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Sample records for congenital pouch colon

  1. Congenital pouch colon in girls: Genitourinary abnormalities and their management

    PubMed Central

    Chadha, Rajiv; Khan, Niyaz Ahmed; Shah, Shalu; Pant, Nitin; Gupta, Amit; Choudhury, Subhasis Roy; Debnath, Pinaki Ranjan; Puri, Archana

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To discuss the assessment and management of genitourinary (GU) tract abnormalities in 21 girls with Types I-III congenital pouch colon (CPC), studied over a period of 10 years. Materials and Methods: Assessment included clinical and radiological assessment, examination under anesthesia (EUA), endoscopy of the lower GU tract, and evaluation of the surgical findings, operative procedures for the GU anomalies, and the results of management. Results: Initial examination of the external genitalia showed a “clover-leaf” appearance (n = 6) and a single perineal opening (n = 6). In 9 patients, the openings of the urethra and double vagina were seen, of which a vestibular fistula was seen in 5 and an anterior perineal fistula in 1. Seventeen patients (81%) had urinary incontinence (UI) - partial in 10, and complete in 7. Renal function tests, X-ray sacrum, and abdominal US were normal in all patients. Micturating cystourethrogram (n = 9) showed a wide, bladder neck incompetence (BNI) with reduced bladder capacity in seven patients. EUA and endoscopy revealed a septate vagina in all patients and the urethral opening at a “high” position (n = 14) or at a relatively normal or “low” position (n = 7). In 8 patients, the intervaginal septum was thick and fleshy. Endoscopy showed a short, wide urethra, an open incompetent bladder neck, poorly developed trigone, and reduced bladder capacity in the patients with UI. The fistula from the colonic pouch opened in the proximal urethra (n = 4), high in the vestibule (n = 3), low in the vestibule (n = 8), perineum just posterior to the vestibule (n = 1), and undetermined (n = 5). Vaginoscopy (n = 8) showed normal cervices in all and cervical mucus in 4 patients. The subtypes of CPC were Type I CPC (n = 4), Type II CPC (n = 16), and Type III CPC (n = 1). All 21 patients had uterus didelphys. In four patients with UI, during tubular colorraphy, a segment of the colonic pouch was preserved for later bladder augmentation if

  2. Single stage management of a unique variant of congenital pouch colon with triplet fistula and normal anus.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Vaibhav; Gangopadhyay, Ajay Narayan; Gupta, Dinesh Kumar; Sharma, Shiv Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Congenital pouch colon (CPC) in the female patient presents with highly variable and anomalous anatomy. We herein report the first case of CPC with uterus didelphys having normal anal opening, H-type vestibular fistula, two other fistulous communications between pouch colon and two vagina managed in a single stage with excellent postoperative outcome. PMID:26166988

  3. Single stage management of a unique variant of congenital pouch colon with triplet fistula and normal anus

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Vaibhav; Gangopadhyay, Ajay Narayan; Gupta, Dinesh Kumar; Sharma, Shiv Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Congenital pouch colon (CPC) in the female patient presents with highly variable and anomalous anatomy. We herein report the first case of CPC with uterus didelphys having normal anal opening, H-type vestibular fistula, two other fistulous communications between pouch colon and two vagina managed in a single stage with excellent postoperative outcome. PMID:26166988

  4. Congenital pouch colon in a girl associated with bilateral atresia of cervix uteri and uterus didelphys.

    PubMed

    Chadha, Rajiv; Puri, Manju; Saxena, Rahul; Agarwala, Surendrakumar; Puri, Archana; Choudhury, Subhasis Roy

    2013-04-01

    This report describes a girl with congenital pouch colon (CPC), uterus didelphys with septate vagina, and a cloacal anomaly. The girl underwent cloacal reconstruction at the age of 15 months. Subsequently, at puberty, the child had primary amenorrhea with severe cyclic abdominal pain due to endometriosis of both the uteruses and adnexal cysts with hematometra and hematosalpinx. Laparotomy with removal of both uteri and the left fallopian tube was performed. Both uteri had atresia of the cervix uteri. This report emphasizes the need for comprehensive evaluation and a long-term management strategy for associated gynecologic anomalies in girls with CPC, especially with regard to patency of the outflow tract. PMID:23798813

  5. Congenital pouch colon in a girl associated with bilateral atresia of cervix uteri and uterus didelphys

    PubMed Central

    Chadha, Rajiv; Puri, Manju; Saxena, Rahul; Agarwala, Surendrakumar; Puri, Archana; Choudhury, Subhasis Roy

    2013-01-01

    This report describes a girl with congenital pouch colon (CPC), uterus didelphys with septate vagina, and a cloacal anomaly. The girl underwent cloacal reconstruction at the age of 15 months. Subsequently, at puberty, the child had primary amenorrhea with severe cyclic abdominal pain due to endometriosis of both the uteruses and adnexal cysts with hematometra and hematosalpinx. Laparotomy with removal of both uteri and the left fallopian tube was performed. Both uteri had atresia of the cervix uteri. This report emphasizes the need for comprehensive evaluation and a long-term management strategy for associated gynecologic anomalies in girls with CPC, especially with regard to patency of the outflow tract. PMID:23798813

  6. Malabsorption and pouch ulcerations following the Martin repair for total colonic aganglionosis.

    PubMed

    Perrault, J; Stockwell, M; Stephens, C; Forstner, G

    1979-08-01

    A late complication of the Martin repair for total colonic aganglionosis is described. Pouch malfunction resulted in stasis and ulceration, excessive blood and protein loss, and bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine. The severity and nature of the lesion was identified by colonoscopy. PMID:490294

  7. Multiple Congenital Colonic Stenosis: A Rare Gastrointestinal Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Elisa, Zambaiti; Cinzia, Chiaramonte; Sergio, Salerno; Giuseppe, Li Voti; Fortunato, Siracusa

    2016-01-01

    Congenital colonic stenosis is a rare pediatric condition. Since 1968, only 16 cases have been reported in the literature. To the authors' knowledge, multiple congenital colonic stenosis has not been previously reported in the literature. We report the case of a 2-month-old male, presented at our Neonatal Intensive Care Unit with a suspicion of intestinal malrotation. Clinical examination revealed persistent abdominal distension. During the enema examination, the contrast medium appeared to fill the lumen of the colon up to three stenotic segments and could not proceed further. Intraoperatively we confirmed the presence of four types of colonic atresia, located in the ascending, transverse, and descending colon, respectively, plus appendix atresia. First surgical steps consisted in resection of proximal stenotic segment, appendix removal, proximal cecostomy, and distal colostomy on ascending colon in order to preserve colonic length. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of colonic stenosis. Final surgical step consisted in multiple colocolostomy and enteroplasty. A planned two-stage procedure, consisting of resection with colostomy for decompression as the first step and a later anastomosis, is recommended in order to allow bowel length preservation. PMID:27066287

  8. Multiple Congenital Colonic Stenosis: A Rare Gastrointestinal Malformation.

    PubMed

    Elisa, Zambaiti; Cinzia, Chiaramonte; Sergio, Salerno; Giuseppe, Li Voti; Fortunato, Siracusa

    2016-01-01

    Congenital colonic stenosis is a rare pediatric condition. Since 1968, only 16 cases have been reported in the literature. To the authors' knowledge, multiple congenital colonic stenosis has not been previously reported in the literature. We report the case of a 2-month-old male, presented at our Neonatal Intensive Care Unit with a suspicion of intestinal malrotation. Clinical examination revealed persistent abdominal distension. During the enema examination, the contrast medium appeared to fill the lumen of the colon up to three stenotic segments and could not proceed further. Intraoperatively we confirmed the presence of four types of colonic atresia, located in the ascending, transverse, and descending colon, respectively, plus appendix atresia. First surgical steps consisted in resection of proximal stenotic segment, appendix removal, proximal cecostomy, and distal colostomy on ascending colon in order to preserve colonic length. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of colonic stenosis. Final surgical step consisted in multiple colocolostomy and enteroplasty. A planned two-stage procedure, consisting of resection with colostomy for decompression as the first step and a later anastomosis, is recommended in order to allow bowel length preservation. PMID:27066287

  9. Huge Congenital Segmental Dilatation of the Sigmoid Colon in a Neonate: A “Rarity to Meet” and a “Challenge to Treat”

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Margarita; Ratschek, Manfred; Till, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Only ten cases of neonatal congenital segmental dilatation (CSD) of the colon have been described so far. We present a full-term female newborn with trisomy 21, ventricular septal defect, and gross abdominal distension. Plain abdominal radiographs revealed a huge cystic lesion occupying the left hemiabdomen. Upon laparotomy on day 4 a CSD of the distal sigmoid and proximal rectum was confirmed and resected. The proximal colon was exteriorized and the distal part closed as a Hartmann pouch. Histology confirmed a huge segmental dilatation of the sigmoid without dysganglionosis or pseudodiverticula, but normal intestinal architecture. After correction of the ventricular septal defect a low rectal end-to-end anastomosis could be performed at an age of 5 months. The postoperative course was uneventful. CSD of the sigmoid colon is extremely “rare to meet” and a “challenge to treat” in the newborn period, but clinical awareness of this entity prompts pediatric surgical success. PMID:27239360

  10. Colonization of congenitally immunodeficient mice with probiotic bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, R D; Warner, T; Roberts, L; Farmer, J; Balish, E

    1997-01-01

    We assessed the capacity of four probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus casei GG, and Bifidobacterium animalis) to colonize, infect, stimulate immune responses in, and affect the growth and survival of congenitally immunodeficient gnotobiotic beige-athymic (bg/bg-nu/nu) and beige-euthymic (bg/bg-nu/+) mice. The bacteria colonized and persisted, in pure culture, in the alimentary tracts of both mouse strains for the entire study period (12 weeks). Although all adult and neonatal beige-euthymic mice survived probiotic colonization, some infant mortality occurred in beige-athymic pups born to mothers colonized with pure cultures of L. reuteri or L. casei GG. The probiotic bacteria manifested different capacities to adhere to epithelial surfaces, disseminate to internal organs, affect the body weight of adult mice and the growth of neonatal mice, and stimulate immune responses. Although the probiotic species were innocuous for adults, these results suggest that caution and further studies to assess the safety of probiotic bacteria for immunodeficient hosts, especially neonates, are required. PMID:9234796

  11. Gastric-type extremely well-differentiated adenocarcinoma arising in the blind pouch of a bypassed stomach, presenting as colonic pseudo-obstruction.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Sarah; Manivel, Carlos J; Ramaswamy, Archana; Mesa, Hector

    2015-01-01

    Gastric carcinoma after gastric bypass is rare. Extremely well-differentiated adenocarcinoma (EWDA) of the stomach is a rare variant that has been mostly reported in Japan. We present a case of a 68-year-old man with EWDA arising in the bypassed stomach that presented as a colonic pseudo-obstruction (CPO). Several imaging, endoscopic and pathologic studies performed in the course of 2 months were non-diagnostic. An iatrogenic duodenal perforation during a diagnostic procedure led to an emergent exploratory laparotomy in which the dilated colonic segment was resected. Pathologic examination showed metastatic EWDA in the colonic wall. Post-operative complications led to the patient's demise. At autopsy the primary tumor was identified in the blind pouch of the bypassed stomach. A literature review on gastric EWDA and carcinomas arising in bypassed stomachs is discussed. EWDA of the stomach is rare, difficult to diagnose, and shows an aggressive clinical course discordant with its near-benign histology. Gastric cancer arising in a bypassed stomach is uncommon; when it occurs it is usually diagnosed at advanced stage. Surveillance of the blind pouch is not currently recommended. Malignant infiltration of the colonic wall should be included in the differential diagnosis of CPO of unclear etiology. PMID:26424554

  12. Congenital membrane causing duodenal obstruction and malpositioning of the descending colon.

    PubMed

    Koh, Chee-Chee; Tseng, Sheng-Hong; Weng, Chia-Chi; Chen, Yun

    2013-08-01

    A congenital membrane without intestinal malrotation is a rare cause of duodenal obstruction. Here we present an 11-year-old girl who had suffered from intermittent abdominal cramping pain and vomiting for more than 5 years. The image studies, including a plain abdomen roentgenogram and sonogram, showed no definite diagnosis. The upper gastrointestinal series and small bowel series showed the contrast was static over the third portion of the duodenum and the descending colon pulled up toward the epigastric area. Laparoscopic exploration revealed a congenital membrane extending from the right-side paraduodenal peritoneum through the third portion of the duodenum to the descending colon, which had caused obstruction of the third portion of the duodenum and malpositioning of the descending colon. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report in the literature where a congenital membrane caused both duodenal obstruction and malpositioning of the descending colon. PMID:23597513

  13. Colonization of congenitally athymic, gnotobiotic mice by Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Balish, E; Balish, M J; Salkowski, C A; Lee, K W; Bartizal, K F

    1984-01-01

    Colony counts, scanning electron microscopy, and light microscopy were used to assess the capacity of Candida albicans to colonize (naturally) and infect the alimentary tract of adult and neonatal (athymic [nu/nu] or heterozygous [+/nu] littermates) germfree BALB/c mice. When exposed to yeast-phase C. albicans, the alimentary tract of adult germfree mice (nu/nu or +/nu) is quickly (within 24 to 48 h) colonized with yeast cells. Neither morbidity nor mortality was evident in any mice that were colonized with a pure culture of C. albicans for 6 months. Yeast cells of C. albicans predominated on mucosal surfaces in the oral cavities and vaginas of adult athymic and heterozygous mice. In both genotypes, C. albicans hyphae were observed in keratinized tissue on the dorsal posterior tongue surface and in the cardial-atrium section of the stomach. Conversely, neonatal athymic or heterozygous mice, born to germfree or C. albicans-colonized mothers, do not become heavily colonized or infected with C. albicans until 11 to 15 days after birth. Although yeast cells adhered to some mucosal surfaces in vivo, neither widespread mucocutaneous candidiasis, i.e., invasion of mucosal surfaces with C. albicans hyphae, nor overwhelming systemic candidiasis was evident in neonatal (nu/nu or +/nu) mice. Thus, even in the absence of functional T-cells and a viable bacterial flora, athymic and heterozygous littermate mice (adult or neonatal BALB/c) that are colonized with a pure culture of C. albicans manifest resistance to extensive mucocutaneous and systemic candidiasis. Images PMID:6372689

  14. Changing your ostomy pouch

    MedlinePlus

    The bathroom is a good place to change your pouch. Empty your used pouch into the toilet first, if it needs emptying. Gather your supplies. If you have a 2-piece pouch, be sure you have the special ...

  15. Heterotopic nephrogenic rests in the colon and multiple congenital anomalies: possibly related association.

    PubMed

    Jain, Dhanpat; Martel, Maritza; Reyes-Múgica, Miguel; Parkash, Vinita

    2002-01-01

    Heterotopic renal tissue (HRT) in the wall of the colon is a very rare occurrence, with only five cases published. Our patient is only the second patient reported to have this abnormality in the absence of sirenomelia. We describe colonic HRT in a child, associated with multiple congenital anomalies. The congenital abnormalities were of the VACTERL type, accompanied by valvular cardiac anomalies that were clinically diagnosed as Shone syndrome. The HRT was not apparent clinically or grossly. Microscopically, multifocal islands of renal tissue consisting of glomeruli, cystically dilated tubules, and blastema were seen in all layers of the bowel, and simulated "cystic partially differentiated nephroblastoma." Our case provides further support to the belief that VACTERL association and sirenomelia represent related entities. PMID:12375130

  16. Radiolocalization of monoclonal antibodies in hepatic metastases from human colon cancer in congenitally athymic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, K.; Rivoire, M.; Divgi, C.; Welt, S.; Cohen, A.M.; Sigurdson, E.R. )

    1990-02-01

    Intrasplenic injection of the HT-29 LMM metastatic human colon cancer line reproducibly results in hepatic metastasis formation in congenitally athymic mice. HT-29-15, a murine monoclonal antibody (mAb) of the IgG1 class reactive with the HT-29 LMM line, and BL-3, an isotype-matched control antibody, were labeled with 125I. Labeled mAbs were injected i.v. in mice with hepatic metastases, and animals were sacrificed on days 3, 5, and 7. Specific mAb uptake by tumor was significantly greater than nonspecific mAb uptake, as evidenced by specific/nonspecific tumor/blood ratios (radiolocalization indices) of 3.47/1-25.6/1. Relative mAb uptake was greater by the hepatic tumors than by the splenic tumors from day 3 to day 7, although this was significant (P less than 0.05) only on day 7 (5.12 {plus minus} 2.97 versus 1.79 {plus minus} 0.71). Tumor/uninvolved tissue ratios were also significantly greater (P less than 0.05) for the hepatic metastases than for the splenic tumors on day 7 (12.23 {plus minus} 3.85 versus 6.63 {plus minus} 2.63). This murine hepatic metastasis model appears useful for evaluation of localization of mAbs to hepatic metastases from human colon carcinoma.

  17. Pharyngeal pouch carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Saunders, M W; Murty, G E; Bradely, P J

    1993-02-01

    Malignant change occurs in 0.3-10% of pharyngeal pouches, with longstanding pouches most at risk. Contrast radiology and endoscopy can detect large and medium sized tumors but are inadequate for small lesions and carcinoma in situ. Expectant treatment and conservative surgery fail to provide an excised pouch for histological analysis and small lesions may be missed. Consequently, careful consideration must be given to radical excision, particularly if the pouch has been longstanding. The role of radiotherapy in conjunction with surgery remains unproven. PMID:8482256

  18. Changing your ostomy pouch

    MedlinePlus

    American College of Surgeons, Division of Education. Ostomy skills: Emptying and changing the pouch. Available at: www. ... Perry AG, Potter PA, Ostendorf W. Clinical Nursing Skills and Techniques . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; ...

  19. Crohn's Disease of the Ileoanal Pouch.

    PubMed

    Lightner, Amy L; Pemberton, John H; Loftus, Edward J

    2016-06-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) of the pouch is an increasingly recognized diagnosis after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. This post-ileal pouch-anal anastomosis diagnosis in conjunction with pouchitis remains the leading reason for pouch excision. Unfortunately, CD of the pouch remains a difficult diagnosis with lack of a uniform definition largely because of its similarity to common postoperative pouch complications, including pouchitis, abscess formation, or stricture at the anastomosis. Once diagnosed, treatment algorithms largely include multimodal therapy including biologics. This review focuses on the definition, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment for CD of the pouch, a postoperative de novo diagnosis of CD. PMID:27057684

  20. Subsequent Adenomas of Ileal Pouch and Anorectal Segment after Prophylactic Surgery for Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

    PubMed Central

    M'Koma, A.E.; Herline, A.J.; Adunyah, S.E.

    2014-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomally dominant disease characterized by the early development of colorectal adenomas and carcinoma in untreated patients. Patients with FAP may develop rectal cancer at their initial presentation (primary) or after prophylactic surgery (secondary). Controversies exist regarding which surgical procedure represents the best first-line treatment. The options for FAP are ileorectal anastomosis (IRA) or a restorative proctocolectomy (RPC) with either a handsewn or a stapled ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA), with or without mucosectomy. The purpose of these surgeries is to stop progression to an adenoma-cancer sequence by eradicating the colon, a disease prone organ. Unfortunately, these surgical procedures, which excise the entire colon and rectum while maintaining transanal fecal continence, do not guarantee that patients still won't develop adenomas. Based on the available literature, we therefore reviewed reported incidences of pouch-related adenomas that occurred post prophylactic surgery for FAP. The review consists of a collection of case, descriptive, prospective and retrospective reports. Objectives To provide available data on the natural history of subsequent adenomas after prophylactic surgery (by type) for FAP. Methods A review was conducted of existing case, descriptive, prospective and retrospective reports for patients undergoing prophylactic surgery for FAP (1975 – August, 2013). In each case, the adenomas were clearly diagnosed in one of the following: the ileal pouch mucosa (above the ileorectal anastomosis), within the anorectal segment (ARS) below the ileorectal anastomosis, or in the afferent ileal loop. Results A total of 515 (36%) patients with pouch-related adenomas have been reported. Two hundred and eleven (211) patients had adenomas in the ileal pouch mucosa, 295 had them in the ARS and in 9 were in the afferent ileal loop. Patients with pouch adenomas without dysplasia or cancer were

  1. Laparoscopic restorative proctocolectomy ileal pouch anal anastomosis: How I do it?

    PubMed Central

    Madnani, Manish A; Mistry, Jitendra H; Soni, Harshad N; Shah, Atul J; Patel, Kantilal S; Haribhakti, Sanjiv P

    2015-01-01

    Surgery for ulcerative colitis is a major and complex colorectal surgery. Laparoscopy benefits these patients with better outcomes in context of cosmesis, pain and early recovery, especially in young patients. For surgeons, it is a better tool for improving vision and magnification in deep cavities. This is not the simple extension of the laparoscopy training. Starting from preoperative preparation to post operative care there are wide variations as compared to open surgery. There are also many variations in steps of laparoscopic surgery. It involves left colon, right colon and rectal mobilisation, low division of rectum, pouch creation and anastomosis of pouch to rectum. Over many years after standardisation of this technique, it takes same operative time as open surgery at our centre. So we present our standardized technique of laparoscopic assisted restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA). PMID:26195886

  2. Novel isolated cecal pouch model for endoscopic observation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Koshino, Kurodo; Kanai, Nobuo; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo; Yamamoto, Masakazu

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To create a new rat model for drug administration, cell transplantation, and endoscopic examination for the treatment of intestinal diseases. METHODS: F344/NJc l-rnu/rnu rats (10-wk-old males, 350-400 g) were used in this study. The rats were anesthetized via 2% isoflurane inhalation. The rat’s cecum was isolated from the intestines, and a pouch was created. The remainder of the intestines was rejoined to create an anastomosis. The “side-to-side” anastomosis (SSA) technique initially involves the creation of a 2-cm longitudinal incision into each intestinal wall. To create an anastomosis along the ileal and colonic walls, both intestines were cut, and a continuous suture procedure was performed that included all layers of both intestines. The serous membrane was sutured along the edge and on the anterior wall of the anastomosis. The “end-to-end” anastomosis (EEA) technique was compared with the SSA technique. In the EEA technique, the frontal surfaces of both cut intestinal lumens were joined together by continuous sutures. Additional sutures were made at the serosa. After the anastomotic intestine was successfully constructed, the two intestinal lumens that were cut at the isolated cecum were managed. In addition, one luminal side of the pouch remained open to create an artificial anus on the dorsum as a passage for the residual substances in the pouch. Finally, small animal endoscopy was used to observe the inside of the pouch. RESULTS: In this animal model, mucus and feces are excreted through the reconstructed passage. Accordingly, the cecal pouch mucosa was not obstructed or contaminated by feces, thus facilitating observations of the luminal surface of the intestine. The endoscopic observation of the cecal pouch provided clear visualization given the absence of feces. The membrane surface of the cecum was clearly observed. Two methods of creating an anastomotic intestine, the “SSA” and “EEA” techniques, were compared with regard to

  3. Tuberculosis Detection by Giant African Pouched Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Durgin, Amy; Mahoney, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, operant discrimination training procedures have been used to teach giant African pouched rats to detect tuberculosis (TB) in human sputum samples. This article summarizes how the rats are trained and used operationally, as well as their performance in studies published to date. Available data suggest that pouched rats, which can…

  4. A suprasellar subarachnoid pouch; aetiological considerations.

    PubMed Central

    Binitie, O; Williams, B; Case, C P

    1984-01-01

    A child with hydrocephalus treated by a valved shunt was reinvestigated after developing a shunt infection. A pouch was discovered invaginating the floor of the third ventricle and filling slowly with CSF from the region of the interpeduncular cistern. Histology and mechanisms of this pouch formation are discussed. Images PMID:6502163

  5. Experimental Infection of Sheep at 45 and 60 Days of Gestation with Schmallenberg Virus Readily Led to Placental Colonization without Causing Congenital Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Dal Pozzo, Fabiana; De Regge, Nick; Cay, Brigitte; Saegerman, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Background Main impact of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) on livestock consists in reproductive disorders, with teratogenic effects, abortions and stillbirths. SBV pathogenesis and viral placental crossing remain currently poorly understood. Therefore, we implemented an experimental infection of ewes, inoculated with SBV at 45 or 60 days of gestation (dg). Methodology “Mourerous” breed ewes were randomly separated in three groups: eight and nine ewes were subcutaneously inoculated with 1 ml of SBV infectious serum at 45 and 60 dg, respectively (G45 and G60). Six other ewes were inoculated subcutaneously with sterile phosphate buffer saline as control group. All SBV inoculated ewes showed RNAemia consistent with previously published studies, they seroconverted and no clinical sign was reported. Lambs were born at term via caesarian-section, and right after birth they were blood sampled and clinically examined. Then both lambs and ewes were euthanatized and necropsied. Principal Findings/Significance No lambs showed any malformation suggestive of SBV infection and none of them had RNAemia or anti-SBV antibodies prior to colostrum uptake. Positive SBV RNA detection in organs was rare in both G45 and G60 lambs (2/11 and 1/10, respectively). Nevertheless most of the lambs in G45 (9/11) and G60 (9/10) had at least one extraembryonic structure SBV positive by RTqPCR. The number of positive extraembryonic structures was significantly higher in G60 lambs. Time of inoculation (45 or 60 dg) had no impact on the placental colonization success rate but affected the frequency of detecting the virus in the offspring extraembryonic structures by the time of lambing. SBV readily colonized the placenta when ewes were infected at 45 or 60 dg but infection of the fetuses was limited and did not lead to congenital malformations. PMID:26418420

  6. Postnatal development of Blake's pouch cyst: a case report and new insight for its pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hirono, Seiichiro; Ito, Daisuke; Murai, Hisayuki; Kobayashi, Masayoshi; Suyama, Maiko; Fujii, Katsunori; Saeki, Naokatsu

    2014-10-01

    Blake's pouch cyst (BPC), a rare cystic malformation in the posterior fossa, is believed to be caused by the congenital expansion of the posterior membranous area that normally regresses during embryogenesis. However, due to the wide spectrum of the onset pattern and age of patients, the natural history and the pathogenesis are poorly understood. The authors describe the case of a girl who admitted with headache and right abducens nerve paresis at the age of 3 years and 10 months. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated a tetraventricular hydrocephalus, an open aqueduct, and a posterior fossa cyst compatible with BPC. Multiple tumors were also noticed in the ventricular wall. Tumor biopsy and an endoscopic third ventriculostomy were performed. Intraoperative observation confirmed the BPC, and pathological diagnosis was pilomyxoid astrocytoma. In retrospect, MR imaging was performed twice in the past, at the age of 8 months and again at 22 months, and no anomaly was detected, suggesting that Blake's pouch was once regressed. Therefore, a BPC in this patient was certainly developed after her second or third year of life. The ventricular tumors may influence the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) absorption, which triggered the re-expansion of BPC from the possible remnant of Blake's pouch. This is a rare but important report providing evidence that in addition to the classic congenital BPC in which the remnant of Blake's pouch remains persistent, there could be postnatal or secondary BPC, which develops after birth. Possible mechanisms include that the remnant of Blake's pouch, which originally disappears, may re-expand postnatally in association with unknown trigger or a change in CSF dynamics or absorption. PMID:24907110

  7. Models of Inflammation: Carrageenan Air Pouch.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Djane B; Vasko, Michael R; Fehrenbacher, Jill C

    2016-01-01

    The subcutaneous air pouch is an in vivo model that can be used to study the components of acute and chronic inflammation, the resolution of the inflammatory response, the oxidative stress response, and potential therapeutic targets for treating inflammation. Injection of irritants into an air pouch in rats or mice induces an inflammatory response that can be quantified by the volume of exudate produced, the infiltration of cells, and the release of inflammatory mediators. The model presented in this unit has been extensively used to identify potential anti-inflammatory drugs. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:26995549

  8. Local regulation of postprandial motor responses in ileal pouches

    PubMed Central

    Mularczyk, A; Contessini-Avesan..., E; Cesana, B; Bianchi, P; Basilisco, G

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Local mechanisms are involved in the postprandial regulation of ileal tone in healthy subjects, but whether these mechanisms affect the postprandial tonic response of ileal pouches has not yet been investigated.
AIMS—To study the effect of a meal on pouch tone and phasic motor activity in patients with gut continuity or ileostomy and, in the latter group, the effect of a pouch perfusion with chyme or saline.
PATIENTS—Twenty patients with ileal pouches: 10 with gut continuity and 10 with ileostomy.
METHODS—Pouch tone and the frequency of phasic volume events were recorded with a barostat under fasting and postprandial conditions and after perfusion of the isolated pouch with chyme or saline.
RESULTS—The meal increased pouch tone and the frequency of phasic volume events in the patients with gut continuity, but not in those with ileostomy. Pouch perfusion with chyme induced a greater increase in pouch tone than saline.
CONCLUSIONS—The meal stimulated pouch tone and phasic motor activity. These effects were at least partially related to local pouch stimulation by intraluminal contents.


