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Sample records for congenitally missing teeth

  1. Prevalence of congenitally missing permanent teeth in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhi, Mahnaz; Sadeghi, Mohammad Ali; Ghorbanizadeh, Sajad

    2012-01-01

    Background: Hypodontia or congenitally missing teeth is among dental anomalies with different prevalence in each region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of congenitally missing permanent teeth in Iranian population. Materials and Methods: A descriptive, retrospective and cross-sectional study was done. Panoramic radiographs of 2422 Iranian patients (1539 girls and 883 boys), 7-25 years old, were collected. The radiographs were studied for evidence of congenitally missing teeth. Data were analyzed using Paired t-test, Mann-Whitney test, Fisher exact test and Chi-square test (α = 0.05). Results: Prevalence of congenitally missing teeth was totally 45.7% and 34.8% for third molars. The most frequent congenitally missing teeth was mandibular second premolars (23.34%) followed by maxillary second premolars (22.02%). Upper jaw showed significantly higher number of congenitally missing teeth (P value < 0.001). According to Chi-square test, congenital missing teeth was found approximately 10.9% in both females and males and there were no statistically significant difference between sexes (P = 0.19). Conclusion: The prevalence of congenitally missing teeth (CMT) in Iranian permanent dentition was 10.9%. The most common congenitally missing teeth were mandibular second premolar fallowed by maxillary second premolars. PMID:23814548

  2. Congenitally missing teeth (hypodontia): A review of the literature concerning the etiology, prevalence, risk factors, patterns and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rakhshan, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Congenitally missing teeth (CMT), or as usually called hypodontia, is a highly prevalent and costly dental anomaly. Besides an unfavorable appearance, patients with missing teeth may suffer from malocclusion, periodontal damage, insufficient alveolar bone growth, reduced chewing ability, inarticulate pronunciation and other problems. Treatment might be usually expensive and multidisciplinary. This highly frequent and yet expensive anomaly is of interest to numerous clinical, basic science and public health fields such as orthodontics, pediatric dentistry, prosthodontics, periodontics, maxillofacial surgery, anatomy, anthropology and even the insurance industry. This essay reviews the findings on the etiology, prevalence, risk factors, occurrence patterns, skeletal changes and treatments of congenitally missing teeth. It seems that CMT usually appears in females and in the permanent dentition. It is not conclusive whether it tends to occur more in the maxilla or mandible and also in the anterior versus posterior segments. It can accompany various complications and should be attended by expert teams as soon as possible. PMID:25709668

  3. Use of a Resin-Bonded Bridge to Replace a Congenitally Missing Lateral Incisor: Treatment of "Intrusion" of Teeth.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Paul S; Bahat, Oded; Froum, Stuart J; Daftary, Fereidoun; Rosenthal, Howard; Feldman, Sylvan

    2016-07-01

    Craniofacial growth is an important factor to consider when providing dental implant treatment for adolescents to replace missing teeth. Ongoing longitudinal observation has demonstrated that such tooth replacements may appear intruded over time, because there may be ongoing downward and anterior movement of both the alveolus and the teeth at a rate exceeding that of the dental implant, which acts like an ankylosed unit. This case reports on a 23.5-year-old female patient who, at age 16, had orthodontics completed and was left with a space where the maxillary right lateral incisor was congenitally missing with the hope of future restoration with a dental implant. A resin-bonded bridge had been placed to fill the space in the interim. After approximately 7.5 years, the bridge loosened and the patient sought an implant option as its replacement. Clinical images revealed that the bridge, which contained two bonded wings, may have limited physiologic growth, causing both the maxillary right central incisor and canine to appear intruded compared with the left central incisor and canine. This case illustrates, at the very least, that growth and development may not be complete in females aged 16 years and that the way in which a missing tooth is replaced must be carefully considered given the impact that ongoing growth and development may have on restorative care. Moreover, further growth and development may also impact adults. PMID:27548400

  4. Congenitally Missing Maxillary Lateral Incisors: Update on the Functional and Esthetic Parameters of Patients Treated with Implants or Space Closure and Teeth Recontouring

    PubMed Central

    Pini, Núbia Inocencya Pavesi; Marchi, Luciana Manzotti De; Pascotto, Renata Corrêa

    2015-01-01

    Maxillary lateral incisor agenesis (MLIA) is a condition that affects both dental esthetics and function in young patients, and represents an important challenge for clinicians. Although several treatment options are available, the mesial repositioning of the canines followed by teeth recontouring into lateral incisors; or space opening/maintenance followed by implant placement have recently emerged as two important treatment approaches. In this article, the current and latest literature has been reviewed in order to summarize the functional and esthetic outcomes obtained with these two forms of treatment of MLIA patients in recent years. Indications, clinical limitations and the most important parameters to achieve the best possible results with each treatment modality are also discussed. Within the limitations of this review, it is not possible to assert at this point in time that one treatment approach is more advantageous than the other. Long-term followup studies comparing the existing treatment options are still lacking in the literature, and they are necessary to shed some light on the issue. It is possible, however, to state that adequate multidisciplinary diagnosis and planning are imperative to define the treatment option that will provide the best individual results for patients with MLIA. PMID:25646137

  5. Current restorative modalities for young patients with missing anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Dietschi, D; Schatz, J P

    1997-04-01

    The early loss of permanent teeth following trauma or congenital aplasia may be corrected by orthodontic or prosthetic means, sometimes combined with implant therapy. The orthodontic solution results usually in different anatomic, functional, and esthetic problems. Prosthetic and implant procedures, on the other hand, are very demanding and require long-term maintenance. Considering these limitations, a comprehensive diagnostic and treatment plan is mandatory to achieve the most satisfactory clinical result. Modern restorative modalities, such as recontouring, bleaching, and resin composite bonding, may improve the final clinical result after orthodontic space closure. In more difficult situations, veneers and crowns may also be indicated. PMID:10332371

  6. Missed congenital hypothyroidism in an identical twin.

    PubMed

    Azam, Anita; Cutfield, Wayne; Mouat, Fran; Hofman, Paul L; Jefferies, Craig; Webster, Dianne; Gunn, Alistair Jan

    2012-10-01

    Newborn screening for congenital hypothyroidism has been remarkably effective, although rare cases of false negative screening have been reported in same sex twins, presumptively due to fetal blood exchange. We report a case in which the diagnosis of congenital hypothyroidism due to thyroid ectopia in a monozygotic twin was delayed by 8 months, with a normal newborn screening TSH level of 11 mIU/L blood (normal < 15 mIU/L) at 2 days of life. This is the first such case since the national New Zealand newborn screening programme introduced screening for congenital hypothyroidism in 1981 (30 years ago). Repeating thyroid studies at 14 days of age in same-sex twins has been advocated to avoid delayed diagnosis, but given the low risk, may not be cost effective. It is important to maintain a high index of suspicion in same-sex twin pregnancies of potential congenital hypothyroidism. PMID:22970836

  7. Diagnosis and Management of a Patient with Congenitally Missing Maxillary First Permanent Molars: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Suman; Kariri, Fahad Musawi Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Congenitally missing teeth are the most commonly seen dental anomalies. Agenesis of the permanent first molar has the least frequency of all the tooth types, and it usually occurs in association with oligodontia or anodontia. Thus, agenesis of the bilateral maxillary first permanent molar is an extremely rare occurrence, and no such case has been reported in ethnic Saudi Arabian population. We hereby report a case of nonsyndromic bilateral congenitally missing maxillary first permanent molar in an eight-year-old Saudi female patient. Comprehensive oral rehabilitation was done for the patient. The implications of the tooth agenesis are also discussed. The prognosis of this case is presented. PMID:27525130

  8. Diagnosis and Management of a Patient with Congenitally Missing Maxillary First Permanent Molars: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Megha; Panda, Suman; Mutawwam, Fahad Ahmed; Kariri, Fahad Musawi Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Congenitally missing teeth are the most commonly seen dental anomalies. Agenesis of the permanent first molar has the least frequency of all the tooth types, and it usually occurs in association with oligodontia or anodontia. Thus, agenesis of the bilateral maxillary first permanent molar is an extremely rare occurrence, and no such case has been reported in ethnic Saudi Arabian population. We hereby report a case of nonsyndromic bilateral congenitally missing maxillary first permanent molar in an eight-year-old Saudi female patient. Comprehensive oral rehabilitation was done for the patient. The implications of the tooth agenesis are also discussed. The prognosis of this case is presented. PMID:27525130

  9. More missing teeth are associated with poorer general health in the rural Korean elderly.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee-Kyung; Lee, Kyung-Dong; Merchant, Anwar T; Lee, Sung-Kook; Song, Keun-Bae; Lee, Sang Gyu; Choi, Youn-Hee

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the association between missing teeth and general health conditions in elderly Korean people. This cross-sectional study was conducted as a part of a health-screening program supported by the National Health Insurance Corporation of Korea in a local region of Sungju-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do from 2000 to 2006. The participants were 3611 in number (1494 males and 2117 females) aged 60 years and over. The outcome variable was the number of missing teeth in the mouth determined by dental examination; general medical examination included blood pressure, body height and weight to compute body mass index (BMI). Laboratory investigations included aspartate transaminase (AST), hemoglobin (HB), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and total cholesterol (CHOL). Demographic factors and smoking status were obtained from questionnaires by an interviewer. Multiple regression models were used as a statistical analysis. The subjects were classified into three groups according to the number of missing teeth (<8, 8-18, and >18). In unadjusted analyses individuals with more missing teeth, had poorer general health status (higher blood pressure, higher levels of AST, FPG, and CHOL, and higher BMI in females). In multiple regression models with the number of missing teeth as an outcome, systolic blood pressure, CHOL, FPG, and HB in males were statistically significant after adjusting for age and smoking. In females, systolic blood pressure, CHOL, FPG, and BMI were positively associated with the number of missing teeth. The number of missing teeth was positively related to poorer general health status such as blood pressure, FPG, CHOL, after adjusting for age and smoking in the rural elderly in Korea. PMID:19230988

  10. Interdisciplinary Approach for Management of Congenitally Missing Maxillary Lateral Incisors: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Aseemkumar; Jain, Nimit; Jose, Nidhin Philip; Shetty, Siddarth

    2015-01-01

    Maxillary lateral incisors are frequently found congenitally missing, and their replacement has to be done prosthodontically. However, there are a variety of treatment options; a justified solution after orthodontic correction is the use of Maryland Bridges. Following is a case report of congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors and an impacted canine and their orthodontic correction followed by prosthetic replacement of the lateral incisors using Maryland bridges. PMID:27029086

  11. Interdisciplinary index of prosthodontic/substitution orthodontic treatment need for patients with missing teeth.

    PubMed

    Janiszewska-Olszowska, Joanna; Grocholewicz, Katarzyna; Czerniawska-Kliman, Luiza

    2015-01-01

    The need for treatment in cases of missing teeth may result from aesthetic demands or functional impairment, although tooth loss itself does not necessarily constitute a need for prosthetic replacement. In selected cases, restorative treatment can be replaced by tooth autotransplantation or substitution orthodontic treatment. The authors have tried to make an index based not on missing particular teeth, but on the presence of spacing requiring restoration. An attempt has been made to categorize the restorative treatment need. Orthodontic treatment was considered, when it could completely eliminate the need for prosthetic treatment. The proposed classification could be used for assessing eligibility for public refund of restorative or substitution orthodontic treatment, as well as to motivate the patients to have restorations. It should be an individual approach-based decision, which treatment: orthodontic substitution tooth movement or prosthodontic is more cost-effective for the rest of the patient's life. PMID:27116858

  12. Objective assessment of mastication predominance in healthy dentate subjects and patients with unilateral posterior missing teeth.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Y; Kuwatsuru, R; Tsukiyama, Y; Oki, K; Koyano, K

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to investigate mastication predominance in healthy dentate individuals and patients with unilateral posterior missing teeth using objective and subjective methods. The sample comprised 50 healthy dentate individuals (healthy dentate group) and 30 patients with unilateral posterior missing teeth (partially edentulous group). Subjects were asked to freely chew three kinds of test foods (peanuts, beef jerky and chewing gum). Electromyographic activity of the bilateral masseter muscles was recorded. The chewing side (right side or left side) was judged by the level of root mean square electromyographic amplitude. Mastication predominance was then objectively assessed using the mastication predominant score and the mastication predominant index. Self-awareness of mastication predominance was evaluated using a modified visual analogue scale. Mastication predominance scores of the healthy dentate and partially edentulous groups for each test food were analysed. There was a significant difference in the distribution of the mastication predominant index between the two groups (P < 0·05). The mastication predominant score was weakly correlated with self-awareness of mastication predominance in the healthy dentate group, whereas strong correlation was observed in the partially edentulous group (P < 0·05). The results suggest that the individuals with missing unilateral posterior teeth exhibited greater mastication predominance and were more aware of mastication predominance than healthy dentate individuals. Our findings suggest that an objective evaluation of mastication predominance is more precise than a subjective method. PMID:27121170

  13. Dental implants with the periodontium: a new approach for the restoration of missing teeth.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cheng; Dong, Qing-Shan; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Jun-Rui; Wu, Li-An; Liu, Bao-Lin

    2009-01-01

    Tooth loss is a common occurrence in mankind and damages human health. Osseointegrated dental implants have been successfully used as a popular prosthetic restoration for the missing teeth for many years. However, osseointegration, representing a direct connection between the implant and bone tissue without the periodontium, causes some inevitable problems, such as masticatory force concentration and immobility of the dental implant. Thus, an ideal dental implant should have its own peri-implant periodontium, as do the natural teeth. A number of attempts have been made to reconstruct the periodontium around the implants. Unfortunately, it has been established that a predictable periodontal reconstruction, especially the acellular cementum reconstruction on the surface of the implant, is a very difficult task. In this paper, we propose the hypothesis that the cementum may be a special phenotype of the bone tissue, on the basis of its strong similarity in development, structure, and function. In a certain condition, the bone tissue may change to cementum for special functional needs. In accordance with this hypothesis, we consider a novel approach to reconstruct the peri-implant tissues. Unlike previous studies, this approach imitates the tooth re-plantation process. The key point is to convert the implant-surrounding bone tissues to cementum as a result of adaptive changes to the implant-support demands. This hypothesis, if proven to be valid, will not only represent a breakthrough in cementum research, but also will open a new door to the restoration of missing teeth. PMID:18829177

  14. The Return of Congenital Rickets, Are We Missing Occult Cases?

    PubMed

    Elidrissy, Abdelwahab T H

    2016-09-01

    Congenital rickets is the term given to fetus born with clinical features of rickets, but those born with biochemical evidence of rickets without obvious clinical features still can be considered occult congenital rickets. Some of the affected babies with this disease have the intrauterine rachitic environment, but a calcium trans-placental pump prevents the fetus from having clinical features of rickets. They may present with hypocalcemia few days after birth or later with more florid features of rickets. Congenital rickets cases born with florid features reported over the last 40 years are few and can be divided into two groups. The first due to severe maternal osteomalacia in which their bones were so decalcified to have enough calcium to be pumped to their fetus. Another group in which newborn babies were hypocalcemic due to other maternal diseases as malabsorption, celiac disease, pre-eclampsia, and prematurity. All inherited rickets cases per se, or as part of other syndromes can be considered congenital rickets. Most cases seen in our region are due to maternal vitamin D deficiency with symptoms becoming obvious when the infants are breastfed, or may present with hypocalcemic convulsions or craniotabes. This is a review of congenital rickets with the aim of shedding light on this potentially acute disease that needs more attention and awareness in the neonatal period to avoid rare serious complications as cardiomyopathy or myelofibrosis and the complications of hypocalcemic convulsions. Congenital rickets cases seen simulate a tip of an ice-burg and its prevention is an important issue, especially with the tremendous urbanization with tall buildings living in sun-deprived flats as the commonest type of residence leading to the increasing incidence of maternal osteomalacia and rickets. PMID:27245342

  15. Orthodontic Treatment of a Patient with Bilateral Congenitally Missing Maxillary Canines: The Effects of First Premolar Substitution on the Functional Outcome.

    PubMed

    Sumiyoshi, Kumi; Ishihara, Yoshihito; Komori, Hiroki; Yamashiro, Takashi; Kamioka, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Permanent canines are thought to play a pivotal role in obtaining an ideal occlusion. Dentists occasionally encounter patients who lack canines and are therefore missing a key to harmonious guidance during functional mandibular excursions. This case report describes the substitution of maxillary first premolars for congenitally missing canines in the context of an orthodontic treatment plan. A boy, age 10 years and 11 months, with a chief complaint of crooked teeth was diagnosed with Class II division 2 malocclusion associated with a high mandibular plane angle and deep overbite. A stable occlusion with a satisfactory facial profile and functional excursions without interference were achieved after a comprehensive two-stage orthodontic treatment process. The resulting occlusion and satisfactory facial profile were maintained for 12 months. These results indicate that substituting the first premolars for the canines is an effective option in treating patients with missing canines while maintaining functional goals. PMID:26899611

  16. Variations in the number of teeth in wild Japanese serow (Naemorhedus crispus).

    PubMed

    Natsume, Asuka; Koyasu, Kazuhiro; Hanamura, Hajime; Nakagaki, Haruo; Oda, Sen-Ichi

    2005-10-01

    Skulls of 755 Japanese serow (Naemorhedus crispus) were examined for numerical anomalies of teeth, and these were found in 30 (4.0%) specimens. In addition to supernumerary and congenital missing teeth, embedded teeth were also identified. Supernumerary teeth were found in 10 (1.3%) specimens, congenital missing teeth were found in nine (1.2%) specimens, and embedded teeth were found in 11 (1.5%) specimens. Supernumerary teeth were found among the incisors, the upper and lower premolars, and the lower molars. Based on the appearance of certain tooth classes, their size, and their form, atavism was considered to be a possible cause of the occurrence of some of these teeth. Congenital missing teeth were found at the loci of the lower incisors, canines and P(2). In Japanese serow, there appeared to be a tendency for congenitally missing P(2) as well as P(1). All embedded teeth were found at the locus of P(2). These teeth may have occurred as an intermediate state between normal and congenital missing teeth. Variations in the number of teeth in Japanese serow were concordant with their phylogenetic background. Moreover, although variations in the number of cheek teeth tended to be concentrated in the mesial region of the premolars, the tendency in the incisive region was for teeth to appear mesial as well as distal within an incisor-tooth sequence. These results, which are not in accordance with terminal reduction theory, indicate that the phenomenon of tooth degeneration does not only occur at the end of a tooth row. PMID:16137494

  17. Influence of Type of Prosthesis on Oral Environment and the Number of Missing Teeth in Elderly Persons

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Junko; Tanaka, Masahiro

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the number of missing teeth (MT) and the statuses of oral environmental factors (the stimulated salivary flow rate, buffering capacity, and the counts of mutans streptococci, lactobacilli, and Candida) in the elderly. The subjects were 64 elderly subjects with fixed prostheses and 49 who wore removable partial dentures aged over 65 years. We used one-way ANOVA to test for overall differences of the number of MT among 5 oral environmental factors. The significant differences were observed in the lactobacilli counts for different number of MT. The number of MT increased with an increase in the lactobacilli counts with removable denture. In conclusion, for the patients wearing removable dentures, increasing number of MT was associated with an increase in the lactobacilli counts in saliva. For the patients with crowns and fixed partial dentures, the number of MT was not significantly affected by salivary mutans streptococci, lactobacilli, and Candida counts. PMID:20886059

  18. Fiber-reinforced Composite Resin Prosthesis to Restore Missing Posterior Teeth: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Garoushi, Sufyan; Yokoyama, Daiichiro; Shinya, Akikazu; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2007-01-01

    A fiber-reinforced composite inlay-onlay FPD was used for a single posterior tooth replacement in a patient refusing implant for psychological reasons. The FRC-FPD was made of pre-impregnated E-glass fibers (everStick, StickTeck, Turku, Finland) embedded in a resin matrix (Stick Resin, StickTeck, Turku, Finland). The unidirectional glass fibers were used to make a framework structure with high volume design placed in the pontic (edentulous) region. To reproduce the morphology of natural teeth, the framework structure was then veneered with Gradia (GC, Tokyo, Japan). PMID:21503213

  19. The Use of Glass-fibers Ribbon and Composite for Prosthetic Restoration of Missing Primary Teeth-Laboratory and Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Zilberman, Uri; Lasilla, Lippo

    2014-01-01

    Very few modalities can be used for restoring missing primary anterior teeth, although the impact of missing anterior teeth during early childhood can be harmful. In the permanent dentition the use of glass-fibers ribbon and composite materials are frequently used for restoring missing teeth with no or minimal preparation. The purpose of this study was to examine the possibility to use the glass-fibers ribbon (ever-Stick from GC Corporation, Japan) together with esthetic composite materials (G-aenial A1 from GC Corporation, Japan) for restoring anterior primary teeth and to determine the best methodology and bonding system to be used. The effect of etching time was analyzed using 20-80 sec on primary buccal enamel with SEM and the results showed that at least 60 second is necessary in order to remove the prismless layer and to affect the prismatic layer similar (as observed by SEM) to the 20 sec etching time on permanent enamel. Three bonding systems (SE Bond by Kurary, Japan, Scotchbond Universal by 3M/ESPE, Germany and G-aenial bond by GC Company, Japan) were compared for bonding the glass-fibers ribbon to the primary enamel and microtensile strength analyses were performed. Mean tensile strength ranged from 10.9 to 13 MPa with no statistically significant differences between all three systems. Based on the laboratory results it can be concluded that the glass-fibers ribbon together with the composite material can be used clinically to restore missing primary teeth for esthetic and functional reasons. Two clinical cases are presented that show favorable results. PMID:25553140

  20. A multidisciplinary treatment of congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors: a 14-year follow-up case report

    PubMed Central

    de ALMEIDA, Renato Rodrigues; MORANDINI, Ana Carolina Faria; de ALMEIDA-PEDRIN, Renata Rodrigues; de ALMEIDA, Marcio Rodrigues; CASTRO, Renata Cristina Faria Ribeiro; INSABRALDE, Natalia Martins

    2014-01-01

    Absence of the maxillary lateral incisor creates an aesthetic problem which can be managed in various ways. The condition requires careful treatment planning and consideration of the options and outcomes following either space closure or prosthetic replacement. Recent developments in restorative dentistry have warranted a re-evaluation of the approach to this clinical situation. Factors relating both to the patient and the teeth, including the presentation of malocclusion and the effect on the occlusion must be considered. The objective of this study was to describe the etiology, prevalence and alternative treatment modalities for dental agenesis and to present a clinical case of agenesis of the maxillary lateral incisors treated by the closure of excessive spaces and canine re-anatomization. A clinical case is presented to illustrate the interdisciplinary approach between orthodontics and restorative dentistry for improved esthetic results. In this report, the treatment of a girl with a Class II malocclusion of molars and canines with missing maxillary lateral incisors and convex facial profile is shown. Treatment was successfully achieved and included the space closure of the areas corresponding to the missing upper lateral incisors, through movement of the canines and the posterior teeth to mesial by fixed appliances as well as the canines transformation in the maxillary lateral incisors. This is a 14-year follow-up case report involving orthodontics and restorative dentistry in which pretreatment, post-treatment, and long-term follow-up records for the patient are presented. PMID:25466480

  1. Widely spaced teeth

    MedlinePlus

    Teeth - widely spaced ... Acromegaly Ellis-van Creveld syndrome Injury Morquio syndrome Normal growth (temporary widening) Possible gum disease Sanfilippo syndrome Tooth shifting due to gum disease or missing teeth

  2. Management of severely impacted mandibular canines and congenitally missing mandibular premolars with protraction of autotransplanted maxillary premolar.

    PubMed

    Janakiraman, Nandakumar; Vaziri, Hamed; Safavi, Kamran; Nanda, Ravindra; Uribe, Flavio

    2016-08-01

    Transmigrated mandibular canines increase the treatment complexity in terms of both anchorage and biomechanical planning. Additionally, a Class II malocclusion with a deep overbite and associated dental anomalies such as hypodontia can further increase the treatment complexity and the overall treatment time. This case report describes the successful interdisciplinary treatment of a patient, aged 12.5 years, with transmigrated and severely impacted mandibular canines and congenitally missing mandibular second premolars. The transmigrated mandibular right canine was extracted, and a maxillary second premolar was autotransplanted to the missing mandibular right second premolar site with the aid of a stereolithographic donor tooth replica fabricated with 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography and a rapid prototyping technique. Furthermore, the autotransplanted tooth was protracted by 4 to 5 mm to close the space caused by the extraction of the mandibular right canine. The impacted mandibular left canine was orthodontically guided into its normal position in the arch. Good esthetic outcome and functional occlusion were achieved. PMID:27476368

  3. Fluoride Exposure, Caregiver Education, and Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (dmft) in 2-5 year-old English or Spanish Speaking Children.

