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1

Area Handbook for Ghana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The dominant social, political, and economic aspects of Ghanaian society are described in this handbook. Changes and developments in Ghana in the past 10 years, highlighted by the 1966 overthrough and widespread repudiation of Kwame Nkrumah and his policies and practices, have created a need for this revision of the 1962 edition. The purpose of…

Kaplan, Irving; And Others

2

Ghana.  

PubMed

The government of Ghana sees the country's population as a valuable natural resource and emphasizes national population policy as an important part of overall socioeconomic planning and development. A formal system of development planning has been in effect since 1951. Decennial censuses are conducted relatively regularly but vital registration is thought to be incomplete. The current population size is 11,679,000 and the current rate of natural increase (3.1%) is considered too high, constraining the achievement of socioeconomic development. The high rate of growth is taxing on employment and public services. High fertility rates are influenced both by regional norms, such as early and universal marriage, and demographic factors, i.e., an increasingly higher proportion of the population in the 0-14 age group. The government sponsors family planning services which can be obtained free or at subsidized rates and seeks to upgrade the health and living standards of the population. Sterilization is permitted for medical reasons only, and abortions are restricted. Crude death rates have declined steadily and are currently estimated at 21-23/1000 population. The infant mortality rate is approximately 125.7/1000 live births. These rates are considered unacceptable and budget allocations for curative and preventive services have continuously risen. Uneven regional distribution of services continues to be problematic. Efforts to curb immigration in 1969 are thought to have resulted in the current satisfactory situation. Restrictive measures to prevent the emigration of skilled personnel are in effect. 60-65% of the population are urban dwellers and the proportion is expected to increase. The current spatial distribution of the population is considered inappropriate, rapid urbanization is causing rural depopulation, overburdening urban services and accentuating rural-urban disparaties. 2 approaches to the problem have been implemented: the urban increase is accomodated by increasing outlays for services, and new public investments are widely dispersed, particularly in rural areas. The industrial policy is expected to shift to exploitation of the country's natural resources in order to develop the interior. PMID:12263956

1981-09-01

3

Traditional Representations of the Natural Environment and Biodiversity Conservation: Sacred Groves in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local cosmologies and traditional perceptions of the natural environment, especially forests, have been a major influence in the management of the natural resources and biodiversity amongst rural communities in the transitional zone of Ghana. Sacred groves, which are typical outputs of traditional conservation practices, derive from indigenous religious beliefs and perceptions of forest. Sacred groves are believed to be the

Paul Sarfo-Mensah; William Oduro; Fredrick Antoh Fredua; Stephen Amisah

2010-01-01

4

Species composition in fragmented forests: conservation implications of changing forest area  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important aspect of forest fragmentation is the ensuing change in forest area and the impact this has on species number and composition. Quantifying this is an important step in prioritizing forest fragments for biodiversity conservation. Species–area curves from isolated forest fragments in Ghana, West Africa, show that large forests contain the greatest number of tree species. Moreover, the additional

J. L Hill; P. J Curran

2001-01-01

5

Pro-poor tourism: residents' expectations, experiences and perceptions in the Kakum National Park Area of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines Ghana's evolving tourism policies with special reference to its spatial and pro-poor impacts. Using a sample of 182 respondents around the Kakum National Park in Ghana's Central Region, an area which is rich in tourism assets but economically poor, it examines residents’ expectations, experiences and perceptions about tourism development in the area. While some expectations were too

Oheneba Akwasi Akyeampong

2011-01-01

6

Traditional Natural Resources Management Practices and Biodiversity Conservation in Ghana: A Review of Local Concepts and Issues on Change and Sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the importance of traditional natural resources management practices in Ghana. It highlights the roles of traditional beliefs, taboos and rituals in the management and conservation of key natural resources in the country. The paper is based on desk studies undertaken as part of anthropological studies conducted in the forest-savanna transitional agroecological zone of Ghana to study the

Paul Sarfo-Mensah; W. Oduro

2007-01-01

7

Determinants of utilisation of health services by women in rural and urban areas in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the factors that influence the utilisation of health services by women in the rural and urban areas in Ghana. The systematic sampling procedure was used to draw the sample from women aged 18 and above with diverse backgrounds from Ahafo-Ano South district, representing the rural districts and Kumasi metropolis, representing the urban districts. The research instruments used

Daniel Buor

2005-01-01

8

Pedological characteristics related to groundwater occurrence in the Tarkwa area, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saturated hydraulic conductivities (Ks) and textural characteristics of soil have been determined by infiltration and particle size distribution tests, respectively, at 56 sites. These soil tests were conducted in the B-horizon during a groundwater resources survey in the Tarkwa area, Ghana. It was observed, in general, that extremely poorly sorted soils exhibited low porosity and relatively higher Ks, while relatively

J. S. Kuma; P. L. Younger

2001-01-01

9

MAINE MUSSEL SEED CONSERVATION AREAS  

EPA Science Inventory

SEED shows point locations of Maine mussel seed conservation areas at 1:24,000 scale. Data for this coverage were screen digitized on a 1:24000 scale base using descriptions contained in Maine Department of Marine Resources (MDMR) rules. Coastal arcs from Maine Office of GIS 1:24...

10

Groundwater resources management in the Afram Plains area, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

A groundwater flow simulation model was developed using available hydrogeological data to describe groundwater flow in the\\u000a Afram Plains area. A nonlinear optimization model was then developed and solved for the management of groundwater resources\\u000a to meet irrigation and household needs. The objective was to maximize groundwater extraction from the shallow aquifers of\\u000a the southern Voltaian Sedimentary Basin that underly

Sandow Mark Yidana; Duke Ophori

2008-01-01

11

Estimating unmet need for contraception by district within Ghana: an application of small-area estimation techniques.  

PubMed

The importance of meeting the unmet need for contraception is nowhere more urgent than in the countries of sub-Saharan Africa, where the fertility decline is stalling and total unmet need exceeds 30 per cent among married women. In Ghana, where fertility levels vary considerably, demographic information at sub-national level is essential for building effective family planning programmes. We used small-area estimation techniques, linking data from the 2003 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey to the 2000 Ghana Population and Housing Census, to derive district-level estimates of contraceptive use and unmet need for contraception. The results show considerable variation between districts in contraceptive use and unmet need. The prevalence of contraceptive use varies from 4.1 to 41.7 per cent, while that of the use of modern methods varies from 4.0 to 34.8 per cent. The findings identify districts where family planning programmes need to be strengthened. PMID:22553978

Amoako Johnson, Fiifi; Padmadas, Sabu S; Chandra, Hukum; Matthews, Zoe; Madise, Nyovani J

2012-05-04

12

Evaluating local benefits from conservation in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area.  

PubMed

Protected areas are integral to the global effort to conserve biodiversity, and, over the past two decades, protected area managers have begun to recognize that conservation objectives are next to impossible to achieve without considering the needs and concerns of local communities. Incentive-based programs (IBPs) have become a favored approach to protected area management, geared at fostering local stewardship by delivering benefits tied to conservation to local people. Effective IBPs require benefits to accrue to and be recognized by those experiencing the greatest consequences as a result of the protected area, and those likely to continue extractive activities if their livelihood needs are compromised. This research examines dispersal of IBP benefits, as perceived by local residents in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area. Results reported here are based on questionnaire interviews with 188 households conducted between September and December 2004. Results indicate that local residents primarily identify benefits from social development activities, provisions for resource extraction, and economic opportunities. Overall, benefits have been dispersed equally to households in villages on and off the main tourist route, and regardless of a household's participation in tourism. However, benefits are not effectively targeted to poorer residents, those highly dependent on natural resources, and those experiencing the most crop damage and livestock loss from protected wildlife. This article provides several suggestions for improving the delivery of conservation incentives. PMID:18458999

Spiteri, Arian; Nepal, Sanjay K

2008-05-06

13

7 CFR 1410.8 - Conservation priority areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...total acreage of all conservation priority areas...quality, air quality, wildlife habitat, or other...environmental laws. (d) Conservation priority area designations...areas designated as conservation priority areas...air quality, or wildlife habitat...

2013-01-01

14

Local Responses to Participatory Conservation in Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for participation. In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the barriers encountered in its implementation, a questionnaire survey of 188 households was employed in the communities of the Upper Mustang extension of Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. The study provides a comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers between Non-Tourist (NT) and Tourist (TV) villages. The results revealed important differences between the two groups in terms of their participation in community programs, barriers to participation, and perception of benefits from participation. Owing to their distinct spatial, demographic and attitudinal differences, the two village groups have their own sets of needs, values and motivation factors which cannot be generalized and treated as such. The research clearly identifies the need for the conservation agency to be creative in devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific social groups so as to optimize their input in participatory conservation.

Khadka, Damodar; Nepal, Sanjay K.

2010-02-01

15

Hydrogeochemistry and isotope studies of groundwater in the Ga West Municipal Area, Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper assesses groundwater in the Ga West Municipal Area of Ghana using hydrogeochemistry and isotope approaches. High salinity groundwaters are obtained in the municipality which poses problems for current and future domestic water supply exploitation. The increase in salinity is related to the dissolution of minerals in the host rocks and the evaporative concentration of solutes. The dominant groundwater composition in both shallow and deep wells sampled is Na-Cl. The concentration of the Na-Cl was observed to increase substantially with well depths. The mixing of freshwater of the shallow hand dug wells with that of saline water of the deep boreholes was noted in the shift from Ca-HCO3 facies to Ca-Cl facies. Schoeller diagram showed that groundwater in the study area is recharged from a similar source. The Schoeller diagram also showed the gradual increase in concentration of the major ions with depth. This leads to salinization in the deep boreholes. The oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions in the groundwater samples suggest that groundwater recharge is of meteoric origin with few samples showing evidence of evaporation. An average deuterium excess of rainfall of 14.2 ‰ was observed, which indicates the significance of kinetic evaporation due to low humidity conditions prevalent in the study area. The d-excess also indicates modern recharge along the foothills of the Akwapim-Togo Ranges.

Saka, David; Akiti, Tetteh T.; Osae, Shiloh; Appenteng, Michael K.; Gibrilla, Abass

2013-09-01

16

Conservation biology: beyond marine protected areas.  

PubMed

Socioeconomic and ecological analyses of eleven coral reef conservation efforts make clear that marine protected areas are not the answer, and that in fact support of local communities is far more important than some government mandated 'fishing closure'. Apparently there are marine 'paper parks' just as there are terrestrial 'paper parks'. PMID:16860727

Kareiva, Peter

2006-07-25

17

Freshwater Protected Areas: Strategies for Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater species and habitats are among the most threatened in the world. One way in which this growing conservation concern can be addressed is the creation of freshwater protected areas. Here, we present three strategies for freshwater protected-area design and management: whole-catchment management, natu- ral-flow maintenance, and exclusion of non-native species. These strategies are based on the three primary threats

D. L. Saunders; J. J. Meeuwig; A. C. J. Vincent

2002-01-01

18

Feeding frequency and survival of Anopheles gambiae in a rice-growing area in Ghana.  

PubMed

Mortality rates, determined by dissection, of predominantly M form female Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) were estimated. Mosquitoes were collected in tent traps and light traps in an irrigation project village in Ghana in June and July 2010, when much of the area was flooded. Both M and S form larvae were collected from rice fields (74 of 80 specimens were M form). Adults were collected in equal proportions from the two traps (90 of 107 specimens from the light trap and 106 of 116 specimens from the tent trap were M form). During the study, collection numbers rose from 105 to 972 per night. A total of 1787 of the 15 431 An. gambiae collected were dissected. Of these, 953 (53%) were found to have taken their first bloodmeal, either as virgins or following mating. The age profiles of mosquitoes collected alive and dead, respectively, were similar. Eighteen of 2933 (0.61 ± 0.49%) specimens were found to be positive for sporozoites in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Lagged cross correlations among the different age groups implied that the mosquitoes fed on days 2 and 4 following emergence prior to oviposition and every 2.65 ± 0.17 days thereafter. The best model to describe the observed population patterns implied a daily mortality of 84%. The results are discussed in relation to possible mosquito control measures for the village. PMID:22092441

Charlwood, J D; Tomás, E V; Egyir-Yawson, A; Kampango, A A; Pitts, R J

2011-11-17

19

Spatial dependency of cholera prevalence on potential cholera reservoirs in an urban area, Kumasi, Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cholera has been a public health burden in Ghana since the early 1970s. Between 1999 and 2005, a total of 25,636 cases and 620 deaths were officially reported to the WHO. In one of the worst affected urban cities, fecal contamination of surface water is extremely high, and the disease is reported to be prevalent among inhabitants living in close proximity to surface water bodies. Surface runoff from dump sites is a major source of fecal and bacterial contamination of rivers and streams in the study area. This study aims to determine (a) the impacts of surface water contamination on cholera infection and (b) detect and map arbitrary shaped clusters of cholera. A Geographic Information System (GIS) based spatial analysis is used to delineate potential reservoirs of the cholera vibrios; possibly contaminated by surface runoff from open space refuse dumps. Statistical modeling using OLS model reveals a significant negative association between (a) cholera prevalence and proximity to all the potential cholera reservoirs ( R2 = 0.18, p < 0.001) and (b) cholera prevalence and proximity to upstream potential cholera reservoirs ( R2 = 0.25, p < 0.001). The inclusion of spatial autoregressive coefficients in the OLS model reveals the dependency of the spatial distribution of cholera prevalence on the spatial neighbors of the communities. A flexible scan statistic identifies a most likely cluster with a higher relative risk (RR = 2.04, p < 0.01) compared with the cluster detected by circular scan statistic (RR = 1.60, p < 0.01). We conclude that surface water pollution through runoff from waste dump sites play a significant role in cholera infection.

Osei, Frank B.; Duker, Alfred A.; Augustijn, Ellen-Wien; Stein, Alfred

2010-10-01

20

Reaching Underserved Populations with Basic Education in Deprived Areas of Ghana: Emerging Good Practices. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Achieving Education for All (EFA) in Ghana and many parts of sub-Saharan Africa remains an elusive goal. Extensive research in diverse countries has revealed that formalized systems that work on fixed timetables, a loaded curriculum, and trained teachers, are often not performing as well in rural environments in providing basic literacy, numeracy,…

2003

21

A survey of gastrointestinal parasites of olive baboons (Papio anubis) in human settlement areas of Mole National Park, Ghana.  

PubMed

Fecal samples from 55 free-ranging olive baboons (Papio anubis) in Mole National Park, Ghana, were collected 22 June-7 July 2008 and analyzed for gastrointestinal parasites. This is the first survey of baboon gastrointestinal parasites in Ghana and provides baseline data for this area. Ninety-three percent of samples were infected, leaving 7% with no parasites observed. Of those infected, there was a 76% prevalence of strongyles, 53% Strongyloides spp., 11% Abbreviata caucasica , 62% prevalence of Balantidium coli (trophozoites and cysts identified), 4% Entomeba hystolytica/dispar, and 47% unidentified protozoan parasites. Of the strongyle infections, 9% were identified as Oesophagostamum sp. One sample contained an unidentified spirurid nematode that resembled Gongylonema sp. Mole has a mixed forest-savanna habitat, and baboons frequently range into human areas, which makes them subject to parasites from each habitat and multiple sources of exposure. We found a high prevalence of nematode parasites, consistent with a wet or cooler forest environment, or high rates of fecal contamination. The presence of Strongyloides sp., E. hystolitica/dispar, and B. coli suggest potential public health risk from baboons, but molecular identification of these parasites, and documentation of their presence in local human populations, would be necessary to confirm zoonotic transmission. PMID:22300265

Ryan, Sadie J; Brashares, Justin S; Walsh, Chesley; Milbers, Katherine; Kilroy, Cailean; Chapman, Colin A

2012-02-02

22

Protected Area Economics and Policy: Linking Conservation and Sustainable Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Economic and Policy Issues in Natural Habitats and Protected Areas; Conservation, Protected Areas, and the Global Economic System: How Debt, Trade, Exchange Rates, Inflation, and Macroeconomic Policy Affect Biological Diversity; Conservation in ...

M. Munasinghe J. A. McNeely

1994-01-01

23

An Investigation of Small and Micro-Enterprise Owners Perceptions Towards Financial Credit Offered by Commercial Banks in the Cape Coast Metropolitan Area of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a study conducted by collecting data from both the demand and supply sides of formal finance to understand the perceptions of each party towards the other, regarding financial credit offered by commercial banks in the Cape Coast Metropolitan Area of Ghana. The study is an empirical investigation of perceptions and attitudes respectively of the two parties

John K. Mbroh

2012-01-01

24

Assessment of atmospheric heavy metal deposition in the Tarkwa gold mining area of Ghana using epiphytic lichens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In situ lichens (Parmelia sulcata) have been used to assess atmospheric heavy metal deposition in the Tarkwa gold mining area of Ghana. Total heavy metal concentrations obtained by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) were processed by positive matrix factorization (PMF), principal component (PCA) and cluster (CA) analyses. The pollution index factor (PIF) and pollution load index (PLI) criteria revealed elevated levels of Sb, Mn, Cu, V, Al, Co, Hg, Cd and As in excess of the background values. The PCA and CA classified the examined elements into anthropogenic and natural sources, and PMF resolved three primary sources/factors: agricultural activities and other non-point anthropogenic origins, natural soil dust, and gold mining activities. Gold mining activities, which are characterized by dominant species of Sb, Th, As, Hg, Cd and Co, and significant contributions of Cu, Al, Mn and V, are the main contributors of heavy metals in the atmosphere of the study area.

Boamponsem, L. K.; Adam, J. I.; Dampare, S. B.; Nyarko, B. J. B.; Essumang, D. K.

2010-05-01

25

Local Responses to Participatory Conservation in Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last\\u000a forty years. The traditional top–down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical\\u000a social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric\\u000a of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes

Damodar Khadka

2010-01-01

26

The New York State Bird Conservation Area (BCA) Program: A ...  

Treesearch

Research & Development ... International Institute of Tropical Forestry ... New York State Bird Conservation Area (BCA) Program: A Model for the United States ... Several state agencies and conservation organizations are involved in the BCA ...

27

Improving the Key Biodiversity Areas Approach for Effective Conservation Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key biodiversity areas (KBA) approach aims to identify globally important areas for species conservation. Although a similar methodology has been used successfully to identify Important Bird Areas, we have identified five limitations that may apply when considering other taxa: The KBA approach is overly prescriptive in identifying important conservation features, is inflexible when dealing with landscape connectivity, creates errors

ANDREW T. KNIGHT; ROBERT J. SMITH; RICHARD M. COWLING; PHILIP G. DESMET; DANIEL P. FAITH; SIMON FERRIER; CAROLINE M. GELDERBLOM; HEDLEY GRANTHAM; AMANDA T. LOMBARD; KRISTAL MAZE; JEANNE L. NEL; JEFFREY D. PARRISH; GENEVIEVE Q. K. PENCE; HUGH P. POSSINGHAM; BELINDA REYERS; MATHIEU ROUGET; DIRK ROUX; KERRIE A. WILSON

2007-01-01

28

Complementary areas for conserving avian diversity on Hispaniola  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hispaniola has been identified as a global priority for avian conservation. However, little quantitative information has been available to help guide optimal strategies for conservation action on the island. Here, the first broad-scale look has been assembled of the distribution of species of conservation concern among protected areas in Haiti and the Dominican Republic and their occurrences have been analysed

Steven C. Latta

2005-01-01

29

Hydrogeochemical study on the contamination of water resources in a part of Tarkwa mining area, Western Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to investigate the groundwater chemistry with special concern to metal pollution in selected communities in the Wassa West district, Ghana. In this mining area, 40 ground water samples, mainly from drilled wells, were collected. The groundwaters have generally from neutral to acidic pH values and their Eh values indicate oxidising conditions. The dominating ions are calcium, sodium, and bicarbonate. The metal concentrations in the study area are generally lower than those typically found in mining regions. Only 17 wells show metal concentrations exceeding WHO guidelines for at least one metal. The main contaminants are manganese and iron, but arsenic and aluminium also exceed the guidelines in some wells probably affected by acid mine drainage (AMD). Metal concentrations in the groundwater seem to be controlled by the adsorption processes. Hydrogeochemical modelling indicates supersaturation of groundwater with respect to several mineral phases including iron-hydroxides/oxides, suggesting that adsorption on these minerals may control heavy metal and arsenic concentrations in groundwater. The area is hilly, with many groundwater flow divides that result in several local flow systems. The aquifers therefore are not strongly affected by weathering of minerals due to short groundwater residence times and intense flushing. The local character of groundwater flow systems also prevents a strong impact of acid mine drainage on groundwater systems in a regional scale.

Bhattacharya, Prosun; Sracek, Ondra; Eldvall, Björn; Asklund, Ragnar; Barmen, Gerhard; Jacks, Gunnar; Koku, John; Gustafsson, Jan-Erik; Singh, Nandita; Balfors, Berit Brokking

2012-05-01

30

Key factors leading to reduced recruitment and retention of health professionals in remote areas of Ghana: a qualitative study and proposed policy solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The ability of many countries to achieve national health goals such as the Millennium Development Goals remains hindered by\\u000a inadequate and poorly distributed health personnel, including doctors. The distribution of doctors in Ghana is highly skewed,\\u000a with a majority serving in two major metropolitan areas (Accra and Kumasi), and inadequate numbers in remote and rural districts.\\u000a Recent policies increasing health

Rachel C Snow; Kwesi Asabir; Massy Mutumba; Elizabeth Koomson; Kofi Gyan; Mawuli Dzodzomenyo; Margaret Kruk; Janet Kwansah

2011-01-01

31

Environmental and Occupational Exposures to Mercury Among Indigenous People in Dunkwa-On-Offin, a Small Scale Gold Mining Area in The South-West of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total mercury concentrations in human hair and urine samples were determined to ascertain the extent of environmental and\\u000a occupational mercury exposure in Dunkwa-On-Offin, a small scale gold mining area of the central-west region of Ghana. In all\\u000a ninety-four (94) hair and urine samples comprising of forty (40) small scale miners and fifty-four (54) farmers were collected\\u000a and analyzed for their

E. E. Kwaansa-AnsahN; N. Basu; J. O. Nriagu

2010-01-01

32

San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area: National Landscape Conservation System Annual Manager's Report, FY 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area (SPRNCA or NCA) is among the last, highly bio diverse, wild areas left in the country. Biodiversity encompasses grasslands, desert scrub, mixed scrub-grassland, aquatic habitat, riparian habitat, cottonwoo...

2012-01-01

33

Impacts of community-based conservation on local communities in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approaches to the management of protected areas that involve the participation of local communities are now being widely promoted.\\u000a However, the impacts of such community-based conservation initiatives on local communities remain poorly defined. This research\\u000a examines the socio-economic impacts of community-based conservation within the Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA), Nepal, through\\u000a semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire survey with local residents, situated

Siddhartha B. Bajracharya; Peter A. Furley; Adrian C. Newton

34

Impacts of Community-based Conservation on Local Communities in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approaches to the management of protected areas that involve the participation of local communities are now being widely promoted.\\u000a However, the impacts of such community-based conservation initiatives on local communities remain poorly defined. This research\\u000a examines the socio-economic impacts of community-based conservation within the Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA), Nepal, through\\u000a semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire survey with local residents, situated

Siddhartha B. Bajracharya; Peter A. Furley; Adrian C. Newton

2006-01-01

35

Occupational injuries in Ghana.  

PubMed

Household interviews were used to survey 21,105 persons living in 431 urban and rural sites in Ghana, to determine the nature and extent of their occupational injuries. Annual occupational injury rates were 11.5 injuries/1000 persons in the urban areas and 44.9/1000 in the rural areas. Occupational injuries had higher mortality, longer disability, and higher treatment costs than non-occupational injuries. There were substantial occupational injury rates among children, especially in rural areas. In the urban areas, the largest numbers of injuries were to drivers (12.7% of urban occupational injuries) and traders (19.4%), most of which were road-traffic-related. In the rural areas, most injuries (71.6%) were to farm workers. Occupational injuries are a substantial burden in Ghana. Priorities include improving road safety and improving the prevention and treatment of injuries from nonmechanized farming. PMID:16130964

Mock, Charles; Adjei, Samuel; Acheampong, Frederick; Deroo, Lisa; Simpson, Kate

36

50 CFR 660.76 - EFH Conservation Areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...within the EEZ in a particular area designated as a groundfish EFH Conservation Area is detailed at § 660.11; §§ 660...1280-m) contour. This area includes all waters designated...96ⲠN. lat., 125°46.51ⲠW. long.; (4)...

2011-10-01

37

50 CFR 660.76 - EFH Conservation Areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...within the EEZ in a particular area designated as a groundfish EFH Conservation Area is detailed at § 660.11; §§ 660...1280-m) contour. This area includes all waters designated...96ⲠN. lat., 125°46.51ⲠW. long.; (4)...

2012-10-01

38

50 CFR 660.70 - Groundfish conservation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...N. lat., 124°51.00ⲠW. long...Rockfish Conservation Area. The Stonewall...George YRCA is an area off the...listed: (1) 41°51.00ⲠN. lat., 124...connecting back to 41°51.00ⲠN. lat., 124...South Reef YRCA is an area off...

2012-10-01

39

50 CFR 660.70 - Groundfish conservation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...N. lat., 124°51.00ⲠW. long...Rockfish Conservation Area. The Stonewall...George YRCA is an area off the...listed: (1) 41°51.00ⲠN. lat., 124...connecting back to 41°51.00ⲠN. lat., 124...South Reef YRCA is an area off...

2011-10-01

40

Native Fish Conservation Areas: A Vision for Large-Scale Conservation of Native Fish Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The status of freshwater fishes continues to decline despite substantial conservation efforts to reverse this trend and recover threatened and endangered aquatic species. Lack of success is partially due to working at smaller spatial scales and focusing on habitats and species that are already degraded. Protecting entire watersheds and aquatic communities, which we term “native fish conservation areas” (NFCAs), would

Jack E. Williams; Richard N. Williams; Russell F. Thurow; Leah Elwell; David P. Philipp; Fred A. Harris; Jeffrey L. Kershner; Patrick J. Martinez; Dirk Miller; Gordon H. Reeves; Christopher A. Frissell; James R. Sedell

2011-01-01

41

15 CFR 922.73 - Marine reserves and marine conservation area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Marine reserves and marine conservation area. 922.73 Section...73 Marine reserves and marine conservation area. (a) Marine reserves...anchor or in transit. (b) Marine conservation area. Unless...

2009-01-01

42

Hydrogeological and hydrochemical characterization of the Voltaian Basin: the Afram Plains area, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Afram Plains area, groundwater is the main source of water supply for most uses. The area is underlain by aquifers\\u000a of the southern Voltaian sedimentary basin, which are predominantly sandstones, mudstones, conglomerates and shale. Ordinary\\u000a least squares regression analysis using 41 well-test data from aquifers in the Afram Plains portion of the Voltaian system\\u000a reveals that transmissivity, T,

Sandow Mark Yidana; Duke Ophori; Bruce Banoeng-Yakubo

2008-01-01

43

High body mass index is not associated with atopy in schoolchildren living in rural and urban areas of Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Factors which determine the development of atopy and the observed rural-urban gradient in its prevalence are not fully understood. High body mass index (BMI) has been associated with asthma and potentially atopy in industrialized countries. In developing countries, the transition from rural to urban areas has been associated with lifestyle changes and an increased prevalence of high BMI; however, the effect of high BMI on atopy remains unknown in this population. We therefore investigated the association between high BMI and atopy among schoolchildren living in rural and urban areas of Ghana. Methods Data on skin prick testing, anthropometric, parasitological, demographic and lifestyle information for 1,482 schoolchildren aged 6-15 years was collected. Atopy was defined as sensitization to at least one tested allergen whilst the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, Atlanta) growth reference charts were used in defining high BMI as BMI ? the 85th percentile. Logistic regression was performed to investigate the association between high BMI and atopy whilst adjusting for potential confounding factors. Results The following prevalences were observed for high BMI [Rural: 16%, Urban: 10.8%, p < 0.001] and atopy [Rural: 25.1%, Urban: 17.8%, p < 0.001]. High BMI was not associated with atopy; but an inverse association was observed between underweight and atopy [OR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.33-0.99]. Significant associations were also observed with male sex [Rural: OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.06-2.08; Urban: OR: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.30-2.79], and in the urban site with older age [OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.00-3.07], family history of asthma [OR: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.01-2.47] and occupational status of parent [OR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.12-0.93]; whilst co-infection with intestinal parasites [OR: 2.47, 95% CI: 1.01-6.04] was associated with atopy in the rural site. After multivariate adjustment, male sex, older age and family history of asthma remained significant. Conclusions In Ghanaian schoolchildren, high BMI was not associated with atopy. Further studies are warranted to clarify the relationship between body weight and atopy in children subjected to rapid life-style changes associated with urbanization of their environments.

2011-01-01

44

Modeling the relationship between precipitation and malaria incidence in children from a holoendemic area in Ghana.  

PubMed

Climatic factors influence the incidence of vector-borne diseases such as malaria. They modify the abundance of mosquito populations, the length of the extrinsic parasite cycle in the mosquito, the malarial dynamics, and the emergence of epidemics in areas of low endemicity. The objective of this study was to investigate temporal associations between weekly malaria incidence in 1,993 children < 15 years of age and weekly rainfall. A time series analysis was conducted by using cross-correlation function and autoregressive modeling. The regression model showed that the level of rainfall predicted the malaria incidence after a time lag of 9 weeks (mean = 60 days) and after a time lag between one and two weeks. The analyses provide evidence that high-resolution precipitation data can directly predict malaria incidence in a highly endemic area. Such models might enable the development of early warning systems and support intervention measures. PMID:21292900

Krefis, Anne Caroline; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Krüger, Andreas; Fobil, Julius; Nkrumah, Bernard; Acquah, Samuel; Loag, Wibke; Sarpong, Nimako; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Ranft, Ulrich; May, Jürgen

2011-02-01

45

A case for conserving imperiled plants by ecological area  

Treesearch

This would help (a) safeguard plant populations of evolutionary significance; (b) maintain ... A focus on ecological areas would broaden modem conservation practice, ... This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on ... top, Disclaimers | FOIA | Privacy Policy | Quality of Information | Print This Page.

46

Exploring Students' Strategies in Area Conservation Geometrical Tasks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of this study is to investigate the strategies employed by advanced high school and university students working on six tasks concerning comparison and conservation of area. Special care has been taken in the test design so that the problems could be dealt with using a variety of solution methods. Written responses and in-depth interviews…

Kospentaris, George; Spyrou, Panagiotis; Lappas, Dionyssios

2011-01-01

47

X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Analysis of Soil Heavy Metal Pollution from an Industrial Area in Kumasi, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of soil heavy metal concentration is very important for assessing the purity and quality of the soil in an environment. The concentrations of nine heavy metals (NHM), Zn, Pb, Cr, Cu, Co, Ni, Cd, Hg, and As from the near-surface soils (? 0–15 cm) from an industrial cluster in Kumasi, Ghana were qualitatively and quantitatively measured and analyzed using X-ray

K. Kodom; K. Preko; D. Boamah

2012-01-01

48

Priority areas for large mammal conservation in equatorial Guinea.  

PubMed

Hunting is one of the main driving forces behind large mammal density distribution in many regions of the world. In tropical Africa, urban demand for bushmeat has been shown to dominate over subsistence hunting and its impact often overrides spatial-ecological species characteristics. To effectively protect remaining mammal populations the main factors that influence their distribution need to be integrated into conservation area prioritisation and management plans. This information has been lacking for Río Muni, Equatorial Guinea, as prior studies have been outdated or have not systematically covered the continental region of the country. In this study we evaluated: 1) the relative importance of local vs. commercial hunting; 2) wildlife density of protected vs. non-protected areas; and 3) the importance of ecological factors vs. human influence in driving mammal density distribution in Río Muni. We adopted a systematic countrywide line transect approach with particular focus on apes and elephants, but also including other mammal species. For analysis of field data we used generalised linear models with a set of predictor variables representing ecological conditions, anthropogenic pressure and protected areas. We estimate that there are currently 884 (437-1,789) elephants and 11,097 (8,719-13,592) chimpanzees and gorillas remaining in Río Muni. The results indicate strong hunting pressures on both local and commercial levels, with roads demonstrating a negative impact on elephants and overall mammal body mass. Protected areas played no role in determining any of the mammal species distributions and significant human hunting signs were found inside these protected areas, illustrating the lack of environmental law enforcement throughout the country. Río Muni is currently under-represented in conservation efforts in Western Equatorial Africa, and we recommend a focus on cross-boundary conservation, in particular in the Monte Alén-Monts de Cristal and Río Campo Ma'an conservation landscapes, where the highest densities and diversity of large mammals remain. PMID:24086426

Murai, Mizuki; Ruffler, Heidi; Berlemont, Antoine; Campbell, Genevieve; Esono, Fidel; Agbor, Anthony; Mbomio, Domingo; Ebana, Agustín; Nze, Antonio; Kühl, Hjalmar S

2013-09-27

49

Priority Areas for Large Mammal Conservation in Equatorial Guinea  

PubMed Central

Hunting is one of the main driving forces behind large mammal density distribution in many regions of the world. In tropical Africa, urban demand for bushmeat has been shown to dominate over subsistence hunting and its impact often overrides spatial-ecological species characteristics. To effectively protect remaining mammal populations the main factors that influence their distribution need to be integrated into conservation area prioritisation and management plans. This information has been lacking for Río Muni, Equatorial Guinea, as prior studies have been outdated or have not systematically covered the continental region of the country. In this study we evaluated: 1) the relative importance of local vs. commercial hunting; 2) wildlife density of protected vs. non-protected areas; and 3) the importance of ecological factors vs. human influence in driving mammal density distribution in Río Muni. We adopted a systematic countrywide line transect approach with particular focus on apes and elephants, but also including other mammal species. For analysis of field data we used generalised linear models with a set of predictor variables representing ecological conditions, anthropogenic pressure and protected areas. We estimate that there are currently 884 (437–1,789) elephants and 11,097 (8,719–13,592) chimpanzees and gorillas remaining in Río Muni. The results indicate strong hunting pressures on both local and commercial levels, with roads demonstrating a negative impact on elephants and overall mammal body mass. Protected areas played no role in determining any of the mammal species distributions and significant human hunting signs were found inside these protected areas, illustrating the lack of environmental law enforcement throughout the country. Río Muni is currently under-represented in conservation efforts in Western Equatorial Africa, and we recommend a focus on cross-boundary conservation, in particular in the Monte Alén-Monts de Cristal and Río Campo Ma’an conservation landscapes, where the highest densities and diversity of large mammals remain.

Murai, Mizuki; Ruffler, Heidi; Berlemont, Antoine; Campbell, Genevieve; Esono, Fidel; Agbor, Anthony; Mbomio, Domingo; Ebana, Agustin; Nze, Antonio; Kuhl, Hjalmar S.

2013-01-01

50

Natural resource dependency and decentralized conservation within Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project, Nepal.  

PubMed

Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project (KCAP) in Nepal is among the first protected areas in the world to institute a completely decentralized system of conservation and development. Proponents of decentralized conservation claim that it increases management efficiency, enhances the responsiveness to local needs, and promotes greater equity among local residents. This study assessed local equity by evaluating the levels of dependencies on natural resources among households and the factors affecting that dependency. Data were collected via detailed surveys among 205 randomly selected households within the KCAP. Natural resource dependency was evaluated by comparing the ratio of total household income to income derived from access to natural resources. Economic, social, and access-related variables were employed to determine potential significant predictors of dependency. Overall, households were heavily dependent on natural resources for their income, especially households at higher elevations and those with more adult members. The households that received remittances were most able to supplement their income and, therefore, drastically reduced their reliance on the access to natural resources. Socio-economic variables, such as land holdings, education, caste, and ethnicity, failed to predict dependency. Household participation in KCAP-sponsored training programs also failed to affect household dependency; however, fewer than 20% of the households had any form of direct contact with KCAP personnel within the past year. The success of the KCAP as a decentralized conservation program is contingent on project capacity-building via social mobilization, training programs, and participatory inclusion in decision making to help alleviate the dependency on natural resources. PMID:22127405

Parker, Pete; Thapa, Brijesh

2011-11-30

51

The Conservation of Area Integrals in Averaging Transformations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown for the two-planetary version of the weakly perturbed two-body problem that, in a system defined by a finite part of a Poisson expansion of the averaged Hamiltonian, only one of the three components of the area vector is conserved, corresponding to the longitudes measuring plane. The variability of the other two components is demonstrated in two ways. The first is based on calculating the Poisson bracket of the averaged Hamiltonian and the components of the area vector written in closed form. In the second, an echeloned Poisson series processor (EPSP) is used when calculating the Poisson bracket. The averaged Hamiltonian is taken with accuracy to second order in the small parameter of the problem, and the components of the area vector are expanded in a Poisson series.

Kuznetsov, E. D.

2010-06-01

52

The Cryptosporidium "Mouse" Genotype Is Conserved across Geographic Areas  

PubMed Central

A 298-bp region of the Cryptosporidium parvum 18S rRNA gene and a 390-bp region of the acetyl coenzyme A synthetase gene were sequenced for a range of Cryptosporidium isolates from wild house mice (Mus domesticus), a bat (Myotus adversus), and cattle from different geographical areas. Previous research has identified a distinct genotype, referred to as the “mouse”-derived Cryptosporidium genotype, common to isolates from Australian mice. Comparison of a wider range of Australian mouse isolates with United Kingdom and Spanish isolates from mice and cattle and also an Australian bat-derived Cryptosporidium isolate revealed that the “mouse” genotype is conserved across geographic areas. Mice are also susceptible to infection with the “cattle” Cryptosporidium genotype, which has important implications for their role as reservoirs of infection for humans and domestic animals.

Morgan, Una M.; Sturdee, Anthony P.; Singleton, Grant; Gomez, M. Soledad; Gracenea, Mercedes; Torres, Jordi; Hamilton, Steven G.; Woodside, D. P.; Thompson, R. C. Andrew

1999-01-01

53

75 FR 10814 - Proposed Programmatic Safe Harbor Agreement for the Sacramento River Conservation Area Forum in...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Programmatic Safe Harbor Agreement for the Sacramento River Conservation Area Forum in Shasta...Enhancement of Survival Permit from the Sacramento River Conservation Area Forum (applicant...U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Sacramento Fish and Wildlife Office, 2800...

2010-03-09

54

78 FR 10634 - Notice of Meetings, Dominguez-Escalante National Conservation Area Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLCON06000...Dominguez-Escalante National Conservation Area Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior...Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM...Escalante National Conservation Area Advisory...

2013-02-14

55

50 CFR 660.77 - EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Washington.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...N. lat., 124°51.61ⲠW. long...1 EFH Conservation Area is defined by straight...Canyon EFH Conservation Area is defined by...stated: (1) 46°51.55ⲠN. lat., 125...connecting back to 46°51.55ⲠN. lat...3 EFH Conservation Area is defined...

2012-10-01

56

50 CFR 660.77 - EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Washington.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...N. lat., 124°51.61ⲠW. long...1 EFH Conservation Area is defined by straight...Canyon EFH Conservation Area is defined by...stated: (1) 46°51.55ⲠN. lat., 125...connecting back to 46°51.55ⲠN. lat...3 EFH Conservation Area is defined...

2011-10-01

57

Protected areas: mixed success in conserving East Africa's evergreen forests.  

PubMed

In East Africa, human population growth and demands for natural resources cause forest loss contributing to increased carbon emissions and reduced biodiversity. Protected Areas (PAs) are intended to conserve habitats and species. Variability in PA effectiveness and 'leakage' (here defined as displacement of deforestation) may lead to different trends in forest loss within, and adjacent to, existing PAs. Here, we quantify spatial variation in trends of evergreen forest coverage in East Africa between 2001 and 2009, and test for correlations with forest accessibility and environmental drivers. We investigate PA effectiveness at local, landscape and national scales, comparing rates of deforestation within park boundaries with those detected in park buffer zones and in unprotected land more generally. Background forest loss (BFL) was estimated at -9.3% (17,167 km(2)), but varied between countries (range: -0.9% to -85.7%; note: no BFL in South Sudan). We document high variability in PA effectiveness within and between PA categories. The most successful PAs were National Parks, although only 26 out of 48 parks increased or maintained their forest area (i.e. Effective parks). Forest Reserves (Ineffective parks, i.e. parks that lose forest from within boundaries: 204 out of 337), Nature Reserves (six out of 12) and Game Parks (24 out of 26) were more likely to lose forest cover. Forest loss in buffer zones around PAs exceeded background forest loss, in some areas indicating leakage driven by Effective National Parks. Human pressure, forest accessibility, protection status, distance to fires and long-term annual rainfall were highly significant drivers of forest loss in East Africa. Some of these factors can be addressed by adjusting park management. However, addressing close links between livelihoods, natural capital and poverty remains a fundamental challenge in East Africa's forest conservation efforts. PMID:22768074

Pfeifer, Marion; Burgess, Neil D; Swetnam, Ruth D; Platts, Philip J; Willcock, Simon; Marchant, Robert

2012-06-29

58

Biogeographic Crossroads as Priority Areas for Biodiversity Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Threats to biodiversity outpace the resources of the conservation community and necessitate care- ful prioritization of conservation actions. I suggest that targeting the regions where biogeographic assem- blages intersect—\\

Sacha Spector

2002-01-01

59

Placental malaria and the risk of malaria in infants in a high malaria transmission area in ghana: a prospective cohort study.  

PubMed

Background.?Whether the risk of malaria is increased in infants born to mothers who experience malaria during pregnancy is uncertain. Methods.?We investigated malaria incidence among an infant cohort born to 355 primigravidae and 1500 multigravidae with or without placental malaria (PM) in a high malaria transmission area of Ghana. PM was assessed using placental histology. Results.?The incidence of all episodes of malaria parasitemia or clinical malaria was very similar among 3 groups of infants: those born to multigravidae without PM, multigravidae with PM, and primigravidae with PM. Infants born to primigravidae without PM experienced a lower incidence of malaria parasitemia or clinical malaria than the other 3 groups: adjusted hazard ratio, 0.64 (95% confidence interval [CI], .48-.86, P < .01) and 0.60 (95% CI, .43-.84, P < .01), respectively. The incidence of malaria parasitemia or clinical malaria was about 2 times higher in most poor infants compared to least poor infants. Conclusions.?There was no suggestion that exposure to PM directly increased incidence of malaria among infants of multigravidae. In our study area, absence of placental malaria in primigravidae is a marker of low exposure, and this probably explains the lower incidence of malaria-related outcomes among infants of PM-negative primigravidae. PMID:23908483

Asante, Kwaku Poku; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Cairns, Matthew; Dodoo, Daniel; Boamah, Ellen Abrafi; Gyasi, Richard; Adjei, George; Gyan, Ben; Agyeman-Budu, Akua; Dodoo, Theophilus; Mahama, Emmanuel; Amoako, Nicholas; Dosoo, David Kwame; Koram, Kwadwo; Greenwood, Brian; Chandramohan, Daniel

2013-08-01

60

Sustaining Jamaica's forests: The protected areas resource conservation project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines Jamaica's attempt to protect a tropical forest reserve. The biophysical setting, and the types and magnitude of forest development pressures are reviewed. Next, Jamaica's approach to developing new land-use strategies and compatible environmental protection and economic development programs are examined. Finally, the practical and theoretical implications by which institutions can be designed to encourage planning for sustainable development are reviewed. The implications suggest how to provide an appropriate mix of cooperation and market competition, by which people acting in their own interests accomplish socially equitable economic development, while protecting the environment for the benefit of future generations. The experience illustrates that effective long-term protection of natural areas requires the building of local relationships and support, the development of local economic activities supportive of conservation, the defining of clear boundaries, and significant monitoring and enforcement. Long-term protection of the Blue and John Crow mountains, and other important natural areas of Jamaica, will also require the development of a workable and enforceable system of land-use planning for the island, and adjustments to the economic incentive structure so that sustainable, nonextractive uses of natural capital are placed on equal footing with other economic uses (e.g., coffee production).

