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Sample records for consequence code system

  1. MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS)

    SciTech Connect

    Jow, H.N.; Sprung, J.L.; Ritchie, L.T. ); Rollstin, J.A. ); Chanin, D.I. )

    1990-02-01

    This report describes the MACCS computer code. The purpose of this code is to simulate the impact of severe accidents at nuclear power plants on the surrounding environment. MACCS has been developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to replace the previously used CRAC2 code, and it incorporates many improvements in modeling flexibility in comparison to CRAC2. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS are atmospheric transport, mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways including food and water ingestion, early and latent health effects, and economic costs. The MACCS code can be used for a variety of applications. These include (1) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, (2) sensitivity studies to gain a better understanding of the parameters important to PRA, and (3) cost-benefit analysis. This report is composed of three volumes. Volume I, the User's Guide, describes the input data requirements of the MACCS code and provides directions for its use as illustrated by three sample problems. Volume II, the Model Description, describes the underlying models that are implemented in the code, and Volume III, the Programmer's Reference Manual, describes the code's structure and database management. 59 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs.

  2. MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS)

    SciTech Connect

    Chanin, D.I. ); Sprung, J.L.; Ritchie, L.T.; Jow, Hong-Nian )

    1990-02-01

    This report describes the MACCS computer code. The purpose of this code is to simulate the impact of severe accidents at nuclear power plants on the surrounding environment. MACCS has been developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to replace the previous CRAC2 code, and it incorporates many improvements in modeling flexibility in comparison to CRAC2. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS are atmospheric transport, mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways including food and water ingestion, early and latent health effects, and economic costs. The MACCS code can be used for a variety of applications. These include (1) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, (2) sensitivity studies to gain a better understanding of the parameters important to PRA, and (3) cost-benefit analysis. This report is composed of three volumes. This document, Volume 1, the Users's Guide, describes the input data requirements of the MACCS code and provides directions for its use as illustrated by three sample problems.

  3. Documentation for RISKIN: A risk integration code for MACCS (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System) output

    SciTech Connect

    Rollstin, J.A. ); Hong, Kou-John )

    1990-11-01

    This document has been prepared as a user's guide for the computer program RISKIN developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The RISKIN code generates integrated risk tables and the weighted mean risk associated with a user-selected set of consequences from up to five output files generated by the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS). Each MACCS output file can summarize the health and economic consequences resulting from up to 60 distinct severe accident source terms. Since the accident frequency associated with these source terms is not included as a MACCS input parameter a postprocessor is required to derived results that must incorporate accident frequency. The RISKIN code is such a postprocessor. RISKIN will search the MACCS output files for the mean and peak consequence values and the complementary cumulative distributive function (CCDF) tables for each requested consequence. Once obtained, RISKIN combines this data with accident frequency data to produce frequency weighted results. A postprocessor provides RISKIN an interface to the proprietary DISSPLA plot package. The RISKIN code has been written using ANSI Standard FORTRAN 77 to maximize its portability.

  4. Quality assurance and verification of the MACCS (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System) code, Version 1. 5

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbe, C.A.; Carlson, E.R.; Marshall, N.H.; Marwil, E.S.; Tolli, J.E. )

    1990-02-01

    An independent quality assurance (QA) and verification of Version 1.5 of the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS) was performed. The QA and verification involved examination of the code and associated documentation for consistent and correct implementation of the models in an error-free FORTRAN computer code. The QA and verification was not intended to determine either the adequacy or appropriateness of the models that are used MACCS 1.5. The reviews uncovered errors which were fixed by the SNL MACCS code development staff prior to the release of MACCS 1.5. Some difficulties related to documentation improvement and code restructuring are also presented. The QA and verification process concluded that Version 1.5 of the MACCS code, within the scope and limitations process concluded that Version 1.5 of the MACCS code, within the scope and limitations of the models implemented in the code is essentially error free and ready for widespread use. 15 refs., 11 tabs.

  5. Reactor Accident Consequence Code

    SciTech Connect

    2015-11-02

    MACCS1.5 performs probabilistic calculations of potential off site consequences of the atmospheric releases of radioactive material in reactor accidents. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS are atmospheric transport, environmental contamination, emergency response, long term mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways including food and water ingestion, early and latent health effects, and economic costs. MACCS can be used for a variety of applications including probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, sensitivity studies to gain a better understanding of the parameters important to PRA, and cost benefit analysis. The time scale after the accident is divided into three phases: emergency, intermediate, and long term. The region surrounding the reactor is divided into a polar-coordinate grid, with the reactor located at the center, for the calculations. Two preprocessors, MAXGC and DOSFAC, are included. MAXGC generates the maximum allowable ground concentrations based on protective action guide (PAG) dose levels. DOSFAC generates the dose conversion data used by MACCS.

  6. Reactor Accident Consequence Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2015-11-02

    MACCS1.5 performs probabilistic calculations of potential off site consequences of the atmospheric releases of radioactive material in reactor accidents. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS are atmospheric transport, environmental contamination, emergency response, long term mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways including food and water ingestion, early and latent health effects, and economic costs. MACCS can be used for a variety of applications including probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) ofmore » nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, sensitivity studies to gain a better understanding of the parameters important to PRA, and cost benefit analysis. The time scale after the accident is divided into three phases: emergency, intermediate, and long term. The region surrounding the reactor is divided into a polar-coordinate grid, with the reactor located at the center, for the calculations. Two preprocessors, MAXGC and DOSFAC, are included. MAXGC generates the maximum allowable ground concentrations based on protective action guide (PAG) dose levels. DOSFAC generates the dose conversion data used by MACCS.« less

  7. Code System Model for Assessing the Consequences of Release of Radioactive Material into the Oceans.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1987-12-01

    Version 00 MARINRAD is a system of computer programs designed to evaluate the consequences from release of radioactive waste into the ocean. It has been used for safety assessment studies for the Subseabed Disposal Program, Sandia National Laboratories. It calculates radionuclide concentrations as a function of time, steady-state food-chain concentration factors, dose and health effects to man, and doses to aquatic biota.

  8. A review of the Melcor Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS): Capabilities and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Young, M.

    1995-02-01

    MACCS was developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) under U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsorship to estimate the offsite consequences of potential severe accidents at nuclear power plants (NPPs). MACCS was publicly released in 1990. MACCS was developed to support the NRC`s probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) efforts. PSA techniques can provide a measure of the risk of reactor operation. PSAs are generally divided into three levels. Level one efforts identify potential plant damage states that lead to core damage and the associated probabilities, level two models damage progression and containment strength for establishing fission-product release categories, and level three efforts evaluate potential off-site consequences of radiological releases and the probabilities associated with the consequences. MACCS was designed as a tool for level three PSA analysis. MACCS performs probabilistic health and economic consequence assessments of hypothetical accidental releases of radioactive material from NPPs. MACCS includes models for atmospheric dispersion and transport, wet and dry deposition, the probabilistic treatment of meteorology, environmental transfer, countermeasure strategies, dosimetry, health effects, and economic impacts. The computer systems MACCS is designed to run on are the 386/486 PC, VAX/VMS, E3M RISC S/6000, Sun SPARC, and Cray UNICOS. This paper provides an overview of MACCS, reviews some of the applications of MACCS, international collaborations which have involved MACCS, current developmental efforts, and future directions.

  9. Evaluation of severe accident risks: Quantification of major input parameters: MAACS (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System) input

    SciTech Connect

    Sprung, J.L.; Jow, H-N ); Rollstin, J.A. ); Helton, J.C. )

    1990-12-01

    Estimation of offsite accident consequences is the customary final step in a probabilistic assessment of the risks of severe nuclear reactor accidents. Recently, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission reassessed the risks of severe accidents at five US power reactors (NUREG-1150). Offsite accident consequences for NUREG-1150 source terms were estimated using the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS). Before these calculations were performed, most MACCS input parameters were reviewed, and for each parameter reviewed, a best-estimate value was recommended. This report presents the results of these reviews. Specifically, recommended values and the basis for their selection are presented for MACCS atmospheric and biospheric transport, emergency response, food pathway, and economic input parameters. Dose conversion factors and health effect parameters are not reviewed in this report. 134 refs., 15 figs., 110 tabs.

  10. Code System for Calculating Early Offsite Consequences from Nuclear Reactor Accidents.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-06-10

    SMART calculates early offsite consequences from nuclear reactor accidents. Once the air and ground concentrations of the radionuclide are estimated, the early dose to an individual is calculated via three pathways: cloudshine, short-term groundshine, and inhalation.

  11. PROBCON-HDW: A probability and consequence system of codes for long-term analysis of Hanford defense wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Piepho, M.G.; Nguyen, T.H.

    1988-12-01

    The PROBCON-HDW (PROBability and CONsequence analysis for Hanford defense waste) computer code system calculates the long-term cumulative releases of radionuclides from the Hanford defense wastes (HDW) to the accessible environment and compares the releases to environmental release limits as defined in 40 CFR 191. PROBCON-HDW takes into account the variability of input parameter values used in models to calculate HDW release and transport in the vadose zone to the accessible environment (taken here as groundwater). A human intrusion scenario, which consists of drilling boreholes into the waste beneath the waste sites and bringing waste to the surface, is also included in PROBCON-HDW. PROBCON-HDW also includes the capability to combine the cumulative releases according to various long-term (10,000 year) scenarios into a composite risk curve or complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF). The system structure of the PROBCON-HDW codes, the mathematical models in PROBCON-HDW, the input files, the input formats, the command files, and the graphical output results of several HDW release scenarios are described in the report. 3 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. Review of the chronic exposure pathways models in MACCS (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System) and several other well-known probabilistic risk assessment models

    SciTech Connect

    Tveten, U. )

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of the work performed by the author in connection with the following task, performed for US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, (USNRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, Division of Systems Research: MACCS Chronic Exposure Pathway Models: Review the chronic exposure pathway models implemented in the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS) and compare those models to the chronic exposure pathway models implemented in similar codes developed in countries that are members of the OECD. The chronic exposures concerned are via: the terrestrial food pathways, the water pathways, the long-term groundshine pathway, and the inhalation of resuspended radionuclides pathway. The USNRC has indicated during discussions of the task that the major effort should be spent on the terrestrial food pathways. There is one chapter for each of the categories of chronic exposure pathways listed above.

  13. Myelography CPT Coding Updates: Effects of 4 New Codes and Unintended Consequences.

    PubMed

    Chokshi, F H; Tu, R K; Nicola, G N; Hirsch, J A

    2016-06-01

    The Current Procedural Terminology of the American Medical Association has recently introduced coding changes for myelography with the introduction of new bundled codes. The aim of this review was to help neuroradiologists understand these code changes and their unintended consequences and to discuss various scenarios in which permutations of various codes could occur in clinical practice. PMID:26744447

  14. Tokamak Systems Code

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R.L.; Barrett, R.J.; Brown, T.G.; Gorker, G.E.; Hooper, R.J.; Kalsi, S.S.; Metzler, D.H.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Roth, K.E.; Spampinato, P.T.

    1985-03-01

    The FEDC Tokamak Systems Code calculates tokamak performance, cost, and configuration as a function of plasma engineering parameters. This version of the code models experimental tokamaks. It does not currently consider tokamak configurations that generate electrical power or incorporate breeding blankets. The code has a modular (or subroutine) structure to allow independent modeling for each major tokamak component or system. A primary benefit of modularization is that a component module may be updated without disturbing the remainder of the systems code as long as the imput to or output from the module remains unchanged.

  15. Binary concatenated coding system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monford, L. G., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Coding, using 3-bit binary words, is applicable to any measurement having integer scale up to 100. System using 6-bit data words can be expanded to read from 1 to 10,000, and 9-bit data words can increase range to 1,000,000. Code may be ''read'' directly by observation after memorizing simple listing of 9's and 10's.

  16. FORTRAN code-evaluation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capps, J. D.; Kleir, R.

    1977-01-01

    Automated code evaluation system can be used to detect coding errors and unsound coding practices in any ANSI FORTRAN IV source code before they can cause execution-time malfunctions. System concentrates on acceptable FORTRAN code features which are likely to produce undesirable results.

  17. Software Systems: Consequence versus Functionality

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Ray; Winter, Victor L.

    1999-08-05

    The purpose of this panel is to present different perspectives and opinions regarding the issues surrounding why software should or shouldn't be entrusted with critical (high consequence) functionality.

  18. RISKIND: An enhanced computer code for National Environmental Policy Act transportation consequence analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Biwer, B.M.; LePoire, D.J.; Chen, S.Y.

    1996-03-01

    The RISKIND computer program was developed for the analysis of radiological consequences and health risks to individuals and the collective population from exposures associated with the transportation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or other radioactive materials. The code is intended to provide scenario-specific analyses when evaluating alternatives for environmental assessment activities, including those for major federal actions involving radioactive material transport as required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). As such, rigorous procedures have been implemented to enhance the code`s credibility and strenuous efforts have been made to enhance ease of use of the code. To increase the code`s reliability and credibility, a new version of RISKIND was produced under a quality assurance plan that covered code development and testing, and a peer review process was conducted. During development of the new version, the flexibility and ease of use of RISKIND were enhanced through several major changes: (1) a Windows{sup {trademark}} point-and-click interface replaced the old DOS menu system, (2) the remaining model input parameters were added to the interface, (3) databases were updated, (4) the program output was revised, and (5) on-line help has been added. RISKIND has been well received by users and has been established as a key component in radiological transportation risk assessments through its acceptance by the U.S. Department of Energy community in recent environmental impact statements (EISs) and its continued use in the current preparation of several EISs.

  19. Reactor System Transient Code.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-07-14

    RELAP3B describes the behavior of water-cooled nuclear reactors during postulated accidents or power transients, such as large reactivity excursions, coolant losses or pump failures. The program calculates flows, mass and energy inventories, pressures, temperatures, and steam qualities along with variables associated with reactor power, reactor heat transfer, or control systems. Its versatility allows one to describe simple hydraulic systems as well as complex reactor systems.

  20. High Consequence System Surety process description

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, G.T.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents work-in-progress accomplished prior to programmatic changes that negated bringing this effort to conclusion as originally intended. The High Consequence System Surety (HCS{sup 2}) project pulls together a multi-disciplinary team to integrate the elements of surety safety, security, control, reliability and quality--into a new, encompassing process. The benefit of using this process is enhanced surety in the design of a high consequence system through an up-front, designed-in approach. This report describes the integrated, high consequence surety process and includes a hypothetical example to illustrate the process.

  1. High Consequence System Surety. Issue 1

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, G.T.

    1994-07-11

    High Consequence System Surety is an ongoing project at Sandia National Laboratories. This project pulls together a multi- disciplinary team to integrate the elements of surety into an encompassing process. The surety process will be augmented and validated by applying it to an automated system handling a critical nuclear weapon component at the Mason & Hanger Pantex Plant. This paper presents the development to date of an integrated, high consequence surety process.

  2. ETR/ITER systems code

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, W.L.; Bathke, C.G.; Brooks, J.N.; Bulmer, R.H.; Busigin, A.; DuBois, P.F.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Fink, J.; Finn, P.A.; Galambos, J.D.; Gohar, Y.; Gorker, G.E.; Haines, J.R.; Hassanein, A.M.; Hicks, D.R.; Ho, S.K.; Kalsi, S.S.; Kalyanam, K.M.; Kerns, J.A.; Lee, J.D.; Miller, J.R.; Miller, R.L.; Myall, J.O.; Peng, Y-K.M.; Perkins, L.J.; Spampinato, P.T.; Strickler, D.J.; Thomson, S.L.; Wagner, C.E.; Willms, R.S.; Reid, R.L.

    1988-04-01

    A tokamak systems code capable of modeling experimental test reactors has been developed and is described in this document. The code, named TETRA (for Tokamak Engineering Test Reactor Analysis), consists of a series of modules, each describing a tokamak system or component, controlled by an optimizer/driver. This code development was a national effort in that the modules were contributed by members of the fusion community and integrated into a code by the Fusion Engineering Design Center. The code has been checked out on the Cray computers at the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computing Center and has satisfactorily simulated the Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor II (TIBER) design. A feature of this code is the ability to perform optimization studies through the use of a numerical software package, which iterates prescribed variables to satisfy a set of prescribed equations or constraints. This code will be used to perform sensitivity studies for the proposed International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). 22 figs., 29 tabs.

  3. Software development methodology for high consequence systems

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, L.S.; Bouchard, J.F.; Collins, E.W.; Eisenhour, M.; Neidigk, D.D.; Shortencarier, M.J.; Trellue, P.A.

    1997-10-01

    This document describes a Software Development Methodology for High Consequence Systems. A High Consequence System is a system whose failure could lead to serious injury, loss of life, destruction of valuable resources, unauthorized use, damaged reputation or loss of credibility or compromise of protected information. This methodology can be scaled for use in projects of any size and complexity and does not prescribe any specific software engineering technology. Tasks are described that ensure software is developed in a controlled environment. The effort needed to complete the tasks will vary according to the size, complexity, and risks of the project. The emphasis of this methodology is on obtaining the desired attributes for each individual High Consequence System.

  4. A coded tracking telemetry system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howey, P.W.; Seegar, W.S.; Fuller, M.R.; Titus, K.

    1989-01-01

    We describe the general characteristics of an automated radio telemetry system designed to operate for prolonged periods on a single frequency. Each transmitter sends a unique coded signal to a receiving system that encodes and records only the appropriater, pre-programmed codes. A record of the time of each reception is stored on diskettes in a micro-computer. This system enables continuous monitoring of infrequent signals (e.g. one per minute or one per hour), thus extending operation life or allowing size reduction of the transmitter, compared to conventional wildlife telemetry. Furthermore, when using unique codes transmitted on a single frequency, biologists can monitor many individuals without exceeding the radio frequency allocations for wildlife.

  5. Human factors in high consequence manufacturing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, C.; Grose, E.

    1997-11-01

    A high consequence system is often defined as one in which the potential exists for severe or catastrophic accidents. Familiar examples include nuclear power plants, airline and other mass transportation, dams and reservoirs, and large-scale food processing. Many manufacturing systems also qualify as high consequence systems. Much of the authors` experience with high consequence systems derives from work associated with the surveillance and dismantlement of nuclear weapons for the US Department of Energy. With such operations, there exists a risk of high explosive detonation accompanied by radiological dispersal and, potentially, nuclear detonation. Analysis of major industrial accidents such as Three Mile Island, Chernobyl and Bhopal have revealed that these incidents were not attributable to a single event or direct cause, but were the result of multiple factors that combined to create a condition ripe for an accident. In each case, human error was a critical factor contributing to the accident. Consequently, many authors have emphasized the need for greater appreciation of systematic factors and in particular, human activities. This paper discusses approaches used in hazard analysis of US nuclear weapons operations to assess risk associated with human factors.

  6. System Safety and the Unintended Consequence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Clifford

    2012-01-01

    The analysis and identification of risks often result in design changes or modification of operational steps. This paper identifies the potential of unintended consequences as an over-looked result of these changes. Examples of societal changes such as prohibition, regulatory changes including mandating lifeboats on passenger ships, and engineering proposals or design changes to automobiles and spaceflight hardware are used to demonstrate that the System Safety Engineer must be cognizant of the potential for unintended consequences as a result of an analysis. Conclusions of the report indicate the need for additional foresight and consideration of the potential effects of analysis-driven design, processing changes, and/or operational modifications.

  7. Calculations of reactor-accident consequences, Version 2. CRAC2: computer code user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchie, L.T.; Johnson, J.D.; Blond, R.M.

    1983-02-01

    The CRAC2 computer code is a revision of the Calculation of Reactor Accident Consequences computer code, CRAC, developed for the Reactor Safety Study. The CRAC2 computer code incorporates significant modeling improvements in the areas of weather sequence sampling and emergency response, and refinements to the plume rise, atmospheric dispersion, and wet deposition models. New output capabilities have also been added. This guide is to facilitate the informed and intelligent use of CRAC2. It includes descriptions of the input data, the output results, the file structures, control information, and five sample problems.

  8. The EGS5 Code System

    SciTech Connect

    Hirayama, Hideo; Namito, Yoshihito; Bielajew, Alex F.; Wilderman, Scott J.; U., Michigan; Nelson, Walter R.; /SLAC

    2005-12-20

    In the nineteen years since EGS4 was released, it has been used in a wide variety of applications, particularly in medical physics, radiation measurement studies, and industrial development. Every new user and every new application bring new challenges for Monte Carlo code designers, and code refinements and bug fixes eventually result in a code that becomes difficult to maintain. Several of the code modifications represented significant advances in electron and photon transport physics, and required a more substantial invocation than code patching. Moreover, the arcane MORTRAN3[48] computer language of EGS4, was highest on the complaint list of the users of EGS4. The size of the EGS4 user base is difficult to measure, as there never existed a formal user registration process. However, some idea of the numbers may be gleaned from the number of EGS4 manuals that were produced and distributed at SLAC: almost three thousand. Consequently, the EGS5 project was undertaken. It was decided to employ the FORTRAN 77 compiler, yet include as much as possible, the structural beauty and power of MORTRAN3. This report consists of four chapters and several appendices. Chapter 1 is an introduction to EGS5 and to this report in general. We suggest that you read it. Chapter 2 is a major update of similar chapters in the old EGS4 report[126] (SLAC-265) and the old EGS3 report[61] (SLAC-210), in which all the details of the old physics (i.e., models which were carried over from EGS4) and the new physics are gathered together. The descriptions of the new physics are extensive, and not for the faint of heart. Detailed knowledge of the contents of Chapter 2 is not essential in order to use EGS, but sophisticated users should be aware of its contents. In particular, details of the restrictions on the range of applicability of EGS are dispersed throughout the chapter. First-time users of EGS should skip Chapter 2 and come back to it later if necessary. With the release of the EGS4 version

  9. Computer access security code system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A security code system for controlling access to computer and computer-controlled entry situations comprises a plurality of subsets of alpha-numeric characters disposed in random order in matrices of at least two dimensions forming theoretical rectangles, cubes, etc., such that when access is desired, at least one pair of previously unused character subsets not found in the same row or column of the matrix is chosen at random and transmitted by the computer. The proper response to gain access is transmittal of subsets which complete the rectangle, and/or a parallelepiped whose opposite corners were defined by first groups of code. Once used, subsets are not used again to absolutely defeat unauthorized access by eavesdropping, and the like.

  10. TDRSS telecommunication system PN code analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, R.

    1977-01-01

    The pseudonoise (PN) code library for the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Services was defined and described. The code library was chosen to minimize user transponder hardware requirements and optimize system performance. Special precautions were taken to insure sufficient code phase separation to minimize cross-correlation sidelobes, and to avoid the generation of spurious code components which would interfere with system performance.

  11. An Interactive Concatenated Turbo Coding System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Ye; Tang, Heng; Lin, Shu; Fossorier, Marc

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a concatenated turbo coding system in which a Reed-Solomon outer code is concatenated with a binary turbo inner code. In the proposed system, the outer code decoder and the inner turbo code decoder interact to achieve both good bit error and frame error performances. The outer code decoder helps the inner turbo code decoder to terminate its decoding iteration while the inner turbo code decoder provides soft-output information to the outer code decoder to carry out a reliability-based soft- decision decoding. In the case that the outer code decoding fails, the outer code decoder instructs the inner code decoder to continue its decoding iterations until the outer code decoding is successful or a preset maximum number of decoding iterations is reached. This interaction between outer and inner code decoders reduces decoding delay. Also presented in the paper are an effective criterion for stopping the iteration process of the inner code decoder and a new reliability-based decoding algorithm for nonbinary codes.

  12. Distributed wavefront coding for wide angle imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larivière-Bastien, Martin; Zhang, Hu; Thibault, Simon

    2011-10-01

    The emerging paradigm of imaging systems, known as wavefront coding, which employs joint optimization of both the optical system and the digital post-processing system, has not only increased the degrees of design freedom but also brought several significant system-level benefits. The effectiveness of wavefront coding has been demonstrated by several proof-of-concept systems in the reduction of focus-related aberrations and extension of depth of focus. While previous research on wavefront coding was mainly targeted at imaging systems having a small or modest field of view (FOV), we present a preliminary study on wavefront coding applied to panoramic optical systems. Unlike traditional wavefront coding systems, which only require the constancy of the modulation transfer function (MTF) over an extended focus range, wavefront-coded panoramic systems particularly emphasize the mitigation of significant off-axis aberrations such as field curvature, coma, and astigmatism. The restrictions of using a traditional generalized cubic polynomial pupil phase mask for wide angle systems are studied in this paper. It is shown that a traditional approach can be used when the variation of the off-axis aberrations remains modest. Consequently, we propose to study how a distributed wavefront coding approach, where two surfaces are used for encoding the wavefront, can be applied to wide angle lenses. A few cases designed using Zemax are presented and discussed

  13. Tandem Mirror Reactor Systems Code (Version I)

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R.L.; Finn, P.A.; Gohar, M.Y.; Barrett, R.J.; Gorker, G.E.; Spampinaton, P.T.; Bulmer, R.H.; Dorn, D.W.; Perkins, L.J.; Ghose, S.

    1985-09-01

    A computer code was developed to model a Tandem Mirror Reactor. Ths is the first Tandem Mirror Reactor model to couple, in detail, the highly linked physics, magnetics, and neutronic analysis into a single code. This report describes the code architecture, provides a summary description of the modules comprising the code, and includes an example execution of the Tandem Mirror Reactor Systems Code. Results from this code for two sensitivity studies are also included. These studies are: (1) to determine the impact of center cell plasma radius, length, and ion temperature on reactor cost and performance at constant fusion power; and (2) to determine the impact of reactor power level on cost.

  14. SSAC - SPACE SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE CODE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jan, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Space System Architecture Code (SSAC) is a computer program for performing sensitivity studies on operating parameters of space missions. Data is included for a mission to Mars and back to Earth (launch parameters are for even numbered years between 2014 and 2028). SSAC is a menu-driven tool that can examine the effects of varying such parameters as crew size for piloted missions, chemical vs. nuclear electric propulsion, specific impulse, and other variables. The structure of SSAC allows user control over the following options: 1) mass scaling; 2) number of stages for multistage missions; 3) specific impulse; 4) electric propulsion efficiency; 5) aerobraking; 6) payload mass; 7) Mars Lander parameters; 8) crew resource requirements; 9) escape spiral times; 10) total propulsion times; 11) attitude control parameters; 12) telecommunications options and 13) optimum trajectories. This package is written in FORTRAN 77 for DEC VAX series computers running VMS and is intended to be run interactively, although it can be modified for batch mode. The program has a menu-based user interface and requires 59K of main memory. Many different parameter dependencies can be graphically displayed on Tektronix-compatible output devices. SSAC is available in DEC VAX BACKUP format on a 9-track 1600 BPI magnetic tape (standard distribution media) or a TK50 tape cartridge. This program was developed in 1990 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA. DEC, VAX, and VMS are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation. Tektronix is a trademark of Tektronix, Inc.

  15. Production code control system for hydrodynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Slone, D.M.

    1997-08-18

    We describe how the Production Code Control System (pCCS), written in Perl, has been used to control and monitor the execution of a large hydrodynamics simulation code in a production environment. We have been able to integrate new, disparate, and often independent, applications into the PCCS framework without the need to modify any of our existing application codes. Both users and code developers see a consistent interface to the simulation code and associated applications regardless of the physical platform, whether an MPP, SMP, server, or desktop workstation. We will also describe our use of Perl to develop a configuration management system for the simulation code, as well as a code usage database and report generator. We used Perl to write a backplane that allows us plug in preprocessors, the hydrocode, postprocessors, visualization tools, persistent storage requests, and other codes. We need only teach PCCS a minimal amount about any new tool or code to essentially plug it in and make it usable to the hydrocode. PCCS has made it easier to link together disparate codes, since using Perl has removed the need to learn the idiosyncrasies of system or RPC programming. The text handling in Perl makes it easy to teach PCCS about new codes, or changes to existing codes.

  16. Radiological Safety Analysis Code System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-12-22

    Version 03 RSAC-6.2 can be used to model complex accidents and radiological consequences to individuals from the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere. A user can generate a fission product inventory; decay and ingrow the inventory during transport through processes, facilities, and the environment; model the downwind dispersion of the activity; and calculate doses to downwind individuals. Doses are calculated through the inhalation, immersion, ground surface and ingestion pathways. New to RSAC-6.2 are the abilitiesmore » to calculate inhalation from release to a room, inhalation from resuspension of activities, and a new model for dry deposition. Doses can now be calculated as close as 10 meters from the release point. RSAC-6.2 has been subjected to extensive independent verification and validation for use in performing safety-related dose calculations to support safety analysis reports. WinRP 2.0, a windows based overlay to RSAC-6.2, assists users in creating and running RSAC-6.2 input files. RSAC-6, Rev. 6.2 (03/11/02) corrects an earlier issue with RSAC-6, compiled with F77L-EM/32 Fortran 77 Version 5.10, which would not allow the executable to run with XP or VISTA Windows operating systems. Because this version is still in use at some facilities, it is being released through RSICC in addition to the new RSAC 7 (CCC-761).« less

  17. Coordinated design of coding and modulation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massey, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    Work on partial unit memory codes continued; it was shown that for a given virtual state complexity, the maximum free distance over the class of all convolutional codes is achieved within the class of unit memory codes. The effect of phase-lock loop (PLL) tracking error on coding system performance was studied by using the channel cut-off rate as the measure of quality of a modulation system. Optimum modulation signal sets for a non-white Gaussian channel considered an heuristic selection rule based on a water-filling argument. The use of error correcting codes to perform data compression by the technique of syndrome source coding was researched and a weight-and-error-locations scheme was developed that is closely related to LDSC coding.

  18. Monte Carlo Nucleon Meson Transport Code System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2000-11-17

    Version 00 NMTC/JAERI97 is an upgraded version of the code system NMTC/JAERI, which was developed in 1982 at JAERI and is based on the CCC-161/NMTC code system. NMTC/JAERI97 simulates high energy nuclear reactions and nucleon-meson transport processes.

  19. HERCULES: A Pattern Driven Code Transformation System

    SciTech Connect

    Kartsaklis, Christos; Hernandez, Oscar R; Hsu, Chung-Hsing; Ilsche, Thomas; Joubert, Wayne; Graham, Richard L

    2012-01-01

    New parallel computers are emerging, but developing efficient scientific code for them remains difficult. A scientist must manage not only the science-domain complexity but also the performance-optimization complexity. HERCULES is a code transformation system designed to help the scientist to separate the two concerns, which improves code maintenance, and facilitates performance optimization. The system combines three technologies, code patterns, transformation scripts and compiler plugins, to provide the scientist with an environment to quickly implement code transformations that suit his needs. Unlike existing code optimization tools, HERCULES is unique in its focus on user-level accessibility. In this paper we discuss the design, implementation and an initial evaluation of HERCULES.

  20. Performance of code division multiple access systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, C. L.; Huth, G. K.; Batson, B. H.

    1980-01-01

    The performance of code division multiple-access (CDMA) systems is determined using direct sequence spectral spreading. Under relatively ideal conditions, the degradation in system performance as a function of the number of users is shown to have a threshold effect. This basic limitation in the number of users of the system is further limited if the powers are unequal. For two users, system performance as a function of their power ratio also has a threshold effect. System performance as a function of the amount of spectral spreading is determined. The performance of both coded and uncoded systems is predicted.

  1. Safety assessment of high consequence robotics system

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, D.G.; Atcitty, C.B.

    1996-08-01

    This paper outlines the use of a failure modes and effects analysis for the safety assessment of a robotic system being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The robotic system, the weigh and leak check system, is to replace a manual process for weight and leakage of nuclear materials at the DOE Pantex facility. Failure modes and effects analyses were completed for the robotics process to ensure that safety goals for the systems have been met. Due to the flexible nature of the robot configuration, traditional failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) were not applicable. In addition, the primary focus of safety assessments of robotics systems has been the protection of personnel in the immediate area. In this application, the safety analysis must account for the sensitivities of the payload as well as traditional issues. A unique variation on the classical FMEA was developed that permits an organized and quite effective tool to be used to assure that safety was adequately considered during the development of the robotic system. The fundamental aspects of the approach are outlined in the paper.

  2. Systems Improved Numerical Fluids Analysis Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costello, F. A.

    1990-01-01

    Systems Improved Numerical Fluids Analysis Code, SINFAC, consists of additional routines added to April, 1983, version of SINDA. Additional routines provide for mathematical modeling of active heat-transfer loops. Simulates steady-state and pseudo-transient operations of 16 different components of heat-transfer loops, including radiators, evaporators, condensers, mechanical pumps, reservoirs, and many types of valves and fittings. Program contains property-analysis routine used to compute thermodynamic properties of 20 different refrigerants. Source code written in FORTRAN 77.

  3. Code Usage Analysis System (CUAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horsley, P. H.; Oliver, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    A set of computer programs is offered to aid a user in evaluating performance of an application program. The system provides reports of subroutine usage, program errors, and segment loading which occurred during the execution of an application program. It is presented in support of the development and validation of the space vehicle dynamics project.

  4. Cavity approach to the Sourlas code system.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haiping; Zhou, Haijun

    2009-11-01

    The statistical physics properties of regular and irregular Sourlas codes are investigated in this paper by the cavity method. At finite temperatures, the free-energy density of these coding systems is derived and compared with the result obtained by the replica method. In the zero-temperature limit, the Shannon's bound is recovered in the case of infinite-body interactions while the code rate is still finite. However, the decoding performance as obtained by the replica theory has not considered the zero-temperature entropic effect. The cavity approach is able to consider the ground-state entropy. It leads to a set of evanescent cavity fields propagation equations which further improve the decoding performance as confirmed by our numerical simulations on single instances. For the irregular Sourlas code, we find that it takes the trade-off between good dynamical property and high performance of decoding. In agreement with the results found from the algorithmic point of view, the decoding exhibits a first-order phase transition as occurs in the regular code system with three-body interactions. The cavity approach for the Sourlas code system can be extended to consider first-step replica symmetry breaking. PMID:20365049

  5. Cavity approach to the Sourlas code system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haiping; Zhou, Haijun

    2009-11-01

    The statistical physics properties of regular and irregular Sourlas codes are investigated in this paper by the cavity method. At finite temperatures, the free-energy density of these coding systems is derived and compared with the result obtained by the replica method. In the zero-temperature limit, the Shannon’s bound is recovered in the case of infinite-body interactions while the code rate is still finite. However, the decoding performance as obtained by the replica theory has not considered the zero-temperature entropic effect. The cavity approach is able to consider the ground-state entropy. It leads to a set of evanescent cavity fields propagation equations which further improve the decoding performance as confirmed by our numerical simulations on single instances. For the irregular Sourlas code, we find that it takes the trade-off between good dynamical property and high performance of decoding. In agreement with the results found from the algorithmic point of view, the decoding exhibits a first-order phase transition as occurs in the regular code system with three-body interactions. The cavity approach for the Sourlas code system can be extended to consider first-step replica symmetry breaking.

  6. Thermal Hydraulic Computer Code System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-07-16

    Version 00 RELAP5 was developed to describe the behavior of a light water reactor (LWR) subjected to postulated transients such as loss of coolant from large or small pipe breaks, pump failures, etc. RELAP5 calculates fluid conditions such as velocities, pressures, densities, qualities, temperatures; thermal conditions such as surface temperatures, temperature distributions, heat fluxes; pump conditions; trip conditions; reactor power and reactivity from point reactor kinetics; and control system variables. In addition to reactor applications,more » the program can be applied to transient analysis of other thermal‑hydraulic systems with water as the fluid. This package contains RELAP5/MOD1/029 for CDC computers and RELAP5/MOD1/025 for VAX or IBM mainframe computers.« less

  7. Fast decoding algorithms for coded aperture systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byard, Kevin

    2014-08-01

    Fast decoding algorithms are described for a number of established coded aperture systems. The fast decoding algorithms for all these systems offer significant reductions in the number of calculations required when reconstructing images formed by a coded aperture system and hence require less computation time to produce the images. The algorithms may therefore be of use in applications that require fast image reconstruction, such as near real-time nuclear medicine and location of hazardous radioactive spillage. Experimental tests confirm the efficacy of the fast decoding techniques.

  8. Phobos lander coding system: Software and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, K.-M.; Pollara, F.

    1988-01-01

    The software developed for the decoding system used in the telemetry link of the Phobos Lander mission is described. Encoders and decoders are provided to cover the three possible telemetry configurations. The software can be used to decode actual data or to simulate the performance of the telemetry system. The theoretical properties of the codes chosen for this mission are analyzed and discussed.

  9. The Basis Code Development System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-03-15

    BASIS9.4 is a system for developing interactive computer programs in Fortran, with some support for C and C++ as well. Using BASIS9.4 you can create a program that has a sophisticated programming language as its user interface so that the user can set, calculate with, and plot, all the major variables in the program. The program author writes only the scientific part of the program; BASIS9.4 supplies an environment in which to exercise that scientificmore » programming which includes an interactive language, an interpreter, graphics, terminal logs, error recovery, macros, saving and retrieving variables, formatted I/O, and online documentation.« less

  10. The World Anti-Doping Code 2003--consequences for physicians associated with elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Striegel, H; Rössner, D; Simon, P; Niess, A M

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of the World Anti-Doping Code 2003 and the 2004 Prohibited List is to create a universal international standard to fight doping in competitive sports. The result of this is a whole series of changes for doctors with regard to their work with competitive athletes. The revised definition of doping now includes physicians in the group of persons who can fulfil the elements of a doping offence. Moreover, the mere possession of substances appearing on the Prohibited List represents a violation of anti-doping regulations. The 2004 Prohibited List includes several changes to the Olympic Movement List from 2003. Caffeine, for example, was removed from the list. Cannabinoids, on the other hand, are now prohibited in competition for all sports. The same is true for all forms of glucocorticosteroids. Therapeutic use exemptions in an abbreviated process are possible for the administration of glucocorticosteroids by non-systemic routes, as well as inhalative therapy with the beta-2-agonists formoterol, salbutamol, salmeterol, and termbutalin. In other cases, a therapeutic use exemption is possible using a standard application process. Further changes will become effective in the 2005 Prohibited List. In 2005, it is essential that beta-2-agonists are prohibited in and out of competition. HCG and LH are prohibited for all athletes. Dermatological preparations of glucocorticosteroids are no longer prohibited, and intravenous infusions will be a prohibited method in 2005, except as a legitimate acute medical treatment. In cases of violations of anti-doping regulations where it is permissible for the affected person to furnish proof of exoneration, the burden of proof is not higher than that required to prove the violation. The sanctions provided for in the World Anti-Doping Code follow a principle of rules and exceptions which at first glance seems difficult to understand. In the case of doping violations by physicians, the anti-doping code provides--as a general rule

  11. High rate concatenated coding systems using multidimensional bandwidth-efficient trellis inner codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Robert H.; Costello, Daniel J., Jr.

    1989-10-01

    A concatenated coding system using two-dimensional trellis-coded MPSK inner codes and Reed-Solomon outer codes for application in high-speed satellite communication systems was proposed previously by the authors (1989). The authors extend their results to systems using symbol-oriented, multidimensional, trellis-coded MPSK inner codes. The concatenated coding systems are divided into two classes according to their achievable effective information rates. The first class uses multidimensional trellis-coded 8-PSK inner codes and achieves effective information rates around 1 b/dimension (spectral efficiency 2 b/s/Hz). The second class employs multidimensional trellis-coded 16-PSK inner codes and provides effective information rates around 1.5 b/dimension (spectral efficiency 3 b/s/Hz). Both classes provide significant coding gains over an uncoded reference system with the same effective information rate as the coded system. The results show that the symbol-oriented nature of multidimensional inner codes can provide an improvement of up to 1 dB in the overall performance of a concatenated coding system when these codes replace bit-oriented two-dimensional codes.

  12. Symbol synchronization in convolutionally coded systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumert, L. D.; Mceliece, R. J.; Van Tilborg, H. C. A.

    1979-01-01

    Alternate symbol inversion is sometimes applied to the output of convolutional encoders to guarantee sufficient richness of symbol transition for the receiver symbol synchronizer. A bound is given for the length of the transition-free symbol stream in such systems, and those convolutional codes are characterized in which arbitrarily long transition free runs occur.

  13. Bilingual processing of ASL-English code-blends: The consequences of accessing two lexical representations simultaneously.

    PubMed

    Emmorey, Karen; Petrich, Jennifer; Gollan, Tamar H

    2012-07-01

    Bilinguals who are fluent in American Sign Language (ASL) and English often produce code-blends - simultaneously articulating a sign and a word while conversing with other ASL-English bilinguals. To investigate the cognitive mechanisms underlying code-blend processing, we compared picture-naming times (Experiment 1) and semantic categorization times (Experiment 2) for code-blends versus ASL signs and English words produced alone. In production, code-blending did not slow lexical retrieval for ASL and actually facilitated access to low-frequency signs. However, code-blending delayed speech production because bimodal bilinguals synchronized English and ASL lexical onsets. In comprehension, code-blending speeded access to both languages. Bimodal bilinguals' ability to produce code-blends without any cost to ASL implies that the language system either has (or can develop) a mechanism for switching off competition to allow simultaneous production of close competitors. Code-blend facilitation effects during comprehension likely reflect cross-linguistic (and cross-modal) integration at the phonological and/or semantic levels. The absence of any consistent processing costs for code-blending illustrates a surprising limitation on dual-task costs and may explain why bimodal bilinguals code-blend more often than they code-switch. PMID:22773886

  14. NUCRAC: a code for the estimation of adversary-action consequences in the nuclear power fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Kaul, D.C.; Ritzman, R.L.; Roberts, J.A.; Sachs, E.S.

    1986-02-01

    A program sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and designed to estimate the potential consequences of adversary actions in the nuclear power fuel cycle has been completed. So that the results of this consequence analysis would be comparable to that of the reactor Safety Study (RSS), the methodology described in the RSS and implemented in the Calculation of Reactor Accident Consequences (CRAC) code served as the baseline for consequence evaluation in this study. Four portions of the RSS methodology were modified for use in this study: the atmospheric dispersion model, the inhalation dose factors, the criterion for early mortality from lung dose, and the model for chronic pathways to man. Implementation of these modifications to the CRAC code resulted in the preparation and application of a revised code termed NUCRAC. These modifications are described in detail. Detailed instructions for the operation of NUCRAC are presented in the form of a user-manual. Inputs and outputs for an example calculation are also presented.

  15. An integrated radiation physics computer code system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steyn, J. J.; Harris, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    An integrated computer code system for the semi-automatic and rapid analysis of experimental and analytic problems in gamma photon and fast neutron radiation physics is presented. Such problems as the design of optimum radiation shields and radioisotope power source configurations may be studied. The system codes allow for the unfolding of complex neutron and gamma photon experimental spectra. Monte Carlo and analytic techniques are used for the theoretical prediction of radiation transport. The system includes a multichannel pulse-height analyzer scintillation and semiconductor spectrometer coupled to an on-line digital computer with appropriate peripheral equipment. The system is geometry generalized as well as self-contained with respect to material nuclear cross sections and the determination of the spectrometer response functions. Input data may be either analytic or experimental.

  16. User Instructions for the Systems Assessment Capability, Rev. 1, Computer Codes Volume 3: Utility Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Lopresti, Charles A.; Miley, Terri B.; Nichols, William E.; Strenge, Dennis L.

    2004-09-14

    This document contains detailed user instructions for a suite of utility codes developed for Rev. 1 of the Systems Assessment Capability. The suite of computer codes for Rev. 1 of Systems Assessment Capability performs many functions.

  17. LPGS. Code System for Calculating Radiation Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.E.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1983-01-01

    LPGS was developed to calculate the radiological impacts resulting from radioactive releases to the hydrosphere. The name LPGS was derived from the Liquid Pathway Generic Study for which the original code was used primarily as an analytic tool in the assessment process. The hydrosphere is represented by the following types of water bodies: estuary, small river, well, lake, and one-dimensional (1-d) river. LPGS is designed to calculate radiation dose (individual and population) to body organs as a function of time for the various exposure pathways. The radiological consequences to the aquatic biota are estimated. Several simplified radionuclide transport models are employed with built-in formulations to describe the release rate of the radionuclides. A tabulated user-supplied release model can be input, if desired. Printer plots of dose versus time for the various exposure pathways are provided.

  18. BCH codes for large IC random-access memory systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, S.; Costello, D. J., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    In this report some shortened BCH codes for possible applications to large IC random-access memory systems are presented. These codes are given by their parity-check matrices. Encoding and decoding of these codes are discussed.

  19. High Energy Particle Transport Code System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2003-12-17

    Version 00 NMTC/JAM is an upgraded version of the code CCC-694/NMTC-JAERI97, which was developed in 1982 at JAERI and is based on the CCC-161/NMTC code system. NMTC/JAM simulates high energy nuclear reactions and nuclear meson transport processes. The applicable energy range of NMTC/JAM was extended in principle up to 200 GeV for nucleons and mesons by introducing the high energy nuclear reaction code Jet-Aa Microscopic (JAM) for the intra-nuclear cascade part. For the evaporation andmore » fission process, a new model, GEM, can be used to describe the light nucleus production from the excited residual nucleus. According to the extension of the applicable energy, the nucleon-nucleus non-elastic, elastic and differential elastic cross section data were upgraded. In addition, the particle transport in a magnetic field was implemented for beam transport calculations. Some new tally functions were added, and the format of input and output of data is more user friendly. These new calculation functions and utilities provide a tool to carry out reliable neutronics study of a large scale target system with complex geometry more accurately and easily than with the previous model. It implements an intranuclear cascade model taking account of the in-medium nuclear effects and the preequilibrium calculation model based on the exciton one. For treating the nucleon transport process, the nucleon-nucleus cross sections are revised to those derived by the systematics of Pearlstein. Moreover, the level density parameter derived by Ignatyuk is included as a new option for particle evaporation calculation. A geometry package based on the Combinatorial Geometry with multi-array system and the importance sampling technique is implemented in the code. Tally function is also employed for obtaining such physical quantities as neutron energy spectra, heat deposition and nuclide yield without editing a history file. The code can simulate both the primary spallation reaction and the

  20. Internal Dosimetry Code System Using Biokinetics Models

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2003-11-12

    Version 00 InDose is an internal dosimetry code to calculate dose estimations using biokinetic models (presented in ICRP-56 to ICRP71) as well as older ones. The code uses the ICRP-66 respiratory tract model and the ICRP-30 gastrointestinal tract model as well as the new and old biokinetic models. The code was written in such a way that the user can change any parameters of any one of the models without recompiling the code. All parametersmore » are given in well annotated parameters files that the user may change. As default, these files contain the values listed in ICRP publications. The full InDose code was planned to have three parts: 1) the main part includes the uptake and systemic models and is used to calculate the activities in the body tissues and excretion as a function of time for a given intake. 2) An optimization module for automatic estimation of the intake for a specific exposure case. 3) A module to calculate the dose due to the estimated intake. Currently, the code is able to perform only it`s main task (part 1) while the other two have to be done externally using other tools. In the future, developers would like to add these modules in order to provide a complete solution. The code was tested extensively to verify accuracy of its results. The verification procedure was divided into three parts: 1) verification of the implementation of each model, 2) verification of the integrity of the whole code, and 3) usability test. The first two parts consisted of comparing results obtained with InDose to published results for the same cases. For example ICRP-78 monitoring data. The last part consisted of participating in the 3rd EIE-IDA and assessing some of the scenarios provided in this exercise. These tests where presented in a few publications. Good agreement was found between the results of InDose and published data.« less

  1. Comparison of MACCS users calculations for the international comparison exercise on probabilistic accident consequence assessment code, October 1989--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Neymotin, L.

    1994-04-01

    Over the past several years, the OECD/NEA and CEC sponsored an international program intercomparing a group of six probabilistic consequence assessment (PCA) codes designed to simulate health and economic consequences of radioactive releases into atmosphere of radioactive materials following severe accidents at nuclear power plants (NPPs): ARANO (Finland), CONDOR (UK), COSYMA (CEC), LENA (Sweden), MACCS (USA), and OSCAAR (Japan). In parallel with this effort, two separate groups performed similar calculations using the MACCS and COSYMA codes. Results produced in the MACCS Users Group (Greece, Italy, Spain, and USA) calculations and their comparison are contained in the present report. Version 1.5.11.1 of the MACCS code was used for the calculations. Good agreement between the results produced in the four participating calculations has been reached, with the exception of the results related to the ingestion pathway dose predictions. The main reason for the scatter in those particular results is attributed to the lack of a straightforward implementation of the specifications for agricultural production and counter-measures criteria provided for the exercise. A significantly smaller scatter in predictions of other consequences was successfully explained by differences in meteorological files and weather sampling, grids, rain distance intervals, dispersion model options, and population distributions.

  2. Analog system for computing sparse codes

    DOEpatents

    Rozell, Christopher John; Johnson, Don Herrick; Baraniuk, Richard Gordon; Olshausen, Bruno A.; Ortman, Robert Lowell

    2010-08-24

    A parallel dynamical system for computing sparse representations of data, i.e., where the data can be fully represented in terms of a small number of non-zero code elements, and for reconstructing compressively sensed images. The system is based on the principles of thresholding and local competition that solves a family of sparse approximation problems corresponding to various sparsity metrics. The system utilizes Locally Competitive Algorithms (LCAs), nodes in a population continually compete with neighboring units using (usually one-way) lateral inhibition to calculate coefficients representing an input in an over complete dictionary.

  3. Point-Kernel Shielding Code System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1982-02-17

    Version 00 QAD-BSA is a three-dimensional, point-kernel shielding code system based upon the CCC-48/QAD series. It is designed to calculate photon dose rates and heating rates using exponential attenuation and infinite medium buildup factors. Calculational provisions include estimates of fast neutron penetration using data computed by the moments method. Included geometry routines can describe complicated source and shield geometries. An internal library contains data for many frequently used structural and shielding materials, enabling the codemore » to solve most problems with only source strengths and problem geometry required as input. This code system adapts especially well to problems requiring multiple sources and sources with asymmetrical geometry. In addition to being edited separately, the total interaction rates from many sources may be edited at each detector point. Calculated photon interaction rates agree closely with those obtained using QAD-P5A.« less

  4. Performance Evaluation of Hybrid SCM/SAC-OCDMA Transmissions System using Dynamic Cyclic Shift Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd, Thanaa Hussein; Aljunid, S. A.; Fadhil, Hilal Adnan; Radhi, Ibrahim Fadhil; Saad, N. M.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, the performance of a hybrid scheme of Subcarrier Multiplexing (SCM) technique in a Spectral Amplitude Coding (SAC) Optical Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) transmissions system is evaluated. The hybrid system is design using new code family; we call it Dynamic Cyclic Shift (DCS) code. The DCS code design for SAC-OCDMA system to reduce the effect of Multi Access Interference due to it property of low cross-correlation (λC ≤ 1) between code words. In contrast, the SCM scheme shows the ability to increase the data rate of SAC-OCDMA system. Consequently, the hybrid SCM/SAC-OCDMA system could be one promising solution to the high-capacity access network with low cost effective, good flexibility and enhanced security, which makes an attractive candidate for next-generation broadband access network.

  5. Regulatory consequences of neuronal ELAV-like protein binding to coding and non-coding RNAs in human brain.

    PubMed

    Scheckel, Claudia; Drapeau, Elodie; Frias, Maria A; Park, Christopher Y; Fak, John; Zucker-Scharff, Ilana; Kou, Yan; Haroutunian, Vahram; Ma'ayan, Avi; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Darnell, Robert B

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal ELAV-like (nELAVL) RNA binding proteins have been linked to numerous neurological disorders. We performed crosslinking-immunoprecipitation and RNAseq on human brain, and identified nELAVL binding sites on 8681 transcripts. Using knockout mice and RNAi in human neuroblastoma cells, we showed that nELAVL intronic and 3' UTR binding regulates human RNA splicing and abundance. We validated hundreds of nELAVL targets among which were important neuronal and disease-associated transcripts, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) transcripts. We therefore investigated RNA regulation in AD brain, and observed differential splicing of 150 transcripts, which in some cases correlated with differential nELAVL binding. Unexpectedly, the most significant change of nELAVL binding was evident on non-coding Y RNAs. nELAVL/Y RNA complexes were specifically remodeled in AD and after acute UV stress in neuroblastoma cells. We propose that the increased nELAVL/Y RNA association during stress may lead to nELAVL sequestration, redistribution of nELAVL target binding, and altered neuronal RNA splicing. PMID:26894958

  6. Regulatory consequences of neuronal ELAV-like protein binding to coding and non-coding RNAs in human brain

    PubMed Central

    Scheckel, Claudia; Drapeau, Elodie; Frias, Maria A; Park, Christopher Y; Fak, John; Zucker-Scharff, Ilana; Kou, Yan; Haroutunian, Vahram; Ma'ayan, Avi

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal ELAV-like (nELAVL) RNA binding proteins have been linked to numerous neurological disorders. We performed crosslinking-immunoprecipitation and RNAseq on human brain, and identified nELAVL binding sites on 8681 transcripts. Using knockout mice and RNAi in human neuroblastoma cells, we showed that nELAVL intronic and 3' UTR binding regulates human RNA splicing and abundance. We validated hundreds of nELAVL targets among which were important neuronal and disease-associated transcripts, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) transcripts. We therefore investigated RNA regulation in AD brain, and observed differential splicing of 150 transcripts, which in some cases correlated with differential nELAVL binding. Unexpectedly, the most significant change of nELAVL binding was evident on non-coding Y RNAs. nELAVL/Y RNA complexes were specifically remodeled in AD and after acute UV stress in neuroblastoma cells. We propose that the increased nELAVL/Y RNA association during stress may lead to nELAVL sequestration, redistribution of nELAVL target binding, and altered neuronal RNA splicing. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10421.001 PMID:26894958

  7. Selected Systems Engineering Process Deficiencies and Their Consequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Lawrence Dale

    2006-01-01

    The systems engineering process is well established and well understood. While this statement could be argued in the light of the many systems engineering guidelines and that have been developed, comparative review of these respective descriptions reveal that they differ primarily in the number of discrete steps or other nuances, and are at their core essentially common. Likewise, the systems engineering textbooks differ primarily in the context for application of systems engineering or in the utilization of evolved tools and techniques, not in the basic method. Thus, failures in systems engineering cannot credibly be attributed to implementation of the wrong systems engineering process among alternatives. However, numerous systems failures can be attributed to deficient implementation of the systems engineering process. What may clearly be perceived as a system engineering deficiency in retrospect can appear to be a well considered system engineering efficiency in real time - an efficiency taken to reduce cost or meet a schedule, or more often both. Typically these efficiencies are grounded on apparently solid rationale, such as reuse of heritage hardware or software. Over time, unintended consequences of a systems engineering process deficiency may begin to be realized, and unfortunately often the consequence is system failure. This paper describes several actual cases of system failures that resulted from deficiencies in their systems engineering process implementation, including the Ariane 5 and the Hubble Space Telescope.

