accurate computational tools to study fluids in confined, nanoscale geometries, and the application of these techniques to probe the structural and electronic properties of water confined between hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates, including the presence of simple ions at the interfaces. In particular, we have used a series of ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations and quantum Monte Carlo calculations to build an understanding of how hydrogen bonding and solvation are modified at the nanoscale. The properties of confined water affect a wide range of scientific and technological problems - including protein folding, cell-membrane flow, materials properties in confined media and nanofluidic devices.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kuntz, Gilles
The first section of this paper on World Wide Web applications related to dynamic geometry addresses dynamic geometry and teaching, including the relationship between dynamic geometry and direct manipulation, key features of dynamic geometry environments, the importance of direct engagement of the learner using construction software for…
Totally confined explosive welding
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bement, L. J. (inventor)
1978-01-01
The undesirable by-products of explosive welding are confined and the association noise is reduced by the use of a simple enclosure into which the explosive is placed and in which the explosion occurs. An infrangible enclosure is removably attached to one of the members to be bonded at the point directly opposite the bond area. An explosive is completely confined within the enclosure at a point in close proximity to the member to be bonded and a detonating means is attached to the explosive. The balance of the enclosure, not occupied by explosive, is filled with a shaped material which directs the explosive pressure toward the bond area. A detonator adaptor controls the expansion of the enclosure by the explosive force so that the enclosure at no point experiences a discontinuity in expansion which causes rupture. The use of the technique is practical in the restricted area of a space station.
Energy confinement in tokamaks
Sugihara, M.; Singer, C.
1986-08-01
A straightforward generalization is made of the ohmic heating energy confinement scalings of Pfeiffer and Waltz and Blackwell et. al. The resulting model is systematically calibrated to published data from limiter tokamaks with ohmic, electron cyclotron, and neutral beam heating. With considerably fewer explicitly adjustable free parameters, this model appears to give a better fit to the available data for limiter discharges than the combined ohmic/auxiliary heating model of Goldston.
Topological confinement and superconductivity
Al-hassanieh, Dhaled A; Batista, Cristian D
2008-01-01
We derive a Kondo Lattice model with a correlated conduction band from a two-band Hubbard Hamiltonian. This mapping allows us to describe the emergence of a robust pairing mechanism in a model that only contains repulsive interactions. The mechanism is due to topological confinement and results from the interplay between antiferromagnetism and delocalization. By using Density-Matrix-Renormalization-Group (DMRG) we demonstrate that this mechanism leads to dominant superconducting correlations in aID-system.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horzela, Andrzej; Kapuscik, Edward
1993-01-01
An alternative picture of classical many body mechanics is proposed. In this picture particles possess individual kinematics but are deprived from individual dynamics. Dynamics exists only for the many particle system as a whole. The theory is complete and allows to determine the trajectories of each particle. It is proposed to use our picture as a classical prototype for a realistic theory of confined particles.
Effect of Asymmetric Confinement on the Microdomain Morphology of Block Copolymers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Youngkeol; Yu, Guiduk; Char, Kookheon
2015-03-01
Nanometer scale confinement could impose constraints to change the bulk equilibrium behavior of block copolymers (BCPs). The self-assembly of BCPs confined by two parallel surfaces (one-dimensional confinement) has been both theoretically and experimentally studied. More recently, cylindrical pores where the diameter of the pores are only several repeat periods of the copolymers have been employed to investigate the influence of two-dimensional confinement on the behavior of BCPs. However, the analysis on confinement by asymmetric geometry has not been thoroughly studied yet. Given the size of confining channels, singularity arising from the asymmetric geometry such as triangles and squares, could have a significant effect on the structure and symmetry of BCP morphologies self-assembled within such confinement. We prepared AAOs with triangular pores based on aluminum substrates with inverse-hexagonal packing pattern. Based on the detailed observation of BCP self-assembly within porous triangular columns, we analyzed the structural transition of BCPs induced by asymmetric confinement. Furthermore, we found that the packing frustration imposed by such confinement could be released by adding homopolymers into the BCP system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhargava, Rameshwar
2001-03-01
When the size of Tb3+ doped Y2O3 nanoparticles is decreased from about 10 nm to 3 nm, the luminescent efficiency of Tb3+ green-emission (f-f transition) is increased by an order of magnitude1. This enhancement of oscillator strength is interpreted due to modulation of excited-states of the Tb3+ ion, brought about by the confinement-boundary of the Y2O3 nanocrystal2. This high efficiency of 'caged' single Tb3+ or Eu3+ ion in Y2O3 has led to the first observation of an atomic blinking3. The Quantum Confined Atoms (QCA) provide a novel way to modulate the luminescent properties of a single activator atom via quantum confinement of higher excited states. This QCA-effect occurs when the size of the host is about 5 to 10 times the size of the radius of the excited-state atom. This discovery is expected to impact many applications in the area of nanotechnology. 1. R.N Bhargava, V. Chhabra, B. Kulkarni and J.V. Veliadis Phys. stat. sol. (b) 210, 621 (1998) 2. R.N. Bhargava Jour. of Crystal Growth 214, 926 (2000) 3. M. Barnes, A. Mehta, T. Thundant, R.N. Bhargava, V. Chhabra, B .Kulkarni Jour. Chem. Phys. B 104, 6099 (2000)
Descriptions and Conflicts in Dynamic Geometry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Giraldo, Victor; Belfort, Elizabeth; Carvalho, Luiz Mariano
2004-01-01
We expand the theoretical perspective based on the notions of description and conflict, which was previously used to the learning of functions and calculus, to the learning of deductive geometry supported by Dynamic Geometry (DG) environments. Based on prior studies on functions and on the potential role of a DG software, we analyze a case study…
CUSP Energetic Particles: Confinement, Acceleration and Implications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Jiasheng
1999-01-01
The cusp energetic particle (CEP) event is a new magnetospheric phenomenon. The events were detected in the dayside cusp for hours, in which the measured helium ions had energies up to 8 MeV. All of these events were associated with a dramatic decrease and large fluctuations in the local magnetic field strength. During January 1999 - December 1999 covered by this report, I have studied the CEP events by analyzing the POLAR, GEOTAIL, and WIND particle and magnetic field data measured during the geomagnetic quiet periods in 1996 and one geomagnetic storm period in 1998. The simultaneous observations indicated that the ion fluxes in the CEP events were higher than that in both the upstream and the downstream from the bow shock. The pitch angle distribution of the helium ions in the CEP events was found to peak around 90 deg. It was found that the mirror parameter, defined as the ratio of the square root of the integration of the parallel turbulent power spectral component over the ultra-low frequency (ULF) ranges to the mean field in the cusp, is correlated with the intensity of the cusp MeV helium flux, which is a measure of the influence of mirroring interactions and an indication of local effect. It was also found that the turbulent power of the local magnetic field in the ultra-low frequency (ULF) ranges is correlated with the intensity of the cusp energetic helium ions. Such ULF ranges correspond to periods of about 0.33-500 seconds that cover the gyroperiods, the bounce periods, and the drift periods of the tens keV to MeV charged particles when they are temporarily confined in the high-altitude dayside cusp. These observations represent a discovery that the high-altitude dayside cusp is a new acceleration and dynamic trapping region of the magnetosphere. The cusp geometry is connected via gradient and curvature drift of these energized ions to the equatorial plasma sheet as close as the geostationary orbit at local midnight. It implies that the dayside cusp is potentially an important source of magnetospheric particles. The discovery of the CEP events has been recognized as one of the most significant results from POLAR. I was invited to give a talk at 1999 IUGG meeting to interpret the CEP events. This discovery has also been written into the web-based Space Physics Text Book (http://www.oulu.fi/- spaceweb/textbook/cusp.html).
Effect of confinement on the deformation of microfluidic drops.
Ulloa, Camilo; Ahumada, Alberto; Cordero, María Luisa
2014-03-01
We study the deformation of drops squeezed between the floor and ceiling of a microchannel and subjected to a hyperbolic flow. We observe that the maximum deformation of drops depends on both the drop size and the rate of strain of the external flow and can be described with power laws with exponents 2.59±0.28 and 0.91±0.05, respectively. We develop a theoretical model to describe the deformation of squeezed drops based on the Darcy approximation for shallow geometries and the use of complex potentials. The model describes the steady-state deformation of the drops as a function of a nondimensional parameter Ca?2, where Ca is the capillary number (proportional to the strain rate and the drop size) and ? is a confinement parameter equal to the drop size divided by the channel height. For small deformations, the theoretical model predicts a linear relationship between the deformation of drops and this parameter, in good agreement with the experimental observations. PMID:24730934
Effect of confinement on the deformation of microfluidic drops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ulloa, Camilo; Ahumada, Alberto; Cordero, María Luisa
2014-03-01
We study the deformation of drops squeezed between the floor and ceiling of a microchannel and subjected to a hyperbolic flow. We observe that the maximum deformation of drops depends on both the drop size and the rate of strain of the external flow and can be described with power laws with exponents 2.59±0.28 and 0.91±0.05, respectively. We develop a theoretical model to describe the deformation of squeezed drops based on the Darcy approximation for shallow geometries and the use of complex potentials. The model describes the steady-state deformation of the drops as a function of a nondimensional parameter Ca?2, where Ca is the capillary number (proportional to the strain rate and the drop size) and ? is a confinement parameter equal to the drop size divided by the channel height. For small deformations, the theoretical model predicts a linear relationship between the deformation of drops and this parameter, in good agreement with the experimental observations.
Entropic stochastic resonance without external force in oscillatory confined space
Ding, Huai; Jiang, Huijun; Hou, Zhonghuai
2015-05-21
We have studied the dynamics of Brownian particles in a confined geometry of dumbbell-shape with periodically oscillating walls. Entropic stochastic resonance (ESR) behavior, characterizing by a maximum value of the coherent factor Q at some optimal level of noise, is observed even without external periodic force in the horizontal direction, which is necessary for conventional ESR where the wall is static and the particle is subjected to the force. Interestingly, the ESR can be remarkably enhanced by the particle gravity G, in contrast to the conventional case. In addition, Q decreases (increases) with G in the small (large) noise limit, respectively, while it non-monotonically changes with G for moderate noise levels. We have applied an effective 1D coarsening description to illustrate such a nontrivial dependence on G, by investigating the property of the 1D effective potential of entropic nature and paying special attention to the excess part resulting from the boundary oscillation. Dependences of the ESR strength with other related parameters are also discussed.
Dynamics of Confined Water Molecules in Aqueous Salt Hydrates
Werhahn, Jasper C.; Pandelov, S.; Yoo, Soohaeng; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Iglev, H.
2011-04-01
The unusual properties of water are largely dictated by the dynamics of the H bond network. A single water molecule has more H bonding sites than atoms, hence new experimental and theoretical investigations about this peculiar liquid have not ceased to appear. Confinement of water to nanodroplets or small molecular clusters drastically changes many of the liquid’s properties. Such confined water plays a major role in the solvation of macro molecules such as proteins and can even be essential to their properties. Despite the vast results available on bulk and confined water, discussions about the correlation between spectral and structural properties continue to this day. The fast relaxation of the OH stretching vibration in bulk water, and the variance of sample geometries in the experiments on confined water obfuscate definite interpretation of the spectroscopic results in terms of structural parameters. We present first time-resolved investigations on a new model system that is ideally suited to overcome many of the problems faced in spectroscopical investigation of the H bond network of water. Aqueous hydrates of inorganic salts provide water molecules in a crystal grid, that enables unambiguous correlations of spectroscopic and structural features. Furthermore, the confined water clusters are well isolated from each other in the crystal matrix, so different degrees of confinement can be achieved by selection of the appropriate salt.
Aerofractures in Confined Granular Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eriksen, Fredrik K.; Turkaya, Semih; Toussaint, Renaud; Måløy, Knut J.; Flekkøy, Eirik G.
2015-04-01
We will present the optical analysis of experimental aerofractures in confined granular media. The study of this generic process may have applications in industries involving hydraulic fracturing of tight rocks, safe construction of dams, tunnels and mines, and in earth science where phenomena such as mud volcanoes and sand injectites are results of subsurface sediment displacements driven by fluid overpressure. It is also interesting to increase the understanding the flow instability itself, and how the fluid flow impacts the solid surrounding fractures and in the rest of the sample. Such processes where previously studied numerically [Niebling 2012a, Niebling 2012b] or in circular geometries. We will here explore experimentally linear geometries. We study the fracturing patterns that form when air flows into a dense, non-cohesive porous medium confined in a Hele-Shaw cell - i.e. into a packing of dry 80 micron beads placed between two glass plates separated by ~1mm. The cell is rectangular and fitted with a semi-permeable boundary to the atmosphere - blocking beads but not air - on one short edge, while the other three edges are impermeable. The porous medium is packed inside the cell between the semi-permeable boundary and an empty volume at the sealed side where the air pressure can be set and kept at a constant overpressure (1-2bar). Thus, for the air trapped inside the cell to release the overpressure it has to move through the solid. At high enough overpressures the air flow deforms the solid and increase permeability in some regions along the air-solid interface, which results in unstable flow and aerofracturing. Aerofractures are thought to be an analogue to hydrofractures, and an advantage of performing aerofracturing experiments in a Hele-Shaw cell is that the fracturing process can easily be observed in the lab. Our experiments are recorded with a high speed camera with a framerate of 1000 frames per second. In the analysis, by using various image processing techniques, we segment out and study the aerofractures over time looking at growth dynamics, fractal dimension and characteristics such as average finger thickness as function of depth into the solid. Also, by performing image correlation on two subsequent frames we estimate displacement fields and investigate the surrounding stress and strain fields in the solid around the fractures. Several experiments are performed with various overpressures and packing densities, and we compare the results. In a directly related project, acoustic emissions are recorded on a cell plate during experiments, and one of our goals is to correlate acoustic events and observations. We will also compare the dependence of the patterns on the saturation of the initial deformable porous material, by comparing experiments performed by air injection in air saturated granular media, to some in liquid saturated granular media. References: MJ Niebling, R Toussaint, EG Flekkøy, KJ Måløy, 2012, Dynamic aerofracture of dense granular packings, 2012, Physical Review E 86 (6), 061315 M Niebling, R Toussaint, EG Flekkøy, KJ Måløy, 2012, Numerical studies of aerofractures in porous media, Revista Cubana de Fisica 29 (1E), pp. 1E66-1E70
Confinement from gluodynamics in curved space-time
Gaete, Patricio; Spallucci, Euro
2008-01-15
We determine the static potential for a heavy quark-antiquark pair from gluodynamics in curved space-time. Our calculation is done within the framework of the gauge-invariant, path-dependent, variables formalism. The potential energy is the sum of a Yukawa and a linear potential, leading to the confinement of static charges.
Not Available
1990-07-01
The program objective is to demonstrate efficient removal of fine particulates to sufficiently low levels to meet proposed small scale coal combustor emission standards using a cleanup technology appropriate to small scale coal combustors. This to be accomplished using a novel particulate removal device, the Confined Vortex Scrubber (CVS), which consists of a cylindrical vortex chamber with tangential flue gas inlets. The clean gas exit is via vortex finder outlets, one at either end of the tube. Liquid is introduced into the chamber and is confined within the vortex chamber by the centrifugal force generated by the gas flow itself. This confined liquid forms a layer through which the flue gas is then forced to bubble, producing a strong gas/liquid interaction, high inertial separation forces and efficient particulate cleanup. During this quarter a comprehensive series of cleanup experiments have been made for three CVS configurations. The first CVS configuration tested gave very efficient fine particulate removal at the design air mass flow rate (1 MM BUT/hr combustor exhaust flow), but had over 20{double prime}WC pressure drop. The first CVS configuration was then re-designed to produce the same very efficient particulate collection performance at a lower pressure drop. The current CVS configuration produces 99.4 percent cleanup of ultra-fine fly ash at the design air mass flow at a pressure drop of 12 {double prime}WC with a liquid/air flow ratio of 0.31/m{sup 3}. Unlike venturi scrubbers, the collection performance of the CVS is insensitive to dust loading and to liquid/air flow ratio.
Confinement Contains Condensates
Brodsky, Stanley J.; Roberts, Craig D.; Shrock, Robert; Tandy, Peter C.
2012-03-12
Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and its connection to the generation of hadron masses has historically been viewed as a vacuum phenomenon. We argue that confinement makes such a position untenable. If quark-hadron duality is a reality in QCD, then condensates, those quantities that have commonly been viewed as constant empirical mass-scales that fill all spacetime, are instead wholly contained within hadrons; i.e., they are a property of hadrons themselves and expressed, e.g., in their Bethe-Salpeter or light-front wave functions. We explain that this paradigm is consistent with empirical evidence, and incidentally expose misconceptions in a recent Comment.
Confinement Vessel Dynamic Analysis
R. Robert Stevens; Stephen P. Rojas
1999-08-01
A series of hydrodynamic and structural analyses of a spherical confinement vessel has been performed. The analyses used a hydrodynamic code to estimate the dynamic blast pressures at the vessel's internal surfaces caused by the detonation of a mass of high explosive, then used those blast pressures as applied loads in an explicit finite element model to simulate the vessel's structural response. Numerous load cases were considered. Particular attention was paid to the bolted port connections and the O-ring pressure seals. The analysis methods and results are discussed, and comparisons to experimental results are made.
Oscillations of a fiber flowing in a confined microchannel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berthet, Helene; Fermigier, Marc; Daccord, Gerard; Lindner, Anke
2011-11-01
Transport of slender bodies in confined geometries is of interest in various industrial applications. In the oil industry, fibers are widely used for stimulation or to prevent losses into the rock formations. Applications can also be found in biology systems such as targeted drug delivery. We present an experimental and numerical investigation of the flow of an advected fiber in a confined microchannel. The fiber is fabricated in situ using a photo-polymerization method to ensure an excellent control of its geometry and its mechanical properties. When imposing a constant flowrate, we observe that the fiber oscillates continuously between the lateral walls until it exits the channel. We characterize the oscillation period as a function of the flow velocity, the fiber length and channel width. This phenomenon can be used to generate efficient mixing at the microscale.
Self-organizing human cardiac microchambers mediated by geometric confinement
Ma, Zhen; Wang, Jason; Loskill, Peter; Huebsch, Nathaniel; Koo, Sangmo; Svedlund, Felicia L.; Marks, Natalie C.; Hua, Ethan W.; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.; Conklin, Bruce R.; Healy, Kevin E.
2015-01-01
Tissue morphogenesis and organ formation are the consequences of biochemical and biophysical cues that lead to cellular spatial patterning in development. To model such events in vitro, we use PEG-patterned substrates to geometrically confine human pluripotent stem cell colonies and spatially present mechanical stress. Modulation of the WNT/?-catenin pathway promotes spatial patterning via geometric confinement of the cell condensation process during epithelial–mesenchymal transition, forcing cells at the perimeter to express an OCT4+ annulus, which is coincident with a region of higher cell density and E-cadherin expression. The biochemical and biophysical cues synergistically induce self-organizing lineage specification and creation of a beating human cardiac microchamber confined by the pattern geometry. These highly defined human cardiac microchambers can be used to study aspects of embryonic spatial patterning, early cardiac development and drug-induced developmental toxicity. PMID:26172574
Magnon waveguide with nanoscale confinement constructed from topological magnon insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mook, Alexander; Henk, Jürgen; Mertig, Ingrid
2015-05-01
Topological magnon insulators host spatially confined edge magnons brought about by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. Bringing two topological magnon insulators into contact results in topologically protected unidirectional interface magnons. These interface modes decay rapidly toward the bulk regions of the sample. As a result, heat and spin currents associated with these magnons are as well unidirectional and strongly confined to a few-nanometer-wide strip along the interface. On top of this, these interface currents follow any geometry owing to the topological nature of the magnons. In this theoretical study, we propose and analyze two recipes for composing magnon waveguides with nanoscale confinement, one from topologically different phases, another from identical phases. We further identify material classes to construct these magnon waveguides and propose an experiment to verify their topological nature.
Self-organizing human cardiac microchambers mediated by geometric confinement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Zhen; Wang, Jason; Loskill, Peter; Huebsch, Nathaniel; Koo, Sangmo; Svedlund, Felicia L.; Marks, Natalie C.; Hua, Ethan W.; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.; Conklin, Bruce R.; Healy, Kevin E.
2015-07-01
Tissue morphogenesis and organ formation are the consequences of biochemical and biophysical cues that lead to cellular spatial patterning in development. To model such events in vitro, we use PEG-patterned substrates to geometrically confine human pluripotent stem cell colonies and spatially present mechanical stress. Modulation of the WNT/?-catenin pathway promotes spatial patterning via geometric confinement of the cell condensation process during epithelial-mesenchymal transition, forcing cells at the perimeter to express an OCT4+ annulus, which is coincident with a region of higher cell density and E-cadherin expression. The biochemical and biophysical cues synergistically induce self-organizing lineage specification and creation of a beating human cardiac microchamber confined by the pattern geometry. These highly defined human cardiac microchambers can be used to study aspects of embryonic spatial patterning, early cardiac development and drug-induced developmental toxicity.
Experimental studies using a confined radial nozzle
Stromblad, B.; Marongiu, M.J.; Cosley, M.R.
1994-12-31
Thermal management of high power electronic components with dissipation ratings of over 2--3 W/cm{sup 2} clearly demands non-traditional means to be successful. Many different approaches have been attempted in the past with varying degrees of success. In the last 8 years radial jet reattachment (RJR) has been proven in the laboratory to be a novel and effective mechanism for high surface heat removal rates with negligible downward force as compared with impinging open jets. These nozzles produce only positive forces on the impingement surface. Impinging jets in confined conditions (inside enclosures or between parallel plates) have also been proven to be highly effective with high heat removal rates, suggesting the use of radial nozzles in similar conditions. Thus, confined radial jet reattachment has the potential of achieving even higher rates than impinging jets. However, no data (pressures or heat transfer) are available using confined radial nozzles as explained above. The experiments reported herein were carried out using one radial nozzle discharging in confined conditions (air issuing inside two parallel plates, for example.) Surface pressure distributions over both plates are presented for different geometrical and operational conditions. Results indicate that for the cases tested the radial jet almost always reattaches to the bottom surface, and that the Reynolds number is an important parameter.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McDonald, Nathaniel J.
2001-01-01
Chronicles a teacher's first year teaching geometry at the Hershey Montessori Farm School in Huntsburg, Ohio. Instructional methods relied on Euclid primary readings and combined pure abstract logic with practical applications of geometry on the land. The course included geometry background imparted by Montessori elementary materials as well as…
Trapping ultracold atoms in a time-averaged adiabatic potential
Gildemeister, M.; Nugent, E.; Sherlock, B. E.; Kubasik, M.; Sheard, B. T.; Foot, C. J.
2010-03-15
We report an experimental realization of ultracold atoms confined in a time-averaged, adiabatic potential (TAAP). This trapping technique involves using a slowly oscillating ({approx}kHz) bias field to time-average the instantaneous potential given by dressing a bare magnetic potential with a high-frequency ({approx}MHz) magnetic field. The resultant potentials provide a convenient route to a variety of trapping geometries with tunable parameters. We demonstrate the TAAP trap in a standard time-averaged orbiting potential trap with additional Helmholtz coils for the introduction of the radio frequency dressing field. We have evaporatively cooled 5x10{sup 4} atoms of {sup 87}Rb to quantum degeneracy and observed condensate lifetimes of longer than 3 s.
Yuri A. Rylov
2005-03-14
The first crisis in the geometry arose in the beginning of XIXth century, when the mathematicians rejected the non-Euclidean geometry as a possible geometry of the real world. Now we observe unreasonable rejection of the non-Riemannian geometry by the official representatives of the contemporary geometry. Class of the Riemannian geometries appears to be too narrow for physical applications. The microcosm physics needs expansion of the class of possible geometries appropriate for the role of space-time geometry. In the framework of the non-Riemannian geometry one can construct the space-time geometry, where the motion of free particles is primordially stochastic, and this stochasticity depends on the particle mass. At the same time the geometry in itself is not stochastic in the sense that the space-time intervals are deterministic. Principles of quantum mechanics can be deduced from such a space-time geometry. The crisis situation in geometry appears to be connected with some preconceptions concerning the foundation of the geometry. The preconceptions as well as the crisis generated by them are not purely scientific phenomena. The human factor (social aspect) is rather strong in the crisis phenomena. The preconceptions and the human factor appear to be so strong, that usual logical arguments are not perceived, and the usual formal mathematical language appears to be inappropriate for perception of an analysis of the crisis origin and of a possibility of its overcoming. In the paper the history and motives of the non-Riemannian geometry construction are presented. There is a hope that such a less formal way of presentation helps to understand and to overcome the existing preconceptions.
The virial theorem for the smoothly and sharply, penetrably and impenetrably confined hydrogen atom
Katriel, Jacob; Montgomery, H. E. Jr.
2012-09-21
Confinement of atoms by finite or infinite boxes containing sharp (discontinuous) jumps has been studied since the fourth decade of the previous century, modelling the effect of external pressure. Smooth (continuous) counterparts of such confining potentials, that depend on a parameter such that in an appropriate limit they coincide with the sharp confining potentials, are investigated, with an emphasis on deriving the corresponding virial and Hellmann-Feynman theorems.
The virial theorem for the smoothly and sharply, penetrably and impenetrably confined hydrogen atom.
Katriel, Jacob; Montgomery, H E
2012-09-21
Confinement of atoms by finite or infinite boxes containing sharp (discontinuous) jumps has been studied since the fourth decade of the previous century, modelling the effect of external pressure. Smooth (continuous) counterparts of such confining potentials, that depend on a parameter such that in an appropriate limit they coincide with the sharp confining potentials, are investigated, with an emphasis on deriving the corresponding virial and Hellmann-Feynman theorems. PMID:22998251
Central cell confinement in MFTF-B
Jong, R.A.
1981-05-05
The point code TANDEM has been used to survey the range of plasma parameters which can be attained in MFTF-B. The code solves for the electron and ion densities and temperatures in the central cell, yin-yang, barrier, and A-cell regions as well as the plasma potential in each region. In these studies, the A-cell sloshing ion beams were fixed while the neutral beams in the yin-yang and central cell, the gas feed in the central cell, and the applied ECRH power ..beta.., central cell ion density and temperature, and the confining potential are discussed.
Geometry Dependence of Stellarator Turbulence
H.E. Mynick, P. Xanthopoulos and A.H. Boozer
2009-08-10
Using the nonlinear gyrokinetic code package GENE/GIST, we study the turbulent transport in a broad family of stellarator designs, to understand the geometry-dependence of the microturbulence. By using a set of flux tubes on a given flux surface, we construct a picture of the 2D structure of the microturbulence over that surface, and relate this to relevant geometric quantities, such as the curvature, local shear, and effective potential in the Schrodinger-like equation governing linear drift modes.
Spherical microwave confinement and ball lightning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robinson, William Richard
This dissertation presents the results of research done on unconventional energy technologies from 1995 to 2009. The present civilization depends on an infrastructure that was constructed and is maintained almost entirely using concentrated fuels and ores, both of which will run out. Diffuse renewable energy sources rely on this same infrastructure, and hence face the same limitations. I first examined sonoluminescence directed toward fusion, but demonstrated theoretically that this is impossible. I next studied Low Energy Nuclear Reactions and developed methods for improving results, although these have not been implemented. In 2000, I began Spherical Microwave Confinement (SMC), which confines and heats plasma with microwaves in a spherical chamber. The reactor was designed and built to provide the data needed to investigate the possibility of achieving fusion conditions with microwave confinement. A second objective was to attempt to create ball lightning (BL). The reactor featured 20 magnetrons, which were driven by a capacitor bank and operated in a 0.2 s pulse mode at 2.45 GHz. These provided 20 kW to an icosahedral array of 20 antennas. Video of plasmas led to a redesign of the antennas to provide better coupling of the microwaves to the plasma. A second improvement was a grid at the base of the antennas, which provided corona electrons and an electric field to aid quick formation of plasmas. Although fusion conditions were never achieved and ball lightning not observed, experience gained from operating this basic, affordable system has been incorporated in a more sophisticated reactor design intended for future research. This would use magnets that were originally planned. The cusp geometry of the magnetic fields is suitable for electron cyclotron resonance in the same type of closed surface that in existing reactors has generated high-temperature plasmas. Should ball lightning be created, it could be a practical power source with nearly ideal characteristics that could solve many of our current energy-production problems.
Confinement of Fractional Quantum Hall States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Willett, Robert; Manfra, Michael; West, Ken; Pfeiffer, Loren
2008-03-01
Confinement of small-gapped fractional quantum Hall states facilitates quasiparticle manipulation and is an important step towards quasiparticle interference measurements. Demonstrated here is conduction through top gate defined, narrow channels in high density, ultra-high mobility heterostructures. Transport evidence for the persistence of a correlated state at filling fraction 5/3 is shown in channels of 2?m length but gated to near 0.3?m in width. The methods employed to achieve this confinement hold promise for interference devices proposed for studying potential non-Abelian statistics at filling fraction 5/2. R.L. Willett, M.J. Manfra, L.N. Pfeiffer, K.W. West, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 052105 (2007).
The Dynamics of a Polymer Confined in Anodic Aluminum Oxide Nanopore
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xue, Gi; Sa, Ye
2015-03-01
The dynamics of poly (n-butyl methacrylate) confined in porous templates are investigated using DSC and Fluorescence nonradiative energy transfer. Two glass transition temperatures are obtained at a slow cooling rate of which one bulk-like phase reflects core layer while the other at much higher temperature indicates interfacial layer in the confined polymer glass. Because of cylindrical geometry, the glass transition energy barrier of interfacial layer is elevated, and the thereof temperature threshold to form one or two glass transitions is determined through adjusting infiltrating temperatures. In addition, the glass transition behavior is speculated to be meditated by the counterbalance of the size and interfacial effects in the confined space.
Numerical Studies of Properties of Confined Helium
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Manousakis, Efstratios
2003-01-01
We carry out state of the art simulations of properties of confined liquid helium near the superfluid transition to a degree of accuracy which allows to make predictions for the outcome of fundamental physics experiments in microgravity. First we report our results for the finite-size scaling behavior of heat capacity of superfluids for cubic and parallel-plate geometry. This allows us to study the crossover from zero and two dimensions to three dimensions. Our calculated scaling functions are in good agreement with recently measured specific heat scaling functions for the above mentioned geometries. We also present our results of a quantum simulation of submonolayer of molecular hydrogen deposited on an ideal graphite substrate using path-integral quantum Monte Carlo simulation. We find that the monolayer phase diagram is rich and very similar to that of helium monolayer. We are able to uncover the main features of the complex monolayer phase diagram, such as the commensurate solid phases and the commensurate to incommensurate transition, in agreement with the experiments and to find some features which are missing from the experimental analysis.
Powers, L.; Condouris, R.; Kotowski, M.; Murphy, P.W.
1992-01-01
This issue of the ICF Quarterly contains seven articles that describe recent progress in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's ICF program. The Department of Energy recently initiated an effort to design a 1--2 MJ glass laser, the proposed National Ignition Facility (NIF). These articles span various aspects of a program which is aimed at moving forward toward such a facility by continuing to use the Nova laser to gain understanding of NIF-relevant target physics, by developing concepts for an NIF laser driver, and by envisioning a variety of applications for larger ICF facilities. This report discusses research on the following topics: Stimulated Rotational Raman Scattering in Nitrogen; A Maxwell Equation Solver in LASNEX for the Simulation of Moderately Intense Ultrashort Pulse Experiments; Measurements of Radial Heat-Wave Propagation in Laser-Produced Plasmas; Laser-Seeded Modulation Growth on Directly Driven Foils; Stimulated Raman Scattering in Large-Aperture, High-Fluence Frequency-Conversion Crystals; Fission Product Hazard Reduction Using Inertial Fusion Energy; Use of Inertial Confinement Fusion for Nuclear Weapons Effects Simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Powell, H. T.; Schleich, D. P.; Murphy, P. W.
In the 1990 National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report of its review of the U.S. Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program, it was recommended that a high priority be placed on completing the Precision Nova Project and its associated experimental campaign. Since fiscal year 1990, the lab has therefore campaigned vigorously on Nova and in its supporting laboratories to develop the Precision Nova capabilities needed to perform the stressful target experiments recommended in the 1990 NAS report. The activities to enable these experiments have been directed at improvements in three areas - the Nova laser, target fabrication capabilities, and target diagnostics. As summarized in the five articles in this report, the Precision Nova improvements have been successfully completed. These improvements have had a positive impact on target performance and on the ability to diagnose the results, as evidenced by the HEP-1 experimental results. The five articles generally concentrate on improvements to the capabilities rather than on the associated target physics experiments. Separate abstracts are included for each paper.