Berke, Philip R.; Beatley, Timothy

1995-07-01

61

Sustainable Vocational Skills Development for Poverty Reduction in Northern Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vulnerability of the youth, in terms of unemployment, in Northern Ghana is manifest by persistent migration streams to Southern Ghana and its attendant negative effects, such as high crime rate. Vocational skills development has been identified as one effective means of tackling the unemployment problem of the area, which could ultimately reduce the inherent migration trends. This paper analyses

Braimah Imoro; Kwame Obeng Nti

2009-01-01

62

50 CFR 660.399 - EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of California.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of California...660.399 Section 660.399 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL...

2010-10-01

63

Environmental and occupational exposures to mercury among indigenous people in Dunkwa-On-Offin, a small scale gold mining area in the South-West of Ghana.  

PubMed

Total mercury concentrations in human hair and urine samples were determined to ascertain the extent of environmental and occupational mercury exposure in Dunkwa-On-Offin, a small scale gold mining area of the central-west region of Ghana. In all ninety-four (94) hair and urine samples comprising of forty (40) small scale miners and fifty-four (54) farmers were collected and analyzed for their total mercury levels using the cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry. The hair total mercury concentrations ranged from 0.63 to 7.19 ug/g with a mean of 2.35 ± 1.58 ug/g for the farmers and 0.57-6.07 ug/g with a mean of 2.14 ± 1.53 ug/g for the small scale gold miners. There was no significant correlation between the total mercury concentration and the average weekly fish diet. The total mercury concentrations in urine of the miners were higher than those of the farmers and ranged from 0.32 to 3.62 ug/L with a mean of 1.23 ± 0.86 ug/L. The urine concentrations of farmers ranged from 0.075 to 2.31 ug/L with a mean of 0.69 ± 0.39 ug/L. Although the results indicate elevated internal dose of mercury the current levels of exposures do not appear to pose a significant health threat to the people. PMID:21069282

Kwaansa-Ansah, E E; Basu, N; Nriagu, J O

2010-11-11

64

Environmental education praxis toward a natural conservation area.  

PubMed

A non-formal Environmental Education (EE) Program has been implemented in the natural conservation area (Ecological Station of Jataí, Luiz Ant nio, São Paulo State), through (EE) paradigms, which consider the objectives of education about, in and for the environment within cultural and natural perspectives. The aim of this Program is to support information and scientific knowledge to provide opportunities to the local population to be aware of environmental impacts and risks resulting from the soil use that threaten the environmental quality and the bio diversity of the Ecological Station of Jataí. The Program understands that the promotion of community empowerment could bring the sense of participation and the directives to management for decision-making for local sustainable. The model was projected on local reality, but considering the global issues of environmental paradigms. The environmental characterization (biophysical components) through a Geographical Information Systems was related to the hydrographic basin analysis. The environmental perception was utilized as a main tool to analyse population understanding of local environment, and (EE) pedagogical tools were produced to promote environmental awareness. Since the ecological dimension of (EE) was the main approach, the programme intends to assemble the cultural perspective, achieving the global view of (EE). PMID:11188862

dos Santos, J E; Sato, M; Pires, J S; Maroti, P S

2000-08-01

65

50 CFR 660.399 - EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of California.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

Boundary line coordinates for EFH Conservation Areas off California are provided in this § 660.399. Fishing activity that is prohibited or permitted within the EEZ in a particular area designated as a groundfish EFH Conservation Area is detailed at § 660.306 and §...

2009-10-01

66

Sustainable Development Through a Rights Based Approach to Conserve Protected Areas in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protected areas are the world’s most effective tool for biodiversity conservation, and their role in helping mitigate and adapt to climate change is also increasingly recognized. However, neglecting internationally and domestically guaranteed rights can be a trigger for protected areas destruction. The crossroads of protected areas conservation on the one hand and human rights protection on the other is an

Miao He

2012-01-01

67

50 CFR 660.79 - EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of California.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...N. lat., 123°51.15ⲠW. long...Arena South Biogenic Area. The boundary...Shoal EFH Conservation Area is defined by...stated: (1) 37°51.58ⲠN. lat...N. lat., 119°51.00ⲠW. long...Island EFH Conservation Area is...

2012-10-01

68

50 CFR 660.79 - EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of California.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...N. lat., 123°51.15ⲠW. long...Arena South Biogenic Area. The boundary...Shoal EFH Conservation Area is defined by...stated: (1) 37°51.58ⲠN. lat...N. lat., 119°51.00ⲠW. long...Island EFH Conservation Area is...

2011-10-01

69

State Farms in Ghana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comprehensive report is given of large scale farming in Ghana, including a history of British Colonial efforts up to 1962. Discussed is the establishment of Ghana State Farms Corporation (SFC) in June of 1962 which took over the Ministry of Agriculture'...

M. P. Miracle A. Seidman

1968-01-01

70

Conserving freshwater ecosystem values in Tasmania, Australia: identification and application of freshwater conservation management priority areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Conservation of Freshwater Ecosystem Values (CFEV) Project is a Tasmanian Government initiative that has developed a Comprehensive, Adequate and Representative (CAR) system as a strategic framework for the management and conservation of freshwater-dependent ecosystem values in Tasmania. At the core of the CFEV framework is a statewide audit of Tasmania's freshwater values for rivers, waterbodies, wetlands, saltmarshes, estuaries, karst

Danielle Hardie; Peter Davies

71

Ground-water flow beneath levee 35A from conservation area 2B, Broward County, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Conservation Area 2B is an area of recharge for the surficial aquifer system in Broward County. Water stored in the conservation area provides the hydraulic potential for downward flow to the high permeability zone of the Biscayne aquifer. A 5.64 ft head differential (average for the period of record) between water levels in Conservation Area 2B and water levels in the adjacent levee 35A borrow canal causes water to leak into the canal at an average rate of about 0.0022 cu ft per sec per lineal foot of canal and accounts for a loss of 0.013 foot per day of surface water from Conservation Area 2B. Amounts of canal leakage and underflow are constantly changing and are dependent upon the head differential between Conservation Area 2B and the levee 35A borrow canal. (Author 's abstract)

Swayze, L. J.

1988-01-01

72

78 FR 48861 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Approval of a Marine Conservation Plan for Pacific Insular Areas...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...conservation plan for Pacific Insular Areas other than American Samoa, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands. DATES: This agency...EEZ) adjacent to any Pacific Insular Area other than American Samoa, Guam, or the Northern Mariana Islands, that is, in...

2013-08-12

73

50 CFR 660.78 - EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Oregon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Deepwater EFH Conservation Area is defined by straight...N. lat., 125°01.51ⲠW. long.; (5) 44...39ⲠN. lat., 124°51.77ⲠW. long.; ...89ⲠN. lat., 124°51.60ⲠW. long.; and...Seamount EFH Conservation Area is defined by...

2012-10-01

74

50 CFR 660.78 - EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Oregon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Deepwater EFH Conservation Area is defined by straight...N. lat., 125°01.51ⲠW. long.; (5) 44...39ⲠN. lat., 124°51.77ⲠW. long.; ...89ⲠN. lat., 124°51.60ⲠW. long.; and...Seamount EFH Conservation Area is defined by...

2011-10-01

75

78 FR 28621 - Notice of Dominguez-Escalante National Conservation Area Advisory Council Meeting Cancellation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLCON06000-L16100000-DP0000...Dominguez-Escalante National Conservation Area Advisory Council...Reschedule AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior...accordance with the Federal Land Policy and Management...Dominguez-Escalante National Conservation Area Advisory...

2013-05-15

76

78 FR 25096 - Call for Nominations for the Dominguez-Escalante National Conservation Area Advisory Council...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLCON06000...Dominguez-Escalante National Conservation Area Advisory Council...Colorado AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior...by the Omnibus Public Lands Management Act of 2009...Escalante National Conservation Area (D-E NCA)...

2013-04-29

77

Conservation of Absolute Foveal Area in New World Monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The foveal specializations of five New World monkeys, the marmoset, Callithrix jacchus; the golden-handed tamarin, Saguinus midas niger; the squirrel monkey, Saimiri ustius; the capuchin monkey, Cebus apella; and the howler monkey, Alouatta caraya were compared. Although retinal area varies by over a factor of two in these monkeys, the area of the fovea does not covary with retinal area

E. C. S. Franco; B. L. Finlay; L. C. L. Silveira; E. S. Yamada; J. C. Crowley

2000-01-01

78

Child Labor and Schooling in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

November 1997To improve human capital and reduce the incidence of child labor in Ghana, the country's school systems should reduce families' schooling costs, adapt to the constraints on schooling in rural areas (where most children must work at least part-time), and provide better education (more relevant to the needs of the labor market). If these things are done, more families

Sudharshan Canagarajah; Harold Coulombe

1999-01-01

79

A Learning Environment for the Conservation of Area and Its Measurement: A Computer Microworld.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a computer microworld for learning the concept of conservation of area and its measurement; analyzes its main features (drawing segments and polygons, manipulation of areas using simulations of children's sensory-motor actions, measuring areas, transforming areas into equivalent ones, and measuring lengths and angles); and presents the…

Kordaki, Maria; Potari, Despina

1998-01-01

80

High body mass index is not associated with atopy in schoolchildren living in rural and urban areas of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Factors which determine the development of atopy and the observed rural-urban gradient in its prevalence are not fully understood.\\u000a High body mass index (BMI) has been associated with asthma and potentially atopy in industrialized countries. In developing\\u000a countries, the transition from rural to urban areas has been associated with lifestyle changes and an increased prevalence\\u000a of high BMI; however, the

Irene A Larbi; Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch; Abena S Amoah; Benedicta B Obeng; Michael D Wilson; Maria Yazdanbakhsh; Daniel A Boakye

2011-01-01

81

Relationship Between Green Areas and Urban Conservation in Historical Areas and Its Reflections: Case of Diyarbakir City, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

City planning is essential for providing physical environment for better community life and for providing green areas, while conserving historical heritage is an important achievement in city planning, particularly for historical cities such as Diyarbakir city. The focus of this paper is to outline how increasing the ratio of green area in the city centre of Diyarbakir, Turkey, with a

M. Oguz Sinemillioglu; Can Tuncay Akin; Nese Karacay

2010-01-01

82

Representation of Global and National Conservation Priorities by Colombia's Protected Area Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundHow do national-level actions overlap with global priorities for conservation? Answering this question is especially important in countries with high and unique biological diversity like Colombia. Global biodiversity schemes provide conservation guidance at a large scale, while national governments gazette land for protection based on a combination of criteria at regional or local scales. Information on how a protected area

German Forero-Medina; Lucas Joppa

2010-01-01

83

Developing a scale for evaluating ecotourism by visitors: a study in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecotourism has become a valuable industry in developing countries with a promise of reconciling nature conservation and economic development goals. A sample of 315 international visitors to the Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA), Nepal was surveyed in April and May of 2006 to assess how they gathered information, evaluated ecotourism and rated their levels of satisfaction from their ecotourism experience. We

Nabin Baral; Marc J. Stern; A. L. Hammett

2012-01-01

84

Broken forest: Applying the integrated conservation and development paradigm to Madagascar's protected areas  

SciTech Connect

The destruction of Madagascar's primary forests through agricultural clearing poses a grave threat to the island's biodiversity. The report assesses the potential of the planned Sustainable and Viable Environmental Management (SAVEM) Project to minimize this threat by implementing Integrated Conservation Development Projects (ICDP's), which link resource conservation to income-generating activities, in the peripheral zones of Madagascar's protected areas.

Barbour, R.; Rabezandria, R.; Daviesson, R.; Guyton, W.; Rakotobe.

1992-06-01

85

Evaluation of the Bird Conservation Area Concept in the Northern Tallgrass Prairie Annual Report: 19  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new resource on the management and conservation of grassland/prairie birds has been posted at the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center site. This report "contains findings from the first year of a study to test the idea that Bird Conservation Areas can maintain populations of breeding grassland birds." It is available for download in .zip format.

Johnson, Douglas H.; Winter, Maiken.; Svedarsky, W. D.; Donovan, Therese M.

2007-08-14

86

Area prioritization and performance evaluation of the conservation area network for the Moroccan herpetofauna: a preliminary assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration of spatial area prioritization algorithms and species distribution modelling has shown great promise in conservation\\u000a planning in recent years. However, despite the fact that reptiles and amphibians have the highest threat status of all terrestrial\\u000a vertebrates, these species are often under-represented in conservation planning. The Kingdom of Morocco possesses the richest\\u000a and most varied herpetofauna in the Maghreb

Philip de Pous; Wouter Beukema; Martijn Weterings; Ignas Dümmer; Philippe Geniez

2011-01-01

87

Agricultural Land Resources and Conservation Areas Inventory for Livingston County, New York.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents an inventory and analysis of agricultural and resources and conservation areas in Livingston County. The purpose of the section on agriculture is to indicate the changing role of agriculture in the County within the broader framework o...

1972-01-01

88

Illinois land report: Rice Lake Conservation Area. Volume 1. Final document  

SciTech Connect

This report was authorized by the Illinois Surface Coal Mining Land Conservation and Reclamation Act (PA 81-1015). It was prepared in response to a petition from a citizen's organization (Save Rice Lake Area Association) which requested that the Rice Lake Conservation Area, owned by the Illinois Department of Conservation, be declared unsuitable for surface coal mining. This declaration of suitability or unsuitability will ultimately be made by the Illinois Department of Mines and Minerals. In addition, the report discusses the impact of mining on state and local land use plans, fragile and historic lands, renewable resource lands and natural hazard lands.

Not Available

1983-08-29

89

The Relationship of Area Conservation to Area Measurement as Affected by Sequence of Presentation of Piagetian Area Tasks to Boys and Girls in Grades One Through Three.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between scores on three area conservation tasks and scores on two area measurement tasks, as affected by two sequences of presentation of Piagetian tasks to children in grades one through three, was investigated. The five area tasks were administered individually to 168 children ranging in age from six years five months to nine…

Taloumis, Thalia

90

Effectiveness of marine protected areas in the Philippines for biodiversity conservation.  

PubMed

Quantifying the extent to which existing reserves meet conservation objectives and identifying gaps in coverage are vital to developing systematic protected-area networks. Despite widespread recognition of the Philippines as a global priority for marine conservation, limited work has been undertaken to evaluate the conservation effectiveness of existing marine protected areas (MPAs). Targets for MPA coverage in the Philippines have been specified in the 1998 Fisheries Code legislation, which calls for 15% of coastal municipal waters (within 15 km of the coastline) to be protected within no-take MPAs, and the Philippine Marine Sanctuary Strategy (2004), which aims to protect 10% of coral reef area in no-take MPAs by 2020. We used a newly compiled database of nearly 1000 MPAs to measure progress toward these targets. We evaluated conservation effectiveness of MPAs in two ways. First, we determined the degree to which marine bioregions and conservation priority areas are represented within existing MPAs. Second, we assessed the size and spacing patterns of reserves in terms of best-practice recommendations. We found that the current extent and distribution of MPAs does not adequately represent biodiversity. At present just 0.5% of municipal waters and 2.7-3.4% of coral reef area in the Philippines are protected in no-take MPAs. Moreover, 85% of no-take area is in just two sites; 90% of MPAs are <1 km(2). Nevertheless, distances between existing MPAs should ensure larval connectivity between them, providing opportunities to develop regional-scale MPA networks. Despite the considerable success of community-based approaches to MPA implementation in the Philippines, this strategy will not be sufficient to meet conservation targets, even under a best-case scenario for future MPA establishment. We recommend that implementation of community-based MPAs be supplemented by designation of additional large no-take areas specifically located to address conservation targets. PMID:19843129

Weeks, Rebecca; Russ, Garry R; Alcala, Angel C; White, Alan T

2009-10-16

91

Wood density as a conservation tool: quantification of disturbance and identification of conservation-priority areas in tropical forests.  

PubMed

Inventories of tree species are often conducted to guide conservation efforts in tropical forests. Such surveys are time consuming, demanding of expertise, and expensive to perform and interpret. Approaches to make survey efforts simpler or more effective would be valuable. In particular, it would be good to be able to easily identify areas of old-growth forest. The average density of the wood of a tree species is closely linked to its successional status. We used tree inventory data from eastern Borneo to determine whether wood density can be used to quantify forest disturbance and conservation importance. The average density of wood in a plot was significantly and negatively related to disturbance levels, with plots with higher wood densities occurring almost exclusively in old-growth forests. Average wood density was unimodally related to the diversity of tree species, indicating that the average wood density in a plot might be a better indicator of old-growth forest than species diversity. In addition, Borneo endemics had significantly heavier wood than species that are common throughout the Malesian region, and they were more common in plots with higher average wood density. We concluded that wood density at the plot level could be a powerful tool for identifying areas of conservation priority in the tropical rain forests of Southeast Asia. PMID:18637916

Slik, J W Ferry; Bernard, Caroline S; Breman, Floris C; VAN Beek, Marloes; Salim, Agus; Sheil, Douglas

2008-07-15

92

76 FR 38370 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Approval of a Marine Conservation Plan for Pacific Insular Areas...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...conservation plan for Pacific Insular Areas other than American Samoa, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands. DATES: This agency...EEZ) adjacent to any Pacific Insular Area other than American Samoa, Guam or the Northern Mariana Islands, that is, in the...

2011-06-30

93

The Fate of Priority Areas for Conservation in Protected Areas: A Fine-Scale Markov Chain Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Park managers in alpine areas must deal with the increase in forest coverage that has been observed in most European mountain areas, where traditional farming and agricultural practices have been abandoned. The aim of this study is to develop a fine-scale model of a broad area to support the managers of Paneveggio Nature Park (Italy) in conservation planning by focusing on the fate of priority areas for conservation in the next 50-100 years. GIS analyses were performed to assess the afforestation dynamic over time using two historical maps (from 1859 and 1936) and a series of aerial photographs and ortho-photos (taken from 1954 to 2006) covering a time span of 150 years. The results show an increase in the forest surface area of about 35%. Additionally, the forest became progressively more compact and less fragmented, with a consequent loss of ecotones and open habitats that are important for biodiversity. Markov chain-cellular automata models were used to project future changes, evaluating the effects on a habitat scale. Simulations show that some habitats defined as priority by the EU Habitat Directive will be compromised by the forest expansion by 2050 and suffer a consistent loss by 2100. This protocol, applied to other areas, can be used for designing long-term management measures with a focus on habitats where conservation status is at risk.

Tattoni, Clara; Ciolli, Marco; Ferretti, Fabrizio

2011-02-01

94

Representation of Global and National Conservation Priorities by Colombia's Protected Area Network  

PubMed Central

Background How do national-level actions overlap with global priorities for conservation? Answering this question is especially important in countries with high and unique biological diversity like Colombia. Global biodiversity schemes provide conservation guidance at a large scale, while national governments gazette land for protection based on a combination of criteria at regional or local scales. Information on how a protected area network represents global and national conservation priorities is crucial for finding gaps in coverage and for future expansion of the system. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the agreement of Colombia's protected area network with global conservation priorities, and the extent to which the network reflects the country's biomes, species richness, and common environmental and physical conditions. We used this information to identify priority biomes for conservation. We find the dominant strategy in Colombia has been a proactive one, allocating the highest proportion of protected land on intact, difficult to access and species rich areas like the Amazon. Threatened and unique areas are disproportionately absent from Colombia's protected lands. We highlight six biomes in Colombia as conservation priorities that should be considered in any future expansion of Colombia's protected area network. Two of these biomes have less than 3% of their area protected and more than 70% of their area transformed for human use. One has less than 3% protected and high numbers of threatened vertebrates. Three biomes fall in both categories. Conclusions Expansion of Colombia's Protected Area Network should consider the current representativeness of the network. We indicate six priority biomes that can contribute to improving the representation of threatened species and biomes in Colombia.

Forero-Medina, German; Joppa, Lucas

2010-01-01

95

Integrating Ecosystem Management Protected Areas and Mammal Conservation in the Brazilian Amazon  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT. The Amazon,forest has been converted to a matrix of pristine and modified,habitats. Landscape-scale biodiversity conservation requires an understandingof species’ distributions over this matrix to guarantee both effective protection and use for present and future generations. In this study, we evaluated how much,of the existing and future planned protected areas (PAs) would be contributing to the conservation of Brazilian Amazon

Claudia Azevedo-ramos; Benedito Domingues Do Amaral; Daniel C. Nepstad; Britaldo Soares Filho; Robert Nasi

96

Whims of the Winds of Time? Emerging Trends in Biodiversity Conservation and Protected Area Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews narratives and trends in biodiversity conservation\\u000aand protected area (PA) management and examines contestations within\\u000aand among them in the light of developments within the global political economy.\\u000aIts argument starts with the assumption that trends in biodiversity conservation\\u000aand PA management are, in large part, determined by global\\u000apolitical and economic developments. The global political economy

Bram Büscher; Webster Whande

2007-01-01

97

Using a distribution and conservation status weighted hotspot approach to identify areas in need of conservation action to benefit Idaho bird species  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Identification of biodiversity hotspots (hereafter, hotspots) has become a common strategy to delineate important areas for wildlife conservation. However, the use of hotspots has not often incorporated important habitat types, ecosystem services, anthropogenic activity, or consistency in identifying important conservation areas. The purpose of this study was to identify hotspots to improve avian conservation efforts for Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN) in the state of Idaho, United States. We evaluated multiple approaches to define hotspots and used a unique approach based on weighting species by their distribution size and conservation status to identify hotspot areas. All hotspot approaches identified bodies of water (Bear Lake, Grays Lake, and American Falls Reservoir) as important hotspots for Idaho avian SGCN, but we found that the weighted approach produced more congruent hotspot areas when compared to other hotspot approaches. To incorporate anthropogenic activity into hotspot analysis, we grouped species based on their sensitivity to specific human threats (i.e., urban development, agriculture, fire suppression, grazing, roads, and logging) and identified ecological sections within Idaho that may require specific conservation actions to address these human threats using the weighted approach. The Snake River Basalts and Overthrust Mountains ecological sections were important areas for potential implementation of conservation actions to conserve biodiversity. Our approach to identifying hotspots may be useful as part of a larger conservation strategy to aid land managers or local governments in applying conservation actions on the ground.

Haines, Aaron M.; Leu, Matthias; Svancara, Leona K.; Wilson, Gina; Scott, J. Michael

2010-01-01

98

Are We Conserving What We Say We Are? Measuring Ecological Integrity within Protected Areas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience journal is about measuring the effectiveness of conserving biological diversity within protected areas. Managers of protected areas are under increasing pressure to measure their effectiveness in conserving native biological diversity in ways that are scientifically sound, practical, and comparable among protected areas over time. The Nature Conservancy and its partners have developed a "Measures of Success" framework with four core components: (1) identifying a limited number of focal conservation targets, (2) identifying key ecological attributes for these targets, (3) identifying an acceptable range of variation for each attribute as measured by properly selected indicators, and (4) rating target status based on whether or not the target's key attributes are within their acceptable ranges of variation. A target cannot be considered "conserved" if any of its key ecological attributes exceeds its acceptable range of variation. The framework provides a rigorous basis not only for measuring success but for setting conservation objectives, assessing threats to biodiversity, identifying monitoring and research needs, and communicating management information to nonspecialists.

JEFFREY D. PARRISH, DAVID P. BRAUN, and ROBERT S. UNNASCH (;)

2003-09-01

99

Ghana: A Country Profile.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The country profile of Ghana is part of a series designed to provide baseline country data in support of the planning and relief operations of the Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA). Content, scope, and sources have evolved over the course ...

C. L. Mango C. Davis

1985-01-01

100

Labor Relations in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Labor relations in the Gold Coast (Ghana), or aspects thereof, such as collective bargaining, free trade unions, and arbitration, cannot be discussed as though a free market economy existed there or on the assumption that it will develop as in Europe and in America. The state is the dominant employer of labor and the principal source of capital; without its

R. B. Davison

1957-01-01

101

The Effects of Governmental Protected Areas and Social Initiatives for Land Protection on the Conservation of Mexican Amphibians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, biodiversity conservation gap analyses have been focused on governmental protected areas (PAs). However, an increasing number of social initiatives in conservation (SICs) are promoting a new perspective for analysis. SICs include all of the efforts that society implements to conserve biodiversity, such as land protection, from private reserves to community zoning plans some of which have generated community-protected areas.

Leticia Ochoa-Ochoa; J. Nicolás Urbina-Cardona; Luis-Bernardo Vázquez; Oscar Flores-Villela; Juan Bezaury-Creel; Sean Rands

2009-01-01

102

Tourism Revenue as a Conservation Tool for Threatened Birds in Protected Areas  

PubMed Central

Many bird populations worldwide are at risk of extinction, and rely heavily on protected area networks for their continued conservation. Tourism to these areas contributes to conservation by generating revenue for management. Here we quantify the contribution of tourism revenue for bird species in the IUCN Red List, using a simple accounting method. Relevant data are available for 90 (16%) of the 562 critically endangered and endangered species. Contributions of tourism to bird conservation are highest, 10–64%, in South America, Africa, and their neighbouring islands. Critically endangered bird species rely on tourism more heavily than endangered species (p<0.02). Many protected areas could also enhance their management budgets by promoting birdwatching tourism specifically.

Steven, Rochelle; Castley, J. Guy; Buckley, Ralf

2013-01-01

103

Total mercury loadings in sediment from gold mining and conservation areas in Guyana.  

PubMed

The Low Carbon Development Strategy proposed in June 2009 by the government of Guyana in response to the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries program has triggered evaluation of forest-related activities, thereby acting as a catalyst for improvements in Guyana's small- to medium-scale gold mining industry. This has also shed light on areas committed to conservation, something that has also been handled by Non Governmental Organizations. This paper compares water quality and mercury concentrations in sediment from four main areas in Guyana, two that are heavily mined for gold using mercury amalgamation methods (Arakaka and Mahdia) and two that are considered conservation areas (Iwokrama and Konashen). Fifty-three sediment and soil mercury loadings ranged from 29 to 1,200 ng/g and averaged 215 ± 187 ng/g for all sites with similar averages in conservation and mining areas. Sediment loadings are within the range seen in French Guiana and Suriname, but conservation area samples had higher loadings than the corresponding uncontaminated baselines. Type of ore and location in the mining process seemed to influence mercury loadings. Mercury sediment loadings were slightly positively correlated with pH (correlation coefficient = 0.2; p value < 0.001) whereas no significant correlations were found with dissolved oxygen or turbidity. PMID:21076999

Howard, Joniqua; Trotz, Maya A; Thomas, Ken; Omisca, Erlande; Chiu, Hong Ting; Halfhide, Trina; Akiwumi, Fenda; Michael, Ryan; Stuart, Amy L

2010-11-16

104

Illinois land report: Rice Lake Conservation Area. Volume 2. Comments and responses, appendices, references. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report was authorized by the Illinois Surface Coal Mining Land Conservation and Reclamation Act (PA 81-1015). It was prepared in response to a petition from a citizen's organization (Save Rice Lake Area Association) which requested that the Rice Lake Conservation Area, owned by the Illinois Department of Conservation, be declared unsuitable for surface coal mining. This declaration of suitability or unsuitability will ultimately be made by the Illinois Department of Mines and Minerals. PA 81-1015 provides that ENR must prepare land reports on such lands. The Land Report analyzes the demand for coal and the impact which a declaration of unsuitability would have on the economy, environment and the coal supply. In addition, the report discusses the impact of mining on state and local land use plans, fragile and historic lands, renewable resource lands and natural hazard lands.

Not Available

1983-08-29

105

The use of cumulative area curves in biological conservation: A cautionary note  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small-to-large (STL) and large-to-small (LTS) cumulative curves are used in conservation biology to investigate how species accumulate with area. A common result from application of STL and LTS curves to conservation biology is that a collection of small islands/fragments host more species than a few large islands/fragments with the same total area. However, when there is little overlap between the STL and LTS curves, this graphical method may be of little practical use because a very large number of small islands would need to be protected if one is basing a decision on the shape of the curves. An exercise with the tenebrionid beetles (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) of the Aegean Islands (Greece) shows there is no evidence of a clearly preferable design strategy with respect to single large or several small sites, indicating that no obvious recommendation about species conservation can be inferred from STL and LTS curves.

Fattorini, Simone

2010-03-01

106

Report on the feasibility study for improving electric motor service centers in Ghana  

SciTech Connect

On March 3 and 4, 1998, a visit was made to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by two officials from Ghana: Mr. I.K. Mintah, Acting Executive Director, Technical Wing, Ministry of Mines and Energy (MOME) and Dr. A.K. Ofosu-Ahenkorah, Coordinator, Energy Efficiency and Conservation Program, MOME. As a result of this visit, Dr. John S. Hsu of ORNL was invited by MOME to visit the Republic of Ghana in order to study the feasibility of improving electric motor service centers in Ghana.

Hsu, J.S.; Jallouk, P.A.; Staunton, R.H.

1999-12-10

107

Delineating priority habitat areas for the conservation of Andean bears in northern Ecuador  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We sought to identify priority areas for the conservation of Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus) habitat in the northern portion of the eastern Andean cordillera in Ecuador. The study area included pa??ramo and montane forest habitats within the Antisana and Cayambe-Coca ecological reserves, and unprotected areas north of these reserves with elevations ranging from 1,800 to 4,300 m. We collected data on bear occurrence along 53 transects during 2000-01 in the Oyacachi River basin, an area of indigenous communities within the Cayambe-Coca Ecological Reserve. We used those data and a set of 7 environmental variables to predict suitability of Andean bear habitat using Mahalanobis distance, a multivariate measure of dissimilarity. The Mahalanobis distance values were classified into 5 classes of habitat suitability and generalized to a resolution of 1,650-m ?? 1,650-m grid cells. Clusters of grid cells with high suitability values were delineated from the generalized model and denned as important habitat areas (IHAs) for conservation. The IHAs were ranked using a weighted index that included factors of elevation range, influence from disturbed areas, and current conservation status. We identified 12 IHAs, which were mainly associated with pa??ramo and cloud forest habitats; 2 of these areas have high conservation priorities because they are outside existing reserves and close to areas of human pressure. The distribution of the IHAs highlighted the role of human land use as the main source of fragmentation of Andean bear habitat in this region, emphasizing the importance of preserving habitat connectivity to allow the seasonal movements among habitat types that we documented for this species. Furthermore, the existence of areas with high habitat suitability close to areas of intense human use indicates the importance of bear-human conflict management as a critical Andean bear conservation strategy. We suggest that a promising conservation opportunity for this species is linked to its occurrence in highland habitats, which play a key role in the maintenance of long-term water supplies.

Peralvo, M. F.; Cuesta, F.; Van Manen, F.

2005-01-01

108

Calibration of diatoms along a nutrient gradient in Florida Everglades Water Conservation Area2A, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between diatom taxa preserved in surface soils and environmental variables at 31 sites in Water Conservation Area 2A (WCA-2A) of the Florida Everglades was explored using multivariate analyses. Surface soils were collected along a phosphorus (P) gradient and analyzed for diatoms, total P, % nitrogen (N), %carbon (C), calcium (Ca), and biogenic silica (BSi). Phosphorus varied from 315-1781

Sherri R. Cooper; Jacqueline Huvane; Panchabi Vaithiyanathan; Curtis J. Richardson

1999-01-01

109

Socioeconomic Issues for the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area Land Protection Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bear River Watershed Conservation Area (BRWCA) is located in the Bear River Watershed, a vast basin covering fourteen counties across three states. Located in Wyoming, Utah, and Idaho, the watershed spans roughly 7,500 squares miles (mi2): 1,500 mi2 i...

C. Huber C. C. Thomas L. Koontz W. Gascoigne

2012-01-01

110

Land-use planning to conserve habitat for area-sensitive forest birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models predicting the occurrence of area-sensitive bird species in forests were developed from bird survey data from 499 forests in Prince George's County, Maryland. The predicted probabilities of occurrence for species were integrated with forest cover data for the County in a Geographic Information System (GIS). This information was used in combination with local zoning and forest conservation requirements to

Lonnie J. Darr; Deanna K. Dawson; Chandler S. Robbins

1998-01-01

111

Using species-area relationships to inform baseline conservation targets for the deep North East Atlantic.  

PubMed

Demands on the resources of the deep-sea have increased in recent years. Consequently, the need to create and implement a comprehensive network of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) to help manage and protect these resources has become a global political priority. Efforts are currently underway to implement MPA networks in the deep North East Atlantic. To ensure these networks are effective, it is essential that baseline information be available to inform the conservation planning process. Using empirical data, we calculated conservation targets for sessile benthic invertebrates in the deep North East Atlantic for consideration during the planning process. We assessed Species-Area Relationships across two depth bands (200-1100 m and 1100-1800 m) and nine substrata. Conservation targets were predicted for each substratum within each depth band using z-values obtained from fitting a power model to the Species-Area Relationships of observed and estimated species richness (Chao1). Results suggest an MPA network incorporating 10% of the North East Atlantic's deep-sea area would protect approximately 58% and 49% of sessile benthic species for the depth bands 200-1100 m and 1100-1800 m, respectively. Species richness was shown to vary with substratum type indicating that, along with depth, substratum information needs to be incorporated into the conservation planning process to ensure the most effective MPA network is implemented in the deep North East Atlantic. PMID:23527053

Foster, Nicola L; Foggo, Andrew; Howell, Kerry L

2013-03-20

112

Using Species-Area Relationships to Inform Baseline Conservation Targets for the Deep North East Atlantic  

PubMed Central

Demands on the resources of the deep-sea have increased in recent years. Consequently, the need to create and implement a comprehensive network of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) to help manage and protect these resources has become a global political priority. Efforts are currently underway to implement MPA networks in the deep North East Atlantic. To ensure these networks are effective, it is essential that baseline information be available to inform the conservation planning process. Using empirical data, we calculated conservation targets for sessile benthic invertebrates in the deep North East Atlantic for consideration during the planning process. We assessed Species-Area Relationships across two depth bands (200–1100 m and 1100–1800 m) and nine substrata. Conservation targets were predicted for each substratum within each depth band using z-values obtained from fitting a power model to the Species-Area Relationships of observed and estimated species richness (Chao1). Results suggest an MPA network incorporating 10% of the North East Atlantic’s deep-sea area would protect approximately 58% and 49% of sessile benthic species for the depth bands 200–1100 m and 1100–1800 m, respectively. Species richness was shown to vary with substratum type indicating that, along with depth, substratum information needs to be incorporated into the conservation planning process to ensure the most effective MPA network is implemented in the deep North East Atlantic.

Foster, Nicola L.; Foggo, Andrew; Howell, Kerry L.

2013-01-01

113

BARRIERS TO NATURE CONSERVATION IN GERMANY: A MODEL EXPLAINING OPPOSITION TO PROTECTED AREAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Germany is particularly plagued in its nature conservation strategies by widespread and persistent opposition to the designation and management of protected areas through local resistance. This opposition is continuing, despite Germany's commitment to international and European mandates to enhance biodiversity within its borders. This paper seeks to explain why this opposition is so coherent and so protracted with reference to

SUSANNE STOLL-KLEEMANN

2001-01-01

114

Current models broadly neglect specific needs of biodiversity conservation in protected areas under climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Protected areas are the most common and important instrument for the conservation of biological diversity and are called for\\u000a under the United Nations' Convention on Biological Diversity. Growing human population densities, intensified land-use, invasive species and increasing habitat fragmentation threaten\\u000a ecosystems worldwide and protected areas are often the only refuge for endangered species. Climate change is posing an additional\\u000a threat

Mungla Sieck; Pierre L Ibisch; Kirk A Moloney; Florian Jeltsch

2011-01-01

115

Spatial Distribution of Soil Nutrients in a Northern Everglades Marsh: Water Conservation Area 2A  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Florida Everglades developed as a nutrient-poor, rain-fed eco- system. However, for the past 30 yr, the Everglades have received nutrient-enriched surface water runoff from the adjacent Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA). This study examines the response of a pristine wetland, Water Conservation Area 1 (WCA 1), part of the northern Florida Everglades, to nutrient loading as documented by soil nutrient

W. F. DeBusk; K. R. Reddy; M. S. Koch; M. M. Fisher; G. Shih

1994-01-01

116

Exchange Rate Management in Ghana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The history of exchange rate management in Ghana is one of the richest and most interesting in Africa. Before most African countries had established their own currencies, a balance of payments crisis in Ghana provoked an adverse terms of trade shock and e...

S. D. Younger

1993-01-01

117

Community visioning in a transfrontier conservation area in Southern Africa paves the way towards landscapes combining agricultural production and biodiversity conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study employed participatory approaches to establish ways of engaging local communities within a transfrontier conservation area, towards achieving the goals of integrated agricultural production and biodiversity conservation at a landscape level, known as ecoagriculture. We facilitated farmers' meetings to create charts of local environmental and livelihood concerns and of their vision of the future. Water scarcity, bad road conditions,

Munyaradzi Chitakira; Emmanuel Torquebiau; Willem Ferguson

2012-01-01

118

Using probability of persistence to identify important areas for biodiversity conservation.  

PubMed Central

Most attempts to identify important areas for biodiversity have sought to represent valued features from what is known of their current distribution, and have treated all included records as equivalent. We develop the idea that a more direct way of planning for conservation success is to consider the probability of persistence for the valued features. Probabilities also provide a consistent basis for integrating the many pattern and process factors affecting conservation success. To apply the approach, we describe a method for seeking networks of conservation areas that maximize probabilities of persistence across species. With data for European trees, this method requires less than half as many areas as an earlier method to represent all species with a probability of at least 0.95 (where possible). Alternatively, for trials choosing any number of areas between one and 50, the method increases the mean probability among species by more than 10%. This improvement benefits the least-widespread species the most and results in greater connectivity among selected areas. The proposed method can accommodate local differences in viability, vulnerability, threats, costs, or other social and political constraints, and is applicable in principle to any surrogate measure for biodiversity value.

Williams, P H; Araujo, M B

2000-01-01

119

Characterization of malaria transmission by vector populations for improved interventions during the dry season in the Kpone-on-Sea area of coastal Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria is a major public health problem in Ghana. We present a site-specific entomological study of malaria vectors and transmission indices as part of an effort to develop a site for the testing of improved control strategies including possible vaccine trials. Methods Pyrethrum spray catches (PSC), and indoor and outdoor human landing collections of adult female anopheline mosquitoes were carried out over a six-month period (November 2005 - April 2006) at Kpone-on-Sea, a fishing village in southern Ghana. These were morphologically identified to species level and sibling species of the Anopheles gambiae complex further characterized by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect Plasmodium falciparum mosquito infectivity and host blood meal sources. Parity rate was examined based on dilatation of ovarian tracheoles following dissection. Results Of the 1233 Anopheles mosquitoes collected, An. gambiae s.l. was predominant (99.5%), followed by An. funestus (0.4%) and An. pharoensis (0.1%). All An. gambiae s.l. examined (480) were identified as An. gambiae s.s. with a majority of M molecular form (98.2%) and only 1.8%?S form with no record of M/S hybrid. A significantly higher proportion of anophelines were observed outdoors relative to indoors (?2?=?159.34, df?=?1, p?

2012-01-01

120

Housing growth in and near United States protected areas limits their conservation value.  

PubMed

Protected areas are crucial for biodiversity conservation because they provide safe havens for species threatened by land-use change and resulting habitat loss. However, protected areas are only effective when they stop habitat loss within their boundaries, and are connected via corridors to other wild areas. The effectiveness of protected areas is threatened by development; however, the extent of this threat is unknown. We compiled spatially-detailed housing growth data from 1940 to 2030, and quantified growth for each wilderness area, national park, and national forest in the conterminous United States. Our findings show that housing development in the United States may severely limit the ability of protected areas to function as a modern "Noah's Ark." Between 1940 and 2000, 28 million housing units were built within 50 km of protected areas, and 940,000 were built within national forests. Housing growth rates during the 1990s within 1 km of protected areas (20% per decade) outpaced the national average (13%). If long-term trends continue, another 17 million housing units will be built within 50 km of protected areas by 2030 (1 million within 1 km), greatly diminishing their conservation value. US protected areas are increasingly isolated, housing development in their surroundings is decreasing their effective size, and national forests are even threatened by habitat loss within their administrative boundaries. Protected areas in the United States are thus threatened similarly to those in developing countries. However, housing growth poses the main threat to protected areas in the United States whereas deforestation is the main threat in developing countries. PMID:20080780

Radeloff, Volker C; Stewart, Susan I; Hawbaker, Todd J; Gimmi, Urs; Pidgeon, Anna M; Flather, Curtis H; Hammer, Roger B; Helmers, David P

2009-12-22

121

Housing growth in and near United States protected areas limits their conservation value  

PubMed Central

Protected areas are crucial for biodiversity conservation because they provide safe havens for species threatened by land-use change and resulting habitat loss. However, protected areas are only effective when they stop habitat loss within their boundaries, and are connected via corridors to other wild areas. The effectiveness of protected areas is threatened by development; however, the extent of this threat is unknown. We compiled spatially-detailed housing growth data from 1940 to 2030, and quantified growth for each wilderness area, national park, and national forest in the conterminous United States. Our findings show that housing development in the United States may severely limit the ability of protected areas to function as a modern “Noah’s Ark.” Between 1940 and 2000, 28 million housing units were built within 50 km of protected areas, and 940,000 were built within national forests. Housing growth rates during the 1990s within 1 km of protected areas (20% per decade) outpaced the national average (13%). If long-term trends continue, another 17 million housing units will be built within 50 km of protected areas by 2030 (1 million within 1 km), greatly diminishing their conservation value. US protected areas are increasingly isolated, housing development in their surroundings is decreasing their effective size, and national forests are even threatened by habitat loss within their administrative boundaries. Protected areas in the United States are thus threatened similarly to those in developing countries. However, housing growth poses the main threat to protected areas in the United States whereas deforestation is the main threat in developing countries.