  8. Parents' Cultural Belief Systems: Their Origins, Expressions, and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkness, Sara, Ed.; Super, Charles M., Ed.

    This volume presents observations and thinking of scholars from a variety of disciplines about parental cultural belief systems. The chapters are concerned with the sources and consequences of parental ethnotheories in a number of societies. The following chapters are included: (1) "Introduction" (Sara Harkness and Charles M. Super); (2) "Parents'…

  9. System code requirements for SBWR LOCA predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, U.S.; Slovik, G.; Kroeger, P.

    1994-12-31

    The simplified boiling water reactor (SBWR) is the latest design in the family of boiling water reactors (BWRs) from General Electric. The concept is based on many innovative, passive, safety systems that rely on naturally occurring phenomena, such as natural circulation, gravity flows, and condensation. Reliability has been improved by eliminating active systems such as pumps and valves. The reactor pressure vessel (RPV) is connected to heat exchangers submerged in individual water tanks, which are open to atmosphere. These heat exchanger, or isolation condensers (ICs), provide a heat sink to reduce the RPV pressure when isolated. The RPV is also connected to three elevated tanks of water called the gravity-driven cooling system (GDCS). During a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), the RPV is depressurized by the automatic depressurization system (ADS), allowing the gravity-driven flow from the GDCS tanks. The containment pressure is controlled by a passive containment cooling system (PCCS) and suppression pool. Similarly, there are new plant protection systems in the SBWR, such as fine-motion control rod drive, passive standby liquid control system, and the automatic feedwater runback system. These safety and plant protection systems respond to phenomena that are different from previous BWR designs. System codes must be upgraded to include models for the phenomena expected during transients for the SBWR.

  10. System analysis of bar code laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianpu; Chen, Zhaofeng; Lu, Zukang

    1996-10-01

    This paper focuses on realizing the three important aspects of bar code scanner: generating a high quality scanning light beam, acquiring a fairly even distribution characteristic of light collection, achieving a low signal dynamic range over a large depth of field. To do this, we analyze the spatial distribution and propagation characteristics of scanning laser beam, the vignetting characteristic of optical collection system and their respective optimal design; propose a novel optical automatic gain control method to attain a constant collection over a large working depth.

  11. Methods for nuclear air-cleaning-system accident-consequence assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Andrae, R.W.; Bolstad, J.W.; Gregory, W.S.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a multilaboratory research program that is directed toward addressing many questions that analysts face when performing air cleaning accident consequence assessments. The program involves developing analytical tools and supportive experimental data that will be useful in making more realistic assessments of accident source terms within and up to the atmospheric boundaries of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The types of accidents considered in this study includes fires, explosions, spills, tornadoes, criticalities, and equipment failures. The main focus of the program is developing an accident analysis handbook (AAH). We will describe the contents of the AAH, which include descriptions of selected nuclear fuel cycle facilities, process unit operations, source-term development, and accident consequence analyses. Three computer codes designed to predict gas and material propagation through facility air cleaning systems are described. These computer codes address accidents involving fires (FIRAC), explosions (EXPAC), and tornadoes (TORAC). The handbook relies on many illustrative examples to show the analyst how to approach accident consequence assessments. We will use the FIRAC code and a hypothetical fire scenario to illustrate the accident analysis capability.

  12. SINFAC - SYSTEMS IMPROVED NUMERICAL FLUIDS ANALYSIS CODE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costello, F. A.

    1994-01-01

    The Systems Improved Numerical Fluids Analysis Code, SINFAC, consists of additional routines added to the April 1983 revision of SINDA, a general thermal analyzer program. The purpose of the additional routines is to allow for the modeling of active heat transfer loops. The modeler can simulate the steady-state and pseudo-transient operations of 16 different heat transfer loop components including radiators, evaporators, condensers, mechanical pumps, reservoirs and many types of valves and fittings. In addition, the program contains a property analysis routine that can be used to compute the thermodynamic properties of 20 different refrigerants. SINFAC can simulate the response to transient boundary conditions. SINFAC was first developed as a method for computing the steady-state performance of two phase systems. It was then modified using CNFRWD, SINDA's explicit time-integration scheme, to accommodate transient thermal models. However, SINFAC cannot simulate pressure drops due to time-dependent fluid acceleration, transient boil-out, or transient fill-up, except in the accumulator. SINFAC also requires the user to be familiar with SINDA. The solution procedure used by SINFAC is similar to that which an engineer would use to solve a system manually. The solution to a system requires the determination of all of the outlet conditions of each component such as the flow rate, pressure, and enthalpy. To obtain these values, the user first estimates the inlet conditions to the first component of the system, then computes the outlet conditions from the data supplied by the manufacturer of the first component. The user then estimates the temperature at the outlet of the third component and computes the corresponding flow resistance of the second component. With the flow resistance of the second component, the user computes the conditions down stream, namely the inlet conditions of the third. The computations follow for the rest of the system, back to the first component

  13. The radiological assessment system for consequence analysis - RASCAL

    SciTech Connect

    Sjoreen, A.L.; Ramsdell, J.V.; Athey, G.F.

    1996-04-01

    The Radiological Assessment System for Consequence Analysis, Version 2.1 (RASCAL 2.1) has been developed for use during a response to radiological emergencies. The model estimates doses for comparison with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Protective Action Guides (PAGs) and thresholds for acute health effects. RASCAL was designed to be used by U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) personnel who report to the site of a nuclear accident to conduct an independent evaluation of dose and consequence projections and personnel who conduct training and drills on emergency responses. It allows consideration of the dominant aspects of the source term, transport, dose, and consequences. RASCAL consists of three computational tools: ST-DOSE, FM-DOSE, and DECAY. ST-DOSE computes source term, atmospheric transport, and dose to man from accidental airborne releases of radionuclides. The source-term calculations are appropriate for accidents at U.S. power reactors. FM-DOSE computes doses from environmental concentrations of radionuclides in the air and on the ground. DECAY computes radiological decay and daughter in-growth. RASCAL 2.1 is a DOS application that can be run under Windows 3.1 and 95. RASCAL has been the starting point for other accident consequence models, notably INTERRAS, an international version of RASCAL, and HASCAL, an expansion of RASCAL that will model radiological, biological, and chemical accidents.

  14. Layered Low-Density Generator Matrix Codes for Super High Definition Scalable Video Coding System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonomura, Yoshihide; Shirai, Daisuke; Nakachi, Takayuki; Fujii, Tatsuya; Kiya, Hitoshi

    In this paper, we introduce layered low-density generator matrix (Layered-LDGM) codes for super high definition (SHD) scalable video systems. The layered-LDGM codes maintain the correspondence relationship of each layer from the encoder side to the decoder side. This resulting structure supports partial decoding. Furthermore, the proposed layered-LDGM codes create highly efficient forward error correcting (FEC) data by considering the relationship between each scalable component. Therefore, the proposed layered-LDGM codes raise the probability of restoring the important components. Simulations show that the proposed layered-LDGM codes offer better error resiliency than the existing method which creates FEC data for each scalable component independently. The proposed layered-LDGM codes support partial decoding and raise the probability of restoring the base component. These characteristics are very suitable for scalable video coding systems.

  15. Optical code division multiple access secure communications systems with rapid reconfigurable polarization shift key user code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Kaiqiang; Wu, Chongqing; Sheng, Xinzhi; Shang, Chao; Liu, Lanlan; Wang, Jian

    2015-09-01

    An optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) secure communications system scheme with rapid reconfigurable polarization shift key (Pol-SK) bipolar user code is proposed and demonstrated. Compared to fix code OCDMA, by constantly changing the user code, the performance of anti-eavesdropping is greatly improved. The Pol-SK OCDMA experiment with a 10 Gchip/s user code and a 1.25 Gb/s user data of payload has been realized, which means this scheme has better tolerance and could be easily realized.

  16. Vision aided inertial navigation system augmented with a coded aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Jamie R.

    Navigation through a three-dimensional indoor environment is a formidable challenge for an autonomous micro air vehicle. A main obstacle to indoor navigation is maintaining a robust navigation solution (i.e. air vehicle position and attitude estimates) given the inadequate access to satellite positioning information. A MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical system) based inertial navigation system provides a small, power efficient means of maintaining a vehicle navigation solution; however, unmitigated error propagation from relatively noisy MEMS sensors results in the loss of a usable navigation solution over a short period of time. Several navigation systems use camera imagery to diminish error propagation by measuring the direction to features in the environment. Changes in feature direction provide information regarding direction for vehicle movement, but not the scale of movement. Movement scale information is contained in the depth to the features. Depth-from-defocus is a classic technique proposed to derive depth from a single image that involves analysis of the blur inherent in a scene with a narrow depth of field. A challenge to this method is distinguishing blurriness caused by the focal blur from blurriness inherent to the observed scene. In 2007, MIT's Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory demonstrated replacing the traditional rounded aperture with a coded aperture to produce a complex blur pattern that is more easily distinguished from the scene. A key to measuring depth using a coded aperture then is to correctly match the blur pattern in a region of the scene with a previously determined set of blur patterns for known depths. As the depth increases from the focal plane of the camera, the observable change in the blur pattern for small changes in depth is generally reduced. Consequently, as the depth of a feature to be measured using a depth-from-defocus technique increases, the measurement performance decreases. However, a Fresnel zone

  17. EquiFACS: The Equine Facial Action Coding System

    PubMed Central

    Wathan, Jen; Burrows, Anne M.; Waller, Bridget M.; McComb, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Although previous studies of horses have investigated their facial expressions in specific contexts, e.g. pain, until now there has been no methodology available that documents all the possible facial movements of the horse and provides a way to record all potential facial configurations. This is essential for an objective description of horse facial expressions across a range of contexts that reflect different emotional states. Facial Action Coding Systems (FACS) provide a systematic methodology of identifying and coding facial expressions on the basis of underlying facial musculature and muscle movement. FACS are anatomically based and document all possible facial movements rather than a configuration of movements associated with a particular situation. Consequently, FACS can be applied as a tool for a wide range of research questions. We developed FACS for the domestic horse (Equus caballus) through anatomical investigation of the underlying musculature and subsequent analysis of naturally occurring behaviour captured on high quality video. Discrete facial movements were identified and described in terms of the underlying muscle contractions, in correspondence with previous FACS systems. The reliability of others to be able to learn this system (EquiFACS) and consistently code behavioural sequences was high—and this included people with no previous experience of horses. A wide range of facial movements were identified, including many that are also seen in primates and other domestic animals (dogs and cats). EquiFACS provides a method that can now be used to document the facial movements associated with different social contexts and thus to address questions relevant to understanding social cognition and comparative psychology, as well as informing current veterinary and animal welfare practices. PMID:26244573

  18. EquiFACS: The Equine Facial Action Coding System.

    PubMed

    Wathan, Jen; Burrows, Anne M; Waller, Bridget M; McComb, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Although previous studies of horses have investigated their facial expressions in specific contexts, e.g. pain, until now there has been no methodology available that documents all the possible facial movements of the horse and provides a way to record all potential facial configurations. This is essential for an objective description of horse facial expressions across a range of contexts that reflect different emotional states. Facial Action Coding Systems (FACS) provide a systematic methodology of identifying and coding facial expressions on the basis of underlying facial musculature and muscle movement. FACS are anatomically based and document all possible facial movements rather than a configuration of movements associated with a particular situation. Consequently, FACS can be applied as a tool for a wide range of research questions. We developed FACS for the domestic horse (Equus caballus) through anatomical investigation of the underlying musculature and subsequent analysis of naturally occurring behaviour captured on high quality video. Discrete facial movements were identified and described in terms of the underlying muscle contractions, in correspondence with previous FACS systems. The reliability of others to be able to learn this system (EquiFACS) and consistently code behavioural sequences was high--and this included people with no previous experience of horses. A wide range of facial movements were identified, including many that are also seen in primates and other domestic animals (dogs and cats). EquiFACS provides a method that can now be used to document the facial movements associated with different social contexts and thus to address questions relevant to understanding social cognition and comparative psychology, as well as informing current veterinary and animal welfare practices. PMID:26244573

  19. Multigroup Complex Geometry Neutron Diffusion Code System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2002-12-18

    Version 01 SNAP-3D is based on SNAP2 and is a one- two- or three-dimensional multigroup diffusion code system. It is primarily intended for neutron diffusion calculations, but it can also carry out gamma-ray calculations if the diffusion approximation is accurate enough. It is suitable for fast and thermal reactor core calculations and for shield calculations. SNAP-3D can solve the multi-group neutron diffusion equations using finite difference methods in (x,y,z), (r,theta,z), (TRI,z), (HEX,z) or (spherical) coordinates.more » The one-dimensional slab and cylindrical geometries and the two-dimensional (x,y), (r,z), (r,theta), (HEX) and (TRI) are all treated as simple special cases of three-dimensional geometries. Numerous reflective and periodic symmetry options are available and may be used to reduce the number of mesh points necessary to represent the system. Extrapolation lengths can be specified at internal and external boundaries. The problem classes are: 1) eigenvalue search for critical k-effective, 2) eigenvalue search for critical buckling, 3) eigenvalue search for critical time-constant, 4) fixed source problems in which the sources are functions of regions, 5) fixed source problems in which the sources are provided, on disc, for every mesh point and group.« less

  20. The effects of Reed-Solomon code shortening on the performance of coded telemetry systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    The theory of Reed-Solomon code shortening in general was developed and the degradation due to shortening in the context of concatenated coding was qualified. It is shown that in the NASA/ESA concatenated system, significant degradations occur only when N 180. A Reed-Solomon code was concatenated with an inner (7, 1/2) convolutional code. Under some circumstances, it would be desirable to use a shorter outer code word length. For example, the format of the data coming from science instruments on board a spacecraft may lend itself naturally to a word length of 200 symbols rather than 223. To accommodate such code word lengths, the Reed-Solomon code can be shortened to an (N, N-32) code where N can be any integer between 33 and 255. Shortening the code, however, changes its performance. On one hand, the amount of redundancy per information symbol increases. Because of this increased redundancy, the amount of energy per information symbol is decreased by code shortening. The overall effect is to degrade the performance of the code.

  1. The Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy Strategies Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Bryce D.; Weisz, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Most everyday child and adolescent psychotherapy does not follow manuals that document the procedures. Consequently, usual clinical care has remained poorly understood and rarely studied. The Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy-Strategies scale (TPOCS-S) is an observational measure of youth psychotherapy procedures…

  2. Communication Systems Simulator with Error Correcting Codes Using MATLAB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, C.; Gonzalez, J. E.; Pardo, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    In this work, the characteristics of a simulator for channel coding techniques used in communication systems, are described. This software has been designed for engineering students in order to facilitate the understanding of how the error correcting codes work. To help students understand easily the concepts related to these kinds of codes, a…

  3. Hardware-based JPEG 2000 video coding system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuchter, Arthur R.; Uhl, Andreas

    2007-02-01

    In this paper, we discuss a hardware based low complexity JPEG 2000 video coding system. The hardware system is based on a software simulation system, where temporal redundancy is exploited by coding of differential frames which are arranged in an adaptive GOP structure whereby the GOP structure itself is determined by statistical analysis of differential frames. We present a hardware video coding architecture which applies this inter-frame coding system to a Digital Signal Processor (DSP). The system consists mainly of a microprocessor (ADSP-BF533 Blackfin Processor) and a JPEG 2000 chip (ADV202).

  4. Deductive Glue Code Synthesis for Embedded Software Systems Based on Code Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Jian; Fu, Jicheng; Zhang, Yansheng; Bastani, Farokh; Yen, I-Ling; Tai, Ann; Chau, Savio N.

    2006-01-01

    Automated code synthesis is a constructive process that can be used to generate programs from specifications. It can, thus, greatly reduce the software development cost and time. The use of formal code synthesis approach for software generation further increases the dependability of the system. Though code synthesis has many potential benefits, the synthesis techniques are still limited. Meanwhile, components are widely used in embedded system development. Applying code synthesis to component based software development (CBSD) process can greatly enhance the capability of code synthesis while reducing the component composition efforts. In this paper, we discuss the issues and techniques for applying deductive code synthesis techniques to CBSD. For deductive synthesis in CBSD, a rule base is the key for inferring appropriate component composition. We use the code patterns to guide the development of rules. Code patterns have been proposed to capture the typical usages of the components. Several general composition operations have been identified to facilitate systematic composition. We present the technique for rule development and automated generation of new patterns from existing code patterns. A case study of using this method in building a real-time control system is also presented.

  5. Universal optical line terminal encoding and decoding architecture in two-code keying for noncoherent spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Bih-Chyun; Lin, Cheing-Hong; Yang, De-Nian

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new code family, called extended shifted prime codes, and the universal encoding architecture for spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access systems using a two-code keying scheme. The proposed system can eliminate multiuser interference and suppress phase-induced intensity noise. In addition, we design the ESP codes to be an encoding/decoding architecture based on the array waveguide grating architecture and reduce the power loss and the complexity of the optical line terminal. The numerical results demonstrate that the proposed system with ESP codes outperforms the existing one-dimensional shifted prime codes system.

  6. Channel coding in the space station data system network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Healy, T.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed discussion of the use of channel coding for error correction, privacy/secrecy, channel separation, and synchronization is presented. Channel coding, in one form or another, is an established and common element in data systems. No analysis and design of a major new system would fail to consider ways in which channel coding could make the system more effective. The presence of channel coding on TDRS, Shuttle, the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite Program system, the JSC-proposed Space Operations Center, and the proposed 30/20 GHz Satellite Communication System strongly support the requirement for the utilization of coding for the communications channel. The designers of the space station data system have to consider the use of channel coding.

  7. Recent developments in the Los Alamos radiation transport code system

    SciTech Connect

    Forster, R.A.; Parsons, K.

    1997-06-01

    A brief progress report on updates to the Los Alamos Radiation Transport Code System (LARTCS) for solving criticality and fixed-source problems is provided. LARTCS integrates the Diffusion Accelerated Neutral Transport (DANT) discrete ordinates codes with the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code. The LARCTS code is being developed with a graphical user interface for problem setup and analysis. Progress in the DANT system for criticality applications include a two-dimensional module which can be linked to a mesh-generation code and a faster iteration scheme. Updates to MCNP Version 4A allow statistical checks of calculated Monte Carlo results.

  8. Automatic counterfeit protection system code classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Beusekom, Joost; Schreyer, Marco; Breuel, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    Wide availability of cheap high-quality printing techniques make document forgery an easy task that can easily be done by most people using standard computer and printing hardware. To prevent the use of color laser printers or color copiers for counterfeiting e.g. money or other valuable documents, many of these machines print Counterfeit Protection System (CPS) codes on the page. These small yellow dots encode information about the specific printer and allow the questioned document examiner in cooperation with the manufacturers to track down the printer that was used to generate the document. However, the access to the methods to decode the tracking dots pattern is restricted. The exact decoding of a tracking pattern is often not necessary, as tracking the pattern down to the printer class may be enough. In this paper we present a method that detects what CPS pattern class was used in a given document. This can be used to specify the printer class that the document was printed on. Evaluation proved an accuracy of up to 91%.

  9. High rate concatenated coding systems using bandwidth efficient trellis inner codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Robert H.; Costello, Daniel J., Jr.

    1989-05-01

    High-rate concatenated coding systems with bandwidth-efficient trellis inner codes and Reed-Solomon (RS) outer codes are investigated for application in high-speed satellite communication systems. Two concatenated coding schemes are proposed. In one the inner code is decoded with soft-decision Viterbi decoding, and the outer RS code performs error-correction-only decoding (decoding without side information). In the other, the inner code is decoded with a modified Viterbi algorithm, which produces reliability information along with the decoded output. In this algorithm, path metrics are used to estimate the entire information sequence, whereas branch metrics are used to provide reliability information on the decoded sequence. This information is used to erase unreliable bits in the decoded output. An errors-and-erasures RS decoder is then used for the outer code. The two schemes have been proposed for high-speed data communication on NASA satellite channels. The rates considered are at least double those used in current NASA systems, and the results indicate that high system reliability can still be achieved.

  10. CORA - A Semiautomatic Coding System Application to the Coding of Markush Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deforeit, Huguette; And Others

    1972-01-01

    A computer system, named CORA, has been devised for coding chemical structures by fragmentation elements. It has been used to encode Markush formulas in patents according to the Ring codes used in the Ringdoc and Pestdoc services and results in an easy, speedy, reliable and inexpensive method. (4 references) (Author)

  11. Modern Nuclear Data Evaluation with the TALYS Code System

    SciTech Connect

    Koning, A.J.; Rochman, D.

    2012-12-15

    This paper presents a general overview of nuclear data evaluation and its applications as developed at NRG, Petten. Based on concepts such as robustness, reproducibility and automation, modern calculation tools are exploited to produce original nuclear data libraries that meet the current demands on quality and completeness. This requires a system which comprises differential measurements, theory development, nuclear model codes, resonance analysis, evaluation, ENDF formatting, data processing and integral validation in one integrated approach. Software, built around the TALYS code, will be presented in which all these essential nuclear data components are seamlessly integrated. Besides the quality of the basic data and its extensive format testing, a second goal lies in the diversity of processing for different type of users. The implications of this scheme are unprecedented. The most important are: 1. Complete ENDF-6 nuclear data files, in the form of the TENDL library, including covariance matrices, for many isotopes, particles, energies, reaction channels and derived quantities. All isotopic data files are mutually consistent and are supposed to rival those of the major world libraries. 2. More exact uncertainty propagation from basic nuclear physics to applied (reactor) calculations based on a Monte Carlo approach: 'Total' Monte Carlo (TMC), using random nuclear data libraries. 3. Automatic optimization in the form of systematic feedback from integral measurements back to the basic data. This method of work also opens a new way of approaching the analysis of nuclear applications, with consequences in both applied nuclear physics and safety of nuclear installations, and several examples are given here. This applied experience and feedback is integrated in a final step to improve the quality of the nuclear data, to change the users vision and finally to orchestrate their integration into simulation codes.

  12. Electronics in cars: consequences for the energy-supply system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beil, Falk

    The amount of electronics in cars is constantly increasing. Thus, the question arises, whether the current wiring designs will continue to be able to meet the required output related to this increase in the future. Which consequences result, then, for the design of the wiring system and its components? An examination of the electrical consumers currently installed in motor vehicles, and of those planned for future use, shows that the wiring system load during driving will increase to as much as 2000 W. Many new devices, such as the telephone, will also enjoy increasing use while the vehicle is at a standstill, which will result in the type of wiring system load changing in the future. In addition to this, loading will increase due to greater traffic density; the vehicle will be operated more often at idling speed, leading to a reduction in the available current. Thus, a balanced current supply can no longer be ensured with present designs. That means new energy supply concepts are required, e.g. the 24 V wiring system and energy management. In addition, the wiring system components must be optimized. This particularly applies to the battery, which must be further developed in order to obtain increased cell strength, a longer service life and improved temperature stability.

  13. Los Alamos radiation transport code system on desktop computing platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Briesmeister, J.F.; Brinkley, F.W.; Clark, B.A.; West, J.T. )

    1990-01-01

    The Los Alamos Radiation Transport Code System (LARTCS) consists of state-of-the-art Monte Carlo and discrete ordinates transport codes and data libraries. These codes were originally developed many years ago and have undergone continual improvement. With a large initial effort and continued vigilance, the codes are easily portable from one type of hardware to another. The performance of scientific work-stations (SWS) has evolved to the point that such platforms can be used routinely to perform sophisticated radiation transport calculations. As the personal computer (PC) performance approaches that of the SWS, the hardware options for desk-top radiation transport calculations expands considerably. The current status of the radiation transport codes within the LARTCS is described: MCNP, SABRINA, LAHET, ONEDANT, TWODANT, TWOHEX, and ONELD. Specifically, the authors discuss hardware systems on which the codes run and present code performance comparisons for various machines.

  14. FORTRAN Automated Code Evaluation System (FACES) user's manual, version 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A system which provides analysis services for FORTRAN based software systems not normally available from system software is presented. The system is not a compiler, and compiler syntax diagnostics are not duplicated. For maximum adaptation to FORTRAN dialects, the code presented to the system is assumed to be compiler acceptable. The system concentrates on acceptable FORTRAN code features which are likely to produce undesirable results and identifies potential trouble areas before they become execution time malfunctions.

  15. ARAC: A flexible real-time dose consequence assessment system

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, J.S.; Sullivan, T.J.

    1993-10-07

    Since its beginning, the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC), an emergency radiological dose assessment service of the US Government, has been called on to do consequence assessments for releases into the atmosphere of radionuclides and a variety of other substances. Some of the more noteworthy emergency responses have been for the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl nuclear power reactor accidents, and more recently, for a cloud of gases from a rail-car spill into the Sacramento river of the herbicide metam sodium, smoke from hundreds of burning oil wells in Kuwait, and ash clouds from the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo. The spatial scales of these responses range from local, to regional, to global, and the response periods from hours, to weeks, to months. Because of the variety of requirements of each unique assessment, ARAC has developed and maintains a flexible system of people, computer software and hardware.

  16. Generalized optical code construction for enhanced and Modified Double Weight like codes without mapping for SAC-OCDMA systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumawat, Soma; Ravi Kumar, M.

    2016-07-01

    Double Weight (DW) code family is one of the coding schemes proposed for Spectral Amplitude Coding-Optical Code Division Multiple Access (SAC-OCDMA) systems. Modified Double Weight (MDW) code for even weights and Enhanced Double Weight (EDW) code for odd weights are two algorithms extending the use of DW code for SAC-OCDMA systems. The above mentioned codes use mapping technique to provide codes for higher number of users. A new generalized algorithm to construct EDW and MDW like codes without mapping for any weight greater than 2 is proposed. A single code construction algorithm gives same length increment, Bit Error Rate (BER) calculation and other properties for all weights greater than 2. Algorithm first constructs a generalized basic matrix which is repeated in a different way to produce the codes for all users (different from mapping). The generalized code is analysed for BER using balanced detection and direct detection techniques.

  17. Coding and transformations in the olfactory system.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Naoshige; Poo, Cindy; Haddad, Rafi

    2014-01-01

    How is sensory information represented in the brain? A long-standing debate in neural coding is whether and how timing of spikes conveys information to downstream neurons. Although we know that neurons in the olfactory bulb (OB) exhibit rich temporal dynamics, the functional relevance of temporal coding remains hotly debated. Recent recording experiments in awake behaving animals have elucidated highly organized temporal structures of activity in the OB. In addition, the analysis of neural circuits in the piriform cortex (PC) demonstrated the importance of not only OB afferent inputs but also intrinsic PC neural circuits in shaping odor responses. Furthermore, new experiments involving stimulation of the OB with specific temporal patterns allowed for testing the relevance of temporal codes. Together, these studies suggest that the relative timing of neuronal activity in the OB conveys odor information and that neural circuits in the PC possess various mechanisms to decode temporal patterns of OB input. PMID:24905594

  18. TDRSS telecommunications system, PN code analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixon, R.; Gold, R.; Kaiser, F.

    1976-01-01

    The pseudo noise (PN) codes required to support the TDRSS telecommunications services are analyzed and the impact of alternate coding techniques on the user transponder equipment, the TDRSS equipment, and all factors that contribute to the acquisition and performance of these telecommunication services is assessed. Possible alternatives to the currently proposed hybrid FH/direct sequence acquisition procedures are considered and compared relative to acquisition time, implementation complexity, operational reliability, and cost. The hybrid FH/direct sequence technique is analyzed and rejected in favor of a recommended approach which minimizes acquisition time and user transponder complexity while maximizing probability of acquisition and overall link reliability.

  19. Digital system detects binary code patterns containing errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, R. M.; Tharpe, H. M., Jr.

    1966-01-01

    System of square loop magnetic cores associated with code input registers to react to input code patterns by reference to a group of control cores in such a manner that errors are canceled and patterns containing errors are accepted for amplification and processing. This technique improves reception capabilities in PCM telemetry systems.

  20. Performance Analysis of Optical Code Division Multiplex System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Sandeep; Bhatia, Kamaljit Singh

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents the Pseudo-Orthogonal Code generator for Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA) system which helps to reduce the need of bandwidth expansion and improve spectral efficiency. In this paper we investigate the performance of multi-user OCDMA system to achieve data rate more than 1 Tbit/s.

  1. Throughput of Coded Optical CDMA Systems with AND Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Memon, Kehkashan A.; Umrani, Fahim A.; Umrani, A. W.; Umrani, Naveed A.

    2012-09-01

    Conventional detection techniques used in optical code-division multiple access (OCDMA) systems are not optimal and result in poor bit error rate performance. This paper analyzes the coded performance of optical CDMA systems with AND detectors for enhanced throughput efficiencies and improved error rate performance. The results show that the use of AND detectors significantly improve the performance of an optical channel.

  2. Bar-Code System for a Microbiological Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, Jennifer; Kirschner, Larry

    2007-01-01

    A bar-code system has been assembled for a microbiological laboratory that must examine a large number of samples. The system includes a commercial bar-code reader, computer hardware and software components, plus custom-designed database software. The software generates a user-friendly, menu-driven interface.

  3. Identification coding schemes for modulated reflectance systems

    DOEpatents

    Coates, Don M.; Briles, Scott D.; Neagley, Daniel L.; Platts, David; Clark, David D.

    2006-08-22

    An identifying coding apparatus employing modulated reflectance technology involving a base station emitting a RF signal, with a tag, located remotely from the base station, and containing at least one antenna and predetermined other passive circuit components, receiving the RF signal and reflecting back to the base station a modulated signal indicative of characteristics related to the tag.

  4. RELAP5/MOD3 code manual: Code structure, system models, and solution methods. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The RELAP5 code has been developed for best estimate transient simulation of light water reactor coolant systems during postulated accidents. The code models the coupled behavior of the reactor coolant system and the core for loss-of-coolant accidents, and operational transients, such as anticipated transient without scram, loss of offsite power, loss of feedwater, and loss of flow. A generic modeling, approach is used that permits simulating a variety of thermal hydraulic systems. Control system and secondary system components are included to permit modeling of plant controls, turbines, condensers, and secondary feedwater systems. RELAP5/MOD3 code documentation is divided into seven volumes: Volume I provides modeling theory and associated numerical schemes.

  5. Wind turbine control systems: Dynamic model development using system identification and the fast structural dynamics code

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, J.G.; Wright, A.D.; Butterfield, C.P.

    1996-10-01

    Mitigating the effects of damaging wind turbine loads and responses extends the lifetime of the turbine and, consequently, reduces the associated Cost of Energy (COE). Active control of aerodynamic devices is one option for achieving wind turbine load mitigation. Generally speaking, control system design and analysis requires a reasonable dynamic model of {open_quotes}plant,{close_quotes} (i.e., the system being controlled). This paper extends the wind turbine aileron control research, previously conducted at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC), by presenting a more detailed development of the wind turbine dynamic model. In prior research, active aileron control designs were implemented in an existing wind turbine structural dynamics code, FAST (Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence). In this paper, the FAST code is used, in conjunction with system identification, to generate a wind turbine dynamic model for use in active aileron control system design. The FAST code is described and an overview of the system identification technique is presented. An aileron control case study is used to demonstrate this modeling technique. The results of the case study are then used to propose ideas for generalizing this technique for creating dynamic models for other wind turbine control applications.

  6. System Measures Errors Between Time-Code Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cree, David; Venkatesh, C. N.

    1993-01-01

    System measures timing errors between signals produced by three asynchronous time-code generators. Errors between 1-second clock pulses resolved to 2 microseconds. Basic principle of computation of timing errors as follows: central processing unit in microcontroller constantly monitors time data received from time-code generators for changes in 1-second time-code intervals. In response to any such change, microprocessor buffers count of 16-bit internal timer.

  7. Interface requirements for coupling a containment code to a reactor system thermal hydraulic codes

    SciTech Connect

    Baratta, A.J.

    1997-07-01

    To perform a complete analysis of a reactor transient, not only the primary system response but the containment response must also be accounted for. Such transients and accidents as a loss of coolant accident in both pressurized water and boiling water reactors and inadvertent operation of safety relief valves all challenge the containment and may influence flows because of containment feedback. More recently, the advanced reactor designs put forth by General Electric and Westinghouse in the US and by Framatome and Seimens in Europe rely on the containment to act as the ultimate heat sink. Techniques used by analysts and engineers to analyze the interaction of the containment and the primary system were usually iterative in nature. Codes such as RELAP or RETRAN were used to analyze the primary system response and CONTAIN or CONTEMPT the containment response. The analysis was performed by first running the system code and representing the containment as a fixed pressure boundary condition. The flows were usually from the primary system to the containment initially and generally under choked conditions. Once the mass flows and timing are determined from the system codes, these conditions were input into the containment code. The resulting pressures and temperatures were then calculated and the containment performance analyzed. The disadvantage of this approach becomes evident when one performs an analysis of a rapid depressurization or a long term accident sequence in which feedback from the containment can occur. For example, in a BWR main steam line break transient, the containment heats up and becomes a source of energy for the primary system. Recent advances in programming and computer technology are available to provide an alternative approach. The author and other researchers have developed linkage codes capable of transferring data between codes at each time step allowing discrete codes to be coupled together.

  8. Development of tokamak reactor system analysis code NEW-TORSAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasai, Masao; Ida, Toshio; Nishikawa, Masana; Kameari, Akihisa; Nishio, Satoshi; Tone, Tatsuzo

    1987-07-01

    A systems analysis code named NEW-TORSAC (TOkamak Reactor Systems Analysis Code) has been developed by modifying the TORSAC which had been already developed by us. The NEW-TORSAC is available for tokamak reactor designs and evaluations from experimental machines to commercial reactor plants. It has functions to design tokamaks automatically from plasma parameter setting to determining configurations of reactor equipments and calculating main characteristics parameters of auxiliary systems and the capital costs. In the case of analyzing tokamak reactor plants, the code can calculate busbar energy costs. In addition to numerical output, some output of this code such as a reactor configuration, plasma equilibrium, electro-magnetic forces, etc., are graphically displayed. The code has been successfully applied to the scoping studies of the next generation machines and commercial reactor plants.

  9. Code system to compute radiation dose in human phantoms

    SciTech Connect

    Ryman, J.C.; Cristy, M.; Eckerman, K.F.; Davis, J.L.; Tang, J.S.; Kerr, G.D.

    1986-01-01

    Monte Carlo photon transport code and a code using Monte Carlo integration of a point kernel have been revised to incorporate human phantom models for an adult female, juveniles of various ages, and a pregnant female at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy, in addition to the adult male used earlier. An analysis code has been developed for deriving recommended values of specific absorbed fractions of photon energy. The computer code system and calculational method are described, emphasizing recent improvements in methods. (LEW)

  10. Arithmetic coding as a non-linear dynamical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraj, Nithin; Vaidya, Prabhakar G.; Bhat, Kishor G.

    2009-04-01

    In order to perform source coding (data compression), we treat messages emitted by independent and identically distributed sources as imprecise measurements (symbolic sequence) of a chaotic, ergodic, Lebesgue measure preserving, non-linear dynamical system known as Generalized Luröth Series (GLS). GLS achieves Shannon's entropy bound and turns out to be a generalization of arithmetic coding, a popular source coding algorithm, used in international compression standards such as JPEG2000 and H.264. We further generalize GLS to piecewise non-linear maps (Skewed-nGLS). We motivate the use of Skewed-nGLS as a framework for joint source coding and encryption.

  11. Finite-connectivity systems as error-correcting codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicente, Renato; Saad, David; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki

    1999-11-01

    We investigate the performance of parity check codes using the mapping onto Ising spin systems proposed by Sourlas [Nature (London) 339, 693 (1989); Europhys. Lett. 25, 159 (1994)]. We study codes where each parity check comprises products of K bits selected from the original digital message with exactly C checks per message bit. We show, using the replica method, that these codes saturate Shannon's coding bound for K-->∞ when the code rate K/C is finite. We then examine the finite temperature case to assess the use of simulated annealing methods for decoding, study the performance of the finite K case, and extend the analysis to accommodate different types of noisy channels. The connection between statistical physics and belief propagation decoders is discussed and the dynamics of the decoding itself is analyzed. Further insight into new approaches for improving the code performance is given.

  12. Concatenated coding systems employing a unit-memory convolutional code and a byte-oriented decoding algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, L. N.

    1976-01-01

    Concatenated coding systems utilizing a convolutional code as the inner code and a Reed-Solomon code as the outer code are considered. In order to obtain very reliable communications over a very noisy channel with relatively small coding complexity, it is proposed to concatenate a byte oriented unit memory convolutional code with an RS outer code whose symbol size is one byte. It is further proposed to utilize a real time minimal byte error probability decoding algorithm, together with feedback from the outer decoder, in the decoder for the inner convolutional code. The performance of the proposed concatenated coding system is studied, and the improvement over conventional concatenated systems due to each additional feature is isolated.

  13. Concatenated coding systems employing a unit-memory convolutional code and a byte-oriented decoding algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, L.-N.

    1977-01-01

    Concatenated coding systems utilizing a convolutional code as the inner code and a Reed-Solomon code as the outer code are considered. In order to obtain very reliable communications over a very noisy channel with relatively modest coding complexity, it is proposed to concatenate a byte-oriented unit-memory convolutional code with an RS outer code whose symbol size is one byte. It is further proposed to utilize a real-time minimal-byte-error probability decoding algorithm, together with feedback from the outer decoder, in the decoder for the inner convolutional code. The performance of the proposed concatenated coding system is studied, and the improvement over conventional concatenated systems due to each additional feature is isolated.

  14. Vision-based reading system for color-coded bar codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Erhard; Schroeder, Axel

    1996-02-01

    Barcode systems are used to mark commodities, articles and products with price and article numbers. The advantage of the barcode systems is the safe and rapid availability of the information about the product. The size of the barcode depends on the used barcode system and the resolution of the barcode scanner. Nevertheless, there is a strong correlation between the information content and the length of the barcode. To increase the information content, new 2D-barcode systems like CodaBlock or PDF-417 are introduced. In this paper we present a different way to increase the information content of a barcode and we would like to introduce the color coded barcode. The new color coded barcode is created by offset printing of the three colored barcodes, each barcode with different information. Therefore, three times more information content can be accommodated in the area of a black printed barcode. This kind of color coding is usable in case of the standard 1D- and 2D-barcodes. We developed two reading devices for the color coded barcodes. First, there is a vision based system, consisting of a standard color camera and a PC-based color frame grabber. Omnidirectional barcode decoding is possible with this reading device. Second, a bi-directional handscanner was developed. Both systems use a color separation process to separate the color image of the barcodes into three independent grayscale images. In the case of the handscanner the image consists of one line only. After the color separation the three grayscale barcodes can be decoded with standard image processing methods. In principle, the color coded barcode can be used everywhere instead of the standard barcode. Typical applications with the color coded barcodes are found in the medicine technique, stock running and identification of electronic modules.

  15. CODING IN THE MAMMALIAN GUSTATORY SYSTEM

    PubMed Central

    Carleton, Alan; Accolla, Riccardo; Simon, Sidney A.

    2010-01-01

    To understand gustatory physiology and associated dysfunctions it is important to know how stimuli placed in the mouth are encoded both in the periphery and in taste-related brain centres. The identification of distinct taste receptors, together with electrophysiological recordings and behavioural assessments in response to taste stimuli, suggest that information about distinct taste modalities (e.g., sweet versus bitter) are transmitted from the periphery to the brain via segregated pathways. In contrast, gustatory neurons throughout the brain are more broadly tuned, indicating that ensembles of neurons encode taste qualities. Recent evidence reviewed here suggests that the coding of gustatory stimuli is not immutable, but is dependant on a variety of factors including appetite regulating molecules and associative learning. PMID:20493563

  16. BWR Core Heat Transfer Code System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-04-27

    Version 00 MOXY is used for the thermal analysis of a planar section of a boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel element during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The code emplyoys models that describe heat transfer by conduction, convection, and thermal radiation, and heat generation by metal-water reaction and fission product decay. Models are included for considering fuel-rod swelling and rupture, energy transport across the fuel-to-cladding gap, and the thermal response of the canister. MOXY requires thatmore » time-dependent data during the blowdown process for the power normalized to the steady-state power, for the heat-transfer coefficient, and for the fluid temperature be provided as input. Internal models provide these parameters during the heatup and emergency cooling phases.« less

  17. Code System for Spent Fuel Heating Analysis.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-05-24

    Version 00 SFHA calculates steady-state fuel rod temperatures for hexagon and square-fuel bundles. The code is used to perform sensitivity studies and confirmatory analyses of results submitted by applicants for spent fuel storage licenses. All three modes of heat transfer are considered; radiation, convection, and conduction. Each is modeled separately. SFHA benchmark calculations were made with test data to validate the use of a simple one-dimensional heat transfer model for estimating fuel rod temperatures. Benchmarkmore » results show that SFHA is capable of calculating spent fuel rod temperatures for square and hexagonal fuel bundles under various environments for the consolidated or unconsolidated condition. The program is menu-driven and executes automatically after all required information is entered.« less

  18. MORSE Monte Carlo radiation transport code system

    SciTech Connect

    Emmett, M.B.

    1983-02-01

    This report is an addendum to the MORSE report, ORNL-4972, originally published in 1975. This addendum contains descriptions of several modifications to the MORSE Monte Carlo Code, replacement pages containing corrections, Part II of the report which was previously unpublished, and a new Table of Contents. The modifications include a Klein Nishina estimator for gamma rays. Use of such an estimator required changing the cross section routines to process pair production and Compton scattering cross sections directly from ENDF tapes and writing a new version of subroutine RELCOL. Another modification is the use of free form input for the SAMBO analysis data. This required changing subroutines SCORIN and adding new subroutine RFRE. References are updated, and errors in the original report have been corrected. (WHK)

  19. Performance results for a hybrid coding system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, L. B.

    1971-01-01

    Results of computer simulation studies of the hybrid pull-up bootstrap decoding algorithm, using a constraint length 24, nonsystematic, rate 1/2 convolutional code for the symmetric channel with both binary and eight-level quantized outputs. Computational performance was used to measure the effect of several decoder parameters and determine practical operating constraints. Results reveal that the track length may be reduced to 500 information bits with small degradation in performance. The optimum number of tracks per block was found to be in the range from 7 to 11. An effective technique was devised to efficiently allocate computational effort and identify reliably decoded data sections. Long simulations indicate that a practical bootstrap decoding configuration has a computational performance about 1.0 dB better than sequential decoding and an output bit error rate about .0000025 near the R sub comp point.

  20. Codes, standards, and PV power systems. A 1996 status report

    SciTech Connect

    Wiles, J

    1996-06-01

    As photovoltaic (PV) electrical power systems gain increasing acceptance for both off-grid and utility-interactive applications, the safety, durability, and performance of these systems gains in importance. Local and state jurisdictions in many areas of the country require that all electrical power systems be installed in compliance with the requirements of the National Electrical Code{reg_sign} (NEC{reg_sign}). Utilities and governmental agencies are now requiring that PV installations and components also meet a number of Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) standards. PV installers are working more closely with licensed electricians and electrical contractors who are familiar with existing local codes and installation practices. PV manufacturers, utilities, balance of systems manufacturers, and standards representatives have come together to address safety and code related issues for future PV installations. This paper addresses why compliance with the accepted codes and standards is needed and how it is being achieved.

  1. Child Injury Deaths: Comparing Prevention Information from Two Coding Systems

    PubMed Central

    Schnitzer, Patricia G.; Ewigman, Bernard G.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives The International Classification of Disease (ICD) external cause of injury E-codes do not sufficiently identify injury circumstances amenable to prevention. The researchers developed an alternative classification system (B-codes) that incorporates behavioral and environmental factors, for use in childhood injury research, and compare the two coding systems in this paper. Methods All fatal injuries among children less than age five that occurred between January 1, 1992, and December 31, 1994, were classified using both B-codes and E-codes. Results E-codes identified the most common causes of injury death: homicide (24%), fires (21%), motor vehicle incidents (21%), drowning (10%), and suffocation (9%). The B-codes further revealed that homicides (51%) resulted from the child being shaken or struck by another person; many fires deaths (42%) resulted from children playing with matches or lighters; drownings (46%) usually occurred in natural bodies of water; and most suffocation deaths (68%) occurred in unsafe sleeping arrangements. Conclusions B-codes identify additional information with specific relevance for prevention of childhood injuries. PMID:15944169

  2. Code-modulated interferometric imaging system using phased arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Vikas; Greene, Kevin; Floyd, Brian

    2016-05-01

    Millimeter-wave (mm-wave) imaging provides compelling capabilities for security screening, navigation, and bio- medical applications. Traditional scanned or focal-plane mm-wave imagers are bulky and costly. In contrast, phased-array hardware developed for mass-market wireless communications and automotive radar promise to be extremely low cost. In this work, we present techniques which can allow low-cost phased-array receivers to be reconfigured or re-purposed as interferometric imagers, removing the need for custom hardware and thereby reducing cost. Since traditional phased arrays power combine incoming signals prior to digitization, orthogonal code-modulation is applied to each incoming signal using phase shifters within each front-end and two-bit codes. These code-modulated signals can then be combined and processed coherently through a shared hardware path. Once digitized, visibility functions can be recovered through squaring and code-demultiplexing operations. Pro- vided that codes are selected such that the product of two orthogonal codes is a third unique and orthogonal code, it is possible to demultiplex complex visibility functions directly. As such, the proposed system modulates incoming signals but demodulates desired correlations. In this work, we present the operation of the system, a validation of its operation using behavioral models of a traditional phased array, and a benchmarking of the code-modulated interferometer against traditional interferometer and focal-plane arrays.

  3. Thermal Reactor Code System for Reactor Design and Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    SUZUKI, TADAKAZU

    2003-04-21

    Version: 00 SRAC95 is a general purpose neutronics code system applicable to core analyses of various types of reactors, including cell calculation with burn up, core calculation for any type of thermal reactor; where core burn up calculation and fuel management were done by an auxiliary code. Since the publication of JAERI-1302 for the revised SRAC in 1986, a number of additions and modifications were made for nuclear data libraries and programs. In this version, many new functions and data are implemented to support nuclear design studies of advanced reactors. SRAC95 can be used for burnup credit analysis within the ORIGEN2 and SWAT (CCC-714) code system.

  4. Intranuclear cascade with emission of light fragment code implemented in the transport code system PHITS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Y.; Uozumi, Y.; Nogamine, S.; Yamada, T.; Iwamoto, Y.; Sato, T.; Niita, K.

    2012-11-01

    The Intranuclear Cascade with Emission of Light Fragment (INC-ELF) code has been developed and implemented in the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS). The INC-ELF code explicitly includes nucleon correlations within the framework of the INC model to describe light fragment emissions from nuclear spallation reactions by using the model in Phys. Rev. C 84, (2011) 064617. In addition to the degrees of freedom of nucleons, the developed code also accounts for pions, Δs, and N∗s, and can cover energy ranges up to 3 GeV. The predictive capabilities of the ELF/PHITS system have been verified through comparison with a diverse set of experimental observations. In particular, the verification was conducted with abundant double-differential cross-section data covering a wide range of reactions (e.g., (p, p'x), (p, nx), (p, dx), (p, 3Hex), (p, αx) and (p, πx) reactions) over a wide energy range (between 400 MeV and 1.5 GeV). As a result, our ELF/PHITS code has demonstrated strong predictive capability for all of these data, although areas requiring future study remain due to the lack of experimental data on high-energy cluster production.

  5. Code System for the Radioactive Liquid Tank Failure Study.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2000-01-03

    Version 01 RATAF calculates the consequences of radioactive liquid tank failures. In each of the processing systems considered, RATAF can calculate the tank isotopic concentrations in either the collector tank or the evaporator bottoms tank.

  6. Code System to Model Aqueous Geochemical Equilibria.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2001-08-23

    Version: 00 MINTEQ is a geochemical program to model aqueous solutions and the interactions of aqueous solutions with hypothesized assemblages of solid phases. It was developed for the Environmental Protection Agency to perform the calculations necessary to simulate the contact of waste solutions with heterogeneous sediments or the interaction of ground water with solidified wastes. MINTEQ can calculate ion speciation/solubility, adsorption, oxidation-reduction, gas phase equilibria, and precipitation/dissolution ofsolid phases. MINTEQ can accept a finite massmore » for any solid considered for dissolution and will dissolve the specified solid phase only until its initial mass is exhausted. This ability enables MINTEQ to model flow-through systems. In these systems the masses of solid phases that precipitate at earlier pore volumes can be dissolved at later pore volumes according to thermodynamic constraints imposed by the solution composition and solid phases present. The ability to model these systems permits evaluation of the geochemistry of dissolved traced metals, such as low-level waste in shallow land burial sites. MINTEQ was designed to solve geochemical equilibria for systems composed of one kilogram of water, various amounts of material dissolved in solution, and any solid materials that are present. Systems modeled using MINTEQ can exchange energy and material (open systems) or just energy (closed systems) with the surrounding environment. Each system is composed of a number of phases. Every phase is a region with distinct composition and physically definable boundaries. All of the material in the aqueous solution forms one phase. The gas phase is composed of any gaseous material present, and each compositionally and structurally distinct solid forms a separate phase.« less

  7. Bilingual Processing of ASL-English Code-Blends: The Consequences of Accessing Two Lexical Representations Simultaneously

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmorey, Karen; Petrich, Jennifer A. F.; Gollan, Tamar H.

    2012-01-01

    Bilinguals who are fluent in American Sign Language (ASL) and English often produce "code-blends"--simultaneously articulating a sign and a word while conversing with other ASL-English bilinguals. To investigate the cognitive mechanisms underlying code-blend processing, we compared picture-naming times (Experiment 1) and semantic categorization…

  8. A Combinatorial Geometry Code System with Model Testing Routines.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1982-10-08

    GIFT, Geometric Information For Targets code system, is used to mathematically describe the geometry of a three-dimensional vehicle such as a tank, truck, or helicopter. The geometric data generated is merged in vulnerability computer codes with the energy effects data of a selected @munition to simulate the probabilities of malfunction or destruction of components when it is attacked by the selected munition. GIFT options include those which graphically display the vehicle, those which check themore » correctness of the geometry data, those which compute physical characteristics of the vehicle, and those which generate the geometry data used by vulnerability codes.« less

  9. Effects of bar coding on a pharmacy stock replenishment system.

    PubMed

    Chester, M I; Zilz, D A

    1989-07-01

    A bar-code stock ordering system installed in the ambulatory-care pharmacy and sterile products area of a hospital pharmacy was compared with a manual paper system to quantify overall time demands and determine the error rate associated with each system. The bar-code system was implemented in the ambulatory-care pharmacy in November 1987 and in the sterile products area in January 1988. It consists of a Trakker 9440 transaction manager with a digital scanner; labels are printed with a dot matrix printer. Electronic scanning of bar-code labels and entry of the amount required using the key-pad on the transaction manager replaced use of a preprinted form for ordering items. With the bar-code system, ordering information is transferred electronically via cable to the pharmacy inventory computer; with the manual system, this information was input by a stockroom technician. To compare the systems, the work of technicians in the ambulatory-care pharmacy and sterile products area was evaluated before and after implementation of the bar-code system. The time requirements for information gathering and data transfer were recorded by direct observation; the prevalence of errors under each system was determined by comparing unprocessed ordering information with the corresponding computer-generated "pick lists" (itemized lists including the amount of each product ordered). Time consumed in extra trips to the stockroom to replace out-of-stock items was self-reported. Significantly less time was required to order stock and transfer data to the pharmacy inventory computer with the bar-code system than with the manual system.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2757044

  10. An extensive Markov system for ECG exact coding.

    PubMed

    Tai, S C

    1995-02-01

    In this paper, an extensive Markov process, which considers both the coding redundancy and the intersample redundancy, is presented to measure the entropy value of an ECG signal more accurately. It utilizes the intersample correlations by predicting the incoming n samples based on the previous m samples which constitute an extensive Markov process state. Theories of the extensive Markov process and conventional n repeated applications of m-th order Markov process are studied first in this paper. After that, they are realized for ECG exact coding. Results show that a better performance can be achieved by our system. The average code length for the extensive Markov system on the second difference signals was 2.512 b/sample, while the average Huffman code length for the second difference signals was 3.326 b/sample. PMID:7868151

  11. Multiview image and depth map coding for holographic TV system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senoh, Takanori; Wakunami, Koki; Ichihashi, Yasuyuki; Sasaki, Hisayuki; Oi, Ryutaro; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2014-11-01

    A holographic TV system based on multiview image and depth map coding and the analysis of coding noise effects in reconstructed images is proposed. A major problem for holographic TV systems is the huge amount of data that must be transmitted. It has been shown that this problem can be solved by capturing a three-dimensional scene with multiview cameras, deriving depth maps from multiview images or directly capturing them, encoding and transmitting the multiview images and depth maps, and generating holograms at the receiver side. This method shows the same subjective image quality as hologram data transmission with about 1/97000 of the data rate. Speckle noise, which masks coding noise when the coded bit rate is not extremely low, is shown to be the main determinant of reconstructed holographic image quality.

  12. Code System for Seismic Probabilistic Risk Assessment.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2001-03-27

    Version 00 SEISIM1 calculates the probabilities of seismically induced failures for components and systems and propagates these calculations to determine the probability of accident sequences and the resulting total risk, which is quantified as an expected value of radiation release and exposure from a given nuclear power plant. SEISIM1 was developed as a fundamental tool for the systems analysis portion of the NRC's Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP). The SSMRP provides a complete, self-containedmore » methodology to assess and quantify the risk to nuclear power plants from seismic events and seismically induced failures.« less

  13. The FORTRAN static source code analyzer program (SAP) system description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, W.; Taylor, W.; Merwarth, P.; Oneill, M.; Goorevich, C.; Waligora, S.

    1982-01-01

    A source code analyzer program (SAP) designed to assist personnel in conducting studies of FORTRAN programs is described. The SAP scans FORTRAN source code and produces reports that present statistics and measures of statements and structures that make up a module. The processing performed by SAP and of the routines, COMMON blocks, and files used by SAP are described. The system generation procedure for SAP is also presented.

  14. Analytical considerations in the code qualification of piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Antaki, G.A.

    1995-02-01

    The paper addresses several analytical topics in the design and qualification of piping systems which have a direct bearing on the prediction of stresses in the pipe and hence on the application of the equations of NB, NC and ND-3600 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. For each of the analytical topics, the paper summarizes the current code requirements, if any, and the industry practice.

