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1

Large Mammal Fauna of the Afadjato and Agumatsa Range in Ghana: An Important Bird Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mount Afadjato and Agumatsa Range Conservation Area (AACA) is one of the globally important bird area in Ghana, currently being managed through community-based conservation actions by local people with the support of the Ghana Wildlife Society. As in many other Ghanaian communities the mammal fauna of the site continue to decline as a result of many factors, basically anthropogenic

E. H. Owusu; E. K. Ekpe; A. Asamoah

2

Ghana.  

PubMed

This discussion of Ghana focuses on the following: geography; the people; history (postindependence politics and politics in the 1970s and the 1980s); government; the economy; foreign relations; and relations between the US and Ghana. For the 1970-84 period, the average annual growth rate was 2.6%. The infant mortality rate was 86/1000 in 1980-82 and life expectancy 55 years. Ghana is situated on West Africa's Gulf of Guinea only a few degrees north of the Equator. Most people live on the coast in the northern areas near the Ivory Coast, and in the principal cities of Accra and Kumasi. Ethnically, Ghana is divided into small groups speaking more than 50 languages and dialects. Among the most important linguistic groups are the Akans, the Guans, the Ga- and Ewe-speaking peoples of the south and southeast; and the Moshi-Dagomba-speaking tribes. In December 1981, Flight Lt. Rawlings and a small group of soldiers launched a successful coup against President Linmann. Rawlings and his colleagues suspended the 1979 constitution, dismissed the President and his cabinet, disolved the Parliament, and proscribed existing political parties. They established the Provisional National Defense Council (PNDC). In December 1982, the PNDC announced a plan to decentralize government from Accra to the 10 regions, the districts, and local communities, but the PNDC still maintains overall control by appointing regional and district secretaries. Ghana has a diverse and valuable resouce base. The country is primarily agricultural. Ghana's industrial base is relatively advanced, compared to that of other African countries. The US and Ghana have enjoyed good relations throughout most of Ghana's independence. PMID:12233541

1985-12-01

3

Sachet drinking water in Ghana’s Accra-Tema metropolitan area: past, present, and future  

PubMed Central

Population growth in West Africa has outpaced local efforts to expand potable water services, and private sector sale of packaged drinking water has filled an important gap in household water security. Consumption of drinking water packaged in plastic sachets has soared in West Africa over the last decade, but the long-term implications of these changing consumption patterns remain unclear and unstudied. This paper reviews recent shifts in drinking water, drawing upon data from the 2003 and 2008 Demographic and Health Surveys, and provides an overview of the history, economics, quality, and regulation of sachet water in Ghana’s Accra-Tema Metropolitan Area. Given the pros and cons of sachet water, we suggest that a more holistic understanding of the drinking water landscape is necessary for municipal planning and sustainable drinking water provision. PMID:24294481

Weeks, John R.; Fink, Günther

2013-01-01

4

Malaria epidemiology in the Ahafo area of Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains endemic in sub-Saharan Africa including Ghana. The epidemiology of malaria in special areas, such as mining areas needs to be monitored and controlled. Newmont Ghana Gold Limited is conducting mining activities in the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana that may have an impact on the diseases such as malaria in the mining area. Methods Prior to the start of mining activities, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2006/2007 to determine malaria epidemiology, including malaria parasitaemia and anaemia among children < 5 years and monthly malaria transmission in a mining area of Ghana. Results A total of 1,671 households with a child less than five years were selected. About 50% of the household heads were males. The prevalence of any malaria parasitaemia was 22.8% (95% CI 20.8 - 24.9). Plasmodium falciparum represented 98.1% (95% CI 96.2 - 99.2) of parasitaemia. The geometric mean P. falciparum asexual parasite count was 1,602 (95% CI 1,140 - 2,252) and 1,195 (95% CI 985 - 1,449) among children < 24 months and ? 24 months respectively. Health insurance membership (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.45 - 0.80, p = 0.001) and the least poor (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.37 - 0.90, p = 0.001) were protected against malaria parasitaemia. The prevalence of anaemia was high among children < 24 months compared to children ? 24 months (44.1% (95% CI 40.0 - 48.3) and 23.8% (95% CI 21.2 - 26.5) respectively. About 69% (95% CI 66.3 - 70.9) of households own at least one ITN. The highest EIRs were record in May 2007 (669 ib/p/m) and June 2007 (826 ib/p/m). The EIR of Anopheles gambiae were generally higher than Anopheles funestus. Conclusion The baseline malaria epidemiology suggests a high malaria transmission in the mining area prior to the start of mining activities. Efforts at controlling malaria in this mining area have been intensified but could be enhanced with increased resources and partnerships between the government and the private sector. PMID:21801344

2011-01-01

5

Hydrochemical characterization of groundwater in the Akyem area, Ghana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Akyem area is a small farming community located in southeastern Ghana. Groundwater samples from wells in the area were analyzed for concentrations of the major ions, silica, electrical conductivity and pH. The objective was to determine the main controls on the hydrochemistry of ground-water. Mass balance modeling was used together with multivariate R-mode hierarchical cluster analysis to determine the significant sources of variation in the hydrochemistry. Two water types exist in this area. The first is influenced most by the weathering of silicate minerals from the underlying geology, and is thus rich in silica, sodium, calcium, bicarbonate, and magnesium ions. The second is water that has been influenced by the effects of fertilizers and other anthropogenic activities in the area. Mineral speciation and silicate mineral stability diagrams suggest that montmorillonite, probably derived from the incongruent dissolution of feldspars and micas, is the most stable silicate phase in the groundwaters. The apparent incongruent weathering of silicate minerals in the groundwater system has led to the enrichment of sodium, calcium, magnesium and bicarbonate ions as well as silica, leading to the supersaturation of calcite, aragonite, dolomite and quartz. Stability in the montmorillonite field suggests restricted flow conditions and a long groundwater residence time, leading to greater exposure of the rock to weathering. Cation exchange processes appear to play minor roles in the hydrochemistry of groundwater.

Banoeng-Yakubo, B.; Yidana, S.M.; Anku, Y.; Akabzaa, T.; Asiedu, D.

2008-01-01

6

Factors influencing householders' access to improved water in low-income urban areas of Accra, Ghana.  

PubMed

We analysed householders' access to improved water for drinking and other domestic uses in five selected low-income urban areas of Accra, Ghana using a survey of 1,500 households. Our definitions of improved water were different from those suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO). The results revealed that only 4.4% of the respondents had access to improved drinking water compared to 40.7% using the WHO definition. However, 88.7% of respondents had access to improved water for domestic uses compared to 98.3% using the WHO definition. Using logistic regression analysis, we established that the significant determinant of householders' access to improved drinking water was income. However, for access to improved water for other domestic uses, the significant factors were education, income and location of the household. Compared to migrants, indigenous people and people from mixed areas were less likely to have access to improved water for other domestic purposes. For the analysis using the WHO definitions, most of the independent variables were not statistically significant in determining householders' access, and those variables that were significant generated parameter estimates inconsistent with evidence from the literature and anecdotal evidence from officials of public health and water supply companies in Ghana. PMID:24937226

Mahama, Ayisha Matuamo; Anaman, Kwabena Asomanin; Osei-Akoto, Isaac

2014-06-01

7

A Survey of Gastrointestinal Parasites of Olive Baboons (Papio anubis) in Human Settlement Areas of Mole National Park, Ghana  

E-print Network

A Survey of Gastrointestinal Parasites of Olive Baboons (Papio anubis) in Human Settlement Areas free-ranging olive baboons (Papio anubis) in Mole National Park, Ghana, were collected 22 June­7 July 2008 and analyzed for gastrointestinal parasites. This is the first survey of baboon gastrointestinal

Ryan, Sadie J.

8

Hydrogeochemistry and isotope studies of groundwater in the Ga West Municipal Area, Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper assesses groundwater in the Ga West Municipal Area of Ghana using hydrogeochemistry and isotope approaches. High salinity groundwaters are obtained in the municipality which poses problems for current and future domestic water supply exploitation. The increase in salinity is related to the dissolution of minerals in the host rocks and the evaporative concentration of solutes. The dominant groundwater composition in both shallow and deep wells sampled is Na-Cl. The concentration of the Na-Cl was observed to increase substantially with well depths. The mixing of freshwater of the shallow hand dug wells with that of saline water of the deep boreholes was noted in the shift from Ca-HCO3 facies to Ca-Cl facies. Schoeller diagram showed that groundwater in the study area is recharged from a similar source. The Schoeller diagram also showed the gradual increase in concentration of the major ions with depth. This leads to salinization in the deep boreholes. The oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions in the groundwater samples suggest that groundwater recharge is of meteoric origin with few samples showing evidence of evaporation. An average deuterium excess of rainfall of 14.2 ‰ was observed, which indicates the significance of kinetic evaporation due to low humidity conditions prevalent in the study area. The d-excess also indicates modern recharge along the foothills of the Akwapim-Togo Ranges.

Saka, David; Akiti, Tetteh T.; Osae, Shiloh; Appenteng, Michael K.; Gibrilla, Abass

2013-09-01

9

Rare-earth and barium abundances in Ivory Coast tektites and rocks from the Bosumtwi Crater area, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abundances of eight rare-earth elements and barium have been determined by isotope dilution in an Ivory Coast tektite composite, an individual Ivory Coast tektite, two impactite glasses and three country-rocks from the Bosumtwi Crater area of Ghana. The rare-earth abundances are lower, in general, than those in previously analyzed tektites from different geographic localities. However, there is some overlap in

C. C. Schnetzler; John A. Philpotts; H. H. Thomas

1967-01-01

10

50 CFR 660.70 - Groundfish conservation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...their shapes are defined in regulation by latitude/longitude...large-scale boundaries for rockfish conservation areas are found...Coast Recreational Yelloweye Rockfish Conservation Area. The North Coast Recreational Yelloweye Rockfish Conservation Area...

2013-10-01

11

Key Biodiversity Areas as Site Conservation Targets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed resource from Bioscience journal discusses the concept of key biodiversity areas (KBAs) for use in site conservation. Site conservation is among the most effective means to reduce global biodiversity loss. Therefore, it is critical to identify those sites where unique biodiversity must be conserved immediately. To this end, the concept of key biodiversity areas (KBAs) has been developed, seeking to identify and, ultimately, ensure that networks of globally important sites are safeguarded. This methodology builds up from the identification of species conservation targets (through the IUCN Red List) and nests within larger-scale conservation approaches. Sites are selected using standardized, globally applicable, threshold-based criteria, driven by the distribution and population of species that require site-level conservation. The criteria address the two key issues for setting site conservation priorities: vulnerability and irreplaceability. We also propose quantitative thresholds for the identification of KBAs meeting each criterion, based on a review of existing approaches and ecological theory to date. However, these thresholds require extensive testing, especially in aquatic systems.

GÃÂVEN EKEN, LEON BENNUN, THOMAS M. BROOKS, WILL DARWALL, LINCOLN D. C. FISHPOOL, MATT FOSTER, DAVID KNOX, PENNY LANGHAMMER, PAUL MATIKU, ELIZABETH RADFORD, PAUL SALAMAN, WES SECHREST, MICHAEL L. SMITH, SACHA SPECTOR, and ANDREW TORDOFF (;)

2004-12-01

12

7 CFR 1410.8 - Conservation priority areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...designation must clearly define conservation and environmental objectives...the total acreage of all conservation priority areas, in aggregate...Federal and State environmental laws. (d) Conservation priority area...

2013-01-01

13

7 CFR 1410.8 - Conservation priority areas.  

...designation must clearly define conservation and environmental objectives...the total acreage of all conservation priority areas, in aggregate...Federal and State environmental laws. (d) Conservation priority area...

2014-01-01

14

7 CFR 1410.8 - Conservation priority areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...designation must clearly define conservation and environmental objectives...the total acreage of all conservation priority areas, in aggregate...Federal and State environmental laws. (d) Conservation priority area...

2012-01-01

15

7 CFR 1410.8 - Conservation priority areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...designation must clearly define conservation and environmental objectives...the total acreage of all conservation priority areas, in aggregate...Federal and State environmental laws. (d) Conservation priority area...

2011-01-01

16

7 CFR 1410.8 - Conservation priority areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...designation must clearly define conservation and environmental objectives...the total acreage of all conservation priority areas, in aggregate...Federal and State environmental laws. (d) Conservation priority area...

2010-01-01

17

Freshwater Protected Areas: Strategies for Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater species and habitats are among the most threatened in the world. One way in which this growing conservation concern can be addressed is the creation of freshwater protected areas. Here, we present three strategies for freshwater protected-area design and management: whole-catchment management, natu- ral-flow maintenance, and exclusion of non-native species. These strategies are based on the three primary threats

D. L. Saunders; J. J. Meeuwig; A. C. J. Vincent

2002-01-01

18

Spatial dependency of cholera prevalence on potential cholera reservoirs in an urban area, Kumasi, Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cholera has been a public health burden in Ghana since the early 1970s. Between 1999 and 2005, a total of 25,636 cases and 620 deaths were officially reported to the WHO. In one of the worst affected urban cities, fecal contamination of surface water is extremely high, and the disease is reported to be prevalent among inhabitants living in close proximity to surface water bodies. Surface runoff from dump sites is a major source of fecal and bacterial contamination of rivers and streams in the study area. This study aims to determine (a) the impacts of surface water contamination on cholera infection and (b) detect and map arbitrary shaped clusters of cholera. A Geographic Information System (GIS) based spatial analysis is used to delineate potential reservoirs of the cholera vibrios; possibly contaminated by surface runoff from open space refuse dumps. Statistical modeling using OLS model reveals a significant negative association between (a) cholera prevalence and proximity to all the potential cholera reservoirs ( R2 = 0.18, p < 0.001) and (b) cholera prevalence and proximity to upstream potential cholera reservoirs ( R2 = 0.25, p < 0.001). The inclusion of spatial autoregressive coefficients in the OLS model reveals the dependency of the spatial distribution of cholera prevalence on the spatial neighbors of the communities. A flexible scan statistic identifies a most likely cluster with a higher relative risk (RR = 2.04, p < 0.01) compared with the cluster detected by circular scan statistic (RR = 1.60, p < 0.01). We conclude that surface water pollution through runoff from waste dump sites play a significant role in cholera infection.

Osei, Frank B.; Duker, Alfred A.; Augustijn, Ellen-Wien; Stein, Alfred

2010-10-01

19

Mapping irrigated areas of Ghana using fusion of 30 m and 250 m resolution remote-sensing data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Maps of irrigated areas are essential for Ghana's agricultural development. The goal of this research was to map irrigated agricultural areas and explain methods and protocols using remote sensing. Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) data and time-series Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data were used to map irrigated agricultural areas as well as other land use/land cover (LULC) classes, for Ghana. Temporal variations in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) pattern obtained in the LULC class were used to identify irrigated and non-irrigated areas. First, the temporal variations in NDVI pattern were found to be more consistent in long-duration irrigated crops than with short-duration rainfed crops due to more assured water supply for irrigated areas. Second, surface water availability for irrigated areas is dependent on shallow dug-wells (on river banks) and dug-outs (in river bottoms) that affect the timing of crop sowing and growth stages, which was in turn reflected in the seasonal NDVI pattern. A decision tree approach using Landsat 30 m one time data fusion with MODIS 250 m time-series data was adopted to classify, group, and label classes. Finally, classes were tested and verified using ground truth data and national statistics. Fuzzy classification accuracy assessment for the irrigated classes varied between 67 and 93%. An irrigated area derived from remote sensing (32,421 ha) was 20-57% higher than irrigated areas reported by Ghana's Irrigation Development Authority (GIDA). This was because of the uncertainties involved in factors such as: (a) absence of shallow irrigated area statistics in GIDA statistics, (b) non-clarity in the irrigated areas in its use, under-development, and potential for development in GIDA statistics, (c) errors of omissions and commissions in the remote sensing approach, and (d) comparison involving widely varying data types, methods, and approaches used in determining irrigated area statistics using GIDA and remote sensing. Extensive field campaigns to help in better classification and validation of irrigated areas using high (30 m ) to very high (<5 m) resolution remote sensing data that are fused with multi temporal data like MODIS are the way forward. This is especially true in accounting for small yet contiguous patches of irrigated areas from dug-wells and dug-outs. ?? 2011 by the authors.

Gumma, M.K.; Thenkabail, P.S.; Hideto, F.; Nelson, A.; Dheeravath, V.; Busia, D.; Rala, A.

2011-01-01

20

Geochemistry and geochronology of granitoids in the Kibi-Asamankese area of the Kibi-Winneba volcanic belt, southern Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Ghana the West African Craton is represented by Birimian and Tarkwaian rocks with extensive granitoid bodies. Granitoids from Asamankese area of the Kibi-Winneba volcanic belt, southern Ghana were analysed for major and trace element contents and found to be characterised by highly-fractionated REE, enrichments, in LILE, and depletion in Nb, Ta and Sr. The LILE enrichment relative to strong Nb-Ta depression, indicates that these granitoids were emplaced in an active margin. Based on field relations, geochemical composition and geochronological data, the granitoids from the Kibi-Asamankese area can be divided into three types, namely; the Eburnean biotite granodiorite (2133-2127 Ma) and hornblende granodiorite (2147 Ma), and the Pre-Eburnean gneissic biotite granite (2193 Ma). The geochemical data of the studied rocks plot in the tholeiitic field, whereas on the A/CNK-A/NK diagram, they generally fall within the metaluminous field, with A/CNK values between 0.69 and 0.88. U-Pb dating of zircons in the granitoids yielded ages ranging from 2193 to 2127 Ma, which are among the oldest ages obtained from the granitoid plutons in Ghana. Such high-precision geochronological data indicate that magmatism occurred over a time-span of about 70 Ma. This provides further evidence that the period 2.1-2.2 Ga was one of the important stages of Birimian magmatism that led to the generation of the granitoids. From the above-mentioned ages, it is possible to link the geological activities to crustal processes and establish the cyclic geotectonic evolution in the West African Craton over time as part of an arc-back-arc basin system.

Anum, Solomon; Sakyi, Patrick Asamoah; Su, Ben-Xun; Nude, Prosper M.; Nyame, Frank; Asiedu, Daniel; Kwayisi, Daniel

2015-02-01

21

Ghana Watershed Prototype Products  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction/Background A number of satellite data sets are available through the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for monitoring land surface features. Representative data sets include Landsat, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The Ghana Watershed Prototype Products cover an area within southern Ghana, Africa, and include examples of the aforementioned data sets along with sample SRTM derivative data sets.

U.S. Geological Survey

2007-01-01

22

Conservation justice in metropolitan Cape Town: A study at the Macassar Dunes Conservation Area  

E-print Network

Conservation justice in metropolitan Cape Town: A study at the Macassar Dunes Conservation Area J xxxx Keywords: Conservation justice Community-based conservation South Africa Urban conservation Stakeholder analysis a b s t r a c t Conservation justice, a concept analogous to environmental justice

Silander Jr., John A.

23

First Detection of Leishmania tropica DNA and Trypanosoma Species in Sergentomyia Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from an Outbreak Area of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Leishmania major and an uncharacterized species have been reported from human patients in a cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) outbreak area in Ghana. Reports from the area indicate the presence of anthropophilic Sergentomyia species that were found with Leishmania DNA. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we analyzed the Leishmania DNA positive sand fly pools by PCR-RFLP and ITS1 gene sequencing. The trypanosome was determined using the SSU rRNA gene sequence. We observed DNA of L. major, L. tropica and Trypanosoma species to be associated with the sand fly infections. This study provides the first detection of L. tropica DNA and Trypanosoma species as well as the confirmation of L. major DNA within Sergentomyia sand flies in Ghana and suggests that S. ingrami and S. hamoni are possible vectors of CL in the study area. Conclusions/Significance The detection of L. tropica DNA in this CL focus is a novel finding in Ghana as well as West Africa. In addition, the unexpected infection of Trypanosoma DNA within S. africana africana indicates that more attention is necessary when identifying parasitic organisms by PCR within sand fly vectors in Ghana and other areas where leishmaniasis is endemic. PMID:24516676

Nzelu, Chukwunonso O.; Kato, Hirotomo; Puplampu, Naiki; Desewu, Kwame; Odoom, Shirley; Wilson, Michael D.; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Katakura, Ken; Boakye, Daniel A.

2014-01-01

24

Assessment of atmospheric heavy metal deposition in the Tarkwa gold mining area of Ghana using epiphytic lichens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In situ lichens ( Parmelia sulcata) have been used to assess atmospheric heavy metal deposition in the Tarkwa gold mining area of Ghana. Total heavy metal concentrations obtained by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) were processed by positive matrix factorization (PMF), principal component (PCA) and cluster (CA) analyses. The pollution index factor (PIF) and pollution load index (PLI) criteria revealed elevated levels of Sb, Mn, Cu, V, Al, Co, Hg, Cd and As in excess of the background values. The PCA and CA classified the examined elements into anthropogenic and natural sources, and PMF resolved three primary sources/factors: agricultural activities and other non-point anthropogenic origins, natural soil dust, and gold mining activities. Gold mining activities, which are characterized by dominant species of Sb, Th, As, Hg, Cd and Co, and significant contributions of Cu, Al, Mn and V, are the main contributors of heavy metals in the atmosphere of the study area.

Boamponsem, L. K.; Adam, J. I.; Dampare, S. B.; Nyarko, B. J. B.; Essumang, D. K.

2010-05-01

25

Chlamydia Trachomatis and Neisseria Gonorrhoeae prevalence among women of reproductive age living in urogenital schistosomiasis endemic area in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Many studies have shown an overlap in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and urogenital schistosomiasis among young women living in schistosomiasis endemic areas. Yet we found no study assessing the prevalence of STI infections in urogenital schistosomiasis endemic areas in Ghana. As part of an epidemiological study on urogenital schistosomiasis and HIV, we sought to assess the prevalence of both Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorhoeae (NG) infections among women living in schistosomiasis endemic communities and explore the relationship between the sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and demographic characteristics, sexual behaviour and self-reported symptoms. Methods This was a cross-sectional study in which endocervical samples were collected from 191 women aged 15–49 years from October 2005 to March 2006. Samples were examined for CT and NG using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). A structured questionnaire was also used to elicit information on study participant’s gynaecological and obstetric history and symptoms for genital infection. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression were used to assess association between CT and NG and other variables such as age, sexual behaviour and self-reported symptoms. Results The overall prevalence of CT and NG were 6.3% and 2.6% respectively.The highest prevalence rates of CT were in the 15 to 19 year group while only individuals between 15 and 39 years were positive for NG. There was no association between CT and age, contraceptive use and the other variables assessed. NG on the other hand was found to be associated with age, number of births and number of sexual partners only by chi-square test. Conclusions Our research revealed higher prevalence of CT and NG infections when compared to previous studies conducted among higher risk groups in non-urogenital schistosomiasis areas in Ghana. We therefore recommend further studies of these STIs in urogenital schistosomiasis endemic areas in the country. PMID:24917067

2014-01-01

26

Conservation and Education in Murchison Falls Conservation Area, Uganda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This thesis forms the foundation for a conservation education training manual to help guides in Murchison Falls National Park, Uganda, communicate to foreign visitors about conservation issues. For background information I used a combination of text-based research and interviews to examine the application of community conservation and…

Jordahl, Mark D.

2005-01-01

27

Development of forest-conservation area network in estonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Estonian new forest policy an effort has been given on formulation of the biodiversity assessment of forest communities and plans for developing forest conservation area network representative to all forests in this region. There are also discussed problems in connection with selection of conservation areas and social aspects of forest conservation ideas. As maintaining of particular area outside

Henn Korjus; Kaili Viilma

28

50 CFR 660.70 - Groundfish conservation areas.  

...125°13.03? W. long. (c) Salmon Troll Yelloweye Rockfish Conservation Area. The Salmon Troll Yelloweye Rockfish Conservation...intended to protect yelloweye rockfish.The Salmon Troll YRCA is defined by straight...

2014-10-01

29

Hydrogeochemical study on the contamination of water resources in a part of Tarkwa mining area, Western Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to investigate the groundwater chemistry with special concern to metal pollution in selected communities in the Wassa West district, Ghana. In this mining area, 40 ground water samples, mainly from drilled wells, were collected. The groundwaters have generally from neutral to acidic pH values and their Eh values indicate oxidising conditions. The dominating ions are calcium, sodium, and bicarbonate. The metal concentrations in the study area are generally lower than those typically found in mining regions. Only 17 wells show metal concentrations exceeding WHO guidelines for at least one metal. The main contaminants are manganese and iron, but arsenic and aluminium also exceed the guidelines in some wells probably affected by acid mine drainage (AMD). Metal concentrations in the groundwater seem to be controlled by the adsorption processes. Hydrogeochemical modelling indicates supersaturation of groundwater with respect to several mineral phases including iron-hydroxides/oxides, suggesting that adsorption on these minerals may control heavy metal and arsenic concentrations in groundwater. The area is hilly, with many groundwater flow divides that result in several local flow systems. The aquifers therefore are not strongly affected by weathering of minerals due to short groundwater residence times and intense flushing. The local character of groundwater flow systems also prevents a strong impact of acid mine drainage on groundwater systems in a regional scale.

Bhattacharya, Prosun; Sracek, Ondra; Eldvall, Björn; Asklund, Ragnar; Barmen, Gerhard; Jacks, Gunnar; Koku, John; Gustafsson, Jan-Erik; Singh, Nandita; Balfors, Berit Brokking

2012-05-01

30

Effectiveness of Medicinal Plant Conservation Areas in Western Ghats, India  

E-print Network

Effectiveness of Medicinal Plant Conservation Areas in Western Ghats, India Narayani Barve Medicinal Plant Conservation Areas (MPCA) ? Designated by State Forest Department ? Established early 1990s ? Network of 200 sites all over India... ? Selection based on Plant diversity and known medicinal plant hotspots The Western Ghats (Sahyadri) Biodiversity Hotspot ? Less than 6% of the land area of India, but contains more than 30% of all plant, bird, and mammal species found in the country...

Barve, Narayani

2014-04-25

31

Author's personal copy Prioritizing areas for conservation and vegetation restoration  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy Prioritizing areas for conservation and vegetation restoration in post and Biocultural Conservation Laboratory, Section of Integrative Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX if they are allowed to regenerate. We develop a framework for incorporating abandoned agricultural fields

Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel

32

Inventory of potential and existing forest conservation areas in Estonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biodiversity considerations, development plans and progress of forest-conservation area network in Estonia is analysed. In 1997 Estonian forest policy stated that 4% of the total forest area of Estonia should be strictly protected for maintaining the existing biodiversity. These areas are planned to choose, inventory and analyse during next few years and also establish geographical information system on the

Henn Korjus; Kaili Viilma

33

Hydrochemical study of water collected at a section of the Lower Volta River (Akuse to Sogakope area), Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present hydrochemical study at the Lower Volta River (Akuse to Sogakope area), Ghana was conducted by determining the physico-chemical parameters (pH, temperature, total dissolved solute, electrical conductivity, total hardness, phosphate (PO4 3-), nitrate (NO3 -), sulfate (SO4 2-), dissolve oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand, calcium (Ca2+), sodium (Na+), magnesium (Mg2+), total iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) nickel (Ni), and total chromium (Cr) at 38 sampling sites during the wet and the dry seasons. The physical and ionic parameters were mostly found within the WHO (Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 3rd edn, Geneva 2004) standard for drinking water. The trace metals except Cu at some sites recorded values above the WHO (Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 3rd edn, Geneva 2004) standard for drinking water. This shows that the river water is not entirely fit for drinking. Mean values of physico-chemical parameters were mostly found to be high in the dry season as compared to the wet season. Cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were employed to evaluate the water quality and the interrelationship between variables. CA grouped the physico-chemical parameters into three groups (physical/minor ions, major ions and trace elements). Correlation analysis showed that physico-chemical parameters do not vary much in terms of the sampling sites. Thus, based on obtained information, it is possible to design a future, desirable sampling strategy, which could reduce the number of sampling stations and associated costs for effective river water quality management. Results showed that four principal components (industrial effect, domestic factor, natural source and agricultural effect) accounted for 65.59 % of the total variance among the water quality parameters. PCA also identified sampling sites 69R, 63R, 51M, 87L, 35L, 74L and 84L as polluted with metals. Therefore, water quality monitoring and control of release of industrial and anthropogenic wastes into the river are strongly needed.

Gampson, E. K.; Nartey, V. K.; Golow, A. A.; Akiti, T. T.

2014-06-01

34

Conservation Science and Forest Service Policy for Roadless Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Questions persist regarding,whether,the science of conservation,biology can successfully affect envi- ronmental,decision making. One of the most prominent,fields of intersection between,conservation,science and environmental,policy is public-lands debates in the United States. I reviewed,the role of conservation,science in the roadless-area policies of the U.S. Forest Service. Since 1971, the Forest Service has systematically evaluated roadless areas on national forests three times, most

JAMES MORTON TURNER

2006-01-01

35

Key factors leading to reduced recruitment and retention of health professionals in remote areas of Ghana: a qualitative study and proposed policy solutions  

PubMed Central

Background The ability of many countries to achieve national health goals such as the Millennium Development Goals remains hindered by inadequate and poorly distributed health personnel, including doctors. The distribution of doctors in Ghana is highly skewed, with a majority serving in two major metropolitan areas (Accra and Kumasi), and inadequate numbers in remote and rural districts. Recent policies increasing health worker salaries have reduced migration of doctors out of Ghana, but made little difference to distribution within the country. This qualitative study was undertaken to understand how practicing doctors and medical leaders in Ghana describe the key factors reducing recruitment and retention of health professionals into remote areas, and to document their proposed policy solutions. Methods In-depth interviews were carried out with 84 doctors and medical leaders, including 17 regional medical directors and deputy directors from across Ghana, and 67 doctors currently practicing in 3 regions (Greater Accra, Brong Ahafo, and Upper West); these 3 regions were chosen to represent progressively more remote distances from the capital of Accra. Results and discussion All participants felt that rural postings must have special career or monetary incentives given the loss of locum (i.e. moonlighting income), the higher workload, and professional isolation of remote assignments. Career 'death' and prolonged rural appointments were a common fear, and proposed policy solutions focused considerably on career incentives, such as guaranteed promotion or a study opportunity after some fixed term of service in a remote or hardship area. There was considerable stress placed on the need for rural doctors to have periodic contact with mentors through rural rotation of specialists, or remote learning centers, and reliable terms of appointment with fixed end-points. Also raised, but given less emphasis, were concerns about the adequacy of clinical equipment in remote facilities, and remote accommodations. Conclusions In-depth discussions with doctors suggest that while salary is important, it is career development priorities that are keeping doctors in urban centers. Short-term service in rural areas would be more appealing if it were linked to special mentoring and/or training, and led to career advancement. PMID:21600002

2011-01-01

36

Hydrochemical evaluation of the Voltaian system--the Afram Plains area, Ghana.  

PubMed

Inverse geochemical modeling from PHREEQC, and multivariate statistical methods were jointly used to define the genetic origin of chemical parameters of groundwater from the Voltaian aquifers in the Afram Plains area. The study finds, from hierarchical cluster analysis that there are two main hydrochemical facies namely the calcium-sodium-chloride-bicarbonate waters and the magnesium-potassium-sulfate-nitrate waters in the northern and southern sections, respectively, of the Afram Plains area. This facies differentiation is confirmed by the distribution of the SO(4)(2-)/Cl(-) ratio, which associates groundwater from the northern and southern sections to areas influenced by contact with evaporites and seawater, respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA) with varimax rotation using the Kaiser criterion identifies four principal sources of variation in the hydrochemistry. Mineral saturation indices calculated from both major ions and trace elements, indicate saturation-supersaturation with respect to calcite, aragonite, k-mica, chlorite, rhodochrosite, kaolinite, sepiolite, and talc, and undersaturation with respect to albite, anorthite, and gypsum in the area. Inverse geochemical modeling along groundwater flowpaths indicates the dissolution of albite, anorthite and gypsum and the precipitation of kaolinite, k-mica, talc, and quartz. Both the PCA and inverse geochemical modeling identify the incongruent weathering of feldspars as the principal factors controlling the hydrochemistry in the Afram Plains area. General phase transfer equations have been developed to characterize the geochemical evolution of groundwater in the area. A very good relationship has been established between calcite and aragonite saturation indices in the Afram Plains area, with R(2)=1.00. PMID:17499422

Yidana, Sandow Mark; Ophori, Duke; Banoeng-Yakubo, Bruce

2008-09-01

37

Environmental Conservation/Studies "focus area" (with potential courses listed) Natural Resource and Conservation Policy  

E-print Network

Environmental Conservation/Studies "focus area" (with potential courses listed) Natural Resource Forest Management NRC 540 Forest Resources Management NRC 597C Case Studies in Conservation NRC 597E and Management NRC 597T Adv. Human Dimensions NRC 597U Urban Natural Resource Management PLSOILIN 185 Sustainable

Schweik, Charles M.

38

Teaching Conservation Through Outdoor Education Areas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is for teachers (K-12) interested in developing and using outdoor education areas. Student participation is presented as the key to a successful program. A discussion of what can be done by outdoor education programs is presented. The guide suggests sites to be chosen in terms of accessability, size, attractiveness, safety, drinking…

Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

39

A simulation/optimization model for groundwater resources management in the Afram Plains area, Ghana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A groundwater flow simulation model was developed using available hydrogeo logical data to A groundwater flow simulation model was developed using available hydrogeological data to describe groundwater flow in the Afram Plains area. A nonlinear optimization model was then developed and solved for the management of groundwater resources to meet irrigation and household needs. The objective was to maximize groundwater extraction for irrigation activities from the shallow aquifers of the southern Voltaian Sedimentary Basin that underly the area This would improve food security, raise the standard of living and ultimately alleviate poverty in the Afram Plains. The calibrated flow model is in tandem with the general hydrochemical evolution of groundwater in the area and fits the observed data with about a 98% degree of confidence. Groundwater resources may not be the limiting factor in the development of irrigated agriculture. Groundwater has tremendous potential to meet current and future irrigation needs. It was determined from this study that profit from maize irrigation in the Afram Plains area could rise from US$301, 000 in 2007 to over US$3.5 million by the end of the last management period (2013) as irrigation practice is improved, and the economic strength to increase the acreage for irrigation improves. Even with these margins of profit, the drawdown constraint was not reached in any of the management periods. It is expected that rechargefrom the irrigation water would reclaim the lost hydraulic head. The single significant constraint was the amount of land area that could be developed for irrigation in the area. The profit obtained per unit cubic meter of water used also improved over the same management period.

Yidana, S.M.

2008-01-01

40

Ghana: Western Ghana's Fisherfolk Starve Amid Algae Infestation BY JESSICA MCDIARMID, 18 APRIL 2012  

E-print Network

Ghana: Western Ghana's Fisherfolk Starve Amid Algae Infestation BY JESSICA MCDIARMID, 18 APRIL 2012 not to continue fishing." Sargassum is the algae after which the Sargasso Sea - an elongated region in the middle down while tonnes of the algae were removed. In some areas people were warned not to swim due

Belogay, Eugene A.

41

Spotlight: Ghana.  

PubMed

At independence in 1957, Ghana possessed one of the strongest economies in Africa. Ghana exemplifies the problems confronted by African countries with economics that are tied to the export of natural and agriculture products, large debts to foreign countries, and rapid population growth. Ghana's population of 16 million is the second largest in west Africa, behind Nigeria. 45% of Ghanaians are under age 15, providing a built-in momentum for population growth as these young people begin childbearing. The government first adopted a population policy in 1969, but only recently is much being done to implement it. Only 13% of married women of reproductive age use contraception, and only 5% use modern methods, according to a 1988 Demographic and Health Survey. The total fertility rate is 6.2 average lifetime births per woman. High fertility plus expensive school fees and economic pressures are raising the drop-out rate of girls. 2 recent studies found that many Ghanaian men opposed their wives' desire to use contraceptives to limit family size. Policymakers are encouraging a greater involvement for men in family planning with male-to-male outreach. The country faces a number of environmental problems. At the turn of the century, forests covered most of the country. At present they cover only about a third. Logging and land-clearing activities are also a threat to biodiversity. Laws do exist to protect wild species of plants and animals, but enforcement is understaffed. The underdeveloped water supply systems make water-borne diseases, such as diarrhea and bilharzia, serious health threats. Insect-borne onchocerciasis is also a problem. High unemployment rates have forced many Ghanaians to emigrate, and, in the mid-1980s, Ghanaians increasingly headed toward England and Canada. The net migration rate is -1/1000 population. Presidential elections held in late 1992 returned Jerry Rawlings to power. PMID:12286891

De Sherbinin, A

1993-01-01

42

Designing sanitation projects in rural Ghana  

E-print Network

Providing sanitation to rural areas in Ghana remains a huge challenge. Government funding is scarce while many international donor projects are ineffective. This thesis explores the difficulties with rural sanitation ...

Lau, Jonathan (Jonathan Ho Yin)

2011-01-01

43

50 CFR Table 46 to Part 679 - St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area  

... St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area 46 Table 46 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude...

2014-10-01

44

50 CFR Figure 19 to Part 679 - Shelikof Strait Conservation Area  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Shelikof Strait Conservation Area 19 Figure 19 to Part...Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...to Part 679—Shelikof Strait Conservation Area ER30NO09.001...

2011-10-01

45

50 CFR Figure 19 to Part 679 - Shelikof Strait Conservation Area  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Shelikof Strait Conservation Area 19 Figure 19 to Part...Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...to Part 679—Shelikof Strait Conservation Area ER30NO09.001...

2013-10-01

46

50 CFR 660.77 - EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Washington.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Washington... Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...Groundfish Fisheries § 660.77 EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of...

2014-10-01

47

50 CFR 660.77 - EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Washington.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Washington... Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...Groundfish Fisheries § 660.77 EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of...

2012-10-01

48

50 CFR 660.77 - EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Washington.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Washington... Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...Groundfish Fisheries § 660.77 EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of...

2011-10-01

49

50 CFR Table 42 to Part 679 - Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area  

...2014-10-01 false Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area 42 Table 42 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...Part 679—Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude...

2014-10-01

50

50 CFR 660.77 - EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Washington.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Washington... Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...Groundfish Fisheries § 660.77 EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of...

2013-10-01

51

Eastern Contra Costa County Habitat Conservation Plan area  

E-print Network

Eastern Contra Costa County Habitat Conservation Plan area Souza II restoration project on tributary of Brushy Creek HISTORICAL ECOLOGY INFORMING RESTORATION IN EAST CONTRA COSTA COUNTY Ruth Askevold of the Souza II Wetland Restoration Project started in mid-2008. Initial studies explored not only

52

Exploring Students' Strategies in Area Conservation Geometrical Tasks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to investigate the strategies employed by advanced high school and university students working on six tasks concerning comparison and conservation of area. Special care has been taken in the test design so that the problems could be dealt with using a variety of solution methods. Written responses and in-depth interviews…

Kospentaris, George; Spyrou, Panagiotis; Lappas, Dionyssios

2011-01-01

53

Forrest Conservation Area : Management & Implementation FY 2004 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribes) acquired the Forrest Conservation Area during July of 2002. The property is located in the Upper John Day subbasin within the Columbia basin. The property consists of two parcels comprising 4,232 acres. The Mainstem parcel consists of 3,445 acres and is located 1/2 mile to the east of Prairie City, Oregon on the mainstem John Day River. The Middle Fork parcel consists of 786 acres and is located one mile to the west of the town of Austin, OR on the Middle Fork John Day River. The Forrest Conservation Area is under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to provide an annual written report generally describing the real property interests of the project and management activities undertaken or in progress. Acquisition of the Forrest Conservation Area was funded by BPA as part of their program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife habitat affected by hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries. The intent of the Conservation Area is to partially mitigate fish and wildlife impacts for the John Day Dam on the Columbia River as outlined in the Northwest Power Planning Council's Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994, {section}11.1, {section}7.6). While the Tribes hold fee-title to the property, the BPA has assured a level of management funding for the protection and restoration of fish and wildlife habitat through a memorandum of agreement.

Smith, Brent

2008-12-01

54

Wildlife Monitoring and Conservation in a West African Protected Area  

E-print Network

database (accessed 27 November 2010) containing the topic keyword “wildlife”database (http://apps.isiknowledge.com, accessed 27 November 2010) containing the topic keyword “wildlife”Wildlife Division’s patrol-based monitoring system in Mole National Park, Ghana, that were reviewed and entered into a database

Burton, Andrew Cole

2010-01-01

55

Protected areas in tropical Africa: assessing threats and conservation activities.  