Radeloff, Volker C.; Stewart, Susan I.; Hawbaker, Todd J.; Gimmi, Urs; Pidgeon, Anna M.; Flather, Curtis H.; Hammer, Roger B.; Helmers, David P.

2009-01-01

122

Housing growth in and near United States protected areas limits their conservation value  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Protected areas are crucial for biodiversity conservation because they provide safe havens for species threatened by land-use change and resulting habitat loss. However, protected areas are only effective when they stop habitat loss within their boundaries, and are connected via corridors to other wild areas. The effectiveness of protected areas is threatened by development; however, the extent of this threat is unknown. We compiled spatially-detailed housing growth data from 1940 to 2030, and quantified growth for each wilderness area, national park, and national forest in the conterminous United States. Our findings show that housing development in the United States may severely limit the ability of protected areas to function as a modern "Noah's Ark." Between 1940 and 2000, 28 million housing units were built within 50 km of protected areas, and 940,000 were built within national forests. Housing growth rates during the 1990s within 1 km of protected areas (20% per decade) outpaced the national average (13%). If long-term trends continue, another 17 million housing units will be built within 50 km of protected areas by 2030 (1 million within 1 km), greatly diminishing their conservation value. US protected areas are increasingly isolated, housing development in their surroundings is decreasing their effective size, and national forests are even threatened by habitat loss within their administrative boundaries. Protected areas in the United States are thus threatened similarly to those in developing countries. However, housing growth poses the main threat to protected areas in the United States whereas deforestation is the main threat in developing countries.

Radeloff, V. C.; Stewart, S. I.; Hawbaker, T. J.; Gimmi, U.; Pidgeon, A. M.; Flather, C. H.; Hammer, R. B.; Helmers, D. P.

2010-01-01

123

Rethinking Biodiversity Conservation Effectiveness and Evaluation in the National Protected Areas Systems of Tropical Islands: The Case of Jamaica and the Dominican Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Island conservation theory and practice with regard to conservation of tropical terrestrial biodiversity in protected areas systems has yet to be adequately addressed in conservation literature. This knowledge gap is identified as a key contributor to the adoption of scientific principles for in situ biodiversity conservation, and “universal” conservation and protected area management paradigms that are unsuitable for island contexts

Suzanne Mae Camille Davis

2010-01-01

124

50 CFR Figure 20 to Part 679 - Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea 20 Figure 20 to Part 679 Wildlife and... Figure 20 to Part 679âSteller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea ER28JA02.073 [67 FR 4134,...

2009-10-01

125

50 CFR Figure 20 to Part 679 - Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea 20 Figure 20 to Part 679 Wildlife and... Figure 20 to Part 679âSteller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea ER28JA02.073 [67 FR 4134,...

2010-10-01

126

The Policy Terrain in Protected Area Landscapes: Challenges for Agroforestry in Integrated Landscape Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated ecosystem and landscape approaches to conservation are moving from concept to practice in many parts of the developing\\u000a world. Agroforestry – the deliberate management of trees on farms and in agricultural landscapes – is emerging as one of the\\u000a most promising approaches to enhance and stabilize rural livelihoods, while reducing pressure on protected areas, enhancing\\u000a habitat for some wild

Rebecca Ashley; Diane Russell; Brent Swallow

2006-01-01

127

Participatory Simulation for Collective Management of Protected Areas for Biodiversity Conservation and Social Inclusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—In this paper, we introduce a research project aimed at methodological,and computer-based,support,for participatory management of protected areas, in order to promote biodiversity conservation,and,social inclusion. Our,starting,point is the “companion modelling” approach, as defined by the ComMod group, a movement of researchers created in 2003. Their method, called MAS\\/RPG, consists in iterations coupling role-playing games (RPG) and agent-based simulations (MAS), in order

Jean-Pierre Briot; Paul Guyot; Marta Irving

128

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF SOIL PROPERTIES IN WATER CONSERVATION AREA 2A, EVERGLADES, FLORIDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wetland soils are heterogenous in nature, and biogeochemical proper- ties show different spatial autocorrelation structures that translate into fine- and coarse-scale spatial patterns. Understanding these patterns and how they relate to other ecosystem properties (e.g., vegetation) is critical to restore wetlands impacted by nutrient influx. Our goal was to investigate Water Conservation Area 2A, a wetland in the Florida Everglades,

Rosanna G. Rivero; Sabine Grunwald; Todd Z. Osborne; K. Ramesh Reddy; Sue Newman

2007-01-01

129

Art at the Crossroads: The Contested Position of Indigenous Arts in Ghana's Post-Colonial Education Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In Ghana, as in many areas of the world, the meanings attached to indigenous art forms are based on larger philosophical foundations. Those meanings are at the crux of the ongoing struggle in the minds of many Ghanaians over the appropriateness of Ghana's traditional arts in their contemporary education system. The indigenous arts are caught in…

Ross, Mariama

2004-01-01

130

Prioritizing conservation potential of arid-land montane natural springs and associated riparian areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Using inventory data and input from natural resource professionals, we developed a classification system that categorizes conservation potential for montane natural springs. This system contains 18 classes based on the presence of a riparian patch, wetland species, surface water, and evidence of human activity. We measured physical and biological components of 276 montane springs in the Oscura Mountains above 1450 m and the San Andres Mountains above 1300 m in southern New Mexico. Two of the 18 classes were not represented during the inventory, indicating the system applies to conditions beyond the montane springs in our study area. The class type observed most often (73 springs) had a riparian patch, perennial surface water, and human evidence. We assessed our system in relation to 13 other wetland and riparian classification systems regarding approach, area of applicability, intended users, validation, ease of use, and examination of system response. Our classification can be used to rapidly assess priority of conservation potential for isolated riparian sites, especially springs, in arid landscapes. We recommend (1) including this classification in conservation planning, (2) removing deleterious structures from high-priority sites, and (3) assessing efficiency and use of this classification scheme elsewhere. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

Thompson, B. C.; Matusik-Rowan, P. L.; Boykin, K. G.

2002-01-01

131

Biological Review of Draft Environmental Impact Statement Akyem Project, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This document is a review of the biological aspects of the April 2008 Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) of the proposed Akyem gold mine in Eastern Ghana. The DEIS is an inadequate assessment of existing biodiversity in the Akyem project area and is not an acceptable documentation of probable environmental impacts of the proposed mine. Information in the DEIS

Scott G. Cardiff

2008-01-01

132

Mining, Pollution and Agricultural Productivity: Evidence from Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most modern mines in the developing world are located in rural areas, where agriculture is the main source of livelihood. This creates the potential of negative spillovers to farmers through competition for key inputs (such as land) and environmental pollution. To explore this issue, we examine the case of gold mining in Ghana. Through the estimation of an agricultural production

Fernando Aragon; Juan Pablo Rud

2012-01-01

133

Nutrient content of the moist tropical forest of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The total weight of vegetation on an area of just over 1 acre of old secondary forest in the moist forest zone of Ghana has been determined, and found to be equivalent to roughly 150 tons per acre dry weight. The nutrient content of each component of the vegetation was also determined and showed that the amounts of the

D. J. Greenland; J. M. L. Kowal

1960-01-01

134

Speciation of mercury in mine waste: case study of abandoned and active gold mine sites at the Bibiani-Anwiaso-Bekwai area of South Western Ghana.  

PubMed

Speciation determines toxicity, transport pathways and residence time of a metal in different compartments of the environment. This study investigated the speciation of mercury in soils, derived from sites known for dumping of mine wastes in the Bibiani-Anwiaso-Bekwai district, a gold mining community of the Western Region of Ghana. Soil samples were taken from the surface; depths of 20, 40 and 60 cm from mine waste at both abandoned and active mine sites. Each sample was analysed for total mercury, organic mercury and elemental mercury. After sample treatment, digestion and reduction with stannous chloride (SnCl(2)), total mercury content was determined using the Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emissions Spectrometer (ICP-OES). Organic mercury content was determined employing a differential technique after disposing of elemental mercury by heating. Total mercury content in samples ranged from 0.067 to 0.876 mg/kg for surface soils. The same soil of depths 20, 40 and 60 cm had total mercury from 0.102 to 1.066, 0.037 to 4.037 and 0.191 to 4.998 mg/kg, respectively. For organic mercury, concentrations range from 0.012 to 0.260 mg/kg for surface soil. Soil depths of 20, 40 and 60 cm had organic mercury concentrations from 0.016 to 0.653, 0.041 to 1.093 and 0.101 to 2.546 mg/kg respectively. Elemental mercury concentrations in surface soils, soils at depths of 20, 40 and 60 cm ranged from 0.043 to 0.780; 0.017 to 0.749; 0.014 to 2.944 and 0.009 to 2.452 mg/kg respectively. Among the sites studied, only galamsey tailings (GM) showed a trend of increasing total mercury level with increasing depth. For the other sites, trends were not defined. There has been no defined trend for elemental mercury with depth at any of the sampling sites. Just as with total mercury, it was only GM that showed an increasing trend of organic mercury concentration with depth. PMID:22270596

Nartey, V K; Klake, R K; Doamekpor, L K; Sarpong-Kumankomah, S

2012-01-21

135

Conserving biological diversity: A strategy for protected areas in the Asia-Pacific region. World Bank technical paper  

SciTech Connect

The paper acknowledges the importance of biodiversity conservation and suggests that policy change coupled with the establishment of protected area systems will be critical to success. A wide range of interventions will be needed to support these efforts toward conserving biodiversity-interventions involving national and local governments, national and international nongovernmental organizations and, most importantly, local people. The strategy defined in the paper is intended to complement existing national and international initiatives and to build partnerships in conservation for the 1990s.

Braatz, S.; Davis, G.; Shen, S.; Rees, C.

1992-01-01

136

Identifying priority areas for conservation: a global assessment for forest-dependent birds.  

PubMed

Limited resources are available to address the world's growing environmental problems, requiring conservationists to identify priority sites for action. Using new distribution maps for all of the world's forest-dependent birds (60.6% of all bird species), we quantify the contribution of remaining forest to conserving global avian biodiversity. For each of the world's partly or wholly forested 5-km cells, we estimated an impact score of its contribution to the distribution of all the forest bird species estimated to occur within it, and so is proportional to the impact on the conservation status of the world's forest-dependent birds were the forest it contains lost. The distribution of scores was highly skewed, a very small proportion of cells having scores several orders of magnitude above the global mean. Ecoregions containing the highest values of this score included relatively species-poor islands such as Hawaii and Palau, the relatively species-rich islands of Indonesia and the Philippines, and the megadiverse Atlantic Forests and northern Andes of South America. Ecoregions with high impact scores and high deforestation rates (2000-2005) included montane forests in Cameroon and the Eastern Arc of Tanzania, although deforestation data were not available for all ecoregions. Ecoregions with high impact scores, high rates of recent deforestation and low coverage by the protected area network included Indonesia's Seram rain forests and the moist forests of Trinidad and Tobago. Key sites in these ecoregions represent some of the most urgent priorities for expansion of the global protected areas network to meet Convention on Biological Diversity targets to increase the proportion of land formally protected to 17% by 2020. Areas with high impact scores, rapid deforestation, low protection and high carbon storage values may represent significant opportunities for both biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation, for example through Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) initiatives. PMID:22205998

Buchanan, Graeme M; Donald, Paul F; Butchart, Stuart H M

2011-12-19

137

Identifying Priority Areas for Conservation: A Global Assessment for Forest-Dependent Birds  

PubMed Central

Limited resources are available to address the world's growing environmental problems, requiring conservationists to identify priority sites for action. Using new distribution maps for all of the world's forest-dependent birds (60.6% of all bird species), we quantify the contribution of remaining forest to conserving global avian biodiversity. For each of the world's partly or wholly forested 5-km cells, we estimated an impact score of its contribution to the distribution of all the forest bird species estimated to occur within it, and so is proportional to the impact on the conservation status of the world's forest-dependent birds were the forest it contains lost. The distribution of scores was highly skewed, a very small proportion of cells having scores several orders of magnitude above the global mean. Ecoregions containing the highest values of this score included relatively species-poor islands such as Hawaii and Palau, the relatively species-rich islands of Indonesia and the Philippines, and the megadiverse Atlantic Forests and northern Andes of South America. Ecoregions with high impact scores and high deforestation rates (2000–2005) included montane forests in Cameroon and the Eastern Arc of Tanzania, although deforestation data were not available for all ecoregions. Ecoregions with high impact scores, high rates of recent deforestation and low coverage by the protected area network included Indonesia's Seram rain forests and the moist forests of Trinidad and Tobago. Key sites in these ecoregions represent some of the most urgent priorities for expansion of the global protected areas network to meet Convention on Biological Diversity targets to increase the proportion of land formally protected to 17% by 2020. Areas with high impact scores, rapid deforestation, low protection and high carbon storage values may represent significant opportunities for both biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation, for example through Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) initiatives.

Buchanan, Graeme M.; Donald, Paul F.; Butchart, Stuart H. M.

2011-01-01

138

Climate Change and Conservation Planning in California: The San Francisco Bay Area Upland Habitat Goals Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change threatens California's vast and unique biodiversity. The Bay Area Upland Habitat Goals is a comprehensive regional biodiversity assessment of the 9 counties surrounding San Francisco Bay, and is designing conservation land networks that will serve to protect, manage, and restore that biodiversity. Conservation goals for vegetation, rare plants, mammals, birds, fish, amphibians, reptiles, and invertebrates are set, and those goals are met using the optimization algorithm MARXAN. Climate change issues are being considered in the assessment and network design in several ways. The high spatial variability at mesoclimatic and topoclimatic scales in California creates high local biodiversity, and provides some degree of local resiliency to macroclimatic change. Mesoclimatic variability from 800 m scale PRISM climatic norms is used to assess "mesoclimate spaces" in distinct mountain ranges, so that high mesoclimatic variability, especially local extremes that likely support range limits of species and potential climatic refugia, can be captured in the network. Quantitative measures of network resiliency to climate change include the spatial range of key temperature and precipitation variables within planning units. Topoclimatic variability provides a finer-grained spatial patterning. Downscaling to the topoclimatic scale (10-50 m scale) includes modeling solar radiation across DEMs for predicting maximum temperature differentials, and topographic position indices for modeling minimum temperature differentials. PRISM data are also used to differentiate grasslands into distinct warm and cool types. The overall conservation strategy includes local and regional connectivity so that range shifts can be accommodated.

Branciforte, R.; Weiss, S. B.; Schaefer, N.

2008-12-01

139

Wildlife Viewing Preferences of Visitors to Protected Areas in South Africa: Implications for the Role of Ecotourism in Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecotourism has a potentially vital role to play in conservation by generating economic incentives for nature conservation. However, some authors contend that this potential may be limited by narrow viewing preferences among visitors to protected areas, suggesting that most tourists are primarily interested in seeing charismatic mega-fauna largely confined to government or privately-owned parks. We assessed viewing preferences among tourists

Peter A. Lindsey; R. Alexander; M. G. L. Mills; S. Romañach; R. Woodroffe

2007-01-01

140

Opuntia in M?xico: Identifying Priority Areas for Conserving Biodiversity in a Multi-Use Landscape  

PubMed Central

Background México is one of the world's centers of species diversity (richness) for Opuntia cacti. Yet, in spite of their economic and ecological importance, Opuntia species remain poorly studied and protected in México. Many of the species are sparsely but widely distributed across the landscape and are subject to a variety of human uses, so devising implementable conservation plans for them presents formidable difficulties. Multi–criteria analysis can be used to design a spatially coherent conservation area network while permitting sustainable human usage. Methods and Findings Species distribution models were created for 60 Opuntia species using MaxEnt. Targets of representation within conservation area networks were assigned at 100% for the geographically rarest species and 10% for the most common ones. Three different conservation plans were developed to represent the species within these networks using total area, shape, and connectivity as relevant criteria. Multi–criteria analysis and a metaheuristic adaptive tabu search algorithm were used to search for optimal solutions. The plans were built on the existing protected areas of México and prioritized additional areas for management for the persistence of Opuntia species. All plans required around one–third of México's total area to be prioritized for attention for Opuntia conservation, underscoring the implausibility of Opuntia conservation through traditional land reservation. Tabu search turned out to be both computationally tractable and easily implementable for search problems of this kind. Conclusions Opuntia conservation in México require the management of large areas of land for multiple uses. The multi-criteria analyses identified priority areas and organized them in large contiguous blocks that can be effectively managed. A high level of connectivity was established among the prioritized areas resulting in the enhancement of possible modes of plant dispersal as well as only a small number of blocks that would be recommended for conservation management.

Illoldi-Rangel, Patricia; Ciarleglio, Michael; Sheinvar, Leia; Linaje, Miguel; Sanchez-Cordero, Victor; Sarkar, Sahotra

2012-01-01

141

Policy talk: incentives for rural service among nurses in Ghana.  

PubMed

Like many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Ghana is faced with the simultaneous challenges of increasing its health workforce, retaining them in country and promoting a rational distribution of staff in remote or deprived areas of the country. Recent increases in both public-sector doctor and nurse salaries have contributed to a decline in international out-migration, but problems of geographic mal-distribution remain. As part of a research project on human resources in the Ghanaian health sector, this study was conducted to elicit in-depth views from nursing leaders and practicing nurses in rural and urban Ghana on motivations for urban vs rural practice, job satisfaction and potential rural incentives. In-depth interviews were conducted with 115 nurses selected using a stratified sample of public, private and Christian Health Association of Ghana (CHAG) facilities in three regions of the country (Greater Accra, Brong Ahafo and Upper West), and among 13 nurse managers from across Ghana. Many respondents reported low satisfaction with rural practice. This was influenced by the high workload and difficult working conditions, perception of being 'forgotten' in rural areas by the Ministry of Health (MOH), lack of professional advancement and the lack of formal learning or structured mentoring. Older nurses without academic degrees who were posted to remote areas were especially frustrated, citing a lack of opportunities to upgrade their skills. Nursing leaders echoed these themes, emphasizing the need to bring learning and communication technologies to rural areas. Proposed solutions included clearer terms of contract detailing length of stay at a post, and transparent procedures for transfer and promotion; career opportunities for all cadres of nursing; and benefits such as better on-the-job housing, better mentoring and more recognition from leaders. An integrated set of recruitment and retention policies focusing on career development may improve job satisfaction and retention of nurses in rural Ghana. PMID:22349086

Kwansah, Janet; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Mutumba, Massy; Asabir, Kwesi; Koomson, Elizabeth; Gyakobo, Mawuli; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Kruk, Margaret E; Snow, Rachel C

2012-02-19

142

Raptor Electrocutions and Associated Fire Hazards in the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area. Challenge Cost Share.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1999, we began an assessment of raptor electrocutions on power lines in and near the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (NCA) in southwestern Idaho. The study will allow us to estimate electrocution rates, identify electrocution hazar...

R. N. Lehman J. S. Barrett

2000-01-01

143

Forest Service Roadless Area Conservation Final Environmental Impact Statement: Specialist Report for Terrestrial and Aquatic Habitats and Species.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This specialist report provides the background and analysis for the affected environment and environmental consequences of the alternatives analyzed in detail for the Forest Service Roadless Area Conservation Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS), N...

S. Brown R. Archuleta

2000-01-01

144

Designing protected areas to conserve riverine biodiversity: Lessons from a hypothetical redesign of the Kruger National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of designing protected areas to represent all ecosystems in an area adequately is becoming increasingly sophisticated. To date freshwater aquatic ecosystems have seldom been considered in this process. How much of a difference does it make when they are considered as well?This study examined the conservation of riverine biodiversity within 17 assessment units contained by the catchment areas

Dirk J. Roux; Jeanne L. Nel; Peter J. Ashton; Andrew R. Deacon; Ferdinand C. de Moor; Devlyn Hardwick; Liesl Hill; Cornelius J. Kleynhans; Gillian A. Maree; Juanita Moolman; Robert J. Scholes

2008-01-01

145

7 CFR 1468.4 - Establishing Conservation Farm Option (CFO) pilot project areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2) Proposes innovative conservation technologies and system...Addresses the following: (i) Conservation of soil, water, and related...protection, and (iv) Wildlife habitat development and protection... (v) Or other similar conservation...

2013-01-01

146

Culture and the environment in Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traditional culture of Ghana stressed a strong relationship with the environment, and a culturally acceptable environmental management resulted from strictures and taboos related to the land. Following its independence in 1957, Ghana has enacted laws that reflect an enlightened environmental policy. These are especially important because of the difficulties Ghana has had in its economic development using Western technology that has damaged the fragile tropical ecosystem. A key aspect of Ghana's policy is the attempt to marry scientific knowledge and traditional beliefs for environmentally sound management of Ghana's resources.

Dyasi, Hubert M.

1985-03-01

147

Earthquake catalogue of Ghana for the time period 1615-2003 with special reference to the tectono-structural evolution of south-east Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ghana is situated on the West Africa Craton and far away from any plate boundary. However, the southern part of the country is seismically active. The continental and coastal area of southeast Ghana is dominated by the Akwapim fault zone and coastal boundary fault. The Akwapim fault zone represents overthrusts of Neoproterozoic age, but there are also indications of recent faulting on some sections of the fault zone. The coastal boundary fault commenced to become tectonically active in Jurassic times and is probably still active. The two fault systems intersect some tens of kilometers to the southwest of Accra and it is at this intersection where most of the seismic activity has been observed.Historical documents describing damaging earthquakes in Ghana date as far back as 1615. The two major destructive earthquakes which struck Southern Ghana occurred close to the capital city Accra in 1862 (intensity IX) and 1939 (intensity VIII). The surveillance of the seismic activity of Southern Ghana with seismometers has been discontinuous with irregular long periods of disruption. All known earthquakes from 1615 to 2003, based on historical documents and instrumental recordings are collected in a data catalogue and compiled in a computer readable format. Based on macroseismic maps and detailed descriptions of the damages, the epicentral intensity of some strong events as well as the radii of different isoseismals could be newly estimated. The catalogue can be the basis for a deterministic seismic hazard assessment for Southern Ghana to develop a building code for this region.

Amponsah, Paulina; Leydecker, Günter; Muff, Rolf

2012-10-01

148

Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Oxbow Conservation Area, 2002-2005 Technical Report.  

SciTech Connect

This Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) study was performed to determine baseline habitat units on the Oxbow Conservation Area in Grant County, Oregon. The evaluation is a required part of the Memorandum of Agreement between the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) relating to the acquisition and management of the Oxbow Conservation Area. The HEP team was comprised of individuals from the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife and the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon. The survey was conducted using the following HEP evaluation models for key species: black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapilla), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), mink (Mustela vison), western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginiana), and yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia). Cover types used in this survey were conifer forest, irrigated meadow, riparian meadow, upland meadow, riparian shrub, upland shrub, and mine tailings. The project generated 701.3 habitat units for mitigation crediting purposes. Results for each HEP species are: (1) Black-capped chickadee habitat was good, with only isolated areas lacking snags or having low tree canopy cover. (2) Mallard habitat was poor in upland meadows and marginal elsewhere due to a lack of herbaceous/shrub cover and low herbaceous height. (3) Mink habitat was good, limited only by the lack of the shrub component. (4) Western meadowlark habitat was marginal in upland meadow and mine tailing cover types and good in irrigated meadow. Percent cover of grass and height of herbaceous variables were limiting factors. (5) White-tailed deer habitat was marginal due to relatively low tree canopy cover, reduced shrub cover, and limited browse diversity. (6) Yellow Warbler habitat was marginal due to less than optimum shrub height and the lack of hydrophytic shrubs. General ratings (poor, marginal, etc.) are described in the introduction section.

Cochran, Brian

2005-02-01

149

Priority areas for amphibian conservation in a neotropical megadiverse country: the need for alternative, non place based, conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amphibians constitute one of the most threatened species group worldwide. Because they are affected by various threats such\\u000a as habitat destruction, chytrid fungus, climate change, invasive species and human use, different approaches are needed for\\u000a their conservation. In this paper we examine patterns of alpha diversity, endemism and threatened species distributions of\\u000a amphibians in Bolivia. We modeled distribution data using

Dirk Embert; Steffen Reichle; Daniel M. Larrea-Alcázar; Claudia Cortez; Arturo Muñoz; Lucindo Gonzales; Rossy Montaño; Rodrigo Aguayo; Enrique Domic; José M. Padial; Mayra Maldonado; Patricia Caballero; Marcelo Guerrero

2011-01-01

150

Soil Geochemical Data for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative Study Area  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2008, soil samples were collected at 139 sites throughout the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative study area in southwest Wyoming. These samples, representing a density of 1 site per 440 square kilometers, were collected from a depth of 0-5 cm and analyzed for a suite of more than 40 major and trace elements following a near-total multi-acid extraction. In addition, soil pH, electrical conductivity, total nitrogen, total and organic carbon, and sodium adsorption ratio were determined. The resulting data set provides a baseline for detecting changes in soil composition that might result from natural processes or anthropogenic activities. This report describes the sampling and analytical protocols used, and makes available all the soil geochemical data generated in the study.

Smith, David B.; Ellefsen, Karl J.

2010-01-01

151

Conservation, Spillover and Gene Flow within a Network of Northern European Marine Protected Areas.  

PubMed

To ensure that marine protected areas (MPAs) benefit conservation and fisheries, the effectiveness of MPA designs has to be evaluated in field studies. Using an interdisciplinary approach, we empirically assessed the design of a network of northern MPAs where fishing for European lobster (Homarusgammarus) is prohibited. First, we demonstrate a high level of residency and survival (50%) for almost a year (363 days) within MPAs, despite small MPA sizes (0.5-1 km(2)). Second, we demonstrate limited export (4.7%) of lobsters tagged within MPAs (N = 1810) to neighbouring fished areas, over a median distance of 1.6 km out to maximum 21 km away from MPA centres. In comparison, median movement distance of lobsters recaptured within MPAs was 164 m, and recapture rate was high (40%). Third, we demonstrate a high level of gene flow within the study region, with an estimated F ST of less than 0.0001 over a ? 400 km coastline. Thus, the restricted movement of older life stages, combined with a high level of gene flow suggests that connectivity is primarily driven by larval drift. Larval export from the MPAs can most likely affect areas far beyond their borders. Our findings are of high importance for the design of MPA networks for sedentary species with pelagic early life stages. PMID:24039927

Huserbråten, Mats Brockstedt Olsen; Moland, Even; Knutsen, Halvor; Olsen, Esben Moland; André, Carl; Stenseth, Nils Chr

2013-09-06

152

Effects of soil conservation measures in a partially vegetated area after forest fires.  

PubMed

After forest fires on the east coast of Korea in 2000, some burnt areas were left untreated. Although 80% of the area was reasonably revegetated within 3 months, about 20% of the area was partially vegetated, mainly due to a low density of sprouters and poor growing conditions (eroded soil and steep slopes). Three years after the fires, the effect of soil conservation measures, such as mulching with wood chips, seeding with native plant species and log erosion barriers (LEBs), on runoff and soil erosion were examined using runoff plots. Wood chip mulching greatly reduced runoff and sediment yields and these effects were consistent regardless of the volume of rainfall. Neither seeding nor LEBs reduced runoff and sediment yields. No positive or negative effects of mulching, seeding or LEBs on ground vegetation cover were observed. The ineffectiveness of seeding and LEBs may have been due to the steep slope, the failure of germination and establishment of seeded plants, and the small diameter of logs. Treating hill slopes with mulch should be considered where post-fire regeneration is slow and there is an absence of organic material such as litter. PMID:18466956

Kim, Chang-Gi; Shin, Kwangil; Joo, Kwang Yeong; Lee, Kyu Song; Shin, Seung Sook; Choung, Yeonsook

2008-05-07

153

Water footprint of Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is used in almost all human endeavour. Unlike oil, water does not have a substitute. There are many factors that affect the water consumption pattern of people. These include climatic condition, income level and agricultural practices among others. The water footprint concept has been developed in order to have an indicator of water use in relation to its consumption by people. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country (Chapagain and Hoekstra, 2008). Due to the bulky nature of water, it is not in its raw state a tradable commodity though it could be traded through the exchange of goods and services from one point to the other. Closely linked to the water footprint concept is the virtual water concept. Virtual water can be defined as the volume of water required to produce a commodity or service (Chapagain and Hoekstra, 2008 and Allan, 1999). The international trade of these commodities implies flows of virtual water over large distances. The water footprint of a nation can therefore be assessed by quantifying the use of domestic water resources, taking out the virtual water flow that leaves the country and adding the virtual water flow that enters the country to it. This research focuses on the assessment and analysis of the water footprints of Ghana considering only the consumptive component of the water footprint. In addition to livestock, 13 crops were considered, 4 of which were cash crops. Data was analysed for the year 2001 to 2005 The most recent framework for the analysis of water footprint is offered by Chapagain and Hoekstra. This was adopted for the study. The water footprint calculations show that the water footprint of Ghana is about 20011 Gm³/yr. Base on this the average water footprint of a Ghanaian is 823 m³/cap/yr. Not only agricultural crops but also other products require water for their manufacture, aluminium being a case in point. The water required for energy production through hydropower is important to account for, as well as the question to what extent this may or may not be considered non-consumptive water use. Further research is needed to correctly estimate the water footprint of energy-intensive products. Keywords: water footprint, virtual water, trade, commodity

Debrah, E. R.; Odai, S. N.; Annor, F. O.; Adjei, K. A.; van der Zaag, P.

2009-04-01

154

Deforestation and sustainability in Ghana  

SciTech Connect

The global importance of tropical forests is well recognized, and while much has been written about the Amazon forests, West African tropical forests are also being affected by logging and commercial timber harvesting. While the forests in Ghana are no longer vast, untouched wilderness, they are far from being ecologically bankrupt. This article describes the forest of Ghana, discusses the integrity of the remaining forest in terms of sustainable timber resources, and examines the prospects for tropical forests. 12 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Wagner, M.R. (Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff (United States)); Cobbinah, J.R. (Forestry Research Institute of Ghana, Kumasi (Ghana))

1993-06-01

155

Identification of potential conflict areas between land transformation and biodiversity conservation in north-eastern South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transformation of natural vegetation to other land-uses, such as crop cultivation and urban development, presents the most important threat to biodiversity. Plant and animal species distribution data were employed to identify areas of high biodiversity value in the major summer crop production region in north-eastern South Africa. These areas of biodiversity conservation importance were then evaluated in terms of their

Konrad J Wessels; Belinda Reyers; Albert S van Jaarsveld; Mike C Rutherford

2003-01-01

156

Ghana social mobilization analysis.  

PubMed

In order to increase communication channels for child survival and development, the government and UNICEF Ghana undertook a "social mobilization analysis." This analysis included three studies that aimed to identify individuals and existing organizations with the potential to serve as health communicators and to determine the type of assistance that they needed to maximize their effectiveness in this role. The first study surveyed governmental institutions, trade unions, revolutionary organizations, traditional leaders, and others and found a largely untapped reservoir of capacities to promote child health, with varying levels of current involvement. The primary need identified was for information and training materials. The second study focused on the mass media and revealed a low coverage of maternal and child health topics and the need for better cooperation between journalists and health professionals. The third study assessed sources of health information for parents and found several sources, such as religious organizations, women's groups, and school teachers that could be mobilized to promote child health. Recommendations are made for the use of the findings. PMID:2037495

Tweneboa-Kodua, A; Obeng-Quaidoo, I; Abu, K

1991-01-01

157

Allocating conservation resources between areas where persistence of a species is uncertain.  

PubMed

Research on the allocation of resources to manage threatened species typically assumes that the state of the system is completely observable; for example whether a species is present or not. The majority of this research has converged on modeling problems as Markov decision processes (MDP), which give an optimal strategy driven by the current state of the system being managed. However, the presence of threatened species in an area can be uncertain. Typically, resource allocation among multiple conservation areas has been based on the biggest expected benefit (return on investment) but fails to incorporate the risk of imperfect detection. We provide the first decision-making framework for confronting the trade-off between information and return on investment, and we illustrate the approach for populations of the Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) in Kerinci Seblat National Park. The problem is posed as a partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP), which extends MDP to incorporate incomplete detection and allows decisions based on our confidence in particular states. POMDP has previously been used for making optimal management decisions for a single population of a threatened species. We extend this work by investigating two populations, enabling us to explore the importance of variation in expected return on investment between populations on how we should act. We compare the performance of optimal strategies derived assuming complete (MDP) and incomplete (POMDP) observability. We find that uncertainty about the presence of a species affects how we should act. Further, we show that assuming full knowledge of a species presence will deliver poorer strategic outcomes than if uncertainty about a species status is explicitly considered. MDP solutions perform up to 90% worse than the POMDP for highly cryptic species, and they only converge in performance when we are certain of observing the species during management: an unlikely scenario for many threatened species. This study illustrates an approach to allocating limited resources to threatened species where the conservation status of the species in different areas is uncertain. The results highlight the importance of including partial observability in future models of optimal species management when the species of concern is cryptic in nature. PMID:21639049

McDonald-Madden, Eve; Chadès, Iadine; McCarthy, Michael A; Linkie, Matthew; Possingham, Hugh P

2011-04-01

158

BUILDING A MARINE PROTECTED AREAS NETWORK TO PROTECT ENDANGERED SPECIES: WHALE CONSERVATION AS A TOOL FOR INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT IN SOUTH AMERICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

An initiative to strengthen the effectiveness of Marine Protected Areas and endangered species conservation is presented, exploring concepts and parameters that lead to the integration between MPA management and conservation measures for large cetaceans through the establishment of a regional network in South America. Along their history, protected areas (PAs) have evolved through different conservation objectives, a process which is

Mabel Augustowski; José Truda Palazzo

2003-01-01

159

Children's Health and Nutrition as Educational Issues: A Case Study of the Ghana Partnership for Child Development's Intervention Research in the Volta Region of Ghana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper describes the operations research intervention carried out by the Ghana Partnership for Child Development (GPCD) in the Volta Region of Ghana in collaboration with the Ministries of Education and Health and the Ghana Education Service. Ghana was...

J. H. Williams K. Leherr

1998-01-01

160

Rainfall erosivity map for Ghana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Monthly rainfall data, spanning more than thirty years, were used to compute rainfall erosivity indices for various stations in Ghana, using the Fournier index, c, defined as p(sup 2)/P, where p is the rainfall amount in the wettest month and P is the ann...

K. Oduro Afriyie

1995-01-01

161

Distribution, levels, and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the soot of some kitchens in the Cape Coast Metropolis of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of using firewood for cooking, baking, and heating in poorly ventilated kitchens on the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in kitchen soot in the Cape Coast Metropolis of Ghana has been studied. The kitchens in Ghana, especially those in the rural areas, are simple clay hut structures with small doors. The kitchens have little or no openings

D. K. Essumang; D. K. Dodoo; G. Hadzi

2010-01-01

162

Is Functional Literacy a Prerequisite for Entering the Labor Market? An Analysis of Determinants of Adult Literacy and Earnings in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

August 2000The policy implications of this study of the determinants of literacy and earnings in Ghana: Basic education and literacy programs should target girls and poorer households, especially in rural areas.Blunch and Verner analyze the determinants of literacy and earnings in Ghana. They link literacy and earnings with various other factors, including age, gender, family educational background, distance to school,

Dorte Verner; Niels-Hugo Blunch

1999-01-01

163

THE THREATENED AND THE IRREPLACEABLE: IDENTIFYING AREAS FOR THE CONSERVATION OF FAUNAL SPECIES DIVERSITY IN THE MIDDLE-ATLANTIC REGION OF THE UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

One fundamental step in conservation planning involves determining where to concentrate efforts to protect conservation targets. Here we demonstrate an approach to prioritizing areas based on both species composition and potential threats facing the species. First, we determine...

164

Climate change is predicted to negatively influence Moroccan endemic reptile richness. Implications for conservation in protected areas.  

PubMed

The identification of species-rich areas and their prognosticated turnover under climate change are crucial for the conservation of endemic taxa. This study aims to identify areas of reptile endemicity richness in a global biodiversity hot spot (Morocco) under current and future climatic conditions and to investigate the role of protected areas in biodiversity conservation under climate change. Species distribution models (SDM) were performed over the distribution of 21 endemic reptiles, combined to estimate current species richness at 1?×?1 km resolution and projected to years 2050 and 2080 according to distinct story lines and ensemble global circulation models, assuming unlimited and null dispersion ability. Generalized additive models were performed between species richness and geographic characteristics of 43 protected areas. SDM found precipitation as the most important factor related to current species distributions. Important reductions in future suitable areas were predicted for 50 % of species, and four species were identified as highly vulnerable to extinction. Drastic reductions in species-rich areas were predicted for the future, with considerable variability between years and dispersal scenarios. High turnover rates of species composition were predicted for eastern Morocco, whereas low values were forecasted for the Northern Atlantic coast and mountains. Species richness for current and future conditions was significantly related to the altitude and latitude of protected areas. Protected areas located in mountains and/or in the Northern Atlantic coast were identified as refugia, where population monitoring and conservation management is needed. PMID:23942550

Martínez-Freiría, Fernando; Argaz, Hamida; Fahd, Soumía; Brito, José C

2013-08-14

165

Uncovering the fruit bat bushmeat commodity chain and the true extent of fruit bat hunting in Ghana, West Africa  

PubMed Central

Harvesting, consumption and trade of bushmeat are important causes of both biodiversity loss and potential zoonotic disease emergence. In order to identify possible ways to mitigate these threats, it is essential to improve our understanding of the mechanisms by which bushmeat gets from the site of capture to the consumer’s table. In this paper we highlight the previously unrecognized scale of hunting of the African straw-colored fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, a species which is important in both ecological and public health contexts, and describe the commodity chain in southern Ghana for its trade. Based on interviews with 551 Ghanaians, including bat hunters, vendors and consumers, we estimate that a minimum of 128,000 E. helvum bats are sold each year through a commodity chain stretching up to 400 km and involving multiple vendors. Unlike the general bushmeat trade in Ghana, where animals are sold in both specialized bushmeat markets and in restaurants, E. helvum is sold primarily in marketplaces; many bats are also kept by hunters for personal consumption. The offtake estimated in this paper raises serious conservation concerns, while the commodity chain identified in this study may offer possible points for management intervention. The separation of the E. helvum commodity chain from that of other bushmeat highlights the need for species-specific research in this area, particularly for bats, whose status as bushmeat is largely unknown.

Kamins, A.O.; Restif, O.; Ntiamoa-Baidu, Y.; Suu-Ire, R.; Hayman, D.T.S.; Cunningham, A.A.; Wood, J.L.N.; Rowcliffe, J.M.

2011-01-01

166

Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Forrest Conservation Area, Technical Report 2003-2004.  

SciTech Connect

The Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) study was performed to determine baseline habitat units on the 4,232-acre Forrest Conservation Area managed by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribe) in Grant County, Oregon. The habitat evaluation is required as part of the Memorandum of Agreement between the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs and Bonneville Power Administration. Representatives from the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife and the Tribes conducted the field surveys for the HEP. The survey collected data for habitat variables contained in habitat suitability index (HIS) models for wildlife species; the key species were black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapilla), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), mink (Mustela vison), western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), California Quail (Callipepla californica), and yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia). Cover types surveyed were grassland, meadow grassland, conifer forest, riparian tree shrub, shrub steppe, juniper forest, and juniper steppe. Other cover types mapped, but not used in the models were open water, roads, gravel pits, corrals, and residential.

Smith, Brent

2005-01-01

167

Oxbow Conservation Area; Middle Fork John Day River, Annual Report 2003-2004.  

SciTech Connect

In early 2001, the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs, through their John Day Basin Office, concluded the acquisition of the Oxbow Ranch, now know as the Oxbow Conservation Area (OCA). Under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Tribes are required to provided BPA an 'annual written report generally describing the real property interests in the Project, HEP analyses undertaken or in progress, and management activities undertaken or in progress'. The project during 2003 was crippled due to the aftermath of the BPA budget crisis. Some objectives were not completed during the first half of this contract because of limited funds in the 2003 fiscal year. The success of this property purchase can be seen on a daily basis. Water rights were utilized only in the early, high water season and only from diversion points with functional fish screens. After July 1, all of the OCA water rights were put instream. Riparian fences on the river, Ruby and Granite Boulder creeks continued to promote important vegetation to provide shade and bank stabilization. Hundreds of willow, dogwood, Douglas-fir, and cottonwood were planted along the Middle Fork John Day River. Livestock grazing on the property was carefully managed to ensure the protection of fish and wildlife habitat, while promoting meadow vigor and producing revenue for property taxes. Monitoring of property populations, resources, and management activities continued in 2003 to build a database for future management of this and other properties in the region.

Cochran, Brian

2004-02-01

168

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Closure Plan Summary for Interim reasctive Waste Treatment Area (IRWTA)  

SciTech Connect

This closure plan has been prepared for the interim Reactive Waste Treatment Area (IRWT'A) located at the Y-12 Pkmt in oak Ridge, Tennessee (Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] Identification TN 389-009-0001). The actions required to achieve closure of the IRWTA are outlined in this plan, which is being submitted in accordance with Tennessee Ruie 1200- 1-1 1-.0S(7) and Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 265, Subpart G. The IRWTA was used to treat waste sodium and potassium (NaK) that are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The location of the IRWT'A is shown in Figures 1 and 2, and a diagram is shown in Figure 3. This pkm details all steps that wdi be petiormed to close the IRWTA. Note that this is a fmai ciosure.and a diagram is shown in Figure 3. This pkm details all steps that wdi be petiormed to close the IRWTA. Note that this is a fmai ciosure.

Collins, E.T.

1997-07-01

169

Bat Inventory of the Multiple Species Conservation Program Area in San Diego County, California, 2002-2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We conducted a bat species inventory of the Multiple Species Conservation Program (MSCP) area in San Diego County, California. The study began in the early summer of 2002 and terminated in the winter of 2003. We used a variety of bat survey techniques inc...