  15. The performance of a sequential acquisition system for PN codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, R. W.; Arakaki, E. M.; Huang, M. Y.

    Direct sequence spread spectrum techniques are being applied in an increasing number of advanced communication systems where anti-jam (AJ), low probability of intercept (LPI), or code division multiple access (CDMA) capabilities are required. In all these systems, rapid acquisition of long PN code is a system necessity. Generally, acquisition of long PN codes is accomplished by correlation measurements of the incoming sequence with a locally generated code sequence. However, instead of utilizing fixed integration times, a sequential acquisition technique could also be used for active correlation, which results in greatly reduced acquisition times. TRW has designed and completed a limited production of 33 spread spectrum receivers for use with the NASA Tracking Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The receivers provide multiple access and ranging capability while simultaneously decreasing the transmitted power flux density to meet CCIR restrictions. This paper presents the analysis, hardware description, and performance of the sequential code acquisition system implemented on these receivers. A unique noise calibration process, which holds the key to successful operation of these receivers, is described in detail.

  16. Top Event Matrix Analysis Code System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2000-06-19

    Version 00 TEMAC is designed to permit the user to easily estimate risk and to perform sensitivity and uncertainty analyses with a Boolean expression such as produced by the SETS computer program. SETS produces a mathematical representation of a fault tree used to model system unavailability. In the terminology of the TEMAC program, such a mathematical representation is referred to as a top event. The analysis of risk involves the estimation of the magnitude ofmore » risk, the sensitivity of risk estimates to base event probabilities and initiating event frequencies, and the quantification of the uncertainty in the risk estimates.« less

  17. Fish stranding in freshwater systems: sources, consequences, and mitigation.

    PubMed

    Nagrodski, Alexander; Raby, Graham D; Hasler, Caleb T; Taylor, Mark K; Cooke, Steven J

    2012-07-30

    Fish can become stranded when water levels decrease, often rapidly, as a result of anthropogenic (e.g., canal drawdown, hydropeaking, vessel wakes) and natural (e.g., floods, drought, winter ice dynamics) events. We summarize existing research on stranding of fish in freshwater, discuss the sources, consequences, and mitigation options for stranding, and report current knowledge gaps. Our literature review revealed that ∼65.5% of relevant peer-reviewed articles were found to focus on stranding associated with hydropower operations and irrigation projects. In fact, anthropogenic sources of fish stranding represented 81.8% of available literature compared to only 19.9% attributed to natural fish stranding events. While fish mortality as a result of stranding is well documented, our analysis revealed that little is known about the sublethal and long-term consequences of stranding on growth and population dynamics. Furthermore, the contribution of stranding to annual mortality rates is poorly understood as are the potential ecosystem-scale impacts. Mitigation strategies available to deal with stranding include fish salvage, ramping rate limitations, and physical habitat works (e.g., to contour substrate to minimize stranding). However, a greater knowledge of the factors that cause fish stranding would promote the development and refinement of mitigation strategies that are economically and ecologically sustainable. PMID:22481278

  18. European coding system for tissues and cells: a challenge unmet?

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Melvin; Warwick, Ruth M; Poniatowski, Stefan; Trias, Esteve

    2010-11-01

    The Comité Européen de Normalisation (European Committee for Standardization, CEN) Workshop on Coding of Information and Traceability of Human Tissues and Cells was established by the Expert Working Group of the Directorate General for Health and Consumer Affairs of the European Commission (DG SANCO) to identify requirements concerning the coding of information and the traceability of human tissues and cells, and propose guidelines and recommendations to permit the implementation of the European Coding system required by the European Tissues and Cells Directive 2004/23/EC (ED). The Workshop included over 70 voluntary participants from tissue, blood and eye banks, national ministries for healthcare, transplant organisations, universities and coding organisations; mainly from Europe with a small number of representatives from professionals in Canada, Australia, USA and Japan. The Workshop commenced in April 2007 and held its final meeting in February 2008. The draft Workshop Agreement went through a public comment phase from 15 December 2007 until 15 January 2008 and the endorsement period ran from 9 April 2008 until 2 May 2008. The endorsed CEN Workshop Agreement (CWA) set out the issues regarding a common coding system, qualitatively assessed what the industry felt was required of a coding system, reviewed coding systems that were put forward as potential European coding systems and established a basic specification for a proposed European coding system for human tissues and cells, based on ISBT 128, and which is compatible with existing systems of donation identification, traceability and nomenclatures, indicating how implementation of that system could be approached. The CWA, and the associated Workshop proposals with recommendations, were finally submitted to the European Commission and to the Committee of Member States that assists its management process under article 29 of the Directive 2004/23/EC on May 25 2008. In 2009 the European Commission initiated an

  19. 3D neutronic codes coupled with thermal-hydraulic system codes for PWR, and BWR and VVER reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Langenbuch, S.; Velkov, K.; Lizorkin, M.

    1997-07-01

    This paper describes the objectives of code development for coupling 3D neutronics codes with thermal-hydraulic system codes. The present status of coupling ATHLET with three 3D neutronics codes for VVER- and LWR-reactors is presented. After describing the basic features of the 3D neutronic codes BIPR-8 from Kurchatov-Institute, DYN3D from Research Center Rossendorf and QUABOX/CUBBOX from GRS, first applications of coupled codes for different transient and accident scenarios are presented. The need of further investigations is discussed.

  20. Physical-layer network coding in coherent optical OFDM systems.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xun; Chan, Chun-Kit

    2015-04-20

    We present the first experimental demonstration and characterization of the application of optical physical-layer network coding in coherent optical OFDM systems. It combines two optical OFDM frames to share the same link so as to enhance system throughput, while individual OFDM frames can be recovered with digital signal processing at the destined node. PMID:25969046

  1. A Coding System for Analysing a Spoken Text Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutting, Joan

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a coding system devised to analyze conversations of graduate students in applied linguistics at Edinburgh University. The system was devised to test the hypothesis that as shared knowledge among conversation participants grows, the textual density of in-group members has more cues than that of strangers. The informal…

  2. Use of post-Chernobyl data from Norway to validate the long-term exposure pathway models in the accident consequence code MACCS

    SciTech Connect

    Tveten, U. )

    1994-03-01

    This paper describes a task performed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), consisting of using post-Chernobyl data from Norway to verify or find areas for possible improvement in the chronic exposure pathway models utilized in the NRC's program for probabilistic risk analysis, level 3, of the MELCOR accident consequence code system (MACCS), developed at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Because of unfortunate combinations of weather conditions, the levels of Chernobyl fallout in parts of Norway were quite high, with large areas contaminated to more than 100 kBq/m[sup 2] of radioactive cesium. Approximately 6% of the total amount of radioactive cesium released from Chernobyl is deposited on Norwegian territory, according to a countrywide survey performed by the Norwegian National Institute for Radiation Hygiene. Accordingly, a very large monitoring effort was carried out in Norway, and some of the results of this effort have provided important new insights into the ways in which radioactive cesium behaves in the environment. In addition to collection and evaluation of post-Chernobyl monitoring results, some experiments were also performed as part of the task. Some experiments performed pre-Chernobyl were also relevant, and some conclusions could be drawn from these. In most connections, the data available show the models and data in MACCS to be appropriate. A few areas where the data indicate that the MACCS approach is inadequate are, however, also pointed out in the paper.

  3. Hydrogen Event Containment Response Code System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-11-23

    Version: 00 Distribution is restricted to the United States Only. HECTR1.5 (Hydrogen Event-Containment Transient Response) is a lumped-volume containment analysis program that is most useful for performing parametric studies. Its main purpose is to analyze nuclear reactor accidents involving the transport and combustion of hydrogen, but HECTR can also function as an experiment analysis tool and can solve a limited set of other containment problems. Six gases; steam, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbonmore » dioxide are modified along with sumps containing liquid water. HECTR can model virtually all the containment systems of importance in ice condenser, large dry and Mark III containments. A postprocessor, ACHILES1.5, is included. It processes the time-dependent variable output (compartment pressures, flow junction velocities, surface temperatures, etc.) produced by HECTR. ACHILES can produce tables and graphs of these data.« less

  4. Theory and Implementation of Nuclear Safety System Codes - Part II: System Code Closure Relations, Validation, and Limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn A Roth; Fatih Aydogan

    2014-09-01

    This is Part II of two articles describing the details of thermal-hydraulic sys- tem codes. In this second part of the article series, the system code closure relationships (used to model thermal and mechanical non-equilibrium and the coupling of the phases) for the governing equations are discussed and evaluated. These include several thermal and hydraulic models, such as heat transfer coefficients for various flow regimes, two phase pressure correlations, two phase friction correlations, drag coefficients and interfacial models be- tween the fields. These models are often developed from experimental data. The experiment conditions should be understood to evaluate the efficacy of the closure models. Code verification and validation, including Separate Effects Tests (SETs) and Integral effects tests (IETs) is also assessed. It can be shown from the assessments that the test cases cover a significant section of the system code capabilities, but some of the more advanced reactor designs will push the limits of validation for the codes. Lastly, the limitations of the codes are discussed by considering next generation power plants, such as Small Modular Reactors (SMRs), analyz- ing not only existing nuclear power plants, but also next generation nuclear power plants. The nuclear industry is developing new, innovative reactor designs, such as Small Modular Reactors (SMRs), High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs) and others. Sub-types of these reactor designs utilize pebbles, prismatic graphite moderators, helical steam generators, in- novative fuel types, and many other design features that may not be fully analyzed by current system codes. This second part completes the series on the comparison and evaluation of the selected reactor system codes by discussing the closure relations, val- idation and limitations. These two articles indicate areas where the models can be improved to adequately address issues with new reactor design and development.

  5. Optical System Design For High Speed Bar Code Scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellekson, Ronald; Reddersen, Brad; Campbell, Scott

    1987-04-01

    Spectra-Physics recently introduced the Model 750 SL scanner for use in the European point-of-sale market, to meet the European requirement for a scanner of less than 13 cm height. The model 750 SL uses a higher density computer designed scan pattern with a retrodirective collection system to scan and detect UPC, EAN, and JAN bar codes. The scanner "reads" these bar codes in such a way that the user need not precisely align the bar code symbol with respect to the window in the scanner even at package speeds up to 100 inches per second. By using a unique geometrical arrangement of mirrors, a polygonal mirror assembly, and a custom-designed plastic bifocal lens, a design was developed to meet these requirements. This paper describes the design of this new low cost scanner, the use of computer-aided design in the development of this scanner, and some observations on the future of bar code scanning.

  6. Code System for Toxic Gas Accident Analysis.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2001-09-24

    Version 00 TOXRISK is an interactive program developed to aid in the evaluation of nuclear power plant control room habitability in the event of a nearby toxic material release. The program uses a model which is consistent with the approach described in the NRC Regulatory Guide 1.78. Release of the gas is treated as an initial puff followed by a continuous plume. The relative proportions of these as well as the plume release rate aremore » supplied by the user. Transport of the gas is modeled as a Gaussian distribution and occurs through the action of a constant velocity, constant direction wind. Dispersion or diffusion of the gas during transport is described by modified Pasquill-Gifford dispersion coefficients. Great flexibility is afforded the user in specifying the release description, meteorological conditions, relative geometry of the accident and plant, and the plant ventilation system characteristics. Two types of simulation can be performed: multiple case (parametric) studies and probabilistic analyses.« less

  7. FORTRAN Automated Code Evaluation System (faces) system documentation, version 2, mod 0. [error detection codes/user manuals (computer programs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A system is presented which processes FORTRAN based software systems to surface potential problems before they become execution malfunctions. The system complements the diagnostic capabilities of compilers, loaders, and execution monitors rather than duplicating these functions. Also, it emphasizes frequent sources of FORTRAN problems which require inordinate manual effort to identify. The principle value of the system is extracting small sections of unusual code from the bulk of normal sequences. Code structures likely to cause immediate or future problems are brought to the user's attention. These messages stimulate timely corrective action of solid errors and promote identification of 'tricky' code. Corrective action may require recoding or simply extending software documentation to explain the unusual technique.

  8. Spatiotemporal stochastic resonance and its consequences in neural model systems.

    PubMed

    Balazsi, Gabor; Kish, Laszlo B.; Moss, Frank E.

    2001-09-01

    The realization of spatiotemporal stochastic resonance is studied in a two-dimensional FitzHugh-Nagumo system, and in a one-dimensional system of integrate-and-fire neurons. We show that spatiotemporal stochastic resonance occurs in these neural model systems, independent of the method of modeling. Moreover, the ways of realization are analogous in the two model systems. The biological implications and open questions are discussed. (c) 2001 American Institute of Physics. PMID:12779493

  9. The glycine deportation system and its pharmacological consequences.

    PubMed

    Beyoğlu, Diren; Idle, Jeffrey R

    2012-08-01

    The glycine deportation system is an essential component of glycine catabolism in man whereby 400 to 800mg glycine per day are deported into urine as hippuric acid. The molecular escort for this deportation is benzoic acid, which derives from the diet and from gut microbiota metabolism of dietary precursors. Three components of this system, involving hepatic and renal metabolism, and renal active tubular secretion help regulate systemic and central nervous system levels of glycine. When glycine levels are pathologically high, as in congenital nonketotic hyperglycinemia, the glycine deportation system can be upregulated with pharmacological doses of benzoic acid to assist in normalization of glycine homeostasis. In congenital urea cycle enzymopathies, similar activation of the glycine deportation system with benzoic acid is useful for the excretion of excess nitrogen in the form of glycine. Drugs which can substitute for benzoic acid as substrates for the glycine deportation system have adverse reactions that may involve perturbations of glycine homeostasis. The cancer chemotherapeutic agent ifosfamide has an unacceptably high incidence of encephalopathy. This would appear to arise as a result of the production of toxic aldehyde metabolites which deplete ATP production and sequester NADH in the mitochondrial matrix, thereby inhibiting the glycine deportation system and causing de novo glycine synthesis by the glycine cleavage system. We hypothesize that this would result in hyperglycinemia and encephalopathy. This understanding may lead to novel prophylactic strategies for ifosfamide encephalopathy. Thus, the glycine deportation system plays multiple key roles in physiological and neurotoxicological processes involving glycine. PMID:22584143

  10. An engineering code to analyze hypersonic thermal management systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vangriethuysen, Valerie J.; Wallace, Clark E.

    1993-11-01

    This paper will describe an effort that is underway within the Advanced Propulsion Division of the Aero Propulsion and Power Directorate at Wright Patterson AFB to develop an engineering computer code to aid in the development of hypersonic thermal management systems. The goal of the Vehicle Integrated Thermal Management Code (VITMAC), is to thermally model the entire thermal management system on an integrated basis for an entire vehicle. A further goal is for it to be a stand-alone code. In other words, to predict the aerodynamic heating on the vehicle surface during the trajectory, to the heat loads from the propulsion system, subsystems and avionics, and to the heat transfer through the structure and insulation. In addition, VITMAC will be able to model the flow of the coolant through the network. All this is to determine if the vehicle is thermally balanced and if there are any areas in risk of melting or thermal degradation. The code also has the option to accept user data for aerodynamic heating, heat loads and user-specific components. To aid the user while inputting the vehicle configuration, geometry, components, and 'plumbing' data, a graphical user interface is being incorporated within te code. This will enable the user, even those with little experience in the area, with the aid of a mouse, to literally see the network on the screen as it is being inputted. This capability will speed up the input process, particularly for complex systems, as well as aid in error detection. This paper will further discuss the architecture of VITMAC. Also discussed will be its developmental status and capabilities, computer system that supports the code, its relevancy to other types of vehicles and applications, expansion capability and future plans.

  11. A systems neurophysiology approach to voluntary event coding.

    PubMed

    Petruo, Vanessa A; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Münchau, Alexander; Beste, Christian

    2016-07-15

    Mechanisms responsible for the integration of perceptual events and appropriate actions (sensorimotor processes) have been subject to intense research. Different theoretical frameworks have been put forward with the "Theory of Event Coding (TEC)" being one of the most influential. In the current study, we focus on the concept of 'event files' within TEC and examine what sub-processes being dissociable by means of cognitive-neurophysiological methods are involved in voluntary event coding. This was combined with EEG source localization. We also introduce reward manipulations to delineate the neurophysiological sub-processes most relevant for performance variations during event coding. The results show that processes involved in voluntary event coding included predominantly stimulus categorization, feature unbinding and response selection, which were reflected by distinct neurophysiological processes (the P1, N2 and P3 ERPs). On a system's neurophysiological level, voluntary event-file coding is thus related to widely distributed parietal-medial frontal networks. Attentional selection processes (N1 ERP) turned out to be less important. Reward modulated stimulus categorization in parietal regions likely reflecting aspects of perceptual decision making but not in other processes. The perceptual categorization stage appears central for voluntary event-file coding. PMID:27153981

  12. Satellite link protocols design for the CODE system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, A.; Vidaller, L.; Miguel, C.; Briones, D.

    1989-05-01

    The design of satellite link protocols for Very Small Aperture Terminals (VSAT) systems is outlined. The CODE system (Cooperative Olympus Data Experiment) is a VSAT system with two main characteristics: very low bit error rate, and multiple access over FDM channels in the inbound link. The design of the link protocols for this system covers two main aspects: error control procedures and medium access control procedures. In order to analyze both aspects, a profile of the average user of the CODE system is defined in terms of types of traffic and of messages arrival and service rates for every type of traffic. An analysis of the mean time between failures is made, and the average delay and through-put for different access methods are computed, including stability analysis for Aloha-based systems.

  13. Possible consequences of absence of "Jupiters" in planetary systems.

    PubMed

    Wetherill, G W

    1994-01-01

    The formation of the gas giant planets Jupiter and Saturn probably required the growth of massive approximately 15 Earth-mass cores on a time scale shorter than the approximately 10(7) time scale for removal of nebular gas. Relatively minor variations in nebular parameters could preclude the growth of full-size gas giants even in systems in which the terrestrial planet region is similar to our own. Systems containing "failed Jupiters," resembling Uranus and Neptune in their failure to capture much nebular gas, would be expected to contain more densely populated cometary source regions. They will also eject a smaller number of comets into interstellar space. If systems of this kind were the norm, observation of hyperbolic comets would be unexpected. Monte Carlo calculations of the orbital evolution of region of such systems (the Kuiper belt) indicate that throughout Earth history the cometary impact flux in their terrestrial planet regions would be approximately 1000 times greater than in our Solar System. It may be speculated that this could frustrate the evolution of organisms that observe and seek to understand their planetary system. For this reason our observation of these planets in our Solar System may tell us nothing about the probability of similar gas giants occurring in other planetary systems. This situation can be corrected by observation of an unbiased sample of planetary systems. PMID:11539457

  14. Bacteria sensing mechanisms in Drosophila gut: Local and systemic consequences.

    PubMed

    Capo, Florence; Charroux, Bernard; Royet, Julien

    2016-11-01

    All insects are colonized by microorganisms on their exoskeleton, their gut and even in some cases within their own somatic and germ line cells. This microbiota that can represent up to a few percent of the insect biomass may have a pervasive impact on many aspects of insect biology including physiology, nutrient acquisition, ageing, behaviour and resistance to infection. Mainly through ingestion of contaminated food, the mouth-gut axis represents the first and principal access of external bacteria to the host. Soon after ingestion, the feeding insect needs to rapidly and accurately identify the ingested microbes and decide whether to preserve them if beneficial or neutral, or to eliminate them if potentially harmful. We will review here the recent data acquired in Drosophila on the mechanisms that invertebrate enterocytes rely on to detect the presence of bacteria in the gut. We will compare these modes of bacteria sensing to those in other immune competent tissues and try to rationalize differences that may exist. We will also analyse the physiological consequences of bacteria detection not only locally for the gut itself but also for remote tissues. Finally, we will describe the physiological disorders that can occur due to inaccurate bacteria identification by the gut epithelium. PMID:26778296

  15. Earth system consequences of a Pine Island Glacier collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Mattias; Schmittner, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    An intermediate complexity climate model is used to simulate the impact of an accelerated Pine Island Glacier mass loss on the large-scale ocean circulation and climate. Simulations are performed for pre-industrial conditions using hosing levels consistent with present day observation of 3,000 m3 s‑1, at an accelerated rate of 6,000 m3 s‑1, and at a total collapse rate of 100,000 m3 s‑1, and in all experiments the hosing lasted 100 years. It is shown that even a modest input of meltwater from the glacier can introduce an initial cooling over the upper part of the Southern Ocean due to increased stratification and ice cover leading to a reduced upward heat flux from Circumpolar Deep Water. This causes global ocean heat content to increase and global surface air temperatures to decrease. The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) increases, presumably due to changes in the density difference between Antarctic Intermediate Water and North Atlantic Deep Water. Simulations with a simultaneous hosing and increases of atmospheric CO2 concentrations show smaller effects of the hosing on global surface air temperature and ocean heat content, which we attribute to the melting of Southern Ocean sea ice. The sensitivity of the AMOC to the hosing is also reduced as the warming by the atmosphere completely dominates the perturbations. Further consequences for oceanic biogeochemical cycles in realistic future warming scenarios are discussed.

  16. Thermal Reactor Code System for Reactor Design and Analysis.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2003-04-21

    Version: 00 SRAC95 is a general purpose neutronics code system applicable to core analyses of various types of reactors, including cell calculation with burn up, core calculation for any type of thermal reactor; where core burn up calculation and fuel management were done by an auxiliary code. Since the publication of JAERI-1302 for the revised SRAC in 1986, a number of additions and modifications were made for nuclear data libraries and programs. In this version,more » many new functions and data are implemented to support nuclear design studies of advanced reactors. SRAC95 can be used for burnup credit analysis within the ORIGEN2 and SWAT (CCC-714) code system.« less

  17. Reed-Solomon coded optically preamplified PPM system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cryan, R. A.

    1995-06-01

    A Reed-Solomon coded optically preamplified pulse-position modulation system is analyzed. Results are presented at a bit rate of 622 Mbit/s and a wavelength of 1.537 micron, comparing the system with an equivalent on-off nonreturn-to-zero (OOK NRZ) system. The theoretical results demonstrate that the system offers a potential sensitivity of 7 photons/bit, which represents an improvement of 7.5 dB over the equivalent OOK system and is comparable with that of the best coherent systems reported to date.

  18. A novel super-FEC code based on concatenated code for high-speed long-haul optical communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jianguo; Ye, Wenwei; Jiang, Ze; Mao, Youju; Wang, Wei

    2007-05-01

    The structures of the novel super forward error correction (Super-FEC) code type based on the concatenated code for high-speed long-haul optical communication systems are studied in this paper. The Reed-Solomon (RS) (255, 239) + Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocguenghem (BCH) (1023, 963) concatenated code is presented after the characteristics of the concatenated code and the two Super-FEC code type presented in ITU-T G.975.1 have theoretically been analyzed, the simulation result shows that this novel code type, compared with the RS (255, 239) + convolutional-self-orthogonal-code (CSOC) ( k0/ n0 = 6/7, J = 8) code in ITU-T G.975.1, has a lower redundancy and better error-correction capabilities, and its net coding gain (NCG) at the third iteration is 0.57 dB more than that of RS (255, 239) + CSOC ( k0/ n0 = 6/7, J = 8) code in ITU-T G.975.1 at the third iteration for the bit error rate (BER) of 10 -12. Therefore, the novel code type can better be used in long-haul, larger capacity and higher bit-rate optical communication systems. Furthermore, the design and implementation of the novel concatenated code type are also discussed.

  19. The Facial Expression Coding System (FACES): Development, Validation, and Utility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kring, Ann M.; Sloan, Denise M.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents information on the development and validation of the Facial Expression Coding System (FACES; A. M. Kring & D. Sloan, 1991). Grounded in a dimensional model of emotion, FACES provides information on the valence (positive, negative) of facial expressive behavior. In 5 studies, reliability and validity data from 13 diverse…

  20. Performance improvement of spectral amplitude coding-optical code division multiple access systems using NAND detection with enhanced double weight code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Nasim; Aljunid, Syed Alwee; Ahmad, R. Badlishah; Fadhil, Hilal A.; Rashid, Mohd Abdur

    2012-01-01

    The bit-error rate (BER) performance of the spectral amplitude coding-optical code division multiple access (SACOCDMA) system has been investigated by using NAND subtraction detection technique with enhanced double weight (EDW) code. The EDW code is the enhanced version of double weight (DW) code family where the code weight is any odd number and greater than one with ideal cross-correlation. In order to evaluate the performance of the system, we used mathematical analysis extensively along with the simulation experiment. The evaluation results obtained using the NAND subtraction detection technique was compared with those obtained using the complementary detection technique for the same number of active users. The comparison results revealed that the BER performance of the system using NAND subtraction detection technique has greatly been improved as compared to the complementary technique.

  1. Origin and evolution of the Saturn system: Observational consequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, J. B.

    1978-01-01

    A number of important cosmogonic questions concerning the Saturn system can be addressed with a Saturn-orbiter-dual-probe spacecraft mission. These questions include: The origin of the Saturn system; the source of Saturn's excess luminosity; the mechanism by which the irregular satellites were captured; the influence of Saturn's early luminosity on the composition of its regular satellites; and the origin of the rings. The first two topics can be studied by measurements made from an entry probe into Saturn's atmosphere, while the remaining issues can be investigated by measurements conducted from an orbiter. Background information is provided on these five questions describing the critical experiments needed to help resolve them.

  2. Code System To Analyze Radiological Impact From Radwaste Transportation.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1988-05-01

    Version 00 RADSHIP-2 is a computer code system used to analyze the environmental impact of radwaste transportation in Taiwan. The specific transport scheme including the land transport by truck and sea transport by ship or barge were considered in the analysis for normal transport and transport accident conditions. The code combines meteorological, population, health physics, transportation, packaging and material factors and has the capability to obtain the results of the expected annual population radiation exposure,more » the expected number of annual latent cancer fatalities and the annual probability of a given number of early fatalities.« less

  3. Monte-Carlo Continuous Energy Burnup Code System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-08-31

    Version 00 MCB is a Monte Carlo Continuous Energy Burnup Code for a general-purpose use to calculate a nuclide density time evolution with burnup or decay. It includes eigenvalue calculations of critical and subcritical systems as well as neutron transport calculations in fixed source mode or k-code mode to obtain reaction rates and energy deposition that are necessary for burnup calculations. The MCB-1C patch file and data packages as distributed by the NEADB are verymore » well organized and are being made available through RSICC as received. The RSICC package includes the MCB-1C patch and MCB data libraries. Installation of MCB requires MCNP4C source code and utility programs, which are not included in this MCB distribution. They were provided with the now obsolete CCC-700/MCNP-4C package.« less

  4. Confidence Intervals for Error Rates Observed in Coded Communications Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamkins, J.

    2015-05-01

    We present methods to compute confidence intervals for the codeword error rate (CWER) and bit error rate (BER) of a coded communications link. We review several methods to compute exact and approximate confidence intervals for the CWER, and specifically consider the situation in which the true CWER is so low that only a handful, if any, codeword errors are able to be simulated. In doing so, we answer the question of how long an error-free simulation must be run in order to certify that a given CWER requirement is met with a given level of confidence, and discuss the bias introduced by aborting a simulation after observing the first codeword error. Next, we turn to the lesser studied problem of determining confidence intervals for the BER of coded systems. Since bit errors in systems that use coding or higher-order modulation do not occur independently, blind application of a method that assumes independence leads to inappropriately narrow confidence intervals. We present a new method to compute the confidence interval properly, using the first and second sample moments of the number of bit errors per codeword. This is the first method we know of to compute a confidence interval for the BER of a coded or higher-order modulation system.

  5. Testing geochemical modeling codes using New Zealand hydrothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bruton, C.J.; Glassley, W.E.; Bourcier, W.L.

    1993-12-01

    Hydrothermal systems in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, North Island, New Zealand are being used as field-based modeling exercises for the EQ3/6 geochemical modeling code package. Comparisons of the observed state and evolution of selected portions of the hydrothermal systems with predictions of fluid-solid equilibria made using geochemical modeling codes will: (1) ensure that we are providing adequately for all significant processes occurring in natural systems; (2) determine the adequacy of the mathematical descriptions of the processes; (3) check the adequacy and completeness of thermodynamic data as a function of temperature for solids, aqueous species and gases; and (4) determine the sensitivity of model results to the manner in which the problem is conceptualized by the user and then translated into constraints in the code input. Preliminary predictions of mineral assemblages in equilibrium with fluids sampled from wells in the Wairakei geothermal field suggest that affinity-temperature diagrams must be used in conjunction with EQ6 to minimize the effect of uncertainties in thermodynamic and kinetic data on code predictions. The kinetics of silica precipitation in EQ6 will be tested using field data from silica-lined drain channels carrying hot water away from the Wairakei borefield.

  6. Two Serial Data to Pulse Code Modulation System Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamory, Phil

    2006-01-01

    Two pulse code modulation (PCM) system interfaces for asynchronous serial data are described. One interface is for global positioning system (GPS) data on the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) F-15B (McDonnell Douglas Corporation, St. Louis, Missouri) airplane, tail number 836 (F-15B/836). The other is for flight control computer data on the duPont Aerospace (La Jolla, California) DP-1, a 53-percent scale model of the duPont Aerospace DP-2.

  7. Code for Analyzing and Designing Spacecraft Power System Radiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert

    2005-01-01

    GPHRAD is a computer code for analysis and design of disk or circular-sector heat-rejecting radiators for spacecraft power systems. A specific application is for Stirling-cycle/linear-alternator electric-power systems coupled to radioisotope general-purpose heat sources. GPHRAD affords capabilities and options to account for thermophysical properties (thermal conductivity, density) of either metal-alloy or composite radiator materials.

  8. Corrosion consequences of microfouling in water reclamation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, Tim; Mitchell, Ralph

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the potential fouling and corrosion problems associated with microbial film formation throughout the water reclamation system (WRS) designed for the Space Station Freedom. It is shown that the use of advanced metal sputtering techiques combined with image analysis and FTIR spectroscopy will present realistic solutions for investigating the formation and function of biofilm on different alloys, the subsequent corrosion, and the efficiency of different treatments. These techniques, used in combination with electrochemical measurements of corrosion, will provide a powerful approach to examinations of materials considered for use in the WRS.

  9. A novel 2D wavelength-time chaos code in optical CDMA system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qi; Xin, Xiangjun; Wang, Yongjun; Zhang, Lijia; Yu, Chongxiu; Meng, Nan; Wang, Houtian

    2012-11-01

    Two-dimensional wavelength-time chaos code is proposed and constructed for a synchronous optical code division multiple access system. The access performance is compared between one-dimensional chaos code, WDM/chaos code and the proposed code. Comparison shows that two-dimensional wavelength-time chaos code possesses larger capacity, better spectral efficiency and bit-error ratio than WDM/chaos combinations and one-dimensional chaos code.

  10. An Expert System for the Development of Efficient Parallel Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jost, Gabriele; Chun, Robert; Jin, Hao-Qiang; Labarta, Jesus; Gimenez, Judit

    2004-01-01

    We have built the prototype of an expert system to assist the user in the development of efficient parallel code. The system was integrated into the parallel programming environment that is currently being developed at NASA Ames. The expert system interfaces to tools for automatic parallelization and performance analysis. It uses static program structure information and performance data in order to automatically determine causes of poor performance and to make suggestions for improvements. In this paper we give an overview of our programming environment, describe the prototype implementation of our expert system, and demonstrate its usefulness with several case studies.

  11. Code System for Reactor Physics and Fuel Cycle Simulation.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-04-21

    Version 00 VSOP94 (Very Superior Old Programs) is a system of codes linked together for the simulation of reactor life histories. It comprises neutron cross section libraries and processing routines, repeated neutron spectrum evaluation, 2-D diffusion calculation based on neutron flux synthesis with depletion and shut-down features, in-core and out-of-pile fuel management, fuel cycle cost analysis, and thermal hydraulics (at present restricted to Pebble Bed HTRs). Various techniques have been employed to accelerate the iterativemore » processes and to optimize the internal data transfer. The code system has been used extensively for comparison studies of reactors, their fuel cycles, and related detailed features. In addition to its use in research and development work for the High Temperature Reactor, the system has been applied successfully to Light Water and Heavy Water Reactors.« less

  12. Distributed magnetic field positioning system using code division multiple access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prigge, Eric A. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus and methods for a magnetic field positioning system use a fundamentally different, and advantageous, signal structure and multiple access method, known as Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). This signal architecture, when combined with processing methods, leads to advantages over the existing technologies, especially when applied to a system with a large number of magnetic field generators (beacons). Beacons at known positions generate coded magnetic fields, and a magnetic sensor measures a sum field and decomposes it into component fields to determine the sensor position and orientation. The apparatus and methods can have a large `building-sized` coverage area. The system allows for numerous beacons to be distributed throughout an area at a number of different locations. A method to estimate position and attitude, with no prior knowledge, uses dipole fields produced by these beacons in different locations.

  13. System code requirements for safety analysis of SBWR

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, J.G.M.; Shiralkar, B.S.

    1994-12-31

    The simplified boiling water reactor (SBWR) being developed by General Electric Nuclear Energy is an advanced boiling water reactor relying on natural circulation during normal operation and passive safety features. The major elements of the passive safety features are the automatic depressurization of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) through safety/relief valves and depressurization valves, the gravity-driven coolant system (GDCS), and the passive containment cooling system (PCCS) for residual heat removal. These passive safety systems, although based on existing technology, have generated new requirements for the computer codes used in safety and design analysis. TRACG is the computer code used for safety and design analysis for the SBWR.

  14. Upgrades to the NESS (Nuclear Engine System Simulation) Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fittje, James E.

    2007-01-01

    In support of the President's Vision for Space Exploration, the Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) concept is being evaluated as a potential propulsion technology for human expeditions to the moon and Mars. The need for exceptional propulsion system performance in these missions has been documented in numerous studies, and was the primary focus of a considerable effort undertaken during the 1960's and 1970's. The NASA Glenn Research Center is leveraging this past NTR investment in their vehicle concepts and mission analysis studies with the aid of the Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS) code. This paper presents the additional capabilities and upgrades made to this code in order to perform higher fidelity NTR propulsion system analysis and design.

  15. Code System for Reactor Physics and Fuel Cycle Simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    TEUCHERT, E.

    1999-04-21

    Version 00 VSOP94 (Very Superior Old Programs) is a system of codes linked together for the simulation of reactor life histories. It comprises neutron cross section libraries and processing routines, repeated neutron spectrum evaluation, 2-D diffusion calculation based on neutron flux synthesis with depletion and shut-down features, in-core and out-of-pile fuel management, fuel cycle cost analysis, and thermal hydraulics (at present restricted to Pebble Bed HTRs). Various techniques have been employed to accelerate the iterative processes and to optimize the internal data transfer. The code system has been used extensively for comparison studies of reactors, their fuel cycles, and related detailed features. In addition to its use in research and development work for the High Temperature Reactor, the system has been applied successfully to Light Water and Heavy Water Reactors.

  16. Systemic ceramide accumulation leads to severe and varied pathological consequences.

    PubMed

    Alayoubi, Abdulfatah M; Wang, James C M; Au, Bryan C Y; Carpentier, Stéphane; Garcia, Virginie; Dworski, Shaalee; El-Ghamrasni, Samah; Kirouac, Kevin N; Exertier, Mathilde J; Xiong, Zi Jian; Privé, Gilbert G; Simonaro, Calogera M; Casas, Josefina; Fabrias, Gemma; Schuchman, Edward H; Turner, Patricia V; Hakem, Razqallah; Levade, Thierry; Medin, Jeffrey A

    2013-06-01

    Farber disease (FD) is a severe inherited disorder of lipid metabolism characterized by deficient lysosomal acid ceramidase (ACDase) activity, resulting in ceramide accumulation. Ceramide and metabolites have roles in cell apoptosis and proliferation. We introduced a single-nucleotide mutation identified in human FD patients into the murine Asah1 gene to generate the first model of systemic ACDase deficiency. Homozygous Asah1(P361R/P361R) animals showed ACDase defects, accumulated ceramide, demonstrated FD manifestations and died within 7-13 weeks. Mechanistically, MCP-1 levels were increased and tissues were replete with lipid-laden macrophages. Treatment of neonates with a single injection of human ACDase-encoding lentivector diminished the severity of the disease as highlighted by enhanced growth, decreased ceramide, lessened cellular infiltrations and increased lifespans. This model of ACDase deficiency offers insights into the pathophysiology of FD and the roles of ACDase, ceramide and related sphingolipids in cell signaling and growth, as well as facilitates the development of therapy. PMID:23681708

  17. Correlation channel modeling for practical Slepian-Wolf distributed video compression system using irregular LDPC codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Hu, Xiao; Zeng, Rui

    2007-11-01

    The development of practical distributed video coding schemes is based on the consequence of information-theoretic bounds established in the 1970s by Slepian and Wolf for distributed lossless coding, and by Wyner and Ziv for lossy coding with decoder side information. In distributed video compression application, it is hard to accurately describe the non-stationary behavior of the virtual correlation channel between X and side information Y although it plays a very important role in overall system performance. In this paper, we implement a practical Slepian-Wolf asymmetric distributed video compression system using irregular LDPC codes. Moreover, based on exploiting the dependencies of previously decode bit planes from video frame X and side information Y, we present improvement schemes to divide different reliable regions. Our simulation results show improving schemes of exploiting the dependencies between previously decoded bit planes can get better overall encoding rate performance as BER approach zero. We also show, compared with BSC model, BC channel model is more suitable for distributed video compression scenario because of the non-stationary properties of the virtual correlation channel and adaptive detecting channel model parameters from previously adjacent decoded bit planes can provide more accurately initial belief messages from channel at LDPC decoder.

  18. A new two dimensional spectral/spatial multi-diagonal code for noncoherent optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadhim, Rasim Azeez; Fadhil, Hilal Adnan; Aljunid, S. A.; Razalli, Mohamad Shahrazel

    2014-10-01

    A new two dimensional codes family, namely two dimensional multi-diagonal (2D-MD) codes, is proposed for spectral/spatial non-coherent OCDMA systems based on the one dimensional MD code. Since the MD code has the property of zero cross correlation, the proposed 2D-MD code also has this property. So that, the multi-access interference (MAI) is fully eliminated and the phase induced intensity noise (PIIN) is suppressed with the proposed code. Code performance is analyzed in terms of bit error rate (BER) while considering the effect of shot noise, PIIN, and thermal noise. The performance of the proposed code is compared with the related MD, modified quadratic congruence (MQC), two dimensional perfect difference (2D-PD) and two dimensional diluted perfect difference (2D-DPD) codes. The analytical and the simulation results reveal that the proposed 2D-MD code outperforms the other codes. Moreover, a large number of simultaneous users can be accommodated at low BER and high data rate.

  19. Photovoltaic power systems and the National Electrical Code: Suggested practices

    SciTech Connect

    Wiles, J.

    1996-12-01

    This guide provides information on how the National Electrical Code (NEC) applies to photovoltaic systems. The guide is not intended to supplant or replace the NEC; it paraphrases the NEC where it pertains to photovoltaic systems and should be used with the full text of the NEC. Users of this guide should be thoroughly familiar with the NEC and know the engineering principles and hazards associated with electrical and photovoltaic power systems. The information in this guide is the best available at the time of publication and is believed to be technically accurate; it will be updated frequently. Application of this information and results obtained are the responsibility of the user.

  20. Neural map formation and sensory coding in the vomeronasal system.

    PubMed

    Brignall, Alexandra C; Cloutier, Jean-François

    2015-12-01

    Sensory systems enable us to encode a clear representation of our environment in the nervous system by spatially organizing sensory stimuli being received. The organization of neural circuitry to form a map of sensory activation is critical for the interpretation of these sensory stimuli. In rodents, social communication relies strongly on the detection of chemosignals by the vomeronasal system, which regulates a wide array of behaviours, including mate recognition, reproduction, and aggression. The binding of these chemosignals to receptors on vomeronasal sensory neurons leads to activation of second-order neurons within glomeruli of the accessory olfactory bulb. Here, vomeronasal receptor activation by a stimulus is organized into maps of glomerular activation that represent phenotypic qualities of the stimuli detected. Genetic, electrophysiological and imaging studies have shed light on the principles underlying cell connectivity and sensory map formation in the vomeronasal system, and have revealed important differences in sensory coding between the vomeronasal and main olfactory system. In this review, we summarize the key factors and mechanisms that dictate circuit formation and sensory coding logic in the vomeronasal system, emphasizing differences with the main olfactory system. Furthermore, we discuss how detection of chemosignals by the vomeronasal system regulates social behaviour in mice, specifically aggression. PMID:26329476

  1. A seismic data compression system using subband coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiely, A. B.; Pollara, F.

    1995-01-01

    This article presents a study of seismic data compression techniques and a compression algorithm based on subband coding. The algorithm includes three stages: a decorrelation stage, a quantization stage that introduces a controlled amount of distortion to allow for high compression ratios, and a lossless entropy coding stage based on a simple but efficient arithmetic coding method. Subband coding methods are particularly suited to the decorrelation of nonstationary processes such as seismic events. Adaptivity to the nonstationary behavior of the waveform is achieved by dividing the data into separate blocks that are encoded separately with an adaptive arithmetic encoder. This is done with high efficiency due to the low overhead introduced by the arithmetic encoder in specifying its parameters. The technique could be used as a progressive transmission system, where successive refinements of the data can be requested by the user. This allows seismologists to first examine a coarse version of waveforms with minimal usage of the channel and then decide where refinements are required. Rate-distortion performance results are presented and comparisons are made with two block transform methods.

  2. Status of the LAHET{trademark} Code System

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, L.S.; Prael, R.E.

    1995-12-31

    The LAHET Code System (LCS) is extensively used for medium energy accelerator applications, including spallation target design and deep penetration shielding problems. Current applications include Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT), Accelerator Driven Transmutation Technologies (ADTT), LANSCE and WNR spallation target upgrades, as well as various medical projects. We will discuss recent upgrades to the MCNP and LAHET components of LCS, AND review the work in progress now funded under the APT program.

  3. Investigation on Coding Method of Dental X-ray Image for Integrated Hospital Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seki, Takashi; Hamamoto, Kazuhiko

    Recently, medical information system in dental field goes into digital system. In the system, X-ray image can be taken in digital modality and input to the system directly. Consequently, it is easy to combine the image data with alpha-numerical data which are stored in the conventional medical information system. It is useful to manipulate alpha-numerical data and image data simultaneously. The purpose of this research is to develop a new coding method for dental X-ray image. The method enables to reduce a disk space to store the images and transmit the images through Internet or LAN lightly. I attempt to apply multi-resolution analysis (wavelet transform) to accomplish the purpose. Proposed method achieves low bit-rate compared with conventional method.

  4. Code System to Calculate Reactor Coolant System Leak Rate.

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Pat

    1999-10-19

    Version 00 RCSLK9 was developed to analyze the leak tightness of the primary coolant system for any pressurized water reactor (PWR). From given system conditions, water levels in tanks, and certain system design parameters, RCSLK9 calculates the loss of water from the reactor coolant system (RCS) and the increase of water in the leakage collection system during an arbitrary time interval. The program determines the system leak rates and displays or prints a report of the results. During the initial application to a specific reactor, RCSLK9 creates a file of system parameters and saves it for future use.

  5. Code System to Calculate Reactor Coolant System Leak Rate.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-10-19

    Version 00 RCSLK9 was developed to analyze the leak tightness of the primary coolant system for any pressurized water reactor (PWR). From given system conditions, water levels in tanks, and certain system design parameters, RCSLK9 calculates the loss of water from the reactor coolant system (RCS) and the increase of water in the leakage collection system during an arbitrary time interval. The program determines the system leak rates and displays or prints a report ofmore » the results. During the initial application to a specific reactor, RCSLK9 creates a file of system parameters and saves it for future use.« less

  6. Enabling Handicapped Nonreaders to Independently Obtain Information: Initial Development of an Inexpensive Bar Code Reader System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanBiervliet, Alan

    A project to develop and evaluate a bar code reader system as a self-directed information and instructional aid for handicapped nonreaders is described. The bar code technology involves passing a light sensitive pen or laser over a printed code with bars which correspond to coded numbers. A system would consist of a portable device which could…

  7. An Automated, Multi-Step Monte Carlo Burnup Code System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2003-07-14

    Version 02 MONTEBURNS Version 2 calculates coupled neutronic/isotopic results for nuclear systems and produces a large number of criticality and burnup results based on various material feed/removal specifications, power(s), and time intervals. MONTEBURNS is a fully automated tool that links the LANL MCNP Monte Carlo transport code with a radioactive decay and burnup code. Highlights on changes to Version 2 are listed in the transmittal letter. Along with other minor improvements in MONTEBURNS Version 2,more » the option was added to use CINDER90 instead of ORIGEN2 as the depletion/decay part of the system. CINDER90 is a multi-group depletion code developed at LANL and is not currently available from RSICC. This MONTEBURNS release was tested with various combinations of CCC-715/MCNPX 2.4.0, CCC-710/MCNP5, CCC-700/MCNP4C, CCC-371/ORIGEN2.2, ORIGEN2.1 and CINDER90. Perl is required software and is not included in this distribution. MCNP, ORIGEN2, and CINDER90 are not included.« less

  8. Code-Time Diversity for Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Systems

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, A. Y.

    2014-01-01

    Time diversity is achieved in direct sequence spread spectrum by receiving different faded delayed copies of the transmitted symbols from different uncorrelated channel paths when the transmission signal bandwidth is greater than the coherence bandwidth of the channel. In this paper, a new time diversity scheme is proposed for spread spectrum systems. It is called code-time diversity. In this new scheme, N spreading codes are used to transmit one data symbol over N successive symbols interval. The diversity order in the proposed scheme equals to the number of the used spreading codes N multiplied by the number of the uncorrelated paths of the channel L. The paper represents the transmitted signal model. Two demodulators structures will be proposed based on the received signal models from Rayleigh flat and frequency selective fading channels. Probability of error in the proposed diversity scheme is also calculated for the same two fading channels. Finally, simulation results are represented and compared with that of maximal ration combiner (MRC) and multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) systems. PMID:24982925

  9. Advanced coding techniques for few mode transmission systems.

    PubMed

    Okonkwo, Chigo; van Uden, Roy; Chen, Haoshuo; de Waardt, Huug; Koonen, Ton

    2015-01-26

    We experimentally verify the advantage of employing advanced coding schemes such as space-time coding and 4 dimensional modulation formats to enhance the transmission performance of a 3-mode transmission system. The performance gain of space-time block codes for extending the optical signal-to-noise ratio tolerance in multiple-input multiple-output optical coherent spatial division multiplexing transmission systems with respect to single-mode transmission performance are evaluated. By exploiting the spatial diversity that few-mode-fibers offer, with respect to single mode fiber back-to-back performance, significant OSNR gains of 3.2, 4.1, 4.9, and 6.8 dB at the hard-decision forward error correcting limit are demonstrated for DP-QPSK 8, 16 and 32 QAM, respectively. Furthermore, by employing 4D constellations, 6 × 28Gbaud 128 set partitioned quadrature amplitude modulation is shown to outperform conventional 8 QAM transmission performance, whilst carrying an additional 0.5 bit/symbol. PMID:25835899

  10. An Automated, Multi-Step Monte Carlo Burnup Code System.

    SciTech Connect

    TRELLUE, HOLLY R.

    2003-07-14

    Version 02 MONTEBURNS Version 2 calculates coupled neutronic/isotopic results for nuclear systems and produces a large number of criticality and burnup results based on various material feed/removal specifications, power(s), and time intervals. MONTEBURNS is a fully automated tool that links the LANL MCNP Monte Carlo transport code with a radioactive decay and burnup code. Highlights on changes to Version 2 are listed in the transmittal letter. Along with other minor improvements in MONTEBURNS Version 2, the option was added to use CINDER90 instead of ORIGEN2 as the depletion/decay part of the system. CINDER90 is a multi-group depletion code developed at LANL and is not currently available from RSICC. This MONTEBURNS release was tested with various combinations of CCC-715/MCNPX 2.4.0, CCC-710/MCNP5, CCC-700/MCNP4C, CCC-371/ORIGEN2.2, ORIGEN2.1 and CINDER90. Perl is required software and is not included in this distribution. MCNP, ORIGEN2, and CINDER90 are not included.

  11. Nexus: a modular workflow management system for quantum simulation codes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Krogel, Jaron T.

    2015-08-24

    The management of simulation workflows is a significant task for the individual computational researcher. Automation of the required tasks involved in simulation work can decrease the overall time to solution and reduce sources of human error. A new simulation workflow management system, Nexus, is presented to address these issues. Nexus is capable of automated job management on workstations and resources at several major supercomputing centers. Its modular design allows many quantum simulation codes to be supported within the same framework. Current support includes quantum Monte Carlo calculations with QMCPACK, density functional theory calculations with Quantum Espresso or VASP, and quantummore » chemical calculations with GAMESS. Users can compose workflows through a transparent, text-based interface, resembling the input file of a typical simulation code. A usage example is provided to illustrate the process.« less

  12. Nexus: a modular workflow management system for quantum simulation codes

    SciTech Connect

    Krogel, Jaron T.

    2015-08-24

    The management of simulation workflows is a significant task for the individual computational researcher. Automation of the required tasks involved in simulation work can decrease the overall time to solution and reduce sources of human error. A new simulation workflow management system, Nexus, is presented to address these issues. Nexus is capable of automated job management on workstations and resources at several major supercomputing centers. Its modular design allows many quantum simulation codes to be supported within the same framework. Current support includes quantum Monte Carlo calculations with QMCPACK, density functional theory calculations with Quantum Espresso or VASP, and quantum chemical calculations with GAMESS. Users can compose workflows through a transparent, text-based interface, resembling the input file of a typical simulation code. A usage example is provided to illustrate the process.

  13. Nexus: A modular workflow management system for quantum simulation codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krogel, Jaron T.

    2016-01-01

    The management of simulation workflows represents a significant task for the individual computational researcher. Automation of the required tasks involved in simulation work can decrease the overall time to solution and reduce sources of human error. A new simulation workflow management system, Nexus, is presented to address these issues. Nexus is capable of automated job management on workstations and resources at several major supercomputing centers. Its modular design allows many quantum simulation codes to be supported within the same framework. Current support includes quantum Monte Carlo calculations with QMCPACK, density functional theory calculations with Quantum Espresso or VASP, and quantum chemical calculations with GAMESS. Users can compose workflows through a transparent, text-based interface, resembling the input file of a typical simulation code. A usage example is provided to illustrate the process.

  14. Code System for Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2001-05-30

    Version 00 PELE-IC is a two-dimensional semi-implicit Eulerian hydrodynamics program for the solution of incompressible flow coupled to flexible structures. The code was developed to calculate fluid-structure interactions and bubble dynamics of a pressure-suppression system following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The fluid, structure, and coupling algorithms have been verified by calculation of benchmark problems and air and steam blowdown experiments. The code is written for both plane and cylindrical coordinates. The coupling algorithm is generalmore » enough to handle a wide variety of structural shapes. The concepts of void fractions and interface orientation are used to track the movement of free surfaces, allowing great versatility in following fluid-gas interfaces both for bubble definition and water surface motion without the use of marker particles.« less

  15. Defending public interests in private lands: compliance, costs and potential environmental consequences of the Brazilian Forest Code in Mato Grosso.

    PubMed

    Stickler, Claudia M; Nepstad, Daniel C; Azevedo, Andrea A; McGrath, David G

    2013-06-01

    Land-use regulations are a critical component of forest governance and conservation strategies, but their effectiveness in shaping landholder behaviour is poorly understood. We conducted a spatial and temporal analysis of the Brazilian Forest Code (BFC) to understand the patterns of regulatory compliance over time and across changes in the policy, and the implications of these compliance patterns for the perceived costs to landholders and environmental performance of agricultural landscapes in the southern Amazon state of Mato Grosso. Landholdings tended to remain in compliance or not according to their status at the beginning of the study period. The perceived economic burden of BFC compliance on soya bean and beef producers (US$3-5.6 billion in net present value of the land) may in part explain the massive, successful campaign launched by the farm lobby to change the BFC. The ecological benefits of compliance (e.g. greater connectivity and carbon) with the BFC are diffuse and do not compete effectively with the economic benefits of non-compliance that are perceived by landholders. Volatile regulation of land-use decisions that affect billions in economic rent that could be captured is an inadequate forest governance instrument; effectiveness of such regulations may increase when implemented in tandem with positive incentives for forest conservation. PMID:23610168

  16. Defending public interests in private lands: compliance, costs and potential environmental consequences of the Brazilian Forest Code in Mato Grosso

    PubMed Central

    Stickler, Claudia M.; Nepstad, Daniel C.; Azevedo, Andrea A.; McGrath, David G.

    2013-01-01

    Land-use regulations are a critical component of forest governance and conservation strategies, but their effectiveness in shaping landholder behaviour is poorly understood. We conducted a spatial and temporal analysis of the Brazilian Forest Code (BFC) to understand the patterns of regulatory compliance over time and across changes in the policy, and the implications of these compliance patterns for the perceived costs to landholders and environmental performance of agricultural landscapes in the southern Amazon state of Mato Grosso. Landholdings tended to remain in compliance or not according to their status at the beginning of the study period. The perceived economic burden of BFC compliance on soya bean and beef producers (US$3–5.6 billion in net present value of the land) may in part explain the massive, successful campaign launched by the farm lobby to change the BFC. The ecological benefits of compliance (e.g. greater connectivity and carbon) with the BFC are diffuse and do not compete effectively with the economic benefits of non-compliance that are perceived by landholders. Volatile regulation of land-use decisions that affect billions in economic rent that could be captured is an inadequate forest governance instrument; effectiveness of such regulations may increase when implemented in tandem with positive incentives for forest conservation. PMID:23610168

  17. National Combustion Code: A Multidisciplinary Combustor Design System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stubbs, Robert M.; Liu, Nan-Suey

    1997-01-01

    The Internal Fluid Mechanics Division conducts both basic research and technology, and system technology research for aerospace propulsion systems components. The research within the division, which is both computational and experimental, is aimed at improving fundamental understanding of flow physics in inlets, ducts, nozzles, turbomachinery, and combustors. This article and the following three articles highlight some of the work accomplished in 1996. A multidisciplinary combustor design system is critical for optimizing the combustor design process. Such a system should include sophisticated computer-aided design (CAD) tools for geometry creation, advanced mesh generators for creating solid model representations, a common framework for fluid flow and structural analyses, modern postprocessing tools, and parallel processing. The goal of the present effort is to develop some of the enabling technologies and to demonstrate their overall performance in an integrated system called the National Combustion Code.