Keywords: ileal pouches; postprandial motor responses; ileal tone; ileostomy; motor activity; barostat PMID:10486368

  9. A Case of In-Bore Transperineal MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy of a Patient with Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis

    PubMed Central

    Kongnyuy, Michael; Frye, Thomas; George, Arvin K.; Kilchevsky, Amichai; Iyer, Amogh; Kadakia, Meet; Muthigi, Akhil; Turkbey, Baris; Wood, Brad J.; Pinto, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory disease that specifically affects the colon. Ulcerative colitis is primarily treated medically and refractory disease is treated with proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA). Gastroenterologists advise against digital rectal exams, pelvic radiation therapy, and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) biopsies of the prostates of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis patients. Any form of pouch manipulation can lead to severe bleeding, inflammation, and pain. Urologists are therefore faced with the challenge of doing a prostate biopsy without a transrectal ultrasound. We report the rare case of a patient with an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis who underwent in-bore transperineal MRI-guided biopsy of the prostate. PMID:26844005

  10. 31 CFR 560.521 - Diplomatic pouches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Commerce under the Export Administration Regulations (15 CFR parts 730 through 774). ... authorized: (a) The importation into the United States from Iran, or the exportation from the United States to Iran, of diplomatic pouches and their contents; and (b) The exportation, reexportation, sale,...

  11. 31 CFR 560.521 - Diplomatic pouches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Commerce under the Export Administration Regulations (15 CFR parts 730 et seq.). ... authorized: (a) The importation into the United States from Iran, or the exportation from the United States to Iran, of diplomatic pouches and their contents; and (b) The exportation, reexportation, sale,...

  12. 31 CFR 560.521 - Diplomatic pouches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Commerce under the Export Administration Regulations (15 CFR parts 730 through 774). ... authorized: (a) The importation into the United States from Iran, or the exportation from the United States to Iran, of diplomatic pouches and their contents; and (b) The exportation, reexportation, sale,...

  13. 31 CFR 560.521 - Diplomatic pouches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Commerce under the Export Administration Regulations (15 CFR parts 730 et seq.). ... authorized: (a) The importation into the United States from Iran, or the exportation from the United States to Iran, of diplomatic pouches and their contents; and (b) The exportation, reexportation, sale,...

  14. 31 CFR 560.521 - Diplomatic pouches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Commerce under the Export Administration Regulations (15 CFR parts 730 et seq.). ... authorized: (a) The importation into the United States from Iran, or the exportation from the United States to Iran, of diplomatic pouches and their contents; and (b) The exportation, reexportation, sale,...

  15. 31 CFR 538.516 - Diplomatic pouches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... under the Export Administration Regulations (15 CFR parts 730 et seq.). ... authorized: (a) The importation into the United States from Sudan, or the exportation from the United States to Sudan, of diplomatic pouches and their contents; and (b) The exportation or...

  16. 31 CFR 538.516 - Diplomatic pouches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... under the Export Administration Regulations (15 CFR parts 730 et seq.). ... authorized: (a) The importation into the United States from Sudan, or the exportation from the United States to Sudan, of diplomatic pouches and their contents; and (b) The exportation or...

  17. 31 CFR 538.516 - Diplomatic pouches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... under the Export Administration Regulations (15 CFR parts 730 et seq.). ... authorized: (a) The importation into the United States from Sudan, or the exportation from the United States to Sudan, of diplomatic pouches and their contents; and (b) The exportation or...

  18. 31 CFR 538.516 - Diplomatic pouches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... under the Export Administration Regulations (15 CFR parts 730 et seq.). ... authorized: (a) The importation into the United States from Sudan, or the exportation from the United States to Sudan, of diplomatic pouches and their contents; and (b) The exportation or...

  19. 31 CFR 538.516 - Diplomatic pouches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... under the Export Administration Regulations (15 CFR parts 730 et seq.). ... authorized: (a) The importation into the United States from Sudan, or the exportation from the United States to Sudan, of diplomatic pouches and their contents; and (b) The exportation or...

  20. Characterization of Commercial Li-ion Cells in Pouch Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2014-01-01

    The li-ion pouch design cells exhibit similar behavior under off-nominal conditions as those in metal cans that do not have the internal safety devices. Safety should be well characterized before batteries are designed. Some of the li-ion pouch cell designs studied in this program reacted most violently to overcharge conditions at the medium rates but were tolerant to overcharge at very low rates. Some pouch cell designs have higher tolerance to vacuum exposures than some others. A comparison of the pouch material itself does not show a correlation between this tolerance and the number of layers or composition of the pouch indicating that this is a property of the electrode stack design inside the pouch. Reduced pressure (8 to 10 psi) test environments show that the extent of capacity degradation under reduced pressure environments is much less than that observed under vacuum conditions. Lithium-ion Pouch format cells are not necessarily true polymer cells.

  1. Congenital Hypothyroidism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Body in Balance › Congenital Hypothyroidism Fact Sheet Congenital Hypothyroidism March, 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Rosalind S. ... MD Susan R. Rose, MD What is congenital hypothyroidism? Newborn babies who are unable to make enough ...

  2. Absent upper blind Pouch in a case of tracheo-esophageal fistula.

    PubMed

    Harjai, Man Mohan; Badal, Sachendra; Khanna, Sangeeta; Singh, Ajit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    A common upper airway and digestive tract is a rare congenital anomaly that is usually fatal and its exact incidence is not known. It is a diagnostic challenge as it requires high index of suspicion. It should be considered in a neonate with respiratory distress in a non-vigorous baby requiring endotracheal intubation, which is difficult even in expert hand. We present a newborn with suspected tracheo-esophageal fistula that was diagnosed intraoperatively to have absent upper blind pouch of the esophagus and on autopsy found to have laryngeal atresia with absent vocal cords and a common aerodigestive tract continuing distally with trachea. The neonate was ventilated with endotracheal tube (ETT) placement which in retrospect we came to know that it was in the esophagus. The neonate also had associated multiple congenital anomalies of VACTERL association. The importance of teamwork between neonatologist, pediatric surgeon, anesthesiologist, and radiologist is highlighted for diagnosis and management of such rare cases. PMID:25552830

  3. Solitary Pouch Ulcer: A New Clinical Entity?

    PubMed

    Pricolo, Victor E

    2016-07-01

    Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome is a well-known clinical entity, likely secondary to a defecatory dysfunction. In patients who have undergone restorative proctocolectomy with ileoanal reservoir, it is conceivable that a similar pathophysiology may lead to "solitary pouch ulcer," but such a syndrome has not been reported to date. This article reports 2 such cases and clinical success with lasting symptomatic relief through local therapy and behavior modification rather than anti-inflammatory. PMID:26859123

  4. Granuloma pouch assay for mutagenicity testing.

    PubMed

    Maier, P

    1980-11-01

    The Granuloma Pouch Assay (GPA) is an animal model in which mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of a testcompound can be detected in rapidly dividing fibroblasts of a granulation tissue in adult male rats. Growth of this tissue was initiated with a small amount of croton oil at the inside wall of a subcutaneous air pouch on the back of the animals. The test compound can be injected either into the pouch (local) or administered by systemic routes. Alkali labile DNA-lesions, chromosome aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges, point mutations and tumor development in situ were determined. The comparison of mutation frequencies after local and systemic administration of testcompounds, provide an estimation of the pharmacokinetic characteristics and the mutagenic potency of the chemical. The local application route allows the detection of locally active mutagens and of compounds which require activation by P-448 dependent mono-oxygenases. Liver mediated proximate metabolites are detectable when they are transformed into ultimate carcinogens in extrahepatic cells whereas chemicals with a strong organ specific activity are not. PMID:7235991

  5. Analysis of autonomic nerve preservation and pouch reconstruction influencing fragmentation of defecation after sphincter-preserving surgery for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Katsumata, K; Sumi, T; Enomoto, M; Mori, Y; Aoki, T

    2010-01-01

    Our questionnaire survey on defecation disorders after rectal cancer surgery revealed that 66.7% of postoperative patients were most annoyed with fragmentation of defecation. Therefore, we performed a change-over-time analysis on the relationship of fragmentation and factors including location of rectal cancer, surgical technique, anastomosis method, pouch reconstruction, extent of lymph node dissection, and degree of pelvic and colonic nerve preservation surrounding the superior mesenteric artery. The fragmentation decreased over time at the postoperative time points of 6 months, 2 and 5 years. A statistical analysis of factors influencing fragmentation revealed that location of cancer, reconstruction technique, anastomosis method and degree of pelvic nerve preservation were significant factors for the entire patient population and that colonic nerve preservation was a significant factor 5 years after surgery. Analysis of patients with lower rectal cancer only showed that in addition to surgical technique and anastomosis method, pouch reconstruction was effective and autonomic nerve preservation was effective 5 years after surgery. As a result, when the anastomotic site was closer to the anus, the frequency of fragmentation increased; we concluded that pouch reconstruction was an effective surgical technique and colonic nerve preservation was effective in the longer term. PMID:21051900

  6. Why do central arachnoid pouches expand?

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Bernard; Guthkelch, A. N.

    1974-01-01

    Three cases of progressive hydrocephalus, two occurring in infants and one in a 12 year old girl who also exhibited precocious puberty, were found to be associated with large arachnoid pouches originating within the posterior fossa. The pathogenesis of such cysts is discussed with special reference to the possibility that their progressive distension results from CSF pulsations of venous origin. Both a direct method of treatment (opening the cyst into the adjacent subarachnoid space) and an indirect one (insertion of a ventriculo-atrial shunt) have been used with success. Images PMID:4548436

  7. Guttural pouch mycosis in a 6-month-old filly

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Abstract A 6-month-old filly was presented with unilateral epistaxis. Based on clinical signs, endoscopic examination, and postmortem examination, guttural pouch mycosis was diagnosed. The young age of the filly and the fact that this was the 2nd diagnosis of guttural pouch mycosis on this farm was unusual. PMID:16604984

  8. Pouch Method for the Isolation and Enumeration of Clostridia

    PubMed Central

    Bladel, B. O.; Greenberg, Richard A.

    1965-01-01

    An anaerobic film-pouch method has been developed for the isolation and enumeration of clostridia. Fabrication of the pouch is described. Counts of spore suspensions of Putrefactive Anaerobe 3679 and of Clostridium botulinum strains 41-B and 33-A in pouches were compared with those obtained by anaerobic-jar and agar-deep techniques. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference in favor of the pouch over the tube and anaerobic-jar methods. Tests performed with C. welchii, both in spore suspension and added to chicken pot pie in culture form, also demonstrated the pouch to be at least as proficient as the other, more cumbersome, techniques. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:14325895

  9. Santosh PGI pouch: A new innovation in urinary diversion

    PubMed Central

    Devana, Sudheer Kumar; Sharma, Aditya Prakash; Singh, Shrawan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To know the feasibility and outcome of the Santosh PGI pouch as a new innovative technique of continent cutaneous diversion (CCD) following cystectomy. Material and methods Twelve patients (eleven with carcinoma of the bladder and one with an exstrophy of the bladder) underwent CCD using the Santosh PGI pouch after cystectomy. A 50-cm segment of terminal ileum was isolated 15-20 cm proximal to the ileocecal junction. The ileal segment was folded into the form of an ‘S’ configuration. On the antimesenteric border three longitudinal incisions were performed of about 7 cm in length. The terminal 8 cm portion of the distal part of the pouch was used for creating the intussuscepted nipple valve. Demucosalization of the interior of the nipple, fixing the nipple valve with the serosa of the pouch wall and wrapping of the catheterizable channel with a pouch wall for providing continence was done. The uretero-pouch anastomosis was done using the serosal lined tunnel technique. The catheterizable channel was brought out through the right rectus muscle. Results Median follow-up of the patients was 13.5 months. No significant complications were noted in the pouch reconstruction. Duration of the pouch reconstruction was around 75-110 min. Postoperatively, one patient had a UTI and another had paralytic ileus on the follow-up. All patients were doing regular CIC with acceptable continence of up to 400 ml. No ureteroileal anastomotic stricture or difficulty in catheterizing the pouch was seen. Conclusions The Santosh PGI pouch, which is a type of CCD, is technically feasible, easy to reconstruct with acceptable continence and offers minimal morbidity. PMID:26251752

  10. Embryo oxygenation in pipefish brood pouches: novel insights.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Ines Braga; Ahnesjö, Ingrid; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

    2015-06-01

    The pipefish brood pouch presents a unique mode of parental care that enables males to protect, osmoregulate, nourish and oxygenate the developing young. Using a very fine O2 probe, we assessed the extent to which males of the broad-nosed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle) oxygenate the developing embryos and are able to maintain pouch fluid O2 levels when brooding in normoxia (100% O2 saturation) and hypoxia (40% O2 saturation) for 24 days. In both treatments, pouch fluid O2 saturation levels were lower compared with the surrounding water and decreased throughout the brooding period, reflecting greater offspring demand for O2 during development and/or decreasing paternal ability to provide O2 to the embryos. Male condition (hepatosomatic index) was negatively affected by hypoxia. Larger males had higher pouch fluid O2 saturation levels compared with smaller males, and levels were higher in the bottom section of the pouch compared with other sections. Embryo size was positively correlated with O2 availability, irrespective of their position in the pouch. Two important conclusions can be drawn from our findings. First, our results highlight a potential limitation to brooding within the pouch and dismiss the notion of closed brood pouches as well-oxygenated structures promoting the evolution of larger eggs in syngnathids. Second, we provide direct evidence that paternal care improves with male size in this species. This finding offers an explanation for the documented strong female preference for larger partners because, in terms of oxygenation, the brood pouch can restrict embryo growth. PMID:26041030

  11. Congenital hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Boull, Christina; Maguiness, Sheilagh M

    2016-03-01

    Congenital hemangiomas are rare solitary vascular tumors that do not proliferate after birth. They are characterized as either rapidly involuting congenital hemangiomas (RICHs) or noninvoluting congenital hemangiomas (NICHs) based on their clinical progression. NICHs have no associated complications, but are persistent. RICH, while usually asymptomatic, may ulcerate or bleed early in their presentation, but involute quickly during the first few months of life. Hepatic RICHs are not associated with cutaneous RICHs, but may result in high-output cardiac failure due to arteriovenous or portovenous shunting. In the following review, the clinical characteristics and current management specific to congenital hemangiomas is discussed. PMID:27607320

  12. Occurrence and structure of epipharyngeal pouches in bears (Ursidae)

    PubMed Central

    WEISSENGRUBER, G. E.; FORSTENPOINTNER, G.; KÜBBER-HEISS, A.; RIEDELBERGER, K.; SCHWAMMER, H.; GANZBERGER, K.

    2001-01-01

    The infrequent mention of epipharyngeal pouches occurring in some species of bears indicates the scarcity of morphological and functional knowledge about these structures. In order to provide precise morphological data on the structure of these remarkable formations and to verify their taxonomic utility, the pharyngeal regions of 1 spectacled bear and 3 brown bears were examined. All these individuals possessed epipharyngeal pouches, which are tubular, blind-ending outpouchings of the caudodorsal pharyngeal wall equipped with respiratory epithelium and a thick layer of elastic fibres. While the spectacled bear and Ursus arctos syriacus possessed a single pouch on the caudodorsal wall of the nasopharynx, in Ursus arctos and Ursus arctos beringianus 2 unequally sized pouches were present. Two additional sacs of smaller size, representing outpouchings of the lateral pharyngeal wall, occurred in the spectacled bear. These findings prove epipharyngeal pouches to be constant and unique morphological features of the family Ursidae, the anatomical features suggesting involvement in the respiratory system most probably in important aspects of ursid phonation. This is the first description of epipharyngeal pouches in the spectacled bear. PMID:11322723

  13. Colonic Polyps

    MedlinePlus

    ... Colonic polyps grow in the large intestine, or colon. Most polyps are not dangerous. However, some polyps ... member with polyps Have a family history of colon cancer Most colon polyps do not cause symptoms. ...

  14. Congenital Myopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... arms and legs, droopy eyelids, and problems with eye movements. Weakness often gets worse with time. Central core ... difficulties occur as well. Some children have weakened eye movements. Congenital fiber-type disproportion myopathy is a rare ...

  15. Congenital cataract

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the following birth defects: Chondrodysplasia syndrome Congenital rubella Conradi-Hünermann syndrome Down syndrome (trisomy 21) Ectodermal ... Images Eye Cataract - close-up of the eye Rubella syndrome Cataract References Dahan E. Pediatric cataract surgery. ...

  16. Congenital syphilis

    MedlinePlus

    ... fact that this disease can be cured with antibiotics if caught early, rising rates of syphilis among pregnant women in the United States have increased the number of infants born with congenital syphilis.

  17. [Congenital thrombophilia].

    PubMed

    Kojima, Tetsuhito

    2016-03-01

    Congenital thrombophilia is a thrombotic diathesis caused by a variety of genetic abnormalities in blood coagulation factors or their inhibitory factors associated with physiological thrombus formation. Patients with congenital thrombophilia often present with unusual clinical episodes of venous thrombosis (occasionally combined with pulmonary embolism, known as venous thromboembolism) at a young age and recurrence in atypical vessels, such as the mesenteric vein and superior sagittal sinus, often with a family history of this condition. Studies in Japan as well as in western countries have shown congenital thrombophilia to be caused by a wide variety of genetic abnormalities in natural anticoagulant proteins, such as antithrombin, protein C, and protein S. However, there may still be many unknown causes of hereditary thrombosis. We recently reported a case of hereditary thrombosis induced by a novel mechanism of antithrombin resistance, that is, congenital thrombophilia caused by a gain-of-function mutation in the gene encoding the coagulation factor prothrombin. PMID:27076244

  18. Congenital toxoplasmosis

    MedlinePlus

    Congenital toxoplasmosis is a group of symptoms that occur when an unborn baby (fetus) is infected with the parasite ... Toxoplasmosis infection can be passed to a developing baby if the mother becomes infected while pregnant. The ...

  19. Congenital rubella

    MedlinePlus

    ... is infected with the virus that causes German measles. Congenital means the condition is present at birth. ... Gershon AA. Rubella virus (German measles). In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, ... . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; ...

  20. Congenital rubella

    MedlinePlus

    ... mother is infected with the virus that causes German measles. Congenital means the condition is present at ... Gershon AA. Rubella virus (German measles). In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, ... of Infectious Diseases . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  1. Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis: Points of controversy.

    PubMed

    Trigui, A; Frikha, F; Rejab, H; Ben Ameur, H; Triki, H; Ben Amar, M; Mzali, R

    2014-09-01

    Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis has become the most commonly used procedure for elective treatment of patients with ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis. Since its original description, the procedure has been modified in order to obtain optimal functional results with low morbidity and mortality, and yet provide a cure for the disease. In this review of the literature of restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, we discuss these technical modifications, limiting our discussion to the current points of controversy. The current "hot topics" for debate are: indications for ileal pouch-anal or ileo-rectal anastomosis, indications for pouch surgery in the elderly, indeterminate colitis and Crohn's disease, the place of the laparoscopic approach, transanal mucosectomy with hand-sewn anastomosis vs. the double-stapled technique, the use of diverting ileostomy and the issue of the best route for delivery of pregnant women. Longer follow-up of patients and increased knowledge and experience with pouch surgery, coupled with ongoing prospective evaluation of the procedure are required to settle these issues. PMID:24999229

  2. Comparative morphometric analysis of the gastrointestinal tract of the captive greater cane rat (Thryonomys swinderianus) and African giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus).

    PubMed

    Byanet, Obadiah; Abayomi, Akileye O; Aondohemba, Tyagher J

    2015-01-01

    The greater cane rats (Thryonomys swinderianus) and African giant pouched rats (Cricetomys gambianus) are among the largest rodents in Africa, undergoing domestications for meat and research purposes. The aim of this study was to explore whether there are any quantitative anatomical gastrointestinal adaptations associated with their omnivorous or herbivorous diets. In the African giant rat, the mean gastrointestinal tract length and colon width of the males were significantly higher than their females counterpart (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). In a similar way, the mean gastrointestinal tract weight, stomach length and jejunal width in males greater cane rat were significantly higher than in the females (P < 0.05, P < 0.01 and P < 0.01 respectively). The monogastric, omnivores African giant pouched rats had mean significant stomach length and width than greater cane rat (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01 respectively). Also, the duodenal length, jejunal and ileal widths were higher in the former than in the latter (P < 0.05, P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 respectively). The monogastric, herbivore greater cane rats had higher mean cecal width and colon length than the African giant pouched rat (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01 respectively). In conclusion, the African giant pouched rat had larger stomach and longer and wider small intestine, compared to the greater cane rat, which instead had more prominent cecum and wider and longer colon. This suggests that greater cane rats are hindgut fermenting herbivores (cecal fermenter), as is the case in most rodent species. PMID:26738259

  3. [Dorso-ventral continuous irrigation using the Incise Pouch].

    PubMed

    Dittrich, K; Kriwanek, S; Armbruster, C

    1993-01-01

    Dorso-ventral lavage procedures in the treatment of abdominal sepsis are often complicated by technical and nursing problems. With the help of the Incise Pouch, which consists of an adhesive foil with a plastic bag around it, we have succeeded in solving the main problems of the dorso-ventral lavage procedure. (1) All the lavage solution is collected in the bag and drawn into a vacuum pump. The suction drains are placed directly in the bag. This enables us to measure the lavage solution exactly. (2) There is no leakage of liquid into the bed, so that the patient remains dry. (3) The danger of intestinal fistulas or intraabdominal bleeding caused by suction drains is eliminated (by putting them into the bag of the Incise Pouch). If reexploration of the abdominal cavity ("on demand" or planned) is done, the Incise Pouch remains in position. This method makes early diagnosis and treatment of postoperative complications possible. PMID:8326812

  4. Ileo-anal pouch procedure: experience in the Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Lau, P W; Boey, J; Lorentz, T G

    1991-11-01

    The ileo-anal pouch procedure is now a well-established method for dealing with ulcerative colitis and familial polyposis in many centres in the West. Experience in the Chinese population is not well documented, mainly due to the rarity of inflammatory bowel disease. This report documents the experience of a university teaching hospital in Hong Kong. Despite being a small series, the low complication rates and good functional results show that the pelvic pouch procedure has now evolved to a stage where it can be performed safely even in centres with infrequent experience. PMID:1661110

  5. The Hamster Buccal Pouch Model of Oral Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nagini, Siddavaram; Kowshik, Jaganathan

    2016-01-01

    The hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis model is one of the most well-characterized animal tumor models used as a prelude to investigate multistage oral carcinogenesis and to assess the efficacy of chemointervention. Hamster buccal pouch carcinomas induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) show extensive similarities to human oral squamous cell carcinomas. The HBP model offers a number of advantages including a simple and predictable tumor induction procedure, easy accessibility for examination and follow-up of lesions, and reproducibility. This model can be used to test both chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:27246045

  6. The superior mesenteric artery. The critical factor in the pouch pull-through procedure.

    PubMed

    Smith, L; Friend, W G; Medwell, S J

    1984-11-01

    The critical factor in ileal pouch pull-through operations is the length of the superior mesenteric artery. The pouch must reach the dentate line and have adequate blood supply. A series of cadaver and morgue studies were performed to evaluate the two most popular pouches of the "J" and "S" configurations. The "S" pouch generally reaches 2 to 4 cm more caudad than the "J" pouch. If necessary, however, the "J" pouch can be lengthened 2 to 4 cm by cutting the branch vessel under tension to the pouch, sparing vessels to either side and the marginal arcade. The "S" pouch procedure always sacrifices the ileocecal artery, but the "J" pouch procedure does not necessarily do so. The greatest caudad reach is available when the ileum is cut flush with the cecum. To verify a rule of thumb for reaching the dentate line with the pouch, the length of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) origin to the inferior margin of the symphysis pubis and the SMA to dentate line were compared. If the tip of the pouch or conduit reached 6 cm below the symphysis pubis, all pouches reached the dentate line. PMID:6499610

  7. [Congenital syphilis].