C. S. Brehme D. C. Stokes R. N. Fisher S. A. Hathaway

2005-01-01

170

Priority areas for conservation of Western Australian coastal fishes: A comparison of hotspot, biogeographical and complementarity approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Western Australia has an extensive coastline ranging from the tropical north to the temperate south, with a high diversity of neritic marine fishes. Distribution data of 1855 neritic fish species were used to compare a range of methods for identifying priority areas for their conservation. Species richness and endemism richness hotspots, biogeographic zoning and complementarity analysis were tested for their

Nicola J. Fox; Lynnath E. Beckley

2005-01-01

171

Conservation of bats in suburban landscapes: roost selection by Myotis yumanensis in a residential area in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protection of roosting habitat is essential to the conservation of bats in human-dominated landscapes. To help define bat roosting needs in suburban settings, we used radio telemetry to locate day roosts of a common North American species (Myotis yumanensis) within a residential area in California. Between June and August 2000, we tracked 16 bats to 20 roosts in two buildings

Michelle J. Evelyn; David A. Stiles; Rebecca A. Young

2004-01-01

172

The Effect of Tools of a Computer Microworld on Students' Strategies Regarding the Concept of Conservation of Area.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the role of tools, provided by a computer microworld (C.AR.ME), on the strategies developed by 14-year-old students regarding the concept of conservation of area of a non-convex polygon. Indicates that the nature of the tools used affected the nature of solution strategies that students constructed. (Author/KHR)

Kordaki, Maria

2003-01-01

173

Does a voluntary conservation program result in a representative protected area network?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation contracting has attained growing interest worldwide as a tool for protecting biodiversity in privately owned lands. In this policy, landowners receive payments from an environmental agency in exchange for land use practices that contribute to the supply of biodiversity. This approach may result in a conservation network which does not cover all focal ecological characteristics, because landowners determine the

Artti Juutinen; Mikko Mönkkönen; Anna-Liisa Ylisirniö

2009-01-01

174

78 FR 39310 - Niobrara Confluence and Ponca Bluffs Conservation Areas, NE and SD; Draft Environmental Impact...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FXRS1265066CCP0--134-FF06R06000] Niobrara Confluence and Ponca Bluffs Conservation...extending the public comment period for the Niobrara Confluence and Ponca Bluffs Conservation...nps.gov/niob-ponca. Email: niobrara_ponca@fws.gov. In-Person...

2013-07-01

175

Changing morphology of Ghana’s Accra coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal features in Ghana's Accra coast reflect both past and present processes that have been undergoing changes. These changes\\u000a are influenced by a range of morphogenic factors such as geology and climatic conditions. These regimes have shaped the coastal\\u000a geomorphic features through weathering processes that decompose and disintegrate the coastal rock. Sea level rise due to climate\\u000a change is expected

Kwasi Appeaning Addo

176

Domestic Violence in Ghana: The Open Secret  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report discusses the findings of a Georgetown Law International Women’s Human Rights Clinic fact-finding team that traveled to Ghana, Africa in March 2003 to investigate domestic violence. The report reviews the contours of the domestic violence problem in Ghana and outlines the ways in which Ghanaian law and procedure was insufficiently addressing the problem at the time. Its chief

Nancy Chi Cantalupo; Lisa Vollendorf Martin; Kay Pak; Sue Shin

2006-01-01

177

Property Valuation in Ghana: Contraints and Contradictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Property valuation is carried out in Ghana for various purposes such as for insurance, payment of compensation for state acquired lands, taxation, rent\\/lease, sale and mortgages among others. It has been recognized over the years that property valuations in Ghana for the various purposes is fraught with a lot of constraining factors, conditions and contradictions which often distort estimated

Theodora Mantebea MENDS

2006-01-01

178

Copyright, folklore and music piracy in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the problems inadvertently created by modern notions of musical copyright (i.e. based on the individual ownership of specific works) introduced to Ghana via trans-national organisations such as multinational record companies, the business side of international ‘superstars’ and global copyright societies. The resulting conundrums for Ghana's musical evolution that will be examined in this paper, are of three

John Collins

2006-01-01

179

Key motivations for bank patronage in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Banking in Ghana is now an intensely competitive proposition. In a competitive environment, it becomes imperative not just to attract customers, but also to design strategies aimed at maintaining these customers. Drawing on data from over 2,000 retail bank customers in Ghana, this study aims at understanding the key motivations for maintaining accounts with banks in respect of

Robert Hinson; Nana Owusu-Frimpong; Julius Dasah

2009-01-01

180

Energy conservation manual for builders in the Mid-Columbia Basin area  

SciTech Connect

Results of a comprehensive cost-effectiveness evaluation of energy conservation measures currently available for use in typical residential buildings are presented. Section 2 discusses construction techniques for energy-efficient buildings and presents estimates of the cost of incorporating the conservation measures in the prototype building, the resultant annual energy savings, and the value of that annual energy savings based upon typical regional fuel prices. In Section 3 this information is summarized to prioritize conservation investments according to their economic effectiveness and offer general recommendations to home builders. Appendix A contains detailed information pertaining to the energy consumption calculations. Appendix B presents the methodology, assumptions, and results of a detail cash flow analysis of each of the conservation items for which sufficient performance and cost data are currently available. (MCW)

Mazzucchi, R.P.; Nieves, L.A.; Hopp, W.J.

1981-03-01

181

78 FR 20942 - Niobrara Confluence and Ponca Bluffs Conservation Areas, NE and SD; Draft Environmental Impact...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...experience scenic bluffs, forests, grasslands, and traditional rural lifestyles critical to the local communities. Niobrara Confluence...resources to enhance conservation; enhance recreation; increase tourism; instill new money into local economies; improve quality...

2013-04-08

182

Alternative targets and economic efficiency of selecting protected areas for biodiversity conservation in boreal forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the relative merits of alternative forest biodiversity targets, which give different weights to species according\\u000a to their conservation status and abundance. A site selection framework is used for choosing the habitat-protection strategy\\u000a that maximizes biodiversity subject to an upper bound on funding with six alternative conservation goals. By using Finnish\\u000a data on old-growth forests, we found that alternative

Artti Juutinen; Mikko Mönkkönen

2007-01-01

183

Creating safety nets through semi-parametric index-based insurance: A simulation for Northern Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

In West Africa, farm income is highly exposed to risks from crop failure in the drier, inland areas, and from fluctuations in (world market) prices in the wetter coastal areas. As individuals and even extended families are poorly equipped to deal with these, provision of social safety nets is required Our paper reviews the situation in Ghana and the way

Vasco Molini; Michiel A. Keyzer; Bart van den Boom; Wouter Zant

2007-01-01

184

Resource Use Among Rural Agricultural Households Near Protected Areas in Vietnam: The Social Costs of Conservation and Implications for Enforcement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article examines the use of forests in a protected area by nearby agriculturalists in central Vietnam. Research indicates that the majority of rural farmers interviewed who lived near a state designated protected area were receiving both subsistence and cash incomes from forest-based activities, primarily from the collection of forest products. However, much of the collection of forest produce was officially illegal, as it occurred in state protected forests, and interdiction efforts were on the increase. Yet, little attention has been paid in Vietnam to the need for income substitution for households who lose access to forest produce as a result of conservation enforcement, particularly in the case of farmers who live near, but not in, protected areas; their resources use has been ‘invisible’ due to a lack of attention and research on the topic. This misunderstanding of the importance of forests to rural farmers has the potential to result in households facing adverse welfare and livelihood outcomes as protected areas boundaries are tightened, and local communities face increased opportunity costs due to stricter conservation enforcement. The article concludes that substitution for loss of income due to conservation activities would best be achieved through carefully targeted interventions to specific high-impact and high-dependency households. Additionally, investments in new sources of wage labor and other low capital-input activities, rather than in agriculture, would likely be of most benefit.

McElwee, Pamela D.

2010-01-01

185

Valuing mangrove benefits: contribution of mangrove forests to local livelihoods in Bhitarkanika Conservation Area, East Coast of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consumptive benefits of mangrove forests to subsistence economy receive little recognition. This paper quantifies the\\u000a value of provisioning services of mangrove forests to local livelihoods in terms of forestry and fishery products. To examine\\u000a the use of mangrove products, 324 households from 36 villages in the Bhitarkanika Conservation Area located in East Coast\\u000a of India were surveyed using structured

Syed Ainul Hussain; Ruchi Badola

2010-01-01

186

Maximising phylogenetic diversity in the selection of networks of conservation areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenetic diversity (PD) is a biodiversity measure that takes account of phylogenetic relationships (hence evolutionary history) between taxa. It may therefore provide a better currency for conservation evaluation than taxonomic richness. Here, we demonstrate that, contrary to recent assertions, optimisation tools can be used to maximise PD in the context of complementary reserve selection, and that the spatial overlap between

Ana S. L. Rodrigues; Kevin J. Gaston

2002-01-01

187

Prioritizing conservation potential of arid-land montane natural springs and associated riparian areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using inventory data and input from natural resource professionals, we developed a classification system that categorizes conservation potential for montane natural springs. This system contains 18 classes based on the presence of a riparian patch, wetland species, surface water, and evidence of human activity. We measured physical and biological components of 276 montane springs in the Oscura Mountains above 1450

Bruce C. Thompson; Patricia L. Matusik-Rowanw; Kenneth G. Boykin

2002-01-01

188

Evaluation of the Bird Conservation Area Concept in the Northern Tallgrass Prairie Annual Report: 1999  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) has recently posted two resources on grassland birds. This site compares breeding densities and fledging success of grassland birds in Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) fields with "an alternative habitat of similar structure." It also may be downloaded as a .zip file.

189

Correlates of HIV testing among women in Ghana: some evidence from the Demographic and Health Surveys.  

PubMed

Ghana's strategic framework for controlling HIV/AIDS endorses voluntary HIV testing as an important strategy toward risk reduction and HIV/AIDS prevention. Yet, like other sub-Saharan African countries, utilization of testing services in Ghana is very low. Using the 2003 Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys and applying both complementary and negative log-log models, this study investigates the correlates of HIV testing among women aged 15-49. Two major dependent variables are considered, "ever tested for AIDS" and "wanting to test for AIDS." Results show that majority of Ghanaian women have not tested for HIV but say they want to do so. Having tested for HIV is strongly related to respondents' knowledge about someone dead of AIDS and other socio-economic and demographic variables such as education, region of residence, rural-urban residence, religion, and marital status. Majority of Ghanaian women do not know where to get an HIV test, although knowing where to get a test was significantly related to wanting to get the test done. To increase voluntary testing for HIV among women in Ghana it is recommended that testing services be made more accessible and visible especially to those residing in rural areas who may be economically disadvantaged. Interventions, including routine checking of HIV serostatus among patients seeking healthcare in clinics and home/work-based testing programs, must be encouraged as ways of expanding access among women in Ghana. PMID:20390509

Tenkorang, Eric Y; Owusu, Gertrude A

2010-03-01

190

Evolutionary history of rabies in Ghana.  

PubMed

Rabies virus (RABV) is enzootic throughout Africa, with the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) being the principal vector. Dog rabies is estimated to cause 24,000 human deaths per year in Africa, however, this estimate is still considered to be conservative. Two sub-Saharan African RABV lineages have been detected in West Africa. Lineage 2 is present throughout West Africa, whereas Africa 1a dominates in northern and eastern Africa, but has been detected in Nigeria and Gabon, and Africa 1b was previously absent from West Africa. We confirmed the presence of RABV in a cohort of 76 brain samples obtained from rabid animals in Ghana collected over an eighteen-month period (2007-2009). Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences obtained confirmed all viruses to be RABV, belonging to lineages previously detected in sub-Saharan Africa. However, unlike earlier reported studies that suggested a single lineage (Africa 2) circulates in West Africa, we identified viruses belonging to the Africa 2 lineage and both Africa 1 (a and b) sub-lineages. Phylogeographic Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis of a 405 bp fragment of the RABV nucleoprotein gene from the 76 new sequences derived from Ghanaian animals suggest that within the Africa 2 lineage three clades co-circulate with their origins in other West African countries. Africa 1a is probably a western extension of a clade circulating in central Africa and the Africa 1b virus a probable recent introduction from eastern Africa. We also developed and tested a novel reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for the detection of RABV in African laboratories. This RT-LAMP was shown to detect both Africa 1 and 2 viruses, including its adaptation to a lateral flow device format for product visualization. These data suggest that RABV epidemiology is more complex than previously thought in West Africa and that there have been repeated introductions of RABV into Ghana. This analysis highlights the potential problems of individual developing nations implementing rabies control programmes in the absence of a regional programme. PMID:21483707

Hayman, David T S; Johnson, Nicholas; Horton, Daniel L; Hedge, Jessica; Wakeley, Philip R; Banyard, Ashley C; Zhang, Shoufeng; Alhassan, Andy; Fooks, Anthony R

2011-04-05

191

Biochar/compost project in Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In cooperation with the organization Abokobi Society Switzerlands (ASS) the biochar/compost project tries to assist impecunious farmers in the Tamale /Walewale area in the northern region of Ghana. The soil of these farmers is often overused and low in organic matter and minerals. Field tests have been carried out since 2009 in the Walewale area and in the year 2011 also in the Tamale area. In 2011 combinations of Biochar with other natural fertilizers were tested, such as poultry manure and compost. By using the combination of biochar, compost and poultry manure as an organic soil improvement material the soil quality could be improved and higher crop yields of 50% and more could be achieved, without the use of chemical fertilizer. It is possible to achieve remarkably higher crop yields for a longer period of time, with only one single application. Local farmers were shown the new trial results in the field. They were convinced by the positive results of the crop yields. Those who would also like to improve the soil of their fields, could be given initial aid allowing them to help themselves to improve their dire situation. The biochar/compost project provided the occasion to raise awareness amongst local farmers for sustainable agriculture.

Roessler, K.; Jenny, F.

2012-04-01

192

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in national parks, nature reserves and protected areas worldwide: a strategic perspective for their in situ conservation.  

PubMed

Soil fungi play a crucial role in producing fundamental ecosystem services such as soil fertility, formation and maintenance, nutrient cycling and plant community dynamics. However, they have received little attention in the field of conservation biology. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are beneficial soil symbionts fulfilling a key function in the complex networks of belowground/aboveground biotic interactions as they live in association with the roots of most (80%) land plant families and influence not only soil fertility but also plant nutrition, diversity and productivity. The diversity of AMF communities can decline due to habitat loss and anthropogenic disturbance, especially in agro-ecosystems, and many valuable ecotypes could become extinct before they are even discovered. Consequently, long-term strategies are urgently needed to ensure their conservation in habitats where they naturally occur and have evolved. Protected areas, where living organisms are under the care of national and international authorities, represent an appropriate place for the in situ conservation of AMF, providing them with adapted situations together with established complex networks of interactions with different components within each specific ecosystem. Here, we review data available about the main present-day threats to AMF and the current state of knowledge about their occurrence in protected sites worldwide, providing a checklist of national parks and nature reserves where they have been reported. The aim was to offer a strategic perspective to increase awareness of the importance of conserving these beneficial plant symbionts and of preserving their biodiversity in the years to come. PMID:22075570

Turrini, Alessandra; Giovannetti, Manuela

2011-11-11

193

Science-based health innovation in Ghana: health entrepreneurs point the way to a new development path  

PubMed Central

Background Science, technology and innovation have long played a role in Ghana’s vision for development, including in improving its health outcomes. However, so far little research has been conducted on Ghana’s capacity for health innovation to address local diseases. This research aims to fill that gap, mapping out the key actors involved, highlighting examples of indigenous innovation, setting out the challenges ahead and outlining recommendations for strengthening Ghana’s health innovation system. Methods Case study research methodology was used. Data were collected through reviews of academic literature and policy documents and through open-ended, face-to-face interviews with 48 people from across the science-based health innovation system. Data was collected over three visits to Ghana from February 2007 to August 2008, and stakeholders engaged subsequently. Results Ghana has strengths which could underpin science-based health innovation in the future, including health and biosciences research institutions with strong foreign linkages and donor support; a relatively strong regulatory system which is building capacity in other West African countries; the beginnings of new funding forms such as venture capital; and the return of professionals from the diaspora, bringing expertise and contacts. Some health products and services are already being developed in Ghana by individual entrepreneurs, which are innovative in the sense of being new to the country and, in some cases, the continent. They include essential medicines, raw pharmaceutical materials, new formulations for pediatric use and plant medicines at various stages of development. Conclusions While Ghana has many institutions concerned with health research and its commercialization, their ability to work together to address clear health goals is low. If Ghana is to capitalize on its assets, including political and macroeconomic stability which underpin investment in health enterprises, it needs to improve the health innovation environment through increasing support for its small firms; coordinating policies; and beginning a dialogue with donors on how health research can create locally-owned knowledge and be more demand-driven. Mobilizing stakeholders around health product development areas, such as traditional medicines and diagnostics, would help to create trust between groups and build a stronger health innovation system.

2010-01-01

194

Mercury and arsenic in the gold mining regions of the Ankobra River basin in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The river Ankobra flows through the principal gold mining centres in Western Ghana, draining a total area of 8272 km^2 to join the Atlantic ocean. Mercury is used by thousands of small-scale miners in the region to amalgamate gold. Ores mined in some deep shafts and surface mines are arsenopyrites and the region is marked by the presence of heaps

W. Bannerman; M. Potin-Gautier; D. Amoureux; S. Tellier; A. Rambaud; M. Babut; A. Adimado; C. Beinhoff

2003-01-01

195

From a technology focus to innovation development : the management of cocoa pests and diseases in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ghana is a major producer of cocoa in the world and relies heavily on the crop for foreign exchange revenue. However, production levels declined from the mid 1960s reaching the lowest level in 1983. The decline in production was a result of decreasing areas under cultivation, and low yields. Pests and diseases are inadequately controlled, and the use of synthetic

E. N. A. Dormon

2006-01-01

196

Structural analysis of the southern Ashanti Belt, Ghana, using airborne geophysical data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The southern Ashanti Greenstone Belt, in Ghana, is an area of major economic importance for West Africa, where many companies are actively exploring for gold. As a consequence, a significant geological data set has been collected over the years, but it has not always been subjected to an integrated interpretation, especially away from the main Ashanti fault system and the

Stéphane Perrouty; Mark Jessell; Lenka Baratoux; Laurent Aillères; Yan Bourassa

2010-01-01

197

Determinants of modern health care use by families after a childhood burn in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: This study examined determinants of modern health care use by families after their child aged 0-5 years sustained a burn injury in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. METHODS: A community based survey of children aged 0-5 years was conducted in 50 enumeration areas in the region. Mothers of all children with scars as evidence of a burn were selected

S. N. Forjuoh; B. Guyer; D. M. Strobino

1995-01-01

198

Investigating Coastal Processes and Hazards Along the Coastline of Ghana, West Africa (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

As with many coastlines worldwide, erosion is a chronic issue along the Ghana coast. Erosion is presently impacting coastal infrastructure ranging from urban areas to small fishing villages, and threatening important cultural and historical resources in some locales. The Ghanaian coast displays significant geomorphological variability, ranging from rocky and bluffed shores to low-lying barrier beaches. Rates and trends of coastal

C. J. Hapke; A. D. Ashton; G. Wiafe; K. A. Addo; S. Ababio; K. A. Agyekum; T. C. Lippmann; J. Roelvink

2010-01-01

199

Case Studies in U.S. Distance Education: Implications for Ghana's Under-Served High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Ghana, like many other nations in recent years, has made education a top priority for national development. Despite newly developed policies, however, there remains a significant quality gap among high schools; due largely to an inequitable ratio of government's educational spending by geographic area. While most urban schools flourish with…

Nsiah, Gabriel Kofi Boahen

2010-01-01

200

Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Food Vendors in Accra, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

he operation and patronage of fast-food joints, restaurants, and chop bars have increased and become common in the Ghanaian community, especially in urban areas. Despite the benefits derived from these food joints, their operation raises public health issues, since food vendors could be a major transmission source for intestinal parasitic infections. The environmental risk factors of these practices in Ghana

Ayeh-Kumi PF; Quarcoo S; Kwakye-Nuako G; Osafo-Kantanka A

201

Effects of Spearfishing on Reef Fish Populations in a Multi-Use Conservation Area  

PubMed Central

Although spearfishing is a popular method of capturing fish, its ecological effects on fish populations are poorly understood, which makes it difficult to assess the legitimacy and desirability of spearfishing in multi-use marine reserves. Recent management changes within the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP) fortuitously created a unique scenario by which to quantify the effects of spearfishing on fish populations. As such, we employed underwater visual surveys and a before-after-control-impact experimental design to investigate the effects of spearfishing on the density and size structure of target and non-target fishes in a multi-use conservation park zone (CPZ) within the GBRMP. Three years after spearfishing was first allowed in the CPZ, there was a 54% reduction in density and a 27% reduction in mean size of coral trout (Plectropomus spp.), the primary target species. These changes were attributed to spearfishing because benthic habitat characteristics and the density of non-target fishes were stable through time, and the density and mean size of coral trout in a nearby control zone (where spearfishing was prohibited) remained unchanged. We conclude that spearfishing, like other forms of fishing, can have rapid and substantial negative effects on target fish populations. Careful management of spearfishing is therefore needed to ensure that conservation obligations are achieved and that fishery resources are harvested sustainably. This is particularly important both for the GBRMP, due to its extraordinarily high conservation value and world heritage status, and for tropical island nations where people depend on spearfishing for food and income. To minimize the effects of spearfishing on target species and to enhance protection of functionally important fishes (herbivores), we recommend that fishery managers adjust output controls such as size- and catch-limits, rather than prohibit spearfishing altogether. This will preserve the cultural and social importance of spearfishing in coastal communities where it is practised.

Frisch, Ashley J.; Cole, Andrew J.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Rizzari, Justin R.; Munkres, Katherine P.

2012-01-01

202

Groundwater Exploration for Rural Communities in Ghana, West Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exploration for potable water in developing countries continues to be a major activity, as there are more than one billion people without access to safe drinking water. Exploration for groundwater becomes more critical in regions where groundwater movement and occurrence is controlled by secondary features such as fractures and faults. Drilling success rates in such geological settings are generally very low, but can be improved by integrating geological, hydrogeological, aerial photo interpretation with land-based geophysical technology in the selection of drilling sites. To help alleviate water supply problems in West Africa, the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation and other donors, since 1990, have funded the World Vision Ghana Rural Water Project (GRWP) to drill wells for potable water supplies in the Greater Afram Plains (GAP) of Ghana. During the first two years of the program, drilling success rates using traditional methods ranged from 35 to 80 percent, depending on the area. The average drilling success rate for the program was approximately 50 percent. In an effort to increase the efficiency of drilling operations, the Desert Research Institute evaluated and developed techniques for application to well-siting strategies in the GAP area of Ghana. A critical project element was developing technical capabilities of in-country staff to independently implement the new strategies. Simple cost-benefit relationships were then used to evaluate the economic advantages of developing water resources using advanced siting methods. The application of advanced methods in the GAP area reveal an increase of 10 to 15 percent in the success rate over traditional methods. Aerial photography has been found to be the most useful of the imagery products covering the GAP area. An effective approach to geophysical exploration for groundwater has been the combined use of EM and resistivity methods. Economic analyses showed that the use of advanced methods is cost-effective when success rates with traditional methods are less than 70 to 90 percent. Finally, with the focus of GRWP activities shifting to Ghana's northern regions, new challenges in drilling success rates are being encountered. In certain districts, success rates as low as 35 percent are observed, raising questions about the efficacy of existing well-siting strategies in the current physical setting, and the validity of traditional cost-benefit analyses for assessing the economic aspects of water exploration in drought-stricken areas.

McKay, W. A.

2001-05-01

203

Conservation benefits of temperate marine protected areas: variation among fish species.  

PubMed

Marine protected areas, and other fishery management systems that impart partial or total protection from fishing, are increasingly advocated as an essential management tool to ensure the sustainable use of marine resources. Beneficial effects for fish species are well documented for tropical and reef systems, but the effects of marine protected areas remain largely untested in temperate waters. We compared trends in sport-fishing catches of nine fish species in an area influenced by a large (500-km2) towed-fishing-gear restriction zone and in adjacent areas under conventional fishery management controls. Over the period 1973-2002 the mean reported weight of above-average-sized (trophy) fish of species with early age at maturity and limited home range was greatest within the area influenced by the fishing-gear restriction zone. The reported weight of trophy fish of species that mature early also declined less and more slowly over time within the area influenced by the fishing-gear restriction zone. Importantly, the mean reported weight of trophy fish of species that mature late and those that undertake extensive spatial movements declined at the same rate in all areas. Hence these species are likely to require protected areas > 500 km2 for effective protection. Our results also indicated that fish species with a localized distribution or high site fidelity may require additional protection from sport fishing to prevent declines in the number or size of fish within the local population. PMID:16909574

Blyth-Skyrme, Robert E; Kaiser, Michel J; Hiddink, Jan G; Edwards-Jones, Gareth; Hart, Paul J B

2006-06-01

204

Soil and Water Conservation in Arid and Semiarid Areas: The Chinese Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

In China, soil erosion is a serious environmental problem and a major threat to the sustainability of agriculture and economic development. The total area subjected to soil erosion covers 3 670 000 km 2, i.e., 38.2% of the total land area. For a long period of time, particularly since the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, the

Xiao-Yan Li

205

Development of a School Based Hearing Conservation Program for Use in Rural Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project was designed to develop and evaluate hearing loss prevention programs for use with youth in grades 4 and 7 in rural areas. There is a high prevalence of hearing impairment among adolescents living in rural areas, particularly those with farmi...

G. A. Flamme S. Myers-Verhage J. A. Merchant A. M. Stromquist C. Zwerling

2005-01-01

206

Conservation of absolute foveal area in New World monkeys. A constraint on eye size and conformation.  

PubMed

The foveal specializations of five New World monkeys, the marmoset, Callithrix jacchus; the golden-handed tamarin, Saguinus midas niger; the squirrel monkey, Saimiri ustius; the capuchin monkey, Cebus apella; and the howler monkey, Alouatta caraya were compared. Although retinal area varies by over a factor of two in these monkeys, the area of the fovea does not covary with retinal area and remains approximately the same absolute size, as measured by the dimensions of the high density region of cones, or the rod-free region. This constancy in foveal size also holds for rhesus monkeys and humans, bringing the variation in retinal area to a factor of five. Alouatta caraya is unusual, distinguished by a very high central cone density and a small rod-free zone. Physiological constraints that might limit foveal area over a wide range of eye sizes are considered. PMID:11251320

Franco, E C; Finlay, B L; Silveira, L C; Yamada, E S; Crowley, J C

2000-11-01

207

The Elephant, Umbrella, and Quarrelling Cocks: Disaggregating Partisanship in Ghana’s Fourth Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the literature on Ghanaian partisanship, a healthy debate has arisen between those viewing Ghana’s two dominant parties as cleaved along socioeconomic lines and those suggesting that this cleavage runs along ethnic lines. Using election results, constituency maps, census data, and a survey of voters’ ‘cognitive shortcuts’, this article weighs in with the debate. The findings suggest that ethnicity matters

Kevin S. Fridy

2007-01-01

208

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act corrective measures study: Area 6 decontamination pond facility, corrective action unit no. 92  

SciTech Connect

Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 92, the Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility (DPF), is an historic disposal unit located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada (Figures 1 - 1, 1-2, and 1-3). The NTS is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), which has been required by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) to characterize the DPF under the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part A Permit (NDEP, 1995) for the NTS and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 265 (1996c). The DPF is prioritized in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) but is governed by the permit. The DPF was characterized through sampling events in 1994, 1996, and 1997. The results of these sampling events are contained in the Final Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Industrial Site Environmental Restoration Site Characterization Report, Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility, Revision I (DOE/NV, 1997). This Corrective Measures Study (CMS) for the Area 6 DPF has been prepared for the DOE/NV`s Environmental Restoration Project. The CMS has been developed to support the preparation of a Closure Plan for the DPF. Because of the complexities of the contamination and regulatory issues associated with the DPF, DOE/NV determined a CMS would be beneficial to the evaluation and selection of a closure alternative.

NONE

1997-10-01

209

Conservation outside protected areas and the effect of human-dominated landscapes on stress hormones in Savannah elephants.  

PubMed

Biodiversity conservation strategies are increasingly focused on regions outside national protected areas, where animals face numerous anthropogenic threats and must coexist with human settlements, livestock, and agriculture. The effects of these potential threats are not always clear, but they could have profound implications for population viability. We used savannah elephants (Loxodonta africana) as a case study to assess the physiological stress associated with living in a human-livestock-dominated landscape. We collected samples over two 3-month periods in 2007 and 2008. We used fecal DNA to identify 96 individual elephants in a community conservation area (CCA) and measured fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) concentrations as a proxy for stress. The CCA is community Maasai land managed for livestock and wildlife. We compared the FGM concentrations from the CCA to FGM concentrations of 40 elephants in Amboseli National Park and 32 elephants in the Maasai Mara National Reserve, where human settlements and intense livestock grazing were absent. In the CCA, we found no significant individual differences in FGM concentrations among the elephants in 2007 (p = 0.312) or 2008 (p = 0.412) and no difference between years (p = 0.616). The elephants in the CCA had similar FGM concentrations to the Maasai Mara population, but Amboseli elephants had significantly lower FGM concentrations than those in either Maasai Mara or the CCA (Tukey pairwise test, p < 0.001), due primarily to females excreting significantly lower FGM relative to males (p = 0.025). In the CCA, there was no relation among female group size, average pairwise group relatedness, and average group FGM concentration. We found no clear evidence of chronic stress in elephants living on CCA communal land, which is encouraging for conservation strategies promoting the protection of animals living outside protected areas. PMID:23692020

Ahlering, M A; Maldonado, J E; Eggert, L S; Fleischer, R C; Western, D; Brown, J L

2013-06-01

210

Knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to meningitis in northern Ghana.  

PubMed

Meningitis has a significant impact in the Sahel, but the mechanisms for transmission and factors determining a person's vulnerability are not well understood. Our survey examined the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of people in a meningitis-endemic area in the Upper East region of northern Ghana to identify social, economic, and behavioral factors that may contribute to disease transmission and possible interventions that might improve health outcomes. Key results suggest potential interventions in response to the risk posed by migration, especially seasonal migration, a lack of knowledge about early symptoms causing delayed treatment, and a need for further education about the protective benefits of vaccination. PMID:23775016

Hayden, Mary H; Dalaba, Maxwell; Awine, Timothy; Akweongo, Patricia; Nyaaba, Gertrude; Anaseba, Dominic; Pelzman, Jamie; Hodgson, Abraham; Pandya, Rajul

2013-06-17

211

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act industrial site environmental restoration site characterization report - area 6 steam cleaning effluent ponds  

SciTech Connect

The Area 6 North and South Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEPs) are historic disposal units located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada. The NTS is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) which has been required by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) to characterize the site under the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit for the NTS and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 265.

NONE

1996-09-01

212

Conditions associated with protected area success in conservation and poverty reduction.  

PubMed

Protected areas are the dominant approach to protecting biodiversity and the supply of ecosystem services. Because these protected areas are often placed in regions with widespread poverty and because they can limit agricultural development and exploitation of natural resources, concerns have been raised about their potential to create or reinforce poverty traps. Previous studies suggest that the protected area systems in Costa Rica and Thailand, on average, reduced deforestation and alleviated poverty. We examine these results in more detail by characterizing the heterogeneity of responses to protection conditional on observable characteristics. We find no evidence that protected areas trap historically poorer areas in poverty. In fact, we find that poorer areas at baseline seem to have the greatest levels of poverty reduction as a result of protection. However, we do find that the spatial characteristics associated with the most poverty alleviation are not necessarily the characteristics associated with the most avoided deforestation. We show how an understanding of these spatially heterogeneous responses to protection can be used to generate suitability maps that identify locations in which both environmental and poverty alleviation goals are most likely to be achieved. PMID:21873177

Ferraro, Paul J; Hanauer, Merlin M; Sims, Katharine R E

2011-08-22

213

Conditions associated with protected area success in conservation and poverty reduction  

PubMed Central

Protected areas are the dominant approach to protecting biodiversity and the supply of ecosystem services. Because these protected areas are often placed in regions with widespread poverty and because they can limit agricultural development and exploitation of natural resources, concerns have been raised about their potential to create or reinforce poverty traps. Previous studies suggest that the protected area systems in Costa Rica and Thailand, on average, reduced deforestation and alleviated poverty. We examine these results in more detail by characterizing the heterogeneity of responses to protection conditional on observable characteristics. We find no evidence that protected areas trap historically poorer areas in poverty. In fact, we find that poorer areas at baseline seem to have the greatest levels of poverty reduction as a result of protection. However, we do find that the spatial characteristics associated with the most poverty alleviation are not necessarily the characteristics associated with the most avoided deforestation. We show how an understanding of these spatially heterogeneous responses to protection can be used to generate suitability maps that identify locations in which both environmental and poverty alleviation goals are most likely to be achieved.

Ferraro, Paul J.; Hanauer, Merlin M.; Sims, Katharine R. E.

2011-01-01

214

50 CFR Table 24 to Part 679 - Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

50 Ç Wildlife and Fisheries Ç 11 Ç 2011-10-01 Ç 2011-10-01 Ç false Ç Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic Trawl Fishing Ç 24 Ç Table 24 to Part 679 Ç Wildlife and Fisheries Ç FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...

2011-10-01

215

50 CFR Table 24 to Part 679 - Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

50 Ç Wildlife and Fisheries Ç 13 Ç 2012-10-01 Ç 2012-10-01 Ç false Ç Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic Trawl Fishing Ç 24 Ç Table 24 to Part 679 Ç Wildlife and Fisheries Ç FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...

2012-10-01

216

Global priority conservation areas in the face of 21st century climate change.  

PubMed

In an era when global biodiversity is increasingly impacted by rapidly changing climate, efforts to conserve global biodiversity may be compromised if we do not consider the uneven distribution of climate-induced threats. Here, via a novel application of an aggregate Regional Climate Change Index (RCCI) that combines changes in mean annual temperature and precipitation with changes in their interannual variability, we assess multi-dimensional climate changes across the "Global 200" ecoregions - a set of priority ecoregions designed to "achieve the goal of saving a broad diversity of the Earth's ecosystems" - over the 21(st) century. Using an ensemble of 62 climate scenarios, our analyses show that, between 1991-2010 and 2081-2100, 96% of the ecoregions considered will be likely (more than 66% probability) to face moderate-to-pronounced climate changes, when compared to the magnitudes of change during the past five decades. Ecoregions at high northern latitudes are projected to experience most pronounced climate change, followed by those in the Mediterranean Basin, Amazon Basin, East Africa, and South Asia. Relatively modest RCCI signals are expected over ecoregions in Northwest South America, West Africa, and Southeast Asia, yet with considerable uncertainties. Although not indicative of climate-change impacts per se, the RCCI-based assessment can help policy-makers gain a quantitative and comprehensive overview of the unevenly distributed climate risks across the G200 ecoregions. Whether due to significant climate change signals or large uncertainties, the ecoregions highlighted in the assessment deserve special attention in more detailed impact assessments to inform effective conservation strategies under future climate change. PMID:23359638

Li, Junsheng; Lin, Xin; Chen, Anping; Peterson, Townsend; Ma, Keping; Bertzky, Monika; Ciais, Philippe; Kapos, Valerie; Peng, Changhui; Poulter, Benjamin

2013-01-24

217

Parliamentary Oversight of the Security Sector: Lessons from Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case study seeks to assess the contribution of Ghana's emergent parliamentary oversight of the security sector in preventing insecurity and promoting stability. Ghana poses a genuine case of deepening democratic control over the security sector. But while Ghana's experiences are positive, at least in the context of West Africa, Hutchful argues that \\

Kwesi Aning; Ernest Lartey

218

A Modelling of Ghana's Inflation Experience: 1960–2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study sought to ascertain the key determinants of inflation in Ghana for the past 40 years. Stylized facts about Ghana’s inflation experience indicate that since the country’s exit from the West African Currency Board soon after independence, inflation management has been ineffective despite two decades of vigorous reforms. Using the Johansen cointegration test and an error correction model, the

Mathew Kofi Ocran

2007-01-01

219

The hydrochemical framework of surface water basins in southern Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface water resources play a crucial role in the domestic water delivery system in Ghana. In addition, sustainable food production is based on the quality and quantity of water resources available for irrigation purposes to supplement rain-fed agricultural activities in the country. The objective of this research was to determine the main controls on the hydrochemistry of surface water resources in the southern part of Ghana and assess the quality of water from these basins for irrigation activities in the area. R-mode factor and cluster analyses were applied to 625 data points from 6 river basins in southern Ghana after the data had been log transformed and standardized for homogeneity. This study finds that surface water chemistry in the south is controlled by the chemistry of silicate mineral weathering, chemistry of rainfall, fertilizers from agricultural activities in the area, as well as the weathering of carbonate minerals. A Gibb’s diagram plotted with total dissolved solids (TDS) on the vertical axis against (Na+ + K+)/(Ca2+ + K+ + Na+) on the horizontal axis indicates that rock weathering plays a significant role in the hydrochemistry. Activity diagrams for the CaO-Na2O-Al2O-SiO2-H2O and CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O systems suggest that kaolinite is the most stable clay mineral phase in the system. In addition, an assessment of the irrigation quality of water from these basins suggests that the basins are largely low sodium—low to medium salinity basins, delivering water of acceptable quality for irrigation purposes.

Yidana, Sandow Mark

2009-04-01

220

Area-preserving dynamics of a long slender finger by curvature: a test case for globally conserved phase ordering.  

PubMed

A long and slender finger can serve as a simple "test bed" for different phase-ordering models. In this work, the globally conserved, interface-controlled dynamics of a long finger is investigated, analytically and numerically, in two dimensions. An important limit is considered when the finger dynamics is reducible to area-preserving motion by curvature. A free boundary problem for the finger shape is formulated. An asymptotic perturbation theory is developed that uses the finger aspect ratio as a small parameter. The leading-order approximation is a modification of the Mullins finger (a well-known analytic solution) whose width is allowed to slowly vary with time. This time dependence is described, in the leading order, by an exponential law with the characteristic time proportional to the (constant) finger area. The subleading terms of the asymptotic theory are also calculated. Finally, the finger dynamics is investigated numerically, employing the Ginzburg-Landau equation with a global conservation law. The theory is in very good agreement with the numerical solution. PMID:11415167

Peleg, A; Meerson, B; Vilenkin, A; Conti, M

2001-05-11

221

Analysis of trends in water-quality data for water conservation area 3A, the Everglades, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rainfall and water quality data bases from the South Florida Water Management District were used to evaluate water quality trends at 10 locations near or in Water Conservation Area 3A in The Everglades. The Seasonal Kendall test was applied to specific conductance, orthophosphate-phosphorus, nitrate-nitrogen, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, and total nitrogen regression residuals for the period 1978-82. Residuals of orthophosphate and nitrate quadratic models, based on antecedent 7-day rainfall at inflow gate S-11B, were the only two constituent-structure pairs that showed apparent significant (p < 0.05) increases in constituent concentrations. Elimination of regression models with distinct residual patterns and data outlines resulted in 17 statistically significant station water quality combinations for trend analysis. No water quality trends were observed. The 1979 Memorandum of Agreement outlining the water quality monitoring program between the Everglades National Park and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers stressed collection four times a year at three stations, and extensive coverage of water quality properties. Trend analysis and other rigorous statistical evaluation programs are better suited to data monitoring programs that include more frequent sampling and that are organized in a water quality data management system. Pronounced areal differences in water quality suggest that a water quality monitoring system for Shark River Slough in Everglades National Park include collection locations near the source of inflow to Water Conservation Area 3A. (Author 's abstract)

Mattraw, H. C., Jr.; Scheidt, D. J.; Federico, A. C.

1987-01-01

222

Identifying Core Habitat and Connectivity for Focal Species in the Interior Cedar-Hemlock Forest of North America to Complete a Conservation Area Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify the remaining areas of the Interior Cedar-Hemlock Forest of North America and prioritize them for conservation planning, the Craighead Environmental Research Institute has developed a 2-scale method for mapping critical habitat utilizing 1) a broad-scale model to identify important regional locations as the basis for a Conservation Area Design (CAD), and 2) fine-scale models for analyzing habitat quality

Lance Craighead; Baden Cross

223

Landscape as an Area Perceived through Activity: Implications for Diversity Management and Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article uses an activity-based understanding of landscape to explore values related to perceived land cover diversity. Perceptions within two user groups, members of landowner families and hiking tourists in a mountain area in western Norway, were related to a simultaneous land cover survey, and compared to experts' evaluations of land cover and to the aims of landscape protection in

Sebastian Eiter

2010-01-01

224

Barriers to empowerment: fighting eviction for conservation in a southern Brazilian protected area  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do nation states accommodate people who live in regions declared as protected areas (PAs)? In Brazil's Peixe Lagoon National Park, established in 1986, eviction of fisher communities has been occurring gradually through license non-renewal and ill-treatment of fishers by Parks authorities. We examined fishers’ interactions with other groups and the role of partnerships and linkages in fighting for fishing

Tiago Almudi; Fikret Berkes

2010-01-01

225

Value of Sanctuaries, Parks, and Reserves (Protected Areas) as Tools for Conserving Marine Mammals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The number of marine sanctuaries, parks, and reserves throughout the world grew from only a few to more than 1,200 in less than 25 years (apparently starting in about 1970; Earle 1995:329). This number included primarily areas of the subtidal marine envir...

R. R. Reeves

2000-01-01

226

Pedestrians Injury Patterns in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Objective To establish the associations between pedestrian injury and explanatory variables such as vehicular characteristics, temporal trends, and road environment. Methods A retrospective analysis of de-identified pedestrian crash data between 2002 and 2006 was conducted using the Building & Road Research Institute’s crash data bank. We estimated the odds ratios associated with casualty fatalities using a multinomial logistic regression. Results There were 812 pedestrian casualties reported, out of which 33% were fatal, 45% sustained serious injuries requiring hospitalization, and 22% were slightly injured but were not hospitalized. Crossing the roadway accounted for over 70% of all pedestrians deaths. Whereas fatalities in 2002 and 2003 were statistically indistinguishable from those of 2004(p>0.05), in comparison with 2004, there were significantly fewer fatalities in 2005 and 2006 (78% and 65% reduction respectively). According to police report, the probability that a pedestrian fatality occurring in Ghana is attributable to excessive speeding is 65%. The adjusted odds ratio of pedestrian fatality associated with speeding compared with driver inattentiveness was 3.6(95% CI: 2.5 to 5.2). It was also observed that generally, lighter vehicular masses were associated with lower pedestrian fatalities. Compared with buses, pedestrians were less likely to die when struck by private cars (52%), pick-up trucks (57%), and motorcycles (86%). Conclusion Pedestrian death remains the leading cause of fatality among urban road users in Ghana. Risk factors associated with pedestrian fatality include being hit by heavy vehicles, speeding, and roadside activities such as street hawking, jaywalking and nighttime walking. Steps which may contribute to reducing pedestrian fatalities include measures to reduce vehicles speeds in settlements, providing traffic medians and lighting streets in settlements, and discouraging street and roadside activities such as hawking.

Damsere-Derry, James; Ebel, Beth E.; Mock, Charles N.; Afukaar, Francis; Donkor, Peter

2010-01-01

227

Area Standard: Proposal of a Measure for Environmental Conservation, Corresponding to Changes in Land Improvement Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land improvement projects including farm land readjustment change the space composition of farmland, and have strong influence not only on working environment but on natural environment. Thus, the MAFF (Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries) is requesting for the project operation in harmony with the environment. However, recent farm land readjustment projects often introduce subsurface irrigation/drainage channels in place of open channels which provide habitat for the local ecosystem. If such a situation advanced, rapid decrease of surface water is likely to trigger new environmental degradation. This research examined measures for environmental preservation in land improvement projects based on recent technical developments. The authors contend that priority should be given to “space” preservation among other environmental elements, and proposed a provision of “area standard” to avoid potential threats on the local ecosystem. “Area standard” would be a promising measure since it could be easily applied in our country where the “no net loss principle” has yet to been established.