  18. Validation of hydrogeochemical codes using the New Zealand geothermal system

    SciTech Connect

    Glassley, W.

    1992-12-01

    Evaluation of the performance of a nuclear waste repository requires that numerous parameters be evaluated over a broad range of conditions using codes. The capabilities of these codes must be demonstrated using complex natural systems in which the processes of interest have already occurred or are occurring. We have initiated such a test of geochemical and hydrological simulation codes, using the geothermal areas of the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Areas that have been evolving for a few tens to a few tens of thousands of years are of particular interest. This effort will help determine the extent to which simplified modeling approaches can be used in performance assessment calculations. To guide the selection of natural systems, we are attempting to map potential repository regions dominated by equilibrium processes and those dominated by kinetically controlled processes. To do so, fluid velocities and temperatures were computed using the V-TOUGH code assuming an equivalent continuum, dual porosity model. These results were then used to compare advective fluid flow rate with silica dissolution/precipitation rates, using Damkoehler numbers. Only the first 5000 years of repository operation were considered. The results identify a migrating envelope of kinetically dominated activity several meters wide in the vicinity of waste packages that contrasts with other parts of the repository. The Lake Rotokawa region, New Zealand, has been used in our first test effort, since it contains environments that are examples of kinetic and equilibrium processes. The results of tests involving equilibrium processes show excellent correspondence between simulated and observed mineral alteration sequences, although discrepancies in some mineral parageneses demonstrate that operator decisions in conducting simulations must be considered an integral part of validation efforts.

  19. Hazardous material analysis and coding system (HAZMZCS). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, J.W.

    1991-06-01

    A new hazardous material classification system is being implemented. It consists of 55 Hazardous Characteristic Codes (HCC). The HCC will provide critical information needed to effectively manage, store and ship hazardous materials such as poisons, pesticides, radioactive materials, oxidizers, corrosive liquids and explosives. With implementation of new automated Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Warehousing and Shipping Procedures (DWASP), DLA depot receiving personnel will be required to assign the HCC if it it missing from pertinent documents. Without the HCC, the DWASP system will not assign a depot storage location. Because the new HCC must be assigned quickly and accurately, an expert systems approach offers a feasible and practical means for providing this support. Accordingly, the Hazardous Material Analysis and Coding System (HAZMACS) was developed. HAZMACS is a PC-based expert system which queries the user about the known characteristics of suspected hazardous material and assigns an HCC based on the user's responses. HAZMACS consists of a main knowledge base file which chains to any of 13 other hazard-specific knowledge base files.

  20. SALT (System Analysis Language Translater): A steady state and dynamic systems code

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, G.; Geyer, H.

    1983-01-01

    SALT (System Analysis Language Translater) is a lumped parameter approach to system analysis which is totally modular. The modules are all precompiled and only the main program, which is generated by SALT, needs to be compiled for each unique system configuration. This is a departure from other lumped parameter codes where all models are written by MACROS and then compiled for each unique configuration, usually after all of the models are lumped together and sorted to eliminate undetermined variables. The SALT code contains a robust and sophisticated steady-sate finder (non-linear equation solver), optimization capability and enhanced GEAR integration scheme which makes use of sparsity and algebraic constraints. The SALT systems code has been used for various technologies. The code was originally developed for open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) systems. It was easily extended to liquid metal MHD systems by simply adding the appropriate models and property libraries. Similarly, the model and property libraries were expanded to handle fuel cell systems, flue gas desulfurization systems, combined cycle gasification systems, fluidized bed combustion systems, ocean thermal energy conversion systems, geothermal systems, nuclear systems, and conventional coal-fired power plants. Obviously, the SALT systems code is extremely flexible to be able to handle all of these diverse systems. At present, the dynamic option has only been used for LMFBR nuclear power plants and geothermal power plants. However, it can easily be extended to other systems and can be used for analyzing control problems. 12 refs.

  1. Code System for Static and Dynamic Piping System Analysis.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2000-07-07

    EPIPE is used for design or design evaluation of complex large piping systems. The piping systems can be viewed as a network of straight pipe elements (or tangents) and curved elements (pipe bends) interconnected at joints (or nodes) with intermediate supports and anchors. The system may be subject to static loads such as thermal, dead weight, internal pressure, or dynamic loads such as earthquake motions and flow-induced vibrations, or any combination of these.

  2. An engineering code to analyze hypersonic thermal management systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vangriethuysen, Valerie J.; Wallace, Clark E.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal loads on current and future aircraft are increasing and as a result are stressing the energy collection, control, and dissipation capabilities of current thermal management systems and technology. The thermal loads for hypersonic vehicles will be no exception. In fact, with their projected high heat loads and fluxes, hypersonic vehicles are a prime example of systems that will require thermal management systems (TMS) that have been optimized and integrated with the entire vehicle to the maximum extent possible during the initial design stages. This will not only be to meet operational requirements, but also to fulfill weight and performance constraints in order for the vehicle to takeoff and complete its mission successfully. To meet this challenge, the TMS can no longer be two or more entirely independent systems, nor can thermal management be an after thought in the design process, the typical pervasive approach in the past. Instead, a TMS that was integrated throughout the entire vehicle and subsequently optimized will be required. To accomplish this, a method that iteratively optimizes the TMS throughout the vehicle will not only be highly desirable, but advantageous in order to reduce the manhours normally required to conduct the necessary tradeoff studies and comparisons. A thermal management engineering computer code that is under development and being managed at Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, is discussed. The primary goal of the code is to aid in the development of a hypersonic vehicle TMS that has been optimized and integrated on a total vehicle basis.

  3. System Design Considerations In Bar-Code Laser Scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkan, Eric; Swartz, Jerome

    1984-08-01

    The unified transfer function approach to the design of laser barcode scanner signal acquisition hardware is considered. The treatment of seemingly disparate system areas such as the optical train, the scanning spot, the electrical filter circuits, the effects of noise, and printing errors is presented using linear systems theory. Such important issues as determination of depth of modulation, filter specification, tolerancing of optical components, and optimi-zation of system performance in the presence of noise are discussed. The concept of effective spot size to allow for impact of optical system and analog processing circuitry upon depth of modulation is introduced. Considerations are limited primarily to Gaussian spot profiles, but also apply to more general cases. Attention is paid to realistic bar-code symbol models and to implications with respect to printing tolerances.

  4. Neutron Activation Analysis PRognosis and Optimization Code System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-08-20

    Version 00 NAAPRO predicts the results and main characteristics (detection limits, determination limits, measurement limits and relative precision of the analysis) of neutron activation analysis (instrumental and radiochemical). Gamma-ray dose rates for different points of time after sample irradiation and input count rate of the spectrometry system are also predicted. The code uses standard Windows user interface and extensive graphical tools for the visualization of the spectrometer characteristics (efficiency, response and background) and simulated spectrum.more » Optimization part is not included in the current version of the code. This release is designated NAAPRO, Version 01.beta. The MCNP code was used for generating detector responses. PREPRO-2000 and FCONV programs were used at the preparation of the program nuclear databases. A special program was developed for viewing, editing and updating of the program databases (not included into the present program package). The MCNP, PREPRO-2000 and FCONV software packages are not included in the NAAPRO package.« less

  5. Trellis coded multilevel DPSK system with doppler correction for mobile satellite channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Simon, Marvin K. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A trellis coded multilevel differential phase shift keyed mobile communication system. The system of the present invention includes a trellis encoder for translating input signals into trellis codes; a differential encoder for differentially encoding the trellis coded signals; a transmitter for transmitting the differentially encoded trellis coded signals; a receiver for receiving the transmitted signals; a differential demodulator for demodulating the received differentially encoded trellis coded signals; and a trellis decoder for decoding the differentially demodulated signals.

  6. [Data coding in the Israeli healthcare system - do choices provide the answers to our system's needs?].

    PubMed

    Zelingher, Julian; Ash, Nachman

    2013-05-01

    The IsraeLi healthcare system has undergone major processes for the adoption of health information technologies (HIT), and enjoys high Levels of utilization in hospital and ambulatory care. Coding is an essential infrastructure component of HIT, and ts purpose is to represent data in a simplified and common format, enhancing its manipulation by digital systems. Proper coding of data enables efficient identification, storage, retrieval and communication of data. UtiLization of uniform coding systems by different organizations enables data interoperability between them, facilitating communication and integrating data elements originating in different information systems from various organizations. Current needs in Israel for heaLth data coding include recording and reporting of diagnoses for hospitalized patients, outpatients and visitors of the Emergency Department, coding of procedures and operations, coding of pathology findings, reporting of discharge diagnoses and causes of death, billing codes, organizational data warehouses and national registries. New national projects for cLinicaL data integration, obligatory reporting of quality indicators and new Ministry of Health (MOH) requirements for HIT necessitate a high Level of interoperability that can be achieved only through the adoption of uniform coding. Additional pressures were introduced by the USA decision to stop the maintenance of the ICD-9-CM codes that are also used by Israeli healthcare, and the adoption of ICD-10-C and ICD-10-PCS as the main coding system for billing purpose. The USA has also mandated utilization of SNOMED-CT as the coding terminology for the ELectronic Health Record problem list, and for reporting quality indicators to the CMS. Hence, the Israeli MOH has recently decided that discharge diagnoses will be reported using ICD-10-CM codes, and SNOMED-CT will be used to code the cLinical information in the EHR. We reviewed the characteristics, strengths and weaknesses of these two coding

  7. Quantum Random Access Codes Using Single d -Level Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakoli, Armin; Hameedi, Alley; Marques, Breno; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2015-05-01

    Random access codes (RACs) are used by a party to, with limited communication, access an arbitrary subset of information held by another party. Quantum resources are known to enable RACs that break classical limitations. Here, we study quantum and classical RACs with high-level communication. We derive average performances of classical RACs and present families of high-level quantum RACs. Our results show that high-level quantum systems can significantly increase the advantage of quantum RACs over their classical counterparts. We demonstrate our findings in an experimental realization of a quantum RAC with four-level communication.

  8. Speckle noise in laser bar-code-scanner systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Daoqi; Stern, Miklos; Katz, Joseph

    1996-07-01

    We present a theoretical model and its experimental verification for speckle-induced noise in laser-based bar-code-scanner systems. We measured the dependence of the signal-to-speckle-noise ratio on distance, spot size, and detector size. Analyses of the power spectra of both the speckle noise and of the measured surface profiles of different substrates suggest that the paper surface granularity can be approximated by a white Gaussian noise process, thus confirming the assumption of the theoretical model.

  9. A LONE code for the sparse control of quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciaramella, G.; Borzì, A.

    2016-03-01

    In many applications with quantum spin systems, control functions with a sparse and pulse-shaped structure are often required. These controls can be obtained by solving quantum optimal control problems with L1-penalized cost functionals. In this paper, the MATLAB package LONE is presented aimed to solving L1-penalized optimal control problems governed by unitary-operator quantum spin models. This package implements a new strategy that includes a globalized semi-smooth Krylov-Newton scheme and a continuation procedure. Results of numerical experiments demonstrate the ability of the LONE code in computing accurate sparse optimal control solutions.

  10. The Application Programming Interface for the PVMEXEC Program and Associated Code Coupling System

    SciTech Connect

    Walter L. Weaver III

    2005-03-01

    This report describes the Application Programming Interface for the PVMEXEC program and the code coupling systems that it implements. The information in the report is intended for programmers wanting to add a new code into the coupling system.

  11. Cause-consequence analysis of a generic Space Station computer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauperas, John

    This paper reviews the application of a cause-consequence analysis technique to summarize the safety concerns and proposed safeguards for a generic Space Station computer system. The cause-consequence diagram included in this paper presents a summary of causal factors for the initiating event. The diagram also identifies the inherent safety features of the computer system, both hardware and software, that preclude unwanted command and control functions. Additional safeguards needed to prevent or minimize the occurrence of the noted safety critical hazards are also shown in the event tree portion of the diagram. A complex safety analysis of a computer system application is summarized on a single page for management review.

  12. YALINA analytical benchmark analyses using the deterministic ERANOS code system.

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.; Aliberti, G.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-08-31

    The growing stockpile of nuclear waste constitutes a severe challenge for the mankind for more than hundred thousand years. To reduce the radiotoxicity of the nuclear waste, the Accelerator Driven System (ADS) has been proposed. One of the most important issues of ADSs technology is the choice of the appropriate neutron spectrum for the transmutation of Minor Actinides (MA) and Long Lived Fission Products (LLFP). This report presents the analytical analyses obtained with the deterministic ERANOS code system for the YALINA facility within: (a) the collaboration between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) of USA and the Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research (JIPNR) Sosny of Belarus; and (b) the IAEA coordinated research projects for accelerator driven systems (ADS). This activity is conducted as a part of the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return (RRRFR) Program and the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) of DOE/NNSA.

  13. A new balanced modulation code for a phase-image-based holographic data storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Renu; Joseph, Joby; Singh, Kehar

    2005-08-01

    We propose a new balanced modulation code for coding data pages for phase-image-based holographic data storage systems. The new code addresses the coding subtleties associated with phase-based systems while performing a content-based search in a holographic database. The new code, which is a balanced modulation code, is a modification of the existing 8:12 modulation code, and removes the false hits that occur in phase-based content-addressable systems due to phase-pixel subtractions. We demonstrate the better performance of the new code using simulations and experiments in terms of discrimination ratio while content addressing through a holographic memory. The new code is compared with the conventional coding scheme to analyse the false hits due to subtraction of phase pixels.

  14. Coded multicarrier 16 QAM system for land mobile communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaoka, Hideichi; Omori, Youko

    1995-06-01

    This paper studies a coded multicarrier 16 QAM system for land mobile communications and proposed methods for improving quality and bit-rate and spectral efficiency. The proposed system uses a symbol-timing adjustment method in addition to a multicarrier transmission scheme to provide immunity against frequency-selective fading distortion which becomes more severe for high bit-rate transmission. The system uses pilot-symbol aided 16 QAM to increase spectral efficiency. It also uses methods of symbol allocation to carriers and symbol interleaving, in addition to Reed-Solomon coding with maximum likelihood decoding, to increase the bit error rate (BER) performance. Space diversity method, with maximum ratio combining, can be used to further improve the BER performance. A computer simulation of the proposed system is carried out with a bandwidth of 200 kHz and a total information rate of 256 kbit/s. The simulation results show that the proposed system provides immunity against frequency-selective fading and that space diversity further improves this. A BER of less than 10(exp -4) is obtained at a E(sub b)/N(sub 0) of 30 dB and a delay spread of 3.4 microsecs in the case of non-diversity. A BER of less 10(exp -4) is also obtained at a E(sub b)/N(sub 0) of 15 dB and a delay spread of 5.5 microsecs in the case of diversity. These results confirm that the proposed system can achieve high quality and high bit-rate transmission with high spectral efficiency.

  15. System for Processing Coded OFDM Under Doppler and Fading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsou, Haiping; Darden, Scott; Lee, Dennis; Yan, Tsun-Yee

    2005-01-01

    An advanced communication system has been proposed for transmitting and receiving coded digital data conveyed as a form of quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) on orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) signals in the presence of such adverse propagation-channel effects as large dynamic Doppler shifts and frequency-selective multipath fading. Such adverse channel effects are typical of data communications between mobile units or between mobile and stationary units (e.g., telemetric transmissions from aircraft to ground stations). The proposed system incorporates novel signal processing techniques intended to reduce the losses associated with adverse channel effects while maintaining compatibility with the high-speed physical layer specifications defined for wireless local area networks (LANs) as the standard 802.11a of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE 802.11a). OFDM is a multi-carrier modulation technique that is widely used for wireless transmission of data in LANs and in metropolitan area networks (MANs). OFDM has been adopted in IEEE 802.11a and some other industry standards because it affords robust performance under frequency-selective fading. However, its intrinsic frequency-diversity feature is highly sensitive to synchronization errors; this sensitivity poses a challenge to preserve coherence between the component subcarriers of an OFDM system in order to avoid intercarrier interference in the presence of large dynamic Doppler shifts as well as frequency-selective fading. As a result, heretofore, the use of OFDM has been limited primarily to applications involving small or zero Doppler shifts. The proposed system includes a digital coherent OFDM communication system that would utilize enhanced 802.1la-compatible signal-processing algorithms to overcome effects of frequency-selective fading and large dynamic Doppler shifts. The overall transceiver design would implement a two-frequency-channel architecture (see figure

  16. 10 CFR 434.99 - Explanation of numbering system for codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... designating a section, the system employed in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) will be employed. The... Code of Federal Regulations' numbering system allows the researcher using the CFR easy access to the... MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 434.99 Explanation of numbering system for codes. (a)...

  17. 10 CFR 434.99 - Explanation of numbering system for codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... designating a section, the system employed in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) will be employed. The... Code of Federal Regulations' numbering system allows the researcher using the CFR easy access to the... MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 434.99 Explanation of numbering system for codes. (a)...

  18. 10 CFR 434.99 - Explanation of numbering system for codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... designating a section, the system employed in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) will be employed. The... Code of Federal Regulations' numbering system allows the researcher using the CFR easy access to the... MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 434.99 Explanation of numbering system for codes. (a)...

  19. 10 CFR 434.99 - Explanation of numbering system for codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... designating a section, the system employed in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) will be employed. The... Code of Federal Regulations' numbering system allows the researcher using the CFR easy access to the... MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 434.99 Explanation of numbering system for codes. (a)...

  20. 42 CFR 405.512 - Carriers' procedural terminology and coding systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carriers' procedural terminology and coding systems... Determining Reasonable Charges § 405.512 Carriers' procedural terminology and coding systems. (a) General. Procedural terminology and coding systems are designed to provide physicians and third party payers with...

  1. Code System to Simulate 3D Tracer Dispersion in Atmosphere.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2002-01-25

    Version 00 SHREDI is a shielding code system which executes removal-diffusion computations for bi-dimensional shields in r-z or x-y geometries. It may also deal with monodimensional problems (infinitely high cylinders or slabs). MESYST can simulate 3D tracer dispersion in the atmosphere. Three programs are part of this system: CRE_TOPO prepares the terrain data for MESYST. NOABL calculates three-dimensional free divergence windfields over complex terrain. PAS computes tracer concentrations and depositions on a given domain. Themore » purpose of this work is to develop a reliable simulation tool for pollutant atmospheric dispersion, which gives a realistic approach and allows one to compute the pollutant concentrations over complex terrains with good accuracy. The factional brownian model, which furnishes more accurate concentration values, is introduced to calculate pollutant atmospheric dispersion. The model was validated on SIESTA international experiments.« less

  2. Coded aperture systems as non-conventional lensless imagers for the visible and infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slinger, Chris; Gordon, Neil; Lewis, Keith; McDonald, Gregor; McNie, Mark; Payne, Doug; Ridley, Kevin; Strens, Malcolm; De Villiers, Geoff; Wilson, Rebecca

    2007-10-01

    Coded aperture imaging (CAI) has been used extensively at gamma- and X-ray wavelengths, where conventional refractive and reflective techniques are impractical. CAI works by coding optical wavefronts from a scene using a patterned aperture, detecting the resulting intensity distribution, then using inverse digital signal processing to reconstruct an image. This paper will consider application of CAI to the visible and IR bands. Doing so has a number of potential advantages over existing imaging approaches at these longer wavelengths, including low mass, low volume, zero aberrations and distortions and graceful failure modes. Adaptive coded aperture (ACAI), facilitated by the use of a reconfigurable mask in a CAI configuration, adds further merits, an example being the ability to implement agile imaging modes with no macroscopic moving parts. However, diffraction effects must be considered and photon flux reductions can have adverse consequences on the image quality achievable. An analysis of these benefits and limitations is described, along with a description of a novel micro optical electro mechanical (MOEMS) microshutter technology for use in thermal band infrared ACAI systems. Preliminary experimental results are also presented.

  3. Spatiotemporal Coding of Individual Chemicals by the Gustatory System

    PubMed Central

    Reiter, Sam; Campillo Rodriguez, Chelsey; Sun, Kui

    2015-01-01

    Four of the five major sensory systems (vision, olfaction, somatosensation, and audition) are thought to use different but partially overlapping sets of neurons to form unique representations of vast numbers of stimuli. The only exception is gustation, which is thought to represent only small numbers of basic taste categories. However, using new methods for delivering tastant chemicals and making electrophysiological recordings from the tractable gustatory system of the moth Manduca sexta, we found chemical-specific information is as follows: (1) initially encoded in the population of gustatory receptor neurons as broadly distributed spatiotemporal patterns of activity; (2) dramatically integrated and temporally transformed as it propagates to monosynaptically connected second-order neurons; and (3) observed in tastant-specific behavior. Our results are consistent with an emerging view of the gustatory system: rather than constructing basic taste categories, it uses a spatiotemporal population code to generate unique neural representations of individual tastant chemicals. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Our results provide a new view of taste processing. Using a new, relatively simple model system and a new set of techniques to deliver taste stimuli and to examine gustatory receptor neurons and their immediate followers, we found no evidence for labeled line connectivity, or basic taste categories such as sweet, salty, bitter, and sour. Rather, individual tastant chemicals are represented as patterns of spiking activity distributed across populations of receptor neurons. These representations are transformed substantially as multiple types of receptor neurons converge upon follower neurons, leading to a combinatorial coding format that uniquely, rapidly, and efficiently represents individual taste chemicals. Finally, we found that the information content of these neurons can drive tastant-specific behavior. PMID:26338341

  4. FPGA based digital phase-coding quantum key distribution system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, XiaoMing; Zhang, LiJun; Wang, YongGang; Chen, Wei; Huang, DaJun; Li, Deng; Wang, Shuang; He, DeYong; Yin, ZhenQiang; Zhou, Yu; Hui, Cong; Han, ZhengFu

    2015-12-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a technology with the potential capability to achieve information-theoretic security. Phasecoding is an important approach to develop practical QKD systems in fiber channel. In order to improve the phase-coding modulation rate, we proposed a new digital-modulation method in this paper and constructed a compact and robust prototype of QKD system using currently available components in our lab to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. The system was deployed in laboratory environment over a 50 km fiber and continuously operated during 87 h without manual interaction. The quantum bit error rate (QBER) of the system was stable with an average value of 3.22% and the secure key generation rate is 8.91 kbps. Although the modulation rate of the photon in the demo system was only 200 MHz, which was limited by the Faraday-Michelson interferometer (FMI) structure, the proposed method and the field programmable gate array (FPGA) based electronics scheme have a great potential for high speed QKD systems with Giga-bits/second modulation rate.

  5. EMPIRE: Nuclear Reaction Model Code System for Data Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, M. Capote, R.; Carlson, B.V.; Oblozinsky, P.; Sin, M.; Trkov, A.; Wienke, H.; Zerkin, V.

    2007-12-15

    EMPIRE is a modular system of nuclear reaction codes, comprising various nuclear models, and designed for calculations over a broad range of energies and incident particles. A projectile can be a neutron, proton, any ion (including heavy-ions) or a photon. The energy range extends from the beginning of the unresolved resonance region for neutron-induced reactions ({approx} keV) and goes up to several hundred MeV for heavy-ion induced reactions. The code accounts for the major nuclear reaction mechanisms, including direct, pre-equilibrium and compound nucleus ones. Direct reactions are described by a generalized optical model (ECIS03) or by the simplified coupled-channels approach (CCFUS). The pre-equilibrium mechanism can be treated by a deformation dependent multi-step direct (ORION + TRISTAN) model, by a NVWY multi-step compound one or by either a pre-equilibrium exciton model with cluster emission (PCROSS) or by another with full angular momentum coupling (DEGAS). Finally, the compound nucleus decay is described by the full featured Hauser-Feshbach model with {gamma}-cascade and width-fluctuations. Advanced treatment of the fission channel takes into account transmission through a multiple-humped fission barrier with absorption in the wells. The fission probability is derived in the WKB approximation within the optical model of fission. Several options for nuclear level densities include the EMPIRE-specific approach, which accounts for the effects of the dynamic deformation of a fast rotating nucleus, the classical Gilbert-Cameron approach and pre-calculated tables obtained with a microscopic model based on HFB single-particle level schemes with collective enhancement. A comprehensive library of input parameters covers nuclear masses, optical model parameters, ground state deformations, discrete levels and decay schemes, level densities, fission barriers, moments of inertia and {gamma}-ray strength functions. The results can be converted into ENDF-6 formatted

  6. Overview of Particle and Heavy Ion Transport Code System PHITS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Tatsuhiko; Niita, Koji; Matsuda, Norihiro; Hashimoto, Shintaro; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Furuta, Takuya; Noda, Shusaku; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Iwase, Hiroshi; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Fukahori, Tokio; Okumura, Keisuke; Kai, Tetsuya; Chiba, Satoshi; Sihver, Lembit

    2014-06-01

    A general purpose Monte Carlo Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System, PHITS, is being developed through the collaboration of several institutes in Japan and Europe. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency is responsible for managing the entire project. PHITS can deal with the transport of nearly all particles, including neutrons, protons, heavy ions, photons, and electrons, over wide energy ranges using various nuclear reaction models and data libraries. It is written in Fortran language and can be executed on almost all computers. All components of PHITS such as its source, executable and data-library files are assembled in one package and then distributed to many countries via the Research organization for Information Science and Technology, the Data Bank of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development's Nuclear Energy Agency, and the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center. More than 1,000 researchers have been registered as PHITS users, and they apply the code to various research and development fields such as nuclear technology, accelerator design, medical physics, and cosmic-ray research. This paper briefly summarizes the physics models implemented in PHITS, and introduces some important functions useful for specific applications, such as an event generator mode and beam transport functions.

  7. A novel method for performance improvement of optical CDMA system using alterable concatenated code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Kun; Zhang, Chongfu

    2007-04-01

    A novel method using alterable concatenated code to pre-encode is proposed to reduce the impact of system impairment and multiple access interference (MAI) in optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) system, comprehensive comparisons between different concatenated code type and forward error correcting (FEC) scheme are studied by simulation. In the scheme, we apply concatenated coding to the embedded modulation scheme, and optical orthogonal code (OOC) is employed as address sequence code, an avalanche photodiode (APD) is selected as the system receiver. The bit error rate (BER) performance is derived taking into account the effect of some noises, dispersion power penalty and the MAI. From both theoretical analysis and numerical results, we can show that the proposed system has good performance at a BER of 10 -9 with a gain of 6.4 dB improvement achieved using the concatenated code as the pre-code, and this scheme permits implementation of a cost effective OCDMA system.

  8. Multiwavelength optical code-division-multiple-access communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Cedric Fung

    1999-10-01

    There has been tremendous interest in applying spread spectrum and code division multiple access (CDMA) techniques to fiber optic communication systems. In this dissertation, we review the previous work on optical CDMA systems, and we propose and then demonstrate new optical CDMA system designs. The explosive growth in bandwidth demand during the recent years have compelled engineers to achieve one bit per hertz or more bandwidth utilization in optical fibers. We point out that in order to achieve efficient bandwidth utilization, full orthogonality is required in optical CDMA system. At the same time, one would like to avoid having an optical local oscillator, which significantly increases the system complexity. We have studied two spectrally encoded optical CDMA systems, both of which give us full orthogonality. A balanced optical detector, which `computes' the difference between two photodetectors signals, is used to obtain negative outputs from positive-only optical intensity signals, thus achieving full orthogonality in both systems. The first system, complementary spectral intensity encoding, is a fully non-coherent. A novel balanced transmitter has been invented for this system. Unfortunately, the performance of this system is limited by beat noise interference, sometimes called speckle noise. In the second system, spectral phase encoding, a multi-wavelength mode-locked laser source is employed. Spectral phase encoding is applied to various frequency components. By sending the unmodulated carrier along the optical fiber to the receiver, we can achieve the effect of coherent demodulation without using an optical local oscillator. While this system can avoid speckle noise, it is eventually limited by cumulative shot noise. We will show in this dissertation, that cumulative shot noise is unavoidable in all optical CDMA systems. Therefore the ultimate achievable performance of optical CDMA systems under shot noise limitation will be analyzed in this work. Lastly

  9. Video coding for next-generation surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klasen, Lena M.; Fahlander, Olov

    1997-02-01

    Video is used as recording media in surveillance system and also more frequently by the Swedish Police Force. Methods for analyzing video using an image processing system have recently been introduced at the Swedish National Laboratory of Forensic Science, and new methods are in focus in a research project at Linkoping University, Image Coding Group. The accuracy of the result of those forensic investigations often depends on the quality of the video recordings, and one of the major problems when analyzing videos from crime scenes is the poor quality of the recordings. Enhancing poor image quality might add manipulative or subjective effects and does not seem to be the right way of getting reliable analysis results. The surveillance system in use today is mainly based on video techniques, VHS or S-VHS, and the weakest link is the video cassette recorder, (VCR). Multiplexers for selecting one of many camera outputs for recording is another problem as it often filters the video signal, and recording is limited to only one of the available cameras connected to the VCR. A way to get around the problem of poor recording is to simultaneously record all camera outputs digitally. It is also very important to build such a system bearing in mind that image processing analysis methods becomes more important as a complement to the human eye. Using one or more cameras gives a large amount of data, and the need for data compression is more than obvious. Crime scenes often involve persons or moving objects, and the available coding techniques are more or less useful. Our goal is to propose a possible system, being the best compromise with respect to what needs to be recorded, movements in the recorded scene, loss of information and resolution etc., to secure the efficient recording of the crime and enable forensic analysis. The preventative effective of having a well functioning surveillance system and well established image analysis methods is not to be neglected. Aspects of

  10. Mitigation of multiple access interference using two-dimensional modified double weight codes for optical code division multiple access systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil Abdullah, Amir Razif Arief; Aljunid, Syed Alwee; Safar, Anuar Mat; Nordin, Junita Mohd; Ahmad, R. Badlishah

    2012-06-01

    We proposed newly two-dimensional (2-D) spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) scheme using modified double weight (MDW) code capable of suppressing phase-induced intensity noise (PIIN). The architecture of the spectral/spatial MDW OCDMA system with the property of multi-access interference cancellation is presented. The proposed code exhibits good cross-correlation property. At the optimized data transmission rate of 0.745 Gbps, 2-D MDW, M=63, N=3, reaches maximum cardinality of 200% increases compared to 2-D perfect difference code, M=57, N=3. The performance is severely deteriorated if the data rate further increases above 0.745 Gbps. The proposed code meets the optical transmission requirements at 10-9 bit error rate error floor, with lowest effective transmitted power (Psr), -17.5 dBm, in comparison to the others through minimizing interference noise that result in PIIN suppression. The proposed system reaches optimum requirements performance in terms of cardinality, data transmission rate, and low effective transmitted power.

  11. Biometric iris image acquisition system with wavefront coding technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Sheng-Hsun; Yang, Hsi-Wen; Huang, Shao-Hung; Li, Yung-Hui; Tien, Chung-Hao

    2013-09-01

    Biometric signatures for identity recognition have been practiced for centuries. Basically, the personal attributes used for a biometric identification system can be classified into two areas: one is based on physiological attributes, such as DNA, facial features, retinal vasculature, fingerprint, hand geometry, iris texture and so on; the other scenario is dependent on the individual behavioral attributes, such as signature, keystroke, voice and gait style. Among these features, iris recognition is one of the most attractive approaches due to its nature of randomness, texture stability over a life time, high entropy density and non-invasive acquisition. While the performance of iris recognition on high quality image is well investigated, not too many studies addressed that how iris recognition performs subject to non-ideal image data, especially when the data is acquired in challenging conditions, such as long working distance, dynamical movement of subjects, uncontrolled illumination conditions and so on. There are three main contributions in this paper. Firstly, the optical system parameters, such as magnification and field of view, was optimally designed through the first-order optics. Secondly, the irradiance constraints was derived by optical conservation theorem. Through the relationship between the subject and the detector, we could estimate the limitation of working distance when the camera lens and CCD sensor were known. The working distance is set to 3m in our system with pupil diameter 86mm and CCD irradiance 0.3mW/cm2. Finally, We employed a hybrid scheme combining eye tracking with pan and tilt system, wavefront coding technology, filter optimization and post signal recognition to implement a robust iris recognition system in dynamic operation. The blurred image was restored to ensure recognition accuracy over 3m working distance with 400mm focal length and aperture F/6.3 optics. The simulation result as well as experiment validates the proposed code

  12. Verification of ARES transport code system with TAKEDA benchmarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Penghe; Chen, Mengteng; Zhao, Jingchang; Zhang, Shun; Chen, Yixue

    2015-10-01

    Neutron transport modeling and simulation are central to many areas of nuclear technology, including reactor core analysis, radiation shielding and radiation detection. In this paper the series of TAKEDA benchmarks are modeled to verify the critical calculation capability of ARES, a discrete ordinates neutral particle transport code system. SALOME platform is coupled with ARES to provide geometry modeling and mesh generation function. The Koch-Baker-Alcouffe parallel sweep algorithm is applied to accelerate the traditional transport calculation process. The results show that the eigenvalues calculated by ARES are in excellent agreement with the reference values presented in NEACRP-L-330, with a difference less than 30 pcm except for the first case of model 3. Additionally, ARES provides accurate fluxes distribution compared to reference values, with a deviation less than 2% for region-averaged fluxes in all cases. All of these confirms the feasibility of ARES-SALOME coupling and demonstrate that ARES has a good performance in critical calculation.

  13. Hybrid Compton camera/coded aperture imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Mihailescu, Lucian; Vetter, Kai M.

    2012-04-10

    A system in one embodiment includes an array of radiation detectors; and an array of imagers positioned behind the array of detectors relative to an expected trajectory of incoming radiation. A method in another embodiment includes detecting incoming radiation with an array of radiation detectors; detecting the incoming radiation with an array of imagers positioned behind the array of detectors relative to a trajectory of the incoming radiation; and performing at least one of Compton imaging using at least the imagers and coded aperture imaging using at least the imagers. A method in yet another embodiment includes detecting incoming radiation with an array of imagers positioned behind an array of detectors relative to a trajectory of the incoming radiation; and performing Compton imaging using at least the imagers.

  14. Code System for Evaluation of Control Room Habitability.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2002-04-11

    Version: 01 HABIT 1.1 is a suite of computer codes designed for evaluating control room habitability in the event of an accidental release of toxic chemicals or radioactive materials. EXTRAN 1.2, CHEM, TACT5, FPFP_2, and CONHAB are included in the system. HABIT was used in the verification and validation of RADTRAD, which NRC now uses to assess radiation exposure, typically in the control room, as well as site boundary doses, and to estimate dose attenuationmore » due to modification of a facility or accident sequence. RADTRAD does not assess chemical exposure, so HABIT is retained in the RSICC collection for this purpose. RADTRAD is available from Alion Science http://radtrad.com/.« less

  15. Development of a New Class of Zero Cross Correlation Codes for Optical CDMA Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashidi, Che Bin Mohd; Aljunid, S. A.; Ghani, F.; Anuar, M. S.

    2012-03-01

    The paper presents a method for the development of a new class of zero cross correlation optical code for Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA) system using Spectral Amplitude Coding. The proposed code is called Modified Zero Cross Correlation Code (MZCC). The code has minimum length and can be constructed quite simply for any number of users and for any code weights. The code has better spectrum slicing properties and noise performance in term of Bit Error Rate. The Modified Zero Cross Correlation Code will be demonstrated in simulation using OptiSys. 6.0 to observe noise performance which is better as compared to the existing Zero Cross Correlation Code.

  16. Performance analysis of multiple interference suppression over asynchronous/synchronous optical code-division multiple-access system based on complementary/prime/shifted coding scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieh, Ta-Chun; Yang, Chao-Chin; Huang, Jen-Fa

    2011-08-01

    A complete complementary/prime/shifted prime (CPS) code family for the optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) system is proposed. Based on the ability of complete complementary (CC) code, the multiple-access interference (MAI) can be suppressed and eliminated via spectral amplitude coding (SAC) OCDMA system under asynchronous/synchronous transmission. By utilizing the shifted prime (SP) code in the SAC scheme, the hardware implementation of encoder/decoder can be simplified with a reduced number of optical components, such as arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) and fiber Bragg grating (FBG). This system has a superior performance as compared to previous bipolar-bipolar coding OCDMA systems.

  17. A Simple Model of Optimal Population Coding for Sensory Systems

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Eizaburo; Lewicki, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental task of a sensory system is to infer information about the environment. It has long been suggested that an important goal of the first stage of this process is to encode the raw sensory signal efficiently by reducing its redundancy in the neural representation. Some redundancy, however, would be expected because it can provide robustness to noise inherent in the system. Encoding the raw sensory signal itself is also problematic, because it contains distortion and noise. The optimal solution would be constrained further by limited biological resources. Here, we analyze a simple theoretical model that incorporates these key aspects of sensory coding, and apply it to conditions in the retina. The model specifies the optimal way to incorporate redundancy in a population of noisy neurons, while also optimally compensating for sensory distortion and noise. Importantly, it allows an arbitrary input-to-output cell ratio between sensory units (photoreceptors) and encoding units (retinal ganglion cells), providing predictions of retinal codes at different eccentricities. Compared to earlier models based on redundancy reduction, the proposed model conveys more information about the original signal. Interestingly, redundancy reduction can be near-optimal when the number of encoding units is limited, such as in the peripheral retina. We show that there exist multiple, equally-optimal solutions whose receptive field structure and organization vary significantly. Among these, the one which maximizes the spatial locality of the computation, but not the sparsity of either synaptic weights or neural responses, is consistent with known basic properties of retinal receptive fields. The model further predicts that receptive field structure changes less with light adaptation at higher input-to-output cell ratios, such as in the periphery. PMID:25121492

  18. Low-density parity-check codes for volume holographic memory systems.

    PubMed

    Pishro-Nik, Hossein; Rahnavard, Nazanin; Ha, Jeongseok; Fekri, Faramarz; Adibi, Ali

    2003-02-10

    We investigate the application of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes in volume holographic memory (VHM) systems. We show that a carefully designed irregular LDPC code has a very good performance in VHM systems. We optimize high-rate LDPC codes for the nonuniform error pattern in holographic memories to reduce the bit error rate extensively. The prior knowledge of noise distribution is used for designing as well as decoding the LDPC codes. We show that these codes have a superior performance to that of Reed-Solomon (RS) codes and regular LDPC counterparts. Our simulation shows that we can increase the maximum storage capacity of holographic memories by more than 50 percent if we use irregular LDPC codes with soft-decision decoding instead of conventionally employed RS codes with hard-decision decoding. The performance of these LDPC codes is close to the information theoretic capacity. PMID:12593489

  19. Low-density parity-check codes for volume holographic memory systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pishro-Nik, Hossein; Rahnavard, Nazanin; Ha, Jeongseok; Fekri, Faramarz; Adibi, Ali

    2003-02-01

    We investigate the application of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes in volume holographic memory (VHM) systems. We show that a carefully designed irregular LDPC code has a very good performance in VHM systems. We optimize high-rate LDPC codes for the nonuniform error pattern in holographic memories to reduce the bit error rate extensively. The prior knowledge of noise distribution is used for designing as well as decoding the LDPC codes. We show that these codes have a superior performance to that of Reed-Solomon (RS) codes and regular LDPC counterparts. Our simulation shows that we can increase the maximum storage capacity of holographic memories by more than 50 percent if we use irregular LDPC codes with soft-decision decoding instead of conventionally employed RS codes with hard-decision decoding. The performance of these LDPC codes is close to the information theoretic capacity.

  20. Performance Analysis of Wavelength Multiplexed Sac Ocdma Codes in Beat Noise Mitigation in Sac Ocdma Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhassan, A. M.; Badruddin, N.; Saad, N. M.; Aljunid, S. A.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of wavelength multiplexed spectral amplitude coding (WM SAC) codes in beat noise mitigation in coherent source SAC OCDMA systems. A WM SAC code is a low weight SAC code, where the whole code structure is repeated diagonally (once or more) in the wavelength domain to achieve the same cardinality as a higher weight SAC code. Results show that for highly populated networks, the WM SAC codes provide better performance than SAC codes. However, for small number of active users the situation is reversed. Apart from their promising improvement in performance, these codes are more flexible and impose less complexity on the system design than their SAC counterparts.

  1. Identification codes for organizations listed in computerized data systems of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Melvin D.; Drilleau, Margery O.

    1976-01-01

    This report contains codes for the identification of public and private organizations listed in computerized data systems. These codes are used by the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX), National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE), and National Cartographic Information Center (NCIC). The format structure of the codes is discussed and instructions are given for requesting new codes. (Woodard-USGS)

  2. Identification codes for organizations listed in computerized data systems of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Melvin D.; Josefson, Beverly M.

    1982-01-01

    This report contains codes for the identification of public and private organizations listed in computerized data systems. These codes are used by the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX), National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE), National Cartographic Information Center (NCIC), Office of Water Data Coordination (OWDC). The format structure of the codes is discussed and instructions are given for requesting new codes. (USGS)

  3. Identification codes for organizations listed in computerized data systems of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Melvin D.; Myers, Beverly M.

    1979-01-01

    This report contains codes for the identification of public and private organizations listed in computerized data systems. These codes are used by the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX), National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE), National Cartographic Information Center (NCIC), and Office of Water Data Coordination (OWDC). The format structure of the codes is discussed and instructions are given for requesting new codes. (Woodard-USGS)

  4. Identification codes for organizations listed in computerized data systems of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Melvin D.; Drilleau, Margery O.

    1978-01-01

    This report contains codes for the identification of public and private organizations listed in computerized data systems. These codes are used by the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX), National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE), National Cartographic Information Center (NCIC), and Office of Water Data Coordination (OWDC). The format structure of the codes is discussed and instructions are given for requesting new codes. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. Identification codes for organizations listed in computerized data systems of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Melvin D.; Myers, Beverly M.

    1981-01-01

    This report contains codes for the identification of public and private organizations listed in computerized data systems. These codes are used by the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX), National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE), National Cartographic Information Center (NCIC), and Office of Water Data Coordination (OWDC). The format structure of the codes is discussed and instructions are given for requesting new codes. (USGS)

  6. Comparison of PSF maxima and minima of multiple annuli coded aperture (MACA) and complementary multiple annuli coded aperture (CMACA) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnam, Challa; Lakshmana Rao, Vadlamudi; Lachaa Goud, Sivagouni

    2006-10-01

    In the present paper, and a series of papers to follow, the Fourier analytical properties of multiple annuli coded aperture (MACA) and complementary multiple annuli coded aperture (CMACA) systems are investigated. First, the transmission function for MACA and CMACA is derived using Fourier methods and, based on the Fresnel-Kirchoff diffraction theory, the formulae for the point spread function are formulated. The PSF maxima and minima are calculated for both the MACA and CMACA systems. The dependence of these properties on the number of zones is studied and reported in this paper.

  7. Moment Tensor code for the Antelope Environmental Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, J.; Newman, R.; Vernon, F.; van den Hazel, G.

    2012-04-01

    The time domain seismic moment tensor inversion software package written by Dreger (2003) and updated by Minson & Dreger (2008) has been rewritten for inclusion into the open-source contributed code repository for the Boulder Real Time Technology (BRTT) Antelope Environmental Monitoring System. The new code-base was written natively in the Python language and utilizes the Python interface to Antelope (Lindquist et al., 2008) for data access, Scientific Tools for Python library (Eric Jones et al., 2001) for computation and analysis, and the ObsPy library (Beyreuther et al., 2010) for graphical representation. The new code archives all data products into a Center for Seismic Studies (CSS) 3.0 schema table for easy access and distribution of solutions. Stability of the analysis, verification of results and correlation of solutions with similar methods are discussed in this presentation. Analysis is focused on regional earthquakes recorded by Earthscope's USArray network and event parameters are taken from real time and post-event processed data analysis at the Array Network Facility (ANF). A calibrated velocity model representative of the south-west continental United States is used for the analysis. Beyreuther, M., Barsch, R., Krischer, L., Megies, T., Behr, Y. and Wassermann, J. (2010) ObsPy: A Python Toolbox for Seismology, Seismic Research Letters, 81(3), 530-533. Dreger, D. (2003) TDMT_INV: Time Domain Seismic Moment Tensor INVersion, International Handbook of Earthquake and Engineering Seismology, Volume 81B, p 1627. Eric Jones, Travis Oliphant, Pearu Peterson (2001) SciPy: Open Source Scientific Tools for Python, "http://www.scipy.org/" Lindquist, K.G., Clemesha, A., Newman, R.L. and Vernon, F.L. (2008) The Python Interface to Antelope and Applications. Eos Trans. AGU 89(53), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract G43A-0671 Minson, S. & Dreger, D. (2008) Stable inversions for complete moment tensors. Geophys. J. Int., 174, 585-592 Saikia, C. (1994) Modified frequency

  8. Time-Dependent, Parallel Neutral Particle Transport Code System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-09-10

    Version 00 PARTISN (PARallel, TIme-Dependent SN) is the evolutionary successor to CCC-547/DANTSYS. The PARTISN code package is a modular computer program package designed to solve the time-independent or dependent multigroup discrete ordinates form of the Boltzmann transport equation in several different geometries. The modular construction of the package separates the input processing, the transport equation solving, and the post processing (or edit) functions into distinct code modules: the Input Module, the Solver Module, and themore » Edit Module, respectively. PARTISN is the evolutionary successor to the DANTSYSTM code system package. The Input and Edit Modules in PARTISN are very similar to those in DANTSYS. However, unlike DANTSYS, the Solver Module in PARTISN contains one, two, and three-dimensional solvers in a single module. In addition to the diamond-differencing method, the Solver Module also has Adaptive Weighted Diamond-Differencing (AWDD), Linear Discontinuous (LD), and Exponential Discontinuous (ED) spatial differencing methods. The spatial mesh may consist of either a standard orthogonal mesh or a block adaptive orthogonal mesh. The Solver Module may be run in parallel for two and three dimensional problems. One can now run 1-D problems in parallel using Energy Domain Decomposition (triggered by Block 5 input keyword npeg>0). EDD can also be used in 2-D/3-D with or without our standard Spatial Domain Decomposition. Both the static (fixed source or eigenvalue) and time-dependent forms of the transport equation are solved in forward or adjoint mode. In addition, PARTISN now has a probabilistic mode for Probability of Initiation (static) and Probability of Survival (dynamic) calculations. Vacuum, reflective, periodic, white, or inhomogeneous boundary conditions are solved. General anisotropic scattering and inhomogeneous sources are permitted. PARTISN solves the transport equation on orthogonal (single level or block-structured AMR) grids in 1-D

  9. A bandwidth and power-efficient coded modulation system for commercial satellite applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmati, F.; Miller, S.

    1992-03-01

    Coded modulation techniques for development of a B-ISDN-compatible modem/codec are investigated. The selected baseband processor system must support transmission of 155.52 Mbit/s of data over an Intelsat 72-MHz transponder. Performance objectives and fundamental system parameters, including channel symbol rate, code rate, and the modulation scheme, are determined. From several candidate codes, a concatenated coding system, consisting of a coded octal phase shift keying modulation as the inner code and a high-rate Reed-Solomon as the outer code, is selected, and its bit error rate performance is analyzed by computer simulation. The hardware implementation of the decoder for the selected code is also described.

  10. Coding of object location in the vibrissal thalamocortical system.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chunxiu; Horev, Guy; Rubin, Naama; Derdikman, Dori; Haidarliu, Sebastian; Ahissar, Ehud

    2015-03-01

    In whisking rodents, object location is encoded at the receptor level by a combination of motor and sensory related signals. Recoding of the encoded signals can result in various forms of internal representations. Here, we examined the coding schemes occurring at the first forebrain level that receives inputs necessary for generating such internal representations--the thalamocortical network. Single units were recorded in 8 thalamic and cortical stations in artificially whisking anesthetized rats. Neuronal representations of object location generated across these stations and expressed in response latency and magnitude were classified based on graded and binary coding schemes. Both graded and binary coding schemes occurred across the entire thalamocortical network, with a general tendency of graded-to-binary transformation from thalamus to cortex. Overall, 63% of the neurons of the thalamocortical network coded object position in their firing. Thalamocortical responses exhibited a slow dynamics during which the amount of coded information increased across 4-5 whisking cycles and then stabilized. Taken together, the results indicate that the thalamocortical network contains dynamic mechanisms that can converge over time on multiple coding schemes of object location, schemes which essentially transform temporal coding to rate coding and gradual to labeled-line coding. PMID:24062318

  11. Multiparticle Monte Carlo Code System for Shielding and Criticality Use.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2015-06-01

    Version 00 COG is a modern, full-featured Monte Carlo radiation transport code that provides accurate answers to complex shielding, criticality, and activation problems.COG was written to be state-of-the-art and free of physics approximations and compromises found in earlier codes. COG is fully 3-D, uses point-wise cross sections and exact angular scattering, and allows a full range of biasing options to speed up solutions for deep penetration problems. Additionally, a criticality option is available for computingmore » Keff for assemblies of fissile materials. ENDL or ENDFB cross section libraries may be used. COG home page: http://cog.llnl.gov. Cross section libraries are included in the package. COG can use either the LLNL ENDL-90 cross section set or the ENDFB/VI set. Analytic surfaces are used to describe geometric boundaries. Parts (volumes) are described by a method of Constructive Solid Geometry. Surface types include surfaces of up to fourth order, and pseudo-surfaces such as boxes, finite cylinders, and figures of revolution. Repeated assemblies need be defined only once. Parts are visualized in cross-section and perspective picture views. A lattice feature simplifies the specification of regular arrays of parts. Parallel processing under MPI is supported for multi-CPU systems. Source and random-walk biasing techniques may be selected to improve solution statistics. These include source angular biasing, importance weighting, particle splitting and Russian roulette, pathlength stretching, point detectors, scattered direction biasing, and forced collisions. Criticality – For a fissioning system, COG will compute Keff by transporting batches of neutrons through the system. Activation – COG can compute gamma-ray doses due to neutron-activated materials, starting with just a neutron source. Coupled Problems – COG can solve coupled problems involving neutrons, photons, and electrons. COG 11.1 is an updated version of COG11.1 BETA 2 (RSICC C00777MNYCP02

  12. Multiparticle Monte Carlo Code System for Shielding and Criticality Use.

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    Version 00 COG is a modern, full-featured Monte Carlo radiation transport code that provides accurate answers to complex shielding, criticality, and activation problems.COG was written to be state-of-the-art and free of physics approximations and compromises found in earlier codes. COG is fully 3-D, uses point-wise cross sections and exact angular scattering, and allows a full range of biasing options to speed up solutions for deep penetration problems. Additionally, a criticality option is available for computing Keff for assemblies of fissile materials. ENDL or ENDFB cross section libraries may be used. COG home page: http://cog.llnl.gov. Cross section libraries are included in the package. COG can use either the LLNL ENDL-90 cross section set or the ENDFB/VI set. Analytic surfaces are used to describe geometric boundaries. Parts (volumes) are described by a method of Constructive Solid Geometry. Surface types include surfaces of up to fourth order, and pseudo-surfaces such as boxes, finite cylinders, and figures of revolution. Repeated assemblies need be defined only once. Parts are visualized in cross-section and perspective picture views. A lattice feature simplifies the specification of regular arrays of parts. Parallel processing under MPI is supported for multi-CPU systems. Source and random-walk biasing techniques may be selected to improve solution statistics. These include source angular biasing, importance weighting, particle splitting and Russian roulette, pathlength stretching, point detectors, scattered direction biasing, and forced collisions. Criticality – For a fissioning system, COG will compute Keff by transporting batches of neutrons through the system. Activation – COG can compute gamma-ray doses due to neutron-activated materials, starting with just a neutron source. Coupled Problems – COG can solve coupled problems involving neutrons, photons, and electrons. COG 11.1 is an updated version of COG11.1 BETA 2 (RSICC C00777MNYCP02). New

  13. Study on ameliorating the FEC coding techniques in current high-rate optical transmission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jianguo; Ye, Wenwei; Jiang, Ze; Mao, Youju; Wang, Wei

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the three ameliorated new coding schemes of the Super-FEC (Forward Error Correction) concatenatedcodes (namely, the inner-outer concatenated-code, the parallel concatenated-code and the successive concatenated-code with interleaving) are proposed after the development trend of high-rate optical transmission systems and the defects of the FEC codes in the current optical transmission systems have been analyzed. The system simulation of the inner-outer concatenated-codes is implemented and the schemes of encoding/decoding the parallel concatenated-codes are proposed. Furthermore, the two successive concatenated-codes with interleaving of the RS(255,239)+RS(255,239) code and the RS(255,239)+RS(255,223) code are simulated, and the analyses for the simulation results show that the two successive concatenated-codes with interleaving, compared with the classic RS (255,239) code and other codes, are a superior code type with the advantages of the better correction error, moderate redundancy and easy realization. And their net coding gains (NCG) are respectively 1.5dB, 2.5dB more than that of the classic RS(255,239) code at the BER (Bit Error Rate) of 10 -12. At last, based on the ITU-T G.709, the frame format of the new concatenated-code on applying in high-rate optical transmission systems is proposed and designed, this lays a firm foundation in order to design its hardware in future and pioneers a direction in its physical application.

  14. Prototype demonstration of radiation therapy planning code system

    SciTech Connect

    Little, R.C.; Adams, K.J.; Estes, G.P.; Hughes, L.S. III; Waters, L.S.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Radiation therapy planning is the process by which a radiation oncologist plans a treatment protocol for a patient preparing to undergo radiation therapy. The objective is to develop a protocol that delivers sufficient radiation dose to the entire tumor volume, while minimizing dose to healthy tissue. Radiation therapy planning, as currently practiced in the field, suffers from inaccuracies made in modeling patient anatomy and radiation transport. This project investigated the ability to automatically model patient-specific, three-dimensional (3-D) geometries in advanced Los Alamos radiation transport codes (such as MCNP), and to efficiently generate accurate radiation dose profiles in these geometries via sophisticated physics modeling. Modem scientific visualization techniques were utilized. The long-term goal is that such a system could be used by a non-expert in a distributed computing environment to help plan the treatment protocol for any candidate radiation source. The improved accuracy offered by such a system promises increased efficacy and reduced costs for this important aspect of health care.

  15. Comparison of INTERA and WISAP consequence model application. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, C.R.; Bond, F.W.