    PubMed

    Tabák, Réka; Tabák, Adám; Várkonyi, Viktória

    2010-01-10

    Syphilis has been a re-emerging disease in the past few decades. As a consequence, the prevalence of congenital syphilis is expected to be on the rise. Maternal syphilis may be related to several pathologies, such as miscarriage, stillbirth, or congenital syphilis in the child. Infants that acquire syphilis in utero are frequently asymptomatic, and the organ damage caused by the infection may be apparent only years later. Syphilis is a curable disease, and most of its complications in the infant can be prevented by screening and treating the mother. Every newborn potentially infected should be treated with penicillin immediately starting on the day of birth. PMID:20061233

  8. Value of histopathology for predicting the post-operative complications of ileo-anal anastomosis (J-pouch) procedure in children with refractory ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    El Demellawy, Dina; El Hallani, Soufiane; de Nanassy, Joseph; Lee, James Young; Chan, Emily; Sullivan, Katrina; Bass, Juan; Mack, David; Nasr, Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    The J-pouch is a surgical procedure offered to children with refractory ulcerative colitis (UC) who have undergone subtotal colectomy to reconstruct a reservoir function with ileo-anal anastomosis. Unfortunately, post-operative complications may occur and can compromise the pouch function. We assessed rectal histopathology to determine whether severity of inflammation in the rectum prior to the creation of the J-Pouch was associated with post-operative complications. We retrospectively reviewed the histopathology of all J-pouch procedure specimens from paediatric patients during the period 2000-2013 using an objective grading system that assesses the chronicity and activity of the UC disease. We analysed the parameters for association with the post-operative complications. A classification tree algorithm was generated to predict the risk of complication based on histopathological parameters. A total of 28 paediatric patients were identified, among whom 10 developed post-operative complications (35%). The activity score at the recto-anal margin was higher among the patients with post-operative complications (mean 7.3±3.1 versus 4.8±3.1; p=0.04). The involvement of more than 5% colonic crypts with epithelial neutrophilic infiltration at the recto-anal margin was found to be an independent parameter that would stratify the patients into low-risk or high-risk group for developing complications (17% versus 64%; p=0.04). An association between UC disease activity at the recto-anal margin and post-operative J-pouch complications was determined. Potentially, this association suggests that a histopathological assessment of the recto-anal transitional zone may have value in guiding the surgeon on the risk of post-operative complications. PMID:27130833

  9. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... attached to the patient's skin by an adhesive material and that is intended for use as a receptacle for... generic type of device and its accessories includes the ostomy pouch, ostomy adhesive, the disposable... bag, ostomy drainage bag with adhesive, stomal bag, ostomy protector, and the ostomy size...

  10. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... attached to the patient's skin by an adhesive material and that is intended for use as a receptacle for... generic type of device and its accessories includes the ostomy pouch, ostomy adhesive, the disposable... bag, ostomy drainage bag with adhesive, stomal bag, ostomy protector, and the ostomy size...

  11. Long Upper Pouch in Esophageal Atresia: A Rare Variant

    PubMed Central

    Yhoshu, Enono; Mahajan, Jai Kumar; Dash, Vedarth

    2016-01-01

    The earliest clinical sign of esophageal atresia (EA) is excessive salivation and the diagnosis is made by failure to pass an infant feeding tube (IFT) into the stomach. The diagnostic errors may occur due to presence of an unusually long upper pouch, when the IFT seems to pass into the stomach. We describe one such case and review the relevant literature. PMID:26793598

  12. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... attached to the patient's skin by an adhesive material and that is intended for use as a receptacle for... generic type of device and its accessories includes the ostomy pouch, ostomy adhesive, the disposable... bag, ostomy drainage bag with adhesive, stomal bag, ostomy protector, and the ostomy size...

  13. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... attached to the patient's skin by an adhesive material and that is intended for use as a receptacle for... generic type of device and its accessories includes the ostomy pouch, ostomy adhesive, the disposable... bag, ostomy drainage bag with adhesive, stomal bag, ostomy protector, and the ostomy size...

  14. 21 CFR 876.5900 - Ostomy pouch and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... attached to the patient's skin by an adhesive material and that is intended for use as a receptacle for... generic type of device and its accessories includes the ostomy pouch, ostomy adhesive, the disposable... bag, ostomy drainage bag with adhesive, stomal bag, ostomy protector, and the ostomy size...

  15. Microbiological shelf life of pasteurized milk in bottle and pouch.

    PubMed

    Petrus, R R; Loiola, C G; Oliveira, C A F

    2010-01-01

    Shelf life of pasteurized milk in Brazil ranges from 3 to 8 d, mainly due to poor cold chain conditions that prevail throughout the country and subject the product to repeated and/or severe temperature abuse. This study evaluated the influence of storage temperature on the microbiological stability of homogenized whole pasteurized milk (75 degrees C/15 s) packaged in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) bottle and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) pouch, both monolayer materials pigmented with titanium dioxide (TiO(2)). The storage temperatures investigated were 2, 4, 9, 14, and 16 degrees C. Microbiological evaluation was based on mesophilic and psychrotrophic counts with 7 log CFU/mL and 6 log CFU/mL, respectively, set as upper limits of acceptability for maintaining the quality of milk. The microbiological stability for pasteurized milk packaged in HDPE bottle and stored at 2, 4, 9, 14, and 16 degrees C was estimated at 43, 36, 8, 5, and 3 d, respectively. For milk samples packaged in LDPE pouch, shelf life was estimated at 37, 35, 7, 3, and 2 d, respectively. The determination of Q(10) and z values demonstrated that storage temperature has a greater influence on microbiological shelf life of pasteurized milk packaged in LDPE pouch compared to HDPE bottle. Based on the results of this study, HDPE bottle was better for storing pasteurized milk as compared to LDPE pouch. PMID:20492183

  16. Using Giant African Pouched Rats ("Cricetomys Gambianus") to Detect Landmines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart J.; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie W.; Sully, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Within the past decade, giant pouched rats have been used successfully to detect landmines. This manuscript summarizes how these rats are trained and used operationally. The information provided is intended to be of practical value toward strengthening best practices in using "Cricetomys" for humanitarian purposes while simultaneously ensuring the…

  17. Improving Growth of Calibrachoa x Hybrida (Cerv.) in Hanging Pouches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unique growing containers and non-traditional types of plant presentation applications can cause new production problems for growers. This study was conducted to evaluate the growth of a popular new container plant, Calibrachoa, produced in hanging flower pouches using different growing media compo...

  18. Congenital amusias.

    PubMed

    Tillmann, B; Albouy, P; Caclin, A

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the sophisticated music processing reported in the general population, individuals with congenital amusia show deficits in music perception and production. Congenital amusia occurs without brain damage, sensory or cognitive deficits, and has been suggested as a lifelong deficit with genetic origin. Even though recognized for a long time, this disorder has been systematically studied only relatively recently for its behavioral and neural correlates. The currently most investigated hypothesis about the underlying deficits concerns the pitch dimension, notably with impaired pitch discrimination and memory. Anatomic and functional investigations of pitch processing revealed that the amusic brain presents abnormalities in the auditory and inferior frontal cortices, associated with decreased connectivity between these structures. The deficit also impairs processing of pitch in speech material and processing of the time dimension in music for some of the amusic individuals, but does not seem to affect spatial processing. Some studies suggest at least partial dissociation in the disorder between perception and production. Recent studies revealed spared implicit pitch perception in congenital amusia, supporting the power of implicit cognition in the music domain. Current challenges consist in defining different subtypes of congenital amusia as well as developing rehabilitation programs for this "musical handicap." PMID:25726292

  19. Congenital Defects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Allen S.; And Others

    There are two general categories (not necessarily mutually exclusive) of congenital defects: (1) abnormalities that have an hereditary basis, such as single and multiple genes, or chromosomal abberration; and (2) abnormalities that are caused by nonhereditary factors, such as malnutrition, maternal disease, radiation, infections, drugs, or…

  20. Colon cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma ... In the United States, colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths due to cancer. Early diagnosis can often lead to a complete cure. Almost ...

  1. Characterization of the Gut-Associated Microbiome in Inflammatory Pouch Complications Following Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Andrea D.; Knox, Natalie; Kabakchiev, Boyko; Milgrom, Raquel; Kirsch, Richard; Cohen, Zane; McLeod, Robin S.; Guttman, David S.; Krause, Denis O.; Silverberg, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Inflammatory complications following ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative colitis (UC) are common and thought to arise through mechanisms similar to de novo onset inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether specific organisms in the tissue-associated microbiota are associated with inflammatory pouch complications. Methods Patients having previously undergone IPAA were recruited from Mount Sinai Hospital. Clinical and demographic information were collected and a pouchoscopy with biopsy of both the pouch and afferent limb was performed. Patients were classified based on post-surgical phenotype into four outcome groups: familial adenomatous polyposis controls (FAP), no pouchitis, pouchitis, and Crohn’s disease-like (CDL). Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA V1-V3 hypervariable region, and quantitative PCR for bacteria of interest, were used to identify organisms present in the afferent limb and pouch. Associations with outcomes were evaluated using exact and non-parametric tests of significance. Results Analysis at the phylum level indicated that Bacteroidetes were detected significantly less frequently (P<0.0001) in the inflammatory outcome groups (pouchitis and CDL) compared to both FAP and no pouchitis. Conversely, Proteobacteria were detected more frequently in the inflammatory groups (P=0.01). At the genus level, organisms associated with outcome were detected less frequently among the inflammatory groups compared to those without inflammation. Several of these organisms, including Bacteroides (P<0.0001), Parabacteroides (P≤2.2x10-3), Blautia (P≤3.0x10-3) and Sutterella (P≤2.5x10-3), were associated with outcome in both the pouch and afferent limb. These associations remained significant even following adjustment for antibiotic use, smoking, country of birth and gender. Individuals with quiescent disease receiving antibiotic therapy displayed similar reductions in these organisms as those with active

  2. Congenital Hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Estey, Chelsie M

    2016-03-01

    There are several types of hydrocephalus, which are characterized based on the location of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) accumulation. Physical features of animals with congenital hydrocephalus may include a dome-shaped skull, persistent fontanelle, and bilateral ventrolateral strabismus. Medical therapy involves decreasing the production of CSF. The most common surgical treatment is placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Postoperative complications may include infection, blockage, drainage abnormalities, and mechanical failure. PMID:26704658

  3. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Overview What is congenital adrenal hyperplasia? Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, or CAH, is a disorder that affects the adrenal glands. The adrenal ...

  4. Dietary habits after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Chartrand-Lefebvre, C; Heppell, J; Davignon, I; Dubé, S; Pomp, A

    1990-04-01

    Dietary habits of patients who had undergone ileal pouch-anal anastomosis were assessed and correlated with bowel function. Twenty-four well-adapted patients (11 women, 13 men; mean age 32 years) voluntarily entered the study 30 +/- 4 months after closure of the diverting ileostomy. A standardized questionnaire on 108 food items and a 3-day food journal were used in the assessment. Twenty-one patients had no difficulty in selecting an appropriate diet. Caloric intake was adequate. Specific symptoms associated with several foods were as follows: increased stool frequency (beer, spirits, chinese food), decreased stool consistency (beer, wine, fried fish), perianal irritation (spicy foods), undigested particles (grapefruit, lettuce), odours (eggs). Pasta and bananas were associated with increased stool consistency. The authors believe that these observations may help in dietary counselling after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. PMID:2268807

  5. The Kock pouch reconsidered: an alternative surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Crawshaw, Alison; Williams, Julia; Woodhouse, Fran

    2014-09-24

    The psychological impact stoma surgery can have on an individual is well documented within the literature ( White and Hunt, 1997 ; Borwell, 2009 ; Williams, 2005 ; Brown, 2005 ). For many years, surgeons have explored and developed innovations in surgical techniques, in particular restorative procedures with a view of preventing permanent stoma formation; ileal anal pouch (IAP) now being the surgical procedure of choice for treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). However, high morbidity rates are associated with pouch longevity ( Castillo et al 2005 ; Nessar and Wu, 2012 ) and once removed can lead to a high-output ileostomy with risks of electrolyte imbalance and malabsorption. This then creates the dilemma of whether the Kock pouch (KP) should be offered as a surgical option. This article offers a historical perspective of the KP and its place in the surgical management of UC and FAP. This article also presents results from a recent audit funded by the Ileostomy Association (IA), highlighting how patients manage their KP and the importance of maintaining bowel control and being free of an incontinent stoma as a means of coming to terms with their condition. PMID:25251313

  6. A Portable Analyzer for Pouch-Actuated, Immunoassay Cassettes

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Xianbo; Liu, Changchun; Mauk, Michael G.; Hart, Robert W.; Chen, Dafeng; Qiu, Jing; Kientz, Terry; Fiene, Jonathan; Bau, Haim H.

    2011-01-01

    A portable, small footprint, light, general purpose analyzer (processor) to control the flow in immunoassay cassettes and to facilitate the detection of test results is described. The durable analyzer accepts disposable cassettes that contain pouches and reaction chambers for various unit operations such as hydration of dry reagents, stirring, and incubation. The analyzer includes individually controlled, linear actuators to compress the pouches in the cassette, which facilitates the pumping and mixing of sample and reagents, and to close diaphragm-based valves for flow control. The same types of actuators are used to compress pouches and actuate valves. The analyzer also houses a compact OEM scanner/reader to excite fluorescence and detect emission from labels. The analyzer is hydraulically isolated from the cassette, reducing the possibility of cross-contamination. The analyzer facilitates programmable, automated execution of a sequence of operations such as pumping and valving in a timely fashion, reducing the level of expertise required from the operator and the possibility for errors. The analyzer’s design is modular and expandable to accommodate cassettes of various complexities and additional functionalities. In this paper, the utility of the analyzer has been demonstrated with the execution of a simple, consecutive, lateral flow assay of a model biological system and the test results were detected with up converting phosphor labels that are excited at infrared frequencies and emit in the visible spectrum. PMID:22125359

  7. Reconstruction with Jejunal Pouch after Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Namikawa, Tsutomu; Munekage, Eri; Munekage, Masaya; Maeda, Hiromichi; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Yusuke; Kobayashi, Michiya; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2016-06-01

    The construction of a gastric substitute pouch after gastrectomy for gastric cancer has been proposed to help ameliorate postprandial symptoms and nutritional performance. Adequate reconstruction after gastrectomy is an important issue, because postoperative patient quality of life (QOL) primarily depends on the reconstruction method. To this end, jejunal pouch (JP) reconstructions were developed to improve the patient's eating capacity and QOL by creating large reservoirs with improved reflux barriers to prevent esophagitis and residual gastritis. It is important that such reconstructions also preserve blood and extrinsic neural integrity for maintaining pouch function, because JP motility is associated directly with QOL. Some problems remain to be resolved with the JP reconstructions method including gastrointestinal motility, which plays a major role in food transfer, digestion, and absorption of nutrients. Further studies including basic research and larger prospective randomized control trials are also needed to obtain definitive results. With persistent innovations in surgical techniques, JP after gastrectomy could become a safe and preferable reconstructive modality to improve patient QOL after gastrectomy. PMID:27305882

  8. Congenital Anomalies in Infant with Congenital Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Zahra; Yavarikia, Alireza; Torabian, Saadat

    2012-01-01

    Objective Congenital hypothyroidism is characterized by inadequate thyroid hormone production in newborn infants. Many infants with CH have co-occurring congenital malformations. This is an investigation on the frequency and types of congenital anomalies in infants with congenital hypothyroidism born from May 2006-2010 in Hamadan, west province of Iran. Methods The Iranian neonatal screening program for congenital hypothyroidism was initiated in May 2005. This prospective descriptive study was conducted in infants diagnosed with congenital hypothyroidism being followed up in Pediatric Endocrinology Clinic of Besat Hospital, a tertiary care centre in Hamadan. Cases included all infants with congenital hypothyroidism diagnosed through newborn screening program or detected clinically. Anomalies were identified by clinical examination, echocardiography, and X-ray of the hip during the infant’s first year of life. Results A total of 150 infants with biochemically confirmed primary congenital hypothyroidism (72 females and 78 males) were recruited during the period between May 2006-2010. Overall, 30 (20%) infants had associated congenital anomalies. The most common type of anomaly was Down syndrome. Seven infants (3.1%) had congenital cardiac anomalies such as: ASD (n=3), VSD (n=2), PS (n =1), PDA (n=1). Three children (2.6%) had developmental dysplasia of the hip (n=3). Conclusion The overall frequency of Down syndrome, cardiac malformation and other birth defect was high in infants with CH. This reinforces the need to examine all infants with congenital hypothyroidism for the presence of associated congenital anomalies. PMID:23074545

  9. Long-term followup of the Kock and Indiana pouch procedures.

    PubMed

    Arai, Y; Kawakita, M; Terachi, T; Oishi, K; Okada, Y; Takeuchi, H; Yoshida, O

    1993-07-01

    Between 1984 and 1991, 115 consecutive patients underwent cutaneous continent urinary diversion comprising 76 Kock and 39 Indiana pouch procedures. The 2 different forms of achieving continent urinary diversion were subsequently compared in a long-term followup that evaluated complications, including pouch function and the need for revisions. In the Kock pouch group there were 14 (18.4%) early postoperative complications (3 months), which required 4 subsequent reoperations (5.3%). The Indiana pouch group had a similar incidence of early complications (17.9%) but there were no reservoir related problems. The long-term study group comprised 68 Kock and 37 Indiana pouch patients who were observed for 12 months or longer (mean followup 53 and 34 months, respectively). Of 9 efferent nipple valve malfunctions observed in the Kock pouch group 5 required surgical revision. Of 16 complications related to afferent limb function 15 were caused by the use of polyester fiber fabric for the anchoring collar and 8 of these 15 complications required surgical revision. The first 2 Indiana pouch patients had pouch deformities due to incomplete detubularization of the cecum that required surgical repair. Overall, surgical revisions, including minor repairs, were performed on 15 Kock pouch patients (22.1%) and 4 Indiana pouch patients (10.8%). Both forms of the procedure preserved continence to a satisfactory degree. Urinary tract stones developed in 18 patients (26.5%) from the Kock pouch group, usually on the exposed staples or the eroded, nonabsorbable collar used to construct the nipple valves. Stone formation was rare (5.4%) in the Indiana pouch group. The incidence of ureteral implantation stricture was low in both procedures. There was no significant difference in the incidence of bacteriuria between the 2 methods of urinary diversion. These data demonstrate that the Kock pouch and Indiana pouch procedures can be accomplished with the same early postoperative complication rate

  10. Congenital Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    McAuley, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is caused by infection with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. It is one of the most common parasitic infections in humans and is most typically asymptomatic. However, primary infection in a pregnant woman can cause severe and disabling disease in the developing fetus. Recent developments have included increased understanding of the role of parasite genotype in determining infectivity and disease severity. Risk factors for acquisition of infection have been better defined, and the important role of foodborne transmission has been further delineated. In addition, strategies have emerged to decrease mother-to-child transmission through prompt identification of acutely infected pregnant women followed by appropriate treatment. Refined diagnostic tools, particularly the addition of immunoglobulin G avidity testing, allow for more accurate timing of maternal infection and hence better decision making during pregnancy. Congenitally infected children can be treated, beginning in utero and continuing through the first year of life, to ameliorate the severity of disease. However, despite these many advances in our understanding of congenital toxoplasmosis prevention and treatment, significant areas of study remain: we need better drugs, well defined strategies for screening of pregnant women, improved food safety, and improved diagnostic tests. PMID:25232475

  11. Congenital neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Evans, A. R.

    1965-01-01

    The clinical histories and post-mortem findings in five cases of neuroblastoma are described, and an account given of the microscopic characteristics of the tumours. In four of the cases the tumour was present at birth and was probably so in the fifth case. In only one case was the presence of the malignant tumour a significant factor in causing death. The differential diagnosis of such tumours is discussed. The accumulated evidence of many recorded cases suggests that neuroblastoma, becoming manifest in the early months or weeks of life, and congenital tumour, would be included in such a group, and has an appreciably better prognosis than has this same tumour when it becomes manifest in later childhood. The literature is briefly reviewed to illustrate this aspect of prognosis and possible reasons for it are indicated. Images PMID:14247705

  12. Congenital Cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    Walker, David; Shinners, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    Congenital cholesteatoma is one of the more common causes of the onset of childhood conductive hearing loss unrelated to middle ear effusion. If undiagnosed, the disease can progress to irreversibly destroy the conductive hearing architecture, as well as the surrounding skull base of the lateral temporal bone. When diagnosed early, the growth can be removed and the conductive hearing mechanism preserved in the vast majority of patients. Because most children are asymptomatic, the burden falls on primary care providers to perform pneumatic otoscopy and visualize all quadrants of the tympanic membrane even in young children who frequently resist attempts to conduct a thorough examination to rule out suspicious lesions. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(5):e167-e170.]. PMID:27171804

  13. Congenital amusia.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Victoria J; Stewart, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    For most people, music, like language, is acquired effortlessly in early life. But a few percent of the population have lifelong difficulties in the perception and production of music. In this chapter we discuss psycho-acoustic and behavioral studies that have attempted to delineate the nature of the auditory perceptual deficits in this group and consider whether these difficulties extend outside the musical domain. Finally, we review structural imaging studies in this group which point to subtle anomalies in temporal and frontal areas. We suggest that amusia can be considered a disorder of neural development, which has relatively specific consequences at the behavioral level. Studies of congenital amusia provide a unique window on the neurocognitive architecture of music processing. PMID:23622169

  14. Safety and Long-Term Performance of Lithium-ion Pouch Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have the highest energy density of the batteries available in the commercial market today. Although most lithium-ion cell designs use a metal can design, this has changed significantly in recent years. Cell designs are offered in the pouch format as they offer better volumetric and gravimetric energy densities and in some cases, higher tolerance to abuse or off-nominal conditions. In the past decade, several state-of-the-art lithium-ion pouch cell designs have been tested. The pouch cell designs have become more robust in the past two years but there are still a few issues that need to be looked into for optimization. The pouch cells seem to have a tendency to swell when left in storage under ambient conditions. The cells also swell under overvoltage and undervoltage conditions. A significant issue that has been observed is the swelling of the cells under a vacuum condition which could lead to deformation of the cell pouch after this exposure. This last factor would be very critical in the use of these cell designs for space applications as vacuum exposure is used to check for cell and battery leaks before it is flown into space. In rare cases, corrosion of the aluminum layer of the pouches has been observed in stored cells. Pouch material analysis has been carried out in an effort to understand the strength of the pouches and determine if this is a factor in the corrosion as well as unsafe condition of the cells as deformation of the inner layers of the pouch could occur when the cells swell under the various conditions described above. Pouch materials are typically aluminized plastic, made up of a layer of Al sandwiched between one or more layers of polymeric material. Deformations or cell manufacturing processes could lead to a compromise of the inner polymeric layer/s of the pouch leading to the corrosion of the Al layer in the aluminized pouch material. The safety of the pouch cell designs has been determined for cells from various

  15. Congenital hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Pankaj; Philip, Rajeev; Saran, Sanjay; Gutch, Manish; Razi, Mohd Sayed; Agroiya, Puspalata; Gupta, Keshavkumar

    2015-01-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is the one of the most common preventable cause of mental retardation. In the majority of patients, CH is caused by an abnormal development of the thyroid gland (thyroid dysgenesis) that is a sporadic disorder and accounts for 85% of cases and the remaining 15% of cases are caused by dyshormonogenesis. The clinical features of congenital hypothyroidism are so subtle that many newborn infants remain undiagnosed at birth and delayed diagnosis leads to the most severe outcome of CH, mental retardation, emphasizing the importance of neonatal screening. Dried capillary blood is used for screening and it is taken from heel prick optimally between 2 and 5 days of age. Blood spot TSH or thyroxine (T4) or both are being used for CH screening in different programs around the world. Neonates with abnormal thyroid screening tests should be recalled immediately for examination and a venipuncture blood sample should be drawn for confirmatory serum testing. Confirmatory serum should be tested for TSH and free T4, or total T4. Serum TSH and T4 undergo dynamic changes in the first weeks of life; it is important to compare serum results with age-normal reference ranges. Treatment should be started promptly and infant should be rendered euthyroid as early as possible, as there is an inverse relationship between intelligence quotient (IQ) and the age at diagnosis. Levothyroxine (l-thyroxine) is the treatment of choice and American academy of pediatrics and European society of pediatric endocrinology recommend 10-15μgm/kg/day as initial dose. The immediate goal of therapy is to normalize T4 within 2 weeks and TSH within one month. The overall goal of treatment is to ensure growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes as close as possible to their genetic potential. PMID:25729683

  16. The hamster cheek pouch model for field cancerization studies.

    PubMed

    Monti-Hughes, Andrea; Aromando, Romina F; Pérez, Miguel A; Schwint, Amanda E; Itoiz, Maria E

    2015-02-01

    External carcinogens, such as tobacco and alcohol, induce molecular changes in large areas of oral mucosa, which increase the risk of malignant transformation. This condition, known as 'field cancerization', can be detected in biopsy specimens using histochemical techniques, even before histological alterations are identified. The efficacy of these histochemical techniques as biomarkers of early cancerization must be demonstrated in appropriate models. The hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model, universally employed in biological studies and in studies for the prevention and treatment of oral cancer, is also an excellent model of field cancerization. The carcinogen is applied in solution to the surface of the mucosa and induces alterations that recapitulate the stages of cancerization in human oral mucosa. We have demonstrated that the following can be used for the early detection of cancerized tissue: silver staining of nucleolar organizer regions; the Feulgen reaction to stain DNA followed by ploidy analysis; immunohistochemical analysis of fibroblast growth factor-2, immunohistochemical labeling of proliferating cells to demonstrate an increase of epithelial cell proliferation in the absence of inflammation; and changes in markers of angiogenesis (i.e. those indicating vascular endothelial growth factor activity, endothelial cell proliferation and vascular density). The hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer was also proposed and validated by our group for boron neutron capture therapy studies for the treatment of oral cancer. Clinical trials of this novel treatment modality have been performed and are underway for certain tumor types and localizations. Having demonstrated the efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy to control tumors in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model, we adapted the model for the long-term study of field cancerized tissue. We demonstrated the inhibitory effect of boron neutron capture therapy on tumor development in field

  17. Tunguska, 1908: the gas pouch and soil fluidization hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nistor, I.

    2012-01-01

    The Siberian taiga explosion of 30 June 1908 remains one of the great mysteries of the 20th century: millions of trees put down over an area of 2200 km2 without trace of a crater or meteorite fragments. Hundred years of failed searches have followed, resulting in as many flawed hypothesis which could not offer satisfactory explanations: meteorite, comet, UFO, etc. In the author's opinion, the cause is that the energy the explorers looked for was simply not there! The author's hypothesis is that a meteoroid encountered a gas pouch in the atmosphere, producing a devastating explosion, its effects being amplified by soil fluidization.