Arita, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Shizuka

228

Conservation of Aquatic Resources through the Use of Freshwater Protected Areas: Opportunities and Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater environments are currently experiencing an alarming decline in biodiversity. As a result, scientists and managers\\u000a must look for alternative management techniques to protect these aquatic systems. One such option that has potential to protect\\u000a freshwater environments from numerous threats is the use of freshwater protected areas (FPAs). FPAs are portions of the freshwater\\u000a environment partitioned to minimize disturbances and

Cory D. Suski; Steven J. Cooke

2007-01-01

229

Conservation genetics of maned wolves in a highly impacted area of the Brazilian Cerrado biome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maned wolves are large canids currently considered vulnerable to extinction due to habitat loss. They are still commonly found\\u000a within the urban mesh inside the Brazilian Federal District (Distrito Federal—DF), in nearby Protected Areas (PAs), and in\\u000a surrounding farms. We evaluated the genetic diversity of maned wolves in three PAs of the DF, using both invasive and noninvasive\\u000a techniques to

Marília Bruzzi Lion; Eduardo Eizirik; Adrian Antonio Garda; Manoel Ludwig da Fontoura-Rodrigues; Flávio Henrique Guimarães Rodrigues; Jader Soares Marinho-Filho

2011-01-01

230

Management of hazardous waste containers and container storage areas under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act  

SciTech Connect

DOE`s Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division, has prepared this guidance document to assist waste management personnel in complying with the numerous and complex regulatory requirements associated with RCRA hazardous waste and radioactive mixed waste containers and container management areas. This document is designed using a systematic graphic approach that features detailed, step-by-step guidance and extensive references to additional relevant guidance materials. Diagrams, flowcharts, reference, and overview graphics accompany the narrative descriptions to illustrate and highlight the topics being discussed. Step-by-step narrative is accompanied by flowchart graphics in an easy-to-follow, ``roadmap`` format.

Not Available

1993-08-01

231

Aquatic Communities Of Temporary Streams Of The Guanacaste Conservation Area In Northwest Costa Rica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Santa Rosa National Park in northwestern Costa Rica is a seasonally dry region with little or no rain for 5-6 months of the year. Streams here are intermittent, with moderate or rapid flows for 2 months or less during the first downpours of the rainy season. Thereafter the streams become a connected series of pools during the remainder of the rainy season, with most pools disappearing during the dry months. The serpentine area of the Santa Elena peninsula is one of the driest habitats in Santa Rosa; nevertheless the temporary streams in this area have a diverse aquatic invertebrate community dominated by Ephemeroptera and Coleoptera. The mayfly genera Caenis (Caenidae), Ulmeritoides, Choroterpes, and Tikuna (Leptophlebiidae: Ephemeroptera) are abundant in these streams but the leptophlebiids are rare elsewhere in Costa Rica. Ulmeritoides appears to be a specialist in lentic microhabitats in lowland streams along both coasts of Costa Rica. Among tropical intermittent streams studied so far, the streams in Santa Elena have an unusually abundant and diverse Ephemeroptera fauna.

Flowers, R.; Chavarria Diaz, M. M.

2005-05-01

232

Relationship between land use and groundwater quality in six districts in the eastern region of Ghana.  

PubMed

The chemical quality of groundwater in six district of the eastern region beneath the different types of land use areas of Ghana was examined to evaluate the effects of human activities on groundwater. Analyses indicate that groundwater in the studied area is fresh and generally suitable for most uses. The groundwater is generally characterised by a chemical facies of Ca-HCO3-, Na-Cl and mixed Na-Ca-HCO3 types and is weakly mineralised. Anthropogenic disturbances have had and continue to have an impact on the aquatic ecosystem of Ghana. High concentration of Cl- and TDS were found in wells in high residential areas while the highest levels of Na, Ca, SO4(2-) and NO3- were found in agricultural and high density residential areas. About 50% of boreholes sampled have elevated level of NO3(-)-N emanating from agricultural runoff. PMID:18622711

Fianko, J R; Osae, S; Adomako, D; Achel, D G

2008-07-12

233

Conservation genetics of maned wolves in a highly impacted area of the Brazilian Cerrado biome.  

PubMed

Maned wolves are large canids currently considered vulnerable to extinction due to habitat loss. They are still commonly found within the urban mesh inside the Brazilian Federal District (Distrito Federal--DF), in nearby Protected Areas (PAs), and in surrounding farms. We evaluated the genetic diversity of maned wolves in three PAs of the DF, using both invasive and noninvasive techniques to obtain DNA that was later amplified for five microsatellite markers. We sampled 23 wolves: 10 with the noninvasive method, three captured in traps, six road-killed, and four rescued in urban areas. In Águas Emendadas Ecological Station (ESECAE) we also used samples from six specimens captured between 1997 and 1998 for a temporal comparison. For maned wolves, non-invasive techniques are affordable and easier to conduct in the field, while laboratory costs are much lower for invasive samples. Hence, a sampling strategy combining both techniques may provide an interesting approach for molecular ecology studies requiring comprehensive coverage of local individuals. On the basis of such integrated sampling scheme, our analyses indicated that none of the investigated populations currently present deviations from Hardy-Weinberg expectations or indication of inbreeding. Furthermore, in ESECAE there was no reduction in genetic diversity during the last 9 years. Overall, maned wolves did not present evidence of genetic structuring among the three sampled PAs. These results thus indicate that individual exchange among PAs is still occurring at sufficient rates to avoid differentiation, and/or that the recent fragmentation in the region has not yet produced measurable effects in the genetic diversity of maned wolves. PMID:21298553

Lion, Marília Bruzzi; Eizirik, Eduardo; Garda, Adrian Antonio; Fontoura-Rodrigues, Manoel Ludwig da; Rodrigues, Flávio Henrique Guimarães; Marinho-Filho, Jader Soares

2011-02-08

234

The malaria candidate vaccine liver stage antigen-3 is highly conserved in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from diverse geographical areas  

PubMed Central

Background A high level of genetic stability has been formerly identified in segments of the gene coding for the liver stage antigen-3 (LSA-3), a subunit vaccine candidate against Plasmodium falciparum. The exploration of lsa-3 polymorphisms was extended to the whole sequence of this large antigen in 20 clinical isolates from four geographical areas; Senegal, Comoro islands, Brazil and Thailand. Methods The whole 4680 bp genomic sequence of lsa-3 was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. The clinical isolate sequences were aligned on the sequence of the laboratory reference P. falciparum strain 3D7. Results The non-repeated sequence of lsa-3 was very well conserved with only a few allelic variations scattered along the sequence. Interestingly, a formerly identified immunodominant region, employed for the majority of pre-clinical vaccine development, was totally conserved at the genetic level. The most significant variations observed were in the number and organization of tetrapeptide repeated units, but not in their composition, resulting in different lengths of these repeated regions. The shorter repeated regions were from Brazilian origin. A correlation between the geographical distribution of the parasites with single nucleotide polymorphisms was not detected. Conclusion The lack of correlation between allelic polymorphisms with a specific transmission pressure suggests that LSA-3 is a structurally constrained molecule. The unusual characteristics of the lsa-3 gene make the molecule an interesting candidate for a subunit vaccine against malaria.

Prieur, Eric; Druilhe, Pierre

2009-01-01

235

Identifying the demographic processes relevant for species conservation in human-impacted areas: does the model matter?  

PubMed

The identification of the demographic processes responsible for the decline in population growth rate (?) in disturbed areas would allow conservation efforts to be efficiently directed. Integral projection models (IPMs) are used for this purpose, but it is unclear whether the conclusions drawn from their analysis are sensitive to how functional structures (the functions that describe how survival, growth and fecundity vary with individual size) are selected. We constructed 12 IPMs that differed in their functional structure by combining two reproduction models and three functional expressions (generalized linear, cubic and additive models), each with and without simplification. Models were parameterized with data from two populations of two endangered cacti subject to different disturbance intensities. For each model, we identified the demographic processes that most affected ? in the presence of disturbance. Simulations were performed on artificial data and analyzed as above to assess the generality of the results. In both empirical and simulated data, the same processes were identified as making the largest contribution to changes in ? regardless of the functional structure. The major differences in the results were due to misspecification of the fecundity functions, whilst functional expression and model simplification had lesser effects. Therefore, as long as the demographic attributes of the species are well known and incorporated into the model, IPMs will robustly identify the processes that most affect the growth of populations subject to disturbance, making them a reliable tool for developing conservation strategies. PMID:22955702

González, Edgar J; Rees, Mark; Martorell, Carlos

2012-09-07

236

Pattern of road traffic injuries in Ghana: implications for control.  

PubMed

Road traffic injuries and fatalities are increasing in Ghana. Police-collected crash and injury data for the period 1994-1998 were aggregated and analyzed using the MAAP5 accident analysis package developed by the Transport Research Laboratory, U.K. Published results of recent transport-related epidemiological and other surveys provided an additional data source. According to the 1994-1998 police data, road traffic crashes were a leading cause of death and injuries in Ghana. The other leading causes of death and injuries are occupational injuries which involve non-mechanized farming and tribal conflicts. The majority of road traffic fatalities (61.2%) and injuries (52.3%) occurred on roads in rural areas. About 58% more people died on roads in the rural areas than in urban areas, and generally more severe crashes occurred on rural roads compared with urban areas. Pedestrians accounted for 46.2% of all road traffic fatalities. The majority of these (66.8%) occurred in urban areas. The second leading population of road users affected was riders in passenger-ferrying buses, minibuses and trucks. The majority of these (42.8%) were killed on roads that pass through rural areas. Pedestrian casualties were overrepresented (nearly 90%) in five regions located in the southern half of the country. Efforts to tackle pedestrian safety should focus on the five regions of the country where most pedestrian fatalities occur in urban areas. Policies are also needed to protect passengers in commercially operated passenger-ferrying buses, minibuses and trucks because these vehicles carry a higher risk of being involved in fatal crashes. PMID:12772488

Afukaar, Francis K; Antwi, Phyllis; Ofosu-Amaah, Samuel

237

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure report: Area 2 Bitcutter and Postshot Containment Shops Injection Wells, Correction Action Unit 90  

SciTech Connect

This Closure Report provides documentation of the activities conducted during the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) closure of the Bitcutter and Postshot Containment Shops Injection Wells located in Area 2 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Oak Spring Quadrangle (USGS, 1986), Township 10 South, Range 53 East, Nye County, Nevada. This report discusses the Bitcutter Shop Inside Injection Well (CAU 90-A) closure-in-place and the Bitcutter Shop Outside Injection Well (CAU 90-B) and Postshot Containment Shop Injection Well (CAU 90-C) clean closures. This Closure Report provides background information about the unit, the results of the characterization activities and actions conducted to determine the closure design. It also provides a discussion of the drainage analysis, preliminary closure activities, final closure activities, waste management activities, and the Post-Closure Care requirements.

NONE

1996-12-01

238

An evaluation of the genesis and suitability of groundwater for irrigation in the Volta Region, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable isotope data and concentrations of the major cations and anions of groundwater from the northern part of the Volta\\u000a Region, Ghana, were used to determine the source of recharge and the suitability of groundwater in the area for irrigation.\\u000a This study finds that the delta deuterium (?D) and delta Oxygen-18 (?18O) data from the area fall along the global

Bruce Banoeng-Yakubo; Sandow Mark Yidana; Emmanuel Nti

2009-01-01

239

Relationship between land use and groundwater quality in six districts in the eastern region of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical quality of groundwater in six district of the eastern region beneath the different types of land use areas of\\u000a Ghana was examined to evaluate the effects of human activities on groundwater. Analyses indicate that groundwater in the studied\\u000a area is fresh and generally suitable for most uses. The groundwater is generally characterised by a chemical facies of Ca-HCO3

J. R. Fianko; S. Osae; D. Adomako; D. G. Achel

2009-01-01

240

National waste management infrastructure in Ghana.  

PubMed

Radioactive materials have been used in Ghana for more than four decades. Radioactive waste generated from their applications in various fields has been managed without adequate infrastructure and any legal framework to control and regulate them. The expanded use of nuclear facilities and radiation sources in Ghana with the concomitant exposure to human population necessitates effective infrastructure to deal with the increasing problems of waste. The Ghana Atomic Energy Act 204 (1963) and the Radiation Protection Instrument LI 1559 (1993) made inadequate provision for the management of waste. With the amendment of the Atomic Energy Act, PNDCL 308, a radioactive waste management centre has been established to take care of all waste in the country. To achieve the set objectives for an effective waste management regime, a waste management regulation has been drafted and relevant codes of practice are being developed to guide generators of waste, operators of waste management facilities and the regulatory authority. PMID:9915643

Darko, E O; Fletcher, J J

1998-12-01

241

43 CFR 21.5 - Occupancy under permit of Government-owned cabins on public recreation and conservation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Occupancy under permit of Government-owned cabins on public recreation and conservation...Occupancy under permit of Government-owned cabins on public recreation and conservation...permittees who occupy Government-owned...

2009-10-01

242

43 CFR 21.5 - Occupancy under permit of Government-owned cabins on public recreation and conservation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Occupancy under permit of Government-owned cabins on public recreation and conservation...Occupancy under permit of Government-owned cabins on public recreation and conservation...permittees who occupy Government-owned...

2010-10-01

243

Soil and water conservation decision behavior of subsistence farmers in the Eastern Highlands of Ethiopia: a case study of the Hunde-Lafto area  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a plot-level analysis of factors influencing the adoption of soil and water conservation structures in the Hunde-Lafto area of the Eastern Ethiopian Highlands. The analysis is based on a survey of 145 farm households managing a total of 265 farm plots. The multinomial logit analysis of the survey data shows that plot-level adoption of conservation measures is

Wagayehu Bekele; Lars Drake

2003-01-01

244

Conservation potential of abandoned military areas matches that of established reserves: plants and butterflies in the Czech Republic.  

PubMed

Military training generates frequent and irregular disturbance followed by succession, resulting in fine-scaled mosaics of ecological conditions in military training areas (MTAs). The awareness that MTAs may represent important biodiversity sanctuaries is increasing recently. Concurrently, changes in military doctrine are leading to abandonment of many MTAs, which are being brought under civilian administration and opened for development. We surveyed vascular plants in 43 and butterflies in 41 MTAs in the Czech Republic and compared the records with plants and butterfly records from 301 and 125 nature reserves, respectively. After controlling for effects of area, geography, and climate, we found that plant species richness was equal in the two land use categories; butterfly richness was higher in MTAs; reserves hosted more endangered plants and more endangered butterflies. Ordination analyses, again controlled for potential nuisance effects, showed that MTAs and reserves differed also in species composition. While specialist species of nationally rarest habitat types inclined towards the reserves, MTAs hosted a high representation of endangered species depending on either disturbed ground, or successionaly transient conditions. These patterns reflect the history of the national nature reserves network, and the disturbance-succession dynamics within MTAs. The conservation value of formerly army-used lands is increasingly threatened by abandonment, and conservationists should support either alternative uses mimicking army activities, or sustainable management regimes. PMID:23326388

Cizek, Oldrich; Vrba, Pavel; Benes, Jiri; Hrazsky, Zaboj; Koptik, Jiri; Kucera, Tomas; Marhoul, Pavel; Zamecnik, Jaroslav; Konvicka, Martin

2013-01-09

245

Conservation Potential of Abandoned Military Areas Matches That of Established Reserves: Plants and Butterflies in the Czech Republic  

PubMed Central

Military training generates frequent and irregular disturbance followed by succession, resulting in fine-scaled mosaics of ecological conditions in military training areas (MTAs). The awareness that MTAs may represent important biodiversity sanctuaries is increasing recently. Concurrently, changes in military doctrine are leading to abandonment of many MTAs, which are being brought under civilian administration and opened for development. We surveyed vascular plants in 43 and butterflies in 41 MTAs in the Czech Republic and compared the records with plants and butterfly records from 301 and 125 nature reserves, respectively. After controlling for effects of area, geography, and climate, we found that plant species richness was equal in the two land use categories; butterfly richness was higher in MTAs; reserves hosted more endangered plants and more endangered butterflies. Ordination analyses, again controlled for potential nuisance effects, showed that MTAs and reserves differed also in species composition. While specialist species of nationally rarest habitat types inclined towards the reserves, MTAs hosted a high representation of endangered species depending on either disturbed ground, or successionaly transient conditions. These patterns reflect the history of the national nature reserves network, and the disturbance-succession dynamics within MTAs. The conservation value of formerly army-used lands is increasingly threatened by abandonment, and conservationists should support either alternative uses mimicking army activities, or sustainable management regimes.

Cizek, Oldrich; Vrba, Pavel; Benes, Jiri; Hrazsky, Zaboj; Koptik, Jiri; Kucera, Tomas; Marhoul, Pavel; Zamecnik, Jaroslav; Konvicka, Martin

2013-01-01

246

Energy reserves of Artibeus lituratus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in two areas with different degrees of conservation in Minas Gerais, Brazil.  

PubMed

Forest fragmentation associated with the expansion of human development is a phenomenon that occurs worldwide. Studies reveal that there have been both a decline in species diversity and a decrease in Neotropical bat population size because of habitat loss. The aim of this study was to investigate whether human action has been affecting the food availability to wildlife species, which could impact the storage of body energy reserves. For this purpose, fruit-eating bats (Artibeus lituratus) were collected in two areas in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The concentrations of plasma glucose, as well as glycogen, lipids and protein in liver in muscles were performed, in addition to adipose tissue weight and carcass fatty acids. Our results indicate that fat reserves were significantly lower in most tested tissues (muscle of the hindlimbs, breast muscles, adipose tissue and carcass) in animals collected in the region with a higher degree of human disturbance. The other parameters showed no significant differences in the groups collected at different locations. In conclusion, we suggest that human action on the environment may be affecting the storage of body fat energy reserves of this species during the autumn, particularly in metropolitan region areas of Belo Horizonte, MG - Brazil, requiring special attention to the species conservation. PMID:22437400

Melo, B E S; Barros, M S; Carvalho, T F; Amaral, T S; Freitas, M B

2012-02-01

247

Species-area relationships as a tool for the conservation of benthic invertebrates in Italian coastal lagoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the recent decades, the preservation of coastal and estuarine waters has been recognised as a priority at national and international levels. At the European scale, the Water Framework Directive (WFD) was established with the aim to achieve a good ecological status of all significant water bodies by the year 2015. Among the descriptors used to define the ecological status of water bodies, taxonomic diversity (usually species richness) is a widespread metric employed across taxa and habitats. However, species richness is known to increase with area at a decelerating rate, producing the species-area relationship (SAR). Thus, removing the effect of area (even in case of low magnitude), is mandatory before comparing species richness between sites. Here we tested recently developed multi-model SARs as a standardisation tool for comparing benthic species richness (annelids, arthropods, molluscs and total species richness) in 18 Italian coastal lagoons with a surface area ranging from 0.19 to 552 km2, i.e. three orders of magnitude. However, the sampling effort was often incompletely described and certainly heterogeneous among the studies retrieved from the database. Therefore, we used the number of studies as a proxy for the sampling effort in each lagoon and estimated species richness from observed values using non-parametric occurrence-based estimators. We further corrected for bias that might be induced by sampling efforts being unrepresentative for the surface area of different lagoons. After applying these corrections, we estimated that c. 25-30% of species richness could be explained by surface area. We investigated the spatial congruence of species richness patterns across taxa and showed that molluscs could serve as a potential surrogate for total macro-invertebrate species richness. We further found that the intensity of conservation focus and the gradient of ecological status are decoupled in Italian coastal lagoons. More generally, our study pave the way for the use of flexible tools for the comparison of species richness across water bodies in the context of the WFD.

Guilhaumon, François; Basset, Alberto; Barbone, Enrico; Mouillot, David

2012-12-01

248

Ethnicity and Election Outcomes in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is ethnicity the critical determinant of election results in Africa? We investigate this question empirically on the 2004 presidential poll in Ghana. We use variables from several data sources matched at the district level, and perform econometric analysis on the turnout rate and party vote shares, and on their evolution between two similar polls. We test the accuracy of two

Thomas Bossuroy

2011-01-01

249

The enforcement of commercial contracts in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using case studies of manufacturing and trading firms, this paper documents how commercial contracts are enforced in Ghana. Interviews were guided by a conceptual framework emphasizing credible enforcement mechanisms and information asymmetries. Results show that compliance with contractual obligations is mostly motivated by the desire to preserve personalized relationships based on mutual trust. Harassment is the main form of debt

Marcel Fafchamps

1996-01-01

250

Causes of suppurative keratitis in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS--Suppurative keratitis is a serious problem in all tropical countries, but very little information is available about the causative organisms in Africa. The objectives were to identify the causative organisms and the proportion of cases caused by fungi in southern Ghana, and to determine whether correct decisions about treatment could be made on the basis of Gram stain in the

M Hagan; E Wright; M Newman; P Dolin; G Johnson

1995-01-01

251

Abuse of Disabled Children in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Even though disabled children are targets of various forms of abuse, such issues remain mostly undocumented open secrets in many countries including Ghana. The article is based on a qualitative data provided by three key informants. Six stories emerged from the data and are discussed in terms of four main forms of abuse. Labelling theories are…

Kassah, Alexander Kwesi; Kassah, Bente Lilljan Lind; Agbota, Tete Kobla

2012-01-01

252

Wage and Productivity Gaps: Evidence from Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

August 1999This paper studies labor market outcomes in Ghana. The analysis focuses on the formal manufacturing wage sector and, more specifically, on the determinants of wages and productivity for various groups of workers. It tests hypotheses that relate to the impacts of individual and enterprise characteristics on wages. Furthermore, it compares the marginal impact of each of these characteristics on

Dorte Verner

1999-01-01

253

Microbial characterization of dried foods from Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, the most common methods to preserve vegetables and fish in Ghana are sun-drying and smoking, respectively. Convenience foods also are fairly common, which are foods that are mechanically dehydrated and milled into powders. In this research, the dominant microflora of common Ghanaian dried foods such as vegetables; powders; smoked, salted or sun-dried fish; seasonings; spices and oilseeds were investigated

Bernice Dzifa Kudjawu

2008-01-01

254

Colonialism, legitimation, and policing in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most existing historiographies of colonial and post-colonial policing in Ghana have focused nearly exclusively on providing a basic understanding of managerial issues—that is, organisational and administrative structure, functions and modes of operation. Our knowledge of issues of police legitimation, and of the ‘quality of policing’ remains very limited. This article discusses these issues and establishes the vital importance of history

Justice Tankebe

2008-01-01

255

Oil: Lessons from Comparative Perspectives for Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil as it relates to maintenance of energy consumption is becoming a very important acquired resource all around the world. This thesis focuses on Ghana as a place where recent oil discoveries have taken place, to assess the current policies being put in place to avoid the oil pitfalls of their other African counterparts and to examine oil models that could possibly work to reinforce a positive outcome for the new found oil industry in Ghana. These research aims were met through extensive research of relevant literature. The research resulted in the finding that the Ghanaian government would benefit from a combination of economic models that have been used in the past (spend all, save all and spend interest only). The main conclusion that has resulted from this research is that through strong fiscal policies towards the Ghanaian oil industry Ghana should be able to maintain a relatively stable economy which in turn will produce a stable country all around. This research argues that by creating strong policies and using a combination of the econometric oil models this will help Ghana account for the immediate need for things like infrastructure while also saving money for when/if the oil is no longer being produced in the country.

Osei-Boakye, Maame Frema

256

THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF OFFICE BUILDINGS IN GHANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a simulation application and a sample of five existing office buildings, we parametrically explored building features and measures that could improve the thermal performance of office buildings in Kumasi, Ghana. To improve the reliability of the simulation results, the simulation models were calibrated using long-term continuous measurements on environmental conditions (air temperature, relative humidity) inside and in the immediate

Christian Koranteng; Ardeshir Mahdavi

257

Role of species composition in malaria transmission by the Anopheles funestus group (Diptera: Culicidae) in Ghana.  

PubMed

Malaria remains a public health problem in Ghana, with Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus as the predominant vectors. While much information exists on the species composition of An. gambiae, very little exists for An. funestus. This study was carried out to determine the species composition of An. funestus Giles populations from three ecological areas in Ghana and investigate their role in malaria transmission. Mosquitoes were collected using human landing and pyrethrum spray methods. A total of 10,254 Anopheles individuals were collected, out of which An. funestus constituted 53.6% (5,496). An. funestus sensu stricto (s.s.) and Anopheles lessoni were identified as the only members of the An. funestus group in all three ecological areas. All 62 sporozoite positive specimens that were identified as An. funestus s.s. were highly anthropophilic with a human blood index in the range of 80-96%, whereas more than 83% of the An. leesoni had fed on either bovine, goat, or sheep. Malaria transmission was higher in the Sahel savannah area than the rest of the ecological zones, with An. funestus s.s. being implicated as a vector of malaria in all ecological zones. Anopheles leesoni occurred in all the ecological areas but played no role in malaria transmission. The study established the importance of An. funestus s.s. in malaria transmission in Ghana. PMID:23701614

Dadzie, Samuel K; Brenyah, Ruth; Appawu, Maxwell A

2013-06-01

258

Potential of some Neotropical Albizia species as shade trees whenreplanting cacao in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana has embarked on studies to support the replanting of cacao (Theobroma cacao L) in areas, which previously carried the crop but are now degraded. A key component of the studies is to identify fast growing\\u000a tree species capable of ameliorating degraded soils and ultimately providing suitable shade for cacao. A screening trial involving\\u000a ten

G. J. Anim-Kwapong

2003-01-01

259

Young child feeding practices and child nutritional status in rural Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractA study was conducted in the Manya Krobo district of Ghana with the objective of studying young child feeding practices and child nutrition situation in the area. The study was a cross-sectional survey involving 400 mothers with young children between 0 and 18?months. A combination of methods, including structured interviews using questionnaire, dietary assessment and anthropometry, was used to collect

Christina A. Nti; Anna Lartey

2007-01-01

260

The long-term impacts of fisheries on epifaunal assemblage function and structure, in a Special Area of Conservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fisheries can have profound effects on epifaunal community function and structure. We analysed the results from five dive surveys (1975-1976, 1980, 1983, 2003 and 2007), taken in a Special Area of Conservation, Strangford Lough, Northern Ireland before and after a ten year period of increased trawling activity between 1985 and 1995. There were no detectable differences in the species richness or taxonomic distinctiveness before (1975-1983) and after (2003-2007) this period. However, there was a shift in the epifaunal assemblage between the surveys in 1975-1983 and 2003-2007. In general, the slow-moving, or sessile, erect, filter-feeders were replaced by highly mobile, swimming, scavengers and predators. There were declines in the frequency of the fished bivalve Aequipecten opercularis and the non-fished bivalves Modiolus modiolus and Chlamys varia and some erect sessile invertebrates between the surveys in 1975-1983 and 2003-2007. In contrast, there were increases in the frequency of the fished and reseeded bivalves Pecten maximus and Ostrea edulis, the fished crabs Cancer pagurus and Necora puber and the non-fished sea stars Asterias rubens, Crossaster papposus and Henricia oculata between the surveys in 1975-1983 and 2003-2007. We suggest that these shifts could be directly and indirectly attributed to the long-term impacts of trawl fishing gear, although increases in the supply of discarded bait and influxes of sediment may also have contributed to changes in the frequency of some taxa. These results suggest that despite their limitations, historical surveys and repeat sampling over long periods can help to elucidate the inferred patterns in the epifaunal community. The use of commercial fishing gear was banned from two areas in Strangford Lough in 2011, making it a model ecosystem for assessing the long-term recovery of the epifaunal community from the impacts of mobile and pot fishing gear.

Strain, E. M. A.; Allcock, A. L.; Goodwin, C. E.; Maggs, C. A.; Picton, B. E.; Roberts, D.

2012-01-01

261

Lymphatic filariasis in Ghana: establishing the potential for an urban cycle of transmission.  

PubMed

Lymphatic filariasis is a significant public health and economic problem in many tropical and sub-tropical regions. Unplanned urbanization leading to a lack of proper sanitary conditions has resulted in an increase in the urban-based transmission of a number of vector-borne diseases, including lymphatic filariasis. It has been well established that lymphatic filariasis is endemic in rural areas of Ghana. The goal of this study was to determine if there is a potential of establishing urban transmission cycles in Ghana's major cities. We clinically and immunologically assessed 625 individuals from the three major urban areas (Bawku, Bolgatanga and Secondi/Takoradi), finding that the prevalence of infection with Wuchereria bancrofti ranged from 0 to 12.5%. The results of a polymerase chain reaction based analysis of mosquitoes collected from these areas suggested that there is a low but detectable prevalence of mosquitoes infected with W. bancrofti. We conclude that there may be a potential for an established urban transmission of lymphatic filariasis in Ghana. PMID:15807803

Gbakima, Aiah A; Appawu, Maxwell A; Dadzie, Samuel; Karikari, Collins; Sackey, Samuel O; Baffoe-Wilmot, Aba; Gyapong, Johnny; Scott, Alan L

2005-04-01

262

Small non-flying mammals from conserved and altered areas of Atlantic forest and Cerrado: comments on their potential use for monitoring environment.  

PubMed

Two Atlantic Forests and two Cerrado areas in Brazil were sampled for non-flying small mammal fauna. In each biome one area with altered and another with almost unaltered vegetation (national parks), were chosen to investigate these fauna. Species richness of Atlantic Forest and Cerrado was comparable in the conserved as well as in the altered areas. Data suggested that species could be divided into different ecological categories according to distribution, use of altered and/or relatively unaltered vegetation and habitat specificity. Within these ecological categories some species are appropriate indicators for monitoring environmental quality and degradation. Useful guidelines for wildlife management planning, including selecting areas for conservation units and their better boundary delimitation can ensue. PMID:12659027

Bonvicino, C R; Lindbergh, S M; Maroja, L S

2002-11-01

263

43 CFR 21.6 - Cabin site occupancy where a recreation or conservation area has been leased to, or turned over...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cabin site occupancy where a recreation...the Interior OCCUPANCY OF CABIN SITES ON PUBLIC CONSERVATION AND RECREATION AREAS § 21.6 Cabin site occupancy where a recreation...Renewals, extensions, or new leases or transfers to...

2010-10-01

264

43 CFR 21.6 - Cabin site occupancy where a recreation or conservation area has been leased to, or turned over...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Cabin site occupancy where a recreation...the Interior OCCUPANCY OF CABIN SITES ON PUBLIC CONSERVATION AND RECREATION AREAS § 21.6 Cabin site occupancy where a recreation...Renewals, extensions, or new leases or transfers to...

2009-10-01

265

Does a voluntary conservation program result in a representative protected area network?: The case of Finnish privately owned forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation contracting has attained growing interest worldwide as a tool for protecting biodiversity in privately owned lands. In this policy, landowners receive payments from an environmental agency in exchange for land use practices that contribute to the supply of biodiversity. This approach may result in a conservation network which does not cover all focal ecological characteristics, because landowners determine the

Artti Juutinen; Mikko Mönkkönen; Anna-Liisa Ylisirniö

2009-01-01

266

The development of community water supplies in Ghana*  

PubMed Central

Ghana, with a population of 6 700 000, largely distributed in rural districts, is representative of many a country where the problem of water supply is associated with the construction of numerous small supplies for the villages and towns scattered over the whole area. This paper gives a general impression of the various methods in use for tackling the problem. Well-sinking, drilling, and pond-digging, and the advantages and disadvantages of a variety of methods, are described, and the problems met with under different geological conditions are considered. Details of the various systems for pumping the water from the source to the villages and towns are given. The important question of standardization, both in design and equipment, is dealt with, and reference is made to the operation of supplies and to the training of operatives.

Ferguson, W. R. W.

1962-01-01

267

Section 39 (Population and Development) Title: Rapid Population Growth and Development in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ghana's Demographic and Health Surveys 1988 and 1993, and Ghana's 1984 Population Census report were used to examine the effect of rapid population growth on 4 key sectors in Ghana. The population issue in Ghana concerns the high rate of growth and not the number of people. The rapidly increasing expenditure on education is associated with sharp increases in the

Eric Adjei Boadu

268

Phosphorus fractionation and distribution in sediments from wetlands and canals of a water conservation area in the Florida Everglades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus (P) fractionation and distribution in sediments are of great concern in the Florida Everglades ecosystem because potential eutrophication of surface waters usually results from P external loading and stability. Intact core sediment samples were collected to a depth of 35 cm from wetlands and canals across Water Conservation Area 3 (WCA-3) of the Florida Everglades. These sediment cores were sliced into 5 cm increments and analyzed for P contents in different fractions by sequential extraction. These fractions mainly included total P (TP), readily available P (Pi-KCl), Fe/Al-bound P (Pi-NaOH), Ca/Mg-bound P (Pi-HCl), organic P (Po-NaOH), and residual P (PoResidue). Results showed that the canal sediments had the highest concentrations of TP, with about 87% in the form of Ca/Mg-bound fraction, and the concentrations of TP in these sediments increased with depth. In contrast, the wetland sediments contained the lowest concentrations of TP (predominantly in the organic fraction), with 43% residual P and 27% Po-NaOH, and the concentrations of TP in these sediments decreased with depth. In addition, a large amount of the readily available P (up to 1500 mg kg-1) in the canal sediments was accumulated at the top layer of 0-5 cm. This study suggests that any disturbance and/or environmental alterations, such as high canal flow and dredging in canal sediments, could pose a potential risk of a P increase in the water column and, consequently, in the wetlands because of the release of readily available P despite the relatively stable nature of such P fractions in these sediments.

Wang, Qingren; Li, Yuncong; Ouyang, Ying

2011-05-01

269

History of Community Psychology in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter traces the emergence and practice of community psychology in Ghana. We begin with a discussion of the early stages\\u000a of the development of community psychology in the country. Having been foreshadowed by the activities of nongovernmental organizations\\u000a (NGOs), community psychologists mainly use the classroom as a catalyst for promoting the values and principles of the field.\\u000a The classroom

CHARITY S. AKOTIA; KOFI B. BARIMAH

270

Understanding the health and nutritional status of children in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The data set of the Ghana Living Standards Survey (GLSS, round 1, 1987\\/1988) was utilized to analyse the principal determinants (publicly and privately) of health and nutrition of children under five in Ghana. While in most health and nutrition studies the emphasis is either on health-related factors such as occurrence of illness, immunization, accessibility to light (electricity), the role of

W. K. Asenso-Okyere; F. A. Asante; M. Nubé

1997-01-01

271

Education and training of the future librarian in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Argues that a sound library education is of paramount importance to the image and prestige of the library profession. Although in the past, a number of training programmes have been organised for librarians in Ghana, argues that present-day job expectations require a new look at the training and education of the future librarian in Ghana. Various proposals are made in

A. A. Alemna

1998-01-01

272

Household dietary practices and family nutritional status in rural Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional study involving 400 mothers was conducted in the Manya Krobo district of Ghana with the objective of studying household dietary practices, quality of diets and family nutritional status of rural Ghana. A combination of methods, including structured interviews using questionnaire, dietary assessments and anthropometry was used to collect data for the study. The data obtained was analyzed using

Christina A. Nti

2008-01-01

273

Artisanal Mining of Gold with Mercury in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the environmental impact of artisanal mining of gold with mercury (Hg) in Ghana. In spite of its positive socio- economic contributions, it is well known that artisanal mining of gold contributes in no small measure to land degradation, loss of biodiversity and natural resources, deforestation, water pollution, etc. In Ghana, these environmental problems remain poorly studied. In

A. K. Donkor; V. K. Nartey; J. C. Bonzongo; D. K. Adotey

274

The Progressivity Of Health Care Services In Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the incidence of public health subsidies in Ghana using the Ghana Living Standards Survey. Using a combination of (uniform) benefit incidence analysis and a discrete choice model, our results give a clear evidence of progressivity with consistent ordering: postnatal and prenatal services are the most progressive, followed by clinic visits, and then hospital visits. Children health care

Mawuli Gaddah; Alistair Munro

2011-01-01

275

Ghana: Background and U.S. Relations (February 14, 2008).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This short report, which will be updated as events warrant, provides background information on current developments in Ghana and U.S. bilateral relations with Ghana. In mid-February 2008, President and Mrs. Bush are slated to travel to five African countr...

N. Cook

2008-01-01

276

The Determinants of Girls' Educational Enrollment in Ghana. Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the determinants of school enrollment in Ghana, considering historical and social information to formulate an econometric model of school enrollment patterns for households. Data came from a 1989 survey of households in Ghana. The survey collected basic information about community characteristics, health and school facilities,…

Johnson, Rebecca; Kyle, Steven

277

Ghana residential energy use and appliance ownership survey: Final Report on the Potential Impact of Appliance Performance Standards in Ghana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Government of Ghana, through the Ministry of Mines and Energy is committed to improving the national energy infrastructure and market in Ghana. This report presents the results of a survey and analysis of household energy use and appliance ownership i...

S. Constantine A. Denver S. Hakim J. E. McMahon G. Rosenquist

1999-01-01

278

Recruitment and Retention of Mental Health Workers in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Introduction The lack of trained mental health workers is a primary contributor to the mental health treatment gap worldwide. Despite the great need to recruit and retain mental health workers in low-income countries, little is known about how these workers perceive their jobs and what drives them to work in mental health care. Using qualitative interviews, we aimed to explore factors motivating mental health workers in order to inform interventions to increase recruitment and retention. Methods We conducted 28 in-depth, open-ended interviews with staff in Ghana’s three public psychiatric hospitals. We used the snowballing method to recruit participants and the constant comparative method for qualitative data analysis, with multiple members of the research team participating in data coding to enhance the validity and reliability of the analysis. The use of qualitative methods allowed us to understand the range and depth of motivating and demotivating factors. Results Respondents described many factors that influenced their choice to enter and remain in mental health care. Motivating factors included 1) desire to help patients who are vulnerable and in need, 2) positive day-to-day interactions with patients, 3) intellectual or academic interest in psychiatry or behavior, and 4) good relationships with colleagues. Demotivating factors included 1) lack of resources at the hospital, 2) a rigid supervisory hierarchy, 3) lack of positive or negative feedback on work performance, and 4) few opportunities for career advancement within mental health. Conclusions Because many of the factors are related to relationships, these findings suggest that strengthening the interpersonal and team dynamics may be a critical and relatively low cost way to increase worker motivation. The data also allowed us to highlight key areas for resource allocation to improve both recruitment and retention, including risk pay, adequate tools for patient care, improved hospital work environment, and stigma reduction efforts.

Jack, Helen; Canavan, Maureen; Ofori-Atta, Angela; Taylor, Lauren; Bradley, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

279

Conserving Biodiversity in a Human-Dominated World: Degradation of Marine Sessile Communities within a Protected Area with Conflicting Human Uses  

PubMed Central

Conservation research aims at understanding whether present protection schemes are adequate for the maintenance of ecosystems structure and function across time. We evaluated long-term variation in rocky reef communities by comparing sites surveyed in 1993 and again in 2008. This research took place in Tigullio Gulf, an emblematic case study where various conservation measures, including a marine protected area, have been implemented to manage multiple human uses. Contrary to our prediction that protection should have favored ecosystem stability, we found that communities subjected to conservation measures (especially within the marine protected area) exhibited the greatest variation toward architectural complexity loss. Between 1993 and 2008, chronic anthropogenic pressures (especially organic load) that had already altered unprotected sites in 1993 expanded their influence into protected areas. This expansion of human pressure likely explains our observed changes in the benthic communities. Our results suggest that adaptive ecosystem-based management (EBM), that is management taking into account human interactions, informed by continuous monitoring, is needed in order to attempt reversing the current trend towards less architecturally complex communities. Protected areas are not sufficient to stop ecosystem alteration by pressures coming from outside. Monitoring, and consequent management actions, should therefore extend to cover the relevant scales of those pressures.

Parravicini, Valeriano; Micheli, Fiorenza; Montefalcone, Monica; Morri, Carla; Villa, Elisa; Castellano, Michela; Povero, Paolo; Bianchi, Carlo Nike

2013-01-01

280

Conserving Biodiversity in a Human-Dominated World: Degradation of Marine Sessile Communities within a Protected Area with Conflicting Human Uses.  

PubMed

Conservation research aims at understanding whether present protection schemes are adequate for the maintenance of ecosystems structure and function across time. We evaluated long-term variation in rocky reef communities by comparing sites surveyed in 1993 and again in 2008. This research took place in Tigullio Gulf, an emblematic case study where various conservation measures, including a marine protected area, have been implemented to manage multiple human uses. Contrary to our prediction that protection should have favored ecosystem stability, we found that communities subjected to conservation measures (especially within the marine protected area) exhibited the greatest variation toward architectural complexity loss. Between 1993 and 2008, chronic anthropogenic pressures (especially organic load) that had already altered unprotected sites in 1993 expanded their influence into protected areas. This expansion of human pressure likely explains our observed changes in the benthic communities. Our results suggest that adaptive ecosystem-based management (EBM), that is management taking into account human interactions, informed by continuous monitoring, is needed in order to attempt reversing the current trend towards less architecturally complex communities. Protected areas are not sufficient to stop ecosystem alteration by pressures coming from outside. Monitoring, and consequent management actions, should therefore extend to cover the relevant scales of those pressures. PMID:24143173

Parravicini, Valeriano; Micheli, Fiorenza; Montefalcone, Monica; Morri, Carla; Villa, Elisa; Castellano, Michela; Povero, Paolo; Bianchi, Carlo Nike

2013-10-15

281

Geo-conservation: an example of the application of its principles in the sanitation of the polluted Laarder Wasmeren area near Hilversum, het Gooi, The Netherlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Laarder Wasmeren area near Hilversum, a nature reserve under management of the Goois Natuurreservaat with extensive drift sands and several fens, was heavily polluted by heavy metals and toxic organic substances as a result of prolonged discharge of sewage water onto the fens. Already upon the start of its environmental restoration in 2004, it became clear that the area holds important geological phenomena, including LateGlacial paleosols and multiple Holocene drift sands with intercalated paleosols. This discovery induced the Province of Noord-Holland in 2006 to declare het Gooi, of which the Laarder Wasmeren area forms part, a geological monument and thus to set limits for future activities that might lead to disturbance of its superficial geology. Today het Gooi is one of the 17 geological monuments of the province. The basic principle of provincial geo-conservation - minimal disturbance of the superficial geology - was also applied in the further restoration of the LWM area that included its ecological restoration as a nature reserve. This restoration project was supervised by the author and belongs to the major operations of that kind in the Netherlands. Completed in 2010/2011, it resulted in the discovery and conservation of a complex of Holocene drift sands and paleosols that is unique for the Netherlands. The project forms an excellent example of the application of a provincial geo-conservation policy.