    1980-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) is being conducted to develop, for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), the methodology necessary to perform long-term safety assessments of deep geologic repositories. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) program is developing a nuclear waste storage facility and is performing assessments of that site. WISAP and WIPP have similar, though independent, methodologies for assessing the consequences of a repository breach subsequent to closure. Intera Environmental Consultants are under contract to Sandia Laboratories to conduct the hydrologic and transport modeling for the WIPP Site Release Consequence Analysis (WIPP EIS/ER 1978). To provide a mutual benchmark check of the radionuclide and ground-water transport models of these two programs, ONWI has requested WISAP to perform a release consequence analysis based on the WIPP site, utilizing the same data and conceptual model which the WIPP program used for its environmental assessments. Therefore, only a portion of the WISAP methodology was used; specifically, only WISAP geotransport models were exercised. The other important parts of WISAP assessment methodology were not used, so that WISAP did not develop the scenario nor did WISAP interpret the field data to develop the conceptual model of the geohydrology of the WIPP site. The results of the comparative assessment are presented. Although the different models required slightly different input parameters, the results of the hydrologic simulations show a very close correspondence between the WISAP and WIPP predictions. This was as expected, since the various hydrologic codes available essentially utilize and solve the same basic flow equations. In addition, this report presents the results of the WISAP radionuclide transport model simulations. These results will provide the basis for comparison with WIPP results when these become available.

  16. 14 CFR Sec. 1-4 - System of accounts coding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) A fifth digit, appended as a decimal, has been assigned for internal control by the BTS of... different fifth digit code number from that assigned by the BTS may be adopted for internal recordkeeping by... the code number assigned by the BTS is employed in reporting to the BTS on Form 41 Reports....

  17. 14 CFR 1-4 - System of accounts coding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) A fifth digit, appended as a decimal, has been assigned for internal control by the BTS of... different fifth digit code number from that assigned by the BTS may be adopted for internal recordkeeping by... the code number assigned by the BTS is employed in reporting to the BTS on Form 41 Reports....

  18. 14 CFR Sec. 1-4 - System of accounts coding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) A fifth digit, appended as a decimal, has been assigned for internal control by the BTS of... different fifth digit code number from that assigned by the BTS may be adopted for internal recordkeeping by... the code number assigned by the BTS is employed in reporting to the BTS on Form 41 Reports....

  19. 14 CFR Sec. 1-4 - System of accounts coding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) A fifth digit, appended as a decimal, has been assigned for internal control by the BTS of... different fifth digit code number from that assigned by the BTS may be adopted for internal recordkeeping by... the code number assigned by the BTS is employed in reporting to the BTS on Form 41 Reports....

  20. 14 CFR Sec. 1-4 - System of accounts coding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) A fifth digit, appended as a decimal, has been assigned for internal control by the BTS of... different fifth digit code number from that assigned by the BTS may be adopted for internal recordkeeping by... the code number assigned by the BTS is employed in reporting to the BTS on Form 41 Reports....

  1. Code System for Analysis of Potential Radiological Impacts.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-02-02

    Version: 00 IMPACTS-BRC2.1 is a generic radiological assessment code that allows calculation of potential impacts to maximum individuals, waste disposal workers, and the general population resulting from exemption of very low-level radioactive wastes from regulatory control. The code allows calculations to be made of human exposure to the waste by many pathways and exposure scenarios.

  2. Code System for Analysis of Piping Reliability Including Seismic Events.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-04-26

    Version 00 PC-PRAISE is a probabilistic fracture mechanics computer code developed for IBM or IBM compatible personal computers to estimate probabilities of leaks and breaks in nuclear power plant cooling piping. It iwas adapted from LLNL's PRAISE computer code.

  3. The Social Interactive Coding System (SICS): An On-Line, Clinically Relevant Descriptive Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Mabel L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The Social Interactive Coding System (SICS) assesses the continuous verbal interactions of preschool children as a function of play areas, addressees, script codes, and play levels. This paper describes the 26 subjects and the setting involved in SICS development, coding definitions and procedures, training procedures, reliability, sample…

  4. Comprehensive Development Plan of the State University System of Florida, 1969-1980; CODE, Phase I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Board of Regents, Tallahassee.

    This document outlines a plan (CODE) for the comprehensive development of the Florida State University System. Part I discusses the nature and purpose of CODE, earlier planning efforts, the Board of Regents, and the Office of the Chancellor. Part 2 presents the basic components of CODE, the objectives and educational goals, PPBS, and the planning…

  5. 76 FR 4113 - Federal Procurement Data System Product Service Code Manual Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ... ADMINISTRATION Federal Procurement Data System Product Service Code Manual Update AGENCY: Office of... the Products and Services Code (PSC) Manual, which provides codes to describe products, services, and... maintains the PSC Manual, is in the process of updating the manual. DATES: Effective date: January 24,...

  6. Modular Code and Data System for Fast Reactor Neutronics Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    RIMPAULT, G.

    2008-06-30

    Version 00. The European Reactor ANalysis Optimized calculation System, ERANOS, has been developed and validated with the aim of providing a suitable basis for reliable neutronic calculations of current as well as advanced fast reactor cores. It consists of data libraries, deterministic codes and calculation procedures which have been developed within the European Collaboration on Fast Reactors over the past 20 years or so, in order to answer the needs of both industrial and R&D organisations. The whole system counts roughly 250 functions and 3000 subroutines totalling 450000 lines of FORTRAN-77 and ESOPE instructions. ERANOS is written using the ALOS software which requires only standard FORTRAN compilers and includes advanced programming features. A modular structure was adopted for easier evolution and incorporation of new functionalities. Blocks of data (SETs) can be created or used by the modules themselves or by the user via the LU control language. Programming, and dynamic memory allocation, are performed by means of the ESOPE language. External temporary storage and permanent storage capabilities are provided by the GEMAT and ARCHIVE functions, respectively. ESOPE, LU, GEMAT and ARCHIVE are all part of the ALOS software. This modular structure allows different modules to be linked together in procedures corresponding to recommended calculation routes ranging from fast-running and moderately-accurate 'routine' procedures to slow-running but highly-accurate 'reference' procedures. The main contents of the ERANOS-2.0 package are: nuclear data libraries (multigroup cross-sections from the JEF-2.2 evaluated nuclear data file, and other specific data files), a cell and lattice code (ECCO), reactor flux solvers (diffusion, Sn transport, nodal variational transport), a burn-up module, various processing modules (material and neutron balance, breeding gains,...), tools related to perturbation theory and sensitivity analysis, core follow-up modules (connected in the

  7. Modular Code and Data System for Fast Reactor Neutronics Analyses

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2008-06-30

    Version 00. The European Reactor ANalysis Optimized calculation System, ERANOS, has been developed and validated with the aim of providing a suitable basis for reliable neutronic calculations of current as well as advanced fast reactor cores. It consists of data libraries, deterministic codes and calculation procedures which have been developed within the European Collaboration on Fast Reactors over the past 20 years or so, in order to answer the needs of both industrial and R&Dmore » organisations. The whole system counts roughly 250 functions and 3000 subroutines totalling 450000 lines of FORTRAN-77 and ESOPE instructions. ERANOS is written using the ALOS software which requires only standard FORTRAN compilers and includes advanced programming features. A modular structure was adopted for easier evolution and incorporation of new functionalities. Blocks of data (SETs) can be created or used by the modules themselves or by the user via the LU control language. Programming, and dynamic memory allocation, are performed by means of the ESOPE language. External temporary storage and permanent storage capabilities are provided by the GEMAT and ARCHIVE functions, respectively. ESOPE, LU, GEMAT and ARCHIVE are all part of the ALOS software. This modular structure allows different modules to be linked together in procedures corresponding to recommended calculation routes ranging from fast-running and moderately-accurate 'routine' procedures to slow-running but highly-accurate 'reference' procedures. The main contents of the ERANOS-2.0 package are: nuclear data libraries (multigroup cross-sections from the JEF-2.2 evaluated nuclear data file, and other specific data files), a cell and lattice code (ECCO), reactor flux solvers (diffusion, Sn transport, nodal variational transport), a burn-up module, various processing modules (material and neutron balance, breeding gains,...), tools related to perturbation theory and sensitivity analysis, core follow-up modules (connected

  8. System for loading executable code into volatile memory in a downhole tool

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Bartholomew, David B.; Johnson, Monte L.

    2007-09-25

    A system for loading an executable code into volatile memory in a downhole tool string component comprises a surface control unit comprising executable code. An integrated downhole network comprises data transmission elements in communication with the surface control unit and the volatile memory. The executable code, stored in the surface control unit, is not permanently stored in the downhole tool string component. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the downhole tool string component comprises boot memory. In another embodiment, the executable code is an operating system executable code. Preferably, the volatile memory comprises random access memory (RAM). A method for loading executable code to volatile memory in a downhole tool string component comprises sending the code from the surface control unit to a processor in the downhole tool string component over the network. A central processing unit writes the executable code in the volatile memory.

  9. An electronic documentation system increases diagnostic code capture for very low birth weight infants.

    PubMed Central

    Porcelli, P. J.

    2001-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Information describing medical interventions and patient outcome of very low birth weight (VLBW; BW <1500 grams) infants who receive neonatal intensive care is necessary to evaluate the quality of health care. We developed an electronic patient documentation system (EDS) called PCode to identify and select patient diagnostic (DX) codes and compared EDS to the previous paper-based documentation system (PDS). Our hypothesis was that EDS would capture more patient diagnostic codes than PDS. METHODS: PDS was originally developed as a two page 'code sheet' which listed all 275 neonatal diagnoses/management options and corresponding 3-4 character diagnostic (DX) codes, organized by organ system. PDS code sheets were manually completed by one of three trained 'coders' for every neonatal patient. EDS was developed as a Java application with the 'coder' selecting DX codes from drop lists also categorized by organ system. The study intervention was patient code selection using either the PDS or the EDS system. Both systems produced a paper DX code summary. PDS data capture occurred from 11/1997-3/1999 followed by EDS data capture until 8/2000. The primary outcome variable was DX codes captured per patient. Data were analyzed using independent t-test and linear regression. RESULTS: The number of diagnoses increased with decreasing birth weight. After linear regression was applied to control for birth weight, the number of DX codes was 31% greater in the EDS group, 7.2 +/- 2.9 DX codes/patient, p=0.008. There was a trend towards fewer erroneous DX codes in the EDS group. The most common DX codes were hyaline membrane disease, sepsis evaluation and hyperbilirubinemia, as expected for this patient population. CONCLUSIONS: EDS captured more VLBW infant DX codes compared to PDS. These results support the transition toward electronic data documentation for the neonatal clinical environment. Electronically linking PCode to the patient database has been initiated and

  10. Qualitative evaluation of the supporting system for diagnosis procedure combination code selection.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Kazuya; Uchiyama, Toshio; Takemura, Tadamasa; Kume, Naoto; Adachi, Takayuki; Kuroda, Tomohiro; Uchiyama, Tadasu; Yoshihara, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, medical staff must select a diagnosis procedure combination (DPC) code for each inpatient upon admission. We report on the development and evaluation of a supporting system for DPC code selection. This system, based on a machine learning method developed by Okamoto et al., makes DPC code suggestions that are derived from medical practice information pertaining to inpatients. The use of the suggestions helps medical staff select an appropriate DPC code for each inpatient. We asked health information management professionals to evaluate the system and to compare the suggested DPC codes with those selected by doctors. They reported that the system was generally useful and that using this system they could find some cases of hospitalized patients whose DPC codes needed correction. However, they also determined the precision of the system needs improvement. PMID:23920805

  11. Performance analysis of wavelength/spatial coding system with fixed in-phase code matrices in OCDMA network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Cheng-Mu; Liang, Tsair-Chun

    2011-12-01

    This paper proposes a wavelength/spatial (W/S) coding system with fixed in-phase code (FIPC) matrix in the optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) network. A scheme is presented to form the FIPC matrix which is applied to construct the W/S OCDMA network. The encoder/decoder in the W/S OCDMA network is fully able to eliminate the multiple-access-interference (MAI) at the balanced photo-detectors (PD), according to fixed in-phase cross correlation. The phase-induced intensity noise (PIIN) related to the power square is markedly suppressed in the receiver by spreading the received power into each PD while the net signal power is kept the same. Simulation results show that the W/S OCDMA network based on the FIPC matrices cannot only completely remove the MAI but effectively suppress the PIIN to upgrade the network performance.

  12. Environmental performance of green building code and certification systems.

    PubMed

    Suh, Sangwon; Tomar, Shivira; Leighton, Matthew; Kneifel, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    We examined the potential life-cycle environmental impact reduction of three green building code and certification (GBCC) systems: LEED, ASHRAE 189.1, and IgCC. A recently completed whole-building life cycle assessment (LCA) database of NIST was applied to a prototype building model specification by NREL. TRACI 2.0 of EPA was used for life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). The results showed that the baseline building model generates about 18 thousand metric tons CO2-equiv. of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and consumes 6 terajoule (TJ) of primary energy and 328 million liter of water over its life-cycle. Overall, GBCC-compliant building models generated 0% to 25% less environmental impacts than the baseline case (average 14% reduction). The largest reductions were associated with acidification (25%), human health-respiratory (24%), and global warming (GW) (22%), while no reductions were observed for ozone layer depletion (OD) and land use (LU). The performances of the three GBCC-compliant building models measured in life-cycle impact reduction were comparable. A sensitivity analysis showed that the comparative results were reasonably robust, although some results were relatively sensitive to the behavioral parameters, including employee transportation and purchased electricity during the occupancy phase (average sensitivity coefficients 0.26-0.29). PMID:24483287

  13. A Flexible Point-Kernel Shielding Code System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1991-01-01

    Version 00 MARMER is a point-kernel shielding code which can be used to calculate the dose rate, energy absorption rate, energy flux or gamma-ray flux due to several sources at any point in a complex geometry. The geometry is described by the MARS geometry system which makes use of combinatorial geometry and an array repeating feature. Source spectra may be defined in several ways including an option to read a binary file containing nuclide concentrations,more » which has been calculated by ORIGEN-S. Therefore, MARMER makes use of a nuclide data library containing half life times, decay energies and gamma yields for over 1000 nuclides. To facilitate the use of ORIGEN-S in the VAX version, a preprocessor named PREORI is included for simple irradiation and decay problems. The spatial description of the source may be done in cartesian, cylindrical and spherical coordinates; and the source strength as a function of the distance along the coordinate axes may be done in many different ways. Several sources with different spectra may be treated simultaneously. As many calculational points as needed may be defined.« less

  14. Sexual dimorphism in gender plasticity and its consequences for breeding system evolution.

    PubMed

    Delph, Lynda F

    2003-01-01

    Flowering plants are able to develop gametes throughout their lives. As a consequence, environmental conditions can impact this development and alter a plant's functional gender or the degree to which it achieves fitness through male or female function. Two dimorphic breeding systems are widespread among angiosperm families: gynodioecy (hermaphrodites and females) and dioecy (males and females). Gynodioecy can evolve into dioecy, via loss of female function on the hermaphrodites, or it can remain stable. Here I discuss how developmental plasticity of gender can impact the sex ratio of populations and thereby influence the transition of one breeding system into another. I review studies showing that greater plasticity of fruit production by hermaphrodites as compared with females causes sex ratios among populations to vary in response to environmental conditions, with higher female frequency expected in harsh or low-quality sites. I also review how dioecy may evolve in dry sites to avoid inbreeding and any consequent inbreeding depression. Taken together, these studies show the importance of understanding how ecological development affects functional gender and consequently the evolutionary stability or malleability of dimorphic breeding systems. PMID:12492407

  15. Tracking "Large" or "Smal": Boundaries and their Consequences for Veterinary Students within the Tracking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermilya, Jenny R.

    In this dissertation, I use 42 in-depth qualitative interviews with veterinary medical students to explore the experience of being in an educational program that tracks students based on the species of non-human animals that they wish to treat. Specifically, I examine how tracking produces multiple boundaries for veterinary students. The boundaries between different animal species produce consequences for the treatment of those animals; this has been well documented. Using a symbolic interactionist perspective, my research extends the body of knowledge on species boundaries by revealing other consequences of this boundary work. For example, I analyze the symbolic boundaries involved in the gendering of animals, practitioners, and professions. I also examine how boundaries influence the collective identity of students entering an occupation segmented into various specialties. The collective identity of veterinarian is one characterized by care, thus students have to construct different definitions of care to access and maintain the collective identity. The tracking system additionally produces consequences for the knowledge created and reproduced in different areas of animal medicine, creating a system of power and inequality based on whose knowledge is privileged, how, and why. Finally, socially constructed boundaries generated from tracking inevitably lead to cases that do not fit. In particular, horses serve as a "border species" for veterinary students who struggle to place them into the tracking system. I argue that border species, like other metaphorical borders, have the potential to challenge discourses and lead to social change.

  16. Error correction coding for frequency-hopping multiple-access spread spectrum communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Healy, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    A communication system which would effect channel coding for frequency-hopped multiple-access is described. It is shown that in theory coding can increase the spectrum utilization efficiency of a system with mutual interference to 100 percent. Various coding strategies are discussed and some initial comparisons are given. Some of the problems associated with implementing the type of system described here are discussed.

  17. Code System for Supercritical Water Cooled Reactor LOCA Analysis.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-10-13

    Version 00 The new SCRELA code was developed to analyze the LOCA of the supercritical water cooled reactor. Since the currently available LWR codes for LOCA analysis could not analyze the significant differences in reactor characteristics between the supercritical-water cooled reactor and the current LWR, the first objective of this code development was to analyze the uniqueness of this reactor. The behavior of the supercritical water in the blowdown phase and the reflood phase ismore » modeled.« less

  18. Non-coding RNAs: Therapeutic Strategies and Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Ling, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The vast majority of the human genome is transcribed into RNA molecules that do not code for proteins, which could be small ones approximately 20 nucleotide in length, known as microRNAs, or transcripts longer than 200 bp, defined as long noncoding RNAs. The prevalent deregulation of microRNAs in human cancers prompted immediate interest on the therapeutic value of microRNAs as drugs and drug targets. Many features of microRNAs such as well-defined mechanisms, and straightforward oligonucleotide design further make them attractive candidates for therapeutic development. The intensive efforts of exploring microRNA therapeutics are reflected by the large body of preclinical studies using oligonucleotide-based mimicking and blocking, culminated by the recent entry of microRNA therapeutics in clinical trial for several human diseases including cancer. Meanwhile, microRNA therapeutics faces the challenge of effective and safe delivery of nucleic acid therapeutics into the target site. Various chemical modifications of nucleic acids and delivery systems have been developed to increase targeting specificity and efficacy, and reduce the associated side effects including activation of immune response. Recently, long noncoding RNAs become attractive targets for therapeutic intervention because of their association with complex and delicate phenotypes, and their unconventional pharmaceutical activities such as capacity of increasing output of proteins. Here I discuss the general therapeutic strategies targeting noncoding RNAs, review delivery systems developed to maximize noncoding RNA therapeutic efficacy, and offer perspectives on the future development of noncoding RNA targeting agents for colorectal cancer. PMID:27573903

  19. Channel coding and data compression system considerations for efficient communication of planetary imaging data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. F.

    1974-01-01

    End-to-end system considerations involving channel coding and data compression which could drastically improve the efficiency in communicating pictorial information from future planetary spacecraft are presented.

  20. Computer Code Systems for Use with Meteorological Data.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1983-09-14

    Version 00 The staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission uses the computer codes in this collection to examine, assess, and utilize the hourly values of meteorological data which are received on magnetic tapes in a specified format.

  1. A non-coherent SAC-OCDMA system using extended quadratic congruence codes for two-code keying scheme in passive optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Bih-Chyun; Lin, Chieng-Hung

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a family of extended quadratic congruence codes for two-code keying (TCK) with the corresponding encoding/decoding architecture for passive optical networks (PONs) in spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) systems. The proposed system can simultaneously eliminate multi-user interference (MUI) and further suppress phase-induced intensity noise (PIIN). We reduce the complexity of the encoding/decoding architecture of the optical line terminal reduced by exploiting arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs) and the properties of the extended quadratic congruence codes (EQC codes). Moreover, we also design a deployment method to increase the number of simultaneous users. Our numerical results demonstrate that the proposed system outperforms the improved quadratic congruence codes (improved QC codes).

  2. High-Speed Three-Dimensional Nodal Diffusion Code System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2001-03-21

    Version 00 MOSRA-Light is a three-dimensional diffusion calculation code for X-Y-Z geometry. It can be used in: validation of discontinuity factor for adjoint problem; benchmark on discontinuity factor (forward & adjoint cal.); DVP BWR Benchmark (2D,2G calculation); and void reactivity effect benchmark; etc. A utility code called More-MOSRA provides many useful functions with the file produced by MOSRA-Light.

  3. Monte Carlo Code System for Electron (Positron) Dose Kernel Calculations.

    SciTech Connect

    CHIBANI, OMAR

    1999-05-12

    Version 00 KERNEL performs dose kernel calculations for an electron (positron) isotropic point source in an infinite homogeneous medium. First, the auxiliary code PRELIM is used to prepare cross section data for the considered medium. Then the KERNEL code simulates the transport of electrons and bremsstrahlung photons through the medium until all particles reach their cutoff energies. The deposited energy is scored in concentric spherical shells at a radial distance ranging from zero to twice the source particle range.

  4. Enhanced Consequence Management, Planning and Support System (ENCOMPASS). Enabling an effective, coordinated response.

    PubMed

    Henry, Kurt; Silva, John

    2002-04-01

    In an incident involving a chemical or biological terrorist attack, a staggering number of situations must be managed--casualties must be triaged and treated; nearby residents must be isolated from the impending hazard; a culprit may be on the loose. No single entity can provide adequate response; experts are needed from many organizations , including fire and police departments, hazardous materials units and medical facilities. How can organizations communicate and coordinate to yield an effective response? This article introduces the Enhanced Consequence Management, Planning and Support System (ENCOMPASS), a software system designed to address this issue. PMID:11963609

  5. Code System for Use with Human System Interface Design Review Guidelines.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2000-05-12

    Version 00 The Human System Interface Design Review Guideline (HSI-DRG) software application supports evaluations conducted using the process described in NUREG-0700 Rev.1 Volume 1. The code supports the design review process by facilitating the selection, evaluation, and analysis of human factors engineering (HFE) guidelines.

  6. The sympathetic nervous system and the physiologic consequences of spaceflight: a hypothesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, D.; Convertino, V. A.; Vernikos, J.

    1994-01-01

    Many of the physiologic consequences of weightlessness and the cardiovascular abnormalities on return from space could be due, at least in part, to alterations in the regulation of the autonomic nervous system. In this article, the authors review the rationale and evidence for an autonomic mediation of diverse changes that occur with spaceflight, including the anemia and hypovolemia of weightlessness and the tachycardia and orthostatic intolerance on return from space. This hypothesis is supported by studies of two groups of persons known to have low catecholamine levels: persons subjected to prolonged bedrest and persons with syndromes characterized by low circulating catecholamines (Bradbury-Eggleston syndrome and dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency). Both groups exhibit the symptoms mentioned. The increasing evidence that autonomic mechanisms underlie many of the physiologic consequences of weightlessness suggests that new pharmacologic approaches (such as administration of beta-blockers and/or sympathomimetic amines) based on these findings may attenuate these unwanted effects.

  7. [The system of readiness to take care of medical consequences in disaster situations].

    PubMed

    Solov'ev, A N

    1995-01-01

    The main task of regional catastrophe medicine service in liquidation of medical consequences of emergency situations is the immediate adequate reaction which is aimed at minimizing the sanitary loss. This task can be effectively solved only on condition of permanent improvement of interaction between the managing and managed systems of public health and coordination of their actions with those of nonmedical services. An important role is played by the actualized (constantly renewed) data bases "Potentially Hazardous Objects", "Regional Infrastructure", "Medicosanitary Means", etc., which help simulate various emergency situations with due consideration for the season, time of the day, and socioeconomic features of a region in order to create variants of effective work of all services engaged in the liquidation of medical consequences. PMID:7486204

  8. Health consequences and health systems response to the Pacific U.S. Nuclear Weapons Testing Program.

    PubMed

    Palafox, Neal A; Riklon, Sheldon; Alik, Wilfred; Hixon, Allen L

    2007-03-01

    Between 1946 and 1958, the United States detonated 67 thermonuclear devices in the Pacific as part of their U.S. Nuclear Weapons Testing Program (USNWTP). The aggregate explosive power was equal to 7,200 Hiroshima atomic bombs. Recent documents released by the U.S. government suggest that the deleterious effects of the nuclear testing were greater and extended farther than previously known. The Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) government and affected communities have sought refress through diplomatic routes with the U.S. government, however, existing medical programs and financial reparations have not adequately addressed many of the health consequences of the USNWTP. Since radiation-induced cancers may have a long latency, a healthcare infrastructure is needed to address both cancer and related health issues. This article reviews the health consequences of the Pacific USNWTP and the current health systems ability to respond. PMID:19772154

  9. An Embedded System for Safe, Secure and Reliable Execution of High Consequence Software

    SciTech Connect

    MCCOY,JAMES A.

    2000-08-29

    As more complex and functionally diverse requirements are placed on high consequence embedded applications, ensuring safe and secure operation requires an execution environment that is ultra reliable from a system viewpoint. In many cases the safety and security of the system depends upon the reliable cooperation between the hardware and the software to meet real-time system throughput requirements. The selection of a microprocessor and its associated development environment for an embedded application has the most far-reaching effects on the development and production of the system than any other element in the design. The effects of this choice ripple through the remainder of the hardware design and profoundly affect the entire software development process. While state-of-the-art software engineering principles indicate that an object oriented (OO) methodology provides a superior development environment, traditional programming languages available for microprocessors targeted for deeply embedded applications do not directly support OO techniques. Furthermore, the microprocessors themselves do not typically support nor do they enforce an OO environment. This paper describes a system level approach for the design of a microprocessor intended for use in deeply embedded high consequence applications that both supports and enforces an OO execution environment.

  10. Analysis of the KUCA MEU experiments using the ANL code system

    SciTech Connect

    Shiroya, S.; Hayashi, M.; Kanda, K.; Shibata, T.; Woodruff, W.L.; Matos, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    This paper provides some preliminary results on the analysis of the KUCA critical experiments using the ANL code system. Since this system was employed in the earlier neutronics calculations for the KUHFR, it is important to assess its capabilities for the KUHFR. The KUHFR has a unique core configuration which is difficult to model precisely with current diffusion theory codes. This paper also provides some results from a finite-element diffusion code (2D-FEM-KUR), which was developed in a cooperative research program between KURRI and JAERI. This code provides the capability for mockup of a complex core configuration as the KUHFR. Using the same group constants generated by the EPRI-CELL code, the results of the 2D-FEM-KUR code are compared with the finite difference diffusion code (DIF3D(2D) which is mainly employed in this analysis.

  11. Construction and performance analysis of variable-weight optical orthogonal codes for asynchronous OCDMA systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuan-qi; Yang, Meng-jie; Zhang, Xiu-rong; Chen, Mei-juan; He, Dong-dong; Fan, Qing-bin

    2014-07-01

    A construction scheme of variable-weight optical orthogonal codes (VW-OOCs) for asynchronous optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) system is proposed. According to the actual situation, the code family can be obtained by programming in Matlab with the given code weight and corresponding capacity. The formula of bit error rate (BER) is derived by taking account of the effects of shot noise, avalanche photodiode (APD) bulk, thermal noise and surface leakage currents. The OCDMA system with the VW-OOCs is designed and improved. The study shows that the VW-OOCs have excellent performance of BER. Despite of coming from the same code family or not, the codes with larger weight have lower BER compared with the other codes in the same conditions. By taking simulation, the conclusion is consistent with the analysis of BER in theory. And the ideal eye diagrams are obtained by the optical hard limiter.

  12. Identification codes for organizations listed in computerized data systems of the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blackwell, C.D.

    1988-01-01

    Codes for the unique identification of public and private organizations listed in computerized data systems are presented. These codes are used by the U.S. Geological Survey 's National Water Data Exchange (NAWDEX), National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE), National Cartographic Information Center (NCIC), and Office of Water Data Coordination (OWDC). The format structure of the codes is discussed and instructions are given for requesting new books. (Author 's abstract)

  13. Improving the performance of BICM-ID and MLC systems with different FEC codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arafa, T.; Sauer-Greff, W.; Urbansky, R.

    2013-07-01

    In bandwidth limited communication systems, the high data rate transmission with performance close to capacity limits is achieved by applying multilevel modulation schemes in association with powerful forward error correction (FEC) coding, i.e. coded modulation systems. The most important practical approaches to coded modulation systems are multilevel coding with multistage decoding (MLC/MSD) and bit interleaved coded modulation with iterative demapping and decoding (BICM-ID). Multilevel modulation formats such as M-QAM, which can be used as a part of coded modulation systems, have the capability of multilevel protection. Based on this fact, we investigate the methods to improve the performance of BICM-ID using multiple interleavers with different binary channel coding schemes such as convolutional codes, turbo codes and low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. Moreover, an MLC system with parallel decoding on levels (PDL) at the receiver is considered. In our contribution, we propose to design the individual coding schemes using the extrinsic information transfer (EXIT) charts for individual bit levels in the constellation. Our simulation results show that the BICM-ID systems, taking into account different bit-level protections, can provide an improvement of 0.65 dB, 1.2 dB and 1.5 dB for 256-QAM with turbo, LDPC and convolutional codes, respectively. On the other hand, MLC systems with PDL designed using EXIT charts for individual bit levels can slightly improve the performance and eliminate the error floor compared to the systems with MSD.

  14. Performance analysis of a multilevel coded modulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kofman, Yosef; Zehavi, Ephraim; Shamai, Shlomo

    1994-02-01

    A modified version of the multilevel coded modulation scheme of Imai & Hirakawa is presented and analyzed. In the transmitter, the outputs of the component codes are bit interleaved prior to mapping into 8-PSK channel signals. A multistage receiver is considered, in which the output amplitudes of the Gaussian channel are soft limited before entering the second and third stage decoders. Upper bounds and Gaussian approximations for the bit error probability of every component code, which take into account errors in previously decoded stages, are presented. Aided by a comprehensive computer simulation, it is demonstrated in a specific example that the addition of the interleaver and soft limiter in the third stage improves its performance by 1.1 dB at a bit error probability of 10(exp -5), and that the multilevel scheme improves on an Ungerboeck's code with the same decoding complexity. The rate selection of the component codes is also considered and a simple selection rule, based on information theoretic arguments, is provided.

  15. SEACC: the systems engineering and analysis computer code for small wind systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tu, P.K.C.; Kertesz, V.

    1983-03-01

    The systems engineering and analysis (SEA) computer program (code) evaluates complete horizontal-axis SWECS performance. Rotor power output as a function of wind speed and energy production at various wind regions are predicted by the code. Efficiencies of components such as gearbox, electric generators, rectifiers, electronic inverters, and batteries can be included in the evaluation process to reflect the complete system performance. Parametric studies can be carried out for blade design characteristics such as airfoil series, taper rate, twist degrees and pitch setting; and for geometry such as rotor radius, hub radius, number of blades, coning angle, rotor rpm, etc. Design tradeoffs can also be performed to optimize system configurations for constant rpm, constant tip speed ratio and rpm-specific rotors. SWECS energy supply as compared to the load demand for each hour of the day and during each session of the year can be assessed by the code if the diurnal wind and load distributions are known. Also available during each run of the code is blade aerodynamic loading information.

  16. Surety of human elements of high consequence systems: An organic model

    SciTech Connect

    FORSYTHE,JAMES C.; WENNER,CAREN A.

    2000-04-25

    Despite extensive safety analysis and application of safety measures, there is a frequent lament, ``Why do we continue to have accidents?'' Two breakdowns are prevalent in risk management and prevention. First, accidents result from human actions that engineers, analysts and management never envisioned and second, controls, intended to preclude/mitigate accident sequences, prove inadequate. This paper addresses the first breakdown, the inability to anticipate scenarios involving human action/inaction. The failure of controls has been addressed in a previous publication (Forsythe and Grose, 1998). Specifically, this paper presents an approach referred to as surety. The objective of this approach is to provide high levels of assurance in situations where potential system failure paths cannot be fully characterized. With regard to human elements of complex systems, traditional approaches to human reliability are not sufficient to attain surety. Consequently, an Organic Model has been developed to account for the organic properties exhibited by engineered systems that result from human involvement in those systems.

  17. Theoretical study of use of optical orthogonal codes for compressed video transmission in optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Shila; Chatterji, B. N.

    2007-09-01

    A theoretical investigation to evaluate the performance of optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) for compressed video transmission is shown. OCDMA has many advantages than a typical synchronous protocol time division multiple access (TDMA). A pulsed laser transmission of multi channel digital video can be done using various techniques depending on whether the multi channel data are to be synchronous or asynchronous. A typical form of asynchronous digital operation is wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) in which the digital data of each video source are assigned a specific and separate wavelength. A sophisticated hardware such as accurate wavelength control of all lasers and tunable narrow band optical filters at the receivers is required in this case. A major disadvantage with CDMA is the reduction in per channel data rate (relative to the speeds available in the laser itself) that occurs in the insertion of code addressing. Hence optical CDMA for the video transmission application is meaningful when individual channel video bit rates can be significantly reduced and that can be done by compression of video data. In our work for compression of video image standard JPEG is implemented where a compression ratio of about 60 % is obtained without noticeable image degradation. Compared to the other existing techniques JPEG standard achieves higher compression ration with high S/N ratio. Here we demonstrated the auto and cross correlation properties of the codes. We have shown the implementation of bipolar Walsh coding in OCDMA system and their use in transmission of image/video.

  18. Automotive Gas Turbine Power System-Performance Analysis Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    1997-01-01

    An open cycle gas turbine numerical modelling code suitable for thermodynamic performance analysis (i.e. thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, cycle state points, working fluid flowrates etc.) of automotive and aircraft powerplant applications has been generated at the NASA Lewis Research Center's Power Technology Division. The use this code can be made available to automotive gas turbine preliminary design efforts, either in its present version, or, assuming that resources can be obtained to incorporate empirical models for component weight and packaging volume, in later version that includes the weight-volume estimator feature. The paper contains a brief discussion of the capabilities of the presently operational version of the code, including a listing of input and output parameters and actual sample output listings.

  19. Reliability of ICD-10 external cause of death codes in the National Coroners Information System.

    PubMed

    Bugeja, Lyndal; Clapperton, Angela J; Killian, Jessica J; Stephan, Karen L; Ozanne-Smith, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Availability of ICD-10 cause of death codes in the National Coroners Information System (NCIS) strengthens its value as a public health surveillance tool. This study quantified the completeness of external cause ICD-10 codes in the NCIS for Victorian deaths (as assigned by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) in the yearly Cause of Death data). It also examined the concordance between external cause ICD-10 codes contained in the NCIS and a re-code of the same deaths conducted by an independent coder. Of 7,400 NCIS external cause deaths included in this study, 961 (13.0%) did not contain an ABS assigned ICD-10 code and 225 (3.0%) contained only a natural cause code. Where an ABS assigned external cause ICD-10 code was present (n=6,214), 4,397 (70.8%) matched exactly with the independently assigned ICD-10 code. Coding disparity primarily related to differences in assignment of intent and specificity. However, in a small number of deaths (n=49, 0.8%) there was coding disparity for both intent and external cause category. NCIS users should be aware of the limitations of relying only on ICD-10 codes contained within the NCIS for deaths prior to 2007 and consider using these in combination with the other NCIS data fields and code sets to ensure optimum case identification. PMID:21041843

  20. Efficient Bar-Code Watermark System to Protectagricultural Products Information Andcopyright

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Lin; Wen, Xiaoming

    In order to protect agricultural product information and copyright, this paper proposes an efficient bar-code watermark system with digital signature. The proposed system adopts digital signature to prevent a buyer from unauthorized copies and to prevent a seller from forged unauthorized copies. The proposed system also encodes the signature with bar-code and embeds the bar-code image into the original image. As long as the similarity of watermark extracts from the damaged image over a threshold, the signature can be fully recovered. It is a novel idea to bring the bar-code concept into watermark system to protect agricultural product information and copyright. Detailed simulation results show that the proposed system gets much better results than that with error correcting code scheme, and prove that the proposed system can protect agricultural product information and copyright effectively.

  1. Monte Carlo Code System for Electron (Positron) Dose Kernel Calculations.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-05-12

    Version 00 KERNEL performs dose kernel calculations for an electron (positron) isotropic point source in an infinite homogeneous medium. First, the auxiliary code PRELIM is used to prepare cross section data for the considered medium. Then the KERNEL code simulates the transport of electrons and bremsstrahlung photons through the medium until all particles reach their cutoff energies. The deposited energy is scored in concentric spherical shells at a radial distance ranging from zero to twicemore » the source particle range.« less

  2. Comprehensive transportation risk assessment system based on unit-consequence factors

    SciTech Connect

    Biwer, B.M.; Monette, F.A.; LePoire, D.J.; Chen, S.Y.

    1994-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement requires a comprehensive transportation risk analysis of radioactive waste shipments for large shipping campaigns. Thousands of unique shipments involving truck and rail transport must be analyzed; a comprehensive risk analysis is impossible with currently available methods. Argonne National Laboratory developed a modular transportation model that can handle the demands imposed by such an analysis. The modular design of the model facilitates the simple addition/updating of transportation routes and waste inventories, as required, and reduces the overhead associated with file maintenance and quality assurance. The model incorporates unit-consequences factors generated with the RADTRAN 4 transportation risk analysis code that are combined with an easy-to-use, menu-driven interface on IBM-compatible computers running under DOS. User selection of multiple origin/destination site pairs for the shipment of multiple radioactive waste inventories is permitted from pop-up lists. Over 800 predefined routes are available among more than 30 DOE sites and waste inventories that include high-level waste, spent nuclear fuel, transuranic waste, low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, and greater-than-Class C waste.

  3. 10 CFR 434.99 - Explanation of numbering system for codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... designating a section, the system employed in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) will be employed. The... Code of Federal Regulations' numbering system allows the researcher using the CFR easy access to the... a prefix for all section headings. The suffix is a two or three digit section number. For...

  4. A Coding System for Qualitative Studies of the Information-Seeking Process in Computer Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moral, Cristian; de Antonio, Angelica; Ferre, Xavier; Lara, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In this article we propose a qualitative analysis tool--a coding system--that can support the formalisation of the information-seeking process in a specific field: research in computer science. Method: In order to elaborate the coding system, we have conducted a set of qualitative studies, more specifically a focus group and some…

  5. Proposing a Web-Based Tutorial System to Teach Malay Language Braille Code to the Sighted

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wah, Lee Lay; Keong, Foo Kok

    2010-01-01

    The "e-KodBrailleBM Tutorial System" is a web-based tutorial system which is specially designed to teach, facilitate and support the learning of Malay Language Braille Code to individuals who are sighted. The targeted group includes special education teachers, pre-service teachers, and parents. Learning Braille code involves memorisation…

  6. The health system consequences of agency nursing and moonlighting in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Rispel, Laetitia C.; Blaauw, Duane

    2015-01-01

    Background Worldwide, there is an increased reliance on casual staff in the health sector. Recent policy attention in South Africa has focused on the interrelated challenges of agency nursing and moonlighting in the health sector. Objective This paper examines the potential health system consequences of agency nursing and moonlighting among South African nurses. Methods During 2010, a cluster random sample of 80 hospitals was selected in four South African provinces. On the survey day, all nurses providing clinical care completed a self-administered questionnaire after giving informed consent. The questionnaire obtained information on socio-demographics, involvement in agency nursing and moonlighting, and self-reported indicators of potential health system consequences of agency nursing and moonlighting. A weighted analysis was done using STATA® 13. Results In the survey, 40.7% of nurses reported moonlighting or working for an agency in the preceding year. Of all participants, 51.5% reported feeling too tired to work, 11.5% paid less attention to nursing work on duty, and 10.9% took sick leave when not actually sick in the preceding year. Among the moonlighters, 11.9% had taken vacation leave to do agency work or moonlighting, and 9.8% reported conflicting schedules between their primary and secondary jobs. In the bivariate analysis, moonlighting nurses were significantly more likely than non-moonlighters to take sick leave when not sick (p=0.011) and to pay less attention to nursing work on duty (p=0.035). However, in a multiple logistic regression analysis, the differences between moonlighters and non-moonlighters did not remain statistically significant after adjusting for other socio-demographic variables. Conclusion Although moonlighting did not emerge as a statistically significant predictor, the reported health system consequences are serious. A combination of strong nursing leadership, effective management, and consultation with and buy-in from front

  7. Large Code Set for Double User Capacity and Low PAPR Level in Multicarrier Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar, Khoirul; Saito, Masato; Hara, Takao; Okada, Minoru

    In this paper, a new large spreading code set with a uniform low cross-correlation is proposed. The proposed code set is capable of (1) increasing the number of assigned user (capacity) in a multicarrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) system and (2) reducing the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system. In this paper, we derive a new code set and present an example to demonstrate performance improvements of OFDM and MC-CDMA systems. Our proposed code set with code length of N has K=2N+1 number of codes for supporting up to (2N+1) users and exhibits lower cross correlation properties compared to the existing spreading code sets. Our results with subcarrier N=16 confirm that the proposed code set outperforms the current pseudo-orthogonal carrier interferometry (POCI) code set with gain of 5dB at bit-error-rate (BER) level of 10-4 in the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel and gain of more than 3.6dB in a multipath fading channel.

  8. Financial system loss as an example of high consequence, high frequency events

    SciTech Connect

    McGovern, D.E.

    1996-07-01

    Much work has been devoted to high consequence events with low frequency of occurrence. Characteristic of these events are bridge failure (such as that of the Tacoma Narrows), building failure (such as the collapse of a walkway at a Kansas City hotel), or compromise of a major chemical containment system (such as at Bhopal, India). Such events, although rare, have an extreme personal, societal, and financial impact. An interesting variation is demonstrated by financial losses due to fraud and abuse in the money management system. The impact can be huge, entailing very high aggregate costs, but these are a result of the contribution of many small attacks and not the result of a single (or few) massive events. Public awareness is raised through publicized events such as the junk bond fraud perpetrated by Milikin or gross mismanagement in the failure of the Barings Bank through unsupervised trading activities by Leeson in Singapore. These event,s although seemingly large (financial losses may be on the order of several billion dollars), are but small contributors to the estimated $114 billion loss to all types of financial fraud in 1993. This paper explores the magnitude of financial system losses and identifies new areas for analysis of high consequence events including the potential effect of malevolent intent.

  9. SCAN (Systems Coding Analysis): Computerized Analysis of Reading Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, S. Alan; Bednarik, John

    Analysis of behaviorally expressed instructional objectives, materials, and criterion test items in reading has generated a finite list of operations and conditions that cover almost all possible reading activities and behaviors. The list has been organized into a short, simple Code Key. A 15-cell computerized syntax has been designed to carry the…

  10. Code Division Multiple Access system candidate for integrated modular avionics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez, Antonio J.; Gagliardi, Robert M.

    1991-02-01

    There are government and industry trends towards avionics modularity and integrated avionics. Key requirements implicit in these trends are suitable data communication concepts compatible with the integration concept. In this paper we explore the use ofCode Division Multiple Access (CDMA) techniques as an alternative to collision detection and collision avoidance multiple access techniques.

  11. Code System for Generation of Input Data for MCNP.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1998-07-16

    Version 00 The MSM-SOURCE code was designed for quick and easy estimations of basic stopping characteristics of proton transmission, for generation of the source definition (SDEF) portion of the input data for MCNP (for 3b- and 4- versions) [2], simulating the set of single neutron sources, produced in the sample during the proton transmission. It does not generate the ful MCNP input file. The results of calculations well reproduce the experimental data [3]. It permitsmore » one to extend the possibilities of the MCNP code for consideration of secondary neutrons from the proton interaction with nuclei of the sample substance. The MSM-SOURCE code is applicable for calculations of the proton transport for the incident energies from 0.1 to 1 GeV and various targets 12 < A < 238. This code is based of the Moving Source Model (MSM) (using the original parametrization [3],[4]) and Bethe stopping theory with the relativistic corrections for protons. It allows the estimations of the proton range, the changes of the proton current and the neutron production versus the depth. The double differential spectra and the multiplicities of nucleons, produced in the primary proton-induced reactions, are obtained. For the evaluation of inelastic cross section the original parametrization is used [4].« less

  12. Internal Corrosion Control of Water Supply Systems Code of Practice

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Code of Practice is part of a series of publications by the IWA Specialist Group on Metals and Related Substances in Drinking Water. It complements the following IWA Specialist Group publications: 1. Best Practice Guide on the Control of Lead in Drinking Water 2. Best Prac...

  13. Reducing BER of spectral-amplitude coding optical code-division multiple-access systems by single photodiode detection technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Khafaji, H. M. R.; Aljunid, S. A.; Amphawan, A.; Fadhil, H. A.; Safar, A. M.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we present a single photodiode detection (SPD) technique for spectral-amplitude coding optical code-division multiple-access (SAC-OCDMA) systems. The proposed technique eliminates both phase-induced intensity noise (PIIN) and multiple-access interference (MAI) in the optical domain. Analytical results show that for 35 simultaneous users transmitting at data rate of 622 Mbps, the bit-error rate (BER) = 1.4x10^-28 for SPD technique is much better compared to 9.3x10^-6 and 9.6x10^-3 for the modified-AND as well as the AND detection techniques, respectively. Moreover, we verified the improved performance afforded by the proposed technique using data transmission simulations.

  14. Assessment of effectiveness of signal-code constructions in time division-multi-access satellite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portnoy, S. L.; Ankudinov, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    Energy losses in TDMA satellite circuits are investigated on the basis of the model of a Gaussian memoryless channel incorporating a signal code construction. The signal code construction is a consolidated two stage construction with a modulation system as the inner stage and correcting codes as the outer stage. Signal code constructions employing Gray codes, cascade codes and M-ary block codes are considered. Real TDMA systems are analyzed on the assumptions that the calculations are made using an audio frequency equivalent of the circuit, the relay carries a single trunk, the timing and carrier frequency synchronization is ideal, the signal is transmitted in the continuous stream, and there is no noise at the input of the receiving filter. The effectiveness of a signal code construction employing cascade codes on a real satellite link incorporating MDVU-40 equipment is modeled. The method can be used to select the signal code construction in a communications channel for the required data rate, and to maximize the energy gain and attainable transmission rate over the relay trunk.

  15. Reprogramming the posttranslational code of SRC-3 confers a switch in mammalian systems biology

    PubMed Central

    York, Brian; Yu, Chundong; Sagen, Jørn V.; Liu, Zhaoliang; Nikolai, Bryan C.; Wu, Ray-Chang; Finegold, Milton; Xu, Jianming; O'Malley, Bert W.

    2010-01-01

    Here we demonstrate that reprogramming steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3) function by changing its posttranslational modification (PTM) code drastically influences systems biology. These findings support the physiological importance of PTMs in directing in vivo functions of a master coregulator. We previously reported that the transactivation potential of SRC-3 is controlled in part by PTMs, although this data emanated from in vitro studies. To test the physiological implications of PTMs on SRC-3, we developed a knock-in mouse model containing mutations at four conserved phosphorylation sites. These mice displayed a systems biology phenotype with increased body weight and adiposity, coupled with reduced peripheral insulin sensitivity. Collectively, these phenotypes result from increased IGF1 signaling, due to elevated IGFBP3 levels. We provide convincing evidence that these mutations in SRC-3 promoted enhanced transcription of the IGFBP3 gene and globally influenced growth and metabolism. Consequently, these mice displayed increased liver tumorigenesis, which likely results from elevated IGF1 signaling. PMID:20534466

  16. Incorporating prior knowledge of urban scene spatial structure in aperture code designs for surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela, John R.; Thelen, Brian J.; Subotic, Nikola

    2010-08-01

    Two major missions of Surveillance systems are imaging and ground moving target indication (GMTI). Recent advances in coded aperture electro optical systems have enabled persistent surveillance systems with extremely large fields of regard. The areas of interest for these surveillance systems are typically urban, with spatial topologies having a very definite structure. We incorporate aspects of a priori information on this structure in our aperture code designs to enable optimized dealiasing operations for undersampled focal plane arrays. Our framework enables us to design aperture codes to minimize mean square error for image reconstruction or to maximize signal to clutter ratio for GMTI detection. In this paper we present a technical overview of our code design methodology and show the results of our designed codes on simulated DIRSIG mega-scene data.

  17. Code System to Calculate Fuel Rod Thermal Performance.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2000-11-27

    Version: 00 GT2R2 is Revision 2 of GAPCON-THERMAL-2 and is used to calculate the thermal behavior of a nuclear fuel rod during normal steady-state operation. The program was developed as a tool for estimating fuel-cladding gap conductances and fuel-stored energy. Models used include power history, fission gas generation and release, fuel relocation and densification, and fuel-cladding gap conductance. The gas release and relocation models can be used to make either best-estimate or conservative predictions. Themore » code is used by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission for audit calculations of nuclear fuel thermal performance computer codes.« less

  18. DANTSYS: A diffusion accelerated neutral particle transport code system

    SciTech Connect

    Alcouffe, R.E.; Baker, R.S.; Brinkley, F.W.; Marr, D.R.; O`Dell, R.D.; Walters, W.F.

    1995-06-01

    The DANTSYS code package includes the following transport codes: ONEDANT, TWODANT, TWODANT/GQ, TWOHEX, and THREEDANT. The DANTSYS code package is a modular computer program package designed to solve the time-independent, multigroup discrete ordinates form of the boltzmann transport equation in several different geometries. The modular construction of the package separates the input processing, the transport equation solving, and the post processing (or edit) functions into distinct code modules: the Input Module, one or more Solver Modules, and the Edit Module, respectively. The Input and Edit Modules are very general in nature and are common to all the Solver Modules. The ONEDANT Solver Module contains a one-dimensional (slab, cylinder, and sphere), time-independent transport equation solver using the standard diamond-differencing method for space/angle discretization. Also included in the package are solver Modules named TWODANT, TWODANT/GQ, THREEDANT, and TWOHEX. The TWODANT Solver Module solves the time-independent two-dimensional transport equation using the diamond-differencing method for space/angle discretization. The authors have also introduced an adaptive weighted diamond differencing (AWDD) method for the spatial and angular discretization into TWODANT as an option. The TWOHEX Solver Module solves the time-independent two-dimensional transport equation on an equilateral triangle spatial mesh. The THREEDANT Solver Module solves the time independent, three-dimensional transport equation for XYZ and RZ{Theta} symmetries using both diamond differencing with set-to-zero fixup and the AWDD method. The TWODANT/GQ Solver Module solves the 2-D transport equation in XY and RZ symmetries using a spatial mesh of arbitrary quadrilaterals. The spatial differencing method is based upon the diamond differencing method with set-to-zero fixup with changes to accommodate the generalized spatial meshing.

  19. Computer Code System to Assess Skin Dose from Skin Contamination

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2011-07-10

    Version 00 VARSKIN 4 code is designed to operate in both Windows? and MacIntosh? environments and is expected to be significantly easier to learn and use than its predecessors. PC and MAC users will unzip different executable files, but the functionality is identical. Five different predefined source configurations are available in VARSKIN 4 to allow simulations of point, disk, cylinder, sphere, and slab sources.

  20. Code System For Calculating Reactivity Transients In a LWR.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-03-16

    Version 00 RETRANS is appropriate to calculate power excursions in light water reactors initiated by reactivity insertions due to withdrawal of control elements. The neutron physical model is based on the time-dependent two-group neutron diffusion equations. The equation of state of the coolant is approximated by a table built into the code. RETRANS solves the heat conduction equation and calculates the heat transfer coefficient for representative fuel rods at each time-step.

  1. Research on the transmission performance of turbo codes in DDO-OFDM system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Zheng-rong; Hu, Gui-bin; Cao, Ye; Zhang, Wei-hua

    2015-03-01

    A direct detection optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (DDO-OFDM) system using turbo codes is built, and the transmission performance comparison between coded system and uncoded system is analyzed. Three decoding algorithms, which are Log-maximum a posteriori (MAP), Max-Log-MAP and threshold Max-Log-MAP, are used in the turbo coded system. By comparing three decoding algorithms, the system using Max-Log-MAP algorithm has the best bit error rate (BER) performance. At the transmission distance of 240 km, the uncoded system with transmission rate of 30 Gbit/s can get the BER performance at the degree of 8.93×10-3 with optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) of 24 dB, while the turbo coded system with transmission rate of 50 Gbit/s can achieve it within OSNR of 20 dB.

  2. Analysis of airborne antenna systems using geometrical theory of diffraction and moment method computer codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartenstein, Richard G., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Computer codes have been developed to analyze antennas on aircraft and in the presence of scatterers. The purpose of this study is to use these codes to develop accurate computer models of various aircraft and antenna systems. The antenna systems analyzed are a P-3B L-Band antenna, an A-7E UHF relay pod antenna, and traffic advisory antenna system installed on a Bell Long Ranger helicopter. Computer results are compared to measured ones with good agreement. These codes can be used in the design stage of an antenna system to determine the optimum antenna location and save valuable time and costly flight hours.

  3. Analysis of airborne antenna systems using geometrical theory of diffraction and moment method computer codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartenstein, Richard G., Jr.

    1985-08-01

    Computer codes have been developed to analyze antennas on aircraft and in the presence of scatterers. The purpose of this study is to use these codes to develop accurate computer models of various aircraft and antenna systems. The antenna systems analyzed are a P-3B L-Band antenna, an A-7E UHF relay pod antenna, and traffic advisory antenna system installed on a Bell Long Ranger helicopter. Computer results are compared to measured ones with good agreement. These codes can be used in the design stage of an antenna system to determine the optimum antenna location and save valuable time and costly flight hours.

  4. Near-Capacity Coding for Discrete Multitone Systems with Impulse Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardakani, Masoud; Kschischang, Frank R.; Yu, Wei

    2006-12-01

    We consider the design of near-capacity-achieving error-correcting codes for a discrete multitone (DMT) system in the presence of both additive white Gaussian noise and impulse noise. Impulse noise is one of the main channel impairments for digital subscriber lines (DSL). One way to combat impulse noise is to detect the presence of the impulses and to declare an erasure when an impulse occurs. In this paper, we propose a coding system based on low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes and bit-interleaved coded modulation that is capable of taking advantage of the knowledge of erasures. We show that by carefully choosing the degree distribution of an irregular LDPC code, both the additive noise and the erasures can be handled by a single code, thus eliminating the need for an outer code. Such a system can perform close to the capacity of the channel and for the same redundancy is significantly more immune to the impulse noise than existing methods based on an outer Reed-Solomon (RS) code. The proposed method has a lower implementation complexity than the concatenated coding approach.

  5. VENTURE/PC manual: A multidimensional multigroup neutron diffusion code system. Version 3

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.; Huria, H.C.; Cho, K.W.