Alpha particle confinement in tokamaks
White, R.B.; Mynick, H.E.
1988-11-01
An assessment of diffusive tokamak transport mechanisms of concern for alpha particles indicates that the ''stochastic regime'' is the only one which appears to pose a real danger for adequate alpha confinement. This fact, in conjunction with the threshold character of that mechanism, allows one to decide whether an alpha born at a given location will be lost or confined, according to a very simple criterion. Implementing this criterion numerically results in a new code for the assessment of alpha confinement, which is orders of magnitude faster than earlier codes used for this purpose. 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.
CONFINED SPACE PROGRAM UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO
Chan, Hue Sun
....................................................................... 5 4.0 IDENTIFICATION / CLASSIFICATION / INVENTORY OF CONFINED SPACES (Appendix A ................................................................................. 19 APPENDICES APPENDIX A: Confined Space Identification/Classification Guide (Decision Tree) APPENDIX
Morales, Jorge A.; Leroy, Matthieu; Bos, Wouter J.T.; Schneider, Kai
2014-10-01
A volume penalization approach to simulate magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows in confined domains is presented. Here the incompressible visco-resistive MHD equations are solved using parallel pseudo-spectral solvers in Cartesian geometries. The volume penalization technique is an immersed boundary method which is characterized by a high flexibility for the geometry of the considered flow. In the present case, it allows to use other than periodic boundary conditions in a Fourier pseudo-spectral approach. The numerical method is validated and its convergence is assessed for two- and three-dimensional hydrodynamic (HD) and MHD flows, by comparing the numerical results with results from literature and analytical solutions. The test cases considered are two-dimensional Taylor–Couette flow, the z-pinch configuration, three dimensional Orszag–Tang flow, Ohmic-decay in a periodic cylinder, three-dimensional Taylor–Couette flow with and without axial magnetic field and three-dimensional Hartmann-instabilities in a cylinder with an imposed helical magnetic field. Finally, we present a magnetohydrodynamic flow simulation in toroidal geometry with non-symmetric cross section and imposing a helical magnetic field to illustrate the potential of the method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morales, Jorge A.; Leroy, Matthieu; Bos, Wouter J. T.; Schneider, Kai
2014-10-01
A volume penalization approach to simulate magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows in confined domains is presented. Here the incompressible visco-resistive MHD equations are solved using parallel pseudo-spectral solvers in Cartesian geometries. The volume penalization technique is an immersed boundary method which is characterized by a high flexibility for the geometry of the considered flow. In the present case, it allows to use other than periodic boundary conditions in a Fourier pseudo-spectral approach. The numerical method is validated and its convergence is assessed for two- and three-dimensional hydrodynamic (HD) and MHD flows, by comparing the numerical results with results from literature and analytical solutions. The test cases considered are two-dimensional Taylo-Couette flow, the z-pinch configuration, three dimensional Orszag-Tang flow, Ohmic-decay in a periodic cylinder, three-dimensional Taylo-Couette flow with and without axial magnetic field and three-dimensional Hartmann-instabilities in a cylinder with an imposed helical magnetic field. Finally, we present a magnetohydrodynamic flow simulation in toroidal geometry with non-symmetric cross section and imposing a helical magnetic field to illustrate the potential of the method.
Interplay of explosive thermal reaction dynamics and structural confinement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perry, W. Lee; Zucker, Jonathan; Dickson, Peter M.; Parker, Gary R.; Asay, Blaine W.
2007-04-01
Explosives play a significant role in human affairs; however, their behavior in circumstances other than intentional detonation is poorly understood. Accidents may have catastrophic consequences, especially if additional hazardous materials are involved. Abnormal ignition stimuli, such as impact, spark, friction, and heat may lead to a very violent outcome, potentially including detonation. An important factor influencing the behavior subsequent to abnormal ignition is the strength and inertia of the vessel confining the explosive, i.e., the near-field structural/mechanical environment, also known as confinement (inertial or mechanical). However, a comprehensive and quantified understanding of how confinement affects reaction violence does not yet exist. In the research discussed here, we have investigated a wide range of confinement conditions and related the explosive response to the fundamentals of the combustion process in the explosive. In our experiments, a charge of an octahydrotetranitrotetrazine-based plastic bonded explosive (PBX 9501) was loaded into a gun assembly having variable confinement conditions and subjected to a heating profile. The exploding charge breached the confinement and accelerated a projectile down the gun barrel. High bandwidth pressure and volume measurements were made and a first-law analysis was used to obtain enthalpy and power from the raw data. These results were then used to quantify reaction violence. Enthalpy change and power ranged from 0-1.8 kJ and 0-12 MW for 300 mg charges, respectively. Below a confinement strength of 20 MPa, violence was found to decline precipitously with decreasing confinement, while the violence for the heaviest confinement experiments was found to be relatively constant. Both pressure and pressurization rate were found to have critical values to induce and sustain violent reaction.
Properties of Confinement in Holography
Giataganas, Dimitrios
2015-01-01
We review certain properties of confinement with added focus on the ones we study with holography. Then we discuss observables whose unique behavior can indicate the presence of confinement. Using mainly the Wilson loop in the gauge/gravity formalism, we study two main features of the QCD string: the string tension dependence on the temperature while in the confining phase, and the logarithmic broadening of the flux tube between the heavy static charges that turns out to be a generic property of all confining theories. Finally, we review the k-string bound state and we show that for a wide class of generic theories the k-string observables can be expressed in terms of the single meson bound state observables.
Properties of Confinement in Holography
Dimitrios Giataganas
2015-05-26
We review certain properties of confinement with added focus on the ones we study with holography. Then we discuss observables whose unique behavior can indicate the presence of confinement. Using mainly the Wilson loop in the gauge/gravity formalism, we study two main features of the QCD string: the string tension dependence on the temperature while in the confining phase, and the logarithmic broadening of the flux tube between the heavy static charges that turns out to be a generic property of all confining theories. Finally, we review the k-string bound state and we show that for a wide class of generic theories the k-string observables can be expressed in terms of the single meson bound state observables.
Novel confinement of liquid crystals in Janus droplets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Wei-Shao; Jeong, Joonwoo; Collings, Peter J.; Lubensky, Tom C.; Yodh, A. G.
2015-03-01
In this work we create and investigate Janus droplets composed of liquid crystal (LC) and polymer. The Janus droplets are formed when homogeneous droplets of LC-polymer-solvent phase separate into LC and polymer regions during solvent evaporation through aqueous continuous phase. This scheme enables us to realize unique confinement geometries for LCs such as spherical caps and bowls, which are difficult to be achieved via other systems. The morphologies and surface anchoring conditions can be controlled by changing the size of droplets, the volume ratio between LC and polymer, and the type/concentration of surfactants in aqueous background phase. We explore a variety of defects in these novel confined geometries including dislocations and focal conic defects of smectic LCs. Nematic and cholesteric LCs are also explored. Models that balance the energetics of bulk elasticity and surface anchoring determine the director configurations of confined liquid crystals (LCs). This work is funded by NSF Grant DMR-1205463, NSF MRSEC Grant DMR-1120901, and NASA Grant NNX08AO0G.
Snyder-Yang algebra and confinement of color particles
V. V. Khruschov
2010-12-21
A model of color particle confinement is considered. The model is based on the Snyder-Yang algebra, which takes into account a non-commutativity of generalized momenta and coordinates of a color particle and contains two new constants. An extended kinematical invariance in a quantum phase space of a color particle gives rise to an invariant equation with an oscillator rising potential. The presence of the oscillator rising potential can simulate a confinement of a color particle. Mass and lenght parameters involved in the Snyder-Yang commutation relations along with parameters of current and constituent quarks are estimated.
Complex Plasmas in Narrow Channels: Impact of Confinement on the Local Order
Klumov, B. A.
2008-10-15
Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) quasi-equilibrium configurations of a complex (dusty) plasma in narrow channels are investigated using the molecular dynamics simulations for various confining potentials (confinements). The dynamics of the microparticles is described within the framework of a Langevin thermostat with allowance for the pair interaction between charged particles, which is described by a screened Coulomb potential (Yukawa potential). Two types of confinement: the parabolic electrostatic potential and hard elastic wall are considered. It is shown that the confinement strongly affects the crystallization and the local order of the microparticles in the system under consideration; in particular, the appearance of a new quasicrystalline phase induced by the hard wall confinement is revealed in 3D case.
Geometrie im Internet Wolfgang Rath
Havlicek, Hans
Geometrie im Internet Wolfgang Rath Institut für Geometrie, TU Wien rath@geometrie.tuwien.ac.at http://www.geometrie.tuwien.ac.at/rath Version 1999-11-15 #12;Geometrie im Internet - Wolfgang Rath......................................................................................... 5 1.1 SCHNELLER EINSTIEG INS INTERNET
Induced geometry from disformal transformation
Fang-Fang Yuan; Peng Huang
2015-02-08
In this note, we use the disformal transformation to induce a geometry from the manifold which is originally Riemannian. The new geometry obtained here can be considered as a generalization of Weyl integrable geometry. Based on these results, we further propose a geometry which is naturally a generalization of Weyl geometry.
Confining the scalar field of the Kaluza-Klein wormhole soliton
Clement, G. )
1989-08-01
The Maison five-to-three dimensional reduction, generalized to the case of five-dimensional general relativity with sources, is applied to the problem of confining the scalar field of the Kaluza-Klein wormhole soliton by a very weak perfect fluid source, without affecting the spatial geometry of this localized solution.
High Temperature Confinement in SU(N) Gauge Theories
Michael C. Ogilvie; Peter N. Meisinger
2008-11-13
SU(N) gauge theories, extended with adjoint fermions having periodic boundary conditions, are confining at high temperature for sufficiently light fermion mass m. Lattice simulations indicate that this confining region is smoothly connected to the confining region of low-temperature pure SU(N) gauge theory. In the high temperature confining region, the one-loop effective potential for Polyakov loops has a Z(N)-symmetric confining minimum. String tensions associated with Polyakov loops are smooth functions of m/T. In the magnetic sector, the Polyakov loop plays a role similar to a Higgs field, leading to a breaking of SU(N) to U(1)^{N-1}. This is turn yields an effective theory where magnetic monopoles give rise to string tensions for spatial Wilson loops. These string tensions are calculable semiclassically. There are many analytical predictions for the high-temperature region that can be tested by lattice simulations, but lattice work will be crucial for exploring the crossover from this region to the low-temperature confining behavior of pure gauge theories.
Collective motion of squirmers in a quasi-2D geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zöttl, Andreas; Stark, Holger
2013-03-01
Microorganisms like bacteria, algae or spermatozoa typically move in an aqueous environment where they interact via hydrodynamic flow fields. Recent experiments studied the collective motion of dense suspensions of bacteria where swarming and large-scale turbulence emerged. Moreover, spherical artificial microswimmers, so-called squirmers, have been constructed and studied in a quasi-2D geometry. Here we present a numerical study of the collective dynamics of squirmers confined in quasi-2D between two parallel walls. Because of their spherical shape the reorientation of squirmers is solely due to noise and hydrodynamic interactions via induced flow fields. This is in contrast to elongated swimmers like bacteria which locally align due to steric interactions. We study the collective motion of pushers, pullers and potential swimmers at different densities. At small densities the squirmers are oriented parallel to the walls and pairwise collisions determine the reorientation rate. In dense suspensions rotational diffusion is greatly enhanced and pushers, in particular, tend to orient perpendicular to the walls. This effects the dynamics of the emerging clusters. In very dense suspensions we observe active jamming and long-lived crystalline structures.
A hybrid ion trap in a three-dimensional geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ye; Yum, Dahyun; Zhang, Kuan; An, Shuoming; Kim, Kihwan
2015-05-01
We develop a three-dimensional (3D) monolithic ion trap that has the advantages of both 3D geometry, i.e., having a deep confining potential and surface trap, i.e., containing multiple zones for scaling up, no uncertainty between design and manufacture. The trap is fabricated by gold coating on a single layer of alumina plate sculpted by laser-machining technology. The axial trap frequencies are in the range from 230 kHz to 850 kHz with the average dc voltages from 20 V to 75V and the radial frequencies lie in 3 MHz with 3.5W input power of 40 MHz radio-frequency, which is well in agreement with numerical simulations. We successfully load Yb and Ba ions together and report the progress of the hybrid quantum operation with them. This work was supported by the National Basic Research Program of China under Grants No. 2011CBA00300 (No. 2011CBA00301), the National Natural Science Foundation of China 11374178.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Samuelsen, G. S.; Sowa, W. A.; Hatch, M. S.
1996-01-01
A series of non-reacting parametric experiments was conducted to investigate the effect of geometric and flow variations on mixing of cold jets in an axis-symmetric, heated cross flow. The confined, cylindrical geometries tested represent the quick mix region of a Rich-Burn/Quick-Mix/Lean-Burn (RQL) combustor. The experiments show that orifice geometry and jet to mainstream momentum-flux ratio significantly impact the mixing characteristic of jets in a cylindrical cross stream. A computational code was used to extrapolate the results of the non-reacting experiments to reacting conditions in order to examine the nitric oxide (NO) formation potential of the configurations examined. The results show that the rate of NO formation is highest immediately downstream of the injection plane. For a given momentum-flux ratio, the orifice geometry that mixes effectively in both the immediate vicinity of the injection plane, and in the wall regions at downstream locations, has the potential to produce the lowest NO emissions. The results suggest that further study may not necessarily lead to a universal guideline for designing a low NO mixer. Instead, an assessment of each application may be required to determine the optimum combination of momentum-flux ratio and orifice geometry to minimize NO formation. Experiments at reacting conditions are needed to verify the present results.
Self-confinement of finite dust clusters in isotropic plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miloshevsky, G. V.; Hassanein, A.
2012-05-01
Finite two-dimensional dust clusters are systems of a small number of charged grains. The self-confinement of dust clusters in isotropic plasmas is studied using the particle-in-cell method. The energetically favorable configurations of grains in plasma are found that are due to the kinetic effects of plasma ions and electrons. The self-confinement phenomenon is attributed to the change in the plasma composition within a dust cluster resulting in grain attraction mediated by plasma ions. This is a self-consistent state of a dust cluster in which grain's repulsion is compensated by the reduced charge and floating potential on grains, overlapped ion clouds, and depleted electrons within a cluster. The common potential well is formed trapping dust clusters in the confined state. These results provide both valuable insights and a different perspective to the classical view on the formation of boundary-free dust clusters in isotropic plasmas.
Hessian geometry and entanglement thermodynamics
Hiroaki Matsueda
2015-08-11
We reconstruct entanglement thermodynamics by means of Hessian geometry, since this method exactly generalizes thermodynamics into much wider exponential family cases including quantum entanglement. Starting with the correct first law of entanglement thermodynamics, we derive that a proper choice of the Hessian potential leads to both of the entanglement entropy scaling for quantum critical systems and hyperbolic metric (or AdS space with imaginary time). We also derive geometric representation of the entanglement entropy in which the entropy is described as integration of local conserved current of information flowing across an entangling surface. We find that the entangling surface is equivalent to the domain boundary of the Hessian potential. This feature originates in a special property of critical systems in which we can identify the entanglement entropy with the Hessian potential after the second derivative by the canonical parameters, and this identification guarantees violation of extensive nature of the entropy.
Layering, freezing and re-entrant melting of hard spheres in soft confinement
Tine Curk; Anouk de Hoogh; Francisco J. Martinez-Veracoechea; Erika Eiser; Daan Frenkel; Jure Dobnikar; Mirjam E. Leunissen
2012-12-13
Confinement can have a dramatic effect on the behavior of all sorts of particulate systems and it therefore is an important phenomenon in many different areas of physics and technology. Here, we investigate the role played by the softness of the confining potential. Using grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations, we determine the phase diagram of three-dimensional hard spheres that in one dimension are constrained to a plane by a harmonic potential. The phase behavior depends strongly on the density and on the stiffness of the harmonic confinement. Whilst we find the familiar sequence of confined hexagonal and square-symmetric packings, we do not observe any of the usual intervening ordered phases. Instead, the system phase separates under strong confinement, or forms a layered re-entrant liquid phase under weaker confinement. It is plausible that this behavior is due to the larger positional freedom in a soft confining potential and to the contribution that the confinement energy makes to the total free energy. The fact that specific structures can be induced or suppressed by simply changing the confinement conditions (e.g. in a dielectrophoretic trap) is important for applications that involve self-assembled structures of colloidal particles.
Confinement induces actin flow in a meiotic cytoplasm
Pinot, Mathieu; Steiner, Villier; Dehapiot, Benoit; Yoo, Byung-Kuk; Chesnel, Franck; Blanchoin, Laurent; Kervrann, Charles; Gueroui, Zoher
2012-01-01
In vivo, F-actin flows are observed at different cell life stages and participate in various developmental processes during asymmetric divisions in vertebrate oocytes, cell migration, or wound healing. Here, we show that confinement has a dramatic effect on F-actin spatiotemporal organization. We reconstitute in vitro the spontaneous generation of F-actin flow using Xenopus meiotic extracts artificially confined within a geometry mimicking the cell boundary. Perturbations of actin polymerization kinetics or F-actin nucleation sites strongly modify the network flow dynamics. A combination of quantitative image analysis and biochemical perturbations shows that both spatial localization of F-actin nucleators and actin turnover play a decisive role in generating flow. Interestingly, our in vitro assay recapitulates several symmetry-breaking processes observed in oocytes and early embryonic cells. PMID:22753521
An electrostatically and a magnetically confined electron gun lens system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bernius, Mark T.; Man, Kin F.; Chutjian, Ara
1988-01-01
Focal properties, electron trajectory calculations, and geometries are given for two electron 'gun' lens systems that have a variety of applications in, for example, electron-neutral and electron-ion scattering experiments. One nine-lens system utilizes only electrostatic confinement and is capable of focusing electrons onto a fixed target with extremely small divergence angles, over a range of final energies 1-790 eV. The second gun lens system is a simpler three-lens system suitable for use in a uniform, solenoidal magnetic field. While the focusing properties of such a magnetically confined lens systenm are simpler to deal with, the system does illustrate features of electron extraction and Brillouin flow that have not been suitably emphasized in the literature.
Density and geometry of single component plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atrap Collaboration; Speck, A.; Gabrielse, G.; Larochelle, P.; Le Sage, D.; Levitt, B.; Kolthammer, W. S.; McConnell, R.; Wrubel, J.; Grzonka, D.; Oelert, W.; Sefzick, T.; Zhang, Z.; Comeau, D.; George, M. C.; Hessels, E. A.; Storry, C. H.; Weel, M.; Walz, J.
2007-06-01
The density and geometry of p¯ and e plasmas in realistic trapping potentials are required to understand and optimize antihydrogen (H¯) formation. An aperture method and a quadrupole oscillation frequency method for characterizing such plasmas are compared for the first time, using electrons in a cylindrical Penning trap. Both methods are used in a way that makes it unnecessary to assume that the plasmas are spheroidal, and it is shown that they are not. Good agreement between the two methods illustrates the possibility to accurately determine plasma densities and geometries within non-idealized, realistic trapping potentials.
Density and geometry of single component plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Speck, A.; Gabrielse, G.; Larochelle, P.; Le Sage, D.; Levitt, B.; Kolthammer, W. S.; McConnell, R.; Wrubel, J.; Grzonka, D.; Oelert, W.; Sefzick, T.; Zhang, Z.; Comeau, D.; George, M. C.; Hessels, E. A.; Storry, C. H.; Weel, M.; Walz, J.; Atrap Collaboration
2007-06-01
The density and geometry of pbar and e+ plasmas in realistic trapping potentials are required to understand and optimize antihydrogen (Hbar) formation. An aperture method and a quadrupole oscillation frequency method for characterizing such plasmas are compared for the first time, using electrons in a cylindrical Penning trap. Both methods are used in a way that makes it unnecessary to assume that the plasmas are spheroidal, and it is shown that they are not. Good agreement between the two methods illustrates the possibility to accurately determine plasma densities and geometries within non-idealized, realistic trapping potentials.
Landscape as a Model: The Importance of Geometry
Holland, E. Penelope; Aegerter, James N; Dytham, Calvin; Smith, Graham C
2007-01-01
In all models, but especially in those used to predict uncertain processes (e.g., climate change and nonnative species establishment), it is important to identify and remove any sources of bias that may confound results. This is critical in models designed to help support decisionmaking. The geometry used to represent virtual landscapes in spatially explicit models is a potential source of bias. The majority of spatial models use regular square geometry, although regular hexagonal landscapes have also been used. However, there are other ways in which space can be represented in spatially explicit models. For the first time, we explicitly compare the range of alternative geometries available to the modeller, and present a mechanism by which uncertainty in the representation of landscapes can be incorporated. We test how geometry can affect cell-to-cell movement across homogeneous virtual landscapes and compare regular geometries with a suite of irregular mosaics. We show that regular geometries have the potential to systematically bias the direction and distance of movement, whereas even individual instances of landscapes with irregular geometry do not. We also examine how geometry can affect the gross representation of real-world landscapes, and again show that individual instances of regular geometries will always create qualitative and quantitative errors. These can be reduced by the use of multiple randomized instances, though this still creates scale-dependent biases. In contrast, virtual landscapes formed using irregular geometries can represent complex real-world landscapes without error. We found that the potential for bias caused by regular geometries can be effectively eliminated by subdividing virtual landscapes using irregular geometry. The use of irregular geometry appears to offer spatial modellers other potential advantages, which are as yet underdeveloped. We recommend their use in all spatially explicit models, but especially for predictive models that are used in decisionmaking. PMID:17967050
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilms, Dorothea; Virnau, Peter; Snook, Ian K.; Binder, Kurt
2012-11-01
The dynamical behavior of single-component two-dimensional colloidal crystals confined in a slit geometry is studied by Langevin dynamics simulation of a simple model. The colloids are modeled as pointlike particles, interacting with the repulsive part of the Lennard-Jones potential, and the fluid molecules in the colloidal suspension are not explicitly considered. Considering a crystalline strip of triangular lattice structure with n=30 rows, the (one-dimensional) walls confining the strip are chosen as two rigidly fixed crystalline rows at each side, commensurate with the lattice structure and, thus, stabilizing long-range order. The case when the spacing between the walls is incommensurate with the ideal triangular lattice is also studied, where (due to a transition in the number of rows, n?n-1) the confined crystal is incommensurate with the confining boundaries, and a soliton staircase forms along the walls. It is shown that mean-square displacements (MSDs) of particles as a function of time show an overshoot and then saturate at a horizontal plateau in the commensurate case, the value of the plateau being largest in the center of the strip. Conversely, when solitons are present, MSDs are largest in the rows containing the solitons, and all MSDs do not settle down at well-defined plateaus in the direction parallel to the boundaries, due to the lack of positional long-range order in ideal two-dimensional crystals. The MSDs of the solitons (which can be treated like quasiparticles at very low temperature) have also been studied and their dynamics are found to be about an order of magnitude slower than that of the colloidal particles themselves. Finally, transport of individual colloidal particles by diffusion processes is studied: both standard vacancy-interstitial pair formation and cooperative ring rotation processes are identified. These processes require thermal activation, with activation energies of the order of 10Tm (Tm being the melting temperature of the crystal), while the motions due to long-wavelength phonons decrease only linearly in temperature.
Scaling behaviour for the water transport in nanoconfined geometries
Chiavazzo, Eliodoro; Fasano, Matteo; Asinari, Pietro; Decuzzi, Paolo
2014-01-01
The transport of water in nanoconfined geometries is different from bulk phase and has tremendous implications in nanotechnology and biotechnology. Here molecular dynamics is used to compute the self-diffusion coefficient D of water within nanopores, around nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes and proteins. For almost 60 different cases, D is found to scale linearly with the sole parameter ? as D(?)=DB[1+(DC/DB?1)?], with DB and DC the bulk and totally confined diffusion of water, respectively. The parameter ? is primarily influenced by geometry and represents the ratio between the confined and total water volumes. The D(?) relationship is interpreted within the thermodynamics of supercooled water. As an example, such relationship is shown to accurately predict the relaxometric response of contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. The D(?) relationship can help in interpreting the transport of water molecules under nanoconfined conditions and tailoring nanostructures with precise modulation of water mobility. PMID:24699509
Scaling behaviour for the water transport in nanoconfined geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiavazzo, Eliodoro; Fasano, Matteo; Asinari, Pietro; Decuzzi, Paolo
2014-04-01
The transport of water in nanoconfined geometries is different from bulk phase and has tremendous implications in nanotechnology and biotechnology. Here molecular dynamics is used to compute the self-diffusion coefficient D of water within nanopores, around nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes and proteins. For almost 60 different cases, D is found to scale linearly with the sole parameter ? as D(?)=DB[1+(DC/DB-1)?], with DB and DC the bulk and totally confined diffusion of water, respectively. The parameter ? is primarily influenced by geometry and represents the ratio between the confined and total water volumes. The D(?) relationship is interpreted within the thermodynamics of supercooled water. As an example, such relationship is shown to accurately predict the relaxometric response of contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. The D(?) relationship can help in interpreting the transport of water molecules under nanoconfined conditions and tailoring nanostructures with precise modulation of water mobility.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chern, Shiing-Shen
1990-01-01
Discussed are the major historical developments of geometry. Euclid, Descartes, Klein's Erlanger Program, Gaus and Riemann, globalization, topology, Elie Cartan, and an application to molecular biology are included as topics. (KR)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Emenaker, Charles E.
1999-01-01
Describes a sixth-grade interdisciplinary geometry unit based on Charles Dickens's "A Christmas Carol". Focuses on finding area, volume, and perimeter, and working with estimation, decimals, and fractions in the context of making gingerbread houses. (ASK)
Noncommutative Geometry and Physics
Connes, Alain
2006-11-03
In this very short essay we shall describe a 'spectral' point of view on geometry which allows to start taking into account the lessons from both renormalization and of general relativity. We shall first do that for renormalization and explain in rough outline the content of our recent collaborations with Dirk Kreimer and Matilde Marcolli leading to the universal Galois symmetry of renormalizable quantum field theories provided by the renormalization group in its cosmic Galois group incarnation. As far as general relativity is concerned, since the functional integral cannot be treated in the traditional perturbative manner, it relies heavily as a 'sum over geometries' on the chosen paradigm of geometric space. This will give us the occasion to discuss, in the light of noncommutative geometry, the issue of 'observables' in gravity and our joint work with Ali Chamseddine on the spectral action, with a first attempt to write down a functional integral on the space of noncommutative geometries.
Proof in Transformation Geometry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bell, A. W.
1971-01-01
The first of three articles showing how inductively-obtained results in transformation geometry may be organized into a deductive system. This article discusses two approaches to enlargement (dilatation), one using coordinates and the other using synthetic methods. (MM)
Quantum Computing in Non Euclidean Geometry
Germano Resconi; Ignazio Licata
2009-11-04
The recent debate on hyper-computation has raised new questions both on the computational abilities of quantum systems and the Church-Turing Thesis role in Physics. We propose here the idea of geometry of effective physical process as the essentially physical notion of computation. In Quantum mechanics we cannot use the traditional Euclidean geometry but we introduce more sophisticate non Euclidean geometry which include a new kind of information diffuse in the entire universe and that we can represent as Fisher information or active information. We remark that from the Fisher information we can obtain the Bohm and Hiley quantum potential and the classical Schrodinger equation. We can see the quantum phenomena do not affect a limited region of the space but is reflected in a change of the geometry of all the universe. In conclusion any local physical change or physical process is reflected in all the universe by the change of its geometry, This is the deepest meaning of the entanglement in Quantum mechanics and quantum computing. We stress the connection between metric and information as measure of change. Because computation is not restricted to calculus but is the environment changing via physical processes, super-Turing potentialities derive from an incomputable information source embedded into the geometry of the universe in accordance with Bell's constraints. In the general relativity we define the geometry of the space time. In our approach quantum phenomena define the geometry of the parameters of the probability distribution that include also the space time parameters. To study this new approach to the computation we use the new theory of Morphogenic systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ceresole, Anna; Ferrara, Sergio; Gnecchi, Alessandra; Marrani, Alessio
2013-02-01
We analyze some properties of the four dimensional supergravity theories which originate from five dimensions upon reduction. They generalize to N > 2 extended supersymmetries the d-geometries with cubic prepotentials, familiar from N = 2 special Kähler geometry. We emphasize the role of a suitable parametrization of the scalar fields and the corresponding triangular symplectic basis. We also consider applications to the first order flow equations for non-BPS extremal black holes.
Magnetospheric Vortex Formation: Self-Organized Confinement of Charged Particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshida, Z.; Saitoh, H.; Morikawa, J.; Yano, Y.; Watanabe, S.; Ogawa, Y.
2010-06-01
A magnetospheric configuration gives rise to various peculiar plasma phenomena that pose conundrums to astrophysical studies; at the same time, innovative technologies may draw on the rich physics of magnetospheric plasmas. We have created a “laboratory magnetosphere” with a levitating superconducting ring magnet. Here we show that charged particles (electrons) self-organize a stable vortex, in which particles diffuse inward to steepen the density gradient. The rotating electron cloud is sustained for more than 300 s. Because of its simple geometry and self-organization, this system will have wide applications in confining single- and multispecies charged particles.
Mixing of multiple jets with a confined subsonic crossflow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holdeman, James D.
1993-01-01
An account is given of experimental and computational results on the mixing of single, double, and opposed rows of jets characterized by an either isothermal or variable temperature mainstream in a confined subsonic crossflow; these flow configurations are typical of gas turbine combustor dilution chambers. It is established that the momentum-flux ratio is the most significant flow variable. Combinations of flow and geometry yielding optimum mixing were identified from experimental and computational results. The orifice spacing and momentum-flux relationships affected jet structure, which was significantly different between jets injected from the inner wall of a turn and those injected from the outer wall.
Magnetospheric vortex formation: self-organized confinement of charged particles.
Yoshida, Z; Saitoh, H; Morikawa, J; Yano, Y; Watanabe, S; Ogawa, Y
2010-06-11
A magnetospheric configuration gives rise to various peculiar plasma phenomena that pose conundrums to astrophysical studies; at the same time, innovative technologies may draw on the rich physics of magnetospheric plasmas. We have created a "laboratory magnetosphere" with a levitating superconducting ring magnet. Here we show that charged particles (electrons) self-organize a stable vortex, in which particles diffuse inward to steepen the density gradient. The rotating electron cloud is sustained for more than 300 s. Because of its simple geometry and self-organization, this system will have wide applications in confining single- and multispecies charged particles. PMID:20867249
Open-ended magnetic confinement systems for fusion
Post, R.F.; Ryutov, D.D.
1995-05-01
Magnetic confinement systems that use externally generated magnetic fields can be divided topologically into two classes: ``closed`` and `open``. The tokamak, the stellarator, and the reversed-field-pinch approaches are representatives of the first category, while mirror-based systems and their variants are of the second category. While the recent thrust of magnetic fusion research, with its emphasis on the tokamak, has been concentrated on closed geometry, there are significant reasons for the continued pursuit of research into open-ended systems. The paper discusses these reasons, reviews the history and the present status of open-ended systems, and suggests some future directions for the research.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2005-01-01
The Common Geometry Module (CGM) is a code library which provides geometry functionality used for mesh generation and other applications. This functionality includes that commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry creation, query and modification; CGM also includes capabilities not commonly found in solid modeling engines, like geometry decomposition tools and support for shared material interfaces. CGM is built upon the ACIS solid modeling engine, but also includes geometry capability developed beside and onmore »top of ACIS. CGM can be used as-is to provide geometry functionality for codes needing this capability. However, CGM can also be extended using derived classes in C++, allowing the geometric model to serve as the basis for other applications, for example mesh generation. CGM is supported on Sun Solaris, SGI, HP, IBM, DEC, Linux and Windows NT platforms. CGM also indudes support for loading ACIS models on parallel computers, using MPI-based communication. Future plans for CGM are to port it to different solid modeling engines, including Pro/Engineer or SolidWorks. CGM is being released into the public domain under an LGPL license; the ACIS-based engine is available to ACIS licensees on request.« less
CORRELATIONS IN CONFINED QUANTUM PLASMAS
DUFTY J W
2012-01-11
This is the final report for the project 'Correlations in Confined Quantum Plasmas', NSF-DOE Partnership Grant DE FG02 07ER54946, 8/1/2007 - 7/30/2010. The research was performed in collaboration with a group at Christian Albrechts University (CAU), Kiel, Germany. That collaboration, almost 15 years old, was formalized during the past four years under this NSF-DOE Partnership Grant to support graduate students at the two institutions and to facilitate frequent exchange visits. The research was focused on exploring the frontiers of charged particle physics evolving from new experimental access to unusual states associated with confinement. Particular attention was paid to combined effects of quantum mechanics and confinement. A suite of analytical and numerical tools tailored to the specific inquiry has been developed and employed
Confinement of dust particles in a double layer A. Barkan and R. L. Merlin0
Merlino, Robert L.