PubMed

Numerous protected areas (PAs) have been created in Africa to safeguard wildlife and other natural resources. However, significant threats from anthropogenic activities and decline of wildlife populations persist, while conservation efforts in most PAs are still minimal. We assessed the impact level of the most common threats to wildlife within PAs in tropical Africa and the relationship of conservation activities with threat impact level. We collated data on 98 PAs with tropical forest cover from 15 countries across West, Central and East Africa. For this, we assembled information about local threats as well as conservation activities from published and unpublished literature, and questionnaires sent to long-term field workers. We constructed general linear models to test the significance of specific conservation activities in relation to the threat impact level. Subsistence and commercial hunting were identified as the most common direct threats to wildlife and found to be most prevalent in West and Central Africa. Agriculture and logging represented the most common indirect threats, and were most prevalent in West Africa. We found that the long-term presence of conservation activities (such as law enforcement, research and tourism) was associated with lower threat impact levels. Our results highlight deficiencies in the management effectiveness of several PAs across tropical Africa, and conclude that PA management should invest more into conservation activities with long-term duration. PMID:25469888

Tranquilli, Sandra; Abedi-Lartey, Michael; Abernethy, Katharine; Amsini, Fidèle; Asamoah, Augustus; Balangtaa, Cletus; Blake, Stephen; Bouanga, Estelle; Breuer, Thomas; Brncic, Terry M; Campbell, Geneviève; Chancellor, Rebecca; Chapman, Colin A; Davenport, Tim R B; Dunn, Andrew; Dupain, Jef; Ekobo, Atanga; Eno-Nku, Manasseh; Etoga, Gilles; Furuichi, Takeshi; Gatti, Sylvain; Ghiurghi, Andrea; Hashimoto, Chie; Hart, John A; Head, Josephine; Hega, Martin; Herbinger, Ilka; Hicks, Thurston C; Holbech, Lars H; Huijbregts, Bas; Kühl, Hjalmar S; Imong, Inaoyom; Yeno, Stephane Le-Duc; Linder, Joshua; Marshall, Phil; Lero, Peter Minasoma; Morgan, David; Mubalama, Leonard; N'Goran, Paul K; Nicholas, Aaron; Nixon, Stuart; Normand, Emmanuelle; Nziguyimpa, Leonidas; Nzooh-Dongmo, Zacharie; Ofori-Amanfo, Richard; Ogunjemite, Babafemi G; Petre, Charles-Albert; Rainey, Hugo J; Regnaut, Sebastien; Robinson, Orume; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette M; Okon, David Tiku; Todd, Angelique; Warren, Ymke; Sommer, Volker

2014-01-01

56

Protected Areas in Tropical Africa: Assessing Threats and Conservation Activities  

PubMed Central

Numerous protected areas (PAs) have been created in Africa to safeguard wildlife and other natural resources. However, significant threats from anthropogenic activities and decline of wildlife populations persist, while conservation efforts in most PAs are still minimal. We assessed the impact level of the most common threats to wildlife within PAs in tropical Africa and the relationship of conservation activities with threat impact level. We collated data on 98 PAs with tropical forest cover from 15 countries across West, Central and East Africa. For this, we assembled information about local threats as well as conservation activities from published and unpublished literature, and questionnaires sent to long-term field workers. We constructed general linear models to test the significance of specific conservation activities in relation to the threat impact level. Subsistence and commercial hunting were identified as the most common direct threats to wildlife and found to be most prevalent in West and Central Africa. Agriculture and logging represented the most common indirect threats, and were most prevalent in West Africa. We found that the long-term presence of conservation activities (such as law enforcement, research and tourism) was associated with lower threat impact levels. Our results highlight deficiencies in the management effectiveness of several PAs across tropical Africa, and conclude that PA management should invest more into conservation activities with long-term duration. PMID:25469888

Tranquilli, Sandra; Abedi-Lartey, Michael; Abernethy, Katharine; Amsini, Fidèle; Asamoah, Augustus; Balangtaa, Cletus; Blake, Stephen; Bouanga, Estelle; Breuer, Thomas; Brncic, Terry M.; Campbell, Geneviève; Chancellor, Rebecca; Chapman, Colin A.; Davenport, Tim R. B.; Dunn, Andrew; Dupain, Jef; Ekobo, Atanga; Eno-Nku, Manasseh; Etoga, Gilles; Furuichi, Takeshi; Gatti, Sylvain; Ghiurghi, Andrea; Hashimoto, Chie; Hart, John A.; Head, Josephine; Hega, Martin; Herbinger, Ilka; Hicks, Thurston C.; Holbech, Lars H.; Huijbregts, Bas; Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Imong, Inaoyom; Yeno, Stephane Le-Duc; Linder, Joshua; Marshall, Phil; Lero, Peter Minasoma; Morgan, David; Mubalama, Leonard; N'Goran, Paul K.; Nicholas, Aaron; Nixon, Stuart; Normand, Emmanuelle; Nziguyimpa, Leonidas; Nzooh-Dongmo, Zacharie; Ofori-Amanfo, Richard; Ogunjemite, Babafemi G.; Petre, Charles-Albert; Rainey, Hugo J.; Regnaut, Sebastien; Robinson, Orume; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette M.; Okon, David Tiku; Todd, Angelique; Warren, Ymke; Sommer, Volker

2014-01-01

57

Examining Marginalized Communities and Local Conservation Institutions: The Case of Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In developing countries, participatory conservation initiatives have been criticized for many reasons, mainly for excluding marginalized groups which have led to unequal benefits. Using concepts from the literature on participation, conservation, and political ecology, this research explored the participation of marginal groups, i.e., poor, women, lower caste, and landless, in management institutions in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area. Field work for this research was conducted through the use of interviews and participant observation during August-October 2010. Results show that although marginal groups were involved in local management institutions, their representation was minimal and had not led to meaningful participation or empowerment to influence the decisions being made in conservation and development programs. Our study findings indicate that the involvement of marginal groups in local initiatives is complex and influenced by several factors. The study concludes that the Annapurna Conservation Area Project needs to re-orient its conservation projects by adopting a more inclusive form of participation and move beyond the quota system.

Dahal, Smriti; Nepal, Sanjay K.; Schuett, Michael A.

2014-01-01

58

Examining marginalized communities and local conservation institutions: the case of Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area.  

PubMed

In developing countries, participatory conservation initiatives have been criticized for many reasons, mainly for excluding marginalized groups which have led to unequal benefits. Using concepts from the literature on participation, conservation, and political ecology, this research explored the participation of marginal groups, i.e., poor, women, lower caste, and landless, in management institutions in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area. Field work for this research was conducted through the use of interviews and participant observation during August-October 2010. Results show that although marginal groups were involved in local management institutions, their representation was minimal and had not led to meaningful participation or empowerment to influence the decisions being made in conservation and development programs. Our study findings indicate that the involvement of marginal groups in local initiatives is complex and influenced by several factors. The study concludes that the Annapurna Conservation Area Project needs to re-orient its conservation projects by adopting a more inclusive form of participation and move beyond the quota system. PMID:24271617

Dahal, Smriti; Nepal, Sanjay K; Schuett, Michael A

2014-01-01

59

Native fish conservation areas: A vision for large-scale conservation of native fish communities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The status of freshwater fishes continues to decline despite substantial conservation efforts to reverse this trend and recover threatened and endangered aquatic species. Lack of success is partially due to working at smaller spatial scales and focusing on habitats and species that are already degraded. Protecting entire watersheds and aquatic communities, which we term "native fish conservation areas" (NFCAs), would complement existing conservation efforts by protecting intact aquatic communities while allowing compatible uses. Four critical elements need to be met within a NFCA: (1) maintain processes that create habitat complexity, diversity, and connectivity; (2) nurture all of the life history stages of the fishes being protected; (3) include a long-term enough watershed to provide long-term persistence of native fish populations; and (4) provide management that is sustainable over time. We describe how a network of protected watersheds could be created that would anchor aquatic conservation needs in river basins across the country.

Williams, Jack E.; Williams, Richard N.; Thurow, Russell F.; Elwell, Leah; Philipp, David P.; Harris, Fred A.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.; Martinez, Patrick J.; Miller, Dirk; Reeves, Gordon H.; Frissell, Christopher A.; Sedell, James R.

2011-01-01

60

Exploring students’ strategies in area conservation geometrical tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to investigate the strategies employed by advanced high school and university students working on\\u000a six tasks concerning comparison and conservation of area. Special care has been taken in the test design so that the problems\\u000a could be dealt with using a variety of solution methods. Written responses and in-depth interviews with 21 12th graders

George Kospentaris; Panagiotis Spyrou; Dionyssios Lappas

2011-01-01

61

Human migration, protected areas, and conservation outreach in Tanzania.  

PubMed

A recent discussion debates the extent of human in-migration around protected areas (PAs) in the tropics. One proposed argument is that rural migrants move to bordering areas to access conservation outreach benefits. A counter proposal maintains that PAs have largely negative effects on local populations and that outreach initiatives even if successful present insufficient benefits to drive in-migration. Using data from Tanzania, we examined merits of statistical tests and spatial methods used previously to evaluate migration near PAs and applied hierarchical modeling with appropriate controls for demographic and geographic factors to advance the debate. Areas bordering national parks in Tanzania did not have elevated rates of in-migration. Low baseline population density and high vegetation productivity with low interannual variation rather than conservation outreach explained observed migration patterns. More generally we argue that to produce results of conservation policy significance, analyses must be conducted at appropriate scales, and we caution against use of demographic data without appropriate controls when drawing conclusions about migration dynamics. PMID:24476123

Salerno, Jonathan D; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; Kefauver, Shawn C

2014-06-01

62

Natural resource dependency and decentralized conservation within Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project, Nepal.  

PubMed

Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project (KCAP) in Nepal is among the first protected areas in the world to institute a completely decentralized system of conservation and development. Proponents of decentralized conservation claim that it increases management efficiency, enhances the responsiveness to local needs, and promotes greater equity among local residents. This study assessed local equity by evaluating the levels of dependencies on natural resources among households and the factors affecting that dependency. Data were collected via detailed surveys among 205 randomly selected households within the KCAP. Natural resource dependency was evaluated by comparing the ratio of total household income to income derived from access to natural resources. Economic, social, and access-related variables were employed to determine potential significant predictors of dependency. Overall, households were heavily dependent on natural resources for their income, especially households at higher elevations and those with more adult members. The households that received remittances were most able to supplement their income and, therefore, drastically reduced their reliance on the access to natural resources. Socio-economic variables, such as land holdings, education, caste, and ethnicity, failed to predict dependency. Household participation in KCAP-sponsored training programs also failed to affect household dependency; however, fewer than 20% of the households had any form of direct contact with KCAP personnel within the past year. The success of the KCAP as a decentralized conservation program is contingent on project capacity-building via social mobilization, training programs, and participatory inclusion in decision making to help alleviate the dependency on natural resources. PMID:22127405

Parker, Pete; Thapa, Brijesh

2012-02-01

63

Spatial Distribution of Soil Nutrients in a Northern Everglades Marsh: Water Conservation Area 1  

E-print Network

Spatial Distribution of Soil Nutrients in a Northern Everglades Marsh: Water Conservation Area 1 S examines the response of a pristine wetland, Water ConservationArea 1 (WCA 1), part of the northern Florida

Florida, University of

64

Sediment Inventory and Phosphorus Fractions for Water Conservation Area Canals in the Everglades  

E-print Network

Sediment Inventory and Phosphorus Fractions for Water Conservation Area Canals in the Everglades O in the Water Conservation Area (WCA) canals in the Ever- glades. A study was conducted to characterize

Florida, University of

65

50 CFR Figure 17 to Part 679 - Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA) 17 Figure 17 to part 679 Wildlife...Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA) ER06OC10.048 [75 FR...

2012-10-01

66

50 CFR Figure 17 to Part 679 - Northern Bering Sea Research Area and St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Northern Bering Sea Research Area and St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area 17 Figure 17 to part 679 Wildlife and...Northern Bering Sea Research Area and St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.011 [73 FR 43371,...

2010-10-01

67

50 CFR Figure 17 to Part 679 - Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA) 17 Figure 17 to part 679 Wildlife...Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA) ER06OC10.048 [75 FR...

2013-10-01

68

50 CFR Figure 17 to Part 679 - Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA) 17 Figure 17 to part 679 Wildlife...Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA) ER06OC10.048 [75 FR...

2011-10-01

69

77 FR 9260 - Establishment of Dakota Grassland Conservation Area, North Dakota and South Dakota  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FF06R06000-FXRS1265066CCP0S2-123] Establishment of Dakota Grassland Conservation Area, North Dakota and...Service) has established the Dakota Grassland Conservation Area, the 554th unit of...The Service established the Dakota Grassland Conservation Area on September 21,...

2012-02-16

70

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF SOIL PROPERTIES IN WATER CONSERVATION AREA 2A,  

E-print Network

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF SOIL PROPERTIES IN WATER CONSERVATION AREA 2A to restore wetlands impacted by nutrient influx. Our goal was to investigate Water Conservation Area 2A), total nitrogen (TN), total calcium (TCa), total carbon (TC), and floc depth in Water Conservation Area 2

Florida, University of

71

Evaluating Conservation International's Marine Management Area Science Program.  

E-print Network

?? Environmental non-governmental organizations are now major players in environmental science and conservation. The largest now produce applied conservation science and work on local, national,… (more)

Hastings, Jesse

2011-01-01

72

Fluid inclusions in quartz-pebbles of the gold-bearing Tarkwaian conglomerates of Ghana as guides to their provenance area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quartz-pebbles of the early Proterozoic Au-bearing Tarkwaian conglomerates in Ghana reveal several original (inherited) pre-sedimentary\\u000a fluid inclusions. These inclusions are CO2-N2 rich and display a distinct high density (up to 1.15 g\\/cm3). The unusual high density and composition compare well with CO2-N2-rich inclusions in quartz-vein type gold deposits of the Birimian Supergroup in Ghana and Burkina Faso. This type of

R. Klemd; W. Hirdes; M. Olesch; T. Oberthür

1993-01-01

73

50 CFR 660.78 - EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Oregon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Oregon. 660... Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...Groundfish Fisheries § 660.78 EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Oregon....

2011-10-01

74

50 CFR 660.78 - EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Oregon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Oregon. 660... Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...Groundfish Fisheries § 660.78 EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Oregon....

2013-10-01

75

50 CFR 660.78 - EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Oregon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Oregon. 660... Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...Groundfish Fisheries § 660.78 EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Oregon....

2012-10-01

76

50 CFR 660.78 - EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Oregon.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Oregon. 660... Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...Groundfish Fisheries § 660.78 EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Oregon....

2014-10-01

77

Student Loans in Ghana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article summarizes the current pattern of finance of higher education in Ghana, gives a brief history of student loans in Ghana, and describes a new program, which is administered by the Social Security and National Insurance Trust and is expected to result in a higher rate of loan repayment. (Author/DB)

Kotey, N.

1992-01-01

78

Recent Changes in Soil Total Phosphorus in the Everglades: Water Conservation Area 3  

E-print Network

Recent Changes in Soil Total Phosphorus in the Everglades: Water Conservation Area 3 Gregory L nutrient loading from drained agricul- tural lands, annual phosphorus (P) inputs to the Water Conservation

Grunwald, Sabine

79

Spatial Distribution of Soil Nutrients in a Northern Everglades Marsh: Water Conservation Area 2A  

E-print Network

Spatial Distribution of Soil Nutrients in a Northern Everglades Marsh: Water Conservation Area 2A W of P, N, C, and related physico-chemical parameters in the peat soils (Histosols) of Water Conservation

Florida, University of

80

Balancing livestock production and wildlife conservation in and around southern Africa's transfrontier conservation areas.  

PubMed

Biodiversity conservation, of which the transfrontier conservation area movement is an integral part, and more effective livestock production/trade are pivotal to future rural development in southern Africa. For that reason, it is imperative to effectively ameliorate the obstacles that have impeded progress towards the coexistence of these two sectors for more than half a century. Transboundary animal diseases, foot and mouth disease in particular, have been and continue to be the most important of these obstacles. Fortunately, new developments in international sanitary standards applicable to trade in commodities and products derived from animals are beginning to make a solution possible. However, while progress in principle has been achieved, practical implementation remains problematic for technical reasons, exacerbated by inconsistent attitudes towards acceptance of non-traditional international trade standards. This paper describes the background to this situation, progress that has been achieved in the recent past and remaining difficulties that need to be overcome to advance towards achievement of balanced rural development in southern Africa. PMID:24148143

Thomson, G R; Penrith, M-L; Atkinson, M W; Atkinson, S J; Cassidy, D; Osofsky, S A

2013-12-01

81

Oil and gas possibilities onshore and offshore Ghana  

SciTech Connect

Nearly half of the total area of the Republic of Ghana is covered by sedimentary rocks. These rocks are found mainly in four different parts of the country: Tano basin, Keta basin, Voltaian basin, and the continental shelf. Because oil seeps in saturated superficial sands were found in the Tano basin, efforts to find oil in Ghana started as far back as 1896 in this basin, which is located at the extreme southwestern part of Ghana and has an area of 1165 km/sup 2/ (450 mi/sup 2/). The Keta basin, located at the extreme southeastern part of Ghana, has an area of 2200 km/sup 2/ (850 mi/sup 2/). The continental shelf of Ghana is at the southern part of the country and has an area of 27,562 km/sup 2/ (10,640 mi/sup 2/). The possibility of finding oil and/or gas at the extreme western part of the continental shelf cannot be overemphasized. The expansive Voltaian sedimentary basin, located in the central part of Ghana, covers an area of about 103,600 km/sup 2/ (40,000 mi/sup 2/). Although no trace of hydrocarbon was found in the only well that has been drilled so far in this basin, the presence of traces of bitumen in some parts of the basin indicates that, despite of its age, the basin might prove to be an oil province. The recent discovery of oil in the Ivory Coast means that it is possible to find oil or gas in Ghana, inasmuch as Ghana's petroleum potential is closely associated with that of the Ivory Coast basin, which extends for 560 km (300 mi) along the entire Ivory Coast and persists eastward into Ghana for an additional 320 km (200 mi), terminating in the area directly west of Accra.

Keese, G.O.

1984-09-01

82

Environmental education praxis toward a natural conservation area.  

PubMed

A non-formal Environmental Education (EE) Program has been implemented in the natural conservation area (Ecological Station of Jataí, Luiz Ant nio, São Paulo State), through (EE) paradigms, which consider the objectives of education about, in and for the environment within cultural and natural perspectives. The aim of this Program is to support information and scientific knowledge to provide opportunities to the local population to be aware of environmental impacts and risks resulting from the soil use that threaten the environmental quality and the bio diversity of the Ecological Station of Jataí. The Program understands that the promotion of community empowerment could bring the sense of participation and the directives to management for decision-making for local sustainable. The model was projected on local reality, but considering the global issues of environmental paradigms. The environmental characterization (biophysical components) through a Geographical Information Systems was related to the hydrographic basin analysis. The environmental perception was utilized as a main tool to analyse population understanding of local environment, and (EE) pedagogical tools were produced to promote environmental awareness. Since the ecological dimension of (EE) was the main approach, the programme intends to assemble the cultural perspective, achieving the global view of (EE). PMID:11188862

dos Santos, J E; Sato, M; Pires, J S; Maroti, P S

2000-08-01

83

Hydrostratigraphy of Tree Island Cores from Water Conservation Area 3  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cores and borehole-geophysical logs collected on and around two tree islands in Water Conservation Area 3 have been examined to develop a stratigraphic framework for these ecosystems. Especially important is the potential for the exchange of ground water and surface water within these features. The hydrostratigraphic results from this study document the lithologic nature of the foundation of the tree islands, the distribution of porous intervals, the potential for paleotopographic influence on their formation, and the importance of low-permeability, subaerial-exposure horizons on the vertical exchange of ground water and surface water. Figure 1. Location of Tree Islands 3AS3 and 3BS1. [larger image] Results from this hydrostratigraphic study indicate that subtle differences occur in lithofacies and topography between the on-island and off-island subsurface geologic records. Specifics are described herein. Firstly, at both tree-island sites, the top of the limestone bedrock is slightly elevated beneath the head of the tree islands relative to the off-island core sites and the tail of the tree islands, which suggests that bedrock 'highs' acted as 'seeds' for the development of the tree islands of this study and possibly many others. Secondly, examination of the recovered core and the caliper logs tentatively suggest that the elevated limestone beneath the tree islands may have a preferentially more porous framework relative to limestone beneath the adjacent areas, possibly providing a ground-water-to-surface-water connection that sustains the tree island system. Finally, because the elevation of the top of the limestone bedrock at the head of Tree Island 3AS3 is slightly higher than the surrounding upper surface of the peat, and because the wetland peats have a lower hydraulic conductivity than the limestone bedrock (Miami Limestone and Fort Thompson Formation), it is possible that there is a head difference between surface water of the wetlands and the ground water in underlying limestone bedrock.

McNeill, Donald F.; Cunningham, Kevin J.

2003-01-01

84

50 CFR Figure 20 to Part 679 - Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea 20... Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...20 to Part 679—Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea...

2011-10-01

85

50 CFR Figure 20 to Part 679 - Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea 20... Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...20 to Part 679—Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea...

2012-10-01

86

50 CFR Figure 21 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area  

...Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 21 Figure 21 to Part...Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.012...

2014-10-01

87

Ground-water flow beneath levee 35A from conservation area 2B, Broward County, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Conservation Area 2B is an area of recharge for the surficial aquifer system in Broward County. Water stored in the conservation area provides the hydraulic potential for downward flow to the high permeability zone of the Biscayne aquifer. A 5.64 ft head differential (average for the period of record) between water levels in Conservation Area 2B and water levels in the adjacent levee 35A borrow canal causes water to leak into the canal at an average rate of about 0.0022 cu ft per sec per lineal foot of canal and accounts for a loss of 0.013 foot per day of surface water from Conservation Area 2B. Amounts of canal leakage and underflow are constantly changing and are dependent upon the head differential between Conservation Area 2B and the levee 35A borrow canal. (Author 's abstract)

Swayze, L.J.

1988-01-01

88

50 CFR Table 45 to Part 679 - St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area 45 Table 45 to Part 679 Wildlife and...679, Table 45 Table 45 to Part 679—St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 16824.00W...

2011-10-01

89

50 CFR Table 45 to Part 679 - St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area 45 Table 45 to Part 679 Wildlife and...679, Table 45 Table 45 to Part 679—St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 16824.00W...

2010-10-01

90

50 CFR Table 42 to Part 679 - Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area 42 Table 42 to Part 679 Wildlife and...ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 42 Table 42 to Part 679—Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 17919.95W...

2010-10-01

91

50 CFR Table 46 to Part 679 - St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area 46 Table 46 to Part 679 Wildlife and...679, Table 46 Table 46 to Part 679—St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 171 45.00...

2012-10-01

92

50 CFR Figure 16 to Part 679 - Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area 16 Figure 16 to part 679 Wildlife and... Pt. 679, Fig. 16 Figure 16 to part 679—Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.010 [73 FR 43371,...

2011-10-01

93

50 CFR Table 42 to Part 679 - Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area 42 Table 42 to Part 679 Wildlife and...ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 42 Table 42 to Part 679—Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 17919.95W...

2011-10-01

94

50 CFR Figure 16 to Part 679 - Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area 16 Figure 16 to part 679 Wildlife and... Pt. 679, Fig. 16 Figure 16 to part 679—Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.010 [73 FR 43371,...

2013-10-01

95

50 CFR Table 45 to Part 679 - St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area 45 Table 45 to Part 679 Wildlife and...679, Table 45 Table 45 to Part 679—St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 16824.00W...

2013-10-01

96

50 CFR Table 42 to Part 679 - Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area 42 Table 42 to Part 679 Wildlife and...ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 42 Table 42 to Part 679—Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 17919.95W...

2012-10-01

97

50 CFR Table 46 to Part 679 - St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area 46 Table 46 to Part 679 Wildlife and...679, Table 46 Table 46 to Part 679—St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 1720.00W...

2010-10-01

98

50 CFR Table 42 to Part 679 - Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area 42 Table 42 to Part 679 Wildlife and...ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 42 Table 42 to Part 679—Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 17919.95W...

2013-10-01

99

50 CFR Table 46 to Part 679 - St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area 46 Table 46 to Part 679 Wildlife and...679, Table 46 Table 46 to Part 679—St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 171 45.00...

2013-10-01

100

50 CFR Table 46 to Part 679 - St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area 46 Table 46 to Part 679 Wildlife and...679, Table 46 Table 46 to Part 679—St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 171 45.00...

2011-10-01

101

50 CFR Figure 16 to Part 679 - Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area 16 Figure 16 to part 679 Wildlife and... Pt. 679, Fig. 16 Figure 16 to part 679—Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.010 [73 FR 43371,...

2010-10-01

102

50 CFR Table 45 to Part 679 - St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area 45 Table 45 to Part 679 Wildlife and...679, Table 45 Table 45 to Part 679—St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 16824.00W...

2012-10-01

103

50 CFR Figure 16 to Part 679 - Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area 16 Figure 16 to part 679 Wildlife and... Pt. 679, Fig. 16 Figure 16 to part 679—Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.010 [73 FR 43371,...

2012-10-01

104

Knowing but not doing: selecting priority conservation areas and the research-implementation gap.  

PubMed

Conservation assessment is a rapidly evolving discipline whose stated goal is the design of networks of protected areas that represent and ensure the persistence of nature (i.e., species, habitats, and environmental processes) by separating priority areas from the activities that degrade or destroy them. Nevertheless, despite a burgeoning scientific literature that ever refines these techniques for allocating conservation resources, it is widely believed that conservation assessments are rarely translated into actions that actually conserve nature. We reviewed the conservation assessment literature in peer-reviewed journals and conducted survey questionnaires of the authors of these studies. Two-thirds of conservation assessments published in the peer-reviewed scientific literature do not deliver conservation action, primarily because most researchers never plan for implementation. This research-implementation gap between conservation science and real-world action is a genuine phenomenon and is a specific example of the "knowing-doing gap" that is widely recognized in management science. Given the woefully inadequate resources allocated for conservation, our findings raise questions over the utility of conservation assessment science, as currently practiced, to provide useful, pragmatic solutions to conservation planning problems. A reevaluation of the conceptual and operational basis of conservation planning research is urgently required. We recommend the following actions for beginning a process for bridging the research-implementation gap in conservation planning: (1) acknowledge the research-implementation gap is real, (2) source research questions from practitioners, (3) situate research within a broader conservation planning model, (4) expand the social dimension of conservation assessments, (5) support conservation plans with transdisciplinary social learning institutions, (6) reward academics for societal engagement and implementation, and (7) train students in skills for "doing" conservation. PMID:18477033

Knight, Andrew T; Cowling, Richard M; Rouget, Mathieu; Balmford, Andrew; Lombard, Amanda T; Campbell, Bruce M

2008-06-01

105

Institutional, Legal, and Economic Instruments in Ghana's Environmental Policy.  

PubMed

/ This paper reviews the state of the environment in Ghana and explores the potential for the use of institutional, legal, and economic instruments in environmental management in the specific context of this developing country.The environmental situation in Ghana is characterized by desertification, land degradation, deforestation, soil erosion, and inadequate water supply in the northern regions of the country. The population as a whole is growing at a rate of 3% per annum, with even greater urban growth rates, due to rural out-migration. Large parts of the coastal zone in the south are rapidly developing to become one large suburbanized area. Water quality is particularly threatened in the urban and industrialized areas, which are mainly located in the southern part of the country. The coastal lagoons and coastal waters are moderately to heavily polluted. Erosion extends along the whole Ghanaian coast with excesses, for example, in the Keta area, where during the last century over 90% of the original buildings have been washed awayby the sea. The obvious environmental consequences of the mining sector are illustrative of the environmental threats caused by a fast growing industry and industrializing agriculture, in a country where environmental policy is only in its formative years. Desertification, food insecurity and coastal erosion all contribute to an increasing number of environmental refugees.Environmental policy in Ghana is a post-Rio phenomenon. Environmental laws, a Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology, an advisory National Committee for the Implementation of Agenda 21, and a fully mandated environmental administration have been established. This administration advocates a progressive attitude towards environmental legislation and points out the specific utility of economic and legal instruments in environmental management in this relatively fast developing country.The choice of instruments for environmental management is increasingly influenced by the specific state of African environmental and technological capacity and by a call for the recognition of the role of traditional customs in nature conservation. This African perspective on environmental management is further intensified by an unmet need for regional, transboundary cooperation in the West African subcontinent. This specific West African context calls for an elaboration of an effective capacity-building program for environmental management in the area.KEY WORDS: Environmental profile; Environmental policy; Legal instruments; Economic instruments; African perspective; State of the environmenthttp://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/00267/bibs/24n3p337.html PMID:10486044

Hens; Boon

1999-10-01

106

Environmental Conservation/Studies "focus area" (with potential courses listed) Biodiversity Conservation  

E-print Network

Conservation ANTHRO 317 Primate Behavior BIOLOGY 108 Biodiversity BIOLOGY 297B Marine Vertebrates BIOLOGY 426 New England Flora BIOLOGY 540 Herpetology BIOLOGY 542 Icthyology BIOLOGY 544 Ornithology BIOLOGY 548 Mammalogy BIOLOGY 550 Animal Behavior BIOLOGY 597G Env Evolution ENTOMOL 572 Forest Insects ENVIRDES 335

Schweik, Charles M.

107

Evaluation of the Bird Conservation Area Concept in the Northern Tallgrass Prairie Annual Report: 19  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new resource on the management and conservation of grassland/prairie birds has been posted at the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center site. This report "contains findings from the first year of a study to test the idea that Bird Conservation Areas can maintain populations of breeding grassland birds." It is available for download in .zip format.

Donovan, Therese M.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Svedarsky, W. D.; Winter, Maiken.

2007-08-14

108

Broken forest: Applying the integrated conservation and development paradigm to Madagascar's protected areas  

SciTech Connect

The destruction of Madagascar's primary forests through agricultural clearing poses a grave threat to the island's biodiversity. The report assesses the potential of the planned Sustainable and Viable Environmental Management (SAVEM) Project to minimize this threat by implementing Integrated Conservation Development Projects (ICDP's), which link resource conservation to income-generating activities, in the peripheral zones of Madagascar's protected areas.

Barbour, R.; Rabezandria, R.; Daviesson, R.; Guyton, W.; Rakotobe.

1992-06-01

109

Identification and Implementation of Native Fish Conservation Areas in the Upper Colorado River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater fishes continue to decline at a rapid rate despite substantial conservation efforts. Native fish conservation areas (NFCAs) are a management approach emphasizing persistent native fish communities and healthy watersheds while simultaneously allowing for compatible human uses. We identified potential NFCAs in the Upper Colorado River Basin in Wyoming—focusing on Colorado River cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus), flannelmouth sucker (Catostomus

Daniel C. Dauwalter; John S. Sanderson; Jack E. Williams; James R. Sedell

2011-01-01

110

INCORPORATING MARINE BIRD DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE INFORMATION INTO MARINE CONSERVATION AREA MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The marine conservation mandate of Parks Canada Agency, passed in 2002, includes maintaining ecosystem structure and function while permitting multiple sustainable uses such as Aboriginal subsistence use, tourism and fisheries within National Marine Conservation Areas. We recently completed a review of the distribution and abundance of marine birds in the Haida Gwaii (Queen Charlotte Islands) region as a first

A. Harfenist; N. A. Sloan; P. M. Bartier

2002-01-01

111

Operation Hernia to Ghana.  

PubMed

Inguinal hernia repair and Caesarian section are the two most commonly occurring operations in Africa. Trained surgeons are few, distances between hospitals are large and strangulated hernia is the most common cause of intestinal obstruction. Numerous deaths and cases of permanent disability occur because patients with inguinal hernias requiring elective or urgent surgery are not properly cared for, or they do not actually reach hospital. Operation Hernia was a humanitarian mission between the European Hernia Society and the Plymouth-Takoradi (Ghana) Link conceived specifically to treat and teach groin hernia surgery in the Western region of Ghana. PMID:16912846

Kingsnorth, A N; Oppong, C; Akoh, J; Stephenson, B; Simmermacher, R

2006-10-01

112

Opuntia in México: Identifying Priority Areas for Conserving Biodiversity in a Multi-Use Landscape  

PubMed Central

Background México is one of the world's centers of species diversity (richness) for Opuntia cacti. Yet, in spite of their economic and ecological importance, Opuntia species remain poorly studied and protected in México. Many of the species are sparsely but widely distributed across the landscape and are subject to a variety of human uses, so devising implementable conservation plans for them presents formidable difficulties. Multi–criteria analysis can be used to design a spatially coherent conservation area network while permitting sustainable human usage. Methods and Findings Species distribution models were created for 60 Opuntia species using MaxEnt. Targets of representation within conservation area networks were assigned at 100% for the geographically rarest species and 10% for the most common ones. Three different conservation plans were developed to represent the species within these networks using total area, shape, and connectivity as relevant criteria. Multi–criteria analysis and a metaheuristic adaptive tabu search algorithm were used to search for optimal solutions. The plans were built on the existing protected areas of México and prioritized additional areas for management for the persistence of Opuntia species. All plans required around one–third of México's total area to be prioritized for attention for Opuntia conservation, underscoring the implausibility of Opuntia conservation through traditional land reservation. Tabu search turned out to be both computationally tractable and easily implementable for search problems of this kind. Conclusions Opuntia conservation in México require the management of large areas of land for multiple uses. The multi-criteria analyses identified priority areas and organized them in large contiguous blocks that can be effectively managed. A high level of connectivity was established among the prioritized areas resulting in the enhancement of possible modes of plant dispersal as well as only a small number of blocks that would be recommended for conservation management. PMID:22606279

Illoldi-Rangel, Patricia; Ciarleglio, Michael; Sheinvar, Leia; Linaje, Miguel; Sánchez-Cordero, Victor; Sarkar, Sahotra

2012-01-01

113

78 FR 64004 - Notice of Intent To Collect Fees on Public Lands in the Red Cliffs National Conservation Area...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EB000] Notice of Intent To Collect Fees on Public Lands in the Red Cliffs National Conservation Area, Washington County, UT...54676), Notice of Intent to Collect Fees on Public Lands in the Red Cliffs National Conservation Area, Washington County,...

2013-10-25

114

50 CFR Table 44 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 44 Table 44 to Part 679 Wildlife and...Part 679—Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 1651.54W...

2010-10-01

115

50 CFR Table 44 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 44 Table 44 to Part 679 Wildlife and...Part 679—Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 1651.54W...

2012-10-01

116

50 CFR Table 44 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 44 Table 44 to Part 679 Wildlife and...Part 679—Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 1651.54W...

2013-10-01

117

50 CFR Table 44 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 44 Table 44 to Part 679 Wildlife and...Part 679—Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 1651.54W...

2011-10-01

118

Temporal trajectories of phosphorus and pedo-patterns mapped in Water Conservation Area 2, Everglades, Florida, USA  

E-print Network

Temporal trajectories of phosphorus and pedo-patterns mapped in Water Conservation Area 2-patterns in Water Conservation Area 2, a subtropical wetland in the Everglades, Florida. Our specific objectives

Grunwald, Sabine

119

Spatial Overlap between Environmental Policy Instruments and Areas of High Conservation Value in Forest  

PubMed Central

In order to safeguard biodiversity in forest we need to know how forest policy instruments work. Here we use a nationwide network of 9400 plots in productive forest to analyze to what extent large-scale policy instruments, individually and together, target forest of high conservation value in Norway. We studied both instruments working through direct regulation; Strict Protection and Landscape Protection, and instruments working through management planning and voluntary schemes of forest certification; Wilderness Area and Mountain Forest. As forest of high conservation value (HCV-forest) we considered the extent of 12 Biodiversity Habitats and the extent of Old-Age Forest. We found that 22% of productive forest area contained Biodiversity Habitats. More than 70% of this area was not covered by any large-scale instruments. Mountain Forest covered 23%, while Strict Protection and Wilderness both covered 5% of the Biodiversity Habitat area. A total of 9% of productive forest area contained Old-Age Forest, and the relative coverage of the four instruments was similar as for Biodiversity Habitats. For all instruments, except Landscape Protection, the targeted areas contained significantly higher proportions of HCV-forest than areas not targeted by these instruments. Areas targeted by Strict Protection had higher proportions of HCV-forest than areas targeted by other instruments, except for areas targeted by Wilderness Area which showed similar proportions of Biodiversity Habitats. There was a substantial amount of spatial overlap between the policy tools, but no incremental conservation effect of overlapping instruments in terms of contributing to higher percentages of targeted HCV-forest. Our results reveal that although the current policy mix has an above average representation of forest of high conservation value, the targeting efficiency in terms of area overlap is limited. There is a need to improve forest conservation and a potential to cover this need by better targeting high conservation value areas. PMID:25502238

Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Søgaard, Gunnhild; Rusch, Graciela M.; Barton, David N.

2014-01-01

120

78 FR 54675 - Notice of Intent To Collect Fees on Public Lands in the Red Cliffs National Conservation Area...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Intent To Collect Fees on Public Lands in the Red Cliffs National Conservation Area, Washington...at the White Reef Park, located in the Red Cliffs National Conservation Area (NCA...Mail: NCA Manager, Beaver Dam Wash and Red Cliffs National Conservation Areas,...

2013-09-05

121

43 CFR 21.5 - Occupancy under permit of Government-owned cabins on public recreation and conservation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Government-owned cabins on public recreation and conservation areas. 21.5 Section 21.5... OCCUPANCY OF CABIN SITES ON PUBLIC CONSERVATION AND RECREATION AREAS § 21.5 ...Government-owned cabins on public recreation and conservation areas. (a) Those...

2010-10-01

122

43 CFR 21.5 - Occupancy under permit of Government-owned cabins on public recreation and conservation areas.  

...Government-owned cabins on public recreation and conservation areas. 21.5 Section 21.5... OCCUPANCY OF CABIN SITES ON PUBLIC CONSERVATION AND RECREATION AREAS § 21.5 ...Government-owned cabins on public recreation and conservation areas. (a) Those...

2014-10-01

123

43 CFR 21.5 - Occupancy under permit of Government-owned cabins on public recreation and conservation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Government-owned cabins on public recreation and conservation areas. 21.5 Section 21.5... OCCUPANCY OF CABIN SITES ON PUBLIC CONSERVATION AND RECREATION AREAS § 21.5 ...Government-owned cabins on public recreation and conservation areas. (a) Those...

2013-10-01

124

Country Profiles, Ghana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A profile of Ghana is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

Gaisie, S. K.; And Others

125

Ghana: Disability and Spirituality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This descriptive study explores the educational system and attitudes toward disability in the Volta Region of Ghana. Traditional, Christian, and Islamic beliefs toward disability are explored. Educators from Accra and three families from the Volta Region with children with special needs are interviewed in an effort to explore the connection…

Botts, Betsy H.; Evans, William H.

2010-01-01

126

Conservation Area Managed by: Bureau of Land Management,  

E-print Network

Big Windy Creek cascades through a narrow canyon marked by a cliff and many boulders (left). Big Windy Hot Springs emerges in one main high temperature pool (upper right), a few lower temperature pools, and a series of drip zones and marshy seeps. Dall sheep move from alpine zones south of the Research Natural Area across bouldery slopes (lower right) down to the hot springs where they obtain mineral salts. Big Windy Hot Springs contains several scientifically interesting geologic features and plant communities and rare plants and animals in a compact area. Author Glenn Patrick Juday is associate professor of plant ecology and Alaska ecological reserves

Big Windy Hot Springs; Glenn Patrick Juday

127

Biodiversity, Urban Areas, and Agriculture: Locating Priority Ecoregions for Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urbanization and agriculture are two of the most important threats to biodiversity worldwide. The intensities of these land-use phenomena, however, as well as levels of biodiversity itself, differ widely among regions. Thus, there is a need to develop a quick but rigorous method of identifying where high levels of human threats and biodiversity coincide. These areas are clear priorities for

Taylor Ricketts; Marc Imhoff

2003-01-01

128

Fluid inclusions in quartz-pebbles of the gold-bearing Tarkwaian conglomerates of Ghana as guides to their provenance area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quartz-pebbles of the early Proterozoic Au-bearing Tarkwaian conglomerates in Ghana reveal several original (inherited) pre-sedimentary fluid inclusions. These inclusions are CO2-N2 rich and display a distinct high density (up to 1.15 g/cm3). The unusual high density and composition compare well with CO2-N2-rich inclusions in quartz-vein type gold deposits of the Birimian Supergroup in Ghana and Burkina Faso. This type of fluid inclusions has not been reported from any other lode-gold deposit of greenstone affiliation and is thus a specific characteristic for Birimian-hosted gold deposits. Therefore, it can be used as an unequivocal pathfinder for epigenetic as well as for syn-sedimentary gold mineralization of the early Proterozoic of West Africa. The inherited fluid inclusions with the unique physicochemical characteristics suggest that the Tarkwaian quartz-pebbles and possibly some gold were derived from Au-quartz vein deposits comparable in mineralogy, petrography and genesis to those along the NW-margin of the Ashanti belt (e.g. Ashanti Mine, Prestea Mine).

Klemd, R.; Hirdes, W.; Olesch, M.; Oberthür, T.