    PubMed

    Uceda, Paola R; Sanzone, Lauren A; Phillips, Ceib L; Roberts, Michael W

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that includes behavioral and cultural components. The study's purpose was to determine the caries experienced (as measured by dmft) in a group of 2-5 y/o children, assess their family and home environment including consumption of fluoridated drinking water, use of a fluoride containing dentifrice, and level of caregiver formal education. Parents of children referred for dental treatment under general anesthesia and who either spoke and read English or Spanish were recruited and consent obtained. Selected information on the family home, parental education and selected fluoride contact data was obtained. An oral clinical examination of the child assisted by intraoral radiographs was completed and the number of decayed, missing, filled primary teeth (dmft) recorded for each child. Bitewings were obtained if posterior or anterior teeth contacts were closed but only periapical radiographs were obtained if contacts were open. Children of English speaking caregivers had statistically more dmft after controlling for the effect of the child's age and years of parental education (p=0.04). English speaking families had lived in their current home longer and the parent had more formal education than did the Spanish speaking parent. When available, the English children drank municipal tap water more often than did the Spanish children. Spanish speaking parents often chose bottled drinking water. No difference between the two groups was found in the use of tap water for cooking or the use of fluoridated dentifrice. In conclusion, increased parent education, language spoken by the parents and time living in the current home were not associated with lower dmft. Drinking fluoridated drinking water did not affect the dmft. However, using fluoridated water when available to cook and using fluoride containing dentifrice by both groups may have been mutually beneficial. PMID:24379894

  4. Congenitally Missing Maxillary Lateral Incisors: Functional and Periodontal Aspects in Patients Treated with Implants or Space Closure and Tooth Re-Contouring

    PubMed Central

    Marchi, Luciana Manzotti De; Pini, Núbia Inocencya Pavesi; Hayacibara, Roberto Massayuki; Silva, Rafael Santos; Pascotto, Renata Corrêa

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate functional and periodontal aspects in patients with unilateral or bilateral congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors, treated with either implants or space closure and tooth re-contouring. The sample consisted of 68 volunteers, divided into 3 groups: SCR - space closure and tooth re-contouring with composite resin (n = 26); SOI – implants placed in the area of agenesis (n = 20); and CG - control group (n = 22). A modified Helkimo questionnaire and the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders were used by a single, previously calibrated evaluator to assess signs and symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorder. The periodontal assessment involved the following aspects: plaque index, bleeding upon probing, pocket depth greater than 3 mm, gingival recession, abfraction, periodontal biotype and papilla index. The data were analyzed using Fisher's exact test and the nonparametric Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests (α=.05). No differences in periodontal status were found between treatments. None of the groups were associated with signs and symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorder. Both treatment alternatives for patients with congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors were satisfactory and achieved functional and periodontal results similar to those of the control group. PMID:23346262

  5. Replacement of missing lateral incisors with lithium disilicate glass-ceramic veneer-fixed dental prostheses: a clinical report

    PubMed Central

    Bissasu, Sami M; Al-houri, Nabil A

    2014-01-01

    Key Clinical Message This report describes the use of lithium disilicate glass-ceramic veneer-fixed dental prostheses in replacing congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors. This kind of prosthesis has an advantage over a lingual-retainer resin-bonded fixed dental prosthesis in its capability of changing the color and shape of the abutment teeth. The prostheses provided an acceptable esthetics and comfort for the patient. PMID:25356269

  6. Your Teeth

    MedlinePlus

    ... sound. Treating Teeth Kindly Brushing your teeth with fluoride toothpaste is your best bet when it comes ... in your mouth. You also might get a fluoride treatment while you're there. In between dentist ...

  7. Teething troubles?

    PubMed

    McIntyre, G T; McIntyre, G M

    2002-03-01

    The relationship between the eruption of the deciduous teeth and the general health of infants has been documented for over 5,000 years. A variety of physical disturbances (anything from minor upsets to potentially fatal illnesses) have historically been attributed to teething, however a number of recent publications have alluded to a clarification of some of the disputed features of teething. It is now accepted that the localised symptoms of teething vary between individuals, however, 'teething' continues to be an inappropriate diagnosis proffered by both healthcare professionals and lay people. Severe systemic upsets are unrelated to teething and, if present, the infant should be promptly referred to a physician for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment. The treatment modalities used in teething have been diverse throughout the ages, frequently depending on the tenets of the medical profession and lay people, but now principally involve pain relief. This article examines the signs and symptoms frequently attributed to teething and their possible alternative causes. The contemporary principles of the management of teething are discussed, including supportive measures, the diverse range of available topical and systemic pharmacological preparations and the 'alternative' holistic therapies. PMID:11924952

  8. Congenital Insensitivity to Pain without Anhidrosis: Orodental Problems and Management

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, N.; Fakhruddin, Kausar Sadia; Samsudin, A. R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the case of a 4-year-old male patient who was brought by parents requesting for replacement of multiple missing anterior teeth. The patient suffered from congenital insensitivity to pain without anhidrosis and presented with full blown sequelae of the condition in the form of oral self-mutilation leading to loss of teeth, tongue tip amputation, finger tips destruction, and lower limb wound infections. Dental and orthopaedic treatment consists of local management of oral wound and prevention from further oral and finger injuries that takes the form of dental splints and finger sleeve splints, constant feet coverage with shoes, and behavioural medical therapy. The age of the patient and parents' education present challenges in managing this condition to avoid morbidity and premature mortality. PMID:26457210

  9. Natal teeth

    MedlinePlus

    ... will be done. Alternative Names Fetal teeth References Smith JB. Initial evaluation. In: Gleason CA, Devaskar SU. ... commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact ...

  10. Distal 8p deletion (8) (p23.1): An easily missed chromosomal abnormality that may be associated with congenital heart defect and mental retardation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Bai-Lin; Schneider, G.H.; Sabatino, D.E.

    1996-03-01

    We describe the clinical manifestations and molecular cytogenetic analyses of three patients with a similar distal deletion of chromosome 8. Each child had mild developmental delay and subtle minor anomalies. Two had cardiac anomalies but no other major congenital anomalies were present. High resolution G and R banding showed in all three patients del(8)(p23.1), but the breakpoint in case 1 was distal to 8p23.1, in case 2 was in the middle of 8p23.1, and in case 3 proximal to 8p23.1. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies with a chromosome 8 paint probe confirmed that no other rearrangement had occurred. FISH with a chromosome 8-specific telomere probe indicated that two patients had terminal deletions. Chromosome analysis of the parents of case 1 and mother of case 2 were normal; the remaining parents were not available for study. Thirteen individual patients including the three in this study, and three relatives in one family with del(8)(p23.1), have been reported in the past 5 years. Major congenital anomalies, especially congenital heart defects, are most often associated with a breakpoint proximal to 8p23.1. Three patients were found within a 3-year period in this study and five cases were found within 4 years by another group, indicating that distal 8p deletion might be a relatively common chromosomal abnormality. This small deletion is easily overlooked (i.e., cases 1 and 2 were reported as normal at amniocentesis) and can be associated with few or no major congenital anomalies. 31 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Possible association between acetazolamide administration during pregnancy and multiple congenital malformations

    PubMed Central

    Al-Saleem, Afnan I; Al-Jobair, Asma M

    2016-01-01

    Congenital malformations might occur because of environmental or genetic factors, and sometimes occur because of unknown causes. Acetazolamide is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that is used to treat idiopathic intracranial hypertension, glaucoma, and epilepsy. The use of acetazolamide has not been recommended for pregnant women because of reported teratogenic risks. Congenital malformations, such as ectrodactyly, syndactyly, cleft lip/palate, and retarded incisor teeth development, have been reported in experimental animals. However, tooth agenesis due to the use of acetazolamide has not been reported yet. Oligodontia is a severe type of tooth agenesis involving six or more congenitally missing teeth. The causes of oligodontia are attributed to environmental factors, such as irradiation, drugs, trauma, tumors, infection, genetic factors, or a combination. There is no credible evidence of undesirable effects of acetazolamide use in human pregnancy. However, we report a case of a 12-year-old Saudi boy who was exposed to maternal acetazolamide (1,000 mg/day) for treatment of idiopathic intracranial hypertension before pregnancy, during the first trimester, and throughout the pregnancy. This treatment might have resulted in some congenital malformations, such as ectrodactyly, syndactyly, and oligodontia. PMID:27143854

  12. Possible association between acetazolamide administration during pregnancy and multiple congenital malformations.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleem, Afnan I; Al-Jobair, Asma M

    2016-01-01

    Congenital malformations might occur because of environmental or genetic factors, and sometimes occur because of unknown causes. Acetazolamide is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that is used to treat idiopathic intracranial hypertension, glaucoma, and epilepsy. The use of acetazolamide has not been recommended for pregnant women because of reported teratogenic risks. Congenital malformations, such as ectrodactyly, syndactyly, cleft lip/palate, and retarded incisor teeth development, have been reported in experimental animals. However, tooth agenesis due to the use of acetazolamide has not been reported yet. Oligodontia is a severe type of tooth agenesis involving six or more congenitally missing teeth. The causes of oligodontia are attributed to environmental factors, such as irradiation, drugs, trauma, tumors, infection, genetic factors, or a combination. There is no credible evidence of undesirable effects of acetazolamide use in human pregnancy. However, we report a case of a 12-year-old Saudi boy who was exposed to maternal acetazolamide (1,000 mg/day) for treatment of idiopathic intracranial hypertension before pregnancy, during the first trimester, and throughout the pregnancy. This treatment might have resulted in some congenital malformations, such as ectrodactyly, syndactyly, and oligodontia. PMID:27143854

  13. National and sub-national drinking water fluoride concentrations and prevalence of fluorosis and of decayed, missed, and filled teeth in Iran from 1990 to 2015: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Taghipour, Nader; Amini, Heresh; Mosaferi, Mohammad; Yunesian, Masud; Pourakbar, Mojtaba; Taghipour, Hassan

    2016-03-01

    Fluoride intake, fluorosis, and dental caries could affect quality of life and disease burden worldwide. As a part of the National and Sub-national Burden of Disease Study (NASBOD) in Iran, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate province-year-specific mean drinking water fluoride concentrations and prevalence of fluorosis and of decayed, missed, and filled teeth (DMFT) in Iran from 1990 to December 2015. We did electronic searches of all English and Persian publications on PubMed, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, and Iranian databases. Results revealed that the weighted mean drinking water fluoride concentration in Iran from 1990 to 2015 has been about 0.65 ± 0.38 mg/l. However, based on the WHO guideline value (1.50 mg/l) and the maximum permissible Iranian national fluoride standard (1.40 to 2.40 mg/l depending on the region's climate), there have been some regions in Iran with non-optimum fluoride concentrations in their drinking water (up to 7.0 mg/l). Overall, concentrations have been higher in southern parts of Iran and in some areas of Azerbaijan-e-Gharbi Province in the northwest and lower in the rest of the northwest and central parts of Iran. In addition, some hotspots have been found in Bushehr Province, southwest of Iran. The highest prevalence of dental flourosis has been reported in normal index while the lowest prevalence has been expressed in severe index. The lowest DMFT (about 0.1) was in Arsanjan City in Fars Province, and the highest (about 6.7) was for Najaf Abad City in Isfahan Province. Prevalence of fluorosis has been rather high in studied areas of Iran (e.g. 100 % in Maku City in Azarbaijan-e-Gharbi Province), and there was discrepancy for DMFT, but a lack of studies renders the results inconclusive. Further studies, health education and promotion plans, and evidence-based nutrition programs are recommended. PMID:26841772

  14. Congenital Hypothyroidism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Body in Balance › Congenital Hypothyroidism Fact Sheet Congenital Hypothyroidism March, 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Rosalind S. ... MD Susan R. Rose, MD What is congenital hypothyroidism? Newborn babies who are unable to make enough ...

  15. Genetic background of supernumerary teeth

    PubMed Central

    Subasioglu, Asli; Savas, Selcuk; Kucukyilmaz, Ebru; Kesim, Servet; Yagci, Ahmet; Dundar, Munis

    2015-01-01

    Supernumerary teeth (ST) are odontostomatologic anomaly characterized by as the existence excessive number of teeth in relation to the normal dental formula. This condition is commonly seen with several congenital genetic disorders such as Gardner's syndrome, cleidocranial dysostosis and cleft lip and palate. Less common syndromes that are associated with ST are; Fabry Disease, Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, Nance-Horan syndrome, Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome and Trico–Rhino–Phalangeal syndrome. ST can be an important component of a distinctive disorder and an important clue for early diagnosis. Certainly early detecting the abnormalities gives us to make correct management of the patient and also it is important for making well-informed decisions about long-term medical care and treatment. In this review, the genetic syndromes that are related with ST were discussed. PMID:25713500

  16. Genetic background of supernumerary teeth.

    PubMed

    Subasioglu, Asli; Savas, Selcuk; Kucukyilmaz, Ebru; Kesim, Servet; Yagci, Ahmet; Dundar, Munis

    2015-01-01

    Supernumerary teeth (ST) are odontostomatologic anomaly characterized by as the existence excessive number of teeth in relation to the normal dental formula. This condition is commonly seen with several congenital genetic disorders such as Gardner's syndrome, cleidocranial dysostosis and cleft lip and palate. Less common syndromes that are associated with ST are; Fabry Disease, Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, Nance-Horan syndrome, Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome and Trico-Rhino-Phalangeal syndrome. ST can be an important component of a distinctive disorder and an important clue for early diagnosis. Certainly early detecting the abnormalities gives us to make correct management of the patient and also it is important for making well-informed decisions about long-term medical care and treatment. In this review, the genetic syndromes that are related with ST were discussed. PMID:25713500

  17. Teeth Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Teeth Injuries KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Teeth Injuries ... or young child injures the gums or baby teeth: Apply pressure to the area (if it's bleeding) ...

  18. Transplantation of cryopreserved teeth: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Osathanon, Thanaphum

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this article was to examine the research articles regarding biological and mechanical properties of cryopreserved teeth for potential use in tooth transplantation. A systematic review of literatures was performed by Pubmed searching with assigned key words from January 1, 1990 to June 8, 2009. All articles were examined for inclusion criteria. Secondary search was conducted by hand-search through references of included articles from primary search. A total of 24 articles were obtained from both primary and secondary search and used as fundamental articles in this review. Periodontal ligament tissues of cryopreserved teeth were able to maintain their biological properties resulted in a satisfactory healing of periodontium. Dental pulp tissues, however, may be compromised by limitation of permeability of cryopreservative agent into pulp cavity. Therefore, an endodontic treatment of transplanted cryopreserved teeth was recommended. Cryopreserved teeth had comparable mechanical properties to those of normal teeth. Importantly, the success of cryopreserved tooth transplantation treatment in orthodontic patients was reported. The cryopreserved teeth for tooth banking have a potential clinical application for treatment of missing teeth. Case selection, however, is critical for treatment success. More studies and data regarding masticatory function and periodontal healing of transplanted cryopreserved teeth are needed. PMID:20737931

  19. Multiple Unerupted Permanent Teeth Associated with Noonan Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Uloopi, KS; Madhuri, V; Gopal, AS; Vinay, C; Chandrasekhar, R

    2015-01-01

    The present report describes a case of Noonan's syndrome from a dental viewpoint. Noonan syndrome is an autosomal dominant multisystem disorder. Congenital heart deformities, short stature, thoracic deformities, short neck with webbing, hypertelorism, and malocclusions are some of the frequently observed clinical features. Atypical dental anomalies such as multiple unerupted permanent teeth, multiple submerged and retained deciduous teeth, and supernumerary teeth were found in the present case. Oral prophylaxis and preventive resin restorations were done following which the supernumerary teeth were extracted. 54, 55, 64, 65, 74, 75 and 84 were extracted after orthodontic consultation to facilitate the eruption of permanent teeth. The patient is undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy for forced eruption of unerupted permanent teeth. General dentists should correlate dental anomalies with other systemic features in the diagnosis of such syndromes because of the variability in presentation and the need for multidisciplinary care. PMID:26229724

  20. Congenital hemifacial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Deshingkar, S A; Barpande, S R; Bhavthankar, J D

    2011-07-01

    Congenital hemifacial hyperplasia (CHH) is a rare congenital malformation characterized by marked unilateral overdevelopment of hard and soft tissues of the face. Asymmetry in CHH is usually evident at birth and accentuated with age, especially at puberty. The affected side grows at a rate proportional to the nonaffected side so that the disproportion is maintained thr oughout the life. Multisystem involvement has resulted in etiological heterogeneity including heredity, chromosomal abnormalities, atypical forms of twinning, altered intrauterine environment, and endocrine dysfunctions; however, no single theory explains the etiology adequately. Deformities of all tissues of face, including teeth and their related tissues in the jaw, are key findings for correct diagnosis of CHH. Here an attempt has been made to present a case of CHH with its archetypal features and to supplement existing clinical knowledge. PMID:22090778

  1. About Kids' Teeth

    MedlinePlus

    ... in baby teeth. Keep Baby’s Gums and Teeth Clean Begin cleaning your baby's mouth during the first ... every feeding, wipe your baby's gums with a clean gauze pad. This removes plaque and food, and ...

  2. Malocclusion (Misaligned Teeth)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dry Mouth Mouth Growths Mouth Sores and Inflammation Toothache Malocclusion Teeth Grinding Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis Malocclusion is ... Dry Mouth Mouth Growths Mouth Sores and Inflammation Toothache Malocclusion Teeth Grinding Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis NOTE: This ...

  3. Brushing your infant's teeth

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000769.htm Brushing Your Child’s Teeth To use the sharing features on this page, ... how to brush their teeth on their own. Tooth and Gum Care for Young Children You should ...

  4. Teeth erupted from the buccal mucosa: simple odontogenic choristoma or accessory teeth?

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanbin; Huang, Yi; Yu, Tao; Li, Longjiang

    2013-11-01

    The eruption of developed teeth from the buccal mucosa is a rare phenomenon in the head and neck region. Such phenomena are possibly choristomas, tumorlike masses of histologically normal tissue occurring in an abnormal position. However, the accurate classification of this abnormality remains debatable. This report describes a case of a congenital, maldevelopmental, and noncystic lesion in a 4-year-old girl without other anomalies. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of multiple supernumerary teeth forming in the buccal and zygomatic regions. PMID:23992778

  5. Congenital hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Boull, Christina; Maguiness, Sheilagh M

    2016-03-01

    Congenital hemangiomas are rare solitary vascular tumors that do not proliferate after birth. They are characterized as either rapidly involuting congenital hemangiomas (RICHs) or noninvoluting congenital hemangiomas (NICHs) based on their clinical progression. NICHs have no associated complications, but are persistent. RICH, while usually asymptomatic, may ulcerate or bleed early in their presentation, but involute quickly during the first few months of life. Hepatic RICHs are not associated with cutaneous RICHs, but may result in high-output cardiac failure due to arteriovenous or portovenous shunting. In the following review, the clinical characteristics and current management specific to congenital hemangiomas is discussed. PMID:27607320

  6. Natal teeth: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Alexander K. C.; Robson, William Lane M.

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of natal teeth is approximately 1:2,000 to 1:3,000 live births. The most commonly affected teeth are the lower primary central incisors. Natal teeth usually occur in pairs. The eruption of more than two natal teeth is rare. The majority of natal teeth represent the early eruption of normal primary deciduous dentition. Less than 10% of natal teeth are supernumerary. Natal teeth might resemble normal primary dentition in size and shape; however, the teeth are often smaller, conical and yellowish, and have hypoplastic enamel and dentin with poor or absent root formation. Complications include discomfort during suckling, sublingual ulceration, laceration of the mother's breasts and aspiration of the teeth. A dental roentgenogram is indicated to differentiate the premature eruption of a primary tooth from a supernumerary tooth. Tooth extraction is indicated if the tooth is supernumerary or excessively mobile. If the tooth does not interfere with breastfeeding and is otherwise asymptomatic, no treatment is necessary. Images Figure 1 PMID:16708508

  7. Miss Heroin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Bernice

    This script, with music, lyrics and dialog, was written especially for youngsters to inform them of the potential dangers of various drugs. The author, who teaches in an elementary school in Harlem, New York, offers Miss Heroin as her answer to the expressed opinion that most drug and alcohol information available is either too simplified and…

  8. [Cryopreservation of teeth].

    PubMed

    Zimmerli, Melanie; Filippi, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    After tooth loss dental implants or fixed prosthetic restorations are not indicated in children and adolescents due to incomplete maxillary and mandibular development. Cryopreservation is a method for long-term storage of healthy teeth which were removed for orthodontic reasons or due to traumatic origin. These preserved teeth can be used as autogenous replants or transplants after tooth loss. During transport to and from the freezing facilities prior to freezing the teeth are stored in a cell culture medium. The tooth is transferred into a freezing tube containing cell culture medium and cryoprotectant DMSO. Teeth autotransplanted after cryopreservation show vitality of the PDL cells. Usually no enamel and/or dentinal cracks can be observed. After tooth loss transplantation of cryopreserved teeth could be an effective and biological therapy for tooth replacement. PMID:21545030

  9. Congenital Myopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... arms and legs, droopy eyelids, and problems with eye movements. Weakness often gets worse with time. Central core ... difficulties occur as well. Some children have weakened eye movements. Congenital fiber-type disproportion myopathy is a rare ...

  10. Congenital cataract

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the following birth defects: Chondrodysplasia syndrome Congenital rubella Conradi-Hünermann syndrome Down syndrome (trisomy 21) Ectodermal ... Images Eye Cataract - close-up of the eye Rubella syndrome Cataract References Dahan E. Pediatric cataract surgery. ...

  11. Congenital syphilis

    MedlinePlus

    ... fact that this disease can be cured with antibiotics if caught early, rising rates of syphilis among pregnant women in the United States have increased the number of infants born with congenital syphilis.

  12. [Congenital thrombophilia].

    PubMed

    Kojima, Tetsuhito

    2016-03-01

    Congenital thrombophilia is a thrombotic diathesis caused by a variety of genetic abnormalities in blood coagulation factors or their inhibitory factors associated with physiological thrombus formation. Patients with congenital thrombophilia often present with unusual clinical episodes of venous thrombosis (occasionally combined with pulmonary embolism, known as venous thromboembolism) at a young age and recurrence in atypical vessels, such as the mesenteric vein and superior sagittal sinus, often with a family history of this condition. Studies in Japan as well as in western countries have shown congenital thrombophilia to be caused by a wide variety of genetic abnormalities in natural anticoagulant proteins, such as antithrombin, protein C, and protein S. However, there may still be many unknown causes of hereditary thrombosis. We recently reported a case of hereditary thrombosis induced by a novel mechanism of antithrombin resistance, that is, congenital thrombophilia caused by a gain-of-function mutation in the gene encoding the coagulation factor prothrombin. PMID:27076244

  13. Congenital toxoplasmosis

    MedlinePlus

    Congenital toxoplasmosis is a group of symptoms that occur when an unborn baby (fetus) is infected with the parasite ... Toxoplasmosis infection can be passed to a developing baby if the mother becomes infected while pregnant. The ...

  14. Congenital rubella

    MedlinePlus

    ... is infected with the virus that causes German measles. Congenital means the condition is present at birth. ... Gershon AA. Rubella virus (German measles). In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, ... . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; ...

  15. Congenital rubella

    MedlinePlus

    ... mother is infected with the virus that causes German measles. Congenital means the condition is present at ... Gershon AA. Rubella virus (German measles). In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, ... of Infectious Diseases . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  16. Impacted wisdom teeth

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of impacted wisdom teeth (third molars) is high, with some 72% of Swedish people aged 20 to 30 years having at least one impacted wisdom tooth. Impacted wisdom teeth occur because of a lack of space, obstruction, or abnormal position. They can cause inflammatory dental disease manifested by pain and swelling of infected teeth and may destroy adjacent teeth and bone. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: Should asymptomatic, disease-free impacted wisdom teeth be removed prophylactically? What are the effects of different operative (surgical) techniques for removing impacted wisdom teeth? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to October 2013 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Results We found 11 studies that met our inclusion criteria. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: prophylactic extraction, active surveillance, and different operative (surgical) techniques for extracting impacted wisdom teeth. PMID:25170946

  17. 'Miss Frances', 'Miss Gail' and 'Miss Sandra' Crapemyrtles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, announces the release to nurserymen of three new crapemyrtle cultivars named 'Miss Gail', 'Miss Frances', and 'Miss Sandra'. ‘Miss Gail’ resulted from a cross-pollination between ‘Catawba’ as the female parent and ‘Arapaho’ ...

  18. A Curriculum Vitae of Teeth: Evolution, Generation, Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Koussoulakou, Despina S.; Margaritis, Lukas H.; Koussoulakos, Stauros L.

    2009-01-01

    The ancestor of recent vertebrate teeth was a tooth-like structure on the outer body surface of jawless fishes. Over the course of 500,000,000 years of evolution, many of those structures migrated into the mouth cavity. In addition, the total number of teeth per dentition generally decreased and teeth morphological complexity increased. Teeth form mainly on the jaws within the mouth cavity through mutual, delicate interactions between dental epithelium and oral ectomesenchyme. These interactions involve spatially restricted expression of several, teeth-related genes and the secretion of various transcription and signaling factors. Congenital disturbances in tooth formation, acquired dental diseases and odontogenic tumors affect millions of people and rank human oral pathology as the second most frequent clinical problem. On the basis of substantial experimental evidence and advances in bioengineering, many scientists strongly believe that a deep knowledge of the evolutionary relationships and the cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating the morphogenesis of a given tooth in its natural position, in vivo, will be useful in the near future to prevent and treat teeth pathologies and malformations and for in vitro and in vivo teeth tissue regeneration. PMID:19266065

  19. Malocclusion of teeth

    MedlinePlus

    ... are easier to clean and decrease risk of tooth decay and periodontal diseases ( gingivitis or periodontitis ). Eliminate strain ... braces and may permanently mark teeth or cause tooth decay if not properly cared for. You will need ...

  20. [Congenital syphilis].