Sevink, J.; Khodabux, E. R.; Landsmeer, D.; Stoeten, G. J.

2012-04-01

282

Geo-conservation: an example of the application of its principles in the sanitation of the polluted Laarder Wasmeren area near Hilversum, het Gooi, The Netherlands.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Laarder Wasmeren area near Hilversum, a nature reserve under management of the Goois Natuurreservaat with extensive drift sands and several fens, was heavily polluted by heavy metals and toxic organic substances as a result of prolonged discharge of sewage water onto the fens. Already upon the start of its environmental restoration in 2004, it became clear that the area holds important geological phenomena, including LateGlacial paleosols and multiple Holocene drift sands with intercalated paleosols. This discovery induced the Province of Noord-Holland in 2006 to declare het Gooi, of which the Laarder Wasmeren area forms part, a geological monument and thus to set limits for future activities that might lead to disturbance of its superficial geology. Today het Gooi is one of the 17 geological monuments of the province. The basic principle of provincial geo-conservation - minimal disturbance of the superficial geology - was also applied in the further restoration of the LWM area that included its ecological restoration as a nature reserve. This restoration project was supervised by the author and belongs to the major operations of that kind in the Netherlands. Completed in 2010/2011, it resulted in the discovery and conservation of a complex of Holocene drift sands and paleosols that is unique for the Netherlands. The project forms an excellent example of the application of a provincial geo-conservation policy.

Sevink, Jan; Khodabux, Eric; Landsmeer, Dick; Stoeten, Jan

2013-04-01

283

Common understandings of women's mental illness in Ghana: results from a qualitative study.  

PubMed

Despite the high rates of depression and anxiety disorders amongst women, the mental health of women is a neglected area, particularly in Africa. This study sought to explore what key stakeholders perceive as the main causes of mental illness in women in Ghana. Using qualitative methods, 81 semi-structured interviews and seven focus group discussions were conducted with 120 key stakeholders drawn from 5 of the 10 regions in Ghana. The analysis was undertaken using a grounded theory approach. Respondents attributed mental illness in women to a number of causes. These included women being the weaker sex, hormones, witchcraft, adultery, abuse and poverty. Explanations could be clustered under three broad categories: women's inherent vulnerability, witchcraft, and gender disadvantage. The way in which women's subordinate position within society may underpin their mental distress needs to be recognized and addressed. The results from this study offer opportunities to identify how policy can better recognize, accommodate and address the mental health needs of women in Ghana and other low-income African countries. PMID:21226647

Ofori-Atta, Angela; Cooper, Sara; Akpalu, Bright; Osei, Akwasi; Doku, Victor; Lund, Crick; Flisher, Alan; The Mhapp Research Programme Consortium

2010-01-01

284

Child Labor and Schooling in Ghana. Ghana: Labor Markets and Poverty. Policy Research Working Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report examines the determinants of child labor in conjunction with school participation trends for children ages 7-14 in Ghana. The report is based on data from national household surveys conducted 1987-92. Specifically, the study examined the influence of variables such as child age and sex; parent's education, religion, and employment;…

Canagarajah, Sudharshan; Coulombe, Harold

285

Eco-floristic sectors and deforestation threats in Sumatra: identifying new conservation area network priorities for ecosystem-based land use planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogeographical studies are a necessary step in establishing conservation area networks. Determining the ecological factors\\u000a influencing vegetation is also a basic principle for hierarchical ecological classifications and a necessary prerequisite\\u000a for ecosystem-based land use planning. Eco-floristic sectors (EFS) have already been identified for the Indonesian island\\u000a of Sumatra, combining both approaches, dividing it into 38 EFSs representing unique ecosystems in

Yves LaumonierYumiko; Yumiko Uryu; Michael Stüwe; Arif Budiman; Budi Setiabudi; Oki Hadian

2010-01-01

286

Conservation finance 2: area-based initiatives and the role of foundations, funds and non-profit agencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops the issue of funding from a first paper “Conservation finance 1: support for historic buildings”), which highlighted specific measures in use including direct grant aid, low-interest loans, fiscal relief, tax credits, the transference of development rights with associated funding measures and compensation schemes. Further consideration is given to other avenues for raising finance in support of the

Robert Pickard; Tracy Pickerill

2002-01-01

287

Australia's Oceans Policy, bioregional marine planning, EPBC Act, marine protected areas, biodiversity conservation, Census of Marine Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Australian Government's regional marine planning program commenced under Australia's Oceans Policy in 2001 with a focus on the South-east Marine Region. The South-east Regional Marine Plan was completed and released in 2004. In 2005, the Government brought regional marine planning under the provisions of the powerful Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act), with a clear focus

Ian Cresswell

288

Assessing the performance of the existing and proposed network of marine protected areas to conserve marine biodiversity in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing concern about the profound influence of human activities on marine ecosystems has been the driving force behind the creation of marine reserves in the last few decades. With almost 4200km of coastline, Chile has not been the exception to this trend. A set of conservation priority sites has recently been proposed by the Chilean government to expand the

Marcelo F. Tognelli; Miriam Fernández; Pablo A. Marquet

2009-01-01

289

Marine environment protection and biodiversity conservation: the application and future development of the IMO's particularly sensitive sea area concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of marine environment protection and biodiversity conservation, a number of measures adopted by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) can be viewed as implementing obligations and recommendations of the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, Chapter 17 of Agenda 21 and the 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity respectively. Pre-eminent among these measures is the

Julian Peter Roberts

2006-01-01

290

Properties, best management practices and conservation of terraced soils in Southern Europe (from Mediterranean areas to the Alps): A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrace soils are distinctive features of the agricultural landscape in Europe. Due to their historical and aesthetic significance, they are a resource for agriculture and tourism: however they are also a challenge for land conservation and management. Nevertheless, the fundamental role of terrace soils for agricultural quality and natural hazard prevention has not been fully investigated.In the past, terraced slopes

S. Stanchi; M. Freppaz; A. Agnelli; T. Reinsch; E. Zanini

291

Lower Expression of TLR2 and SOCS-3 Is Associated with Schistosoma haematobium Infection and with Lower Risk for Allergic Reactivity in Children Living in a Rural Area in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundHelminth infections are prevalent in rural areas of developing countries and have in some studies been negatively associated with allergic disorders and atopy. In this context little is known of the molecular mechanisms of modulation involved. We have characterized the innate immune responses, at the molecular level, in children according to their helminth infection status and their atopic reactivity to

Franca C. Hartgers; Benedicta B. Obeng; Yvonne C. M. Kruize; Marjolijn Duijvestein; Anna de Breij; Abena Amoah; Irene A. Larbi; Ronald van Ree; Michael D. Wilson; Laura C. Rodrigues; Daniel A. Boakye; Maria Yazdanbakhsh

2008-01-01

292

Ghana. Selective versus comprehensive primary health care.  

PubMed

The choice between selective vs. comprehensive primary health care (PHC) affects program planning, implementation, financing, and the achievement of health policy goals in Ghana. Comprehensive PHC unites health with the total development of the community. It promotes community participation, intersectoral collaboration, and use of appropriate technology. It stresses the development of horizontal institutional structures. This type of institutional development allows for management of emerging new health problems without establishing new and extra structures. Major problems with comprehensive PHC are that results are not readily detectable in the short term and costs are too high for developing countries, due to its extensive coverage and the number of trained personnel needed to sustain it. Selective PHC focuses on prevention or treatment of the few diseases that cause the most mortality and morbidity and for which there are effective interventions. Decision makers should consider prevalence, morbidity, mortality, and feasibility of control when selecting targeted diseases. The advantages of selective PHC include: a rational, cost-effective way to prioritize disease problems; narrow scope, making it affordable for developing countries; and readily detectable results in the short term. For Ghana, however, selective PHC poses major problems. Since it is disease oriented, it encourages the ingrained misconception that only the Ministry of Health is responsible for health. Reduction in the mortality of a few diseases does not necessarily mean reduction of overall mortality. Often unreliable and inconsistent mortality data do not form a basis for determining health priorities. Economic rationality is not always justifiable on ethical grounds. Ghana is working to dismantle the vertical system and towards integration and decentralization. This restructured system should accommodate both strategies. PMID:8009622

Amofah, G K

1994-04-01

293

The Role of a Global Protected Areas System in Conserving Biodiversity in the Face of Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impending global change requires levels of coordination, long-range planning and funding never before required of protected areas. To meet this need a truly global system of protected areas is required. This system will require major funding and must ensure the persistence of biodiversity over decades and centuries. It will need to include corridors of semi-natural areas, as well as core

Lee Hannah

294

Maritime Cultural Resource Investigation, Management, and Mitigation in Coastal Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four field seasons of maritime archaeological research in coastal Ghana offer insights into submerged cultural heritage, but also highlight serious concerns for its preservation and protection. A discussion of cultural heritage legislation and its ineffective implementation, as well as imminent and potential threats to submerged cultural heritage frames the argument for the mitigation and protection of submerged sites in coastal Ghana. Work on the Benya Lagoon vessel and the Elmina Wreck site is presented here as both documentation and mitigation in terms of the context of threats to submerged heritage in coastal Ghana, and preventative mitigation is proposed for its protection.

Horlings, Rachel L.

2012-10-01

295

Functional habitat area as a reliable proxy for population size: case study using two butterfly species of conservation concern  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate estimates of population size are essential for effective conservation and restoration management of threatened species.\\u000a Nevertheless, reliable methods to estimate population size, such as mark-release-recapture studies (MRR), are time and labour\\u000a consuming and may generate negative impact(s) on both the habitats and organisms studied. This may complicate their use if\\u000a several sites need to be studied concurrently. Consequently, there

Camille TurlureJulie; Julie Choutt; Hans Van Dyck; Michel Baguette; Nicolas Schtickzelle

2010-01-01

296

Treatment of Refractory Unstable angina in geographically isolated areas without Cardiac Surgery. Invasive versus conservative strategy (TRUCS Study)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims We compared invasive (on-site coronary angioplasty or emergency air-ambulance transfer for bypass grafting surgery) vs conservative (persistent medical treatment) strategies in the management of refractory unstable angina in geographically isolated hospitals without cardiac surgical facilities. Methods and Results One hundred and forty eight ran- domized patients with refractory unstable angina were compared on an intention-to-treat basis. Outcomes (invas- ive

L. K. Michalis; C. S. Stroumbis; K. Pappas; E. Sourla; D. Niokou; J. A. Goudevenos; C. Siogas; D. A. Sideris

2000-01-01

297

Beliefs on epilepsy in Northern Ghana.  

PubMed

Stigma associated with any chronic disease is one of the greatest challenges to the treatment of the disease. Stigma in health is a complex concept, and it causes people with a stigmatizing disease to conceal their disorder. Epilepsy is one such condition with numerous outdated, sometimes inhumane, and sometimes absurd perceptions that tend to fuel its stigma. Health-care workers who participated in an epilepsy training program as part of a World Health Organization/Ghana Health Service collaboration were asked to compile the perceptions associated with epilepsy in their communities. The comments they gathered are presented here. PMID:24025488

Adjei, Patrick; Akpalu, Albert; Laryea, Ruth; Nkromah, Kojo; Sottie, Cynthia; Ohene, Sammy; Osei, Akwasi

2013-09-08

298

Rainfall and Streamflow Variability in Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this research is to investigate the variability of rainfall and streamflow over Ghana. Analyses of rainfall shows larger daily variability and maxima amounts in the southern coastal belt than in either the middle or northern parts of the country. The high variability in rainfall at the coast is associated with sea surface temperatures (SSTs) changes over the Guinea coast. This is related to the evolution of the cold tongue over the Atlantic during the rainfall season. The results indicate that the extreme rainfall events occur as single events, but there are occasions when they occur sequentially, and some of these events could continue for more than 5 days. We note that the average SSTs over the equatorial Atlantic favor the occurrence of extreme rainfall over the coastal and middle belt, while relatively cold SSTs favor the occurrence of extreme rainfall events in the northern belt. This study also shows the presence of eastward moving convective signals which are associated with Kelvin waves that impact the rainfall in spring over Ghana. Kelvin waves account for ~70% of the extreme rainfall events during boreal spring compared to 25%-35% in summer. The reason for this is that the rainfall in southern Ghana peaks in spring when the frequency of propagation of these waves is the highest. Analysis of streamflow and rainfall suggested that both rainfall and streamflow exhibit a bimodal pattern. Although the peak in rainfall occurs during the major season, the peak in streamflow occurs during the minor season. Extreme rainfall events are more associated with flooding in the rivers than continuous non-extreme rainfall events. Additionally, we note a decreasing trend in rainfall and streamflow over the southern part of Ghana. But, the decrease in streamflow is larger than for the rainfall. It is to be noted, however, that the draw of water from the two rivers by the communities for domestic and irrigation use are very difficult to quantify and could be the cause of the disparity between the trends in rainfall and streamflow.

Tanu, Michael M.

299

Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on utility demand-side management and conservation and renewable energy programs  

SciTech Connect

The Western Area Power Administration (Western) requires all of its long-term firm power customers to implement programs that promote the conservation of electric energy or facilitate the use of renewable energy resources. Western has also proposed that all customers develop integrated resource plans that include cost-effective demand-side management programs. As part of the preparation of Western`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) developed estimates of the reductions in energy demand resulting from Western`s conservation and renewable energy activities in its Salt Lake City Area Office. ANL has also estimated the energy-demand reductions from cost-effective, demand-side management programs that could be included in the integrated resource plans of the customers served by Western`s Salt Lake City Area Office. The results of this study have been used to adjust the expected hourly demand for Western`s major systems in the Salt Lake City Area. The expected hourly demand served as the basis for capacity expansion plans develops with ANL`s Production and Capacity Expansion (PACE) model.

Cavallo, J.D.; Germer, M.F.; Tompkins, M.M.

1995-03-01

300

[Conservation Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Instructional units deal with each aspect of conservation: forests, wildlife, rangelands, water, minerals, and soil. The area of the secondary school curriculum with which each is correlated is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the topic, questions to…

Texas Education Agency, Austin.

301

[Conservation Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

Texas Education Agency, Austin.

302

Lighting Conservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the energy crisis has come an awareness of wasteful consumption practices. One area where research is being done is in lighting conservation. Information in this article is concerned with finding more effective and efficient lighting designs which include daylight utilization, task-oriented lighting, and lighting controls. (MA)

Arnold, Frank D.

1975-01-01

303

Ecological solidarity as a conceptual tool for rethinking ecological and social interdependence in conservation policy for protected areas and their surrounding landscape.  

PubMed

Policy for biodiversity conservation must evolve to cope with the increasing human footprint on natural systems. A major issue here is the need for policy for protected areas, which integrates their surrounding landscape and local human populations in the construction of socially grounded measures. To illustrate current conceptual thinking in this direction we present and provide a conceptual basis for a recent initiative in national park policy in France that is based on "ecological solidarity". In the light of other policy ideas and tools that have recently emerged for the co-construction of conservation policy, we argue that this concept provides an imaginative step towards consolidating ecological and social interdependence in biodiversity policy that goes beyond statutory park boundaries. PMID:21640950

Thompson, John D; Mathevet, Raphaël; Delanoë, Olivia; Gil-Fourrier, Chantal; Bonnin, Marie; Cheylan, Marc

2011-04-30

304

Anthropogenic sources and environmentally relevant concentrations of heavy metals in surface water of a mining district in Ghana: a multivariate statistical approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of heavy metals in surface water and their potential origin (natural and anthropogenic) were respectively determined and analysed for the Obuasi mining area in Ghana. Using Hawth's tool an extension in ArcGIS 9.2 software, a total of 48 water sample points in Obuasi and its environs were randomly selected for study. The magnitude of As, Cu, Mn, Fe,

Frederick A. Armah; Samuel Obiri; David O. Yawson; Edward E. Onumah; Genesis T. Yengoh; Ernest K. A. Afrifa; Justice O. Odoi

2010-01-01

305

Resistance to antimicrobial drugs in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Antimicrobial drug resistance is a global issue that affects health, economic, and social development. The problem has been attributed to misuse of antimicrobial agents. Purpose To identify the agents of bacterial infection in Ghana, determine their antibiogram, and the possibility of setting up a surveillance program. Patients and methods A prospective quantitative study set in various hospitals including two teaching hospitals, seven regional hospitals, and two district hospitals in Ghana. A total of 5099 bacterial isolates from various clinical specimens were collected over a period of 1 year, including data related to the patients. Susceptibility of the isolates was determined by the Kirby–Bauer method. In addition, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of multidrug-resistant isolates of epidemiological significance was also determined using the E-test. Results A wide range of bacterial isolates were identified in both teaching and regional hospitals. High percentage of resistance was observed for tetracycline (82%), cotrimoxazole (73%), ampicillin (76%), and chloramphenicol (75%). Multidrug resistance was observed to a combination of ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and cotrimoxazole. On the other hand, a lower percentage of resistance was observed for ceftriaxone (6.3%), ciprofloxacin (11%), and amikacin (9.9%). Conclusion Generally, the prevalence of multidrug resistance was widespread among the various isolates. Some multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, and non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) had high MIC to cefuroxime (>256), gentamicin (>256), and ciprofloxacin (>32).

Newman, Mercy J; Frimpong, Enoch; Donkor, Eric S; Opintan, Japheth A; Asamoah-Adu, Alex

2011-01-01

306

Water, Koko, and Appetite. Complementary Feeding Practices in Kumasi, Ghana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is one of two studies of complementary feeding practices conducted in West Africa in Ghana and Mali. Both studies examined the process of complementary feeding of infants in a context of high childhood malnutrition. Both studies compared the interact...

2003-01-01

307

Lay reporting of elephantiasis of the leg in northern Ghana.  

PubMed

Within a large scale community trial in northern Ghana lay interviewers were trained to inquire about and identify elephantiasis of the leg by the use of local terms and simple examination of respondents. This was repeated a year later after moving the interviewers to different geographical areas. The proportions of extended family compounds reported to have at least one member with elephantiasis of the leg were 12.2% and 12.1 % respectively in the first and second surveys (kappa = 0.60). 'Blind' re-examination of a sub-sample by a physician showed a high level of agreement with the lay interviewer's findings in the first and second surveys (kappa = 0.67 and 0.82 respectively). This study has shown that lay people, even with minimal training, can obtain repeatable and valid estimates of the prevalence of elephantiasis of the leg, at least within an area where local terms for the condition are available. This method could potentially be used for other diseases with visible manifestations. PMID:8594671

Gyapong, J O; Dollimore, N; Binka, F N; Ross, D A

308

CSR in Ghana? Diversity should not mean dumping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore corporate social responsibility in context of the dumping of electronic waste (e-waste), inferior products and second-hand goods, and related activities of multinational corporations' (MNCs') subsidiaries in Ghana. It aims to suggest examples and recommendations to help curb the negative effects of dumping in Ghana. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Research into specific e-waste

Emmanuel Ndzibah

2009-01-01

309

Small scale mining in Ghana - Techniques and environmental considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1989 when small scale mining in Ghana was legalised, a lot of interest has been generated in the sector because of it's socio-economic benefits However, owing to lack of the necessary training and inadequate financial base on the part of small scale operators, most operations are poorly managed environmentally. The paper describes the state-of-the-art in Ghana, makes a critical

Newton A. Amegbey; J. B. K. Dankwa; S. Al-Hassan

1997-01-01

310

Development of Visitor Identity through Study Abroad in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the summers of 2006–2009, groups of U.S. college students completed a cross-disciplinary study abroad experience in Ghana, West Africa, entitled ‘Landscapes in Ecotourism.’ Beyond topical issues of community landscape design and sustainable tourism development, broad themes were explored including (a) cultural awareness of Ghana and Africa, (b) the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade (TAST), and (c) the concept of African Diaspora.

Kofi Boone; Carol Kline; Laura Johnson; Lee-Anne Milburn; Kathleen Rieder

2012-01-01

311

Agricultural land use efficiency and food crop production in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the low productivity of the extensive agriculture system, Ghana recorded the largest reduction of undernourishment\\u000a in the past two decades. We used biophysical analysis to determine the efficiency and potentials of the extensive system and\\u000a its future sustainability. The results indicate that food production in Ghana has increased steadily over the past two decades\\u000a and correlated highly with cropped

Amos K. Quaye; Charles A. S. Hall; Valerie A. Luzadis

2010-01-01

312

Serodiagnosis of tuberculosis with A60 antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay: failure in HIV-infected individuals in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess the diagnostic usefulness of the A60 (ANDA Biologicals, Strassbourg, France) sero-diagnostic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit for tuberculosis in Africa, sera of 53 pulmonary smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) patients, 30 apparently healthy control subjects and 6 AIDS suspects were sampled in Agogo Hospital in the forest area of Ghana. These sera were analyzed for antibodies to HIV-1

T. S. van der Werf; P. K. Das; D. Soolingen; S. Yong; T. W. Mark; R. Akker

1992-01-01

313

Features of River Flow in Inland Valleys in Semi-Deciduous Forest Zone in Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are about 2.8 million ha of inland valleys in Ghana and 20 million ha of inland valley in West Africa. Although inland valleys are suitable for lowland rice due to the abundance of water resources and higher soil fertility compared with the upland, they have not been well utilized as agricultural land in West Africa. Further utilization of inland valley for lowland rice will improve the productivity of rice in West Africa. In this study water resources of small rivers in inland valleys in West Africa are evaluated. Two study watersheds with 1,400-1,500mm of annual rainfall in Semi-Deciduous Forest Zone in Ghana were selected and analyzed on slope distribution in the study watershed to grasp suitable area for lowland rice and on hydrological characteristics such as specific discharge and runoff ratio. The following findings are obtained from the study. 1) Most of the rivers in the study watershed are seasonal rivers. Non-flow period of some rivers were shown for around five months from middle of December to early May. However the term of non-flow period varies much depending on characteristics of sub-watersheds. 2) Runoff ratio for 5 years from 2000 to 2004 in Offinso watershed which is a typical watershed in semi deciduous forest zone in Ghana was indicated only 12%. It ranges from 0.08 to 0.16 depending on the year. The monthly runoff ratio indicated little value in March, April and May which is beginning of rainy season and high value in November and December which is beginning of dry season. 3) The gentle slope area with less than 2%, which seems suitable area for lowland rice, occupies 22 % of inland valley.

Fujii, Hideto; Dawuni, Busia; Kulawardhana, Wasantha; Thenkabail, Prasad; Namara, Regassa

314

Toward A More Holistic Approach to The Conservation Management Of Southern Ontario’s Small Protected Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within Southern Ontario’s highly fragmented greater natural ecosystem, there remain numerous relatively small scattered areas which bear at least some resemblance to their former pre-European\\/Canadian settlement natural ecosystem. In their present state they serve as reservoirs of their particular ecoregion’s indigenous plant and animal species. In proportion to their limited spatial areas, degree of isolation, existing ecological integrity, and long-term

Wilfred Gregory Tschirhart

2009-01-01

315

Research, part of a Special Feature on Do we need new management paradigms to achieve sustainability in tropical forests? Integrating Ecosystem Management, Protected Areas, and Mammal Conservation in the Brazilian Amazon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Amazon forest has been converted to a matrix of pristine and modified habitats. Landscape-scale biodiversity conservation requires an understanding of species' distributions over this matrix to guarantee both effective protection and use for present and future generations. In this study, we evaluated how much of the existing and future planned protected areas (PAs) would be contributing to the conservation

Claudia Azevedo-Ramos; Benedito Domingues; Daniel C. Nepstad; Britaldo Soares Filho; Robert Nasi

316

A comparative study of ethnic residential segregation in Ghana’s two largest cities, Accra and Kumasi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate of urbanization is far more rapid in sub-Saharan Africa than in any other major region of the world. However, little\\u000a is known about patterns of ethnic residential segregation in rapidly urbanizing African cities. This paper is crafted to make\\u000a an important contribution through its focus on Ghana’s two largest cities: Accra and Kumasi. Making use of the most

George Owusu; Samuel Agyei-Mensah

2011-01-01

317

Mass media effects on AIDS knowledge and sexual behavior in Africa with special reference to Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shows, in detail, how many African countries have concentrated on prevention of HIV through changing their citizens sexual behaviours with Ghana being spotlighted. Posits that Ghana is at the mid-stage of the epidemic and uses data to explain this. Uses tables to show the lack of knowledge, by the citizens of Ghana, to AIDS prevention. Concludes that this study has

Kofi D. Benefo; Baffuor K. Takyi

2002-01-01

318

The Political Economy of Dependence and Underdevelopment in Ghana (1844-1966)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study concerns the problems of development and underdevelopment in the Third World. It specifically examines the causes and consequences of dependence and underdevelopment. Historical data on the political economy of Ghana between 1844 to 1966 is used in testing the hypothesis that 1. the initial underdevelopment of Ghana was caused mainly by the historical expansion of capitalism into Ghana,

David Nathaniel Brown

1981-01-01

319

Bat assemblages in conservation areas of a metropolitan region in Southeastern Brazil, including an important karst habitat.  

PubMed

Species richness and abundance of bats were studied in four nature reserves, including a karst area which has many potential rocky shelters for bats, such as caves and rock crevices. The reserves were located in the greater Belo Horizonte metropolitan area, one of the most populated regions of Brazil, within the Atlantic Forest, and Cerrado (Brazilian savanna) ecological domains. Bats were sampled using mist-nets and, in the karst area, also by active searches in shelters. A total of 1,599 bats were captured representing 30 species belonging to four families. There was little similarity among the four chiropteran faunas. The greatest species richness was found in the karst area with 22 species recorded whereas richness estimates in the other areas indicated the need for further studies. Two hundred and sixty-five individuals of 14 species were captured from 56 shelters. Most of the shelters were frequently used for diurnal roosts, and all the bats found belonged to the Phyllostomidae, with the exception of Myotis nigricans (Vespertilionidae), Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Molossidae) and Peropteryx macrotis (Emballonuridae). The sanguinivorous Desmodus rotundus was the most common species in the shelters. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of maintaining multiple protected areas to ensure a representative fauna of bats in a region characterized by a vegetation transition zone and with intense economic activity and high environmental impact. This study also demonstrates the importance of rock shelters for maintaining local bat richness and the importance of active searches for bats in their diurnal roosts for a more thorough sampling of the bat fauna at a given locality. PMID:23917558

Talamoni, S A; Coelho, D A; Dias-Silva, L H; Amaral, A S

2013-05-01

320

Identities and Archaeological Heritage Preservation at the Crossroads: Understanding the Challenges of Economic Development at Tengzug, Upper East Region, Ghana  

PubMed Central

It is evident that both tangible and intangible elements constitute heritage and this needs to be recognized by researchers, heritage professionals and government bodies charged with implementing development policies. However, the relationship between traditional beliefs, worldview, heritage conservation, and archaeological investigation is a complex one. This is considered with reference to the conflict that can occur between government policy and indigenous beliefs in relation to architecture, and with reference to perceptions of landscape amongst the Talensi communities of Tengzug in Upper East Region, Ghana.

Kankpeyeng, Benjamin W.; Insoll, Timothy; MacLean, Rachel

2011-01-01

321

Freshwater protected areas: an effective measure to reconcile conservation and exploitation of the threatened European eels (Anguilla anguilla)?  

Microsoft Academic Search

For decades, the European eel Anguilla anguilla (L.) population has been declining strongly despite several management attempts, so additional experiments need to be conducted on management measures. The use of freshwater protected areas has been advocated but their efficiency has never been assessed. In this study, we investigated whether the population structure and the silver eel (mature migrating stage) production

Julien Cucherousset; Jean-Marc Paillisson; Alexandre Carpentier; V. Thoby; J.-P. Damien; M.-C. Eybert; E. Feunteun; T. Robinet

2007-01-01

322

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY BY PROTECTING NATURAL RESOURCES IN CONSERVATION AREA TO PROMOTE THE ECONOMIC GROWTH OF WEST JAVA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural resources degradation in Indonesia, including West Java, dramatically rose during the decade of 90's. The decline of several crucial ecological functions of the West Java's ecosystem especially natural forest within the protected areas may have serious consequences for numerous economic activities of the local communities as well as local industries. The Gross National Product of Indonesia that grows 7.1%

Rika WINURDIASTRI; West Java

323

Trade-off between collector area, storage volume, and building conservation in annual-storage solar-heating systems  

SciTech Connect

Annual storage is used with active solar heating systems to permit storage of summertime solar heat for winter use. The results of a comprehensive computer simulation study of the performance of active solar heating systems with long-term hot water storage are presented. A unique feature of this study is the investigation of systems used to supply backup heat to passive solar and energy-conserving buildings, as well as to meet standard heating and hot water loads. Findings show that system output increases linearly as storage volume increases, up to the point where the storage tank is large enough to store all heat collected in summer. This point, the point of unconstrained operation, is the likely economic optimum. Unlike diurnal storage systems, annual storage systems show only slightly diminished efficiency as system size increases. Annual storage systems providing nearly 100% solar space heat may cost the same or less per unit heat delivered as a 50% diurnal solar system. Also in contrast to diurnal systems, annual storage systems perform efficiently in meeting the load of a passive or energy-efficient building.

Sillman, S.

1981-04-01

324

Community and household determinants of water quality in coastal Ghana.  

PubMed

Associations between water sources, socio-demographic characteristics and household drinking water quality are described in a representative sample of six coastal districts of Ghana's Central Region. Thirty-six enumeration areas (EAs) were randomly chosen from a representative survey of 90 EAs in rural, semi-urban and urban residence strata. In each EA, 24 households were randomly chosen for water quality sampling and socio-demographic interview. Escherichia coli per 100 ml H2O was quantified using the IDEXX Colilert system and multi-stage regression models estimated cross-sectional associations between water sources, sanitation and socio-demographic factors. Almost three quarters, 74%, of the households have > 2 E. coli /100 ml H2O. Tap water has significantly lower E. coli levels compared with surface or rainwater and well water had the highest levels. Households with a water closet toilet have significantly lower E. coli compared with those using pit latrines or no toilets. Household size is positively associated, and a possessions index is negatively associated, with E. coli. Variations in community and household socio-demographic and behavioural factors are key determinants of drinking water quality. These factors should be included in planning health education associated with investments in water systems. PMID:19108554

McGarvey, Stephen T; Buszin, Justin; Reed, Holly; Smith, David C; Rahman, Zarah; Andrzejewski, Catherine; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; White, Michael J

2008-09-01

325

Habitat preference modelling as a conservation tool: proposals for marine protected areas for cetaceans in southern Spanish waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT 1. As part of a project to identify marine,protected,areas (MPAs) in Spanish Mediterranean waters, habitat preference models were developed using 11 years of survey data to provide predictions of relative density for cetacean species occurring,off southern,Spain. 2. Models for bottlenose, striped and common dolphin described, firstly, probability of occurrence (using GLMs) and, secondly, group size (using linear models) as

A. Cañadas; R. Sagarminaga; R. De Stephanis; E. Urquiola; P. S. Hammond

2005-01-01

326

Importance of Protected Areas for Biodiversity Conservation in Central C?te D'ivoire: Comparison of Termite Assemblages between Two Neighboring Areas Under Differing Levels of Disturbance  

PubMed Central

To highlight human impact on biodiversity in the Lamto region, termites were studied with regard to their use as bio-indicators of habitat change in the tropics. Using a standardized method, termites were sampled in the three most common habitat types, i.e., in semi-deciduous forest, savanna woodland, and annually burned savanna, all inside Lamto Reserve and its surrounding rural domain. Termite species richness fell from 25 species in the Lamto forest to 13 species in the rural area, involving strong modification in the species composition (species turnover = 59 %). In contrast, no significant change in diversity was found between the Lamto savannas and the rural ones. In addition, the relative abundance of termites showed a significantly greater decline in the rural domain, even in the species Ancistrotermes cavithorax (Sjöstedt) (Isoptera: Termitidae), which is known to be ecologically especially versatile. Overall, the findings of this study suggest further investigation around Lamto Reserve on the impact of human activities on biodiversity, focusing on forest conversion to land uses (e.g. agricultural and silvicultural systems).

Dosso, Kanvaly; Yeo, Kolo; Konate, Souleymane; Linsenmair, Karl Eduard

2012-01-01

327

Ghana's experience in the establishment of a national data center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The government of Ghana in a bilateral agreement with the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) has established a National Data Center in Ghana with the aim of monitoring the testing of nuclear explosions. Seismic, hydroacoustic, radionuclide and infrasound methods are used for the monitoring. The data center was commissioned on 3 February, 2010 at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. At present Ghana does not have any operational, centralised data (seismic, hydroacoustic, radionuclide and infrasound) acquisition system with the capability of accessing data from other international stations. Hence, the need of setting up the National Data Center which would enable us constantly monitor, manage and coordinate both natural and man-made seismic activities in the country and around the globe, upload data to the International Data Center (IDC) as well as receive and use International Monitoring System (IMS) data and IDC products for treaty verification and compliance. Apart from these, the center also accesses and analyzes seismic waveforms relevant to its needs from the International Data Center; makes data available to its stakeholder institutions for earthquake disaster mitigation; reports on all aspects of disasters related to earthquake to the relevant government agencies that deal with disasters; makes recommendations to the government of Ghana on earthquake safety measures; provides information to assist government institutions to develop appropriate land and building policies. The center in collaboration with stakeholder agencies periodically organises public lectures on earthquake disaster risk mitigation.

Ekua, Amponsah Paulina; Yaw, Serfor-Armah

2012-08-01

328

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act industrial site environmental restoration site characterization plan. Area 6 Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds  

SciTech Connect

This plan presents the strategy for the characterization of the Area 6 South and North Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEPs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to be conducted for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Environmental Restoration Division (ERD). The purposes of the planned activities are to: obtain sufficient, sample analytical data from which further assessment, remediation, and/or closure strategies may be developed for the site; obtain sufficient, sample analytical data for management of investigation-derived waste (IDW). The scope of the characterization may include excavation, drilling, and sampling of soil in and around both ponds; sampling of the excavated material; in situ sampling of the soil at the bottom and on the sides of the excavations as well as within subsurface borings; and conducting sample analysis for both characterization and waste management purposes. Contaminants of concern include RCRA-regulated VOCs and metals.

NONE

1996-02-01

329

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act industrial site environmental restoration, site characterization plan: Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This plan presents the strategy for the characterization of the Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility at the Nevada Test Site which will be conducted for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, Environmental Restoration Division. The objectives of the planned activities are to: obtain sufficient, sample analytical data from which further assessment, remediation, and/or closure strategies may be developed for the site; obtain sufficient, sample analytical data for management of investigation-derived waste. The scope of the characterization may include surface radiation survey(s), surface soil sampling, subsurface soil boring (i.e., drilling), and sampling of soil in and around the pond; in situ sampling of the soil within subsurface soil borings; and sample analysis for both site characterization and waste management purposes.

NONE

1996-08-01

330

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Industrial Site Environmental Restoration Site Characterization Plan, Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility, Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This plan presents the strategy for the characterization of the Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility (DPF) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) which will be conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations OffIce (DOE/NV), Environmental Restoration Division (ERD). The objectives of the planned activities are to: o Obtain sufficient, ample analytical data from which further assessment, remediation, and/or closure strategies maybe developed for the site. o Obtain sufficient, sample analytical data for management of investigation-derived waste. All references to regulations contained in this plan are to the versions of the regulations that are current at the time of publication of this plan. The scope of the characterization may include surface radiation survey(s), surface soil sampling, subsurface soil boring (i.e., drilling), and sampling of soil in and Mound the pond; in situ sampling of the soil within subsurface soil borings; and sample analysis for both site . . characterization and waste management purposes.

NONE

1996-08-12

331

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act industrial site environmental restoration site characterization plan: Area 23, Building 650 Leachfield  

SciTech Connect

This plan presents the strategy for the characterization of Corrective Action Unit 94, Area 23, Building 650 Leachfield. It is a land disposal unit, located southeast of Building 650, that was in operation from 1965 to October 1992, with an estimated annual discharge rate of less than 984 liters from designated sinks, floor drains, and emergency decontamination showers in Building 650. The objectives of the planned activities are to: obtain sufficient sample analytical data from which further assessment, remediation, and/or closure strategies may be developed for the site: and obtain sufficient sample analytical data for management of investigation-derived waste (IDW). All references to regulations in this plan are to the versions of the regulations that are current at the time of publication of this plan. The scope of the characterization will include subsurface soil boring (i.e., drilling), in situ sampling of the soil within subsurface soil borings, and sample analysis for both site characterization and waste management purposes.

NONE

1997-03-01

332

Wealth and antenatal care use: implications for maternal health care utilisation in Ghana  

PubMed Central

The study investigates the effect of wealth on maternal health care utilization in Ghana via its effect on Antenatal care use. Antenatal care serves as the initial point of contact of expectant mothers to maternal health care providers before delivery. The study is pivoted on the introduction of the free maternal health care policy in April 2005 in Ghana with the aim of reducing the financial barrier to the use of maternal health care services, to help reduce the high rate of maternal deaths. Prior to the introduction of the policy, studies found wealth to have a positive and significant influence on the use of Antenatal care. It is thus expected that with the policy, wealth should not influence the use of maternal health care significantly. Using secondary data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health survey, the results have revealed that wealth still has a significant influence on adequate use of Antenatal care. Education, age, number of living children, transportation and health insurance are other factors that were found to influence the use of Antenatal care in Ghana. There also exist considerable variations in the use of Antenatal care in the geographical regions and between the rural and urban dwellers. It is recommended that to improve the use of Antenatal care and hence maternal health care utilization, some means of support is provided especially to women within the lowest wealth quintiles, like the provision and availability of recommended medication at the health center; secondly, women should be encouraged to pursue education to at least the secondary level since this improves their use of maternal health services. Policy should also target mothers who have had the experience of child birth on the need to use adequate Antenatal care for each pregnancy, since these mothers tend to use less antenatal care for subsequent pregnancies. The regional disparities found may be due to inaccessibility and unavailability of health facilities and services in the rural areas and in some of the regions. The government and other service providers (NGOs, religious institutions and private providers) may endeavor to improve on the distribution of health facilities, human resources, good roads and necessary infrastructure among other things in order to facilitate easy access to health care providers especially for the rural dwellers.

2012-01-01

333

Assessment of vehicle speeds on different categories of roadways in Ghana.  

PubMed

Empirical evidence from road safety literature suggests that vehicular speed is an important risk factor in the incidence and severity of road traffic crashes globally. Speed studies are at rudimentary stages in developing countries, thus making vehicular speed research imperative. The main aim of the study was to establish two major speed parameters, namely, the mean and dispersion, and their implications for more extensive and long-term speed monitoring in Ghana. Research workers stationed themselves in a parked car and used a radar gun to unobtrusively measure the travelling speeds of 28,489 vehicles at 15 different inter-urban locations on three highway categories. Excessive speeding is very pervasive on all highway categories in Ghana. Travelling speeds through settlements where a speed limit of 50 km/hour is mandatory were particularly excessive. Generally, 98%, 90% and 97% of vehicles exceeded the posted speed limit of 50 km/hour on national, inter-regional and regional roads respectively. Mean speeds and speed dispersions (as assessed by the standard deviations) through built-up areas were 81.3 +/- 17.3 km/hour on national roads, 64.7 +/- 12.3 km/hour on inter-regional roads and 72.6 +/- 13.4, km/hour on regional roads. On rural undivided highways with an 80 km/hour speed limit, mean and speed dispersions were 90 +/- 18.9 km/hour on national roads, 80.1 +/- 16 km/hour on inter-regional roads and 84.4 +/- 15.6 on regional roads; also translating into 66%, 47% and 60% of vehicles exceeding recommended speeds. In all cases, speed dispersions were notably higher than the value of 10 km/hour generally found in developed countries. Excessive speeding and wide speed dispersions are highly prevalent on Ghana's highways. These factors likely account for the high incidence of traffic crashes and fatalities in Ghana. An integrated speed monitoring and control programme and by-passing small and medium settlements would be required for the reduction of speed-related crashes, fatalities and injuries. PMID:18642165

Damsere-Derry, James; Afukaar, Francis K; Donkor, Peter; Mock, Charles

2008-06-01

334

A Silent Enzootic of an Orthopoxvirus in Ghana, West Africa: Evidence for Multi-Species Involvement in the Absence of Widespread Human Disease  

PubMed Central

Human monkeypox has never been reported in Ghana, but rodents captured in forested areas of southern Ghana were the source of the monkeypox virus introduced into the United States in 2003. Subsequent to the outbreak in the United States, 204 animals were collected from two commercial trapping sites in Ghana. Animal tissues were examined for the presence of orthopoxvirus (OPXV) DNA using a real-time polymerase chain reaction, and sera were assayed for antibodies against OPXV. Animals from five genera (Cricetomys, Graphiurus, Funiscirus, and Heliosciurus) had antibodies against OPXV, and three genera (Cricetomys, Graphiurus, and Xerus) had evidence of OPXV DNA in tissues. Additionally, 172 persons living near the trapping sites were interviewed regarding risk factors for OPXV exposure, and their sera were analyzed. Fifty-three percent had IgG against OPXV; none had IgM. Our findings suggest that several species of forest-dwelling rodents from Ghana are susceptible to naturally occurring OPXV infection, and that persons living near forests may have low-level or indirect exposure to OPXV-infected animals, possibly resulting in sub-clinical infections.

Reynolds, Mary G.; Carroll, Darin S.; Olson, Victoria A.; Hughes, Christine; Galley, Jack; Likos, Anna; Montgomery, Joel M.; Suu-Ire, Richard; Kwasi, Mubarak O.; Jeffrey Root, J.; Braden, Zach; Abel, Jason; Clemmons, Cody; Regnery, Russell; Karem, Kevin; Damon, Inger K.

2010-01-01

335

Distribution of two species of sea snakes, Aipysurus laevis and Emydocephalus annulatus, in the southern Great Barrier Reef: metapopulation dynamics, marine protected areas and conservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aipysurus laevis and Emydocephalus annulatus typically occur in spatially discrete populations, characteristic of metapopulations; however, little is known about the factors influencing the spatial and temporal stability of populations or whether specific conservation strategies, such as networks of marine protected areas, will ensure the persistence of species. Classification tree analyses of 35 years of distribution data (90 reefs, surveyed 1-11 times) in the southern Great Barrier Reef (GBR) revealed that longitude was a major factor determining the status of A. laevis on reefs (present = 38, absent = 38 and changed = 14). Reef exposure and reef area were also important; however, these factors did not specifically account for the population fluctuations and the recent local extinctions of A. laevis in this region. There were no relationships between the status of E. annulatus (present = 16, absent = 68 and changed = 6) and spatial or physical variables. Moreover, prior protection status of reefs did not account for the distribution of either species. Biotic factors, such as habitat and prey availability and the distribution of predators, which may account for the observed patterns of distribution, are discussed. The potential for inter-population exchange among sea snake populations is poorly understood, as is the degree of protection that will be afforded to sea snakes by the recently implemented network of No-take areas in the GBR. Data from this study provide a baseline for evaluating the responses of A. laevis and E. annulatus populations to changes in biotic factors and the degree of protection afforded on reefs within an ecosystem network of No-take marine protected areas in the southern GBR.