1993-11-01

129

Socioeconomic issues for the Bear River Watershed Conservation Land Area Protection Plan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Bear River Watershed Conservation Area is located in the Bear River Watershed, a vast basin covering fourteen counties across three states. Located in Wyoming, Utah, and Idaho, the watershed spans roughly 7,500 squares miles: 1,500 squares miles in Wyoming; 2,700 squares miles in Idaho; and 3,300 squares miles in Utah (Utah Division of Water Resources, 2004). Three National Wildlife Refuges are currently contained within the boundary of the BRWCA: the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge in Utah, the Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Idaho, and the Cokeville Meadows National Wildlife Refuge in Wyoming. In 2010, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service conducted a Preliminary Project Proposal and identified the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area as having high-value wildlife habitat. This finding initiated the Land Protection Planning process, which is used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to study land conservation opportunities including adding lands to the National Wildlife Refuge System. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposes to include part of the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area in the Refuge System by acquiring up to 920,000 acres of conservation easements from willing landowners to maintain landscape integrity and habitat connectivity in the region. The analysis described in this report provides a profile of the social and economic conditions in the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area and addresses social and economic questions and concerns raised during public involvement in the Land Protection Planning process.

Thomas, Catherine Cullinane; Huber, Christopher; Gascoigne, William; Koontz, Lynne

2012-01-01

130

Identifying Priority Areas for Conservation and Management in Diverse Tropical Forests  

PubMed Central

The high concentration of the world’s species in tropical forests endows these systems with particular importance for retaining global biodiversity, yet it also presents significant challenges for ecology and conservation science. The vast number of rare and yet to be discovered species restricts the applicability of species-level modelling for tropical forests, while the capacity of community classification approaches to identify priorities for conservation and management is also limited. Here we assessed the degree to which macroecological modelling can overcome shortfalls in our knowledge of biodiversity in tropical forests and help identify priority areas for their conservation and management. We used 527 plant community survey plots in the Australian Wet Tropics to generate models and predictions of species richness, compositional dissimilarity, and community composition for all the 4,313 vascular plant species recorded across the region (>1.3 million communities (grid cells)). We then applied these predictions to identify areas of tropical forest likely to contain the greatest concentration of species, rare species, endemic species and primitive angiosperm families. Synthesising these alternative attributes of diversity into a single index of conservation value, we identified two areas within the Australian wet tropics that should be a high priority for future conservation actions: the Atherton Tablelands and Daintree rainforest. Our findings demonstrate the value of macroecological modelling in identifying priority areas for conservation and management actions within highly diverse systems, such as tropical forests. PMID:24551222

Mokany, Karel; Westcott, David A.; Prasad, Soumya; Ford, Andrew J.; Metcalfe, Daniel J.

2014-01-01

131

43 CFR 21.6 - Cabin site occupancy where a recreation or conservation area has been leased to, or turned over...  

...occupancy where a recreation or conservation area has been leased to...OCCUPANCY OF CABIN SITES ON PUBLIC CONSERVATION AND RECREATION AREAS § 21...occupancy where a recreation or conservation area has been leased...

2014-10-01

132

43 CFR 21.6 - Cabin site occupancy where a recreation or conservation area has been leased to, or turned over...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...occupancy where a recreation or conservation area has been leased to...OCCUPANCY OF CABIN SITES ON PUBLIC CONSERVATION AND RECREATION AREAS § 21...occupancy where a recreation or conservation area has been leased...

2012-10-01

133

43 CFR 21.6 - Cabin site occupancy where a recreation or conservation area has been leased to, or turned over...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...occupancy where a recreation or conservation area has been leased to...OCCUPANCY OF CABIN SITES ON PUBLIC CONSERVATION AND RECREATION AREAS § 21...occupancy where a recreation or conservation area has been leased...

2010-10-01

134

43 CFR 21.6 - Cabin site occupancy where a recreation or conservation area has been leased to, or turned over...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...occupancy where a recreation or conservation area has been leased to...OCCUPANCY OF CABIN SITES ON PUBLIC CONSERVATION AND RECREATION AREAS § 21...occupancy where a recreation or conservation area has been leased...

2013-10-01

135

43 CFR 21.6 - Cabin site occupancy where a recreation or conservation area has been leased to, or turned over...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...occupancy where a recreation or conservation area has been leased to...OCCUPANCY OF CABIN SITES ON PUBLIC CONSERVATION AND RECREATION AREAS § 21...occupancy where a recreation or conservation area has been leased...

2011-10-01

136

Caution with curves: Caveats for using the species–area relationship in conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation biologists use the species–area relationship for a variety of purposes, including upscaling diversity from small plots to regions, predicting species loss, and for identifying biodiversity hotspots and prioritizing actions to protect them. Despite its widespread use, several complications that affect the accuracy of its application are often overlooked. First, interpretation of the species–area relationship is a function of the

Adam B. Smith

2010-01-01

137

Distribution of small cetaceans within a candidate Special Area of Conservation; implications for management  

E-print Network

Distribution of small cetaceans within a candidate Special Area of Conservation; implications distribution plays an important role in the identification of suitable boundaries for marine protected areas truncatus). Limited data on the distribution of bottlenose dolphins and on temporal changes in distribution

Aberdeen, University of

138

Wood density as a conservation tool: quantification of disturbance and identification of conservation-priority areas in tropical forests.  

PubMed

Inventories of tree species are often conducted to guide conservation efforts in tropical forests. Such surveys are time consuming, demanding of expertise, and expensive to perform and interpret. Approaches to make survey efforts simpler or more effective would be valuable. In particular, it would be good to be able to easily identify areas of old-growth forest. The average density of the wood of a tree species is closely linked to its successional status. We used tree inventory data from eastern Borneo to determine whether wood density can be used to quantify forest disturbance and conservation importance. The average density of wood in a plot was significantly and negatively related to disturbance levels, with plots with higher wood densities occurring almost exclusively in old-growth forests. Average wood density was unimodally related to the diversity of tree species, indicating that the average wood density in a plot might be a better indicator of old-growth forest than species diversity. In addition, Borneo endemics had significantly heavier wood than species that are common throughout the Malesian region, and they were more common in plots with higher average wood density. We concluded that wood density at the plot level could be a powerful tool for identifying areas of conservation priority in the tropical rain forests of Southeast Asia. PMID:18637916

Slik, J W Ferry; Bernard, Caroline S; Breman, Floris C; VAN Beek, Marloes; Salim, Agus; Sheil, Douglas

2008-10-01

139

Representation of Global and National Conservation Priorities by Colombia's Protected Area Network  

PubMed Central

Background How do national-level actions overlap with global priorities for conservation? Answering this question is especially important in countries with high and unique biological diversity like Colombia. Global biodiversity schemes provide conservation guidance at a large scale, while national governments gazette land for protection based on a combination of criteria at regional or local scales. Information on how a protected area network represents global and national conservation priorities is crucial for finding gaps in coverage and for future expansion of the system. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the agreement of Colombia's protected area network with global conservation priorities, and the extent to which the network reflects the country's biomes, species richness, and common environmental and physical conditions. We used this information to identify priority biomes for conservation. We find the dominant strategy in Colombia has been a proactive one, allocating the highest proportion of protected land on intact, difficult to access and species rich areas like the Amazon. Threatened and unique areas are disproportionately absent from Colombia's protected lands. We highlight six biomes in Colombia as conservation priorities that should be considered in any future expansion of Colombia's protected area network. Two of these biomes have less than 3% of their area protected and more than 70% of their area transformed for human use. One has less than 3% protected and high numbers of threatened vertebrates. Three biomes fall in both categories. Conclusions Expansion of Colombia's Protected Area Network should consider the current representativeness of the network. We indicate six priority biomes that can contribute to improving the representation of threatened species and biomes in Colombia. PMID:20967270

Forero-Medina, German; Joppa, Lucas

2010-01-01

140

Past and present effectiveness of protected areas for conservation of naturally and anthropogenically rare plant species.  

PubMed

The Global Strategy of Plant Conservation states that at least 60% of threatened plant species should be within protected areas. This goal has been met in some regions with long traditions of plant protection. We used gap analysis to explore how particular groups of species of conservation interest, representing different types of natural or anthropogenic rarity, have been covered by protected areas on a national scale in Estonia during the last 100 years. Species-accumulation curves indicated that plant species that are naturally rare (restricted global or local distribution, always small populations, or very rare habitat requirements) needed almost twice as many protected areas to reach the 60% target as plant species that are rare owing to lack of suitable management (species depending on grassland management, moderate forest disturbances, extensive traditional agriculture, or species potentially threatened by collecting). Temporal analysis of the establishment of protected areas suggested that grouping plant species according to the predominant cause of rarity accurately reflected the history of conservation decision making. Species found in very rare habitats have previously received special conservation attention; species dependent on traditional extensive agriculture have been largely ignored until recently. Legislative initiative and new nature-protection schemes (e.g., Natura 2000, network of protected areas in the European Union) have had a positive influence on all species groups. Consequently, the species groups needing similar action for their conservation are sensitive indicators of the effectiveness of protected-area networks. Different species groups, however, may not be uniformly conserved within protected areas, and all species groups should fulfill the target of 60% coverage within protected areas. PMID:19128324

Vellak, Ain; Tuvi, Eva-Liis; Reier, Ülle; Kalamees, Rein; Roosaluste, Elle; Zobel, Martin; Pärtel, Meelis

2009-06-01

141

Use of inverse spatial conservation prioritization to avoid biological diversity loss outside protected areas.  

PubMed

Globally expanding human land use sets constantly increasing pressure for maintenance of biological diversity and functioning ecosystems. To fight the decline of biological diversity, conservation science has broken ground with methods such as the operational model of systematic conservation planning (SCP), which focuses on design and on-the-ground implementation of conservation areas. The most commonly used method in SCP is reserve selection that focuses on the spatial design of reserve networks and their expansion. We expanded these methods by introducing another form of spatial allocation of conservation effort relevant for land-use zoning at the landscape scale that avoids negative ecological effects of human land use outside protected areas. We call our method inverse spatial conservation prioritization. It can be used to identify areas suitable for economic development while simultaneously limiting total ecological and environmental effects of that development at the landscape level by identifying areas with highest economic but lowest ecological value. Our method is not based on a priori targets, and as such it is applicable to cases where the effects of land use on, for example, individual species or ecosystem types are relatively small and would not lead to violation of regional or national conservation targets. We applied our method to land-use allocation to peat mining. Our method identified a combination of profitable production areas that provides the needed area for peat production while retaining most of the landscape-level ecological value of the ecosystem. The results of this inverse spatial conservation prioritization are being used in land-use zoning in the province of Central Finland. PMID:24033397

Kareksela, Santtu; Moilanen, Atte; Tuominen, Seppo; Kotiaho, Janne S

2013-12-01

142

Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao, Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) Nest Characteristics in the Osa Peninsula Conservation Area (ACOSA), Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) is an endangered species. In Costa Rica, the Scarlet Macaw popula- tion of the Central Pacific Conservation Area (ACOPAC, n =432 individuals) has undergone considerable study and has been used effectively as a flagship species for regional conservation. Costa Rica's only other viable Scarlet Macaw population, located in the Osa Peninsula Conservation Area (ACOSA, n=800-1200

John L. Guittar; Fiona Dear; Christopher Vaughan

2009-01-01

143

Devising appropriate policies and instruments in support of private conservation areas: lessons learned from the Klein Karoo, South Africa.  

PubMed

The amount of privately conserved land is increasing worldwide. The potential of these areas to contribute to the global conservation of biodiversity is significant, given that statutory protected areas alone will not suffice. Nevertheless, there is still inadequate support for private conservation areas, and further research on appropriate, flexible, and generally applicable incentive measures is necessary. We conducted 25 semistructured interviews with the owners of private conservation areas in the Little Karoo, South Africa, to examine landowner opinions of existing conservation policies and their relationships with the local conservation authority. We also assessed landowner preferences regarding conservation incentive measures. Landowners doubted the conservation authority's capacity to implement its stewardship program and were also discouraged by the bureaucracy of the program. The conservation authority was often viewed negatively, except where landowners had experienced personal contact from conservation staff or where strong social capital had formed among landowners. Landowners did not desire financial rewards for their conservation efforts, but sought recognition of their stewardship role and greater involvement from the conservation authority through personal contact. We conclude that conservation policies for private lands could benefit from the provision of extension services to landowners, promotion of formation of groups of landowners and other stakeholders, and public acknowledgment of the contributions private conservation areas make. PMID:19843125

Pasquini, Lorena; Cowling, Richard M; Twyman, Chasca; Wainwright, John

2010-04-01

144

Tourism revenue as a conservation tool for threatened birds in protected areas.  

PubMed

Many bird populations worldwide are at risk of extinction, and rely heavily on protected area networks for their continued conservation. Tourism to these areas contributes to conservation by generating revenue for management. Here we quantify the contribution of tourism revenue for bird species in the IUCN Red List, using a simple accounting method. Relevant data are available for 90 (16%) of the 562 critically endangered and endangered species. Contributions of tourism to bird conservation are highest, 10-64%, in South America, Africa, and their neighbouring islands. Critically endangered bird species rely on tourism more heavily than endangered species (p<0.02). Many protected areas could also enhance their management budgets by promoting birdwatching tourism specifically. PMID:23667498

Steven, Rochelle; Castley, J Guy; Buckley, Ralf

2013-01-01

145

Identification of Priority Conservation Areas and Potential Corridors for Jaguars in the Caatinga Biome, Brazil  

PubMed Central

The jaguar, Panthera onca, is a top predator with the extant population found within the Brazilian Caatinga biome now known to be on the brink of extinction. Designing new conservation units and potential corridors are therefore crucial for the long-term survival of the species within the Caatinga biome. Thus, our aims were: 1) to recognize suitable areas for jaguar occurrence, 2) to delineate areas for jaguar conservation (PJCUs), 3) to design corridors among priority areas, and 4) to prioritize PJCUs. A total of 62 points records of jaguar occurrence and 10 potential predictors were analyzed in a GIS environment. A predictive distributional map was obtained using Species Distribution Modeling (SDM) as performed by the Maximum Entropy (Maxent) algorithm. Areas equal to or higher than the median suitability value of 0.595 were selected as of high suitability for jaguar occurrence and named as Priority Jaguar Conservation Units (PJCU). Ten PJCUs with sizes varying from 23.6 km2 to 4,311.0 km2 were identified. Afterwards, we combined the response curve, as generated by SDM, and expert opinions to create a permeability matrix and to identify least cost corridors and buffer zones between each PJCU pair. Connectivity corridors and buffer zone for jaguar movement included an area of 8.884,26 km2 and the total corridor length is about 160.94 km. Prioritizing criteria indicated the PJCU representing c.a. 68.61% of the total PJCU area (PJCU # 1) as of high priority for conservation and connectivity with others PJCUs (PJCUs # 4, 5 and 7) desirable for the long term survival of the species. In conclusion, by using the jaguar as a focal species and combining SDM and expert opinion we were able to create a valid framework for practical conservation actions at the Caatinga biome. The same approach could be used for the conservation of other carnivores. PMID:24709817

Morato, Ronaldo Gonçalves; Ferraz, Katia Maria Paschoaletto Micchi de Barros; de Paula, Rogério Cunha; de Campos, Cláudia Bueno

2014-01-01

146

Field test of hydrophobic soil clod mulch for soil water conservation in a semiarid area  

E-print Network

FIELD TEST OF HYDROPHOBIC SOIL CLOD MULCH FOR SOIL HATER CONSERVATION Ibl A SENIARID AREA A Thesis by ROBERI HORTON JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas, MN Universi'ty in partia1 fulfi11meot of' the requinements fo; the degree... of NASTER OF SCIFNCE August 197 l. lajni Subject: So"I Sorer, s FIELD TEST OF HYDROPHOBIC SOIL CLOD HVLCH FOR SOIL MATER CONSERVATION IN A SEMIARID AREA A Thesis by ROSER1 HORTON JR. Approved as to style and content by: ~cad of Depa, . ment Member...

Horton, Robert

2012-06-07

147

75 FR 54542 - Special Areas; Roadless Area Conservation; Applicability to the National Forests in Idaho...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Applicability to the National Forests in Idaho; Proposed Correction AGENCY: Forest Service...Placer Creek, Secesh, and Smith Creek Idaho Roadless Areas on the Payette National...administrative correction should be addressed to Idaho Roadless Area Payette Correction,...

2010-09-08

148

An objective method to determine an area's relative significance for avian conservation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Land managers are often concerned with providing habitat affords the 'best habitat for songbirds.' However, unless management simply is directed at rare species it may not be clear which habitats or management options are best. A standard, quantifiable measure to compare the significance of different tracts of land or competing management techniques for avian conservation would benefit managers in decision making. I propose a standard measure that is based on the relative density of each species within a finite area and their respective regional Partners in Flight concern scores. I applied this method to > 100 reforested sites in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley that ranged in age from 2 to 32 years. The objectively determined avian conservation significance for each of these reforested sites was correlated with stand age and with my subjective assessment of 'habitat quality.' I also used this method to compare the avian conservation significance of forested habitats before and after selective timber harvest with high significance for avian conservation provided habitat for species of conservation concern. I recommend application of this methodology to other and areas under different management, to determine its usefulness at predicting avian conservation significance among habitats and at various avian densities.

Twedt, D.J.

2005-01-01

149

Vaccines and vaccinations in the under-fives in Ghana, a tropical developing country.  

PubMed

In this paper, an attempt has been made to focus attention on the important childhood killer but immunizable diseases in Ghana, giving where available morbidity and mortality figures. Immunization schedules currently adopted in Ghana are discussed in the light of immunological considerations, the half-life of acquired maternal antibodies and from the point of view of known epidemiological patterns of these immunizable diseases. An attempt was thus made to justify the adoption of the immunization schedules currently in force in Ghana. Problems relating to some of the vaccines used in immunization of the under-fives in Ghana have been discussed in the light of personal experiences and the experiences of other colleagues, giving--where possible--suggestions for improvement. Finally, the paper delineates problem areas in immunization programmes of the under-fives in Ghana. PMID:753661

Addy, P A

1978-01-01

150

Characterization of malaria transmission by vector populations for improved interventions during the dry season in the Kpone-on-Sea area of coastal Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria is a major public health problem in Ghana. We present a site-specific entomological study of malaria vectors and transmission indices as part of an effort to develop a site for the testing of improved control strategies including possible vaccine trials. Methods Pyrethrum spray catches (PSC), and indoor and outdoor human landing collections of adult female anopheline mosquitoes were carried out over a six-month period (November 2005 - April 2006) at Kpone-on-Sea, a fishing village in southern Ghana. These were morphologically identified to species level and sibling species of the Anopheles gambiae complex further characterized by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect Plasmodium falciparum mosquito infectivity and host blood meal sources. Parity rate was examined based on dilatation of ovarian tracheoles following dissection. Results Of the 1233 Anopheles mosquitoes collected, An. gambiae s.l. was predominant (99.5%), followed by An. funestus (0.4%) and An. pharoensis (0.1%). All An. gambiae s.l. examined (480) were identified as An. gambiae s.s. with a majority of M molecular form (98.2%) and only 1.8%?S form with no record of M/S hybrid. A significantly higher proportion of anophelines were observed outdoors relative to indoors (?2?=?159.34, df?=?1, p?

2012-01-01

151

Are roads and railroads barriers to bumblebee movement in a temperate suburban conservation area?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated how habitat fragmentation affects the movement of marked bumblebees between plant patches in a temperate conservation area in metropolitan Boston, Massachusetts. Our study was conducted on populations of sweet pepperbush (Clethra alnifolia L. f.) separated by a road and natural woodland, and buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis L.) separated by a railroad. Bumblebees showed high site fidelity and only rarely

Madhumita Bhattacharya; Richard B. Primack; Joel Gerwein

2003-01-01

152

Width of grassland linkages for the conservation of butterflies in South African afforested areas  

E-print Network

Width of grassland linkages for the conservation of butterflies in South African afforested areas butterflies to change direction and move away from the pine edge. Only four species crossed the grassland/pine edge, and of these, only two flew farther than 20 m into the pine forest. The adjacent grassland

153

An Analysis of Criteria Preferences and the Spatial Effects when Prioritizing Areas for Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper integrates measures of personal preferences with GIS data in a spatial multicriteria framework for identifying high priority areas for land conservation. Individual participants' preference weights were measured using the Analytic Hierarchy Process. Participants were segregated into groups including outside experts and local stakeholders; the latter group further segregated as board members and local residents. We found differences in

Randall S. Rosenberger

154

15 CFR Appendix C to Subpart G of... - Marine Conservation Area Boundary  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

The Anacapa Island Marine Conservation Area (AIMCA) boundary is defined by the 3 nmi State boundary, the coordinates provided in Table C-1, and the following textual description. The AIMCA boundary extends from Point 1 to Point 2 along a straight...

2010-01-01

155

Will climate change reduce the efficacy of protected areas for amphibian conservation in Italy?  

E-print Network

Will climate change reduce the efficacy of protected areas for amphibian conservation in Italy s t r a c t Amphibians are an important and imperiled component of biodiversity. In this study we analyze the effi- cacy of Italian reserve network for protecting multiple amphibian species in a climate

Zimmermann, Niklaus E.

156

Inducing Conservation of Number, Weight, Volume, Area, and Mass in Pre-School Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major question this study attempted to answer was, "Can conservation of number, area, weight, mass, and volume to be induced and retained by 3- and 4-year-old children by structured instruction with a multivariate approach? Three nursery schools in Iowa City supplied subjects for this study. The Institute of Child Behavior and Development…

Young, Beverly S.

157

Calibration of diatoms along a nutrient gradient in Florida Everglades Water Conservation Area2A, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between diatom taxa preserved in surface soils and environmental variables at 31 sites in Water Conservation Area 2A (WCA-2A) of the Florida Everglades was explored using multivariate analyses. Surface soils were collected along a phosphorus (P) gradient and analyzed for diatoms, total P, % nitrogen (N), %carbon (C), calcium (Ca), and biogenic silica (BSi). Phosphorus varied from 315-1781

Sherri R. Cooper; Jacqueline Huvane; Panchabi Vaithiyanathan; Curtis J. Richardson

1999-01-01

158

Analysis and modeling of soil conservation measures in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental plots were constructed in the Zhangjiachong Watershed of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area to evaluate soil erosion of traditional slope land farming and effects of soil conservation measures. Surface runoff and sediment from the watershed and each plot were collected and measured during 2004–2007. Field investigations indicated that hedgerows were the best for soil erosion control, followed by stone

Zhenyao Shen; Yongwei Gong; Yanhong Li; Ruimin Liu

2010-01-01

159

50 CFR 660.79 - EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of California.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...long.; and connecting back to 37°51.58? N. lat., 123°14.07? W. long. (k) Half Moon Bay. The boundary of the Half Moon Bay EFH Conservation Area is defined by straight lines connecting all of the following points in...

2013-10-01

160

50 CFR 660.399 - EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of California.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...long.; and connecting back to 37°51.58? N. lat., 123°14.07? W. long. (k) Half Moon Bay. The boundary of the Half Moon Bay EFH Conservation Area is defined by straight lines connecting all of the following points in...

2010-10-01

161

50 CFR 660.79 - EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of California.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...long.; and connecting back to 37°51.58? N. lat., 123°14.07? W. long. (k) Half Moon Bay. The boundary of the Half Moon Bay EFH Conservation Area is defined by straight lines connecting all of the following points in...

2012-10-01

162

50 CFR 660.79 - EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of California.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...long.; and connecting back to 37°51.58? N. lat., 123°14.07? W. long. (k) Half Moon Bay. The boundary of the Half Moon Bay EFH Conservation Area is defined by straight lines connecting all of the following points in...

2011-10-01

163

50 CFR 660.79 - EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of California.  

...long.; and connecting back to 37°51.58? N. lat., 123°14.07? W. long. (k) Half Moon Bay. The boundary of the Half Moon Bay EFH Conservation Area is defined by straight lines connecting all of the following points in...

2014-10-01

164

Using Species-Area Relationships to Inform Baseline Conservation Targets for the Deep North East Atlantic  

PubMed Central

Demands on the resources of the deep-sea have increased in recent years. Consequently, the need to create and implement a comprehensive network of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) to help manage and protect these resources has become a global political priority. Efforts are currently underway to implement MPA networks in the deep North East Atlantic. To ensure these networks are effective, it is essential that baseline information be available to inform the conservation planning process. Using empirical data, we calculated conservation targets for sessile benthic invertebrates in the deep North East Atlantic for consideration during the planning process. We assessed Species-Area Relationships across two depth bands (200–1100 m and 1100–1800 m) and nine substrata. Conservation targets were predicted for each substratum within each depth band using z-values obtained from fitting a power model to the Species-Area Relationships of observed and estimated species richness (Chao1). Results suggest an MPA network incorporating 10% of the North East Atlantic’s deep-sea area would protect approximately 58% and 49% of sessile benthic species for the depth bands 200–1100 m and 1100–1800 m, respectively. Species richness was shown to vary with substratum type indicating that, along with depth, substratum information needs to be incorporated into the conservation planning process to ensure the most effective MPA network is implemented in the deep North East Atlantic. PMID:23527053

Foster, Nicola L.; Foggo, Andrew; Howell, Kerry L.

2013-01-01

165

Colorado Canyons National Conservation Area 2003 visitor use survey : completion report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report represents the analysis of research conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The purpose is to provide socio-economic and recreational use information that can be used in the development of a Resource Management Plan (RMP) for the Colorado Canyons National Conservation Area (CCNCA). The results reported here deal primarily with recreation-based activities in four areas: Kokopelli Loops, Rabbit Valley, Loma Boat Launch, and Devil's Canyon.

Ponds, Phaedra D.; Gillette, Shana C.; Koontz, Lynne

2004-01-01

166

Spatial Distribution of Soil Nutrients in a Northern Everglades Marsh: Water Conservation Area 2A  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Florida Everglades developed as a nutrient-poor, rain-fed eco- system. However, for the past 30 yr, the Everglades have received nutrient-enriched surface water runoff from the adjacent Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA). This study examines the response of a pristine wetland, Water Conservation Area 1 (WCA 1), part of the northern Florida Everglades, to nutrient loading as documented by soil nutrient

W. F. DeBusk; K. R. Reddy; M. S. Koch; M. M. Fisher; G. Shih

1994-01-01

167

Opportunities for cost-sharing in conservation: variation in volunteering effort across protected areas.  

PubMed

Efforts to expand protected area networks are limited by the costs of managing protected sites. Volunteers who donate labor to help manage protected areas can help defray these costs. However, volunteers may be willing to donate more labor to some protected areas than others. Understanding variation in volunteering effort would enable conservation organizations to account for volunteer labor in their strategic planning. We examined variation in volunteering effort across 59 small protected areas managed by Yorkshire Wildlife Trust, a regional conservation nonprofit in the United Kingdom. Three surveys of volunteering effort reveal consistent patterns of variation across protected areas. Using the most detailed of these sources, a survey of site managers, we estimate that volunteers provided 3200 days of labor per year across the 59 sites with a total value exceeding that of paid staff time spent managing the sites. The median percentage by which volunteer labor supplements management costs on the sites was 36%. Volunteering effort and paid management costs are positively correlated, after controlling for the effect of site area. We examined how well a range of characteristics of the protected areas and surrounding communities explain variation in volunteering effort. Protected areas that are larger have been protected for longer and that are located near to denser conurbations experience greater volunteering effort. Together these factors explain 38% of the observed variation in volunteering effort across protected areas. PMID:23383176

Armsworth, Paul R; Cantú-Salazar, Lisette; Parnell, Mark; Booth, Josephine E; Stoneman, Rob; Davies, Zoe G

2013-01-01

168

Opportunities for Cost-Sharing in Conservation: Variation in Volunteering Effort across Protected Areas  

PubMed Central

Efforts to expand protected area networks are limited by the costs of managing protected sites. Volunteers who donate labor to help manage protected areas can help defray these costs. However, volunteers may be willing to donate more labor to some protected areas than others. Understanding variation in volunteering effort would enable conservation organizations to account for volunteer labor in their strategic planning. We examined variation in volunteering effort across 59 small protected areas managed by Yorkshire Wildlife Trust, a regional conservation nonprofit in the United Kingdom. Three surveys of volunteering effort reveal consistent patterns of variation across protected areas. Using the most detailed of these sources, a survey of site managers, we estimate that volunteers provided 3200 days of labor per year across the 59 sites with a total value exceeding that of paid staff time spent managing the sites. The median percentage by which volunteer labor supplements management costs on the sites was 36%. Volunteering effort and paid management costs are positively correlated, after controlling for the effect of site area. We examined how well a range of characteristics of the protected areas and surrounding communities explain variation in volunteering effort. Protected areas that are larger have been protected for longer and that are located near to denser conurbations experience greater volunteering effort. Together these factors explain 38% of the observed variation in volunteering effort across protected areas. PMID:23383176

Armsworth, Paul R.; Cantú-Salazar, Lisette; Parnell, Mark; Booth, Josephine E.; Stoneman, Rob; Davies, Zoe G.

2013-01-01

169

Phylogenetic diversity meets conservation policy: small areas are key to preserving eucalypt lineages  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary and genetic knowledge is increasingly being valued in conservation theory, but is rarely considered in conservation planning and policy. Here, we integrate phylogenetic diversity (PD) with spatial reserve prioritization to evaluate how well the existing reserve system in Victoria, Australia captures the evolutionary lineages of eucalypts, which dominate forest canopies across the state. Forty-three per cent of remaining native woody vegetation in Victoria is located in protected areas (mostly national parks) representing 48% of the extant PD found in the state. A modest expansion in protected areas of 5% (less than 1% of the state area) would increase protected PD by 33% over current levels. In a recent policy change, portions of the national parks were opened for development. These tourism development zones hold over half the PD found in national parks with some species and clades falling entirely outside of protected zones within the national parks. This approach of using PD in spatial prioritization could be extended to any clade or area that has spatial and phylogenetic data. Our results demonstrate the relevance of PD to regional conservation policy by highlighting that small but strategically located areas disproportionally impact the preservation of evolutionary lineages. PMID:25561668

Pollock, Laura J.; Rosauer, Dan F.; Thornhill, Andrew H.; Kujala, Heini; Crisp, Michael D.; Miller, Joseph T.; McCarthy, Michael A.

2015-01-01

170

Phylogenetic diversity meets conservation policy: small areas are key to preserving eucalypt lineages.  

PubMed

Evolutionary and genetic knowledge is increasingly being valued in conservation theory, but is rarely considered in conservation planning and policy. Here, we integrate phylogenetic diversity (PD) with spatial reserve prioritization to evaluate how well the existing reserve system in Victoria, Australia captures the evolutionary lineages of eucalypts, which dominate forest canopies across the state. Forty-three per cent of remaining native woody vegetation in Victoria is located in protected areas (mostly national parks) representing 48% of the extant PD found in the state. A modest expansion in protected areas of 5% (less than 1% of the state area) would increase protected PD by 33% over current levels. In a recent policy change, portions of the national parks were opened for development. These tourism development zones hold over half the PD found in national parks with some species and clades falling entirely outside of protected zones within the national parks. This approach of using PD in spatial prioritization could be extended to any clade or area that has spatial and phylogenetic data. Our results demonstrate the relevance of PD to regional conservation policy by highlighting that small but strategically located areas disproportionally impact the preservation of evolutionary lineages. PMID:25561668

Pollock, Laura J; Rosauer, Dan F; Thornhill, Andrew H; Kujala, Heini; Crisp, Michael D; Miller, Joseph T; McCarthy, Michael A

2015-02-19

171

Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

172

Housing growth in and near United States protected areas limits their conservation value  

PubMed Central

Protected areas are crucial for biodiversity conservation because they provide safe havens for species threatened by land-use change and resulting habitat loss. However, protected areas are only effective when they stop habitat loss within their boundaries, and are connected via corridors to other wild areas. The effectiveness of protected areas is threatened by development; however, the extent of this threat is unknown. We compiled spatially-detailed housing growth data from 1940 to 2030, and quantified growth for each wilderness area, national park, and national forest in the conterminous United States. Our findings show that housing development in the United States may severely limit the ability of protected areas to function as a modern “Noah’s Ark.” Between 1940 and 2000, 28 million housing units were built within 50 km of protected areas, and 940,000 were built within national forests. Housing growth rates during the 1990s within 1 km of protected areas (20% per decade) outpaced the national average (13%). If long-term trends continue, another 17 million housing units will be built within 50 km of protected areas by 2030 (1 million within 1 km), greatly diminishing their conservation value. US protected areas are increasingly isolated, housing development in their surroundings is decreasing their effective size, and national forests are even threatened by habitat loss within their administrative boundaries. Protected areas in the United States are thus threatened similarly to those in developing countries. However, housing growth poses the main threat to protected areas in the United States whereas deforestation is the main threat in developing countries. PMID:20080780

Radeloff, Volker C.; Stewart, Susan I.; Hawbaker, Todd J.; Gimmi, Urs; Pidgeon, Anna M.; Flather, Curtis H.; Hammer, Roger B.; Helmers, David P.

2009-01-01

173

Using the conservative nature of fresh leaf surface density to measure foliar area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a herbaceous species, the inverse of the fresh leaf surface density, the Hughes constant, is nearly conserved. We apply the Hughes constant to develop an absolute method of leafarea measurement that requires no regression fits, prior calibrations or oven-drying. The Hughes constant was determined in situ using a known geometry and weights of a sub-set obtained from the fresh leaves whose areas are desired. Subsequently, the leaf-areas (at any desired stratification level), were derived by utilizing the Hughes constant and the masses of the fresh leaves. The proof of concept was established for leaf-discs of the plants Mandevilla splendens and Spathiphyllum wallisii. The conservativeness of the Hughes constant over individual leaf-zones and different leaftypes from the leaves of each species was quantitatively validated. Using the globally averaged Hughes constant for each species, the leaf-area of these and additional co-species plants, were obtained. The leaf-area-measurement-by-mass was cross-checked with standard digital image analysis. There were no statistically significant differences between the leaf-area-measurement-by-mass and the digital image analysis measured leaf-areas and the linear correlation between the two methods was very good. Leaf-areameasurement- by-mass was found to be rapid and simple with accuracies comparable to the digital image analysis method. The greatly reduced cost of leaf-area-measurement-by-mass could be beneficial for small agri-businesses in developing countries.

Castillo, Omar S.; Zaragoza, Esther M.; Alvarado, Carlos J.; Barrera, Maria G.; Dasgupta-Schubert, Nabanita

2014-10-01

174

Government conservation policies on Mexican coastal areas: is "top-down" management working?  

PubMed

Marine and terrestrial ecosystems are declining globally due to environmental degradation and poorly planned resource use. Traditionally, local government agencies have been responsible of the management of natural reserves to preserve biodiversity. Nonetheless, much of these approaches have failed, suggesting the development of more integrative strategies. In order to discuss the importance of a holistic approach in conservation initiatives, coastal and underwater landscape value and biological/environmental indicators of coral reef degradation were assessed using the study case of Zihuatanejo, Guerrero coastal area. This area shelters representative coral reef structures of the Eastern Pacific coast and its terrestrial biodiversity and archaeology enhance the high value of its coastal area. This study explored the landscape value of both terrestrial and marine ecosystems using the geomorphosite approach in two sites on the Zihuatanejo coastal area: Caleta de Chon and Manzanillo Beach. Sedimentation rate, water transparency, chlorophyll and total suspended solids were recorded underwater in each site for environmental characterization. 50 photo-quadrants on five transects were surveyed between 3-4m depth to record coverage (%) of living corals, dead corals, algae, sand and rocks. The conservation status of coral reefs was assessed by the coral mortality index (MI). Landscape values showed that both terrestrial and marine ecosystems had important scientific and aesthetic values, being Manzanillo Beach the site with the highest potential for conservation initiatives (TtV = 14.2). However, coral reefs face elevated sedimentation rates (up to 1.16 kg/m2d) and low water transparency (less of 5m) generated by coastal land use changes that have increased soil erosion in the adjacent coastal area. High coverage of dead corals (23.6%) and algae (up to 29%) confirm the low values in conservation status of coral reefs (MI = 0.5), reflecting a poorly-planned management. Current conditions are the result of "top-down" conservation strategies in Zihuatanejo, as Federal and Municipal authorities do not coordinate, disregard local community in coral reef management, and ignore the intimate relationship between the coastal and marine realms. This work confirms the importance of conservation strategies with a holistic approach, considering both terrestrial and marine ecosystems in coastal areas; and that these initiatives should include local coastal communities in management and decision-taking processes done by government authorities. PMID:22208068

Nava, Héctor; Ramírez-Herrera, M Teresa

2011-12-01

175

U. S. Teachers Learn about Family Security in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes "Ghanaian Area Studies in Diversity-Globalization," a Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Program that took 18 New Mexico classroom teachers to Ghana, West Africa, in 2003 to bring a global perspective to the classrooms of New Mexico. This Fulbright project was designed for participants to gain a greater understanding of…

Johnson, Caryl

2006-01-01

176

50 CFR Figure 20 to Part 679 - Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea 20 Figure 20 to Part 679 Wildlife and... Figure 20 to Part 679—Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea ER28JA02.073 [67 FR 4134, Jan....

2010-10-01

177

50 CFR Figure 21 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 21 Figure 21 to Part 679 Wildlife and...Part 679—Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.012 [73 FR 43372,...

2010-10-01

178

50 CFR Figure 21 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 21 Figure 21 to Part 679 Wildlife and...Part 679—Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.012 [73 FR 43372,...

2013-10-01

179

50 CFR Figure 21 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 21 Figure 21 to Part 679 Wildlife and...Part 679—Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.012 [73 FR 43372,...

2012-10-01

180

50 CFR Figure 21 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 21 Figure 21 to Part 679 Wildlife and...Part 679—Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.012 [73 FR 43372,...

2011-10-01

181

Protected areas alleviate climate change effects on northern bird species of conservation concern.  

PubMed

Global climate change is a major threat to biodiversity, posing increasing pressures on species to adapt in situ or shift their ranges. A protected area network is one of the main instruments to alleviate the negative impacts of climate change. Importantly, protected area networks might be expected to enhance the resilience of regional populations of species of conservation concern, resulting in slower species loss in landscapes with a significant amount of protected habitat compared to unprotected landscapes. Based on national bird atlases compiled in 1974-1989 and 2006-2010, this study examines the recent range shifts in 90 forest, mire, marshland, and Arctic mountain heath bird species of conservation concern in Finland, as well as the changes in their species richness in protected versus unprotected areas. The trends emerging from the atlas data comparisons were also related to the earlier study dealing with predictions of distributional changes for these species for the time slice of 2051-2080, developed using bioclimatic envelope models (BEMs). Our results suggest that the observed changes in bird distributions are in the same direction as the BEM-based predictions, resulting in a decrease in species richness of mire and Arctic mountain heath species and an increase in marshland species. The patterns of changes in species richness between the two time slices are in general parallel in protected and unprotected areas. However, importantly, protected areas maintained a higher level of species richness than unprotected areas. This finding provides support for the significance and resilience provision of protected area networks in preserving species of conservation concern under climate change. PMID:25247057

Virkkala, Raimo; Pöyry, Juha; Heikkinen, Risto K; Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Valkama, Jari

2014-08-01

182

Spatial analysis of anthropogenic disturbances in mangrove forests of Bhitarkanika Conservation Area, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dependence of coastal communities on mangrove forests for direct consumptive use due to the scarcity of alternate resources\\u000a makes them one of the highly disturbed landscapes. This paper examines the spatial characteristics and extent of anthropogenic\\u000a disturbances affecting the mangrove forests of Bhitarkanika Conservation Area situated along the east coast of India by using\\u000a remotely sensed data and GIS,

K. R. Ambastha; S. A. Hussain; R. Badola; P. S. Roy

2010-01-01

183

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF SOIL PROPERTIES IN WATER CONSERVATION AREA 2A, EVERGLADES, FLORIDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wetland soils are heterogenous in nature, and biogeochemical proper- ties show different spatial autocorrelation structures that translate into fine- and coarse-scale spatial patterns. Understanding these patterns and how they relate to other ecosystem properties (e.g., vegetation) is critical to restore wetlands impacted by nutrient influx. Our goal was to investigate Water Conservation Area 2A, a wetland in the Florida Everglades,

Rosanna G. Rivero; Sabine Grunwald; Todd Z. Osborne; K. Ramesh Reddy; Sue Newman

2007-01-01

184

Insights for integrated conservation from attitudes of people toward protected areas near Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

Increase in human settlements at the edge of protected areas (PAs) is perceived as a major threat to conservation of biodiversity. Although it is crucial to integrate the interests of surrounding communities into PA management, key drivers of changes in local populations and the effects of conservation on local livelihoods and perceptions remain poorly understood. We assessed population changes from 1990 to 2010 in 9 villages located between 2 PAs with different management policies (access to natural resources or not). We conducted semi-directive interviews at the household level (n =217) to document reasons for settlement in the area and villager's attitudes toward the PAs. We examined drivers of these attitudes relative to household typology, feelings about conservation, and concerns for the future with mixed linear models. Population increased by 61% from 2000 to 2010, a period of political and economic crisis in Zimbabwe. Forty-seven percent of immigrants were attracted by the area; others had been resettled from other villages or were returning to family lands. Attitudes toward PAs were generally positive, but immigrants attracted by the area and who used resources within the PA with fewer restrictions expressed more negative attitudes toward PAs. Household location, losses due to wild animals, and restrictions on access to natural resources were the main drivers of this negative attitude. Profit-seeking migrants did not expect these constraints and were particularly concerned with local overpopulation and access to natural resources. To avoid socio-ecological traps near PAs (i.e., unforeseen reduced adaptive capacity) integrated conservation should address mismatches between management policy and local expectations. This requires accounting for endogenous processes, for example, local socio-ecological dynamics and values that shape the coexistence between humans and wildlife. PMID:23866038

Guerbois, Chloe; Dufour, Anne-Beatrice; Mtare, Godfrey; Fritz, Herve

2013-08-01

185

Guidelines for conservation levels and for sizing passive-solar collection area  

SciTech Connect

Guidelines are given for selecting R-values and infiltration levels, and determining the size of the solar collection area for passive solar building. The guidelines are based on balancing the incremental cost/benefit of conservation and solar strategies. Tables are given for 209 cities in the US and the results are also displayed on maps. The procedures are developed in an appendix, which gives the cost assumptions used and explains how to develop different guidelines for different costs.