    PubMed

    Tabák, Réka; Tabák, Adám; Várkonyi, Viktória

    2010-01-10

    Syphilis has been a re-emerging disease in the past few decades. As a consequence, the prevalence of congenital syphilis is expected to be on the rise. Maternal syphilis may be related to several pathologies, such as miscarriage, stillbirth, or congenital syphilis in the child. Infants that acquire syphilis in utero are frequently asymptomatic, and the organ damage caused by the infection may be apparent only years later. Syphilis is a curable disease, and most of its complications in the infant can be prevented by screening and treating the mother. Every newborn potentially infected should be treated with penicillin immediately starting on the day of birth. PMID:20061233

  1. Congenital amusias.

    PubMed

    Tillmann, B; Albouy, P; Caclin, A

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the sophisticated music processing reported in the general population, individuals with congenital amusia show deficits in music perception and production. Congenital amusia occurs without brain damage, sensory or cognitive deficits, and has been suggested as a lifelong deficit with genetic origin. Even though recognized for a long time, this disorder has been systematically studied only relatively recently for its behavioral and neural correlates. The currently most investigated hypothesis about the underlying deficits concerns the pitch dimension, notably with impaired pitch discrimination and memory. Anatomic and functional investigations of pitch processing revealed that the amusic brain presents abnormalities in the auditory and inferior frontal cortices, associated with decreased connectivity between these structures. The deficit also impairs processing of pitch in speech material and processing of the time dimension in music for some of the amusic individuals, but does not seem to affect spatial processing. Some studies suggest at least partial dissociation in the disorder between perception and production. Recent studies revealed spared implicit pitch perception in congenital amusia, supporting the power of implicit cognition in the music domain. Current challenges consist in defining different subtypes of congenital amusia as well as developing rehabilitation programs for this "musical handicap." PMID:25726292

  2. Congenital Defects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Allen S.; And Others

    There are two general categories (not necessarily mutually exclusive) of congenital defects: (1) abnormalities that have an hereditary basis, such as single and multiple genes, or chromosomal abberration; and (2) abnormalities that are caused by nonhereditary factors, such as malnutrition, maternal disease, radiation, infections, drugs, or…

  3. Congenital Hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Estey, Chelsie M

    2016-03-01

    There are several types of hydrocephalus, which are characterized based on the location of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) accumulation. Physical features of animals with congenital hydrocephalus may include a dome-shaped skull, persistent fontanelle, and bilateral ventrolateral strabismus. Medical therapy involves decreasing the production of CSF. The most common surgical treatment is placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Postoperative complications may include infection, blockage, drainage abnormalities, and mechanical failure. PMID:26704658

  4. Congenital PCB poisoning: a reevaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.W.

    1985-05-01

    A review of the literature reveals a need to clarify the pathologic physiology of congenital polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning, which is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, brown staining of the skin and mucous membranes as in Addison's disease, natal teeth, widely open fontanelles and sagittal suture and apparent overgrowth of the gingiva. The skull abnormalities may represent irregular calcification, with natal teeth appearing because the bone of the mandible is penetrated more easily than usual. Some fetuses were poisoned at the time the mothers ingested the oil; others were affected in the subsequent years from residual contamination in the mothers' bodies. The misadventure in Japan was repeated in Taiwan in 1979. The seven congenital cases in Taiwan reported thus far seem to differ from those in Japan. In Taiwan the noses were somewhat black, two of the infants did not have low birth weight and the osseous abnormalities of the skull and gingival hyperplasia were not observed. Systematic followup studies should be made in Taiwan of the children born within 2 years of maternal poisoning with PCBs. Special attention should be given to age at first dentition and skull-X-rays for spotty calcification, among other measures of physical, neurologic and intellectual development.

  5. Dental health and oral health-related quality of life in children with congenital bleeding disorders.

    PubMed

    Salem, K; Eshghi, P

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the dental and some other aspects of oral health status of young patients with congenital bleeding disorders (CBD) and the impact of these on their quality of life (OHR-QoL) compared with controls. DMFS-dmfs (Decayed, Missed, Filled Tooth surfaces in permanent and primary teeth) scores, Simplified oral hygiene index, occurance of hypoplasia of first permanent molars, Temporomandibular joint dysfunction and occlusion of 46 CBD patients at the age range of 2-15 years and 46 of other children as control were compared, and the impact of their oral health situation on quality of life was also investigated. Data were analysed by chi-square, t-test and Pearson correlation. Patients were significantly more caries-free with less decayed teeth in primary-permanent dentition (P = 0.03, t = -2.17).The mean scores of OHR-QoL of CBD patients and controls were not significantly different. Oral Bleeding was the significant variable in relation to 'oral health-related quality of life' in CBD groups (Pearson correlation, r = -0.56, P = 0.000). OHR-QoL in the control group was related to dmfs score (r = -0.392, P = 0.011) and male gender (r = -0.329, P = 0.026). Congenital bleeding disorder CBD patients were found to have a better dental health situation in primary dentition compared with controls; however, their 'oral health-related quality of life' was similar. Oral bleeding was the only significant factor related to OHR-QoL in CBD. It shows an overall importance of development of comprehensive care centres for CBD as the main cause of this achievement. PMID:22970656

  6. Direct Restorative Treatment of Missing Maxillary Laterals with Composite Laminate Veneer: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bagis, Bora; Aydoğan, Elif; Bagis, Yildirim H.

    2008-01-01

    This clinical report describes a direct composite laminate veneer restoration of the maxillary anterior teeth in one chair time to produce a better esthetic appearance in a patient with diastemata and missing laterals. PMID:19088889

  7. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Overview What is congenital adrenal hyperplasia? Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, or CAH, is a disorder that affects the adrenal glands. The adrenal ...

  8. Clinical aspects of congenital syphilis with Hutchinson’s triad

    PubMed Central

    Pessoa, Larissa; Galvão, Virgilio

    2011-01-01

    Congenital syphilis is an infectious disease caused by Treponema pallidum transmitted by infected mother to her baby during pregnancy. Late congenital syphilis is recognised with 2 or more years after birth. One of the main aspects is observed with the triad of Hutchinson, characterised by the presence of interstitial keratitis, eighth nerve deafness and Hutchinson’s teeth. This manuscript reports a case of late congenital syphilis presenting with Hutchinson’s triad at an age of 7 years. These clinical features are related to syphilis present during pregnancy and at birth, however they commonly become apparent after 5-years of age. PMID:22670010

  9. Conservative Approach for Restoring Posterior Missing Tooth with Fiber Reinforcement Materials: Four Clinical Reports

    PubMed Central

    Karaarslan, Emine Sirin; Ertas, Ertan; Ozsevik, Semih; Usumez, Aslihan

    2011-01-01

    Adhesively luted, fiber-reinforced, composite-inlay, retained fixed-partial dentures can be a clinical alternative for the replacement of missing posterior teeth in selective situations. This type of restoration allows for satisfactory esthetics and reduced tooth preparation compared to a conventional, fixed-partial denture. This clinical report describes the use of a fiber-reinforced, composite-inlay, retained fixed-partial denture as a conservative alternative for the replacement of missing posterior teeth. PMID:21912503

  10. CONGENITAL PSEUDARTHROSIS OF THE CLAVICLE

    PubMed Central

    de Figueiredo, Marina Juliana Pita Sassioto Silveira; dos Reis Braga, Susana; Akkari, Miguel; Prado, José Carlos Lopes; Santili, Cláudio

    2015-01-01

    Congenital pseudarthrosis of the clavicle (PCC) is a rare affection, that can be diagnosed at birth and represent a disturbance of union of the ossification centers. It's more common in girls and in the right side. This study objectives to proceed a revision about the subject, that was searched in online database of LILACS and MEDLINE. We found 56 articles till present data. Besides be a bit infrequent, the PCC must not be missed or even forgotten, especially as differential diagnosis with acute fracture of the clavicle at birth by trauma in the childbirth. The diagnostic is relatively easy and the treatment can be just observation or even surgical. PMID:27047839

  11. Remarkable resilience of teeth

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Herzl; Lee, James J.-W.; Constantino, Paul J.; Lucas, Peter W.; Lawn, Brian R.

    2009-01-01

    Tooth enamel is inherently weak, with fracture toughness comparable with glass, yet it is remarkably resilient, surviving millions of functional contacts over a lifetime. We propose a microstructural mechanism of damage resistance, based on observations from ex situ loading of human and sea otter molars (teeth with strikingly similar structural features). Section views of the enamel implicate tufts, hypomineralized crack-like defects at the enamel–dentin junction, as primary fracture sources. We report a stabilization in the evolution of these defects, by “stress shielding” from neighbors, by inhibition of ensuing crack extension from prism interweaving (decussation), and by self-healing. These factors, coupled with the capacity of the tooth configuration to limit the generation of tensile stresses in largely compressive biting, explain how teeth may absorb considerable damage over time without catastrophic failure, an outcome with strong implications concerning the adaptation of animal species to diet. PMID:19365079

  12. [Reconstruction of pulpectomized teeth].

    PubMed

    Colon, P; Picard, B

    1990-04-01

    The general principles governing the choice of materials for reconstruction of devitalized teeth are determined on the basis of mechanical and biological imperatives as well as degradation phenomena. In describing the various techniques for clinical implementation, particular emphasis is placed on the imperatives and limitations of each protocol. A decisive factor in the durability of restorations is their homogeneity, as well as the clinical conditions under which they are performed. PMID:2135782

  13. Congenital Anomalies in Infant with Congenital Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Zahra; Yavarikia, Alireza; Torabian, Saadat

    2012-01-01

    Objective Congenital hypothyroidism is characterized by inadequate thyroid hormone production in newborn infants. Many infants with CH have co-occurring congenital malformations. This is an investigation on the frequency and types of congenital anomalies in infants with congenital hypothyroidism born from May 2006-2010 in Hamadan, west province of Iran. Methods The Iranian neonatal screening program for congenital hypothyroidism was initiated in May 2005. This prospective descriptive study was conducted in infants diagnosed with congenital hypothyroidism being followed up in Pediatric Endocrinology Clinic of Besat Hospital, a tertiary care centre in Hamadan. Cases included all infants with congenital hypothyroidism diagnosed through newborn screening program or detected clinically. Anomalies were identified by clinical examination, echocardiography, and X-ray of the hip during the infant’s first year of life. Results A total of 150 infants with biochemically confirmed primary congenital hypothyroidism (72 females and 78 males) were recruited during the period between May 2006-2010. Overall, 30 (20%) infants had associated congenital anomalies. The most common type of anomaly was Down syndrome. Seven infants (3.1%) had congenital cardiac anomalies such as: ASD (n=3), VSD (n=2), PS (n =1), PDA (n=1). Three children (2.6%) had developmental dysplasia of the hip (n=3). Conclusion The overall frequency of Down syndrome, cardiac malformation and other birth defect was high in infants with CH. This reinforces the need to examine all infants with congenital hypothyroidism for the presence of associated congenital anomalies. PMID:23074545

  14. Congenital Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    McAuley, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is caused by infection with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. It is one of the most common parasitic infections in humans and is most typically asymptomatic. However, primary infection in a pregnant woman can cause severe and disabling disease in the developing fetus. Recent developments have included increased understanding of the role of parasite genotype in determining infectivity and disease severity. Risk factors for acquisition of infection have been better defined, and the important role of foodborne transmission has been further delineated. In addition, strategies have emerged to decrease mother-to-child transmission through prompt identification of acutely infected pregnant women followed by appropriate treatment. Refined diagnostic tools, particularly the addition of immunoglobulin G avidity testing, allow for more accurate timing of maternal infection and hence better decision making during pregnancy. Congenitally infected children can be treated, beginning in utero and continuing through the first year of life, to ameliorate the severity of disease. However, despite these many advances in our understanding of congenital toxoplasmosis prevention and treatment, significant areas of study remain: we need better drugs, well defined strategies for screening of pregnant women, improved food safety, and improved diagnostic tests. PMID:25232475

  15. Congenital neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Evans, A. R.

    1965-01-01

    The clinical histories and post-mortem findings in five cases of neuroblastoma are described, and an account given of the microscopic characteristics of the tumours. In four of the cases the tumour was present at birth and was probably so in the fifth case. In only one case was the presence of the malignant tumour a significant factor in causing death. The differential diagnosis of such tumours is discussed. The accumulated evidence of many recorded cases suggests that neuroblastoma, becoming manifest in the early months or weeks of life, and congenital tumour, would be included in such a group, and has an appreciably better prognosis than has this same tumour when it becomes manifest in later childhood. The literature is briefly reviewed to illustrate this aspect of prognosis and possible reasons for it are indicated. Images PMID:14247705

  16. Congenital Cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    Walker, David; Shinners, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    Congenital cholesteatoma is one of the more common causes of the onset of childhood conductive hearing loss unrelated to middle ear effusion. If undiagnosed, the disease can progress to irreversibly destroy the conductive hearing architecture, as well as the surrounding skull base of the lateral temporal bone. When diagnosed early, the growth can be removed and the conductive hearing mechanism preserved in the vast majority of patients. Because most children are asymptomatic, the burden falls on primary care providers to perform pneumatic otoscopy and visualize all quadrants of the tympanic membrane even in young children who frequently resist attempts to conduct a thorough examination to rule out suspicious lesions. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(5):e167-e170.]. PMID:27171804

  17. Congenital amusia.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Victoria J; Stewart, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    For most people, music, like language, is acquired effortlessly in early life. But a few percent of the population have lifelong difficulties in the perception and production of music. In this chapter we discuss psycho-acoustic and behavioral studies that have attempted to delineate the nature of the auditory perceptual deficits in this group and consider whether these difficulties extend outside the musical domain. Finally, we review structural imaging studies in this group which point to subtle anomalies in temporal and frontal areas. We suggest that amusia can be considered a disorder of neural development, which has relatively specific consequences at the behavioral level. Studies of congenital amusia provide a unique window on the neurocognitive architecture of music processing. PMID:23622169

  18. Congenital hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Pankaj; Philip, Rajeev; Saran, Sanjay; Gutch, Manish; Razi, Mohd Sayed; Agroiya, Puspalata; Gupta, Keshavkumar

    2015-01-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is the one of the most common preventable cause of mental retardation. In the majority of patients, CH is caused by an abnormal development of the thyroid gland (thyroid dysgenesis) that is a sporadic disorder and accounts for 85% of cases and the remaining 15% of cases are caused by dyshormonogenesis. The clinical features of congenital hypothyroidism are so subtle that many newborn infants remain undiagnosed at birth and delayed diagnosis leads to the most severe outcome of CH, mental retardation, emphasizing the importance of neonatal screening. Dried capillary blood is used for screening and it is taken from heel prick optimally between 2 and 5 days of age. Blood spot TSH or thyroxine (T4) or both are being used for CH screening in different programs around the world. Neonates with abnormal thyroid screening tests should be recalled immediately for examination and a venipuncture blood sample should be drawn for confirmatory serum testing. Confirmatory serum should be tested for TSH and free T4, or total T4. Serum TSH and T4 undergo dynamic changes in the first weeks of life; it is important to compare serum results with age-normal reference ranges. Treatment should be started promptly and infant should be rendered euthyroid as early as possible, as there is an inverse relationship between intelligence quotient (IQ) and the age at diagnosis. Levothyroxine (l-thyroxine) is the treatment of choice and American academy of pediatrics and European society of pediatric endocrinology recommend 10-15μgm/kg/day as initial dose. The immediate goal of therapy is to normalize T4 within 2 weeks and TSH within one month. The overall goal of treatment is to ensure growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes as close as possible to their genetic potential. PMID:25729683

  19. The Innervation of Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Bradlaw, Robert

    1936-01-01

    The author, using the staining methods of Bielschowski, Gross, Beckwith, Weigert-Pal and Cajal in frozen and serial paraffin and celloidin sections, has investigated the dental innervations of man, monkey, dog, cat, and guinea-pig in health and disease. He discusses the anatomy and physiology of the dental innervation and the effect of section of the inferior dental nerve on the trophic, vasomotor, protective, and sensory functions, with special reference to the relation between dental disease and neuropathies. He describes the innervation of the tooth germ and the nature of the growing fibrils seen before calcification in the dentinal papilla and draws attention to the innervation of the periodontal membrane. He has found that these nerves anastomose across the crest of the interdental septa with their fellows and demonstrates coiled sub-cemental nerve-endings. He has been unable to find any difference in the eruption and casting of teeth after section of the inferior dental nerve, and does not find degeneration of the nerves of deciduous teeth prior to casting to be inevitable. He discusses the effect of local anæsthesia on the dental pulp, some of the causes of odontalgia and neuralgia and the effect of old age and general disease on the dental innervation. He has failed with lethal or continued sublethal doses of ethyl and methyl alcohol, lead or tetanus and diphtheria toxins, using the oral, gastric, subcutaneous and intravenous route, to produce dental neuronic change. The effects of fracture of teeth and jaws, the introduction of arsenic into the pulp chamber and amputation and extirpation of the pulp are examined. The vital resistance of the pulp and the significance of granulomata as a protective mechanism are discussed. The author has found that after extraction although there is at first degeneration of the nerve-fibres concerned, there may subsequently be regeneration, sometimes in the form of plexiform neuroma. He has produced degenerative changes in

  20. Classical music and the teeth.

    PubMed

    Eramo, Stefano; Di Biase, Mary Jo; De Carolis, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Teeth and their pathologies are frequent themes in classical music. The teeth have inspired popular songwriters such as Thomas Crecquillon, Carl Loewe, Amilcare Ponchielli & Christian Sinding; as well as composers whose works are still played all over the world, such as Robert Schumann and Jacques Offenbach. This paper examines several selections in which the inspiring theme is the teeth and the pain they can cause, from the suffering of toothache, to the happier occasion of a baby's first tooth. PMID:23691776

  1. Congenital hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Maynika V; LaFranchi, Stephen H

    2010-01-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) occurs in approximately 1:2,000 to 1:4,000 newborns. The clinical manifestations are often subtle or not present at birth. This likely is due to trans-placental passage of some maternal thyroid hormone, while many infants have some thyroid production of their own. Common symptoms include decreased activity and increased sleep, feeding difficulty, constipation, and prolonged jaundice. On examination, common signs include myxedematous facies, large fontanels, macroglossia, a distended abdomen with umbilical hernia, and hypotonia. CH is classified into permanent and transient forms, which in turn can be divided into primary, secondary, or peripheral etiologies. Thyroid dysgenesis accounts for 85% of permanent, primary CH, while inborn errors of thyroid hormone biosynthesis (dyshormonogeneses) account for 10-15% of cases. Secondary or central CH may occur with isolated TSH deficiency, but more commonly it is associated with congenital hypopitiutarism. Transient CH most commonly occurs in preterm infants born in areas of endemic iodine deficiency. In countries with newborn screening programs in place, infants with CH are diagnosed after detection by screening tests. The diagnosis should be confirmed by finding an elevated serum TSH and low T4 or free T4 level. Other diagnostic tests, such as thyroid radionuclide uptake and scan, thyroid sonography, or serum thyroglobulin determination may help pinpoint the underlying etiology, although treatment may be started without these tests. Levothyroxine is the treatment of choice; the recommended starting dose is 10 to 15 mcg/kg/day. The immediate goals of treatment are to rapidly raise the serum T4 above 130 nmol/L (10 ug/dL) and normalize serum TSH levels. Frequent laboratory monitoring in infancy is essential to ensure optimal neurocognitive outcome. Serum TSH and free T4 should be measured every 1-2 months in the first 6 months of life and every 3-4 months thereafter. In general, the prognosis

  2. Viper fangs: functional limitations of extreme teeth.

    PubMed

    Cundall, David

    2009-01-01

    The fangs of vipers are extremely long, rotating, hollow teeth. Analysis of video records of more than 750 strikes recorded at 60 or 250 frames per second for 285 individuals representing 86 species in 31 genera shows that vipers reposition fangs after initial contact with prey in more than a third of the strikes. Repositioning resulted when fangs missed prey entirely or hit prey regions that did not permit adequate penetration. The prevalence of repositioning, even among species that normally release prey, suggests strong selective pressure for rapid neuromotor response to fang placement error. The rapidity of repositioning suggests the existence of (a) fine-scale sensory detection of fang penetration depth, (b) rapid modulation of contraction of antagonistic muscles, and (c) possibly neurological modifications to shorten transmission time between sensory input and motor output. Extreme fang length has apparently coevolved with extreme functions. PMID:19025501

  3. Cu-sil dentures - a novel approach to conserve few remaining teeth: Case reports.

    PubMed

    Jain, Jayesh Kumar; Prabhu, C R Allama; Zahrane, Mohammed Al; Esawy, Mohammed Sayed Al; Ajagannanavar, Sunil Lingaraj; Pal, Kapil Singh

    2015-08-01

    The present prime concern in dentistry is on preservation of remaining natural teeth. Presence of few teeth in oral cavity help in preserving alveolar ridge integrity, maintain the proprioception, and gives psychological benefit to the patient. Transitional denture provides us with alternative treatment plan for the patients willing to replace their missing teeth while retaining their very few remaining teeth. A relatively newer type of transitional denture is Cu-sil denture. A Cu-sil denture is a denture with holes, lined by a gasket of silicone rubber, the holes thus providing space for remaining natural teeth to emerge into the oral cavity through the denture. Cu-sil denture is the simplest removable partial denture, but its fabrication requires special armamentarium and material. This case report represents a simple chairside technique to fabricate Cu-sil dentures in usual dental set-up. PMID:26464557

  4. Sterilization of Extracted Human Teeth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantera, Eugene A., Jr.; Schuster, George S.

    1990-01-01

    At present, there is no specific recommendation for sterilization of extracted human teeth used in dental technique courses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether autoclaving would be effective in the sterilization of extracted teeth without compromising the characteristics that make their use in clinical simulations desirable. (MLW)

  5. Take Care of Your Teeth

    MedlinePlus

    ... other particles, they constantly form a sticky, colorless "plaque" on teeth. Brushing and flossing help get rid of plaque. ... can result in gum damage and loss of teeth. Photos: Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Illustration: Krames Do you have ...

  6. Congenital hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Abduljabbar, Mohammad A; Afifi, Ashraf M

    2012-01-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is defined as thyroid hormone deficiency present at birth. Babies with CH who are not identified and treated promptly develop severe mental retardation. Most of the babies with CH do not manifest the typical known signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism, and this is most likely due to transplacental passage of some maternal thyroid hormone in addition to some residual neonatal thyroid function, as might be seen with thyroid hypoplasia, an ectopic gland, or mild dyshormonogenesis. Screening for CH has enabled the virtual eradication of the devastating effects of mental retardation due to sporadic CH in most developed countries of the world. CH is classified into permanent and transient forms, which in turn can be divided into primary, secondary, or peripheral etiologies. Permanent CH refers to a persistent deficiency of thyroid hormone that requires life-long treatment. Transient CH refers to a temporary deficiency of thyroid hormone that is discovered at birth but recovers to normal in the first few months or years of life. In the last several decades, there have been exciting advances in our understanding of fetal and neonatal thyroid physiology. In addition, advances in molecular biology have helped in understanding the early events in thyroid gland embryogenesis, mechanisms of thyroid action in the brain, the molecular basis for many of the inborn errors of thyroid hormonogenesis, and thyroid hormone action. However, many questions and challenges are still not answered. For example, the increasing numbers of surviving small and premature neonates with abnormalities in thyroid function need definite diagnostic criteria and whether they require medical therapy. Another challenge is the dilemma of finding the best screening methodology that is sensitive and cost effective. PMID:22570946

  7. Congenital myopathies

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Irene; Scoto, Mariacristina; Manzur, Adnan Y.; Robb, Stephanie A.; Maggi, Lorenzo; Gowda, Vasantha; Cullup, Thomas; Yau, Michael; Phadke, Rahul; Sewry, Caroline; Jungbluth, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the natural history of congenital myopathies (CMs) due to different genotypes. Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional study based on case-note review of 125 patients affected by CM, followed at a single pediatric neuromuscular center, between 1984 and 2012. Results: Genetic characterization was achieved in 99 of 125 cases (79.2%), with RYR1 most frequently implicated (44/125). Neonatal/infantile onset was observed in 76%. At birth, 30.4% required respiratory support, and 25.2% nasogastric feeding. Twelve percent died, mainly within the first year, associated with mutations in ACTA1, MTM1, or KLHL40. All RYR1-mutated cases survived and did not require long-term ventilator support including those with severe neonatal onset; however, recessive cases were more likely to require gastrostomy insertion (p = 0.0028) compared with dominant cases. Independent ambulation was achieved in 74.1% of all patients; 62.9% were late walkers. Among ambulant patients, 9% eventually became wheelchair-dependent. Scoliosis of variable severity was reported in 40%, with 1/3 of (both ambulant and nonambulant) patients requiring surgery. Bulbar involvement was present in 46.4% and required gastrostomy placement in 28.8% (at a mean age of 2.7 years). Respiratory impairment of variable severity was a feature in 64.1%; approximately half of these patients required nocturnal noninvasive ventilation due to respiratory failure (at a mean age of 8.5 years). Conclusions: We describe the long-term outcome of a large cohort of patients with CMs. While overall course is stable, we demonstrate a wide clinical spectrum with motor deterioration in a subset of cases. Severity in the neonatal/infantile period is critical for survival, with clear genotype-phenotype correlations that may inform future counseling. PMID:25428687

  8. Take Care of Your Teeth and Gums

    MedlinePlus

    ... Brush your teeth 2 times a day with fluoride (“FLOOR-ide”) toothpaste. Floss between your teeth every ... a toothbrush with soft bristles and toothpaste with fluoride. Fluoride is a mineral that helps protect teeth ...

  9. Take Care of Your Child's Teeth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Baby teeth hold space for adult teeth. Take care of your child’s teeth to protect your child from tooth decay (cavities). Tooth decay can: Cause your child pain Make it hard for your child to chew ...

  10. Congenital Heart Information Network

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart defects. Important Notice The Congenital Heart Information Network website is temporarily out of service. Please join ... and Uwe Baemayr for The Congenital Heart Information Network Exempt organization under Section 501(c)3. Copyright © ...