  18. Hermetic packaging of drugs: optimized sealing of foil pouches.

    PubMed

    Auslander, D E; Gilbert, S G

    1976-07-01

    Factors affecting the sealing of foil packages were studied in the sealing of foil packages were studied in three laboratories. The relationship of sealing temperature (with machine speed and pressure kept constant) to the incidence of defective packages was determined. The maximum acceptable limit for defective pouches was 1%. Three tests were employed to detect defects: vacuum-dye, seal strength, and pressurized ammonia vapor. Only the last was sensitive enough to determine the optimum sealing conditions. This test also was capable of detecting leakage sites. Replacement of the cellophane layer of the foil laminate with polyvinylidene chloride-coated polyester improved the barrier properties of the package. PMID:957113

  19. Tubular Colonic Duplication Presenting as Rectovestibular Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Bendre, Pradnya; D'souza, Flavia; Ramchandra, Mukunda; Nage, Amol; Palse, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    Complete colonic duplication is a very rare congenital anomaly that may have different presentations according to its location and size. Complete colonic duplication can occur in about 15% of all gastrointestinal duplications. Double termination of tubular colonic duplication in the perineum is even more uncommon. We present a case of a Y-shaped tubular colonic duplication which presented with a rectovestibular fistula and a normal anus. Radiological evaluation and initial exploration for sigmoidostomy revealed duplicated colons with a common vascular supply. Endorectal mucosal resection of theduplicated distal segment till the colostomy site with division of the septum of the proximal segment and colostomy closure proved curative without compromise of the continence mechanism. Tubular colonic duplication should always be ruled out when a diagnosis of perineal canal is considered in cases of vestibular fistula alongwith a normal anus. PMID:26473141

  20. Tubular Colonic Duplication Presenting as Rectovestibular Fistula.

    PubMed

    Karkera, Parag J; Bendre, Pradnya; D'souza, Flavia; Ramchandra, Mukunda; Nage, Amol; Palse, Nitin

    2015-09-01

    Complete colonic duplication is a very rare congenital anomaly that may have different presentations according to its location and size. Complete colonic duplication can occur in about 15% of all gastrointestinal duplications. Double termination of tubular colonic duplication in the perineum is even more uncommon. We present a case of a Y-shaped tubular colonic duplication which presented with a rectovestibular fistula and a normal anus. Radiological evaluation and initial exploration for sigmoidostomy revealed duplicated colons with a common vascular supply. Endorectal mucosal resection of theduplicated distal segment till the colostomy site with division of the septum of the proximal segment and colostomy closure proved curative without compromise of the continence mechanism. Tubular colonic duplication should always be ruled out when a diagnosis of perineal canal is considered in cases of vestibular fistula alongwith a normal anus. PMID:26473141

  1. New treatment for ileal pouch-anal or coloanal anastomotic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Benoist, S; Panis, Y; Berdah, S; Hautefeuille, P; Valleur, P

    1998-07-01

    Persistent anastomotic stricture following ileal pouch-anal or coloanal anastomoses can be treated by transanal resection using a stapler or a more complex procedure, such as transanal pouch advancement with neoanastomosis. We propose an easier and faster technique, which does not require any particular device. Its long-term functional results are satisfactory in most patients. PMID:9678384

  2. Congenital hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Maynika V; LaFranchi, Stephen H

    2010-01-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) occurs in approximately 1:2,000 to 1:4,000 newborns. The clinical manifestations are often subtle or not present at birth. This likely is due to trans-placental passage of some maternal thyroid hormone, while many infants have some thyroid production of their own. Common symptoms include decreased activity and increased sleep, feeding difficulty, constipation, and prolonged jaundice. On examination, common signs include myxedematous facies, large fontanels, macroglossia, a distended abdomen with umbilical hernia, and hypotonia. CH is classified into permanent and transient forms, which in turn can be divided into primary, secondary, or peripheral etiologies. Thyroid dysgenesis accounts for 85% of permanent, primary CH, while inborn errors of thyroid hormone biosynthesis (dyshormonogeneses) account for 10-15% of cases. Secondary or central CH may occur with isolated TSH deficiency, but more commonly it is associated with congenital hypopitiutarism. Transient CH most commonly occurs in preterm infants born in areas of endemic iodine deficiency. In countries with newborn screening programs in place, infants with CH are diagnosed after detection by screening tests. The diagnosis should be confirmed by finding an elevated serum TSH and low T4 or free T4 level. Other diagnostic tests, such as thyroid radionuclide uptake and scan, thyroid sonography, or serum thyroglobulin determination may help pinpoint the underlying etiology, although treatment may be started without these tests. Levothyroxine is the treatment of choice; the recommended starting dose is 10 to 15 mcg/kg/day. The immediate goals of treatment are to rapidly raise the serum T4 above 130 nmol/L (10 ug/dL) and normalize serum TSH levels. Frequent laboratory monitoring in infancy is essential to ensure optimal neurocognitive outcome. Serum TSH and free T4 should be measured every 1-2 months in the first 6 months of life and every 3-4 months thereafter. In general, the prognosis

  3. Motility of the jejunum after proctocolectomy and ileal pouch anastomosis.

    PubMed Central

    Chaussade, S; Merite, F; Hautefeuille, M; Valleur, P; Hautefeuille, P; Couturier, D

    1989-01-01

    Proctocolectomy with ileal pouch anastomosis could modify motility of the small intestine through two mechanisms: obstruction or bacterial overgrowth. Motility of the jejunum was measured in 11 patients with ileoanal anastomosis six (n = 6), or 12 (n = 5) months after closure of the loop ileostomy. Manometric recording from the jejunum were made during fasting (four hours) and after a liquid meal (one hour). These findings were compared with those of six healthy volunteers. Motor events were classified as follows: migrating motor complex (MMC), propagated contractions, or discrete clustered contractions. All patients were investigated for bacterial overgrowth (D-glucose breath test). Only two patients had bacterial overgrowth. The frequency of MMC remained unchanged after ileo-anal anastomosis (2.83 (0.37)/four hours) compared with normal volunteers (2.81 (0.29)/four hours). During fasting, four patients had numerous propagated contractions in the jejunum. This condition was associated in two with bacterial overgrowth and in two with intubation of the reservoir. Discrete clustered contractions were found in the seven patients studied postprandially (7.6 (2.5)/h), but not in volunteers. These seven patients emptied their pouch spontaneously and bacterial overgrowth was found in only one. As this motility pattern was previously described in partial small intestinal obstruction, it is postulated that discrete clustered contractions could be the consequence of a functional obstruction as a result of anastomosis of the small intestine to the high pressure zone of the anal sphincters. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:2707637

  4. Congenital hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Abduljabbar, Mohammad A; Afifi, Ashraf M

    2012-01-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is defined as thyroid hormone deficiency present at birth. Babies with CH who are not identified and treated promptly develop severe mental retardation. Most of the babies with CH do not manifest the typical known signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism, and this is most likely due to transplacental passage of some maternal thyroid hormone in addition to some residual neonatal thyroid function, as might be seen with thyroid hypoplasia, an ectopic gland, or mild dyshormonogenesis. Screening for CH has enabled the virtual eradication of the devastating effects of mental retardation due to sporadic CH in most developed countries of the world. CH is classified into permanent and transient forms, which in turn can be divided into primary, secondary, or peripheral etiologies. Permanent CH refers to a persistent deficiency of thyroid hormone that requires life-long treatment. Transient CH refers to a temporary deficiency of thyroid hormone that is discovered at birth but recovers to normal in the first few months or years of life. In the last several decades, there have been exciting advances in our understanding of fetal and neonatal thyroid physiology. In addition, advances in molecular biology have helped in understanding the early events in thyroid gland embryogenesis, mechanisms of thyroid action in the brain, the molecular basis for many of the inborn errors of thyroid hormonogenesis, and thyroid hormone action. However, many questions and challenges are still not answered. For example, the increasing numbers of surviving small and premature neonates with abnormalities in thyroid function need definite diagnostic criteria and whether they require medical therapy. Another challenge is the dilemma of finding the best screening methodology that is sensitive and cost effective. PMID:22570946

  5. Congenital myopathies

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Irene; Scoto, Mariacristina; Manzur, Adnan Y.; Robb, Stephanie A.; Maggi, Lorenzo; Gowda, Vasantha; Cullup, Thomas; Yau, Michael; Phadke, Rahul; Sewry, Caroline; Jungbluth, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the natural history of congenital myopathies (CMs) due to different genotypes. Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional study based on case-note review of 125 patients affected by CM, followed at a single pediatric neuromuscular center, between 1984 and 2012. Results: Genetic characterization was achieved in 99 of 125 cases (79.2%), with RYR1 most frequently implicated (44/125). Neonatal/infantile onset was observed in 76%. At birth, 30.4% required respiratory support, and 25.2% nasogastric feeding. Twelve percent died, mainly within the first year, associated with mutations in ACTA1, MTM1, or KLHL40. All RYR1-mutated cases survived and did not require long-term ventilator support including those with severe neonatal onset; however, recessive cases were more likely to require gastrostomy insertion (p = 0.0028) compared with dominant cases. Independent ambulation was achieved in 74.1% of all patients; 62.9% were late walkers. Among ambulant patients, 9% eventually became wheelchair-dependent. Scoliosis of variable severity was reported in 40%, with 1/3 of (both ambulant and nonambulant) patients requiring surgery. Bulbar involvement was present in 46.4% and required gastrostomy placement in 28.8% (at a mean age of 2.7 years). Respiratory impairment of variable severity was a feature in 64.1%; approximately half of these patients required nocturnal noninvasive ventilation due to respiratory failure (at a mean age of 8.5 years). Conclusions: We describe the long-term outcome of a large cohort of patients with CMs. While overall course is stable, we demonstrate a wide clinical spectrum with motor deterioration in a subset of cases. Severity in the neonatal/infantile period is critical for survival, with clear genotype-phenotype correlations that may inform future counseling. PMID:25428687

  6. Congenital Heart Information Network

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart defects. Important Notice The Congenital Heart Information Network website is temporarily out of service. Please join ... and Uwe Baemayr for The Congenital Heart Information Network Exempt organization under Section 501(c)3. Copyright © ...

  7. Giant congenital nevus

    MedlinePlus

    ... A congenital pigmented or melanocytic nevus is a dark-colored, often hairy, patch of skin. A congenital ... rare. Symptoms A nevus will appear as a dark-colored patch with any of the following: Brown ...

  8. Congenital heart disease

    MedlinePlus

    Congenital heart disease is a problem with the heart's structure and function that is present at birth. ... Congenital heart disease (CHD) can describe a number of different problems affecting the heart. It is the most common ...

  9. Adult Congenital Heart Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... to ACHA Search The futures of adults with congenital heart disease made brighter by their pasts Get Involved 2016 ... conference theme is "The Changing Landscape of Adult Congenital Heart Disease." Join Us Help us improve the quality of ...

  10. Congenital sternoclavicular dermoid sinus.

    PubMed

    Willaert, Annelore; Bruninx, Liesje; Hens, Greet; Hauben, Esther; Devriendt, Koen; Vander Poorten, Vincent

    2016-02-01

    We report a case series of 8 patients, presenting with a congenital sinus in the region of the sternoclavicular joint. This rare malformation has only been reported in the Japanese dermatological literature under the name of "congenital dermoid fistula of the anterior chest region". It has to be distinguished from other congenital anomalies and requires complete excision. PMID:26810293

  11. Congenital Intralabyrinthine Cholesteatoma

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Sanjay; Prasad, Kiran; Azadarmaki, Roya

    2014-01-01

    A patient with a congenital intralabyrinthine cholesteatoma is presented. High-resolution computerized tomographic scans and intraoperative photomicrographs display features of intralabyrinthine extension. We discuss pathogenetic theories for the development of congenital intralabyrinthine cholesteatoma. The distinction of this condition from congenital cholesteatoma with labyrinthine erosion is discussed. PMID:25057421

  12. Effect of DMSO and DMBA hamster pouch carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera-Hidalgo, F.; Miller, E.G.; Binnie, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    The penetration of mucosal surfaces by chemical carcinogens is required for tumor induction. The effectiveness of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a carrier for carcinogen is controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine what effect DMSO would have on the 9,10-dimethyl- 1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA)-induced carcinogenesis in the hamster cheek pouch. Thirty Syrian golden hamsters were divided into two groups: the control group received a topical application of 0.5% DMBA in mineral oil three times per week for 16 weeks, while the experimental group received a topical application of DMSO previous to each DMBA application. At autopsy, both groups had developed tumors, the tumor ratio of control to experimental was 3.5:1.9 and the average size of tumors was 2.2 to 1.9 mm sq. The results suggest that DMSO interfered with the usual DMBA induction mechanism.

  13. A Novel Lithium-ion Laminated Pouch Cell Tested For Performance And Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Inoue, Takefumi

    2006-01-01

    A new Li-ion 4.0 Ah pouch cell from GS Yuasa has been tested to determine its performance and safety. The cell is of a laminate pouch design with liquid electrolyte. The rate, thermal and vacuum performance capabilities have been tested to determine the optimum parameters. Under vacuum conditions, the cells were cycled under restrained and unrestrained configurations. The burst pressure of the laminate pouch was also determined. The overcharge, overdischarge into reversal and external short circuit safety tests were also performed to determine the cell s tolerance to abuse. Key Words: Li-ion, safety, vacuum test, abuse, COTS batteries, rate capability

  14. Gastric Pouch After Simple or Radical Cystectomy for Benign and Malignant Bladder Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shamsa, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a controversy regarding the use of gastric pouch for benign and malignant bladder diseases. Objectives: The aim of this retrospective study was to report our experience, mostly on gastric neobladder (not gastrocystoplasty) for benign and malignant bladder diseases, its complications, outcomes and follow-up results. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective case series, we described our experience on seven gastric pouches (2 gastrocystoplasty and 5 gastric neobladders). Results: Postoperative complications were rare. Continence was defined as bladder capacity over 400 mL. Their follow-up period ranged from five months up to writing the article. One of the studied cases is still alive and awaiting renal transplantation. Conclusions: Gastric pouch is a suitable segment for bladder cystoplasty and neobladder. Continence is mostly related to the capacity of pouch. PMID:25738108

  15. Colon cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... red or processed meats Have colorectal polyps Have inflammatory bowel disease ( Crohn disease or ulcerative colitis ) Have a family history of colon cancer Have a personal history of breast cancer Some inherited diseases also increase the risk ...

  16. Complete colonic duplication in children

    PubMed Central

    Khaleghnejad Tabari, Ahmad; Mirshemirani, Alireza; Khaleghnejad Tabari, Nasibeh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Complete colonic duplication is a very rare congenital anomaly that may have different presentations according to its location and size. Complete colonic duplication can occur in 15% of gastrointestinal duplication. We report two cases of complete colonic duplications, and their characteristics. Case Presentation: We present two patients with complete colonic duplication with different types and presentations. Case 1: A 2- year old boy presented to the clinic with abdominal protrusion, difficulty to defecate, chronic constipation and mucosal prolaps covered bulging (rectocele) since he was 6 months old. The patient had palpable pelvic mass with doughy consistency. Rectal exam confirmed perirectal mass with soft consistency. The patient underwent a surgical operation that had total tubular colorectal duplication with one blind end and was treated with simple fenestration of distal end, and was discharged without complication. After two years follow up, he had normal defecation and good weight gain. Case 2: A 2 –day old infant was referred with imperforate anus and complete duplication of recto-sigmoid colon, diphallus, double bladder, and hypospadiasis. After clinical and paraclinical investigations, he underwent operations in several stages in different periods, and was discharged without complications. After four years follow up, he led a normal life. Conclusion: The patients with complete duplication have to be examined carefully because of the high incidence of other systemic anomalies. Treatment includes simple resection of distal common wall, fenestration, and repair other associated anomalies. PMID:24358440

  17. [Gangrenous pyoderma and enterocutaneous fistulas after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis].

    PubMed

    Fadrique, Alfonso García; Ferrer, Francisco Villalba; Esteban, Marcos Bruna; Vila, José Vicente Roig

    2007-05-01

    We describe the medical-surgical management of a patient with a complex inflammatory bowel disease who developed 2 acute episodes of pyoderma gangrenosum and enterocutaneous fistulas after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis. The rarity of this postsurgical complication is emphasized. A good response to topical tacrolimus was achieved in cutaneous wounds. A less favorable response to infliximab was achieved in the abdominal fistulas, requiring surgical excision of the pouch. PMID:17498458

  18. Congenital aganglionosis in a 3-day-old Holstein calf

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Necropsy of a 3-day-old Holstein heifer revealed proximal megacolon and distal colorectal hypoplasia. Histologically, the hypoplastic distal colon and rectum lacked submucosal and myenteric ganglia. Clinical history, physical examination, and pathologic findings were consistent with intestinal aganglionosis, a congenital anomaly well documented in humans and foals but not previously reported in cattle. PMID:15943121

  19. Partially hydrolyzed guar gum attenuates the severity of pouchitis in a rat model of ileal J pouch-anal anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Atila, Koray; Terzi, Cem; Canda, Aras Emre; Akhisaroglu, Serpil Tanriverdi; Avci, Hatice Sanli; Sarioglu, Sulen; Oktay, Gulgun; Gulay, Zeynep

    2009-03-01

    We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of treatment with partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) using a rat model of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis and pouchitis. In the J pouch groups, tissue myeloperoxidase activities were significantly higher than native myeloperoxidase activities (P = 0.020; P = 0.015; P = 0.004, respectively). A statistically significant difference in total histological score was detected in the J pouch + 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) group, compared to the J pouch control and the J pouch + 5% DSS + PHGG groups (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01, respectively). There was a significant overgrowth of aerobes and anaerobes in the J pouch + 5% DSS group. This study demonstrated that rectal administration of PHGG attenuates the severity of pouchitis in a rat model. In conclusion, PHGG may be an additional therapeutic strategy for the treatment of pouchitis. PMID:18594969

  20. Genetics Home Reference: congenital hypothyroidism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions congenital hypothyroidism congenital hypothyroidism Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Congenital hypothyroidism is a partial or complete loss of function ...

  1. Experimental modal analysis of lithium-ion pouch cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, James Michael; Marco, James

    2015-07-01

    If future electric and hybrid electric vehicle batteries are to be designed such that the impact of vibration induced resonance is minimized, engineers tasked with the design of the vehicle's energy storage system must have a rigorous understanding of key system attributes such as the natural frequencies of the cell, the level of damping present and the mode shapes induced within the battery under mechanical load. This paper describes the underpinning theory and experimental method employed when using the impulse excitation technique to quantify the natural frequencies and mode shapes of a commercially available 25 Ah Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC) Laminate Pouch Cell. Experimental results are presented for fifteen cells at five different values of state of charge (SOC). The results indicate that irrespective of the energy content within the cell, the same four modes of vibration (torsion and bending) exist within a frequency range of 191 Hz-360 Hz. This is above the frequency range (0-150 Hz) typically associated with road-induced vibration. The results also indicate that the cell's natural frequencies of vibration and damping do not vary with changing values of SOC.

  2. Non-Surgical Management of Critically Compromised Airway Due to Dilatation of Interposed Colon

    PubMed Central

    Min, Jinsoo

    2016-01-01

    We present a rare case of critically compromised airway secondary to a massively dilated sequestered colon conduit after several revision surgeries. A 71-year-old male patient had several operations after the diagnosis of gastric cancer. After initial treatment of pneumonia in the pulmonology department, he was transferred to the surgery department for feeding jejunostomy because of recurrent aspiration. However, he had respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. The chest computed tomography (CT) scan showed pneumonic consolidation at both lower lungs and massive dilatation of the substernal interposed colon compressing the trachea. The dilated interposed colon was originated from the right colon, which was sequestered after the recent esophageal reconstruction with left colon interposition resulting blind pouch at both ends. It was treated with CT-guided pigtail catheter drainage via right supraclavicular route, which was left in place for 2 weeks, and then removed. The patient remained well clinically, and was discharged home. PMID:27066087

  3. Intraepithelial lymphocytosis is a frequent finding in biopsies from ileal pouch-anal anastomoses.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, David F; Walsh, Joanna C; Tyler, Andrea D; Ben-Bassat, Ofer; Silverberg, Mark S; Riddell, Robert H; Kirsch, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Following restorative proctocolectomy with an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, the small bowel mucosa undergoes several specific histologic adaptions, which may be unrelated to the underlying disease or symptoms of pouchitis. An increase in intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) has not been described as part of this spectrum. Mucosal biopsies of the ileal pouch and afferent limb of 230 patients (mean age: 45.7y [18.3-74.7], gender [female/male]: 117/113) with a functioning ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (mean time since ileostomy closure: 10.8months) and associated clinically annotated outcome data were assessed for IELs/100 enterocytes. Forty-two patients (18.3%) showed an increase in IELs (≥20 IELs/100 enterocytes [range 20-39]), in pouch and/or afferent limb biopsies. Intraepithelial lymphocytosis was more commonly observed in afferent limb compared to pouch biopsies (18.8% vs 8.3%; P = .42) and in familial adenomatous polyposis compared to ulcerative colitis patients (16% vs 8%; P = 0.36), but neither difference reached statistical significance. No cases with increased IELs displayed severe villous blunting. Increased IELs were not significantly associated with age, sex, ethnicity, smoking history, time since ileostomy, use of antibiotics, biologic agents, anti-diarrheal agents or probiotics, C-reactive protein levels or differential white cell count. None of the 42 patients with increased IELs had positive celiac serology (anti-human tissue transglutaminase IgA [ELISA] with corresponding total serum IgA). Intraepithelial lymphocytosis in pouch biopsies may represent a subclinical response to an altered bacterial microenvironment. Pathologists should be aware that intraepithelial lymphocytosis is part of the spectrum of changes in pouch biopsies, and only rarely is due to celiac disease. PMID:27063473

  4. A Foilized Polyethylene Pouch for the Prevention of Transmission of HIV from Mother to Child

    PubMed Central

    Malkin, Robert; Howard, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Many children become HIV+ due to mother-to-child transmission, a risk that can be largely eliminated if infants ingest antiretroviral (ARV) medications immediately after birth. As most mothers in Africa deliver at home, the ARV must be provided at their last antenatal visit, sometimes months before birth. No current drug delivery system allows the mother to store the medication at home long enough to be effective. We propose a preserving, foilized, polyethylene pouch to be pre-dosed and sealed by a pharmacist for later delivery to the newborn. Pouches were filled with 0.6 ml of Nevirapine (NVP). Thirty-three pouches were immediately studied to measure the impact of medication handling (oxygen, light, filling and sealing the pouches). The remaining samples were stored for up to one year at three storage conditions (25°C/60%RH, 30°C/65%RH, and 40°C/75%RH). Every two months, moisture loss, preservative concentration, impurity concentrations and NVP concentration were measured. Flora and fauna challenges were conducted. The pouch nearly eliminated moisture loss: pouches lost less than 0.7% of their weight over twelve months. As expected, exposing the medication to light, oxygen, and handling significantly affected the sacrificial preservative concentrations (Propyl paraben dropped 38%, Methyl paraben dropped 12% at time point zero). However, after the initial time point, preservative levels were stable in the package over twelve months under all storage conditions (4.1% average concentration drop), leaving sufficient preservatives to protect the medication. The concentration of NVP changed an average of only 1.3% over all storage conditions and times points (maximum 1.4%). We conclude that the foilized polyethylene pouch can preserve NVP, and perhaps other ARV’s, for up to one year. PMID:23028405

  5. Giant congenital nevus

    MedlinePlus

    A congenital pigmented or melanocytic nevus is a dark-colored, often hairy, patch of skin. A congenital ... A nevus will appear as a dark-colored patch with any of the ... Hair Regular or uneven borders Smaller affected areas near the ...

  6. Congenital heat disease

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, C.B.; Silverman, N.H.; Kersting-Somerhoff, B.A.

    1990-01-01

    The book covers the tomographic anatomy of the normal and congenitally malformed heart and tomographic imaging of the normal heat. It then compares echocardiographic evaluation and the use of MR imaging in the diagnosis and evaluation of individual congenital cardiac malformations.

  7. Congenital CMV Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... CMV Babies Born with CMV (Congenital CMV Infection) Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Detection and Intervention Helping Children With Congenital CMV Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I ...

  8. Space colonization.

    PubMed

    2002-12-01

    NASA interest in colonization encompasses space tourism; space exploration; space bases in orbit, at L1, on the Moon, or on Mars; in-situ resource utilization; and planetary terraforming. Activities progressed during 2002 in areas such as Mars colonies, hoppers, and biomass; space elevators and construction; and in-situ consumables. PMID:12506926

  9. Reiterative expression of pax1 directs pharyngeal pouch segmentation in medaka.

    PubMed

    Okada, Kazunori; Inohaya, Keiji; Mise, Takeshi; Kudo, Akira; Takada, Shinji; Wada, Hiroshi

    2016-05-15

    A striking characteristic of vertebrate development is the pharyngeal arches, which are a series of bulges on the lateral surface of the head of vertebrate embryos. Although each pharyngeal arch is segmented by the reiterative formation of endodermal outpocketings called pharyngeal pouches, the molecular network underlying the reiterative pattern remains unclear. Here, we show that pax1 plays crucial roles in pouch segmentation in medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos. Importantly, pax1 expression in the endoderm prefigures the location of the next pouch before the cells bud from the epithelium. TALEN-generated pax1 mutants did not form pharyngeal pouches posterior to the second arch. Segmental expression of tbx1 and fgf3, which play essential roles in pouch development, was almost non-existent in the pharyngeal endoderm of pax1 mutants, with disturbance of the reiterative pattern of pax1 expression. These results suggest that pax1 plays a key role in generating the primary pattern for segmentation in the pharyngeal endoderm by regulating tbx1 and fgf3 expression. Our findings illustrate the crucial roles of pax1 in vertebrate pharyngeal segmentation and provide insights into the evolutionary origin of the deuterostome gill slit. PMID:27034424

  10. The transmissions of antibodies across the gut of pouch-young marsupials

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, M.