Balcomb, J.D.

1983-01-01

186

Global conservation outcomes depend on marine protected areas with five key features.  

PubMed

In line with global targets agreed under the Convention on Biological Diversity, the number of marine protected areas (MPAs) is increasing rapidly, yet socio-economic benefits generated by MPAs remain difficult to predict and under debate. MPAs often fail to reach their full potential as a consequence of factors such as illegal harvesting, regulations that legally allow detrimental harvesting, or emigration of animals outside boundaries because of continuous habitat or inadequate size of reserve. Here we show that the conservation benefits of 87 MPAs investigated worldwide increase exponentially with the accumulation of five key features: no take, well enforced, old (>10 years), large (>100?km(2)), and isolated by deep water or sand. Using effective MPAs with four or five key features as an unfished standard, comparisons of underwater survey data from effective MPAs with predictions based on survey data from fished coasts indicate that total fish biomass has declined about two-thirds from historical baselines as a result of fishing. Effective MPAs also had twice as many large (>250?mm total length) fish species per transect, five times more large fish biomass, and fourteen times more shark biomass than fished areas. Most (59%) of the MPAs studied had only one or two key features and were not ecologically distinguishable from fished sites. Our results show that global conservation targets based on area alone will not optimize protection of marine biodiversity. More emphasis is needed on better MPA design, durable management and compliance to ensure that MPAs achieve their desired conservation value. PMID:24499817

Edgar, Graham J; Stuart-Smith, Rick D; Willis, Trevor J; Kininmonth, Stuart; Baker, Susan C; Banks, Stuart; Barrett, Neville S; Becerro, Mikel A; Bernard, Anthony T F; Berkhout, Just; Buxton, Colin D; Campbell, Stuart J; Cooper, Antonia T; Davey, Marlene; Edgar, Sophie C; Försterra, Günter; Galván, David E; Irigoyen, Alejo J; Kushner, David J; Moura, Rodrigo; Parnell, P Ed; Shears, Nick T; Soler, German; Strain, Elisabeth M A; Thomson, Russell J

2014-02-13

187

Current models broadly neglect specific needs of biodiversity conservation in protected areas under climate change  

PubMed Central

Background Protected areas are the most common and important instrument for the conservation of biological diversity and are called for under the United Nations' Convention on Biological Diversity. Growing human population densities, intensified land-use, invasive species and increasing habitat fragmentation threaten ecosystems worldwide and protected areas are often the only refuge for endangered species. Climate change is posing an additional threat that may also impact ecosystems currently under protection. Therefore, it is of crucial importance to include the potential impact of climate change when designing future nature conservation strategies and implementing protected area management. This approach would go beyond reactive crisis management and, by necessity, would include anticipatory risk assessments. One avenue for doing so is being provided by simulation models that take advantage of the increase in computing capacity and performance that has occurred over the last two decades. Here we review the literature to determine the state-of-the-art in modeling terrestrial protected areas under climate change, with the aim of evaluating and detecting trends and gaps in the current approaches being employed, as well as to provide a useful overview and guidelines for future research. Results Most studies apply statistical, bioclimatic envelope models and focus primarily on plant species as compared to other taxa. Very few studies utilize a mechanistic, process-based approach and none examine biotic interactions like predation and competition. Important factors like land-use, habitat fragmentation, invasion and dispersal are rarely incorporated, restricting the informative value of the resulting predictions considerably. Conclusion The general impression that emerges is that biodiversity conservation in protected areas could benefit from the application of modern modeling approaches to a greater extent than is currently reflected in the scientific literature. It is particularly true that existing models have been underutilized in testing different management options under climate change. Based on these findings we suggest a strategic framework for more effectively incorporating the impact of climate change in models exploring the effectiveness of protected areas. PMID:21539736

2011-01-01

188

Human-Related Factors Regulate the Spatial Ecology of Domestic Cats in Sensitive Areas for Conservation  

PubMed Central

Background Domestic cats ranging freely in natural areas are a conservation concern due to competition, predation, disease transmission or hybridization with wildcats. In order to improve our ability to design effective control policies, we investigate the factors affecting their numbers and space use in natural areas of continental Europe. Methodology/Principal Findings We describe the patterns of cat presence, abundance and space use and analyse the associated environmental and human constraints in a well-preserved Mediterranean natural area with small scattered local farms. We failed in detecting cats in areas away from human settlements (trapping effort above 4000 trap-nights), while we captured 30 individuals near inhabited farms. We identified 130 cats, all of them in farms still in use by people (30% of 128 farms). All cats were free-ranging and very wary of people. The main factor explaining the presence of cats was the presence of people, while the number of cats per farm was mostly affected by the occasional food provisioning with human refuse and the presence of people. The home ranges of eight radio tagged cats were centred at inhabited farms. Males went furthest away from the farms during the mating season (3.8 km on average, maximum 6.3 km), using inhabited farms as stepping-stones in their mating displacements (2.2 km of maximum inter-farm distance moved). In their daily movements, cats notably avoided entering in areas with high fox density. Conclusions The presence, abundance and space use of cats were heavily dependent on human settlements. Any strategy aiming at reducing their impact in areas of conservation concern should aim at the presence of settlements and their spatial spread and avoid any access to human refuse. The movements of domestic cats would be limited in areas with large patches of natural vegetation providing good conditions for other carnivore mammals such as red foxes. PMID:22043298

Ferreira, Joaquim P.; Leitão, Inês; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Revilla, Eloy

2011-01-01

189

Knowledge and Uses of African Pangolins as a Source of Traditional Medicine in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Traditional medicine has been practised in Ghana for centuries with the majority of Ghanaians still patronising the services of traditional healers. Throughout Africa a large number of people use pangolins as a source of traditional medicine, however, there is a dearth of information on the use of animals in folk medicine in Ghana, in particular the use of pangolins. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalent use of pangolins and the level of knowledge of pangolin use among traditional healers in Ghana for the treatment of human ailments. Data was gathered from 48 traditional healers using semi-structured interviews on the traditional medicinal use of pangolin body parts in the Kumasi metropolis of Ghana. The cultural importance index, relative frequency of citation, informant agreement ratio and use agreement values were calculated to ascertain the most culturally important pangolin body part as well as the level of knowledge dissemination among traditional healers with regards pangolin body parts. Our study revealed that 13 body parts of pangolins are used to treat various medicinal ailments. Pangolin scales and bones were the most prevalent prescribed body parts and indicated the highest cultural significance among traditional healing practices primarily for the treatment of spiritual protection, rheumatism, financial rituals and convulsions. Despite being classified under Schedule 1 of Ghana’s Wildlife Conservation Act of 1971 (LI 685), that prohibits anyone from hunting or being in possession of a pangolin, our results indicated that the use of pangolins for traditional medicinal purposes is widespread among traditional healers in Ghana. A study on the population status and ecology of the three species of African pangolins occurring in Ghana is urgently required in order to determine the impact this harvest for traditional medical purposes has on their respective populations as current levels appear to be unmonitored and unsustainable. PMID:25602281

Boakye, Maxwell Kwame; Pietersen, Darren William; Kotzé, Antoinette; Dalton, Desiré-Lee; Jansen, Raymond

2015-01-01

190

Conserving the Grassland Important Bird Areas (IBAs) of Southern South America: Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and Brazil1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the southern part of South America, knowledge about bird species distribution is still not used as a tool for land use planning and conservation priority-setting. BirdLife International's Important Bird Areas (IBA) Program is an appropriate vehicle for analyzing exist- ing information about birds, and to generate new data where necessary. IBA inventories should provide input to urgent regional conservation

Adrián S. Di Giacomo; Santiago Krapovickas

191

50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 679 - Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

50 ? Wildlife and Fisheries ? 13 ? 2012-10-01 ? 2012-10-01 ? false ? Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea ? 10 ? Figure 10 to Part 679 ? Wildlife and Fisheries ? FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

2012-10-01

192

50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 679 - Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

50 ? Wildlife and Fisheries ? 11 ? 2011-10-01 ? 2011-10-01 ? false ? Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea ? 10 ? Figure 10 to Part 679 ? Wildlife and Fisheries ? FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

2011-10-01

193

50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 679 - Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea  

50 ? Wildlife and Fisheries ? 13 ? 2014-10-01 ? 2014-10-01 ? false ? Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea ? 10 ? Figure 10 to Part 679 ? Wildlife and Fisheries ? FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

2014-10-01

194

50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 679 - Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

50 ? Wildlife and Fisheries ? 9 ? 2010-10-01 ? 2010-10-01 ? false ? Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea ? 10 ? Figure 10 to Part 679 ? Wildlife and Fisheries ? FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

2010-10-01

195

50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 679 - Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

50 ? Wildlife and Fisheries ? 13 ? 2013-10-01 ? 2013-10-01 ? false ? Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea ? 10 ? Figure 10 to Part 679 ? Wildlife and Fisheries ? FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

2013-10-01

196

Identifying Priority Areas for Conservation: A Global Assessment for Forest-Dependent Birds  

PubMed Central

Limited resources are available to address the world's growing environmental problems, requiring conservationists to identify priority sites for action. Using new distribution maps for all of the world's forest-dependent birds (60.6% of all bird species), we quantify the contribution of remaining forest to conserving global avian biodiversity. For each of the world's partly or wholly forested 5-km cells, we estimated an impact score of its contribution to the distribution of all the forest bird species estimated to occur within it, and so is proportional to the impact on the conservation status of the world's forest-dependent birds were the forest it contains lost. The distribution of scores was highly skewed, a very small proportion of cells having scores several orders of magnitude above the global mean. Ecoregions containing the highest values of this score included relatively species-poor islands such as Hawaii and Palau, the relatively species-rich islands of Indonesia and the Philippines, and the megadiverse Atlantic Forests and northern Andes of South America. Ecoregions with high impact scores and high deforestation rates (2000–2005) included montane forests in Cameroon and the Eastern Arc of Tanzania, although deforestation data were not available for all ecoregions. Ecoregions with high impact scores, high rates of recent deforestation and low coverage by the protected area network included Indonesia's Seram rain forests and the moist forests of Trinidad and Tobago. Key sites in these ecoregions represent some of the most urgent priorities for expansion of the global protected areas network to meet Convention on Biological Diversity targets to increase the proportion of land formally protected to 17% by 2020. Areas with high impact scores, rapid deforestation, low protection and high carbon storage values may represent significant opportunities for both biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation, for example through Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) initiatives. PMID:22205998

Buchanan, Graeme M.; Donald, Paul F.; Butchart, Stuart H. M.

2011-01-01

197

Domestic Dogs in Rural Communities around Protected Areas: Conservation Problem or Conflict Solution?  

PubMed Central

Although domestic dogs play many important roles in rural households, they can also be an important threat to the conservation of wild vertebrates due to predation, competition and transmission of infectious diseases. An increasing number of studies have addressed the impact of dogs on wildlife but have tended to ignore the motivations and attitudes of the humans who keep these dogs and how the function of dogs might influence dog-wildlife interactions. To determine whether the function of domestic dogs in rural communities influences their interactions with wildlife, we conducted surveys in rural areas surrounding protected lands in the Valdivian Temperate Forests of Chile. Sixty percent of farm animal owners reported the use of dogs as one of the primary means of protecting livestock from predators. The probability of dog–wild carnivore interactions was significantly associated with the raising of poultry. In contrast, dog–wild prey interactions were not associated with livestock presence but had a significant association with poor quality diet as observed in previous studies. Dog owners reported that they actively encouraged the dogs to chase off predators, accounting for 25–75% of the dog–wild carnivore interactions observed, depending on the predator species. Humans controlled the dog population by killing pups and unwanted individuals resulting in few additions to the dog population through breeding; the importation of predominantly male dogs from urban areas resulted in a sex ratios highly dominated by males. These results indicate that dog interactions with wildlife are related to the role of the dog in the household and are directly influenced by their owners. To avoid conflict with local communities in conservation areas, it is important to develop strategies for managing dogs that balance conservation needs with the roles that dogs play in these rural households. PMID:24465930

Sepúlveda, Maximiliano A.; Singer, Randall S.; Silva-Rodríguez, Eduardo; Stowhas, Paulina; Pelican, Katharine

2014-01-01

198

50 CFR Table 24 to Part 679 - Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic Trawl Fishing 24 Table...679—Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic Trawl Fishing...

2013-10-01

199

50 CFR Table 24 to Part 679 - Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic Trawl Fishing 24 Table...679—Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic Trawl Fishing...

2012-10-01

200

50 CFR Table 24 to Part 679 - Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic Trawl Fishing 24 Table...679—Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic Trawl Fishing...

2010-10-01

201

50 CFR Table 24 to Part 679 - Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic Trawl Fishing 24 Table...679—Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic Trawl Fishing...

2011-10-01

202

Common coastal foraging areas for loggerheads in the Gulf of Mexico: Opportunities for marine conservation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Designing conservation strategies that protect wide-ranging marine species is a significant challenge, but integrating regional telemetry datasets and synthesizing modeled movements and behavior offer promise for uncovering distinct at-sea areas that are important habitats for imperiled marine species. Movement paths of 10 satellite-tracked female loggerheads (Caretta caretta) from three separate subpopulations in the Gulf of Mexico, USA, revealed migration to discrete foraging sites in two common areas at-sea in 2008, 2009, and 2010. Foraging sites were 102–904 km away from nesting and tagging sites, and located off southwest Florida and the northern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Within 3–35 days, turtles migrated to foraging sites where they all displayed high site fidelity over time. Core-use foraging areas were 13.0–335.2 km2 in size, in water <50 m deep, within a mean distance to nearest coastline of 58.5 km, and in areas of relatively high net primary productivity. The existence of shared regional foraging sites highlights an opportunity for marine conservation strategies to protect important at-sea habitats for these imperiled marine turtles, in both USA and international waters. Until now, knowledge of important at-sea foraging areas for adult loggerheads in the Gulf of Mexico has been limited. To better understand the spatial distribution of marine turtles that have complex life-histories, we propose further integration of disparate tracking data-sets at the oceanic scale along with modeling of movements to identify critical at-sea foraging habitats where individuals may be resident during non-nesting periods.

Hart, Kristen M.; Lamont, Margaret M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Tucker, Anton D.; Carthy, Raymond R.

2012-01-01

203

Climate Change and Conservation Planning in California: The San Francisco Bay Area Upland Habitat Goals Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change threatens California's vast and unique biodiversity. The Bay Area Upland Habitat Goals is a comprehensive regional biodiversity assessment of the 9 counties surrounding San Francisco Bay, and is designing conservation land networks that will serve to protect, manage, and restore that biodiversity. Conservation goals for vegetation, rare plants, mammals, birds, fish, amphibians, reptiles, and invertebrates are set, and those goals are met using the optimization algorithm MARXAN. Climate change issues are being considered in the assessment and network design in several ways. The high spatial variability at mesoclimatic and topoclimatic scales in California creates high local biodiversity, and provides some degree of local resiliency to macroclimatic change. Mesoclimatic variability from 800 m scale PRISM climatic norms is used to assess "mesoclimate spaces" in distinct mountain ranges, so that high mesoclimatic variability, especially local extremes that likely support range limits of species and potential climatic refugia, can be captured in the network. Quantitative measures of network resiliency to climate change include the spatial range of key temperature and precipitation variables within planning units. Topoclimatic variability provides a finer-grained spatial patterning. Downscaling to the topoclimatic scale (10-50 m scale) includes modeling solar radiation across DEMs for predicting maximum temperature differentials, and topographic position indices for modeling minimum temperature differentials. PRISM data are also used to differentiate grasslands into distinct warm and cool types. The overall conservation strategy includes local and regional connectivity so that range shifts can be accommodated.

Branciforte, R.; Weiss, S. B.; Schaefer, N.

2008-12-01

204

The contribution of very large marine protected areas to marine conservation: giant leaps or smoke and mirrors?  

PubMed

In recent years, marine protected areas have been "super-sized". At first glance, this seems a gift to marine conservation. Yet, the new wave of very large marine protected areas ("VLMPAs") have faced criticism from the scientific community. In this article we examine the merits and the criticisms of VLMPAS, and consider whether they provide a much-needed boost to marine conservation, or are simply too good to be true. PMID:25152184

Singleton, Rebecca L; Roberts, Callum M

2014-10-15

205

Deforestation and sustainability in Ghana  

SciTech Connect

The global importance of tropical forests is well recognized, and while much has been written about the Amazon forests, West African tropical forests are also being affected by logging and commercial timber harvesting. While the forests in Ghana are no longer vast, untouched wilderness, they are far from being ecologically bankrupt. This article describes the forest of Ghana, discusses the integrity of the remaining forest in terms of sustainable timber resources, and examines the prospects for tropical forests. 12 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Wagner, M.R. (Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff (United States)); Cobbinah, J.R. (Forestry Research Institute of Ghana, Kumasi (Ghana))

1993-06-01

206

7 CFR 1468.4 - Establishing Conservation Farm Option (CFO) pilot project areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Establishing Conservation Farm Option (CFO) pilot project...PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION FARM OPTION General Provisions § 1468.4 Establishing Conservation Farm Option (CFO) pilot...

2010-01-01

207

7 CFR 1468.4 - Establishing Conservation Farm Option (CFO) pilot project areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Establishing Conservation Farm Option (CFO) pilot project...PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION FARM OPTION General Provisions § 1468.4 Establishing Conservation Farm Option (CFO) pilot...

2011-01-01

208

7 CFR 1468.4 - Establishing Conservation Farm Option (CFO) pilot project areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Establishing Conservation Farm Option (CFO) pilot project...PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION FARM OPTION General Provisions § 1468.4 Establishing Conservation Farm Option (CFO) pilot...

2013-01-01

209

7 CFR 1468.4 - Establishing Conservation Farm Option (CFO) pilot project areas.  

...2014-01-01 false Establishing Conservation Farm Option (CFO) pilot project...PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION FARM OPTION General Provisions § 1468.4 Establishing Conservation Farm Option (CFO) pilot...

2014-01-01

210

7 CFR 1468.4 - Establishing Conservation Farm Option (CFO) pilot project areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Establishing Conservation Farm Option (CFO) pilot project...PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION FARM OPTION General Provisions § 1468.4 Establishing Conservation Farm Option (CFO) pilot...

2012-01-01

211

Ghana seeks to resume offshore production  

SciTech Connect

Ghana National Petroleum Corp. (GNPC) plans a two well offshore drilling program it hopes will lead to a resumption of hydrocarbon production in the West African state. The wells will be drilled in South Tano field in the extreme western sector of Ghana's offshore area, near the boundary with Ivory Coast. If the program is successful, the state company will develop a novel floating production system to handle and export oil. Gas will provide fuel for an electrical power generating unit integrated into a floating production system. Power will move ashore through a submarine cable. North and south Tano fields were discovered by Phillips Petroleum Corp., which relinquished the acreage in 1982. The South Tano discovery well flowed 1,614 b/d of oil and 8.2 MMCfd of gas. Studies by a unit of ARCO, when it was a partner in a group that later acquired the Tano block, pegged North Tano hydrocarbons in place at 53.6 million bbl of oil and 102 bcf of gas. Braspetro, under contract with GNPC, estimated South Tano hydrocarbons in place at 82 million bbl of oil and 100 bcf of gas. GNPC is evaluating the possibility of rehabilitating Saltpond oil field about 150 miles east-northeast of North and South Tano. Saltpond has been shut in since 1985.

Not Available

1991-06-17

212

Vigilante homicides in contemporary Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a systematic analysis of vigilante homicides that occurred in Ghana, West Africa, during 1990–2000. Through the use of newspaper accounts, the study identified the socio-demographic characteristics of victims, spatial distribution, modus operandi, and the circumstances of death. The data suggested that young urban males suspected or accused of robbery, larceny, and other forms of theft were most

Mensah Adinkrah

2005-01-01

213

Interactions Between Spatially Explicit Conservation and Management Measures: Implications for the Governance of Marine Protected Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine protected areas are not established in an institutional and governance vacuum and managers should pay attention to the wider social-ecological system in which they are immersed. This article examines Islas Choros-Damas Marine Reserve, a small marine protected area located in a highly productive and biologically diverse coastal marine ecosystem in northern Chile, and the interactions between human, institutional, and ecological dimensions beyond those existing within its boundaries. Through documents analysis, surveys, and interviews, we described marine reserve implementation (governing system) and the social and natural ecosystem-to-be-governed. We analyzed the interactions and the connections between the marine reserve and other spatially explicit conservation and/or management measures existing in the area and influencing management outcomes and governance. A top-down approach with poor stakeholder involvement characterized the implementation process. The marine reserve is highly connected with other spatially explicit measures and with a wider social-ecological system through various ecological processes and socio-economic interactions. Current institutional interactions with positive effects on the management and governance are scarce, although several potential interactions may be developed. For the study area, any management action must recognize interferences from outside conditions and consider some of them (e.g., ecotourism management) as cross-cutting actions for the entire social-ecological system. We consider that institutional interactions and the development of social networks are opportunities to any collective effort aiming to improve governance of Islas Choros-Damas marine reserve. Communication of connections and interactions between marine protected areas and the wider social-ecological system (as described in this study) is proposed as a strategy to improve stakeholder participation in Chilean marine protected areas.

Cárcamo, P. Francisco; Gaymer, Carlos F.

2013-12-01

214

Interactions between spatially explicit conservation and management measures: implications for the governance of marine protected areas.  

PubMed

Marine protected areas are not established in an institutional and governance vacuum and managers should pay attention to the wider social-ecological system in which they are immersed. This article examines Islas Choros-Damas Marine Reserve, a small marine protected area located in a highly productive and biologically diverse coastal marine ecosystem in northern Chile, and the interactions between human, institutional, and ecological dimensions beyond those existing within its boundaries. Through documents analysis, surveys, and interviews, we described marine reserve implementation (governing system) and the social and natural ecosystem-to-be-governed. We analyzed the interactions and the connections between the marine reserve and other spatially explicit conservation and/or management measures existing in the area and influencing management outcomes and governance. A top-down approach with poor stakeholder involvement characterized the implementation process. The marine reserve is highly connected with other spatially explicit measures and with a wider social-ecological system through various ecological processes and socio-economic interactions. Current institutional interactions with positive effects on the management and governance are scarce, although several potential interactions may be developed. For the study area, any management action must recognize interferences from outside conditions and consider some of them (e.g., ecotourism management) as cross-cutting actions for the entire social-ecological system. We consider that institutional interactions and the development of social networks are opportunities to any collective effort aiming to improve governance of Islas Choros-Damas marine reserve. Communication of connections and interactions between marine protected areas and the wider social-ecological system (as described in this study) is proposed as a strategy to improve stakeholder participation in Chilean marine protected areas. PMID:24091586

Cárcamo, P Francisco; Gaymer, Carlos F

2013-12-01

215

Land Planarian Assemblages in Protected Areas of the Interior Atlantic Forest: Implications for Conservation  

PubMed Central

Land planarians are an interesting group of free-living flatworms that can be useful as bioindicators because of their high sensitivity to environmental changes and low dispersal capacity. In this study, we describe and compare assemblages of land planarians from areas with different conservation degrees of the Interior Atlantic Forest (Misiones, Argentina), and assess factors that could be related to their abundance and richness. Eight sites were tracked in search of land planarians in Reserva de Vida Silvestre Urugua-í (RVSU) and Campo Anexo Manuel Belgrano (CAMB). Diurnal and nocturnal surveys were performed in each site along nine sampling campaigns. We collected 237 individuals belonging to 18 species of the subfamily Geoplaninae. All sites were dominated by Geoplana sp. 1 and Pasipha hauseri. The richness estimators showed that there would be more species in RVSU than in CAMB. The abundance and richness of land planarians was high during the night and after rainfalls, suggesting an increased activity of flatworms under such conditions. The abundance and richness of land planarians were also related to the conservation condition of the sites. Disturbed sites showed less abundance and richness, and were segregated from non-disturbed ones by nmMDS analysis. Beta diversity between sites was higher than expected, indicating that the species turnover between sites contributed more to the total richness (gamma diversity) than the alpha diversity. PMID:24598934

Negrete, Lisandro; Colpo, Karine D.; Brusa, Francisco

2014-01-01

216

Land Cover Change Analysis in Tropical Forest Ecosystems Using GIS and Remote Sensing: The Kakum Conservation Area (KCA) of Ghana as a case  

E-print Network

i Land Cover Change Analysis in Tropical Forest Ecosystems Using GIS and Remote Sensing: The Kakum. To analyse these changes, change detection techniques based on remote sensing data (Landsat TM and ETM+) were support in the practical GIS/Remote sensing work. My gratitude also goes to my MSc Environmental Change

Malhi, Yadvinder

217

Identification of potential conflict areas between land transformation and biodiversity conservation in north-eastern South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transformation of natural vegetation to other land-uses, such as crop cultivation and urban development, presents the most important threat to biodiversity. Plant and animal species distribution data were employed to identify areas of high biodiversity value in the major summer crop production region in north-eastern South Africa. These areas of biodiversity conservation importance were then evaluated in terms of their

Konrad J Wessels; Belinda Reyers; Albert S van Jaarsveld; Mike C Rutherford

2003-01-01

218

Conservation, Spillover and Gene Flow within a Network of Northern European Marine Protected Areas  

PubMed Central

To ensure that marine protected areas (MPAs) benefit conservation and fisheries, the effectiveness of MPA designs has to be evaluated in field studies. Using an interdisciplinary approach, we empirically assessed the design of a network of northern MPAs where fishing for European lobster (Homarusgammarus) is prohibited. First, we demonstrate a high level of residency and survival (50%) for almost a year (363 days) within MPAs, despite small MPA sizes (0.5-1 km2). Second, we demonstrate limited export (4.7%) of lobsters tagged within MPAs (N = 1810) to neighbouring fished areas, over a median distance of 1.6 km out to maximum 21 km away from MPA centres. In comparison, median movement distance of lobsters recaptured within MPAs was 164 m, and recapture rate was high (40%). Third, we demonstrate a high level of gene flow within the study region, with an estimated FST of less than 0.0001 over a ? 400 km coastline. Thus, the restricted movement of older life stages, combined with a high level of gene flow suggests that connectivity is primarily driven by larval drift. Larval export from the MPAs can most likely affect areas far beyond their borders. Our findings are of high importance for the design of MPA networks for sedentary species with pelagic early life stages. PMID:24039927

Huserbråten, Mats Brockstedt Olsen; Moland, Even; Knutsen, Halvor; Olsen, Esben Moland; André, Carl; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

2013-01-01

219

Are Species Coexistence Areas a Good Option for Conservation Management? Applications from Fine Scale Modelling in Two Steppe Birds  

PubMed Central

Biotic interactions and land uses have been proposed as factors that determine the distribution of the species at local scale. The presence of heterospecifics may modify the habitat selection pattern of the individuals and this may have important implications for the design of effective conservation strategies. However, conservation proposals are often focused on a single flagship or umbrella species taken as representative of an entire assemblage requirements. Our aim is to identify and evaluate the role of coexistence areas at local scale as conservation tools, by using distribution data of two endangered birds, the Little Bustard and the Great Bustard. Presence-only based suitability models for each species were built with MaxEnt using variables of substrate type and topography. Probability maps of habitat suitability for each species were combined to generate a map in which coexistence and exclusive use areas were delimitated. Probabilities of suitable habitat for each species inside coexistence and exclusive areas were compared. As expected, habitat requirements of Little and Great Bustards differed. Coexistence areas presented lower probabilities of habitat suitability than exclusive use ones. We conclude that differences in species' habitat preferences can hinder the efficiency of protected areas with multi-species conservation purposes. Our results highlight the importance of taking into account the role of biotic interactions when designing conservation measurements. PMID:24498210

Tarjuelo, Rocío; Morales, Manuel B.; Traba, Juan; Delgado, M. Paula

2014-01-01

220

Design of ecoregional monitoring in conservation areas of high-latitude ecosystems under contemporary climate change  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Land ownership in Alaska includes a mosaic of federally managed units. Within its agency’s context, each unit has its own management strategy, authority, and resources of conservation concern, many of which are migratory animals. Though some units are geographically isolated, many are nevertheless linked by paths of abiotic and biotic flows, such as rivers, air masses, flyways, and terrestrial and aquatic migration routes. Furthermore, individual land units exist within the context of a larger landscape pattern of shifting conditions, requiring managers to understand at larger spatial scales the status and trends in the synchrony and spatial concurrence of species and associated suitable habitats. Results of these changes will determine the ability of Alaska lands to continue to: provide habitat for local and migratory species; absorb species whose ranges are shifting northward; and experience mitigation or exacerbation of climate change through positive and negative atmospheric feedbacks. We discuss the geographic and statutory contexts that influence development of ecological monitoring; argue for the inclusion of significant amounts of broad-scale monitoring; discuss the importance of defining clear programmatic and monitoring objectives; and draw from lessons learned from existing long-term, broad-scale monitoring programs to apply to the specific contexts relevant to high-latitude protected areas such as those in Alaska. Such areas are distinguished by their: marked seasonality; relatively large magnitudes of contemporary change in climatic parameters; and relative inaccessibility due to broad spatial extent, very low (or zero) road density, and steep and glaciated areas. For ecological monitoring to effectively support management decisions in high-latitude areas such as Alaska, a monitoring program ideally would be structured to address the actual spatial and temporal scales of relevant processes, rather than the artificial boundaries of individual land-management units. Heuristic models provide a means by which to integrate understanding of ecosystem structure, composition, and function, in the midst of numerous ecosystem drivers.

Beever, Erik A.; Woodward, Andrea

2011-01-01

221

Allocating conservation resources between areas where persistence of a species is uncertain.  

PubMed

Research on the allocation of resources to manage threatened species typically assumes that the state of the system is completely observable; for example whether a species is present or not. The majority of this research has converged on modeling problems as Markov decision processes (MDP), which give an optimal strategy driven by the current state of the system being managed. However, the presence of threatened species in an area can be uncertain. Typically, resource allocation among multiple conservation areas has been based on the biggest expected benefit (return on investment) but fails to incorporate the risk of imperfect detection. We provide the first decision-making framework for confronting the trade-off between information and return on investment, and we illustrate the approach for populations of the Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) in Kerinci Seblat National Park. The problem is posed as a partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP), which extends MDP to incorporate incomplete detection and allows decisions based on our confidence in particular states. POMDP has previously been used for making optimal management decisions for a single population of a threatened species. We extend this work by investigating two populations, enabling us to explore the importance of variation in expected return on investment between populations on how we should act. We compare the performance of optimal strategies derived assuming complete (MDP) and incomplete (POMDP) observability. We find that uncertainty about the presence of a species affects how we should act. Further, we show that assuming full knowledge of a species presence will deliver poorer strategic outcomes than if uncertainty about a species status is explicitly considered. MDP solutions perform up to 90% worse than the POMDP for highly cryptic species, and they only converge in performance when we are certain of observing the species during management: an unlikely scenario for many threatened species. This study illustrates an approach to allocating limited resources to threatened species where the conservation status of the species in different areas is uncertain. The results highlight the importance of including partial observability in future models of optimal species management when the species of concern is cryptic in nature. PMID:21639049

McDonald-Madden, Eve; Chadès, Iadine; McCarthy, Michael A; Linkie, Matthew; Possingham, Hugh P

2011-04-01

222

Conservation priorities under global change : protected areas, threatened biodiversity and research trends  

E-print Network

all papers from Conservation Biology to track broad researchresearch, more than half of papers in 1994-1996 for two major conservation journals (Conservation Biology andBiology (1987-2010). While „climate change? research is increasing with time, „science and policy? papers,

Lee, Tien Ming

2011-01-01

223

A survey of bread defects in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Ghana bread forms part of the daily diet. However, little attention has been given to bread processing and any defects associated with bread production. This study was carried out to assess the extent of bread defects, especially ropiness, in the bread-making industry in Ghana. The results of the study showed that bread defects do exist, with mold contamination being

W. O. Ellis; A. K. Obubuafo; A. Ofosu-Okyere; E. K. Marfo; K. Osei-Agyemang; J. K. Odame-Darkwah

1997-01-01

224

Domestic Violence in Ghana: The Open Secret  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report discusses the findings of a Georgetown Law International Women’s Human Rights Clinic fact-finding team that traveled to Ghana, Africa in March 2003 to investigate domestic violence. The report reviews the contours of the domestic violence problem in Ghana and outlines the ways in which Ghanaian law and procedure was insufficiently addressing the problem at the time. Its chief

Nancy Chi Cantalupo; Lisa Vollendorf Martin; Kay Pak; Sue Shin

2006-01-01

225

Educational Access in Ghana. Country Policy Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Policy Brief describes and explains patterns of access to schools in Ghana. It outlines policy and legislation on access to education and provides an analysis of access, vulnerability and exclusion. It is based on findings from the Country Analytic Report on Access to Basic Education in Ghana (Akyeampong et al, 2007) [ED508809] which can be…

Akyeampong, K.; Djangmah, J.; Oduro, A.; Seidu, A.; Hunt, F.

2008-01-01

226

A survey for Echinococcus spp. of carnivores in six wildlife conservation areas in Kenya.  

PubMed

To investigate the presence of Echinococcus spp. in wild mammals of Kenya, 832 faecal samples from wild carnivores (lions, leopards, spotted hyenas, wild dogs and silver-backed jackals) were collected in six different conservation areas of Kenya (Meru, Nairobi, Tsavo West and Tsavo East National Parks, Samburu and Maasai Mara National Reserves). Taeniid eggs were found in 120 samples (14.4%). In total, 1160 eggs were isolated and further analysed using RFLP-PCR of the nad1 gene and sequencing. 38 of these samples contained eggs of Echinococcus spp., which were identified as either Echinococcus felidis (n=27) or Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (n=12); one sample contained eggs from both taxa. E. felidis was found in faeces from lions (n=20) and hyenas (n=5) while E. granulosus in faeces from lions (n=8), leopards (n=1) and hyenas (n=3). The host species for two samples containing E. felidis could not be identified with certainty. As the majority of isolated eggs could not be analysed with the methods used (no amplification), we do not attempt to give estimates of faecal prevalences. Both taxa of Echinococcus were found in all conservation areas except Meru (only E. felidis) and Tsavo West (only E. granulosus). Host species identification for environmental faecal samples, based on field signs, was found to be unreliable. All samples with taeniid eggs were subjected to a confirmatory host species RLFP-PCR of the cytochrome B gene. 60% had been correctly identified in the field. Frequently, hyena faeces were mistaken for lion and vice versa, and none of the samples from jackals and wild dogs could be confirmed in the tested sub-sample. This is the first molecular study on the distribution of Echinococcus spp. in Kenyan wildlife. The presence of E. felidis is confirmed for lions and newly reported for spotted hyenas. Lions and hyenas are newly recognized hosts for E. granulosus s.s., while the role of leopards remains uncertain. These data provide the basis for further studies on the lifecycles and the possible link between wild and domestic cycles of cystic echinococcosis in eastern Africa. PMID:24732034

Kagendo, D; Magambo, J; Agola, E L; Njenga, S M; Zeyhle, E; Mulinge, E; Gitonga, P; Mbae, C; Muchiri, E; Wassermann, M; Kern, P; Romig, T

2014-08-01

227

Title: Prioritising areas for dugong conservation in a marine protected area using a spatially explicit population model  

E-print Network

dugon, universal kriging, marine protected areas, Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area Abstract The Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA) covers an area of approximately 348,000km2 making/or the preservation of cultural values (Kelleher et al. 1995). The Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA

Marsh, Helene

228

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Closure Plan Summary for Interim reasctive Waste Treatment Area (IRWTA)  

SciTech Connect

This closure plan has been prepared for the interim Reactive Waste Treatment Area (IRWT'A) located at the Y-12 Pkmt in oak Ridge, Tennessee (Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] Identification TN 389-009-0001). The actions required to achieve closure of the IRWTA are outlined in this plan, which is being submitted in accordance with Tennessee Ruie 1200- 1-1 1-.0S(7) and Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 265, Subpart G. The IRWTA was used to treat waste sodium and potassium (NaK) that are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The location of the IRWT'A is shown in Figures 1 and 2, and a diagram is shown in Figure 3. This pkm details all steps that wdi be petiormed to close the IRWTA. Note that this is a fmai ciosure.and a diagram is shown in Figure 3. This pkm details all steps that wdi be petiormed to close the IRWTA. Note that this is a fmai ciosure.

Collins, E.T.

1997-07-01

229

Adaptation in Practice: How Managers of Nature Conservation Areas in Eastern England are Responding to Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although good general principles for climate change adaptation in conservation have been developed, it is proving a challenge to translate them into more detailed recommendations for action. To improve our understanding of what adaptation might involve in practice, we investigated how the managers of conservation areas in eastern England are considering climate change. We used a written questionnaire and semi-structured interviews to collect information from managers of a range of different conservation areas. Topics investigated include the impacts of climate change perceived to be of the greatest importance; adaptation goals being set; management actions being carried out to achieve these goals; sources of information used; and perceived barriers to taking action. We identified major themes and issues that were apparent across the sites studied. Specifically, we found ways in which adaptation had been informed by past experience; different strategies relating to whether to accept or resist change; approaches for coping with more variable conditions; ways of taking a large-scale approach and managing sites as networks; some practical examples of aspects of adaptive management; and examples of the role that other sectors can play in both constraining and increasing a conservation area's capacity to adapt. We discuss the relevance of these findings to the growing discussion in conservation about identifying adaptation pathways for different conservation areas and a potential progression from a focus on resilience and incremental change to embracing "transformation." Though adaptation will be place-specific, we believe these findings provide useful lessons for future action in both England and other countries.

Macgregor, Nicholas A.; van Dijk, Nikki

2014-10-01

230

Adaptation in practice: how managers of nature conservation areas in eastern england are responding to climate change.  

PubMed

Although good general principles for climate change adaptation in conservation have been developed, it is proving a challenge to translate them into more detailed recommendations for action. To improve our understanding of what adaptation might involve in practice, we investigated how the managers of conservation areas in eastern England are considering climate change. We used a written questionnaire and semi-structured interviews to collect information from managers of a range of different conservation areas. Topics investigated include the impacts of climate change perceived to be of the greatest importance; adaptation goals being set; management actions being carried out to achieve these goals; sources of information used; and perceived barriers to taking action. We identified major themes and issues that were apparent across the sites studied. Specifically, we found ways in which adaptation had been informed by past experience; different strategies relating to whether to accept or resist change; approaches for coping with more variable conditions; ways of taking a large-scale approach and managing sites as networks; some practical examples of aspects of adaptive management; and examples of the role that other sectors can play in both constraining and increasing a conservation area's capacity to adapt. We discuss the relevance of these findings to the growing discussion in conservation about identifying adaptation pathways for different conservation areas and a potential progression from a focus on resilience and incremental change to embracing "transformation." Though adaptation will be place-specific, we believe these findings provide useful lessons for future action in both England and other countries. PMID:24647625

Macgregor, Nicholas A; van Dijk, Nikki

2014-10-01

231

JOURNAL OF SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION M|A 200696 tion to identify critical source areas,which are  

E-print Network

JOURNAL OF SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION M|A 200696 tion to identify critical source areas applications coincides with high surface runoff or soil erosion (Sharpley et al., 2001). As recommended. Phosphorus based management strategies in conjunction with degrading water resources from land application

Chaubey, Indrajeet

232

Conservation of bats in suburban landscapes: roost selection by Myotis yumanensis in a residential area in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protection of roosting habitat is essential to the conservation of bats in human-dominated landscapes. To help define bat roosting needs in suburban settings, we used radio telemetry to locate day roosts of a common North American species (Myotis yumanensis) within a residential area in California. Between June and August 2000, we tracked 16 bats to 20 roosts in two buildings

Michelle J. Evelyn; David A. Stiles; Rebecca A. Young

2004-01-01

233

Contingent valuation of ecotourism in Annapurna conservation area, Nepal: Implications for sustainable park finance and local development  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine willingness to pay (WTP) for candidate entry fees, contingent valuation surveys were administered to 315 foreign visitors to the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal, during April and May of 2006. The results of logit regression showed that the bid amount, family size, visitors' satisfaction, the use of a guide, and group size were the most significant predictors of WTP.