  11. Giant congenital nevus

    MedlinePlus

    ... A congenital pigmented or melanocytic nevus is a dark-colored, often hairy, patch of skin. A congenital ... rare. Symptoms A nevus will appear as a dark-colored patch with any of the following: Brown ...

  12. Congenital heart disease

    MedlinePlus

    Congenital heart disease is a problem with the heart's structure and function that is present at birth. ... Congenital heart disease (CHD) can describe a number of different problems affecting the heart. It is the most common ...

  13. Adult Congenital Heart Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... to ACHA Search The futures of adults with congenital heart disease made brighter by their pasts Get Involved 2016 ... conference theme is "The Changing Landscape of Adult Congenital Heart Disease." Join Us Help us improve the quality of ...

  14. Congenital sternoclavicular dermoid sinus.

    PubMed

    Willaert, Annelore; Bruninx, Liesje; Hens, Greet; Hauben, Esther; Devriendt, Koen; Vander Poorten, Vincent

    2016-02-01

    We report a case series of 8 patients, presenting with a congenital sinus in the region of the sternoclavicular joint. This rare malformation has only been reported in the Japanese dermatological literature under the name of "congenital dermoid fistula of the anterior chest region". It has to be distinguished from other congenital anomalies and requires complete excision. PMID:26810293

  15. Congenital Intralabyrinthine Cholesteatoma

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Sanjay; Prasad, Kiran; Azadarmaki, Roya

    2014-01-01

    A patient with a congenital intralabyrinthine cholesteatoma is presented. High-resolution computerized tomographic scans and intraoperative photomicrographs display features of intralabyrinthine extension. We discuss pathogenetic theories for the development of congenital intralabyrinthine cholesteatoma. The distinction of this condition from congenital cholesteatoma with labyrinthine erosion is discussed. PMID:25057421

  16. Dentistry to the rescue of missing children: A review

    PubMed Central

    Vij, Nitika; Kochhar, Gulsheen Kaur; Chachra, Sanjay; Kaur, Taranjot

    2016-01-01

    Today's society is becoming increasingly unsafe for children: we frequently hear about new incidents of missing children, which lead to emotional trauma for the loved ones and expose systemic failures of law and order. Parents can take extra precautions to ensure the safety of their children by educating them about ways to protect themselves and keep important records of the child such as updated color photographs, fingerprints, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) samples, etc., handy. However, in spite of all efforts, the problem of missing children still remains. Developments in the field of dentistry have empowered dentists with various tools and techniques to play a pivotal role in tracing a missing child. One such tool is Toothprints, a patented arch-shaped thermoplastic dental impression wafer developed by Dr. David Tesini, a paediatric dentist from Massachusetts. Toothprints enables a unique identification of the missing children not only through the bite impression but also through salivary DNA. Besides the use of Toothprints, a dentist can assist investigating agencies in identifying the missing children in multiple ways, including postmortem dental profiling, labeled dental fixtures, DNA extraction from teeth, and serial number engraving on the children's teeth. More importantly, all these tools cause minimal inconvenience to the individual, making a dentist's role in tracking a missing child even more significant. Thus, the simple discipline of maintaining timely dental records with the help of their dentists can save potential hassles for the parents in the future. PMID:27051216

  17. Dentistry to the rescue of missing children: A review.

    PubMed

    Vij, Nitika; Kochhar, Gulsheen Kaur; Chachra, Sanjay; Kaur, Taranjot

    2016-01-01

    Today's society is becoming increasingly unsafe for children: we frequently hear about new incidents of missing children, which lead to emotional trauma for the loved ones and expose systemic failures of law and order. Parents can take extra precautions to ensure the safety of their children by educating them about ways to protect themselves and keep important records of the child such as updated color photographs, fingerprints, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) samples, etc., handy. However, in spite of all efforts, the problem of missing children still remains. Developments in the field of dentistry have empowered dentists with various tools and techniques to play a pivotal role in tracing a missing child. One such tool is Toothprints, a patented arch-shaped thermoplastic dental impression wafer developed by Dr. David Tesini, a paediatric dentist from Massachusetts. Toothprints enables a unique identification of the missing children not only through the bite impression but also through salivary DNA. Besides the use of Toothprints, a dentist can assist investigating agencies in identifying the missing children in multiple ways, including postmortem dental profiling, labeled dental fixtures, DNA extraction from teeth, and serial number engraving on the children's teeth. More importantly, all these tools cause minimal inconvenience to the individual, making a dentist's role in tracking a missing child even more significant. Thus, the simple discipline of maintaining timely dental records with the help of their dentists can save potential hassles for the parents in the future. PMID:27051216

  18. [Epidemiology of teeth hypersensitivity].

    PubMed

    Lutskaia, I K; Zinovenko, O G; Kovalenko, I P

    2015-01-01

    A clinical examination of 98 patients aged 20 to 75 years was carried out to identifyclinical and epidemiological features of hard tooth tissueshypersensitivity. The survey found out what stimuli (cold, hot, sour, mechanical, chemical) cause the appearance of dental hyperesthesia. The detailed survey of the affected area aimed to determine the presence of dental caries, gingival recession, wedge-shaped defects, erosions, microcracks and chipped enamel, as well as wear of the tooth crown. Forty-threepatients of 98 (43.88%) had tooth sensitivity. Most affected age group was 25-34 years (33%). Among patients studied with hyperesthesia 86% complained of pain. It was establishedthat dental hyperesthesia most often causes an intense, but quickly passing pain response, wherein upon exposure of several types of stimuli. Teeth with high sensitivity showed signs of abrasion (74.1%), most often--on the vestibular surface (44.4%). Patients under 45 years had notable cracks and wedge-shaped defects. In patients 45 years and older cracks and increased abrasion of hard dental tissues was seen. PMID:26271696

  19. Teeth white and fair.

    PubMed

    Reed, R V

    1998-03-01

    Most dentists practicing today, in fact most dentists living today, accept porcelain, in one form or another, as a fundamental determinant of dental armamentarium. It must be remembered, however, that porcelain, in spite of some admonishments by the Chicken Littles, has not and is not about to fall like the sky. A great amount of purpose, intellect, and dedication proffered by porcelain's protagonists was the springboard that eventually led to near total acceptance of that product by dentists and the public they treated. Porcelain's introduction, however, was not accompanied by a professional unity that orchestrated its arrival with a blare of bugles and a ruffle of drums. Rather, the early proponents and opponents churned and swiped at each other for some decades. Teeth White and Fair recounts the origin, struggle, and growth of an early porcelain manufacturing company; the diversity of the men involved in the production of porcelain; the profession's dichotomy regarding the acceptance of porcelain; and the details of manufacture of that then embryonic dental product. Finally, the reader is given a peek at evolving cosmetic oriented materials that desire to garner ascension as valued players on the stages of cosmetic dental restorative materials. PMID:9709660

  20. Associations between the number of natural teeth and renal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hye Min; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yong Gyu; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between the number of natural teeth and measures of kidney dysfunction, such as urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) and estimated glomerular filtration (eGFR) rate, using nationally representative data.The data used were from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with cross-sectional design, which was conducted between 2011 and 2012; the sample analyzed in this study consisted of a total of 10,388 respondents, each of whom was 19 years or older and had no missing outcome variables. The association between the number of natural teeth and kidney function was assessed by multiple logistic regression and model was adjusted for age, sex, waist conference, smoking, drinking, exercise, education, income, frequency of tooth brushing per day, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, urinary ACR, and eGFR.The mean age, body mass index, and waist circumference were significantly higher among those with lower kidney function (urinary ACR ≥30 mg/g and eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73m). Urinary ACR and eGFR were associated with loss of natural teeth. As urinary ACR increased, the number of natural teeth decreased accordingly. Conversely, the number of natural teeth increased with an increase in eGFR.This study showed that the number of natural teeth is inversely associated with the presence of kidney disease. Severity of tooth loss may be considered an independent risk indicator for kidney disease among Koreans. More epidemiological studies are warranted to investigate the role of tooth loss in kidney disease, to confirm this relationship and to test possible underlying mechanisms. PMID:27559974

  1. Do Fluoride Ions Protect Teeth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkin, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Begins with the procedure and results from an investigation on the effect of fluoride on the reaction between eggshell (substitute teeth) and dilute ethanoic acid. Describes an elegantly modified and improvised apparatus. (DDR)

  2. Taking Care of Your Teeth

    MedlinePlus

    ... but it won't remove the plaque and particles of food between your teeth, under the gumline, ... frequency sound waves to loosen plaque deposits. The particles are then rinsed off with water. After cleaning, ...

  3. Restoring primary anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Waggoner, William F

    2002-01-01

    A variety of esthetic restorative materials are available for restoring primary incisors. Knowledge of the specific strengths, weakness, and properties of each material will enhance the clinician's ability to make the best choice of selection for each individual situation. Intracoronal restorations of primary teeth may utilize resin composites, glass ionomer cements, resin-modified ionomers, or polyacid-modified resins. Each has distinct advantages and disadvantages and the clinical conditions of placement may be a strong determining factor as to which material is utilized. Full coronal restoration of primary incisors may be indicated for a number of reasons. Crowns available for restoration of primary incisors include those that are directly bonded onto the tooth, which generally are a resin material, and those crowns that are luted onto the tooth and are some type of stainless steel crown. However, due to lack of supporting clinical data, none of the crowns can be said to be superior to the others under all circumstances. Though caries in the mandibular region is rare, restorative solutions for mandibular incisors are needed. Neither stainless steel crowns nor celluloid crown forms are made specifically for mandibular incisors. Many options exist to repair carious primary incisors, but there is insufficient controlled, clinical data to suggest that one type of restoration is superior to another. This does not discount the fact that dentists have been using many of these crowns for years with much success. Operator preferences, esthetic demands by parents, the child's behavior, and moisture and hemorrhage control are all variables which affect the decision and ultimate outcome of whatever restorative treatment is chosen. PMID:12412967

  4. [Ancient teeth: research on teeth and jaws from archaeological sites].

    PubMed

    Jelsma, J

    2016-05-01

    Archaeology aims to enhance our understanding of the human past. An archaeologist devotes him- or herself to material remains, most often from the earth. The best sources of information about human behaviour and the earlier conditions of life for human beings are gravesites. In addition to being a source of cultural information, well-preserved skeletons offer vast possibilities for biochemical and genetic research. Teeth in particular can provide a treasure trove of information about the lives of our ancestors. With DNA analysis, gender and genetic relationships can be determined, however, the surface of the teeth also provides information about gender, age and genetic relationships and, of course, about the use of the teeth. New discoveries are being made and new (bio-)archaeological analyses are being carried out all the time. PMID:27166454

  5. 3 Dimensional Diagnosis Unravelling Prognosis of Multiple Impacted Teeth – A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Gopinath, Adusumilli; Reddy, Naveen Admala; Rohra, Mayur G

    2013-01-01

    Impaction of teeth results from the interplay between nature and nurture. Radiographs play an important role in assessment of both the location and the typing of impacted teeth. In general, periapical, occlusal, and/or panoramic radiographs are sufficient for providing the information required by the clinician. Recent advances in diagnostic imaging enables to visualize , diagnose and prognose the treatment outcome of the impacted teeth. This case report discusses the value of cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) for evaluation of the critical parameters like bone thickness , tooth position and tooth morphology of multiple impacted teeth by 3 dimensional radiography – CBCT. In this report, we present a case of 27-year-old male patient with multiple missing teeth. Radiographs revealed multiple impacted permanent teeth, though medical and family history along with physical examination was not suggestive of any syndromes. Intraoral periapical radiograph, Orthopantomograph, Occlusal radiograph, Cone beam computed tomography were taken for the same patient to determine the exact position of multiple impacted teeth and prognose the treatment plan with the associated factors to impacted teeth. Cone beam computed tomography is an accurate modality to localize and determine the prognosing factors associated with multiple impacted teeth. Three-dimensional volumetric imaging might provide information for improved diagnosis and treatment plans, and ultimately result in more successful treatment outcomes and better care for patients. How to cite this article: Gopinath A, Reddy NA, Rohra MG. 3 Dimensional Diagnosis Unravelling Prognosis of Multiple Impacted Teeth – A Case Report. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(4):78-83. PMID:24155625

  6. Wear of artificial denture teeth by use of toothbrushes. Part 1: Abrasive wear of anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Y; Ohtani, K; Maejima, K; Morikawa, M; Matsuzu, M; Nagai, E; Toyoma, H; Ohwa, M; Ohki, K; Kaketani, M

    1990-12-01

    High-strength denture teeth (HS teeth) were developed in order to improve the hardness and wear resistance of conventional plastic denture teeth (PL teeth), while retaining their feature of easy occlusal adjustment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the abrasive wear resistance of HS teeth. We conducted wear tests and measured surface roughness using six types of anterior artificial teeth, i.e., three types of HS teeth and three types of PL teeth, the latter serving as the control. The results of the toothbrush abrasion test revealed that the HS teeth had about 5 times greater wear resistance than the PL teeth. It was also found that the type of artificial teeth and the number of abrasive wear-testing strokes had a significant (P less than 0.05) influence on the surface roughness of artificial teeth. PMID:2074493

  7. Genetics Home Reference: congenital hypothyroidism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions congenital hypothyroidism congenital hypothyroidism Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Congenital hypothyroidism is a partial or complete loss of function ...

  8. Management of an infant having natal teeth

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Vishal; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Nayak, Prathibha Anand; Bafna, Yash

    2013-01-01

    Eruption of teeth at or immediately after birth is a relatively rare phenomenon. These teeth are known as ‘natal’ teeth if present at birth and ‘neonatal’ teeth if they erupt during the first 30 days of life. Natal teeth might resemble normal primary dentition in size and shape; however, the teeth are often smaller, conical and yellowish and have hypoplastic enamel and dentin with poor or absent root formation. Complications include difficulty and discomfort during suckling, sublingual ulceration, laceration of the mother’s breasts and aspiration of the teeth. These situations would warrant extraction. If the tooth does not interfere with breast feeding and is otherwise asymptomatic, no treatment is necessary. Negative cultural attitudes towards natal teeth demand good parental counselling and vigilant management in relation to child protection. Both general practice dentists and paediatric dental specialists may be involved in the supervision or treatment of patients with natal and neonatal teeth. PMID:23737593

  9. Giant congenital nevus

    MedlinePlus

    A congenital pigmented or melanocytic nevus is a dark-colored, often hairy, patch of skin. A congenital ... A nevus will appear as a dark-colored patch with any of the ... Hair Regular or uneven borders Smaller affected areas near the ...

  10. Congenital heat disease

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, C.B.; Silverman, N.H.; Kersting-Somerhoff, B.A.

    1990-01-01

    The book covers the tomographic anatomy of the normal and congenitally malformed heart and tomographic imaging of the normal heat. It then compares echocardiographic evaluation and the use of MR imaging in the diagnosis and evaluation of individual congenital cardiac malformations.

  11. Congenital CMV Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... CMV Babies Born with CMV (Congenital CMV Infection) Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Detection and Intervention Helping Children With Congenital CMV Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I ...

  12. Working with Missing Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acock, Alan C.

    2005-01-01

    Less than optimum strategies for missing values can produce biased estimates, distorted statistical power, and invalid conclusions. After reviewing traditional approaches (listwise, pairwise, and mean substitution), selected alternatives are covered including single imputation, multiple imputation, and full information maximum likelihood…

  13. Replacing a Missing Tooth

    MedlinePlus

    ... majority of patients with clefts will require full orthodontic treatment, especially if the cleft has passed through ... later replacement of the missing lateral incisor. During orthodontic treatment, an artificial tooth may be attached to ...

  14. The missing link.

    PubMed

    Dracup, Kathleen

    2002-06-01

    The uniqueness of nursing research is derived from the philosophical view of the individual as a biopsychosocial being. Nurse scientists are prepared to illuminate the linkages among the biophysiological, psychological, and social domains, and this study is much enhanced by the increasing availability of valid and reliable biomarkers. Researchers need to develop expertise in the use of biomarkers and secure appropriate funding for their use. Missing links may be missing no longer. PMID:12122766

  15. The genetic basis of inherited anomalies of the teeth. Part 2: syndromes with significant dental involvement.

    PubMed

    Bailleul-Forestier, Isabelle; Berdal, Ariane; Vinckier, Frans; de Ravel, Thomy; Fryns, Jean Pierre; Verloes, Alain

    2008-01-01

    Teeth are specialized structural components of the craniofacial skeleton. Developmental defects occur either alone or in combination with other birth defects. In this paper, we review the dental anomalies in several multiple congenital anomaly (MCA) syndromes, in which the dental component is pivotal in the recognition of the phenotype and/or the molecular basis of the disorder is known. We will consider successively syndromic forms of amelogenesis imperfecta or enamel defects, dentinogenesis imperfecta (i.e. osteogenesis imperfecta) and other dentine anomalies. Focusing on dental aspects, we will review a selection of MCA syndromes associated with teeth number and/or shape anomalies. A better knowledge of the dental phenotype may contribute to an earlier diagnosis of some MCA syndromes involving teeth anomalies. They may serve as a diagnostic indicator or help confirm a syndrome diagnosis. PMID:18599376

  16. Keeping Your Child's Teeth Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... colored material called amalgam (a special mix of metals) was once the substance of choice for most fillings in permanent teeth. But now, other materials like composite resins are becoming popular. Resins bond to ... — a mouth filled with metal wires and braces — is a relic of the ...

  17. Whole genome sequencing reveals novel non-synonymous mutation in ectodysplasin A (EDA) associated with non-syndromic X-linked dominant congenital tooth agenesis.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Tanmoy; Bansal, Rajesh; Das, Parimal

    2014-01-01

    Congenital tooth agenesis in human is characterized by failure of tooth development during tooth organogenesis. 300 genes in mouse and 30 genes in human so far have been known to regulate tooth development. However, candidature of only 5 genes viz. PAX9, MSX1, AXIN2, WNT10A and EDA have been experimentally established for congenitally missing teeth like hypodontia and oligodontia. In this study an Indian family with multiple congenital tooth agenesis was identified. Pattern of inheritance was apparently autosomal dominant type with a rare possibility to be X-linked. Whole genome sequencing of two affected individuals was carried out which revealed 119 novel non-synonymous single nucleotide variations (SNVs) distributed among 117 genes. Out of these only one variation (c.956G>T) located at exon 9 of X-linked EDA gene was considered as pathogenic and validated among all the affected and unaffected family members and unrelated controls. This variation leads to p.Ser319Ile change in the TNF homology domain of EDA (transcript variant 1) protein. In silico analysis predicts that this Ser319 is well conserved across different vertebrate species and a part of putative receptor binding site. Structure based homology modeling predicts that this amino acid residue along with four other amino acid residues nearby, those when mutated known to cause selective tooth agenesis, form a cluster that may have functional significance. Taken together these results suggest that c.956G>T (p.Ser319Ile) mutation plausibly reduces the receptor binding activity of EDA leading to distinct tooth agenesis in this family. PMID:25203534

  18. Whole Genome Sequencing Reveals Novel Non-Synonymous Mutation in Ectodysplasin A (EDA) Associated with Non-Syndromic X-Linked Dominant Congenital Tooth Agenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Tanmoy; Bansal, Rajesh; Das, Parimal

    2014-01-01

    Congenital tooth agenesis in human is characterized by failure of tooth development during tooth organogenesis. 300 genes in mouse and 30 genes in human so far have been known to regulate tooth development. However, candidature of only 5 genes viz. PAX9, MSX1, AXIN2, WNT10A and EDA have been experimentally established for congenitally missing teeth like hypodontia and oligodontia. In this study an Indian family with multiple congenital tooth agenesis was identified. Pattern of inheritance was apparently autosomal dominant type with a rare possibility to be X-linked. Whole genome sequencing of two affected individuals was carried out which revealed 119 novel non-synonymous single nucleotide variations (SNVs) distributed among 117 genes. Out of these only one variation (c.956G>T) located at exon 9 of X-linked EDA gene was considered as pathogenic and validated among all the affected and unaffected family members and unrelated controls. This variation leads to p.Ser319Ile change in the TNF homology domain of EDA (transcript variant 1) protein. In silico analysis predicts that this Ser319 is well conserved across different vertebrate species and a part of putative receptor binding site. Structure based homology modeling predicts that this amino acid residue along with four other amino acid residues nearby, those when mutated known to cause selective tooth agenesis, form a cluster that may have functional significance. Taken together these results suggest that c.956G>T (p.Ser319Ile) mutation plausibly reduces the receptor binding activity of EDA leading to distinct tooth agenesis in this family. PMID:25203534

  19. Cracked Teeth: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Lubisich, Erinne B.; Hilton, Thomas J.; FERRACANE, JACK

    2013-01-01

    Although cracked teeth are a common problem for patients and dentists, there is a dearth of evidence-based guidelines on how to prevent, diagnose, and treat cracks in teeth. The purpose of this article is to review the literature to establish what evidence exists regarding the risk factors for cracked teeth and their prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:20590967

  20. Congenital myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Nizamani, Noor Bakht; Talpur, Khalid Iqbal; Memon, Mariya Nazish

    2013-07-01

    Congenital myasthenia gravis is caused by genetic mutations affecting neuromuscular transmission, characterized by muscle weakness usually starting in childhood. A two and a half years old male child presented with bilateral ptosis and hoarseness of voice. The symptoms progressed giving the clinical impression of congenital myasthenia gravis. A series of tests were done including Ice Pack Test, acetylcholine receptor antibody test, trial of steroids and finally neostigmine test which confirmed the diagnosis. This case illustrates the challenges in diagnosing congenital myasthenia gravis and highlights the potential benefits of neostigmine test in its diagnosis. PMID:23823963

  1. Current opinions concerning the restoration of endodontically treated teeth: basic principles

    PubMed Central

    VȦrlan, C; VȦrlan, V; Bodnar, D; Suciu, I

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this general article is to present a survey of the current knowledge about the clinical approach of restoring endodontically treated teeth. The best way to restore teeth after root canal treatment has long been and still is a controversial subject of debate to this day. The clinical approach of restoring endodontically treated teeth needs taking into consideration several issues: aims of coronal restoration, criteria for establishing the various modalities of coronal restoration, clinical solutions of restoring teeth after endodontic treatment, guidelines regarding restorative materials and techniques, possibilities and limits of restoration using direct adhesive materials and techniques. The aims of coronal restoration of endodontically treated teeth are generally considered to be the following ones: to prevent recontamination of the root canal system and / or periapical space, to replace missing hard dental tissues and to restore coronal morphology and functions, to provide the necessary strength for the restoration/tooth complex in order to withstand functional stress and prevent crown and/or root fracture. The criteria for establishing the modalities of coronal restoration for endodontically treated teeth are: amount and quality of remaining hard dental tissues, topography and coronal morphology of the tooth, functional occlusal forces that the restoration/tooth complex has to withstand, restoring requirements in order to include the treated tooth in a comprehensive oral rehabilitation treatment plan, esthetic requirements. PMID:20108535

  2. Lateral incisor agenesis, canine impaction and characteristics of supernumerary teeth in a South European male population

    PubMed Central

    Delli, Konstantina; Livas, Christos; Bornstein, Michael M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of lateral incisor agenesis impacted canines and supernumerary teeth in a young adult male population. Materials and Methods: The panoramic radiographs of 1745 military students (mean age: 18.6 ± 0.52 years) who attended the Center of Aviation Medicine of the Armed Forces of Greece during the period 1997-2011 were initially analyzed for lateral incisor agenesis by two observers. After exclusion of the known orthodontic cases, a subgroup of 1636 examinees (mean age: 18.6 ± 0.44 years) was evaluated for canine impaction and supernumerary teeth. Results: Twenty-eight missing lateral incisors were observed in 22 military students, indicating an incidence of 1.3% in the investigated population. No lateral incisor agenesis was detected in the mandibular arch. A prevalence rate of 0.8% was determined for canine impaction in the sample of young adults. The majority of impacted teeth (86.7%) were diagnosed in the maxillary arch. Thirty-five supernumerary teeth were observed in 24 examinees (prevalence rate: 1.5%). The ratio of supernumerary teeth located in the maxilla versus the mandible was 2.2:1. The most common type of supernumerary tooth was the upper distomolar. Conclusion: The prevalence of lateral incisor agenesis, canine impaction, and supernumerary teeth ranged from 0.8 to 1.5% in the sample of male Greek military students. PMID:24926206

  3. Missed opportunities in crystallography.

    PubMed

    Dauter, Zbigniew; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2014-09-01

    Scrutinized from the perspective of time, the giants in the history of crystallography more than once missed a nearly obvious chance to make another great discovery, or went in the wrong direction. This review analyzes such missed opportunities focusing on macromolecular crystallographers (using Perutz, Pauling, Franklin as examples), although cases of particular historical (Kepler), methodological (Laue, Patterson) or structural (Pauling, Ramachandran) relevance are also described. Linus Pauling, in particular, is presented several times in different circumstances, as a man of vision, oversight, or even blindness. His example underscores the simple truth that also in science incessant creativity is inevitably connected with some probability of fault. PMID:24814223

  4. Adult Congenital Heart Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... survivable, manageable, yet in the routine years between infancy and adulthood, sometimes forgettable. The Adult Congenital Heart ... understand the continuum of the disease from its infancy. The Adult Congential Heart Association brings together valuable ...

  5. Congenital nephrotic syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be high. There may be signs of malnutrition. A urinalysis reveals fat and large amounts of ... The disorder often leads to infection, malnutrition, and kidney failure. ... die within the first year. Congenital nephrotic syndrome ...