Confinement of dust particles in a double layer A. Barkan and R. L. Merlin0 Department of Physics) Negatively charged, micron-sized dust grains have been electrostatically confined in the high-potential region of an anode double layer formed in a single-ended Q-machine plasma. The levitated dust grains
Working Safety in Confined Spaces. Module SH-32. Safety and Health.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.
This student module on working safely in confined spaces in one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module explains how to recognize potential hazards in confined spaces, how to deal with these hazards, and how planning can prevent accidents. Following the introduction, 17 objectives (each keyed to a page in the text) the…
DEVELOPMENT OF A METHODOLOGY FOR REGIONAL EVALUATION OF CONFINING BED INTEGRITY
For safe underground injection of liquid waste, confining formations must be thick, extensive, and have low permeability. Recognition of faults that extend from the potential injection zone to underground sources of drinking water is critical for evaluation of confining-bed integ...
Quantum confined Stark effect in Gaussian quantum wells: A tight-binding study
Ramírez-Morales, A.; Martínez-Orozco, J. C.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I.
2014-05-15
The main characteristics of the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) are studied theoretically in quantum wells of Gaussian profile. The semi-empirical tight-binding model and the Green function formalism are applied in the numerical calculations. A comparison of the QCSE in quantum wells with different kinds of confining potential is presented.
Confinement through a relativistic generalization of the linear interaction
Cetin Savkli; Franz Gross
1998-10-08
Generalizing a covariant framework previously developed, it is shown that confinement insures that meson $\\to q+\\bar{q}$ decay amplitudes vanish when both quarks are on-shell. Regularization of singularities in a covariant linear potential associated with nonzero energy transfers (i.e. $q^2=0, q^{\\mu}\
Cluster crystals in confinement Sven van Teeffelen,*a
Likos, Christos N.
manifest in a fluid layer growing on the walls, already under conditions in which the crystal is stableCluster crystals in confinement Sven van Teeffelen,*a Angel J. Morenob and Christos N. Likosac, repulsive pair potentials crystallize into cluster crystals. Here, we employ density functional theory
Polyelectrolyte stars in planar confinement
Martin Konieczny; Christos N. Likos
2006-04-18
We employ monomer-resolved Molecular Dynamics simulations and theoretical considerations to analyze the conformations of multiarm polyelectrolyte stars close to planar, uncharged walls. We identify three mechanisms that contribute to the emergence of a repulsive star-wall force, namely: the confinement of the counterions that are trapped in the star interior, the increase in electrostatic energy due to confinement as well as a novel mechanism arising from the compression of the stiff polyelectrolyte rods approaching the wall. The latter is not present in the case of interaction between two polyelectrolyte stars and is a direct consequence of the impenetrable character of the planar wall.
Orientational correlations in confined DNA
E. Werner; F. Persson; F. Westerlund; J. O. Tegenfeldt; B. Mehlig
2012-10-05
We study how the orientational correlations of DNA confined to nanochannels depend on the channel diameter D by means of Monte Carlo simulations and a mean-field theory. This theory describes DNA conformations in the experimentally relevant regime where the Flory-de Gennes theory does not apply. We show how local correlations determine the dependence of the end-to-end distance of the DNA molecule upon D. Tapered nanochannels provide the necessary resolution in D to study experimentally how the extension of confined DNA molecules depends upon D. Our experimental and theoretical results are in qualitative agreement.
Nartowski, K P; Tedder, J; Braun, D E; Fábián, L; Khimyak, Y Z
2015-09-23
The nanocrystallisation of complex molecules inside mesoporous hosts and control over the resulting structure is a significant challenge. To date the largest organic molecule crystallised inside the nano-pores is a known pharmaceutical intermediate - ROY (259.3 g mol(-1)). In this work we demonstrate smart manipulation of the phase of a larger confined pharmaceutical - indomethacin (IMC, 357.8 g mol(-1)), a substance with known conformational flexibility and complex polymorphic behaviour. We show the detailed structural analysis and the control of solid state transformations of encapsulated molecules inside the pores of mesoscopic cellular foam (MCF, pore size ca. 29 nm) and controlled pore glass (CPG, pore size ca. 55 nm). Starting from confined amorphous IMC we drive crystallisation into a confined methanol solvate, which upon vacuum drying leads to the stabilised rare form V of IMC inside the MCF host. In contrast to the pure form, encapsulated form V does not transform into a more stable polymorph upon heating. The size of the constraining pores and the drug concentration within the pores determine whether the amorphous state of the drug is stabilised or it recrystallises into confined nanocrystals. The work presents, in a critical manner, an application of complementary techniques (DSC, PXRD, solid-state NMR, N2 adsorption) to confirm unambiguously the phase transitions under confinement and offers a comprehensive strategy towards the formation and control of nano-crystalline encapsulated organic solids. PMID:26280634
Swimming of Vorticella in two-dimensional confinements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sotelo, Luz; Park, Young-Gil; Jung, Sunghwan; Ryu, Sangjin
2015-03-01
Vorticellais a ciliate observed in the stalked sessile form (trophont), which consists of an inverted bell-shaped cell body (zooid) and a slender stalk attaching the zooid to a substrate. Having circular cilia bands around the oral part, the stalkless zooid of Vorticella can serve as a model system for microorganism swimming. Here we present how the stalkess trophont zooid of Vorticella swims in two-dimensional confined geometries which are similar to the Hele-Shaw cell. Having harvested stalkless Vorticella zooids, we observed their swimming in water between two glass surfaces using video microscopy. Based on measured swimming trajectories and distributions of zooid orientation and swimming velocity, we analyzed how Vorticella's swimming mobility was influenced by the geometry constraints. Supported by First Award grant from Nebraska EPSCoR.
Towards assessing the violence of reaction during cookoff of confined energetic materials
Baer, M.R.; Kipp, M.E.; Schmitt, R.G.; Hobbs, M.L.
1996-11-01
An analysis of post-ignition events in a variable confinement cookoff test (VCCT) geometry is presented aimed toward predicting the level of violence during cookoff of confined thermally-degraded energetic materials. This study focuses on the dynamic events following thermal initiation whereby accelerated combustion interacts with confinement. Numerical simulations, based on a model of reactive multiphase mixtures, indicate that the response of energetic material is highly dependent upon thermal/mechanical damage states prior to ignition. These damaged states affect the rate of pressurization, dynamic compaction behavior and subsequent growth to detonation. Variations of the specific surface area and porosity produced by decomposition of the energetic material causes different responses ranging from pressure burst to detonation. Calculated stress histories are used in estimating breakup of the VCCT confinement based on Grady-Kipp fragmentation theory.
The Geometry Of War The Geometry Of War
Aslaksen, Helmer
The Geometry Of War 1 #12;The Geometry Of War GEM1518K Mathematics in Arts &Architecture Presenting : The Geometry Of War Prepared by: 1) Linda Tjoe Matriculation number: U017984E 2) Lince Salim Matriculation017997 2 #12;The Geometry Of War Contents Page(s) Introduction 1 1.1 Early Canon 2 1.2 The Triumph
Influence of confinement on polymer-electrolyte relaxational dynamics.
Zanotti, J.-M.; Smith, L. J.; Price, D. L.; Saboungi, M.-L.; Intense Pulsed Neutron Source; Lab. Leon Brillouin; Clark Univ.; CRMHT; CRMD
2004-01-01
Conception and industrial production of viable high specific energy/power batteries is a central issue for the development of non-polluting vehicles. In terms of stored energy and safety, solid-state devices using polymer electrolytes are highly desirable. One of the most studied systems is PEO (polyethylene oxide) complexed by Li salts. Polymer segmental motions and ionic conductivity are closely related. Bulk PEO is actually a biphasic system where an amorphous and a crystalline state (Tm 335 K) coexist. To improve ionic conduction in those systems requires a significant increase of the amorphous phase fraction where lithium conduction is known to mainly take place. Confinement strongly affects properties of condensed matter and in particular the collective phenomena inducing crystallization. Confinement of the polymer matrix is therefore a possible alternative route to the unpractical use of high temperature. Results of a quasi-elastic incoherent neutron scattering study of the influence of confinement on polyethylene oxide (PEO) and (PEO)8Li+[(CF3SO2)2N]- (or (POE)8LiTFSI) dynamics are presented. The nano-confining media is Vycor, a silica based hydrophilic porous glass (characteristic size of the 3D pore network 50 {angstrom}). As expected, the presence of Li salt slows down the bulk polymer dynamics. The confinement also affects dramatically the apparent mean-square displacement of the polymer. Local relaxational PEO dynamics is described KWW model. We also present an alternate model and show how the detailed polymer dynamics (correlation times and local geometry of the motions) can be described without the use of such stretched exponentials so as to access a rheology-related meaningful physical quantity: the monomeric friction coefficient.
Ion separation effects in mixed-species ablators for inertial-confinement-fusion implosions.
Amendt, Peter; Bellei, Claudio; Ross, J Steven; Salmonson, Jay
2015-02-01
Recent efforts to demonstrate significant self-heating of the fuel and eventual ignition at the National Ignition Facility make use of plastic (CH) ablators [O. A. Hurricane et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 056314 (2014)]. Mainline simulation techniques for modeling CH capsule implosions treat the ablator as an average-atom fluid and neglect potential species separation phenomena. The mass-ablation process for a mixture is shown to lead to the potential for species separation, parasitic energy loss according to thermodynamic arguments, and reduced rocket efficiency. A generalized plasma barometric formula for a multispecies concentration gradient that includes collisionality and steady flows in spherical geometry is presented. A model based on plasma expansion into a vacuum is used to interpret reported experimental evidence for ablator species separation in an inertial-confinement-fusion target [J. S. Ross et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10E323 (2012)]. The possibility of "runaway" hydrogen ions in the thermoelectric field of the ablation front is conjectured. PMID:25768614
Ion separation effects in mixed-species ablators for inertial-confinement-fusion implosions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amendt, Peter; Bellei, Claudio; Ross, J. Steven; Salmonson, Jay
2015-02-01
Recent efforts to demonstrate significant self-heating of the fuel and eventual ignition at the National Ignition Facility make use of plastic (CH) ablators [O. A. Hurricane et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 056314 (2014), 10.1063/1.4874330]. Mainline simulation techniques for modeling CH capsule implosions treat the ablator as an average-atom fluid and neglect potential species separation phenomena. The mass-ablation process for a mixture is shown to lead to the potential for species separation, parasitic energy loss according to thermodynamic arguments, and reduced rocket efficiency. A generalized plasma barometric formula for a multispecies concentration gradient that includes collisionality and steady flows in spherical geometry is presented. A model based on plasma expansion into a vacuum is used to interpret reported experimental evidence for ablator species separation in an inertial-confinement-fusion target [J. S. Ross et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10E323 (2012)]. The possibility of "runaway" hydrogen ions in the thermoelectric field of the ablation front is conjectured.
Accelerated quarks and energy loss in confinement theory
Kazuo Ghoroku; Kouki Kubo
2015-10-21
We study the energy loss rate (ELR) of the accelerated quark in terms of the holographic models for the two different motions, linear acceleration and uniform rotation. They are examined by two different non-conformal models with confinement. We found in both models that the value of ELR is bounded from below by the string tension of the linear confinement potential between quark and anti-quark. The lower bounds of ELR are independent of the types of the motion of the quark. They are determined by the string tension at the world sheet horizon of the model. These results are obtained when the model has the diagonal background metric.
Fractal energy spectrum of a polariton gas in a Fibonacci quasiperiodic potential.
Tanese, D; Gurevich, E; Baboux, F; Jacqmin, T; Lemaître, A; Galopin, E; Sagnes, I; Amo, A; Bloch, J; Akkermans, E
2014-04-11
We report on the study of a polariton gas confined in a quasiperiodic one-dimensional cavity, described by a Fibonacci sequence. Imaging the polariton modes both in real and reciprocal space, we observe features characteristic of their fractal energy spectrum such as the opening of minigaps obeying the gap labeling theorem and log-periodic oscillations of the integrated density of states. These observations are accurately reproduced solving an effective 1D Schrödinger equation, illustrating the potential of cavity polaritons as a quantum simulator in complex topological geometries. PMID:24765996
Integrable Background Geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calderbank, David M. J.
2014-03-01
This work has its origins in an attempt to describe systematically the integrable geometries and gauge theories in dimensions one to four related to twistor theory. In each such dimension, there is a nondegenerate integrable geometric structure, governed by a nonlinear integrable differential equation, and each solution of this equation determines a background geometry on which, for any Lie group G, an integrable gauge theory is defined. In four dimensions, the geometry is selfdual conformal geometry and the gauge theory is selfdual Yang-Mills theory, while the lower-dimensional structures are nondegenerate (i.e., non-null) reductions of this. Any solution of the gauge theory on a k-dimensional geometry, such that the gauge group H acts transitively on an ?-manifold, determines a (k+?)-dimensional geometry (k+??4) fibering over the k-dimensional geometry with H as a structure group. In the case of an ?-dimensional group H acting on itself by the regular representation, all (k+?)-dimensional geometries with symmetry group H are locally obtained in this way. This framework unifies and extends known results about dimensional reductions of selfdual conformal geometry and the selfdual Yang-Mills equation, and provides a rich supply of constructive methods. In one dimension, generalized Nahm equations provide a uniform description of four pole isomonodromic deformation problems, and may be related to the {SU}(?) Toda and dKP equations via a hodograph transformation. In two dimensions, the {Diff}(S^1) Hitchin equation is shown to be equivalent to the hyperCR Einstein-Weyl equation, while the {SDiff}(?^2) Hitchin equation leads to a Euclidean analogue of Plebanski's heavenly equations. In three and four dimensions, the constructions of this paper help to organize the huge range of examples of Einstein-Weyl and selfdual spaces in the literature, as well as providing some new ! ones. The nondegenerate reductions have a long ancestry. More ! recently , degenerate or null reductions have attracted increased interest. Two of these reductions and their gauge theories (arguably, the two most significant) are also described.
String Theory and Quark Confinement
A. Polyakov
1997-11-01
This article is based on a talk given at the ``Strings'97'' conference. It discusses the search for the universality class of confining strings. The key ingredients include the loop equations, the zigzag symmetry, the non-linear renormalization group. Some new tests for the equivalence between gauge fields and strings are proposed.
Mirror Confinement Systems: project summaries
Not Available
1980-07-01
This report contains descriptions of the projects supported by the Mirror Confinement Systems (MCS) Division of the Office of Fusion Energy. The individual project summaries were prepared by the principal investigators, in collaboration with MCS staff office, and include objectives and milestones for each project. In addition to project summaries, statements of Division objectives and budget summaries are also provided.
Azimuthal field instability in a confined ferrofluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dias, Eduardo O.; Miranda, José A.
2015-02-01
We report the development of interfacial ferrohydrodynamic instabilities when an initially circular bubble of a nonmagnetic inviscid fluid is surrounded by a viscous ferrofluid in the confined geometry of a Hele-Shaw cell. The fluid-fluid interface becomes unstable due to the action of magnetic forces induced by an azimuthal field produced by a straight current-carrying wire that is normal to the cell plates. In this framework, a pattern formation process takes place through the interplay between magnetic and surface tension forces. By employing a perturbative mode-coupling approach we investigate analytically both linear and intermediate nonlinear regimes of the interface evolution. As a result, useful analytical information can be extracted regarding the destabilizing role of the azimuthal field at the linear level, as well as its influence on the interfacial pattern morphology at the onset of nonlinear effects. Finally, a vortex sheet formalism is used to access fully nonlinear stationary solutions for the two-fluid interface shapes.
Dipole Transport: a New Confinement Paradigm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kesner, J.; Garnier, D.; Mauel, M.
2014-10-01
In a tokamak-like device turbulence will grow up to a level determined by non-linear processes. The associated transport, in combination with particle and energy sources then determines the density and temperature profiles of the plasma. This paradigm is fundamentally different for a plasma that is confined in a dipole field. In a dipole, levitated to avoid losses to the supports, the plasma will assume a stationary profile determined only by the specific volume, V (?) , (which is determined by the magnetic geometry). Independent of the source and sink profiles for particles and energy, turbulence will grow up to a sufficient level so that diffusion and pinch dynamics will establish stationary profiles characterized by ne ~ 1 / V and p ~ 1 /V 5 / 3 . This process is observed in magnetospheric plasmas and we have observed it in the laboratory in LDX. For example, with edge fueling in LDX we observed that the stationary (peaked) density profile (n ~ 1 / V) was established by a turbulence-driven density pinch whereas in recent experiments with core (pellet) fueling turbulence was observed to relax the density back to the stationary profile on a similar timescale. Supported by the NSF-DOE Partnership in Plasma Science Grants DE-FG02-00ER54585 and PHY-1201896.
Rickard Jonsson; Hans Westman
2007-08-21
We show that by employing the standard projected curvature as a measure of spatial curvature, we can make a certain generalization of optical geometry (Abramowicz and Lasota 1997, Class. Quantum Grav. 14 (1997) A23). This generalization applies to any spacetime that admits a hypersurface orthogonal shearfree congruence of worldlines. This is a somewhat larger class of spacetimes than the conformally static spacetimes assumed in standard optical geometry. In the generalized optical geometry, which in the generic case is time dependent, photons move with unit speed along spatial geodesics and the sideways force experienced by a particle following a spatially straight line is independent of the velocity. Also gyroscopes moving along spatial geodesics do not precess (relative to the forward direction). Gyroscopes that follow a curved spatial trajectory precess according to a very simple law of three-rotation. We also present an inertial force formalism in coordinate representation for this generalization. Furthermore, we show that by employing a new sense of spatial curvature (Jonsson, Class. Quantum Grav. 23 (2006) 1) closely connected to Fermat's principle, we can make a more extensive generalization of optical geometry that applies to arbitrary spacetimes. In general this optical geometry will be time dependent, but still geodesic photons move with unit speed and follow lines that are spatially straight in the new sense. Also, the sideways experienced (comoving) force on a test particle following a line that is straight in the new sense will be independent of the velocity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jonsson, Rickard; Westman, Hans
2006-01-01
We show that by employing the standard projected curvature as a measure of spatial curvature, we can make a certain generalization of optical geometry (Abramowicz M A and Lasota J-P 1997 Class. Quantum Grav. A 14 23 30). This generalization applies to any spacetime that admits a hypersurface orthogonal shearfree congruence of worldlines. This is a somewhat larger class of spacetimes than the conformally static spacetimes assumed in standard optical geometry. In the generalized optical geometry, which in the generic case is time dependent, photons move with unit speed along spatial geodesics and the sideways force experienced by a particle following a spatially straight line is independent of the velocity. Also gyroscopes moving along spatial geodesics do not precess (relative to the forward direction). Gyroscopes that follow a curved spatial trajectory precess according to a very simple law of three-rotation. We also present an inertial force formalism in coordinate representation for this generalization. Furthermore, we show that by employing a new sense of spatial curvature (Jonsson R 2006 Class. Quantum Grav. 23 1)) closely connected to Fermat's principle, we can make a more extensive generalization of optical geometry that applies to arbitrary spacetimes. In general this optical geometry will be time dependent, but still geodesic photons move with unit speed and follow lines that are spatially straight in the new sense. Also, the sideways experienced (comoving) force on a test particle following a line that is straight in the new sense will be independent of the velocity.
Confinement of multiply charged ions in an ECRH mirror plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petty, Clinton Craig
1989-06-01
This thesis is an experimental study of multiply charged ions in the Constance B mirror experiment. By measuring the ion densities, end loss fluxes and ion temperatures, the parallel confinement times for the first five charge states of oxygen and neon plasmas are determined. The parallel ion confinement times increase with charge state and peak on axis, both indications of an ion-confining potential dip created by the hot electrons. The radial profile of ion end loss is usually hollow due to large ion radial transport (tau sub parallel(i) is approximately tau sub perpendicular(i)), with the peak fluxes occurring at the edge of the electron cyclotron resonance zone. Several attempts are made to increase the end loss of selected ion species. Using minority ICRH, the end loss flux of resonant ions increases by 20 percent in cases when radial transport induced by ICRH is not too severe. A large antenna voltage can also extinguish the plasma. By adding helium to an oxygen plasma, the end loss of O(6+) increases by 80 due to decreased ion radial transport. An ion model is developed to predict the ion densities, end loss fluxes and confinement times in the plasma center using the ion particle balance equations, the quasineutrality condition and theoretical confinement time formulas. The model generally agrees with the experimental data for oxygen and neon plasmas to within experimental error. Under certain conditions spatial diffusion appears to determine the parallel ion confinement time of the highest charge states. For oxygen plasmas during ICRH, the measured parallel confinement time of the resonant ions is much shorter than their theoretical value, probably due to rf diffusion of the ions into the loss cone.
Hessian geometry and the holomorphic anomaly
Cardoso, Gabriel Lopes
2015-01-01
We present a geometrical framework which incorporates higher derivative corrections to the action of N = 2 vector multiplets in terms of an enlarged scalar manifold which includes a complex deformation parameter. This enlarged space carries a deformed version of special Kahler geometry which we characterise. The holomorphic anomaly equation arises in this framework from the integrability condition for the existence of a Hesse potential.
Surveys in Differential Geometry IX, International Press
Saloff-Coste, Laurent
Surveys in Differential Geometry IX, International Press Analysis on Riemannian co-compact covers Laurent Saloff-Coste Abstract. This is a survey on analysis on non-compact co-compact Riemann- ian covers. Introduction This article surveys results concerning the large scale potential theory of non- compact co
Geometries with intransitive equivalence relation
Yuri A. Rylov
2009-03-30
One considers geometry with the intransitive equaivalence relation. Such a geometry is a physical geometry, i.e. it is described completely by the world function, which is a half of the squared distance function. The physical geometry cannot be axiomatized, in general. It is obtained as a result of deformation of the proper Euclidean geometry. Class of physical geometries is more powerful, than the class of axiomatized geometries. The physical geometry admits one to describe such geometric properties as discreteness, granularity and limited divisibility. These properties are important in application to the space-time. They admits one to explain the discrimination properties of the space-time, which generate discrete parameters of elementary particles. Mathematical formalism of a physical geometry is very simple. The physical geometry is formulated in geometrical terms (in terms of points and world function) without a use of means of description (coordinate system, space dimension, manifold, etc.).
Quantum states of confined hydrogen plasma species: Monte Carlo calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Micca Longo, G.; Longo, S.; Giordano, D.
2015-12-01
The diffusion Monte Carlo method with symmetry-based state selection is used to calculate the quantum energy states of \\text{H}2+ confined into potential barriers of atomic dimensions (a model for these ions in solids). Special solutions are employed, permitting one to obtain satisfactory results with rather simple native code. As a test case, {{}2}{{\\Pi}u} and {{}2}{{\\Pi}g} states of \\text{H}2+ ions under spherical confinement are considered. The results are interpreted using the correlation of \\text{H}2+ states to atomic orbitals of H atoms lying on the confining surface and perturbation calculations. The method is straightforwardly applied to cavities of any shape and different hydrogen plasma species (at least one-electron ones, including H) for future studies with real crystal symmetries.
Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) Fusion For Space Propulsion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nadler, Jon
1999-01-01
An Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device was assembled at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Propulsion Research Center (PRC) to study the possibility of using IEC technology for deep space propulsion and power. Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement is capable of containing a nuclear fusion plasma in a series of virtual potential wells. These wells would substantially increase plasma confinement, possibly leading towards a high-gain, breakthrough fusion device. A one-foot in diameter IEC vessel was borrowed from the Fusion Studies Laboratory at the University of Illinois @ Urbana-Champaign for the summer. This device was used in initial parameterization studies in order to design a larger, actively cooled device for permanent use at the PRC.
Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) Fusion for Space Propulsion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nadler, Jon
1999-01-01
An Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) device was assembled at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Propulsion Research Center (PRC) to study the possibility of using EEC technology for deep space propulsion and power. Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement is capable of containing a nuclear fusion plasma in a series of virtual potential wells. These wells would substantially increase plasma confinement, possibly leading towards a high-gain, breakthrough fusion device. A one-foot in diameter IEC vessel was borrowed from the Fusion Studies Laboratory at the University of Illinois@Urbana-Champaign for the summer. This device was used in initial parameterization studies in order to design a larger, actively cooled device for permanent use at the PRC.
Life-testing oxide confined VCSELs: Too good to last?
Lear, K.L.; Kilcoyne, S.P.; Schneider, R.P. Jr.; Nevers, J.A.
1996-03-01
The use of native oxides (selective oxidation) in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers has produced dramatic improvements in these laser diodes but has also been suspected of causing poor reliability because of incidental reports of short lifetimes and physical considerations. Here we discuss the results of thousands of hours life-tests for oxide confined and implant confined devices at current densities from 1 to 12 kA/cm{sup 2}. There was a single infant mortality failure from a sample of 14 oxide confined lasers with the remainder showing relatively stable operation. The failed device is analyzed in terms of light current characteristics and near-field electroluminescence images, and potential screening criteria are proposed.
Strings on Bubbling Geometries
Hai Lin; Alexander Morisse; Jonathan P. Shock
2011-07-27
We study gauge theory operators which take the form of a product of a trace with a Schur polynomial, and their string theory duals. These states represent strings excited on bubbling AdS geometries which are dual to the Schur polynomials. These geometries generically take the form of multiple annuli in the phase space plane. We study the coherent state wavefunction of the lattice, which labels the trace part of the operator, for a general Young tableau and their dual description on the droplet plane with a general concentric ring pattern. In addition we identify a density matrix over the coherent states on all the geometries within a fixed constraint. This density matrix may be used to calculate the entropy of a given ensemble of operators. We finally recover the BMN string spectrum along the geodesic near any circle from the ansatz of the coherent state wavefunction.
Strings on bubbling geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Hai; Morisse, Alexander; Shock, Jonathan P.
2010-06-01
We study gauge theory operators which take the form of a product of a trace with a Schur polynomial, and their string theory duals. These states represent strings excited on bubbling AdS geometries which are dual to the Schur polynomials. These geometries generically take the form of multiple annuli in the phase space plane. We study the coherent state wavefunction of the lattice, which labels the trace part of the operator, for a general Young tableau and their dual description on the droplet plane with a general concentric ring pattern. In addition we identify a density matrix over the coherent states on all the geometries within a fixed constraint. This density matrix may be used to calculate the entropy of a given ensemble of operators. We finally recover the BMN string spectrum along the geodesic near any circle from the ansatz of the coherent state wave-function.
Strings on Bubbling Geometries
Lin, Hai; Shock, Jonathan P
2010-01-01
We study gauge theory operators which take the form of a product of a trace with a Schur polynomial, and their string theory duals. These states represent strings excited on bubbling AdS geometries which are dual to the Schur polynomials. These geometries generically take the form of multiple annuli in the phase space plane. We study the coherent state wavefunction of the lattice, which labels the trace part of the operator, for a general Young tableau and their dual description on the droplet plane with a general concentric ring pattern. In addition we identify a density matrix over the coherent states on all the geometries within a fixed constraint. This density matrix may be used to calculate the entropy of a given ensemble of operators. We finally recover the BMN string spectrum along the geodesic near any circle from the ansatz of the coherent state wavefunction.
Integral Geometry and Holography
Czech, Bartlomiej; McCandlish, Samuel; Sully, James
2015-01-01
We present a mathematical framework which underlies the connection between information theory and the bulk spacetime in the AdS$_3$/CFT$_2$ correspondence. A key concept is kinematic space: an auxiliary Lorentzian geometry whose metric is defined in terms of conditional mutual informations and which organizes the entanglement pattern of a CFT state. When the field theory has a holographic dual obeying the Ryu-Takayanagi proposal, kinematic space has a direct geometric meaning: it is the space of bulk geodesics studied in integral geometry. Lengths of bulk curves are computed by kinematic volumes, giving a precise entropic interpretation of the length of any bulk curve. We explain how basic geometric concepts -- points, distances and angles -- are reflected in kinematic space, allowing one to reconstruct a large class of spatial bulk geometries from boundary entanglement entropies. In this way, kinematic space translates between information theoretic and geometric descriptions of a CFT state. As an example, we...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ochiai, T.; Nacher, J. C.
2011-09-01
Recently, the application of geometry and conformal mappings to artificial materials (metamaterials) has attracted the attention in various research communities. These materials, characterized by a unique man-made structure, have unusual optical properties, which materials found in nature do not exhibit. By applying the geometry and conformal mappings theory to metamaterial science, it may be possible to realize so-called "Harry Potter cloaking device". Although such a device is still in the science fiction realm, several works have shown that by using such metamaterials it may be possible to control the direction of the electromagnetic field at will. We could then make an object hidden inside of a cloaking device. Here, we will explain how to design invisibility device using differential geometry and conformal mappings.
Study of the gluon-quark-antiquark static potential in SU(3) lattice QCD
Bicudo, P.; Cardoso, M.; Oliveira, O.
2008-05-01
We study the long distance interaction for hybrid hadrons, with a static gluon, a quark and an antiquark with lattice QCD techniques. A Wilson loop adequate to the static hybrid three-body system is developed and, using a 24{sup 3}x48 periodic lattice with {beta}=6.2 and a{approx}0.072 fm, two different geometries for the gluon-quark segment and the gluon-antiquark segment are investigated. When these segments are perpendicular, the static potential is compatible with confinement realized with a pair of fundamental strings, one linking the gluon to the quark and another linking the same gluon to the antiquark. When the segments are parallel and superposed, the total string tension is larger and agrees with the Casimir scaling measured by Bali. This can be interpreted with a type-II superconductor analogy for the confinement in QCD, with repulsion of the fundamental strings.
A double-layer based model of ion confinement in electron cyclotron resonance ion source
Mascali, D. Neri, L.; Celona, L.; Castro, G.; Gammino, S.; Ciavola, G.; Torrisi, G.; Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Informazione, delle Infrastrutture e dell’Energia Sostenibile, Via Graziella, I-89100 Reggio Calabria ; Sorbello, G.; Università degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica Elettronica ed Informatica, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania
2014-02-15
The paper proposes a new model of ion confinement in ECRIS, which can be easily generalized to any magnetic configuration characterized by closed magnetic surfaces. Traditionally, ion confinement in B-min configurations is ascribed to a negative potential dip due to superhot electrons, adiabatically confined by the magneto-static field. However, kinetic simulations including RF heating affected by cavity modes structures indicate that high energy electrons populate just a thin slab overlapping the ECR layer, while their density drops down of more than one order of magnitude outside. Ions, instead, diffuse across the electron layer due to their high collisionality. This is the proper physical condition to establish a double-layer (DL) configuration which self-consistently originates a potential barrier; this “barrier” confines the ions inside the plasma core surrounded by the ECR surface. The paper will describe a simplified ion confinement model based on plasma density non-homogeneity and DL formation.
Quantum chromodynamics near the confinement limit
Quigg, C.
1985-09-01
These nine lectures deal at an elementary level with the strong interaction between quarks and its implications for the structure of hadrons. Quarkonium systems are studied as a means for measuring the interquark interaction. This is presumably (part of) the answer a solution to QCD must yield, if it is indeed the correct theory of the strong interactions. Some elements of QCD are reviewed, and metaphors for QCD as a confining theory are introduced. The 1/N expansion is summarized as a way of guessing the consequences of QCD for hadron physics. Lattice gauge theory is developed as a means for going beyond perturbation theory in the solution of QCD. The correspondence between statistical mechanics, quantum mechanics, and field theory is made, and simple spin systems are formulated on the lattice. The lattice analog of local gauge invariance is developed, and analytic methods for solving lattice gauge theory are considered. The strong-coupling expansion indicates the existence of a confining phase, and the renormalization group provides a means for recovering the consequences of continuum field theory. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations of lattice theories give evidence for the phase structure of gauge theories, yield an estimate for the string tension characterizing the interquark force, and provide an approximate description of the quarkonium potential in encouraging good agreement with what is known from experiment.