Nabin Baral; Marc J. Stern; Ranju Bhattarai

2008-01-01

234

Post-pastoral changes in composition and guilds in a semi-arid conservation area, Central Otago, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the vegetation of Flat Top Hill, a highly modified conservation area in semi-arid Central Otago, New Zealand, are described four years after the cessation of sheep and rabbit grazing. Unusually moist weather conditions coincide with the four-year period of change in response to the cessation of grazing. Between 1993 and 1997, the average richness and diversity (H') of

Susan Walker

2000-01-01

235

Predictors of contraceptive use among female adolescents in Ghana.  

PubMed

Adolescent girls in Ghana still face a number of challenges accessing reproductive/sexual health services despite efforts to improve their accessibility. This paper explores the key socio-demographic factors associated with contraceptive use amongst adolescent girls in Ghana using the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS). Data from the 2008 GDHS was analyzed. Socio-demographic variables were selected to assess their interaction with contraceptive use. Multivariable regression analyses were performed. Odds ratios and confidence intervals were computed. Place of residence and marital status were the most important predictors of contraceptive use among sexually active adolescents. Rural residents were less likely to use contraceptives compared to urban residents (OR 0.32, CI 0.12-0.84, p = 0.021) as well as married respondents compared to their unmarried peers (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.11-0.67, p = 0.005). The accessibility of reproductive/sexual health services needs to be improved and promoted in rural areas and among married adolescent women. PMID:24796174

Marrone, Gaetano; Abdul-Rahman, Lutuf; De Coninck, Zaake; Johansson, Annika

2014-03-01

236

Globalization and multi-spatial trends in the coverage of protected-area conservation (1980-2000).  

PubMed

This study is focused on the global expansion of protected-area coverage that occurred during the 1980--2000 period. We examine the multi-scale patterning of four of the basic facets of this expansion: i) estimated increases at the world-regional and country-level scales of total protected-area coverage; ii) transboundary protected areas; iii) conservation corridor projects; and iv) type of conservation management. Geospatial patterning of protected-area designations is a reflection of the priorities of global conservation organizations and the globalization of post-Cold War political and economic arrangements. Local and national-level factors (political leadership and infrastructure) as well as international relations such as multilateral and bilateral aid combine with these globalization processes to impact the extent, type, and location of protected-area designations. We conclude that the interaction of these factors led to the creation and reinforcement of marked spatial differences (rather than tendencies toward worldwide evenness or homogenization) in the course of protected-area expansion during the 1980--2000 period. PMID:15666684

Zimmerer, Karl S; Galt, Ryan E; Buck, Margaret V

2004-12-01

237

Moving into Protected Areas? Setting Conservation Priorities for Romanian Reptiles and Amphibians at Risk from Climate Change  

PubMed Central

Rapid climate change represents one of the top threats to biodiversity, causing declines and extinctions of many species. Range shifts are a key response, but in many cases are incompatible with the current extent of protected areas. In this study we used ensemble species distribution models to identify range changes for 21 reptile and 16 amphibian species in Romania for the 2020s and 2050s time horizons under three emission scenarios (A1B = integrated world, rapid economic growth, A2A = divided world, rapid economic growth [realistic scenario], B2A = regional development, environmentally-friendly scenario) and no- and limited-dispersal assumptions. We then used irreplaceability analysis to test the efficacy of the Natura 2000 network to meet conservation targets. Under all scenarios and time horizons, 90% of the species suffered range contractions (greatest loses under scenarios B2A for 2020s, and A1B for 2050s), and four reptile species expanded their ranges. Two reptile and two amphibian species are predicted to completely lose climate space by 2050s. Currently, 35 species do not meet conservation targets (>40% representation in protected areas), but the target is predicted to be met for 4 - 14 species under future climate conditions, with higher representation under the limited-dispersal scenario. The Alpine and Steppic-Black Sea biogeographic regions have the highest irreplaceability value, and act as climate refugia for many reptiles and amphibians. The Natura 2000 network performs better for achieving herpetofauna conservation goals in the future, owing to the interaction between drastic range contractions, and range shifts towards existing protected areas. Thus, conservation actions for herpetofauna in Romania need to focus on: (1) building institutional capacity of protected areas in the Alpine and Steppic-Black Sea biogeographic regions, and (2) facilitating natural range shifts by improving the conservation status of herpetofauna outside protected areas, specifically in traditionally-managed landscapes and abandoned cropland. PMID:24324547

Popescu, Viorel D.; Rozylowicz, Lauren?iu; Cog?lniceanu, Dan; Niculae, Iulian Mih?i??; Cucu, Adina Livia

2013-01-01

238

Moving into protected areas? Setting conservation priorities for Romanian reptiles and amphibians at risk from climate change.  

PubMed

Rapid climate change represents one of the top threats to biodiversity, causing declines and extinctions of many species. Range shifts are a key response, but in many cases are incompatible with the current extent of protected areas. In this study we used ensemble species distribution models to identify range changes for 21 reptile and 16 amphibian species in Romania for the 2020s and 2050s time horizons under three emission scenarios (A1B = integrated world, rapid economic growth, A2A = divided world, rapid economic growth [realistic scenario], B2A = regional development, environmentally-friendly scenario) and no- and limited-dispersal assumptions. We then used irreplaceability analysis to test the efficacy of the Natura 2000 network to meet conservation targets. Under all scenarios and time horizons, 90% of the species suffered range contractions (greatest loses under scenarios B2A for 2020s, and A1B for 2050s), and four reptile species expanded their ranges. Two reptile and two amphibian species are predicted to completely lose climate space by 2050s. Currently, 35 species do not meet conservation targets (>40% representation in protected areas), but the target is predicted to be met for 4 - 14 species under future climate conditions, with higher representation under the limited-dispersal scenario. The Alpine and Steppic-Black Sea biogeographic regions have the highest irreplaceability value, and act as climate refugia for many reptiles and amphibians. The Natura 2000 network performs better for achieving herpetofauna conservation goals in the future, owing to the interaction between drastic range contractions, and range shifts towards existing protected areas. Thus, conservation actions for herpetofauna in Romania need to focus on: (1) building institutional capacity of protected areas in the Alpine and Steppic-Black Sea biogeographic regions, and (2) facilitating natural range shifts by improving the conservation status of herpetofauna outside protected areas, specifically in traditionally-managed landscapes and abandoned cropland. PMID:24324547

Popescu, Viorel D; Rozylowicz, Lauren?iu; Cog?lniceanu, Dan; Niculae, Iulian Mih?i??; Cucu, Adina Livia

2013-01-01

239

Do protected areas and conservation incentives contribute to sustainable livelihoods? A case study of Bardia National Park, Nepal.  

PubMed

Effective biodiversity protection and improved human welfare as 'win-win' situations have been the foundation for protected areas and conservation incentives. However, conserving land in this way can become a development issue that restricts agricultural expansion and resource exploitation, with potentially substantial costs to people living in conditions of high social impoverishment and high critical natural capital. This paper investigates whether Nepal's Bardia National Park and conservation incentives have contributed to the sustainable livelihoods of households. Data on household livelihoods and conservation benefits were collected through a questionnaire survey of 358 households and community workshops in three villages. Different impacts on household livelihoods were observed between the villages. It was found that these impacts were dependent on household characteristics, access to prior capital, and the social position of the household within society. Households lacking resources, being poor and belonging to lower castes were least included and also benefited less from development projects. As finance in the form of development projects from organisations continues to flow to the communities, it is important that detailed livelihood planning focussing on alternative regenerative livelihoods and micro-enterprises in the informal sector is included to target those households that are highly dependent on park resources. Livelihood planning must also include a clear linkage between livelihood enhancing activities and the conservation programme so that communities are aware that the benefits they receive are due to the protected area. Appreciation of benefits and their positive impact on livelihoods is important for the sustainability of incentive-based programmes. PMID:23895911

Thapa Karki, Shova

2013-10-15

240

Ghana Business News Ghana to remove taxes on imported timber products Print http://ghanabusinessnews.com/2009/06/30/ghana-to-remove-taxes-on-imported-timber-products/print/[10/1/2009 8:23:47 AM  

E-print Network

Ghana Business News » Ghana to remove taxes on imported timber products » Print http://ghanabusinessnews.com/2009/06/30/ghana-to-remove-taxes-on-imported-timber-products/print/[10/1/2009 8:23:47 AM] - Ghana Business News - http://ghanabusinessnews.com - Ghana to remove taxes on imported timber products Posted

241

Impact of Conservation Areas on Trophic Interactions between Apex Predators and Herbivores on Coral Reefs.  

PubMed

Apex predators are declining at alarming rates due to exploitation by humans, but we have yet to fully discern the impacts of apex predator loss on ecosystem function. In a management context, it is critically important to clarify the role apex predators play in structuring populations of lower trophic levels. Thus, we examined the top-down influence of reef sharks (an apex predator on coral reefs) and mesopredators on large-bodied herbivores. We measured the abundance, size structure, and biomass of apex predators, mesopredators, and herbivores across fished, no-take, and no-entry management zones in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, Australia. Shark abundance and mesopredator size and biomass were higher in no-entry zones than in fished and no-take zones, which indicates the viability of strictly enforced human exclusion areas as tools for the conservation of predator communities. Changes in predator populations due to protection in no-entry zones did not have a discernible influence on the density, size, or biomass of different functional groups of herbivorous fishes. The lack of a relationship between predators and herbivores suggests that top-down forces may not play a strong role in regulating large-bodied herbivorous coral reef fish populations. Given this inconsistency with traditional ecological theories of trophic cascades, trophic structures on coral reefs may need to be reassessed to enable the establishment of appropriate and effective management regimes. El Impacto de las Áreas de Conservación sobre las Interacciones Tróficas entre los Depredadores Dominantes y los Herbívoros en los Arrecifes de Coral. PMID:25185522

Rizzari, Justin R; Bergseth, Brock J; Frisch, Ashley J

2014-09-01

242

Biochar/compost project in Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In cooperation with the organization Abokobi Society Switzerlands (ASS) the biochar/compost project tries to assist impecunious farmers in the Tamale /Walewale area in the northern region of Ghana. The soil of these farmers is often overused and low in organic matter and minerals. Field tests have been carried out since 2009 in the Walewale area and in the year 2011 also in the Tamale area. In 2011 combinations of Biochar with other natural fertilizers were tested, such as poultry manure and compost. By using the combination of biochar, compost and poultry manure as an organic soil improvement material the soil quality could be improved and higher crop yields of 50% and more could be achieved, without the use of chemical fertilizer. It is possible to achieve remarkably higher crop yields for a longer period of time, with only one single application. Local farmers were shown the new trial results in the field. They were convinced by the positive results of the crop yields. Those who would also like to improve the soil of their fields, could be given initial aid allowing them to help themselves to improve their dire situation. The biochar/compost project provided the occasion to raise awareness amongst local farmers for sustainable agriculture.

Roessler, K.; Jenny, F.

2012-04-01

243

The role of published information in reviewing conservation objectives for Natura 2000 protected areas in the European Union.  

PubMed

Protected areas are designated to protect species and other features known to be present at the time of designation, but over time the information about the presence of protected species may change and this should call for a continued review of conservation objectives. Published scientific literature is one of the possible information sources that would trigger a review of conservation objectives. We studied how published data on new discoveries of protected animal species were taken into account by the nature conservation authorities in updating species lists of Natura 2000 sites in the European Union, which are the basis for conservation planning at the site-level. Over the period studied (2000-2011) only 40 % of published new protected species records were recognized by the authorities. The two main reasons for this seem to be a reliance on other sources of information by authorities and the difficulty in finding relevant information in scientific papers. The latter is because published faunistic information is very fragmented among different journals, and often insufficient in details. We recommend better cooperation between authors, publishers, and nature conservation authorities in terms of information presentation, publishing policy, and a regular review of published information. PMID:24318402

Opermanis, Otars; MacSharry, Brian; Bailly-Maitre, Jerome; Evans, Douglas; Sipkova, Zelmira

2014-03-01

244

50 CFR Table 2 (north) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed Gear North of 40°10...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

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2011-10-01

245

50 CFR Table 2 (south) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed Gear South of 40°10...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed Gear...2 Table 2 (South) to Part 660, Subpart E—Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed...

2012-10-01

246

50 CFR Table 1 (south) to Part 660... - Limited Entry Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Landing Allowances for non-IFQ Species and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Limited Entry Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Landing Allowances for non-IFQ Species...1 (South) to Part 660, Subpart D—Limited Entry Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Landing Allowances for non-IFQ...

2012-10-01

247

50 CFR Table 1 (north) to Part 660... - Limited Entry Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Landing Allowances for non-IFQ Species and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Limited Entry Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Landing Allowances for non-IFQ Species...1 (North) to Part 660, Subpart D—Limited Entry Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Landing Allowances for non-IFQ...

2011-10-01

248

50 CFR Table 2 (north) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed Gear North of 40°10...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed Gear...2 Table 2 (North) to Part 660, Subpart E—Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed...

2012-10-01

249

50 CFR Table 2 (north) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed Gear North of 40°10...  

... 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed Gear...2 Table 2 (North) to Part 660, Subpart E—Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed...

2014-10-01

250

50 CFR Table 3 (north) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears North of 40°10? N. Lat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears North...3 Table 3 (North) to Part 660, Subpart F—Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears...

2011-10-01

251

50 CFR Table 3 (south) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears South of 40°10? N. Lat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears South...3 Table 3 (South) to Part 660, Subpart F—Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears...

2011-10-01

252

50 CFR Table 1 (north) to Part 660... - Limited Entry Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Landing Allowances for non-IFQ Species and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Limited Entry Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Landing Allowances for non-IFQ Species...1 (North) to Part 660, Subpart D—Limited Entry Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Landing Allowances for non-IFQ...

2013-10-01

253

50 CFR Table 3 (north) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears North of 40°10? N. Lat.  

... 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears North...3 Table 3 (North) to Part 660, Subpart F—Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears...

2014-10-01

254

50 CFR Table 1 (south) to Part 660... - Limited Entry Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Landing Allowances for non-IFQ Species and...  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Limited Entry Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Landing Allowances for non-IFQ Species...1 (South) to Part 660, Subpart D—Limited Entry Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Landing Allowances for non-IFQ...

2014-10-01

255

50 CFR Table 2 (south) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed Gear South of 40°10...  

... 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed Gear...2 Table 2 (South) to Part 660, Subpart E—Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed...

2014-10-01

256

50 CFR Table 1 (south) to Part 660... - Limited Entry Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Landing Allowances for non-IFQ Species and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Limited Entry Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Landing Allowances for non-IFQ Species...1 (South) to Part 660, Subpart D—Limited Entry Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Landing Allowances for non-IFQ...

2011-10-01

257

50 CFR Table 1 (north) to Part 660... - Limited Entry Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Landing Allowances for non-IFQ Species and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Limited Entry Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Landing Allowances for non-IFQ Species...1 (North) to Part 660, Subpart D—Limited Entry Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Landing Allowances for non-IFQ...

2012-10-01

258

50 CFR Table 1 (south) to Part 660... - Limited Entry Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Landing Allowances for non-IFQ Species and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Limited Entry Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Landing Allowances for non-IFQ Species...1 (South) to Part 660, Subpart D—Limited Entry Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Landing Allowances for non-IFQ...

2013-10-01

259

50 CFR Table 3 (north) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears North of 40°10? N. Lat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears North...3 Table 3 (North) to Part 660, Subpart F—Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears...

2013-10-01

260

50 CFR Table 2 (south) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed Gear South of 40°10...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed Gear...2 Table 2 (South) to Part 660, Subpart E—Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed...

2013-10-01

261

50 CFR Table 2 (north) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed Gear North of 40°10...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed Gear...2 Table 2 (North) to Part 660, Subpart E—Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed...

2013-10-01

262

50 CFR Table 3 (south) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears South of 40°10? N. Lat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears South...3 Table 3 (South) to Part 660, Subpart F—Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears...

2013-10-01

263

50 CFR Table 1 (north) to Part 660... - Limited Entry Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Landing Allowances for non-IFQ Species and...  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Limited Entry Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Landing Allowances for non-IFQ Species...1 (North) to Part 660, Subpart D—Limited Entry Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Landing Allowances for non-IFQ...

2014-10-01

264

50 CFR Table 2 (south) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed Gear South of 40°10...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed Gear...2 Table 2 (South) to Part 660, Subpart E—Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed...

2011-10-01

265

50 CFR Table 3 (north) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears North of 40°10? N. Lat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears North...3 Table 3 (North) to Part 660, Subpart F—Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears...

2012-10-01

266

50 CFR Table 3 (south) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears South of 40°10? N. Lat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears South...3 Table 3 (South) to Part 660, Subpart F—Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears...

2012-10-01

267

50 CFR Table 3 (south) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears South of 40°10? N. Lat.  

... 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears South...3 Table 3 (South) to Part 660, Subpart F—Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears...

2014-10-01

268

Insect Conservation in an Urban Biodiversity Hotspot: The San Francisco Bay Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The San Francisco Bay Area hosts a diverse insect fauna and a dense cluster of urban areas. The high diversity of insects in the Bay Area arises for three primary reasons: its location in the California biotic province, the diverse local environment and the entomologist-area effect. The juxtaposition of high insect diversity and an area intensively used by humans led

Edward F. Connor; John Hafernik; Jacqueline Levy; Vicki Lee Moore; Jancy K. Rickman

2002-01-01

269

An evaluation of customers' perception and usage of rural community banks (RCBs) in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To ascertain customers' usage level and perceptions of the image of rural community banks (RCBs) in Ghana. This research examines whether women and men differ in their levels of satisfaction and expectation about the banks' services. It also assesses the contribution of RCBs towards infrastructural development in the rural areas. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Both desk and primary research methods

Nana Owusu-Frimpong

2008-01-01

270

From a technology focus to innovation development : the management of cocoa pests and diseases in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ghana is a major producer of cocoa in the world and relies heavily on the crop for foreign exchange revenue. However, production levels declined from the mid 1960s reaching the lowest level in 1983. The decline in production was a result of decreasing areas under cultivation, and low yields. Pests and diseases are inadequately controlled, and the use of synthetic

E. N. A. Dormon

2006-01-01

271

Singing to farmers: Non-formal adult education through folksongs for food production in rural Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture is the main occupation of the people of Ghana. More than half of the country's population of about 20 million people depend on farming for their livelihoods. They are either engaged in commercial or in small-scale farming activities for socioeconomic purposes. In the rural areas in particular, almost every community member is a farmer. They are engaged in crop

Kofi Poku Quan-Baffour

2011-01-01

272

Protocol and monitoring to improve snake bite outcomes in rural Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted in Mathias Hospital, Yeji, an area of Ghana, where snake bite cases are an important cause of morbidity and mortality, with a case fatality rate of 11% (8\\/72). Case management difficulties included uncertainty about the assessment of the severity of envenoming, the dosage of antivenom, and the response to treatment. An intervention with several components was

L. E Visser; S Kyei-Faried; D. W Belcher

2004-01-01

273

Soil radon concentration along fault systems in parts of south eastern Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radon gas emission from soils in parts of southeastern Ghana (Accra) have been measured to find a possible correlation of the gas emanation with faults and seismic activity in the area. LR-115 alpha track sensitive plastics were used for the detection of the gas at 47 sampling points within a 500m×500m spaced grid. The obtained radon data was analyzed and

Paulina Amponsah; Bruce Banoeng-Yakubo; Aba Andam; Daniel Asiedu

2008-01-01

274

Analysis of MIMO Systems used in planning a 4G- WiMAX Network in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

with the increasing demand for mobile data services, Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) is emerging as one of the fastest growing areas within mobile communications. Innovative wireless communication systems, such as WiMAX, are expected to offer highly reliable broadband radio access in order to meet the increasing demands of emerging high speed data and multimedia services. In Ghana, deployment of WiMAX

E. T. Tchao; K. Diawuo; W. K. Ofosu; E. Affum; Kwame Nkrumah

2013-01-01

275

Evaluating Team Project-Work Using Triangulation: Lessons from Communities in Northern Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper uses triangulation to assess key aspects of a team-based, participatory action research programme for undergraduates in rural communities across northern Ghana. The perceptions of the programme and its effects on the students, staff and host communities are compared, showing areas of agreement and disagreement. The successes of the…

Clark, Gordon; Jasaw, Godfred Seidu

2014-01-01

276

Case Studies in U.S. Distance Education: Implications for Ghana's Under-Served High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ghana, like many other nations in recent years, has made education a top priority for national development. Despite newly developed policies, however, there remains a significant quality gap among high schools; due largely to an inequitable ratio of government's educational spending by geographic area. While most urban schools flourish with better…

Nsiah, Gabriel Kofi Boahen

2010-01-01

277

Science-based health innovation in Ghana: health entrepreneurs point the way to a new development path  

PubMed Central

Background Science, technology and innovation have long played a role in Ghana’s vision for development, including in improving its health outcomes. However, so far little research has been conducted on Ghana’s capacity for health innovation to address local diseases. This research aims to fill that gap, mapping out the key actors involved, highlighting examples of indigenous innovation, setting out the challenges ahead and outlining recommendations for strengthening Ghana’s health innovation system. Methods Case study research methodology was used. Data were collected through reviews of academic literature and policy documents and through open-ended, face-to-face interviews with 48 people from across the science-based health innovation system. Data was collected over three visits to Ghana from February 2007 to August 2008, and stakeholders engaged subsequently. Results Ghana has strengths which could underpin science-based health innovation in the future, including health and biosciences research institutions with strong foreign linkages and donor support; a relatively strong regulatory system which is building capacity in other West African countries; the beginnings of new funding forms such as venture capital; and the return of professionals from the diaspora, bringing expertise and contacts. Some health products and services are already being developed in Ghana by individual entrepreneurs, which are innovative in the sense of being new to the country and, in some cases, the continent. They include essential medicines, raw pharmaceutical materials, new formulations for pediatric use and plant medicines at various stages of development. Conclusions While Ghana has many institutions concerned with health research and its commercialization, their ability to work together to address clear health goals is low. If Ghana is to capitalize on its assets, including political and macroeconomic stability which underpin investment in health enterprises, it needs to improve the health innovation environment through increasing support for its small firms; coordinating policies; and beginning a dialogue with donors on how health research can create locally-owned knowledge and be more demand-driven. Mobilizing stakeholders around health product development areas, such as traditional medicines and diagnostics, would help to create trust between groups and build a stronger health innovation system. PMID:21144073

2010-01-01

278

Groundwater Exploration for Rural Communities in Ghana, West Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exploration for potable water in developing countries continues to be a major activity, as there are more than one billion people without access to safe drinking water. Exploration for groundwater becomes more critical in regions where groundwater movement and occurrence is controlled by secondary features such as fractures and faults. Drilling success rates in such geological settings are generally very low, but can be improved by integrating geological, hydrogeological, aerial photo interpretation with land-based geophysical technology in the selection of drilling sites. To help alleviate water supply problems in West Africa, the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation and other donors, since 1990, have funded the World Vision Ghana Rural Water Project (GRWP) to drill wells for potable water supplies in the Greater Afram Plains (GAP) of Ghana. During the first two years of the program, drilling success rates using traditional methods ranged from 35 to 80 percent, depending on the area. The average drilling success rate for the program was approximately 50 percent. In an effort to increase the efficiency of drilling operations, the Desert Research Institute evaluated and developed techniques for application to well-siting strategies in the GAP area of Ghana. A critical project element was developing technical capabilities of in-country staff to independently implement the new strategies. Simple cost-benefit relationships were then used to evaluate the economic advantages of developing water resources using advanced siting methods. The application of advanced methods in the GAP area reveal an increase of 10 to 15 percent in the success rate over traditional methods. Aerial photography has been found to be the most useful of the imagery products covering the GAP area. An effective approach to geophysical exploration for groundwater has been the combined use of EM and resistivity methods. Economic analyses showed that the use of advanced methods is cost-effective when success rates with traditional methods are less than 70 to 90 percent. Finally, with the focus of GRWP activities shifting to Ghana's northern regions, new challenges in drilling success rates are being encountered. In certain districts, success rates as low as 35 percent are observed, raising questions about the efficacy of existing well-siting strategies in the current physical setting, and the validity of traditional cost-benefit analyses for assessing the economic aspects of water exploration in drought-stricken areas.

McKay, W. A.

2001-05-01

279

Identifying new buffer areas for conserving waterbirds in the Mediterranean basin: the importance of the rice fields in Extremadura, Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of wetland loss on migratory waterbirds can be mitigated by the presence of anthropogenic habitats such as rice\\u000a fields. In the Mediterranean basin, wetlands have been drained and altered to such a degree that their very existence is threatened.\\u000a It is, therefore, essential to identify key buffer areas in the basin to develop conservation strategies for migratory waterbirds.

J. M. Sánchez-Guzmán; R. Morán; J. A. Masero; C. Corbacho; E. Costillo; A. Villegas; F. Santiago-Quesada

280

Identifying new buffer areas for conserving waterbirds in the Mediterranean basin: the importance of the rice fields in Extremadura, Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of wetland loss on migratory waterbirds can be mitigated by the presence of anthropogenic habitats such as rice\\u000a fields. In the Mediterranean basin, wetlands have been drained and altered to such a degree that their very existence is threatened.\\u000a It is, therefore, essential to identify key buffer areas in the basin to develop conservation strategies for migratory waterbirds.

J. M. Sánchez-Guzmán; R. Morán; J. A. Masero; C. Corbacho; E. Costillo; A. Villegas; F. Santiago-Quesada

2007-01-01

281

Monitoring forest plant biodiversity changes and developing conservation strategies: a study from Camili Biosphere Reserve Area in NE Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out in forestland of Camili Biosphere Reserve (CBR) area in NE Turkey. It was designed to evaluate\\u000a the consequences of disturbances on changes in secondary forest succession from 1985 to 2005 for monitoring forest plant biodiversity\\u000a changes and developing conservation strategies. The successional stages were mapped using Geographic Information System (GIS),\\u000a Global Positioning System (GPS), aerial

Salih Terzio?lu; Emin Zeki Ba?kent; Fatih Sivrikaya; Günay Çakir; Ali Ihsan Kadio?ullari; ?a?dan Ba?kaya; Sedat Kele?

2010-01-01

282

Nitrogen and phosphorus uptake in the Everglades Conservation Areas, Florida : with special reference to the effects of backpumping runoff  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In much of the water pumped into the northern Everglades, Florida, concentrations of inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus are relatively high. These nutrients are transported in the canals or into the peripheral marshes. Concentrations decrease sharply within 330 feet or less of the canals, whereas specific conductance remains essentially unchanged within this distance. The sharp decrease in inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus near the canal edge indicates net uptake in these shallow waters. Concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus also decrease as water moves through the conservation areas in canals. This decrease is due partly to dilution by rainfall and runoff, and partly to net uptake in the canals and their peripheral marsh. The large canals of the northern and eastern parts of the conservation areas often have relatively low concentrations of dissolved oxygen which show little fluctuation within 24 hours. Backpumping 50 percent of the total annual canal runoff in southeast Florida would add from 990 to 6,160 tons of nitrogen and from 10 to 62 tons of phosphorus to the conservation areas. The bottom sediments of the Everglades are a sink for nitrogen and phosphorus. They can, however, be a source of these nutrients when anaerobic conditions exist at the water-sediment interface or when bottom material becomes resuspended. (Woodard-USGS)

McPherson, Benjamin F.; Waller, Bradley G.; Mattraw, H.C.

1976-01-01

283

Restoration and conservation of ancient artifacts: A new area of application of plasma chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of low-pressure hydrogen plasma for the restoration and conservation of iron artifacts has been developed. This method of treatment at temperatures below 400°C is relatively fast and efficiently removes chlorides which, otherwise, would cause a fast postcorrosion of the excavated object. Furthermore, the application of this method to freshly excavated objects enables the restorer to easily uncover the

S. Vep?ek; J. Patscheider; J. Elmer

1985-01-01

284

Prioritizing conservation potential of arid-land montane natural springs and associated riparian areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using inventory data and input from natural resource professionals, we developed a classification system that categorizes conservation potential for montane natural springs. This system contains 18 classes based on the presence of a riparian patch, wetland species, surface water, and evidence of human activity. We measured physical and biological components of 276 montane springs in the Oscura Mountains above 1450

Bruce C. Thompson; Patricia L. Matusik-Rowanw; Kenneth G. Boykin

2002-01-01

285

Evaluation of the Bird Conservation Area Concept in the Northern Tallgrass Prairie Annual Report: 1999  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) has recently posted two resources on grassland birds. This site compares breeding densities and fledging success of grassland birds in Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) fields with "an alternative habitat of similar structure." It also may be downloaded as a .zip file.

286

Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao, Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) nest characteristics in the Osa Peninsula Conservation Area (ACOSA), Costa Rica.  

PubMed

The Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) is an endangered species. In Costa Rica, the Scarlet Macaw population of the Central Pacific Conservation Area (ACOPAC, n =432 individuals) has undergone considdrable study and has been used effectively as a flagship species for regional conservation. Costa Rica's only other viable Scarlet Macaw population, located in the Osa Peninsula Conservation Area (ACOSA, n=800-1200 individuals), remains virtually unstudied. We studied ACOSA Scarlet Macaw nest cavities from February 19th to March 22nd 2006. Through informal interviews with park guards and residents, we found a total of 57 potential nests in 52 trees. Eleven nests were reported as frequently poached. Scarlet Macaws used 14 identified tree species, ten of which are unrecorded in Costa Rica. The most common nesting trees were Caryocar costaricense (n=12, 24%), Schizolobium parahyba (n=9, 18.0%), Ceibapentandra (n=7, 14.0%) and Ficus sp. (n=5, 10.0%). We compare nesting characteristics to those recorded in ACOPAC. A combination of bottom-up and top-down strategies are necessary to ensure the Scarlet Macaw's long-term success, including environmental education in local schools, community stewardship of active nests, and the advertisement of stricter penalties for poaching. PMID:19637716

Guittar, John L; Dear, Fiona; Vaughan, Christopher

2009-01-01

287

Seismicity and seismotectonics of southern Ghana: lessons for seismic hazard mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ghana is located on the West African craton and is far from the major earthquake zone of the world. It is therefore largely considered a stable region. However, the southern part of the country is seismically active. Records of damaging earthquakes in Ghana date as far back as 1615. A study on the microseismic activity in southern Ghana shows that the seismic activity is linked with active faulting between the east-west trending Coastal boundary fault and a northeast-southwest trending Akwapim fault zone. Epicentres of most of the earthquakes have been located close to the area where the two major faults intersect. This can be related to the level of activity of the faults. Some of the epicentres have been located offshore and can be associated with the level of activity of the coastal boundary fault. A review of the geological and instrumental recordings of earthquakes in Ghana show that earthquakes have occurred in the past and are still liable to occur within the vicinity of the intersection of the Akwapim fault zone and the Coastal boundary fault. Data from both historical and instrumental records indicate that the most seismically active areas in Ghana are the west of Accra, where the Akwapim fault zone and the Coastal boundary fault intersect. There are numerous minor faults in the intersection area between the Akwapim fault zone and the Coastal boundary fault. This mosaic of faults has a major implication for seismic activity in the area. Earthquake disaster mitigation measures are being put in place in recent times to reduce the impact of any major event that may occur in the country. The National Disaster Management Organization has come out with a building guide to assist in the mitigation effort of earthquake disasters and floods in the country. The building guide clearly stipulates the kind of material to be used, the proportion, what should go into the foundation for one or two storey building, the electrical materials to be used and many others.

Amponsah, Paulina

2014-05-01

288

Pedestrians Injury Patterns in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Objective To establish the associations between pedestrian injury and explanatory variables such as vehicular characteristics, temporal trends, and road environment. Methods A retrospective analysis of de-identified pedestrian crash data between 2002 and 2006 was conducted using the Building & Road Research Institute’s crash data bank. We estimated the odds ratios associated with casualty fatalities using a multinomial logistic regression. Results There were 812 pedestrian casualties reported, out of which 33% were fatal, 45% sustained serious injuries requiring hospitalization, and 22% were slightly injured but were not hospitalized. Crossing the roadway accounted for over 70% of all pedestrians deaths. Whereas fatalities in 2002 and 2003 were statistically indistinguishable from those of 2004(p>0.05), in comparison with 2004, there were significantly fewer fatalities in 2005 and 2006 (78% and 65% reduction respectively). According to police report, the probability that a pedestrian fatality occurring in Ghana is attributable to excessive speeding is 65%. The adjusted odds ratio of pedestrian fatality associated with speeding compared with driver inattentiveness was 3.6(95% CI: 2.5 to 5.2). It was also observed that generally, lighter vehicular masses were associated with lower pedestrian fatalities. Compared with buses, pedestrians were less likely to die when struck by private cars (52%), pick-up trucks (57%), and motorcycles (86%). Conclusion Pedestrian death remains the leading cause of fatality among urban road users in Ghana. Risk factors associated with pedestrian fatality include being hit by heavy vehicles, speeding, and roadside activities such as street hawking, jaywalking and nighttime walking. Steps which may contribute to reducing pedestrian fatalities include measures to reduce vehicles speeds in settlements, providing traffic medians and lighting streets in settlements, and discouraging street and roadside activities such as hawking. PMID:20441816

Damsere-Derry, James; Ebel, Beth E.; Mock, Charles N.; Afukaar, Francis; Donkor, Peter

2010-01-01

289

Conservation area networks for the Indian region: Systematic methods and future prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract A framework for systematic conservation planning for biodiversity is presented with an emphasis onthe,Indian context. The use of this framework,is then illustrated by the,analysis of two,data 25 sets from the Indian region consisting of environmental and physical parameters that serve as surrogates for biodiversity. The first data set included the entire region ,while the second was limited to the

Sahotra Sarkar; Michael Mayfield; Susan Cameron; Trevon Fuller; Justin Garson

2008-01-01

290

Using vessel monitoring system data to improve systematic conservation planning of a multiple-use marine protected area, the Kosterhavet National Park (Sweden).  

PubMed

When spatial fishing data is fed into systematic conservation planning processes the cost to a fishery could be ensured to be minimal in the zoning of marine protected areas. We used vessel monitoring system (VMS) data to map the distribution of prawn trawling and calculate fishing intensity for 1-ha grid cells, in the Kosterhavet National Park (Sweden). We then used the software Marxan to generate cost-efficient reserve networks that represented every biotope in the Park. We asked what were the potential gains and losses in terms of fishing effort and species conservation of different planning scenarios. Given a conservation target of 10 % representation of each biotope, the fishery need not lose more than 20 % of its fishing grounds to give way to cost-efficient conservation of benthic diversity. No additional reserved area was needed to achieve conservation targets while minimizing fishing costs. We discuss the benefits of using VMS data for conservation planning. PMID:23715796

Gonzalez-Mirelis, Genoveva; Lindegarth, Mats; Sköld, Mattias

2014-03-01

291

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act corrective measures study: Area 6 decontamination pond facility, corrective action unit no. 92  

SciTech Connect

Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 92, the Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility (DPF), is an historic disposal unit located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada (Figures 1 - 1, 1-2, and 1-3). The NTS is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), which has been required by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) to characterize the DPF under the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part A Permit (NDEP, 1995) for the NTS and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 265 (1996c). The DPF is prioritized in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) but is governed by the permit. The DPF was characterized through sampling events in 1994, 1996, and 1997. The results of these sampling events are contained in the Final Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Industrial Site Environmental Restoration Site Characterization Report, Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility, Revision I (DOE/NV, 1997). This Corrective Measures Study (CMS) for the Area 6 DPF has been prepared for the DOE/NV`s Environmental Restoration Project. The CMS has been developed to support the preparation of a Closure Plan for the DPF. Because of the complexities of the contamination and regulatory issues associated with the DPF, DOE/NV determined a CMS would be beneficial to the evaluation and selection of a closure alternative.

NONE

1997-10-01

292

A new predictor of the irreplaceability of areas for achieving a conservation goal, its application to real-world planning, and a research agenda for further refinement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new statistical approach is described for predicting the irreplaceability of areas (or ‘sites') within a region, defined as the likelihood that a given site will need to be protected to ensure achievement of a set of regional conservation targets. The paper begins by clarifying the relationship between irreplaceability and other conservation planning concepts such as flexibility, rarity, endemism and

Simon Ferrier; Robert L. Pressey; Thomas W. Barrett

2000-01-01

293

Agricultural Energy Conservation Project. Buffalo County target area. Progress report, 1984  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Agriculture Energy Conservation Project, an irrigation management demonstration program was begun in Buffalo County. Irrigation scheduling, furrow irrigation management, center pivot management, and interrow tillage practices were demonstrated on five fields in the county. This project demonstrates that irrigation scheduling (the proper timing of irrigations and the proper application amount) and pumping plant testing are important to reduce the amount of energy and water consumed by irrigation. Proper distribution of water throughout the field is also an important consideration regardless of the type of system being used.

Bockstadter, T.L.; Eisenhauer, D.E.

1985-01-01

294

Soil and Water Conservation in Arid and Semiarid Areas: The Chinese Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

In China, soil erosion is a serious environmental problem and a major threat to the sustainability of agriculture and economic development. The total area subjected to soil erosion covers 3 670 000 km 2, i.e., 38.2% of the total land area. For a long period of time, particularly since the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, the

Xiao-Yan Li

295

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act industrial site environmental restoration site characterization report - area 6 steam cleaning effluent ponds  

SciTech Connect

The Area 6 North and South Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEPs) are historic disposal units located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada. The NTS is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) which has been required by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) to characterize the site under the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit for the NTS and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 265.

NONE

1996-09-01

296

Natural resources development in Mexico: biological diversity conservation and protected areas  

E-print Network

Gil who supplied invaluable information for this paper. In addition, I would like to express my gratitude to Richard A. Meganck, Allan S. Mills, and Ernst and Joan Goebel, for their persistent encouragement and support. This paper would not have... of Protected Areas by Presidential Administration, 1876-1988. . . . . . . Figure 2 . Mexico ' s Protected Areas. Page 14 17 Figure 3. Mexico~ s Population Pyramid, 1980. . . 19 Figure 4. Population Growth Rate and Urban-Rural Distribution, 1900...

Goebel, John Martin

2012-06-07

297

Ecoregional-scale monitoring within conservation areas, in a rapidly changing climate  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Long-term monitoring of ecological systems can prove invaluable for resource management and conservation. Such monitoring can: (1) detect instances of long-term trend (either improvement or deterioration) in monitored resources, thus providing an early-warning indication of system change to resource managers; (2) inform management decisions and help assess the effects of management actions, as well as anthropogenic and natural disturbances; and (3) provide the grist for supplemental research on mechanisms of system dynamics and cause-effect relationships (Fancy et al., 2009). Such monitoring additionally provides a snapshot of the status of monitored resources during each sampling cycle, and helps assess whether legal standards and regulations are being met. Until the last 1-2 decades, tracking and understanding changes in condition of natural resources across broad spatial extents have been infrequently attempted. Several factors, however, are facilitating the achievement of such broad-scale investigation and monitoring. These include increasing awareness of the importance of landscape context, greater prevalence of regional and global environmental stressors, and the rise of landscape-scale programs designed to manage and monitor biological systems. Such programs include the US Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program (Moser et al., 2008), Canada's National Forest Inventory, the 3Q Programme for monitoring agricultural landscapes of Norway (Dramstad et al., 2002), and the emerging (US) Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (USDOI Secretarial Order 3289, 2009; Anonymous, 2011). This Special Section explores the underlying design considerations, as well as many pragmatic aspects associated with program implementation and interpretation of results from broad-scale monitoring systems, particularly within the constraints of high-latitude contexts (e.g., low road density, short field season, dramatic fluctuations in temperature). Although Alaska is the focus of most papers in this Special Section, we posit that many of the issues that characterize the remote, relatively undisturbed ecosystems of high northern latitudes are widespread and thus applicable to natural-resource management and conservation across northern portions of the Holarctic ecozone and indeed anywhere broad-scale monitoring is contemplated.

Beever, Erik A.; Woodward, Andrea

2011-01-01

298

67 FR 53337 - Secretarial Business Development Mission to Ghana and South Africa  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Development Mission to Ghana and South Africa AGENCY: International Trade Administration...Development Mission to Ghana and South Africa, November 12-15, 2002...Accra, Ghana and Johannesburg, South Africa November 12-15, 2002. The...