  6. Congenital heart disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... about genetic counseling and screening if you have a family history of cogenital heart disease. ... Fraser CD, Carberry KE. Congenital heart disease. In: Townsend CM ... Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  7. [Conservative restoration of pulpectomized teeth].

    PubMed

    Lasfargues, J J

    1990-04-01

    In endodontic treatment of teeth, partial or "conservative" crown reconstructions are clinically acceptable where loss of substance is limited and recourse to radicular pivots is contraindicated. Such reconstructions bring into play a variety of currently available biomaterials, including those inserted in the plastic phase. They make it possible to delay a prosthetic solution (full crown restoration) without impinging on the conservation of the devitalized tooth. PMID:2135781

  8. Iron deposition in modern and archaeological teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, A.-M. M.; Siegele, R.

    2014-09-01

    Iron surface concentrations and profile maps were measured on the enamel of archaeological and modern teeth to determine how iron is deposited in tooth enamel and if it was affected by the post-mortem environment. Teeth from Australian children who died in the second half of the 19th century were compared with contemporary teeth extracted for orthodontic purposes. Surface analysis of the teeth was performed using the 3 MV Van Der Graff Accelerator at The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Sydney, Australia. A small sample of teeth were then cut in the mid sagittal plane and analysed using ANSTO High Energy Heavy Ion Microprobe. Maps and linear profiles were produced showing the distribution of iron across the enamel. Results show that both the levels and distribution of iron in archaeological teeth is quite different to contemporary teeth, raising the suggestion that iron has been significantly altered by the post-mortem environment.

  9. Congenital Erythropoietic Porphyria with Undescended Testis

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Sandeep; Harith, Arun Kumar; Sodhi, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary porphyrias are a group of metabolic disorders of heme biosynthesis pathway that are characterized by acute neurovisceral symptoms, skin lesions, or both. Congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP) is an extremely rare disease with a mutation in the gene that codes for uroporphyrinogen III synthase leading to accumulation of porphyrin in different tissues and marked cutaneous photosensitivity. We report a case of CEP with infancy onset blistering, photosensitivity, red colored urine, and teeth along with scarring. Examination revealed an undescended testis of the left side. Mutation analysis revealed mutation in the uroporphyrinogen III synthase gene (UROS) resulting in c. 56 A > G (Tyr19Cys). The presence of undescended testis with a rare mutation in a case of CEP which itself is an extremely rare condition make the case interesting. PMID:27512208

  10. Miss Dove Rediviva.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Richard A.

    1995-01-01

    Suggests that a way out of the current malaise of American education may be to locate educational excellence in accessible American fiction. Discusses Frances Gray Patton's "Good Morning, Miss Dove," in which the central character is an elementary school geography teacher. (RS)

  11. OPAC Missing Record Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Karl E.

    1996-01-01

    When the Higher Education Library Information Network of Rhode Island transferred members' bibliographic data into a shared online public access catalog (OPAC), 10% of the University of Rhode Island's monograph records were missing. This article describes the consortium's attempts to retrieve records from the database and the effectiveness of…

  12. Teething

    MedlinePlus

    ... Accessed November 20, 2014. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. Guideline on infant oral health care. Revised 2014. Available at: www.aapd.org/media/Policies_Guidelines/G_infantOralHealthCare.pdf. Accessed November 20, 2014.

  13. Genetics of Congenital Cataract.

    PubMed

    Pichi, Francesco; Lembo, Andrea; Serafino, Massimiliano; Nucci, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Congenital cataract is a type of cataract that presents at birth or during early childhood, and it is one of the most easily treatable causes of visual impairment and blindness during infancy, with an estimated prevalence of 1-6 cases per 10,000 live births. Approximately 50% of all congenital cataract cases may have a genetic cause, and such cases are quite heterogeneous. Although congenital nuclear cataract can be caused by multiple factors, genetic mutation remains the most common cause. All three types of Mendelian inheritance have been reported for cataract; however, autosomal dominant transmission seems to be the most frequent. The transparency and high refractive index of the lens are achieved by the precise architecture of fiber cells and homeostasis of the lens proteins in terms of their concentrations, stabilities, and supramolecular organization. Research on hereditary congenital cataract has led to the identification of several classes of candidate genes that encode proteins such crystallins, lens-specific connexins, aquaporin, cytoskeletal structural proteins, and developmental regulators. In this review, we highlight the identified genetic mutations that account for congenital nuclear cataract. PMID:27043388

  14. Problems of supernumerary teeth, hyperdontia or dentes supernumerarii.

    PubMed

    Proff, Peter; Fanghänel, Jochen; Allegrini, Sergio; Bayerlein, Thomas; Gedrange, Tomas

    2006-03-01

    Supernumerary teeth are extra teeth or toothlike structures which may have either erupted or unerupted in addition to the 20 deciduous teeth and the 32 permanent teeth. This article provides an overview of frequency, distribution and classification of supernumerary teeth. The etiology of supernumerary teeth is still unknown, yet various theories have been presented based on epidemiological studies. Four clinical cases representing the possible manifestations of supernumerary teeth are discussed. PMID:16551014

  15. Treatment options for the replacement of missing mandibular incisors.

    PubMed

    Fleigel, Jeffrey D; Salmon, Cade A; Piper, James M

    2011-07-01

    The replacement of a mandibular incisor is a dental treatment warranting special consideration. Some of the challenges associated with the anterior mandible are limited space, challenging surrounding anatomy, and tough esthetic requirements. Proper diagnosis and treatment planning may require a multidisciplinary approach to successfully meet the demands of replacing a missing tooth in this sextant. Several treatment options currently exist for mandibular incisor replacement. These options include (1) resin-bonded fixed dental prostheses (RBFDPs), (2) orthodontic treatment, (3) full-veneer fixed dental prostheses (FDPs), (4) dental implants for single-tooth replacement, (5) possible extraction of one or more incisors and restoration with implant-supported FDPs, (6) possible extraction of one or more teeth and restoration with FDPs from #22 to 27, (7) possible extraction of one or more teeth and restoration with removable dental prostheses (RDPs). This manuscript outlines the various treatment options for the replacement of mandibular incisors and discusses benefits and drawbacks of each. PMID:21631631

  16. Study of teeth phosphorescence detection technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, De-Fang; Wang, Shui-ping; Yang, Zhen-jiang; An, Yuying; Huang, Li-Zi; Liang, Yan

    1995-05-01

    On the basis of research and analysis into optical properties of teeth, this paper introduces the techniques to transform teeth phosphorescence excited by ultraviolet light into electric signals and following steps for data collection, analysis and processing. Also presented are the methods to diagnose pulp-vitality, decayed teeth, and, especially, infant caries and pre-caries diseases. By measurement of a tooth's temperature, other stomatic illnesses can be diagnosed.

  17. Adults with Congenital Heart Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Web Booklet: Adults With Congenital Heart Defects Updated:Apr ... topic from the list below to learn more. Web Booklet: Adults With Congenital Heart Defects Introduction Introduction: ...

  18. Impact of Congenital Heart Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... complex lesions, limitations are common. Some children with congenital heart disease have developmental delay or other learning difficulties. What ... defects? Successful treatment requires highly specialized care. Severe congenital heart disease requires extensive financial resources both in and out ...

  19. Congenital heart defect - corrective surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... born with one or more heart defects has congenital heart disease . Surgery is needed if the defect could harm ... 2008 Guidelines for the Management of Adults with Congenital Heart Disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/ ...

  20. Congenital tracheobronchial stenosis.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Richard J; Butler, Colin R; Maughan, Elizabeth F; Elliott, Martin J

    2016-06-01

    Congenital tracheobronchial stenosis is a rare disease characterized by complete tracheal rings that can affect variable lengths of the tracheobronchial tree. It causes high levels of morbidity and mortality both due to the stenosis itself and to the high incidence of other associated congenital malformations. Successful management of this complex condition requires a highly individualized approach delivered by an experienced multidisciplinary team, which is best delivered within centralized units with the necessary diverse expertise. In such settings, surgical correction by slide tracheoplasty has become increasingly successful over the past 2 decades such that long-term survival now exceeds 88%, with normalization of quality of life scores for patients with non-syndrome-associated congenital tracheal stenosis. Careful assessment and planning of treatment strategies is of paramount importance for both successful management and the provision of patients and carers with accurate and realistic treatment counseling. PMID:27301600

  1. Congenital erythropoietic porphyria in an African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

    PubMed

    Wolff, Carlos; Corradini, Paulina; Cortés, Galaxia

    2005-06-01

    A 6-mo-old, male African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) presented with a history of pink urine and demonstrating pink-colored teeth and mild hepatomegaly on examination. Urinalysis revealed no physical, chemical, or cellular abnormalities other than a pink color and fluorescence under ultraviolet light (UV). Also under UV, intense fluorescence of teeth, feet, and spines was noted. Porphyria was suspected. Spectrophotometric evaluation of urine showed extremely elevated levels of copro- and uroporphyrins. Analysis of the urine by thin-layer chromatography showed an abnormal pattern of excreted porphyrin intermediates. Urine high-performance thin-layer chromatography showed that excreted porphyrins were 90-95% of the type-I isomeric form, suggestive of congenital erythropoietic porphyria. PMID:17323578

  2. Cavity lining in primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Ravi

    2016-03-01

    Data sourcesEmbase, Medline, Cochrane Central, Biomed Central and Open Grey databases and bibliographies of identified studies.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials investigating humans with primary caries lesions receiving operative treatment involving caries removal and restoration, with minimum two treatment groups comparing different cavity treatments before restoration (no lining versus lining) were included.Data extraction and synthesisData were extracted independently by two reviewers and study quality assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Random effect meta-analysis was carried out.ResultsThree studies involving a total of 89 patients were included. All the studies involved primary teeth and were conducted in Brazil. Follow-up periods ranged from 26-53 months. All the studies were considered to be at high risk of bias. Restoring the cavity without lining did not significantly affect the risk of failure. The quality of the evidence was low.ConclusionsCurrent evidence does not support strong recommendations to use or not to use liners after caries removal and before restoring cavities. Our findings are restricted to primary teeth after selective excavation, with only one liner (calcium hydroxide) being used for comparison. PMID:27012571

  3. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Speiser, Phyllis W.

    2015-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia associated with deficiency of steroid 21-hydroxylase is the most common inborn error in adrenal function and the most common cause of adrenal insufficiency in the pediatric age group. As patients now survive into adulthood, adult health-care providers must also be familiar with this condition. Over the past several years, F1000 has published numerous commentaries updating research and practical guidelines for this condition. The purposes of this review are to summarize basic information defining congenital adrenal hyperplasia and to highlight current knowledge and controversies in management. PMID:26339484

  4. Congenital midline nasofrontal masses.

    PubMed

    Saettele, Megan; Alexander, Alan; Markovich, Brian; Morelli, John; Lowe, Lisa H

    2012-09-01

    Congenital midline nasal masses are uncommon anomalies including nasal dermoids/epidermoids, nasal glial heterotopias and encephaloceles. These lesions can occur at the nasal bridge, extend intranasally and have intracranial extension with communication to the subarachnoid space. Therefore, accurate diagnosis of these lesions is critically important for presurgical planning and prevention of potentially fatal complications. Neuroimaging is essential in the evaluation of congenital midline nasal masses to identify the specific type of lesion, evaluate for the presence of intracranial extension and allow for appropriate presurgical planning. PMID:22648391

  5. Congenital hyperinsulinism with hyperammonaemia

    PubMed Central

    Pschibul, Alex; Müller, Jörg; Fahnenstich, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    Congenital hyperinsulinism is considered to be the most frequent cause of persistent recurrent hypoglycaemia in infants. The clinical presentation and response to pharmacological treatment may vary significantly depending on the underlying pathology. We report a case of a female infant with mild but early onset of recurrent hypoglycaemia. Metabolic workup revealed hyperinsulinism combined with mild hyperammonaemia as well as elevation of α-ketoglutarate in urine. Genetic testing demonstrated a de novo mutation in exon 7 of the glutamate dehydrogenase gene on chromosome 10. Episodes of hypoglycaemia responded to treatment with diazoxide. The differential diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment of congenital hyperinsulinism is discussed. PMID:22315648

  6. Congenital muscular torticollis

    PubMed Central

    Nilesh, Kumar; Mukherji, Srijon

    2013-01-01

    Congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) is a rare congenital musculoskeletal disorder characterized by unilateral shortening of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM). It presents in newborn infants or young children with reported incidence ranging from 0.3% to 2%. Owing to effective shortening of SCM on the involved side there is ipsilateral head tilt and contralateral rotation of the face and chin. This article reports a case of CMT in a 3½-year-old male child successfully managed by surgical release of the involved SCM followed by physiotherapy. PMID:24205484

  7. Congenital muscular torticollis.

    PubMed

    Nilesh, Kumar; Mukherji, Srijon

    2013-07-01

    Congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) is a rare congenital musculoskeletal disorder characterized by unilateral shortening of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM). It presents in newborn infants or young children with reported incidence ranging from 0.3% to 2%. Owing to effective shortening of SCM on the involved side there is ipsilateral head tilt and contralateral rotation of the face and chin. This article reports a case of CMT in a 3½-year-old male child successfully managed by surgical release of the involved SCM followed by physiotherapy. PMID:24205484

  8. Between the Cup and the Lip: Missed Dental Appointments

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Sandeep; Sharma, Meenakshi; Vasudeva, Suraj

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Missed appointments are an issue which have been very commonly noticed but overlooked in Indian dental society. Almost every dentist, general or specialized, private or public, has faced this problem in routine practice but very less research has been conducted on this issue in Asian countries. Aim The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and distribution of missed dental appointments among children and the reasons behind the non-attendance in department of paediatric and preventive dentistry. Materials and Methods Patients under 15 years of age who reported during the period March through August 2014 were included in this study. Attendance data and demographical data for patients was obtained from patient records and the hospital database. The type of treatment patients were to receive was gathered from the appointment diaries of staff, postgraduate students and undergraduates. A structured questionnaire regarding the most frequent reasons given by patients for not attending the scheduled appointment was also prepared. The data were analysed using descriptive analysis. Results Of the total 2294 patients 886 patients failed to come on their scheduled appointment. Percentage of patients who missed their appointments was 38.6%. A 38.2% of them required primary teeth pulp therapy. No significant differences was found between genders regarding the prevalence of missed dental appointments. Only 40% dentist witnessed that the most common reason for their patients to miss dental appointment was "no leave from school". Illness was the second frequent excuse heard by dentists (5/20= 25%) from their patients and attendants. Conclusion Missed dental appointment was found to be a common issue in paediatric age group. Counseling and motivation is required to be done at first dental visit to reduce the chances of missed appointment. PMID:27437344

  9. The congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders.

    PubMed

    Gutowski, N J; Chilton, J K

    2015-07-01

    Congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders (CCDD) encompass a number of related conditions and includes Duane syndrome, congenital fibrosis of the external ocular muscles, Möbius syndrome, congenital ptosis and hereditary congenital facial paresis. These are congenital disorders where the primary findings are non-progressive and are caused by developmental abnormalities of cranial nerves/nuclei with primary or secondary dysinnervation. Several CCDD genes have been found, which enhance our understanding of the mechanisms involved in brain stem development and axonal guidance. PMID:25633065

  10. Imaging of congenital pulmonary malformations.

    PubMed

    Praticò, Francesco Emanuele; Corrado, Michele; Della Casa, Giovanni; Parziale, Raffaele; Russo, Giuseppe; Gazzani, Silvia Eleonora; Rossi, Enrica; Borgia, Daniele; Mostardi, Maurizio; Bacchini, Emanuele; Cella, Simone; De Filippo, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Congenital pulmonary malformations represent a broad spectrum of anomalies that may result in varied clinical and pathologic pictures, ranging from recurrent pulmonary infections and acute respiratory distress syndrome, which require timely drug therapy, up to large space-occupying lesions needing surgical treatment. This classification includes three distinct anatomical and pathological entities, represented by Congenital Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation, Bronchopulmonary Sequestration and Congenital Lobar Emphysema. The final result in terms of embryological and fetal development of these alterations is a Congenital Lung Hypoplasia. Since even Bronchial Atresia, Pulmonary Bronchogenic Cysts and Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernias are due to Pulmonary Hypoplasia, these diseases will be discussed in this review (1, 2). PMID:27467867

  11. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... or inappropriately). Congenital adrenal hyperplasia can affect both boys and girls. About 1 in 10,000 to 18,000 ... penis but normal testes Well-developed muscles Both boys and girls will be tall as children, but much shorter ...

  12. Congenital alopecia universalis.

    PubMed

    Saraswat, P K; Laha, N N

    1989-09-01

    A case of congenital alopecia universalis without any other ectodermal defect and mental abnormality is described in a girl of eight years. There was no family history in any of the members. The child was born of a non-consanguineous marriage. PMID:2632563

  13. OPERATION FOR CONGENITAL CATARACT

    PubMed Central

    Barkan, Otto

    1949-01-01

    The traditional treatment of needling or discission of congenital cataract or membrane is open to many serious objections. Removal of the cataract by a modified form of linear extraction is recommended. The technique, with recent improvements which further assure extraction without hazard in early infancy, is described. PMID:18125222

  14. Congenital Midline Cervical Cleft

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva-Meyer, Javier; Glastonbury, Christine; Marcovici, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Congenital midline cervical cleft is a rare anomaly that typically presents in the neonatal period as a thin suprasternal vertical band of erythematous skin with a nipple-like projection superiorly, which may exude fluid. We present the clinical and pathophysiologic features and the imaging findings of this uncommon, and rarely described entity in a newborn girl. PMID:25926928

  15. A probable case of congenital syphilis from pre-Columbian Austria.

    PubMed

    Gaul, Johanna Sophia; Grossschmidt, Karl; Gusenbauer, Christian; Kanz, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the skeletal remains of a subadult from an archeological site in Austria. Radiocarbon dating and archeological attribution indicate that this individual is of pre-Columbian origin. Most of the skeleton was recovered, and only the teeth and the orbital roofs show changes. Dental defects such as the mulberry molar and a tapered, fang-like canine suggest a diagnosis of congenital syphilis. This is the first probable case of congenital syphilis from pre-Columbian Central Europe. Our findings contribute to the pre-Columbian theory, offering counter evidence to the assumption that syphilis was carried from Columbus' crew from the New to the Old World. PMID:26482430

  16. Disinfection of Human Teeth for Educational Purposes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, William H.; White, Robert S.

    1991-01-01

    A study investigated the efficacy of glutaraldehyde and several other disinfectants for disinfecting teeth to be used for teaching and research, as an alternative to autoclaving for teeth with amalgam restorations. Results indicate that formalin was the only disinfectant that penetrated tooth pulp chambers in effective antimicrobial…

  17. Relationship between premature loss of primary teeth with oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care, and previous caries experience.

    PubMed

    López-Gómez, Sandra Aremy; Villalobos-Rodelo, Juan José; Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Casanova-Rosado, Juan Fernando; Vallejos-Sánchez, Ana Alicia; Lucas-Rincón, Salvador Eduardo; Patiño-Marín, Nuria; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    We determine the relationship between premature loss of primary teeth and oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care and previous caries experience. This study focused on 833 Mexican schoolchildren aged 6-7. We performed an oral examination to determine caries experience and the simplified oral hygiene index. The dependent variable was the prevalence of at least one missing tooth (or indicated for extraction) of the primary dentition; this variable was coded as 0 = no loss of teeth and 1 = at least one lost primary tooth. The prevalence of at least one missing tooth was 24.7% (n = 206) (95% CI = 21.8-27.7). The variables that were associated with the prevalence of tooth loss (p < 0.05) included: the largest number of decayed teeth (OR = 1.11), the largest number of filled teeth (OR = 1.23), the worst oral hygiene (OR = 3.24), a lower frequency of brushing (OR = 1.60), an increased consumption of soda (OR = 1.89) and use of dental care (curative: OR = 2.83, preventive: OR = 1.93). This study suggests that the premature loss of teeth in the primary dentition is associated with oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care and previous caries experience in Mexican schoolchildren. These data provide relevant information for the design of preventive dentistry programs. PMID:26916132

  18. Sorption of tin on human teeth.

    PubMed

    Helal, A A; Alian, Gh A; Madbouly, H A

    2002-01-01

    The sorption of tin ions on human teeth from water and other drinks has been studied by the radioactive tracer technique using the isotope 113Sn (T(1/2) = 115.1 d) as a tracer. The tooth holds a minimum amount of tin from coffee and a maximum amount is held from water and from tea with sugar. The same technique was also used to study the desorption of tin already taken up on the teeth. It has been found that sorbed tin is hardly desorbed from the teeth specimens. The high uptake of tin on human teeth from various drinks showed that teeth act as a natural sieve holding trace elements. PMID:11768790

  19. Fracture resistance of posterior teeth restored with modern restorative materials

    PubMed Central

    Hamouda, Ibrahim M.; Shehata, Salah H.

    2011-01-01

    We studied the fracture resistance of maxillary premolars restored with recent restorative materials. Fifty maxillary premolars were divided into five groups: Group 1 were unprepared teeth; Group 2 were teeth prepared without restoration; Group 3 were teeth restored with tetric ceram HB; Group 4 were teeth restored with InTen S; and Group 5 were teeth restored with Admira. The samples were tested using a universal testing machine. Peak loads at fracture were recorded. The teeth restored with Admira had the highest fracture resistance followed by those restored with InTen-S and tetric ceram HB. Prepared, unrestored teeth were the weakest group. There was a significant difference between the fracture resistance of intact teeth and the prepared, unrestored teeth. There was also a significant difference among the tested restorative materials. Teeth restored with Admira showed no significant difference when compared with the unprepared teeth. It was concluded that the teeth restored with Admira exhibited the highest fracture resistance. PMID:23554719

  20. Estimated Environmental Exposures for MISSE-3 and MISSE-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckenor, Miria M.; Pippin, Gary; Kinard, William H.

    2008-01-01

    Describes the estimated environmental exposure for MISSE-2 and MISSE-4. These test beds, attached to the outside of the International Space Station, were planned for 3 years of exposure. This was changed to 1 year after MISSE-1 and -2 were in space for 4 years. MISSE-3 and -4 operate in a low Earth orbit space environment, which exposes them to a variety of assaults including atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation, particulate radiation, thermal cycling, and meteoroid/space debris impact, as well as contamination associated with proximity to an active space station. Measurements and determinations of atomic oxygen fluences, solar UV exposure levels, molecular contamination levels, and particulate radiation are included.

  1. Oral and Craniofacial Manifestations and Two Novel Missense Mutations of the NTRK1 Gene Identified in the Patient with Congenital Insensitivity to Pain with Anhidrosis

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yudi; Liu, Xin; Yu, Ping; Xue, Yang; Ma, Shufang; Wei, Kewen; Jin, Yan; Wen, Lingying; Xuan, Kun

    2013-01-01

    Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) is a rare inherited disorder of the peripheral nervous system resulting from mutations in neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor 1 gene (NTRK1), which encodes the high-affinity nerve growth factor receptor TRKA. Here, we investigated the oral and craniofacial manifestations of a Chinese patient affected by autosomal-recessive CIPA and identified compound heterozygosity in the NTRK1 gene. The affected boy has multisystemic disorder with lack of reaction to pain stimuli accompanied by self-mutilation behavior, the inability to sweat leading to defective thermoregulation, and mental retardation. Oral and craniofacial manifestations included a large number of missing teeth, nasal malformation, submucous cleft palate, severe soft tissue injuries, dental caries and malocclusion. Histopathological evaluation of the skin sample revealed severe peripheral nerve fiber loss as well as mild loss and absent innervation of sweat glands. Ultrastructural and morphometric studies of a shed tooth revealed dental abnormalities, including hypomineralization, dentin hypoplasia, cementogenesis defects and a dysplastic periodontal ligament. Genetic analysis revealed a compound heterozygosity- c.1561T>C and c.2057G>A in the NTRK1 gene. This report extends the spectrum of NTRK1 mutations observed in patients diagnosed with CIPA and provides additional insight for clinical and molecular diagnosis. PMID:23799134

  2. Romundina and the evolutionary origin of teeth.

    PubMed

    Rücklin, Martin; Donoghue, Philip C J

    2015-06-01

    Theories on the origin of vertebrate teeth have long focused on chondrichthyans as reflecting a primitive condition-but this is better informed by the extinct placoderms, which constitute a sister clade or grade to the living gnathostomes. Here, we show that 'supragnathal' toothplates from the acanthothoracid placoderm Romundina stellina comprise multi-cuspid teeth, each composed of an enameloid cap and core of dentine. These were added sequentially, approximately circumferentially, about a pioneer tooth. Teeth are bound to a bony plate that grew with the addition of marginal teeth. Homologous toothplates in arthrodire placoderms exhibit a more ordered arrangement of teeth that lack enameloid, but their organization into a gnathal, bound by layers of cellular bone associated with the addition of each successional tooth, is the same. The presence of enameloid in the teeth of Romundina suggests that it has been lost in other placoderms. Its covariation in the teeth and dermal skeleton of placoderms suggests a lack of independence early in the evolution of jawed vertebrates. It also appears that the dentition-manifest as discrete gnathal ossifications-was developmentally discrete from the jaws during this formative episode of vertebrate evolution. PMID:26109615

  3. Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: implications of absent mini-puberty.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Andrew A; Jayasena, Channa N; Quinton, Richard

    2016-06-01

    The phenomenon known as "mini-puberty" refers to activation of the neonatal hypothalamo-pituitary axis causing serum concentrations of gonadotrophins and testosterone (T) to approach adult male levels. This early neonatal period is a key proliferative window for testicular germ cells and immature Sertoli cells. Although failure to spontaneously initiate (adolescent) puberty is the most evident consequence of a defective gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurosecretory network, absent mini-puberty is also likely to have a major impact on the reproductive phenotype of men with congenital hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (CHH). Furthermore, the phase of male mini-puberty represents a key window-of-opportunity to identify congenital GnRH deficiency (either isolated CHH, or as part of combined pituitary hormone deficiency) in childhood. Among male neonates exhibiting "red flag" indicators for CHH (i.e. maldescended testes with or without cryptorchidism) a single serum sample (between 4-8 weeks of life) can pinpoint congenital GnRH deficiency far more rapidly and with much greater accuracy than dynamic tests performed in later childhood or adolescence. Potential consequences for missing absent mini-puberty in a male neonate include the lack of monitoring of pubertal progression/lack of progression, and the missed opportunity for early therapeutic intervention. This article will review our current understanding of the mechanisms and clinical consequences of mini-puberty. Furthermore, evidence for the optimal clinical management of patients with absent mini-puberty will be discussed. PMID:27213784

  4. What Darwin missed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, A. K.

    2003-07-01

    Throughout his life, Fred Hoyle had a keen interest in evolution. He argued that natural selection by small, random change, as conceived by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace, could not explain either the origin of life or the origin of a new protein. The idea of natural selection, Hoyle told us, wasn't even Darwin's original idea in the first place. Here, in honour of Hoyle's analysis, I propose a solution to Hoyle's dilemma. His solution was life from space - panspermia. But the real key to understanding natural selection is `molecular biodiversity'. This explains the things Darwin missed - the origin of species and the origin of extinction. It is also a beautiful example of the mystery disease that afflicted Darwin for over 40 years, for which we now have an answer.