    1991-12-01

    VENTURE/PC is a recompilation of part of the Oak Ridge BOLD VENTURE code system, which will operate on an IBM PC or compatible computer. Neutron diffusion theory solutions are obtained for multidimensional, multigroup problems. This manual contains information associated with operating the code system. The purpose of the various modules used in the code system, and the input for these modules are discussed. The PC code structure is also given. Version 2 included several enhancements not given in the original version of the code. In particular, flux iterations can be done in core rather than by reading and writing to disk, for problems which allow sufficient memory for such in-core iterations. This speeds up the iteration process. Version 3 does not include any of the special processors used in the previous versions. These special processors utilized formatted input for various elements of the code system. All such input data is now entered through the Input Processor, which produces standard interface files for the various modules in the code system. In addition, a Standard Interface File Handbook is included in the documentation which is distributed with the code, to assist in developing the input for the Input Processor.

  6. VENTURE/PC manual: A multidimensional multigroup neutron diffusion code system

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.; Huria, H.C.; Cho, K.W. )

    1991-12-01

    VENTURE/PC is a recompilation of part of the Oak Ridge BOLD VENTURE code system, which will operate on an IBM PC or compatible computer. Neutron diffusion theory solutions are obtained for multidimensional, multigroup problems. This manual contains information associated with operating the code system. The purpose of the various modules used in the code system, and the input for these modules are discussed. The PC code structure is also given. Version 2 included several enhancements not given in the original version of the code. In particular, flux iterations can be done in core rather than by reading and writing to disk, for problems which allow sufficient memory for such in-core iterations. This speeds up the iteration process. Version 3 does not include any of the special processors used in the previous versions. These special processors utilized formatted input for various elements of the code system. All such input data is now entered through the Input Processor, which produces standard interface files for the various modules in the code system. In addition, a Standard Interface File Handbook is included in the documentation which is distributed with the code, to assist in developing the input for the Input Processor.

  7. Performance of CO-OFDM system with RS-Turbo concatenated code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Zheng-rong; Hu, Gui-bin; Cao, Ye; Zhang, Wei-hua

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, the RS-Turbo concatenated code is applied to coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) system. RS(186,166,8) and Turbo code with code rate of 1/2 are employed for RS-Turbo concatenated code. Two decoding algorithms, which are Max-Log-MAP algorithm and Log-MAP algorithm, are adopted for Turbo decoding, and the iteration Berlekamp-Massey (BM) algorithm is adopted for RS decoding. The simulation results show that the bit error rate ( BER) performance of CO-OFDM system with RS-Turbo concatenated code is significantly improved at high optical signal to noise ratio ( OSNR), and the iteration number is reduced compared with that of the Turbo coded system. Furthermore, when the Max-Log-MAP algorithm is adopted for Turbo decoding, the transmission distance of CO-OFDM system with RS-Turbo concatenated code can reach about 400 km without error, while that of the Turbo coded system can only reach about 240 km when BER is lower than 10-4 order of magnitude.

  8. Performance of asynchronous fiber-optic code division multiple access system based on three-dimensional wavelength/time/space codes and its link analysis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jaswinder

    2010-03-10

    A novel family of three-dimensional (3-D) wavelength/time/space codes for asynchronous optical code-division-multiple-access (CDMA) systems with "zero" off-peak autocorrelation and "unity" cross correlation is reported. Antipodal signaling and differential detection is employed in the system. A maximum of [(W x T+1) x W] codes are generated for unity cross correlation, where W and T are the number of wavelengths and time chips used in the code and are prime. The conditions for violation of the cross-correlation constraint are discussed. The expressions for number of generated codes are determined for various code dimensions. It is found that the maximum number of codes are generated for S < or = min(W,T), where W and T are prime and S is the number of space channels. The performance of these codes is compared to the earlier reported two-dimensional (2-D)/3-D codes for asynchronous systems. The codes have a code-set-size to code-size ratio greater than W/S. For instance, with a code size of 2065 (59 x 7 x 5), a total of 12,213 users can be supported, and 130 simultaneous users at a bit-error rate (BER) of 10(-9). An arrayed-waveguide-grating-based reconfigurable encoder/decoder design for 2-D implementation for the 3-D codes is presented so that the need for multiple star couplers and fiber ribbons is eliminated. The hardware requirements of the coders used for various modulation/detection schemes are given. The effect of insertion loss in the coders is shown to be significantly reduced with loss compensation by using an amplifier after encoding. An optical CDMA system for four users is simulated and the results presented show the improvement in performance with the use of loss compensation. PMID:20220892

  9. Research on the controlling thermal defocus aberration for the infrared imaging system based on wavefront coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Di; Dong, Liquan; Zhao, Yuejin; Liu, Xiaohua; Li, Cuiling; Guo, Xiaohu; Zhao, Zhu; Wu, Yijian

    2014-09-01

    We describe the application of wavefront coding technique for infrared imaging system to control thermal defocus. For traditional infrared imaging system, athermalization is necessary to maintain imaging performance which may increase complexity and cost of the imaging system. Wavefront coding includes a phase mask at the pupil which can re-modulate wave front so as to produce an encoded image. After digital processing, the system is insensitive to defocus. In this paper, the combination of wavefront coding technique and infrared imaging system has been discussed. We report here the optic design of the wavefront coding IR system based on Zemax. The phase mask is designed to ensure that the modulation transfer function (MTF) is approximately invariant in the range of working temperature. Meanwhile, we designed three IR systems to put up contrast experiments. System one and two are designed to compare the influence before and after the insertion of phase mask. System three is designed to compare the imaging performance before and after reducing lens in wavefront coding IR system. The simulation results show that the infrared imaging system based on wavefront coding can control thermal defocus in a temperature varying from -60ºC to 60 ºC, at the same time the weight and cost of optical elements are reduced by approximately 40%.

  10. Turbo product codes and their application in the fourth-generation mobile communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yejun; Zhu, Guangxi; Liu, Ying Zhuang; Liu, Jian

    2004-04-01

    In this paper, we firstly present turbo product codes (TPCs) for forward error correction (FEC) coding, including TPCs encoding process and decoding principle, and then compare TPCs with turbo convolutional codes (TCCs) error coding solution. The performance of TPCs is shown to be closer to the Shannon limit than TCCs. Secondly, we introduce TPCs" application in the 4th generation (4G) mobile communication system which is being developed in our country at present. The concept of TPC-OFDM system which promises higher code rate than conventional OFDM is first modified. Finally, simulation results show that the simplified 4G uplink systems offer Bit Error Rate of nearly 0 over IMT-2000 channel at Eb/N0 > 15dB.

  11. TVENT1: a computer code for analyzing tornado-induced flow in ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Andrae, R.W.; Tang, P.K.; Gregory, W.S.

    1983-07-01

    TVENT1 is a new version of the TVENT computer code, which was designed to predict the flows and pressures in a ventilation system subjected to a tornado. TVENT1 is essentially the same code but has added features for turning blowers off and on, changing blower speeds, and changing the resistance of dampers and filters. These features make it possible to depict a sequence of events during a single run. Other features also have been added to make the code more versatile. Example problems are included to demonstrate the code's applications.

  12. Risk from a pressurized toxic gas system: Part 2, Dispersal consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Brereton, S.J.; Martin, D.; Lane, S.G.; Altenbach, T.J.

    1995-04-01

    During the preparation of a Safety Analysis Report at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we studied the release of chlorine from a compressed gas experimental apparatus. This paper presents the second part in a series of two papers on this topic. The first paper focuses on the frequency of an unmitigated release from the system; this paper discusses the consequences of the release. The release of chlorine from the experimental apparatus was modeled as an unmitigated blowdown through a 0.25 inch (0.0064 m) outside diameter tube. The physical properties of chlorine were considered as were the dynamics of the fluid flow problem. The calculated release rate was used as input for the consequence assessment. Downwind concentrations as a function of time were evaluated and then compared to suggested guidelines. For comparison purposes, a typical water treatment plant was briefly studied. The lower hazard presented by the LLNL operation becomes evident when its release is compared to the release of material from a water treatment plant, a hazard which is generally accepted by the public.

  13. Risk from a pressurized toxic gas system: Part 2, Dispersal consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Brereton, S.J.; Altenbach, T.J.; Lane, S.G.; Martin, D.W.

    1995-02-01

    During the preparation of a Safety Analysis Report at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. we studied the release of chlorine from a compressed gas experimental apparatus. This paper presents the second pan in a series of two papers on this topic. The first paper focuses on the frequency of an unmitigated release from the system; paper focuses the consequences of the release. The release of chlorine from the experimental apparatus was modeled as an unmitigated blowdown through a 0.25 inch (0.006.4 m) outside diameter tube. The physical properties of chlorine were considered as were the dynamics of the fluid flow problem. The calculated release rate was used as input for the consequence assessment. Downwind concentrations as a function of time were evaluated and then compared to suggested guidelines. For comparison purposes, a typical water treatment plant was briefly studied. The lower hazard presented by the LLNL operation becomes evident when its release is compared to the release of material from a water treatment plant, a hazard which is generally accepted by the public.

  14. Public health consequences of mercury spills: Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance system, 1993-1998.

    PubMed Central

    Zeitz, Perri; Orr, Maureen F; Kaye, Wendy E

    2002-01-01

    We analyzed data from states that participated in the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system maintained by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry to describe the public health consequences of mercury releases. From 1993 through 1998, HSEES captured 406 events in which mercury was the only substance released. Schools and universities, private residences, and health care facilities were the most frequent locations involved in mercury events, and human error was the contributing factor for most of the releases. Fourteen persons experienced adverse health effects as a result of the releases. An additional 31 persons had documented elevated levels of mercury in the blood. No fatalities resulted. Evacuations were ordered in 90 (22%) of the events, and the length of evacuation ranged from 1 hr to 46 days. Mercury spills have a significant public health impact and economic burden. Some actions that could potentially lessen the consequences of mercury spills are to switch to mercury-free alternatives, train people in the safe handling and disposal of mercury, and keep mercury securely stored when it is necessary to have it on hand. PMID:11836139

  15. Neutron Unfolding Code System for Calculating Neutron Flux Spectra from Activation Data of Dosimeter Foils.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1982-04-30

    Version 00 As a part of the measurement and analysis plan for the Dosimetry Experiment at the "JOYO" experimental fast reactor, neutron flux spectral analysis is performed using the NEUPAC (Neutron Unfolding Code Package) code system. NEUPAC calculates the neutron flux spectra and other integral quantities from the activation data of the dosimeter foils.

  16. Error resilient pre/post-filtering for DCT-based block coding systems.

    PubMed

    Tu, Chengjie; Tran, Trac D; Liang, Jie

    2006-01-01

    Block coding based on the discrete cosine transform (DCT) is very popular in image and video compression. Pre/post-filtering can be attached to a DCT-based block coding system to improve coding efficiency as well as to mitigate blocking artifacts. Previously designed pre/post-filters are optimized to maximize coding efficiency solely. For image and video communication over unreliable channels, those pre/post-filters are sensitive to transmission errors. This paper addresses the problem of designing pre/post-filters which are more error resilient. Reconstruction performance is measured by how low the average reconstruction error is, and how uniformly the reconstruction error is distributed. A family of pre/post-filters is designed to provide desired tradeoffs between coding efficiency and robustness to transmission errors. Experiments show that these filtering operators can achieve superior reconstruction performance without sacrificing much coding performance. PMID:16435534

  17. Core Calculation of 1 MWatt PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP) using Monte Carlo MVP Code System

    SciTech Connect

    Karim, Julia Abdul

    2008-05-20

    The Monte Carlo MVP code system was adopted for the Reaktor TRIGA PUSAPTI (RTP) core calculation. The code was developed by a group of researcher of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) first in 1994. MVP is a general multi-purpose Monte Carlo code for neutron and photon transport calculation and able to estimate an accurate simulation problems. The code calculation is based on the continuous energy method. This code is capable of adopting an accurate physics model, geometry description and variance reduction technique faster than conventional method as compared to the conventional scalar method. This code could achieve higher computational speed by several factors on the vector super-computer. In this calculation, RTP core was modeled as close as possible to the real core and results of keff flux, fission densities and others were obtained.

  18. Sub-baud coding. [for interference reduction in spread-spectrum communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massey, J. L.; Uhran, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    In a spread-spectrum communication system, a data sequence of +1's and -1's is expanded into a sequence of +x's (bottom bar) and -x's (bottom bar) where x (bottom bar) is a length n sequence of +1's and -1's. A sub-baud code is the assignment of a different such baud sequence to each of M users with the objective of reducing interference between users. It is shown that this interference can be described in terms of the even and odd correlation functions between pairs of sequences. A technique for deriving sub-baud codes from cyclic error-correcting codes is given, and a theorem proved which bounds the quality of the resultant code. A specific such cyclic code construction procedure is given which, for any M, yields a sub-baud code for which the mutual interference can be made arbitrarily small by choosing n sufficiently large.

  19. The Marriage of Residential Energy Codes and Rating Systems: Conflict Resolution or Just Conflict?

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.

    2014-08-21

    After three decades of coexistence at a distance, model residential energy codes and residential energy rating systems have come together in the 2015 International Energy Conservation Code. At the October, 2013, International Code Council’s Public Comment Hearing, a new compliance path based on an Energy Rating Index was added to the IECC. Although not specifically named in the code, RESNET’s HERS rating system is the likely candidate Index for most jurisdictions. While HERS has been a mainstay in various beyond-code programs for many years, its direct incorporation into the most popular model energy code raises questions about the equivalence of a HERS-based compliance path and the traditional IECC performance compliance path, especially because the two approaches use different efficiency metrics, are governed by different simulation rules, and have different scopes with regard to energy impacting house features. A detailed simulation analysis of more than 15,000 house configurations reveals a very large range of HERS Index values that achieve equivalence with the IECC’s performance path. This paper summarizes the results of that analysis and evaluates those results against the specific Energy Rating Index values required by the 2015 IECC. Based on the home characteristics most likely to result in disparities between HERS-based compliance and performance path compliance, potential impacts on the compliance process, state and local adoption of the new code, energy efficiency in the next generation of homes subject to this new code, and future evolution of model code formats are discussed.

  20. Health Physics Code System for Evaluating Accidents Involving Radioactive Materials.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-10-01

    Version 03 The HOTSPOT Health Physics codes were created to provide Health Physics personnel with a fast, field-portable calculational tool for evaluating accidents involving radioactive materials. HOTSPOT codes provide a first-order approximation of the radiation effects associated with the atmospheric release of radioactive materials. The developer's website is: http://www.llnl.gov/nhi/hotspot/. Four general programs, PLUME, EXPLOSION, FIRE, and RESUSPENSION, calculate a downwind assessment following the release of radioactive material resulting from a continuous or puff release, explosivemore » release, fuel fire, or an area contamination event. Additional programs deal specifically with the release of plutonium, uranium, and tritium to expedite an initial assessment of accidents involving nuclear weapons. The FIDLER program can calibrate radiation survey instruments for ground survey measurements and initial screening of personnel for possible plutonium uptake in the lung. The HOTSPOT codes are fast, portable, easy to use, and fully documented in electronic help files. HOTSPOT supports color high resolution monitors and printers for concentration plots and contours. The codes have been extensively used by the DOS community since 1985. Tables and graphical output can be directed to the computer screen, printer, or a disk file. The graphical output consists of dose and ground contamination as a function of plume centerline downwind distance, and radiation dose and ground contamination contours. Users have the option of displaying scenario text on the plots. HOTSPOT 3.0.1 fixes three significant Windows 7 issues: � Executable installed properly under "Program Files/HotSpot 3.0". Installation package now smaller: removed dependency on older Windows DLL files which previously needed to \\ � Forms now properly scale based on DPI instead of font for users who change their screen resolution to something other than 100%. This is a more common feature in Windows 7

  1. Health Physics Code System for Evaluating Accidents Involving Radioactive Materials.

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-01

    Version 03 The HOTSPOT Health Physics codes were created to provide Health Physics personnel with a fast, field-portable calculational tool for evaluating accidents involving radioactive materials. HOTSPOT codes provide a first-order approximation of the radiation effects associated with the atmospheric release of radioactive materials. The developer's website is: http://www.llnl.gov/nhi/hotspot/. Four general programs, PLUME, EXPLOSION, FIRE, and RESUSPENSION, calculate a downwind assessment following the release of radioactive material resulting from a continuous or puff release, explosive release, fuel fire, or an area contamination event. Additional programs deal specifically with the release of plutonium, uranium, and tritium to expedite an initial assessment of accidents involving nuclear weapons. The FIDLER program can calibrate radiation survey instruments for ground survey measurements and initial screening of personnel for possible plutonium uptake in the lung. The HOTSPOT codes are fast, portable, easy to use, and fully documented in electronic help files. HOTSPOT supports color high resolution monitors and printers for concentration plots and contours. The codes have been extensively used by the DOS community since 1985. Tables and graphical output can be directed to the computer screen, printer, or a disk file. The graphical output consists of dose and ground contamination as a function of plume centerline downwind distance, and radiation dose and ground contamination contours. Users have the option of displaying scenario text on the plots. HOTSPOT 3.0.1 fixes three significant Windows 7 issues: � Executable installed properly under "Program Files/HotSpot 3.0". Installation package now smaller: removed dependency on older Windows DLL files which previously needed to \\ � Forms now properly scale based on DPI instead of font for users who change their screen resolution to something other than 100%. This is a more common feature in Windows 7.

  2. Lattice physics capabilities of the SCALE code system using TRITON

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, M. D.

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes ongoing calculations used to validate the TRITON depletion module in SCALE for light water reactor (LWR) fuel lattices. TRITON has been developed to provide improved resolution for lattice physics mixed-oxide fuel assemblies as programs to burn such fuel in the United States begin to come online. Results are provided for coupled TRITON/PARCS analyses of an LWR core in which TRITON was employed for generation of appropriately weighted few-group nodal cross-sectional sets for use in core-level calculations using PARCS. Additional results are provided for code-to-code comparisons for TRITON and a suite of other depletion packages in the modeling of a conceptual next-generation boiling water reactor fuel assembly design. Results indicate that the set of SCALE functional modules used within TRITON provide an accurate means for lattice physics calculations. Because the transport solution within TRITON provides a generalized-geometry capability, this capability is extensible to a wide variety of non-traditional and advanced fuel assembly designs. (authors)

  3. Chemotopic Odorant Coding in a Mammalian Olfactory System

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Brett A.; Leon, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Systematic mapping studies involving 365 odorant chemicals have shown that glomerular responses in the rat olfactory bulb are organized spatially in patterns that are related to the chemistry of the odorant stimuli. This organization involves the spatial clustering of principal responses to numerous odorants that share key aspects of chemistry such as functional groups, hydrocarbon structural elements, and/or overall molecular properties related to water solubility. In several of the clusters, responses shift progressively in position according to odorant carbon chain length. These response domains appear to be constructed from orderly projections of sensory neurons in the olfactory epithelium and may also involve chromatography across the nasal mucosa. The spatial clustering of glomerular responses may serve to “tune” the principal responses of bulbar projection neurons by way of inhibitory interneuronal networks, allowing the projection neurons to respond to a narrower range of stimuli than their associated sensory neurons. When glomerular activity patterns are viewed relative to the overall level of glomerular activation, the patterns accurately predict the perception of odor quality, thereby supporting the notion that spatial patterns of activity are the key factors underlying that aspect of the olfactory code. A critical analysis suggests that alternative coding mechanisms for odor quality, such as those based on temporal patterns of responses, enjoy little experimental support. PMID:17480025

  4. Code System to Calculate Waste-Isolation Flow and Transport.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2001-01-26

    Version 00 Distribution is restricted to the United States Only. SWIFT2 (Sandia Waste Isolation Flow and Transport) is a fully transient, three-dimensional code that solves the coupled equations for transport in geologic media. The processes considered are fluid flow, heat transport, brine migration, and radionuclide-chain transport. Flow, heat and brine transport are coupled via fluid density, fluid viscosity, and porosity. Together they provide the velocity field on which the radionuclide transport depends. Both porous andmore » fractured media are considered. SWIFT2 was developed for use in the analysis of deep geologic nuclear waste-disposal facilities. However, it may be used in other areas such as waste injection into saline aquifers and heat storage in aquifers. Both dual-porosity and discrete-fracture conceptualizations may be considered for the fractured zones. A variable density is included throughout, and a variety of options are available to facilitate the various uses of the code.« less

  5. Simultaneous Detection of Different MicroRNA Types Using the ZIP-Code Array System

    PubMed Central

    Weishaupt, Sonja U.; Rupp, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important negative regulators of gene expression. Their implication in tumorigenesis is based on their dysregulation in many human cancer diseases. Interestingly, in tumor cells, an altered ratio of precursor and mature miRNA levels has been described. Consequently, differences in miRNA type levels have a high potential as biomarkers and comparative high-throughput-based detection might permit a more accurate characterization of subtypes, especially in the case of very heterogeneous tumor entities. Several molecular methods exist for the detection of mature and precursor miRNAs. DNA microarrays are predestinated as a high-throughput method for comprehensive miRNA detection in tumors. However, the simultaneous array-based detection of both these miRNA types is limited because the mature miRNA sequence is identically present in both forms. Here we present a ZIP-code DNA microarray-based system in combination with a novel labeling approach, which enables the simultaneous detection of precursor and mature miRNAs in one single experiment. Using synthetic miRNA templates, we demonstrate the specificity of the method for the different miRNA types, as well as the detection range up to four orders of magnitude. Moreover, mature and precursor miRNAs were detected and validated in human tumor cells. PMID:24078866

  6. Rod Ejection Accident by the Coupled System Code ATHLET-QUABOX/CUBBOX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perin, Yann; Velkov, Kiril; Pasichnyk, Igor; Langenbuch, Siegfried

    The paper considers a Rod Ejection Accident (REA) which has been calculated by the coupled-code system ATHLET-QUABOX/CUBBOX. For the present study, a MOX/UOX mixed core loading was developed on the basis of a generic PWR. The results are particularly focused on the fuel enthalpy rise which is the main safety criterion for such transient. A parametric REA study has been performed, showing the influence of some important thermal-hydraulic and neutron-physical parameters. Simulations have been performed using realistic or artificially decreased delayed neutron fractions for two different core states (HZP and 30% of the nominal power). Effective fuel rod temperature influence (i.e. Doppler coefficient) has been studied by using different correlations (0.5/0.5 weighting factors or the typical TDoppler = 0.7 TSurface + 0.3 TCenter) or by changing the fuel gap conductance. It is shown that the maximum enthalpy (and enthalpy increase) does not always appear in the affected fuel assembly but can also appear in the neighboring ones. This result is a direct consequence of the burn up dependence of the enthalpy. The paper also considers the case of local delayed neutron parameters and briefly describes the future REA studies foreseen at GRS such as an investigation of quantitative uncertainty propagation from the nuclear data to the transient behavior.

  7. Friendly Fire: Biological Functions and Consequences of Chromosomal Targeting by CRISPR-Cas Systems.

    PubMed

    Heussler, Gary E; O'Toole, George A

    2016-05-15

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated (Cas) systems in bacteria and archaea target foreign elements, such as bacteriophages and conjugative plasmids, through the incorporation of short sequences (termed spacers) from the foreign element into the CRISPR array, thereby allowing sequence-specific targeting of the invader. Thus, CRISPR-Cas systems are typically considered a microbial adaptive immune system. While many of these incorporated spacers match targets on bacteriophages and plasmids, a noticeable number are derived from chromosomal DNA. While usually lethal to the self-targeting bacteria, in certain circumstances, these self-targeting spacers can have profound effects in regard to microbial biology, including functions beyond adaptive immunity. In this minireview, we discuss recent studies that focus on the functions and consequences of CRISPR-Cas self-targeting, including reshaping of the host population, group behavior modification, and the potential applications of CRISPR-Cas self-targeting as a tool in microbial biotechnology. Understanding the effects of CRISPR-Cas self-targeting is vital to fully understanding the spectrum of function of these systems. PMID:26929301

  8. Unintended Consequences of not Specifying Exclusionary Illnesses for Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease.

    PubMed

    Jason, Leonard A; Sunnquist, Madison; Kot, Bobby; Brown, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine recently proposed a new case definition for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), as well as a new name, Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease (SEID). Contrary to the Fukuda et al.'s CFS case definition, there are few exclusionary illnesses specified for this new SEID case definition. The current study explored this decision regarding exclusionary illnesses using the SEID criteria with four distinct data sets involving patients who had been identified as having CFS, as well as healthy controls, community controls, and other illness groups. The findings indicate that many individuals from major depressive disorder illness groups as well as other medical illnesses were categorized as having SEID. The past CFS Fukuda et al. prevalence rate in a community based sample of 0.42 increased by 2.8 times with the new SEID criteria. The consequences for this broadening of the case definition are discussed. PMID:26854153

  9. Linking the Legislative Process to the Consequences of Realigning California's Public Mental Health System.

    PubMed

    Vanneman, Megan E; Snowden, Lonnie R

    2015-09-01

    In 1991, California transferred significant responsibility, resources, and accountability for public mental health from the state to its 58 counties. Using purposeful sampling, we conducted in-depth interviews with ten senior state and county leaders to gain insights into the relatively uncharted area of their understanding of this legislation's intent, development, and long-term consequences. While realignment secured funding for the system and provided incentives and flexibility for counties to move toward providing more community-based care, the decision to base realignment allocations on counties' historical spending along with minimal payments to address differences helped to institutionalize spending disparities. Results of this study can inform how we develop and implement decentralization policies. PMID:25199814

  10. Unintended Consequences of not Specifying Exclusionary Illnesses for Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jason, Leonard A.; Sunnquist, Madison; Kot, Bobby; Brown, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine recently proposed a new case definition for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), as well as a new name, Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease (SEID). Contrary to the Fukuda et al.’s CFS case definition, there are few exclusionary illnesses specified for this new SEID case definition. The current study explored this decision regarding exclusionary illnesses using the SEID criteria with four distinct data sets involving patients who had been identified as having CFS, as well as healthy controls, community controls, and other illness groups. The findings indicate that many individuals from major depressive disorder illness groups as well as other medical illnesses were categorized as having SEID. The past CFS Fukuda et al. prevalence rate in a community based sample of 0.42 increased by 2.8 times with the new SEID criteria. The consequences for this broadening of the case definition are discussed. PMID:26854153

  11. Restricted emigration, system inescapability, and defense of the status quo: system-justifying consequences of restricted exit opportunities.

    PubMed

    Laurin, Kristin; Shepherd, Steven; Kay, Aaron C

    2010-08-01

    The freedom to emigrate at will from a geographic location is an internationally recognized human right. However, this right is systematically violated by restrictive migration policies. In three experiments, we explored the psychological consequences of violating the right to mobility. Our results suggest that, ironically, restricted freedom of movement can lead to increased system justification (i.e., increased support of the status quo). In Study 1, we found that participants who read that their country was difficult to leave became stronger defenders of their system's legitimacy than before, even in domains unrelated to emigration policy (e.g., gender relations). In Study 2, we demonstrated that this increased system defense was the result of a motivated process. In Study 3, we broadened the scope of this psychological phenomenon by conceptually replicating it using a different system (participants' university) and measure of system defense. The importance of these two findings-the first experimental demonstration of the psychological consequences of restrictive emigration policies and the introduction of a novel psychological phenomenon-is discussed. PMID:20585053

  12. A constructive inter-track interference coding scheme for bit-patterned media recording system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrayangkool, A.; Warisarn, C.; Kovintavewat, P.

    2014-05-01

    The inter-track interference (ITI) can severely degrade the system performance of bit-patterned media recording (BPMR). One way to alleviate the ITI effect is to encode an input data sequence before recording to avoid some data patterns that easily cause an error at the data detection process. This paper proposes a constructive ITI (CITI) coding scheme for a multi-track multi-head BPMR system to eliminate the data patterns that lead to severe ITI. Numerical results indicate that the system with CITI coding outperforms that without CITI coding, especially when an areal density (AD) is high and/or the position jitter is large. Specifically, for the system without position jitter at bit-error rate of 10-4, the proposed scheme can provide about 3 dB gain at the AD of 2.5 Tb/in.2 over the system without CITI coding.

  13. A user's manual for MASH 1. 0: A Monte Carlo Adjoint Shielding Code System

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.O.

    1992-03-01

    The Monte Carlo Adjoint Shielding Code System, MASH, calculates neutron and gamma-ray environments and radiation protection factors for armored military vehicles, structures, trenches, and other shielding configurations by coupling a forward discrete ordinates air-over-ground transport calculation with an adjoint Monte Carlo treatment of the shielding geometry. Efficiency and optimum use of computer time are emphasized. The code system include the GRTUNCL and DORT codes for air-over-ground transport calculations, the MORSE code with the GIFT5 combinatorial geometry package for adjoint shielding calculations, and several peripheral codes that perform the required data preparations, transformations, and coupling functions. MASH is the successor to the Vehicle Code System (VCS) initially developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The discrete ordinates calculation determines the fluence on a coupling surface surrounding the shielding geometry due to an external neutron/gamma-ray source. The Monte Carlo calculation determines the effectiveness of the fluence at that surface in causing a response in a detector within the shielding geometry, i.e., the dose importance'' of the coupling surface fluence. A coupling code folds the fluence together with the dose importance, giving the desired dose response. The coupling code can determine the dose response a a function of the shielding geometry orientation relative to the source, distance from the source, and energy response of the detector. This user's manual includes a short description of each code, the input required to execute the code along with some helpful input data notes, and a representative sample problem (input data and selected output edits) for each code.

  14. Blood withdrawal affects iron store dynamics in primates with consequences on monoaminergic system function.

    PubMed

    Hyacinthe, C; De Deurwaerdere, P; Thiollier, T; Li, Q; Bezard, E; Ghorayeb, I

    2015-04-01

    Iron homeostasis is essential for the integrity of brain monoaminergic functions and its deregulation might be involved in neurological movement disorders such as the restless legs syndrome (RLS). Although iron metabolism breakdown concomitantly appears with monoaminergic system dysfunction in iron-deficient rodents and in RLS patients, the direct consequences of peripheral iron deficiency in the central nervous system (CNS) of non-human primates have received little attention. Here, we evaluated the peripheral iron-depletion impact on brain monoamine levels in macaque monkeys. After documenting circadian variations of iron and iron-related proteins (hemoglobin, ferritin and transferrin) in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of normal macaques, repeated blood withdrawals (RBW) were used to reduce peripheral iron-related parameter levels. Decreased serum iron levels were paradoxically associated with increased CSF iron concentrations. Despite limited consequences on tissue monoamine contents (dopamine - DA, 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid - DOPAC, homovanillic acid, L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine - L-DOPA, 5-8 hydroxytryptamine - 5-HT, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid - 5-HIAA and noradrenaline) measured with post-mortem chromatography, we found distinct and region-dependent relationships of these tissue concentrations with CSF iron and/or serum iron and/or blood hemoglobin. Additionally, striatal extracellular DA, DOPAC and 5-HIAA levels evaluated by in vivo microdialysis showed a substantial increase, suggesting an overall increase in both DA and 5-HT tones. Finally, a trending increase in general locomotor activity, measured by actimetry, was observed in the most serum iron-depleted macaques. Taken together, our data are compatible with an increase in nigrostriatal DAergic function in the event of iron deficiency and point to a specific alteration of the 5-HT/DA interaction in the CNS that is possibly involved in the etiology of RLS. PMID:25662508

  15. Improving performance of DS-CDMA systems using chaotic complex Bernoulli spreading codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farzan Sabahi, Mohammad; Dehghanfard, Ali

    2014-12-01

    The most important goal of spreading spectrum communication system is to protect communication signals against interference and exploitation of information by unintended listeners. In fact, low probability of detection and low probability of intercept are two important parameters to increase the performance of the system. In Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DS-CDMA) systems, these properties are achieved by multiplying the data information in spreading sequences. Chaotic sequences, with their particular properties, have numerous applications in constructing spreading codes. Using one-dimensional Bernoulli chaotic sequence as spreading code is proposed in literature previously. The main feature of this sequence is its negative auto-correlation at lag of 1, which with proper design, leads to increase in efficiency of the communication system based on these codes. On the other hand, employing the complex chaotic sequences as spreading sequence also has been discussed in several papers. In this paper, use of two-dimensional Bernoulli chaotic sequences is proposed as spreading codes. The performance of a multi-user synchronous and asynchronous DS-CDMA system will be evaluated by applying these sequences under Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) and fading channel. Simulation results indicate improvement of the performance in comparison with conventional spreading codes like Gold codes as well as similar complex chaotic spreading sequences. Similar to one-dimensional Bernoulli chaotic sequences, the proposed sequences also have negative auto-correlation. Besides, construction of complex sequences with lower average cross-correlation is possible with the proposed method.

  16. Basic principles and ecological consequences of changing water regimes on nitrogen cycling in fluvial systems.

    PubMed

    Pinay, Gilles; Clément, Jean Christophe; Naiman, Robert J

    2002-10-01

    Understanding the environmental consequences of changing water regimes is a daunting challenge for both resource managers and ecologists. Balancing human demands for fresh water with the needs of the environment for water in appropriate amounts and at the appropriate times are shaping the ways by which this natural resource will be used in the future. Based on past decisions that have rendered many freshwater resources unsuitable for use, we argue that river systems have a fundamental need for appropriate amounts and timing of water to maintain their biophysical integrity. Biophysical integrity is fundamental for the formulation of future sustainable management strategies. This article addresses three basic ecological principles driving the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen in river systems. These are (1) how the mode of nitrogen delivery affects river ecosystem functioning, (2) how increasing contact between water and soil or sediment increases nitrogen retention and processing, and (3) the role of floods and droughts as important natural events that strongly influence pathways of nitrogen cycling in fluvial systems. New challenges related to the cumulative impact of water regime change, the scale of appraisal of these impacts, and the determination of the impacts due to natural and human changes are discussed. It is suggested that cost of long-term and long-distance cumulative impacts of hydrological changes should be evaluated against short-term economic benefits to determine the real environmental costs. PMID:12481915

  17. A systematic literature review of automated clinical coding and classification systems

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Margaret; Fenton, Susan H; Jenders, Robert A; Hersh, William R

    2010-01-01

    Clinical coding and classification processes transform natural language descriptions in clinical text into data that can subsequently be used for clinical care, research, and other purposes. This systematic literature review examined studies that evaluated all types of automated coding and classification systems to determine the performance of such systems. Studies indexed in Medline or other relevant databases prior to March 2009 were considered. The 113 studies included in this review show that automated tools exist for a variety of coding and classification purposes, focus on various healthcare specialties, and handle a wide variety of clinical document types. Automated coding and classification systems themselves are not generalizable, nor are the results of the studies evaluating them. Published research shows these systems hold promise, but these data must be considered in context, with performance relative to the complexity of the task and the desired outcome. PMID:20962126

  18. The Conversion of Wiswesser Line Notations to Ring Codes. I. The Conversion of Ring Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granito, Charles E.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    The computerized conversion of Wiswesser Line Notations to Ring Codes, using a two-part approach, and the set of computer programs generated for the conversion of ring systems are described. (9 references) (Author)

  19. Use of generalized curvilinear coordinate systems in electromagnetic and hybrid codes

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, D.W.

    1995-07-01

    The author develops a code to simulate the dynamics in the magnetosphere system. The calculation involves a single level, structured, curvilinear 2D mesh. The mesh density is varied to support regions which demand higher resolution.

  20. 42 CFR 405.512 - Carriers' procedural terminology and coding systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... systems. A carrier that wishes to modify its system of procedural terminology and coding shall submit its... proposed new system, outweigh the disadvantages. (c) Guidelines. The following considerations and guidelines are taken into account in evaluating a carrier's proposal to change its system of...

  1. 42 CFR 405.512 - Carriers' procedural terminology and coding systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... systems. A carrier that wishes to modify its system of procedural terminology and coding shall submit its... proposed new system, outweigh the disadvantages. (c) Guidelines. The following considerations and guidelines are taken into account in evaluating a carrier's proposal to change its system of...

  2. 42 CFR 405.512 - Carriers' procedural terminology and coding systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... systems. A carrier that wishes to modify its system of procedural terminology and coding shall submit its... proposed new system, outweigh the disadvantages. (c) Guidelines. The following considerations and guidelines are taken into account in evaluating a carrier's proposal to change its system of...

  3. Feasibility and Reliability of a Coding System to Capture In-Session Group Behavior in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ladd, Benjamin O; Tomlinson, Kristin; Myers, Mark G; Anderson, Kristen G

    2016-01-01

    Limited research has explored the role of in-session behavior during motivational enhancement (ME) in group formats. The current study presents initial feasibility of assessing behavior of high school students (N = 425) attending Project Options, a voluntary secondary drug and alcohol prevention program utilizing ME techniques. Building on previous research exploring client language supporting/opposing health behavior, student group behavior was coded live at the specific utterance and global level; group leader behavior was also coded globally. Interrater reliability of the coding system was assessed, and preliminary validity of the coding system was examined by exploring associations between characteristics of group members and in-session group behavior. Initial reliability estimates were excellent for the specific behavior codes. Reliability of the global codes was mixed, with raters demonstrating good reliability on support for unhealthy behavior, opposition to unhealthy behavior, and support for healthy behavior. Reliability of the group leader codes was fair to poor. Greater percent healthy talk was associated with a lower percentage of group members reporting lifetime alcohol use. The results of the current study suggest that some in-session behavior at the group level can be coded reliably via live observation and that in-session behavior at the group level is associated with alcohol use prior to attending the program. Future research is needed to explore the utility of in-session behavior in terms of predicting future behavior at the group and individual level. PMID:26271299

  4. Optimization of WDM lightwave systems (BAC) design using error control coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mruthyunjaya, H. S.; Umesh, G.; Sathish Kumar, M.

    2007-04-01

    In a binary asymmetric channel (BAC) it may be necessary to correct only those errors which result from incorrect transmission of one of the two code elements. In optical fiber multichannel systems, the optical amplifiers are critical components and amplified spontaneous emission noise in the optical amplifiers is the major source of noise in it. The property of erbium doped fiber amplifier is nearly ideal for application in lightwave long haul transmission. We investigate performance of error correcting codes in such systems in presence of stimulated Raman scattering and amplified spontaneous emission noise with asymmetric channel statistics. Performance of some best known concatenated coding schemes is reported.

  5. Information Retrieval System for Japanese Standard Disease-Code Master Using XML Web Service

    PubMed Central

    Hatano, Kenji; Ohe, Kazuhiko

    2003-01-01

    Information retrieval system of Japanese Standard Disease-Code Master Using XML Web Service is developed. XML Web Service is a new distributed processing system by standard internet technologies. With seamless remote method invocation of XML Web Service, users are able to get the latest disease code master information from their rich desktop applications or internet web sites, which refer to this service. PMID:14728364

  6. The nomenclature of 1-aminoalkylphosphonic acids and derivatives: evolution of the code system.

    PubMed

    Drabowicz, Józef; Jakubowski, Hieronim; Kudzin, Marcin H; Kudzin, Zbigniew H

    2015-01-01

    The approach for the unification of published proposals for the nomenclature and abbreviations of aminoalkylphosphonic acids and their derivatives is presented. Their modification was made on the basis of the IUPAC-IUB rules concerning the nomenclature and code system of proteinogenic amino acids. Our present proposal formulates the supplementary code and nomenclature system allowing unambiguous description of phosphonic analogs of proteinogenic amino acids, their analogs, homologs, metabolites, and derivatives including phosphonopeptides. PMID:25730210

  7. A General-Purpose Monte Carlo Gamma-Ray Transport Code System for Minicomputers.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1981-08-27

    Version 00 The OGRE code system was designed to calculate, by Monte Carlo methods, any quantity related to gamma-ray transport. The system is represented by two codes which treat slab geometry. OGRE-P1 computes the dose on one side of a slab for a source on the other side, and HOTONE computes energy deposition in addition. The source may be monodirectional, isotropic, or cosine distributed.

  8. A User's Manual for MASH V1.5 - A Monte Carlo Adjoint Shielding Code System

    SciTech Connect

    C. O. Slater; J. M. Barnes; J. O. Johnson; J.D. Drischler

    1998-10-01

    The Monte Carlo ~djoint ~ielding Code System, MASH, calculates neutron and gamma- ray environments and radiation protection factors for armored military vehicles, structures, trenches, and other shielding configurations by coupling a forward discrete ordinates air- over-ground transport calculation with an adjoint Monte Carlo treatment of the shielding geometry. Efficiency and optimum use of computer time are emphasized. The code system includes the GRTUNCL and DORT codes for air-over-ground transport calculations, the MORSE code with the GIFT5 combinatorial geometry package for adjoint shielding calculations, and several peripheral codes that perform the required data preparations, transformations, and coupling functions. The current version, MASH v 1.5, is the successor to the original MASH v 1.0 code system initially developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The discrete ordinates calculation determines the fluence on a coupling surface surrounding the shielding geometry due to an external neutron/gamma-ray source. The Monte Carlo calculation determines the effectiveness of the fluence at that surface in causing a response in a detector within the shielding geometry, i.e., the "dose importance" of the coupling surface fluence. A coupling code folds the fluence together with the dose importance, giving the desired dose response. The coupling code can determine the dose response as a function of the shielding geometry orientation relative to the source, distance from the source, and energy response of the detector. This user's manual includes a short description of each code, the input required to execute the code along with some helpful input data notes, and a representative sample problem.

  9. Magnetic Resonance Image Phantom Code System to Calibrate in vivo Measurement Systems.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1997-07-17

    Version 00 MRIPP provides relative calibration factors for the in vivo measurement of internally deposited photon emitting radionuclides within the human body. The code includes a database of human anthropometric structures (phantoms) that were constructed from whole body Magnetic Resonance Images. The database contains a large variety of human images with varying anatomical structure. Correction factors are obtained using Monte Carlo transport of photons through the voxel geometry of the phantom. Correction factors provided bymore » MRIPP allow users of in vivo measurement systems (e.g., whole body counters) to calibrate these systems with simple sources and obtain subject specific calibrations. Note that the capability to format MRI data for use with this system is not included; therefore, one must use the phantom data included in this package. MRIPP provides a simple interface to perform Monte Carlo simulation of photon transport through the human body. MRIPP also provides anthropometric information (e.g., height, weight, etc.) for individuals used to generate the phantom database. A modified Voxel version of the Los Alamos National Laboratory MCNP4A code is used for the Monte Carlo simulation. The Voxel version Fortran patch to MCNP4 and MCNP4A (Monte Carlo N-Particle transport simulation) and the MCNP executable are included in this distribution, but the MCNP Fortran source is not included. It was distributed by RSICC as CCC-200 but is now obsoleted by the current release MCNP4B.« less

  10. Magnetic Resonance Image Phantom Code System to Calibrate in vivo Measurement Systems.

    SciTech Connect

    HICKMAN, DAVE

    1997-07-17

    Version 00 MRIPP provides relative calibration factors for the in vivo measurement of internally deposited photon emitting radionuclides within the human body. The code includes a database of human anthropometric structures (phantoms) that were constructed from whole body Magnetic Resonance Images. The database contains a large variety of human images with varying anatomical structure. Correction factors are obtained using Monte Carlo transport of photons through the voxel geometry of the phantom. Correction factors provided by MRIPP allow users of in vivo measurement systems (e.g., whole body counters) to calibrate these systems with simple sources and obtain subject specific calibrations. Note that the capability to format MRI data for use with this system is not included; therefore, one must use the phantom data included in this package. MRIPP provides a simple interface to perform Monte Carlo simulation of photon transport through the human body. MRIPP also provides anthropometric information (e.g., height, weight, etc.) for individuals used to generate the phantom database. A modified Voxel version of the Los Alamos National Laboratory MCNP4A code is used for the Monte Carlo simulation. The Voxel version Fortran patch to MCNP4 and MCNP4A (Monte Carlo N-Particle transport simulation) and the MCNP executable are included in this distribution, but the MCNP Fortran source is not included. It was distributed by RSICC as CCC-200 but is now obsoleted by the current release MCNP4B.

  11. [Cannabis: Effects in the Central Nervous System. Therapeutic, societal and legal consequences].

    PubMed

    Rivera-Olmos, Víctor Manuel; Parra-Bernal, Marisela C

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of marijuana extracted from Cannabis sativa and indica plants involves an important cultural impact in Mexico. Their psychological stimulatory effect is widely recognized; their biochemical and molecular components interact with CB1 and CB2 (endocannabinoid system) receptors in various central nervous system structures (CNS) and immune cells. The psychoactive element Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) can be reproduced synthetically. Systematic reviews show evidence of therapeutic effectiveness of therapeutic marijuana only for certain symptoms of multiple sclerosis (spasticity, spasms and pain), despite attempts for its widespread use, including refractory childhood epilepsy. Evidence indicates significant adverse effects of smoked marijuana on the structure, functioning and brain connectivity. Cannabis exposure during pregnancy affects fetal brain development, potentially leading to later behavioral problems in children. Neuropsychological tests and advanced imaging techniques show involvement in the learning process in adolescents with substance use. Also, marijuana increases the cognitive impairment in patients with multiple sclerosis. Social and ethical consequences to legally free marijuana for recreational use may be deleterious transcendentally. The medicinal or psychoactive cannabinol no addictive effect requires controlled proven efficacy and safety before regulatory approval studies. PMID:27428345

  12. Ecosocial consequences and policy implications of disease management in East African agropastoral systems

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Andrew Paul; Gilioli, Gianni; Baumgärtner, Johann

    2009-01-01

    International research and development efforts in Africa have brought ecological and social change, but analyzing the consequences of this change and developing policy to manage it for sustainable development has been difficult. This has been largely due to a lack of conceptual and analytical models to access the interacting dynamics of the different components of ecosocial systems. Here, we examine the ecological and social changes resulting from an ongoing suppression of trypanosomiasis disease in cattle in an agropastoral community in southwest Ethiopia to illustrate how such problems may be addressed. The analysis combines physiologically based demographic models of pasture, cattle, and pastoralists and a bioeconomic model that includes the demographic models as dynamic constraints in the economic objective function that maximizes the utility of individual consumption under different level of disease risk in cattle. Field data and model analysis show that suppression of trypanosomiasis leads to increased cattle and human populations and to increased agricultural development. However, in the absence of sound management, these changes will lead to a decline in pasture quality and increase the risk from tick-borne diseases in cattle and malaria in humans that would threaten system sustainability and resilience. The analysis of these conflicting outcomes of trypanosomiasis suppression is used to illustrate the need for and utility of conceptual bioeconomic models to serve as a basis for developing policy for sustainable agropastoral resource management in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:19620722

  13. Heatwave Early Warning Systems and Adaptation Advice to Reduce Human Health Consequences of Heatwaves

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Dianne; Ebi, Kristie L.; Forsberg, Bertil

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: With climate change, there has been an increase in the frequency, intensity and duration of heatwave events. In response to the devastating mortality and morbidity of recent heatwave events, many countries have introduced heatwave early warning systems (HEWS). HEWS are designed to reduce the avoidable human health consequences of heatwaves through timely notification of prevention measures to vulnerable populations. Objective: To identify the key characteristics of HEWS in European countries to help inform modification of current, and development of, new systems and plans. Methods: We searched the internet to identify HEWS policy or government documents for 33 European countries and requested information from relevant organizations. We translated the HEWS documents and extracted details on the trigger indicators, thresholds for action, notification strategies, message intermediaries, communication and dissemination strategies, prevention strategies recommended and specified target audiences. Findings and Conclusions: Twelve European countries have HEWS. Although there are many similarities among the HEWS, there also are differences in key characteristics that could inform improvements in heatwave early warning plans. PMID:22408593

  14. The use of interleaving for reducing radio loss in convolutionally coded systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, D.; Simon, M. K.; Yuen, J. H.

    1989-01-01

    The use of interleaving after convolutional coding and deinterleaving before Viterbi decoding is proposed. This effectively reduces radio loss at low-loop Signal to Noise Ratios (SNRs) by several decibels and at high-loop SNRs by a few tenths of a decibel. Performance of the coded system can further be enhanced if the modulation index is optimized for this system. This will correspond to a reduction of bit SNR at a certain bit error rate for the overall system. The introduction of interleaving/deinterleaving into communication systems designed for future deep space missions does not substantially complicate their hardware design or increase their system cost.

  15. Coded acoustic wave sensors and system using time diversity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solie, Leland P. (Inventor); Hines, Jacqueline H. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An apparatus and method for distinguishing between sensors that are to be wirelessly detected is provided. An interrogator device uses different, distinct time delays in the sensing signals when interrogating the sensors. The sensors are provided with different distinct pedestal delays. Sensors that have the same pedestal delay as the delay selected by the interrogator are detected by the interrogator whereas other sensors with different pedestal delays are not sensed. Multiple sensors with a given pedestal delay are provided with different codes so as to be distinguished from one another by the interrogator. The interrogator uses a signal that is transmitted to the sensor and returned by the sensor for combination and integration with the reference signal that has been processed by a function. The sensor may be a surface acoustic wave device having a differential impulse response with a power spectral density consisting of lobes. The power spectral density of the differential response is used to determine the value of the sensed parameter or parameters.

  16. The effects of receiver tracking phase error on the performance of the concatenated Reed-Solomon Viterbi channel coding system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, K. Y.; Woo, K. T.

    1980-01-01

    In connection with attempts to achieve very low error probabilities, Odenwalder (1970) proposed a concatenated coding system using the Viterbi-decoded convolutional codes as the inner code and Reed-Solomon (RS) codes as the outer code. Analytical and experimental results are presented concerning the effects of the receiver tracking phase error on the performance of the concatenated RS/Viterbi channel coding system. On the basis of these results it is concluded that certain problems regarding communication operations on deep-space missions can be alleviated by employing the RS/Viterbi coding system. In one-way communication, an employment of RS/Viterbi coding will also provide greater data protection than the Viterbi-decoded convolutional-only coding system.

  17. Code System to Calculate Tornado-Induced Flow Material Transport.

    SciTech Connect

    ANDRAE, R. W.

    1999-11-18

    Version: 00 TORAC models tornado-induced flows, pressures, and material transport within structures. Its use is directed toward nuclear fuel cycle facilities and their primary release pathway, the ventilation system. However, it is applicable to other structures and can model other airflow pathways within a facility. In a nuclear facility, this network system could include process cells, canyons, laboratory offices, corridors, and offgas systems. TORAC predicts flow through a network system that also includes ventilation system components such as filters, dampers, ducts, and blowers. These ventilation system components are connected to the rooms and corridors of the facility to form a complete network for moving air through the structure and, perhaps, maintaining pressure levels in certain areas. The material transport capability in TORAC is very basic and includes convection, depletion, entrainment, and filtration of material.

  18. Reduction of artefacts and noise for a wavefront coding athermalized infrared imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Bin; Zhang, Xiaodong; Shi, Zelin; Xu, Baoshu; Zhang, Chengshuo

    2016-07-01

    Because of obvious drawbacks including serious artefacts and noise in a decoded image, the existing wavefront coding infrared imaging systems are seriously restricted in application. The proposed ultra-precision diamond machining technique manufactures an optical phase mask with a form manufacturing errors of approximately 770 nm and a surface roughness value Ra of 5.44 nm. The proposed decoding method outperforms the classical Wiener filtering method in three indices of mean square errors, mean structural similarity index and noise equivalent temperature difference. Based on the results mentioned above and a basic principle of wavefront coding technique, this paper further develops a wavefront coding infrared imaging system. Experimental results prove that our wavefront coding infrared imaging system yields a decoded image with good quality over a temperature range from ‑40 °C to +70 °C.

  19. Propulsion stability codes for liquid propellant propulsion systems developed for use on a PC computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doane, George B., III; Armstrong, Wilbur C.

    1991-01-01

    Research into component modeling and system synthesis leading to the analysis of the major types of propulsion system instabilities and the characterization of various components characteristics are presented. Last year, several programs designed to run on a PC were developed for Marshall Space Flight Center. These codes covered the low, intermediate, and high frequency modes of oscillation of a liquid rocket propulsion system. No graphics were built into these programs and only simple piping layouts were supported. This year's effort was to add run time graphics to the low and intermediate frequency codes, allow new types of piping elements (accumulators, pumps, and split pipes) in the low frequency code, and develop a new code for the PC to generate Nyquist plots.

  20. Code regenerative clean-up loop transponder for a mu-type ranging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurd, W. J. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A loop transponder for regenerating the code of a mu type ranging system is disclosed. It includes a phase locked loop, a code generator, and a loop detector. The function of the phase locked loop is to provide phase lock between a received component wk of the range signal and a replica rafter wk of the received component, provided by the code generator. The code generator also provides a replica of the next component rafter w(w+1). The loop detector responds to wk rafler wk and rafter w(k+1) to determine when the next component w(k+1) is received and controls the code generator to supply w(k+1) to the phase locked loop and to generate a replica rafter w(k+2) of the next component.

  1. Gene-Auto: Automatic Software Code Generation for Real-Time Embedded Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rugina, A.-E.; Thomas, D.; Olive, X.; Veran, G.

    2008-08-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Gene-Auto ITEA European project, which aims at building a qualified C code generator from mathematical models under Matlab-Simulink and Scilab-Scicos. The project is driven by major European industry partners, active in the real-time embedded systems domains. The Gene- Auto code generator will significantly improve the current development processes in such domains by shortening the time to market and by guaranteeing the quality of the generated code through the use of formal methods. The first version of the Gene-Auto code generator has already been released and has gone thought a validation phase on real-life case studies defined by each project partner. The validation results are taken into account in the implementation of the second version of the code generator. The partners aim at introducing the Gene-Auto results into industrial development by 2010.

  2. Selection of a computer code for Hanford low-level waste engineered-system performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    McGrail, B.P.; Mahoney, L.A.

    1995-10-01

    Planned performance assessments for the proposed disposal of low-level waste (LLW) glass produced from remediation of wastes stored in underground tanks at Hanford, Washington will require calculations of radionuclide release rates from the subsurface disposal facility. These calculations will be done with the aid of computer codes. Currently available computer codes were ranked in terms of the feature sets implemented in the code that match a set of physical, chemical, numerical, and functional capabilities needed to assess release rates from the engineered system. The needed capabilities were identified from an analysis of the important physical and chemical process expected to affect LLW glass corrosion and the mobility of radionuclides. The highest ranked computer code was found to be the ARES-CT code developed at PNL for the US Department of Energy for evaluation of and land disposal sites.

  3. STEALTH: a Lagrange explicit finite difference code for solids, structural, and thermohydraulic analysis. Volume 6: piping systems manual. Computer code manual

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, L.M.

    1982-03-01

    This volume documents the STEALTH piping numerical code, which can simulate the time-dependent flow phenomena that occur in piping systems. This volume also contains the input instructions for the STEALTH piping code, and a sample problem of a pipe flow simulation.