2002-08-15

299

PARTICIPATORY FOREST MANAGEMENT IN CONSERVATION AREAS: THE CASE OF CWEBE, SOUTH AFRICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

South Africa, influenced by global trends towards good governance and sustainable natural resource management, has begun to adopt a participatory management approach to state-owned indigenous forests. This study, in a remote communal area and State Forest in the Eastern Cape, sought to understand the importance of forest products to local users, together with the relationships between key stakeholders and institutions

I. M. GRUNDY; B. M. CAMPBELL; R. M. WHITE; R. PRABHU; S. JENSEN; T. N. NGAMILE

2004-01-01

300

Household dietary practices and family nutritional status in rural Ghana  

PubMed Central

A cross-sectional study involving 400 mothers was conducted in the Manya Krobo district of Ghana with the objective of studying household dietary practices, quality of diets and family nutritional status of rural Ghana. A combination of methods, including structured interviews using questionnaire, dietary assessments and anthropometry was used to collect data for the study. The data obtained was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 10 in Windows. Means and standard deviations were generated for continuous variables and frequency distribution for categorical variables. Most women consumed meals three times a day but only a few (12.5%) cooked all three meals at home. Breakfast and lunch were the two main meals purchased from food vendors. The most frequently consumed food items on daily basis were the starchy staples, maize, fish, pepper, onion, tomato and palm fruits. The nutritional qualities of diets were poor in terms of calcium and the B-vitamins. A significant proportion of the women were nutritionally at risk of being either underweight (12%), overweight (17%) or obese (5%). For adequate nutrition in this population, nutrition education intervention programs aimed at improving nutrient intake through improved diet diversity and increased use of local foods rich in calcium and the B-vitamins needs to be undertaken. There is also the need to intensify education on excessive weight gain and its attendant health problems in the area. PMID:20126363

2008-01-01

301

Community and household determinants of water quality in coastal Ghana  

PubMed Central

Associations between water sources, socio-demographic characteristics and household drinking water quality are described in a representative sample of six coastal districts of Ghana’s Central Region. Thirty-six enumeration areas (EAs) were randomly chosen from a representative survey of 90 EAs in rural, semi-urban and urban residence strata. In each EA, 24 households were randomly chosen for water quality sampling and socio-demographic interview. Escherichia coli per 100 ml H2O was quantified using the IDEXX Colilert® system and multi-stage regression models estimated cross-sectional associations between water sources, sanitation and socio-demographic factors. Almost three quarters, 74%, of the households have > 2 E. coli /100 ml H2O. Tap water has significantly lower E. coli levels compared with surface or rainwater and well water had the highest levels. Households with a water closet toilet have significantly lower E. coli compared with those using pit latrines or no toilets. Household size is positively associated, and a possessions index is negatively associated, with E. coli. Variations in community and household socio-demographic and behavioural factors are key determinants of drinking water quality. These factors should be included in planning health education associated with investments in water systems. PMID:19108554

McGarvey, Stephen T.; Buszin, Justin; Reed, Holly; Smith, David C.; Rahman, Zarah; Andrzejewski, Catherine; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; White, Michael J.

2013-01-01

302

Global Priority Conservation Areas in the Face of 21st Century Climate Change  

E-print Network

across North America and Eurasia, especially tundra and taiga ecoregions in the Arctic and sub-Arctic. Six out of 10 ecoregions in this area have mean RCCI values exceeding 18, with 70% to 90% GCM 6 GHG emission scenario combinations predicting pronounced... climate change (e.g., the Chukhote Coastal Tundra, Taimyr and Russian Coastal Tundra, Alaskan North Slope Coastal Tundra, Canadian Low Arctic Tundra, and Central and Eastern Siberian Taiga ecoregions; Figure 2, Table S2). The pronounced RCCI signals...

Li, Junsheng; Lin, Xin; Chen, Anping; Peterson, A. Townsend; Ma, Keping; Bertzky, Monika; Ciais, Philippe; Kapos, Valerie; Peng, Changhui; Poulter, Benjamin

2013-01-24

303

Effect of Intensive Agriculture on Small Mammal Communities in and Adjacent to Conservation Areas in Swaziland  

E-print Network

the effect of sugarcane plantations on small mammal communities at 3 sites in the Lowveld of Swaziland during the dry and wet seasons of 2008. I evaluated changes in species abundance and community parameters in relation to distance to the interface... geographic ranges appeared to select areas within 75 m of the interface. Four species with restricted habitat tolerances or diets were negatively affected by sugarcane, as was 1 species that selects for low ground cover. Two species may have avoided...

Hurst, Zachary Matthew

2012-02-14

304

Conservation of Aquatic Resources through the Use of Freshwater Protected Areas: Opportunities and Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater environments are currently experiencing an alarming decline in biodiversity. As a result, scientists and managers\\u000a must look for alternative management techniques to protect these aquatic systems. One such option that has potential to protect\\u000a freshwater environments from numerous threats is the use of freshwater protected areas (FPAs). FPAs are portions of the freshwater\\u000a environment partitioned to minimize disturbances and

Cory D. Suski; Steven J. Cooke

2007-01-01

305

International parental migration and the psychological well-being of children in Ghana, Nigeria, and Angola.  

PubMed

When parents migrate, leaving their children in the origin country, transnational families are formed. Transnational family studies on children who are "left behind" indicate that children suffer psychologically from parental migration. Many of the factors identified as affecting children's responses to parental migration however are not considered in child psychology and family sociology studies. This study aims to bridge these areas of knowledge by quantitatively investigating the association between transnational families and children's psychological well-being. It analyzes a survey conducted in three African countries in 2010-11 (Ghana N = 2760; Angola N = 2243; Nigeria N = 2168) amongst pupils of secondary schools. The study compares children in transnational families to those living with their parents in their country of origin. Children's psychological well-being is measured through the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses reveal that children in transnational families fare worse than their counterparts living with both parents but not in Ghana where living conditions mediate this relationship. This paper also looks at four characteristics of transnational families and finds that specific characteristics of transnational families and country contexts matter: (1) changing caregivers is associated with poorer well-being in all countries; (2) which parent migrates does not make a difference in Ghana, when mothers migrate and fathers are caregivers results in poorer well-being in Nigeria, and both mother's and father's migration result in worse outcomes in Angola; (3) the kin relationship of the caregiver is not associated with poorer well-being in Ghana and Nigeria but is in Angola; (4) children with parents who migrate internationally do not show different results than children whose parents migrate nationally in Ghana and Nigeria but in Angola international parental migration is associated with poorer psychological well-being. The study shows that broader characteristics in the population rather than parental migration per se are associated with decreased levels of well-being. PMID:25464874

Mazzucato, Valentina; Cebotari, Victor; Veale, Angela; White, Allen; Grassi, Marzia; Vivet, Jeanne

2014-10-30

306

Management of hazardous waste containers and container storage areas under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act  

SciTech Connect

DOE`s Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division, has prepared this guidance document to assist waste management personnel in complying with the numerous and complex regulatory requirements associated with RCRA hazardous waste and radioactive mixed waste containers and container management areas. This document is designed using a systematic graphic approach that features detailed, step-by-step guidance and extensive references to additional relevant guidance materials. Diagrams, flowcharts, reference, and overview graphics accompany the narrative descriptions to illustrate and highlight the topics being discussed. Step-by-step narrative is accompanied by flowchart graphics in an easy-to-follow, ``roadmap`` format.

Not Available

1993-08-01

307

Underperformance of African protected area networks and the case for new conservation models: insights from Zambia.  

PubMed

Many African protected areas (PAs) are not functioning effectively. We reviewed the performance of Zambia's PA network and provide insights into how their effectiveness might be improved. Zambia's PAs are under-performing in ecological, economic and social terms. Reasons include: a) rapidly expanding human populations, poverty and open-access systems in Game Management Areas (GMAs) resulting in widespread bushmeat poaching and habitat encroachment; b) underfunding of the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA) resulting in inadequate law enforcement; c) reliance of ZAWA on extracting revenues from GMAs to cover operational costs which has prevented proper devolution of user-rights over wildlife to communities; d) on-going marginalization of communities from legal benefits from wildlife; e) under-development of the photo-tourism industry with the effect that earnings are limited to a fraction of the PA network; f) unfavourable terms and corruption which discourage good practice and adequate investment by hunting operators in GMAs; g) blurred responsibilities regarding anti-poaching in GMAs resulting in under-investment by all stakeholders. The combined effect of these challenges has been a major reduction in wildlife densities in most PAs and the loss of habitat in GMAs. Wildlife fares better in areas with investment from the private and/or NGO sector and where human settlement is absent. There is a need for: elevated government funding for ZAWA; greater international donor investment in protected area management; a shift in the role of ZAWA such that they focus primarily on national parks while facilitating the development of wildlife-based land uses by other stakeholders elsewhere; and new models for the functioning of GMAs based on joint-ventures between communities and the private and/or NGO sector. Such joint-ventures should provide defined communities with ownership of land, user-rights over wildlife and aim to attract long-term private/donor investment. These recommendations are relevant for many of the under-funded PAs occurring in other African countries. PMID:24847712

Lindsey, Peter A; Nyirenda, Vincent R; Barnes, Jonathan I; Becker, Matthew S; McRobb, Rachel; Tambling, Craig J; Taylor, W Andrew; Watson, Frederick G; t'Sas-Rolfes, Michael

2014-01-01

308

Colonialism, legitimation, and policing in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most existing historiographies of colonial and post-colonial policing in Ghana have focused nearly exclusively on providing a basic understanding of managerial issues—that is, organisational and administrative structure, functions and modes of operation. Our knowledge of issues of police legitimation, and of the ‘quality of policing’ remains very limited. This article discusses these issues and establishes the vital importance of history

Justice Tankebe

2008-01-01

309

Oil: Lessons from Comparative Perspectives for Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil as it relates to maintenance of energy consumption is becoming a very important acquired resource all around the world. This thesis focuses on Ghana as a place where recent oil discoveries have taken place, to assess the current policies being put in place to avoid the oil pitfalls of their other African counterparts and to examine oil models that could possibly work to reinforce a positive outcome for the new found oil industry in Ghana. These research aims were met through extensive research of relevant literature. The research resulted in the finding that the Ghanaian government would benefit from a combination of economic models that have been used in the past (spend all, save all and spend interest only). The main conclusion that has resulted from this research is that through strong fiscal policies towards the Ghanaian oil industry Ghana should be able to maintain a relatively stable economy which in turn will produce a stable country all around. This research argues that by creating strong policies and using a combination of the econometric oil models this will help Ghana account for the immediate need for things like infrastructure while also saving money for when/if the oil is no longer being produced in the country.

Osei-Boakye, Maame Frema

310

Causes of suppurative keratitis in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS--Suppurative keratitis is a serious problem in all tropical countries, but very little information is available about the causative organisms in Africa. The objectives were to identify the causative organisms and the proportion of cases caused by fungi in southern Ghana, and to determine whether correct decisions about treatment could be made on the basis of Gram stain in the

M Hagan; E Wright; M Newman; P Dolin; G Johnson

1995-01-01

311

Formalising the Informal: Ghana's National Apprenticeship Programme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2001 there has been a renewed government focus on skills development and its relationship with combating unemployment in Ghana. Technical and vocational education and training (hereinafter; TVET), delivered through public and private schools, vocational training institutes and informal apprenticeship training, continues to be seen as an…

Palmer, Robert

2009-01-01

312

Abuse of Disabled Children in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even though disabled children are targets of various forms of abuse, such issues remain mostly undocumented open secrets in many countries including Ghana. The article is based on a qualitative data provided by three key informants. Six stories emerged from the data and are discussed in terms of four main forms of abuse. Labelling theories are…

Kassah, Alexander Kwesi; Kassah, Bente Lilljan Lind; Agbota, Tete Kobla

2012-01-01

313

Aquatic Communities Of Temporary Streams Of The Guanacaste Conservation Area In Northwest Costa Rica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Santa Rosa National Park in northwestern Costa Rica is a seasonally dry region with little or no rain for 5-6 months of the year. Streams here are intermittent, with moderate or rapid flows for 2 months or less during the first downpours of the rainy season. Thereafter the streams become a connected series of pools during the remainder of the rainy season, with most pools disappearing during the dry months. The serpentine area of the Santa Elena peninsula is one of the driest habitats in Santa Rosa; nevertheless the temporary streams in this area have a diverse aquatic invertebrate community dominated by Ephemeroptera and Coleoptera. The mayfly genera Caenis (Caenidae), Ulmeritoides, Choroterpes, and Tikuna (Leptophlebiidae: Ephemeroptera) are abundant in these streams but the leptophlebiids are rare elsewhere in Costa Rica. Ulmeritoides appears to be a specialist in lentic microhabitats in lowland streams along both coasts of Costa Rica. Among tropical intermittent streams studied so far, the streams in Santa Elena have an unusually abundant and diverse Ephemeroptera fauna.

Flowers, R.; Chavarria Diaz, M. M.

2005-05-01

314

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure report: Area 2 Bitcutter and Postshot Containment Shops Injection Wells, Correction Action Unit 90  

SciTech Connect

This Closure Report provides documentation of the activities conducted during the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) closure of the Bitcutter and Postshot Containment Shops Injection Wells located in Area 2 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Oak Spring Quadrangle (USGS, 1986), Township 10 South, Range 53 East, Nye County, Nevada. This report discusses the Bitcutter Shop Inside Injection Well (CAU 90-A) closure-in-place and the Bitcutter Shop Outside Injection Well (CAU 90-B) and Postshot Containment Shop Injection Well (CAU 90-C) clean closures. This Closure Report provides background information about the unit, the results of the characterization activities and actions conducted to determine the closure design. It also provides a discussion of the drainage analysis, preliminary closure activities, final closure activities, waste management activities, and the Post-Closure Care requirements.

NONE

1996-12-01

315

Productivity of Stored Water in Some Selected Multiple Use Small Reservoirs in the Upper East Region of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Upper East Region (UER) of Ghana is a water stressed area with agriculture as the main occupation of the inhabitants. The importance of small reservoirs for the sustenance of the livelihood of the people in this part of the country during the dry season cannot be over emphasized. Most of these small reservoirs were constructed, in the 1960s, mainly

F. O. Annor; D. Yamoah-Antwi; S. N. Odai; K. A. Adjei; N. C. van de Giesen

2009-01-01

316

Conservation genetics of maned wolves in a highly impacted area of the Brazilian Cerrado biome.  

PubMed

Maned wolves are large canids currently considered vulnerable to extinction due to habitat loss. They are still commonly found within the urban mesh inside the Brazilian Federal District (Distrito Federal--DF), in nearby Protected Areas (PAs), and in surrounding farms. We evaluated the genetic diversity of maned wolves in three PAs of the DF, using both invasive and noninvasive techniques to obtain DNA that was later amplified for five microsatellite markers. We sampled 23 wolves: 10 with the noninvasive method, three captured in traps, six road-killed, and four rescued in urban areas. In Águas Emendadas Ecological Station (ESECAE) we also used samples from six specimens captured between 1997 and 1998 for a temporal comparison. For maned wolves, non-invasive techniques are affordable and easier to conduct in the field, while laboratory costs are much lower for invasive samples. Hence, a sampling strategy combining both techniques may provide an interesting approach for molecular ecology studies requiring comprehensive coverage of local individuals. On the basis of such integrated sampling scheme, our analyses indicated that none of the investigated populations currently present deviations from Hardy-Weinberg expectations or indication of inbreeding. Furthermore, in ESECAE there was no reduction in genetic diversity during the last 9 years. Overall, maned wolves did not present evidence of genetic structuring among the three sampled PAs. These results thus indicate that individual exchange among PAs is still occurring at sufficient rates to avoid differentiation, and/or that the recent fragmentation in the region has not yet produced measurable effects in the genetic diversity of maned wolves. PMID:21298553

Lion, Marília Bruzzi; Eizirik, Eduardo; Garda, Adrian Antonio; Fontoura-Rodrigues, Manoel Ludwig da; Rodrigues, Flávio Henrique Guimarães; Marinho-Filho, Jader Soares

2011-03-01

317

Financial Sector Development, Savings Mobilization and Poverty Reduction in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper primarily investigates the interrelationship between financial sector development and poverty reduction in Ghana. This is done using time-series data from the World Development Indicators from 1970-2001. The main findings are, first, that even though financial sector development does not Granger-cause savings mobilization in Ghana, it induces poverty reduction; and second, that savings do Granger-cause poverty reduction in Ghana.

Peter Quartey

2005-01-01

318

Soil and water conservation decision behavior of subsistence farmers in the Eastern Highlands of Ethiopia: a case study of the Hunde-Lafto area  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a plot-level analysis of factors influencing the adoption of soil and water conservation structures in the Hunde-Lafto area of the Eastern Ethiopian Highlands. The analysis is based on a survey of 145 farm households managing a total of 265 farm plots. The multinomial logit analysis of the survey data shows that plot-level adoption of conservation measures is

Wagayehu Bekele; Lars Drake

2003-01-01

319

Lymphatic filariasis in Ghana: establishing the potential for an urban cycle of transmission.  

PubMed

Lymphatic filariasis is a significant public health and economic problem in many tropical and sub-tropical regions. Unplanned urbanization leading to a lack of proper sanitary conditions has resulted in an increase in the urban-based transmission of a number of vector-borne diseases, including lymphatic filariasis. It has been well established that lymphatic filariasis is endemic in rural areas of Ghana. The goal of this study was to determine if there is a potential of establishing urban transmission cycles in Ghana's major cities. We clinically and immunologically assessed 625 individuals from the three major urban areas (Bawku, Bolgatanga and Secondi/Takoradi), finding that the prevalence of infection with Wuchereria bancrofti ranged from 0 to 12.5%. The results of a polymerase chain reaction based analysis of mosquitoes collected from these areas suggested that there is a low but detectable prevalence of mosquitoes infected with W. bancrofti. We conclude that there may be a potential for an established urban transmission of lymphatic filariasis in Ghana. PMID:15807803

Gbakima, Aiah A; Appawu, Maxwell A; Dadzie, Samuel; Karikari, Collins; Sackey, Samuel O; Baffoe-Wilmot, Aba; Gyapong, Johnny; Scott, Alan L

2005-04-01

320

Conservation Potential of Abandoned Military Areas Matches That of Established Reserves: Plants and Butterflies in the Czech Republic  

PubMed Central

Military training generates frequent and irregular disturbance followed by succession, resulting in fine-scaled mosaics of ecological conditions in military training areas (MTAs). The awareness that MTAs may represent important biodiversity sanctuaries is increasing recently. Concurrently, changes in military doctrine are leading to abandonment of many MTAs, which are being brought under civilian administration and opened for development. We surveyed vascular plants in 43 and butterflies in 41 MTAs in the Czech Republic and compared the records with plants and butterfly records from 301 and 125 nature reserves, respectively. After controlling for effects of area, geography, and climate, we found that plant species richness was equal in the two land use categories; butterfly richness was higher in MTAs; reserves hosted more endangered plants and more endangered butterflies. Ordination analyses, again controlled for potential nuisance effects, showed that MTAs and reserves differed also in species composition. While specialist species of nationally rarest habitat types inclined towards the reserves, MTAs hosted a high representation of endangered species depending on either disturbed ground, or successionaly transient conditions. These patterns reflect the history of the national nature reserves network, and the disturbance-succession dynamics within MTAs. The conservation value of formerly army-used lands is increasingly threatened by abandonment, and conservationists should support either alternative uses mimicking army activities, or sustainable management regimes. PMID:23326388

Cizek, Oldrich; Vrba, Pavel; Benes, Jiri; Hrazsky, Zaboj; Koptik, Jiri; Kucera, Tomas; Marhoul, Pavel; Zamecnik, Jaroslav; Konvicka, Martin

2013-01-01

321

A new analytical method for wildlife habitat conservation planning on a city scale using the classification of physiologically homogeneous areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kyoto has a tradition of positively protecting scenic landscapes. However, a question has arisen about the effectiveness of the present legislative system on biodiversity conservation because most laws aim to essentially preserve the aesthetic value of the landscape. It is necessary to identify gaps in the present conservation system to develop an effective conservation policy for the city. The authors

Junichi Imanishi; Yuko Shimabayashi; Yukihiro Morimoto

2005-01-01

322

77 FR 52754 - Draft Midwest Wind Energy Multi-Species Habitat Conservation Plan Within Eight-State Planning Area  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FXES11120300000F2-123-FF03E00000] Draft Midwest Wind Energy Multi-Species Habitat Conservation...partners, intend to prepare the Midwest Wind Energy Multi-Species Habitat Conservation...The Conservation Fund, and the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA). We...

2012-08-30

323

Species-area relationships as a tool for the conservation of benthic invertebrates in Italian coastal lagoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the recent decades, the preservation of coastal and estuarine waters has been recognised as a priority at national and international levels. At the European scale, the Water Framework Directive (WFD) was established with the aim to achieve a good ecological status of all significant water bodies by the year 2015. Among the descriptors used to define the ecological status of water bodies, taxonomic diversity (usually species richness) is a widespread metric employed across taxa and habitats. However, species richness is known to increase with area at a decelerating rate, producing the species-area relationship (SAR). Thus, removing the effect of area (even in case of low magnitude), is mandatory before comparing species richness between sites. Here we tested recently developed multi-model SARs as a standardisation tool for comparing benthic species richness (annelids, arthropods, molluscs and total species richness) in 18 Italian coastal lagoons with a surface area ranging from 0.19 to 552 km2, i.e. three orders of magnitude. However, the sampling effort was often incompletely described and certainly heterogeneous among the studies retrieved from the database. Therefore, we used the number of studies as a proxy for the sampling effort in each lagoon and estimated species richness from observed values using non-parametric occurrence-based estimators. We further corrected for bias that might be induced by sampling efforts being unrepresentative for the surface area of different lagoons. After applying these corrections, we estimated that c. 25-30% of species richness could be explained by surface area. We investigated the spatial congruence of species richness patterns across taxa and showed that molluscs could serve as a potential surrogate for total macro-invertebrate species richness. We further found that the intensity of conservation focus and the gradient of ecological status are decoupled in Italian coastal lagoons. More generally, our study pave the way for the use of flexible tools for the comparison of species richness across water bodies in the context of the WFD.

Guilhaumon, François; Basset, Alberto; Barbone, Enrico; Mouillot, David

2012-12-01

324

The development of community water supplies in Ghana*  

PubMed Central

Ghana, with a population of 6 700 000, largely distributed in rural districts, is representative of many a country where the problem of water supply is associated with the construction of numerous small supplies for the villages and towns scattered over the whole area. This paper gives a general impression of the various methods in use for tackling the problem. Well-sinking, drilling, and pond-digging, and the advantages and disadvantages of a variety of methods, are described, and the problems met with under different geological conditions are considered. Details of the various systems for pumping the water from the source to the villages and towns are given. The important question of standardization, both in design and equipment, is dealt with, and reference is made to the operation of supplies and to the training of operatives. PMID:13892347

Ferguson, W. R. W.

1962-01-01

325

The James Koetting Ghana Field Recording Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Throughout the 1970s, Professor James Koetting of Brown University spent a great deal of time in Ghana recording traditional and popular music. Recently the Center for Digital Initiatives at the Brown University Library created this excellent online digital collection that brings together Koetting's field recordings, field notebooks, photographs, and recorded interviews. The collection affords a number of insights into the performances of musicians in Accra and others in the Kasena region of Ghana. Visitors can read through several essays before looking closer into the collection, which they can navigate by clicking on sections like "Gallery" and "Field Recordings". The "Field Recordings" section offers a fine introduction into Koetting's important work and this particular genre of music. Lastly, visitors can also look through the additional "Resources", which include a bibliography, a discography, and a glossary of relevant musical terms.

326

Responses to donor proliferation in Ghana’s health sector: a qualitative case study  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To investigate how donors and government agencies responded to a proliferation of donors providing aid to Ghana’s health sector between 1995 and 2012. Methods We interviewed 39 key informants from donor agencies, central government and nongovernmental organizations in Accra. These respondents were purposively selected to provide local and international views from the three types of institutions. Data collected from the respondents were compared with relevant documentary materials – e.g. reports and media articles – collected during interviews and through online research. Findings Ghana’s response to donor proliferation included creation of a sector-wide approach, a shift to sector budget support, the institutionalization of a Health Sector Working Group and anticipation of donor withdrawal following the country’s change from low-income to lower-middle income status. Key themes included the importance of leadership and political support, the internalization of norms for harmonization, alignment and ownership, tension between the different methods used to improve aid effectiveness, and a shift to a unidirectional accountability paradigm for health-sector performance. Conclusion In 1995–2012, the country’s central government and donors responded to donor proliferation in health-sector aid by promoting harmonization and alignment. This response was motivated by Ghana’s need for foreign aid, constraints on the capacity of governmental human resources and inefficiencies created by donor proliferation. Although this decreased the government’s transaction costs, it also increased the donors’ coordination costs and reduced the government’s negotiation options. Harmonization and alignment measures may have prompted donors to return to stand-alone projects to increase accountability and identification with beneficial impacts of projects.

Nonvignon, Justice; Aikins, Moses; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

2015-01-01

327

Community awareness of stroke in Accra, Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Community awareness of stroke, especially the risk factors and warning signs is important in the control of the disease. In sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about community awareness of stroke though the brunt of stroke is currently borne in this region. The aim of the study was to evaluate stroke awareness in Accra (capital city of Ghana) particularly, the risk factors and warning signs. Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving systematic sampling of 63 households in each of the 11 sub metropolitan areas of Accra. A structured questionnaire was used to collect stroke awareness data from respondents randomly sampled in the selected households. Logistic regression analyses were done to identify predictors of the main outcome variables including recognition of stroke risk factors, stroke warning signs and the organ affected by stroke. Results Only 40% (n?=?277) of the 693 respondents correctly identified the brain as the organ affected in stroke. Similarly, less than half of the respondents could recognize any of the established stroke risk factors as well as any of the established stroke warning signs. Over 70% (n?>?485) of the respondents either believed that stroke is a preventable disease, or lifestyle alterations can be made to reduce the risk of stroke, or stroke requires emergency treatment. In multivariate analysis, predictors of stroke awareness were: age <50 years (OR?=?0.56, CI?=?0.35-0.92, p?=?0.021), presence of a stroke risk factor (OR?=?2.37, CI?=?1.52-3.71, p?

2014-01-01

328

Entrepreneurship and innovation in Ghana: enterprising Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study adopts a multi-level theoretical framework to examine data from 496 entrepreneurs in Ghana. Seven types of innovation\\u000a activity are analysed against three categories of variables: the characteristics of the entrepreneur, the internal competencies\\u000a of the firm, and firm location. Across all respondents, the incidence of incremental innovation was far greater than novel\\u000a innovation. The extent of innovation was

Paul J. A. Robson; Helen M. Haugh; Bernard Acquah Obeng

2009-01-01

329

Tertiary Education Policy in Ghana. An Assessment: 1988-1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was one of several activities conducted at the end of a 5-year World Bank/Government of Ghana project, the Tertiary Education Project (TEP). This project was designed to assist the government of Ghana with the restructuring and quality enhancement of its tertiary education sector. Although the government had prepared an ambitious reform…

Girdwood, Alison

330

Migration, sexual networks, and HIV in Agbogbloshie, Ghana  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND HIV is spread through structured sexual networks, which are influenced by migration patterns, but network-oriented studies of mobility and HIV risk behavior have been limited. OBJECTIVE We present a comprehensive description and initial results from our Migration & HIV in Ghana (MHG) study in Agbogbloshie, an urban slum area within Accra, Ghana. METHODS The MHG study was a population-based cross-sectional study of adults aged 18–49 in Agbogbloshie in 2012. We used a one-year retrospective relationship history calendar to collect egocentric network data on sexual partners as well as migration and short-term mobility, and tested for prevalent HIV-1/2 infection. RESULTS HIV prevalence was 5.5%, with prevalence among women (7.2%) over twice that of men (2.8%). Three-quarters of residents were born outside the Greater Accra region, but had lived in Agbogbloshie an average of 10.7 years. Only 7% had moved housing structures within the past year. However, short-term mobility was common. Residents had an average of 7.3 overnight trips in the last year, with women reporting more travel than men. Thirty-seven percent of men and 9% of women reported more than one sexual partner in the last year. CONCLUSIONS Population-based surveys of migration and sexual risk behavior using relationship history calendars in low-resource settings can produce high quality data. Residents in Agbogbloshie are disproportionately affected by HIV, and have high levels of short-term mobility. HIV prevention interventions targeted to highly mobile populations in high prevalence settings may have far-reaching and long-term implications. PMID:25364298

Cassels, Susan; Jenness, Samuel M.; Biney, Adriana A. E.; Ampofo, William Kwabena; Dodoo, F. Nii-Amoo

2014-01-01

331

A ground-water reconnaissance of the Republic of Ghana, with a description of geohydrologic provinces  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report gives a general summary of the availability and use of ground water and describes the occurrence of ground water in five major geohydrologic provinces lying in the eight administrative regions of Ghana. The identification and delineation of the geohydrologic provinces are based on their distinctive characteristics with respect to the occurrence and availability of ground water. The Precambrian province occupies the southern, western, and northern parts of Ghana and is underlain largely by intrusive crystalline and metasedimentary rocks. The Voltaian province includes that part of the Voltaian sedimentary basin in central Ghana and is underlain chiefly by consolidated sandstone, mudstone, and shale. Narrow discontinuous bands of consolidated Devonian and Jurassic sedimentary rocks near the coast constitute the Coastal Block Fault province. The Coastal Plain province includes semiconsolidated to unconsolidated sediments of Cretaceous to Holocene age that underlie coastal plain areas in southwestern and southeastern Ghana. The Alluvial province includes the Quaternary alluvial deposits in the principal river valleys and on the delta of the Volta River. Because of the widespread distribution of crystalline and consolidated sedimentary rocks of low permeability in the Precambrian, Voltaian, and Coastal Block Fault provinces, it is difficult to develop large or event adequate groundwater supplies in much of Ghana. On the other hand, small (1 to 50 gallons per minute) supplies of water of usable quality are available from carefully sited boreholes in most parts of the country. Also, moderate (50 to 200 gpm) supplies of water are currently (1964) obtained from small-diameter screened boreholes tapping sand and limestone aquifers in the Coastal Plain province in southwestern and southeastern Ghana, but larger supplies could be obtained through properly constructed boreholes. In the Alluvial province, unconsolidated deposits in the larger stream valleys that are now largely undeveloped offer desirable locations for shallow vertical or horizontal wells, which can induce infiltration from streams and yield moderate to large water supplies. The principal factors that limit development of ground-water supplies in Ghana are (1) prevailing low permeability and water-yielding potential of the crystalline and consolidated sedimentary rocks that underlie most of the country, (2) highly mineralized ground water which appears to be widely distributed in the northern part of the Voltaian province, and (3) potential problems of salt-water encroachment in the Coastal Plain province in the Western Region and in the Keta area. On the other hand, weathering has increased porosity and has thus substantially increased the water-yielding potential of the crystalline and consolidated sedimentary rocks in much of central and northern Ghana. Also, with proper construction and development, much larger yields than those now (1964) prevalent could be obtained from boreholes tapping sand and limestone aquifers in the Coastal Plain province.

Gill, H.E.

1969-01-01

332

Evaluation of facilitative supervision visits in primary health care service delivery in Northern Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background In Ghana’s health delivery services, facilitative supervisory visit (FSV) as a system of management is new. This paper presents the standard evaluation results of FSV, which formed an integral part of the community-based health planning services (CHPS) initiative. Methods The study was conducted in the Upper West Region of Ghana. The Project developed guidelines and tools for FSV for four different health system levels – regional, district, sub-district and community levels. Electronic data from all four levels representing quarterly results were compiled into their annual equivalents, and summarized graphically for comparison. Results The data show that all the nine districts embraced the FSV concept even though they differed markedly with regard to the degree of adherence to some set benchmarks. Three DHMTs (Wa Municipal, Lawra and Jirapa) were graded as good while the remaining six DHMTs were adjudged as fair in relation to management of supplies, transport and equipment, information, meeting, and technical support. Conclusions The data further suggest that there is much to gain both individually and institutionally from FSVs. Generally, FSVs are crucial to the delivery of primary health care services in especially rural areas. PMID:24063365

2013-01-01

333

Insecticide resistance in malaria vector mosquitoes at four localities in Ghana, West Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria vector control programmes that rely on insecticide-based interventions such as indoor house spraying with residual insecticides or insecticide treated bed nets, need to base their decision-making process on sound baseline data. More and more commercial entities in Africa, such as mining companies, are realising the value to staff productivity of controlling malaria transmission in their areas of operation. This paper presents baseline entomological data obtained during surveys conducted for four mining operations in Ghana, West Africa. Results The vast majority of the samples were identified as Anopheles gambiae S form with only a few M form specimens being identified from Tarkwa. Plasmodium falciparum infection rates ranged from 4.5 to 8.6% in An. gambiae and 1.81 to 8.06% in An. funestus. High survival rates on standard WHO bioassay tests were recorded for all insecticide classes except the organophosphates that showed reasonable mortality at all locations (i.e. > 90%). The West African kdr mutation was detected and showed high frequencies in all populations. Conclusions The data highlight the complexity of the situation prevailing in southern Ghana and the challenges facing the malaria vector control programmes in this region. Vector control programmes in Ghana need to carefully consider the resistance profiles of the local mosquito populations in order to base their resistance management strategies on sound scientific data. PMID:21679391

2011-01-01

334

Phosphorus fractionation and distribution in sediments from wetlands and canals of a water conservation area in the Florida Everglades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus (P) fractionation and distribution in sediments are of great concern in the Florida Everglades ecosystem because potential eutrophication of surface waters usually results from P external loading and stability. Intact core sediment samples were collected to a depth of 35 cm from wetlands and canals across Water Conservation Area 3 (WCA-3) of the Florida Everglades. These sediment cores were sliced into 5 cm increments and analyzed for P contents in different fractions by sequential extraction. These fractions mainly included total P (TP), readily available P (Pi-KCl), Fe/Al-bound P (Pi-NaOH), Ca/Mg-bound P (Pi-HCl), organic P (Po-NaOH), and residual P (PoResidue). Results showed that the canal sediments had the highest concentrations of TP, with about 87% in the form of Ca/Mg-bound fraction, and the concentrations of TP in these sediments increased with depth. In contrast, the wetland sediments contained the lowest concentrations of TP (predominantly in the organic fraction), with 43% residual P and 27% Po-NaOH, and the concentrations of TP in these sediments decreased with depth. In addition, a large amount of the readily available P (up to 1500 mg kg-1) in the canal sediments was accumulated at the top layer of 0-5 cm. This study suggests that any disturbance and/or environmental alterations, such as high canal flow and dredging in canal sediments, could pose a potential risk of a P increase in the water column and, consequently, in the wetlands because of the release of readily available P despite the relatively stable nature of such P fractions in these sediments.

Wang, Qingren; Li, Yuncong; Ouyang, Ying

2011-05-01

335

Impact of payments for environmental services and protected areas on local livelihoods and forest conservation in northern Cambodia.  

PubMed

The potential impacts of payments for environmental services (PES) and protected areas (PAs) on environmental outcomes and local livelihoods in developing countries are contentious and have been widely debated. The available evidence is sparse, with few rigorous evaluations of the environmental and social impacts of PAs and particularly of PES. We measured the impacts on forests and human well-being of three different PES programs instituted within two PAs in northern Cambodia, using a panel of intervention villages and matched controls. Both PES and PAs delivered additional environmental outcomes relative to the counterfactual: reducing deforestation rates significantly relative to controls. PAs increased security of access to land and forest resources for local households, benefiting forest resource users but restricting households' ability to expand and diversify their agriculture. The impacts of PES on household well-being were related to the magnitude of the payments provided. The two higher paying market-linked PES programs had significant positive impacts, whereas a lower paying program that targeted biodiversity protection had no detectable effect on livelihoods, despite its positive environmental outcomes. Households that signed up for the higher paying PES programs, however, typically needed more capital assets; hence, they were less poor and more food secure than other villagers. Therefore, whereas the impacts of PAs on household well-being were limited overall and varied between livelihood strategies, the PES programs had significant positive impacts on livelihoods for those that could afford to participate. Our results are consistent with theories that PES, when designed appropriately, can be a powerful new tool for delivering conservation goals whilst benefiting local people. PMID:25492724

Clements, Tom; Milner-Gulland, E J

2015-02-01

336

Effect of Predator Removal on Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) Ecology in the Bighorn Basin Conservation Area of Wyoming.  

E-print Network

?? The decline of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations across western North America has intensified conservation, research, and management efforts. Predator-prey interactions have been the… (more)

Orning, Elizabeth Kari

2013-01-01

337

Geo-conservation: an example of the application of its principles in the sanitation of the polluted Laarder Wasmeren area near Hilversum, het Gooi, The Netherlands.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Laarder Wasmeren area near Hilversum, a nature reserve under management of the Goois Natuurreservaat with extensive drift sands and several fens, was heavily polluted by heavy metals and toxic organic substances as a result of prolonged discharge of sewage water onto the fens. Already upon the start of its environmental restoration in 2004, it became clear that the area holds important geological phenomena, including LateGlacial paleosols and multiple Holocene drift sands with intercalated paleosols. This discovery induced the Province of Noord-Holland in 2006 to declare het Gooi, of which the Laarder Wasmeren area forms part, a geological monument and thus to set limits for future activities that might lead to disturbance of its superficial geology. Today het Gooi is one of the 17 geological monuments of the province. The basic principle of provincial geo-conservation - minimal disturbance of the superficial geology - was also applied in the further restoration of the LWM area that included its ecological restoration as a nature reserve. This restoration project was supervised by the author and belongs to the major operations of that kind in the Netherlands. Completed in 2010/2011, it resulted in the discovery and conservation of a complex of Holocene drift sands and paleosols that is unique for the Netherlands. The project forms an excellent example of the application of a provincial geo-conservation policy.

Sevink, Jan; Khodabux, Eric; Landsmeer, Dick; Stoeten, Jan

2013-04-01

338

Geo-conservation: an example of the application of its principles in the sanitation of the polluted Laarder Wasmeren area near Hilversum, het Gooi, The Netherlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Laarder Wasmeren area near Hilversum, a nature reserve under management of the Goois Natuurreservaat with extensive drift sands and several fens, was heavily polluted by heavy metals and toxic organic substances as a result of prolonged discharge of sewage water onto the fens. Already upon the start of its environmental restoration in 2004, it became clear that the area holds important geological phenomena, including LateGlacial paleosols and multiple Holocene drift sands with intercalated paleosols. This discovery induced the Province of Noord-Holland in 2006 to declare het Gooi, of which the Laarder Wasmeren area forms part, a geological monument and thus to set limits for future activities that might lead to disturbance of its superficial geology. Today het Gooi is one of the 17 geological monuments of the province. The basic principle of provincial geo-conservation - minimal disturbance of the superficial geology - was also applied in the further restoration of the LWM area that included its ecological restoration as a nature reserve. This restoration project was supervised by the author and belongs to the major operations of that kind in the Netherlands. Completed in 2010/2011, it resulted in the discovery and conservation of a complex of Holocene drift sands and paleosols that is unique for the Netherlands. The project forms an excellent example of the application of a provincial geo-conservation policy.

Sevink, J.; Khodabux, E. R.; Landsmeer, D.; Stoeten, G. J.

2012-04-01

339

Indicators of the statuses of amphibian populations and their potential for exposure to atrazine in four midwestern U.S. conservation areas.  

PubMed

Extensive corn production in the midwestern United States has physically eliminated or fragmented vast areas of historical amphibian habitat. Midwestern corn farmers also apply large quantities of fertilizers and herbicides, which can cause direct and indirect effects on amphibians. Limited field research regarding the statuses of midwestern amphibian populations near areas of corn production has left resource managers, conservation planners, and other stakeholders needing more information to improve conservation strategies and management plans. We repeatedly sampled amphibians in wetlands in four conservation areas along a gradient of proximity to corn production in Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin from 2002 to 2005 and estimated site occupancy. We measured frequencies of gross physical deformities in recent metamorphs and triazine concentrations in the water at breeding sites. We also measured trematode infection rates in kidneys of recently metamorphosed Lithobates pipiens collected from nine wetlands in 2003 and 2004. We detected all possible amphibian species in each study area. The amount of nearby row crops was limited in importance as a covariate for estimating site occupancy. We observed deformities in <5% of metamorphs sampled and proportions were not associated with triazine concentrations. Trematode infections were high in metamorphs from all sites we sampled, but not associated with site triazine concentrations, except perhaps for a subset of sites sampled in both years. We detected triazines more often and in higher concentrations in breeding wetlands closer to corn production. Triazine concentrations increased in floodplain wetlands as water levels rose after rainfall and were similar among lotic and lentic sites. Overall, our results suggest amphibian populations were not faring differently among these four conservation areas, regardless of their proximity to corn production, and that the ecological dynamics of atrazine exposure were complex. PMID:25216249

Sadinski, Walt; Roth, Mark; Hayes, Tyrone; Jones, Perry; Gallant, Alisa

2014-01-01

340

Indicators of the statuses of amphibian populations and their potential for exposure to atrazine in four midwestern U.S. conservation areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Extensive corn production in the midwestern United States has physically eliminated or fragmented vast areas of historical amphibian habitat. Midwestern corn farmers also apply large quantities of fertilizers and herbicides, which can cause direct and indirect effects on amphibians. Limited field research regarding the statuses of midwestern amphibian populations near areas of corn production has left resource managers, conservation planners, and other stakeholders needing more information to improve conservation strategies and management plans. We repeatedly sampled amphibians in wetlands in four conservation areas along a gradient of proximity to corn production in Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin from 2002 to 2005 and estimated site occupancy. We measured frequencies of gross physical deformities in recent metamorphs and triazine concentrations in the water at breeding sites. We also measured trematode infection rates in kidneys of recently metamorphosed Lithobates pipiens collected from nine wetlands in 2003 and 2004. We detected all possible amphibian species in each study area. The amount of nearby row crops was limited in importance as a covariate for estimating site occupancy. We observed deformities in <5% of metamorphs sampled and proportions were not associated with triazine concentrations. Trematode infections were high in metamorphs from all sites we sampled, but not associated with site triazine concentrations, except perhaps for a subset of sites sampled in both years. We detected triazines more often and in higher concentrations in breeding wetlands closer to corn production. Triazine concentrations increased in floodplain wetlands as water levels rose after rainfall and were similar among lotic and lentic sites. Overall, our results suggest amphibian populations were not faring differently among these four conservation areas, regardless of their proximity to corn production, and that the ecological dynamics of atrazine exposure were complex.