    1971-01-01

    The transmission of antibodies across the gut of suckling pouch-young was investigated in three species of marsupials (Setonix brachyurus, Macropus eugenii and Trichosurus vulpecula) from Australia. Mother Setonix, immunized against Salmonella adelaide flagella and Bacteriophage Φ × 174, transmitted the antibodies in milk to their young. In sucrose density gradient runs, the antibody activity in milk whey and in serum of pouch-young, of Setonix and Macropus was found to be in the 7S region only; antibody in the 11S and 19S regions was not detected. Chromatographic preparations of IgM antibodies were fed to pouch-young Setonix which were later bled and their serum titrated for anti-S. adelaide agglutinins and antiphage Φ × 174 activity. The IgM antibodies were not transmitted across the gut in detectable amounts. Antibodies were present in the blood of pouch-young Setonix within 15–60 minutes of gavage (feeding by stomach tube) of immune serum. In Setonix the capacity to absorb antibodies in the intestine was lost at an age between 170 and 200 days and in Trichosurus it was lost at an age between 98 and 145 days. At these ages the pouch-young were able to leave the marsupium for varying lengths of time. Antibodies did not traverse the rumen wall in a young Setonix whose rumen was isolated from the intestine with ligatures before immune serum was gavaged. PMID:5115612

  11. Bmp signaling mediates endoderm pouch morphogenesis by regulating Fgf signaling in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Lovely, C Ben; Swartz, Mary E; McCarthy, Neil; Norrie, Jacqueline L; Eberhart, Johann K

    2016-06-01

    The endodermal pouches are a series of reiterated structures that segment the pharyngeal arches and help pattern the vertebrate face. Multiple pathways regulate the complex process of endodermal development, including the Bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) pathway. However, the role of Bmp signaling in pouch morphogenesis is poorly understood. Using genetic and chemical inhibitor approaches, we show that pouch morphogenesis requires Bmp signaling from 10-18 h post-fertilization, immediately following gastrulation. Blocking Bmp signaling during this window results in morphological defects to the pouches and craniofacial skeleton. Using genetic chimeras we show that Bmp signals directly to the endoderm for proper morphogenesis. Time-lapse imaging and analysis of reporter transgenics show that Bmp signaling is necessary for pouch outpocketing via the Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) pathway. Double loss-of-function analyses demonstrate that Bmp and Fgf signaling interact synergistically in craniofacial development. Collectively, our analyses shed light on the tissue and signaling interactions that regulate development of the vertebrate face. PMID:27122171

  12. Lateral congenital anomalies of the pharyngeal apparatus: part I. Normal developmental anatomy (embryogenesis) for the surgeon.

    PubMed

    Mirilas, Petros

    2011-09-01

    Knowledge of the embryogenesis of the pharyngeal apparatus is the only means of understanding the "architecture" of the neck. The embryonic pharynx (which includes future oral and nasal cavities) is a much more extensive area than the adult pharynx. The main feature of the developing pharynx is a series of arches, internal pouches, and external clefts, which together comprise the pharyngeal apparatus. This structure is associated with other developing splanchna of the neck, e.g., the thyroid and parathyroid glands, tonsils, and thymus. Within each of the pharyngeal arches are the developing aortic arches and, specific for each arch, cranial nerves. The complex relations of the mesenchymal derivatives of arches (muscles, cartilage, bones) with the neurovascular bundles within each arch are presented and explained. The pharyngeal apparatus undergoes dramatic transformations: pouches and clefts disappear without interruption (interruption would produce gills and support the misnomer "branchial apparatus"). In addition, in the lateroventral neck, somites migrate to produce other muscles such as sternocleidomastoid and trapezius innervated by spinal nerves. Lateral congenital anomalies largely rely on persistence of a cleft/and or pouch or communication between the two. Their tracts have a "crooked" course among other entities generated by alterations that take place during embryogenesis. PMID:21944634

  13. Morphological characteristics of the temporomandibular joint in the pouch young of the Tasmanian devil.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, K; Sugisaki, M; Kino, K; Ishikawa, T; Kawashima, S; Amemiya, T

    2015-04-01

    We recently reported the absence of the articular disc, which is a constant structure in mammals, in the temporomandibular joint of the adult Tasmanian devil. However, whether the articular disc disappears with growth of the animal was unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether a pouch young of the Tasmanian devil has the articular disc. The temporomandibular joint of a fresh carcass of the pouch young, whose crown-rump length was 43 mm, was examined microscopically and by microcomputed tomography. The absence of the articular disc in the pouch young temporomandibular joint was histologically confirmed. It is suggested that the articular disc of the Tasmanian devil is naturally absent. PMID:24809824

  14. A Novel Model of Surgical Injury in Adult Rat Kidney: A “Pouch Model”

    PubMed Central

    Litbarg, Natalia O.; Vujicic, Snezana; Setty, Suman; Sethupathi, Periannan; Dunea, George; Arruda, Jose A.; Singh, Ashok K.

    2013-01-01

    Regenerative mechanisms after surgical injury have been studied in many organs but not in the kidney. Studying surgical injury may provide new insights into mechanisms of kidney regeneration. In rodent models, extrarenal tissues adhere to surgical kidney wound and interfere with healing. We hypothesized that this can be prevented by wrapping injured kidney in a plastic pouch. Adult rats tolerated 5/6 nephrectomy with pouch application well. Histological analysis demonstrates that application of the pouch effectively prevented formation of adhesions and induced characteristic wound healing manifested by formation of granulation tissue. Additionally, selected tubules of the wounded kidney extended into the granulation tissue forming branching tubular epithelial outgrowths (TEOs) without terminal differentiation. Tubular regeneration outside of renal parenchyma was not previously observed, and suggests previously unrecognized capacity for regeneration. Our model provides a novel approach to study kidney wound healing. PMID:24100472

  15. Energy and process substitution in the frozen-food industry: geothermal energy and the retortable pouch

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, M.W.; Hanemann, W.M.; Eckhouse, K.

    1981-12-01

    An assessment is made of the possibilities of using geothermal energy and an aseptic retortable pouch in the food processing industry. The focus of the study is on the production of frozen broccoli in the Imperial Valley, California. Background information on the current status of the frozen food industry, the nature of geothermal energy as a potential substitute for conventional fossil fuels, and the engineering details of the retortable pouch process are covered. The analytical methodology by which the energy and process substitution were evaluated is described. A four-way comparison of the economics of the frozen product versus the pouched product and conventional fossil fuels versus geothermal energy was performed. A sensitivity analysis for the energy substitution was made and results are given. Results are summarized. (MCW)

  16. Development and Evaluation of a Reflective Solar Disinfection Pouch for Treatment of Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Walker, D. Carey; Len, Soo-Voon; Sheehan, Brita

    2004-01-01

    A second-generation solar disinfection (SODIS) system (pouch) was constructed from food-grade, commercially available packaging materials selected to fully transmit and amplify the antimicrobial properties of sunlight. Depending upon the season, water source, and challenge organism, culturable bacteria were reduced between 3.5 and 5.5 log cycles. The system was also capable of reducing the background presumptive coliform population in nonsterile river water below the level of detection. Similar experiments conducted with a model virus, the F-specific RNA bacteriophage MS2, indicated that the pouch was slightly less efficient, reducing viable plaques by 3.5 log units in comparison to a 5.0 log reduction of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli O18:H11 within the same time period. These results suggest that water of poor microbiological quality can be improved by using a freely available resource (sunlight) and a specifically designed plastic pouch constructed of food-grade packaging materials. PMID:15066858

  17. The Quechua Manta Pouch: A Caretaking Practice for Buffering the Peruvian Infant against the Multiple Stressors of High Altitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tronick, E. Z.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes the caretaking practices employed by the Peruvian Quechua mountain people, who swaddle infants in cloths and blankets (known as a manta pouch) to protect them from the harsh and frigid environment. The practices of 14 mother-infants pairs are examined in detail, and the benefits and drawbacks of the manta pouch are examined. (MDM)

  18. Giant African Pouched Rats as Detectors of Tuberculosis in Human Sputum: Comparison of Two Techniques for Sputum Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray, Alisha M.; Mahoney, Amanda; Weetjens, Bart J.; Cox, Christophe; Jubitana, Maureen; Kazwala, Rudovic; Mfinanga, Godfrey S.; Durgin, Amy; Poling, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that pouched rats can detect the presence of "Mycobacterium tuberculosis," which causes tuberculosis, in human sputum samples obtained from clinical facilities. Although pouched rats evaluate sputum samples quickly, preparing the samples is relatively slow. The present study evaluated whether the rats can detect…

  19. Congenital myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Nizamani, Noor Bakht; Talpur, Khalid Iqbal; Memon, Mariya Nazish

    2013-07-01

    Congenital myasthenia gravis is caused by genetic mutations affecting neuromuscular transmission, characterized by muscle weakness usually starting in childhood. A two and a half years old male child presented with bilateral ptosis and hoarseness of voice. The symptoms progressed giving the clinical impression of congenital myasthenia gravis. A series of tests were done including Ice Pack Test, acetylcholine receptor antibody test, trial of steroids and finally neostigmine test which confirmed the diagnosis. This case illustrates the challenges in diagnosing congenital myasthenia gravis and highlights the potential benefits of neostigmine test in its diagnosis. PMID:23823963

  20. Seasonal energy requirements and thermoregulation of growing pouched mice, Saccostomus campestris (Cricetidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, G. T. H.; Skinner, J. D.

    1991-06-01

    Pouched mice ( Saccostomus campestris) were born in captivity during January and March and subsequently maintained under long photoperiod (14 h light: 10 h dark) at 25°C. During their first winter (July) and the following summer (January) the pouched mice were exposed to natural photoperiod in an unheated laboratory for 3 weeks prior to measurement. The pouched mice continued to grow during the study, and were significantly heavier after summer exposure than after winter exposure 6 months earlier. Although this increase in body mass would result in a decline in their surface area to volume ratio there was no significant decline in minimal thermal conductance ( C m) and winter-exposed pouched mice had a relatively lower C m than expected. Meanwhile the smaller, winter-exposed animals displayed a significantly higher capacity for non-shivering thermogenesis, together with higher levels of basal metabolism than summer individuals. These differences were not solely attributable to the contrasting body mass of each group and it is therefore clear that S. campestris can increase thermoregulatory heat production, and modify heat loss following exposure to short photoperiod and cold during their first winter. Despite the significant increase in metabolism, the overall energy requirements of small, winter-exposed animals were significantly lower than those for heavier pouched mice following exposure to summer conditions. These results suggest that growing pouched mice can effectively adapt to lower temperature conditions during their first winter, yet accrue considerable overall savings in total energy requirements as a result of their smaller body mass.

  1. Giant African pouched rats (Cricetomys gambianus) that work on tilled soil accurately detect land mines.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Timothy L; Cox, Christophe; Weetjens, Bart; Tewelde, Tesfazghi; Poling, Alan

    2015-09-01

    Pouched rats were employed as mine-detection animals in a quality-control application where they searched for mines in areas previously processed by a mechanical tiller. The rats located 58 mines and fragments in this 28,050-m(2) area with a false indication rate of 0.4 responses per 100 m(2) . Humans with metal detectors found no mines that were not located by the rats. These findings indicate that pouched rats can accurately detect land mines in disturbed soil and suggest that they can play multiple roles in humanitarian demining. PMID:25962550

  2. Localization of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase in hamster buccal pouch epithelium treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene

    SciTech Connect

    Solt, D.B.

    1981-07-01

    The utility of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) was explored as a histochemical marker for chemical carcinogenesis in hamster buccal pouch mucosa. One or both buccal pouches of 18 noninbred male Syrian golden hamsters were treated topically with 0.5% 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in mineral oil over 16 weeks to produce numerous epithelial lesions at various stages of neoplastic development. Both buccal pouches of 4 control animals were similarly treated with mineral oil alone. GGT activity was not detectable in untreated pouches or pouches treated with mineral oil alone. With this technique, multiple discrete GGT-stained areas were visible in wholemounts prepared at 1 and 6 weeks after the final application of DMBA. The experimental results were consistent with the hypothesis that the early GGT-stained cell populations are preneoplastic in nature.

  3. Adult Congenital Heart Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... survivable, manageable, yet in the routine years between infancy and adulthood, sometimes forgettable. The Adult Congenital Heart ... understand the continuum of the disease from its infancy. The Adult Congential Heart Association brings together valuable ...

  4. Congenital nephrotic syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be high. There may be signs of malnutrition. A urinalysis reveals fat and large amounts of ... The disorder often leads to infection, malnutrition, and kidney failure. ... die within the first year. Congenital nephrotic syndrome ...

  5. Congenital heart disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... about genetic counseling and screening if you have a family history of cogenital heart disease. ... Fraser CD, Carberry KE. Congenital heart disease. In: Townsend CM ... Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  6. A colonic duplication cyst causing bowel ischaemia in a 74-year-old lady

    PubMed Central

    Fenelon, Christopher; Boland, Michael R; Kenny, Brian; Faul, Peter; Tormey, Shona

    2016-01-01

    Colonic duplication cysts are rare congenital malformations that predominantly present before the age of 2 years. We report the case of a 74-year-old lady who presented with sudden onset abdominal pain. A computed tomography scan noted a calcified structure adjacent to abnormal loops of bowel. Intraoperative findings revealed an ischaemic loop of small bowel wrapped around a mass in the mesentery adjacent to the sigmoid colon. Final histology revealed a colonic duplication cyst. Colonic duplication cysts are rare entities that most commonly cause obstruction or perforation. We present the very rare case of a colonic duplication cyst causing bowel ischaemia in an elderly female. PMID:27572680

  7. Ethanolic leaf extract of neem (Azadirachta indica) inhibits buccal pouch carcinogenesis in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Subapriya, R; Bhuvaneswari, V; Ramesh, V; Nagini, S

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the chemopreventive effects of ethanolic neem leaf extract in the initiation and post-initiation phases of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. The frequency of bone marrow micronuclei as well as the concentrations of lipid peroxides, ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), and the activities of the GSH-dependent enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in the buccal pouch, liver and erythrocytes were used as biomarkers of chemoprevention. All the hamsters painted with DMBA alone for 14 weeks developed buccal pouch carcinomas that showed diminished lipid peroxidation and enhanced antioxidant status associated with increased frequencies of bone marrow micronuclei. In the liver and erythrocytes of tumour-bearing animals, enhanced lipid peroxidation was accompanied by compromised antioxidant defences. Administration of ethanolic neem leaf extract effectively suppressed DMBA-induced HBP carcinogenesis as revealed by the absence of tumours in the initiation phase and reduced tumour incidence in the post-initiation phase. In addition, ethanolic neem leaf extract modulated lipid peroxidation and enhanced antioxidant status in the pouch, liver and erythrocytes and reduced the incidence of bone marrow micronuclei. The results of the present study, demonstrate that ethanolic neem leaf extract inhibits the development of DMBA-induced HBP tumours by protecting against oxidative stress. PMID:15473007

  8. Mycotic encephalitis, sinus osteomyelitis, and guttural pouch mycosis in a 3-year-old Arabian colt.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Barbara; Nation, Patrick N

    2011-12-01

    Mycotic encephalitis caused severe ataxia and other neurologic deficits in a horse. The finding of a single, large focus of cerebral malacia, with histopathologic evidence of fungal elements, suggested infection was a result of direct transfer from the frontal sinuses, rather than hematogenous spread from the guttural pouch. PMID:22654140

  9. Using Trained Pouched Rats to Detect Land Mines: Another Victory for Operant Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie W.; Bach, Harvard; Sully, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    We used giant African pouched rats ("Cricetomys gambianus") as land mine-detection animals in Mozambique because they have an excellent sense of smell, weigh too little to activate mines, and are native to sub-Saharan Africa, and therefore are resistant to local parasites and diseases. In 2009 the rats searched 93,400 m[superscript 2] of land,…

  10. Using Trained Pouched Rats (Cricetomys Gambianus) to Detect Land Mines: Another Victory for Operant Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie W.; Bach, Harvard; Sully, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    We used giant African pouched rats ("Cricetomys gambianus") as land mine-detection animals in Mozambique because they have an excellent sense of smell, weigh too little to activate mines, and are native to sub-Saharan Africa, and therefore are resistant to local parasites and diseases. In 2009 the rats searched 93,400 m[superscript 2] of land,…

  11. A Case of Extragonadal Teratoma in the Pouch of Douglas and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Kakuda, Mamoru; Matsuzaki, Shinya; Kobayashi, Eiji; Yoshino, Kiyoshi; Morii, Eiichi; Kimura, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Mature cystic teratoma is a germ cell tumor of the ovaries and is often observed in clinical practice. However, extragonadal teratomas are rare tumors and have been reported outside the ovaries, (e.g., in the greater omentum). The mechanism underlying the development of extragonadal teratomas remains unknown. We encountered a case of extragonadal teratoma in the pouch of Douglas that appeared to be a parasitic dermoid cyst. From our experience and the literature review, we discuss the potential mechanism leading to the development of extragonadal teratomas. A 41-year-old nonpregnant woman was referred to our department due to myoma and anemia. A 4-cm asymptomatic mass in the pouch of Douglas was observed, and the patient was diagnosed with ovarian mature cystic teratoma. She underwent laparoscopic surgery, and intraoperative findings revealed that the fallopian tube was injured and torn, and a residual small ovary was observed in the left side of the ovary. A tumor measuring approximately 4 cm observed in the pouch of Douglas was extracted without rupturing. The tumor was diagnosed as a parasitic dermoid cyst by macroscopic and histopathological findings. Auto-amputation could be the underlying mechanism that leads to an isolated parasitic dermoid cyst in the pouch of Douglas. PMID:26205577

  12. Patterning of the third pharyngeal pouch into thymus/parathyroid by Six and Eya1.

    PubMed

    Zou, Dan; Silvius, Derek; Davenport, Julie; Grifone, Raphaelle; Maire, Pascal; Xu, Pin-Xian

    2006-05-15

    Previous studies have suggested a role of the homeodomain Six family proteins in patterning the developing vertebrate head that involves appropriate segmentation of three tissue layers, the endoderm, the paraxial mesoderm and the neural crest cells; however, the developmental programs and mechanisms by which the Six genes act in the pharyngeal endoderm remain largely unknown. Here, we examined their roles in pharyngeal pouch development. Six1-/- mice lack thymus and parathyroid and analysis of Six1-/- third pouch endoderm demonstrated that the patterning of the third pouch into thymus/parathyroid primordia is initiated. However, the endodermal cells of the thymus/parathyroid rudiments fail to maintain the expression of the parathyroid-specific gene Gcm2 and the thymus-specific gene Foxn1 and subsequently undergo abnormal apoptosis, leading to a complete disappearance of organ primordia by E12.5. This thus defines the thymus/parathyroid defects present in the Six1 mutant. Analyses of the thymus/parathyroid development in Six1-/-;Six4-/- double mutant show that both Six1 and Six4 act synergistically to control morphogenetic movements of early thymus/parathyroid tissues, and the threshold of Six1/Six4 appears to be crucial for the regulation of the organ primordia-specific gene expression. Previous studies in flies and mice suggested that Eya and Six genes may function downstream of Pax genes. Our data clearly show that Eya1 and Six1 expression in the pouches does not require Pax1/Pax9 function, suggesting that they may function independently from Pax1/Pax9. In contrast, Pax1 expression in all pharyngeal pouches requires both Eya1 and Six1 function. Moreover, we show that the expression of Tbx1, Fgf8 and Wnt5b in the pouch endoderm was normal in Six1-/- embryos and slightly reduced in Six1-/-;Six4-/- double mutant, but was largely reduced in Eya1-/- embryos. These results indicate that Eya1 appears to be upstream of very early events in the initiation of thymus

  13. Changes in the absorption of bile acids after total colectomy in patients with an ileostomy or pouch-anal anastomosis

    SciTech Connect

    Nasmyth, D.G.; Johnston, D.; Williams, N.S.; King, R.F.; Burkinshaw, L.; Brooks, K.

    1989-03-01

    Bile acid absorption was investigated using /sup 75/Se Taurohomocholate (SeHCAT) in controls and patients who had undergone total colectomy with either conventional ileostomy or pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis or adenomatous polyposis. Whole-body retention of SeHCAT after 168 hours was greater in the controls than the patients who had undergone colectomy (P less than .05). Retention of SeHCAT did not differ significantly between patients with an ileostomy and patients with pouch-anal anastomosis, but patients with an ileostomy and ileal resection of more than 20 cm retained less SeHCAT than patients with a pouch-anal anastomosis (P less than .01). Analysis of fecal bile acids from ileostomies and pouches showed that bacterial metabolism of primary conjugated bile acids was greater in patients with a pouch. It was concluded that bile acid absorption was not significantly impaired by construction of a pouch compared with conventional ileostomy, but bacterial metabolism of bile acids was greater in the pouches.

  14. Colon cancer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - colon cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on colon cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org/cancer/colonandrectumcancer/index Colon Cancer Alliance -- www.ccalliance.org National ...

  15. The gene for congenital chloride diarrhea maps close to but is distinct from the gene for cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator

    SciTech Connect

    Kere, J.; de la Chapelle, A.; Holmberg, C. ); Sistonen, P. Finnish Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service, Helsinki )

    1993-11-15

    Congenital chloride diarrhea (CLD) is characterized by watery stools with high chloride content beginning prenatally and is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. Perfusion studies have established a basic defect in ileal and colonic Cl[sup [minus

  16. Measuring neoplastic transformation in the hamster cheek pouch using Fourier domain low-coherence interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Robert N.; Chen, Xiaoxin; Brown, William; Wax, Adam

    2008-02-01

    Fourier Domain Low Coherence Interferometry (fLCI) is a promising technique which combines the depth resolution of low coherence interferometry with the sensitivity of light scattering spectroscopy for probing the health of epithelial tissue layers. Our new fLCI system configuration utilizes a white light Xe arc lamp source and a 4-f interferometer which re-images light scattered from the sample onto the detection plane. The system employs an imaging spectrometer at the detection plane to acquire depth resolved profiles from 252 adjacent spatial points without the need for any scanning. The limited spatial coherence of the light source requires the resolution of adjacent spatial points for the generation of depth information. Depth-resolved spectral information is recovered by performing a short-time Fourier transform on the detected spectra, similar to spectroscopic optical coherence tomography. Wavelength dependent variations in scattering intensity are analyzed as a function of depth to obtain information about the neoplastic transformation of the probed cells. Previous studies have demonstrated fLCI as an excellent technique for probing the scatterer morphology of simple phantoms and of in vitro cancer cell monolayers. We now seek to assess the ability of the new fLCI system to measure the health of subsurface tissue layers using the hamster cheek pouch model. Seven hamsters will have one cheek pouch treated with the known carcinogen DMBA. At the conclusion of the 24 week treatment period the animals will be anesthetized and the cheek pouches will be extracted. We will use the fLCI optical system to measure the neoplastic transformation of the in situ subsurface tissue layers in both the normal and DMBA-treated cheek pouches. Traditional histological analysis will be used to verify the fLCI measurements. We expect our results to establish the feasibility of fLCI to distinguish between healthy and dysplastic epithelial tissues in the hamster cheek pouch.

  17. Genetics of Congenital Cataract.

    PubMed

    Pichi, Francesco; Lembo, Andrea; Serafino, Massimiliano; Nucci, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Congenital cataract is a type of cataract that presents at birth or during early childhood, and it is one of the most easily treatable causes of visual impairment and blindness during infancy, with an estimated prevalence of 1-6 cases per 10,000 live births. Approximately 50% of all congenital cataract cases may have a genetic cause, and such cases are quite heterogeneous. Although congenital nuclear cataract can be caused by multiple factors, genetic mutation remains the most common cause. All three types of Mendelian inheritance have been reported for cataract; however, autosomal dominant transmission seems to be the most frequent. The transparency and high refractive index of the lens are achieved by the precise architecture of fiber cells and homeostasis of the lens proteins in terms of their concentrations, stabilities, and supramolecular organization. Research on hereditary congenital cataract has led to the identification of several classes of candidate genes that encode proteins such crystallins, lens-specific connexins, aquaporin, cytoskeletal structural proteins, and developmental regulators. In this review, we highlight the identified genetic mutations that account for congenital nuclear cataract. PMID:27043388

  18. Totally Transanal Laparo-Endoscopic Single-Site ProctoColectomy-Ileoanal J-Pouch (TLPC-J): An Experimental Study of a Novel Approach

    PubMed Central

    Vahdad, Mohammad Reza; Rahmanian, Ehsan; Moslemi, Sam; Najafi, Sultan Mohsen; Foroutan, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: The natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has become a commonly considered novel approach in the surgical field. The NOTES provide possibility of operation through the natural orifice and decreases the intentional puncture of the systemic organ and subsequent complications. Totally transanal laparo-endoscopic single-site proctoColectomy-Ileoanal J-Pouch (TLPC-J) is a novel method in minimally invasive surgery for total colectomy. The main goal of this study is to perform this new method on an animal model, to assess probable complication and to resolve probable issues by using patients that are candidate for total colectomy. Method: Five dogs were prepared in lithotomy position. The TLPC-I procedure consists of endorectal technique with full thickness rectal dissection starting 1 cm orally from the dentate line above the peritoneal reflection and the proximal bowel was replaced into the abdominal cavity. Afterwards, the TriPort system was inserted in the anal canal and mesentrial resection of the total colon, mobilization of a distal ileal segment and intracorporeal suture of an ileal J-loop was accomplished by this system. An incision in the J-loop was conducted transanally. The J-pouch was created with an Endo-GIA® and sutured to the rectal wall. Results: All animals survived and passed stool with clear post operation situation. There was no infection in site of anastomosis. Conclusion: The TLPC-I provides the possibility of surgery without abdominal wall incision and decreases post operation complication such as pain, abdominal wound infection and wound dehiscence. This technique increases the quality of life and surgeons can discharge the patients early. PMID:26379349

  19. Adults with Congenital Heart Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Web Booklet: Adults With Congenital Heart Defects Updated:Apr ... topic from the list below to learn more. Web Booklet: Adults With Congenital Heart Defects Introduction Introduction: ...

  20. Impact of Congenital Heart Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... complex lesions, limitations are common. Some children with congenital heart disease have developmental delay or other learning difficulties. What ... defects? Successful treatment requires highly specialized care. Severe congenital heart disease requires extensive financial resources both in and out ...

  1. Congenital heart defect - corrective surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... born with one or more heart defects has congenital heart disease . Surgery is needed if the defect could harm ... 2008 Guidelines for the Management of Adults with Congenital Heart Disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/ ...

  2. Congenital tracheobronchial stenosis.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Richard J; Butler, Colin R; Maughan, Elizabeth F; Elliott, Martin J

    2016-06-01

    Congenital tracheobronchial stenosis is a rare disease characterized by complete tracheal rings that can affect variable lengths of the tracheobronchial tree. It causes high levels of morbidity and mortality both due to the stenosis itself and to the high incidence of other associated congenital malformations. Successful management of this complex condition requires a highly individualized approach delivered by an experienced multidisciplinary team, which is best delivered within centralized units with the necessary diverse expertise. In such settings, surgical correction by slide tracheoplasty has become increasingly successful over the past 2 decades such that long-term survival now exceeds 88%, with normalization of quality of life scores for patients with non-syndrome-associated congenital tracheal stenosis. Careful assessment and planning of treatment strategies is of paramount importance for both successful management and the provision of patients and carers with accurate and realistic treatment counseling. PMID:27301600

  3. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Speiser, Phyllis W.