  5. Commonly missed orthopedic problems.

    PubMed

    Ballas, M T; Tytko, J; Mannarino, F

    1998-01-15

    When not diagnosed early and managed appropriately, common musculoskeletal injuries may result in long-term disabling conditions. Anterior cruciate ligament tears are some of the most common knee ligament injuries. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis may present with little or no hip pain, and subtle or absent physical and radiographic findings. Femoral neck stress fractures, if left untreated, may result in avascular necrosis, refractures and pseudoarthrosis. A delay in diagnosis of scaphoid fractures may cause early wrist arthrosis if nonunion results. Ulnar collateral ligament tears are a frequently overlooked injury in skiers. The diagnosis of Achilles tendon rupture is missed as often as 25 percent of the time. Posterior tibial tendon tears may result in fixed bony planus if diagnosis is delayed, necessitating hindfoot fusion rather than simple soft tissue repair. Family physicians should be familiar with the initial assessment of these conditions and, when appropriate, refer patients promptly to an orthopedic surgeon. PMID:9456991

  6. Update on congenital glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Anil K; Chakrabarti, Debasis

    2011-01-01

    Congenital glaucoma is a global problem and poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to the ophthalmologist. A detailed evaluation under general anesthesia is advisable to establish the diagnosis and plan for management. Medical therapy has a limited role and surgery remains the primary therapeutic modality. While goniotomy or trabeculotomy ab externo is valuable in the management of congenital glaucoma, primary combined trabeculotomy–trabeculectomy offers the best hope of success in advanced cases. Trabeculectomy with antifibrotic agent and glaucoma drainage devices has a role in the management of refractory cases, and cyclodestructive procedures should be reserved for patients where these procedures have failed. Early diagnosis, prompt therapeutic intervention and proper refractive correction are keys to success. Management of residual vision and visual rehabilitation should be an integral part of the management of children with low vision and lifelong follow-up is a must. PMID:21150027

  7. Congenital hemophagocytic reticulosis.

    PubMed

    Koto, A; Morecki, R; Santorineou, M

    1976-04-01

    A fatal case of an apparently congenital form of hemophagocytic reticulosis is reported. The onset was manifested by hyperbilirubinemia and hepatosplenomegaly which were present at birth and persisted throughout life. Fever, anemia and pancytopenia developed at 1 month of age and became progressively worse. A splenectomy was performed at the age of 3 months, but the child died one day later with disseminated intravascular coagulation and pulmonary hemorrhage. The literature is reviewed with regard to the relationship of this case to (familial) hemophagocytic reticulosis and malignant histiocytosis (histiocytic medullary reticulosis). It is suggested that congenital hemophagocytic reticulosis, as described here, (familial) hemophagocytic reticulosis in infants, and malignant histiocytosis in adults all represent the same basic disorder with different ages of onset and clinicopathologic manifestations. PMID:1266810

  8. Effective of diode laser on teeth enamel in the teeth whitening treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klunboot, U.; Arayathanitkul, K.; Chitaree, R.; Emarat, N.

    2011-12-01

    This research purpose is to investigate the changing of teeth color and to study the surface of teeth after treatment by laser diode at different power densities for tooth whitening treatment. In the experiment, human-extracted teeth samples were divided into 7 groups of 6 teeth each. After that laser diode was irradiated to teeth, which were coated by 38% concentration of hydrogen peroxide, during for 20, 30 and 60 seconds at power densities of 10.9 and 52.1 W/cm2. The results of teeth color change were described by the CIEL*a*b* systems and the damage of teeth surface were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the power density of the laser diode could affect the whiteness of teeth. The high power density caused more luminous teeth than the low power density did, but on the other hand the high power density also caused damage to the teeth surface. Therefore, the laser diode at the low power densities has high efficiency for tooth whitening treatment and it has a potential for other clinical applications.

  9. Congenital midline cervical cleft.

    PubMed

    Agag, Richard; Sacks, Justin; Silver, Lester

    2007-01-01

    Congenital midline cervical cleft (CMCC) is a rare disorder of the ventral neck that is clinically evident at birth and must be differentiated from the more common thyroglossal duct cyst. The case of CMCC presented here was associated with chromosomes 13/14 de novo Robertsonian translocations as well as midline deformities including a sacral tuft and a minor tongue-tie. The case is presented as well as discussion of histopathology, embryology, and surgical treatment. PMID:17214531

  10. Congenital scoliosis - Quo vadis?

    PubMed

    Debnath, Ujjwal K; Goel, Vivek; Harshavardhana, Nanjanduppa; Webb, John K

    2010-04-01

    Congenital spinal vertebral anomalies can present as scoliosis or kyphosis or both. The worldwide prevalence of the vertebral anomalies is 0.5-1 per 1000 live births. Vertebral anomalies can range from hemi vertebrae (HV) which may be single or multiple, vertebral bar with or without HV, block vertebrae, wedge shaped or butterfly vertebrae. Seventy per cent of congenital vertebral anomalies result in progressive deformities. The risk factors for progression include: type of defect, site of defect (junctional regions) and patient's age at the time of diagnosis. The key to success in managing these spinal deformities is early diagnosis and anticipation of progression. One must intervene surgically to halt the progression of deformity and prevent further complications associated with progressive deformity. Planning for surgery includes a preoperative MRI scan to rule out spinal anomalies such as diastematomyelia. The goals of surgical treatment for congenital spinal deformity are to achieve a straight growing spine, a normal standing sagittal profile, and a short fusion segment. The options of surgery include in situ fusion, convex hemi epiphysiodesis and hemi vertebra excision. These basic surgical procedures can be combined with curve correction, instrumentation and short segment fusion. Most surgeons prefer posterior (only) surgery for uncomplicated HV excision and short segment fusion. These surgical procedures can be performed through posterior, anterior or combined approaches. The advocates of combined approaches suggest greater deformity correction possibilities with reduced incidence of pseudoarthrosis and minimize crankshaft phenomenon. We recommend posterior surgery for curves involving only an element of kyphosis or modest deformity, whereas combined anterior and posterior approach is indicated for large or lordotic deformities. In the last decade, the use of growing rods and vertebral expandable prosthetic titanium rib has improved the armamentarium of the

  11. Other congenital abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Cobbett, J R

    1974-06-29

    The plastic surgeon is not a miracle worker, as so many of his patients believe. Nevertheless, he can do much to minimize the functional and cosmetic effect of many congenital deformities. If a moral can be drawn from this article it must be that the plastic surgeon should be given an early opportunity to see and assess the patients described here, if only to ease the anxiety in the minds of their parents by appropriate reassurance and discussion. PMID:4853507

  12. Rugometric and microtopographic inspection of teeth enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Manuel F.; Pereira, Pedro B.

    2013-06-01

    The roughness of teeth' enamel is an important parameter in orthodontics. One example is the application in the process of decreasing tooth-size by reducing the interproximal enamel surfaces (stripping) of teeth. In order to achieve smooth surfaces clinicians have been testing various methods and progressively improved this therapeutic technique. The evaluation the surface roughness following teeth interproximal reduction is fundamental in the process. In general tooth' surface is not flat presenting a variety of complex geometries. In this communication we will report on the metrological procedure employed on the rugometric and microtopographic inspection by optical active triangulation of raw and processed (interproximal stripping) tooth surfaces.

  13. Congenital Cataract Screening.

    PubMed

    Rajavi, Zhale; Sabbaghi, Hamideh

    2016-01-01

    Congenital cataract is a leading cause of visual deprivation which can damage the developing visual system of a child; therefore early diagnosis, management and long-term follow-up are essential. It is recommended that all neonates be screened by red reflex examination at birth and suspected cases be referred to ophthalmic centers. Early surgery (<6 weeks of age, based on general neonatal health) is important for achieving the best visual outcome particularly in unilateral cases. In bilateral cases, surgery is highly recommended before appearance of strabismus or nystagmus (<10 weeks of age) with no longer than a one-week interval between the fellow eyes. Parents should be informed that surgery is a starting point and not the endpoint of treatment. Appropriate postoperative management including immediate optical correction in the form of aphakic glasses or contact lenses, or intraocular lens (IOL) implantation at the appropriate age (>1 year) is highly recommended. After surgery, amblyopia treatment and periodic follow-up examinations should be started as soon as possible to achieve a satisfactory visual outcome. Practitioners should consider the possibility of posterior capsular opacity, elevated intraocular pressure and amblyopia during follow-up, especially in eyes with microphthalmia and/or associated congenital anomalies. All strabismic children should undergo slit lamp examination prior to strabismus surgery to rule out congenital lens opacities. From a social point of view, equal and fair medical care should be provided to all children regardless of gender. PMID:27621790

  14. Congenital Cataract Screening

    PubMed Central

    Rajavi, Zhale; Sabbaghi, Hamideh

    2016-01-01

    Congenital cataract is a leading cause of visual deprivation which can damage the developing visual system of a child; therefore early diagnosis, management and long-term follow-up are essential. It is recommended that all neonates be screened by red reflex examination at birth and suspected cases be referred to ophthalmic centers. Early surgery (<6 weeks of age, based on general neonatal health) is important for achieving the best visual outcome particularly in unilateral cases. In bilateral cases, surgery is highly recommended before appearance of strabismus or nystagmus (<10 weeks of age) with no longer than a one-week interval between the fellow eyes. Parents should be informed that surgery is a starting point and not the endpoint of treatment. Appropriate postoperative management including immediate optical correction in the form of aphakic glasses or contact lenses, or intraocular lens (IOL) implantation at the appropriate age (>1 year) is highly recommended. After surgery, amblyopia treatment and periodic follow-up examinations should be started as soon as possible to achieve a satisfactory visual outcome. Practitioners should consider the possibility of posterior capsular opacity, elevated intraocular pressure and amblyopia during follow-up, especially in eyes with microphthalmia and/or associated congenital anomalies. All strabismic children should undergo slit lamp examination prior to strabismus surgery to rule out congenital lens opacities. From a social point of view, equal and fair medical care should be provided to all children regardless of gender.

  15. Filling cavities or restoring teeth?

    PubMed

    Versluis, Antheunis; Versluis-Tantbirojn, Daranee

    2011-01-01

    Teeth seldom fracture under normal functional loading. This indicates that the natural tooth design is optimized for the distribution of regular masticatory forces by means of its properties and structure. When a tooth is restored with an intracoronal restoration, however, the incidence of tooth fracture increases. Since remaining tissues do not change, the restorative actions apparently alter the original stress distributions. In this study, the effect of different restoration types (unbonded amalgam and bonded composite restorations) were compared with the original stress conditions of the intact tooth, using finite element analysis. It was shown that an unbonded amalgam restoration did not restore the original stress conditions but led to much higher stresses in the buccal and lingual enamel and to higher tensile stresses in the cavity floor. The unbonded amalgam thus filled the cavity but did not restore the tooth. In contrast, a bonded composite restoration restored the original stress pattern in the tooth if there was no polymerization shrinkage. Polymerization shrinkage causes residual tensile stresses in the dentin around the cavity and in the buccal and lingual enamel. Residual tensile stresses in the buccal and lingual enamel are momentary compensated by compressive stress components during occlusal loading. It was concluded that bonding and elimination of residual stresses are prerequisites for restoring the original tooth integrity. PMID:21748978

  16. Radiology of congenital heart disease

    SciTech Connect

    Amplatz, K.

    1986-01-01

    This is a text on the radiologic diagnosis of congenital heart disease and its clinical manifestations. The main thrust of the book is the logical approach which allows an understanding of the complex theory of congenital heart disease. The atlas gives a concise overview of the entire field of congenital heart disease. Emphasis is placed on the understanding of the pathophysiology and its clinical and radiological consequences. Surgical treatment is included since it provides a different viewpoint of the anatomy.

  17. Music Information Services System (MISS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Paladugu V.

    Music Information Services System (MISS) was developed at the Eastern Illinois University Library to manage the sound recording collection. Operating in a batch mode, MISS keeps track of the inventory of sound recordings, generates necessary catalogs to facilitate the use of the sound recordings, and provides specialized bibliographies of sound…

  18. Help for Finding Missing Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Kathleen

    1984-01-01

    Efforts to locate missing children have expanded from a federal law allowing for entry of information into an F.B.I. computer system to companion bills before Congress for establishing a national missing child clearinghouse and a Justice Department center to help in conducting searches. Private organizations are also involved. (KS)

  19. Taking Care of Your Teeth and Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... can protect your teeth from decay by using fluoride toothpaste. If you are at a higher risk ... of medicines you take), you might need more fluoride. Your dentist or dental hygienist may give you ...

  20. Brushing Your Child’s Teeth

    MedlinePlus

    ... the toothpaste rather than swallowing it. For children under age 3, use just a small amount of toothpaste ... floss and brush your teeth every day. Children under age 6 may be able to handle a toothbrush ...

  1. How Acid Reflux Disease Damages Teeth

    MedlinePlus

    ... an advanced stage of destruction." The potential of hydrogen, or pH, is a standard way to measure ... January 2012 Related Articles: Tooth Erosion Sports and Energy Drinks Responsible for Irreversible Damage to Teeth What ...

  2. Take Care of Your Child's Teeth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Decay 3 of 7 sections Take Action: Use Fluoride Protect your child’s teeth with fluoride. Fluoride is ... Brushing Tips 4 of 7 sections Take Action: Fluoride Supplements Ask for supplements if your water doesn' ...

  3. Supernumerary teeth: Report of four unusual cases

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Arun; Namdev, Ritu; Bakshi, Lokesh; Dutta, Samir

    2012-01-01

    Supernumerary tooth denotes duplication of tooth in the normal series. It is a developmental anomaly and has been argued to arise from multiple etiologies. These teeth may remain embedded in the alveolar bone or can erupt into the oral cavity. The supernumerary tooth might cause esthetic and/or functional problems, especially if it is situated in the maxillary anterior region. Complications reported were delayed or prevented eruption of succedaneous teeth, displacement or rotation, crowding of the affected region, abnormal diastema, dilacerations, cystic formation, and sometime eruption into the nasal cavity. In this case report, four unusual cases of supernumerary teeth that resulted in varying degrees of disturbances in permanent dentition are presented. Conservative surgical intervention and light orthodontic forces were used to bring the teeth into normal position with minimal disturbance to the surrounding oral structures. PMID:22629072

  4. [Wisdom teeth: which way to go?].

    PubMed

    Yitschaky, O; Segev-Neuhof, M; Laviv, A

    2016-01-01

    The debate regarding prophylactic extraction of mandibular third molar (Wisdom teeth) is not new. There is wide agreement among clinicians and researchers that an extraction in young age is easier and safer, but it may result in overtreatment, which means an unnecessary extraction of teeth that might have been functional and healthy. In order to avoid such overtreatment the clinician is obliged to be able to predict accurately the chances of third molar eruption, years before they are due to erupt. Additionally, the clinician has to estimate the chances for future pathology or infection that will force the patient to extract the tooth in years to come. In order to do so the clinician has to meticulously examine the teeth both clinically (including caries assessment of neighboring teeth, periodontal pocket depth measurements etc.) and radiographically. The purpose of this literature review is to present a balanced approach towards the issue of early prophylactic extraction of mandibular third molar. PMID:27295932

  5. [A Rare Case of Neonatal Teeth].

    PubMed

    Martins, Andreia A; Ferraz, Cláudia; Vaz, Rute

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal teeth is a rare disorder of tooth eruption, arising in the oral cavity, usually in the anterior mandible, in the first month of life. Its etiology is unknown. This condition can cause breastfeeding difficulties, besides aspiration or swallowing of the teeth. We describe the case of a premature infant in the second day of life presented with gingival edema, redness and discrete swelling in the region of the mandibular central incisors. Ten days later, two small teeth with hypermobility were detected. Extraction of those teeth was performed. With this clinical case we intend to show the rarity of this entity, especially in premature infants, the possible association with various syndromes and the need for a multifactorial approach to the treatment decision (extraction / conservative treatment). PMID:26849764

  6. Laser and LED external teeth-bleaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanin, Fatima A.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Marchesan, Melissa A.; Pecora, Jesus D.

    2004-09-01

    Teeth-bleaching is an initial phase in the reproduction of an aesthetic smile; thus, it is very important that the dentist knows how to diagnose the causes of color changes and indicate whitening before proposing dental treatment. Technological advances in teeth-whitening lead to the development of new techniques, improving comfort, security and decreasing time of execution: argon laser, diode Laser, LED whitening, xenon light whitening. The clearing agent used in all techniques, including home whitening, is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in different concentrations. In this study, the authors describe mechanisms of gel activation, the use of Laser and LED"s for teeth-bleaching, the importance of diagnosis and the comfort of the patient in in-office teeth-bleaching techniques.

  7. Laser and LED external teeth-bleaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanin, Fatima; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Marchesan, Melissa A.; Pecora, Jesus D.

    2004-05-01

    Teeth-bleaching is an initial phase in the reproduction of an aesthetic smile; thus, it is very important that the dentist knows how to diagnose the causes of color changes and indicate whitening before proposing dental treatment. Technological advances in teeth-whitening lead to the development of new techniques, improving comfort, security and decreasing time of execution: argon laser, diode laser, LED whitening, xenon light whitening. The clearing agent used in all techniques, including home whitening, is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in different concentrations. In this study, the authors describe mechanisms of gel activation, the use of Laser and LED's for teeth-bleaching, the importance of diagnosis and the comfort of the patient in in-office teeth-bleaching techniques.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: congenital hepatic fibrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions congenital hepatic fibrosis congenital hepatic fibrosis Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Congenital hepatic fibrosis is a disease of the liver that is ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: Leber congenital amaurosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Registry: Leber congenital amaurosis 9 National Eye Institute: Gene Therapy for Leber Congenital Amaurosis These resources from MedlinePlus ... Additional NIH Resources (1 link) National Eye Institute: Gene Therapy for Leber Congenital Amaurosis Educational Resources (3 links) ...

  10. Coevolutionary patterning of teeth and taste buds

    PubMed Central

    Bloomquist, Ryan F.; Parnell, Nicholas F.; Phillips, Kristine A.; Fowler, Teresa E.; Yu, Tian Y.; Sharpe, Paul T.; Streelman, J. Todd

    2015-01-01

    Teeth and taste buds are iteratively patterned structures that line the oro-pharynx of vertebrates. Biologists do not fully understand how teeth and taste buds develop from undifferentiated epithelium or how variation in organ density is regulated. These organs are typically studied independently because of their separate anatomical location in mammals: teeth on the jaw margin and taste buds on the tongue. However, in many aquatic animals like bony fishes, teeth and taste buds are colocalized one next to the other. Using genetic mapping in cichlid fishes, we identified shared loci controlling a positive correlation between tooth and taste bud densities. Genome intervals contained candidate genes expressed in tooth and taste bud fields. sfrp5 and bmper, notable for roles in Wingless (Wnt) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, were differentially expressed across cichlid species with divergent tooth and taste bud density, and were expressed in the development of both organs in mice. Synexpression analysis and chemical manipulation of Wnt, BMP, and Hedgehog (Hh) pathways suggest that a common cichlid oral lamina is competent to form teeth or taste buds. Wnt signaling couples tooth and taste bud density and BMP and Hh mediate distinct organ identity. Synthesizing data from fish and mouse, we suggest that the Wnt-BMP-Hh regulatory hierarchy that configures teeth and taste buds on mammalian jaws and tongues may be an evolutionary remnant inherited from ancestors wherein these organs were copatterned from common epithelium. PMID:26483492

  11. Coevolutionary patterning of teeth and taste buds.

    PubMed

    Bloomquist, Ryan F; Parnell, Nicholas F; Phillips, Kristine A; Fowler, Teresa E; Yu, Tian Y; Sharpe, Paul T; Streelman, J Todd

    2015-11-01

    Teeth and taste buds are iteratively patterned structures that line the oro-pharynx of vertebrates. Biologists do not fully understand how teeth and taste buds develop from undifferentiated epithelium or how variation in organ density is regulated. These organs are typically studied independently because of their separate anatomical location in mammals: teeth on the jaw margin and taste buds on the tongue. However, in many aquatic animals like bony fishes, teeth and taste buds are colocalized one next to the other. Using genetic mapping in cichlid fishes, we identified shared loci controlling a positive correlation between tooth and taste bud densities. Genome intervals contained candidate genes expressed in tooth and taste bud fields. sfrp5 and bmper, notable for roles in Wingless (Wnt) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, were differentially expressed across cichlid species with divergent tooth and taste bud density, and were expressed in the development of both organs in mice. Synexpression analysis and chemical manipulation of Wnt, BMP, and Hedgehog (Hh) pathways suggest that a common cichlid oral lamina is competent to form teeth or taste buds. Wnt signaling couples tooth and taste bud density and BMP and Hh mediate distinct organ identity. Synthesizing data from fish and mouse, we suggest that the Wnt-BMP-Hh regulatory hierarchy that configures teeth and taste buds on mammalian jaws and tongues may be an evolutionary remnant inherited from ancestors wherein these organs were copatterned from common epithelium. PMID:26483492

  12. Straight, white teeth as a social prerogative.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Abeer; Quiñonez, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    A distinguishing feature of North American society is preoccupation with self-image, as seen in the ritualistic nature of bodily practices aimed at constantly improving the body. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the prevailing fixation with straight, white teeth. While there is an ever-expanding literature on the sociology of body, very little has been written on teeth in this context. Using literature from anthropology, biology, dentistry, sociology and social psychology, this study attempts to answer: (1) Why have straight, white teeth become a beauty ideal in North American society? (2) What is the basis for this ideal? (3) How is this ideal propagated? It demonstrates that dental aesthetic tendencies are biologically, culturally and socially patterned. Concepts from the works of Pierre Bourdieu and Michel Foucault are used to illustrate how straight, white teeth contribute towards reinforcing class differences and how society exercises a disciplinary power on individuals through this ideal. It is concluded that modified teeth are linked to self and identity that are rooted in social structure. Moreover, teeth demonstrate the ways in which class differences are embodied and projected as symbols of social advantage or disadvantage. Implications on professional, public health, sociological and political levels are considered. PMID:25923766

  13. Kepler's missing planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Jason H.

    2013-08-01

    We investigate the distributions of the orbital period ratios of adjacent planets in high-multiplicity Kepler systems (four or more planets) and low-multiplicity systems (two planets). Modelling the low-multiplicity sample as essentially equivalent to the high-multiplicity sample, but with unobserved intermediate planets, we find some evidence for an excess of planet pairs between the 2:1 and 3:1 mean-motion resonances in the low-multiplicity sample. This possible excess may be the result of strong dynamical interactions near these or other resonances or it may be a byproduct of other evolutionary events or processes such as planetary collisions. Three-planet systems show a significant excess of planets near the 2:1 mean-motion resonance that is not as prominent in either of the other samples. This observation may imply a correlation between strong dynamical interactions and observed planet number - perhaps a relationship between resonance pairs and the inclinations or orbital periods of additional planets. The period ratio distributions can also be used to identify targets to search for missing planets in the each of the samples, the presence or absence of which would have strong implications for planet formation and dynamical evolution models.