On chiral symmetry breaking, topology and confinement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shuryak, Edward
2014-08-01
We start with the relation between the chiral symmetry breaking and gauge field topology. New lattice results further enhance the notion of Zero Mode Zone, a very narrow strip of states with quasizero Dirac eigenvalues. Then we move to the issue of “origin of mass” and Brown-Rho scaling: a number of empirical facts contradicts to the idea that masses of quarks and such hadrons as ?,N decrease near Tc. We argue that while at T=0 the main contribution to the effective quark mass is chirally odd m??, near Tc it rotates to chirally-even component m?, because “infinite clusters” of topological solitons gets split into finite ones. Recent progress in understanding of topology require introduction of nonzero holonomy
Buoyant jet behavior in confined regions
Fry, David J.
1981-01-01
Previous confined jet studies have emphasized the behavior of non-buoyant jets inside ducts or near plane boundaries (Coanda effect). Buoyancy, however, is a major factor in the confined jet behavior experienced in many ...
Quark Confinement and the Renormalization Group
Michael C. Ogilvie
2010-10-10
Recent approaches to quark confinement are reviewed, with an emphasis on their connection to renormalization group methods. Basic concepts related to confinement are introduced: the string tension, Wilson loops and Polyakov lines, string breaking, string tension scaling laws, center symmetry breaking, and the deconfinement transition at non-zero temperature. Current topics discussed include confinement on $R^3\\times S^1$, the real-space renormalization group, the functional renormalization group, and the Schwinger-Dyson equation approach to confinement.
Capillary and winding transitions in a confined cholesteric liquid crystal
Daniel de las Heras; Enrique Velasco; Yuri Martínez-Ratón
2015-07-23
We consider a Lebwohl-Lasher model of chiral particles confined in a planar cell (slit pore) with different boundary conditions, and solve it using mean-field theory. The phase behaviour of the system with respect to temperature and pore width is studied. Two phenomena are observed: (i) an isotropic-cholesteric transition which exhibits an oscillatory structure with respect to pore width, and (ii) an infinite set of winding transitions caused by commensuration effects between cholesteric pitch and pore width. The latter transitions have been predicted and analysed by other authors for cholesterics confined in a fixed pore and subject to an external field promoting the uniaxial nematic phase; here we induce winding transitions solely from geometry by changing the pore width at zero external field (a setup recently explored in Atomic-Force Microscopy experiments). In contrast with previous studies, we obtain the phase diagrams in the temperature vs pore width plane, including the isotropic-cholesteric transition, the winding transitions and their complex relationship. In particular, the structure of winding transitions terminates at the capillary isotropic-cholesteric transition via triple points where the confined isotropic phase coexists with two cholesterics with different helix indices. For symmetric and asymmetric monostable plate anchorings the phase diagram are qualitatively similar.
Universal behavior of hydrogels confined to narrow capillaries
Li, Yang; Sar?yer, Ozan S.; Ramachandran, Arun; Panyukov, Sergey; Rubinstein, Michael; Kumacheva, Eugenia
2015-01-01
Flow of soft matter objects through one-dimensional environments is important in industrial, biological and biomedical systems. Establishing the underlying principles of the behavior of soft matter in confinement can shed light on its performance in many man-made and biological systems. Here, we report an experimental and theoretical study of translocation of micrometer-size hydrogels (microgels) through microfluidic channels with a diameter smaller than an unperturbed microgel size. For microgels with different dimensions and mechanical properties, under a range of applied pressures, we established the universal principles of microgel entrance and passage through microchannels with different geometries, as well as the reduction in microgel volume in confinement. We also show a non-monotonic change in the flow rate of liquid through the constrained microgel, governed by its progressive confinement. The experimental results were in agreement with the theory developed for non-linear biaxial deformation of unentangled polymer gels. Our work has implications for a broad range of phenomena, including occlusion of blood vessels by thrombi and needle-assisted hydrogel injection in tissue engineering. PMID:26596468
Simulations of plasma confinement in an antihydrogen trap
Gomberoff, K.; Fajans, J.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.; Vay, J.-L.; Wurtele, J.S.
2007-10-15
The three-dimensional particle-in-cell (3-D PIC) simulation code WARP is used to study positron confinement in antihydrogen traps. The magnetic geometry is close to that of a UC Berkeley experiment conducted, with electrons, as part of the ALPHA collaboration (W. Bertsche et al., AIP Conf. Proc. 796, 301 (2005)). In order to trap antihydrogen atoms, multipole magnetic fields are added to a conventional Malmberg-Penning trap. These multipole fields must be strong enough to confine the antihydrogen, leading to multipole field strengths at the trap wall comparable to those of the axial magnetic field. Numerical simulations reported here confirm recent experimental measurements of reduced particle confinement when a quadrupole field is added to a Malmberg-Penning trap. It is shown that, for parameters relevant to various antihydrogen experiments, the use of an octupole field significantly reducesthe positron losses seen with a quadrupole field. A unique method for obtaining a 3-D equilibrium of the positrons in the trap with a collisionless PIC code was developed especially for the study of the antihydrogen trap; however, it is of practical use for other traps as well.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fielker, David
2007-01-01
Geoff Giles died suddenly in 2005. He was a highly original thinker in the field of geometry teaching. As early as 1964, when teaching at Strathallen School in Perth, he was writing in "MT27" about constructing tessellations by modifying the sides of triangles and (irregular) quadrilaterals to produce what he called "trisides" and "quadrisides".…
Algebraic Thinking and Geometry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grandau, Laura; Stephens, Ana C.
2006-01-01
This article describes how two middle school teachers incorporated algebraic thinking into their textbook-based geometry lessons. One teacher embedded algebraic concepts within an existing textbook lesson while the other teacher elicited algebraic thinking by extending a textbook lesson. (Contains 5 figures.)
Advanced Review Geometry optimization
Schlegel, H. Bernhard
of most computational chemistry studies that are concerned with the structure and/or reactivity part of most quantum chemical calcu- lations. This article surveys methods for optimizing equilibrium geometries, lo- cating transition structures, and following reaction paths. The emphasis is on optimizations
Sliding vane geometry turbines
Sun, Harold Huimin; Zhang, Jizhong; Hu, Liangjun; Hanna, Dave R
2014-12-30
Various systems and methods are described for a variable geometry turbine. In one example, a turbine nozzle comprises a central axis and a nozzle vane. The nozzle vane includes a stationary vane and a sliding vane. The sliding vane is positioned to slide in a direction substantially tangent to an inner circumference of the turbine nozzle and in contact with the stationary vane.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cooper, Brett D.; Barger, Rita
2009-01-01
The many connections between music and mathematics are well known. The length of a plucked string determines its tone, the time signature of a piece of music is a ratio, and note durations are measured in fractions. One connection commonly overlooked is that between music and geometry--specifically, geometric transformations, including…
Towards relativistic quantum geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ridao, Luis Santiago; Bellini, Mauricio
2015-12-01
We obtain a gauge-invariant relativistic quantum geometry by using a Weylian-like manifold with a geometric scalar field which provides a gauge-invariant relativistic quantum theory in which the algebra of the Weylian-like field depends on observers. An example for a Reissner-Nordström black-hole is studied.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hartz, Viggo
1981-01-01
Allowing students to use a polystyrene cutter to fashion their own three-dimensional models is suggested as a means of allowing individuals to experience problems and develop ideas related to solid geometry. A list of ideas that can lead to mathematical discovery is provided. (MP)
Atiyah, Michael; Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Hitchin, Nigel
2010-01-01
We review the remarkably fruitful interactions between mathematics and quantum physics in the past decades, pointing out some general trends and highlighting several examples, such as the counting of curves in algebraic geometry, invariants of knots and four-dimensional topology. PMID:20123740
COMPUTATIONAL REAL ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY
Mishra, Bud
geometry studies various algorithmic questions dealing with the real solutions of a system of equalities by the power and elegance with which it solves a broad and general class of problems arising in robotics, vision, computer aided design, geometric theorem proving, etc. The algorithmic problems that arise
Effects of resistive interchange instabilities on energy confinement in reversed-field pinch
AN Zhi-gang; Diamond, P.H.
1986-01-01
Electron conduction losses due to magnetic flutter produced by resistive interchange instabilities and the resulting confinement deterioration mechanism are investigated analytically. Using approximate solutions of MHD equations for even and odd potential parities, the potential and magnetic perturbation levels at saturation are estimated. These results are used to calculate the stochastic magnetic field diffusion coefficients. An expression for the anomalous electron thermal conductivity is then derived for collision-less and collisional regimes. Scaling laws for energy confinement are inferred therefrom.
Spectral properties of a confined nonlinear quantum oscillator in one and three dimensions
Schulze-Halberg, Axel; Gordon, Christopher R.
2013-04-15
We analyze the spectral behaviour of a nonlinear quantum oscillator model under confinement. The underlying potential is given by a harmonic oscillator interaction plus a nonlinear term that can be weakened or strengthened through a parameter. Numerical eigenvalues of the model in one and three dimensions are presented. The asymptotic behaviour of the eigenvalues for confinement relaxation and for vanishing nonlinear term in the potential is investigated. Our findings are compared with existing results.
Molecule-induced quantum confinement in single-walled carbon nanotube
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hida, Akira; Ishibashi, Koji
2015-04-01
A method of fabricating quantum-confined structures with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) has been developed. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy revealed that a parabolic confinement potential appeared when collagen model peptides were attached to both ends of an individual SWNT via the formation of carboxylic anhydrides. On the other hand, the confinement potential was markedly changed by yielding the peptide bonds between the SWNT and the collagen model peptides. Photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements showed that a type-II quantum dot was produced in the obtained heterostructure.
Theory of rheology in confinement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aerov, Artem A.; Krüger, Matthias
2015-10-01
The viscosity of fluids is generally understood in terms of kinetic mechanisms, i.e., particle collisions, or thermodynamic ones as imposed through structural distortions upon, e.g., applying shear. Often the latter are more relevant, which allows a simpler theoretical description, and, e.g., (damped) Brownian particles can be considered good fluid model systems. We formulate a general theoretical approach for rheology in confinement, based on microscopic equations of motion and classical density functional theory. Specifically, we discuss the viscosity for the case of two parallel walls in relative motion as a function of the wall-to-wall distance, analyzing its relation to the slip length found for a single wall. The previously observed [A. A. Aerov and M. Krüger, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 094701 (2014)., 10.1063/1.4866450] deficiency of inhomogeneous (unphysical) stresses under naive application of shear in confinement is healed when hydrodynamic interactions are included.
Physics of magnetic confinement fusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wagner, F.
2013-06-01
Fusion is the energy source of the universe. The local conditions in the core of the Sun allow the transfer of mass into energy, which is finally released in the form of radiation. Technical fusion melts deuterons and tritons to helium releasing large amounts of energy per fusion process. Because of the conditions for fusion, which will be deduced, the fusion fuel is in the plasma state. Here we report on the confinement of fusion plasmas by magnetic fields. Different confinement concepts — tokamaks and stellarators — will be introduced and described. The first fusion reactor, ITER, and the most modern stellarator, Wendelstein 7-X, are under construction. Their basic features and objectives will be presented.
The redemption of singularity confinement
Alfred Ramani; Basil Grammaticos; Ralph Willox; Takafumi Mase; Masataka Kanki
2014-12-18
We present a novel way to apply the singularity confinement property as a discrete integrability criterion. We shall use what we call a full deautonomisation approach, which consists in treating the free parameters in the mapping as functions of the independent variable, applied to a mapping complemented with terms that are absent in the original mapping but which do not change the singularity structure. We shall show, on a host of examples including the well-known mapping of Hietarinta-Viallet, that our approach offers a way to compute the algebraic entropy for these mappings exactly, thereby allowing one to distinguish between the integrable and non-integrable cases even when both have confined singularities.
Photoisomerization-Controlled Phase Segregation in a Submicron Confined Azonematic Liquid Crystal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zupan?i?, B.; Diez-Berart, S.; Finotello, D.; Lavrentovich, O. D.; Zalar, B.
2012-06-01
Deuteron nuclear magnetic resonance is used to study the phase segregation behavior of photoisomerizable liquid crystal diheptylazobenzene (7AB) confined into cylindrical pores of Anopore membranes. It is demonstrated that the concentration of both components in a binary trans-7AB and cis-7AB mixture can be controlled dynamically using UV-illumination stimulated trans-to-cis photoisomerization and thermally induced cis-to-trans backisomerization. The so far elusive temperature-concentration phase diagram of such system is determined by comparative analysis of the behavior in bulk, thin-planar, and Anopore-confining geometry.
Lefauve, Adrien; Saintillan, David
2014-02-01
Strongly confined active liquids are subject to unique hydrodynamic interactions due to momentum screening and lubricated friction by the confining walls. Using numerical simulations, we demonstrate that two-dimensional dilute suspensions of fore-aft asymmetric polar swimmers in a Hele-Shaw geometry can exhibit a rich variety of novel phase behaviors depending on particle shape, including coherent polarized density waves with global alignment, persistent counterrotating vortices, density shocks and rarefaction waves. We also explain these phenomena using a linear stability analysis and a nonlinear traffic flow model, both derived from a mean-field kinetic theory. PMID:25353410
Simulations of artificial swimmers in confined flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brandt, Luca; Zhu, Lailai; Gjølberg, Eerik
2012-11-01
Miniature swimmming robots are potentially powerful for microobject manipulation, such as flow control in lab-on-a-chip, localized drug delivery and screening for diseases. Magnetically driven artificial bacterial flagella (ABF) performing helical motion is advantegous due to high swimming speed and accurate control. Using boundary element method, we numerically investigate the propulsion of ABF in free space and near solid boundaries. Step-out at high actuation frequencies, wobbling and near-wall drifting are documented, in qualitative agreement with recent experiments. We aim to explore the effect of swimmer shape on the performance, thus benefiting design of efficient microswimmers. Propulsion of ABF confined by a solid wall with and without background shear flow is also studied, with a focus on wall-induced hydrodynamic interaction and its influence on the stability of the motion. Funding by VR (the Swedish Research Council) and Linne flow centre at KTH is acknowledged.
Anisotropic memory effects in confined colloidal diffusion.
Jeney, Sylvia; Luki?, Branimir; Kraus, Jonas A; Franosch, Thomas; Forró, László
2008-06-20
The motion of an optically trapped sphere constrained by the vicinity of a wall is investigated at times where hydrodynamic memory is significant. First, we quantify, in bulk, the influence of confinement arising from the trapping potential on the sphere's velocity autocorrelation function C(t). Next, we study the splitting of C(t) into C_{parallel}(t) and C_{perpendicular}(t), when the sphere is approached towards a surface. Thereby, we monitor the crossover from a slow t{-3/2} long-time tail, away from the wall, to a faster t{-5/2} decay, due to the subtle interplay between hydrodynamic backflow and wall effects. Finally, we discuss the resulting asymmetric time-dependent diffusion coefficients. PMID:18643565
Order in very cold confined plasmas
Schiffer, J.P. |
1995-12-31
The study of the structure and dynamic properties of classical systems of charged particles confined by external forces, and cooled to very low internal energies, is the subject of this talk. An infinite system of identical charged particles has been known for some time to form a body-centered cubic lattice and is a simple classical prototype for condensed matter. Recent technical developments in storage rings, ion traps, and laser cooling of ions, have made it possible to produce such systems in the laboratory, though somewhat modified because of their finite size. I would like to discuss what one may expect in such systems and also show some examples of experiments. If we approximate the potential of an ion trap with an isotropic harmonic force F = {minus}Kr then the Hamiltonian for this collection of ions is the same as that for J. J. Thomson`s ``plum pudding`` model of the atom, where electrons were thought of as discrete negative charges imbedded in a larger, positive, uniformly charged sphere. The harmonic force macroscopically is canceled by the average space-charge forces of the plasma-, and this fixes the overall radius of the distribution. What remains, are the residual two-body Coulomb interactions that keep the particles within the volume as nearly equidistant as possible in order to minimize the potential energy. The configurations obtained for the minimum energy of small ionic systems [2] in isotropic confinement are shown in figure 1. Indeed this is an `Exotic Atom` and fits well into the subject of this symposium honoring the 60th birthday of Professor Toshi Yamazaki.
Inertial Confinement Fusion R&D and Nuclear Proliferation
Robert J. Goldston
2011-04-28
In a few months, or a few years, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory may achieve fusion gain using 192 powerful lasers to generate x-rays that will compress and heat a small target containing isotopes of hydrogen. This event would mark a major milestone after decades of research on inertial confinement fusion (ICF). It might also mark the beginning of an accelerated global effort to harness fusion energy based on this science and technology. Unlike magnetic confinement fusion (ITER, 2011), in which hot fusion fuel is confined continuously by strong magnetic fields, inertial confinement fusion involves repetitive fusion explosions, taking advantage of some aspects of the science learned from the design and testing of hydrogen bombs. The NIF was built primarily because of the information it would provide on weapons physics, helping the United States to steward its stockpile of nuclear weapons without further underground testing. The U.S. National Academies' National Research Council is now hosting a study to assess the prospects for energy from inertial confinement fusion. While this study has a classified sub-panel on target physics, it has not been charged with examining the potential nuclear proliferation risks associated with ICF R&D. We argue here that this question urgently requires direct and transparent examination, so that means to mitigate risks can be assessed, and the potential residual risks can be balanced against the potential benefits, now being assessed by the NRC. This concern is not new (Holdren, 1978), but its urgency is now higher than ever before.
Spin-polarized hydrogen confined in three and two-dimensions
Silvera, I.F.
1995-04-01
Experimental efforts to produce a Bose Einstein condensed (BEC) gas of spin-polarized atomic hydrogen have been intensely pursued since 1980. Initial efforts studied hydrogen in contact with superfluid helium surfaces. In order to avoid the limiting wall recombination a static magnetic trap was developed which utilizes magnetic barriers to isolate atoms from the van der Wals walls. In this approach traps can be filled to about 10{sup 14} atoms/cm{sup 3} for which the critical temperature is in the region of 20-30 {mu}K. However, approaching BEC conditions, a new instability dominates the behavior. The authors have developed a new type of electromagnetic trap, a microwave (mw) trap in which the trapped atoms are in the ground spin-state so that at low temperature relaxation to a barrier state is strongly suppressed and BEC should be attainable. The shallow mw trap has recently been demonstrated experimentally for the cesium atom. Because the mw trap is so shallow it is necessary to precool the atoms for loading. The authors are constructing a hybrid trap in which the atoms are cooled in a static trap and then transferred to a mw trap where they can be further evaporatively cooled in an effort to achieve BEC. This trap should have density limits in the region of 10{sup 16} to 10{sup 17}/cm{sup 3} due to three-body recombination. A second, promising approach is in a 2-D geometry for which in finite sized systems BEC is allowed. Hydrogen atoms are confined to a superfluid helium surface by the absorption potential to form a 2-D gas. Although recombination is an important process on helium surfaces, recently the authors have shown that only a very small fraction of the recombination energy is coupled into the surface. With an appropriate geometry the recombination energy can be removed from the sample region to suppress heating to a negligible level. Furthermore in 2-D a magnetic field can have a maximum so that atoms can be confined to a very small area.
Vortex Lattices and Crystalline Geometries
Ning Bao; Sarah Harrison; Shamit Kachru; Subir Sachdev
2013-04-16
We consider $AdS_2 \\times R^2$ solutions supported by a magnetic field, such as those which arise in the near-horizon limit of magnetically charged $AdS_4$ Reissner-Nordstrom black branes. In the presence of an electrically charged scalar field, such magnetic solutions can be unstable to spontaneous formation of a vortex lattice. We solve the coupled partial differential equations which govern the charged scalar, gauge field, and metric degrees of freedom to lowest non-trivial order in an expansion around the critical point, and discuss the corrections to the free energy and thermodynamic functions arising from the formation of the lattice. We describe how such solutions can also be interpreted, via S-duality, as characterizing infrared crystalline phases of conformal field theories doped by a chemical potential, but in zero magnetic field; the doped conformal field theories are dual to geometries that exhibit dynamical scaling and hyperscaling violation.
Geometry independent game encapsulation for non-Euclidean geometries
de Figueiredo, Luiz Henrique
by engaging its players to immerse in the game's "alternative reality". The engagement generated by gamesGeometry independent game encapsulation for non-Euclidean geometries Filipe De´o Guimar~aes, Vin a ludic new approach to the presentation of non-Euclidean geometries by adapting classic games
Controlling defects in nematic and smectic liquid crystals through boundary geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beller, Daniel A.
Liquid crystals (LCs), presently the basis of the dominant electronics display technology, also hold immense potential for the design of new self-assembling, self-healing, and "smart" responsive materials. Essential to many of these novel materials are liquid crystalline defects, places where the liquid crystalline order is forced to break down, replacing the LC locally with a higher-symmetry phase. Despite the energetic cost of this local melting, defects are often present at equilibrium when boundary conditions frustrate the material order. These defects provide micron-scale tools for organizing colloids, focusing light, and generating micropatterned materials. Manipulating the shapes of the boundaries thus offers a route to obtaining new and desirable self-assembly outcomes in LCs, but each added degree of complexity in the boundary geometry increases the complexity of the liquid crystal's response. Therefore, conceptually minimal changes to boundary geometry are investigated for their effects on the self-assembled defect arrangements that result in nematic and smectic-A LCs in three dimensions as well as two-dimensional smectic LCs on curved substrates. In nematic LCs, disclination loops are studied in micropost confining environments and in the presence of sharp-edged colloidal inclusions, using both numerical modeling and topological reasoning. In both scenarios, sharp edges add new possibilities for the shape or placement of disclinations, permitting new types of colloidal self-assembly beyond simple chains and hexagonal lattices. Two-dimensional smectic LCs on curved substrates are examined in the special cases where the substrate curvature is confined to points or curves, providing an analytically tractable route to demonstrate how Gaussian curvature is associated with disclinations and grain boundaries, as well as these defects' likely experimental manifestations. In three-dimensional smectic-A LCs, novel self-assembled arrangements of focal conic domains (FCDs) are shown to arise from geometric patterning or curvature in boundaries exhibiting so-called hybrid anchoring. These new arrangements allow control over both the packing of the FCDs and their eccentricities. In general, defect self-assembly behavior in LCs is shown to depend sensitively on the shapes of confining boundaries, colloidal inclusions, and substrates, and several broad, new geometrical principles for directing the assembly of nontrivial defect configurations are presented.
Brane Universe: Global Geometry
Berezin, Victor
2010-06-23
The global geometries of bulk vacuum space-times in the brane-universe models are investigated and classified in terms of geometrical invariants. The corresponding Carter-Penrose diagrams and embedding diagrams are constructed. It is shown that for a given energy-momentum induced on the brane there can be different types of global geometries depending on the signs of a bulk cosmological term and surface energy density of the brane (the sign of the latter does not influence the internal cosmological evolution). It is shown that in the Randall-Sundrum scenario it is possible to have an asymmetric hierarchy splitting even with a Z{sub 2}-symmetric matching of 'our' brane to the bulk.
Cylindrical geometry hall thruster
Raitses, Yevgeny (Princeton, NJ); Fisch, Nathaniel J. (Princeton, NJ)
2002-01-01
An apparatus and method for thrusting plasma, utilizing a Hall thruster with a cylindrical geometry, wherein ions are accelerated in substantially the axial direction. The apparatus is suitable for operation at low power. It employs small size thruster components, including a ceramic channel, with the center pole piece of the conventional annular design thruster eliminated or greatly reduced. Efficient operation is accomplished through magnetic fields with a substantial radial component. The propellant gas is ionized at an optimal location in the thruster. A further improvement is accomplished by segmented electrodes, which produce localized voltage drops within the thruster at optimally prescribed locations. The apparatus differs from a conventional Hall thruster, which has an annular geometry, not well suited to scaling to small size, because the small size for an annular design has a great deal of surface area relative to the volume.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Riccioni, Fabio
2011-08-01
We probe doubled geometry with dual fundamental branes, i.e. solitons. Restricting ourselves first to solitonic branes with more than two transverse directions we find that the doubled geometry requires an effective wrapping rule for the solitonic branes which is dual to the wrapping rule for fundamental branes. This dual wrapping rule can be understood by the presence of Kaluza-Klein monopoles. Extending our analysis to supersymmetric solitonic branes with less than or equal to two transverse directions we show that such solitons are precisely obtained by applying the same dual wrapping rule to these cases as well. This extended wrapping rule cannot be explained by the standard Kaluza-Klein monopole alone. Instead, it suggests the existence of a class of generalized Kaluza-Klein monopoles in ten-dimensional string theory.
Multilevel geometry optimization
Rodgers, Jocelyn M.; Fast, Patton L.; Truhlar, Donald G.
2000-02-15
Geometry optimization has been carried out for three test molecules using six multilevel electronic structure methods, in particular Gaussian-2, Gaussian-3, multicoefficient G2, multicoefficient G3, and two multicoefficient correlation methods based on correlation-consistent basis sets. In the Gaussian-2 and Gaussian-3 methods, various levels are added and subtracted with unit coefficients, whereas the multicoefficient Gaussian-x methods involve noninteger parameters as coefficients. The multilevel optimizations drop the average error in the geometry (averaged over the 18 cases) by a factor of about two when compared to the single most expensive component of a given multilevel calculation, and in all 18 cases the accuracy of the atomization energy for the three test molecules improves; with an average improvement of 16.7 kcal/mol. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.
Ion Extraction from a Helicon Plasma Source for an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Becerra, Gabriel; Kulcinski, Gerald; Santarius, John
2012-10-01
HELIOS, an inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion device designed for advanced fuel studies [1], uses an external helicon plasma source, from which ions are extracted and subsequently accelerated radially into an electrostatic potential well set up by a semi-transparent cathode grid inside a spherical chamber. A campaign is underway to raise fusion rates to allow for diagnostic studies of IEC physics with helium-3 fuel, in order to benchmark the single-atomic-species formalism of VICTER, a Volterra integral-equation code on spherically convergent ion flow [2]. The helicon plasma has been characterized through double probe measurements of plasma density and electron temperature for various rf antenna and magnetic field geometries. Measurements of the extracted ion current using a witness plate and a Faraday cup are also presented.[4pt] [1] G.R. Piefer et al., Fusion Sci. Technol. 47, 1255 (2005).[0pt] [2] G.A. Emmert and J.F. Santarius, Phys. Plasmas 17, 013502 (2010).
Grollau, S; Abbott, N L; de Pablo, J J
2003-01-01
The effects of confinement on the director field configurations are studied for a spherical particle immersed in a nematic liquid crystal. The liquid crystal is confined in a cylindrical geometry and the particle is located on the axis of symmetry. A finite element method is used to minimize the Frank free energy for various sizes of the system. The liquid crystal is assumed to possess strong anchoring at all the surfaces in the system. Two structures are examined for strong homeotropic anchoring at the surface of the particle: configuration with a Saturn ring disclination line and configuration with a satellite point defect (hedgehog defect). It is shown that the equilibrium locations of the Saturn ring and of the hedgehog point defect change with confinement. It is also found that confinement induces an increase in the elastic free energy that differs substantially with the type of topological defect under consideration. In particular, the evaluation of the total free energy that includes an approximate contribution for the core defect shows that, for micrometer-sized particles in confined systems, the Saturn ring configuration appears to be more stable than the hedgehog defect. This result is in contrast to the bulk situation, where the hedgehog is more stable than the Saturn ring, and it helps explain recent experimental observations of Saturn ring defects around confined micrometer-sized solid particles. PMID:12636512
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hojman, Sergio A.; Gamboa, J.; Méndez, F.
2012-10-01
The inverse problem of calculus of variations and s-equivalence are re-examined by using results obtained from non-commutative geometry ideas. The role played by the structure of the modified Poisson brackets is discussed in a general context and it is argued that classical s-equivalent systems may be non-equivalent at the quantum mechanical level. This last fact is explicitly discussed comparing different approaches to deal with the Nair-Polychronakos oscillator.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cederwall, Martin; Rosabal, J. A.
2015-07-01
We investigate exceptional generalised diffeomorphisms based on E 8(8) in a geometric setting. The transformations include gauge transformations for the dual gravity field. The surprising key result, which allows for a development of a tensor formalism, is that it is possible to define field-dependent transformations containing connection, which are covariant. We solve for the spin connection and construct a curvature tensor. A geometry for the Ehlers symmetry SL( n + 1) is sketched. Some related issues are discussed.
Differential Geometry Based Multiscale Models
Wei, Guo-Wei
2010-01-01
Large chemical and biological systems such as fuel cells, ion channels, molecular motors, and viruses are of great importance to the scientific community and public health. Typically, these complex systems in conjunction with their aquatic environment pose a fabulous challenge to theoretical description, simulation, and prediction. In this work, we propose a differential geometry based multiscale paradigm to model complex macromolecular systems, and to put macroscopic and microscopic descriptions on an equal footing. In our approach, the differential geometry theory of surfaces and geometric measure theory are employed as a natural means to couple the macroscopic continuum mechanical description of the aquatic environment with the microscopic discrete atom-istic description of the macromolecule. Multiscale free energy functionals, or multiscale action functionals are constructed as a unified framework to derive the governing equations for the dynamics of different scales and different descriptions. Two types of aqueous macromolecular complexes, ones that are near equilibrium and others that are far from equilibrium, are considered in our formulations. We show that generalized Navier–Stokes equations for the fluid dynamics, generalized Poisson equations or generalized Poisson–Boltzmann equations for electrostatic interactions, and Newton's equation for the molecular dynamics can be derived by the least action principle. These equations are coupled through the continuum-discrete interface whose dynamics is governed by potential driven geometric flows. Comparison is given to classical descriptions of the fluid and electrostatic interactions without geometric flow based micro-macro interfaces. The detailed balance of forces is emphasized in the present work. We further extend the proposed multiscale paradigm to micro-macro analysis of electrohydrodynamics, electrophoresis, fuel cells, and ion channels. We derive generalized Poisson–Nernst–Planck equations that are coupled to generalized Navier–Stokes equations for fluid dynamics, Newton's equation for molecular dynamics, and potential and surface driving geometric flows for the micro-macro interface. For excessively large aqueous macromolecular complexes in chemistry and biology, we further develop differential geometry based multiscale fluid-electro-elastic models to replace the expensive molecular dynamics description with an alternative elasticity formulation. PMID:20169418
Emergent Complex Network Geometry
Wu, Zhihao; Menichetti, Giulia; Rahmede, Christoph; Bianconi, Ginestra
2015-01-01
Networks are mathematical structures that are universally used to describe a large variety of complex systems such as the brain or the Internet. Characterizing the geometrical properties of these networks has become increasingly relevant for routing problems, inference and data mining. In real growing networks, topological, structural and geometrical properties emerge spontaneously from their dynamical rules. Nevertheless we still miss a model in which networks develop an emergent complex geometry. Here we show that a single two parameter network model, the growing geometrical network, can generate complex network geometries with non-trivial distribution of curvatures, combining exponential growth and small-world properties with finite spectral dimensionality. In one limit, the non-equilibrium dynamical rules of these networks can generate scale-free networks with clustering and communities, in another limit planar random geometries with non-trivial modularity. Finally we find that these properties of the geometrical growing networks are present in a large set of real networks describing biological, social and technological systems. PMID:25985280
Integral geometry and holography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Czech, Bart?omiej; Lamprou, Lampros; McCandlish, Samuel; Sully, James
2015-10-01
We present a mathematical framework which underlies the connection between information theory and the bulk spacetime in the AdS3/CFT2 correspondence. A key concept is kinematic space: an auxiliary Lorentzian geometry whose metric is defined in terms of conditional mutual informations and which organizes the entanglement pattern of a CFT state. When the field theory has a holographic dual obeying the Ryu-Takayanagi proposal, kinematic space has a direct geometric meaning: it is the space of bulk geodesics studied in integral geometry. Lengths of bulk curves are computed by kinematic volumes, giving a precise entropic interpretation of the length of any bulk curve. We explain how basic geometric concepts — points, distances and angles — are reflected in kinematic space, allowing one to reconstruct a large class of spatial bulk geometries from boundary entanglement entropies. In this way, kinematic space translates between information theoretic and geometric descriptions of a CFT state. As an example, we discuss in detail the static slice of AdS3 whose kinematic space is two-dimensional de Sitter space.
Integral geometry and holography
Czech, Bartlomiej; Lamprou, Lampros; McCandlish, Samuel; Sully, James
2015-10-27
We present a mathematical framework which underlies the connection between information theory and the bulk spacetime in the AdS_{3}/CFT_{2} correspondence. A key concept is kinematic space: an auxiliary Lorentzian geometry whose metric is defined in terms of conditional mutual informations and which organizes the entanglement pattern of a CFT state. When the field theory has a holographic dual obeying the Ryu-Takayanagi proposal, kinematic space has a direct geometric meaning: it is the space of bulk geodesics studied in integral geometry. Lengths of bulk curves are computed by kinematic volumes, giving a precise entropic interpretation of the length of any bulk curve. We explain how basic geometric concepts — points, distances and angles — are reflected in kinematic space, allowing one to reconstruct a large class of spatial bulk geometries from boundary entanglement entropies. In this way, kinematic space translates between information theoretic and geometric descriptions of a CFT state. As an example, we discuss in detail the static slice of AdS_{3} whose kinematic space is two-dimensional de Sitter space.