  4. SCALE: A modular code system for performing standardized computer analyses for licensing evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This Manual represents Revision 5 of the user documentation for the modular code system referred to as SCALE. The history of the SCALE code system dates back to 1969 when the current Computational Physics and Engineering Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) began providing the transportation package certification staff at the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission with computational support in the use of the new KENO code for performing criticality safety assessments with the statistical Monte Carlo method. From 1969 to 1976 the certification staff relied on the ORNL staff to assist them in the correct use of codes and data for criticality, shielding, and heat transfer analyses of transportation packages. However, the certification staff learned that, with only occasional use of the codes, it was difficult to become proficient in performing the calculations often needed for an independent safety review. Thus, shortly after the move of the certification staff to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the NRC staff proposed the development of an easy-to-use analysis system that provided the technical capabilities of the individual modules with which they were familiar. With this proposal, the concept of the Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) code system was born. This manual covers an array of modules written for the SCALE package, consisting of drivers, system libraries, cross section and materials properties libraries, input/output routines, storage modules, and help files.

  5. A 10-digit geo-coding system for classification of geomorphosites in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kale, Vishwas

    2015-04-01

    India is a country with rich geo-wealth and geoheritage. There are numerous fascinating and exquisite landforms and landscapes in the Indian subcontinent that have immense cultural, socio-economic and scientific value and are significant from the point of view of geotourism and geoeducation. Presently, India has 32 World Heritage Properties, including seven natural properties. The Geological Survey of India (GSI) has declared 26 geosites as National Geological Monuments. Although a few attempts have been made in the last ten years to identify and catalog noteworthy geomorphosites in India, till date no attempt has been made to undertake multi-criteria or multi-attribute assessment and classification of the potential geomorphosites. In view of the limitations and difficulties in the ranking and/or scoring system adopted in many earlier studies on geoheritage sites, a simple ten-digit geo-coding system for some potential geomorphosites in India is suggested. The 10-digit coding system is a numerical scheme for the arrangement of geomorphosites on the basis of some key scientific value criteria, additional value criteria and management criteria as well as the IUCN geo-theme codes and the code numbers assigned to major geomorphic provinces in a region/country. This coding system could be used to establish a classification and the priority of geomorphosites and could be applied to any area or region in the world. The user-friendly geo-coding system has the potential to classify and sort geomorphosites of different characters, origin and value.

  6. Application of the MASH v1.0 Code System to radiological warfare radiation threats

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.O.; Santoro, R.T.; Smith, M.S.

    1994-03-01

    Nuclear hardening capabilities of US and foreign ground force systems is a primary concern of the Department of Defense (DoD) and US Army. The Monte Carlo Adjoint Shielding Code System -- MASH v1.0 was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to analyze these capabilities, i.e. the shielding effectiveness, for prompt radiation from a nuclear weapon detonation. Rapidly changing world events and the proliferation of nuclear weapons related technology have increased the kinds of nuclear threats to include intentionally dispersed radiation sources and fallout from tactical nuclear weapons used in the modern AirLand battlefield scenario. Consequently, a DoD area of increasing interest focuses on determining the shielding effectiveness of foreign and US armored vehicles to radiological warfare and fallout radiation threats. To demonstrate the applicability of MASH for analyzing dispersed radiation source problems, calculations have been completed for two distributed sources; a dispersed radiation environment simulated by a uniformly distributed {sup 60}Co source, and a {sup 235}U fission weapon fallout source. Fluence and dose assessments were performed for the free-field, the inside of a steel-walled two-meter box, in a phantom standing in the free-field, and in a phantom standing in the two-meter box. The results indicate substantial radiation protection factors for the {sup 60}Co dispersed radiation source and the fallout source compared to the prompt radiation protection factors. The dose protection factors ranged from 40 to 95 for the two-meter box and from 55 to 123 for the mid-gut position of the phantom standing in the box. The results further indicate that a {sup 60}Co source might be a good first order approximation for a tactical fission weapon fallout protection factor analysis.

  7. Code System to Calculate Tornado-Induced Flow Material Transport.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-11-18

    Version: 00 TORAC models tornado-induced flows, pressures, and material transport within structures. Its use is directed toward nuclear fuel cycle facilities and their primary release pathway, the ventilation system. However, it is applicable to other structures and can model other airflow pathways within a facility. In a nuclear facility, this network system could include process cells, canyons, laboratory offices, corridors, and offgas systems. TORAC predicts flow through a network system that also includes ventilation systemmore » components such as filters, dampers, ducts, and blowers. These ventilation system components are connected to the rooms and corridors of the facility to form a complete network for moving air through the structure and, perhaps, maintaining pressure levels in certain areas. The material transport capability in TORAC is very basic and includes convection, depletion, entrainment, and filtration of material.« less

  8. Wave-front coded optical readout for the MEMS-based uncooled infrared imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tian; Zhao, Yuejin; Dong, Liquan; Liu, Xiaohua; Jia, Wei; Hui, Mei; Yu, Xiaomei; Gong, Cheng; Liu, Weiyu

    2012-11-01

    In the space limited infrared imaging system based MEMS, the adjustment of optical readout part is inconvenient. This paper proposed a method of wave-front coding to extend the depth of focus/field of the optical readout system, to solve the problem above, and to reduce the demanding for precision in processing and assemblage of the optical readout system itself as well. The wave-front coded imaging system consists of optical coding and digital decoding. By adding a CPM (Cubic Phase Mask) on the pupil plane, it becomes non-sensitive to defocussing within an extended range. The system has similar PSFs and almost equally blurred intermediate images can be obtained. Sharp images are supposed to be acquired based on image restoration algorithms, with the same PSF as a decoding core. We studied the conventional optical imaging system, which had the same optical performance with the wave-front coding one for comparing. Analogue imaging experiments were carried out. And one PSF was used as a simple direct inverse filter, for imaging restoration. Relatively sharp restored images were obtained. Comparatively, the analogue defocussing images of the conventional system were badly destroyed. Using the decrease of the MTF as a standard, we found the depth of focus/field of the wave-front coding system had been extended significantly.

  9. Multi-Dimensional, Discrete-Ordinates Based Cross Section Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis Code System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2008-05-22

    Version 01 SUSD3D 2008 calculates sensitivity coefficients and standard deviation in the calculated detector responses or design parameters of interest due to input cross sections and their uncertainties. One-, two- and three-dimensional transport problems can be studied. Several types of uncertainties can be considered, i.e. those due to (1) neutron/gamma multi-group cross sections, (2) energy-dependent response functions, (3) secondary angular distribution (SAD) or secondary energy distribution (SED) uncertainties. SUSD3D, initially released in 2000, is looselymore » based on the SUSD code by K. Furuta, Y. Oka and S. Kondo from the University of Tokyo in Japan. SUSD 2008 modifications are primarily relevant for the sensitivity calculations of the critical systems and include: o Correction of the sensitivity calculation for prompt fission and number of delayed neutrons per fission (MT=18 and MT=455). o An option allows the re-normalization of the prompt fission spectra covariance matrices to be applied via the "normalization" of the sensitivity profiles. This option is useful in case if the fission spectra covariances (MF=35) used do not comply with the ENDF-6 Format Manual rules. o For the criticality calculations the normalization can be calculated by the code SUSD3D internally. Parameter NORM should be set to 0 in this case. Total number of neutrons per fission (MT=452) sensitivities for all the fissile materials must be requested in the SUSD3D OVERLAY-2 input deck in order to allow the correct normalization. o The cross section data format reading was updated, mostly for critical systems (e.g. MT18 reaction). o Fission spectra uncertainties can be calculated using the file MF35 data processed by the ERROR-J code. o Cross sections can be input directly using input card "xs" (vector data only). o k-eff card was added for subcritical systems. o This version of SUSD3D code is compatible with the single precision DANTSYS code package (CCC-0547/07 and /08, which

  10. Code System to Calculate Probability of Reactor Vessel Failure.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2000-04-24

    Version: 00 VISA2 (Vessel Integrity Simulation Analysis) was developed to estimate the failure probability of nuclear reactor pressure vessels under pressurized thermal shock conditions. The deterministic portion of the code performs heat transfer, stress, and fracture mechanics calculations for a vessel subjected to a user-specified temperature and pressure transient. The probabilistic analysis performs a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the probability of vessel failure. Parameters such as initial crack size and position, copper and nickelmore » content, fluence, and the fracture toughness values for crack initiation and arrest are treated as random variables. Linear elastic fracture mechanics methods are used to model crack initiation and growth. This includes cladding effects in the heat transfer, stress, and fracture mechanics calculations. The simulation procedure treats an entire vessel and recognizes that more than one flaw can exist in a given vessel. The flaw model allows random positioning of the flaw within the vessel wall thickness, and the user can specify either flaw length or length-to-depth aspect ratio for crack initiation and arrest predictions. The flaw size distribution can be adjusted on the basis of different inservice inspection techniques and inspection conditions. The toughness simulation model includes a menu of alternative equations for predicting the shift in the reference temperature of the nil-ductility transition. VISA2 is an upgraded release from the original VISA program developed by U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff. Improvements include a treatment of cladding effects; a more general simulation of flaw size, shape and location; a simulation of inservice inspection; a revised simulation of the reference temperature of the nil-ductility transition; and treatment of vessels with multiple welds and initial flaws.« less

  11. Code System for Three-Dimensional Hydraulic Reactor Core Analysis.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2001-03-05

    Version 00 SCORE-EVET was developed to study multidimensional transient fluid flow in nuclear reactor fuel rod arrays. The conservation equations used were derived by volume averaging the transient compressible three-dimensional local continuum equations in Cartesian coordinates. No assumptions associated with subchannel flow have been incorporated into the derivation of the conservation equations. In addition to the three-dimensional fluid flow equations, the SCORE-EVET code contains a one-dimensional steady state solution scheme to initialize the flow field,more » steady state and transient fuel rod conduction models, and comprehensive correlation packages to describe fluid-to-fuel rod interfacial energy and momentum exchange. Velocity and pressure boundary conditions can be specified as a function of time and space to model reactor transient conditions, such as a hypothesized loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) or flow blockage. The basic volume-averaged transient three-dimensional equations for flow in porous media are solved in their general form with constitutive relationships and boundary conditions tailored to define the porous medium as a matrix of fuel rods. By retaining generality in the form of the conservation equations, a wide range of fluid flow problem configurations, from computational regions representing a single fuel rod subchannel to multichannels, or even regions without a fuel rod, can be modeled without restrictive assumptions. The completeness of the conservation equations has allowed SCORE-EVET to be used, with modification to the constitutive relationships, to calculate three-dimensional laminar boundary layer development, flow fields in large bodies of water, and, with the addition of a turbulence model, turbulent flow in pipe expansions and tees.« less

  12. A new magnetic bar code system based on a magnetic anisotropy detection (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasada, I.; Watanabe, N.

    1996-04-01

    Magnetic bar codes can be used in unclean environments, where widely used optical bar code systems cannot be applied. Readout system for magnetic bar codes can also be made much simpler than optical ones. A new magnetic bar code system is proposed, in which binary information is coded in the sign of tilted angles of magnetic strips from a given standard direction. This scheme is unique compared to the conventional optical bar code, where width or space of the parallel pattern carries information, or an already reported magnetic bar code, where cross sectional shapes of pattern engraved in a ferromagnetic body carries information. Each of the magnetic strips brings about magnetic anisotropy due to its shape effect, hence angular dependent permeability in the proximity of the strip. The sign of the tilted angle of each magnetic strip is detected inductively through the angular dependent permeability by using a magnetic pickup head with a pair of cross-coupled figure-eight coils, where the sign of mutual inductance between the primary and the secondary figure-eight coil has one to one relationship to the sign of the tilted angle. Because the detection of the tilted angle is independent of scanning speed, variation in the scanning speed of the readout head does not affect the performance. In our preliminary study, the proposed magnetic bar code system was examined using pickup head consisting of a pair of cross-coupled 10-turn figure-eight coils which was embedded in a rectangular ferrite rod with cross-shape groove on the top surface of 6.5×3 mm dimension. The head was made thinner in the scanning direction to allow dense alignment of the pattern. Two kinds of pattern were made: the one was by aligning short amorphous wires (5 mm in length and 120 μm in diameter) on the plastic film and the other by using a thin (10 μm in thickness) copper film with tilted slits backed by an amorphous ribbon. These samples of magnetic bar code patterns were scanned with lift-off of

  13. International Space Station Electric Power System Performance Code-SPACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hojnicki, Jeffrey; McKissock, David; Fincannon, James; Green, Robert; Kerslake, Thomas; Delleur, Ann; Follo, Jeffrey; Trudell, Jeffrey; Hoffman, David J.; Jannette, Anthony; Rodriguez, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    The System Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation (SPACE) software analyzes and predicts the minute-by-minute state of the International Space Station (ISS) electrical power system (EPS) for upcoming missions as well as EPS power generation capacity as a function of ISS configuration and orbital conditions. In order to complete the Certification of Flight Readiness (CoFR) process in which the mission is certified for flight each ISS System must thoroughly assess every proposed mission to verify that the system will support the planned mission operations; SPACE is the sole tool used to conduct these assessments for the power system capability. SPACE is an integrated power system model that incorporates a variety of modules tied together with integration routines and graphical output. The modules include orbit mechanics, solar array pointing/shadowing/thermal and electrical, battery performance, and power management and distribution performance. These modules are tightly integrated within a flexible architecture featuring data-file-driven configurations, source- or load-driven operation, and event scripting. SPACE also predicts the amount of power available for a given system configuration, spacecraft orientation, solar-array-pointing conditions, orbit, and the like. In the source-driven mode, the model must assure that energy balance is achieved, meaning that energy removed from the batteries must be restored (or balanced) each and every orbit. This entails an optimization scheme to ensure that energy balance is maintained without violating any other constraints.

  14. A signal processing system of fiber Bragg grating sensor based on code division multiplexing access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei

    2013-09-01

    A lowcost Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) Sensing System based on code division multiplexing access (CDMA) technology is proposed. The system using semiconductor optical amplifier and a broadband source is experimented. Without a tunable laser source or electro-optic switch driven, the price of system is very low. CDMA is used to separate each reflected sensor. The experimental results show that theory is correct.

  15. Systemizers Are Better Code-Breakers: Self-Reported Systemizing Predicts Code-Breaking Performance in Expert Hackers and Naïve Participants.

    PubMed

    Harvey, India; Bolgan, Samuela; Mosca, Daniel; McLean, Colin; Rusconi, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Studies on hacking have typically focused on motivational aspects and general personality traits of the individuals who engage in hacking; little systematic research has been conducted on predispositions that may be associated not only with the choice to pursue a hacking career but also with performance in either naïve or expert populations. Here, we test the hypotheses that two traits that are typically enhanced in autism spectrum disorders-attention to detail and systemizing-may be positively related to both the choice of pursuing a career in information security and skilled performance in a prototypical hacking task (i.e., crypto-analysis or code-breaking). A group of naïve participants and of ethical hackers completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient, including an attention to detail scale, and the Systemizing Quotient (Baron-Cohen et al., 2001, 2003). They were also tested with behavioral tasks involving code-breaking and a control task involving security X-ray image interpretation. Hackers reported significantly higher systemizing and attention to detail than non-hackers. We found a positive relation between self-reported systemizing (but not attention to detail) and code-breaking skills in both hackers and non-hackers, whereas attention to detail (but not systemizing) was related with performance in the X-ray screening task in both groups, as previously reported with naïve participants (Rusconi et al., 2015). We discuss the theoretical and translational implications of our findings. PMID:27242491

  16. The integration of system specifications and program coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luebke, W. R.

    1970-01-01

    Experience in maintaining up-to-date documentation for one module of the large-scale Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System 2 (MEDLARS 2) is described. Several innovative techniques were explored in the development of this system's data management environment, particularly those that use PL/I as an automatic documenter. The PL/I data description section can provide automatic documentation by means of a master description of data elements that has long and highly meaningful mnemonic names and a formalized technique for the production of descriptive commentary. The techniques discussed are practical methods that employ the computer during system development in a manner that assists system implementation, provides interim documentation for customer review, and satisfies some of the deliverable documentation requirements.

  17. Performance Analysis of Spectral Amplitude Coding Based OCDMA System with Gain and Splitter Mismatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umrani, Fahim A.; Umrani, A. Waheed; Umrani, Naveed A.; Memon, Kehkashan A.; Kalwar, Imtiaz Hussain

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents the practical analysis of the optical code-division multiple-access (O-CDMA) systems based on perfect difference codes. The work carried out use SNR criterion to select the optimal value of avalanche photodiodes (APD) gain and shows how the mismatch in the splitters and gains of the APD used in the transmitters and receivers of network can degrade the BER performance of the system. The investigations also reveal that higher APD gains are not suitable for such systems even at higher powers. The system performance, with consideration of shot noise, thermal noise, bulk and surface leakage currents is also investigated.

  18. Neuroprotective Activity of Thioctic Acid in Central Nervous System Lesions Consequent to Peripheral Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ghelardini, Carla; Nwankwo, Innocent E.; Pacini, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathies are heterogeneous disorders presenting often with hyperalgesia and allodynia. This study has assessed if chronic constriction injury (CCI) of sciatic nerve is accompanied by increased oxidative stress and central nervous system (CNS) changes and if these changes are sensitive to treatment with thioctic acid. Thioctic acid is a naturally occurring antioxidant existing in two optical isomers (+)- and (−)-thioctic acid and in the racemic form. It has been proposed for treating disorders associated with increased oxidative stress. Sciatic nerve CCI was made in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and in normotensive reference cohorts. Rats were untreated or treated intraperitoneally for 14 days with (+/−)-, (+)-, or (−)-thioctic acid. Oxidative stress, astrogliosis, myelin sheets status, and neuronal injury in motor and sensory cerebrocortical areas were assessed. Increase of oxidative stress markers, astrogliosis, and neuronal damage accompanied by a decreased expression of neurofilament were observed in SHR. This phenomenon was more pronounced after CCI. Thioctic acid countered astrogliosis and neuronal damage, (+)-thioctic acid being more active than (+/−)- or (−)-enantiomers. These findings suggest a neuroprotective activity of thioctic acid on CNS lesions consequent to CCI and that the compound may represent a therapeutic option for entrapment neuropathies. PMID:24527432

  19. The Application of The Wavelet Transform to The Low Bit Rate Speech Coding System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mriai, Shogo; Hanazaki, Izumi

    In the analysis-synthesis coding of speech signals, realization of the high quality in the low bit rate coding depends on the extraction of its characteristic parameters in the pre-processing. The precise extraction of the fundamental frequency, one of the parameters of the source information, guarantees the quality in the speech synthesis. But its extraction is difficult because of the influence of the consonant, non-periodicity of vocal cords vibration, wide range of the fundamental frequency, etc.. In this paper, we will propose a new fundamental frequency extraction with the criterion based on its harmonics structure and low bit rate speech coding system using the Wavelet transform.

  20. SAFIRE: A systems analysis code for ICF (inertial confinement fusion) reactor economics

    SciTech Connect

    McCarville, T.J.; Meier, W.R.; Carson, C.F.; Glasgow, B.B.

    1987-01-12

    The SAFIRE (Systems Analysis for ICF Reactor Economics) code incorporates analytical models for scaling the cost and performance of several inertial confinement fusion reactor concepts for electric power. The code allows us to vary design parameters (e.g., driver energy, chamber pulse rate, net electric power) and evaluate the resulting change in capital cost of power plant and the busbar cost of electricity. The SAFIRE code can be used to identify the most attractive operating space and to identify those design parameters with the greatest leverage for improving the economics of inertial confinement fusion electric power plants.

  1. Field-based tests of geochemical modeling codes: New Zealand hydrothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bruton, C.J.; Glassley, W.E.; Bourcier, W.L.

    1993-12-01

    Hydrothermal systems in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, North Island, New Zealand are being used as field-based modeling exercises for the EQ3/6 geochemical modeling code package. Comparisons of the observed state and evolution of the hydrothermal systems with predictions of fluid-solid equilibria made using geochemical modeling codes will determine how the codes can be used to predict the chemical and mineralogical response of the environment to nuclear waste emplacement. Field-based exercises allow us to test the models on time scales unattainable in the laboratory. Preliminary predictions of mineral assemblages in equilibrium with fluids sampled from wells in the Wairakei and Kawerau geothermal field suggest that affinity-temperature diagrams must be used in conjunction with EQ6 to minimize the effect of uncertainties in thermodynamic and kinetic data on code predictions.

  2. Field-based tests of geochemical modeling codes using New Zealand hydrothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bruton, C.J.; Glassley, W.E.; Bourcier, W.L.

    1994-06-01

    Hydrothermal systems in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, North Island, New Zealand are being used as field-based modeling exercises for the EQ3/6 geochemical modeling code package. Comparisons of the observed state and evolution of the hydrothermal systems with predictions of fluid-solid equilibria made using geochemical modeling codes will determine how the codes can be used to predict the chemical and mineralogical response of the environment to nuclear waste emplacement. Field-based exercises allow us to test the models on time scales unattainable in the laboratory. Preliminary predictions of mineral assemblages in equilibrium with fluids sampled from wells in the Wairakei and Kawerau geothermal field suggest that affinity-temperature diagrams must be used in conjunction with EQ6 to minimize the effect of uncertainties in thermodynamic and kinetic data on code predictions.

  3. Study of an External Neutron Source for an Accelerator-Driven System using the PHITS Code

    SciTech Connect

    Sugawara, Takanori; Iwasaki, Tomohiko; Chiba, Takashi

    2005-05-24

    A code system for the Accelerator Driven System (ADS) has been under development for analyzing dynamic behaviors of a subcritical core coupled with an accelerator. This code system named DSE (Dynamics calculation code system for a Subcritical system with an External neutron source) consists of an accelerator part and a reactor part. The accelerator part employs a database, which is calculated by using PHITS, for investigating the effect related to the accelerator such as the changes of beam energy, beam diameter, void generation, and target level. This analysis method using the database may introduce some errors into dynamics calculations since the neutron source data derived from the database has some errors in fitting or interpolating procedures. In this study, the effects of various events are investigated to confirm that the method based on the database is appropriate.

  4. Code System to Calculate Integrated Reliability and Risk Analysis.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2002-02-18

    Version 04 IRRAS Version 4.16, the latest in a series (2.0, 2.5, 4.0, 4.15), is a program developed for the purpose of performing those functions necessary to create and analyze a complete Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). This program includes functions to allow the user to create event trees and fault trees, to define accident sequences and basic event failure data, to solve system and accident sequence fault trees, to quantify cut sets, and to performmore » uncertainty analysis on the results. Also included in this program are features to allow the analyst to generate reports and displays that can be used to document the results of an analysis. Since this software is a very detailed technical tool, the user of this program should be familiar with PRA concepts and the methods used to perform these analyses. IRRAS Version 4.16 is the latest in the stand-alone IRRAS series (2.0, 2.5, 4.0, 4.15). Be sure to review the PSR-405/ SAPHIRE 7.06 package which was released in January 2000 and includes three programs: the Integrated Reliability and Risk Analysis System (IRRAS), the System Analysis and Risk Assessment (SARA) system, the Models And Results Database (MAR-D) system, and the Fault tree, Event tree and P&ID (FEP) editors.« less

  5. SCALE 6: Comprehensive Nuclear Safety Analysis Code System

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, Stephen M

    2011-01-01

    Version 6 of the Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) computer software system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, released in February 2009, contains significant new capabilities and data for nuclear safety analysis and marks an important update for this software package, which is used worldwide. This paper highlights the capabilities of the SCALE system, including continuous-energy flux calculations for processing multigroup problem-dependent cross sections, ENDF/B-VII continuous-energy and multigroup nuclear cross-section data, continuous-energy Monte Carlo criticality safety calculations, Monte Carlo radiation shielding analyses with automated three-dimensional variance reduction techniques, one- and three-dimensional sensitivity and uncertainty analyses for criticality safety evaluations, two- and three-dimensional lattice physics depletion analyses, fast and accurate source terms and decay heat calculations, automated burnup credit analyses with loading curve search, and integrated three-dimensional criticality accident alarm system analyses using coupled Monte Carlo criticality and shielding calculations.

  6. Code orange: Towards transformational leadership of emergency management systems.

    PubMed

    Caro, Denis H J

    2015-09-01

    The 21(st) century calls upon health leaders to recognize and respond to emerging threats and systemic emergency management challenges through transformative processes inherent in the LEADS in a caring environment framework. Using a grounded theory approach, this qualitative study explores key informant perspectives of leaders in emergency management across Canada on pressing needs for relevant systemic transformation. The emerging model points to eight specific attributes of transformational leadership central to emergency management and suggests that contextualization of health leadership is of particular import. PMID:26135294

  7. Auto Code Generation for Simulink-Based Attitude Determination Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MolinaFraticelli, Jose Carlos

    2012-01-01

    This paper details the work done to auto generate C code from a Simulink-Based Attitude Determination Control System (ADCS) to be used in target platforms. NASA Marshall Engineers have developed an ADCS Simulink simulation to be used as a component for the flight software of a satellite. This generated code can be used for carrying out Hardware in the loop testing of components for a satellite in a convenient manner with easily tunable parameters. Due to the nature of the embedded hardware components such as microcontrollers, this simulation code cannot be used directly, as it is, on the target platform and must first be converted into C code; this process is known as auto code generation. In order to generate C code from this simulation; it must be modified to follow specific standards set in place by the auto code generation process. Some of these modifications include changing certain simulation models into their atomic representations which can bring new complications into the simulation. The execution order of these models can change based on these modifications. Great care must be taken in order to maintain a working simulation that can also be used for auto code generation. After modifying the ADCS simulation for the auto code generation process, it is shown that the difference between the output data of the former and that of the latter is between acceptable bounds. Thus, it can be said that the process is a success since all the output requirements are met. Based on these results, it can be argued that this generated C code can be effectively used by any desired platform as long as it follows the specific memory requirements established in the Simulink Model.

  8. Implementation of MAGINT code on the CDC-CYBER-170/750 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinyashibata, Carlos; Leiteneto, Joaquin Paulino; Montes, Antonio

    1988-09-01

    A magnetic field calculation code, Magint, was implemented on the CDC Cyber-170/750 system of the Institute for Advanced Studies (IEAv/CTA). Presented is a brief description of the code, the commands specifying the conductor configurations, and the data file structures. As an example of application, some calculations are shown referring to a magnetic plasma confinement apparatus under construction at the Plasma Laboratory of the Institute for Space Research (LAP/INPE).

  9. Systemizers Are Better Code-Breakers: Self-Reported Systemizing Predicts Code-Breaking Performance in Expert Hackers and Naïve Participants

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, India; Bolgan, Samuela; Mosca, Daniel; McLean, Colin; Rusconi, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Studies on hacking have typically focused on motivational aspects and general personality traits of the individuals who engage in hacking; little systematic research has been conducted on predispositions that may be associated not only with the choice to pursue a hacking career but also with performance in either naïve or expert populations. Here, we test the hypotheses that two traits that are typically enhanced in autism spectrum disorders—attention to detail and systemizing—may be positively related to both the choice of pursuing a career in information security and skilled performance in a prototypical hacking task (i.e., crypto-analysis or code-breaking). A group of naïve participants and of ethical hackers completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient, including an attention to detail scale, and the Systemizing Quotient (Baron-Cohen et al., 2001, 2003). They were also tested with behavioral tasks involving code-breaking and a control task involving security X-ray image interpretation. Hackers reported significantly higher systemizing and attention to detail than non-hackers. We found a positive relation between self-reported systemizing (but not attention to detail) and code-breaking skills in both hackers and non-hackers, whereas attention to detail (but not systemizing) was related with performance in the X-ray screening task in both groups, as previously reported with naïve participants (Rusconi et al., 2015). We discuss the theoretical and translational implications of our findings. PMID:27242491

  10. The development of efficient coding for an electronic mail system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Techniques for efficiently representing scanned electronic documents were investigated. Major results include the definition and preliminary performance results of a Universal System for Efficient Electronic Mail (USEEM), offering a potential order of magnitude improvement over standard facsimile techniques for representing textual material.

  11. CATHARE thermal-hydraulic system code for HLM preliminary validation in natural convection tests

    SciTech Connect

    Polidori, M.; Meloni, P.; Lombardo, C.; Bandini, G.; Geffraye, G.; Kadri, D.

    2012-07-01

    The innovative nuclear systems cooled by Heavy Liquid Metal (HLM) are the subject of an ongoing interest both in Europe and outside, evidenced by a number of projects in progress. In the frame of the European Framework Programmes have been evidenced the need to adopt a thermalhydraulic system code capable to treat lead and Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) systems, with a particular interest in developing a 'European' code. Considering this scenario, within a specific collaboration between ENEA and CEA, the CATHARE French system code has been modified extending its capabilities to simulate HLM systems. In the present paper, the state of the validation process of CATHARE-HLM is discussed. The activity aims to assess the capabilities and limitations of the code to simulate the behavior of integral facilities, in particular in natural circulation conditions. The experimental data come from NACIE LBE-cooled facility sited at the ENEA Brasimone laboratories. The results obtained show a good capability in reproducing the systems behavior, despite some uncertainties on the experimental measurements. Future improvements on the code are going to be planned within the collaboration ENEA/CEA. (authors)

  12. 13 CFR 121.201 - What size standards has SBA identified by North American Industry Classification System codes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... identified by North American Industry Classification System codes? 121.201 Section 121.201 Business Credit... has SBA identified by North American Industry Classification System codes? Link to an amendment... affiliates to be considered small. Small Business Size Standards by NAICS Industry NAICS codes NAICS...

  13. 13 CFR 121.201 - What size standards has SBA identified by North American Industry Classification System codes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... identified by North American Industry Classification System codes? 121.201 Section 121.201 Business Credit... has SBA identified by North American Industry Classification System codes? Link to an amendment... affiliates to be considered small. Small Business Size Standards by NAICS Industry NAICS codes NAICS...

  14. Consequences of insect herbivory on grape fine root systems with different growth rates.

    PubMed

    Bauerle, T L; Eissenstat, D M; Granett, J; Gardner, D M; Smart, D R

    2007-07-01

    Herbivory tolerance has been linked to plant growth rate where plants with fast growth rates are hypothesized to be more tolerant of herbivory than slower-growing plants. Evidence supporting this theory has been taken primarily from observations of aboveground organs but rarely from roots. Grapevines differing in overall rates of new root production, were studied in Napa Valley, California over two growing seasons in an established vineyard infested with the sucking insect, grape phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch). The experimental vineyard allowed for the comparison of two root systems that differed in rates of new root tip production (a 'fast grower', Vitis berlandieri x Vitis rupestris cv. 1103P, and a slower-growing stock, Vitis riparia x Vitis rupestris cv. 101-14 Mgt). Each root system was grafted with a genetically identical shoot system (Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot). Using minirhizotrons, we did not observe any evidence of spatial or temporal avoidance of insect populations by root growth. Insect infestations were abundant throughout the soil profile, and seasonal peaks in phylloxera populations generally closely followed peaks in new root production. Our data supported the hypothesis that insect infestation was proportional to the number of growing tips, as indicated by similar per cent infestation in spite of a threefold difference in root tip production. In addition, infested roots of the fast-growing rootstock exhibited somewhat shorter median lifespans (60 d) than the slower-growing rootstock (85 d). Lifespans of uninfested roots were similar for the two rootstocks (200 d). As a consequence of greater root mortality of younger roots, infested root populations in the fast-growing rootstock had an older age structure. While there does not seem to be a trade-off between potential growth rate and relative rate of root infestation in these cultivars, our study indicates that a fast-growing root system may more readily shed infested roots that are

  15. Object-adaptive depth compensated inter prediction for depth video coding in 3D video system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Min-Koo; Lee, Jaejoon; Lim, Ilsoon; Ho, Yo-Sung

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, the 3D video system using the MVD (multi-view video plus depth) data format is being actively studied. The system has many advantages with respect to virtual view synthesis such as an auto-stereoscopic functionality, but compression of huge input data remains a problem. Therefore, efficient 3D data compression is extremely important in the system, and problems of low temporal consistency and viewpoint correlation should be resolved for efficient depth video coding. In this paper, we propose an object-adaptive depth compensated inter prediction method to resolve the problems where object-adaptive mean-depth difference between a current block, to be coded, and a reference block are compensated during inter prediction. In addition, unique properties of depth video are exploited to reduce side information required for signaling decoder to conduct the same process. To evaluate the coding performance, we have implemented the proposed method into MVC (multiview video coding) reference software, JMVC 8.2. Experimental results have demonstrated that our proposed method is especially efficient for depth videos estimated by DERS (depth estimation reference software) discussed in the MPEG 3DV coding group. The coding gain was up to 11.69% bit-saving, and it was even increased when we evaluated it on synthesized views of virtual viewpoints.

  16. The CCONE Code System and its Application to Nuclear Data Evaluation for Fission and Other Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, O.; Iwamoto, N.; Kunieda, S.; Minato, F.; Shibata, K.

    2016-01-01

    A computer code system, CCONE, was developed for nuclear data evaluation within the JENDL project. The CCONE code system integrates various nuclear reaction models needed to describe nucleon, light charged nuclei up to alpha-particle and photon induced reactions. The code is written in the C++ programming language using an object-oriented technology. At first, it was applied to neutron-induced reaction data on actinides, which were compiled into JENDL Actinide File 2008 and JENDL-4.0. It has been extensively used in various nuclear data evaluations for both actinide and non-actinide nuclei. The CCONE code has been upgraded to nuclear data evaluation at higher incident energies for neutron-, proton-, and photon-induced reactions. It was also used for estimating β-delayed neutron emission. This paper describes the CCONE code system indicating the concept and design of coding and inputs. Details of the formulation for modelings of the direct, pre-equilibrium and compound reactions are presented. Applications to the nuclear data evaluations such as neutron-induced reactions on actinides and medium-heavy nuclei, high-energy nucleon-induced reactions, photonuclear reaction and β-delayed neutron emission are mentioned.

  17. Code System to Calculate Transient 2-Dimensional 2-Phase Flow.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-10-18

    Version: 00 SOLA-DF is a numerical solution algorithm for gas-liquid mixture dynamics in two space dimensions and time. The two-phase system is described by a set of mixture equations plus a relation describing the relative flow of one phase with respect to the other. The algorithm contains models to represent the interphase exchange rates of mass, momentum, and energy for water-steam mixtures.

  18. Code For Analysis Of Wing-And-Flap Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darden, Christine M.; Carlson, Harry W.

    1990-01-01

    SUBAERF2 program developed to provide for analysis of subsonic aerodynamics and design by iteration of low-speed wing/flap systems. Based on linearized-theory lifting-surface solution but also accounts for some nonlinear characteristics. Effects of leading- and trailing-edge flaps included. New and improved version of programs described in LAR-13116 and LAR-12987, and replaces both of them. Written in FORTRAN V.

  19. Guides for estimating consequences in 200 Area systems and safety analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Stoddard, D.H.

    1982-08-31

    Safety analysts must approximate consequences from the occurrence of accidents where detailed calculations are not justified or specific data are not available. This memorandum describes recommended guides for use in estimating consequences from a range of accidents. The guides are described in words, and in diagrammatic form in figures or in tables. The guides were selected by engineering judgement after many reviews of the operating facility history recorded in the 200 Area Fault Tree Data Banks.

  20. Code System to Calculate Stress-Strains from Transient Pressures.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2000-04-28

    Version 00 The SPIRT (Stress-strains from Pressures Instigated by Reactor Transients) program was developed to predict the pressure generated by the rapid dispersal of molten UO2 from power-reactor-type fuel rods into the coolant water. This rapid dispersal of molten fuel results from very high-power excursions initiated by the rapid insertion of reactivity. SPIRT was used in the safety analyses of the ATR and ETR. The program can analyze the response of one-dimensional plane, cylindrical, andmore » spherical geometric configurations to pressure-generating heat sources with free-surface or fixed-surface boundary conditions. SPIRT can calculate the response of systems to the dispersal of hot fuel particles as a function of the following variables: enthalpy of fuel at time of dispersal, rate at which fuel is dispersed, size of dispersed fuel droplets, dispersal density of fuel (grams of fuel dispersed per cc of water), quality of water at time of fuel dispersal, enthalpy of water at time of fuel dispersal, system pressure at time of fuel dispersal, and the size and constituency of the medium enveloping the dispersed fuel. By holding all but one of the listed variables constant, and varying that one, the program computes the relative effect of that variable upon the response of systems to the dispersal of hot fuel. SPIRT exists as two releases one, written for UO2 fuel is called SPIRTU; the second, for uranium-aluminide fuel is identified as SPIRTA.« less

  1. Hierarchical security system using real-valued data and orthogonal code in Fourier domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Seo, Dong-Hoan; Hwang, Kwang-Il; Lim, Tae-Woo

    2014-02-01

    We propose a novel hierarchical encryption scheme using orthogonal code in Fourier domain and decryption based on interferometer system. The proposed system is composed of hierarchical ciphertexts with positive real values which can be applied for practical transmission such as Internet, and decryption keys with real valued function which has orthogonal characteristic in the decryption system. Since the original information is encrypted on the Fourier plane, the proposed encryption is more tolerant to loss of key information by scratching or cutting than encryption in a spatial domain. The resulting image using Fourier transform and an interferometer system with constant phase retarder is then decrypted by use of a ciphertext with different security level and each of decryption keys made from the multiplication of orthogonal code and random phase code in order to enhance the level of security. We demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method and the fault-tolerance properties of data loss through several simulations.

  2. Simulative Investigation on Spectral Efficiency of Unipolar Codes based OCDMA System using Importance Sampling Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhat, A.; Menif, M.; Rezig, H.

    2013-09-01

    This paper analyses the spectral efficiency of Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA) system using Importance Sampling (IS) technique. We consider three configurations of OCDMA system namely Direct Sequence (DS), Spectral Amplitude Coding (SAC) and Fast Frequency Hopping (FFH) that exploits the Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBG) based encoder/decoder. We evaluate the spectral efficiency of the considered system by taking into consideration the effect of different families of unipolar codes for both coherent and incoherent sources. The results show that the spectral efficiency of OCDMA system with coherent source is higher than the incoherent case. We demonstrate also that DS-OCDMA outperforms both others in terms of spectral efficiency in all conditions.

  3. ESC-EEC-EPC code system for plasma core and edge equilibrium and particle orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xujing

    2013-10-01

    A new Edge Equilibrium Code (EEC), which is a new solver of the Grad-Shafranov equation complementing the existing ESC code (based on Fourier representation) is presented. EEC, being developed specifically for the near edge region with an arbitrary shape of the plasma boundary, uses adaptive flux coordinates with Hermite finite element representation. A special routine for fast solving the sparse matrix equations was created for EEC. The edge solution of EEC is matched with the core solution from ESC through a virtual boundary and the two codes communicate as two parallel processes. This approach addresses the future needs in enhancing functionality of EEC without conflicting with the interface of both codes. The code was complemented by Edge Particle Code (EPC) for massive calculation of collisional particle orbits using GPU. The resulting ESC-EEC-EPC code system acquired unmatched ability (a) in fast free and fixed boundary equilibrium calculations for arbitrary plasma shapes, (b) in using both r - z and different flux coordinates, (c) in choosing different combinations of input profiles, (d) in performing equilibrium reconstruction together with variances analysis, and (e) in assessing the diagnostics used for equilibrium reconstruction. Chinese National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program 2011GB105003, US DOE SBIR grant # 94307S10-II.

  4. Code of ethics for the national pharmaceutical system: Codifying and compilation

    PubMed Central

    Salari, Pooneh; Namazi, Hamidreza; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Khansari, Fatemeh; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Larijani, Bagher; Araminia, Behin

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacists as one of health-care providers face ethical issues in terms of pharmaceutical care, relationship with patients and cooperation with the health-care team. Other than pharmacy, there are pharmaceutical companies in various fields of manufacturing, importing or distributing that have their own ethical issues. Therefore, pharmacy practice is vulnerable to ethical challenges and needs special code of conducts. On feeling the need, based on a shared project between experts of the ethics from relevant research centers, all the needs were fully recognized and then specified code of conduct for each was written. The code of conduct was subject to comments of all experts involved in the pharmaceutical sector and thus criticized in several meetings. The prepared code of conduct is comprised of professional code of ethics for pharmacists, ethics guideline for pharmaceutical manufacturers, ethics guideline for pharmaceutical importers, ethics guideline for pharmaceutical distributors, and ethics guideline for policy makers. The document was compiled based on the principles of bioethics and professionalism. The compiling the code of ethics for the national pharmaceutical system is the first step in implementing ethics in pharmacy practice and further attempts into teaching the professionalism and the ethical code as the necessary and complementary effort are highly recommended. PMID:24174954

  5. Code of ethics for the national pharmaceutical system: Codifying and compilation.

    PubMed

    Salari, Pooneh; Namazi, Hamidreza; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Khansari, Fatemeh; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Larijani, Bagher; Araminia, Behin

    2013-05-01

    Pharmacists as one of health-care providers face ethical issues in terms of pharmaceutical care, relationship with patients and cooperation with the health-care team. Other than pharmacy, there are pharmaceutical companies in various fields of manufacturing, importing or distributing that have their own ethical issues. Therefore, pharmacy practice is vulnerable to ethical challenges and needs special code of conducts. On feeling the need, based on a shared project between experts of the ethics from relevant research centers, all the needs were fully recognized and then specified code of conduct for each was written. The code of conduct was subject to comments of all experts involved in the pharmaceutical sector and thus criticized in several meetings. The prepared code of conduct is comprised of professional code of ethics for pharmacists, ethics guideline for pharmaceutical manufacturers, ethics guideline for pharmaceutical importers, ethics guideline for pharmaceutical distributors, and ethics guideline for policy makers. The document was compiled based on the principles of bioethics and professionalism. The compiling the code of ethics for the national pharmaceutical system is the first step in implementing ethics in pharmacy practice and further attempts into teaching the professionalism and the ethical code as the necessary and complementary effort are highly recommended. PMID:24174954

  6. Psychometric Properties of the System for Coding Couples’ Interactions in Therapy - Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Mandy D.; McCrady, Barbara S.; Borders, Adrienne Z.; Brovko, Julie M.; Pearson, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    Few systems are available for coding in-session behaviors for couples in therapy. Alcohol Behavior Couples Therapy (ABCT) is an empirically supported treatment, but little is known about its mechanisms of behavior change. In the current study, an adapted version of the Motivational Interviewing for Significant Others coding system was developed into the System for Coding Couples’ Interactions in Therapy – Alcohol (SCCIT-A), which was used to code couples’ interactions and behaviors during ABCT. Results showed good inter-rater reliability of the SCCIT-A and provided evidence that the SCCIT-A may be a promising measure for understanding couples in therapy. A three factor model of the SCCIT-A was examined (Positive, Negative, and Change Talk/Counter-Change Talk) using a confirmatory factor analysis, but model fit was poor. Due to poor model fit, ratios were computed for Positive/Negative ratings and for Change Talk/Counter-Change Talk codes based on previous research in the couples and Motivational Interviewing literature. Post-hoc analyses examined correlations between specific SCCIT-A codes and baseline characteristics and indicated some concurrent validity. Correlations were run between ratios and baseline characteristics; ratios may be an alternative to using the factors from the SCCIT-A. Reliability and validity analyses suggest that the SCCIT-A has the potential to be a useful measure for coding in-session behaviors of both partners in couples therapy and could be used to identify mechanisms of behavior change for ABCT. Additional research is needed to improve the reliability of some codes and to further develop the SCCIT-A and other measures of couples’ interactions in therapy. PMID:25528049

  7. Can wavefront coding infrared imaging system achieve decoded images approximating to in-focus infrared images?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Bin; Zhang, Chengshuo; Xu, Baoshu; Shi, Zelin

    2015-11-01

    Artefacts and noise degrade the decoded image of a wavefront coding infrared imaging system, which usually results in the decoded image being inferior to the in-focus infrared image of a conventional infrared imaging system. The previous letter showed that the decoded image fell behind the in-focus infrared image. For comparison, a bar target experiment at temperature of 20°C and two groups of outdoor experiments at temperatures of 28°C and 70°C are respectively conducted. Experimental results prove that a wavefront coding infrared imaging system can achieve the decoded image being approximating to its corresponding in-focus infrared image.

  8. Experimental research and comparison of LDPC and RS channel coding in ultraviolet communication systems.

    PubMed

    Wu, Menglong; Han, Dahai; Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Min; Yue, Guangxin

    2014-03-10

    We have implemented a modified Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) codec algorithm in ultraviolet (UV) communication system. Simulations are conducted with measured parameters to evaluate the LDPC-based UV system performance. Moreover, LDPC (960, 480) and RS (18, 10) are implemented and experimented via a non-line-of-sight (NLOS) UV test bed. The experimental results are in agreement with the simulation and suggest that based on the given power and 10(-3)bit error rate (BER), in comparison with an uncoded system, average communication distance increases 32% with RS code, while 78% with LDPC code. PMID:24663882

  9. Ultra-wideband communication system prototype using orthogonal frequency coded SAW correlators.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Daniel R; Kozlovski, Nikolai Y; Malocha, Donald C

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents preliminary ultra-wideband (UWB) communication system results utilizing orthogonal frequency coded SAW correlators. Orthogonal frequency coding (OFC) and pseudo-noise (PN) coding provides a means for spread-spectrum UWB. The use of OFC spectrally spreads a PN sequence beyond that of CDMA; allowing for improved correlation gain. The transceiver approach is still very similar to that of the CDMA approach, but provides greater code diversity. Use of SAW correlators eliminates many of the costly components that are typically needed in the intermediate frequency (IF) section in the transmitter and receiver, and greatly reduces the signal processing requirements. Development and results of an experimental prototype system with center frequency of 250 MHz are presented. The prototype system is configured using modular RF components and benchtop pulse generator and frequency source. The SAW correlation filters used in the test setup were designed using 7 chip frequencies within the transducer. The fractional bandwidth of approximately 29% was implemented to exceed the defined UWB specification. Discussion of the filter design and results are presented and are compared with packaged device measurements. A prototype UWB system using OFC SAW correlators is demonstrated in wired and wireless configurations. OFC-coded SAW filters are used for generation of a transmitted spread-spectrum UWB and matched filter correlated reception. Autocorrelation and cross-correlation system outputs are compared. The results demonstrate the feasibility of UWB SAW correlators for use in UWB communication transceivers. PMID:23475929

  10. Integrating bar-code devices with computerized MC and A systems

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.K.; Boor, M.G.; Hurford, J.M.

    1998-12-31

    Over the past seven years, Los Alamos National Laboratory developed several generations of computerized nuclear materials control and accountability (MC and A) systems for tracking and reporting the storage, movement, and management of nuclear materials at domestic and international facilities. During the same period, Oak Ridge National Laboratory was involved with automated data acquisition (ADA) equipment, including installation of numerous bar-code scanning stations at various facilities to serve as input devices to computerized systems. Bar-code readers, as well as other ADA devices, reduce input errors, provide faster input, and allow the capture of data in remote areas where workstations do not exist. Los Alamos National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory teamed together to implement the integration of bar-code hardware technology with computerized MC and A systems. With the expertise of both sites, the two technologies were successfully merged with little difficulty. Bar-code input is now available with several functions of the MC and A systems: material movements within material balance areas (MBAs), material movements between MBAs, and physical inventory verification. This paper describes the various components required for the integration of these MC and A systems with the installed bar-code reader devices and the future directions for these technologies.

  11. Sample Analysis Code System for the Dual Channel Counter.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-09-14

    Version 00 RADCOMPT automates gross alpha and gross beta sample analysis calculations and, in many cases, warns the technologist when a hazard level is being approached or when it has been exceeded. The RADCOMPT program is unique in that it corrects for crosstalk between channels, and in this way provides increased accuracy and efficiency. Even though it is designed explicitly for the analyses of air samples and wipe samples, it can also be used formore » other sample types. It is designed to be used with a dual channel counter (in which one channel is used for alpha detection and the other for beta detection), but may be used with two single channel counters employed for the same purpose. In addition, it provides an automated means for the execution of the following radiological sample analyses protocol: A. Calibration of the counting system B. Calculation of sample activity or air activity concentrations (with the activities of air activity concentrations at the top and bottom of the two-sided 95 percent confidence interval also specified). C. Determination of minimum sample counting times required for detection and/or quantification of specified alpha and beta activities or air activity concentrations. In addition, alternate counting times are determined for alternate activities such that the specified alpha and beta activities are at the top of the 95% confidence interval, increasing the confidence that the activities measured are below the specified limits. D. Calculation of the minimum detectable activities or air activity concentrations. E. Determination of air sample volumes required for detection and/or quantification of specified alpha and beta air activity concentrations. F. Calculation of long-lived activities or air activity concentrations based on radon daughter and thoron daughter decay. G. Calculation of employees DAC-Hours and estimated Committed Effective Dose Equivalent. H. Varying calibration constants (to coincide with possible adjustments to

  12. Monte Carlo Capabilities of the SCALE Code System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rearden, B. T.; Petrie, L. M.; Peplow, D. E.; Bekar, K. B.; Wiarda, D.; Celik, C.; Perfetti, C. M.; Ibrahim, A. M.; Hart, S. W. D.; Dunn, M. E.

    2014-06-01

    SCALE is a widely used suite of tools for nuclear systems modeling and simulation that provides comprehensive, verified and validated, user-friendly capabilities for criticality safety, reactor physics, radiation shielding, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. For more than 30 years, regulators, licensees, and research institutions around the world have used SCALE for nuclear safety analysis and design. SCALE provides a "plug-and-play" framework that includes three deterministic and three Monte Carlo radiation transport solvers that can be selected based on the desired solution, including hybrid deterministic/Monte Carlo simulations. SCALE includes the latest nuclear data libraries for continuous-energy and multigroup radiation transport as well as activation, depletion, and decay calculations. SCALE's graphical user interfaces assist with accurate system modeling, visualization, and convenient access to desired results. SCALE 6.2, to be released in 2014, will provide several new capabilities and significant improvements in many existing features, especially with expanded continuous-energy Monte Carlo capabilities for criticality safety, shielding, depletion, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. An overview of the Monte Carlo capabilities of SCALE is provided here, with emphasis on new features for SCALE 6.2.

  13. Monte Carlo capabilities of the SCALE code system

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rearden, Bradley T.; Petrie, Jr., Lester M.; Peplow, Douglas E.; Bekar, Kursat B.; Wiarda, Dorothea; Celik, Cihangir; Perfetti, Christopher M.; Ibrahim, Ahmad M.; Hart, S. W. D.; Dunn, Michael E.; et al

    2014-09-12

    SCALE is a broadly used suite of tools for nuclear systems modeling and simulation that provides comprehensive, verified and validated, user-friendly capabilities for criticality safety, reactor physics, radiation shielding, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. For more than 30 years, regulators, licensees, and research institutions around the world have used SCALE for nuclear safety analysis and design. SCALE provides a “plug-and-play” framework that includes three deterministic and three Monte Carlo radiation transport solvers that can be selected based on the desired solution, including hybrid deterministic/Monte Carlo simulations. SCALE includes the latest nuclear data libraries for continuous-energy and multigroup radiation transport asmore » well as activation, depletion, and decay calculations. SCALE’s graphical user interfaces assist with accurate system modeling, visualization, and convenient access to desired results. SCALE 6.2 will provide several new capabilities and significant improvements in many existing features, especially with expanded continuous-energy Monte Carlo capabilities for criticality safety, shielding, depletion, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. Finally, an overview of the Monte Carlo capabilities of SCALE is provided here, with emphasis on new features for SCALE 6.2.« less

  14. Monte Carlo capabilities of the SCALE code system

    SciTech Connect

    Rearden, Bradley T.; Petrie, Jr., Lester M.; Peplow, Douglas E.; Bekar, Kursat B.; Wiarda, Dorothea; Celik, Cihangir; Perfetti, Christopher M.; Ibrahim, Ahmad M.; Hart, S. W. D.; Dunn, Michael E.; Marshall, William J.

    2014-09-12

    SCALE is a broadly used suite of tools for nuclear systems modeling and simulation that provides comprehensive, verified and validated, user-friendly capabilities for criticality safety, reactor physics, radiation shielding, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. For more than 30 years, regulators, licensees, and research institutions around the world have used SCALE for nuclear safety analysis and design. SCALE provides a “plug-and-play” framework that includes three deterministic and three Monte Carlo radiation transport solvers that can be selected based on the desired solution, including hybrid deterministic/Monte Carlo simulations. SCALE includes the latest nuclear data libraries for continuous-energy and multigroup radiation transport as well as activation, depletion, and decay calculations. SCALE’s graphical user interfaces assist with accurate system modeling, visualization, and convenient access to desired results. SCALE 6.2 will provide several new capabilities and significant improvements in many existing features, especially with expanded continuous-energy Monte Carlo capabilities for criticality safety, shielding, depletion, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. Finally, an overview of the Monte Carlo capabilities of SCALE is provided here, with emphasis on new features for SCALE 6.2.

  15. Validation of the U.S. NRC coupled code system TRITON/TRACE/PARCS with the special power excursion reactor test III (SPERT III)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, R. C.; Xu, Y.; Downar, T.; Hudson, N.

    2012-07-01

    The Special Power Excursion Reactor Test III (SPERT III) was a series of reactivity insertion experiments conducted in the 1950's. This paper describes the validation of the U.S. NRC Coupled Code system TRITON/PARCS/TRACE to simulate reactivity insertion accidents (RIA) by using several of the SPERT III tests. The work here used the SPERT III E-core configuration tests in which the RIA was initiated by ejecting a control rod. The resulting super-prompt reactivity excursion and negative reactivity feedback produced the familiar bell shaped power increase and decrease. The energy deposition during such a power peak has important safety consequences and provides validation basis for core coupled multi-physics codes. The transients of five separate tests are used to benchmark the PARCS/TRACE coupled code. The models were thoroughly validated using the original experiment documentation. (authors)

  16. Design of Optical Systems with Extended Depth of Field: An Educational Approach to Wavefront Coding Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferran, C.; Bosch, S.; Carnicer, A.

    2012-01-01

    A practical activity designed to introduce wavefront coding techniques as a method to extend the depth of field in optical systems is presented. The activity is suitable for advanced undergraduate students since it combines different topics in optical engineering such as optical system design, aberration theory, Fourier optics, and digital image…

  17. Translating expert system rules into Ada code with validation and verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Lee; Duckworth, R. James; Green, Peter; Michalson, Bill; Gosselin, Dave; Nainani, Krishan; Pease, Adam

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this ongoing research and development program is to develop software tools which enable the rapid development, upgrading, and maintenance of embedded real-time artificial intelligence systems. The goals of this phase of the research were to investigate the feasibility of developing software tools which automatically translate expert system rules into Ada code and develop methods for performing validation and verification testing of the resultant expert system. A prototype system was demonstrated which automatically translated rules from an Air Force expert system was demonstrated which detected errors in the execution of the resultant system. The method and prototype tools for converting AI representations into Ada code by converting the rules into Ada code modules and then linking them with an Activation Framework based run-time environment to form an executable load module are discussed. This method is based upon the use of Evidence Flow Graphs which are a data flow representation for intelligent systems. The development of prototype test generation and evaluation software which was used to test the resultant code is discussed. This testing was performed automatically using Monte-Carlo techniques based upon a constraint based description of the required performance for the system.