Lukoschek, V.; Heatwole, H.; Grech, A.; Burns, G.; Marsh, H.

2007-06-01

336

How landscape scale changes affect ecological processes in conservation areas: external factors influence land use by zebra (Equus burchelli) in the Okavango Delta  

PubMed Central

Most large-bodied wildlife populations in sub-Saharan Africa only survive in conservation areas, but are continuing to decline because external changes influence ecological processes within reserves, leading to a lack of functionality. However, failure to understand how landscape scale changes influence ecological processes limits our ability to manage protected areas. We used GPS movement data to calculate dry season home ranges for 14 zebra mares in the Okavango Delta and investigated the effects of a range of landscape characteristics (number of habitat patches, mean patch shape, mean index of juxtaposition, and interspersion) on home range size. Resource utilization functions (RUF) were calculated to investigate how specific landscape characteristics affected space use. Space use by all zebra was clustered. In the wetter (Central) parts of the Delta home range size was negatively correlated with the density of habitat patches, more complex patch shapes, low juxtaposition of habitats and an increased availability of floodplain and grassland habitats. In the drier (Peripheral) parts of the Delta, higher use by zebra was also associated with a greater availability of floodplain and grassland habitats, but a lower density of patches and simpler patch shapes. The most important landscape characteristic was not consistent between zebra within the same area of the Delta, suggesting that no single foraging strategy is substantially superior to others, and so animals using different foraging strategies may all thrive. The distribution and complexity of habitat patches are crucial in determining space use by zebra. The extent and duration of seasonal flooding is the principal process affecting habitat patch characteristics in the Okavango Delta, particularly the availability of floodplains, which are the habitat at greatest risk from climate change and anthropogenic disturbance to the Okavango's catchment basin. Understanding how the factors that determine habitat complexity may change in the future is critical to the conservation of large mammal populations. Our study shows the importance of maintaining flood levels in the Okavango Delta and how the loss of seasonal floodplains will be compounded by changes in habitat configuration, forcing zebra to change their relative space use and enlarge home ranges, leading to increased competition for key resources and population declines.

Bartlam-Brooks, Hattie L A; Bonyongo, Mpaphi C; Harris, Stephen

2013-01-01

337

How landscape scale changes affect ecological processes in conservation areas: external factors influence land use by zebra (Equus burchelli) in the Okavango Delta.  

PubMed

Most large-bodied wildlife populations in sub-Saharan Africa only survive in conservation areas, but are continuing to decline because external changes influence ecological processes within reserves, leading to a lack of functionality. However, failure to understand how landscape scale changes influence ecological processes limits our ability to manage protected areas. We used GPS movement data to calculate dry season home ranges for 14 zebra mares in the Okavango Delta and investigated the effects of a range of landscape characteristics (number of habitat patches, mean patch shape, mean index of juxtaposition, and interspersion) on home range size. Resource utilization functions (RUF) were calculated to investigate how specific landscape characteristics affected space use. Space use by all zebra was clustered. In the wetter (Central) parts of the Delta home range size was negatively correlated with the density of habitat patches, more complex patch shapes, low juxtaposition of habitats and an increased availability of floodplain and grassland habitats. In the drier (Peripheral) parts of the Delta, higher use by zebra was also associated with a greater availability of floodplain and grassland habitats, but a lower density of patches and simpler patch shapes. The most important landscape characteristic was not consistent between zebra within the same area of the Delta, suggesting that no single foraging strategy is substantially superior to others, and so animals using different foraging strategies may all thrive. The distribution and complexity of habitat patches are crucial in determining space use by zebra. The extent and duration of seasonal flooding is the principal process affecting habitat patch characteristics in the Okavango Delta, particularly the availability of floodplains, which are the habitat at greatest risk from climate change and anthropogenic disturbance to the Okavango's catchment basin. Understanding how the factors that determine habitat complexity may change in the future is critical to the conservation of large mammal populations. Our study shows the importance of maintaining flood levels in the Okavango Delta and how the loss of seasonal floodplains will be compounded by changes in habitat configuration, forcing zebra to change their relative space use and enlarge home ranges, leading to increased competition for key resources and population declines. PMID:24101973

Bartlam-Brooks, Hattie L A; Bonyongo, Mpaphi C; Harris, Stephen

2013-07-22

338

Reaching out to new clients in Ghana.  

PubMed

AVSC supports vasectomy services in Ghana. The author tells the story of a 57-year-old man who underwent vasectomy 4 years ago, and now travels around his region to speak publicly about the matter. He believes that more people should be informed about vasectomy, a family planning option which is largely unknown in his community. In his community, women are typically responsible for dealing with family planning. This man was one of the first men to undergo vasectomy at the local hospital in Kumasi, to which he has since referred 5 men. Many people in his village believe that vasectomy and castration are the same thing. AVSC trains both male and female clients to become experts in public speaking, basic contraceptive technology, and teamwork. Once trained, they talk to people both informally and during outreach visits with local doctors and nurses. They also sometimes escort friends or family members to hospitals and clinics to get more information about family planning, and also tell their stories on the radio. It is important that such family planning experiences be shared with satisfied clients' peers, for trust is important in decision making on reproductive health. PMID:12321871

Mahony, E; Kanlisi, N

1998-01-01

339

Public exposure to hazards associated with natural radioactivity in open-pit mining in Ghana.  

PubMed

The results of studies carried out on public exposure contribution from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMS) in two open-pit mines in the Western and Ashanti regions of Ghana are reported. The studies were carried out under International Atomic Energy Agency-supported Technical Co-operation Project GHA/9/005. Measurements were made on samples of water, soil, ore, mine tailings and air using gamma spectrometry. Solid-state nuclear track detectors were used for radon concentration measurements. Survey was also carried out to determine the ambient gamma dose rate in the vicinity of the mines and surrounding areas. The effective doses due to external gamma irradiation, ingestion of water and inhalation of radon and ore dusts were calculated for the two mines. The average annual effective dose was found to be 0.30 +/- 0.06 mSv. The result was found to be within the levels published by other countries. The study provides a useful information and data for establishing a comprehensive framework to investigate other mines and develop guidelines for monitoring and control of NORMS in the mining industry and the environment as a whole in Ghana. PMID:19767601

Darko, E O; Faanu, A; Awudu, A R; Emi-Reynolds, G; Yeboah, J; Oppon, O C; Akaho, E H K

2009-09-18

340

Priority areas for anuran conservation using biogeographical data: a comparison of greedy, rarity, and simulated annealing algorithms to define reserve networks in cerrado.  

PubMed

Spatial patterns in biodiversity variation at a regional scale are rarely taken into account when a natural reserve is to be established, despite many available methods for determining them. In this paper, we used dimensions of occurrence of 105 species of Anura (Amphibia) in the cerrado region of central Brazil to create a regional system of potential areas that preserves all regional diversity, using three different algorithms to establish reserve networks: "greedy", rarity, and simulated annealing algorithms. These generated networks based on complementarity with 10, 12, and 8 regions, respectively, widely distributed in the biome, and encompassing various Brazilian states. Although the purpose of these algorithms is to find a small number of regions for which all species are represented at least once, the results showed that 67.6%, 76.2%, and 69.5% of the species were represented in two or more regions in the three networks. Simulated annealing produced the smallest network, but it left out three species (one endemic). On the other hand, while the greedy algorithm produce a smaller solution, the rarity-based algorithm ensured that more species were represented more than once, which can be advantageous because it takes into consideration the high levels of habitat loss in the cerrado. Although usually coarse, these macro-scale approaches can provide overall guidelines for conservation and are useful in determining the focus for more local and effective conservation efforts, which is especially important when dealing with a taxonomic group such as anurans, for which quick and drastic population declines have been reported throughout the world. PMID:16097727

Diniz-Filho, J A F; Bini, L M; Bastos, R P; Vieira, C M; Vieira, L C G

2005-05-01

341

Corporate social responsibility activity reportage on bank websites in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has witnessed a resurgence in the management literature in recent years. This might be due to a renewed focus on corporate governance and ethical practices of companies the world over. This current study seeks to focus on how banks operating in Ghana communicate their CSR programmes and intentions via their corporate

Robert Hinson; Richard Boateng; Nnamdi Madichie

2010-01-01

342

Religion and Subjective Well-Being in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using 2008 Afrobarometer survey data, we examine the relationship between religion and subjective well-being (SWB) in Ghana, as well as religious group differences in their experiences of SWB. Two measures of religion--religious affiliation and religious importance, and two measures of SWB--absolute SWB (own perceived living conditions) and…

Pokimica, Jelena; Addai, Isaac; Takyi, Baffour K.

2012-01-01

343

Biopesticides in Ghana: Vegetable Farmers’ Perception and Willingness to Pay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigates farmers’ perceptions of pests, pest control practices and their Willingness to Pay (WTP) for a new biopesticide in Ghana. The survey results suggest a rising trend in vegetable pest intensity with significant variation in farmers’ pest control practices, especially their choice of pesticide(s). Farmers are willing to pay a substantial price premium for improved agricultural environmental safety

Ramatu Al-Hassan; John Baptist D Jatoe; Irene S Egyir

2010-01-01

344

Evaluation of Cocoa Land Use Management in Ghana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The thesis is a result of a study which was made to explore the possibilities of improving the administration, planning and management of the cocoa industry in Ghana. It discusses the present situation of identification of cocoa farms and farmers and the ...

P. H. van Oorschot W. L. M. Sosef

1990-01-01

345

Race Portrayals in Ghana, Kenya, and South Africa Television Advertisements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examines racial portrayals in television advertisements from Ghana, Kenya, and South Africa. Whites are over-represented relative to their actual demographic presence in all three countries, and both Blacks and Whites are depicted as over-employed. In general, however, depictions are not significantly different for either race, though there is a hint that a stereotyped portrayal of Blacks as

Laura M. Milner

2007-01-01

346

Behavioral Change Communications on Malaria Prevention in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to assess the various communications strategies designed to promote insecticide-treated nets (ITN) use among pregnant women and children. This study is an exploratory study into the communications activities by institutions involved in malaria prevention in Ghana. In-depth interviews were conducted and the data were analyzed. We found that most of the interventions are aimed

Ernest Yaw Tweneboah-Koduah; Mahama Braimah; Priscilla Ntriwaa Otuo

2012-01-01

347

Mercury pollution in Ghana (West Africa) coastal commercial fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total mercury concentrations are reported here for 100 individuals representing 10 species of Ghana commercial coastal fish. The sampling sites were Tema, Accra, Cape Coast, Elimina and Takoradi. The concentrations of mercury in the species were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometric procedure and were found to be well below the 0.5 ?gg limit recommended by the World Health Organization

W. J. Ntow; Mahmood A. Khwaja

1989-01-01

348

Spatio-Temporal Rainfall Patterns in Northern Ghana, West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rainfall reliability in West Africa has important societal consequences. However, our understanding of the rainfall generating processes in this region remains incomplete. This study aims at the detection of different rainfall producing processes and their characteristics during the later part of the rainy season in Northern Ghana. Rainfall in this region has three main origins: monsoonal advection, local convection, and

J. Friesen; N. van de Giesen

2002-01-01

349

An Exploratory Study of Trust and Material Hardship in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We explore associations among interpersonal (thick and thin) and institutional (legislative, executive, and judicial) trust and material hardship outcomes in Ghana. We use data from the 2008 Afrobarometer survey. Material hardship is conceptualized in terms of frequency of going without five basic necessities/consumptive deprivations, each of…

Addai, Isaac; Pokimica, Jelena

2012-01-01

350

Decentralisation in education, institutional culture and teacher autonomy in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ghana has seen several recent attempts to devolve control over the curriculum to the local level. The present study focuses on a single reform, the Local Content Curriculum (LCC). Analysis of local responses to this reform provides insights into the state’s influence on the actions and attitudes of Ghanaian teachers not previously detailed in research on educational decentralisation. These insights

George M. Osei; Colin Brock

2006-01-01

351

Ethnicity and Economic Well-Being: The Case of Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the context of decades of successful economic reforms in Ghana, this study investigates whether ethnicity influences economic well-being (perceived and actual) among Ghanaians at the micro-level. Drawing on Afro-barometer 2008 data, the authors employs logistic and multiple regression techniques to explore the relative effect of ethnicity on…

Addai, Isaac; Pokimica, Jelena

2010-01-01

352

Ethnicity and Electoral Politics in Ghanas Fourth Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ghana since 1992, when it embarked on a period of democratic transition and consolidation, has made major progress. Important questions, however, such as the influence of ethnicity on voter alignment, have yet to be explored and answered. There is a general perception that ethnic undercurrents play a major role in elections in Ghana’s Fourth Republic, but research has focused on

Peter Arthur

2009-01-01

353

Religion and Subjective Well-Being in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using 2008 Afrobarometer survey data, we examine the relationship between religion and subjective well-being (SWB) in Ghana, as well as religious group differences in their experiences of SWB. Two measures of religion--religious affiliation and religious importance, and two measures of SWB--absolute SWB (own perceived living conditions) and…

Pokimica, Jelena; Addai, Isaac; Takyi, Baffour K.

2012-01-01

354

Ghana Fiasco Shows Risks of Faculty-Led Study Trips  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article illustrates the importance of preparation for professors who take students overseas. A University of Washington study-abroad program in Ghana that was cut short last summer after the medical evacuation of half of its participants highlights the potential hazards associated with programs led by individual faculty members who may lack…

Fischer, Karin

2007-01-01

355

Liquefied Petroleum Gas as an Alternative Vehicle Fuel in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work discusses the advantages and disadvantages of three types of fuels: petrol, diesel, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Two surveys were conducted; one in the Tarkwa Municipality in the Western Region of Ghana to assess the type of fuels that taxis run on, and the other at Suame Magazine in Kumasi and Kokompe in Takoradi to verify the cost

Anthony Simons; Solomon Nunoo

2009-01-01

356

Analysis of WWW traffic in Cambodia and Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present an analysis of HTTP trac cap- tured from Internet caf es and kiosks from two dieren t de- veloping countries { Cambodia and Ghana. This paper has two main contributions. The rst contribution is a anal- ysis of the characteristics of the web trace, including the distribution and classication of the web objects requested by

Bowei Du; Michael J. Demmer; Eric A. Brewer

2006-01-01

357

Public University Entry in Ghana: Is It Equitable?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Public universities in Ghana are highly subsidised by the central government and account for about 80 per cent of university students in the country. Yet issues of fairness in terms of entry into the public university system have so far hardly been addressed. To find out whether participation in public university education is equitable, the…

Yusif, Hadrat; Yussof, Ishak; Osman, Zulkifly

2013-01-01

358

Situation Report--Ghana, India, and South Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data relating to population and family planning in three foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Ghana, India, and South Africa. Information is provided under two topics: general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is available. General background covers ethnic groups,…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

359

Poverty profile and correlates of poverty in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper's purpose is to examine the nature and correlates of poverty in Ghana. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Using the most recently published household living standards survey; the paper computes poverty indicators using the Foster et al., and Theil's inequality indicators to examine the nature of poverty. It also does a qualitative analysis on the nature of poverty by examining

Charles K. D. Adjasi; Kofi A. Osei

2007-01-01

360

Employee Motivation in University Libraries in Ghana: a comparative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison of motivational preferences of the staff of two university libraries in Ghana indicates that age groups and professional positions of the workers in a survey determine their motivational factor preferences. Respondents from the two sites have different motivational values. Different strategies are therefore required to motivate the workers and it is suggested that library managers avoid the assumption that

Edwin Ellis Badu

2005-01-01

361

Using Natural Materials for Educational Toys: Examples from Ghana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes educational toys that are made from natural and readily available materials in Ghana. Directions and diagrams for the pawpaw-leaf horn, milk-tin helicopter, pen-top propeller, bow and arrow, spinning top, and feather helicopter are included. (DDR)|

William, Musah; Preston, Christine

1998-01-01

362

Getting by on credit: how district health managers in Ghana cope with the untimely release of funds  

PubMed Central

Background District health systems in Africa depend largely on public funding. In many countries, not only are these funds insufficient, but they are also released in an untimely fashion, thereby creating serious cash flow problems for district health managers. This paper examines how the untimely release of public sector health funds in Ghana affects district health activities and the way district managers cope with the situation. Methods A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews was adopted. Two regions (Northern and Ashanti) covering the northern and southern sectors of Ghana were strategically selected. Sixteen managers (eight directors of health services and eight district health accountants) were interviewed between 2003/2004. Data generated were analysed for themes and patterns. Results The results showed that untimely release of funds disrupts the implementation of health activities and demoralises district health staff. However, based on their prior knowledge of when funds are likely to be released, district health managers adopt a range of informal mechanisms to cope with the situation. These include obtaining supplies on credit, borrowing cash internally, pre-purchasing materials, and conserving part of the fourth quarter donor-pooled funds for the first quarter of the next year. While these informal mechanisms have kept the district health system in Ghana running in the face of persistent delays in funding, some of them are open to abuse and could be a potential source of corruption in the health system. Conclusion Official recognition of some of these informal managerial strategies will contribute to eliminating potential risks of corruption in the Ghanaian health system and also serve as an acknowledgement of the efforts being made by local managers to keep the district health system functioning in the face of budgetary constraints and funding delays. It may boost the confidence of the managers and even enhance service delivery.

Asante, Augustine D; Zwi, Anthony B; Ho, Maria T

2006-01-01

363

Effect of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine on neonatal birth weight and perceptions on its impact on malaria in pregnancy in an intermittent preventive treatment programme setting in Offinso District, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the effect of sulphadoxine–pyrimethamine (SP) use in intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) on birth weights of neonates in a stable malaria transmission area of Ghana, Offinso District. Routine delivery data from six health facilities over the period January 2005 to October 2007 were reviewed. In-depth interviews were conducted for health staff of these facilities

Emmanuel Osei Tutu; Edmund Browne; Bernard Lawson

2011-01-01

364

Premarital relationships and livelihoods in Ghana.  

PubMed

This study is based on interviews with a sample of 400 single women aged 18-25 years from the Fante ethnic group in Cape Coast, Ghana, in 1991, and on focus groups. This case study illustrates the importance of economic and living arrangement support expected from partners in premarital relationships. Support may be for living and maintenance ('chopmoney', provisions, household items, and rent); for financial security (provision of capital); and for clothing and hairdressing. Women did not always require economic support in premarital relationships. Women expect boyfriends to provide 'chopmoney' (money for food and general upkeep) and contribute some money for the rent. Only 36% of sexually active women expected their boyfriends to supply food provisions. Premarital sexual relationships are used to obtain start-up capital. The author refers to evidence that senior government officials engaged in sexual transactions with clients before loans and credit facilities were offered. 87% of sexually experienced women expected their partners to pay for at least part of clothing expenses. The study revealed that there was considerable disparity between women's expectations and actual receipt of economic support. 56% desired, but only 36% received, 'chopmoney' in full. 40% expected their partners to pay for household furnishings in full, while only 10% did so. 55% expected capital, but only 15% received it. The three most frequently received benefits in full were hair dressing, shoes, and dresses. Men provided most non-negotiable items as a means of "boosting their egos." Many young women rely on the support of men in order to improve their status. Ghanaian men control financial resources and economic power. Mothers of adolescent daughters encourage premarital sexual behavior. Prostitution is considered different from sexual exchange relationships. It is argued that gender inequalities and domestic abuse are perpetuated through sexual exchange relationships. PMID:12347714

Ankomah, A

1996-10-01

365

Revitalization of the Sugar Industry of Ghana for Ministry of Trade and Industry, Accra, Ghana. Volume 1 of 4. Final.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study, conducted by F.C. Schaffer and Associates, Inc., was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of Ghana's Ministry of Trade and Industry. The report shows the results of a study conducted to assess the sugar and by-products mar...

1994-01-01

366

Investigating Coastal Processes and Hazards Along the Coastline of Ghana, West Africa (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As with many coastlines worldwide, erosion is a chronic issue along the Ghana coast. Erosion is presently impacting coastal infrastructure ranging from urban areas to small fishing villages, and threatening important cultural and historical resources in some locales. The Ghanaian coast displays significant geomorphological variability, ranging from rocky and bluffed shores to low-lying barrier beaches. Rates and trends of coastal change vary along the coast, interacting with physical oceanographic processes, alongshore sediment transport gradients, and anthropogenic disruptions of sediment supply. Little data are available for the systematic assessment of the relative importance of the various factors controlling coastal change, and thus the understanding of erosion threats and the response has been haphazard and inconsiderate of the system as a whole. Information on historical coastal change rates, alongshore geomorphic and geologic variation, sediment budgets, wave climates and other factors that shape the coast is limited. An enhanced understanding of basic coastal processes is critical as development pressures, including eco- and cultural tourism, and oil and gas exploration, continue to increase. An initiative is underway to develop a more comprehensive scientific understanding of coastal processes along the Ghana coastline. An international team of scientists, working in collaboration with researchers at the University of Ghana, are building the data- and knowledge-base required for a holistic and systematic assessment to understand coastal change and its driving forces. The approach includes regional analyses of shoreline change, field mapping of geology and geomorphology, short-term monitoring surveys, collection of geophysical data, deployment of a remote camera system, deployment of a directional wave buoy, and regional hydrodynamic modeling. These data and analyses will ultimately provide the foundation needed to make informed decisions on managing the coast and responding to erosion issues. Funding for program development and equipment has been provided via the Coastal Geosciences Program of the U.S. Office of Naval Research through the Navy’s Africa Partnership Station. Data collection and analysis to date include the first regional shoreline change assessment of the Ghana coast, utilizing aerial photography spanning 31 years and RTK-GPS field surveys and reconnaissance mapping. Initial results from the shoreline change analysis indicate highly variable alongshore rates of change, although the trend is predominantly erosional. The highest erosion rates are found in the east, on the downdrift flank of the low-lying, sandy Volta Delta complex. The rapid erosion rates are likely due to the disruption of sediment supplied to the coast by the damming of the Volta River in the 1960s, as well as alongshore transport gradients generated by the progradation and morphologic evolution of the delta. Continuing investigations of coastal processes in Ghana will allow for a better understanding of erosion hazards and will aid in the development of appropriate, systematic, and sustainable responses to future increased hazards associated with rising sea-levels.

Hapke, C. J.; Ashton, A. D.; Wiafe, G.; Addo, K. A.; Ababio, S.; Agyekum, K. A.; Lippmann, T. C.; Roelvink, J.

2010-12-01

367

Resource Conservation Glossary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This glossary is a composite of terms selected from 13 technologies, and is the expanded revision of the original 1952 edition of "The Soil and Water Conservation Glossary." The terms were selected from these areas: agronomy, biology, conservation, ecology, economics, engineering, forestry, geology, hydrology, range, recreation, soils, and…

Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

368

Results of Chemical Analyses of Soil, Shale, and Soil/Shale Extract from the Mancos Shale Formation in the Gunnison Gorge National Conservation Area, Southwestern Colorado, and at Hanksville, Utah.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of chemical and some isotopic analyses of soil, shale, and water extracts collected from the surface, trenches, and pits in the Mancos Shale are presented in this report. Most data are for sites on the Gunnison Gorge National Conservation Area (GG...

B. A. Ball G. W. Chong J. Fahy M. L. Tuttle R. I. Grauch

2007-01-01

369

Conserving Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will learn what energy is, how energy is used , and how to conserve it What are new ways of protecting the environment to conserve energy? Use your 4- column chart to record information about the questions i ask and you learn about. Begin by seeing what energy isEnergy Quest Tells different ways of conserving energy. List what you learn. What are simple ways to conserve energy everyday? How are vehicle manufactures inventing ways to conserve ...

Y, Mr.

2009-10-21

370

Can we spot a neighborhood from the air? Defining neighborhood structure in Accra, Ghana  

PubMed Central

Slums are home to a large fraction of urban residents in cities of developing nations, but little attempt has been made to go beyond a simple slum/non-slum dichotomy, nor to identify slums more quantitatively than through local reputation. We use census data from Accra, Ghana, to create an index that applies the UN-Habitat criteria for a place to be a slum. We use this index to identify neighborhoods on a continuum of slum characteristics and on that basis are able to locate the worst slums in Accra. These do include the areas with a local reputation for being slums, lending qualitative validation to the index. We show that slums also have footprints that can be identified from data classified from satellite imagery. However, variability among slums in Accra is also associated with some variability in the land cover characteristics of slums.

Hill, Allan; Stow, Douglas; Getis, Arthur; Fugate, Debbie

2009-01-01

371

Housing and Health in Ghana: The Psychosocial Impacts of Renting a Home  

PubMed Central

This paper reports the findings of a qualitative study investigating the impacts of renting a home on the psychosocial health of tenants in the Accra Metropolitan Area (AMA) in Ghana. In-depth interviews (n = 33) were conducted with private renters in Adabraka, Accra. The findings show that private renters in the AMA face serious problems in finding appropriate and affordable rental units, as well as a persistent threat of eviction by homeowners. These challenges tend to predispose renters to psychosocial distress and diminishing ontological security. Findings are relevant to a range of pluralistic policy options that emphasize both formal and informal housing provision, together with the reorganization and decentralization of the Rent Control Board to the district level to facilitate easy access by the citizenry.

Luginaah, Isaac; Arku, Godwin; Baiden, Philip

2010-01-01

372

Geographic object-based delineation of neighborhoods of Accra, Ghana using QuickBird satellite imagery.  

PubMed

The objective was to test GEographic Object-based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) techniques for delineating neighborhoods of Accra, Ghana using QuickBird multispectral imagery. Two approaches to aggregating census enumeration areas (EAs) based on image-derived measures of vegetation objects were tested: (1) merging adjacent EAs according to vegetation measures and (2) image segmentation. Both approaches exploit readily available functions within commercial GEOBIA software. Image-derived neighborhood maps were compared to a reference map derived by spatial clustering of slum index values (from census data), to provide a relative assessment of potential map utility. A size-constrained iterative segmentation approach to aggregation was more successful than standard image segmentation or feature merge techniques. The segmentation approaches account for size and shape characteristics, enabling more realistic neighborhood boundaries to be delineated. The percentage of vegetation patches within each EA yielded more realistic delineation of potential neighborhoods than mean vegetation patch size per EA. PMID:20689664

Stow, Douglas A; Lippitt, Christopher D; Weeks, John R

2010-08-01

373

HIV and severity of seasonal household food-related coping behaviors in rural Ghana.  

PubMed

In-depth research was conducted to evaluate the seasonal food insecurity of HIV-positive and HIV-negative farm households in the Eastern Region, Ghana. A Coping Strategy Index (CSI) was used to assess household food-related coping behaviors. HIV-positive farm households often relied on both less severe and more severe coping behaviors, had a higher CSI, cultivated a smaller field area, harvested fewer food species from farms and gardens, and obtained income from fewer sources than HIV-negative farm households in both the post-harvest and lean seasons. We conclude that food insecurity is more severe in HIV-positive than in HIV-negative farm households in both seasons. PMID:22455863

Akrofi, Suzy; Price, Lisa L; Struik, Paul C

2012-01-01

374

Large scale magnetic susceptibility soil mapping: a proxy for geological mapping and exploration from Bogoso (Ghana)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the use of magnetic susceptibility measurements on a set of nearly 3000 soil samples (one sample per km2) collected for geochemical analyses within the framework of a geological mapping program in Ghana. The result is a map of soil magnetic susceptibility which has been compared with other maps. There is a good consistency with geological domains and lithologies, as well as with some of the geochemical soil analyses and also partly with the aeromagnetic data. In the tropical, deeply weathered lateritic context of the study area, soil magnetic susceptibility reveals similarities with magnetic and/or geochemical survey results, suggesting this rapid and easy to use technique can be an effective tool for exploration and geological mapping programs.

Théveniaut, Hervé; Clarke, Brendan

2013-01-01

375

Determination of optimum planting date and growing season of maize in the northern savanna zone of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The northern savanna zone of Ghana is mostly semiarid. The irregular onset and distribution of the rains in this part of Ghana makes interpretation of agronomic experiments difficult. This report seeks to determine the optimum time of planting of maize (Zea mays L.) in relationship with the length of the growing season in the northern savanna zone of Ghana. By

J. J. AFUAKWA

376

Social Dimensions of Adjustment in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Poverty Profile for Ghana, 1987-88.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The object of the paper is to present a baseline poverty profile for Ghana in 1987-88. The Ghana Living Standards Survey, (GLSS) conducted by the Ghana Statistical Service with the support of the World Bank provides detailed information on the living cond...

E. O. Boateng K. Ewusi R. Kanbur A. McKay

1990-01-01

377

Conserving biodiversity by conserving land  

Microsoft Academic Search

Society faces difficult choices over whether to allow habitat conversion for economic gain versus conserving habitat to protect biodiversity. Because the conservation of biodiversity and the material well being of the human population are both important goals, it is important to set conservation priorities intelligently and minimize the reduction in other goals from pursuing conservation. In this paper, our objective

Stephen Polasky; Christian A. Vossler

2002-01-01

378

An Exploratory Study of Trust and Material Hardship in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore associations among interpersonal (thick and thin) and institutional (legislative, executive, and judicial) trust\\u000a and material hardship outcomes in Ghana. We use data from the 2008 Afrobarometer survey. Material hardship is conceptualized\\u000a in terms of frequency of going without five basic necessities\\/consumptive deprivations, each of which a separate outcome (food,\\u000a water, medical care, cooking fuel, and cash income). Five

Isaac Addai; Jelena Pokimica

379

Under colonialism to democratization: Early childhood development in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work chronicles the phases of early childhood development in Ghana. This West African country experienced a change in\\u000a education after the inception of colonialism. Education of the very young became a part, though limited, of the missionary-based\\u000a education system under colonialism. The country moved from colonialism to a republic form of government in 1957. The republic\\u000a was determined and

Johnetta Wade Morrison

2000-01-01

380

Jobs, Skills and Incomes in Ghana: How Was Poverty Halved?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|On the basis of official statistics, poverty has halved in Ghana over the period from 1991 to 2005. Our objective in this paper is to assess how far this fall was linked to the creation of better paying jobs and the increase in education. We find that earnings rose rapidly in the period from 1998 to 2005, by 64% for men and by 55% for women.…

Nsowah-Nuamah, Nicholas; Teal, Francis; Awoonor-Williams, Moses

2012-01-01

381

Pattern of road traffic injuries in Ghana: Implications for control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Road traffic injuries and fatalities are increasing in Ghana. Police-collected crash and injury data for the period 1994-1998 were aggregated and analyzed using the MAAP5 accident analysis package developed by the Transport Research Laboratory, U.K. Published results of recent transport-related epidemiological and other surveys provided an additional data source. According to the 1994-1998 police data, road traffic crashes were a

Francis K. Afukaar; Phyllis Antwi; Samuel Ofosu-Amaah

2003-01-01

382

Free-radical scavenging action of medicinal herbs from Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant action of medicinal herbs used in Ghana for treating various ailments was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Five plants, Desmodium adscendens, Indigofera arrecta, Trema occidentalis, Caparis erythrocarpus, and Thonningia sanguinea were tested for their free radical scavenging action by their interaction with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Of these five plants, only Thonningia sanguinea was found to scavenge the DPPH

Maxwell Afari Gyamfi; Masato Yonamine; Yoko Aniya

1999-01-01

383

Ethnicity and Economic Well-Being: The Case of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of decades of successful economic reforms in Ghana, this study investigates whether ethnicity influences economic\\u000a well-being (perceived and actual) among Ghanaians at the micro-level. Drawing on Afro-barometer 2008 data, the authors employs\\u000a logistic and multiple regression techniques to explore the relative effect of ethnicity on economic well-being. Results demonstrate\\u000a that ethnicity is an important determinant of both

Isaac Addai; Jelena Pokimica

2010-01-01

384

Lianas may be favoured by low rainfall: evidence from Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the evidence in support of the hypotheses that (i) lianas are now increasing in tropical forests and (ii) lianas\\u000a are more abundant in the drier tropical forests. There is good evidence to support both hypotheses, including a new analysis\\u000a of data from Ghana. In this dataset, there is a linear increase in the percentage of species that are

Michael D. Swaine; John Grace

2007-01-01

385

Management of Acid Mine Drainage at Tarkwa, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses a natural wetland in Tarkwa, south west Ghana to identify the most sustainable way to remediate acid mine\\u000a drainage (AMD). The investigation involved mineralogical and bacteria analysis among others. The study traced the AMD occurrence\\u000a to the presence of acid producing sulphides (pyrite) in a waste rock and the occurrence was found to be catalysed by sulphur

V. E. Asamoah; E. K. Asiam; J. S. Kuma

386

MULTIELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SOME TRADITIONAL PLANT MEDICINES USED IN GHANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential elements in six traditional Ghanaian plant medicines used at the Center for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine (CSRPM), Mampong-Akwapim, Ghana, for the management and cure of various diseases were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), using thermal neutrons at a flux of 5 E 11 ns cm. The plant medicines were: Ninga powder, Lippia tea, Ritchiea powder, Momordica powder, Kenken powder

Y. Serfor-Armah; B. J. B. Nyarko; E. H. K. Akaho; A. W. K. Kyere; S. Osae; K. Oppong-Boachie

2002-01-01

387

Analysis of fatal road traffic crashes in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major objective of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with fatal road traffic crashes (RTCs) and to propose remedial measures to address them. Fatal RTC data for the period 2005–2007 in Ghana were analysed using the Micro-computer Accident Analysis Package (MAAP) software. Other transport-related research works were reviewed and incorporated in the article. The study showed

Williams Ackaah; David O. Adonteng

2011-01-01

388

Tackling Poverty-migration Linkages: Evidence from Ghana and Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Are migrants able to use the migration experience to their benefit, that is to improve their livelihoods, and is this result\\u000a nuanced by whether migrants are poor or non-poor? This paper explores these questions quantitatively using data on migrants\\u000a and non-migrants from Ghana and Egypt. It describes the main challenges in the empirical literature and introduces a conceptual\\u000a model to

Rachel Sabates-Wheeler; Ricardo Sabates; Adriana Castaldo

2008-01-01

389

Housing demand in the urban fringe around Kumasi, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research utilizes empirical data to explore the sources of demand and their effects on urban fringe housing around Kumasi,\\u000a Ghana. The research found that housing demand on the urban fringe has accelerated due to changing values ascribed to traditional\\u000a rural and modern urban locations and to preferences for single-family homes, strengthened by the Ghanaian expatriate housing\\u000a demand back home.

Justice K. Owusu-Ansah; Kevin B. O’Connor

2010-01-01

390

The Games Children Play: A Look at Children's Past Times in Southern Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Independent Study Project will focus on children throughout Ghana. It will be compiled by using notes, observations, journal entries, lecturers, and conversations of the author. I wish to pinpoint the everyday life and activities of a child in Ghana, oftentimes more specifically in Cape Coast in Komenda. This paper will be divided into three chapters. The first chapter will

Johanna H. Coleman

1999-01-01

391

Prevalence of smoking in secondary schools in the greater Accra region of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tobacco smoking is fast becoming a public health problem in Ghana and the youth are at a greater risk of becoming victims of it. A survey of nine secondary (high) schools in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana showed that 31.1% of students have smoked before and that 10.3% smoke cigarettes regularly. A significant number of those who had ever

R. Amonoo-Lartson; Matilda E. Pappoe

1992-01-01

392

Exploring voter alignments in Africa: core and swing voters in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes and analyses voter alignments in the new democracy of Ghana in two recent elections, 1996 and 2000. These elections are a part of the Fourth Republic that began with a ' founding ' election in 1992, ushering Ghana into Africa's new wave of democratisation. First the size of the core voting population is established to be about

Staffan I. Lindberg; Minion K. C. Morrison

2005-01-01

393

Are there Emerging West African Criminal Networks? The Case of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper situates discussions about emerging African Criminal Networks (ACN) within Ghana specifically, and West Africa generally, and seeks to present the initial results of an empirically based study on the activities of transnational organised criminal (TOCs) groups in Ghana. The paper argues that the nature of state and statehood in Africa and its inability to establish effective regulatory mechanisms

Kwesi Aning

2007-01-01

394

Private Returns to Education in Ghana: Implications for Investments in Schooling and Migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the determinants of school attendance and attainment in Ghana with a view to deriving implications for policy direction. Using micro-level data from the Ghana living standards surveys, our gender disaggregated probit models on current schoolattendance and attainment show that parental education and household resources are significant determinants of schooling. The effect of household resources on current schoolattendance

Sackey

2008-01-01

395

Restructuring the delivery of clean water to rural communities in Ghana: the institutional and regulatory issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clean water is an important natural resource. In recent times, there has been a radical change in the institutional and regulatory mechanism for providing clean water to the rural communities of Ghana. The object of this paper is to examine the strengths and weaknesses of the two regimes for providing water to rural communities in Ghana. These are the traditional

Kwadwo B Mensah

1998-01-01

396

Drive left, look right: the political economy of urban transport in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Car usage in Ghana is growing at an alarming rate. Logically, a growth in total number of cars must be because either (a) population is increasing or (b) car ownership per capita is rising or both. However, these do not sufficiently explain the increasing car population in Ghana. The article argues that the high demand for mobility in the country

Franklin Obeng-Odoom

2010-01-01

397

Democratic consolidation in Ghana: the role and contribution of the media, civil society and state institutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following a democratic transition in 1992, Ghana has made significant efforts to promote a liberal democratic culture and system of government. This paper provides an analysis of the extent to which Ghana's liberal democratic process is being consolidated, focusing on the role and contribution of the media, civil society and state political institutions to this process. It is argued that

Peter Arthur

2010-01-01

398

The determination of exclusion: evidence from the Ghana Living Standards Surveys 1991–2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines access to and exclusion from basic education in Ghana over the period 1991–2006, using data derived from the Ghana Living Standards Surveys. It uses the CREATE ‘zones of exclusion’ model to explore schooling access outcomes within the framework of the household production function. Empirical findings indicate that the period was marked by large?scale quantitative access gains in

Caine Rolleston

2009-01-01

399

Education Reform for the Expansion of Mother-Tongue Education in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 1957 Ghana was the first sub-Saharan colonial nation-state to achieve independence from British rule. The language of literacy instruction, however, remained English throughout most of Ghana's independence, effectively thwarting reading and writing in 11 major and 67 minor indigenous languages in use today. After years of policy shifts,…

Rosekrans, Kristin; Sherris, Arieh; Chatry-Komarek, Marie

2012-01-01

400

Borders that Divide: Education and Religion in Ghana and Togo since Colonial Times  

Microsoft Academic Search

When European powers partitioned Africa, individuals of otherwise homogeneous communities were divided and found themselves randomly assigned to one coloniser. This provides for a natural experiment: applying a border discontinuity analysis to Ghana and Togo, we test what impact coloniser’s policies really made. Using a new data set of men recruited to the Ghana colonial army 1908-1955, we find literacy

Denis Cogneau; Alexander Moradi

2011-01-01

401

Better Dead Than Dishonored: Masculinity and Male Suicidal Behavior in Contemporary Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Ghana reliable official data on suicidal behavior are not available. There is also limited empirical research on suicidal behavior in the country. At the same time, police-recorded suicide data, media reports, and communication from professionals in the field indicate that suicidal behavior is a growing problem. To identify current patterns and meanings of male suicidal behavior in Ghana, the

Mensah Adinkrah

402

School Feeding and Educational Access in Rural Ghana: Is Poor Targeting and Delivery Limiting Impact?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to address social imbalances and equity in Ghana's education delivery and to achieve her Education for All (EFA) agenda, some pro-poor programmes have been introduced. Among these is the Ghana School Feeding Programme (GSFP) that aims among others, at providing safety nets for the poor, increasing school enrolment in addition to…

Essuman, Ato; Bosumtwi-Sam, Cynthia

2013-01-01

403

Displaced Women in Northern GhanaIndigenous Knowledge About Ethnic Conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the findings of field research in Ghana in 2002 about internal displacement stemming from multiethnic violence in northern Ghana in 1994, known as the “Guinea Fowl War.” Indigenous, gender-specific knowledge from displaced Ghanaian women is presented in the context of feminist perspectives on the consequences of regional wars on non-combatants. The research generated indigenous material for social

Brenda Faye McGadney-Douglass; William K. Ahadzie

2008-01-01

404

Religious Differences in Modernization of the Family: Family Demographics Trends in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research examines trends in a broad set of reproductive and marital behaviors in Ghana, focusing on religious group differences. These comparisons provide evidence of how family trends are constrained by religious identity in a less developed country. Three waves of the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys are used to track trends in the age…

Heaton, Tim B.; Darkwah, Akosua

2011-01-01

405

Constrained gravity models and structural evolution of the Ashanti Belt, southwest Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Palaeoproterozoic terrane of southwest Ghana comprises a sequence of folded sedimentary\\/volcaniclastic rocks which separate a series of northeast trending volcanic belts. While the stratigraphy and structure of the belts are similar, the Ashanti Belt is characterised by a more tectonised northwest margin along which most of the major epigenetic Au deposits in Ghana are located. Early models of the

S. D. Barritt; J. S. Kuma

1998-01-01

406

Ghana's Vanishing Past: Development, Antiquities, and the Destruction of the Archaeological Record  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ghana's past is being destroyed at a rapid rate. Although the Ghana Museums and Monuments Board has in some instances successfully intervened to stop the illicit trading of antiquities, the destruction of archaeological sites as a consequence of development over the past two decades has been staggering and the pace is accelerating. The potential of the legislation that established the

Benjamin W. Kankpeyeng; Christopher R. DeCorse

2004-01-01

407

The quest for inclusion and citizenship in Ghana: challenges and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ghana's tortuous journey to democracy received a major boost in the year 2006 with the enactments of two human-rights-related pieces of legislation. In this article the author contends, on the one hand, that the recent enactments of an amendment to the law on representation of the people and the persons with disability law in Ghana constituted a noteworthy landmark in

Franklin Oduro

2009-01-01

408

Effectiveness and profitability of integrated pest management for improving yield on smallholder cocoa farms in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many pests, especially capsid bugs, infest cocoa and contribute to low yields in producing countries. In Ghana, synthetic pesticides are recommended for controlling the insect pests, and a combination of synthetic pesticides and cultural practices for diseases and weeds. However, the farmers in Ghana are not motivated to adopt these recommendations due to the high cost of pesticides and low

E. N. A. Dormon; A. van Huis; C. Leeuwis

2007-01-01

409

The establishment of the Catholic University College of Ghana: Refounding identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1988, the Ghana Catholic Bishops' Conference decided to establish the first Catholic University College of Ghana (CUCG). While it took the bold step to commence on March, 10, 2003, the Catholic University College held its first matriculation of 50 pioneer students on May, 3, 2003. Later, on November, 13, 2003, the University was officially inaugurated. ^ This historical study

Augustine Owusu-Addo

2007-01-01

410

The Role of Science and Technology in the Economic Development of Ghana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The history of Ghana's development is divided into the colonial era, the Nkrumah period, and the post Nkrumah period. The role of science and technology in the development of Ghana is explored in each period and recommendations given for the improvement o...