Emergent Complex Network Geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Zhihao; Menichetti, Giulia; Rahmede, Christoph; Bianconi, Ginestra
2015-05-01
Networks are mathematical structures that are universally used to describe a large variety of complex systems such as the brain or the Internet. Characterizing the geometrical properties of these networks has become increasingly relevant for routing problems, inference and data mining. In real growing networks, topological, structural and geometrical properties emerge spontaneously from their dynamical rules. Nevertheless we still miss a model in which networks develop an emergent complex geometry. Here we show that a single two parameter network model, the growing geometrical network, can generate complex network geometries with non-trivial distribution of curvatures, combining exponential growth and small-world properties with finite spectral dimensionality. In one limit, the non-equilibrium dynamical rules of these networks can generate scale-free networks with clustering and communities, in another limit planar random geometries with non-trivial modularity. Finally we find that these properties of the geometrical growing networks are present in a large set of real networks describing biological, social and technological systems.
Integral Geometry and Holography
Bartlomiej Czech; Lampros Lamprou; Samuel McCandlish; James Sully
2015-05-20
We present a mathematical framework which underlies the connection between information theory and the bulk spacetime in the AdS$_3$/CFT$_2$ correspondence. A key concept is kinematic space: an auxiliary Lorentzian geometry whose metric is defined in terms of conditional mutual informations and which organizes the entanglement pattern of a CFT state. When the field theory has a holographic dual obeying the Ryu-Takayanagi proposal, kinematic space has a direct geometric meaning: it is the space of bulk geodesics studied in integral geometry. Lengths of bulk curves are computed by kinematic volumes, giving a precise entropic interpretation of the length of any bulk curve. We explain how basic geometric concepts -- points, distances and angles -- are reflected in kinematic space, allowing one to reconstruct a large class of spatial bulk geometries from boundary entanglement entropies. In this way, kinematic space translates between information theoretic and geometric descriptions of a CFT state. As an example, we discuss in detail the static slice of AdS$_3$ whose kinematic space is two-dimensional de Sitter space.
Surveying Diffusion in Complex Geometries. An Essay
Denis Grebenkov
2009-09-08
The surrounding world surprises us by the beauty and variety of complex shapes that emerge from nanometric to macroscopic scales. Natural or manufactured materials (sandstones, sedimentary rocks and cement), colloidal solutions (proteins and DNA), biological cells, tissues and organs (lungs, kidneys and placenta), they all present irregularly shaped "scenes" for a fundamental transport "performance", that is, diffusion. Here, the geometrical complexity, entangled with the stochastic character of diffusive motion, results in numerous fascinating and sometimes unexpected effects like diffusion screening or localization. These effects control many diffusion-mediated processes that play an important role in heterogeneous catalysis, biochemical mechanisms, electrochemistry, growth phenomena, oil recovery, or building industry. In spite of a long and rich history of academic and industrial research in this field, it is striking to see how little we know about diffusion in complex geometries, especially the one which occurs in three dimensions. We present our recent results on restricted diffusion. We look into the role of geometrical complexity at different levels, from boundary microroughness to hierarchical structure and connectivity of the whole diffusion-confining domain. We develop a new approach which consists in combining fast random walk algorithms with spectral tools. The main focus is on studying diffusion in model complex geometries (von Koch boundaries, Kitaoka acinus, etc.), as well as on developing and testing spectral methods. We aim at extending this knowledge and at applying the accomplished arsenal of theoretical and numerical tools to structures found in nature and industry.
On Confinement, Chiral Symmetry Breaking, and the UA(1) anomaly in Functional Approaches
Alkofer, Reinhard
2011-01-01
The so-called decoupling and scaling solutions of functional equations of Landau gauge Yang-Mills theory are briefly reviewed. In both types of solutions the positivity violation seen in the gluon propagator is taken as an indication of gluon confinement. In the scaling solution the resulting infrared singularities of the quark-gluon vertex are responsible for the linear potential between static quarks and are therefore signaling quark confinement. A corresponding description of the UA(1) anomaly in functional approaches is only known for the scaling solution. Nevertheless, it seems puzzling at first sight that quark confinement is related to the dynamical and anomalous breaking of chiral symmetry in a self-consistent manner: One obtains either all these phenomena or none. For the scaling solution also fundamental scalar fields are confined. This provides evidence that within functional approaches static confinement is an universal property of the gauge sector even though it is formally represented in the fun...
Pattern formation in confined chemical gardens
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Wit, Anne; Haudin, Florence; Brau, Fabian; Cartwright, Julyan
2014-05-01
Chemical gardens are plant-like mineral structures first described in the seventeenth century and popularly known from chemistry sets for children. They are classically grown in three-dimensional containers by placing a solid metal-salt seed into a silicate solution. When the metal salt starts dissolving in the silicate solution, a semi-permeable membrane forms by precipitation across which water is pumped by osmosis from the silicate solution into the metal salt solution, further dissolving the salt. Above a given pressure, the membrane breaks. The dissolved metal salt solution being generally less dense than the reservoir silicate solution, it rises as a buoyant jet through the broken membrane and further precipitates in contact with the silicate solution, producing a collection of mineral forms that resemble a garden. Such gardens are the subject of increased interest as a model system to understand pattern formation in sea-ice brinicles and hydrothermal vents on the seafloor, among others. All these self-organized precipitation structures at the interface between chemistry, fluid dynamics and mechanics share indeed common chemical, mechanical and electrical properties. In this framework, we study experimentally spatial patterns resulting from the growth of chemical gardens in confined quasi-two-dimensional (2D) geometries upon radial injection of a metallic salt solution into a silicate solution in a horizontal Hele-Shaw cell. We find a large variety of patterns including spirals, fingers, worms, filiform tubes, and flower-like patterns. By exploring the phase space of reactant concentrations and injection flow rates, we observe transitions between these spatio-temporal structures resulting from a coupling between the precipitation reaction, mechanical effects and hydrodynamic instabilities.
Thomson scattering from inertial confinement fusion plasmas
Glenzer, S.H.; Back, C.A.; Suter, L.J.
1997-07-08
Thomson scattering has been developed at the Nova laser facility as a direct and accurate diagnostic to characterize inertial confinement fusion plasmas. Flat disks coated with thin multilayers of gold and beryllium were with one laser beam to produce a two ion species plasma with a controlled amount of both species. Thomson scattering spectra from these plasmas showed two ion acoustic waves belonging to gold and beryllium. The phase velocities of the ion acoustic waves are shown to be a sensitive function of the relative concentrations of the two ion species and are in good agreement with theoretical calculations. These open geometry experiments further show that an accurate measurement of the ion temperature can be derived from the relative damping of the two ion acoustic waves. Subsequent Thomson scattering measurements from methane-filled, ignition-relevant hohlraums apply the theory for two ion species plasmas to obtain the electron and ion temperatures with high accuracy. The experimental data provide a benchmark for two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations using LASNEX, which is presently in use to predict the performance of future megajoule laser driven hohlraums of the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The data are consistent with modeling using significantly inhibited heat transport at the peak of the drive. Applied to NIF targets, this flux limitation has little effect on x- ray production. The spatial distribution of x-rays is slightly modified but optimal symmetry can be re-established by small changes in power balance or pointing. Furthermore, we find that stagnating plasma regions on the hohlraum axis are well described by the calculations. This result implies that stagnation in gas-filled hohlraums occurs too late to directly affect the capsule implosion in ignition experiments.
Computer-Aided Geometry Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shoosmith, J. N. (compiler); Fulton, R. E. (compiler)
1984-01-01
Techniques in computer-aided geometry modeling and their application are addressed. Mathematical modeling, solid geometry models, management of geometric data, development of geometry standards, and interactive and graphic procedures are discussed. The applications include aeronautical and aerospace structures design, fluid flow modeling, and gas turbine design.
Graded geometry and Poisson reduction
Cattaneo, A. S.; Zambon, M.
2009-02-02
The main result extends the Marsden-Ratiu reduction theorem in Poisson geometry, and is proven by means of graded geometry. In this note we provide the background material about graded geometry necessary for the proof. Further, we provide an alternative algebraic proof for the main result.
Weeks, Eric R.
Slow dynamics in cylindrically confined colloidal suspensions Nabiha Saklayen, Gary L. Hunter;Slow dynamics in cylindrically con¿ned colloidal suspensions Nabiha Saklayen, Gary L. Hunter, Kazem V transition in con¿ned cylindrical geometries. We use high speed three-dimensional confocal microscopy
Cylindrical confinement of semiflexible polymers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vázquez-Montejo, Pablo; McDargh, Zachary; Deserno, Markus; Guven, Jemal
2015-06-01
Equilibrium states of a closed semiflexible polymer binding to a cylinder are described. This may be either by confinement or by constriction. Closed completely bound states are labeled by two integers: the number of oscillations, n , and the number of times it winds the cylinder, p , the latter being a topological invariant. We examine the behavior of these states as the length of the loop is increased by evaluating the energy, the conserved axial torque, and the contact force. The ground state for a given p is the state with n =1 ; a short loop with p =1 is an elliptic deformation of a parallel circle; as its length increases it elongates along the cylinder axis with two hairpin ends. Excited states with n ?2 and p =1 possess n -fold axial symmetry. Short (long) loops possess energies ?p E0 (n E0 ), with E0 the energy of a circular loop with same radius as the cylinder; in long loops the axial torque vanishes. Confined bound excited states are initially unstable; however, above a critical length each n -fold state becomes stable: The folded hairpin cannot be unfolded. The ground state for each p is also initially unstable with respect to deformations rotating the loop off the surface into the interior. A closed planar elastic curve aligned along the cylinder axis making contact with the cylinder on its two sides is identified as the ground state of a confined loop. Exterior bound states behave very differently, if free to unbind, as signaled by the reversal in the sign of the contact force. If p =1 , all such states are unstable. If p ?2 , however, a topological obstruction to complete unbinding exists. If the loop is short, the bound state with p =2 and n =1 provides a stable constriction of the cylinder, partially unbinding as the length is increased. This motif could be relevant to an understanding of the process of membrane fission mediated by dynamin rings.
Formation of adhesion domains in stressed and confined membranes
Dharan, Nadiv
2015-01-01
The adhesion bonds connecting a lipid bilayer to an underlying surface may undergo a condensation transition resulting from an interplay between a short range attractive potential between them, and a long range fluctuation-induced potential of mean force. Here, we use computer simulations of a coarse-grained molecular model of supported lipid bilayers to study this transition in confined membranes, and in membranes subjected to a non-vanishing surface tension. Our results show that confinement may alter significantly the condensation transition of the adhesion bonds, whereas the application of surface tension has a very minor effect on it. We also investigate domain formation in membranes under negative tension which, in free membranes, causes enhancement of the amplitude of the membrane thermal undulations. Our results indicate that in supported membranes, this effect of a negative surface tension on the fluctuation spectrum is largely eliminated by the pressure resulting from the mixing entropy of the adhes...
Thermoelectricity in confined liquid electrolytes
Dietzel, Mathias
2015-01-01
The electric field in an extended phase of a liquid electrolyte exposed to a temperature gradient is attributed to different thermophoretic mobilities of the ion species. As shown herein, such Soret-type ion thermodiffusion is not required to induce thermoelectricity even in the simplest electrolyte if it is confined between charged walls. The space charge of the electric double layer leads to selective ion diffusion driven by a temperature-dependent electrophoretic ion mobility, which -for narrow channels- may cause thermo-voltages larger in magnitude than for the classical Soret equilibrium.
Thermoelectricity in confined liquid electrolytes
Mathias Dietzel; Steffen Hardt
2015-11-30
The electric field in an extended phase of a liquid electrolyte exposed to a temperature gradient is attributed to different thermophoretic mobilities of the ion species. As shown herein, such Soret-type ion thermodiffusion is not required to induce thermoelectricity even in the simplest electrolyte if it is confined between charged walls. The space charge of the electric double layer leads to selective ion diffusion driven by a temperature-dependent electrophoretic ion mobility, which -for narrow channels- may cause thermo-voltages larger in magnitude than for the classical Soret equilibrium.
Confined Space Imager (CSI) Software
2013-07-03
The software provides real-time image capture, enhancement, and display, and sensor control for the Confined Space Imager (CSI) sensor system The software captures images over a Cameralink connection and provides the following image enhancements: camera pixel to pixel non-uniformity correction, optical distortion correction, image registration and averaging, and illumination non-uniformity correction. The software communicates with the custom CSI hardware over USB to control sensor parameters and is capable of saving enhanced sensor images to an external USB drive. The software provides sensor control, image capture, enhancement, and display for the CSI sensor system. It is designed to work with the custom hardware.
Topological confinement in bilayer graphene.
Martin, Ivar; Blanter, Ya M; Morpurgo, A F
2008-01-25
We study a new type of one-dimensional chiral states that can be created in bilayer graphene (BLG) by electrostatic lateral confinement. These states appear on the domain walls separating insulating regions experiencing the opposite gating polarity. While the states are similar to conventional solitonic zero modes, their properties are defined by the unusual chiral BLG quasiparticles, from which they derive. The number of zero mode branches is fixed by the topological vacuum charge of the insulating BLG state. We discuss how these chiral states can manifest experimentally and emphasize their relevance for valleytronics. PMID:18233021
Rheology of confined granular flows
Richard, Patrick; Valance, Alexandre; Metayer, Jean-Francois; Crassous, Jerome; Delannay, Renaud; Louge, Michel
2010-05-05
The properties of confined granular flows on a heap are studied through numerical simulations and experiments. We address how such system can be simulated with period boundaries in the flow direction. The packing fraction and velocity profiles are found to be described by one length scale. The dependence of the kinematic properties on the number of grains and on micromechanical parameters (coefficient of restitution and coefficient of friction) is described. Our results show that the friction at the sidewalls gradually decreases and that this decrease can be explained by the intermittent motion of the grains in the quasistatic part of the flow.
Theory of rheology in confinement
Artem A. Aerov; Matthias Krüger
2015-09-27
The viscosity of fluids is generally understood in terms of kinetic mechanisms, i.e., particle collisions, or thermodynamic ones as imposed through structural distortions upon e.g. applying shear. Often the former is less relevant, and (damped) Brownian particles are considered good fluid model systems. We formulate a general theoretical approach for rheology in confinement, based on the many particle diffusion equation, evaluated via classical density functional theory. We discuss the viscosity for the situation of two parallel walls in relative motion as a function of wall-to-wall distance.
Confined Space Imager (CSI) Software
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2013-07-03
The software provides real-time image capture, enhancement, and display, and sensor control for the Confined Space Imager (CSI) sensor system The software captures images over a Cameralink connection and provides the following image enhancements: camera pixel to pixel non-uniformity correction, optical distortion correction, image registration and averaging, and illumination non-uniformity correction. The software communicates with the custom CSI hardware over USB to control sensor parameters and is capable of saving enhanced sensor images to anmore »external USB drive. The software provides sensor control, image capture, enhancement, and display for the CSI sensor system. It is designed to work with the custom hardware.« less
Electromelting of confined monolayer ice.
Qiu, Hu; Guo, Wanlin
2013-05-10
In sharp contrast to the prevailing view that electric fields promote water freezing, here we show by molecular dynamics simulations that monolayer ice confined between two parallel plates can melt into liquid water under a perpendicularly applied electric field. The melting temperature of the monolayer ice decreases with the increasing strength of the external field due to the field-induced disruption of the water-wall interaction induced well-ordered network of the hydrogen bond. This electromelting process should add an important new ingredient to the physics of water. PMID:23705718
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nayani, Karthik; Chang, Rui; Fu, Jinxin; Ellis, Perry W.; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto; Park, Jung Ok; Srinivasarao, Mohan
2015-08-01
The presumed ground state of a nematic fluid confined in a cylindrical geometry with planar anchoring corresponds to that of an axial configuration, wherein the director, free of deformations, is along the long axis of the cylinder. However, upon confinement of lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals in cylindrical geometries, here we uncover a surprising ground state corresponding to a doubly twisted director configuration. The stability of this ground state, which involves significant director deformations, can be rationalized by the saddle-splay contribution to the free energy. We show that sufficient anisotropy in the elastic constants drives the transition from a deformation-free ground state to a doubly twisted structure, and results in spontaneous symmetry breaking with equal probability for either handedness. Enabled by the twist angle measurements of the spontaneous twist, we determine the saddle-splay elastic constant for chromonic liquid crystals for the first time.
Nayani, Karthik; Chang, Rui; Fu, Jinxin; Ellis, Perry W; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto; Park, Jung Ok; Srinivasarao, Mohan
2015-01-01
The presumed ground state of a nematic fluid confined in a cylindrical geometry with planar anchoring corresponds to that of an axial configuration, wherein the director, free of deformations, is along the long axis of the cylinder. However, upon confinement of lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals in cylindrical geometries, here we uncover a surprising ground state corresponding to a doubly twisted director configuration. The stability of this ground state, which involves significant director deformations, can be rationalized by the saddle-splay contribution to the free energy. We show that sufficient anisotropy in the elastic constants drives the transition from a deformation-free ground state to a doubly twisted structure, and results in spontaneous symmetry breaking with equal probability for either handedness. Enabled by the twist angle measurements of the spontaneous twist, we determine the saddle-splay elastic constant for chromonic liquid crystals for the first time. PMID:26287517
Nayani, Karthik; Chang, Rui; Fu, Jinxin; Ellis, Perry W.; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto; Park, Jung Ok; Srinivasarao, Mohan
2015-01-01
The presumed ground state of a nematic fluid confined in a cylindrical geometry with planar anchoring corresponds to that of an axial configuration, wherein the director, free of deformations, is along the long axis of the cylinder. However, upon confinement of lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals in cylindrical geometries, here we uncover a surprising ground state corresponding to a doubly twisted director configuration. The stability of this ground state, which involves significant director deformations, can be rationalized by the saddle-splay contribution to the free energy. We show that sufficient anisotropy in the elastic constants drives the transition from a deformation-free ground state to a doubly twisted structure, and results in spontaneous symmetry breaking with equal probability for either handedness. Enabled by the twist angle measurements of the spontaneous twist, we determine the saddle-splay elastic constant for chromonic liquid crystals for the first time. PMID:26287517
Lubrication analysis of interacting rigid cylindrical particles in confined shear flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cardinaels, R.; Stone, H. A.
2015-07-01
Lubrication analysis is used to determine analytical expressions for the elements of the resistance matrix describing the interaction of two rigid cylindrical particles in two-dimensional shear flow in a symmetrically confined channel geometry. The developed model is valid for non-Brownian particles in a low-Reynolds-number flow between two sliding plates with thin gaps between the two particles and also between the particles and the walls. Using this analytical model, a comprehensive overview of the dynamics of interacting cylindrical particles in shear flow is presented. With only hydrodynamic interactions, rigid particles undergo a reversible interaction with no cross-streamline migration, irrespective of the confinement value. However, the interaction time of the particle pair substantially increases with confinement, and at the same time, the minimum distance between the particle surfaces during the interaction substantially decreases with confinement. By combining our purely hydrodynamic model with a simple on/off non-hydrodynamic attractive particle interaction force, the effects of confinement on particle aggregation are qualitatively mapped out in an aggregation diagram. The latter shows that the range of initial relative particle positions for which aggregation occurs is increased substantially due to geometrical confinement. The interacting particle pair exhibits tangential and normal lubrication forces on the sliding plates, which will contribute to the rheology of confined suspensions in shear flow. Due to the combined effects of the confining walls and the particle interaction, the particle velocities and resulting forces both tangential and perpendicular to the walls exhibit a non-monotonic evolution as a function of the orientation angle of the particle pair. However, by incorporating appropriate scalings of the forces, velocities, and doublet orientation angle with the minimum free fraction of the gap height and the plate speed, master curves for the forces versus orientation angle can be constructed.
Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M; Mamontov, Eugene; Ishai, Paul ben; Kolesnikov, Alexander I
2013-01-01
The properties of fluids can be significantly altered by the geometry of their confining environments. While there has been significant work on the properties of such confined fluids, the properties of fluids under ultraconfinement, environments where, at least in one plane, the dimensions of the confining environment are similar to that of the confined molecule, have not been investigated. This paper investigates the dynamic properties of water in beryl (Be3Al2Si6O18), the structure of which contains approximately 5-A-diam channels parallel to the c axis. Three techniques, inelastic neutron scattering, quasielastic neutron scattering, and dielectric spectroscopy, have been used to quantify these properties over a dynamic range covering approximately 16 orders of magnitude. Because beryl can be obtained in large single crystals we were able to quantify directional variations, perpendicular and parallel to the channel directions, in the dynamics of the confined fluid. These are significantly anisotropic and, somewhat counterintuitively, show that vibrations parallel to the c-axis channels are significantly more hindered than those perpendicular to the channels. The effective potential for vibrations in the c direction is harder than the potential in directions perpendicular to it. There is evidence of single-file diffusion of water molecules along the channels at higher temperatures, but below 150 K this diffusion is strongly suppressed. No such suppression, however, has been observed in the channel-perpendicular direction. Inelastic neutron scattering spectra include an intramolecular stretching O-H peak at 465 meV. As this is nearly coincident with that known for free water molecules and approximately 30 meV higher than that in liquid water or ice, this suggests that there is no hydrogen bonding constraining vibrations between the channel water and the beryl structure. However, dielectric spectroscopic measurements at higher temperatures and lower frequencies yield an activation energy for the dipole reorientation of 16.4 0.14 kJ/mol, close to the energy required to break a hydrogen bond in bulk water. This may suggest the presence of some other form of bonding between the water molecules and the structure, but the resolution of the apparent contradiction between the inelastic neutron and dielectric spectroscopic results remains uncertain.
Dynamics of harmonically-confined systems: Some rigorous results
Wu, Zhigang Zaremba, Eugene
2014-03-15
In this paper we consider the dynamics of harmonically-confined atomic gases. We present various general results which are independent of particle statistics, interatomic interactions and dimensionality. Of particular interest is the response of the system to external perturbations which can be either static or dynamic in nature. We prove an extended Harmonic Potential Theorem which is useful in determining the damping of the centre of mass motion when the system is prepared initially in a highly nonequilibrium state. We also study the response of the gas to a dynamic external potential whose position is made to oscillate sinusoidally in a given direction. We show in this case that either the energy absorption rate or the centre of mass dynamics can serve as a probe of the optical conductivity of the system. -- Highlights: •We derive various rigorous results on the dynamics of harmonically-confined atomic gases. •We derive an extension of the Harmonic Potential Theorem. •We demonstrate the link between the energy absorption rate in a harmonically-confined system and the optical conductivity.
Soft confinement for polymer solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oya, Yutaka; Kawakatsu, Toshihiro
2014-07-01
As a model of soft confinement for polymers, we investigated equilibrium shapes of a flexible vesicle that contains a phase-separating polymer solution. To simulate such a system, we combined the phase field theory (PFT) for the vesicle and the self-consistent field theory (SCFT) for the polymer solution. We observed a transition from a symmetric prolate shape of the vesicle to an asymmetric pear shape induced by the domain structure of the enclosed polymer solution. Moreover, when a non-zero spontaneous curvature of the vesicle is introduced, a re-entrant transition between the prolate and the dumbbell shapes of the vesicle is observed. This re-entrant transition is explained by considering the competition between the loss of conformational entropy and that of translational entropy of polymer chains due to the confinement by the deformable vesicle. This finding is in accordance with the recent experimental result reported by Terasawa et al. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 108 (2011) 5249).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Odling, N. E.; Perulero Serrano, R.; Hussein, M. E. A.; Riva, M.; Guadagnini, A.
2015-01-01
The use of barometric response functions (BRFs) for detecting the presence of fully penetrating, highly conductive bodies within aquifer confining layers that present potential pathways for contaminants is explored. BRFs are determined from borehole water level (WL) and barometric pressure (Bp) records. Past studies have shown that confining layer properties can be estimated from BRFs, providing a potential link between BRFs and the concept of groundwater vulnerability. Existing analytical models that predict the BRF from system properties assume homogeneity within the aquifer and its confining layer, conditions which are seldom satisfied in nature. The impact of partially and fully penetrating, high diffusivity heterogeneities within a confining layer (representing potential high flow pathways for contaminants) on the BRF is investigated through a suite of three-dimensional, transient numerical simulations of the confining layer-aquifer system. The results are interpreted through comparison with a modified pre-existing analytical model for the BRF. Comparison of numerically and analytically calculated BRFs reveals that the key effect of a localised, fully penetrating, high diffusivity heterogeneity within a low diffusivity confining layer is to reduce the BRF gain with only minor changes to the phase. This impact on the BRF decreases with increasing distance from the heterogeneity. The importance of heterogeneity size is secondary to distance from the borehole and partially penetrating heterogeneities affect the BRF to only a minor extent. Data from a study of the Chalk Aquifer (E. Yorkshire, England) which is semi-confined by heterogeneous glacial sediments display variations in BRFs which are qualitatively similar to those shown by the numerical results. It is suggested that the variation in BRFs estimated from borehole records across a semi-confined aquifer could be used to assess the degree of spatial continuity of low diffusivity lithologies within the confining layer which protect the aquifer against surface sourced contamination, and thus provide a tool to improve groundwater vulnerability assessment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Yang-Hui; Jejjala, Vishnu; Matti, Cyril; Nelson, Brent D.; Stillman, Michael
2015-10-01
We present an intriguing and precise interplay between algebraic geometry and the phenomenology of generations of particles. Using the electroweak sector of the MSSM as a testing ground, we compute the moduli space of vacua as an algebraic variety for multiple generations of Standard Model matter and Higgs doublets. The space is shown to have Calabi-Yau, Grassmannian, and toric signatures, which sensitively depend on the number of generations of leptons, as well as inclusion of Majorana mass terms for right-handed neutrinos. We speculate as to why three generations is special.
Optically Defined Mechanical Geometry
Barasheed, Abeer Z; Sankey, Jack C
2015-01-01
In the field of optomechanics, radiation forces have provided a particularly high level of control over the frequency and dissipation of mechanical elements. Here we propose a class of optomechanical systems in which light exerts a profound influence over two other fundamental parameters: geometry and mass. By applying an optical trap to one lattice site of an extended phononic crystal, we show it is possible to create a tunable, localized mechanical mode. Owing to light's simultaneous and constructive coupling with the structure's continuum of modes, we estimate that a trap intensity at the level of a single photon should be capable of producing a measurable effect within a realistic, chip-scale device.
Kagan, Shelly
2005-01-01
Kansas The Geometry of Desert Shelly Kagan Here are two widely accepted claims about (moral) desert. First, people differ from one another in terms of how deserving they are, and because of this, some deserve more than others. Second, other things being equal..., it is an intrinsically good thing for people to get what they deserve. These two claims-which I will pretty much take as given in this paper-seem simple and straightforward enough. Of course, they imme diately bring us face to face with some familiar (and perennially...
Quark confinement in a constituent quark model
Langfeld, K.; Rho, M.
1995-07-01
On the level of an effective quark theory, we define confinement by the absence of quark anti-quark thresholds in correlation function. We then propose a confining Nambu-Jona-Lasinio-type model. The confinement is implemented in analogy to Anderson localization in condensed matter systems. We study the model`s phase structure as well as its behavior under extreme conditions, i.e. high temperature and/or high density.
Field-induced confined states in graphene
Moriyama, Satoshi; Morita, Yoshifumi; Watanabe, Eiichiro; Tsuya, Daiju
2014-02-03
We report an approach to confine the carriers in single-layer graphene, which leads to quantum devices with field-induced quantum confinement. We demonstrated that the Coulomb-blockade effect evolves under a uniform magnetic field perpendicular to the graphene device. Our experimental results show that field-induced quantum dots are realized in graphene, and a quantum confinement-deconfinement transition is switched by the magnetic field.
Confined jet impingement of liquid nitrogen onto different heat transfer surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, P.; Xu, G. H.; Fu, X.; Li, C. R.
2011-06-01
Jet impingement of liquid nitrogen owns many applications in the cryogenic cooling aspects, such as, cooling of high-power chips in the electronic devices and cryoprobes in the cryosurgery. In the present study, we systematically investigated the confined jet impingement of liquid nitrogen from a tube of about 2.0 mm in diameter onto the heat transfer surfaces of about 5.0 mm in basement diameter with different heat transfer surface geometries and conditions, i.e., flat surface, hemispherical surface and flat surface with a needle. The effects of many influential factors, such as, the geometry of the heat transfer surface, jet velocity, distance between the nozzle exit and heat transfer surface, heat transfer surface condition, and some other, on the heat transfer were investigated. The heat transfer correlations were also proposed by using the experimental data, and it was found that the heat transfer mechanism of liquid impingement in the confined space was dominated by the convective evaporation rather than the nucleate boiling in the present case. The critical heat flux (CHF) of the confined jet impingement was measured and the visualization of the corresponding flow patterns of the confined jet impingement of liquid nitrogen was also conducted simultaneously to understand the heat transfer phenomena.
Analytic Coleman-De Luccia Geometries
Xi Dong; Daniel Harlow
2012-01-11
We present the necessary and sufficient conditions for a Euclidean scale factor to be a solution of the Coleman-De Luccia equations for some analytic potential $V(\\phi)$, with a Lorentzian continuation describing the growth of a bubble of lower-energy vacuum surrounded by higher-energy vacuum. We then give a set of explicit examples that satisfy the conditions and thus are closed-form analytic examples of Coleman-De Luccia geometries.
Analytic Coleman-de Luccia Geometries
Dong, Xi; Harlow, Daniel; /Stanford U., ITP /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2012-02-16
We present the necessary and sufficient conditions for a Euclidean scale factor to be a solution of the Coleman-de Luccia equations for some analytic potential V ({psi}), with a Lorentzian continuation describing the growth of a bubble of lower-energy vacuum surrounded by higher-energy vacuum. We then give a set of explicit examples that satisfy the conditions and thus are closed-form analytic examples of Coleman-de Luccia geometries.
Mixed confinement regimes during equilibrium confinement spectroscopy of DNA
Gupta, Damini; Sheats, Julian; Muralidhar, Abhiram; Miller, Jeremy J.; Huang, Derek E.; Mahshid, Sara; Dorfman, Kevin D.; Reisner, Walter
2014-01-01
We have used a combination of fluorescence microscopy experiments and Pruned Enriched Rosenbluth Method simulations of a discrete wormlike chain model to measure the mean extension and the variance in the mean extension of ?-DNA in 100 nm deep nanochannels with widths ranging from 100 nm to 1000 nm in discrete 100 nm steps. The mean extension is only weakly affected by the channel aspect ratio. In contrast, the fluctuations of the chain extension qualitatively differ between rectangular channels and square channels with the same cross-sectional area, owing to the “mixing” of different confinement regimes in the rectangular channels. The agreement between experiment and simulation is very good, using the extension due to intercalation as the only adjustable parameter. PMID:24908035
Singular patterns for an aggregation model with a confining potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolokolnikov, Theodore; Huang, Yanghong; Pavlovski, Mark
2013-10-01
We consider the aggregation equation with an attractive-repulsive force law. Recent studies (Kolokolnikov et al. (2011) [22]; von Brecht et al. (2012) [23]; Balague et al. (2013) [15]) have demonstrated that this system exhibits a very rich solution structure, including steady states consisting of rings, spots, annuli, N-fold symmetries, soccer-ball patterns etc. We show that many of these patterns can be understood as singular perturbations off lower-dimensional equilibrium states. For example, an annulus is a bifurcation from a ring; soccer-ball patterns bifurcate off solutions that consist of delta-point concentrations. We apply asymptotic methods to classify the form and stability of many of these patterns. To characterize spot solutions, a class of “semi-linear” aggregation problems is derived, where the repulsion is described by a nonlinear term and the attraction is linear but non-symmetric. For a special class of perturbations that consists of a Newtonian repulsion, the spot shape is shown to be an ellipse whose precise dimensions are determined via a complex variable method. For annular shapes, their width and radial density profile are described using perturbation techniques.