  18. A coded aperture imaging system optimized for hard X-ray and gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, N.; Cline, T. L.; Huters, A. F.; Leventhal, M.; Maccallum, C. J.; Reber, J. D.; Stang, P. D.; Teegarden, B. J.; Tueller, J.

    1985-01-01

    A coded aperture imaging system was designed for the Gamma-Ray imaging spectrometer (GRIS). The system is optimized for imaging 511 keV positron-annihilation photons. For a galactic center 511-keV source strength of 0.001 sq/s, the source location accuracy is expected to be + or - 0.2 deg.

  19. Engine structures modeling software system: Computer code. User's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    ESMOSS is a specialized software system for the construction of geometric descriptive and discrete analytical models of engine parts, components and substructures which can be transferred to finite element analysis programs such as NASTRAN. The software architecture of ESMOSS is designed in modular form with a central executive module through which the user controls and directs the development of the analytical model. Modules consist of a geometric shape generator, a library of discretization procedures, interfacing modules to join both geometric and discrete models, a deck generator to produce input for NASTRAN and a 'recipe' processor which generates geometric models from parametric definitions. ESMOSS can be executed both in interactive and batch modes. Interactive mode is considered to be the default mode and that mode will be assumed in the discussion in this document unless stated otherwise.

  20. A Molecular Code for Identity in the Vomeronasal System.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaoyan; Yan, Yuetian; Xu, Pei S; Geerlof-Vidavsky, Ilan; Chong, Wongi; Gross, Michael L; Holy, Timothy E

    2015-10-01

    In social interactions among mammals, individuals are recognized by olfactory cues, but identifying the key signals among thousands of compounds remains a major challenge. To address this need, we developed a new technique, component-activity matching (CAM), to select candidate ligands that "explain" patterns of bioactivity across diverse complex mixtures. Using mouse urine from eight different sexes and strains, we identified 23 components to explain firing rates in seven of eight functional classes of vomeronasal sensory neurons. Focusing on a class of neurons selective for females, we identified a novel family of vomeronasal ligands, steroid carboxylic acids. These ligands accounted for much of the neuronal activity of urine from some female strains, were necessary for normal levels of male investigatory behavior of female scents, and were sufficient to trigger mounting behavior. CAM represents the first step toward an exhaustive characterization of the molecular cues for natural behavior in a mammalian olfactory system. PMID:26435105

  1. Detection optimization using linear systems analysis of a coded aperture laser sensor system

    SciTech Connect

    Gentry, S.M.

    1994-09-01

    Minimum detectable irradiance levels for a diffraction grating based laser sensor were calculated to be governed by clutter noise resulting from reflected earth albedo. Features on the earth surface caused pseudo-imaging effects on the sensor`s detector arras that resulted in the limiting noise in the detection domain. It was theorized that a custom aperture transmission function existed that would optimize the detection of laser sources against this clutter background. Amplitude and phase aperture functions were investigated. Compared to the diffraction grating technique, a classical Young`s double-slit aperture technique was investigated as a possible optimized solution but was not shown to produce a system that had better clutter-noise limited minimum detectable irradiance. Even though the double-slit concept was not found to have a detection advantage over the slit-grating concept, one interesting concept grew out of the double-slit design that deserved mention in this report, namely the Barker-coded double-slit. This diffractive aperture design possessed properties that significantly improved the wavelength accuracy of the double-slit design. While a concept was not found to beat the slit-grating concept, the methodology used for the analysis and optimization is an example of the application of optoelectronic system-level linear analysis. The techniques outlined here can be used as a template for analysis of a wide range of optoelectronic systems where the entire system, both optical and electronic, contribute to the detection of complex spatial and temporal signals.

  2. The Development of a Portable Hard Disk Encryption/Decryption System with a MEMS Coded Lock.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiping; Chen, Wenyuan; Tang, Jian; Xu, Peng; Li, Yibin; Li, Shengyong

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a novel portable hard-disk encryption/decryption system with a MEMS coded lock is presented, which can authenticate the user and provide the key for the AES encryption/decryption module. The portable hard-disk encryption/decryption system is composed of the authentication module, the USB portable hard-disk interface card, the ATA protocol command decoder module, the data encryption/decryption module, the cipher key management module, the MEMS coded lock controlling circuit module, the MEMS coded lock and the hard disk. The ATA protocol circuit, the MEMS control circuit and AES encryption/decryption circuit are designed and realized by FPGA(Field Programmable Gate Array). The MEMS coded lock with two couplers and two groups of counter-meshing-gears (CMGs) are fabricated by a LIGA-like process and precision engineering method. The whole prototype was fabricated and tested. The test results show that the user's password could be correctly discriminated by the MEMS coded lock, and the AES encryption module could get the key from the MEMS coded lock. Moreover, the data in the hard-disk could be encrypted or decrypted, and the read-write speed of the dataflow could reach 17 MB/s in Ultra DMA mode. PMID:22291566

  3. SUBAERF2 - WING AND FLAP SYSTEM ANALYSIS CODE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, H. W.

    1994-01-01

    The SUBAERF2 program was developed to provide for the aerodynamic analysis and design of low speed wing flap systems. SUBAERF2 is based on a linearized theory lifting surface solution. It is particularly well suited to configurations which, because of high speed flight requirements, must employ thin wings with highly swept leading edges. The program is applicable to wings with either sharp or rounded leading edges. This program is a new and improved version of LAR-13116 and LAR-12987, which it replaces. The low speed aerodynamic analysis method used in SUBAERF2 provides estimates of wing performance which include the effects of attainable leading-edge thrust and vortex lift. This basic aerodynamic analysis method has been improved to provide for the convenient, efficient and accurate treatment of simple leading-edge and trailing-edge flap systems. The user inputs flap geometry directly. Solutions can be found for various combinations of leading and trailing edge flap deflections. The program provides for the simultaneous analysis of up to 25 pairs of leading-edge and trailing-edge flap deflection schedules. A revised attainable thrust algorithm improves accuracy at the low Mach numbers sometimes encountered in wind tunnel testing. Also added is a means of estimating the distribution of leading edge separation vortex forces. The revised program has been particularly useful in the subsonic analysis of vehicles designed for supersonic cruise. The SUBAERF2 program is written in FORTRAN V for batch execution and has been implemented on a CDC 175 computer operating under NOS 2.4 with a central memory requirement of approximately 115K (octal) of 60 bit words. This program was originally developed in 1983 and later revised in 1988.

  4. Fingerprinting Codes for Internet-Based Live Pay-TV System Using Balanced Incomplete Block Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Shuhui; Uehara, Tetsutaro; Satoh, Takashi; Morimura, Yoshitaka; Minoh, Michihiko

    In recent years, with the rapid growth of the Internet as well as the increasing demand for broadband services, live pay-television broadcasting via the Internet has become a promising business. To get this implemented, it is necessary to protect distributed contents from illegal copying and redistributing after they are accessed. Fingerprinting system is a useful tool for it. This paper shows that the anti-collusion code has advantages over other existing fingerprinting codes in terms of efficiency and effectivity for live pay-television broadcasting. Next, this paper presents how to achieve efficient and effective anti-collusion codes based on unital and affine plane, which are two known examples of balanced incomplete block design (BIBD). Meanwhile, performance evaluations of anti-collusion codes generated from unital and affine plane are conducted. Their practical explicit constructions are given last.

  5. Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) encoder handbook for Aydin Vector MMP-900 series system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raphael, David

    1995-01-01

    This handbook explicates the hardware and software properties of a time division multiplex system. This system is used to sample analog and digital data. The data is then merged with frame synchronization information to produce a serial pulse coded modulation (PCM) bit stream. Information in this handbook is required by users to design congruous interface and attest effective utilization of this encoder system. Aydin Vector provides all of the components for these systems to Goddard Space Flight Center/Wallops Flight Facility.

  6. Revised Burnup Code System SWAT: Description and Validation Using Postirradiation Examination Data

    SciTech Connect

    Suyama, Kenya; Mochizuki, Hiroki; Kiyosumi, Takehide

    2002-05-15

    The burnup code system Step-Wise Burnup Analysis Code System (SWAT) is revised for use in a burnup credit analysis. An important feature of the revised SWAT is that its functions are achieved by calling validated neutronics codes without any changes to the original codes. This feature is realized with a system function of the operating system, which allows the revised SWAT to be independent of the development status of each code.A package of the revised SWAT contains the latest libraries based on JENDL-3.2 and the second version of the JNDC FP library. These libraries allow us to analyze burnup problems, such as an analysis of postirradiation examination (PIE), using the latest evaluated data of not only cross sections but also fission yield and decay constants.Another function of the revised SWAT is a library generator for the ORIGEN2 code, which is one of the most reliable burnup codes. ORIGEN2 users can obtain almost the same results with the revised SWAT using the library prepared by this function.The validation of the revised SWAT is conducted by calculation of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency burnup credit criticality safety benchmark Phase I-B and analyses of PIE data for spent fuel from Takahama Unit 3. The analysis of PIE data shows that the revised SWAT can predict the isotopic composition of main uranium and plutonium with a deviation of 5% from experimental results taken from UO{sub 2} fuels of 17 x 17 fuel assemblies. Many results of fission products including samarium are within a deviation of 10%. This means that the revised SWAT has high reliability to predict the isotopic composition for pressurized water reactor spent fuel.

  7. Code System to Calculate Brief Adversary Threat Loss Estimate.

    SciTech Connect

    HARLAN, CHARLENE P.

    1999-11-23

    Version 00 PC-BATLE is an analytical stochastic model designed to simulate combat engagements between a security force at a nuclear facility and an adversary force attempting to steal nuclear materials or to cause the release of radiological materials through an act of sabotage. The engagement is modeled as a modified continuous-time Markov process in which the state of the process at any time is the number of guards and adversaries currently in the system. Casualties to guards and adversaries are determined automatically by the model based on combatant characteristics and site parameters. Combatant characteristics which are specified as input data include force size, type of weapon used, posture, percent of time delaying (an attempt to prolong the engagement), proficiency, defense or assault tactic, and degradation in firing due to an individual's posture. Site parameters include range of the engagement, exposure to the combatants, and degradation in firing due to target illumination. Reinforcements to either or both forces can be specified by the user and will automatically be included at the appropriate time. Output consists of data on engagement duration, combatant survival, and win probabilities.

  8. Radiation and confinement in 0D fusion systems codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lux, H.; Kemp, R.; Fable, E.; Wenninger, R.

    2016-07-01

    In systems modelling for fusion power plants, it is essential to robustly predict the performance of a given machine design (including its respective operating scenario). One measure of machine performance is the energy confinement time {τ\\text{E}} that is typically predicted from experimentally derived confinement scaling laws (e.g. IPB98(y,2)). However, the conventionally used scaling laws have been derived for ITER which—unlike a fusion power plant—will not have significant radiation inside the separatrix. In the absence of a new high core radiation relevant confinement scaling, we propose an ad hoc correction to the loss power {{P}\\text{L}} used in the ITER confinement scaling and the calculation of the stored energy {{W}\\text{th}} by the radiation losses from the ‘core’ of the plasma {{P}\\text{rad,\\text{core}}} . Using detailed ASTRA / TGLF simulations, we find that an appropriate definition of {{P}\\text{rad,\\text{core}}} is given by 60% of all radiative losses inside a normalised minor radius {ρ\\text{core}}=0.75 . We consider this an improvement for current design predictions, but it is far from an ideal solution. We therefore encourage more detailed experimental and theoretical work on this issue.

  9. Code System to Calculate Brief Adversary Threat Loss Estimate.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-11-23

    Version 00 PC-BATLE is an analytical stochastic model designed to simulate combat engagements between a security force at a nuclear facility and an adversary force attempting to steal nuclear materials or to cause the release of radiological materials through an act of sabotage. The engagement is modeled as a modified continuous-time Markov process in which the state of the process at any time is the number of guards and adversaries currently in the system. Casualtiesmore » to guards and adversaries are determined automatically by the model based on combatant characteristics and site parameters. Combatant characteristics which are specified as input data include force size, type of weapon used, posture, percent of time delaying (an attempt to prolong the engagement), proficiency, defense or assault tactic, and degradation in firing due to an individual's posture. Site parameters include range of the engagement, exposure to the combatants, and degradation in firing due to target illumination. Reinforcements to either or both forces can be specified by the user and will automatically be included at the appropriate time. Output consists of data on engagement duration, combatant survival, and win probabilities.« less

  10. Optimization of a coded aperture coherent scatter spectral imaging system for medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, Joel A.; Lakshmanan, Manu N.; Brady, David J.; Kapadia, Anuj J.

    2015-03-01

    Coherent scatter X-ray imaging is a technique that provides spatially-resolved information about the molecular structure of the material under investigation, yielding material-specific contrast that can aid medical diagnosis and inform treatment. In this study, we demonstrate a coherent-scatter imaging approach based on the use of coded apertures (known as coded aperture coherent scatter spectral imaging1, 2) that enables fast, dose-efficient, high-resolution scatter imaging of biologically-relevant materials. Specifically, we discuss how to optimize a coded aperture coherent scatter imaging system for a particular set of objects and materials, describe and characterize our experimental system, and use the system to demonstrate automated material detection in biological tissue.

  11. Architectural and Algorithmic Requirements for a Next-Generation System Analysis Code

    SciTech Connect

    V.A. Mousseau

    2010-05-01

    This document presents high-level architectural and system requirements for a next-generation system analysis code (NGSAC) to support reactor safety decision-making by plant operators and others, especially in the context of light water reactor plant life extension. The capabilities of NGSAC will be different from those of current-generation codes, not only because computers have evolved significantly in the generations since the current paradigm was first implemented, but because the decision-making processes that need the support of next-generation codes are very different from the decision-making processes that drove the licensing and design of the current fleet of commercial nuclear power reactors. The implications of these newer decision-making processes for NGSAC requirements are discussed, and resulting top-level goals for the NGSAC are formulated. From these goals, the general architectural and system requirements for the NGSAC are derived.

  12. Security of Classic PN-Spreading Codes for Hybrid DS/FH Spread-Spectrum Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Xiao; Olama, Mohammed M; Kuruganti, Phani Teja; Smith, Stephen Fulton; Djouadi, Seddik M

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid direct sequence/frequency hopping (DS/FH) spread-spectrum communication systems have recently received considerable interest in commercial applications in addition to their use in military communications because they accommodate high data rates with high link integrity, even in the presence of significant multipath effects and interfering signals. The security of hybrid DS/FH systems strongly depends on the choice of PN-spreading code employed. In this paper, we examine the security, in terms of unicity distance, of linear maximal-length, Gold, and Kasami PN-spreading codes for DS, FH, and hybrid DS/FH spread-spectrum systems without additional encryption methods. The unicity distance is a measure of the minimum amount of ciphertext required by an eavesdropper to uniquely determine the specific key used in a cryptosystem and hence break the cipher. Numerical results are presented to compare the security of the considered PN-spreading codes under known-ciphertext attacks.

  13. Tradeoff between picture resolution and quantization precision in video coding for embedded systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yu; Feng, David; Zhong, Yuzhuo

    2004-01-01

    In embedded multimedia applications, improving video quality under constraints of bandwidth and storage is an important problem. In this paper, we discuss the relationship among picture resolution, quantization precision and subjective quality in video coding for embedded systems. Then we propose a principle of tradeoff between picture resolution and quantization precision. Video coding based on the tradeoff principle can achieve higher subjective quality at low bitrates, and significantly reduce the burden of decoders. Experimental results on both MPEG-2 codec and H.264 codec prove that the tradeoff principle is valuable and feasible for embedded systems.

  14. 3D Polarized Radiative Transfer for Solar System Applications Using the public-domain HYPERION Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, M. J.; Robitaille, T.; Whitney, B. A.

    2012-12-01

    We present a public-domain radiative transfer tool that will allow researchers to examine a wide-range of interesting solar system applications. Hyperion is a new three-dimensional continuum Monte-Carlo radiative transfer code that is designed to be as general as possible, allowing radiative transfer to be computed through a variety of three-dimensional grids (Robitaille, 2011, Astronomy & Astrophysics 536 A79). The main part of the code is problem-independent, and only requires the user to define the three-dimensional density structure, and the opacity and the illumination properties (as well as a few parameters that control execution and output of the code). Hyperion is written in Fortran 90 and parallelized using the MPI-2 standard. It is bundled with Python libraries that enable very flexible pre- and post-processing options (arbitrary shapes, multiple aerosol components, etc.). These routines are very amenable to user-extensibility. The package is currently distributed at www.hyperion-rt.org. Our presentation will feature 1) a brief overview of the code, including a description of the solar system-specific modifications that we have made beyond the capabilities in the original release; 2) Several solar system applications (i.e., Deep Impact Plume, Martian atmosphere, etc.); 3) discussion of availability and distribution of code components via www.hyperion-rt.org.

  15. Development of a numerical computer code and circuit element models for simulation of firing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, K.H. . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)

    1990-07-02

    Numerical simulation of firing systems requires both the appropriate circuit analysis framework and the special element models required by the application. We have modified the SPICE circuit analysis code (version 2G.6), developed originally at the Electronic Research Laboratory of the University of California, Berkeley, to allow it to be used on MSDOS-based, personal computers and to give it two additional circuit elements needed by firing systems--fuses and saturating inductances. An interactive editor and a batch driver have been written to ease the use of the SPICE program by system designers, and the interactive graphical post processor, NUTMEG, supplied by U. C. Berkeley with SPICE version 3B1, has been interfaced to the output from the modified SPICE. Documentation and installation aids have been provided to make the total software system accessible to PC users. Sample problems show that the resulting code is in agreement with the FIRESET code on which the fuse model was based (with some modifications to the dynamics of scaling fuse parameters). In order to allow for more complex simulations of firing systems, studies have been made of additional special circuit elements--switches and ferrite cored inductances. A simple switch model has been investigated which promises to give at least a first approximation to the physical effects of a non ideal switch, and which can be added to the existing SPICE circuits without changing the SPICE code itself. The effect of fast rise time pulses on ferrites has been studied experimentally in order to provide a base for future modeling and incorporation of the dynamic effects of changes in core magnetization into the SPICE code. This report contains detailed accounts of the work on these topics performed during the period it covers, and has appendices listing all source code written documentation produced.

  16. Machine readable identification systems: An overview. [Bar code and other labeling methods

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.J.; Cantor, S.

    1987-09-01

    The application of automated identification of an item by the use of machine readable methods is improving the accuracy and speed of data capture. Bar codes, optical character recognition, magnetic strips, and magnetic-ink recognition are all current machine readable methods which are used for data collection. Bar code data collection is the most used technology for real time inventory control, tracking, and point of sale applications. Magnetic strip coding is used for highly compact data identification on ID cards and on tags. Optical character recognition is generally used today to capture documents for computer storage and recall. Magnetic-ink character recognition, though used widely in banking, has limited applications elsewhere. Bar code methods are currently experiencing a faster rate of growth than the other technologies. Emphasis of this paper is on bar coding because of its popularity. The fundamentals of bar coding are discussed and labeling and scanning techniques are presented. New, automatic data-collection techniques are being developed, utilizing microcircuits and compact-disk memory media. The greatly increased memory capacity of these systems will likely lead to identification in terms of definitive characteristics of the item.

  17. Dementia Coding, Workup, and Treatment in the VA New England Healthcare System

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, David R.; Driver, Jane A.; Altincatal, Arman; Kosik, Nicole; Lanes, Stephan; Lawler, Elizabeth V.

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia are underdiagnosed and poorly documented. In our study, we describe patterns of dementia coding and treatment in the Veteran's Administration New England Healthcare System. We conducted a retrospective cohort study with new outpatient ICD-9 codes for several types of dementia between 2002 and 2009. We examined healthcare utilization, medication use, initial dementia diagnoses, and changes in diagnoses over time by provider type. 8,999 veterans received new dementia diagnoses during the study period. Only 18.3% received a code for cognitive impairment other than dementia, most often “memory loss” (65.2%) prior to dementia diagnosis. Two-thirds of patients received their initial code from a PCP. The etiology of dementia was often never specified by ICD-9 code, even by specialists. Patients followed up exclusively by PCPs had lower rates of neuroimaging and were less likely to receive dementia medication. Emergency room visits and hospitalizations were frequent in all patients but highest in those seen by dementia specialists. Dementia medications are commonly used off-label. Our results suggest that, for the majority the patients, no prodrome of the dementia syndrome is documented with diagnostic code, and patients who do not see dementia specialists have less extensive diagnostic assessment and treatment. PMID:24701364

  18. A transport based one-dimensional perturbation code for reactivity calculations in metal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wenz, T.R.

    1995-02-01

    A one-dimensional reactivity calculation code is developed using first order perturbation theory. The reactivity equation is based on the multi-group transport equation using the discrete ordinates method for angular dependence. In addition to the first order perturbation approximations, the reactivity code uses only the isotropic scattering data, but cross section libraries with higher order scattering data can still be used with this code. The reactivity code obtains all the flux, cross section, and geometry data from the standard interface files created by ONEDANT, a discrete ordinates transport code. Comparisons between calculated and experimental reactivities were done with the central reactivity worth data for Lady Godiva, a bare uranium metal assembly. Good agreement is found for isotopes that do not violate the assumptions in the first order approximation. In general for cases where there are large discrepancies, the discretized cross section data is not accurately representing certain resonance regions that coincide with dominant flux groups in the Godiva assembly. Comparing reactivities calculated with first order perturbation theory and a straight {Delta}k/k calculation shows agreement within 10% indicating the perturbation of the calculated fluxes is small enough for first order perturbation theory to be applicable in the modeled system. Computation time comparisons between reactivities calculated with first order perturbation theory and straight {Delta}k/k calculations indicate considerable time can be saved performing a calculation with a perturbation code particularly as the complexity of the modeled problems increase.

  19. Feasibility of coded vibration in a vibro-ultrasound system for tissue elasticity measurement.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinxin; Wang, Yuanyuan; Yu, Jinhua; Li, Tianjie; Zheng, Yong-Ping

    2016-07-01

    The ability of various methods for elasticity measurement and imaging is hampered by the vibration amplitude on biological tissues. Based on the inference that coded excitation will improve the performance of the cross-correlation function of the tissue displacement waves, the idea of exerting encoded external vibration on tested samples for measuring its elasticity is proposed. It was implemented by integrating a programmable vibration generation function into a customized vibro-ultrasound system to generate Barker coded vibration for elasticity measurement. Experiments were conducted on silicone phantoms and porcine muscles. The results showed that coded excitation of the vibration enhanced the accuracy and robustness of the elasticity measurement especially in low signal-to-noise ratio scenarios. In the phantom study, the measured shear modulus values with coded vibration had an R(2 )= 0.993 linear correlation to that of referenced indentation, while for single-cycle pulse the R(2) decreased to 0.987. In porcine muscle study, the coded vibration also obtained a shear modulus value which is more accurate than the single-cycle pulse by 0.16 kPa and 0.33 kPa at two different depths. These results demonstrated the feasibility and potentiality of the coded vibration for enhancing the quality of elasticity measurement and imaging. PMID:27475130

  20. Parallel coding schemes of whisker velocity in the rat's somatosensory system.

    PubMed

    Lottem, Eran; Gugig, Erez; Azouz, Rony

    2015-03-15

    The function of rodents' whisker somatosensory system is to transform tactile cues, in the form of vibrissa vibrations, into neuronal responses. It is well established that rodents can detect numerous tactile stimuli and tell them apart. However, the transformation of tactile stimuli obtained through whisker movements to neuronal responses is not well-understood. Here we examine the role of whisker velocity in tactile information transmission and its coding mechanisms. We show that in anaesthetized rats, whisker velocity is related to the radial distance of the object contacted and its own velocity. Whisker velocity is accurately and reliably coded in first-order neurons in parallel, by both the relative time interval between velocity-independent first spike latency of rapidly adapting neurons and velocity-dependent first spike latency of slowly adapting neurons. At the same time, whisker velocity is also coded, although less robustly, by the firing rates of slowly adapting neurons. Comparing first- and second-order neurons, we find similar decoding efficiencies for whisker velocity using either temporal or rate-based methods. Both coding schemes are sufficiently robust and hardly affected by neuronal noise. Our results suggest that whisker kinematic variables are coded by two parallel coding schemes and are disseminated in a similar way through various brain stem nuclei to multiple brain areas. PMID:25552637

  1. Summary of Code Barriers:Summary of Code and Standard Barriers to the Implementation of High Performance Home Systems Designs

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-01

    Building codes serve to ensure minimum requirements for safety, durability, and energy efficiency of homes.To enable innovation and to support continual improvement, building codes are updated on a 2-3 year basis to (1) include new methods of and/or materials for construction and (2), where needed, revise the current methods of construction to better meet the intent of the code. This report discusses issues of wind pressure resistance in walls with exterior rigid foam sheathing installed directly over framing members.

  2. Uplink Coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollara, Fabrizio; Hamkins, Jon; Dolinar, Sam; Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews uplink coding. The purpose and goals of the briefing are (1) Show a plan for using uplink coding and describe benefits (2) Define possible solutions and their applicability to different types of uplink, including emergency uplink (3) Concur with our conclusions so we can embark on a plan to use proposed uplink system (4) Identify the need for the development of appropriate technology and infusion in the DSN (5) Gain advocacy to implement uplink coding in flight projects Action Item EMB04-1-14 -- Show a plan for using uplink coding, including showing where it is useful or not (include discussion of emergency uplink coding).

  3. Analysis of human follistatin structure: identification of two discontinuous N-terminal sequences coding for activin A binding and structural consequences of activin binding to native proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Keutmann, H T; Schneyer, A L; Sluss, P M

    2000-09-01

    A primary physiological function of follistatin is the binding and neutralization of activin, a transforming growth factor-beta family growth factor, and loss of function mutations are lethal. Despite the critical biological importance of follistatin's neutralization of activin, the structural basis of activin's binding to follistatin is poorly understood. The purposes of these studies were 1) to identify the primary sequence(s) within the N-terminal domain of the follistatin coding for activin binding, and 2) to determine whether activin binding to the native protein causes changes in other structural domains of follistatin. Synthetic peptide mimotopes identified within a 63-residue N-terminal domain two discontinuous sequences capable of binding labeled activin A. The first is located in a region (amino acids 3-26) of follistatin, a site previously identified by directed mutagenesis as important for activin binding. The second epitope, predicted to be located between amino acids 46 and 59, is newly identified. Although the sequences 3-26 and 46-59 code for activin binding, native follistatin only binds activin if disulfide bonding is intact. Furthermore, pyridylethylation of Cys residues followed by N-terminal sequencing and amino acid analysis revealed that all of the Cys residues in follistatin are involved in disulfide bonds and lack reactive free sulfhydryl groups. Specific ligands were used to probe the structural effects of activin binding on the other domains of the full-length molecule, comprised largely of the three 10-Cys follistatin module domains. No effects on ligand binding to follistatin-like module I or II were observed after the binding of activin A to native protein. In contrast, activin binding diminished recognition of domain III and enhanced that of the C domain by their respective monoclonal antibody probes, indicating an alteration of the antigenic structures of these regions. Thus, subsequent to activin binding, interactions are likely to

  4. Improvement of BER performance in MIMO-CDMA systems by using initial-phase optimized gold codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Develi, Ibrahim; Filiz, Meryem

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach to improve the bit error rate (BER) performance of a multiple-input multiple-output code-division multiple-access (MIMO-CDMA) system over quasi-static Rayleigh fading channels. The system considered employs robust space-time successive interference cancellation detectors and initial-phase optimized Gold codes for the improvement. The results clearly indicate that the use of initial-phase optimized Gold codes can significantly improve the BER performance of the system compared to the performance of a multiuser MIMO-CDMA system with conventional nonoptimized Gold codes. Furthermore, this performance improvement is achieved without any increase in system complexity.

  5. Problems with surveillance methods for alcoholism: differences in coding systems among federal, state, and private agencies.

    PubMed Central

    Westermeyer, J

    1988-01-01

    Social indicator systems can serve as a social accounting method to guide public policy on alcoholism, utilizing data which are routinely collected at public expense. An attempt to develop an alcoholism social indicator system for Minnesota demonstrated many differences in the coding schemes used by various state agencies and institutions. These findings have relevance to other social indicator systems being developed to assess public policies regarding the people's health. PMID:3337325

  6. Recent developments in the TWODANT system of codes for criticality safety

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, D.K.; Alcouffe, R.E.; Marr, D.R.; Brinkley, F.W.

    1993-04-01

    The application of deterministic, discrete ordinates codes to criticality safety problems can be a very useful complement to analyses performed using Monte Carlo methods. This is especially so if there is a need for dose or flux maps of the system or if configuration perturbations are to be studied. In these latter two situations, it is difficult to obtain reliable Monte Carlo results due to statistical effects. Deterministic calculations are also useful as an independent check and verification of Monte Carlo results. The TWODANT system of discrete ordinates codes` has recently been enhanced for criticality safety analysis. In addition to ONEDANT, TWODANT, and TWOHEX, the TWODANT system now includes TWODANT/GQ and THREEDANT. These two new code modules expand the applicability of the TWODANT system. These new capabilities will be demonstrated on a representative sample of nuclear criticality safety problems. First, TWODANT/GQ and THREEDANT will be described. Salient features of each code module will be discussed. Calculational results obtained by each will be presented and compared with each other and with Monte Carlo results. Finally, some guidelines for the effective use of the TWODANT system on criticality applications will be given.

  7. A Modular Computer Code for Simulating Reactive Multi-Species Transport in 3-Dimensional Groundwater Systems

    SciTech Connect

    TP Clement

    1999-06-24

    RT3DV1 (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is computer code that solves the coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in three-dimensional saturated groundwater systems. RT3D is a generalized multi-species version of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) transport code, MT3D (Zheng, 1990). The current version of RT3D uses the advection and dispersion solvers from the DOD-1.5 (1997) version of MT3D. As with MT3D, RT3D also requires the groundwater flow code MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. The RT3D code was originally developed to support the contaminant transport modeling efforts at natural attenuation demonstration sites. As a research tool, RT3D has also been used to model several laboratory and pilot-scale active bioremediation experiments. The performance of RT3D has been validated by comparing the code results against various numerical and analytical solutions. The code is currently being used to model field-scale natural attenuation at multiple sites. The RT3D code is unique in that it includes an implicit reaction solver that makes the code sufficiently flexible for simulating various types of chemical and microbial reaction kinetics. RT3D V1.0 supports seven pre-programmed reaction modules that can be used to simulate different types of reactive contaminants including benzene-toluene-xylene mixtures (BTEX), and chlorinated solvents such as tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE). In addition, RT3D has a user-defined reaction option that can be used to simulate any other types of user-specified reactive transport systems. This report describes the mathematical details of the RT3D computer code and its input/output data structure. It is assumed that the user is familiar with the basics of groundwater flow and contaminant transport mechanics. In addition, RT3D users are expected to have some experience in

  8. COBRA-SFS CYCLE 3: Code System for Thermal Hydraulic Analysis of Spent Fuel Casks

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2003-11-01

    COBRA-SFS (Spent Fuel Storage) is a code for thermal-hydraulic analysis of multi-assembly spent fuel storage and transportation systems. It uses a lumped parameter finite difference approach to predict flow and temperature distributions in spent fuel storage systems and fuel assemblies, under forced and natural convection heat transfer conditions. Derived from the COBRA family of codes, which have been extensively evaluated against in-pile and out-of-pile data, COBRA-SFS retains all the important features of the COBRA codesmore » for single phase fluid analysis and extends the range application to include problems with two-dimensional radiative and three-dimensional conductive heat transfer. COBRA-SFS has been used to analyze various single- and multi-assembly spent fuel storage systems containing unconsolidated and consolidated fuel rods, with a variety of fill media, including air, helium and vacuum. Cycle 0 of COBRA-SFS was released in 1986. Subsequent applications of the code led to development of additional capabilities, which resulted in the release of Cycle 1 in February 1989. Since then, the code has undergone an independent technical review as part of a submittal to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for a generic license to apply the code to spent fuel storage system analysis. Modifications and improvements to the code have been combined to form Cycle 2. Cycle 3., the newest version of COBRA-SFS, has been validated and verified for transient applications, such as a storage cask thermal response to a pool fire.« less

  9. Error-correction coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinds, Erold W. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the progress made towards the completion of a specific task on error-correcting coding. The proposed research consisted of investigating the use of modulation block codes as the inner code of a concatenated coding system in order to improve the overall space link communications performance. The study proposed to identify and analyze candidate codes that will complement the performance of the overall coding system which uses the interleaved RS (255,223) code as the outer code.

  10. Hierarchical Novelty-Familiarity Representation in the Visual System by Modular Predictive Coding

    PubMed Central

    Vladimirskiy, Boris; Urbanczik, Robert; Senn, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Predictive coding has been previously introduced as a hierarchical coding framework for the visual system. At each level, activity predicted by the higher level is dynamically subtracted from the input, while the difference in activity continuously propagates further. Here we introduce modular predictive coding as a feedforward hierarchy of prediction modules without back-projections from higher to lower levels. Within each level, recurrent dynamics optimally segregates the input into novelty and familiarity components. Although the anatomical feedforward connectivity passes through the novelty-representing neurons, it is nevertheless the familiarity information which is propagated to higher levels. This modularity results in a twofold advantage compared to the original predictive coding scheme: the familiarity-novelty representation forms quickly, and at each level the full representational power is exploited for an optimized readout. As we show, natural images are successfully compressed and can be reconstructed by the familiarity neurons at each level. Missing information on different spatial scales is identified by novelty neurons and complements the familiarity representation. Furthermore, by virtue of the recurrent connectivity within each level, non-classical receptive field properties still emerge. Hence, modular predictive coding is a biologically realistic metaphor for the visual system that dynamically extracts novelty at various scales while propagating the familiarity information. PMID:26670700

  11. Joint-source-channel coding scheme for scalable video-coding-based digital video broadcasting, second generation satellite broadcasting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Kwang-Deok; Chi, Won Sup; Lee, In Ki; Chang, Dae-Ig

    2010-10-01

    We propose a joint-source-channel coding (JSCC) scheme that can provide and sustain high-quality video service in spite of deteriorated transmission channel conditions of the second generation of the digital video broadcasting (DVB-S2) satellite broadcasting service. Especially by combining the layered characteristics of the SVC (scalable video coding) video and the robust channel coding capability of LDPC (low-density parity check) employed for DVB-S2, a new concept of JSCC for digital satellite broadcasting service is developed. Rain attenuation in high-frequency bands such as the Ka band is a major factor for lowering the link capacity in satellite broadcasting service. Therefore, it is necessary to devise a new technology to dynamically manage the rain attenuation by adopting a JSCC scheme that can apply variable code rates for both source and channel coding. For this purpose, we develop a JSCC scheme by combining SVC and LDPC, and prove the performance of the proposed JSCC scheme by extensive simulations where SVC coded video is transmitted over various error-prone channels with AWGN (additive white Gaussian noise) patterns in DVB-S2 broadcasting service.

  12. Recommended requirements to code officials for solar heating, cooling, and hot water systems. Model document for code officials on solar heating and cooling of buildings

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    These recommended requirements include provisions for electrical, building, mechanical, and plumbing installations for active and passive solar energy systems used for space or process heating and cooling, and domestic water heating. The provisions in these recommended requirements are intended to be used in conjunction with the existing building codes in each jurisdiction. Where a solar relevant provision is adequately covered in an existing model code, the section is referenced in the Appendix. Where a provision has been drafted because there is no counterpart in the existing model code, it is found in the body of these recommended requirements. Commentaries are included in the text explaining the coverage and intent of present model code requirements and suggesting alternatives that may, at the discretion of the building official, be considered as providing reasonable protection to the public health and safety. Also included is an Appendix which is divided into a model code cross reference section and a reference standards section. The model code cross references are a compilation of the sections in the text and their equivalent requirements in the applicable model codes. (MHR)

  13. Users manual for the FORSS sensitivity and uncertainty analysis code system

    SciTech Connect

    Lucius, J.L.; Weisbin, C.R.; Marable, J.H.; Drischler, J.D.; Wright, R.Q.; White, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    FORSS is a code system used to study relationships between nuclear reaction cross sections, integral experiments, reactor performance parameter predictions and associated uncertainties. This report describes the computing environment and the modules currently used to implement FORSS Sensitivity and Uncertainty Methodology.

  14. Three-Dimensional, Nodal, Neutron Diffusion Criticality Code System in Hex-Z Geometry.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-07-27

    Version: 00 SIXTUS-3 is a 3D extention of SIXTUS-2 and is based on a response matrix nodal model. The code offers a fast and accurate analysis of critical systems in the regular hex-z geometry with the multigroup cross section representation including arbitrary upscattering.

  15. A System for Coding Integration and Differentiation Messages (SID): Operationalizing Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Dorothy Lenk

    A "System for coding Integration and Differentiation messages" in group communication (SID) was developed, based on the theoretical and empirical work of W. C. Schutz, W. Bennis and H. Shepard, and A. Koestler. In SID, integrating messages are defined as those dealing with material internal to the group and having positive affect, or internal with…

  16. 42 CFR 405.512 - Carriers' procedural terminology and coding systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... a basis for coverage and payment determinations. (b) Modification of terminology and/or coding... short-run and long-run impact on the cost of the health insurance program, other medical care costs... requirements and with the historical data in the carrier's processing system; and (8) Compatibility of...

  17. Randomization of Symbol Repetition of Punch Cards with Superimposed Coding in Information-Search Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirovich, L. Ya

    The article shows the effect of the irregularity of using separate symbols on search noise on punch cards with superimposed symbol coding in information-search system (IPS). A binomial law of random value distribution of repetition of each symbol is established and analyzed. A method of determining the maximum value of symbol repetition is…

  18. GRAVE: An Interactive Geometry Construction and Visualization Software System for the TORT Nuclear Radiation Transport Code

    SciTech Connect

    Blakeman, E.D.

    2000-05-07

    A software system, GRAVE (Geometry Rendering and Visual Editor), has been developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to perform interactive visualization and development of models used as input to the TORT three-dimensional discrete ordinates radiation transport code. Three-dimensional and two-dimensional visualization displays are included. Display capabilities include image rotation, zoom, translation, wire-frame and translucent display, geometry cuts and slices, and display of individual component bodies and material zones. The geometry can be interactively edited and saved in TORT input file format. This system is an advancement over the current, non-interactive, two-dimensional display software. GRAVE is programmed in the Java programming language and can be implemented on a variety of computer platforms. Three- dimensional visualization is enabled through the Visualization Toolkit (VTK), a free-ware C++ software library developed for geometric and data visual display. Future plans include an extension of the system to read inputs using binary zone maps and combinatorial geometry models containing curved surfaces, such as those used for Monte Carlo code inputs. Also GRAVE will be extended to geometry visualization/editing for the DORT two-dimensional transport code and will be integrated into a single GUI-based system for all of the ORNL discrete ordinates transport codes.

  19. The Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System: Standardization and Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Elizabeth A.; Eyberg, Sheila M.

    1981-01-01

    Problem-child families and normal families were classified using the dyadic parent-child interaction coding system (DPICS). The DPICS was found to be a reliable, clinically practical research instrument that correctly classified 94 percent of the families and predicted 64 percent of the variance in parent report of home behavior problems. (Author)

  20. The Development of a Systematic Coding System for Elementary Students' Drawings of Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Nicole; Duncan, Daphne; Dyehouse, Melissa; Strobel, Johannes; Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.

    2011-01-01

    The Draw an Engineer Test (DAET) is a common measure of students' perceptions of engineers. The coding systems currently used for K-12 research are general rubrics or checklists to capture the images presented in the drawing, which leave out some of the richness of students' perceptions, currently only captured with an accompanying student…

  1. Stress, Neural Systems, and Genetic Code: An Interview with Neuroscientist Judy Cameron. Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Research indicates some early life stresses can have a profound impact, resulting in changes in brain function and behavior, and even differences in the ways some genes express their particular genetic code signature. At various times during early development, different neural systems appear to have an increased sensitivity to stress and can…

  2. Duct System Flammability and Air Sealing Fire Separation Assemblies in the International Residential Code

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, A.; Prahl, D.

    2014-12-01

    IBACOS identified two barriers that limit the ability of builders to cost-effectively achieve higher energy efficiency levels in housing. These are (1) the use of duct system materials that inherently achieve airtightness and are appropriately sized for low-load houses and (2) the ability to air seal fire separation assemblies. The issues identified fall into a gray area of the codes.

  3. Duct System Flammability and Air Sealing Fire Separation Assemblies in the International Residential Code

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, A.; Prahl, D.

    2014-12-01

    IBACOS identified two barriers that limit the ability of builders to cost-effectively achieve higher energy efficiency levels in housing. These are the use of duct system materials that inherently achieve airtightness and are appropriately sized for low-load houses and the ability to air seal fire separation assemblies. The issues identified fall into a gray area of the codes.

  4. Paired Learners' Verbalised Strategies for Determining Grammatical Correctness: A Turn-Based System for Coding Metatalk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishii, David N.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of a new coding system that incorporates the various types of metatalk that occurred during paired learners' engagement in a consciousness-raising task. On the basis of previous studies, metalanguage (e.g. with or without terminology), knowledge sources (e.g. intuition), and verbalisation strategies…

  5. A System for English Vocabulary Acquisition Based on Code-Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Michal; Karolczak, Krzysztof; Rzepka, Rafal; Araki, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary plays an important part in second language learning and there are many existing techniques to facilitate word acquisition. One of these methods is code-switching, or mixing the vocabulary of two languages in one sentence. In this paper the authors propose an experimental system for computer-assisted English vocabulary learning in…

  6. GENGA: a GPU code for planet formation and planetary system evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukas Grimm, Simon; Stadel, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    We present GENGA, a GPU code designed and optimised for (exo)planetary formation - and orbital evolution simulations. The use of the parallel computing power of GPUs allows GENGA to achieve a significant speedup compared to other N-body codes. GENGA runs about 30 - 50 times faster than the Mercury code.GENGA can be used with three different computational modes: The main mode permits to integrate a N-body system with up to 8192 fully interacting planetesimals, orbiting a central mass.The test particle mode can include up to 1 million massless bodies in the presence of massive planets or protoplanets. The third mode allows the parallel integration of up to 100000 samples of small exoplanetary systems with different parameters. With this functionality, GENGA can be used in a variety of applications in planetary and exoplanetary science. Possible applications of GENGA are: the late stage of terrestrial planet formation, study core accretion models for gas giants in the presence of planetesimals, simulate the evolution of asteroids and asteroid families, find stable configurations of exoplanetary systems to restrict the detected orbital parameters, and many more.Since such simulations can often take billions of time steps to complete, or require the cover of a very large parameter space, it makes it necessary to use a highly optimised code, running on the today's most efficient hardware. As a bonus, the use of GPUs allows a real time visualisation of the simulations on the screen.In our presentation we will give an overview of the possibilities of the code and discuss the newest results and applications of GENGA. The code is published as open source software under https://bitbucket.org/sigrimm/genga.

  7. Space communication system for compressed data with a concatenated Reed-Solomon-Viterbi coding channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. F.; Hilbert, E. E. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A space communication system incorporating a concatenated Reed Solomon Viterbi coding channel is discussed for transmitting compressed and uncompressed data from a spacecraft to a data processing center on Earth. Imaging (and other) data are first compressed into source blocks which are then coded by a Reed Solomon coder and interleaver, followed by a convolutional encoder. The received data is first decoded by a Viterbi decoder, followed by a Reed Solomon decoder and deinterleaver. The output of the latter is then decompressed, based on the compression criteria used in compressing the data in the spacecraft. The decompressed data is processed to reconstruct an approximation of the original data-producing condition or images.

  8. A Low Cost Correlator Structure in the Pseudo-Noise Code Acquisition System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Weijun; Li, Ying; Yu, Dunshan; Zhang, Xing

    The critical problem of the pseudo-noise (PN) code acquisition system is the contradiction between the acquisition performance and the calculation complexity. This paper presents a low cost correlator (LCC) structure that can search for two PN code phases in a single accumulation period by eliminating redundant computation. Compared with the part-parallel structure that is composed of two serial correlators (PARALLEL2), the proposed LCC structure has the same performance while saves about 22% chip area and 34% power consumption if uses the Carry-look-ahead (CLA) adder, 17% chip area and 25% power consumption if uses the Ripple-carry (RPL) adder.

  9. Integration of a supersonic unsteady aerodynamic code into the NASA FASTEX system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appa, Kari; Smith, Michael J. C.

    1987-01-01

    A supersonic unsteady aerodynamic loads prediction method based on the constant pressure method was integrated into the NASA FASTEX system. The updated FASTEX code can be employed for aeroelastic analyses in subsonic and supersonic flow regimes. A brief description of the supersonic constant pressure panel method, as applied to lifting surfaces and body configurations, is followed by a documentation of updates required to incorporate this method in the FASTEX code. Test cases showing correlations of predicted pressure distributions, flutter solutions, and stability derivatives with available data are reported.

  10. Uncertainties in offsite consequence analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Young, M.L.; Harper, F.T.; Lui, C.H.

    1996-03-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequences from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the European Commission began co-sponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables using a formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process. This paper focuses on the methods used in and results of this on-going joint effort.

  11. Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) encoder handbook for Aydin Vector MMP-600 series system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currier, S. F.; Powell, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    The hardware and software characteristics of a time division multiplex system are described. The system is used to sample analog and digital data. The data is merged with synchronization information to produce a serial pulse coded modulation (PCM) bit stream. Information presented herein is required by users to design compatible interfaces and assure effective utilization of this encoder system. GSFC/Wallops Flight Facility has flown approximately 50 of these systems through 1984 on sounding rockets with no inflight failures. Aydin Vector manufactures all of the components for these systems.

  12. A DS-UWB Cognitive Radio System Based on Bridge Function Smart Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yafei; Hong, Sheng; Zhao, Guodong; Zhang, Fengyuan; di, Jinshan; Zhang, Qishan

    This paper proposes a direct-sequence UWB Gaussian pulse of cognitive radio systems based on bridge function smart sequence matrix and the Gaussian pulse. As the system uses the spreading sequence code, that is the bridge function smart code sequence, the zero correlation zones (ZCZs) which the bridge function sequences' auto-correlation functions had, could reduce multipath fading of the pulse interference. The Modulated channel signal was sent into the IEEE 802.15.3a UWB channel. We analysis the ZCZs's inhibition to the interference multipath interference (MPI), as one of the main system sources interferences. The simulation in SIMULINK/MATLAB is described in detail. The result shows the system has better performance by comparison with that employing Walsh sequence square matrix, and it was verified by the formula in principle.

  13. Code System to Calculate Radiation Dose Rates Relative to Spent Fuel Shipping Casks.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1993-05-20

    Version 00 QBF calculates and plots in a short running time, three dimensional radiation dose rate distributions in the form of contour maps on specified planes resulting from cylindrical sources loaded into vehicles or ships. Shielding effects by steel walls and shielding material layers are taken into account in addition to the shadow effect among casks. This code system identifies the critical points on which to focus when designing the radiation shielding structure and wheremore » each of the spent fuel shipping casks should be stored. The code GRAPH reads the output data file of QBF and plots it using the HGX graphics library. QBF unifies the functions of the SMART and MANYCASK codes included in CCC-482.« less

  14. Joint robustness security in optical OFDM access system with Turbo-coded subcarrier rotation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijia; Liu, Bo; Xin, Xiangjun; Wang, Yongjun

    2015-01-12

    This paper proposes a novel robust physical secure method for optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) access system based on Turbo-coded subcarrier rotation. It can realize a secure communication while keep robustness to channel noise. The subcarrier rotation is controlled by the interleaver module of Turbo coding, which is under the charge of Logistic map. The random puncturing can further enhance the security. The channel feedback can ensure the puncturing module working at a suitable coding rate. A 72.28 Gb/s encrypted 16QAM-OFDM signal is successfully demonstrated in the experiment. The results show robust performance under different channel noise conditions and good resistance to illegal optical network unit (ONU). PMID:25835649

  15. Four-dimensionally coded PSK systems for combatting effects of severe ISI and CCI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, R.; Lee, W.

    A combined forward error correction (FEC) coding and modulation technique is proposed for transmissions over four-dimensional (4-D) channels that are interference and noise limited. Improved error performance is achieved by 4-D channel coding, with the expanded signal set in a manner similar to Ungerboeck's set-partitioning method, which maximizes the free Euclidean distance. Lower bounds on free Euclidean distance at the output of the 4-D modulator are derived for evaluating the asymptotic performance. As an example, a rate 2/3 convolutional encoder combined with a 4-D coded QPSK signal could yield an Eb/No gain of about 3 to 4 dB over an uncoded two-dimensional (2-D) BPSK system. Performance over a linear channel in the presence of thermal noise, intersymbol interference (ISI), and co-channel interference (CCI) is also evaluated.

  16. Temporal code in the vibrissal system Part II: Roughness surface discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farfán, F. D.; Albarracín, A. L.; Felice, C. J.

    2007-11-01

    Previous works have purposed hypotheses about the neural code of the tactile system in the rat. One of them is based on the physical characteristics of vibrissae, such as frequency of resonance; another is based on discharge patterns on the trigeminal ganglion. In this work, the purpose is to find a temporal code analyzing the afferent signals of two vibrissal nerves while vibrissae sweep surfaces of different roughness. Two levels of pressure were used between the vibrissa and the contact surface. We analyzed the afferent discharge of DELTA and GAMMA vibrissal nerves. The vibrissae movements were produced using electrical stimulation of the facial nerve. The afferent signals were analyzed using an event detection algorithm based on Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT). The algorithm was able to detect events of different duration. The inter-event times detected were calculated for each situation and represented in box plot. This work allowed establishing the existence of a temporal code at peripheral level.

  17. A novel construction scheme of QC-LDPC codes based on the RU algorithm for optical transmission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jian-guo; Liang, Meng-qi; Wang, Yong; Lin, Jin-zhao; Pang, Yu

    2016-03-01

    A novel lower-complexity construction scheme of quasi-cyclic low-density parity-check (QC-LDPC) codes for optical transmission systems is proposed based on the structure of the parity-check matrix for the Richardson-Urbanke (RU) algorithm. Furthermore, a novel irregular QC-LDPC(4 288, 4 020) code with high code-rate of 0.937 is constructed by this novel construction scheme. The simulation analyses show that the net coding gain ( NCG) of the novel irregular QC-LDPC(4 288,4 020) code is respectively 2.08 dB, 1.25 dB and 0.29 dB more than those of the classic RS(255, 239) code, the LDPC(32 640, 30 592) code and the irregular QC-LDPC(3 843, 3 603) code at the bit error rate ( BER) of 10-6. The irregular QC-LDPC(4 288, 4 020) code has the lower encoding/decoding complexity compared with the LDPC(32 640, 30 592) code and the irregular QC-LDPC(3 843, 3 603) code. The proposed novel QC-LDPC(4 288, 4 020) code can be more suitable for the increasing development requirements of high-speed optical transmission systems.

  18. A novel repetition space-time coding scheme for mobile FSO systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Cao, Yang; Li, Shu-ming; Yang, Shao-wen

    2015-03-01

    Considering the influence of more random atmospheric turbulence, worse pointing errors and highly dynamic link on the transmission performance of mobile multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) free space optics (FSO) communication systems, this paper establishes a channel model for the mobile platform. Based on the combination of Alamouti space-time code and time hopping ultra-wide band (TH-UWB) communications, a novel repetition space-time coding (RSTC) method for mobile 2×2 free-space optical communications with pulse position modulation (PPM) is developed. In particular, two decoding methods of equal gain combining (EGC) maximum likelihood detection (MLD) and correlation matrix detection (CMD) are derived. When a quasi-static fading and weak turbulence channel model are considered, simulation results show that whether the channel state information (CSI) is known or not, the coding system demonstrates more significant performance of the symbol error rate (SER) than the uncoding. In other words, transmitting diversity can be achieved while conveying the information only through the time delays of the modulated signals transmitted from different antennas. CMD has almost the same effect of signal combining with maximal ratio combining (MRC). However, when the channel correlation increases, SER performance of the coding 2×2 system degrades significantly.

  19. THE CODE OF THE STREET AND INMATE VIOLENCE: INVESTIGATING THE SALIENCE OF IMPORTED BELIEF SYSTEMS*

    PubMed Central

    MEARS, DANIEL P.; STEWART, ERIC A.; SIENNICK, SONJA E.; SIMONS, RONALD L.

    2013-01-01

    Scholars have long argued that inmate behaviors stem in part from cultural belief systems that they “import” with them into incarcerative settings. Even so, few empirical assessments have tested this argument directly. Drawing on theoretical accounts of one such set of beliefs—the code of the street—and on importation theory, we hypothesize that individuals who adhere more strongly to the street code will be more likely, once incarcerated, to engage in violent behavior and that this effect will be amplified by such incarceration experiences as disciplinary sanctions and gang involvement, as well as the lack of educational programming, religious programming, and family support. We test these hypotheses using unique data that include measures of the street code belief system and incarceration experiences. The results support the argument that the code of the street belief system affects inmate violence and that the effect is more pronounced among inmates who lack family support, experience disciplinary sanctions, and are gang involved. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24068837

  20. Design and realization of FEC-based RS code in the atmospheric laser communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Limin; Song, Lu; Zhang, Lijing

    2008-12-01

    The RS(Reed-Solomon) code is an important linear block and used for solving the problem of serious distortion and BER(Bit Error Rate) in the atmospheric laser communication system. RS (255,223) code are selected as channel code. Meanwhile, technologies for the laser communication system such as encode, interleaving, decode have been discussed in details. In this paper, an improved RiBM algorithm is adopted in the key equations solver of decoding algorithm. In the Forney's algorithm, inversion circuit in finite field is adopted. Then, division operation in the error value is realization by subtraction of power exponent. As a result, the whole decoding chip obtains the optimization in the speed and the usage resources. The hardware structure design and algorithms program have been finished on FPGA according to CCSDS specification. The BER performance verification has been applied in Visual C language. The experiment results show that coded data can obtain SNR (Signal-to-Noise Ratio) gain of 3-5dB when BER requirement of 10-5 is satisfied in this system.