Sadinski, Walter; Roth, Mark; Hayes, Tyrone; Jones, Perry; Gallant, Alisa

2014-01-01

341

MtDNA COI-COII marker and drone congregation area: An efficient method to establish and monitor honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) conservation centres.  

PubMed

Honeybee subspecies have been affected by human activities in Europe over the past few decades. One such example is the importation of nonlocal subspecies of bees which has had an adverse impact on the geographical repartition and subsequently on the genetic diversity of the black honeybee Apis mellifera mellifera. To restore the original diversity of this local honeybee subspecies, different conservation centres were set up in Europe. In this study, we established a black honeybee conservation centre Conservatoire de l'Abeille Noire d'Ile de France (CANIF) in the region of Ile-de-France, France. CANIF's honeybee colonies were intensively studied over a 3-year period. This study included a drone congregation area (DCA) located in the conservation centre. MtDNA COI-COII marker was used to evaluate the genetic diversity of CANIF's honeybee populations and the drones found and collected from the DCA. The same marker (mtDNA) was used to estimate the interactions and the haplotype frequency between CANIF's honeybee populations and 10 surrounding honeybee apiaries located outside of the CANIF. Our results indicate that the colonies of the conservation centre and the drones of the DCA show similar stable profiles compared to the surrounding populations with lower level of introgression. The mtDNA marker used on both DCA and colonies of the conservation centre seems to be an efficient approach to monitor and maintain the genetic diversity of the protected honeybee populations. PMID:25335970

Bertrand, Bénédicte; Alburaki, Mohamed; Legout, Hélène; Moulin, Sibyle; Mougel, Florence; Garnery, Lionel

2014-10-21

342

Correlates of stunting among children in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Stunting, is a linear growth retardation, which results from inadequate intake of food over a long period of time that may be worsened by chronic illness. Over a long period of time, inadequate nutrition or its effects could result in stunting. This paper examines the correlates of stunting among children in Ghana using data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS). Methods The paper uses data from the children recode file of the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), a nationally representative cross sectional survey conducted in Ghana. A total of 2379 children under five years who had valid anthropometric data were used for the study. Data on the stunting of children were collected by measuring the height of all children under six years of age. A measuring board produced by Shorr Productions was used to obtain the height of the children. Children under 2 years of age were measured lying down on the board while those above 2 years were measured standing. In the DHS data, a z-score is given for the child’s height relative to the age. Both bi-variate and multi-variate statistics are used to examine the correlates of stunting. Results Stunting was common among males than females. Age of child was a significant determinant of stunting with the highest odd of stunting been among children aged 36–47 months. Region was significantly related to stunting. Children from the Eastern Region were more likely to be stunted than children from the Western Region which is the reference group (OR?=?1.7 at p?Ghana. PMID:24884653

2014-01-01

343

Water Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity was developed to get students thinking about the many ways that people use freshwater and how we can conserve this precious and fundamental natural resource. Students will watch a short documentary describing issues related to clean water availability, analyze water-use data and start to think about how they consume and can conserve water. This background knowledge will lead to students collecting data about their own water use and finding areas in their lives to conserve water. This activity uses the 5E instructional model and is part of the "Survivor Earth" series of one-hour lessons.

344

LAND & WATER CONSERVATION PROGRAM  

E-print Network

and resources in a geographic area Promote conservation of these natural features and resources Guide ________________________________________________________________________ Preparing a Conservation Plan INTRODUCTION Conservation of land, water and other natural features and resources is a priority for many New Hampshire communities. In order to implement conservation projects

New Hampshire, University of

345

Abortion care in Ghana: a critical review of the literature.  

PubMed

The Government of Ghana has taken important steps to mitigate the impact of unsafe abortion. However, the expected decline in maternal deaths is yet to be realized. This literature review aims to present findings from empirical research directly related to abortion provision in Ghana and identify gaps for future research. A total of four (4) databases were searched with the keywords "Ghana and abortion" and hand review of reference lists was conducted. All abstracts were reviewed. The final include sample was 39 articles. Abortion-related complications represent a large component of admissions to gynecological wards in hospitals in Ghana as well as a large contributor to maternal mortality. Almost half of the included studies were hospital-based, mainly chart reviews. This review has identified gaps in the literature including: interviewing women who have sought unsafe abortions and with healthcare providers who may act as gatekeepers to women wishing to access safe abortion services. PMID:25508038

Rominski, Sarah D; Lori, Jody R

2014-09-01

346

Abortion care in Ghana: a critical review of the literature.  

PubMed

The Government of Ghana has taken important steps to mitigate the impact of unsafe abortion. However, the expected decline in maternal deaths is yet to be realized. This literature review aims to present findings from empirical research directly related to abortion provision in Ghana and identify gaps for future research. A total of four (4) databases were searched with the keywords "Ghana and abortion" and hand review of reference lists was conducted. All abstracts were reviewed. The final include sample was 39 articles. Abortion-related complications represent a large component of admissions to gynecological wards in hospitals in Ghana as well as a large contributor to maternal mortality. Almost half of the included studies were hospital-based, mainly chart reviews. This review has identified gaps in the literature including: interviewing women who have sought unsafe abortions and with healthcare providers who may act as gatekeepers to women wishing to access safe abortion services. PMID:25438507

Rominski, Sarah D; Lori, Jody R

2014-09-01

347

Yaoundé-like virus in resident wild bird, Ghana  

E-print Network

Tissue and swab samples from 551 wild birds collected in Ghana (October-November 2007) were assayed for alphaviruses, flaviviruses, and influenza A viruses using polymerase chain (PCR) techniques. One pool sample tested positive for Flavivirus RNA...

Williams, Richard A. J.; Vá zquez, Ana; Asamte, Ivy; Bonney, Kofi; Odoom, Shirley; Puplampu, Naiki; Ampofo, William; Sá nchez-Seco, Marí a Paz; Tenorio, Antonio; Peterson, A. Townsend

2012-03-01

348

Effects of deforestation pattern and private nature reserves on the forest conservation in settlement areas of the Brazilian Amazon  

E-print Network

Effects of deforestation pattern and private nature reserves on the forest conservation The effects of deforestation patterns, private nature-reserve extents and agricultural fallow periods deforestation pattern that allow to group the reserves from different farmers at the end of the lot. When

Metzger, Jean Paul Walter

349

Assessing the performance of the existing and proposed network of marine protected areas to conserve marine biodiversity in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing concern about the profound influence of human activities on marine ecosystems has been the driving force behind the creation of marine reserves in the last few decades. With almost 4200km of coastline, Chile has not been the exception to this trend. A set of conservation priority sites has recently been proposed by the Chilean government to expand the

Marcelo F. Tognelli; Miriam Fernández; Pablo A. Marquet

2009-01-01

350

Use of object-oriented classification and fragmentation analysis (1985-2008) to identify important areas for conservation in Cockpit Country, Jamaica.  

PubMed

Forest fragmentation is one of the most important threats to global biodiversity, particularly in tropical developing countries. Identifying priority areas for conservation within these forests is essential to their effective management. However, this requires current, accurate environmental information that is often lacking in developing countries. The Cockpit Country, Jamaica, contains forests of international importance in terms of levels of endemism and overall diversity. These forests are under severe threat from the prospect of bauxite mining and other anthropogenic disturbances. In the absence of adequate, up-to-date ecological information, we used satellite remote sensing data and fragmentation analysis to identify interior forested areas that have experienced little or no change as priority conservation sites. We classified Landsat images from 1985, 1989, 1995, 2002, and 2008, using an object-oriented method, which allowed for the inclusion of roads. We conducted our fragmentation analysis using metrics to quantify changes in forest patch number, area, shape, and aggregation. Deforestation and fragmentation fluctuated within the 23-year period but were mostly confined to the periphery of the forest, close to roads and access trails. An area of core forest that remained intact over the period of study was identified within the largest forest patch, most of which was located within the boundaries of a forest reserve and included the last remaining patches of closed-broadleaf forest. These areas should be given highest priority for conservation, as they constitute important refuges for endemic or threatened biodiversity. Minimizing and controlling access will be important in maintaining this core. PMID:20145994

Newman, Minke E; McLaren, Kurt P; Wilson, Byron S

2011-01-01

351

Hemispheric ceramic pot filter evaluation and quality assurance program in Northern Ghana  

E-print Network

Pure Home Water (PHW) is a non-profit based in Ghana that seeks to bring safe drinking water to those most in need in Northern Ghana through the production, sale, and distribution of ceramic pot filters (CPF) and other ...

Miller, Matthew Rhodes

2012-01-01

352

Evaluation of the complementary use of the ceramic (Kosim) filter and Aquatabs in Northern Region, Ghana  

E-print Network

The Kosim filter is a ceramic water filter that is currently used in Northern Ghana. Based on prior MIT research in Northern Ghana, this technology is effective at removing 92% of turbidity, 99.4% of total coliforms, and ...

Swanton, Andrew A

2008-01-01

353

Impact of payments for environmental services and protected areas on local livelihoods and forest conservation in northern Cambodia  

PubMed Central

The potential impacts of payments for environmental services (PES) and protected areas (PAs) on environmental outcomes and local livelihoods in developing countries are contentious and have been widely debated. The available evidence is sparse, with few rigorous evaluations of the environmental and social impacts of PAs and particularly of PES. We measured the impacts on forests and human well-being of three different PES programs instituted within two PAs in northern Cambodia, using a panel of intervention villages and matched controls. Both PES and PAs delivered additional environmental outcomes relative to the counterfactual: reducing deforestation rates significantly relative to controls. PAs increased security of access to land and forest resources for local households, benefiting forest resource users but restricting households’ ability to expand and diversify their agriculture. The impacts of PES on household well-being were related to the magnitude of the payments provided. The two higher paying market-linked PES programs had significant positive impacts, whereas a lower paying program that targeted biodiversity protection had no detectable effect on livelihoods, despite its positive environmental outcomes. Households that signed up for the higher paying PES programs, however, typically needed more capital assets; hence, they were less poor and more food secure than other villagers. Therefore, whereas the impacts of PAs on household well-being were limited overall and varied between livelihood strategies, the PES programs had significant positive impacts on livelihoods for those that could afford to participate. Our results are consistent with theories that PES, when designed appropriately, can be a powerful new tool for delivering conservation goals whilst benefiting local people. El Impacto de los Pagos por Servicios Ambientales y Áreas Protegidas sobre la Subsistencia Local y la Conservación del Bosque en el Norte de Camboya Resumen Los impactos potenciales de los pagos por servicios ambientales (PSA) y áreas protegidas (APs) sobre los resultados ambientales y las subsistencias locales en los países en desarrollo son polémicos y se han debatido ampliamente. La evidencia disponible es escasa; ha habido pocas evaluaciones rigurosas de los impactos ambientales y sociales de las APs y particularmente los PSA. Medimos el impacto sobre los bosques y el bienestar humano en tres diferentes programas de PSA que se llevan a cabo dentro de dos APs en el norte de Camboya usando un panel de aldeas de intervención y controles emparejados. Tanto los PSA como las APs brindaron resultados ambientales adicionales en relación a los contrafácticos, esto quiere decir que redujeron las tasas de deforestación significativamente en relación a los controles. Las áreas protegidas incrementaron el acceso seguro a los recursos del suelo y el bosque para las viviendas locales, beneficiando a los usuarios de los recursos del bosque pero restringiendo la habilidad de las viviendas para expandirse y diversificar su agricultura. Los impactos de los pagos por servicios ambientales sobre el bienestar de las viviendas estuvieron relacionados con la magnitud de los pagos proporcionados. Los dos programas de PSA de mayor paga y con conexión al mercado tuvieron impactos positivos significativos, mientras que un programa de menor paga con el objetivo de proteger a la biodiversidad no tuvo un efecto detectable sobre las viviendas, a pesar de sus resultados ambientales positivos. Las viviendas que se inscribieron a los programas de PSA con mayor paga, sin embargo, necesitaban típicamente más bienes capitales, por lo que eran menos pobres y tenían mayor seguridad alimentaria que otros aldeanos. Por esto, mientras los impactos de las APs sobre el bienestar de las viviendas fueron limitados en general y variaron dependiendo de las estrategias de subsistencia, los programas de PSA tuvieron impactos positivos significativos sobre las viviendas para aquellos que podían co

Clements, Tom; Milner-Gulland, E J

2015-01-01

354

Women, religion, and maternal health care in Ghana, 1945-2000.  

PubMed

This article documents the historical factors that led to shifts in mission work toward a greater emphasis on community health for the poor and most vulnerable of society in sub-Saharan Africa after 1945. Using the example of the Medical Mission Sisters from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and their work in Ghana, we challenge the conventional narrative of medical missions as agents of imperialism. We assert that missions-particularly those run by Catholic sister physicians, nurses, and midwives-have changed over time and that those changes have been beneficial to the expansion of community health, particularly in the area of improvement of maternal care. PMID:24892862

Johnson, Lauren; Wall, Barbra Mann

2014-01-01

355

Land-cover mapping of Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area and Coyote Springs, Piute-Eldorado Valley, and Mormon Mesa Areas of Critical Environmental Concern, Clark County, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

DigitalGlobe’s QuickBird satellite high-resolution multispectral imagery was classified by using Visual Learning Systems’ Feature Analyst feature extraction software to produce land-cover data sets for the Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area and the Coyote Springs, Piute-Eldorado Valley, and Mormon Mesa Areas of Critical Environmental Concern in Clark County, Nevada. Over 1,000 vegetation field samples were collected at the stand level. The field samples were classified to the National Vegetation Classification Standard, Version 2 hierarchy at the alliance level and above. Feature extraction models were developed for vegetation on the basis of the spectral and spatial characteristics of selected field samples by using the Feature Analyst hierarchical learning process. Individual model results were merged to create one data set for the Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area and one for each of the Areas of Critical Environmental Concern. Field sample points and photographs were used to validate and update the data set after model results were merged. Non-vegetation data layers, such as roads and disturbed areas, were delineated from the imagery and added to the final data sets. The resulting land-cover data sets are significantly more detailed than previously were available, both in resolution and in vegetation classes.

Smith, J. LaRue; Damar, Nancy A.; Charlet, David A.; Westenburg, Craig L.

2014-01-01

356

Incidence and characteristics of bacteremia among children in rural Ghana.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to describe systemic bacterial infections occurring in acutely ill and hospitalized children in a rural region in Ghana, regarding frequency, incidence, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and associations with anthropometrical data.Blood cultures were performed in all children below the age of five years, who were admitted to Agogo Presbyterian Hospital (APH), Asante Region, Ghana, between September 2007 and July 2009. Medical history and anthropometrical data were assessed using a standardized questionnaire at admission. Incidences were calculated after considering the coverage population adjusted for village-dependent health-seeking behavior.Among 1,196 hospitalized children, 19.9% (n = 238) were blood culture positive. The four most frequent isolated pathogens were nontyphoidal salmonellae (NTS) (53.3%; n = 129), Staphylococcus aureus (13.2%; n = 32), Streptococcus pneumoniae (9.1%; n = 22) and Salmonella ser. Typhi (7.0%; n = 17). Yearly cumulative incidence of bacteremia was 46.6 cases/1,000 (CI 40.9-52.2). Yearly cumulative incidences per 1,000 of the four most frequent isolates were 25.2 (CI 21.1-29.4) for NTS, 6.3 (CI 4.1-8.4) for S. aureus, 4.3 (CI 2.5-6.1) for S. pneumoniae and 3.3 (CI 1.8-4.9) for Salmonella ser. Typhi. Wasting was positively associated with bacteremia and systemic NTS bloodstream infection. Children older than three months had more often NTS bacteremia than younger children. Ninety-eight percent of NTS and 100% of Salmonella ser. Typhi isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, whereas both tested 100% susceptible to ceftriaxone. Seventy-seven percent of NTS and 65% of Salmonella ser. Typhi isolates were multi-drug resistant (MDR). Systemic bacterial infections in nearly 20% of hospitalized children underline the need for microbiological diagnostics, to guide targeted antimicrobial treatment and prevention of bacteremia. If microbiological diagnostics are lacking, calculated antimicrobial treatment of severely ill children in malaria-endemic areas should be considered. PMID:22970162

Nielsen, Maja Verena; Sarpong, Nimako; Krumkamp, Ralf; Dekker, Denise; Loag, Wibke; Amemasor, Solomon; Agyekum, Alex; Marks, Florian; Huenger, Frank; Krefis, Anne Caroline; Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; May, Jürgen; Schwarz, Norbert Georg

2012-01-01

357

A Mass-Conservative Semi-Implicit Semi-Lagrangian Limited-Area Shallow-Water Model on the Sphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

A locally mass conservative shallow-water model using a two-time-level, semi-implicit, semi-Lagrangian integration scheme is presented. The momentum equations are solved with the traditional semi-Lagrangian gridpoint form. The explicit continuity equation is solved using a cell-integrated semi-Lagrangian scheme, and the semi-implicit part is designed such that the resulting elliptic equation is on the same form as for the traditional semi-Lagrangian gridpoint

Peter H. Lauritzen; Eigil Kaas; Bennert Machenhauer

2006-01-01

358

Factors that influence midwifery students in Ghana when deciding where to practice: a discrete choice experiment  

PubMed Central

Background Mal-distribution of the health workforce with a strong bias for urban living is a major constraint to expanding midwifery services in Ghana. According to the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDG) report, the high risk of dying in pregnancy or childbirth continues in Africa. Maternal death is currently estimated at 350 per 100,000, partially a reflection of the low rates of professional support during birth. Many women in rural areas of Ghana give birth alone or with a non-skilled attendant. Midwives are key healthcare providers in achieving the MDGs, specifically in reducing maternal mortality by three-quarters and reducing by two-thirds the under 5 child mortality rate by 2015. Methods This quantitative research study used a computerized structured survey containing a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to quantify the importance of different incentives and policies to encourage service to deprived, rural and remote areas by upper-year midwifery students following graduation. Using a hierarchical Bayes procedure we estimated individual and mean utility parameters for two hundred and ninety eight third year midwifery students from two of the largest midwifery training schools in Ghana. Results Midwifery students in our sample identified: 1) study leave after two years of rural service; 2) an advanced work environment with reliable electricity, appropriate technology and a constant drug supply; and 3) superior housing (2 bedroom, 1 bathroom, kitchen, living room, not shared) as the top three motivating factors to accept a rural posting. Conclusion Addressing the motivating factors for rural postings among midwifery students who are about to graduate and enter the workforce could significantly contribute to the current mal-distribution of the health workforce. PMID:23642076

2013-01-01

359

Anthropometric Measurements: Options for Identifying Low Birth Weight Newborns in Kumasi, Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background In Ghana, 32% of deliveries take place outside a health facility, and birth weight is not measured. Low birth weight (LBW) newborns who are at increased risk of death and disability, are not identified; 13%–14% of newborns in Ghana are LBW. We aimed at determining whether alternative anthropometrics could be used to identify LBW newborns when weighing scales are not available to measure birth weight. Methods We studied 973 mother and newborn pairs at the Komfo Anokye Teaching and the Suntreso Government hospitals between November 2011 and October 2012. We used standard techniques to record anthropometric measurements of newborns within 24 hours of birth; low birth weight was defined as birth weight <2.5kg. Pearson's correlation coefficient and the area under the curve were used to determine the best predictors of low birth weight. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were reported with 95% confidence intervals at generated cut-off values. Results One-fifth (21.7%) of newborns weighed less than 2.5 kg. Among LBW newborns, the following measurements had the highest correlations with birth weight: chest circumference (r?=?0.69), mid-upper arm circumference (r?=?0.68) and calf circumference (r?=?0.66); the areas under the curves of these three measurements demonstrated the highest accuracy in determining LBW newborns. Chest, mid-upper arm and calf circumferences at cut-off values of ?29.8 cm, ?9.4 cm and ?9.5 cm respectively, had the best combination of maximum sensitivity, specificity and predictive values for identifying newborns with LBW. Conclusions Anthropometric measurements, such as the chest circumference, mid-upper arm circumference and calf circumference, offer an opportunity for the identification of and subsequent support for LBW newborns in settings in Ghana, where birth weights are not measured by standardized weighing scales. PMID:25226505

Otupiri, Easmon; Wobil, Priscilla; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Hindin, Michelle J.

2014-01-01

360

[Conservation Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

Texas Education Agency, Austin.

361

[Conservation Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instructional units deal with each aspect of conservation: forests, wildlife, rangelands, water, minerals, and soil. The area of the secondary school curriculum with which each is correlated is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the topic, questions to…

Texas Education Agency, Austin.

362

The African Conservation Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal provides in-depth information about conservation issues and initiatives in Africa. The online searchable databases and forums showcase, promote and provide background information on almost 300 conservation organisations and protected area institutions across the continent. The African Conservation Foundation (ACF) is primarily concerned with education and capacity building in Africa in the areas of environment and conservation. Its mission is to support and link African conservation initiatives, groups and NGOs, with the aim of strengthening their capacity, building partnerships and promoting effective communication and co-ordination of conservation efforts.

Terry Harnwell

2001-08-15

363

Identities and Archaeological Heritage Preservation at the Crossroads: Understanding the Challenges of Economic Development at Tengzug, Upper East Region, Ghana  

PubMed Central

It is evident that both tangible and intangible elements constitute heritage and this needs to be recognized by researchers, heritage professionals and government bodies charged with implementing development policies. However, the relationship between traditional beliefs, worldview, heritage conservation, and archaeological investigation is a complex one. This is considered with reference to the conflict that can occur between government policy and indigenous beliefs in relation to architecture, and with reference to perceptions of landscape amongst the Talensi communities of Tengzug in Upper East Region, Ghana. PMID:22003263

Kankpeyeng, Benjamin W.; Insoll, Timothy; MacLean, Rachel

2011-01-01

364

Representing connectivity: quantifying effective habitat availability based on area and connectivity for conservation status assessment and recovery  

PubMed Central

We apply a comprehensive suite of graph theoretic metrics to illustrate how landscape connectivity can be effectively incorporated into conservation status assessments and in setting conservation objectives. These metrics allow conservation practitioners to evaluate and quantify connectivity in terms of representation, resiliency, and redundancy and the approach can be applied in spite of incomplete knowledge of species-specific biology and dispersal processes. We demonstrate utility of the graph metrics by evaluating changes in distribution and connectivity that would result from implementing two conservation plans for three endangered plant species (Erigeron parishii, Acanthoscyphus parishii var. goodmaniana, and Eriogonum ovalifolium var. vineum) relative to connectivity under current conditions. Although distributions of the species differ from one another in terms of extent and specific location of occupied patches within the study landscape, the spatial scale of potential connectivity in existing networks were strikingly similar for Erigeron and Eriogonum, but differed for Acanthoscyphus. Specifically, patches of the first two species were more regularly distributed whereas subsets of patches of Acanthoscyphus were clustered into more isolated components. Reserves based on US Fish and Wildlife Service critical habitat designation would not greatly contribute to maintain connectivity; they include 83–91% of the extant occurrences and >92% of the aerial extent of each species. Effective connectivity remains within 10% of that in the whole network for all species. A Forest Service habitat management strategy excluded up to 40% of the occupied habitat of each species resulting in both range reductions and loss of occurrences from the central portions of each species’ distribution. Overall effective network connectivity was reduced to 62–74% of the full networks. The distance at which each CHMS network first became fully connected was reduced relative to the full network in Erigeron and Acanthoscyphus due to exclusion of peripheral patches, but was slightly increased for Eriogonum. Distances at which networks were sensitive to loss of connectivity due to presence non-redundant connections were affected mostly for Acanthoscyphos. Of most concern was that the range of distances at which lack of redundancy yielded high risk was much greater than in the full network. Through this in-depth example evaluating connectivity using a comprehensive suite of developed graph theoretic metrics, we establish an approach as well as provide sample interpretations of subtle variations in connectivity that conservation managers can incorporate into planning. PMID:25320685

Tumas, Hayley R.; Marsden, Brittany W.

2014-01-01

365

Community and household determinants of water quality in coastal Ghana.  

PubMed

Associations between water sources, socio-demographic characteristics and household drinking water quality are described in a representative sample of six coastal districts of Ghana's Central Region. Thirty-six enumeration areas (EAs) were randomly chosen from a representative survey of 90 EAs in rural, semi-urban and urban residence strata. In each EA, 24 households were randomly chosen for water quality sampling and socio-demographic interview. Escherichia coli per 100 ml H2O was quantified using the IDEXX Colilert system and multi-stage regression models estimated cross-sectional associations between water sources, sanitation and socio-demographic factors. Almost three quarters, 74%, of the households have > 2 E. coli /100 ml H2O. Tap water has significantly lower E. coli levels compared with surface or rainwater and well water had the highest levels. Households with a water closet toilet have significantly lower E. coli compared with those using pit latrines or no toilets. Household size is positively associated, and a possessions index is negatively associated, with E. coli. Variations in community and household socio-demographic and behavioural factors are key determinants of drinking water quality. These factors should be included in planning health education associated with investments in water systems. PMID:19108554

McGarvey, Stephen T; Buszin, Justin; Reed, Holly; Smith, David C; Rahman, Zarah; Andrzejewski, Catherine; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; White, Michael J

2008-09-01

366

Interruption of poliovirus transmission in Ghana: molecular epidemiology of wild-type 1 poliovirus isolated from 1995 to 2008.  

PubMed

Described in detail is the molecular epidemiology of wild-type 1 poliovirus circulation in Ghana between 1995-2008, following the implementation of a surveillance system for cases of acute flaccid paralysis and poliovirus infection. Molecular phylogenetic analysis combined with a detailed evaluation of epidemiological indicators revealed that the geographical and temporal circulation of wild-type poliovirus in Ghana was determined by the quality of the implementation of global eradication strategies. The transmission of "indigenous" wild-type 1 poliovirus was eliminated in 1999. However, a drastic reduction in national immunization campaigns resulted in the importation in 2003 and 2008 of wild-type 1 poliovirus from neighboring countries. Both outbreaks were promptly interrupted following resumption of immunization activities. The results detailed here provide scientific evidence that supports the feasibility of polio eradication in Central West Africa, one of the remaining endemic areas for the disease, provided that comprehensive immunization campaigns and sensitive surveillance systems are in place. PMID:22829642

Odoom, John Kofi; Forrest, Lindsay; Dunn, Glynis; Osei-Kwasi, Mubarak; Obodai, Evangeline; Arthur-Quarm, Jacob; Barnor, Jacob; Minor, Philip D; Martin, Javier

2012-10-01

367

Smoking in Ghana: a review of tobacco industry activity  

PubMed Central

Background: African countries are a major potential market for the tobacco industry, and the smoking epidemic is at various stages of evolution across the continent. Ghana is an African country with a low prevalence of smoking despite an active tobacco industry presence for over 50 years. This study explores potential reasons for this apparent lack of industry success. Objective: To explore the history of tobacco industry activity in Ghana and to identify potential reasons for the current low prevalence of smoking. Methods: A search was made of tobacco industry archives and other local sources to obtain data relevant to marketing and consumption of tobacco in Ghana. Findings: British American Tobacco, and latterly the International Tobacco Company and its successor the Meridian Tobacco Company, have been manufacturing cigarettes in Ghana since 1954. After an initial sales boom in the two decades after independence in 1957, the sustained further increases in consumption typical of the tobacco epidemic in most countries did not occur. Possible key reasons include the taking of tobacco companies into state ownership and a lack of foreign exchange to fund tobacco leaf importation in the 1970s, both of which may have inhibited growth at a key stage of development, and the introduction of an advertising ban in 1982. BAT ceased manufacturing cigarettes in Ghana in 2006. Conclusion: The tobacco industry has been active in Ghana for over 50 years but with variable success. The combination of an early advertising ban and periods of unfavourable economic conditions, which may have restricted industry growth, are likely to have contributed to the sustained low levels of tobacco consumption in Ghana to date. PMID:19359263

Owusu-Dabo, E; Lewis, S; McNeill, A; Anderson, S; Gilmore, A; Britton, J

2009-01-01

368

Ecosystem consideration in conservation planning: energy demand of foraging bottlenose whales ( Hyperoodon ampullatus) in a marine protected area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gully, a submarine canyon off eastern Canada, was nominated as a pilot Marine Protected Area (MPA) in 1998, largely to safeguard the vulnerable population of northern bottlenose whales (Hyperoodon ampullatus) found there. The boundaries and ultimate management regime for the MPA for this area remain under review. We have estimated the energy consumption of bottlenose whales in the Gully

Sascha K. Hooker; Hal Whitehead; Shannon Gowans

2002-01-01

369

Application of geographical information system (GIS) technology in the control of Buruli ulcer in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Buruli ulcer (BU) disease is a chronic debilitating skin disease caused by Mycobacteriumulcerans. It is associated with areas where the water is slow-flowing or stagnant. Policy makers take the necessary strategic and policy decisions especially where to target interventions based on available evidence including spatial distribution of the disease. Unfortunately, there is limited information on the spatial distribution of BU in Ghana. The aim of the study was to use Geographical Information System (GIS) technology to show the spatial distribution and hot spots of BU in Greater Accra and Eastern Regions in Ghana. The information could then be used by decision makers to make the necessary strategic and policy decisions, especially where to target intervention. Methods We conducted a community case search and spatial mapping in two districts in Eastern region (Akuapem South and Suhum- Kraboa-Coaltar) and two districts in Greater Accra region (Ga West and Ga South Municipalities) of Ghana to identify the spatial distribution of BU cases in the communities along the Densu River. These municipalities are already known to the Ministry of Health as having high case load of BU. Structured questionnaires on demographic characteristics, environmental factors and general practices were administered to the cases. Using the E-trex Garmin Geographical Positioning System (GPS), the location of the case patient was marked along with any important attributes of the community. ArcGIS was used to generate maps showing BU distribution and hot spots. Results Two hundred and fifty-seven (257) probable BU patients were enrolled in the study after the case search. These cases and their houses (or homes) were located with the GPS. The GIS maps generated showed a varying distribution of BU in the various communities. We observed clustering of BU patients downstream of the Densu River which had hitherto not been observed. Conclusions There is clustering of BU in areas where the river was most contaminated. The identified hot spots for BU should be targeted for interventions by policy makers to ensure effective control of BU in Ghana. PMID:25027028

2014-01-01

370

Evaluation of AFP surveillance indicators in polio-free Ghana, 2009–2013  

PubMed Central

Background Ghana recorded the last case of indigenous wild poliovirus in 1999 but suffered two more outbreaks in 2003 and 2008. Following the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, transmission was interrupted through high routine immunisation coverage with live-attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV), effective acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance and supplementary immunisation activities (SIA). This article describes the results of a five-year surveillance of AFP in polio-free Ghana, evaluate the surveillance indicators and identify areas that need improvement. Methods We investigated 1345 cases of AFP from children aged less than 15 years reported to the Disease Surveillance Department from January 2009 to December 2013. Data on demographic characteristics, vaccination history, clinical presentation and virological investigation on stool specimens collected during investigation were analysed. Results Of the specimens analysed, 56% were from males and 76.3% were from children less than 5 years of age. Twenty-four percent of the children received up to 3 doses of OPV, 57% received at least 4 doses while the status of 19% was unknown. Core AFP surveillance indicators were partly met for non-polio AFP rate while the WHO target for stool adequacy and timeliness was exceeded over the period of study. All the cases were classified virologically, however no wild polio was found. Sixty-day follow-up was conducted for 56.3% of cases and 8.6% cases classified as compactible with polio. Conclusion Both laboratory and epidemiological surveillance for AFP were efficient and many WHO targets were met. However, due to the risk of poliovirus importation prior to global eradication, longterm surveillance is required to provide a high degree of confidence in prevention of poliovirus infection in Ghana. Thus, efforts should be made to strengthen regional performance and to follow–up on all AFP cases in order to establish proper diagnoses for the causes of the AFP leading to proper care. PMID:24996415

2014-01-01

371

Ghana's experience in the establishment of a national data center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The government of Ghana in a bilateral agreement with the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) has established a National Data Center in Ghana with the aim of monitoring the testing of nuclear explosions. Seismic, hydroacoustic, radionuclide and infrasound methods are used for the monitoring. The data center was commissioned on 3 February, 2010 at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. At present Ghana does not have any operational, centralised data (seismic, hydroacoustic, radionuclide and infrasound) acquisition system with the capability of accessing data from other international stations. Hence, the need of setting up the National Data Center which would enable us constantly monitor, manage and coordinate both natural and man-made seismic activities in the country and around the globe, upload data to the International Data Center (IDC) as well as receive and use International Monitoring System (IMS) data and IDC products for treaty verification and compliance. Apart from these, the center also accesses and analyzes seismic waveforms relevant to its needs from the International Data Center; makes data available to its stakeholder institutions for earthquake disaster mitigation; reports on all aspects of disasters related to earthquake to the relevant government agencies that deal with disasters; makes recommendations to the government of Ghana on earthquake safety measures; provides information to assist government institutions to develop appropriate land and building policies. The center in collaboration with stakeholder agencies periodically organises public lectures on earthquake disaster risk mitigation.

Ekua, Amponsah Paulina; Yaw, Serfor-Armah

2012-08-01

372

76 FR 47234 - Notice of Intent To Solicit Nominations for the Dominguez-Escalante National Conservation Area...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...formed, one council member representing Delta County and one council member representing...Dominguez Canyon Wilderness Area located in Delta, Montrose, and Mesa counties, Colorado...considering the recommendations of the Delta County Commission; 4. One member...

2011-08-04

373

Area  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to develop students' understanding of the concepts of area and how it can relate to perimeter. The shapes explored in this lesson are constructed of adjacent squares on a coordinate plane. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to area as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one. Note, the reading level for this resourceâs worksheet is at the grade 8 level.

2010-01-01

374

Bat assemblages in conservation areas of a metropolitan region in Southeastern Brazil, including an important karst habitat.  

PubMed

Species richness and abundance of bats were studied in four nature reserves, including a karst area which has many potential rocky shelters for bats, such as caves and rock crevices. The reserves were located in the greater Belo Horizonte metropolitan area, one of the most populated regions of Brazil, within the Atlantic Forest, and Cerrado (Brazilian savanna) ecological domains. Bats were sampled using mist-nets and, in the karst area, also by active searches in shelters. A total of 1,599 bats were captured representing 30 species belonging to four families. There was little similarity among the four chiropteran faunas. The greatest species richness was found in the karst area with 22 species recorded whereas richness estimates in the other areas indicated the need for further studies. Two hundred and sixty-five individuals of 14 species were captured from 56 shelters. Most of the shelters were frequently used for diurnal roosts, and all the bats found belonged to the Phyllostomidae, with the exception of Myotis nigricans (Vespertilionidae), Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Molossidae) and Peropteryx macrotis (Emballonuridae). The sanguinivorous Desmodus rotundus was the most common species in the shelters. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of maintaining multiple protected areas to ensure a representative fauna of bats in a region characterized by a vegetation transition zone and with intense economic activity and high environmental impact. This study also demonstrates the importance of rock shelters for maintaining local bat richness and the importance of active searches for bats in their diurnal roosts for a more thorough sampling of the bat fauna at a given locality. PMID:23917558

Talamoni, S A; Coelho, D A; Dias-Silva, L H; Amaral, A S

2013-05-01

375

Science reporting in Accra, Ghana: Sources, barriers and motivational factors.  

PubMed

In Ghana, as in many other developing countries, most science reporting is done by general reporters. However, few studies have investigated science reporting in such a situation. To understand better the dynamics of science reporting in such context, we surveyed 151 general reporters in Ghana. Respondents' demographic characteristics resembled those found in studies elsewhere. Respondents perceived health professionals and scientists as very important sources of information for reporting science. There was an inverse correlation between journalism experience and the number of science feature stories reported in the past 12 months (p = .017). Most respondents indicated that science journalism training would motivate them to report science more. Likewise, most reported that easier access to research findings would do so. We identify characteristics of reporters, media, scientific, and training institutions that are important influences of Ghanaian reporters' coverage of science. We provide recommendations for advancing science reporting in Ghana. PMID:25193967

Appiah, Bernard; Gastel, Barbara; Burdine, James N; Russell, Leon H

2014-09-01

376

ICTD for Healthcare in Ghana: Two Parallel Case Studies  

E-print Network

This paper examines two parallel case studies to promote remote medical consultation in Ghana. These projects, initiated independently by different researchers in different organizations, both deployed ICT solutions in the same medical community in the same year. The Ghana Consultation Network currently has over 125 users running a Web-based application over a delay-tolerant network of servers. OneTouch MedicareLine is currently providing 1700 doctors in Ghana with free mobile phone calls and text messages to other members of the medical community. We present the consequences of (1) the institutional context and identity of the investigators, as well as specific decisions made with respect to (2) partnerships formed, (3) perceptions of technological infrastructure, and (4) high-level design decisions. In concluding, we discuss lessons learned and high-level implications for future ICTD research agendas.

Luk, Rowena; Ho, Melissa; Levine, Brian; Aoki, Paul M

2009-01-01

377

Mosquito avoidance and bed net use in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana.  

PubMed

Qualitative research and cross-sectional survey methods were used in a study conducted in rural and urban areas of the Greater Accra Region, Ghana, to explore people's understanding of the cause of malaria and patterns of mosquito avoidance, in particular bed net ownership and use. The study indicated far higher bed net ownership and use in rural than urban areas, which was related partly to perceived affordability and partly to the different contexts of and reasons for avoiding mosquitoes. Knowledge of an association between mosquitoes and malaria, the most common cause of illness in both areas, was related to residence but not to literacy or formal education, and this knowledge did not predict bed net use. The paper points to the complexity of social and personal factors implicated in behavioural interventions for malaria control, and questions behavioural models that assume a linear relationship between knowledge and practice. PMID:10081239

Agyepong, I A; Manderson, L

1999-01-01

378

A Silent Enzootic of an Orthopoxvirus in Ghana, West Africa: Evidence for Multi-Species Involvement in the Absence of Widespread Human Disease  

PubMed Central

Human monkeypox has never been reported in Ghana, but rodents captured in forested areas of southern Ghana were the source of the monkeypox virus introduced into the United States in 2003. Subsequent to the outbreak in the United States, 204 animals were collected from two commercial trapping sites in Ghana. Animal tissues were examined for the presence of orthopoxvirus (OPXV) DNA using a real-time polymerase chain reaction, and sera were assayed for antibodies against OPXV. Animals from five genera (Cricetomys, Graphiurus, Funiscirus, and Heliosciurus) had antibodies against OPXV, and three genera (Cricetomys, Graphiurus, and Xerus) had evidence of OPXV DNA in tissues. Additionally, 172 persons living near the trapping sites were interviewed regarding risk factors for OPXV exposure, and their sera were analyzed. Fifty-three percent had IgG against OPXV; none had IgM. Our findings suggest that several species of forest-dwelling rodents from Ghana are susceptible to naturally occurring OPXV infection, and that persons living near forests may have low-level or indirect exposure to OPXV-infected animals, possibly resulting in sub-clinical infections. PMID:20348530

Reynolds, Mary G.; Carroll, Darin S.; Olson, Victoria A.; Hughes, Christine; Galley, Jack; Likos, Anna; Montgomery, Joel M.; Suu-Ire, Richard; Kwasi, Mubarak O.; Jeffrey Root, J.; Braden, Zach; Abel, Jason; Clemmons, Cody; Regnery, Russell; Karem, Kevin; Damon, Inger K.

2010-01-01

379

Composition and conservation of Orchidaceae on an inselberg in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and floristic relationships with areas of Eastern Brazil.  