    2015-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia associated with deficiency of steroid 21-hydroxylase is the most common inborn error in adrenal function and the most common cause of adrenal insufficiency in the pediatric age group. As patients now survive into adulthood, adult health-care providers must also be familiar with this condition. Over the past several years, F1000 has published numerous commentaries updating research and practical guidelines for this condition. The purposes of this review are to summarize basic information defining congenital adrenal hyperplasia and to highlight current knowledge and controversies in management. PMID:26339484

  4. Congenital midline nasofrontal masses.

    PubMed

    Saettele, Megan; Alexander, Alan; Markovich, Brian; Morelli, John; Lowe, Lisa H

    2012-09-01

    Congenital midline nasal masses are uncommon anomalies including nasal dermoids/epidermoids, nasal glial heterotopias and encephaloceles. These lesions can occur at the nasal bridge, extend intranasally and have intracranial extension with communication to the subarachnoid space. Therefore, accurate diagnosis of these lesions is critically important for presurgical planning and prevention of potentially fatal complications. Neuroimaging is essential in the evaluation of congenital midline nasal masses to identify the specific type of lesion, evaluate for the presence of intracranial extension and allow for appropriate presurgical planning. PMID:22648391

  5. Congenital hyperinsulinism with hyperammonaemia

    PubMed Central

    Pschibul, Alex; Müller, Jörg; Fahnenstich, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    Congenital hyperinsulinism is considered to be the most frequent cause of persistent recurrent hypoglycaemia in infants. The clinical presentation and response to pharmacological treatment may vary significantly depending on the underlying pathology. We report a case of a female infant with mild but early onset of recurrent hypoglycaemia. Metabolic workup revealed hyperinsulinism combined with mild hyperammonaemia as well as elevation of α-ketoglutarate in urine. Genetic testing demonstrated a de novo mutation in exon 7 of the glutamate dehydrogenase gene on chromosome 10. Episodes of hypoglycaemia responded to treatment with diazoxide. The differential diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment of congenital hyperinsulinism is discussed. PMID:22315648

  6. Congenital muscular torticollis

    PubMed Central

    Nilesh, Kumar; Mukherji, Srijon

    2013-01-01

    Congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) is a rare congenital musculoskeletal disorder characterized by unilateral shortening of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM). It presents in newborn infants or young children with reported incidence ranging from 0.3% to 2%. Owing to effective shortening of SCM on the involved side there is ipsilateral head tilt and contralateral rotation of the face and chin. This article reports a case of CMT in a 3½-year-old male child successfully managed by surgical release of the involved SCM followed by physiotherapy. PMID:24205484

  7. Congenital muscular torticollis.

    PubMed

    Nilesh, Kumar; Mukherji, Srijon

    2013-07-01

    Congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) is a rare congenital musculoskeletal disorder characterized by unilateral shortening of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM). It presents in newborn infants or young children with reported incidence ranging from 0.3% to 2%. Owing to effective shortening of SCM on the involved side there is ipsilateral head tilt and contralateral rotation of the face and chin. This article reports a case of CMT in a 3½-year-old male child successfully managed by surgical release of the involved SCM followed by physiotherapy. PMID:24205484

  8. Surgical considerations in FAP-related pouch surgery: Could we do better?

    PubMed

    Möslein, Gabriela

    2016-07-01

    The ileoanal pouch has become the standard restorative procedure of choice for patients with the classical phenotype in FAP (familial adenomatous polyposis) and also for ulcerative colitis (UC). Whilst we tend to encounter descriptive analyses comparing functional outcome, fertility and quality of life (QOL) between series in literature, there may be an urgent need to discuss the subtle technical modifications that may be pivotal for improving long-term QOL in FAP patients. Our aim is to review the current literature and discuss the aspects of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis that may require specific reevaluation for FAP. Surgical strategies aimed at minimizing post-interventional desmoid growth is one of the most important aspects. For this study, the following topics of interest were selected: Timing of surgery, IRA or ileoanal pouch for classical FAP, laparoscopic or conventional surgery, TME or mesenteric dissection, preservation of the ileocolic vessels, handsewn or double-staple anastomosis, shape and size of pouch, protective ileostomy, Last and definitely not least: how to manage desmoid plaques or desmoids at the time of prophylactic surgery. For the depicted technicalities of the procedure, a review of recent literature was performed and evaluated. For the topics selected, only sparse reference in literature was identified that was focused on the specific condition situation of FAP. Almost all pouch literature focusses on the procedural aspects, and FAP patients are always a very minor number. Therefore it becomes obvious that the specific entity is not adequately taken into account. This is a serious bias for identification of important steps in the procedure that may be beneficial for patients with either of the diseases. The results of this study demonstrate that several technical differences for construction of ileoanal pouches in FAP patients deserve more attention and prospective evaluation-perhaps even randomized trials. The role, importance and

  9. The congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders.

    PubMed

    Gutowski, N J; Chilton, J K

    2015-07-01

    Congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders (CCDD) encompass a number of related conditions and includes Duane syndrome, congenital fibrosis of the external ocular muscles, Möbius syndrome, congenital ptosis and hereditary congenital facial paresis. These are congenital disorders where the primary findings are non-progressive and are caused by developmental abnormalities of cranial nerves/nuclei with primary or secondary dysinnervation. Several CCDD genes have been found, which enhance our understanding of the mechanisms involved in brain stem development and axonal guidance. PMID:25633065

  10. Imaging of congenital pulmonary malformations.

    PubMed

    Praticò, Francesco Emanuele; Corrado, Michele; Della Casa, Giovanni; Parziale, Raffaele; Russo, Giuseppe; Gazzani, Silvia Eleonora; Rossi, Enrica; Borgia, Daniele; Mostardi, Maurizio; Bacchini, Emanuele; Cella, Simone; De Filippo, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Congenital pulmonary malformations represent a broad spectrum of anomalies that may result in varied clinical and pathologic pictures, ranging from recurrent pulmonary infections and acute respiratory distress syndrome, which require timely drug therapy, up to large space-occupying lesions needing surgical treatment. This classification includes three distinct anatomical and pathological entities, represented by Congenital Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation, Bronchopulmonary Sequestration and Congenital Lobar Emphysema. The final result in terms of embryological and fetal development of these alterations is a Congenital Lung Hypoplasia. Since even Bronchial Atresia, Pulmonary Bronchogenic Cysts and Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernias are due to Pulmonary Hypoplasia, these diseases will be discussed in this review (1, 2). PMID:27467867

  11. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... or inappropriately). Congenital adrenal hyperplasia can affect both boys and girls. About 1 in 10,000 to 18,000 ... penis but normal testes Well-developed muscles Both boys and girls will be tall as children, but much shorter ...

  12. Congenital alopecia universalis.

    PubMed

    Saraswat, P K; Laha, N N

    1989-09-01

    A case of congenital alopecia universalis without any other ectodermal defect and mental abnormality is described in a girl of eight years. There was no family history in any of the members. The child was born of a non-consanguineous marriage. PMID:2632563

  13. OPERATION FOR CONGENITAL CATARACT

    PubMed Central

    Barkan, Otto

    1949-01-01

    The traditional treatment of needling or discission of congenital cataract or membrane is open to many serious objections. Removal of the cataract by a modified form of linear extraction is recommended. The technique, with recent improvements which further assure extraction without hazard in early infancy, is described. PMID:18125222

  14. Congenital Midline Cervical Cleft

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva-Meyer, Javier; Glastonbury, Christine; Marcovici, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Congenital midline cervical cleft is a rare anomaly that typically presents in the neonatal period as a thin suprasternal vertical band of erythematous skin with a nipple-like projection superiorly, which may exude fluid. We present the clinical and pathophysiologic features and the imaging findings of this uncommon, and rarely described entity in a newborn girl. PMID:25926928

  15. Gastric-jejunum pouch side-to-end anastomosis: a novel and safe operation of gastrojejunostomy for preventing reflux gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yongkuan; Gong, Jiaqing; Gan, Wei; Zhou, Jun; Huang, Ling; Wang, Yonghua; Luo, Guode; Song, Yaning

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to introduce a simple operation method of gastrojejunostomy for preventing reflux esophagitis --gastric-jejunum pouch side-to-end anastomosis. Methods: Based on Billroth II anastomosis (Billroth II) method, we designed a new technique of anastomosis between stomach wall and jejunal pouch. The technique was named gastric-jejunum pouch side-end anastomosis. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data which was collected from March 2012 to February 2014. Among all the recruited 66 patients, 51 gastric cancer patients and 7 pyloric obstruction patients were implemented with hand-assisted laparoscopic distal gastrectomy plus D2 lymph node dissection. The remaining 8 patients were malignant pyloric obstruction; they were treated with small exploratory incision on the upper abdomen and distal gastric partial transection. All the patients were treated with gastric-jejunum pouch side-to-end anastomosis. Results: The surgical incision was small, the operative time was short, their bleeding volume was little, the recovery time of the bowel function and hospitalization time was relatively short. Postoperatively, there was neither mortality and gastroparesis, nor anastomotic leakage and jejunal pouch leakage. Minor postoperative complications were detected followed up for 12 months, no acid reflux and reflux esophagitis symptoms was reported. Conclusions: Gastric -jejunum pouch side-to-end anastomosis is a simple operation technique with highly surgical safety. PMID:26131135

  16. The relationship between hatching rate and number of embryos of the brood pouch in Littorina saxatilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conde-Padín, P.; Carballo, M.; Caballero, A.; Rolán-Alvarez, E.

    2008-10-01

    Littorina saxatilis is an ovoviviparous organism in which shelled embryos can be directly observed in nearly all mature females captured in the wild. This characteristic has been used a number of times as an indirect estimate for fecundity of natural populations. However, there is no experimental corroboration that the number of embryos within a female brood pouch is actually related to the rate of hatching per unit of time, a more realistic estimate of female fecundity. In order to make this corroboration we estimated the correlation between the number of embryos in the brood pouch and the hatching rate of isolated females grown in the laboratory. We also compared the hatching rates of females from two sympatric ecotypes (RB and SU) of this species, which differ significantly in the number of embryos. We found a high agreement between hatching rate and number of embryos, concluding that the latter is a good proxy for fecundity.

  17. Indiana pouch continent urinary reservoir in patients with previous pelvic irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Mannel, R.S.; Braly, P.S.; Buller, R.E. )

    1990-05-01

    Little information exists on the use of continent urinary reservoirs in patients with previous pelvic irradiation. We report the use of the Indiana pouch urinary reservoir in ten women with a history of pelvic irradiation for cervical cancer, of whom eight underwent a total pelvic exenteration for recurrent pelvic tumor and two had diversion for radiation-induced vesicovaginal fistula. All ten women achieved daytime continence, with a median time between catheterizations of 4.5 hours and a median pouch capacity of 500 mL. There was no evidence of leakage from the reservoir or significant ureteral reflux or obstruction on postoperative radiographic evaluation. No patient has required reoperation or had significant postoperative complications with the technique described.

  18. The Primary Implantation of Human Tumours to the Hamster Cheek Pouch

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Dorothy E.; Evans, D. M. D.; Blamey, R. W.

    1971-01-01

    The hamster cheek pouch is an immunologically privileged site. The present study is of simple implantation of human tumours direct from operative specimen to cheek pouch, in particular to determine whether tumour type influences the rate of successful implant. All implants were studied 10 or 20 days later. The use of cortisone significantly improved the number of implants growing. Carcinomas of the cervix were found to show growth in 55% of implants, in animals conditioned with cortisone. Growth from tumours of the uterine body, or from colorectal carcinomas, occurred in 25-30% of implants. Breast cancer gave poor results. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:5144526

  19. Nd:YAG photovaporization of residual equine guttural-pouch mycotic lesions after internal carotid occlusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Lloyd P.; Tudor, R. A.; Little, Edwina D. E.

    1998-07-01

    Hospital records reviewed over a 12-year period determined that 6 horses had been presented for guttural pouch mycosis. All had a history of epistaxis and several had accompanying neurologic signs, including dysphagia. Initially, conformation of the disease was obtained by radiographic and endoscopic examinations. Surgical treatment was directed at controlling and preventing additional hemorrhage by occluding the arterial source of the hemorrhage. Direct treatment of the mycotic plaque present within the guttural pouch was conducted using transendoscopic technique to direct irradiation from the Nd:YAG laser. The protocol described for the laser application was successful in resolving the lesions and was less complicated and stressful than previously reported topically applied chemical protocols.

  20. [Necrosis of the pouch due to nontraumatic rupture of the pile during permanent endocardial electrostimulation].

    PubMed

    Circo, A; Mangiameli, S; Vanaria, D; Lombardo, D; Evola, R

    1977-09-30

    Necrosis of the pouch containing the generator, due to non-traumatic breakage of the batteries, was observed in a patient with a permanent pacemaker, followed by rapid ingravescence. The cause of this complication is discussed. Chemical inflammation was noted soon after the pacemaker ceased to function. Initially this was similar to the not uncommon bacterial inflammation noted in such patients. Here, of course, the pacemaker usually continues to work, and its replacement is optional, whereas in the reported case is an emergency matter. In situations where tissue distress in the pouch is accompanied by inflammation, therefore, thought should be given to the possibility that, even if the batteries are still working, the cause may be chemical or electrochemical rather than septic, and than sudden breakdown of the generator may be expected. PMID:917334

  1. Detecting neoplastic development in the hamster cheek pouch using Fourier domain low coherence interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Robert N.; Robles, Francisco; Chen, Xiaoxin; Wax, Adam

    2009-02-01

    Fourier Domain Low Coherence Interferometry (fLCI) is an optical technique that recovers depth-resolved spectroscopic information about scatterers. The current fLCI system utilizes a white light Xe arc lamp source, a 4-f interferometer, and an imaging spectrometer at the detection plane to acquire spectra from 256 adjacent spatial points. This configuration permits the acquisition of ultrahigh depth resolution Fourier domain OCT images without the need for any beam scanning. fLCI has traditionally obtained depth-resolved spectral information by performing a short-time Fourier transform (STFT) on the detected spectra, similar to the processing techniques of spectroscopic OCT. We now employ a dual Gaussian window processing method which simultaneously obtains high spectral and temporal resolution, thus avoiding the resolution trade-off normally associated with the STFT. Wavelength dependent variations in scattering intensity are analyzed as a function of depth to obtain structural information about the probed scatterers. We now verify fLCI's ability to distinguish between normal and dysplastic epithelial tissue using the hamster cheek pouch model. Thirty hamsters will have one cheek pouch treated with the known carcinogen DMBA. At the conclusion of the 24 week treatment period the animals will be anesthetized and the cheek pouches will be extracted. We will use the fLCI optical system to measure the neoplastic transformation of the in situ subsurface tissue layers in both the normal and DMBA-treated cheek pouches. Traditional histological analysis will be used to verify the fLCI measurements. Our results will further establish fLCI as an effective method for distinguishing between normal and dysplastic epithelial tissues.

  2. Modulation of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes by ethanolic neem leaf extract during hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Subapriya, R; Velmurugan, B; Nagini, S

    2005-06-01

    Chemoprevention by medicinal plants is a promising approach for controlling cancer. There is substantial evidence to indicate that chemopreventive agents exert their anticarcinogenic effects by modulation of phase I and phase II xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. Therefore, we examined the chemopreventive potential of ethanolic neem leaf extract (ENLE) on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. Hamsters were divided into four groups of six animals each. The right buccal pouches of animals in Group I were painted with 0.5 per cent DMBA in liquid paraffin three times per week. Animals in Group 2 painted with DMBA as in group 1, received in addition, intragastric administration of ENLE at a concentration of 200 mg/kg bw three times per week on days alternate to DMBA application. Group 3 was given ENLE alone. Animals in Group 4 served as controls. All animals were killed after an experimental period of 14 weeks. Five out of six hamsters painted with DMBA alone developed squamous cell carcinomas in the buccal pouch. The HBP tumours showed an increase in phase I carcinogen activation (cytochrome P450 and b5) and phase II detoxification enzyme (glutathione-S-transferase, DT-diaphorase and NADPH-diaphorase) activities. In the liver of tumour-bearing animals, enhanced cytochrome P450 and b5 levels were accompanied by a decrease in phase II detoxification enzyme activities. Administration of ENLE effectively suppressed DMBA-induced HBP tumours, decreased cytochrome P450 and b5 levels, and enhanced phase II enzyme activities in the pouch and liver. Our results suggest that the modulation of DMBA metabolism is a possible mechanism for the chemopreventive effects of ethanolic neem leaf extract. PMID:16110755

  3. Modeling Lithium Ion Battery Safety: Venting of Pouch Cells; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram.; Yang, Chuanbo.; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2013-07-01

    This report documents the successful completion of the NREL July milestone entitled “Modeling Lithium-Ion Battery Safety - Complete Case-Studies on Pouch Cell Venting,” as part of the 2013 Vehicle Technologies Annual Operating Plan with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This work aims to bridge the gap between materials modeling, usually carried out at the sub-continuum scale, and the

  4. Teaching Giant African Pouched Rats to Find Landmines: Operant Conditioning With Real Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart J; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Bach, Håvard; Sully, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Giant African pouched rats recently have been used as mine-detection animals in Mozambique. To provide an example of the wide range of problems to which operant conditioning procedures can be applied and to illustrate the common challenges often faced in applying those procedures, this manuscript briefly describes how the rats are trained and used operationally. To date, the rats have performed well and it appears they can play a valuable role in humanitarian demining. PMID:22532890

  5. Teaching giant african pouched rats to find landmines: operant conditioning with real consequences.

    PubMed

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart J; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Bach, Håvard; Sully, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Giant African pouched rats recently have been used as mine-detection animals in Mozambique. To provide an example of the wide range of problems to which operant conditioning procedures can be applied and to illustrate the common challenges often faced in applying those procedures, this manuscript briefly describes how the rats are trained and used operationally. To date, the rats have performed well and it appears they can play a valuable role in humanitarian demining. PMID:22532890

  6. Effects of chlorhexidine on the structure and permeability of hamster cheek pouch mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, B.V.; Squier, C.A.; Hall, B.K.

    1984-10-01

    This study examined the effects of chlorhexidine (CHD) on the clinical appearance, morphology, and in vitro permeability of hamster cheek pouch mucosa. The cheek pouches were treated daily for 3 weeks with topical applications of saline, 0.2% CHD, or 2.0% CHD. Treatment with 2.0% CHD resulted in the formation of discrete white lesions in every animal in the group, whereas no changes were identified in any animal treated with 0.2% CHD or saline. Upon microscopic examination it was determined that treatment with 2.0% CHD resulted in a statistically significant increase in epithelial thickness, when compared to the other groups, and the lesions were found to consist of hyperplastic areas of epithelium with associated inflammatory cell accumulations. Daily treatments with 2.0% CHD, 0.2% CHD or saline had no effect on the very low permeability of cheek pouch mucosa to /sup 14/C-CHD. However, treatment with 2.0% CHD resulted in decreased permeability to /sup 3/H/sub 2/O when compared to the other groups. Treatment with 2.0% CHD also resulted in a thickened permeability barrier, as determined using a tracer, horseradish peroxidase. It is concluded that topical applications of 0.2% T CHD have no detectable effect on cheek-pouch mucosa while applications of 2.0% CHD result in hyperplasia and a decrease in mucosal permeability. Results suggest that CHD should be used with caution clinically and at a concentration of 0.2% or less.

  7. Pouched Rats' Detection of Tuberculosis in Human Sputum: Comparison to Culturing and Polymerase Chain Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, Amanda; Weetjens, Bart J.; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Reither, Klaus; Makingi, George; Jubitana, Maureen; Kazwala, Rudovick; Mfinanga, Godfrey S.; Kahwa, Amos; Durgin, Amy; Poling, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Setting. Tanzania. Objective. To compare microscopy as conducted in direct observation of treatment, short course centers to pouched rats as detectors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Design. Ten pouched rats were trained to detect tuberculosis in sputum using operant conditioning techniques. The rats evaluated 910 samples previously evaluated by smear microscopy. All samples were also evaluated through culturing and multiplex polymerase chain reaction was performed on culture growths to classify the bacteria. Results. The patientwise sensitivity of microscopy was 58.0%, and the patient-wise specificity was 97.3%. Used as a group of 10 with a cutoff (defined as the number of rat indications to classify a sample as positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis) of 1, the rats increased new case detection by 46.8% relative to microscopy alone. The average samplewise sensitivity of the individual rats was 68.4% (range 61.1–73.8%), and the mean specificity was 87.3% (range 84.7–90.3%). Conclusion. These results suggest that pouched rats are a valuable adjunct to, and may be a viable substitute for, sputum smear microscopy as a tuberculosis diagnostic in resource-poor countries. PMID:22848808

  8. Comparative rice seed toxicity tests using filter paper, growth pouch-tm, and seed tray methods.

    PubMed

    Wang, W

    1993-02-01

    Paper substrate, especially circular filter paper placed inside a Petri dish, has long been used for the plant seed toxicity test (PSTT). Although this method is simple and inexpensive, recent evidence indicates that it gives results that are significantly different from those obtained using a method that does not involve paper, especially when testing metal cations. The study compared PSTT using three methods: filter paper, Growth Pouch-TM, and seed tray. The Growth Pouch-TM is a commercially available device. The seed tray is a newly designed plastic receptacle placed inside a Petri dish. The results of the Growth Pouch-TM method showed no toxic effects on rice for Ag up to 40 mg L(-1) and Cd up to 20 mg L(-1). Using the seed tray method, IC50 (50% inhibitory effect concentration) values were 0.55 and 1.4 mg L(-1) for Ag and Cd, respectively. Although results of filter paper and seed tray methods were nearly identical for NaF, Cr(VI), and phenol, the toxicities of cations Ag and Cd were reduced by using the filter paper method; IC50 values were 22 and 18 mg L(-1), respectively. The results clearly indicate that paper substrate is not advisable for PSTT. PMID:24227383

  9. Comparative rice seed toxicity tests using filter paper, growth pouch-tm, and seed tray methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, W.

    1993-01-01

    Paper substrate, especially circular filter paper placed inside a Petri dish, has long been used for the plant seed toxicity test (PSTT). Although this method is simple and inexpensive, recent evidence indicates that it gives results that are significantly different from those obtained using a method that does not involve paper, especially when testing metal cations. The study compared PSTT using three methods: filter paper, Growth Pouch-TM, and seed tray. The Growth Pouch-TM is a commercially available device. The seed tray is a newly designed plastic receptacle placed inside a Petri dish. The results of the Growth Pouch-TM method showed no toxic effects on rice for Ag up to 40 mg L-1 and Cd up to 20 mg L-1. Using the seed tray method, IC50 (50% inhibitory effect concentration) values were 0.55 and 1.4 mg L-1 for Ag and Cd, respectively. Although results of filter paper and seed tray methods were nearly identical for NaF, Cr(VI), and phenol, the toxicities of cations Ag and Cd were reduced by using the filter paper method; IC50 values were 22 and 18 mg L-1, respectively. The results clearly indicate that paper substrate is not advisable for PSTT.

  10. Congenital hemifacial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Deshingkar, S A; Barpande, S R; Bhavthankar, J D

    2011-07-01

    Congenital hemifacial hyperplasia (CHH) is a rare congenital malformation characterized by marked unilateral overdevelopment of hard and soft tissues of the face. Asymmetry in CHH is usually evident at birth and accentuated with age, especially at puberty. The affected side grows at a rate proportional to the nonaffected side so that the disproportion is maintained thr oughout the life. Multisystem involvement has resulted in etiological heterogeneity including heredity, chromosomal abnormalities, atypical forms of twinning, altered intrauterine environment, and endocrine dysfunctions; however, no single theory explains the etiology adequately. Deformities of all tissues of face, including teeth and their related tissues in the jaw, are key findings for correct diagnosis of CHH. Here an attempt has been made to present a case of CHH with its archetypal features and to supplement existing clinical knowledge. PMID:22090778

  11. Update on congenital glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Anil K; Chakrabarti, Debasis

    2011-01-01

    Congenital glaucoma is a global problem and poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to the ophthalmologist. A detailed evaluation under general anesthesia is advisable to establish the diagnosis and plan for management. Medical therapy has a limited role and surgery remains the primary therapeutic modality. While goniotomy or trabeculotomy ab externo is valuable in the management of congenital glaucoma, primary combined trabeculotomy–trabeculectomy offers the best hope of success in advanced cases. Trabeculectomy with antifibrotic agent and glaucoma drainage devices has a role in the management of refractory cases, and cyclodestructive procedures should be reserved for patients where these procedures have failed. Early diagnosis, prompt therapeutic intervention and proper refractive correction are keys to success. Management of residual vision and visual rehabilitation should be an integral part of the management of children with low vision and lifelong follow-up is a must. PMID:21150027

  12. Congenital hemophagocytic reticulosis.

    PubMed

    Koto, A; Morecki, R; Santorineou, M

    1976-04-01

    A fatal case of an apparently congenital form of hemophagocytic reticulosis is reported. The onset was manifested by hyperbilirubinemia and hepatosplenomegaly which were present at birth and persisted throughout life. Fever, anemia and pancytopenia developed at 1 month of age and became progressively worse. A splenectomy was performed at the age of 3 months, but the child died one day later with disseminated intravascular coagulation and pulmonary hemorrhage. The literature is reviewed with regard to the relationship of this case to (familial) hemophagocytic reticulosis and malignant histiocytosis (histiocytic medullary reticulosis). It is suggested that congenital hemophagocytic reticulosis, as described here, (familial) hemophagocytic reticulosis in infants, and malignant histiocytosis in adults all represent the same basic disorder with different ages of onset and clinicopathologic manifestations. PMID:1266810

  13. Congenital midline cervical cleft.

    PubMed

    Agag, Richard; Sacks, Justin; Silver, Lester

    2007-01-01

    Congenital midline cervical cleft (CMCC) is a rare disorder of the ventral neck that is clinically evident at birth and must be differentiated from the more common thyroglossal duct cyst. The case of CMCC presented here was associated with chromosomes 13/14 de novo Robertsonian translocations as well as midline deformities including a sacral tuft and a minor tongue-tie. The case is presented as well as discussion of histopathology, embryology, and surgical treatment. PMID:17214531

  14. Congenital scoliosis - Quo vadis?

    PubMed

    Debnath, Ujjwal K; Goel, Vivek; Harshavardhana, Nanjanduppa; Webb, John K

    2010-04-01

    Congenital spinal vertebral anomalies can present as scoliosis or kyphosis or both. The worldwide prevalence of the vertebral anomalies is 0.5-1 per 1000 live births. Vertebral anomalies can range from hemi vertebrae (HV) which may be single or multiple, vertebral bar with or without HV, block vertebrae, wedge shaped or butterfly vertebrae. Seventy per cent of congenital vertebral anomalies result in progressive deformities. The risk factors for progression include: type of defect, site of defect (junctional regions) and patient's age at the time of diagnosis. The key to success in managing these spinal deformities is early diagnosis and anticipation of progression. One must intervene surgically to halt the progression of deformity and prevent further complications associated with progressive deformity. Planning for surgery includes a preoperative MRI scan to rule out spinal anomalies such as diastematomyelia. The goals of surgical treatment for congenital spinal deformity are to achieve a straight growing spine, a normal standing sagittal profile, and a short fusion segment. The options of surgery include in situ fusion, convex hemi epiphysiodesis and hemi vertebra excision. These basic surgical procedures can be combined with curve correction, instrumentation and short segment fusion. Most surgeons prefer posterior (only) surgery for uncomplicated HV excision and short segment fusion. These surgical procedures can be performed through posterior, anterior or combined approaches. The advocates of combined approaches suggest greater deformity correction possibilities with reduced incidence of pseudoarthrosis and minimize crankshaft phenomenon. We recommend posterior surgery for curves involving only an element of kyphosis or modest deformity, whereas combined anterior and posterior approach is indicated for large or lordotic deformities. In the last decade, the use of growing rods and vertebral expandable prosthetic titanium rib has improved the armamentarium of the

  15. Other congenital abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Cobbett, J R

    1974-06-29

    The plastic surgeon is not a miracle worker, as so many of his patients believe. Nevertheless, he can do much to minimize the functional and cosmetic effect of many congenital deformities. If a moral can be drawn from this article it must be that the plastic surgeon should be given an early opportunity to see and assess the patients described here, if only to ease the anxiety in the minds of their parents by appropriate reassurance and discussion. PMID:4853507

  16. Congenital Cataract Screening.

    PubMed

    Rajavi, Zhale; Sabbaghi, Hamideh

    2016-01-01

    Congenital cataract is a leading cause of visual deprivation which can damage the developing visual system of a child; therefore early diagnosis, management and long-term follow-up are essential. It is recommended that all neonates be screened by red reflex examination at birth and suspected cases be referred to ophthalmic centers. Early surgery (<6 weeks of age, based on general neonatal health) is important for achieving the best visual outcome particularly in unilateral cases. In bilateral cases, surgery is highly recommended before appearance of strabismus or nystagmus (<10 weeks of age) with no longer than a one-week interval between the fellow eyes. Parents should be informed that surgery is a starting point and not the endpoint of treatment. Appropriate postoperative management including immediate optical correction in the form of aphakic glasses or contact lenses, or intraocular lens (IOL) implantation at the appropriate age (>1 year) is highly recommended. After surgery, amblyopia treatment and periodic follow-up examinations should be started as soon as possible to achieve a satisfactory visual outcome. Practitioners should consider the possibility of posterior capsular opacity, elevated intraocular pressure and amblyopia during follow-up, especially in eyes with microphthalmia and/or associated congenital anomalies. All strabismic children should undergo slit lamp examination prior to strabismus surgery to rule out congenital lens opacities. From a social point of view, equal and fair medical care should be provided to all children regardless of gender. PMID:27621790

  17. Congenital Cataract Screening

    PubMed Central

    Rajavi, Zhale; Sabbaghi, Hamideh

    2016-01-01

    Congenital cataract is a leading cause of visual deprivation which can damage the developing visual system of a child; therefore early diagnosis, management and long-term follow-up are essential. It is recommended that all neonates be screened by red reflex examination at birth and suspected cases be referred to ophthalmic centers. Early surgery (<6 weeks of age, based on general neonatal health) is important for achieving the best visual outcome particularly in unilateral cases. In bilateral cases, surgery is highly recommended before appearance of strabismus or nystagmus (<10 weeks of age) with no longer than a one-week interval between the fellow eyes. Parents should be informed that surgery is a starting point and not the endpoint of treatment. Appropriate postoperative management including immediate optical correction in the form of aphakic glasses or contact lenses, or intraocular lens (IOL) implantation at the appropriate age (>1 year) is highly recommended. After surgery, amblyopia treatment and periodic follow-up examinations should be started as soon as possible to achieve a satisfactory visual outcome. Practitioners should consider the possibility of posterior capsular opacity, elevated intraocular pressure and amblyopia during follow-up, especially in eyes with microphthalmia and/or associated congenital anomalies. All strabismic children should undergo slit lamp examination prior to strabismus surgery to rule out congenital lens opacities. From a social point of view, equal and fair medical care should be provided to all children regardless of gender.