Singular patterns for an aggregation model with a confining potential
Kolokolnikov, Theodore
- repulsive force law. Recent studies [T. Kolokolnikov et.al, PRE 015203R(2011); J.von Brecht et.al, M3AS structure, including steady states consisting of rings, spots, annuli, N-fold symmetries, soccer-dimensional equilibrium states. For example, an annulus is a bifurcation from a ring; soccer-ball patterns bifurcate off
Atanasov, Victor; Saxena, Avadh
2011-05-01
Adopting a purely two-dimensional relativistic equation for graphene's carriers contradicts the Heisenberg uncertainty principle since it requires setting the off-the-surface coordinate of a three-dimensional wavefunction to zero. Here we present a theoretical framework for describing graphene's massless relativistic carriers in accordance with this most fundamental of all quantum principles. A gradual confining procedure is used to restrict the dynamics onto a surface and normal to the surface parts, and in the process the embedding of this surface into the three-dimensional world is accounted for. As a result an invariant geometric potential arises in the surface part which scales linearly with the mean curvature and shifts the Fermi energy of the material proportional to bending. Strain induced modification of the electronic properties or 'straintronics' is clearly an important field of study in graphene. This opens an avenue to producing electronic devices: micro- and nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS), where the electronic properties are controlled by geometric means and no additional alteration of graphene is necessary. The appearance of this geometric potential also provides us with clues as to how quantum dynamics looks in the curved space-time of general relativity. In this context we explore a two-dimensional cross-section of the wormhole geometry, realized with graphene as a solid state thought experiment. PMID:21474883
Pedro Ojeda; Aurora Londono; Nan-Yow Chen; Martin Garcia
2008-08-04
We present a theoretical study of the folding of small proteins inside confining potentials. Proteins are described in the framework of an effective potential model which contains the Ramachandran angles as degrees of freedom and does not need any {\\it a priori} information about the native state. Hydrogen bonds, dipole-dipole- and hydrophobic interactions are taken explicitly into account. An interesting feature displayed by this potential is the presence of some intermediates between the unfolded and native states. We consider different types of confining potentials in order to study the structural properties of proteins folding inside cages with repulsive or attractive walls. Using the Wang-Landau algorithm we determine the density of states (DOS) and analyze in detail the thermodynamical properties of the confined proteins for different sizes of the cages. We show that confinement dramatically reduces the phase space available to the protein and that the presence of intermediate states can be controlled by varying the properties of the confining potential. Cages with strongly attractive walls lead to the disappearance of the intermediate states and to a two-state folding into a less stable configuration. However, cages with slightly attractive walls make the native structure more stable than in the case of pure repulsive potentials, and the folding process occurs through intermediate configurations. In order to test the metastable states we analyze the free energy landscapes as a function of the configurational energy and of the end-to-end distance as an order parameter.
Kurilenkov, Yu. K.; Tarakanov, V. P.; Gus'kov, S. Yu.
2010-12-15
Results of particle-in-sell simulations of ion acceleration by using the KARAT code in a cylindrical geometry in the problem formulation corresponding to an actual experiment with a low-energy vacuum discharge with a hollow cathode are presented. The fundamental role of the formed virtual cathode is analyzed. The space-time dynamics of potential wells related to the formation of the virtual cathode is discussed. Quasi-steady potential wells (with a depth of {approx}80% of the applied voltage) cause acceleration of deuterium ions to energies about the electron beam energy ({approx}50 keV). In the well, a quasi-isotropic velocity distribution function of fast ions forms. The results obtained are compared with available data on inertial electrostatic confinement fusion (IECF). In particular, similar correlations between the structure of potential wells and the neutron yield, as well as the scaling of the fusion power density, which increases with decreasing virtual cathode radius and increasing potential well depth, are considered. The chosen electrode configuration and potential well parameters provide power densities of nuclear DD fusion in a nanosecond vacuum discharge noticeably higher than those achieved in other similar IECF systems.
Soft and hard confinement of a two-electron quantum system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hall, Richard L.; Saad, Nasser; Sen, K. D.
2014-12-01
A model physical problem is studied in which a system of two electrons is subject either to soft confinement by means of attractive oscillator potentials or by entrapment within an impenetrable spherical box of finite radius R. When hard confinement is present the oscillators can be switched off. Exact analytical solutions are found for special parameter sets, and highly accurate numerical solutions (18 decimal places) are obtained for general cases. Some interesting degeneracy questions are discussed at length.
Relevant momentum components of gluons for confinement and chiral symmetry breaking
Arata Yamamoto; Hideo Suganuma
2010-08-10
We investigate which momentum components of gluons induce color confinement and spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in lattice QCD. For this purpose, we formulate a lattice framework to introduce the momentum cutoff of the gluon field. Using this framework, we calculate the quark-antiquark potential, the color flux tube, the chiral condensate, and the Dirac spectrum. Our results suggest that confinement and chiral symmetry breaking are induced by somehow different momentum components of gluons.
Confined polymer nematics: order and packing in a nematic drop
Daniel Svenšek; Gregor Veble; Rudolf Podgornik
2010-05-04
We investigate the tight packing of nematic polymers inside a confining hard sphere. We model the polymer {\\sl via} the continuum Frank elastic free energy augmented by a simple density dependent part as well as by taking proper care of the connectivity of the polymer chains when compared with simple nematics. The free energy {\\sl ansatz} is capable of describing an orientational ordering transition within the sample between an isotropic polymer solution and a polymer nematic phase. We solve the Euler-Lagrange equations numerically with the appropriate boundary conditions for the director and density field and investigate the orientation and density profile within a sphere. Two important parameters of the solution are the exact locations of the beginning and the end of the polymer chain. Pending on their spatial distribution and the actual size of the hard sphere enclosure we can get a plethora of various configurations of the chain exhibiting different defect geometry.
Implicit Methods for the Magnetohydrodynamic Description of Magnetically Confined Plasmas
S.C. Jardin
2010-09-28
Implicit algorithms are essential for predicting the slow growth and saturation of global instabilities in today’s magnetically confined fusion plasma experiments. Present day algorithms for obtaining implicit solutions to the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations for highly magnetized plasma have their roots in algorithms used in the 1960s and 1970s. However, today’s computers and modern linear and non?linear solver techniques make practical much more comprehensive implicit algorithms than were previously possible. Combining these advanced implicit algorithms with highly accurate spatial representations of the vector fields describing the plasma flow and magnetic fields and with improved methods of calculating anisotropic thermal conduction now makes possible simulations of fusion experiments using realistic values of plasma parameters and actual configuration geometry.
General theory for the mechanics of confined microtubule asters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Rui; Laan, Liedewij; Dogterom, Marileen; Pavin, Nenad; Jülicher, Frank
2014-01-01
In cells, dynamic microtubules organize into asters or spindles to assist positioning of organelles. Two types of forces are suggested to contribute to the positioning process: (i) microtubule-growth based pushing forces; and (ii) motor protein mediated pulling forces. In this paper, we present a general theory to account for aster positioning in a confinement of arbitrary shape. The theory takes account of microtubule nucleation, growth, catastrophe, slipping, as well as interaction with cortical force generators. We calculate microtubule distributions and forces acting on microtubule organizing centers in a sphere and in an ellipsoid. Positioning mechanisms based on both pushing forces and pulling forces can be distinguished in our theory for different parameter regimes or in different geometries. In addition, we investigate positioning of microtubule asters in the case of asymmetric distribution of motors. This analysis enables us to characterize situations relevant for Caenorrhabditis elegans embryos.
Effective Viscosity of Confined Hydrocarbons
I. M. Sivebaek; V. N. Samoilov; B. N. J. Persson
2012-01-24
We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon films with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. We find that the logarithm of the effective viscosity \\mu eff for nanometer-thin films depends linearly on the logarithm of the shear rate: log(effective viscosity) = C - n log (shear rate), where n varies from 1 (solidlike friction) at very low temperatures to 0 (Newtonian liquid) at very high temperatures, following an inverse sigmoidal curve. Only the shortest chain molecules melt, whereas the longer ones only show a softening in the studied temperature interval 0 < T < 900 K. The results are important for the frictional properties of very thin (nanometer) films and to estimate their thermal durability.
Multishell inertial confinement fusion target
Holland, James R. (Butler, PA); Del Vecchio, Robert M. (Vandergrift, PA)
1984-01-01
A method of fabricating multishell fuel targets for inertial confinement fusion usage. Sacrificial hemispherical molds encapsulate a concentric fuel pellet which is positioned by fiber nets stretched tautly across each hemispherical mold section. The fiber ends of the net protrude outwardly beyond the mold surfaces. The joint between the sacrificial hemispheres is smoothed. A ceramic or glass cover is then deposited about the finished mold surfaces to produce an inner spherical surface having continuously smooth surface configuration. The sacrificial mold is removed by gaseous reaction accomplished through the porous ceramic cover prior to enclosing of the outer sphere by addition of an outer coating. The multishell target comprises the inner fuel pellet concentrically arranged within a surrounding coated cover or shell by fiber nets imbedded within the cover material.
Multishell inertial confinement fusion target
Holland, James R. (Butler, PA); Del Vecchio, Robert M. (Vandergrift, PA)
1987-01-01
A method of fabricating multishell fuel targets for inertial confinement fusion usage. Sacrificial hemispherical molds encapsulate a concentric fuel pellet which is positioned by fiber nets stretched tautly across each hemispherical mold section. The fiber ends of the net protrude outwardly beyond the mold surfaces. The joint between the sacrificial hemispheres is smoothed. A ceramic or glass cover is then deposited about the finished mold surfaces to produce an inner spherical surface having continuously smooth surface configuration. The sacrificial mold is removed by gaseous reactions accomplished through the porous ceramic cover prior to enclosing of the outer sphere by addition of an outer coating. The multishell target comprises the inner fuel pellet concentrically arranged within a surrounding coated cover or shell by fiber nets imbedded within the cover material.
Confined subdiffusion in three dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Shan-Lin; He, Yong
2014-11-01
Three-dimensional (3D) Fick's diffusion equation and fractional diffusion equation are solved for different reflecting boundaries. We use the continuous time random walk model (CTRW) to investigate the time-averaged mean square displacement (MSD) of a 3D single particle trajectory. Theoretical results show that the ensemble average of the time-averaged MSD can be expressed analytically by a Mittag—Leffler function. Our new expression is in agreement with previous formulas in two limiting cases: in short lag time and in long lag time. We also simulate the experimental data of mRNA diffusion in living E. coli using a 3D CTRW model under confined and crowded conditions. The simulation results are well consistent with experimental results. The calculations of power spectral density (PSD) further indicate the subdiffsive behavior of an individual trajectory.
Magnetic confinement of cosmic clouds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Azar, Michel; Thompson, W. B.
1988-01-01
The role of the magnetic field in the confinement or compression of interstellar gas clouds is reconsidered. The virial theorem for an isolated magnetized cloud in the presence of distant magnetic sources is reformulated in terms of moments of the internal and external currents, and an equilibrium condition is derived. This condition is applied to the interaction between isolated clouds for the simple- and artificial-case in which the field of each cloud is a dipole. With the simplest of statistical assumptions, the probability of any given cloud being compressed is calculated as about 10 percent, the magnetic field acting as a medium which transmits the kinetic pressure between clouds. Even when compression occurs the magnetic pressure 1/2 B-squared may decrease on leaving the cloud surface.
Shear Relaxations of Confined Liquids.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carson, George Amos, Jr.
Ultrathin (<40 A) films of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (OMCTS), hexadecane, and dodecane were subjected to linear and non-linear oscillatory shear between flat plates. Shearing frequencies of 0.1 to 800 s^{-1} were applied at pressures from zero to 0.8 MPa using a surface rheometer only recently developed. In most cases the plates were atomically smooth mica surfaces; the role of surface interactions was examined by replacing these with alkyl chain monolayers. OMCTS and hexadecane were examined at a temperature about 5 Celsius degrees above their melting points and tended to solidify. Newtonian plateaus having enormous viscosities were observed at low shear rates. The onset of shear thinning implied relaxation times of about 0.1 s in the linear structure of the confined liquids. Large activation volumes (~80 nm ^3) suggested that shear involved large-scale collective motion. Dodecane was studied at a much higher temperature relative to its melting point and showed no signs of impending solidification though it exhibited well-defined regions of Newtonian response and power law shear thinning. When treated with molecular sieves before use, dodecane had relaxation times which were short (0.02 s) compared to hexadecane, but still exhibited large-scale collective motion. When treated with silica gel, an unexplained long -time relaxation (10 s) was seen in the Newtonian viscosity of dodecane. The relaxation time of the linear structure, 0.005 s was very small, and the storage modulus was unresolvable. The small activation volume (7nm^3) indicated a much lower level of collective motion. The activation volume remained small when dodecane was confined between tightly bound, low energy, alkyl monolayers. At low strains the storage and loss moduli became very large (>10^4 Pa), probably due to interactions with flaws in the monolayers. Dramatic signs of wall slip were observed at large strains even at low pressures.
Silveirinha, Mario G.; Engheta, Nader
2007-12-15
In this work, we investigate the detailed theory of the supercoupling, anomalous tunneling effect, and field confinement originally identified by Silveirinha and Engheta [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 157403 (2006)], where we demonstrated the possibility of using materials with permittivity {epsilon} near zero to drastically improve the transmission of electromagnetic energy through a narrow irregular channel with very subwavelength transverse cross section. Here, we present additional physical insights, describe applications of the tunneling effect in relevant waveguide scenarios (e.g., the 'perfect' or 'super' waveguide coupling), and study the effect of metal losses in the metallic walls and the possibility of using near-zero {epsilon} materials to confine energy in a subwavelength cavity with gigantic field enhancement. In addition, we systematically study the propagation of electromagnetic waves through narrow channels filled with anisotropic near-zero {epsilon} materials. It is demonstrated that these materials may have interesting potentials, and that for some particular geometries, the reflectivity of the channel is independent of the specific dimensions or parameters of near-zero {epsilon} transition. We also describe several realistic metamaterial implementations of the studied problems, based on standard metallic waveguides, microstrip line configurations, and wire media.
Confinement of conjugated polymers into soft nanoparticles: molecular dynamics simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wijesinghe, Sidath; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.
2013-03-01
The structure and dynamics of conjugated polymers confined into soft nanoparticles (SNPs) have been studies by molecular dynamic simulations. This new class of tunable luminescent SNPs exhibits an immense potential as bio-markers as well as targeted drug delivery agents where tethering specific groups to the surface particles offers a means to target specific applications. Of particular interest are SNPs that consist of non- crosslinked polymers, decorated with polar groups. These SNPs are potentially tunable through the dynamics of the polymer chains, whereas the polar entity serves as internal stabilizer and surface encore. Confinement of a polymer whose inherent conformation is extended impacts not only their dynamics and as a result their optical properties. Here we will present insight into the structure and dynamics of dialkyl poly para phenylene ethynylene (PPE), decorated by a carboxylate groups, confined into a soft particle. The conformation and dynamics of polymer within SNP will be discussed and compared with that of the linear chain in solution. This work in partially supported by DOE grant DE-FG02-12ER46843
Weapons Activities/ Inertial Confinement Fusion Ignition
Weapons Activities/ Inertial Confinement Fusion Ignition and High Yield Campaign FY 2012 a safe, secure, and reliable nuclear weapons stockpile without underground testing. Science-based weapons's Budget. Page 105 #12;Weapons Activities/ Inertial Confinement Fusion Ignition and High Yield Campaign FY
Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Status and Challenges
- no local damage #12;Plasma confinement is an optimization problem with many physics and engineering the plasma to 100 million degrees · Confining the plasma energy replacement time ~ 1 second for density ~ 1015 cm-3 · Extracting energy from the plasma co-existence of hot plasma and material surface #12
Evaporation rate of water in hydrophobic confinement
Evaporation rate of water in hydrophobic confinement Sumit Sharma and Pablo G. Debenedetti1, to compute the rate of capillary evaporation of water confined between two hydro- phobic surfaces separated to evaporation scales linearly with the gap between hydrophobic surfaces, suggesting that line tension makes
Confinement and the safety factor profile
Batha, S.H.; Levinton, F.M.; Scott, S.D.
1995-12-01
The conjecture that the safety factor profile, q(r), controls the improvement in tokamak plasmas from poor confinement in the Low (L-) mode regime to improved confinement in the supershot regime has been tested in two experiments on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). First, helium was puffed into the beam-heated phase of a supershot discharge which induced a degradation from supershot to L-mode confinement in about 100 msec, far less than the current relaxation time. The q and shear profiles measured by a motional Stark effect polarimeter showed little change during the confinement degradation. Second, rapid current ramps in supershot plasmas altered the q profile, but were observed not to change significantly the energy confinement. Thus, enhanced confinement in supershot plasmas is not due to a particular q profile which has enhanced stability or transport properties. The discharges making a continuous transition between supershot and L-mode confinement were also used to test the critical-electron-temperature-gradient transport model. It was found that this model could not reproduce the large changes in electron and ion temperature caused by the change in confinement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Byron, S.
1985-03-01
The low pressure gas-filled thyratron is scalable in the long dimension. Internally the tube is formed as a tetrode, with an auxiliary grid placed between the cathode and the control grid. A dc or pulsed power source drives the auxiliary grid both to insure uniform cathode emission and to provide a grid-cathode plasma prior to commutation. The high voltage holdoff structure consists of the anode, the control grid and its electrostatic shielding baffles, and a main quartz insulator. A small gas flow supply and exhaust system is used that eliminates the need for a hydrogen reservoir and permits other gases, such as helium, to be used. The thyratron provides a low inductance, high current, long lifetime switch configuration: useful for switch-on applications involving large scale lasers and other similar loads that are distributed in a linear geometry.
Bertrand Duplantier
2006-08-23
In these Notes, a comprehensive description of the universal fractal geometry of conformally-invariant scaling curves or interfaces, in the plane or half-plane, is given. The present approach focuses on deriving critical exponents associated with interacting random paths, by exploiting their underlying quantum gravity structure. The latter relates exponents in the plane to those on a random lattice, i.e., in a fluctuating metric, using the so-called Knizhnik, Polyakov and Zamolodchikov (KPZ) map. This is accomplished within the framework of random matrix theory and conformal field theory, with applications to geometrical critical models, like Brownian paths, self-avoiding walks, percolation, and more generally, the O(N) or Q-state Potts models and, last but not least, Schramm's Stochastic Loewner Evolution (SLE_kappa). These Notes can be considered as complementary to those by Wendelin Werner (2006 Fields Medalist!), ``Some Recent Aspects of Random Conformally Invariant Systems,'' arXiv:math.PR/0511268.
Critique of information geometry
Skilling, John
2014-12-05
As applied to probability, information geometry fails because probability distributions do not form a metric space. Probability theory rests on a compelling foundation of elementary symmetries, which also support information (aka minus entropy, Kullback-Leibler) H(p;q) as the unique measure of divergence from source probability distribution q to destination p. Because the only compatible connective H is from?to asymmetric, H(p;q)?H(q;p), there can be no compatible geometrical distance (which would necessarily be from=to symmetric). Hence there is no distance relationship compatible with the structure of probability theory. Metrics g and densities sqrt(det(g)) interpreted as prior probabilities follow from the definition of distance, and must fail likewise. Various metrics and corresponding priors have been proposed, Fisher's being the most popular, but all must behave unacceptably. This is illustrated with simple counter-examples.
Quantum computational geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lanzagorta, Marco; Uhlmann, Jeffrey K.
2004-08-01
The prospects for practical quantum computing have improved significantly over the past few years, and there is an increasing motivation for developing quantum algorithms to address problems that are presently impractical to solve using classical computing. In previous work we have indentified such problems in the areas of computer graphics applications, and we have derived quantum-based solutions. In this paper we examine quantum-based solutions to problems arising in the area of computational geometry. These types of problems are important in a variety of scientific, industrial and military applications such as large scale multi-object simulation, virtual reality systems, and multi-target tracking. In particular, we present quantum algorithms for multidimensional searches, convex hull construction, and collision detection.
Advanced geometries and regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bulanov, S. S.; Bulanov, S. V.; Turchetti, G.; Limpouch, J.; Klimo, O.; Psikal, J.; Stockem, A.; Fiuza, F.; Silva, L. O.; Antici, P.; Margarone, D.; Korn, G.
2013-08-01
We review and discuss different schemes of laser ion acceleration as well as advanced target geometries in connection with the development of the laser-driven proton source for hadron therapy of oncological diseases, which is a part of the ELIMED project. At the request of the Proceedings Editors and Dr. Stepan Bulanov, University of California, Berkeley, the above article has been updated to include three additional authors: A. Stockem, F. Fiuza, and L. O. Silva. All additional authors have consented to their name being added to the paper. Furthermore, the updated article PDF contains amendments to a number of references as detailed within the pages attached to the end of the updated article PDF file. The updated article was re-published on 8 August 2013.
Correa, Diego H.; Silva, Guillermo A.
2008-07-28
We discuss how geometrical and topological aspects of certain (1/2)-BPS type IIB geometries are captured by their dual operators in N = 4 Super Yang-Mills theory. The type IIB solutions are characterized by arbitrary droplet pictures in a plane and we consider, in particular, axially symmetric droplets. The 1-loop anomalous dimension of the dual gauge theory operators probed with single traces is described by some bosonic lattice Hamiltonians. These Hamiltonians are shown to encode the topology of the droplets. In appropriate BMN limits, the Hamiltonians spectrum reproduces the spectrum of near-BPS string excitations propagating along each of the individual edges of the droplet. We also study semiclassical regimes for the Hamiltonians. For droplets having disconnected constituents, the Hamiltonian admits different complimentary semiclassical descriptions, each one replicating the semiclassical description for closed strings extending in each of the constituents.
Boosting the Light: X-ray Physics in Confinement
Rhisberger, Ralf [HASYLAB/ DESY
2010-01-08
Remarkable effects are observed if light is confined to dimensions comparable to the wavelength of the light. The lifetime of atomic resonances excited by the radiation is strongly reduced in photonic traps, such as cavities or waveguides. Moreover, one observes an anomalous boost of the intensity scattered from the resonant atoms. These phenomena results from the strong enhancement of the photonic density of states in such geometries. Many of these effects are currently being explored in the regime of vsible light due to their relevance for optical information processing. It is thus appealing to study these phenomena also for much shorter wavelengths. This talk illuminates recent experiments where synchrotron x-rays were trapped in planar waveguides to resonantly excite atomos ([57]Fe nuclei_ embedded in them. In fact, one observes that the radiative decay of these excited atoms is strongly accelerated. The temporal acceleration of the decay goes along with a strong boost of the radiation coherently scattered from the confined atmos. This can be exploited to obtain a high signal-to-noise ratio from tiny quantities of material, leading to manifold applications in the investigation of nanostructured materials. One application is the use of ultrathin probe layers to image the internal structure of magnetic layer systems.
Multicharged Ion Generation in Plasma Confined in a Cusp Magnetic Trap at Quasigasdynamic Regime
Skalyga, V.; Zorin, V.
2005-03-15
Modern way of ECR multicharged ion sources development is connected with increasing of microwave frequency up to tens of GHz. Millimeter wave gyrotrons are used now in several laboratories. Traditional mirror magnetic traps with min B configuration for suppressing of MHD instabilities became too expensive because very strong magnetic fields are required. So prospection of axisymmetric plasma trap with MHD stabilization is quite relevant subject of modern plasma physics. The simplest trap of such kind is cusp one. The zero level of magnetic field in the center of the trap doesn't allow to achieve a good confinement in classical regime. A gasdynamic regime of plasma confinement was studied. The same regime may be realized in the cusp geometry trap if plasma density is high enough.In present work a theoretical model of quasi-gasdynamic plasma confinement in a cusp trap is developed. The possibilities of multicharged ion generation in a plasma confined in a cusp trap under the conditions of powerful ECR heating by pulsed radiation of a millimeter wavelength gyrotron were investigated numerically. Calculations were made. Confinement time was estimated with using of approach developed. The results of experiments with simplest kind of cusp trap have demonstrated good correspondence with theoretical calculations and therefore the adequacy of the developed approach and possibility to build more effective source on this base. Two ways of possible evolution of ECR ion sources based on a cusp magnetic trap are proposed.
Biofilm formation in geometries with different surface curvature and oxygen availability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Ya-Wen; Fragkopoulos, Alexandros A.; Marquez, Samantha M.; Kim, Harold D.; Angelini, Thomas E.; Fernández-Nieves, Alberto
2015-03-01
Bacteria in the natural environment exist as interface-associated colonies known as biofilms . Complex mechanisms are often involved in biofilm formation and development. Despite the understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in biofilm formation, it remains unclear how physical effects in standing cultures influence biofilm development. The topology of the solid interface has been suggested as one of the physical cues influencing bacteria-surface interactions and biofilm development. Using the model organism Bacillus subtilis, we study the transformation of swimming bacteria in liquid culture into robust biofilms in a range of confinement geometries (planar, spherical and toroidal) and interfaces (air/water, silicone/water, and silicone elastomer/water). We find that B. subtilis form submerged biofilms at both solid and liquid interfaces in addition to air-water pellicles. When confined, bacteria grow on curved surfaces of both positive and negative Gaussian curvature. However, the confinement geometry does affect the resulting biofilm roughness and relative coverage. We also find that the biofilm location is governed by oxygen availability as well as by gravitational effects; these compete with each other in some situations. Overall, our results demonstrate that confinement geometry is an effective way to control oxygen availability and subsequently biofilm growth.
Subwavelength light confinement with surface plasmon polaritons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verhagen, E.
2009-12-01
In free space, the diffraction limit sets a lower bound to the size to which light can be confined. Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), which are electromagnetic waves bound to the interface between a metal and a dielectric, allow the control of light on subwavelength length scales. This opens up a rich world of opportunities in science and technology, ranging from lighting and photovoltaics to photonic circuits and quantum optics. This thesis explores new ways to tailor the properties of SPPs such that they enable the confinement of light at nanoscale dimensions. A variety of metallodielectric geometries are used that can serve as waveguides for SPPs. We show how the SPP propagation characteristics can be controlled, and how light can be concentrated in subwavelength volumes by tapering and truncating the waveguides. In Chapter 2 we use a near-field microscope to image the fields of SPPs that are squeezed into a 50~nm thick dielectric layer between two Ag surfaces, showing that the wavelength of SPPs is significantly shortened with respect to that of light. Chapter 3 focuses on specific waveguided SPP modes that can exhibit a negative effective index of refraction. This enables negative refraction of light into the waveguide at optical frequencies. Chapters 4 and 5 show that the concentration of infrared SPPs in laterally tapered Ag stripe waveguides enhances the upconversion of infrared to visible light in Er ions in the substrate. SPPs focus at the 65 nm large taper apex. Calculations show that the observed focusing effect can only occur for SPPs at the interface between the metal stripe and the high-index substrate. The focusing in tapered waveguides is explained in terms of an adiabatic transformation of a SPP mode guided by the waveguides in Chapter 6. Tapered waveguides are used to efficiently excite SPPs on metal nanowires with diameters as small as 60 nm. Phase- and polarization-sensitive near-field microscopy allows retrieval of the propagation speed and the polarization nature of the excited nanowire mode. The efficiency with which a taper couples light to a nanowire is measured to be 50%. In Chapter 7, we show that SPPs that propagate onto a Si wedge on Ag come to a halt at a specific wedge thickness, concentrating energy in a subwavelength focus. Chapter 8 investigates field enhancement at a wavelength of 1.5 m in arrays of subwavelength apertures in a metal film. We study the enhanced excitation of Er ions positioned close to the metal film by collecting Er upconversion emission. Both propagating and localized SPP resonances are studied. The field enhancement due to localized resonances is shown to be independent of the incident angle. Chapter 9 describes the enhancement of the radiative emission rate of Er ions placed inside annular apertures. An increase of both the photoluminescence intensity and the photoluminescence decay rate is observed when the aperture resonance is tuned to the Er emission wavelength. We discuss some possible applications and future research directions in Chapter 10, in integrated photonics, photovoltaics, molecular sensing and metamaterials research.
Confinement-induced resonances in anharmonic waveguides
Peng Shiguo; Hu Hui; Liu Xiaji; Drummond, Peter D.
2011-10-15
We develop the theory of anharmonic confinement-induced resonances (ACIRs). These are caused by anharmonic excitation of the transverse motion of the center of mass (c.m.) of two bound atoms in a waveguide. As the transverse confinement becomes anisotropic, we find that the c.m. resonant solutions split for a quasi-one-dimensional (1D) system, in agreement with recent experiments. This is not found in harmonic confinement theories. A new resonance appears for repulsive couplings (a{sub 3D}>0) for a quasi-two-dimensional (2D) system, which is also not seen with harmonic confinement. After inclusion of anharmonic energy corrections within perturbation theory, we find that these ACIRs agree extremely well with anomalous 1D and 2D confinement-induced resonance positions observed in recent experiments. Multiple even- and odd-order transverse ACIRs are identified in experimental data, including up to N=4 transverse c.m. quantum numbers.
Relaxation of Polyisoprene in Nanoscale Confinement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Sung A.; Agarwal, Praveen; Archer, Lynden
2012-02-01
This talk introduces a simple model of confined polymers in polymer nanoparticle composites. Most studies about confined polymer dynamics have been investigated from the system of polymers in porous media or the polymer thin film structure. This new class of polymer nanoparticle hybrid materials, termed Nanoscale Ionic Materials (NIMs), is synthesized in bulk scale with convenient controllability of diverse properties to create the confined polymers in nanoscale. cis-Polyisoprene (PI), type A polymer whose dipole moments are parallel along the chain backbone, are synthesized by anionic polymerization and then tethered to spherical silica nanoparticles. Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy measures responses to the applied electric field which are normal mode relaxation indicative of whole chain relaxation, and also segmental relaxation. We show that relaxations of PI are slower when simultaneously confined and tethered. We also show that molecular weight and grafting density have a profound effect on dynamics of the twice-confined PI chains.
Coulomb gauge confinement in the heavy quark limit
Popovici, C.; Watson, P.; Reinhardt, H.
2010-05-15
The relationship between the nonperturbative Green's functions of Yang-Mills theory and the confinement potential is investigated. By rewriting the generating functional of quantum chromodynamics in terms of a heavy quark mass expansion in Coulomb gauge, restricting to leading order in this expansion and considering only the two-point functions of the Yang-Mills sector, the rainbow-ladder approximation to the gap and Bethe-Salpeter equations is shown to be exact in this case and an analytic, nonperturbative solution is presented. It is found that there is a direct connection between the string tension and the temporal gluon propagator. Further, it is shown that for the 4-point quark correlation functions, only confined bound states of color-singlet quark-antiquark (meson) and quark-quark (baryon) pairs exist.
Quantum confinement-induced tunable exciton states in graphene oxide
Lee, Dongwook; Seo, Jiwon; Zhu, Xi; Lee, Jiyoul; Shin, Hyeon-Jin; Cole, Jacqueline M.; Shin, Taeho; Lee, Jaichan; Lee, Hangil; Su, Haibin
2013-01-01
Graphene oxide has recently been considered to be a potential replacement for cadmium-based quantum dots due to its expected high fluorescence. Although previously reported, the origin of the luminescence in graphene oxide is still controversial. Here, we report the presence of core/valence excitons in graphene-based materials, a basic ingredient for optical devices, induced by quantum confinement. Electron confinement in the unreacted graphitic regions of graphene oxide was probed by high resolution X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy and first-principles calculations. Using experiments and simulations, we were able to tune the core/valence exciton energy by manipulating the size of graphitic regions through the degree of oxidation. The binding energy of an exciton in highly oxidized graphene oxide is similar to that in organic electroluminescent materials. These results open the possibility of graphene oxide-based optoelectronic device technology. PMID:23872608
Spectroscopic study of Gd nanostructures quantum confined in Fe corrals
Cao, R. X.; Sun, L.; Miao, B. F.; Li, Q. L.; Zheng, C.; Wu, D.; You, B.; Zhang, W.; Han, P.; Bader, S. D.; et al
2015-07-10
Low dimensional nanostructures have attracted attention due to their rich physical properties and potential applications. The essential factor for their functionality is their electronic properties, which can be modified by quantum confinement. Here the electronic states of Gd atom trapped in open Fe corrals on Ag(111) were studied via scanning tunneling spectroscopy. A single spectroscopic peak above the Fermi level is observed after Gd adatoms are trapped inside Fe corrals, while two peaks appear in empty corrals. The single peak position is close to the higher energy peak of the empty corrals. These findings, attributed to quantum confinement of themore »corrals and Gd structures trapped inside, are supported by tight-binding calculations. As a result, this demonstrates and provides insights into atom trapping in open corrals of various diameters, giving an alternative approach to modify the properties of nano-objects.« less
Spectroscopic study of Gd nanostructures quantum confined in Fe corrals
Cao, R. X.; Sun, L.; Miao, B. F.; Li, Q. L.; Zheng, C.; Wu, D.; You, B.; Zhang, W.; Han, P.; Bader, S. D.; Zhang, W. Y.; Ding, H. F.