  14. Molecular and Genetic Studies of Congenital Myopathies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-26

    Central Core Disease; Centronuclear Myopathy; Congenital Fiber Type Disproportion; Multiminicore Disease; Myotubular Myopathy; Nemaline Myopathy; Rigid Spine Muscular Dystrophy; Undefined Congenital Myopathy

  15. Premature loss of primary teeth with gingival erythema: An alert to dentist

    PubMed Central

    Devi, Anju; Narwal, Anjali; Bharti, Achla; Kumar, Vinay

    2015-01-01

    Premature exfoliation of primary teeth is an important diagnostic event warranting urgent investigation. The majority of conditions presenting with early loss of teeth are serious and in some cases could be fatal. The most common causes of premature tooth loss are Papillion-Lefevre syndrome, Chediak-Higashi syndrome, hypophosphatasia, neutropenia, leukemia and in some cases Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). LCH is a disorder of unknown cause, characterized by abnormal proliferation of histiocytes. The disease has a predilection for children, although LCH may occur in adults. Owing to the relative rarity of the condition, it remains a disease in which the diagnosis is often delayed or missed and in which many questions remain unanswered, ranging from etiology and pathogenesis to therapy. The purpose of the review is, therefore, to raise awareness of the disease and to highlight the clinical findings that should make the odontologist or primary caregiver suspect the diagnosis. PMID:26604520

  16. Replacement of missing teeth with fiber-reinforced composite FPDs: clinical protocol.

    PubMed

    Bouillaguet, Serge; Schütt, Andrea; Marin, Isabelle; Etechami, Leila; Di Salvo, Giancarlo; Krejci, Ivo

    2003-04-01

    The concept of minimally invasive preparation protocols has resulted in reduced loss of critical tooth structures and maintenance of optimal strength, form, and aesthetics. While various treatment options have been described for single-tooth replacement, fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) fixed partial dentures (FPDs) provide a viable treatment alternative with proven mechanical properties, aesthetics, and function. This article presents several clinical scenarios in which minimally invasive adhesive FRC FPDs are provided to deliver enhanced predictability, strength, and durability. PMID:12956045

  17. Frog Appliance- An Innovative Treatment Option for the Replacement of Missing Teeth in An Epileptic Child

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Anita; Reddy, Hanumanth; Sajjnar, Arun B; Jain, Sonal

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disease which may result in various oro-facial injuries among which fracture of crown and avulsion of tooth are commonly reported. Challenges come in growing epileptic children where fixed prosthesis could not be delivered and it demands a fixed semi-permanent prosthesis that needs strength along with esthetics. The present paper reports an innovative appliance which has fulfilled fore mentioned criteria; with the appliance named-frog appliance. PMID:26155578

  18. Frog Appliance- An Innovative Treatment Option for the Replacement of Missing Teeth in An Epileptic Child.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Raghavendra M; Goyal, Anita; Reddy, Hanumanth; Sajjnar, Arun B; Jain, Sonal

    2015-05-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disease which may result in various oro-facial injuries among which fracture of crown and avulsion of tooth are commonly reported. Challenges come in growing epileptic children where fixed prosthesis could not be delivered and it demands a fixed semi-permanent prosthesis that needs strength along with esthetics. The present paper reports an innovative appliance which has fulfilled fore mentioned criteria; with the appliance named-frog appliance. PMID:26155578

  19. Congenital protein hypoglycosylation diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sparks, Susan E

    2012-01-01

    Glycosylation is an essential process by which sugars are attached to proteins and lipids. Complete lack of glycosylation is not compatible with life. Because of the widespread function of glycosylation, inherited disorders of glycosylation are multisystemic. Since the identification of the first defect on N-linked glycosylation in the 1980s, there are over 40 different congenital protein hypoglycosylation diseases. This review will include defects of N-linked glycosylation, O-linked glycosylation and disorders of combined N- and O-linked glycosylation. PMID:23776380

  20. Congenital nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Begolli, Mirije; Begolli, Ilir; Gojani, Xhenane; Arenliu-Qosaj, Fatime; Berisha, Merita

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this case is to present a case of a two month old female with congenital nephritic syndrome, which is very rare. On admission, the baby showed marked edema and distended abdomen. She was diagnosed and treated with daily albumin infusions, antibiotics, diuretic, gamma globulin replacement, ACEI and NSAIDs. Parents were informed about the nature of the disease, prognosis, and advised for further medical care in a more advanced kidney transplantation centre. This was the first treatment of this condition in the Pediatric Clinic in Kosovo and it presented a challenge for us. PMID:22299306

  1. Congenital limb deficiency disorders.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, William R; Coulter, Colleen P; Schmitz, Michael L

    2015-06-01

    Congenital limb deficiency disorders (LDDs) are birth defects characterized by the aplasia or hypoplasia of bones of the limbs. Limb deficiencies are classified as transverse, those due to intrauterine disruptions of previously normal limbs, or longitudinal, those that are isolated or associated with certain syndromes as well as chromosomal anomalies. Consultation with a medical geneticist is advisable. Long-term care should occur in a specialized limb deficiency center with expertise in orthopedics, prosthetics, and occupational and physical therapy and provide emotional support and contact with other families. With appropriate care, most children with LDDs can lead productive lives. PMID:26042905

  2. [Congenital myasthenic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Araga, Shigeru

    2008-06-01

    Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are rare heterogeneous disorders in which neuromuscular transmission is compromised by one or more specific mechanisms. CMS are clinically diagnosed by a history of fatigability and muscle weakness since infancy or early childhood, a decremental EMG response and the absence of acetylcholine receptor antibodies. CMS form a heterogeneous group of disorders which are classified as originating from presynaptic, synaptic or postsynaptic defects. Molecular genetic studies reveal a various type of mutations in synapse-associated genes. However, the genetic abnormalities of many CMS are still unresolved. This article outlines the classification of CMS and etiology of individual forms. PMID:18540366

  3. Precalcaneal Congenital Fibrolipomatous Hamartoma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ji-Hye; Park, Oun-Jae; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Won, Chong-Hyun; Chang, Sung-Eun; Choi, Jee-Ho; Moon, Kee-Chan

    2011-01-01

    Precalcaneal congenital fibrolipomatous hamartomas (PCFHs) are characterized clinically by the presence of unilateral or bilateral, asymptomatic nodules in the medial precalcaneal plantar region of the heel. They are skin colored and usually painless nodules. In most patients, the lesions appear within the first few months of life, but they may also be present at birth. Generally PCFHs are benign, but they can grow in proportion to the growth of the infants. Here, we report the case of a 4-month-old boy with a solitary, localized skin-colored nodule on the precalcaneal plantar region of his right heel, diagnosed as a PCFH. PMID:21738373

  4. Nonclassic Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Witchel, Selma Feldman; Azziz, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) due to P450c21 (21-hydroxylase deficiency) is a common autosomal recessive disorder. This disorder is due to mutations in the CYP21A2 gene which is located at chromosome 6p21. The clinical features predominantly reflect androgen excess rather than adrenal insufficiency leading to an ascertainment bias favoring diagnosis in females. Treatment goals include normal linear growth velocity and “on-time” puberty in affected children. For adolescent and adult women, treatment goals include regularization of menses, prevention of progression of hirsutism, and fertility. This paper will review key aspects regarding pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of NCAH. PMID:20671993

  5. CONGENITAL DIAPHRAGMATIC HERNIA

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Burton E.

    1954-01-01

    Treatment of congenital diaphragmatic hernia in infants is a matter of semi-emergency and should be done as soon as adequate preparations can be made because sometimes fatal complications develop swiftly. In preoperative preparation there is great advantage in thorough decompression of the abdominal viscera, stomach, bowel and bladder. As to operation, the author believes the abdominal approach has most to recommend it. In the postoperative period, continued gastric suction for a brief time, parenteral administration of fluids and use of a Mistogen tent with a high moist oxygen content will facilitate rapid recovery. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:13209363

  6. Congenital anterior urethral diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sanjeet Kumar; Ansari, Ms

    2014-09-01

    Congenital anterior urethral diverticulum (CAUD) may be found all along the anterior urethra and may present itself at any age, from infant to adult. Most children with this condition present with difficulty in initiating micturition, dribbling of urine, poor urinary stream, or urinary tract infection. A careful history will reveal that these children never had a good urinary stream since birth, and the telltale sign is a cystic swelling of the penile urethra. In this paper, we present two cases of CAUD that were managed by excision of the diverticulum with primary repair. PMID:26328174

  7. Congenital Median Upper Lip Fistula

    PubMed Central

    al Aithan, Bandar

    2012-01-01

    Congenital median upper lip fistula (MULF) is an extremely rare condition resulting from abnormal fusion of embryologic structures. We present a new case of congenital medial upper lip fistula located in the midline of the philtrum of a 6 year old girl. PMID:22953305

  8. Missing Great Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hough, S. E.; Martin, S.

    2013-12-01

    The occurrence of three earthquakes with Mw greater than 8.8, and six earthquakes larger than Mw8.5, since 2004 has raised interest in the long-term rate of great earthquakes. Past studies have focused on rates since 1900, which roughly marks the start of the instrumental era. Yet substantial information is available for earthquakes prior to 1900. A re-examination of the catalog of global historical earthquakes reveals a paucity of Mw ≥ 8.5 events during the 18th and 19th centuries compared to the rate during the instrumental era (Hough, 2013, JGR), suggesting that the magnitudes of some documented historical earthquakes have been underestimated, with approximately half of all Mw≥8.5 earthquakes missing or underestimated in the 19th century. Very large (Mw≥8.5) magnitudes have traditionally been estimated for historical earthquakes only from tsunami observations given a tautological assumption that all such earthquakes generate significant tsunamis. Magnitudes would therefore tend to be underestimated for deep megathrust earthquakes that generated relatively small tsunamis, deep earthquakes within continental collision zones, earthquakes that produced tsunamis that were not documented, outer rise events, and strike-slip earthquakes such as the 11 April 2012 Sumatra event. We further show that, where magnitudes of historical earthquakes are estimated from earthquake intensities using the Bakun and Wentworth (1997, BSSA) method, magnitudes of great earthquakes can be significantly underestimated. Candidate 'missing' great 19th century earthquakes include the 1843 Lesser Antilles earthquake, which recent studies suggest was significantly larger than initial estimates (Feuillet et al., 2012, JGR; Hough, 2013), and an 1841 Kamchatka event, for which Mw9 was estimated by Gusev and Shumilina (2004, Izv. Phys. Solid Ear.). We consider cumulative moment release rates during the 19th century compared to that during the 20th and 21st centuries, using both the Hough

  9. Missing persons-missing data: the need to collect antemortem dental records of missing persons.

    PubMed

    Blau, Soren; Hill, Anthony; Briggs, Christopher A; Cordner, Stephen M

    2006-03-01

    The subject of missing persons is of great concern to the community with numerous associated emotional, financial, and health costs. This paper examines the forensic medical issues raised by the delayed identification of individuals classified as "missing" and highlights the importance of including dental data in the investigation of missing persons. Focusing on Australia, the current approaches employed in missing persons investigations are outlined. Of particular significance is the fact that each of the eight Australian states and territories has its own Missing Persons Unit that operates within distinct state and territory legislation. Consequently, there is a lack of uniformity within Australia about the legal and procedural framework within which investigations of missing persons are conducted, and the interaction of that framework with coronial law procedures. One of the main investigative problems in missing persons investigations is the lack of forensic medical, particularly, odontological input. Forensic odontology has been employed in numerous cases in Australia where identity is unknown or uncertain because of remains being skeletonized, incinerated, or partly burnt. The routine employment of the forensic odontologist to assist in missing person inquiries, has however, been ignored. The failure to routinely employ forensic odontology in missing persons inquiries has resulted in numerous delays in identification. Three Australian cases are presented where the investigation of individuals whose identity was uncertain or unknown was prolonged due to the failure to utilize the appropriate (and available) dental resources. In light of the outcomes of these cases, we suggest that a national missing persons dental records database be established for future missing persons investigations. Such a database could be easily managed between a coronial system and a forensic medical institute. In Australia, a national missing persons dental records database could be

  10. Forensic identification in teeth with caries.

    PubMed

    Alia-García, Esther; Parra-Pecharromán, David; Sánchez-Díaz, Ana; Mendez, Susy; Royuela, Ana; Gil-Alberdi, Laura; López-Palafox, Juan; del Campo, Rosa

    2015-12-01

    Human teeth are biological structures that resist extreme conditions thus becoming a useful source of DNA for human forensic identification purposes. When it is possible, forensic prefer only non-damaged teeth whereas those with cavities are usually rejected to avoid both external and internal bacterial contamination. Cavities are one of the most prevalent dental pathology and its incidence increases with ageing. The aim of this study was to validate the use of teeth with cavities for forensic identification. A total of 120 individual teeth from unrelated patients (60 healthy and 60 with cavities, respectively) extracted by a dentist as part of the normal process of treatment, were submitted for further analysis. Dental pulp was obtained after tooth fragmentation, complete DNA was extracted and the corresponding human identification profile was obtained by the AmpFlSTR® NGM SElect™ kit. Cariogenic microbiota was determined by PCR-DGGE with bacterial universal primers and bands were excised, re-amplified and sequenced. From the 120 dental pieces analyzed, a defined genetic profile was obtained in 81 (67.5%) of them, with no statistical differences between the healthy and the cavities-affected teeth. Statistical association between teeth status, DNA content and genetic profiles was not observed. Complex bacterial communities were only detected in the cavities group, being the Streptococcus/Enterococcus, and Lactobacillus genera the most represented. We conclude that teeth with cavities are as valid as healthy dental pieces for forensic human identification. Moreover, the severity of the cariogenic lesion as well as associated bacterial communities seems not to influence the establishment of human dental profiles. PMID:26386340

  11. Teeth clenching reduces arm abduction force.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hajime; Kawano, Tsutomu; Saito, Mitsuru; Toyoda, Hiroki; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Türker, Kemal Sitki; Kang, Youngnam

    2014-07-01

    It has been reported that the 90° arm abduction force counteracting external adduction loads appeared to be smaller under teeth clenching condition than under non-clenching condition. To elucidate the physiological mechanism underlying the possible inhibitory effect of teeth clenching on the arm abduction, we have attempted to quantify the difference in the force induced against the fast and slow ramp load between the arm abductions under teeth non-clenching and clenching conditions. When the load of adduction moment was linearly increased, the abductor force increased to a maximal isometric contraction force (MICF) and further increased to a maximal eccentric contraction force (MECF) with forced adduction. The MICF measured under teeth clenching was significantly lower than that under non-clenching, despite no significant difference in the MECF between the two conditions. The reduction in MICF caused by teeth clenching was enhanced by increasing the velocity of the load. These results suggest that clenching inhibits abduction force only during isometric contraction phase. The invariability of MECF would indicate the lack of involvement of fatigue in such inhibitory effects of clenching. To discover the source of the inhibition, we have examined the effects of teeth clenching on the stretch reflex in the deltoid muscle. The stretch reflex of deltoid muscles was inhibited during clenching, contrary to what was expected from the Jendrassik maneuver. Taken together, our results suggest that the teeth clenching reduced the MICF by depressing the recruitment of deltoid motoneurones presumably via the presynaptic inhibition of spindle afferent inputs onto those motoneurones. PMID:24687460

  12. [Congenital defects and incapacity].

    PubMed

    Jouve de la Barreda, Nicolás

    2009-01-01

    As a whole the congenital defects constitute an important section of the medical attention affecting near 3% of the population. A 15% of spontaneous abortions take place of which the greater frequency corresponds to the chromosome anomalies (25%) and the monogenic mutations (20%) and in a lesser extent to the effects of teratogenic agents. Between the genetic causes determining the congenital defects the mutations that affect genes acting in the early stages of development occupy a main place. These alterations can affect to homeotic genes or monogenic systems that act during the critical phases of the organogenesis. It seems evident that an alteration in the expression of a necessary gene for the appearance of a morphogenetic change constitutes the angular stone to understand resurging of a malformation or discapacity. In the last years has been demonstrated the importance of the teratogenic or environmental agents on the delicate internal physiological balance during the critical stages of the development. In this context must be included the inductive environmental factors inducing epigenetic modifications in the early stage of the development of the embryos produced by fertilization in vitro. PMID:19799481

  13. [Genetics of congenital lipodystrophies].

    PubMed

    Buffet, A; Lombes, M; Caron, P

    2015-10-01

    Congenital lipodystrophies are heterogeneous genetic diseases, leading to the loss of adipose tissue. This loss of adipose tissue can be generalized or partial, thus defining different phenotypes. These lipodystrophies have a major metabolic impact, secondary to lipotoxicity. This lipotoxicity is responsible for insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis. The severity of the metabolic impact correlates with the severity of the loss of adipose tissue. Mutations in 15 predisposition genes are currently described; BSCL2 and AGPT2 genes are the major genes in the generalized forms. On the contrary, LMNA and PPARG gene mutations are recovered in partial lipodystrophies forms. These different genes encode for proteins involved in adipocyte physiology, altering adipocyte differentiation, triglycerides synthesis and lysis or playing a major role in the lipid droplet formation. Congenital lipodystrophies treatment is based on the management of metabolic comorbidities but recombinant leptin therapy appears to have promising results. These different points have been recently discussed during the 2015 Endocrine Society Congress, notably by S. O'Rahilly and are highlighted in this review. PMID:26776286

  14. Congenital fiber type disproportion.

    PubMed

    Kissiedu, Juliana; Prayson, Richard A

    2016-04-01

    Type I muscle fiber atrophy in childhood can be encountered in a variety of neuromuscular disorders. Congenital fiber type disproportion (CFTD) is one such condition which presents as a nonprogressive muscle weakness. The diagnosis is often made after excluding other differential diagnostic considerations. We present a 2-year-9-month-old full term boy who presented at 2 months with an inability to turn his head to the right. Over the next couple of years, he showed signs of muscle weakness, broad based gait and a positive Gower's sign. He had normal levels of creatine kinase and normal electromyography. A biopsy of the vastus lateralis showed a marked variation in muscle fiber type. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-ase stains highlighted a marked type I muscle atrophy with rare scattered atrophic type II muscle fibers. No abnormalities were observed on the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) or cytochrome oxidase stained sections. Ragged red fibers were not present on the trichrome stain. Abnormalities of glycogen or lipid deposition were not observed on the periodic acid-Schiff or Oil-Red-O stains. Immunostaining for muscular dystrophy associated proteins showed normal staining. Ultrastructural examination showed a normal arrangement of myofilaments, and a normal number and morphology for mitochondria. A diagnosis of CFTD was made after excluding other causes of type I atrophy including congenital myopathy. The lack of specific clinical and genetic disorder associated with CFTD suggests that it is a spectrum of a disease process and represents a diagnosis of exclusion. PMID:26526626

  15. Cataracts in Congenital Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Arun, Veena; Noble, A. Gwendolyn; Latkany, Paul; Troia, Robert N.; Jalbrzikowski, Jessica; Kasza, Kristen; Karrison, Ted; Cezar, Simone; Sautter, Mari; Greenwald, Mark J.; Mieler, William; Mets, Marilyn B.; Alam, Ambereen; Boyer, Kenneth; Swisher, Charles N.; Roizen, Nancy; Rabiah, Peter; Del Monte, Monte A.; McLeod, Rima

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To determine the incidence and natural history of cataracts in children with congenital toxoplasmosis. Methods Children referred to the National Collaborative Chicago-based Congenital Toxoplasmosis Study (NCCCTS) between 1981 and 2005 were examined by ophthalmologists at predetermined times according to a specific protocol. The clinical course and treatment of patients who developed cataracts was reviewed. Results In the first year of life, 134 of 173 children examined were treated with pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine, and Leucovorin, while the remaining 39 were not treated. Cataracts occurred in 27 eyes of 20 patients (11.6%, 95% confidence interval [7.2%, 17.3%]). Fourteen cataracts were present at birth, and 13 developed postnatally. Locations of the cataracts included anterior polar (3 eyes), anterior subcapsular (6), nuclear (5), posterior subcapsular (7), and unknown (6). Thirteen cataracts were partial, 9 total, and 5 with unknown complexity. Twelve cataracts remained stable, 12 progressed, and progression was not known for 3. Five of 27 eyes had cataract surgery, with 2 of these developing glaucoma. Sixteen eyes of 11 patients had retinal detachment and cataract. All eyes with cataracts had additional ocular lesions. Conclusions In the NCCCTS cohort, 11.6% of patients were diagnosed with cataracts. There was considerable variability in the presentation, morphology, and progression of the cataracts. Associated intraocular pathology was an important cause of morbidity. PMID:18086432

  16. [Enzymopathic congenital hyperlactacidemia].

    PubMed

    Leroux, J P; Marsac, C; Saudubray, J M

    1976-01-01

    Congenital enzymopathic hyperlactacidemia results from a defect of utilisation of pyruvate either at the level of the pyruvate junction (pyruvate-carboxylase, pyruvate-dehydrogenase and Kreb's cycle), or at the level of the unidirectional enzymes on neo-glucogenesis and of neo-glycogenogenesis, e.g. glucose-6-phosphatase, phosphoenol-pyruvate-carboxykinase and glycogen synthetase. The enzymopathies which affect neoglucogenesis associate hyper-lactacidemia and fasting hypoglycemia and more or less marked hepatomegaly. Type I glycogenesis (von Gierke's disease) is the best known example. Enzymopathies which affect the pyruvate junction and the Krebs cycle, may be manifested in addition by: --either chronic neuropathies, e.g. Leigh's disease, recurrent ataxia, and moderate hyperalactacidemia,--or, as in congenital lactic acidoses, which have a rapid and severe prognosis with major hyperlactacidemia. Functional investigation, in particular, loading tests are of great value in orientation and justify the practice of tissue biopsy which permits the enzyme diagnosis. Recent, still unconfirmed knowledge of the pathogenesis of these diseases emphasizes the considerable importance of estimation of blood lactic acid in the investigation of metabolic acidoses of hereditary origin. PMID:184725

  17. [Congenital multiple arthrogryposis].

    PubMed

    Parsch, Klaus; Pietrzak, Szymon

    2007-03-01

    From 1975 to 2004 a total of 38 children handicapped by congenital multiple arthrogryposis were cared for. The congenital joint contractures demand a major effort in terms of surgical reconstruction. In the case of distal arthrogryposis the chances that patients will be able to walk without help are good, while those with amyoplasia are likely to be dependent on mobility aids throughout their lives. The ultimate goal of treatment for patients is to develop into self-confident adults who can cope with life despite their handicaps. The hip in arthrogryposis shows variable forms of pathology, ranging from the almost normal hip to hip contractures with dislocation. Its treatment has some limited advantages, but hardly improves mobility. The knee contractures are actively treated to allow patients to sit, stand and walk better. The club foot and the rocker-bottom foot need sophisticated conservative and operative treatments. If conservative manipulation of bilateral extension contractures of the elbow fails operative treatment is carried out on the dominant side. For shoulder, hand and finger contractures conservative manipulation brings about little improvement, and surgical approaches help hardly at all. PMID:17323063

  18. Solid modeling of fossil small mammal teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marschallinger, Robert; Hofmann, Peter; Daxner-Höck, Gudrun; Ketcham, Richard A.

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents an approach to create solid models of fossil small mammal teeth using a combination of microcomputed tomography, object based image analysis and voxel modeling. Small mammal teeth, because of their durability, are widely found in Cenozioc sediments the world over and play a key role in stratigraphy as well as in researching the rapid evolution and the paleogeographic spreading of small mammals. Recent advances in microcomputed tomography make this non-destructive analysis method an ideal data source for high-resolution 3D models of fossil small animal teeth. To derive internally consistent solid models of such fossils from micro-CT imagery, we propose a combination of 3D object based image analysis and solid modeling. Incorporating paleontological expert knowledge in the image processing cycle, object based image analysis yields topologically consistent image stacks classified by the main tooth components—enamel, dentine and pulp. Forwarding these data to a voxel modeling system, they can be quantitatively analyzed in an unprecedented manner: going beyond the possibilities of the state-of-art surface models, solid models are capable of unambiguously portraying the entire object volume—teeth can be peeled by material properties, subvolumes can be extracted and automatically analyzed by Boolean operations. The proposed method, which can be flexibly extended to handle a range of paleontological and geological micro-objects, is demonstrated with two typical fossil small mammal teeth.

  19. Photomechanical investigations on post endodontically rehabilitated teeth.

    PubMed

    Kishen, A; Asundi, A

    2002-04-01

    An investigation of the stress distribution patterns in post-core restored teeth and the behavior of dentin material to fracture propagation was conducted using experimental techniques such as digital photoelasticity (on photoelastic models), mechanical testing and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (on extracted teeth). Digital photoelastic experiments showed that endodontic post-core restoration resulted in regions of high tensile stress and of stress concentrations in the remaining dentin structure. It was observed from mechanical testing that the fracture resistance in post-core restored teeth is significantly lower (p<0.0001) than that in intact tooth. There was a significant correspondence between the plane of stress concentrations identified in the photoelastic models and in those of the plane of fracture exhibited by the rehabilitated tooth specimens. While the fracture of post-core rehabilitated teeth was consistent, that of control teeth was not as distinct. The SEM highlighted varying dentin response to fracture propagation at the inner core and the outer regions. The fractographs showed brittle and ductile response to fracture propagation in the outer and inner core dentin, respectively. These photomechanical studies highlighted that the stress concentrations, high tensile stress and loss of inner ductile dentin associated with post endodontic rehabilitation diminished their resistance to fracture. PMID:11966313

  20. Fiber-reinforced Composite for Chairside Replacement of Anterior Teeth: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Garoushi, S; Vallittu, Pk; Lassila, Lvj

    2008-01-01

    A variety of therapeutic modalities, from implant to conventional Maryland prosthesis, can be used for the replacement of a missing anterior tooth. Whenever a minimal tooth reduction is preferred, a fiber reinforced composite (FRC) prosthesis could be a good alternative to conventional prosthetic techniques, chiefly as temporary restoration before making a final decision on the treatment. The purpose of this case report is to describe the clinical procedure of fabricating anterior chairside FRC prosthesis with pre-impregnated unidirectional E-glass fibers and veneered particulate filler composite. Fiber-reinforced composite in combination with adhesive technology appears to be a promising treatment option for replacing missing teeth. However, further and long-term clinical investigation will be required to provide additional information on the survival of directly-bonded anterior fixed prosthesis made with FRC systems. PMID:21499473

  1. Modeling missing data in knowledge space theory.

    PubMed

    de Chiusole, Debora; Stefanutti, Luca; Anselmi, Pasquale; Robusto, Egidio

    2015-12-01

    Missing data are a well known issue in statistical inference, because some responses may be missing, even when data are collected carefully. The problem that arises in these cases is how to deal with missing data. In this article, the missingness is analyzed in knowledge space theory, and in particular when the basic local independence model (BLIM) is applied to the data. Two extensions of the BLIM to missing data are proposed: The former, called ignorable missing BLIM (IMBLIM), assumes that missing data are missing completely at random; the latter, called missing BLIM (MissBLIM), introduces specific dependencies of the missing data on the knowledge states, thus assuming that the missing data are missing not at random. The IMBLIM and the MissBLIM modeled the missingness in a satisfactory way, in both a simulation study and an empirical application, depending on the process that generates the missingness: If the missing data-generating process is of type missing completely at random, then either IMBLIM or MissBLIM provide adequate fit to the data. However, if the pattern of missingness is functionally dependent upon unobservable features of the data (e.g., missing answers are more likely to be wrong), then only a correctly specified model of the missingness distribution provides an adequate fit to the data. PMID:26651988

  2. Human teeth model using photoacoustic frequency response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sharkawy, Yasser H.; El-Sherif, Ashraf F.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, a novel photo-acoustic technique modality utilizing a frequency- modulated Q-switch Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm and coherent frequency domain signal processing is introduced for impulse and frequency responses of biological tissues. We present a photoacoustic technique to monitor the temporal behavior of temperature and pressure in an excised sample of human teeth after either a single laser pulse or during multiple laser pulses at pulse repetition frequencies (PRF) from 5 Hz to 100 Hz. Knowledge of the dynamic characteristics of structural elements often means the difference between normal and abnormal tissue. The determination of the resonance characteristics of structures is termed "modal analysis." The results of our study suggest that it is possible to identify the impulse, frequency response and resonance modes of simplified human teeth. This data provided a powerful tool to differentiate between normal and decay teeth.