  18. Liver Colonization Competence Governs Colon Cancer Metastasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Tsong-Hong; Kubota, Tetsuro; Watanabe, Masahiko; Furukawa, Toshiharu; Teramoto, Tatuso; Ishibiki, Kyuya; Kitajima, Masaki; Rahim Moosa, A.; Penman, Sheldon; Hoffman, Robert M.

    1995-12-01

    Tumors that metastasize do so to preferred target organs. To explain this apparent specificity, Paget, >100 years ago, formulated his seed and soil hypothesis; i.e., the cells from a given tumor would "seed" only favorable "soil" offered by certain organs. The hypothesis implies that cancer cells must find a suitable "soil" in a target organ-i.e., one that supports colonization-for metastasis to occur. We demonstrate in this report that ability of human colon cancer cells to colonize liver tissue governs whether a particular colon cancer is metastatic. In the model used in this study, human colon tumors are transplanted into the nude mouse colon as intact tissue blocks by surgical orthotopic implantation. These implanted tumors closely simulate the metastatic behavior of the original human patient tumor and are clearly metastatic or nonmetastatic to the liver. Both classes of tumors were equally invasive locally into tissues and blood vessels. However, the cells from each class of tumor behave very differently when directly injected into nude mouse livers. Only cells from metastasizing tumors are competent to colonize after direct intrahepatic injection. Also, tissue blocks from metastatic tumors affixed directly to the liver resulted in colonization, whereas no colonization resulted from nonmetastatic tumor tissue blocks even though some growth occurred within the tissue block itself. Thus, local invasion (injection) and even adhesion to the metastatic target organ (blocks) are not sufficient for metastasis. The results suggest that the ability to colonize the liver is the governing step in the metastasis of human colon cancer.

  19. Radiology of congenital heart disease

    SciTech Connect

    Amplatz, K.

    1986-01-01

    This is a text on the radiologic diagnosis of congenital heart disease and its clinical manifestations. The main thrust of the book is the logical approach which allows an understanding of the complex theory of congenital heart disease. The atlas gives a concise overview of the entire field of congenital heart disease. Emphasis is placed on the understanding of the pathophysiology and its clinical and radiological consequences. Surgical treatment is included since it provides a different viewpoint of the anatomy.

  20. Colon diverticula - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100158.htm Colon diverticula - series To use the sharing features on ... 6 out of 6 Normal anatomy Overview The colon, or large intestine, is a muscular tube that ...

  1. Colon cancer - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100157.htm Colon cancer - Series To use the sharing features on ... 5 out of 5 Normal anatomy Overview The colon, or large intestine, is a muscular tube that ...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: congenital hepatic fibrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions congenital hepatic fibrosis congenital hepatic fibrosis Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Congenital hepatic fibrosis is a disease of the liver that is ...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: Leber congenital amaurosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Registry: Leber congenital amaurosis 9 National Eye Institute: Gene Therapy for Leber Congenital Amaurosis These resources from MedlinePlus ... Additional NIH Resources (1 link) National Eye Institute: Gene Therapy for Leber Congenital Amaurosis Educational Resources (3 links) ...

  4. Colon cancer - Series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Colon cancer is the third most common cancer in the United States. Risk factors include a diet low ... The treatment of colon cancer depends on the stage of the disease. Stage I cancer is limited to the inner lining of the colon; ...

  5. A quantitative study of the morphological development and bacterial colonisation of the gut of the tammar wallaby Macropus eugenii eugenii and brushtail possum Trichosurus vulpecula during in-pouch development.

    PubMed

    Lentle, R G; Dey, D; Hulls, C; Mellor, D J; Moughan, P J; Stafford, K J; Nicholas, K

    2006-11-01

    We compared the rates of change of various morphological parameters of the stomach, small intestine, caecum and colon of tammar wallabies and brushtail possums with body mass during in-pouch development. These were correlated with changes in the numbers of bacterial species in the various gut segments. In the pouch-young of both species, the wet tissue masses of all gut segments increased with body mass in a positively allometric manner (i.e. with a body mass exponent > 1), suggesting that the mass of each component was disproportionately low at birth, but increased disproportionately rapidly postnatally. However, the lengths of the wallaby stomach and small intestine scaled isometrically with respect to body mass (i.e. with a body mass exponent around 0.33), which may indicate that the shape of these components changes to the adult form during early neonatal development. Conversely, the length of the caecum and colon of both wallabies and possums scaled in a positively allometric manner with respect to body mass, showing area to volume compensation. This may indicate a more general pattern of disproportionately rapid postnatal enlargement in areas that are distal to the principal sites of neonatal digestion (i.e. the stomach). The numbers of bacterial species present in the various gastrointestinal segments of both species were low in animals aged 100 days or less but there was a significant increase in microbial diversity in the caecum of brushtail possums aged over 100 days. The possum caecum also showed the greatest rate of increase in wet tissue mass relative to body mass. It is postulated that caecal development may act as a nidus for establishment of communities of commensal microflora in the developing marsupial. PMID:16819652

  6. Black tea polyphenols protect against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Letchoumy, P Vidjaya; Chandra Mohan, K V P; Kumaraguruparan, R; Hara, Y; Nagini, S

    2006-01-01

    Dietary chemoprevention has emerged as a cost-effective approach for cancer control. We evaluated the chemopreventive effects of black tea polyphenols (Polyphenon-B) administration during the preinitiation phase of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. The expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the buccal pouch and the concentration of lipid peroxides, protein carbonyl, and the antioxidant status in the buccal pouch, liver and erythrocytes were used as biomarkers of chemoprevention. All the hamsters painted with DMBA alone for 14 weeks developed buccal pouch carcinomas associated with increased expression of PCNA, diminished lipid and protein oxidation, and enhanced antioxidant status. In the liver and erythrocytes of tumor-bearing animals, enhanced oxidation of lipids and proteins was accompanied by compromised antioxidant defenses. Dietary administration of Polyphenon-B effectively suppressed DMBA-induced HBP carcinogenesis as revealed by decreased incidence of tumours and PCNA expression. In addition, Polyphenon-B modulated lipid and protein oxidation and enhanced the antioxidant status in the pouch, liver, and erythrocytes. We suggest that Polyphenon-B exerts its chemopreventive effects by inhibiting cell proliferation in the target tissue and modulating the oxidant-antioxidant status in the target as well as in host tissues. PMID:17120615

  7. Molecular and Genetic Studies of Congenital Myopathies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-26

    Central Core Disease; Centronuclear Myopathy; Congenital Fiber Type Disproportion; Multiminicore Disease; Myotubular Myopathy; Nemaline Myopathy; Rigid Spine Muscular Dystrophy; Undefined Congenital Myopathy

  8. Currarino triad associated with malrotation of the colon.

    PubMed

    Daoud, Faiez S; Aburub, Mohammad A; Hadidy, Azmy M

    2007-02-01

    Currarino triad is a rare congenital condition characterized by a sacral bony defect, presacral mass, and anorectal malformations. We describe an unusual case of complete Currarino triad in a 22-year-old female with sacral bony defect, anal stenosis, recto-vaginal fistula, and dual pathology meningocele and teratoma in the pre sacral mass associated with malrotation of the colon. This combination has not been reported previously. The clinical presentation, surgical management and review of literature are discussed. PMID:17268712

  9. Congenital protein hypoglycosylation diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sparks, Susan E

    2012-01-01

    Glycosylation is an essential process by which sugars are attached to proteins and lipids. Complete lack of glycosylation is not compatible with life. Because of the widespread function of glycosylation, inherited disorders of glycosylation are multisystemic. Since the identification of the first defect on N-linked glycosylation in the 1980s, there are over 40 different congenital protein hypoglycosylation diseases. This review will include defects of N-linked glycosylation, O-linked glycosylation and disorders of combined N- and O-linked glycosylation. PMID:23776380

  10. Congenital nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Begolli, Mirije; Begolli, Ilir; Gojani, Xhenane; Arenliu-Qosaj, Fatime; Berisha, Merita

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this case is to present a case of a two month old female with congenital nephritic syndrome, which is very rare. On admission, the baby showed marked edema and distended abdomen. She was diagnosed and treated with daily albumin infusions, antibiotics, diuretic, gamma globulin replacement, ACEI and NSAIDs. Parents were informed about the nature of the disease, prognosis, and advised for further medical care in a more advanced kidney transplantation centre. This was the first treatment of this condition in the Pediatric Clinic in Kosovo and it presented a challenge for us. PMID:22299306

  11. Congenital limb deficiency disorders.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, William R; Coulter, Colleen P; Schmitz, Michael L

    2015-06-01

    Congenital limb deficiency disorders (LDDs) are birth defects characterized by the aplasia or hypoplasia of bones of the limbs. Limb deficiencies are classified as transverse, those due to intrauterine disruptions of previously normal limbs, or longitudinal, those that are isolated or associated with certain syndromes as well as chromosomal anomalies. Consultation with a medical geneticist is advisable. Long-term care should occur in a specialized limb deficiency center with expertise in orthopedics, prosthetics, and occupational and physical therapy and provide emotional support and contact with other families. With appropriate care, most children with LDDs can lead productive lives. PMID:26042905

  12. [Congenital myasthenic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Araga, Shigeru

    2008-06-01

    Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are rare heterogeneous disorders in which neuromuscular transmission is compromised by one or more specific mechanisms. CMS are clinically diagnosed by a history of fatigability and muscle weakness since infancy or early childhood, a decremental EMG response and the absence of acetylcholine receptor antibodies. CMS form a heterogeneous group of disorders which are classified as originating from presynaptic, synaptic or postsynaptic defects. Molecular genetic studies reveal a various type of mutations in synapse-associated genes. However, the genetic abnormalities of many CMS are still unresolved. This article outlines the classification of CMS and etiology of individual forms. PMID:18540366

  13. Precalcaneal Congenital Fibrolipomatous Hamartoma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ji-Hye; Park, Oun-Jae; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Won, Chong-Hyun; Chang, Sung-Eun; Choi, Jee-Ho; Moon, Kee-Chan

    2011-01-01

    Precalcaneal congenital fibrolipomatous hamartomas (PCFHs) are characterized clinically by the presence of unilateral or bilateral, asymptomatic nodules in the medial precalcaneal plantar region of the heel. They are skin colored and usually painless nodules. In most patients, the lesions appear within the first few months of life, but they may also be present at birth. Generally PCFHs are benign, but they can grow in proportion to the growth of the infants. Here, we report the case of a 4-month-old boy with a solitary, localized skin-colored nodule on the precalcaneal plantar region of his right heel, diagnosed as a PCFH. PMID:21738373

  14. Nonclassic Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Witchel, Selma Feldman; Azziz, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) due to P450c21 (21-hydroxylase deficiency) is a common autosomal recessive disorder. This disorder is due to mutations in the CYP21A2 gene which is located at chromosome 6p21. The clinical features predominantly reflect androgen excess rather than adrenal insufficiency leading to an ascertainment bias favoring diagnosis in females. Treatment goals include normal linear growth velocity and “on-time” puberty in affected children. For adolescent and adult women, treatment goals include regularization of menses, prevention of progression of hirsutism, and fertility. This paper will review key aspects regarding pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of NCAH. PMID:20671993

  15. CONGENITAL DIAPHRAGMATIC HERNIA

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Burton E.

    1954-01-01

    Treatment of congenital diaphragmatic hernia in infants is a matter of semi-emergency and should be done as soon as adequate preparations can be made because sometimes fatal complications develop swiftly. In preoperative preparation there is great advantage in thorough decompression of the abdominal viscera, stomach, bowel and bladder. As to operation, the author believes the abdominal approach has most to recommend it. In the postoperative period, continued gastric suction for a brief time, parenteral administration of fluids and use of a Mistogen tent with a high moist oxygen content will facilitate rapid recovery. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:13209363

  16. Congenital anterior urethral diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sanjeet Kumar; Ansari, Ms

    2014-09-01

    Congenital anterior urethral diverticulum (CAUD) may be found all along the anterior urethra and may present itself at any age, from infant to adult. Most children with this condition present with difficulty in initiating micturition, dribbling of urine, poor urinary stream, or urinary tract infection. A careful history will reveal that these children never had a good urinary stream since birth, and the telltale sign is a cystic swelling of the penile urethra. In this paper, we present two cases of CAUD that were managed by excision of the diverticulum with primary repair. PMID:26328174

  17. Primary congenital bladder diverticula: Where does the ureter drain?

    PubMed Central

    Macedo, Antonio; Garrone, Gilmar; Ottoni, Sérgio Leite; Oliveira, Diego Estevam; do Rosário Souza, Geórgia Rubiane Meira; da Cruz, Marcela Leal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Primary congenital bladder diverticulum (PCBD) is related to a deficient detrusor layer allowing out-pouching of the bladder mucosa through the inadequate muscularis wall. We aimed to review our experience with symptomatic PCBD in order to correlate clinical findings with anatomical aspects and to present late outcome. Materials and Methods: We reviewed all patients operated in our institution since 2004. We evaluated the charts for complaints, radiological exams, method of treatment, complications and length of follow-up. Results: We treated 10 cases (11 renal units - [RU]), predominantly males (9/10), mean age at surgery of 5.3 years. All patients had significant urological complaints presenting either with antenatal hydronephrosis (4) or febrile urinary tract infection (5) and urinary retention in one. The ureter was found implanted inside the diverticulum in 8/11 RU. An extravesical psoas-hitch ureteroneocystostomy and diverticulum resection was performed in 10/11 cases, whereas 1 case was treated intravesically based on surgeon's preference without performing cystoscopy. Mean follow-up was 34.1 months (1-120) without complications. Conclusions: PCBD is an uncommon diagnosis and has a high probability of drainage inside the diverticulum (72.7%). We recommend the extravesical approach associated with diverticulectomy and ureteroneocystostomy as the preferred technique to treat this abnormality. PMID:26712296

  18. Association between gastro-intestinal symptoms and menstruation in patients with ileal pouches

    PubMed Central

    Bharadwaj, Shishira; Wu, Xian-rui; Barber, Matthew D.; Queener, Elaine; Graff, Lesley; Shen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Gastro-intestinal (GI) symptoms are often experienced by healthy women during menstruation. An increased frequency of GI symptoms during menses has also been reported in women with irritable bowel syndrome or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, IBD patients with restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomoses (IPAA) have not been studied. We aimed to examine the association between GI symptoms before and during menses in patients with IPAA, and to assess factors for exacerbation of GI symptoms in those patients. Methods: Adult women recorded in the Pouchitis Registry were invited to participate in a mailed survey. Participants reported on GI symptoms 1–5 days prior to- (pre-menses) and during the days of their menses in recent months. Demographic and clinical variables were obtained through the survey and chart review. Results: One hundred and twenty-eight (21.3%) out of 600 women with IPAA responded to the survey questionnaire. Forty-three (33.5%) were excluded for reasons including post-menopausal (n = 25), hysterectomy (n = 14) and use of contraceptives (n = 4). Abdominal pain (P = 0.001), diarrhea (P = 0.021), and urgency (P = 0.031) were more commonly reported during menses than pre-menses by the participants. Only a history of painful menses was significantly associated with increased GI symptoms during menses for patients with ileal pouch (odds ratio = 5.67; 95% confidence interval: 1.41–22.88; P = 0.015). Conclusion: GI symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and urgency are commonly associated with menses in patients with ileo-anal pouch. Painful menses may be associated with worsening of GI symptoms. PMID:25016379

  19. Congenital Median Upper Lip Fistula

    PubMed Central

    al Aithan, Bandar

    2012-01-01

    Congenital median upper lip fistula (MULF) is an extremely rare condition resulting from abnormal fusion of embryologic structures. We present a new case of congenital medial upper lip fistula located in the midline of the philtrum of a 6 year old girl. PMID:22953305

  20. Coverage of Gingival Fenestration Using Modified Pouch and Tunnel Technique: A Novel Approach

    PubMed Central

    Pendor, Sunil; Baliga, Vidya; Muthukumaraswamy, A.; Dhadse, Prasad V.; Ganji, Kiran Kumar; Thakare, Kaustubh

    2013-01-01

    Gingival fenestration defects are a rare phenomenon. Gingival fenestration means the exposure of the tooth due to loss of the overlying bone and gingiva. Though treatment of mucosal fenestration occurring in association with chronic periapical inflammation has been reported previously, the occurrence and treatment of gingival fenestration have not been documented in great detail. This report describes the occurrence of a gingival fenestration that developed secondarily to a gutka chewing habit. Treatment of the fenestration along with coverage of an adjacent recession defect in a single-step procedure using a pouch and tunnel technique is described. PMID:23936687

  1. Controversies in J Pouch Surgery for Ulcerative Colitis: A Focus on Handsewn Versus Stapled Anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Nobel, Tamar; Khaitov, Sergey; Greenstein, Alexander J

    2016-09-01

    The accepted current standard for treatment of medically refractory ulcerative colitis is total proctocolectomy with an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for restoration of continence. There are 2 techniques by which the anastomosis can be performed, including handsewn and stapled. Handsewn anastomosis with mucosectomy was the first method described; however, it has been associated with significant incontinence. The double-stapled anastomosis was developed in response to improve postoperative function. Controversy remains as to which technique is superior as both have disadvantages. This review article addresses differences between the 2 methodologies in relation to postoperative complications, anorectal physiology, functional outcomes, and oncological safety. PMID:27542137

  2. Use of the Anaerobic Pouch in Isolating Clostridium botulinum Spores from Fresh Meats

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Richard A.; Bladel, Bendt O.; Zingelmann, Walter J.

    1966-01-01

    The anaerobic film pouch was demonstrated to be an effective device for the primary isolation of Clostridium botulinum types A and B spores from raw pork, beef, and chicken. Optimal pasteurization of these meats (for reduction of nonspore microflora without affecting indigenous putrefactive anaerobic spore levels) was 50 min at 60 C. C. botulinum spores were recovered with good precision from meat samples inoculated with mixtures of C. botulinum and Putrefactive Anaerobe 3679 at 1:1 and at 1:99 ratios. Verification of C. botulinum isolates was accomplished by protection testing of subcultures in mice. PMID:5335387

  3. Using Giant African Pouched Rats to Detect Tuberculosis in Human Sputum Samples: 2009 Findings

    PubMed Central

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart J.; Cox, Christophe; Mgode, Georgies; Jubitana, Maureen; Kazwala, Rudovic; Mfinanga, Godfrey S.; Huis in ‘t Veld, Diana

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, giant African pouched rats trained to detect tuberculosis (TB) evaluated sputum samples from 10,523 patients whose sputum had previously been evaluated by smear microscopy. Microscopists found 13.3% of the patients to be TB-positive. Simulated second-line screening by the rats revealed 620 new TB-positive patients, increasing the case detection rate by 44%. These data suggest that the rats may be useful for TB detection in developing countries, although further research is needed. PMID:21118940

  4. A Case Report: A Third/Fourth Branchial Pouch Anomaly Presented by Solid Thyroid and Lateral Cervical Neck Masses.

    PubMed

    Nasreldin, Magda H A; Ibrahim, Eman A; Saad El-Din, Somaia A

    2016-01-01

    Branchial pouch-derived anomalies may arise from remnants of the first, second, or third/fourth branchial arches. Branchial pouch-related structures are found within the thyroid gland in the form of solid cell rests, epithelial lined cyst with or without an associated lymphoid component, thymic and/or parathyroid tissue, and less commonly in the form of heterotopic cartilage. We present a rare case of left solid thyroid swelling nearby two cervical nodules in a seven-year-old female with a clinical diagnosis suggestive of malignant thyroid tumor with metastasis to the cervical lymph nodes. Histopathological examination revealed that it was compatible with third/fourth branchial pouch-derived anomaly composed of mature cartilage and thymic and parathyroid tissues for clinical and radiological correlations. PMID:26819565

  5. Histology of the pouch epithelium and the mammary glands during chemically induced oestrus in the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula)

    PubMed Central

    Old, Julie M; Irving, M; Deane, Elizabeth M

    2005-01-01

    Changes in the epithelium of the maternal pouch and the mammary gland of brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) were examined after animals were treated to induce ovulation with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), pregnant mares’ serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) and oestradiol. The mammary glands were similar in appearance to those described in eutherian mammals and in previous studies on other marsupials. Exposure of possums to these compounds, particularly PSMG, appeared to result in changes in the mammary glands that could be associated with milk/secretion production. In contrast, the pouch epithelium had a similar histological appearance to that of epithelium from other parts of the body regardless of whether the animal was exposed to stimulants. These preliminary observations are discussed in the context of the purported role of the pouch epithelium and the mammary gland in production of secretions at oestrus and provision of immunological protection to the neonatal marsupial. PMID:16011549

  6. [Congenital defects and incapacity].

    PubMed

    Jouve de la Barreda, Nicolás

    2009-01-01

    As a whole the congenital defects constitute an important section of the medical attention affecting near 3% of the population. A 15% of spontaneous abortions take place of which the greater frequency corresponds to the chromosome anomalies (25%) and the monogenic mutations (20%) and in a lesser extent to the effects of teratogenic agents. Between the genetic causes determining the congenital defects the mutations that affect genes acting in the early stages of development occupy a main place. These alterations can affect to homeotic genes or monogenic systems that act during the critical phases of the organogenesis. It seems evident that an alteration in the expression of a necessary gene for the appearance of a morphogenetic change constitutes the angular stone to understand resurging of a malformation or discapacity. In the last years has been demonstrated the importance of the teratogenic or environmental agents on the delicate internal physiological balance during the critical stages of the development. In this context must be included the inductive environmental factors inducing epigenetic modifications in the early stage of the development of the embryos produced by fertilization in vitro. PMID:19799481

  7. [Genetics of congenital lipodystrophies].