2015-01-01
Low dimensional nanostructures have attracted attention due to their rich physical properties and potential applications. The essential factor for their functionality is their electronic properties, which can be modified by quantum confinement. Here the electronic states of Gd atom trapped in open Fe corrals on Ag(111) were studied via scanning tunneling spectroscopy. A single spectroscopic peak above the Fermi level is observed after Gd adatoms are trapped inside Fe corrals, while two peaks appear in empty corrals. The single peak position is close to the higher energy peak of the empty corrals. These findings, attributed to quantum confinement of the corrals and Gd structures trapped inside, are supported by tight-binding calculations. This demonstrates and provides insights into atom trapping in open corrals of various diameters, giving an alternative approach to modify the properties of nano-objects. PMID:26160318
Spectroscopic study of Gd nanostructures quantum confined in Fe corrals
Cao, R. X.; Sun, L.; Miao, B. F.; Li, Q. L.; Zheng, C.; Wu, D.; You, B.; Zhang, W.; Han, P.; Bader, S. D.; Zhang, W. Y.; Ding, H. F.
2015-07-10
Low dimensional nanostructures have attracted attention due to their rich physical properties and potential applications. The essential factor for their functionality is their electronic properties, which can be modified by quantum confinement. Here the electronic states of Gd atom trapped in open Fe corrals on Ag(111) were studied via scanning tunneling spectroscopy. A single spectroscopic peak above the Fermi level is observed after Gd adatoms are trapped inside Fe corrals, while two peaks appear in empty corrals. The single peak position is close to the higher energy peak of the empty corrals. These findings, attributed to quantum confinement of the corrals and Gd structures trapped inside, are supported by tight-binding calculations. As a result, this demonstrates and provides insights into atom trapping in open corrals of various diameters, giving an alternative approach to modify the properties of nano-objects.
Spacelike and timelike response of confined relativistic particles
Mark W. Paris
2002-09-16
Basic theoretical issues relating to the response of confined relativistic particles are considered including the scaling of the response in spacelike and timelike regions of momentum transfer and the role of final state interactions. A simple single particle potential model incorporating relativity and linear confinement is solved exactly and its response is calculated. The response is studied in common approximation schemes and it is found that final state interactions effects persist in the limit that the three-momentum transferred to the target is large. The fact that the particles are bound leads to a non-zero response in the timelike region of four-momentum transfer equal to about 10% of the total strength. The strength in the timelike region must be taken into account to fulfill the particle number sum rule.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Bing; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dongqi; Yin, Jun-Jie; Chen, Hanqing; Gao, Xingfa; Zhang, Jing; Ibrahim, Kurash; Chai, Zhifang; Feng, Weiyue; Zhao, Yuliang
2015-01-01
Preparation of heterogeneous catalysts with active ferrous centers is of great significance for industrial and environmental catalytic processes. Nanostructured carbon materials (NCM), which possess free-flowing ? electrons, can coordinate with transition metals, provide a confinement environment for catalysis, and act as potential supports or ligands to construct analogous complexes. However, designing such catalysts using NCM is still seldom studied to date. Herein, we synthesized a sandwich structured ternary complex via the coordination of Fe-loaded humic acid (HA) with C&z.dbd;C bonds in the aromatic rings of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), in which the O/N-Fe-C interface configuration provides the confinement environment for the ferrous sites. The experimental and theoretical results revealed octahedrally/tetrahedrally coordinated geometry at Fe centers, and the strong hybridization between CNT C ?* and Fe 3d orbitals induces discretization of the atomic charges on aromatic rings of CNTs, which facilitates O2 adsorption and electron transfer from carbon to O2, which enhances O2 activation. The O2 activation by the novel HA/Fe-CNT complex can be applied in the oxidative degradation of phenol red (PR) and bisphenol A (BPA) in aqueous media.Preparation of heterogeneous catalysts with active ferrous centers is of great significance for industrial and environmental catalytic processes. Nanostructured carbon materials (NCM), which possess free-flowing ? electrons, can coordinate with transition metals, provide a confinement environment for catalysis, and act as potential supports or ligands to construct analogous complexes. However, designing such catalysts using NCM is still seldom studied to date. Herein, we synthesized a sandwich structured ternary complex via the coordination of Fe-loaded humic acid (HA) with C&z.dbd;C bonds in the aromatic rings of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), in which the O/N-Fe-C interface configuration provides the confinement environment for the ferrous sites. The experimental and theoretical results revealed octahedrally/tetrahedrally coordinated geometry at Fe centers, and the strong hybridization between CNT C ?* and Fe 3d orbitals induces discretization of the atomic charges on aromatic rings of CNTs, which facilitates O2 adsorption and electron transfer from carbon to O2, which enhances O2 activation. The O2 activation by the novel HA/Fe-CNT complex can be applied in the oxidative degradation of phenol red (PR) and bisphenol A (BPA) in aqueous media. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Optimization of the mass ratios of HA to CNTs and the reaction pH conditions for Fe loading; scanning electron microscope (SEM), UV-Vis-near-infrared, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for CNT-HA; EPR experiment and UPLC-ESI-MS analysis; and DFT calculation. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06665k
Plasmid profiling of bacterial isolates from confined environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Houdt, Rob; Provoost, Ann; Coninx, Ilse; Leys, Natalie; Mergeay, Max
Plasmid profiling of bacterial isolates from confined environments R. Van Houdt, I. Coninx, A. Provoost, N. Leys, and M. Mergeay Expertise group for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Institute for Environment, Health and Safety, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK•CEN), Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol, Belgium. Human exploration of extreme and isolated hostile environments such as space requires special confined small volume habitats to protect and house the crew. However, human confinement in such small volume habitats has restrictions on waste disposal and personal hygiene and inevitably generates a particular community of microorganisms within the habitat. These microorganisms are mainly originating from the crew (skin, mucous membranes, upper respiratory tract, mouth, and gastrointestinal tract) but also include the residing environmental microorganisms. Earth-based confined habitats such as the Antarctic Research Station Concordia are used as test beds for long-duration spaceflights to study the physiologic and psychological adaptation to isolated environments. The dynamics of the environmental microbial population in such a test bed could render additional insights in assessing the potential health risks in long-duration space missions. Not only total bacterial contamination levels are important, but it is essential to identify also the predominant microbial taxa and their mobile genetic elements (MGE). These MGEs could be exchanged between bacteria by horizontal gene transfer and may alter the pathogenic potential since they often carry antibiotic resistance or more in general adaptation-enhancing traits. In this study several bacterial strains isolated in the Concordia research station were examined for their plasmid content. An optimized protocol for extraction of large plasmids showed the present of at least one plasmid in 50% of the strains. For all strains the minimal inhibitory concentration of a range of antibiotics was determined indicating resistance to different classes of antibiotics including aminoglycosides, penicillins, macrolides and chloramphenicol. Whether these antibiotic resistance determinants are plasmid-bound and whether these traits can be transferred to other bacteria is under investigation.
Layering transitions and solvation forces in an asymmetrically confined fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stewart, M. C.; Evans, R.
2014-04-01
We consider a simple fluid confined between two parallel walls (substrates), separated by a distance L. The walls exert competing surface fields so that one wall is attractive and may be completely wet by liquid (it is solvophilic) while the other is solvophobic. Such asymmetric confinement is sometimes termed a "Janus Interface." The second wall is: (i) purely repulsive and therefore completely dry (contact angle ? = 180°) or (ii) weakly attractive and partially dry (? is typically in the range 160-170°). At low temperatures, but above the bulk triple point, we find using classical density functional theory (DFT) that the fluid is highly structured in the liquid part of the density profile. In case (i), a sequence of layering transitions occurs: as L is increased at fixed chemical potential ? close to bulk gas-liquid coexistence ?co, new layers of liquid-like density develop discontinuously. In contrast to confinement between identical walls, the solvation force is repulsive for all wall separations and jumps discontinuously at each layering transition and the excess grand potential exhibits many metastable minima as a function of the adsorption. For a fixed temperature T = 0.56TC, where TC is the bulk critical temperature, we determine the transition lines in the L, ? plane. In case (ii), we do not find layering transitions and the solvation force oscillates about zero. We discuss how our mean-field DFT results might be altered by including effects of fluctuations and comment on how the phenomenology we have revealed might be relevant for experimental and simulation studies of water confined between hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates, emphasizing it is important to distinguish between cases (i) and (ii).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bain, D. B.; Smith, C. E.; Holdeman, J. D.
1995-01-01
Three dimensional turbulent reacting CFD analyses were performed on transverse jets injected into annular and cylindrical (can) confined crossflows. The goal was to identify and assess mixing differences between annular and can geometries. The approach taken was to optimize both annular and can configurations by systematically varying orifice spacing until lowest emissions were achieved, and then compare the results. Numerical test conditions consisted of a jet-to-mainstream mass-flow ratio of 3.2 and a jet-to-mainstream momentum-flux ratio (J) of 30. The computational results showed that the optimized geometries had similar emission levels at the exit of the mixing section although the annular configuration did mix-out faster. For lowest emissions, the density correlation parameter (C = (S/H) square root of J) was 2.35 for the annular geometry and 3.5 for the can geometry. For the annular geometry, the constant was about twice the value seen for jet mixing at low mass-flow ratios (i.e., MR less than 0.5). For the can geometry, the constant was about 1 1/2 times the value seen for low mass-flow ratios.
Bergmair, Michael; Bruno, Giovanni; Cattelan, Denis; Cobet, Christoph; de Martino, Antonello; Fleischer, Karsten; Dohcevic-Mitrovic, Zorana; Esser, Norbert; Galliet, Melanie; Gajic, Rados; Hemzal, Dušan; Hingerl, Kurt; Humlicek, Josef; Ossikovski, Razvigor; Popovic, Zoran V.; Saxl, Ottilia
2009-01-01
This paper discusses the fundamentals, applications, potential, limitations, and future perspectives of polarized light reflection techniques for the characterization of materials and related systems and devices at the nanoscale. These techniques include spectroscopic ellipsometry, polarimetry, and reflectance anisotropy. We give an overview of the various ellipsometry strategies for the measurement and analysis of nanometric films, metal nanoparticles and nanowires, semiconductor nanocrystals, and submicron periodic structures. We show that ellipsometry is capable of more than the determination of thickness and optical properties, and it can be exploited to gain information about process control, geometry factors, anisotropy, defects, and quantum confinement effects of nanostructures. PMID:21170135
308 Building Zone I stabilization and confinement
Metcalf, I.L.; Schwartz, K.E.; Rich, J.W.; Benecke, M.W.; Rasmussen, D.E.
1993-10-01
The 308 Building (Fast Flux Test Facility [FFTF] fuel supply) at the Hanford Site, located in Richland, Washington, is currently in transition to shutdown status. After shutdown, the facility will be maintained/surveilled and turned over to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Facility Transition and Management (EM-60) for utilization, remedial action, or decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). This may require that the facility be maintained in the shutdown mode for up to 30 years. To date, all of the special nuclear material (SNM) has been removed from the facility, potential fuel supply equipment has been preserved, surplus materials and equipment have been excessed, and enclosure cleanup and stabilization has begun. Shutdown planning has been completed, which outlines the major tasks, scope, methodology, and timing for the shutdown activities. A major activity in support of the 308 Building shutdown is the cleanup and stabilization of the enclosures and surface contamination areas. This document identifies the specific designs, processes, and methods to stabilize and confine the radiological material within the enclosures and exhaust ducts to allow shutdown of the active support systems. The designs and steps planned will be effective, are simple, and make maximum use of current technologies and commercial items.
Quasinormal modes for subtracted rotating and magnetized geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cveti?, M.; Gibbons, G. W.; Saleem, Z. H.
2014-12-01
We obtain explicit separable solutions of the wave equation of massless minimally coupled scalar fields in the subtracted geometry of four-dimensional rotating and Melvin (magnetised) four-charge black holes of the STU model, a consistent truncation of maximally supersymmetric supergravity with four types of electromagnetic fields. These backgrounds possess a hidden SL (2 ,R )×SL (2 ,R )×SO (3 ) symmetry and faithfully model the near-horizon geometry of these black holes, but locate them in a confining asymptotically conical box. For each subtracted geometry we obtain two branches of quasinormal modes, given in terms of hypergeometric functions and spherical harmonics. One branch is over-damped and the other under-damped and they exhibit rotational splitting. No black hole bomb is possible because the Killing field which corotates with the horizon is everywhere timelike outside the black hole. A five-dimensional lift of these geometries is given locally by the product of a Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole with a two-sphere. This allows an explicit analysis of the minimally coupled massive five-dimensional scalar field. Again, there are two branches, both damped; however, now their oscillatory parts are shifted by the quantized wave number k along the fifth circle direction.
Quasi-Normal Modes for Subtracted Rotating and Magnetised Geometries
M. Cvetic; G. W. Gibbons; Z. H. Saleem
2014-12-19
We obtain explicit separable solutions of the wave equation of massless minimally coupled scalar fields in the subtracted geometry of four-dimensional rotating and Melvin (magnetised) four-charge black holes of the STU model, a consistent truncation of maximally supersymmetric supergravity with four types of electromagnetic fields. These backgrounds possess a hidden SL(2,R) x SL(2,R) x SO(3) symmetry and faithfully model the near horizon geometry of these black holes, but locate them in a confining asymptotically conical box. For each subtracted geometry we obtain two branches of quasi-normal modes, given in terms of hypergeometric functions and spherical harmonics. One branch is over-damped and the other under-damped and they exhibit rotational splitting. No black hole bomb is possible because the Killing field which co-rotates with the horizon is everywhere timelike outside the black hole. A five-dimensional lift of these geometries is given locally by the product of a BTZ black hole with a two-sphere. This allows an explicit analysis of the minimally coupled massive five-dimensional scalar field. Again, there are two branches, both damped, however now their oscillatory parts are shifted by the quantised wave number $k$ along the fifth circle direction.
Unitary Thermodynamics from Thermodynamic Geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruppeiner, George
2014-01-01
Degenerate Fermi gases of atoms near a Feshbach resonance show universal thermodynamic properties, which are here calculated with the geometry of thermodynamics, and the thermodynamic curvature R. Unitary thermodynamics is expressed as the solution to a pair of ordinary differential equations, a "superfluid" one valid for small entropy per atom z? S/ Nk B , and a "normal" one valid for high z. These two solutions are joined at a second-order phase transition at z= z c . Define the internal energy per atom, in units of the Fermi energy, as Y= Y( z). For small z, Y( z)= y 0+ y 1 z ? + y 2 z 2 ? +⋯, where ? is a constant exponent, y 0 and y 1 are scaling factors, and the series coefficients y i ( i?2) are determined uniquely in terms of ( ?, y 0, y 1). For large z the solution follows if we also specify z c , with Y( z) diverging as z 5/3 for high z. The four undetermined parameters ( ?, y 0, y 1, z c ) were determined by fitting the theory to experimental data taken by a Duke University group on 6Li in an optical trap with a Gaussian potential. The very best fit of this theory to the data had ?=2.1, z c =4.7, y 0=0.277, and y 1=0.0735, with ? 2=0.95. The corresponding Bertsch parameter is ? B =0.462(40).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roberts, T. Maximillian
2014-10-01
Turbulence in a dipole-confined plasma is dominated by interchange fluctuations with complex dynamics and short coherence. We report the first laboratory demonstration of the regulation of interchange turbulence in a plasma torus confined by an axisymmetric dipole magnet using active feedback. Feedback is performed by varying the bias to an electrode in proportion to the electric potential measured at other locations. The phase and amplitude of the bias to the electrode is adjusted with a linear circuit, forming a relatively broad-band current-collection feedback system. Changing the gain and phase of collection results in modification of turbulent fluctuations, observed as amplification or suppression of turbulent spectrum. Significantly, power can be either extracted from or injected into the turbulence. When the gain and phase are adjusted to suppress turbulence, the external circuit becomes a controlled load extracting power from the plasma. This is analogous to the regulation of magnetospheric convection by ionospheric currents. When the gain and phase of the external circuit is adjusted to amplify turbulence, the direction of power flow from the electrode reverses, enhancing the fluctuations. Although we observe significant changes to the intensity and spectrum of plasma fluctuations, these changes appear only on those magnetic field lines within a region near the current collector equal in size to the turbulent correlation length and shifted in the direction of the electron magnetic drift. We conclude that the effects of this feedback on turbulence in a dipole plasma torus is localized. The clear influence of current-collection feedback on interchange turbulence suggests the possibility of global regulation of turbulent motion using multiple sensor and electrode pairs as well as the ability to perform controlled tests of bounce-averaged gyrokinetic theory of turbulence in the geometry of a dipole plasma torus. Supported by NSF-DOE Partnership for Plasma Science and DOE Grant DE-FG02-00ER54585 and NSF Award PHY-1201896.
Evaluation of a cone beam computed tomography geometry for image guided small animal irradiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yidong; Armour, Michael; Kang-Hsin Wang, Ken; Gandhi, Nishant; Iordachita, Iulian; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey; Wong, John
2015-07-01
The conventional imaging geometry for small animal cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is that a detector panel rotates around the head-to-tail axis of an imaged animal (‘tubular’ geometry). Another unusual but possible imaging geometry is that the detector panel rotates around the anterior-to-posterior axis of the animal (‘pancake’ geometry). The small animal radiation research platform developed at Johns Hopkins University employs the pancake geometry where a prone-positioned animal is rotated horizontally between an x-ray source and detector panel. This study is to assess the CBCT image quality in the pancake geometry and investigate potential methods for improvement. We compared CBCT images acquired in the pancake geometry with those acquired in the tubular geometry when the phantom/animal was placed upright simulating the conventional CBCT geometry. Results showed signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios in the pancake geometry were reduced in comparison to the tubular geometry at the same dose level. But the overall spatial resolution within the transverse plane of the imaged cylinder/animal was better in the pancake geometry. A modest exposure increase to two folds in the pancake geometry can improve image quality to a level close to the tubular geometry. Image quality can also be improved by inclining the animal, which reduces streak artifacts caused by bony structures. The major factor resulting in the inferior image quality in the pancake geometry is the elevated beam attenuation along the long axis of the phantom/animal and consequently increased scatter-to-primary ratio in that orientation. Not withstanding, the image quality in the pancake-geometry CBCT is adequate to support image guided animal positioning, while providing unique advantages of non-coplanar and multiple mice irradiation. This study also provides useful knowledge about the image quality in the two very different imaging geometries, i.e. pancake and tubular geometry, respectively.
Stretching of DNA confined in nanochannels with charged walls
Manneschi, Chiara; Fanzio, Paola; Angeli, Elena; Repetto, Luca; Valbusa, Ugo
2014-01-01
There is currently a growing interest in control of stretching of DNA inside nanoconfined regions due to the possibility to analyze and manipulate single biomolecules for applications such as DNA mapping and barcoding, which are based on stretching the DNA in a linear fashion. In the present work, we couple Finite Element Methods and Monte Carlo simulations in order to study the conformation of DNA molecules confined in nanofluidic channels with neutral and charged walls. We find that the electrostatic forces become more and more important when lowering the ionic strength of the solution. The influence of the nanochannel cross section geometry is also studied by evaluating the DNA elongation in square, rectangular, and triangular channels. We demonstrate that coupling electrostatically interacting walls with a triangular geometry is an efficient way to stretch DNA molecules at the scale of hundreds of nanometers. The paper reports experimental observations of ?-DNA molecules in poly(dimethylsiloxane) nanochannels filled with solutions of different ionic strength. The results are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions, confirming the crucial role of the electrostatic repulsion of the constraining walls on the molecule stretching. PMID:25553196
Planetary Image Geometry Library
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deen, Robert C.; Pariser, Oleg
2010-01-01
The Planetary Image Geometry (PIG) library is a multi-mission library used for projecting images (EDRs, or Experiment Data Records) and managing their geometry for in-situ missions. A collection of models describes cameras and their articulation, allowing application programs such as mosaickers, terrain generators, and pointing correction tools to be written in a multi-mission manner, without any knowledge of parameters specific to the supported missions. Camera model objects allow transformation of image coordinates to and from view vectors in XYZ space. Pointing models, specific to each mission, describe how to orient the camera models based on telemetry or other information. Surface models describe the surface in general terms. Coordinate system objects manage the various coordinate systems involved in most missions. File objects manage access to metadata (labels, including telemetry information) in the input EDRs and RDRs (Reduced Data Records). Label models manage metadata information in output files. Site objects keep track of different locations where the spacecraft might be at a given time. Radiometry models allow correction of radiometry for an image. Mission objects contain basic mission parameters. Pointing adjustment ("nav") files allow pointing to be corrected. The object-oriented structure (C++) makes it easy to subclass just the pieces of the library that are truly mission-specific. Typically, this involves just the pointing model and coordinate systems, and parts of the file model. Once the library was developed (initially for Mars Polar Lander, MPL), adding new missions ranged from two days to a few months, resulting in significant cost savings as compared to rewriting all the application programs for each mission. Currently supported missions include Mars Pathfinder (MPF), MPL, Mars Exploration Rover (MER), Phoenix, and Mars Science Lab (MSL). Applications based on this library create the majority of operational image RDRs for those missions. A Java wrapper around the library allows parts of it to be used from Java code (via a native JNI interface). Future conversions of all or part of the library to Java are contemplated.
GPS: Geometry, Probability, and Statistics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Field, Mike
2012-01-01
It might be said that for most occupations there is now less of a need for mathematics than there was say fifty years ago. But, the author argues, geometry, probability, and statistics constitute essential knowledge for everyone. Maybe not the geometry of Euclid, but certainly geometrical ways of thinking that might enable us to describe the world…
PRINCIPAL PATCHES FOR COMPUTATIONAL GEOMETRY
Martin, Ralph R.
PRINCIPAL PATCHES FOR COMPUTATIONAL GEOMETRY Ralph Robert Martin, B.A . Pembroke College, Cambridge, 1982. #12;ABSTRACT This thesis presents a new class of surface patches for the creation of sculptured geometry are used to create principal patches whose edges are lines of curvature. This is done by ensuring
Linguistic geometry for autonomous navigation
Stilman, B.
1995-09-01
To discover the inner properties of human expert heuristics, which were successful in a certain class of complex control systems, we develop a formal theory, the Linguistic Geometry. This paper reports two examples of application of Linguistic Geometry to autonomous navigation of aerospace vehicles that demonstrate dramatic search reduction.
PROP Profile of Poisson Geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merkulov, S. A.
2006-02-01
It is shown that some classical local geometries are of infinity origin, i.e. their smooth formal germs are (homotopy) representations of cofibrant (di) operads in spaces concentrated in degree zero. In particular, they admit natural infinity generalizations when one considers homotopy representations of the (di) operads in generic differential graded spaces. Poisson geometry provides us with a simplest manifestation of this phenomenon.
Discrete Differential Geometry Misha Kazhdan
Kazhdan, Michael
: · Surface Evolution Mean-curvature flow Willmore flow #12;Why Discrete Differential Geometry? Differential Geometry: · Surface Evolution Mean-curvature flow Willmore flow · Dynamical Systems Twisting (Conservation of Energy): So our discretized system is wrong in two ways. First, we do not get the "correct
Geometry in Cryptography Luca Giuzzi
Giuzzi, Luca
Geometry in Cryptography Luca Giuzzi Summer School Giuseppe Tallini 9 July 2004 #12;Cryptosystems decryption k K : k K such that m M :d(e(m, k), k ) = m. Luca Giuzzi -- Geometry in Cryptography 1 #12 in Cryptography 2 #12;ElGamal cryptosystem/1 Common elements: · G: cyclic group; · g G, generator of G. Secret
Optical geometry across the horizon
Rickard Jonsson
2007-08-19
In a companion paper (Jonsson and Westman, Class. Quantum Grav. 23 (2006) 61), a generalization of optical geometry, assuming a non-shearing reference congruence, is discussed. Here we illustrate that this formalism can be applied to a finite four-volume of any spherically symmetric spacetime. In particular we apply the formalism, using a non-static reference congruence, to do optical geometry across the horizon of a static black hole. While the resulting geometry in principle is time dependent, we can choose the reference congruence in such a manner that an embedding of the geometry always looks the same. Relative to the embedded geometry the reference points are then moving. We discuss the motion of photons, inertial forces and gyroscope precession in this framework.
Geometries from field theories
Sinya Aoki; Kengo Kikuchi; Tetsuya Onogi
2015-08-18
We propose a method to define a $d+1$ dimensional geometry from a $d$ dimensional quantum field theory in the $1/N$ expansion. We first construct a $d+1$ dimensional field theory from the $d$ dimensional one via the gradient flow equation, whose flow time $t$ represents the energy scale of the system such that $t\\rightarrow 0$ corresponds to the ultra-violet (UV) while $t\\rightarrow\\infty$ to the infra-red (IR). We then define the induced metric from $d+1$ dimensional field operators. We show that the metric defined in this way becomes classical in the large $N$ limit, in a sense that quantum fluctuations of the metric are suppressed as $1/N$ due to the large $N$ factorization property. As a concrete example, we apply our method to the O(N) non-linear $\\sigma$ model in two dimensions. We calculate the three dimensional induced metric, which is shown to describe an AdS space in the massless limit. We finally discuss several open issues in future studies.
Geometries from field theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aoki, Sinya; Kikuchi, Kengo; Onogi, Tetsuya
2015-10-01
We propose a method to define a d+1-dimensional geometry from a d-dimensional quantum field theory in the 1/N expansion. We first construct a d+1-dimensional field theory from the d-dimensional one via the gradient-flow equation, whose flow time t represents the energy scale of the system such that trArr 0 corresponds to the ultraviolet and trArr infty to the infrared. We then define the induced metric from d+1-dimensional field operators. We show that the metric defined in this way becomes classical in the large-N limit, in the sense that quantum fluctuations of the metric are suppressed as 1/N due to the large-N factorization property. As a concrete example, we apply our method to the O(N) nonlinear ? model in two dimensions. We calculate the 3D induced metric, which is shown to describe an anti-de Sitter space in the massless limit. Finally, we discuss several open issues for future studies.
Gao, Zhe; Dong, Mei; Wang, Guizhen; Sheng, Pei; Wu, Zhiwei; Yang, Huimin; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Guofu; Wang, Jianguo; Qin, Yong
2015-07-27
To design highly efficient catalysts, new concepts for optimizing the metal-support interactions are desirable. Here we introduce a facile and general template approach assisted by atomic layer deposition (ALD), to fabricate a multiply confined Ni-based nanocatalyst. The Ni nanoparticles are not only confined in Al2 O3 nanotubes, but also embedded in the cavities of Al2 O3 interior wall. The cavities create more Ni-Al2 O3 interfacial sites, which facilitate hydrogenation reactions. The nanotubes inhibit the leaching and detachment of Ni nanoparticles. Compared with the Ni-based catalyst supported on the outer surface of Al2 O3 nanotubes, the multiply confined catalyst shows a striking improvement of catalytic activity and stability in hydrogenation reactions. Our ALD-assisted template method is general and can be extended for other multiply confined nanoreactors, which may have potential applications in many heterogeneous reactions. PMID:26150352
Quantum confinement in 1D systems through an imaginary-time evolution method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, Amlan K.
2015-09-01
Quantum confinement is studied by numerically solving time-dependent (TD) Schrödinger equation (SE). An imaginary-time evolution technique is employed in conjunction with the minimization of an expectation value, to reach the global minimum. Excited states are obtained by imposing the orthogonality constraint with all lower states. Applications are made on three important model quantum systems, namely, harmonic, repulsive and quartic oscillators; enclosed inside an impenetrable box. The resulting diffusion equation is solved using finite-difference method. Both symmetric and asymmetric confinement are considered for attractive potential; for others only symmetrical confinement. Accurate eigenvalue, eigenfunction and position expectation values are obtained, which show excellent agreement with existing literature results. Variation of energies with respect to box length is followed for small, intermediate and large sizes. In essence, a simple accurate and reliable method is proposed for confinement in quantum systems.
Toroidal membrane vesicles in spherical confinement.
Bouzar, Lila; Menas, Ferhat; Müller, Martin Michael
2015-09-01
We investigate the morphology of a toroidal fluid membrane vesicle confined inside a spherical container. The equilibrium shapes are assembled in a geometrical phase diagram as a function of scaled area and reduced volume of the membrane. For small area the vesicle can adopt its free form. When increasing the area, the membrane cannot avoid contact and touches the confining sphere along a circular contact line, which extends to a zone of contact for higher area. The elastic energies of the equilibrium shapes are compared to those of their confined counterparts of spherical topology to predict under which conditions a topology change is favored energetically. PMID:26465512
Toroidal membrane vesicles in spherical confinement
Bouzar, Lila; Müller, Martin Michael
2015-01-01
We investigate the morphology of a toroidal fluid membrane vesicle confined inside a spherical container. The equilibrium shapes are assembled in a geometrical phase diagram as a function of scaled area and reduced volume of the membrane. For small area the vesicle can adopt its free form. When increasing the area, the membrane cannot avoid contact and touches the confining sphere along a circular contact line, which extends to a zone of contact for higher area. The elastic energies of the equilibrium shapes are compared to those of their confined counterparts of spherical topology to predict under which conditions a topology change is favored energetically.
Confinement of monopole field lines in a superconductor at T {ne} 0
Cardoso, Marco; Bicudo, Pedro; Sacramento, Pedro D.
2008-02-15
We apply the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations to the confinement of a monopole-antimonopole pair in a superconductor. This is related to the problem of a quark-antiquark pair bound by a confining string, consisting of a colour-electric flux tube, dual to the magnetic vortex of type-II superconductors. We study the confinement of the field lines due to the superconducting state and calculate the effective potential between the two monopoles. The monopoles can be simulated in a real experiment inserting two long and thin magnetic rods. At short distances the potential is Coulombic and at large distances the potential is linear, as previously determined solving the Ginzburg-Landau equations. The magnetic field lines and the string tension are also studied as a function of the temperature T. Because we take into account the explicit fermionic degrees of freedom, this work may open new perspectives to the breaking of chiral symmetry or to colour superconductivity.
Simulating the motion of micro-capsules in complex geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Lailai; Brandt, Luca
2013-11-01
We develop a code to resolve the fluid-structure interaction of capsules in low-Reynolds-number flow, in 3D general geometries. We use an accelerated boundary-integral method, the general geometry Ewald method (GGEM) to solve the Stokes flow in the framework of the Navier-Stokes solver NEK5000 based on the spectral element method. A global spectral interpolation employing spherical harmonics is incorporated simultaneously to resolve the membrane dynamics. Two cases are investigated to illustrate the generality of our implementation. Firstly we simulate a capsule transported in a 3 D channel and/or duct with a corner, for a better understanding of moving soft objects in geometrically complex configurations. We examine the effect of capsule elasticity and wall confinement in detail. Our results give useful hints for the design of micro-devices. As a second case, we simulate the capsule flowing past a cylindrical obstacle with and without confinement, representing two popular cell separation configurations, pinched flow fractionation (PFF) and deterministic lateral displacement (DLL) respectively. In contrast to the original methodology using fluid inertia, particle size or steric effect, we numerically demonstrate the pure-elasticity-driven cell separation in suchdevices. We acknowledge the funding from VR (Swedish research council) and computer time from SNIC.
Pseudomagnetic fields in graphene nanobubbles of constrained geometry: a molecular dynamics study
Qi, Zenan; Park, Harold S; Pereira, Vitor M; Campbell, David K; Neto, A H Castro
2014-01-01
Analysis of the strain-induced pseudomagnetic fields (PMFs) generated in graphene nanobulges under three different substrate scenarios shows that, in addition to the shape, the graphene-substrate interaction can crucially determine the overall distribution and magnitude of strain and PMFs, in and outside the bulge region. We utilize a combination of classical molecular dynamics, continuum mechanics, and tight-binding electronic structure calculations as an unbiased means of studying pressure-induced deformations and the resulting PMF distribution in graphene nanobubbles of various geometries. The geometry is defined by inflating graphene against a rigid aperture of a specified shape in the substrate. The interplay among substrate aperture geometry, lattice orientation, internal gas pressure, and substrate type is analyzed in view of the prospect of using strain-engineered graphene nanostructures capable of confining and/or guiding electrons at low energies. Except in highly anisotropic geometries, the magnitu...