E. S. Ayensu

1978-01-01

411

The Development of a Scale Measuring Consumers' Selection of Retail Banks in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ghana, one of the fastest growing liberalized developing economies in Africa, has, in recent years, established a nationwide rural bank system and has witnessed an increase in the entry of foreign retail banks. Although there are increased activities and interest about bank offerings and bank–customer relationships in Ghana (Dadzie, Akaah, and Dunson, 1989), to date, researchers have overlooked the factors

Charles Blankson; Chris H. N. Mbah; Lambert Yaw Owusu-Frempong

2009-01-01

412

Criminal Prosecution of Suicide Attempt Survivors in Ghana.  

PubMed

Recently, there have been calls for the decriminalization (or depenalization) of nonfatal suicidal behavior (attempted suicide) in Ghana, India, Uganda, and other societies that currently criminalize nonfatal suicidal behavior. Despite this, there is a dearth of systematic studies that examine the extent, nature, and characteristics of attempted suicide prosecutions in countries that currently criminalize nonfatal suicidal behavior. The current study, therefore, explores the phenomenon of criminal prosecution and punishment for suicide attempters in Ghana, one among several countries where nonfatal suicidal behavior is a crime. Drawing from data extracted from local Ghanaian print and electronic news media articles, the study examines the sociodemographic characteristics of suicide attempt survivors, the patterns of nonfatal suicidal behavior, as well as the criminal justice outcomes of the criminal prosecutions. The findings indicate that the majority of defendants pled guilty to or were found guilty of the charge and sentenced to penalties ranging from monetary fines to incarceration. The results are discussed with regard to their implications for reducing nonfatal suicidal behavior in Ghana. PMID:22923775

Adinkrah, Mensah

2012-08-24

413

IWRM and developing countries: Implementation challenges in Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1990, there has been growing theoretical consensus on the need for integrated water resource management. At the same time, there is growing empirical evidence that challenges the scientific consensus and the practical implications of implementing IWRM in the developed and the developing countries, although the nature of the implementation challenges may differ in the different contexts. Against this background, this paper investigates into the nature of the empirical challenges to implementing integrated water resource management in Ghana. It describes the actual implementation process and contrasts eleven elements of the substantive content of IWRM with the implementation practice in Ghana. The paper then concludes that Ghana, like other developing countries often adopts such paradigm shifts in the management of their water resources primarily as a result of exogenous pressures (and to a limited extent endogenous factors) but that (a) lack of domestic ownership and leadership of the concept, (b) limited resources, and (c) institutional mis-matches, often results in an implementation of the ideas that is limited to implementation in form rather than practice.

Agyenim, Joseph Boateng; Gupta, Joyeeta

414

Traditional herbalists and cancer management in Kumasi, Ghana.  

PubMed

Cancer incidence rates are increasing in sub-Saharan Africa where traditional medical practitioners (TMPs) are involved in cancer management. Little is known about the specific role that TMPs play in cancer management in Ghana; we hypothesize that an understanding of the practices of TMPs with regard to cancer patients would help to enhance literacy about cancer amongst TMPs and would contribute to the diagnosis of cancer at earlier stages, by avoiding the detrimental delays while enlisting their help in certain activities that enhance cancer care. To elucidate the nature of the involvement of TMPs in cancer management, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 42 TMPs who practice in Kumasi, Ghana. The interviews elicited information about their knowledge and practices regarding cancer management and interactions with local hospitals. The results showed that TMPs tended to identify cancers as diseases of visible masses, fungating lesions, ulceration, and bleeding reflecting the advanced stages and types of cancers they usually encounter. TMPs identified certain causes of cancer and believed that they can treat and prevent cancer. These results indicate that TMPs are significant health service delivery resources in Ghana for patients potentially affected with cancer. Our work suggests that dedicated efforts to further integrate TMPs into the overall health care system would be beneficial to patients. Future research should examine the role of cancer education and training programs for TMPs to enhance their knowledge, strengthen their ability to complement allopathic practitioners, and increase early detection and treatment efforts through appropriate and timely referrals. PMID:22549472

O'Brien, Kieran S; Soliman, Amr S; Annan, Kofi; Lartey, Richard N; Awuah, Baffour; Merajver, Sofia D

2012-06-01

415

Collections Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collections conservation is an approach to the preservation treatment of books and book-like materials that is conceptualized and organized in terms of large groups of materials. This guide is intended to enable a library to evaluate its current collections conservation activities. The introduction describes collections conservation and gives…

DeCandido, Robert

416

Collections Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Collections conservation is an approach to the preservation treatment of books and book-like materials that is conceptualized and organized in terms of large groups of materials. This guide is intended to enable a library to evaluate its current collections conservation activities. The introduction describes collections conservation and gives…

DeCandido, Robert

417

Sustaining water supply through a phased community management approach: lessons from Ghana’s “oats” water supply scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water sector reforms in Ghana and in other developing countries resulted in the adoption of the community management approach\\u000a for water systems in an effort to ensure better management and service delivery. However, community management is also plagued\\u000a internal differences, paucity of technical skills, and insufficient management experience. This article presents a case study\\u000a of a successful community management system

2011-01-01

418

Health Services for Buruli Ulcer Control: Lessons from a Field Study in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Buruli ulcer (BU), caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans infection, is a debilitating disease of the skin and underlying tissue. The first phase of a BU prevention and treatment programme (BUPaT) was initiated from 2005–2008, in the Ga-West and Ga-South municipalities in Ghana to increase access to BU treatment and to improve early case detection and case management. This paper assesses achievements of the BUPaT programme and lessons learnt. It also considers the impact of the programme on broader interests of the health system. Methods A mixed-methods approach included patients' records review, review of programme reports, a stakeholder forum, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, clinic visits and observations. Principal Findings Extensive collaboration existed across all levels, (national, municipality, and community), thus strengthening the health system. The programme enhanced capacities of all stakeholders in various aspects of health services delivery and demonstrated the importance of health education and community-based surveillance to create awareness and encourage early treatment. A patient database was also created using recommended World Health Organisation (WHO) forms which showed that 297 patients were treated from 2005–2008. The proportion of patients requiring only antibiotic treatment, introduced in the course of the programme, was highest in the last year (35.4% in the first, 23.5% in the second and 42.5% in the third year). Early antibiotic treatment prevented recurrences which was consistent with programme aims. Conclusions To improve early case management of BU, strengthening existing clinics to increase access to antibiotic therapy is critical. Intensifying health education and surveillance would ultimately increase early reporting and treatment for all cases. Further research is needed to explain the role of environmental factors for BU contagion. Programme strategies reported in our study: collaboration among stakeholders, health education, community surveillance and regular antibiotic treatment can be adopted for any BU-endemic area in Ghana.

Ackumey, Mercy M.; Kwakye-Maclean, Cynthia; Ampadu, Edwin O.; de Savigny, Don; Weiss, Mitchell G.

2011-01-01

419

Changes in food resources and conservation of scarab beetles: from sheep to dog dung in a green urban area of Rome (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the research was to show how a change in land use influences the structure of a dung beetle assemblage and affect its conservation. In the Pineto Urban Regional Park (Rome), dog dung is the sole food resource currently available for scarab dung beetles, after the recent removal of wild and domestic herbivores. A one-year sampling was conducted

Giuseppe Maria Carpaneto; Adriano Mazziotta; Emanuele Piattella

2005-01-01

420

Conservation Laws  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the case of the free particle, we interpreted various components of the energy-momentum-stress density as fluxes of energy and momentum. This interpretation can obviously be extended also to particle ensembles and gases. When we speak of fluxes we usually think of quantities that are conserved. In special relativity, energy and momentum are conserved. In general relativity, they are no longer generally conserved, at least if we do not include the energy and momentum of the gravitational field itself. Nevertheless, their densities and fluxes satisfy a covariant generalization of a true conservation law, which is quite easy to obtain.

Dewitt, Bryce; Christensen, Steven M.

421

Irrigated urban vegetable production in Ghana: microbiological contamination in farms and markets and associated consumer risk groups.  

PubMed

Ghana is a typical low-income sub-Saharan African country facing significant sanitation challenges. In Ghana, fresh salads are not part of the normal diet, but have become a common supplement to urban fast food served in streets, canteens and restaurants. In Accra, about 200 000 people consume from such supplements every day. The figure also describes the size of the risk group from contamination, which comprises all income classes including the poor and children. The purpose of this study was to investigate widespread water pollution in urban and peri-urban areas, where 95% of the lettuce consumed in the city is produced. Over 12 months (April 2004-June 2005), lettuce samples from the same production sites in two cities were followed and analyzed along the "farm to fork" pathway for total and faecal coliform (FC) and helminth egg numbers. Questionnaire surveys were conducted among producers, sellers and consumers to quantify lettuce flows to the final risk group. The study identified the farm as the main point of lettuce contamination. Besides the irrigation water, contamination was also attributed to manure application and already contaminated soil. Despite poor sanitary conditions in markets, post-harvest handling and marketing did not further increase the farm-gate contamination levels. To reduce the health risk associated with the consumption of contaminated lettuce; safer farming and irrigation practices are required while the remaining risk could best be addressed where lettuce is prepared for consumption. PMID:17878560

Amoah, P; Drechsel, P; Henseler, M; Abaidoo, R C

2007-09-01

422

Conserving the birds of Uganda's banana-coffee arc: land sparing and land sharing compared.  

PubMed

Reconciling the aims of feeding an ever more demanding human population and conserving biodiversity is a difficult challenge. Here, we explore potential solutions by assessing whether land sparing (farming for high yield, potentially enabling the protection of non-farmland habitat), land sharing (lower yielding farming with more biodiversity within farmland) or a mixed strategy would result in better bird conservation outcomes for a specified level of agricultural production. We surveyed forest and farmland study areas in southern Uganda, measuring the population density of 256 bird species and agricultural yield: food energy and gross income. Parametric non-linear functions relating density to yield were fitted. Species were identified as "winners" (total population size always at least as great with agriculture present as without it) or "losers" (total population sometimes or always reduced with agriculture present) for a range of targets for total agricultural production. For each target we determined whether each species would be predicted to have a higher total population with land sparing, land sharing or with any intermediate level of sparing at an intermediate yield. We found that most species were expected to have their highest total populations with land sparing, particularly loser species and species with small global range sizes. Hence, more species would benefit from high-yield farming if used as part of a strategy to reduce forest loss than from low-yield farming and land sharing, as has been found in Ghana and India in a previous study. We caution against advocacy for high-yield farming alone as a means to deliver land sparing if it is done without strong protection for natural habitats, other ecosystem services and social welfare. Instead, we suggest that conservationists explore how conservation and agricultural policies can be better integrated to deliver land sparing by, for example, combining land-use planning and agronomic support for small farmers. PMID:23390501

Hulme, Mark F; Vickery, Juliet A; Green, Rhys E; Phalan, Ben; Chamberlain, Dan E; Pomeroy, Derek E; Nalwanga, Dianah; Mushabe, David; Katebaka, Raymond; Bolwig, Simon; Atkinson, Philip W

2013-02-04

423

Conserving the Birds of Uganda's Banana-Coffee Arc: Land Sparing and Land Sharing Compared  

PubMed Central

Reconciling the aims of feeding an ever more demanding human population and conserving biodiversity is a difficult challenge. Here, we explore potential solutions by assessing whether land sparing (farming for high yield, potentially enabling the protection of non-farmland habitat), land sharing (lower yielding farming with more biodiversity within farmland) or a mixed strategy would result in better bird conservation outcomes for a specified level of agricultural production. We surveyed forest and farmland study areas in southern Uganda, measuring the population density of 256 bird species and agricultural yield: food energy and gross income. Parametric non-linear functions relating density to yield were fitted. Species were identified as “winners” (total population size always at least as great with agriculture present as without it) or “losers” (total population sometimes or always reduced with agriculture present) for a range of targets for total agricultural production. For each target we determined whether each species would be predicted to have a higher total population with land sparing, land sharing or with any intermediate level of sparing at an intermediate yield. We found that most species were expected to have their highest total populations with land sparing, particularly loser species and species with small global range sizes. Hence, more species would benefit from high-yield farming if used as part of a strategy to reduce forest loss than from low-yield farming and land sharing, as has been found in Ghana and India in a previous study. We caution against advocacy for high-yield farming alone as a means to deliver land sparing if it is done without strong protection for natural habitats, other ecosystem services and social welfare. Instead, we suggest that conservationists explore how conservation and agricultural policies can be better integrated to deliver land sparing by, for example, combining land-use planning and agronomic support for small farmers.

Hulme, Mark F.; Vickery, Juliet A.; Green, Rhys E.; Phalan, Ben; Chamberlain, Dan E.; Pomeroy, Derek E.; Nalwanga, Dianah; Mushabe, David; Katebaka, Raymond; Bolwig, Simon; Atkinson, Philip W.

2013-01-01

424

Lymphatic filariasis in Ghana: entomological investigation of transmission dynamics and intensity in communities served by irrigation systems in the Upper East Region of Ghana.  

PubMed

We conducted an entomological study to document the effect of irrigation on the vectors and transmission dynamics of lymphatic filariasis in the Upper East Region of Ghana. Mosquitoes were collected by indoor spraying of houses in a cluster of communities located around irrigation projects (Tono and Vea) and others without reservoirs (Azoka). Anopheles gambiae s.s. was the dominant species and major vector, followed by An. funestus. Anopheles arabiensis constituted 9--14% of the An. gambiae complex but none were infective. Culex quinquefasciatus was also not infective in these communities. Chromosomal examinations showed that >60% (n=280--386) of the An. gambiae s.s. in irrigated communities were Mopti forms whilst 73% (n=224) in the non-irrigated area were Savannah forms. Infectivity rates (2.3--2.8 vs. 0.25), worm load (1.62--2.04 vs. 1.0), annual bites per person (6.50--8.83 vs. 0.47) and annual transmission potential (13.26--14.30 vs. 0.47) were significantly higher in irrigated communities. PMID:11469943

Appawu, M A; Dadzie, S K; Baffoe-Wilmot, A; Wilson, M D

2001-07-01

425

Effect of maternal HIV infection on child survival in Ghana.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to measure the association between maternal HIV infection and infant mortality in Ghana. Using a censored synthetic cohort life table based on the birth history of 3639 childbirths during 1999-2003 obtained from the interviews of a nationally representative sample of 5691 women age 15-49 in 6251 households in the 2003 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. The survey collected demographic, socioeconomic, and health data of the respondents as well as obtained voluntary counseling test for HIV infection from all eligible women. The effects of maternal HIV status and other factors on infant mortality were estimated using multivariate survival regression analysis and the results are presented as Hazard Ratios (HR) with 95% confident interval (95% CI). Children born to HIV infected mothers were three times as likely to die during infancy as those born to uninfected mothers (HR = 3.01; 95% CI: 1.64, 5.50). Controlling for other factors affecting infant mortality further sharpens this relationship (HR = 3.51; 95% CI: 1.87, 6.61). Not receiving antenatal care, low birth weight, and living in households that use high pollution cooking fuels were associated with a higher risk of infant mortality. Maternal HIV status is a strong predictor of infant mortality in Ghana, independent of several other factors. The results of this study suggest that HIV/AIDS epidemic has had great impact on child well-being and child survival. This impact tends to increase as the HIV/AIDS epidemic matures and infection in adults increases. PMID:17269311

Hong, Rathavuth; Banta, James E; Kamau, James K

2007-02-01

426

Psychological distress in Ghana: associations with employment and lost productivity  

PubMed Central

Objectives Mental health disorders account for 13% of the global burden of disease, a burden that low-income countries are generally ill-equipped to handle. Research evaluating the association between mental health and employment in low-income countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, is limited. We address this gap by examining the association between employment and psychological distress. Methods We analyzed data from the Ghana Socioeconomic Panel Survey using logistic regression (N?=?5,391 adults). In multivariable analysis, we estimated the association between employment status and psychological distress, adjusted for covariates. We calculated lost productivity from unemployment and from excess absence from work that respondents reported was because of their feelings of psychological distress. Findings Approximately 21% of adults surveyed had moderate or severe psychological distress. Increased psychological distress was associated with increased odds of being unemployed. Men and women with moderate versus mild or no psychological distress had more than twice the odds of being unemployed. The association of severe versus mild or no distress with unemployment differed significantly by sex (P-value for interaction 0.004). Among men, the adjusted OR was 12.4 (95% CI: 7.2, 21.3), whereas the association was much smaller for women (adjusted OR?=?3.8, 95% CI: 2.5, 6.0). Extrapolating these figures to the country, the lost productivity associated with moderate or severe distress translates to approximately 7% of the gross domestic product of Ghana. Conclusions Psychological distress is strongly associated with unemployment in Ghana. The findings underscore the importance of addressing mental health issues, particularly in low-income countries.

2013-01-01

427

The State of Information and Communication Technology and Health Informatics in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become a major tool in delivery of health services and has had an innovative impact on quality of life. ICT is affecting the way healthcare is delivered to clients. In this paper, we discuss the state of ICT and health informatics in Ghana. We also discuss the state of various relevant infrastructures for the successful implementation of ehealth projects. We analyse the past and present state of health informatics in Ghana, in comparison to other African countries. We also review the challenges facing successful implementation of health informatics projects in Ghana and suggest possible solutions.

Achampong, Emmanuel Kusi

2012-01-01

428

7 CFR 766.110 - Conservation Contract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...National Register of Historic Places; (v) Aquifer recharge areas of local, regional, State, or tribal importance; (vi) Buffer areas necessary for the adequate protection of proposed Conservation Contract areas; (vii) Areas that contain soils...

2013-01-01

429

Eliciting expert knowledge to inform landscape modeling of conservation scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation and land management organizations such as The Nature Conservancy are developing strategies to distribute conservation efforts over larger areas. Relative to fee-simple protection efforts, strategies that allow ecologically sustainable timber harvest and recreation activities, such as working forest conservation easements, should yield greater socioeconomic benefits (ecosystem services) with less investment per area without significantly compromising the conservation of biodiversity

Jessica Price; Janet Silbernagel; Nicholas Miller; Randy Swaty; Mark White; Kristina Nixon

430

Incidence and outcome of injury in Ghana: a community-based survey.  

PubMed Central

Injury is an increasingly significant health problem in most low-income countries. However, strategies for preventing injury have not been well addressed. The present study was carried out to measure the incidence and outcome of various mechanisms of injury in Ghana in order to provide data for use in developing priorities for injury prevention efforts. For this purpose, using two-stage cluster sampling and household interviews, we surveyed 21,105 persons living in 431 urban and rural sites. During the preceding year, 1609 injuries resulting in one or more days of loss of normal activity were reported. Injury-related mortality was slightly higher in the urban (83 per 100,000) than in the rural area (53 per 100,000). However, the burden of disability from nonfatal injuries, as assessed by disability days, was higher in the rural (4697 disability days per 1000 person-years) than in the urban area (2671 days per 1000 person-years). Based on incidence rates and disability times, the major types of injury in the urban area were transport-related injury and falls. In the rural area, agricultural injuries predominated, followed by falls and transport-related injury. In rural and urban areas combined, 73% of motor vehicle-related injuries involved commercial vehicles. In this and other similar developing-country settings, injury prevention efforts should focus on falls and on transport safety in both urban and rural areas, with special attention being paid to commercial vehicles. In rural areas, agricultural injuries contributed the largest burden of morbidity, and should be a priority for prevention efforts.

Mock, C. N.; Abantanga, F.; Cummings, P.; Koepsell, T. D.

1999-01-01

431

Incidence and outcome of injury in Ghana: a community-based survey.  

PubMed

Injury is an increasingly significant health problem in most low-income countries. However, strategies for preventing injury have not been well addressed. The present study was carried out to measure the incidence and outcome of various mechanisms of injury in Ghana in order to provide data for use in developing priorities for injury prevention efforts. For this purpose, using two-stage cluster sampling and household interviews, we surveyed 21,105 persons living in 431 urban and rural sites. During the preceding year, 1609 injuries resulting in one or more days of loss of normal activity were reported. Injury-related mortality was slightly higher in the urban (83 per 100,000) than in the rural area (53 per 100,000). However, the burden of disability from nonfatal injuries, as assessed by disability days, was higher in the rural (4697 disability days per 1000 person-years) than in the urban area (2671 days per 1000 person-years). Based on incidence rates and disability times, the major types of injury in the urban area were transport-related injury and falls. In the rural area, agricultural injuries predominated, followed by falls and transport-related injury. In rural and urban areas combined, 73% of motor vehicle-related injuries involved commercial vehicles. In this and other similar developing-country settings, injury prevention efforts should focus on falls and on transport safety in both urban and rural areas, with special attention being paid to commercial vehicles. In rural areas, agricultural injuries contributed the largest burden of morbidity, and should be a priority for prevention efforts. PMID:10680242

Mock, C N; Abantanga, F; Cummings, P; Koepsell, T D

1999-01-01

432

Health, Poverty, and Place in Accra, Ghana: Mapping Neighborhoods.  

PubMed

The overall objective of our research project is to understand the spatial inequality in health in Accra, the capital city of Ghana. We also utilize GIS technology to measure the association of adverse health and mortality outcomes with neighborhood ecology. We approached this in variety of ways, including multivariate analysis of imagery classification and census data. A key element in the research has been to obtain in-person interviews from 3,200 female respondents in the city, and then relate health data obtained from the women to the ecology of the neighborhoods in which they live. Detailed maps are a requirement for these field-based activities. However, commercially available street maps of Accra tend to be highly generalized and not very useful for the kind of health and social science research being undertaken by this project, The purpose of this paper is to describe street maps that were created for the project's office in downtown Accra and used to locate households of respondents. They incorporate satellite imagery with other geographic layers to provide the most important visual interpretation of the linkage between imagery and neighborhoods. Ultimately, through a detailed analysis of spatial disparities in health in Accra, Ghana, we aim to provide a model for the interpretation of urban health inequalities in cities of urbanizing and often poor countries. PMID:23505395

Verutes, Gregory M; Fiocco, Magdalena Benza; Weeks, John R; Coulter, Lloyd L

2012-11-15

433

Public university entry in Ghana: Is it equitable?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Public universities in Ghana are highly subsidised by the central government and account for about 80 per cent of university students in the country. Yet issues of fairness in terms of entry into the public university system have so far hardly been addressed. To find out whether participation in public university education is equitable, the authors of this paper carried out a binary logistic regression analysis. Individual data were collected from 1,129 (614 male and 515 female) final year senior high school (SHS) students for the 2009 cohort. The authors measured student, father and mother characteristics likely to influence admission to a public university. The results show that the major predictors of public university entry are students' academic ability, quality of SHS attended and number of siblings. This seems to suggest that there is a significant bias in the selection of students from different socio-economic groups for admission to highly subsidised public universities. The implication is that public financing of university education in Ghana may not be equitable.

Yusif, Hadrat; Yussof, Ishak; Osman, Zulkifly

2013-06-01

434

Further observations on Bulinus (Bulinus) truncatus rohlfsi (Clessin) in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Bulinus (B.) truncatus rohlfsi is an important snail host of Schistosoma haematobium in Ghana and probably elsewhere in West Africa. Study of this snail in natural habitats in Northern Ghana has shown that the pronounced population fluctuations can be broadly related to the alternating wet and dry seasons and to any marked changes in the aquatic vegetation. An increase in snail density and reproductive activity begins during the rainy season, reaching a peak in the dry season. The onset of the contraction phase in the snail population is often abrupt, although it may be preceded by intense oviposition; during this phase there are but a few widely scattered snails and little reproductive activity with a low level of survival, particularly of juvenile snails. The factors which favour the survival of young specimens are clearly critical in the evolution of the snail population. The findings are related to snail population studies carried out elsewhere in Africa, and to the application as well as limitations of molluscicides in bilharziasis control programmes.

McCullough, Fergus S.

1962-01-01

435

Secondary Wood Processing in Liberia, Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Nigeria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report examines the secondary wood processing industry in Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana and Nigeria. It covers forestry, forest product processing, financial aspects, economic conditions, cost-benefit analysis, training, marketing, and regional cooperat...

G. E. Gresham

1990-01-01

436

Speaking the Unspeakable: Discursive Strategies To Express Language Attitudes in Legon (Ghana) Graffiti.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines how language attitudes are expressed in Legon, Ghana, a multilingual society. Focuses on the graffiti in male lavatories, which offers an interesting glimpse of some of the intergroup tensions existing within Ghanian society. (Author/VWL)|

Obeng, Samuel Gyasi

2000-01-01

437

Transferred and Adapted Models of Secondary Education in Ghana: What Implications for National Development?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The secondary-education models implemented in Ghana since colonial times constitute a classic case of "educational transfer and adaptation". Transferred from England, and in recent years the United States of America and Japan, these models have had a significant impact on Ghana's development in diverse ways. Yet educational research on Ghana has under-recognized this important issue of "educational transfer and adaptation", especially the relationship between these transferred models and national development. This study addresses such neglect by first focusing on those institutions that served as prototypes. Second, it appraises the models pointing out their implications for national development. It is contended that the foreign models that were adapted (indigenised) have been significant instruments for the human- resource and socio-political development of Ghana. However, their emphasis on the academic type of education ultimately has tended to create a situation of dependency particularly with respect to techno-scientific and economic development.

Quist, Hubert O.

2003-09-01

438

Case Study on the Costs and Financing of Immunization Services in Ghana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study estimates the current and future costs of Ghana's immunization program, including the additional costs proposed for improvements to the program, both to assist planning and to inform the international community about global immunization costs. ...

A. Levin S. England J. Jorissen B. Garshong J. Teprey

2001-01-01

439

Agricultural Cooperatives and Quasi-Cooperatives in Ghana, 1951-1965.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report traces the history of cooperatives in Ghana from 1928 to 1965, bases on government records. From the beginning the movement has suffered from government domination, inept management and instability. Single or multi-purpose cooperatives have eng...

M. P. Miracle A. Seidman

1968-01-01

440

Decentralization: Improving Governance in Sub-Saharan Africa. Ghana Case Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1988, Ghana passed legislation that established a program of political and administrative decentralization to the district level. The report evaluates the impact of the program to date. Research and interviews were conducted in three rural districts wh...

C. Schwabe D. Green F. Fiadjoe T. West

1992-01-01

441

Research note: HLA degenerate T-cell epitopes from Plasmodium falciparum liver stage-specific antigen 1 (LSA-1) are highly conserved in isolates from geographically distinct areas.  

PubMed

Considerable effort is directed at the development of a malaria vaccine that elicits antigen-specific T-cell responses against pre-erythrocytic antigens of Plasmodium falciparum. Genetic restriction of host T-cell responses and polymorphism of target epitopes on parasite antigens pose obstacles to the development of such a vaccine. Liver stage-specific antigen-1 (LSA-1) is a prime candidate vaccine antigen and five T-cell epitopes that are degenerately restricted by HLA molecules common in most populations have been identified on LSA-1. To define the extent of polymorphism within these T-cell epitopes, the N-terminal non-repetitive region of the LSA-1 gene from Malaysian P. falciparum field isolates was sequenced and compared with data of isolates from Brazil, Kenya and Papua New Guinea. Three of the T-cell epitopes were completely conserved while the remaining two were highly conserved in the isolates examined. Our findings underscore the potential of including these HLA-degenerate T-cell epitopes of LSA-1 in a subunit vaccine. PMID:10972854

Ravichandran, M; Doolan, D L; Cox-Singh, J; Hoffman, S L; Singh, B

2000-09-01

442

Community perceptions of a malaria vaccine in the Kintampo districts of Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa despite tools currently available for its control. Making malaria vaccine available for routine use will be a major hallmark, but its acceptance by community members and health professionals within the health system could pose considerable challenge as has been found with the introduction of polio vaccinations in parts of West Africa. Some of these challenges may not be expected since decisions people make are many a time driven by a complex myriad of perceptions. This paper reports knowledge and perceptions of community members in the Kintampo area of Ghana where malaria vaccine trials have been ongoing as part of the drive for the first-ever licensed malaria vaccine in the near future. Methods Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used in the data collection processes. Women and men whose children were or were not involved in the malaria vaccine trial were invited to participate in focus group discussions (FGDs). Respondents, made up of heads of religious groupings in the study area, health care providers, traditional healers and traditional birth attendants, were also invited to participate in in-depth interviews (IDIs). A cross-sectional survey was conducted in communities where the malaria vaccine trial (Mal 047RTS,S) was carried out. In total, 12 FGDs, 15 IDIs and 466 household head interviews were conducted. Results Knowledge about vaccines was widespread among participants. Respondents would like their children to be vaccinated against all childhood illnesses including malaria. Knowledge of the long existing routine vaccines was relatively high among respondents compared to hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenza type B vaccines that were introduced more recently in 2002. There was no clear religious belief or sociocultural practice that will serve as a possible barrier to the acceptance of a malaria vaccine. Conclusion With the assumption that a malaria vaccine will be as efficacious as other EPI vaccines, community members in Central Ghana will accept and prefer malaria vaccine to malaria drugs as a malaria control tool. Beliefs and cultural practices as barriers to the acceptance of malaria vaccine were virtually unknown in the communities surveyed.

2013-01-01

443

Mercury and arsenic in the gold mining regions of the Ankobra River basin in Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The river Ankobra flows through the principal gold mining centres in Western Ghana, draining a total area of 8272 km^2 to join the Atlantic ocean. Mercury is used by thousands of small-scale miners in the region to amalgamate gold. Ores mined in some deep shafts and surface mines are arsenopyrites and the region is marked by the presence of heaps of arsenic - rich mine tailings from both past and recent activities. This study was conducted to assess the impact of mining activities on the distribution and speciation of arsenic and mercury in the aquatic environment of the Ankobra River. In all, water (filtered and non-filtered) and bed sediments were collected from various locations within the watershed. Principal parameters investigated include total mercury, arsenic (III), arsenic (V), monomethylarsonic acid (MMAA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA). Seasonal and spatial variations of these parameters were investigated. Quality control systems were adopted at both the environmental and analytical stages of the study. ln general, areas close to the mining centres are the most pollilited. As (V)/As (III) ratios in water are reversed after the first 100-km of the river length with the onset of industrial influence downstream.

Bannerman, W.; Potin-Gautier, M.; Amoureux, D.; Tellier, S.; Rambaud, A.; Babut, M.; Adimado, A.; Beinhoff, C.

2003-05-01

444

Effects of spatial location and household wealth on health insurance subscription among women in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background This study compares ownership of health insurance among Ghanaian women with respect to wealth status and spatial location. We explore the overarching research question by employing geographic and proxy means targeting through interactive analysis of wealth status and spatial issues. Methods The paper draws on the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Bivariate descriptive analysis coupled with binary logistic regression estimation technique was used to analyse the data. Results By wealth status, the likelihood of purchasing insurance was significantly higher among respondents from the middle, richer and richest households compared to the poorest (reference category) and these differences widened more profoundly in the Northern areas after interacting wealth with zone of residence. Among women at the bottom of household wealth (poorest and poorer), there were no statistically significant differences in insurance subscription in all the areas. Conclusions The results underscore the relevance of geographic and proxy means targeting in identifying populations who may be need of special interventions as part of the efforts to increase enrolment as well as means of social protection against the vulnerable.

2013-01-01

445

Childhood burns in Ghana: epidemiological characteristics and home-based treatment.  

PubMed

The objectives of this research were to study the epidemiological characteristics and home-based treatment of childhood burns in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. Children aged 0-5 years with a burn history were identified through a community-based, multisite survey. A standard questionnaire was administered to mothers of 630 of these children to elicit information on their sociodemographic characteristics and the circumstances of the burn event. Ninety-two per cent of the burns occurred in the home, particularly in the kitchen (51 per cent) and the house yard (36 per cent), with most of them happening in the late morning and around the evening meal. The main causes of the burns were scalds (45 per cent), contact with a hot object (34 per cent) and flame (20 per cent). 'Cool' water was applied to the burned area in 30 per cent of cases. Otherwise, treatment with a traditional preparation was the most popular first-aid choice. Since a considerable proportion of burns happened between meals when children 'play with fire' in the house yard, the provision of alternative play activities and community play areas may reduce the incidence of burns to these children. Secondly, we recommend that education on first-aid management of burns be intensified, with special emphasis on alternatives to the use of traditional preparations. PMID:7718113

Forjuoh, S N; Guyer, B; Smith, G S

1995-02-01

446

Water quality analysis of groundwater in crystalline basement rocks, Northern Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrochemical data are presented for groundwater samples, collected from fractured aquifers in parts of northern Ghana. The data was collected to assess the groundwater suitability for domestic and agricultural use. Results of the study reveal that the pH of the groundwater in the area is slightly acidic to slightly alkaline. The electrical conductivity values, total dissolved solids (TDS) values and calcium, magnesium and sodium concentrations in the groundwater are generally below the limit set by the WHO for potable water supply. On the basis of activity diagrams, groundwater from the fractured aquifers appears to be stable within the montmorillonite field, suggesting weathering of silicate minerals. An inverse distance weighting interpolator with a power of 2 was applied to the data points to produce prediction maps for nitrate and fluoride. The distribution maps show the presence of high nitrate concentrations (50-194 mg/l) in some of the boreholes in the western part of the study area indicating anthropogenic impact on the groundwater. Elevated fluoride level (1.5-4 mg/l), higher than the WHO allowable fluoride concentration of 1.5, is recorded in the groundwater underlying the northeastern part of the study area, more specifically Bongo and its surrounding communities of the Upper East region. Results of this study suggest that groundwater from the fractured aquifers in the area exhibit low sodicity-low salinity (S1-C1), low sodicity-medium salinity (S1-C2) characteristics [United States Salinity Laboratory (USSL) classification scheme]. All data points from this study plot within the ‘Excellent to good’ category on a Wilcox diagram. Groundwater in this area thus appears to provide irrigation water of excellent quality. The hydrochemical results indicate that, although nitrate and fluoride concentrations in some boreholes are high, the groundwater in the study area, based on the parameters analyzed, is chemically potable and suitable for domestic and agricultural purposes.

Anku, Yvonne S.; Banoeng-Yakubo, Bruce; Asiedu, Daniel K.; Yidana, Sandow M.

2009-09-01

447

Food security and climate change in drought-sensitive savanna zones of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desertification, climate variability and food security are closely linked through drought, land cover changes, and climate\\u000a and biological feedbacks. In Ghana, only few studies have documented these linkages. To establish this link the study provides\\u000a historical and predicted climatic changes for two drought sensitive agro-ecological zones in Ghana and further determines\\u000a how these changes have influenced crop production within the

Frederick A. Armah; Justice O. Odoi; Genesis T. Yengoh; Samuel Obiri; David O. Yawson; Ernest K. A. Afrifa

2011-01-01

448

Public relations in Ghana: Work-related cultural values and public relations models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores cultural influences on public relations practices in Ghana. This survey research brief reports data collected from Ghanaian public relations practitioners (n=64) and describes work-related cultural values as well as the practices of public relations models in Ghana. The result reveals that Ghanaian public professionals tend to utilize international public relations and two-way communication models. The study extends

Ming-Yi Wu; Kwame Baah-Boakye

2009-01-01

449

Conservative News Service (CNS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the Media Resource Center, the Conservative News Service aims to give users an alternative to what it calls "a liberal bias in the American news media and a frequent, liberal double-standard in editorial decisions on what constitutes 'news'." It does this via a mix of short digest news articles and longer analytical articles in eight areas, including politics, economics, defense, religion, and culture. The X-Pert/Files/Links section contains links to conservative experts and their institutions in 45 subject areas. In addition, the site includes links to information about several conservative talk shows ("Radio Uplink") and several bulletin boards. CNS was created by MRC Chairman L. Brent Bozell III.

1998-01-01

450

PRECISION CONSERVATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Precision conservation utilizes a set of technologies and procedures that link mapped variables with analytical capabilities to appropriate management actions. It requires the integration of spatial technologies of global positioning systems, remote sensing and geographic information systems with t...

451

Conservation Presentation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introduces a project in which students teach about the importance of recycling and conservation by presenting demonstrations. Includes demonstrations on water, plastic, and other recycling products such as steel. (YDS)|

Friday, Gerald

2001-01-01

452

Conservation Presentation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces a project in which students teach about the importance of recycling and conservation by presenting demonstrations. Includes demonstrations on water, plastic, and other recycling products such as steel. (YDS)

Friday, Gerald

2001-01-01

453

Energy Conservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comments on The Potential for Energy Conservation,'' a study by the Office of Emergency Preparedness, emphasizing the coming dependence on foreign oil, and presses for government influence to encourage development of more efficient cars. (AL)

Abelson, Philip H.

1972-01-01

454

Knowledge and awareness of HIV/AIDS among high school girls in Ghana.  

PubMed

HIV/AIDS is recognized as a national priority health issue in Ghana. Consequently, the Ghana AIDS Commission and the National AIDS Control Programme were established, among other things, to enhance the knowledge and awareness on the nature, causes, effects and means of managing the spread of HIV/AIDS among populations at risk in Ghana. Through the efforts of these bodies and other stakeholders in health, several awareness creation and sensitization efforts have been targeted at teenage girls, a high risk group in Ghana. This study therefore assesses the knowledge and awareness of HIV/AIDS among senior high school girls in their teens in Ghana using a sample of 260 female students of West African Senior High School. The data collected were analyzed and discussed under relevant themes and within the context of the literature. The study revealed that generally, senior high school girls were knowledgeable on the nature, modes of transmission, and prevention of HIV/AIDS. There were however some students who exhibited limited knowledge on some issues including the spiritual causes and treatment of HIV/AIDS, contacts and associations with infected persons, as well as determination of HIV infection from appearances rather than testing. The study also raised important concerns about the reluctance of senior high school girls to use condoms as a preventive measure and the need to reorient HIV/AIDS awareness interventions in Ghana. PMID:23847431

Appiah-Agyekum, Nana Nimo; Suapim, Robert Henry

2013-07-01

455

Knowledge and awareness of HIV/AIDS among high school girls in Ghana  

PubMed Central

HIV/AIDS is recognized as a national priority health issue in Ghana. Consequently, the Ghana AIDS Commission and the National AIDS Control Programme were established, among other things, to enhance the knowledge and awareness on the nature, causes, effects and means of managing the spread of HIV/AIDS among populations at risk in Ghana. Through the efforts of these bodies and other stakeholders in health, several awareness creation and sensitization efforts have been targeted at teenage girls, a high risk group in Ghana. This study therefore assesses the knowledge and awareness of HIV/AIDS among senior high school girls in their teens in Ghana using a sample of 260 female students of West African Senior High School. The data collected were analyzed and discussed under relevant themes and within the context of the literature. The study revealed that generally, senior high school girls were knowledgeable on the nature, modes of transmission, and prevention of HIV/AIDS. There were however some students who exhibited limited knowledge on some issues including the spiritual causes and treatment of HIV/AIDS, contacts and associations with infected persons, as well as determination of HIV infection from appearances rather than testing. The study also raised important concerns about the reluctance of senior high school girls to use condoms as a preventive measure and the need to reorient HIV/AIDS awareness interventions in Ghana.

Appiah-Agyekum, Nana Nimo; Suapim, Robert Henry

2013-01-01

456

Joint 15. biennial conference of the West African Science Association and 19. biennial conference of Ghana Science Association: Book of abstracts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication contains abstracts of the joint fifteenth biennial conference of the West African Science Association and the nineteenth biennial conference of the Ghana Science Association,held at the University of Cape Coast,Ghana in September 1995. The...

1995-01-01

457

A comparative study of Shankhapushpyadi Ghana Vati and Sarpagandhadi Ghana Vati in the management of "Essential Hypertension"  

PubMed Central

Hypertension is a major public health problem of this era. Hypertension related morbidity and mortality rates have dramatically increased over the last 25 years. Stressful life style is one of the leading causes of Hypertension. The treatment of hypertension remains a primary goal in the effort to reduce morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease, stroke and kidney disease. In this study, 20 patients were randomly divided in two groups and treated along with restricted diet pattern for 8 weeks. Patients of Group A received poly-herbal compound formulation Shankhapushpyadi Ghana Vati (2gm/day). It was found that, relief in overall symptoms (63.93%) elevated blood pressure (8.91% in Systolic blood pressure and 8.44% in diastolic blood pressure). In group-B, with Sarpagandhadi Ghana Vati (2gm/day) the percent relief was better on elevated blood pressure (12.00% in Systolic blood pressure and 11.02% in diastolic blood pressure). When data is subjected in between both the groups, it is found that, both drugs are equally effective.

Mishra, Jyoti; Joshi, Nayan P.; Pandya, Dilip M.

2012-01-01

458

Public awareness and attitudes towards naval sonar mitigation for cetacean conservation: a preliminary case study in Fairfax County, Virginia. (the DC Metro area).  

PubMed

The potential impacts of naval sonar on cetaceans has led to a series of court cases and statements of concern by international organizations. However, there has been no research conducted on attitudes of the general public with respect to this issue. To investigate this, a preliminary public survey was conducted in Fairfax, Virginia (the Washington, DC Metro region). The majority of the public sampled believed that naval sonar impacted marine mammals (51.3%), that the US Navy should not be exempt from environmental regulations in time of peace (75.2%), and that sonar use should be moderated if it impacts cetaceans (75.8%). Individuals who were conservative, Republican, and have served in the military were more likely to believe the Navy should be exempt from marine mammal protection regulations. In addition, expert interviews were conducted to gain opinions on the potential ramifications of the recent US Supreme Court case on naval sonar mitigation. PMID:21453936

Zirbel, K; Balint, P; Parsons, E C M

2011-03-31

459

Conservation Conflicts Across Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing evidence that areas of outstanding conservation importance may coincide with dense human settlement or impact. We tested the generality of these findings using 1°-resolution data for sub-Saharan Africa. We find that human population density is positively correlated with species richness of birds, mammals, snakes, and amphibians. This association holds for widespread, narrowly endemic, and threatened species and

Andrew Balmford; Joslin L. Moore; Thomas Brooks; Neil Burgess; Louis A. Hansen; Paul Williams; Carsten Rahbek

2001-01-01

460

Marine Conservation Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stay current with the latest marine conservation issues, plus find information on workshops and job and research opportunities. Access information on the latest research, legislation, and MCI's latest publications. Learn about marine protected areas, destructive fishing practices, endangered species, and how MCI is advancing marine science. Features include a photo gallery, links to an abundance of worldwide external resources, and several downloadable videos.

2012-07-06

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