    PubMed

    Buffet, A; Lombes, M; Caron, P

    2015-10-01

    Congenital lipodystrophies are heterogeneous genetic diseases, leading to the loss of adipose tissue. This loss of adipose tissue can be generalized or partial, thus defining different phenotypes. These lipodystrophies have a major metabolic impact, secondary to lipotoxicity. This lipotoxicity is responsible for insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis. The severity of the metabolic impact correlates with the severity of the loss of adipose tissue. Mutations in 15 predisposition genes are currently described; BSCL2 and AGPT2 genes are the major genes in the generalized forms. On the contrary, LMNA and PPARG gene mutations are recovered in partial lipodystrophies forms. These different genes encode for proteins involved in adipocyte physiology, altering adipocyte differentiation, triglycerides synthesis and lysis or playing a major role in the lipid droplet formation. Congenital lipodystrophies treatment is based on the management of metabolic comorbidities but recombinant leptin therapy appears to have promising results. These different points have been recently discussed during the 2015 Endocrine Society Congress, notably by S. O'Rahilly and are highlighted in this review. PMID:26776286

  8. Congenital fiber type disproportion.

    PubMed

    Kissiedu, Juliana; Prayson, Richard A

    2016-04-01

    Type I muscle fiber atrophy in childhood can be encountered in a variety of neuromuscular disorders. Congenital fiber type disproportion (CFTD) is one such condition which presents as a nonprogressive muscle weakness. The diagnosis is often made after excluding other differential diagnostic considerations. We present a 2-year-9-month-old full term boy who presented at 2 months with an inability to turn his head to the right. Over the next couple of years, he showed signs of muscle weakness, broad based gait and a positive Gower's sign. He had normal levels of creatine kinase and normal electromyography. A biopsy of the vastus lateralis showed a marked variation in muscle fiber type. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-ase stains highlighted a marked type I muscle atrophy with rare scattered atrophic type II muscle fibers. No abnormalities were observed on the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) or cytochrome oxidase stained sections. Ragged red fibers were not present on the trichrome stain. Abnormalities of glycogen or lipid deposition were not observed on the periodic acid-Schiff or Oil-Red-O stains. Immunostaining for muscular dystrophy associated proteins showed normal staining. Ultrastructural examination showed a normal arrangement of myofilaments, and a normal number and morphology for mitochondria. A diagnosis of CFTD was made after excluding other causes of type I atrophy including congenital myopathy. The lack of specific clinical and genetic disorder associated with CFTD suggests that it is a spectrum of a disease process and represents a diagnosis of exclusion. PMID:26526626

  9. Cataracts in Congenital Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Arun, Veena; Noble, A. Gwendolyn; Latkany, Paul; Troia, Robert N.; Jalbrzikowski, Jessica; Kasza, Kristen; Karrison, Ted; Cezar, Simone; Sautter, Mari; Greenwald, Mark J.; Mieler, William; Mets, Marilyn B.; Alam, Ambereen; Boyer, Kenneth; Swisher, Charles N.; Roizen, Nancy; Rabiah, Peter; Del Monte, Monte A.; McLeod, Rima

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To determine the incidence and natural history of cataracts in children with congenital toxoplasmosis. Methods Children referred to the National Collaborative Chicago-based Congenital Toxoplasmosis Study (NCCCTS) between 1981 and 2005 were examined by ophthalmologists at predetermined times according to a specific protocol. The clinical course and treatment of patients who developed cataracts was reviewed. Results In the first year of life, 134 of 173 children examined were treated with pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine, and Leucovorin, while the remaining 39 were not treated. Cataracts occurred in 27 eyes of 20 patients (11.6%, 95% confidence interval [7.2%, 17.3%]). Fourteen cataracts were present at birth, and 13 developed postnatally. Locations of the cataracts included anterior polar (3 eyes), anterior subcapsular (6), nuclear (5), posterior subcapsular (7), and unknown (6). Thirteen cataracts were partial, 9 total, and 5 with unknown complexity. Twelve cataracts remained stable, 12 progressed, and progression was not known for 3. Five of 27 eyes had cataract surgery, with 2 of these developing glaucoma. Sixteen eyes of 11 patients had retinal detachment and cataract. All eyes with cataracts had additional ocular lesions. Conclusions In the NCCCTS cohort, 11.6% of patients were diagnosed with cataracts. There was considerable variability in the presentation, morphology, and progression of the cataracts. Associated intraocular pathology was an important cause of morbidity. PMID:18086432

  10. [Enzymopathic congenital hyperlactacidemia].

    PubMed

    Leroux, J P; Marsac, C; Saudubray, J M

    1976-01-01

    Congenital enzymopathic hyperlactacidemia results from a defect of utilisation of pyruvate either at the level of the pyruvate junction (pyruvate-carboxylase, pyruvate-dehydrogenase and Kreb's cycle), or at the level of the unidirectional enzymes on neo-glucogenesis and of neo-glycogenogenesis, e.g. glucose-6-phosphatase, phosphoenol-pyruvate-carboxykinase and glycogen synthetase. The enzymopathies which affect neoglucogenesis associate hyper-lactacidemia and fasting hypoglycemia and more or less marked hepatomegaly. Type I glycogenesis (von Gierke's disease) is the best known example. Enzymopathies which affect the pyruvate junction and the Krebs cycle, may be manifested in addition by: --either chronic neuropathies, e.g. Leigh's disease, recurrent ataxia, and moderate hyperalactacidemia,--or, as in congenital lactic acidoses, which have a rapid and severe prognosis with major hyperlactacidemia. Functional investigation, in particular, loading tests are of great value in orientation and justify the practice of tissue biopsy which permits the enzyme diagnosis. Recent, still unconfirmed knowledge of the pathogenesis of these diseases emphasizes the considerable importance of estimation of blood lactic acid in the investigation of metabolic acidoses of hereditary origin. PMID:184725

  11. [Congenital multiple arthrogryposis].

    PubMed

    Parsch, Klaus; Pietrzak, Szymon

    2007-03-01

    From 1975 to 2004 a total of 38 children handicapped by congenital multiple arthrogryposis were cared for. The congenital joint contractures demand a major effort in terms of surgical reconstruction. In the case of distal arthrogryposis the chances that patients will be able to walk without help are good, while those with amyoplasia are likely to be dependent on mobility aids throughout their lives. The ultimate goal of treatment for patients is to develop into self-confident adults who can cope with life despite their handicaps. The hip in arthrogryposis shows variable forms of pathology, ranging from the almost normal hip to hip contractures with dislocation. Its treatment has some limited advantages, but hardly improves mobility. The knee contractures are actively treated to allow patients to sit, stand and walk better. The club foot and the rocker-bottom foot need sophisticated conservative and operative treatments. If conservative manipulation of bilateral extension contractures of the elbow fails operative treatment is carried out on the dominant side. For shoulder, hand and finger contractures conservative manipulation brings about little improvement, and surgical approaches help hardly at all. PMID:17323063

  12. An unusual colon atresia in a calf: at the junction of the distal loop and transverse colon. A brief overview

    PubMed Central

    Lombardero, Matilde; Yllera, María del Mar

    2014-01-01

    Congenital defects are those abnormalities present at birth. During embryogenesis, many anomalies can occur. The primitive gut tube lengthens quickly and rotates, allowing the gastrointestinal tract acquire its final position and orientation. Because the colon of large animals is complex, most changes occur in this segment. Thus, in ruminants, colon atresia is the most frequent malformation, affecting mainly ascending colon, at the level of the spiral loop. There are no previous references about a very atypical colon atresia at the junction of distal loop and transverse colon, such we have described in a 5-day-old calf, after a history of abdominal distention and absence of feces at birth, even with a patent anal opening. Atresia coli was detected at distal position of the typical colon atresia, at the junction of distal loop and transverse colon. In addition, the distal blind end was bent into a U-shape supported by the mesocolon. Besides the anatomical findings of this worthwhile atresia coli we discuss its possible etiology, in which local factors, such as a compromised blood supply during embryogenesis, are more consistent than genetic factors. Finding out the causes of atresia coli would help to reduce its incidence, lessen animal suffering and economic loss. PMID:25495264

  13. Endoscopy-assisted transanal repair of afferent limb obstruction and long efferent limb with ileopexy after ileal J-pouch-anal anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Araki, Toshimitsu; Okita, Yoshiki; Kawamura, Mikio; Kondo, Satoru; Kobayashi, Minako; Ohi, Masaki; Toiyama, Yuji; Tanaka, Koji; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Uchida, Keiichi; Mohri, Yasuhiko; Kusunoki, Masato

    2016-05-01

    Afferent limb obstruction can be a persistent complication after restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. We present a case of afferent limb obstruction complicated by a long efferent limb of the ileal pouch that we successfully treated with side-to-side anastomosis of the afferent and efferent limbs. The procedure involved using a transanal endoscopic stapling device assisted by transanal endoscopy with a thin intestinal video endoscope. This allowed reliable, safe visualization of the lesion from the tight pouch-anal anastomosis and facilitated repair with an endoscopic stapling device. Because the technique was performed without enterotomy, it reduced the risks of contamination and leakage from transabdominal small bowel anastomosis. Laparotomy view also prevented of injury to the pouch itself and entrapment of the mesentery of the afferent and efferent limbs of the pouch between the stapler anvils. PMID:27117971

  14. Accurate Dosing of Antiretrovirals at Home Using a Foilized, Polyethylene Pouch to Prevent the Transmission of HIV From Mother to Child

    PubMed Central

    Choy, Alexa; Ortiz, Mercedes; Malkin, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mother-to-child HIV transmission rates remain elevated in countries with high home birth rates. This risk can be dramatically reduced if infants receive antiretroviral (ARV) medication within 24 hours after birth. However, many barriers prevent access to these medications immediately after delivery, for example, there is currently no suitable mechanism to preserve predosed ARVs in the home during the months before birth. In response to this, students of the Duke University developed the Pratt pouch, a foilized polyethylene packet designed to preserve predosed ARVs. This cross-sectional study presents the data from the first clinical trials of the Pratt pouch in Guayaquil, Ecuador. Fourteen HIV-positive mothers and nurses were observed using the pouch to deliver a dose of ARVs to an infant. Weight measurements, time, and notes on spillage were taken at each observation period. Successful usage was quantitatively assessed through the calculation of dosing accuracy based on the volume of liquid medication emptied from the pouch. Additionally, mothers were surveyed after a month of using the device at home to assess their perception of the accuracy, acceptability, and ease of use of the pouch. Used pouches were collected for physical analysis of tearing. Observed users delivered accurate doses (M = 101.1%, standard deviation = 8.2%) in an average time of 2.6 minutes. A total of 2869 used pouches were recovered. No seal failures or failed attempts at opening/delivering the pouches were observed or detected. Forty-three mothers were surveyed. All mothers (100%) reported that they were able to follow their physician's treatment plan, all pouches were received in good condition and the pictorial sheets provided clear instructions. We conclude that the Pratt pouch is a highly accurate and easy-to-use device for delivering liquid oral ARVs to infants and is appropriate for prepackaging ARVs for home use. PMID:26107673

  15. Altered cytokeratin expression during chemoprevention of hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis by S-allylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Balasenthil, Seetharaman; Rao, Kunchala S; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2003-01-01

    We examined the effect of S-allylcysteine (SAC), a water-soluble garlic constituent, on cytokeratin expression, a sensitive and specific marker for differentiation status during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis in male Syrian hamsters. Hamsters were divided into four groups of six animals each. Animals in group 1 were painted with a 0.5% solution of DMBA in liquid paraffin on the right buccal pouches three times a week for 14 weeks. Group 2 animals were painted with DMBA as in group I, and in addition they received orally 200 mg/kg of SAC on days alternate to DMBA application. Group 3 animals received SAC as in group 2. Group 4 animals received neither DMBA nor SAC and served as the control. The hamsters were killed after an experimental period of 14 weeks. Cytokeratin expression was detected by Western blot analysis using monoclonal antibodies AE1 and AE3. In DMBA-induced HBP tumors, the decreased expression of high molecular weight cytokeratins of molecular mass between 55-70 kDa was observed. Administration of SAC (200 mg/kg) to animals painted with DMBA suppressed the incidence of DMBA-induced carcinomas and was associated with restoration of normal cytokeratin expression. The results of the present study suggest that inhibition of HBP tumorigenesis by SAC may be due to its regulatory effects on differentiation, tumor invasiveness, and its ability to migrate and form metastases. PMID:14704476

  16. Sources and severity of self-reported food intolerance after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Steenhagen, Elles; de Roos, Nicole M; Bouwman, Carolien A; van Laarhoven, Cees J H M; van Staveren, Wija A

    2006-09-01

    Data on food intolerance after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis are scarce. The aim of this study was to identify foods causing intolerance and to determine the nature and severity of reported symptoms. Patients from the Dutch Crohn's and Ulcerative Colitis Association were mailed a survey on food intolerance; 105 (31% men) of 137 patients took part. They all reported intolerance to one or more foods. Common symptoms (scored from 0=absent to 10=severe), included diarrhea (mean score=5.8), fatigue (mean score=5.5), and thirst (mean score=4.6). Spicy foods, cabbage, and citrus fruits (or juice) were most likely to decrease stool consistency, increase stool frequency, or cause perianal irritation. Onions, cabbage, or leeks were reported by 28% of the patients to cause flatulence. The urge to defecate was stronger after a cooked meal (45% within (1/2) hour) than after sandwiches (15% within (1/2) hour). Foods reported to increase stool consistency were potato products, bread, and bananas. This study demonstrates that food intolerance is a common, albeit mild, problem after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Food and nutrition professionals should encourage patients to base their food choices on individual tolerance as long as no (patho-) physiological-based evidence to the contrary is available. PMID:16963353

  17. Thermal behavior and electrochemical heat generation in a commercial 40 Ah lithium ion pouch cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Elke; Ziebert, Carlos; Melcher, Andreas; Rohde, Magnus; Seifert, Hans Jürgen

    2015-07-01

    Quantitative data on the thermal behavior of lithium ion batteries under charging and discharging conditions are essential for designing thermal management systems and improving battery safety. In this work, commercial 40 Ah lithium ion pouch cells with Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 cathodes were tested under isoperibolic and adiabatic conditions in an Accelerating Rate Calorimeter at different charging/discharging currents from 5 A to 40 A. Adiabatic tests simulate the worst-case scenario of a battery pack without cooling. For charging and discharging an overall exothermic behavior was found and a total temperature increase for one half cycle between 3 and 11 K. Isoperibolic tests simulate a single cell under constant environmental temperature. Here an exothermic behavior for discharging and an endothermic behavior for charging were observed. To transfer the measured temperature changes into heat data, the effective specific heat capacity and the heat transfer coefficient were determined. For the first time the heat generation data for a large format pouch cell have been determined using both isoperibolic and adiabatic conditions. These data were compared with the total heat data calculated as the sum of reversible and irreversible heat that were measured by potentiometric and current interruption techniques respectively. A good agreement was found between all three heat generation determination methods.

  18. Congenital Chloride Diarrhea - Novel Mutation in SLC26A3 Gene.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Swati; Pandit, Deepti; Sinha, Aditi; Hari, Pankaj; Cheong, Hae Il; Bagga, Arvind

    2016-08-01

    The authors report a case of congenital chloride diarrhea with molecular confirmation of diagnosis. A 10-mo-old boy presented with failure to thrive, voluminous diarrhea, dehydration, hyponatremia, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis and history of maternal polyhydramnios. The diagnosis of congenital chloride diarrhea was based on high fecal and low urinary chloride excretion, in addition to biochemical abnormalities. Genetic testing revealed a novel homozygous mutation in exon 4 of the SLC26A3 gene that encodes the protein regulating chloride bicarbonate absorption in distal ileum and colon. Therapy with oral fluids and electrolytes led to decrease in stool frequency and improvement in growth parameters. PMID:26637435

  19. Congenital mirror movements.

    PubMed Central

    Schott, G D; Wyke, M A

    1981-01-01

    In this report are described seven patients assessed clinically and neuropsychologically in whom mirror movements affecting predominantly the hands occurred as a congenital disorder. These mirror movements, representing a specific type of abnormal synkinesia, may arise as a hereditary condition, in the presence of a recognisable underlying neurological abnormality, and sporadically, and the seven patients provide more or less satisfactory examples of each of these three groups. Despite the apparent uniformity of the disorder, the heterogeneity and variability may be marked, examples in some of our patients including the pronounced increase in tone that developed with arm movement, and the capacity for modulation of the associated movement by alteration of neck position and bio-feedback. Various possible mechanisms are considered; these include impaired cerebral inhibition of unwanted movements, and functioning of abnormal motor pathways. Emphasis has been placed on the putative role of the direct, crossed corticomotoneurone pathways and on the unilateral and bilateral cerebral events that precede movement. PMID:7288446

  20. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Dessinioti, Cleo; Katsambas, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia consists of a heterogenous group of inherited disorders due to enzymatic defects in the biosynthetic pathway of cortisol and/or aldosterone. This results in glucocorticoid deficiency, mineralocorticoid deficiency, and androgen excess. 95% of CAH cases are due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Clinical forms range from the severe, classical CAH associated with complete loss of enzyme function, to milder, non-classical forms (NCAH). Androgen excess affects the pilosebaceous unit, causing cutaneous manifestations such as acne, androgenetic alopecia and hirsutism. Clinical differential diagnosis between NCAH and polycystic ovary syndrome may be difficult. In this review, the evaluation of patients with suspected CAH, the clinical presentation of CAH forms, with emphasis on the cutaneous manifestations of the disease, and available treatment options, will be discussed. PMID:22523607

  1. Multicystic congenital mesoblastic nephroma.

    PubMed

    Drut, Ricardo

    2002-01-01

    This report describes an unusual example of congenital mesoblastic nephroma cellular variant that presented in a 1-week-old neonate as a multicystic tumor of the kidney. Extensive pseudocystic cavitation resulted from progressive accumulation of ground substance in a loosely myxoid tissue composed of stellate- and spindle-shaped cells that compressed and infiltrated renal tissue. The cells of the tumor were positive for vimentin and smooth muscle actin. The patient is alive and well 16 years after surgery. Differential diagnosis from segmental cystic dysplasia, cystic intralobar nephrogenic rest, cystic nephroma, cystic partially differentiated nephroblastoma, cystic nephroblastoma, and cystic clear cell sarcoma of the kidney, all of which may present at this age, is discussed. PMID:11927972

  2. Congenital sensorineural hearing loss

    SciTech Connect

    Mafee, M.F.; Selis, J.E.; Yannias, D.A.; Valvassori, G.E.; Pruzansky, S.; Applebaum, E.L.; Capek, V.

    1984-02-01

    The ears of 47 selected patients with congenital sensorineural hearing loss were examined with complex-motion tomography. The patients were divided into 3 general categories: those with a recognized syndrome, those with sensorineural hearing loss unrelated to any known syndrome, and those with microtia. A great variety of inner ear anomalies was detected, but rarely were these characteristic of a particular clinical entity. The most common finding was the Mondini malformation or one of its variants. Isolated dysplasia of the internal auditory canal or the vestibular aqueduct may be responsible for sensorineural hearing loss in some patients. Patients with microtia may also have severe inner ear abnormalities despite the fact that the outer and inner ears develop embryologically from completely separate systems.

  3. Congenital vertical talus: a review.

    PubMed

    McKie, Janay; Radomisli, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Congenital vertical talus, also known as congenital convex pes valgus, is an uncommon disorder of the foot, manifested as a rigid rocker-bottom flatfoot. Radiographically, it is defined by dorsal dislocation of the navicular on the talus. This condition requires surgical correction. If left untreated, this foot deformity results in a painful and rigid flatfoot with weak push-off power. This article provides an overview of this rare foot deformity, outlines appropriate workup of the disorder, and details current treatment options, with emphasis on the evolution of treatment of congenital vertical talus. PMID:19963176

  4. Laparoscopic resection of adult colon duplication causing intussusception

    PubMed Central

    Kyo, Kennoki; Azuma, Masaki; Okamoto, Kazuya; Nishiyama, Motohiro; Shimamura, Takahiro; Maema, Atsushi; Shirakawa, Motoaki; Nakamura, Toshio; Koda, Kenji; Yokoyama, Hidetaro

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal duplications are uncommon congenital malformations that can occur anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract. Most cases are recognized before the age of 2 years, and those encountered in adults are rare. We describe here a case of ascending colon duplication in a 20-year-old male that caused intussusception and was treated laparoscopically. Although computed tomography revealed a cystic mass filled with stool-like material, the preoperative diagnosis was a submucosal tumor of the ascending colon. We performed a laparoscopic right colectomy, and the postoperative pathological diagnosis was duplication of the ascending colon, both cystic and tubular components. We conclude that gastrointestinal duplications, although rare, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of all abdominal and submucosal cystic lesions and that laparoscopy is a preferred approach for the surgical treatment of gastrointestinal duplications. PMID:26900303

  5. A case of sigmoid colon duplication in an adult woman.

    PubMed

    Al-Jaroof, Abdulla Hassan; Al-Zayer, Faisal; Meshikhes, Abdul-Wahed Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Colonic duplication is a rare congenital anomaly that is often diagnosed in childhood, but may go unrecognised until adulthood. It often presents with chronic abdominal pain and constipation, and the preoperative diagnosis may be difficult. We present a case of sigmoid duplication in a 33-year-old Indonesian woman who presented with right-sided colicky abdominal pain and vomiting. Clinical examination was unremarkable and radiological investigations raised the possibility of a giant colon diverticulum. The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy that revealed a tubular sigmoid duplication. A sigmoid colectomy with end-to-end anastomosis was performed. She was discharged a week later and remained well at 1 year follow-up. Colon duplications rarely present in adult life and the accurate diagnosis is often made at laparotomy. PMID:25096653

  6. Laparoscopic resection of adult colon duplication causing intussusception.

    PubMed

    Kyo, Kennoki; Azuma, Masaki; Okamoto, Kazuya; Nishiyama, Motohiro; Shimamura, Takahiro; Maema, Atsushi; Shirakawa, Motoaki; Nakamura, Toshio; Koda, Kenji; Yokoyama, Hidetaro

    2016-02-21

    Gastrointestinal duplications are uncommon congenital malformations that can occur anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract. Most cases are recognized before the age of 2 years, and those encountered in adults are rare. We describe here a case of ascending colon duplication in a 20-year-old male that caused intussusception and was treated laparoscopically. Although computed tomography revealed a cystic mass filled with stool-like material, the preoperative diagnosis was a submucosal tumor of the ascending colon. We performed a laparoscopic right colectomy, and the postoperative pathological diagnosis was duplication of the ascending colon, both cystic and tubular components. We conclude that gastrointestinal duplications, although rare, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of all abdominal and submucosal cystic lesions and that laparoscopy is a preferred approach for the surgical treatment of gastrointestinal duplications. PMID:26900303

  7. Correlation between fluorescein flowmetry and laser Doppler flowmetry. A study in the intestine (ileoanal pouch) in man.

    PubMed

    Perbeck, L; Lindquist, K; Proano, E; Liljeqvist, L

    1990-05-01

    A study was undertaken to compare two new methods of capillary blood flow measurement, namely fluorescein flowmetry (FF) and laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). The blood flow was measured in a pelvic pouch during its construction and in the completed ileoanal anastomosis in 12 patients. There was a high correlation between the two methods (correlation coefficient, 0.78) (p less than 0.01) when the blood flow was measured in the pelvic pouch. The correlation coefficient between the two methods for the difference between the blood flow in the pelvic pouch at the site of the planned anastomosis when the pouch resided in the abdomen and that in the completed ileoanal anastomosis was r = 0.99 (n = 12, p less than 0.001); the reduction amounted to 25% as measured by FF and 27% as measured by LDF (n = 12, p less than 0.01). All ileoanal anastomoses healed perfectly, the lowest FF and LDF values being 0.004 density units/sec and 0.3 V, respectively. The results indicate that either method can be considered for measuring capillary blood flow. PMID:2163097

  8. A Case of Sigmoid Colon Tuberculosis Mimicking Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Seong-Min; Kim, Min-Dae; Lee, Hee-Ryong; Jung, Peel; Ryu, Tae-Hyun; Choi, Seung-Ho; Lee, Il-Seon

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis of the sigmoid colon is a rare disorder. An 80-year-old man visited Bongseng Memorial Hospital for medical examination. A colonoscopy was performed, and a lesion in the sigmoid colon that was suspected to be colon cancer was found. A biopsy was performed, and tuberculous enteritis with chronic granulomatous inflammation was diagnosed. Intestinal tuberculosis is most frequent in the ileocecal area, followed by the ascending colon, transverse colon, duodenum, stomach, and sigmoid colon, in descending order. Hence, we report a case of intestinal tuberculosis in the sigmoid colon, which is rare and almost indistinguishable from colon cancer. PMID:23185709

  9. Label-free vascular imaging in a spontaneous hamster cheek pouch carcinogen model for pre-cancer detection (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Fangyao; Morhard, Robert; Liu, Heather; Murphy, Helen; Farsiu, Sina; Ramanujam, Nimmi

    2016-03-01

    Inducing angiogenesis is one hallmark of cancer. Tumor induced neovasculature is often characterized as leaky, tortuous and chaotic, unlike a highly organized normal vasculature. Additionally, in the course of carcinogenesis, angiogenesis precedes a visible lesion. Tumor cannot grow beyond 1-2 mm in diameter without inducing angiogenesis. Therefore, capturing the event of angiogenesis may aid early detection of pre-cancer -important for better treatment prognoses in regions that lack the resources to manage invasive cancer. In this study, we imaged the neovascularization in vivo in a spontaneous hamster cheek pouch carcinogen model using a, non-invasive, label-free, high resolution, reflected-light spectral darkfield microscope. Hamsters' cheek pouches were painted with 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) to induce pre-cancerous to cancerous changes, or mineral oil as control. High resolution spectral darkfield images were obtained over the course of pre-cancer development and in control cheek pouches. The vasculature was segmented with a multi-scale Gabor filter with an 85% accuracy compared with manually traced masks. Highly tortuous vasculature was observed only in the DMBA treated cheek pouches as early as 6 weeks of treatment. In addition, the highly tortuous vessels could be identified before a visible lesion occurred later during the treatment. The vessel patterns as determined by the tortuosity index were significantly different from that of the control cheek pouch. This preliminary study suggests that high-resolution darkfield microscopy is promising tool for pre-cancer and early cancer detection in low resource settings.

  10. Dose-response effect of tomato paste on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bhuvaneswari, V; Velmurugan, B; Nagini, S

    2004-06-01

    We evaluated the dose-response effect of tomato paste on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis using lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH) and the GSH-dependent enzymes; glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) as biomarkers of chemoprevention. Hamsters were divided into eight groups of six animals each. The right buccal pouches of animals in group 1 were painted with a 0.5 per cent DMBA in liquid paraffin three times per week. Animals in groups 2 to 4 painted with DMBA as in group 1, received in addition, intragastric administration of tomato paste containing lycopene at concentrations of 2.5, 5 and 10 mgkg(-1)bw, respectively three times per week on days alternate to DMBA application. Groups 5 through 7 were given tomato paste alone. Animals in group 8 served as controls. All animals were killed after an experimental period of 14 weeks. Lipid peroxidation and GSH-dependent antioxidants were measured in the buccal pouch, liver and erythrocytes. Diminished lipid peroxidation in the HBP tumours was associated with enhanced levels of GSH and GSH-dependent enzymes. In contrast to the buccal pouch, the liver and erythrocytes of tumour-bearing hamsters exhibited elevated lipid peroxidation accompanied by compromised antioxidant status. Administration of tomato paste significantly reduced the incidence of HBP tumours, modulated lipid peroxidation and enhanced GSH and GSH-dependent enzymes in the pouch, liver and erythrocytes. Among the three doses used, tomato paste containing 5 mgkg(-1)bw lycopene showed the optimum effect. It is suggested that tomato paste exerts its chemopreventive effects by modulating lipid peroxidation and enhancing antioxidants in the target organ as well as in the liver and erythrocytes. PMID:15354408