A Study of Detonation Propagation and Diffraction with Compliant Confinement
Banks, J; Schwendeman, D; Kapila, A; Henshaw, W
2007-08-13
A previous computational study of diffracting detonations with the ignition-and-growth model demonstrated that contrary to experimental observations, the computed solution did not exhibit dead zones. For a rigidly confined explosive it was found that while diffraction past a sharp corner did lead to a temporary separation of the lead shock from the reaction zone, the detonation re-established itself in due course and no pockets of unreacted material were left behind. The present investigation continues to focus on the potential for detonation failure within the ignition-and-growth (IG) model, but now for a compliant confinement of the explosive. The aim of the present paper is two fold. First, in order to compute solutions of the governing equations for multi-material reactive flow, a numerical method of solution is developed and discussed. The method is a Godunov-type, fractional-step scheme which incorporates an energy correction to suppress numerical oscillations that would occur near the material interface separating the reactive material and the inert confiner for standard conservative schemes. The numerical method uses adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) on overlapping grids, and the accuracy of solutions is well tested using a two-dimensional rate-stick problem for both strong and weak inert confinements. The second aim of the paper is to extend the previous computational study of the IG model by considering two related problems. In the first problem, the corner-turning configuration is re-examined, and it is shown that in the matter of detonation failure, the absence of rigid confinement does not affect the outcome in a material way; sustained dead zones continue to elude the model. In the second problem, detonations propagating down a compliantly confined pencil-shaped configuration are computed for a variety of cone angles of the tapered section. It is found, in accord with experimental observation, that if the cone angle is small enough, the detonation fails prior to reaching the cone tip. For both the corner-turning and the pencil-shaped configurations, mechanisms underlying the behavior of the computed solutions are identified. It is concluded that disagreement between computation and experiment in the corner-turning case lies in the absence, in the model, of a mechanism that allows the explosive to undergo desensitization when subjected to a weak shock.
Path integral Monte Carlo applications to quantum fluids in confined geometries
Manousakis, Efstratios
-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 Efstratios Manousakisb) Center for Materials Research and Technology, Department to droplets and surfaces. This paper reviews our own work on films. Our work on droplets is also briefly(t) is the action of a given path, R(t). The inte- gral has the formal structure of a classical-like partition func
STATISTICAL GEOMETRY OF CAVITIES IN A METASTABLE CONFINED FLUID. (R825959)
The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...
Scaling function for the critical specific heat in a confined geometry: Spherical limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharyya, Saugata; Bhattacharjee, J. K.
1999-02-01
The scaling function for the critical specific heat is obtained exactly for temperatures above the bulk transition temperature by working in the spherical limit. Generalization of the function to arbitrary ? (the specific-heat exponent) gives an excellent account of the experimental data of Mehta and Gasparini [Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2596 (1997)] near the superfluid transition.
Quantum motion of a point particle in the presence of the Aharonov--Bohm potential in curved space
Edilberto O. Silva; Sérgio C. Ulhoa; Fabiano M. Andrade; Cleverson Filgueiras; R. G. G. Amorin
2015-10-23
The nonrelativistic quantum dynamics of a spinless charged particle in the presence of the Aharonov--Bohm potential in curved space is considered. We chose the surface as being a cone defined by a line element in polar coordinates. The geometry of this line element establishes that the motion of the particle can occur on the surface of a cone or an anti--cone. As a consequence of the nontrivial topology of the cone and also because of two--dimensional confinement, the geometric potential should be taken into account. At first, we establish the conditions for the particle describing a circular path in such a context. Because of the presence of the geometric potential, which contains a singular term, we use the self--adjoint extension method in order to describe the dynamics in all space including the singularity. Expressions are obtained for the bound state energies and wave functions.
Quantum motion of a point particle in the presence of the Aharonov-Bohm potential in curved space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silva, Edilberto O.; Ulhoa, Sérgio C.; Andrade, Fabiano M.; Filgueiras, Cleverson; Amorim, R. G. G.
2015-11-01
The nonrelativistic quantum dynamics of a spinless charged particle in the presence of the Aharonov-Bohm potential in curved space is considered. We chose the surface as being a cone defined by a line element in polar coordinates. The geometry of this line element establishes that the motion of the particle can occur on the surface of a cone or an anti-cone. As a consequence of the nontrivial topology of the cone and also because of two-dimensional confinement, the geometric potential should be taken into account. At first, we establish the conditions for the particle describing a circular path in such a context. Because of the presence of the geometric potential, which contains a singular term, we use the self-adjoint extension method in order to describe the dynamics in all space including the singularity. Expressions are obtained for the bound state energies and wave functions.
Quantum tunneling and vibrational dynamics of ultra-confined water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolesnikov, Alexander I.; Anovitz, Lawrence M.; Ehlers, Georg; Mamontov, Eugene; Podlesnyak, Andrey; Prisk, Timothy R.; Seel, Andrew; Reiter, George F.
2015-03-01
Vibrational dynamics of ultra-confined water in single crystals beryl, the structure of which contains ~ 5 Å diameter channels along the c-axis was studied with inelastic (INS), quasi-elastic (QENS) and deep inelastic (DINS) neutron scattering. The results reveal significantly anisotropic dynamical behavior of confined water, and show that effective potential experienced by water perpendicular to the channels is significantly softer than along them. The observed 7 peaks in the INS spectra (at energies 0.25 to 15 meV), based on their temperature and momentum transfer dependences, are explained by transitions between the split ground states of water in beryl due to water quantum tunneling between the 6-fold equivalent positions across the channels. DINS study of beryl at T=4.3 K shows narrow, anisotropic water proton momentum distribution with corresponding kinetic energy, EK=95 meV, which is much less than was previously observed in bulk water (~150 meV). We believe that the exceptionally small EK in beryl is a result of water quantum tunneling ? delocalization in the nanometer size confinement and weak water-cage interaction. The neutron experiment at ORNL was sponsored by the Sci. User Facilities Div., BES, U.S. DOE. This research was sponsored by the Div. Chemical Sci, Geosciences, and Biosciences, BES, U.S. DOE. The STFC RAL is thanked for access to ISIS neutron facilities.
An Imposed Dynamo Current Drive Experiment: Demonstration of Confinement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jarboe, Thomas; Hansen, Chris; Hossack, Aaron; Marklin, George; Morgan, Kyle; Nelson, Brian; Sutherland, Derek; Victor, Brian
2014-10-01
An experiment for studying and developing the efficient sustainment of a spheromak with sufficient confinement (current-drive power heats the plasma to its stability ?-limit) and in the keV temperature range is discussed. A high- ? spheromak sustained by imposed dynamo current drive (IDCD) is justified because: previous transient experiments showed sufficient confinement in the keV range with no external toroidal field coil; recent results on HIT-SI show sustainment with sufficient confinement at low temperature; the potential of IDCD of solving other fusion issues; a very attractive reactor concept; and the general need for efficient current drive in magnetic fusion. The design of a 0.55 m minor radius machine with the required density control, wall loading, and neutral shielding for a 2 s pulse is presented. Peak temperatures of 1 keV and toroidal currents of 1.35 MA and 16% wall-normalized plasma beta are envisioned. The experiment is large enough to address the key issues yet small enough for rapid modification and for extended MHD modeling of startup and code validation.
Conformal Lorentz geometry revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teleman, Kostake
1996-02-01
The group U(2,2) and its subgroup SU(2,2) were considered by Penrose in his study of the conformal compactification M of the Minkowski space M [R. Penrose and W. Rindler, Spinors and Space-Time (Cambridge University, Cambridge, 1986) and R. O. Wells, Jr., Bull. Am. Math. Soc. I, 2 (1979)]. The standard representation of SU(2,2) in C4 and in M are the corner stones of twistor theory, which was created by Penrose to the double purpose of obtaining new solutions of Einstein equations and new insights on gravitational radiation. We think that other representations of SU(2,2) or U(2,2) could also bring some information in relativity [see also, Barut O. Asjim, in Noncompact Lie Groups and some of their Applications, edited by E. A. Tanner and R. Wilson (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, 1994), p. 103] and, accordingly, we propose an extension of Penrose twistor program. In this paper we deal with a new U(2,2)-space, which we denote by W. We show first that the SU(2,2)-space M introduced by Penrose is isomorphic to U(2), endowed with an action of SU(2,2) given by non-Abelian homographic transformations. These transformations keep invariant the equation det(u-v)=0, characterizing the pairs (u,v)?U(2)×U(2) such that ``u lies on the light-cone of v.'' By definition, our space W consists of all pairs (u,v)?U(2)×U(2) satisfying the condition det(u-v)?0. The starting point of this article is the observation that W carries an SU(2,2)-invariant pseudo-Riemannian metric L:=Tr[(u-v)-1u? ×(u-v)-1v?], of signature (4,4). (W,L) is in fact an irreducible symmetric space in Cartan's sense, which is isomorphic to the quotient SO(2,4)/S[O(1,1)×O(1,3)]. As an irreducible symmetric space, it is an 8-dimensional Einstein space, whose Ricci tensor is proportional to the metric tensor. We study the geodesic paths of this space giving the general solutions in terms of initial data and studying the constants of motion. In particular we determine the geodesic paths which exhibit two periods. We also show that Mach's principle on inertial motions receives an explanation in our theory by considering the particular geodesic paths, for which one of the partners of an interacting pair is fixed and sent to infinity. In fact we study a dynamical system (W,L) which presents some formal and topological similarities with a system of two particles interacting gravitationally. (W,L) is the only conformally invariant relativistic two-point dynamical system. At the end we show that W can be naturally regarded as the base of a principal GL(2,C)-bundle which comes with a natural connection. We study this bundle from differential geometric point of view. Physical interpretations will be discussed in a future paper. This text is an improvement of a previous version, which was submitted under the title ``Hypertwistor Geometry.'' [See, K. Teleman, ``Hypertwistor Geometry (abstract),'' 14th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, Florence, Italy, 1995.] The change of the title and many other improvements are due to the valuable comments of the referee, who also suggested the author to avoid hazardous interpretations.
Weapons Activities/ Inertial Confinement Fusion Ignition
Weapons Activities/ Inertial Confinement Fusion Ignition and High Yield Campaign FY 2011, and reliability of the Nation's nuclear weapons without nuclear testing. The program provides this capability and pulsed power facilities. Science- based weapons assessments and certification requires
A Localization Computation in Confining Phase
Seiji Terashima
2015-02-02
In this note we show that the gaugino condensation of 4d N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories in the confining phase can be computed by the localization technique with an appropriate choice of a supersymmetry generator.
The Physics Basis of ITER Confinement
Wagner, F.
2009-02-19
ITER will be the first fusion reactor and the 50 year old dream of fusion scientists will become reality. The quality of magnetic confinement will decide about the success of ITER, directly in the form of the confinement time and indirectly because it decides about the plasma parameters and the fluxes, which cross the separatrix and have to be handled externally by technical means. This lecture portrays some of the basic principles which govern plasma confinement, uses dimensionless scaling to set the limits for the predictions for ITER, an approach which also shows the limitations of the predictions, and describes briefly the major characteristics and physics behind the H-mode--the preferred confinement regime of ITER.
Human Adaptation To Isolated And Confined Environments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Evans, Gary W.; Stokols, Daniel; Carrere, Sna Sybil
1992-01-01
Data from Antarctic research station analyzed. Report describes study of physiology and psychology of humans in isolated and confined environment. Suggests ways in which such environments made more acceptable to human inhabitants.
Detonation Diffraction into a Confined Volume
Polley, Nolan Lee
2012-02-14
Detonation diffraction has been, and remains, an active area of research. However, detonation diffraction into a confined volume, and specifically the transformation of a planar detonation into a cylindrical detonation, ...
Model for melting of confined DNA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Werner, E.; Reiter-Schad, M.; Ambjörnsson, T.; Mehlig, B.
2015-06-01
When DNA molecules are heated they denature. This occurs locally so that loops of molten single DNA strands form, connected by intact double-stranded DNA pieces. The properties of this "melting" transition have been intensively investigated. Recently there has been a surge of interest in this question, in part caused by experiments determining the properties of partially bound DNA confined to nanochannels. But how does such confinement affect the melting transition? To answer this question we introduce and solve a model predicting how confinement affects the melting transition for a simple model system by first disregarding the effect of self-avoidance. We find that the transition is smoother for narrower channels. By means of Monte Carlo simulations we then show that a model incorporating self-avoidance shows qualitatively the same behavior and that the effect of confinement is stronger than in the ideal case.
Improved Confinement During Magnetic Levitation in LDX
Improved Confinement During Magnetic Levitation in LDX M. E. Mauel For the LDX Experimental Team Result with Levitated Dipole: "Naturally" peaked density profiles occur during levitation · Magnetic Dallas, November 18, 2008 Support Inserted Support Withdrawn Superconducting Dipole Magnet Glow from
A model for melting of confined DNA
E. Werner; M. Reiter-Schad; T. Ambjörnsson; B. Mehlig
2015-04-13
When DNA molecules are heated they denature. This occurs locally so that loops of molten single DNA strands form, connected by intact double-stranded DNA pieces. The properties of this "melting" transition have been intensively investigated. Recently there has been a surge of interest in this question, caused by experiments determining the properties of partially bound DNA confined to nanochannels. But how does such confinement affect the melting transition? To answer this question we introduce, and solve a model predicting how confinement affects the melting transition for a simple model system by first disregarding the effect of self-avoidance. We find that the transition is smoother for narrower channels. By means of Monte-Carlo simulations we then show that a model incorporating self-avoidance shows qualitatively the same behaviour and that the effect of confinement is stronger than in the ideal case.
Coaxial cable stripper for confined areas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brown, J. D.; Lipscomb, W. G.
1968-01-01
Manual coaxial cable stripper quickly and accurately prepares a coaxial cable in a confined area. With this tool, preparation time is greatly reduced, and a completely inexperienced technician can perform the operation.
Hamilton geometry: Phase space geometry from modified dispersion relations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barcaroli, Leonardo; Brunkhorst, Lukas K.; Gubitosi, Giulia; Loret, Niccoló; Pfeifer, Christian
2015-10-01
We describe the Hamilton geometry of the phase space of particles whose motion is characterized by general dispersion relations. In this framework spacetime and momentum space are naturally curved and intertwined, allowing for a simultaneous description of both spacetime curvature and nontrivial momentum space geometry. We consider as explicit examples two models for Planck-scale modified dispersion relations, inspired from the q -de Sitter and ? -Poincaré quantum groups. In the first case we find the expressions for the momentum and position dependent curvature of spacetime and momentum space, while for the second case the manifold is flat and only the momentum space possesses a nonzero, momentum dependent curvature. In contrast, for a dispersion relation that is induced by a spacetime metric, as in general relativity, the Hamilton geometry yields a flat momentum space and the usual curved spacetime geometry with only position dependent geometric objects.
Fluctuation geometry: a counterpart approach of inference geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Velazquez, L.
2012-05-01
Starting from an axiomatic perspective, fluctuation geometry is developed as a counterpart approach of inference geometry. This approach is inspired on the existence of a notable analogy between the general theorems of inference theory and the general fluctuation theorems associated with a parametric family of distribution functions dp(I|?) = ?(I|?)dI, which describes the behavior of a set of continuous stochastic variables driven by a set of control parameters ?. In this approach, statistical properties are rephrased as purely geometric notions derived from the Riemannian structure on the manifold {M}_{\\theta } of stochastic variables I. Consequently, this theory arises as an alternative framework for applying the powerful methods of differential geometry for the statistical analysis. Fluctuation geometry has direct implications on statistics and physics. This geometric approach inspires a Riemannian reformulation of Einstein fluctuation theory as well as a geometric redefinition of the information entropy for a continuous distribution.
Son of IXION: A Steady State Centrifugally Confined Plasma for Fusion*
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hassam, Adil
1996-11-01
A magnetic confinement scheme in which the inertial, u.grad(u), forces effect parallel confinement is proposed. The basic geometry is mirror-like as far as the poloidal field goes or, more simply, multipole (FM-1) type. The rotation is toroidal in this geometry. A supersonic rotation can effect complete parallel confinement, with the usual magnetic mirror force rendered irrelevant. The rotation shear, in addition, aids in the suppression of the flute mode. This suppression is not complete which indicates the addition of a toroidal field, at maximum of the order of the poloidal field. We show that at rotation in excess of Mach 3, the parallel particle and heat losses can be minimized to below the Lawson breakeven point. The crossfield transport can be expected to be better than tokamaks on account of the large velocity shear. Other advantages of the scheme are that it is steady state and disruption free. An exploratory experiment that tests equilibrium, parallel detachment, and MHD stability is proposed. The concept resembles earlier (Geneva, 1958) experiments on "homopolar generators" and a mirror configuration called IXION. Ixion, Greek mythological king, was forever strapped to a rotating, flaming wheel. *Work supported by DOE
Confinement effect on Anderson-Higgs modes in superfluid 3He-B
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mizushima, T.; Sauls, J. A.
2015-03-01
Superfluid 3He is a prototype to observe the spectrum of Anderson-Higgs (AH) modes associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking. In bulk superfluid 3He, AH modes have been observed experimentally through attenuation of zero sound, propagation of transverse sound and its acoustic Faraday rotation. Starting from a Lagrangian formulation, we examine the AH modes of 3He-B confined in a restricted geometry. For bulk 3He-B this formalism leads to the well known spectrum of bosonic collectives modes of the bulk B-phase labelled by the quantum numbers for total angular momentum, J = 0 , 1 , 2 , ... , the projection along an axis, Jz = - J , ... , + J , and the parity under particle-hole conversion, K = +/- 1 . For the equilibrium phases of 3He confinement induces pair breaking and leads to symmetry breaking, giving rise to a rich topological phase diagram. In terms of the bosonic excitations, we find that confinement induces symmetry breaking and leads to mixing of modes with different J, as well as to level splittings of the AH modes that are otherwise degenerate in bulk 3He-B. We find a new spectrum of Bosonic modes is generated that are bound to the surface of superfluid 3He in a restricted geometry. We also report on the coupling of the AH modes to ultra-sound.
Gravity, Geometry and the Quantum
Abhay Ashtekar
2006-07-14
After a brief introduction, basic ideas of the quantum Riemannian geometry underlying loop quantum gravity are summarized. To illustrate physical ramifications of quantum geometry, the framework is then applied to homogeneous isotropic cosmology. Quantum geometry effects are shown to replace the big bang by a big bounce. Thus, quantum physics does not stop at the big-bang singularity. Rather there is a pre-big-bang branch joined to the current post-big-bang branch by a `quantum bridge'. Furthermore, thanks to the background independence of loop quantum gravity, evolution is deterministic across the bridge.
Chiral symmetry, massive gluons and confinement
Natale, A. A.
2013-03-25
It is quite difficult to obtain non-trivial chiral symmetry breaking solutions for the quark gap equation in the presence of dynamically generated gluon masses. An effective confining propagator has recently been proposed by Cornwall in order to solve this problem. We study phenomenological consequences of this approach, showing its compatibility with the experimental data. We argue that this confining propagator should be restricted to a small region of momenta, leading to effective four-fermion interactions at low energy.
Confined Bilayers Passively Regulate Shape and Stress
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Staykova, Margarita; Arroyo, Marino; Rahimi, Mohammad; Stone, Howard A.
2013-01-01
Lipid membranes are commonly confined to adjacent subcellular structures or to artificial substrates and particles. We develop an experimental and theoretical framework to investigate the mechanics of confined membranes, including the influence of adhesion, strain, and osmotic pressure. We find that supported lipid bilayers respond to stress by nucleating and evolving spherical and tubular protrusions. In cells, such transformations are generally attributed to proteins. Our results offer insights into the mechanics of cell membranes and can further extend the applications of supported bilayers.
Quark propagators in confinement and deconfinement phases
Hamada, Masatoshi; Yahiro, Masanobu; Kouno, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Atsushi; Saito, Takuya
2010-05-01
We study quark propagators near the confinement/deconfinement phase transition temperature in quenched-lattice simulation of QCD. We find that there is no qualitative change for the quark propagators in both phases. In the confinement phase, those effective quark masses in units of the critical temperature behave as a constant as a function of the temperature, while above the critical temperature, the value of the effective quark mass drops to circa half value.
Energy and binding energy of donor impurity in quantum dot with Gaussian confinement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Al-Hayek, I.; Sandouqa, A. S.
2015-09-01
Using the method of the shifted 1/N expansion, we investigate the problem of hydrogenic-like donor impurity, located at the center of a spherical semiconductor quantum dot. We have calculated the energy eigenvalues for both ground and first excited sates under the assumption of Gaussian confining potential. The binding energies for three dimensional (3D) and two dimensional (2D) quantum dots are calculated. We show their dependence on dimensionality, dot radius and potential confinement. Our present numerical results show quantitative and qualitative very good agreement with those results obtained by diagonalization, Numerov's integration, and Hartree-Fock methods.
Intersecting solitons, amoeba, and tropical geometry
Fujimori, Toshiaki; Nitta, Muneto; Ohta, Kazutoshi; Sakai, Norisuke; Yamazaki, Masahito
2008-11-15
We study the generic intersection (or web) of vortices with instantons inside, which is a 1/4 Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield state in the Higgs phase of five-dimensional N=1 supersymmetric U(N{sub C}) gauge theory on R{sub t}x(C*){sup 2}{approx_equal}R{sup 2,1}xT{sup 2} with N{sub F}=N{sub C} Higgs scalars in the fundamental representation. In the case of the Abelian-Higgs model (N{sub F}=N{sub C}=1), the intersecting vortex sheets can be beautifully understood in a mathematical framework of amoeba and tropical geometry, and we propose a dictionary relating solitons and gauge theory to amoeba and tropical geometry. A projective shape of vortex sheets is described by the amoeba. Vortex charge density is uniformly distributed among vortex sheets, and negative contribution to instanton charge density is understood as the complex Monge-Ampere measure with respect to a plurisubharmonic function on (C*){sup 2}. The Wilson loops in T{sup 2} are related with derivatives of the Ronkin function. The general form of the Kaehler potential and the asymptotic metric of the moduli space of a vortex loop are obtained as a by-product. Our discussion works generally in non-Abelian gauge theories, which suggests a non-Abelian generalization of the amoeba and tropical geometry.
Intersecting Solitons, Amoeba and Tropical Geometry
Toshiaki Fujimori; Muneto Nitta; Kazutoshi Ohta; Norisuke Sakai; Masahito Yamazaki
2008-05-08
We study generic intersection (or web) of vortices with instantons inside, which is a 1/4 BPS state in the Higgs phase of five-dimensional N=1 supersymmetric U(Nc) gauge theory on R_t \\times (C^\\ast)^2 \\simeq R^{2,1} \\times T^2 with Nf=Nc Higgs scalars in the fundamental representation. In the case of the Abelian-Higgs model (Nf=Nc=1), the intersecting vortex sheets can be beautifully understood in a mathematical framework of amoeba and tropical geometry, and we propose a dictionary relating solitons and gauge theory to amoeba and tropical geometry. A projective shape of vortex sheets is described by the amoeba. Vortex charge density is uniformly distributed among vortex sheets, and negative contribution to instanton charge density is understood as the complex Monge-Ampere measure with respect to a plurisubharmonic function on (C^\\ast)^2. The Wilson loops in T^2 are related with derivatives of the Ronkin function. The general form of the Kahler potential and the asymptotic metric of the moduli space of a vortex loop are obtained as a by-product. Our discussion works generally in non-Abelian gauge theories, which suggests a non-Abelian generalization of the amoeba and tropical geometry.
The geometry and forcefield of acetylene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carter, Stuart; Handy, Nicholas C.
The variational method has been used to determine the geometry and ground state potential surface of acetylene. All the parameters were refined through a least-squares fit to J = 0, 1 levels for C2H2 and C2D2. A new program was written to evaluate the rovibrational energy levels; in particular, primitive basis sets were developed for all values of J taking into account the singularity for linear geometries. Thus ?, ?, ?states can be refined. The full theory for tetraatomic linear molecules is presented. In this refinement 150 observed levels were used as data, below 10 000 cm-1. The geometry was refined and gives Re (CC) = 1.2028 Å, Re (CH) = 1.0618 Å, to be compared with the best experimentally derived values of 1.2027 ± 0.0005 Å, 1.062 ± 0.001 Å, respectively. The zero point energies are 5771.1 cm-1 for C2H2and 4571.1 cm-1 for C2D2.
Space charge neutralization in inertial electrostatic confinement plasmas
Evstatiev, E. G.; Nebel, R. A.; Chacon, L.; Park, J.; Lapenta, G.
2007-04-15
A major issue for electron injected inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) devices is space charge neutralization. A new formalism is developed that will allow this neutralization to occur for both oscillating and steady-state IEC plasmas. Results indicate that there are limits on the amount of compression that can be achieved by oscillating plasmas while simultaneously maintaining space charge neutralization and parabolic background potential. For steady-state plasmas, there are no such limits and space charge neutralization can be achieved even when the plasma becomes quasineutral.
Progress toward ignition and burn propagation in inertial confinement fusion
Lindl, J.D.; Campbell, E.M. ); McCrory, R.L. )
1992-09-01
To achieve efficient inertial confinement fusion one must produce a small hot spot within the imploding target from which thermonuclear burn can ignite. For the past decades, scientists throughout the world have pursued the dream of controlled thermonuclear fusion. The attraction of this goal is the enormous energy that is potentially available in fusion fuels and the view of fusion as a safe, clean energy source. The fusion reaction with the highest cross section uses the deuterium and tritium isotopes of hydrogen, and D-T would be the fuel of choice for the first generation of fusion reactors. 24 refs., 8 figs.
In-surface confinement of topological insulator nanowire surface states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Fan W.; Jauregui, Luis A.; Tan, Yaohua; Manfra, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard; Chen, Yong P.; Kubis, Tillmann
2015-09-01
The bandstructures of [110] and [001] Bi2Te3 nanowires are solved with the atomistic 20 band tight binding functionality of NEMO5. The theoretical results reveal: The popular assumption that all topological insulator (TI) wire surfaces are equivalent is inappropriate. The Fermi velocity of chemically distinct wire surfaces differs significantly which creates an effective in-surface confinement potential. As a result, topological insulator surface states prefer specific surfaces. Therefore, experiments have to be designed carefully not to probe surfaces unfavorable to the surface states (low density of states) and thereby be insensitive to the TI-effects.
Competition between capillarity, layering and biaxiality in a confined liquid crystal
Szabolcs Varga; Yuri Martinez-Raton; Enrique Velasco
2010-04-28
The effect of confinement on the phase behaviour and structure of fluids made of biaxial hard particles (cuboids) is examined theoretically by means of Onsager second-order virial theory in the limit where the long particle axes are frozen in a mutually parallel configuration. Confinement is induced by two parallel planar hard walls (slit-pore geometry), with particle long axes perpendicular to the walls (perfect homeotropic anchoring). In bulk, a continuous nematic-to-smectic transition takes place, while shape anisotropy in the (rectangular) particle cross section induces biaxial ordering. As a consequence, four bulk phases, uniaxial and biaxial nematic and smectic phases, can be stabilised as the cross-sectional aspect ratio is varied. On confining the fluid, the nematic-to-smectic transition is suppressed, and either uniaxial or biaxial phases, separated by a continuous trasition, can be present. Smectic ordering develops continuously from the walls for increasing particle concentration (in agreement with the supression of nematic-smectic second order transition at confinement), but first-order layering transitions, involving structures with n and n+1 layers, arise in the confined fluid at high concentration. Competition between layering and uniaxial-biaxial ordering leads to three different types of layering transitions, at which the two coexisting structures can be both uniaxial, one uniaxial and another biaxial, or both biaxial. Also, the interplay between molecular biaxiality and wall interactions is very subtle: while the hard wall disfavours the formation of the biaxial phase, biaxiality is against the layering transitions, as we have shown by comparing the confined phase behaviour of cylinders and cuboids. The predictive power of Onsager theory is checked and confirmed by performing some calculations based on fundamental-measure theory.
Comparison of different regenerator geometries for AMR system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jing; Numazawa, T.; Matsumoto, K. Matsumoto; Yanagisawa, Y.; Nakagome, H.
2014-01-01
One of the most important questions in magnetic refrigeration (MR) systems is the choice of regenerator geometry to optimize the heat transfer efficiency between magnetic material and heat transfer fluid and to reduce the loss of cooling power. Currently, flat plate and packed sphere regenerators are widely used for the prototype Active Magnetic Refrigeration (AMR) system. In recent years, micro-channel regenerator geometry is also a potential candidate regenerator design for the high heat and mass transfer rates according to both experimental and theoretical studies in the literature. However, it is not clear which of the three regenerator geometries is the most efficient. One-dimensional models for each have been constructed. We compared and analyzed the performance and entropy generation. Based on the comparison, suggestions for optimized MR regenerator geometry design have been provided.
Quantum Confined Stark Effect in Wide Parabolic Quantum Wells
Sylwia Zieli?ska-Raczy?ska; Gerard Czajkowski; David Ziemkiewicz
2015-07-30
We show how to compute the optical functions of Wide Parabolic Quantum Wells (WPQWs) exposed to uniform electric F applied in the growth direction, in the excitonic energy region. The effect of the coherence between the electron-hole pair and the electromagnetic field of the propagating wave including the electron-hole screened Coulomb potential is adopted, and the valence band structure is taken into account in the cylindrical approximation. The role of the interaction potential and of the applied electric field, which mix the energy states according to different quantum numbers and create symmetry forbidden transitions, is stressed. We use the Real Density Matrix Approach (RDMA) and an effective e-h potential, which enable to derive analytical expressions for the WPQWs electrooptical functions. Choosing the susceptibility, we performed numerical calculations appropriate to a GaAs/GaAlAs WPQWs. We have obtained a red shift of the absorption maxima (Quantum Confined Stark Effect), asymmetric upon the change of the direction of the applied field (F -> -F), parabolic for the ground state and strongly dependent on the confinement parameters (the QWs sizes), changes in the oscillator strengths, and new peaks related to the states with different parity for electron and hole.
An Introduction to Projective Geometry.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Scott, Paul
1987-01-01
Presents an introduction to the study of projective geometry, including a definition and some analagous examples using the overhead projector. Illustrates the principle of duality, Desargues' theorem, Poppus' theorem, and Pascal's theorem. (TW)
Newsletter No. 11 Random Geometry
-dimensional random geometry has emerged as a large and fascinating interdisciplinary subject at the interface between. The second workshop Multimodal Monitoring of Cell Migration was a hands-on event at laboratories
Emergent Geometry from Quantized Spacetime
Hyun Seok Yang; M. Sivakumar
2010-08-05
We examine the picture of emergent geometry arising from a mass-deformed matrix model. Because of the mass-deformation, a vacuum geometry turns out to be a constant curvature spacetime such as d-dimensional sphere and (anti-)de Sitter spaces. We show that the mass-deformed matrix model giving rise to the constant curvature spacetime can be derived from the d-dimensional Snyder algebra. The emergent geometry beautifully confirms all the rationale inferred from the algebraic point of view that the d-dimensional Snyder algebra is equivalent to the Lorentz algebra in (d+1)-dimensional {\\it flat} spacetime. For example, a vacuum geometry of the mass-deformed matrix model is completely described by a G-invariant metric of coset manifolds G/H defined by the Snyder algebra. We also discuss a nonlinear deformation of the Snyder algebra.
Mesh generation for implicit geometries
Persson, Per-Olof, 1973-
2005-01-01
We present new techniques for generation of unstructured meshes for geometries specified by implicit functions. An initial mesh is iteratively improved by solving for a force equilibrium in the element edges, and the ...
Emergent geometry from quantized spacetime
Yang, Hyun Seok; Sivakumar, M.
2010-08-15
We examine the picture of emergent geometry arising from a mass-deformed matrix model. Because of the mass deformation, a vacuum geometry turns out to be a constant curvature spacetime such as d-dimensional sphere and (anti-)de Sitter spaces. We show that the mass-deformed matrix model giving rise to the constant curvature spacetime can be derived from the d-dimensional Snyder algebra. The emergent geometry beautifully confirms all the rationale inferred from the algebraic point of view that the d-dimensional Snyder algebra is equivalent to the Lorentz algebra in (d+1)-dimensional flat spacetime. For example, a vacuum geometry of the mass-deformed matrix model is completely described by a G-invariant metric of coset manifolds G/H defined by the Snyder algebra. We also discuss a nonlinear deformation of the Snyder algebra.
33 COMPUTATIONAL REAL ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY
Mishra, Bud
arising in robotics, vision, computer-aided design, geometric theorem proving, etc. The algorithmic algebraic geometry studies various algorithmic questions deal- ing with the real solutions of a system