  3. Extreme strength observed in limpet teeth.

    PubMed

    Barber, Asa H; Lu, Dun; Pugno, Nicola M

    2015-04-01

    The teeth of limpets exploit distinctive composite nanostructures consisting of high volume fractions of reinforcing goethite nanofibres within a softer protein phase to provide mechanical integrity when rasping over rock surfaces during feeding. The tensile strength of discrete volumes of limpet tooth material measured using in situ atomic force microscopy was found to range from 3.0 to 6.5 GPa and was independent of sample size. These observations highlight an absolute material tensile strength that is the highest recorded for a biological material, outperforming the high strength of spider silk currently considered to be the strongest natural material, and approaching values comparable to those of the strongest man-made fibres. This considerable tensile strength of limpet teeth is attributed to a high mineral volume fraction of reinforcing goethite nanofibres with diameters below a defect-controlled critical size, suggesting that natural design in limpet teeth is optimized towards theoretical strength limits. PMID:25694539

  4. Extreme strength observed in limpet teeth

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Asa H.; Lu, Dun; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2015-01-01

    The teeth of limpets exploit distinctive composite nanostructures consisting of high volume fractions of reinforcing goethite nanofibres within a softer protein phase to provide mechanical integrity when rasping over rock surfaces during feeding. The tensile strength of discrete volumes of limpet tooth material measured using in situ atomic force microscopy was found to range from 3.0 to 6.5 GPa and was independent of sample size. These observations highlight an absolute material tensile strength that is the highest recorded for a biological material, outperforming the high strength of spider silk currently considered to be the strongest natural material, and approaching values comparable to those of the strongest man-made fibres. This considerable tensile strength of limpet teeth is attributed to a high mineral volume fraction of reinforcing goethite nanofibres with diameters below a defect-controlled critical size, suggesting that natural design in limpet teeth is optimized towards theoretical strength limits. PMID:25694539

  5. Fractures of posterior teeth in adults.

    PubMed

    Eakle, W S; Maxwell, E H; Braly, B V

    1986-02-01

    Examined in this study were 191 patients with 206 complete or incomplete fractures of posterior teeth. The patients ranged in age from 14 to 76 years, with 66.5% younger than 40 years. The number of fractures occurring in each arch was almost equal. The mandibular first molar was the most frequently fractured posterior tooth. The lingual cusps of mandibular molars fractured more often than did the buccal cusps of mandibular molars by a ratio of 2 to 1. In maxillary molars, buccal and lingual cusps fractured with almost equal frequency, but, in maxillary premolars, the lingual cusps fractured slightly more often than buccal cusps. Data gathered on the widths of the isthmuses of restorations in 109 teeth showed that fewer fractures occurred in teeth with more conservative restorations, with widths of isthmuses a quarter of the inter-cusp distance, and intact marginal ridges. PMID:3456380

  6. A Comet's Missing Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    On 28 November 2013, comet C/2012 S1 better known as comet ISON should have passed within two solar radii of the Suns surface as it reached perihelion in its orbit. But instead of shining in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths as it grazed the solar surface, the comet was never detected by EUV instruments. What happened to comet ISON?Missing EmissionWhen a sungrazing comet passes through the solar corona, it leaves behind a trail of molecules evaporated from its surface. Some of these molecules emit EUV light, which can be detected by instruments on telescopes like the space-based Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO).Comet ISON, a comet that arrived from deep space and was predicted to graze the Suns corona in November 2013, was expected to cause EUV emission during its close passage. But analysis of the data from multiple telescopes that tracked ISON in EUV including SDO reveals no sign of it at perihelion.In a recent study, Paul Bryans and DeanPesnell, scientists from NCARs High Altitude Observatory and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, try to determine why ISON didnt display this expected emission.Comparing ISON and LovejoyIn December 2011, another comet dipped into the Suns corona: comet Lovejoy. This image, showingthe orbit Lovejoy took around the Sun, is a composite of SDO images of the pre- and post-perihelion phases of the orbit. Click for a closer look! The dashed part of the curve represents where Lovejoy passed out of view behind the Sun. [Bryans Pesnell 2016]This is not the first time weve watched a sungrazing comet with EUV-detecting telescopes: Comet Lovejoy passed similarly close to the Sun in December 2011. But when Lovejoy grazed the solar corona, it emitted brightly in EUV. So why didnt ISON? Bryans and Pesnell argue that there are two possibilities:the coronal conditions experienced by the two comets were not similar, orthe two comets themselves were not similar.To establish which factor is the most relevant, the authors first demonstrate that both

  7. Congenital mirror movements.

    PubMed Central

    Schott, G D; Wyke, M A

    1981-01-01

    In this report are described seven patients assessed clinically and neuropsychologically in whom mirror movements affecting predominantly the hands occurred as a congenital disorder. These mirror movements, representing a specific type of abnormal synkinesia, may arise as a hereditary condition, in the presence of a recognisable underlying neurological abnormality, and sporadically, and the seven patients provide more or less satisfactory examples of each of these three groups. Despite the apparent uniformity of the disorder, the heterogeneity and variability may be marked, examples in some of our patients including the pronounced increase in tone that developed with arm movement, and the capacity for modulation of the associated movement by alteration of neck position and bio-feedback. Various possible mechanisms are considered; these include impaired cerebral inhibition of unwanted movements, and functioning of abnormal motor pathways. Emphasis has been placed on the putative role of the direct, crossed corticomotoneurone pathways and on the unilateral and bilateral cerebral events that precede movement. PMID:7288446

  8. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Dessinioti, Cleo; Katsambas, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia consists of a heterogenous group of inherited disorders due to enzymatic defects in the biosynthetic pathway of cortisol and/or aldosterone. This results in glucocorticoid deficiency, mineralocorticoid deficiency, and androgen excess. 95% of CAH cases are due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Clinical forms range from the severe, classical CAH associated with complete loss of enzyme function, to milder, non-classical forms (NCAH). Androgen excess affects the pilosebaceous unit, causing cutaneous manifestations such as acne, androgenetic alopecia and hirsutism. Clinical differential diagnosis between NCAH and polycystic ovary syndrome may be difficult. In this review, the evaluation of patients with suspected CAH, the clinical presentation of CAH forms, with emphasis on the cutaneous manifestations of the disease, and available treatment options, will be discussed. PMID:22523607

  9. Multicystic congenital mesoblastic nephroma.

    PubMed

    Drut, Ricardo

    2002-01-01

    This report describes an unusual example of congenital mesoblastic nephroma cellular variant that presented in a 1-week-old neonate as a multicystic tumor of the kidney. Extensive pseudocystic cavitation resulted from progressive accumulation of ground substance in a loosely myxoid tissue composed of stellate- and spindle-shaped cells that compressed and infiltrated renal tissue. The cells of the tumor were positive for vimentin and smooth muscle actin. The patient is alive and well 16 years after surgery. Differential diagnosis from segmental cystic dysplasia, cystic intralobar nephrogenic rest, cystic nephroma, cystic partially differentiated nephroblastoma, cystic nephroblastoma, and cystic clear cell sarcoma of the kidney, all of which may present at this age, is discussed. PMID:11927972

  10. Congenital sensorineural hearing loss

    SciTech Connect

    Mafee, M.F.; Selis, J.E.; Yannias, D.A.; Valvassori, G.E.; Pruzansky, S.; Applebaum, E.L.; Capek, V.

    1984-02-01

    The ears of 47 selected patients with congenital sensorineural hearing loss were examined with complex-motion tomography. The patients were divided into 3 general categories: those with a recognized syndrome, those with sensorineural hearing loss unrelated to any known syndrome, and those with microtia. A great variety of inner ear anomalies was detected, but rarely were these characteristic of a particular clinical entity. The most common finding was the Mondini malformation or one of its variants. Isolated dysplasia of the internal auditory canal or the vestibular aqueduct may be responsible for sensorineural hearing loss in some patients. Patients with microtia may also have severe inner ear abnormalities despite the fact that the outer and inner ears develop embryologically from completely separate systems.

  11. Congenital vertical talus: a review.

    PubMed

    McKie, Janay; Radomisli, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Congenital vertical talus, also known as congenital convex pes valgus, is an uncommon disorder of the foot, manifested as a rigid rocker-bottom flatfoot. Radiographically, it is defined by dorsal dislocation of the navicular on the talus. This condition requires surgical correction. If left untreated, this foot deformity results in a painful and rigid flatfoot with weak push-off power. This article provides an overview of this rare foot deformity, outlines appropriate workup of the disorder, and details current treatment options, with emphasis on the evolution of treatment of congenital vertical talus. PMID:19963176

  12. ESR dating of teeth from Brazilian megafauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, L. C.; Kinoshita, A.; Barreto, A. M. F.; Figueiredo, A. M.; Silva, J. L. L.; Baffa, O.

    2010-11-01

    The study of radiation defects created in biomaterials, such as bone and teeth, can be used in dating with importance to palaeontology and archaeology. Two Stegomastodon teeth (AL1 and AL2) from north-eastern Brazilian megafauna were studied by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The samples were collected in Fazenda Ovo da Ema, (913349 / 3714965) UTM, Alagoas state, Brazil. The dating of these samples can contribute to the better knowledge of megafauna presence in this region as well as to the events associated to the extinction of these species.

  13. Teeth loss, teeth brushing and esophageal carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui; Nie, Shuping; Zhu, Yuhui; Lu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal carcinoma (EC) is a serious malignancy, and its epidemiologic etiology is not fully explained. We performed this review to investigate the association between teeth loss and teeth brushing and the risk of EC. A systematic search was conducted to identify all relevant studies. The Q test and I2 statistic were used to examine between-study heterogeneity. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were considered by fixed or random effects models. Furthermore, we conducted subgroup analyses based on study design, the studies’ geographic regions and case type of origin. Modified Egger linear regression test was used to estimate publication bias. Ten articles were included. Pooled analyses indicated that teeth loss was associated with an increased risk of EC for Asians (OR, 1.52; 95% CI: 1.30, 1.78), and high frequency of teeth brushing was associated with a lower incidence of EC (OR, 0.62; 95%CI: 0.43, 0.89). Subgroup analyses showed consistent results and no publication bias existed. Teeth loss and teeth brushing play potential roles in the progressing of EC. People should take care of their oral health in daily life. And large well-designed researches are needed to fully describe the association between teeth health and EC risk. PMID:26462879

  14. Missed nursing care: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Kalisch, Beatrice J

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine nursing care regularly missed on medical-surgical units and reasons for missed care. Nine elements of regularly missed nursing care (ambulation, turning, delayed or missed feedings, patient teaching, discharge planning, emotional support, hygiene, intake and output documentation, and surveillance) and 7 themes relative to the reasons for missing this care were reported by nursing staff. PMID:16985399

  15. Riga-Fede disease and neonatal teeth

    PubMed Central

    COSTACURTA, M.; MATURO, P.; DOCIMO, R.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Aim The aim of this study is to present a case of Riga-Fede disease (RFD). RFD is a benign and uncommon mucosal disorder, characterized by an ulceration of the tongue, often caused by repetitive traumatic injuries due to backward and forward movements of the tongue over the mandibular anterior incisors. RFD is most commonly associated with the eruption of primary lower incisor in older infants or natal-neonatal teeth in newborns. Methods A 2-month-old female infant was referred to our Paediatric Dentistry Unit for ulceration (13 mm diameter) on the ventral surface of the tongue and neonatal teeth. The extraction of neonatal teeth was selected as treatment of choice, over more conservative treatments, for the rapid resolution of the lesion and for the limited risk of inadequate nutrients intake. The extracted teeth underwent a macroscopic/microscopic examination. The complete healing of the lesion took 4 weeks; subsequently, the infant, revised at the 1-year follow-up visit. Conclusion Early detection of RFD is recommended because such lesions properly may induce deformity or mutilation of tongue, dehydration, inadequate nutrients intake by the infant and growth retardation. PMID:23285403

  16. Simulating Clinical Carious Lesions in Composition Teeth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose, E. R.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A step-by-step technique to alter stock composition teeth and create simulated carious conditions that are ideal or otherwise is presented. The procedures provide the student with life-like lesions, suitable in texture and location and similar to conditions found in the oral cavity. (MLW)

  17. Teeth syndrome: diagnosis, complications and management

    PubMed Central

    Sbai, Mohamed Ali; Benzarti, Sofien; Boussen, Monia; Maalla, Riadh

    2015-01-01

    Teeth syndrome or fight bite is a specific entity in hand surgery that is little known. It includes infectious complications of the hand following a fist against the teeth. Neglected or misdiagnosed this injury frequently leads to serious complications that could compromise the function of the hand. A retrospective study was performed on 20 patients treated for teeth syndrome at our department, during a period of 12 years (January 2003 to April 2015). All young adults with a mean age of 28 years and a significant male predominance. The dominant side was involved in 15 patients. Lesions were divided into 4 cases of simple dorsal wounds facing the MP joint, 8 cases of dorsal hand cellulitis, and 8 cases of arthritis and osteoarthritis of the metacarpophalangeal (MP) joint of the long fingers. The index was the most affected finger. Treatment consisted in debridement of necrotic tissues, stabilization with external fixation for arthritis, skin reconstruction was performed secondarily. Result was assessed as good in 60% of cases. Clenched fist injuries to the mouth (teeth syndrome or fight bite) are known as being the worst human bites. Usually treated as minor injuries, without realizing a breach of the joint capsule, a lesion of the extensor tendon, or a contamination by oral flora. Any patient with a wound near the joint of the hand and was involved in a fight, need an appropriate evaluation and a specialized treatment to avoid serious complications. PMID:26834924

  18. Teeth: Among Nature's Most Durable Biocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawn, Brian R.; Lee, James J.-W.; Chai, Herzl

    2010-08-01

    This paper addresses the durability of natural teeth from a materials perspective. Teeth are depicted as smart biocomposites, highly resistant to cumulative deformation and fracture. Favorable morphological features of teeth at both macroscopic and microscopic levels contribute to an innate damage tolerance. Damage modes are activated readily within the brittle enamel coat but are contained from spreading catastrophically into the vulnerable tooth interior in sustained occlusal loading. Although tooth enamel contains a multitude of microstructural defects that can act as sources of fracture, substantial overloads are required to drive any developing cracks to ultimate failure—nature's strategy is to contain damage rather than avoid it. Tests on model glass-shell systems simulating the basic elements of the tooth enamel/dentin layer structure help to identify important damage modes. Fracture and deformation mechanics provide a basis for analyzing critical conditions for each mode, in terms of characteristic tooth dimensions and materials properties. Comparative tests on extracted human and animal teeth confirm the validity of the model test approach and point to new research directions. Implications in biomechanics, especially as they relate to dentistry and anthropology, are outlined.

  19. Hierarchical structure and biomineralization in cricket teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Xue-Qing; Gong, Yu; Cai, Quan; Mo, Guang; Du, Rong; Chen, Zhong-Jun; Wu, Zhong-Hua

    2013-02-01

    The cricket is a truculent insect with stiff and sharp teeth as a fighting weapon. The structure and possible biomineralization of cricket teeth are always interesting. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, and small angle X-ray scattering techniques were used to probe the element distribution, possible crystalline structures and size distribution of scatterers in cricket teeth. A scanning electron microscope was used to observe the nanoscaled structure. The results demonstrate that Zn is the main heavy element in cricket teeth. The surface of a cricket tooth has a crystalline compound like ZnFe2(AsO4)2(OH)2(H2O)4. The interior of the tooth has a crystalline compound like ZnCl2, which is from the biomineralization. The ZnCl2-like biomineral forms nanoscaled microfibrils and their axial direction points towards the top of the tooth cusp. The microfibrils aggregate randomly into intermediate filaments, forming a hierarchical structure. A sketch map of the cricket tooth cusp is proposed and a detailed discussion is given in this paper.

  20. Do We Need National Standards with Teeth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usiskin, Zalman

    2007-01-01

    The author, director of the University of Chicago School Mathematics Project, tackles the following question: Should the United States have national standards with teeth, that is, a single set of standards tied to assessments and agreed to by the states? Proponents advance five main arguments for implementing such a standard. In his rebuttal, the…

  1. Computing Contact Stresses In Gear Teeth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, Fred B.; Somprakit, Paisan; Huston, Ronald L.

    1995-01-01

    Improved method of computing contact stresses in gear teeth accounts for complicating effects like those of static and sliding friction. Provides iterative procedure for determination of contact region and nodal contact forces along with contact stresses. Method based on equations and computational procedure incorporating these effects routinely.

  2. Modification Of Gear Teeth To Reduce Vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Dennis P.; Oswald, Fred B.; Lin, Hsiang Hsi

    1990-01-01

    Computer simulations yield data useful in designing for low noise. Effects of modifications in shape of gear teeth upon static transmission error and dynamic loading of gears now analyzed systematically. Design curves generated by conducting numerical simulations of dynamic effects at successive incremental modifications of gear systems operated at various applied loads. Modifications that result in minimum dynamic effect determined from design curves.

  3. The relationship between teething and handedness.

    PubMed

    Orbak, Recep; Sezer, Ufuk; Dilsiz, Alpaslan; Cicek, Yasin; Orbak, Zerrin

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of tooth eruption sequences as an indicator of handedness. The investigation was carried out on 92 healthy children. The questionnaire form was filled out for each child. The form consisted of two parts. In the first part there were questions to determine the demographic features of the children. The second part consisted of the questions to clarify the eruption time and sequence of first primary teeth. Hand preference was evaluated by placing colored pencils directly in front of the child, who was asked to write an "X" on a piece of paper with each pencil. According to left-, right-, and indetermined handedness, all children regardless of sex were divided into three groups. The data were analyzed for statistical evaluation using tests for the difference between two population propositions. The mean eruption time of the first tooth in children was 7.5 +/- 1.7 months. The eruption time was found similar in both groups. No statistically significant difference was determined between the teeth eruption time and handedness (p >.05). The first tooth erupted was generally the lower central incisor. There was no difference tooth eruption and sex, gestation week (p >.05). No statistically significant difference was found between the teeth eruption time and sequence of the primary teeth (p >.05). There was statistically significant difference between sequence of the tooth eruption and handedness (p <.001). Consequently, the tooth eruption sequences may play an important role as an indicator in handedness. PMID:17365123

  4. [Bleaching of devitalized teeth with ultrasonic assistance].

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, C K; Lacerda, A G; Souza, M H; Francischone, C E; Ishikiriama, A; Berbert, A

    1989-03-01

    A new bleaching technique for pulpless teeth is demonstrated by a clinical case. The principle of the method is to clean the dentinal tubules by an 1% sodium hypochlorite solution activated by a 40 endosonofile. A mixture of sodium perborate and a 3% hydrogen peroxide is left in the pulp chamber between the treatment sessions. PMID:2633222

  5. How to Care for Your Baby's Teeth

    MedlinePlus

    ... twice a day as soon as the first tooth appears. Until your child is 1 year old, you can use a wet washcloth or gauze to clean your baby's teeth and gums. Start using a soft baby toothbrush and a small dab of toothpaste that does not have fluoride in it when your baby is between 1 ...

  6. Simulation of a flow around biting teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narusawa, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Eriko; Kuwahara, Kunio

    2008-11-01

    We simulated a flow around biting teeth. The decayed tooth is a disease that a majority of people are annoyed. These are often generated from a deep groove at occlusal surface. It is known that a person who bites well doesn't suffer from a decayed tooth easily. Biting forces reach as much as 60 kg/cm^2 by an adult male, and when chewing, upper and lower teeth approach to bite by those forces. The crushed food mixed with saliva becomes high viscosity fluid, and is pushed out of ditches of teeth in the direction of the cheek or the tongue. Teeth with complex three dimension curved surface are thought to form venturi at this time, and to generate big pressure partially. An excellent dental articulation will possibly help a natural generation of a flow to remove dental plaque, i.e. the cause of the decayed tooth. Moreover, the relation of this flow with the destruction of the filled metal or the polymer is doubted. In this research, we try to clarify the pressure distributions by this flow generation as well as its dynamics when chewing. One of our goals is to enable an objective design of the shape of the dental fillings and the artificial tooth. Tooth has a very small uneven ground and a bluff body. In this case, to calculate a computational numerical simulation to solve the Navier-Stokes equations three dimension Cartesian coordinate system is employed.

  7. Elephant teeth from the atlantic continental shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitmore, F.C., Jr.; Emery, K.O.; Cooke, H.B.S.; Swift, D.J.P.

    1967-01-01

    Teeth of mastodons and mastodons have been recovered by fishermen from at least 40 sites on the continental shelf as deep as 120 meters. Also present are submerged shorelines, peat deposits, lagoonal shells, and relict sands. Evidently elephants and other large mammals ranged this region during the glacial stage of low sea level of the last 25.000 years.

  8. Relationship between premature loss of primary teeth with oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care, and previous caries experience

    PubMed Central

    López-Gómez, Sandra Aremy; Villalobos-Rodelo, Juan José; Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Casanova-Rosado, Juan Fernando; Vallejos-Sánchez, Ana Alicia; Lucas-Rincón, Salvador Eduardo; Patiño-Marín, Nuria; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    We determine the relationship between premature loss of primary teeth and oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care and previous caries experience. This study focused on 833 Mexican schoolchildren aged 6–7. We performed an oral examination to determine caries experience and the simplified oral hygiene index. The dependent variable was the prevalence of at least one missing tooth (or indicated for extraction) of the primary dentition; this variable was coded as 0 = no loss of teeth and 1 = at least one lost primary tooth. The prevalence of at least one missing tooth was 24.7% (n = 206) (95% CI = 21.8–27.7). The variables that were associated with the prevalence of tooth loss (p < 0.05) included: the largest number of decayed teeth (OR = 1.11), the largest number of filled teeth (OR = 1.23), the worst oral hygiene (OR = 3.24), a lower frequency of brushing (OR = 1.60), an increased consumption of soda (OR = 1.89) and use of dental care (curative: OR = 2.83, preventive: OR = 1.93). This study suggests that the premature loss of teeth in the primary dentition is associated with oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care and previous caries experience in Mexican schoolchildren. These data provide relevant information for the design of preventive dentistry programs. PMID:26916132

  9. Teething in children and the alleviation of symptoms.

    PubMed

    Jones, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Teething is a normal process by which an infant begins to cut the first teeth (primary dentition). On average, infants begin teething at six months and by the age of three years all the first teeth have erupted. A variety of symptoms can accompany teething including sensitive and painful gums, mouth ulceration, drooling, feeding difficulties, lack of sleep and crying, all of which result in a distressed child and anxious parent. Some teething symptoms can be alleviated effectively at home with teething aids such as cold teething rings. In addition, over-the-counter treatments are available which provide pain relief and are mainly in the form of analgesic and anaesthetic gels, some of which also possess antiseptic properties. Gels such as those containing choline salicylate can be applied direct to the gums specifically to relieve pain and inflammation. PMID:12415773

  10. Oxalic acid in saliva, teeth and tooth tartar.

    PubMed

    Wahl, R; Kallee, E

    1994-11-01

    Oxalic acid was determined in human saliva, teeth, tartar, and in animal teeth. Saliva from dentally healthy male subjects contained 0.10 +/- 0.09 mmol/l (n = 41) and those of dentally healthy female subjects 0.18 +/- 0.17 mmol/l (n = 40). Oxalic acid in tartar from 16 patients was 3.3 +/- 1.2 mmol/kg tartar. In human teeth, oxalic acid was 1.0 +/- 0.3 mmol/kg in milk teeth (n = 12) and 0.9 +/- 0.6 mmol/kg in permanent teeth (n = 60). Human teeth were sorted into age groups and into molars, incisors and premolars. In animal teeth, oxalic acid content varied widely. The formed calcium oxalate is proposed to be a 'physiological' protective mechanism for teeth. PMID:7888477