PubMed

The Brazilian Atlantic Forest presents high levels of richness and endemism of several taxonomic groups. Within this forest, the Orchidaceae may be highlighted as the richest family of Angiosperms found there, and is highly threatened due to collection and habitat destruction. The inselbergs of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest are mostly unknown regarding their floristic composition, but the available information points to occurrence of endemic species, with adaptations to survive to this dry environment. The objectives of this study were to conduct a floristic survey of the Orchidaceae species on the Maciço do Itaoca, an inselberg located in the Northern region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, make a comparative analysis with other sites in Eastern Brazil, and discuss the geographic distribution, floristic relationships and conservation status of the orchid species present on the inselbergs. The floristic composition of the study area was compared with 24 other locations in Eastern Brazil (of which 13 are inselbergs) and the influence of the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the Orchidaceae flora on the inselbergs. On Maciço do Itaoca we recorded 18 species from 17 genera: Brasiliorchis picta, Brassavola tuberculata, Campylocentrum robustum; C sellowii, Catasetum luridum, Cattleya guttata, Cyclopogon congestus, Cyrtopodium glutiniferum, Leptotes bicolor, Lophiaris pumila, Miltonia moreliana, Oeceoclades maculata, Phymatochilum brasiliense, Prescottia plantaginifolia, Pseudolaelia vellozicola, Sarcoglottis fasciculata, Sophronitis cernua. and Vanilla chamissonis. The highest floristic similarity was with the Pedra da Botelha (0.43), an inselberg located in the North of Espírito Santo. This result is probably due to the similarity in altitude and distance from the coast in both areas despite the geographical distance between them. Apparently, little influence is exerted by the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the flora of inselbergs, due to their unique environmental characteristics which exert a strong selection pressure on plants that are adapted to survive on these inselbergs. The threats observed to the species on this inselberg are the same as for other inselbergs and include the collection of ornamental species, fire and quarrying. Specifically for the Maciço do Itaoca, a possibility for conservation may be the annexation of this area to the Desengano State Park, an important conservation area in the Northern of the State of Rio de Janeiro. PMID:25102662

Pessanha, Alexandre Soares; Menini Neto, Luiz; Forzza, Rafaela Campostrini; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade

2014-06-01

380

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY BY PROTECTING NATURAL RESOURCES IN CONSERVATION AREA TO PROMOTE THE ECONOMIC GROWTH OF WEST JAVA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural resources degradation in Indonesia, including West Java, dramatically rose during the decade of 90's. The decline of several crucial ecological functions of the West Java's ecosystem especially natural forest within the protected areas may have serious consequences for numerous economic activities of the local communities as well as local industries. The Gross National Product of Indonesia that grows 7.1%

Rika WINURDIASTRI; West Java

381

CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE: ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS OF REDUCED TILLAGE AND SOIL CARBON MANAGEMENT IN WATER-LIMITED AREAS OF CENTRAL ASIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agricultural carbon (C) sequestration may be one of the most cost-effective ways to slow processes of global warming and enhance plant-available water in water-limited areas of Central Asia. Numerous environmental benefits and enhanced water-use efficiency result from agricultural activities that s...

382

Importance of local knowledge in plant resources management and conservation in two protected areas from Trás-os-Montes, Portugal  

PubMed Central

Many European protected areas were legally created to preserve and maintain biological diversity, unique natural features and associated cultural heritage. Built over centuries as a result of geographical and historical factors interacting with human activity, these territories are reservoirs of resources, practices and knowledge that have been the essential basis of their creation. Under social and economical transformations several components of such areas tend to be affected and their protection status endangered. Carrying out ethnobotanical surveys and extensive field work using anthropological methodologies, particularly with key-informants, we report changes observed and perceived in two natural parks in Trás-os-Montes, Portugal, that affect local plant-use systems and consequently local knowledge. By means of informants' testimonies and of our own observation and experience we discuss the importance of local knowledge and of local communities' participation to protected areas design, management and maintenance. We confirm that local knowledge provides new insights and opportunities for sustainable and multipurpose use of resources and offers contemporary strategies for preserving cultural and ecological diversity, which are the main purposes and challenges of protected areas. To be successful it is absolutely necessary to make people active participants, not simply integrate and validate their knowledge and expertise. Local knowledge is also an interesting tool for educational and promotional programs. PMID:22112242

2011-01-01

383

Importance of local knowledge in plant resources management and conservation in two protected areas from Trás-os-Montes, Portugal.  

PubMed

Many European protected areas were legally created to preserve and maintain biological diversity, unique natural features and associated cultural heritage. Built over centuries as a result of geographical and historical factors interacting with human activity, these territories are reservoirs of resources, practices and knowledge that have been the essential basis of their creation. Under social and economical transformations several components of such areas tend to be affected and their protection status endangered.Carrying out ethnobotanical surveys and extensive field work using anthropological methodologies, particularly with key-informants, we report changes observed and perceived in two natural parks in Trás-os-Montes, Portugal, that affect local plant-use systems and consequently local knowledge. By means of informants' testimonies and of our own observation and experience we discuss the importance of local knowledge and of local communities' participation to protected areas design, management and maintenance. We confirm that local knowledge provides new insights and opportunities for sustainable and multipurpose use of resources and offers contemporary strategies for preserving cultural and ecological diversity, which are the main purposes and challenges of protected areas. To be successful it is absolutely necessary to make people active participants, not simply integrate and validate their knowledge and expertise. Local knowledge is also an interesting tool for educational and promotional programs. PMID:22112242

Carvalho, Ana Maria; Frazão-Moreira, Amélia

2011-01-01

384

Noninvasive genetic population survey of snow leopards (Panthera uncia) in Kangchenjunga conservation area, Shey Phoksundo National Park and surrounding buffer zones of Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background The endangered snow leopard is found throughout major mountain ranges of Central Asia, including the remote Himalayas. However, because of their elusive behavior, sparse distribution, and poor access to their habitat, there is a lack of reliable information on their population status and demography, particularly in Nepal. Therefore, we utilized noninvasive genetic techniques to conduct a preliminary snow leopard survey in two protected areas of Nepal. Results A total of 71 putative snow leopard scats were collected and analyzed from two different areas; Shey Phoksundo National Park (SPNP) in the west and Kangchanjunga Conservation Area (KCA) in the east. Nineteen (27%) scats were genetically identified as snow leopards, and 10 (53%) of these were successfully genotyped at 6 microsatellite loci. Two samples showed identical genotype profiles indicating a total of 9 individual snow leopards. Four individual snow leopards were identified in SPNP (1 male and 3 females) and five (2 males and 3 females) in KCA. Conclusions We were able to confirm the occurrence of snow leopards in both study areas and determine the minimum number present. This information can be used to design more in-depth population surveys that will enable estimation of snow leopard population abundance at these sites. PMID:22117538

2011-01-01

385

Estimates of the maternal mortality ratio in two districts of the Brong-Ahafo region, Ghana.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) by the sisterhood method in two districts of the Brong-Ahafo region of Ghana, and to determine the impact of different assumptions and analytical decisions on these estimates. METHODS: Indirect estimates of the MMR were calculated from data collected in 1995 by Family Health International (FHI) on 5202 women aged 15-49 years, using a household screen of randomly selected areas in the two districts. Other data from the nationally representative 1994 Ghana Infant, Child and Maternal Mortality Survey (ICMMS) and from the 1997 Kassena-Nankana District study were also used for comparison. FINDINGS: Based on the FHI data, the MMR was estimated to be 269 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births for both districts combined, a figure higher than ICMMS estimates. Biases during data collection may account for this difference, including the fact that biases underestimating mortality are more common than those overestimating it. Biases introduced during data analysis were also considered, but only the total fertility rate used to calculate the MMR seemed to affect the estimates significantly. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the sisterhood method is still being refined and the extent and impact of biases have only recently received attention. Users of this method should be aware of limitations when interpreting results. We recommend using confidence limits around estimates, both to dispel false impressions of precision and to reduce overinterpretation of data. PMID:11417035

Smith, J. B.; Fortney, J. A.; Wong, E.; Amatya, R.; Coleman, N. A.; de Graft Johnson, J.

2001-01-01

386

Spatial analysis of land cover determinants of malaria incidence in the Ashanti Region, Ghana.  

PubMed

Malaria belongs to the infectious diseases with the highest morbidity and mortality worldwide. As a vector-borne disease malaria distribution is strongly influenced by environmental factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between malaria risk and different land cover classes by using high-resolution multispectral Ikonos images and Poisson regression analyses. The association of malaria incidence with land cover around 12 villages in the Ashanti Region, Ghana, was assessed in 1,988 children <15 years of age. The median malaria incidence was 85.7 per 1,000 inhabitants and year (range 28.4-272.7). Swampy areas and banana/plantain production in the proximity of villages were strong predictors of a high malaria incidence. An increase of 10% of swampy area coverage in the 2 km radius around a village led to a 43% higher incidence (relative risk [RR]?=?1.43, p<0.001). Each 10% increase of area with banana/plantain production around a village tripled the risk for malaria (RR?=?3.25, p<0.001). An increase in forested area of 10% was associated with a 47% decrease of malaria incidence (RR?=?0.53, p?=?0.029). Distinct cultivation in the proximity of homesteads was associated with childhood malaria in a rural area in Ghana. The analyses demonstrate the usefulness of satellite images for the prediction of malaria endemicity. Thus, planning and monitoring of malaria control measures should be assisted by models based on geographic information systems. PMID:21448277

Krefis, Anne Caroline; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Nkrumah, Bernard; Acquah, Samuel; Loag, Wibke; Oldeland, Jens; Sarpong, Nimako; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Ranft, Ulrich; May, Jürgen

2011-01-01

387

Source Tracking Mycobacterium ulcerans Infections in the Ashanti Region, Ghana  

PubMed Central

Although several studies have associated Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU) infection, Buruli ulcer (BU), with slow moving water bodies, there is still no definite mode of transmission. Ecological and transmission studies suggest Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) typing as a useful tool to differentiate MU strains from other Mycolactone Producing Mycobacteria (MPM). Deciphering the genetic relatedness of clinical and environmental isolates is seminal to determining reservoirs, vectors and transmission routes. In this study, we attempted to source-track MU infections to specific water bodies by matching VNTR profiles of MU in human samples to those in the environment. Environmental samples were collected from 10 water bodies in four BU endemic communities in the Ashanti region, Ghana. Four VNTR loci in MU Agy99 genome, were used to genotype environmental MU ecovars, and those from 14 confirmed BU patients within the same study area. Length polymorphism was confirmed with sequencing. MU was present in the 3 different types of water bodies, but significantly higher in biofilm samples. Four MU genotypes, designated W, X, Y and Z, were typed in both human and environmental samples. Other reported genotypes were only found in water bodies. Animal trapping identified 1 mouse with lesion characteristic of BU, which was confirmed as MU infection. Our findings suggest that patients may have been infected from community associated water bodies. Further, we present evidence that small mammals within endemic communities could be susceptible to MU infections. M. ulcerans transmission could involve several routes where humans have contact with risk environments, which may be further compounded by water bodies acting as vehicles for disseminating strains. PMID:25612300

Narh, Charles A.; Mosi, Lydia; Quaye, Charles; Dassi, Christelle; Konan, Daniele O.; Tay, Samuel C. K.; de Souza, Dziedzom K.; Boakye, Daniel A.; Bonfoh, Bassirou

2015-01-01

388

The Quest for the Global Commons; Public-Private Partnerships and Community Land Rights in the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area To be presented at the bi-annual IASCP Conference 'Survival of the Commons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Great Limpopo is one of the largest TransFrontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs) in the world, encompassing vast areas in South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique. By arguing that local communities living in or close to the TFCA will participate in its management and benefit economically, TFCA proponents claim social legitimacy for the project. Analysis shows, however, that the original concept of

Marja Spierenburg; Harry Wels

389

“If you do vasectomy and come back here weak, I will divorce you”: a qualitative study of community perceptions about vasectomy in Southern Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Male involvement in contraceptive use is increasingly becoming a global reproductive health issue. Vasectomy is one of the two male modern contraceptive methods espoused by the National Family Planning Policy in Ghana. Despite these advocacies, there are reports of low patronage of this method in Ghana. This study adhering to RATS guidelines on qualitative research therefore explored the social and cultural factors that may be affecting the low vasectomy uptake in Southern Ghana. Methods The study was conducted in Sefwi Bibiani-Ahwiaso Bekwai (SBAB) District and Komenda-Edina-Eguafo-Abrem (KEEA) Municipal area in the Western and Central regions of Ghana respectively. Twelve Focus Group Discussions were held with both male and female community members. In-depth interviews were also carried out with Community Health Officers (CHOs), Community Health Volunteers (CHVs) and health managers at both the district and regional levels. The discussions and interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using Nvivo 10. Results The study revealed that vasectomy was perceived as an act against God, which was punishable either by death or answerable on judgement day. Vasectomy was also perceived to be a form of castration, which can make men weak and incapable, thereby unable to satisfy their wives sexually, leading to marital conflicts. Women were more concerned about the negative effects of vasectomy on men. Cafalgin and panacin which are locally manufactured analgesics were perceived to have contraceptive abilities and therefore used by men as an alternative to modern contraceptive methods. Conclusions Stigma and the misconceptions in the community may be accounting for the low vasectomy uptake in Ghana despite several advocacy strategies. Women were highly influential in a man's decision on vasectomy. This calls for the need to increase health education to demystify the misconceptions about vasectomy. Vasectomy-related campaign messages should target both men and women. PMID:24885663

2014-01-01

390

Actions prioritaires de conservation marine Darwin Darwin Priority Marine Conservation Actions  

E-print Network

and marine protected areas C. Science based conservation of targeted species D. Improved sustainabilityActions prioritaires de conservation marine Darwin Darwin Priority Marine Conservation Actions Actions prioritaires de conservation marine Darwin Introduction: Le Gabon dispose d'importantes ressources

Exeter, University of

391

Optical imaging of visually evoked responses in prosimian primates reveals conserved features of the middle temporal visual area.  

PubMed

Optical imaging of intrinsic cortical responses to visual stimuli was used to characterize the organization of the middle temporal visual area (MT) of a prosimian primate, the bush baby (Otolemur garnetti). Stimulation with moving gratings revealed a patchwork of oval-like domains in MT. These orientation domains could, in turn, be subdivided into zones selective to directional movements that were mainly orthogonal to the preferred orientation. Similar, but not identical, zones were activated by movements of random dots in the preferred direction. Orientation domains shifted in preference systematically either around a center to form pinwheels or as gradual linear shifts. Stimuli presented in different portions of the visual field demonstrated a global representation of visual space in MT. As optical imaging has revealed similar features in MT of New World monkeys, MT appears to have retained these basic features of organization for at least the 60 million years since the divergence of prosimian and simian primates. PMID:14983049

Xu, Xiangmin; Collins, Christine E; Kaskan, Peter M; Khaytin, Ilya; Kaas, Jon H; Casagrande, Vivien A

2004-02-24

392

Investment in Human Capital. Schooling Supply Constraints in Rural Ghana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper hypothesizes that the cost differential between primary school and middle or secondary schooling will affect household decisions to invest in any one schooling level in Ghana. Human capital investment is usually modeled in an intertemporal optimization framework in which households or individuals maximize the present value of life-time…

Lavy, Victor

393

Ghana Fiasco Shows Risks of Faculty-Led Study Trips  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article illustrates the importance of preparation for professors who take students overseas. A University of Washington study-abroad program in Ghana that was cut short last summer after the medical evacuation of half of its participants highlights the potential hazards associated with programs led by individual faculty members who may lack…

Fischer, Karin

2007-01-01

394

Novel Human Parvovirus 4 Genotype 3 in Infants, Ghana  

PubMed Central

Human parvovirus 4 has been considered to be transmitted only parenterally. However, after novel genotype 3 of parvovirus 4 was found in 2 patients with no parenteral risks, we tested infants in Ghana. A viremia rate of 8.6% over 2 years indicates that this infection is common in children in Africa. PMID:20587191

Panning, Marcus; Kobbe, Robin; Vollbach, Silke; Drexler, Jan Felix; Adjei, Samuel; Adjei, Ohene; Drosten, Christian; May, Jürgen

2010-01-01

395

Using Natural Materials for Educational Toys: Examples from Ghana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes educational toys that are made from natural and readily available materials in Ghana. Directions and diagrams for the pawpaw-leaf horn, milk-tin helicopter, pen-top propeller, bow and arrow, spinning top, and feather helicopter are included. (DDR)

William, Musah; Preston, Christine

1998-01-01

396

Homicide-suicide in Ghana: perpetrators, victims, and incidence characteristics.  

PubMed

Homicide-suicide in the industrialized West has been studied for many years. Yet, only limited scholarly research currently exists on the subject in Africa and other non-Western societies. The aim of the present descriptive study was to investigate homicide-suicides in contemporary Ghana. A content analysis of homicide-suicide reports in a major Ghanaian daily newspaper during 1990 to 2009 was conducted. The results overwhelmingly support findings in the literature, suggesting that homicide-suicides are extremely rare events in Ghana. The overwhelming majority of reported homicide-suicides were committed by males, with females substantially more likely to be the homicide victims. The offenders and victims were generally of low socioeconomic status. Most homicide-suicides involved victims and offenders who were intimately acquainted as family members. The majority of cases involved men who killed their wives on suspicion of infidelity; the next largest category involved men who murdered wives who threatened divorce or separation. The principal homicide and suicide methods were shooting with firearms, hacking with machetes, and stabbing with knives. The findings of the study are discussed in relation to Ghana's patriarchal family system and ideology and present socioeconomic issues in the country. This study recommends further research on this subject in Ghana and other African countries. This is necessary to further an understanding of homicide-suicide as a phenomenon, as well as a necessary prelude to the development and implementation of effective preventive programs. PMID:23267240

Adinkrah, Mensah

2014-03-01

397

An Exploratory Study of Trust and Material Hardship in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We explore associations among interpersonal (thick and thin) and institutional (legislative, executive, and judicial) trust and material hardship outcomes in Ghana. We use data from the 2008 Afrobarometer survey. Material hardship is conceptualized in terms of frequency of going without five basic necessities/consumptive deprivations, each of…

Addai, Isaac; Pokimica, Jelena

2012-01-01

398

Comparing Power Spaces: The Shaping of Ghana's Education Strategic Plan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article compares the power spaces occupied by both donors and the Ministry of Education in the formulation of Ghana's Education Strategic Plan (ESP). It shows that the formulation of the ESP was more donor-led than Ministry-led due to the donor-initiated global policy frameworks also referred to as the non-negotiables. Consequently, donors…

Takyi-Amoako, Emefa

2012-01-01

399

Religion and Subjective Well-Being in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using 2008 Afrobarometer survey data, we examine the relationship between religion and subjective well-being (SWB) in Ghana, as well as religious group differences in their experiences of SWB. Two measures of religion--religious affiliation and religious importance, and two measures of SWB--absolute SWB (own perceived living conditions) and…

Pokimica, Jelena; Addai, Isaac; Takyi, Baffour K.

2012-01-01

400

Mobile GIS for Cadastral Data Collection in Ghana Eric MENSAHOKANTEY  

E-print Network

Mobile GIS for Cadastral Data Collection in Ghana Eric MENSAH­OKANTEY Barend K�BBEN 1 Introduction With the development of Web GIS and the emergence of Mobile GIS new possibilities of data capture and maintenance objective was to design a system of Mobile GIS suitable for building and revising a cadastral database. Up

Köbben, Barend

401

Internet Awareness and Use in the University of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports on a study to find the extent of awareness and use of the Internet and its resources by academic staff and postgraduate students of the University of Ghana. The purposes for which Internet resources were used and respondents’ perceptions of the usefulness of the Internet were also explored. The main findings indicate that both staff and students are fully

Edwin Ellis Badu; Evelyn D. Markwei

2005-01-01

402

Making a liberal state: ‘good governance’ in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the project of constructing a liberal state as evinced through the World Bank's policies and practices of good governance in Ghana. It argues that this project is an expression of characteristically liberal ways of thinking about the state and its relationship with its economy and society. The construction of a liberal state involves more than

David Williams

2010-01-01

403

Asynchronous Remote Medical Consultation for Ghana Intel Research  

E-print Network

in southern Ghana. Author Keywords Telemedicine, social networking, organizational interfaces, developing): Miscellaneous. INTRODUCTION There are many kinds of telemedicine, from continuing medical education to patient issue of how to encourage participation and trust in a dynamic, self-organizing telemedicine project

Aoki, Paul M.

404

The Perils and Promises of Inclusive Education in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inclusion of students with disabilities into the mainstream educational system continues to be a major issue and concern faced by many developing nations. Many individuals with disabilities face the challenge of exclusion from any form of education and failure by society to recognize their capabilities and rights. The educational system in Ghana…

Adera, Beatrice A.; Asimeng-Boahene, Lewis

2011-01-01

405

Public University Entry in Ghana: Is It Equitable?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public universities in Ghana are highly subsidised by the central government and account for about 80 per cent of university students in the country. Yet issues of fairness in terms of entry into the public university system have so far hardly been addressed. To find out whether participation in public university education is equitable, the…

Yusif, Hadrat; Yussof, Ishak; Osman, Zulkifly

2013-01-01

406

Career Ladder Policy for Teachers: The Case of Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1984 the Ministry of Education in Ghana introduced a career ladder policy for teachers. While reformers believe that this has improved the condition of the teaching profession, the net gains of the policy remain deceptive. There has even been a reduction in some of the benefits that teachers used to enjoy in the single salary scheme in the…

Osei, George M.

2008-01-01

407

Ethnicity and Economic Well-Being: The Case of Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the context of decades of successful economic reforms in Ghana, this study investigates whether ethnicity influences economic well-being (perceived and actual) among Ghanaians at the micro-level. Drawing on Afro-barometer 2008 data, the authors employs logistic and multiple regression techniques to explore the relative effect of ethnicity on…

Addai, Isaac; Pokimica, Jelena

2010-01-01

408

Revisiting Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education (FCUBE) in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When Ghana became independent in 1957 it had one of the most developed education systems in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Over the next forty years its education system expanded to provide places for most, but not all, of its children. Since the education reforms of the late 1980s enrolments have grown steadily; this contrasts with some SSA countries…

Akyeampong, Kwame

2009-01-01

409

Epidemic of hypertension in Ghana: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a major risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases in developing countries. A comprehensive review of the prevalence of hypertension provides crucial information for the evaluation and implementation of appropriate programmes. METHODS: The PubMed and Google Scholar databases were searched for published articles on the population-based prevalence of adult hypertension in Ghana between 1970 and August 2009, supplemented

William K Bosu

2010-01-01

410

SPECIAL OFFER Conservation Science Trade-offs in Conservation  

E-print Network

SPECIAL OFFER Conservation Science Trade-offs in Conservation Deciding What to Save NIGEL LEADER that surround making decisions about which species and biogeographic areas to prioritise for conservation of the Conservation Science and Practice book series Also available online. For further information, visit: www

411

Inequities in accessibility to and utilisation of maternal health services in Ghana after user-fee exemption: a descriptive study.  

PubMed

IntroductionInequities in accessibility to, and utilisation of maternal healthcare services impede progress towards attainment of the maternal health-related Millennium Development Goals. The objective of this study is to examine the extent to which maternal health services are utilised in Ghana, and whether inequities in accessibility to and utilization of services have been eliminated following the implementation of a user-fee exemption policy, that aims to reduce financial barriers to access, reduce inequities in access, and improve access to and use of birthing services.MethodsWe analyzed data from the 2007 Ghana Maternal Health Survey for inequities in access to and utilization of maternal health services. In measuring the inequities, frequency tables and cross-tabulations were used to compare rates of service utilization by region, residence and selected socio-demographic variables.ResultsFindings show marginal increases in accessibility to and utilisation of skilled antenatal, delivery and postnatal care services following the policy implementation (2003¿2007). However, large gradients of inequities exist between geographic regions, urban and rural areas, and different socio-demographic, religious and ethnic groupings. More urban women (40%) than rural, 53% more women in the highest wealth quintile than women in the lowest, 38% more women in the best performing region (Central Region) than the worst (Upper East Region), and 48% more women with at least secondary education than those with no formal education, accessed and used all components of skilled maternal health services in the five years preceding the survey. Our findings raise questions about the potential equity and distributional benefits of Ghana¿s user-fee exemption policy, and the role of non-financial barriers or considerations.ConclusionExempting user-fees for maternal health services is a promising policy option for improving access to maternal health care, but might be insufficient on its own to secure equitable access to maternal health services in Ghana. Ensuring equity in access will require moving beyond user-fee exemption to addressing wider issues of supply and demand factors and the social determinants of health, including redistributing healthcare resources and services, and redressing the positional vulnerability of women in their communities. PMID:25388288

Ganle, John K; Parker, Michael; Fitzpatrick, Raymond; Otupiri, Easmon

2014-11-01

412

Getting by on credit: how district health managers in Ghana cope with the untimely release of funds  

PubMed Central

Background District health systems in Africa depend largely on public funding. In many countries, not only are these funds insufficient, but they are also released in an untimely fashion, thereby creating serious cash flow problems for district health managers. This paper examines how the untimely release of public sector health funds in Ghana affects district health activities and the way district managers cope with the situation. Methods A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews was adopted. Two regions (Northern and Ashanti) covering the northern and southern sectors of Ghana were strategically selected. Sixteen managers (eight directors of health services and eight district health accountants) were interviewed between 2003/2004. Data generated were analysed for themes and patterns. Results The results showed that untimely release of funds disrupts the implementation of health activities and demoralises district health staff. However, based on their prior knowledge of when funds are likely to be released, district health managers adopt a range of informal mechanisms to cope with the situation. These include obtaining supplies on credit, borrowing cash internally, pre-purchasing materials, and conserving part of the fourth quarter donor-pooled funds for the first quarter of the next year. While these informal mechanisms have kept the district health system in Ghana running in the face of persistent delays in funding, some of them are open to abuse and could be a potential source of corruption in the health system. Conclusion Official recognition of some of these informal managerial strategies will contribute to eliminating potential risks of corruption in the Ghanaian health system and also serve as an acknowledgement of the efforts being made by local managers to keep the district health system functioning in the face of budgetary constraints and funding delays. It may boost the confidence of the managers and even enhance service delivery. PMID:16916445

Asante, Augustine D; Zwi, Anthony B; Ho, Maria T

2006-01-01

413

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Industrial Site Environmental Restoration Site Characterization Plan, Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility, Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This plan presents the strategy for the characterization of the Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility (DPF) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) which will be conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations OffIce (DOE/NV), Environmental Restoration Division (ERD). The objectives of the planned activities are to: o Obtain sufficient, ample analytical data from which further assessment, remediation, and/or closure strategies maybe developed for the site. o Obtain sufficient, sample analytical data for management of investigation-derived waste. All references to regulations contained in this plan are to the versions of the regulations that are current at the time of publication of this plan. The scope of the characterization may include surface radiation survey(s), surface soil sampling, subsurface soil boring (i.e., drilling), and sampling of soil in and Mound the pond; in situ sampling of the soil within subsurface soil borings; and sample analysis for both site . . characterization and waste management purposes.

NONE

1996-08-12

414

Distribution patterns of macrobenthic fauna communities in Deukryang Bay, one of the environment conservation areas of Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Macrobenthic fauna were collected seasonally at 44 sites in Deukryang Bay from February to November, 2012. The species number of macrobenthic fauna was in the range of 140 to 181, and polychaetes comprised 41.4% of them. The average density of the whole study area changed seasonally from 755 to 1,507 ind. m-2, and the most abundant fauna group was crustaceans which accounted for 55.1% of total abundance. An amphipod species Nippopisella nagatai was the most dominant species and a decapod species Xenophthalmus pinnotheroides, an amphipod species Photis longicaudata, and a polychaete species Paralacydonia paradoxa were also dominant in all seasons. The mean seasonal values of Shannon's diversity index (H') were in the range of 2.2-2.4, and those values for the evenness index and richness index were 0.7-0.7 and 4.6-5.7, respectively. From the cluster analysis, Deukryang Bay could be divided into 3 or 4 station groups with its specific fauna composition. The cluster analysis and an nMDS ordination revealed that local environmental factors such as water depth were related to the spatial delineation of macrobenthic fauna communities in Deukryang Bay.

Seo, Jin-Young; Lim, Hyun-Sig; Choi, Jin-Woo

2014-06-01

415

Conservation physiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation biologists increasingly face the need to provide legislators, courts and conservation managers with data on causal mechanisms underlying conservation problems such as species decline. To develop and monitor solutions, conservation biologists are progressively using more techniques that are physiological. Here, we review the emerging discipline of conservation physiology and suggest that, for conservation strategies to be successful, it is

Martin Wikelski; Steven J. Cooke

2006-01-01

416

Conservation Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, learners will understand the concepts behind endangered and extinct animals and develop their own conservation plan to save three endangered species. Each group or pair of learners will receive an animal profile and sketch it from the description that is given. Then, they will consider the animalâs habitat, behavior, diet, and threats as well as the peopleâs need for cities, agricultural areas, and tribal lands and share this information with other groups. After learners become familiar with their animal (considering both animal and human needs), they must choose what sections of land to conserve and give a short presentation. This lesson plan includes wrap-up suggestions, educator resources, extension ideas, and is standards-based.

Sciences, California A.

2008-01-01

417

Investigating Coastal Processes and Hazards Along the Coastline of Ghana, West Africa (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As with many coastlines worldwide, erosion is a chronic issue along the Ghana coast. Erosion is presently impacting coastal infrastructure ranging from urban areas to small fishing villages, and threatening important cultural and historical resources in some locales. The Ghanaian coast displays significant geomorphological variability, ranging from rocky and bluffed shores to low-lying barrier beaches. Rates and trends of coastal change vary along the coast, interacting with physical oceanographic processes, alongshore sediment transport gradients, and anthropogenic disruptions of sediment supply. Little data are available for the systematic assessment of the relative importance of the various factors controlling coastal change, and thus the understanding of erosion threats and the response has been haphazard and inconsiderate of the system as a whole. Information on historical coastal change rates, alongshore geomorphic and geologic variation, sediment budgets, wave climates and other factors that shape the coast is limited. An enhanced understanding of basic coastal processes is critical as development pressures, including eco- and cultural tourism, and oil and gas exploration, continue to increase. An initiative is underway to develop a more comprehensive scientific understanding of coastal processes along the Ghana coastline. An international team of scientists, working in collaboration with researchers at the University of Ghana, are building the data- and knowledge-base required for a holistic and systematic assessment to understand coastal change and its driving forces. The approach includes regional analyses of shoreline change, field mapping of geology and geomorphology, short-term monitoring surveys, collection of geophysical data, deployment of a remote camera system, deployment of a directional wave buoy, and regional hydrodynamic modeling. These data and analyses will ultimately provide the foundation needed to make informed decisions on managing the coast and responding to erosion issues. Funding for program development and equipment has been provided via the Coastal Geosciences Program of the U.S. Office of Naval Research through the Navy’s Africa Partnership Station. Data collection and analysis to date include the first regional shoreline change assessment of the Ghana coast, utilizing aerial photography spanning 31 years and RTK-GPS field surveys and reconnaissance mapping. Initial results from the shoreline change analysis indicate highly variable alongshore rates of change, although the trend is predominantly erosional. The highest erosion rates are found in the east, on the downdrift flank of the low-lying, sandy Volta Delta complex. The rapid erosion rates are likely due to the disruption of sediment supplied to the coast by the damming of the Volta River in the 1960s, as well as alongshore transport gradients generated by the progradation and morphologic evolution of the delta. Continuing investigations of coastal processes in Ghana will allow for a better understanding of erosion hazards and will aid in the development of appropriate, systematic, and sustainable responses to future increased hazards associated with rising sea-levels.

Hapke, C. J.; Ashton, A. D.; Wiafe, G.; Addo, K. A.; Ababio, S.; Agyekum, K. A.; Lippmann, T. C.; Roelvink, J.

2010-12-01

418

How landscape scale changes affect ecological processes in conservation areas: external factors influence land use by zebra (Equus burchelli) in the Okavango Delta  

PubMed Central

Most large-bodied wildlife populations in sub-Saharan Africa only survive in conservation areas, but are continuing to decline because external changes influence ecological processes within reserves, leading to a lack of functionality. However, failure to understand how landscape scale changes influence ecological processes limits our ability to manage protected areas. We used GPS movement data to calculate dry season home ranges for 14 zebra mares in the Okavango Delta and investigated the effects of a range of landscape characteristics (number of habitat patches, mean patch shape, mean index of juxtaposition, and interspersion) on home range size. Resource utilization functions (RUF) were calculated to investigate how specific landscape characteristics affected space use. Space use by all zebra was clustered. In the wetter (Central) parts of the Delta home range size was negatively correlated with the density of habitat patches, more complex patch shapes, low juxtaposition of habitats and an increased availability of floodplain and grassland habitats. In the drier (Peripheral) parts of the Delta, higher use by zebra was also associated with a greater availability of floodplain and grassland habitats, but a lower density of patches and simpler patch shapes. The most important landscape characteristic was not consistent between zebra within the same area of the Delta, suggesting that no single foraging strategy is substantially superior to others, and so animals using different foraging strategies may all thrive. The distribution and complexity of habitat patches are crucial in determining space use by zebra. The extent and duration of seasonal flooding is the principal process affecting habitat patch characteristics in the Okavango Delta, particularly the availability of floodplains, which are the habitat at greatest risk from climate change and anthropogenic disturbance to the Okavango's catchment basin. Understanding how the factors that determine habitat complexity may change in the future is critical to the conservation of large mammal populations. Our study shows the importance of maintaining flood levels in the Okavango Delta and how the loss of seasonal floodplains will be compounded by changes in habitat configuration, forcing zebra to change their relative space use and enlarge home ranges, leading to increased competition for key resources and population declines. PMID:24101973

Bartlam-Brooks, Hattie L A; Bonyongo, Mpaphi C; Harris, Stephen

2013-01-01

419

How landscape scale changes affect ecological processes in conservation areas: external factors influence land use by zebra (Equus burchelli) in the Okavango Delta.  

PubMed

Most large-bodied wildlife populations in sub-Saharan Africa only survive in conservation areas, but are continuing to decline because external changes influence ecological processes within reserves, leading to a lack of functionality. However, failure to understand how landscape scale changes influence ecological processes limits our ability to manage protected areas. We used GPS movement data to calculate dry season home ranges for 14 zebra mares in the Okavango Delta and investigated the effects of a range of landscape characteristics (number of habitat patches, mean patch shape, mean index of juxtaposition, and interspersion) on home range size. Resource utilization functions (RUF) were calculated to investigate how specific landscape characteristics affected space use. Space use by all zebra was clustered. In the wetter (Central) parts of the Delta home range size was negatively correlated with the density of habitat patches, more complex patch shapes, low juxtaposition of habitats and an increased availability of floodplain and grassland habitats. In the drier (Peripheral) parts of the Delta, higher use by zebra was also associated with a greater availability of floodplain and grassland habitats, but a lower density of patches and simpler patch shapes. The most important landscape characteristic was not consistent between zebra within the same area of the Delta, suggesting that no single foraging strategy is substantially superior to others, and so animals using different foraging strategies may all thrive. The distribution and complexity of habitat patches are crucial in determining space use by zebra. The extent and duration of seasonal flooding is the principal process affecting habitat patch characteristics in the Okavango Delta, particularly the availability of floodplains, which are the habitat at greatest risk from climate change and anthropogenic disturbance to the Okavango's catchment basin. Understanding how the factors that determine habitat complexity may change in the future is critical to the conservation of large mammal populations. Our study shows the importance of maintaining flood levels in the Okavango Delta and how the loss of seasonal floodplains will be compounded by changes in habitat configuration, forcing zebra to change their relative space use and enlarge home ranges, leading to increased competition for key resources and population declines. PMID:24101973

Bartlam-Brooks, Hattie L A; Bonyongo, Mpaphi C; Harris, Stephen

2013-09-01

420

77 FR 53221 - Santa Clara Valley Habitat Conservation Plan/Natural Community Conservation Plan, Environmental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Clemmys marmorata), western burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea...study area and permit area for burrowing owl conservation, which includes...study area and permit area for burrowing owl conservation will be limited...

2012-08-31

421

Measuring and Incorporating Vulnerability into Conservation Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation planning is the process of locating and designing conservation areas to promote the persistence of biodiversity in situ. To do this, conservation areas must be able to mitigate at least some of the proximate threats to biodiversity. Information on threatening processes and the relative vulnerability of areas and natural features to these processes is therefore crucial for effective conservation

Kerrie Wilson; Robert L. Pressey; Adrian Newton; Mark Burgman; Hugh Possingham; Chris Weston

2005-01-01

422

Conservation and Environment Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These historic and more recent conservation and environment maps show early exploration and subsequent land use in various areas of the United States; changes in the landscape, including natural and man-made features; recreational and wilderness areas; geology; topography; wetland area; vegetation; and wildlife. Specific conservation projects such as the growth and development of U.S. National Parks are included. The maps can be searched by title, subject, creator, or geographic location.

423

Characteristics of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viral Strains Circulating at the Wildlife/livestock Interface of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area.  

PubMed

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) inflicts severe economic losses within infected countries and is arguably the most important trade-restricting livestock disease in the world. In southern Africa, infected African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) are the major reservoir of the South African Territories (SAT) types of the virus. With the progressive expansion of transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs), the risk of FMD outbreaks is expected to increase due to a higher probability of buffalo/livestock contacts. To investigate the dynamics of FMD within and around the Great Limpopo TFCA (GLTFCA), 5 herds of buffaloes were sampled in June 2010 to characterize circulating viruses in South Africa and Zimbabwe. Three SAT-2 and three SAT-3 viral strains were isolated in both countries, including one that was genetically linked with a recent SAT-2 outbreak in Mozambique in 2011. In addition, two groups of unvaccinated cattle (n = 192) were serologically monitored for 1 year at the wildlife/livestock interface of Gonarezhou National Park (GNP) in Zimbabwe between April 2009 and January 2010, using the liquid-phase blocking ELISA (LPBE) and a test for antibodies directed against non-structural proteins (NSP). Neither clinical signs nor vaccination of cattle were reported during the study, yet a high proportion of the monitored cattle showed antibody responses against SAT-3 and SAT-1. Antibodies against NSP were also detected in 10% of the monitored cattle. The results of this study suggest that cattle grazing in areas adjacent to the GLTFCA can be infected by buffalo or other infected livestock and that cattle trade movements can act as efficient disseminators of FMD viruses to areas several hundred kilometres from the virus source. Current methods of surveillance of FMD at the GLTFCA interface seem insufficient to control for FMD emergence and dissemination and require urgent reassessment and regional coordination. PMID:24739536

Jori, F; Caron, A; Thompson, P N; Dwarka, R; Foggin, C; de Garine-Wichatitsky, M; Hofmeyr, M; Van Heerden, J; Heath, L

2014-04-17

424

Can we spot a neighborhood from the air? Defining neighborhood structure in Accra, Ghana  

PubMed Central

Slums are home to a large fraction of urban residents in cities of developing nations, but little attempt has been made to go beyond a simple slum/non-slum dichotomy, nor to identify slums more quantitatively than through local reputation. We use census data from Accra, Ghana, to create an index that applies the UN-Habitat criteria for a place to be a slum. We use this index to identify neighborhoods on a continuum of slum characteristics and on that basis are able to locate the worst slums in Accra. These do include the areas with a local reputation for being slums, lending qualitative validation to the index. We show that slums also have footprints that can be identified from data classified from satellite imagery. However, variability among slums in Accra is also associated with some variability in the land cover characteristics of slums. PMID:19478993

Hill, Allan; Stow, Douglas; Getis, Arthur; Fugate, Debbie

2009-01-01

425

Geographic object-based delineation of neighborhoods of Accra, Ghana using QuickBird satellite imagery  

PubMed Central

The objective was to test GEographic Object-based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) techniques for delineating neighborhoods of Accra, Ghana using QuickBird multispectral imagery. Two approaches to aggregating census enumeration areas (EAs) based on image-derived measures of vegetation objects were tested: (1) merging adjacent EAs according to vegetation measures and (2) image segmentation. Both approaches exploit readily available functions within commercial GEOBIA software. Image-derived neighborhood maps were compared to a reference map derived by spatial clustering of slum index values (from census data), to provide a relative assessment of potential map utility. A size-constrained iterative segmentation approach to aggregation was more successful than standard image segmentation or feature merge techniques. The segmentation approaches account for size and shape characteristics, enabling more realistic neighborhood boundaries to be delineated. The percentage of vegetation patches within each EA yielded more realistic delineation of potential neighborhoods than mean vegetation patch size per EA. PMID:20689664

Stow, Douglas A.; Lippitt, Christopher D.; Weeks, John R.

2010-01-01

426

Large scale magnetic susceptibility soil mapping: a proxy for geological mapping and exploration from Bogoso (Ghana)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the use of magnetic susceptibility measurements on a set of nearly 3000 soil samples (one sample per km2) collected for geochemical analyses within the framework of a geological mapping program in Ghana. The result is a map of soil magnetic susceptibility which has been compared with other maps. There is a good consistency with geological domains and lithologies, as well as with some of the geochemical soil analyses and also partly with the aeromagnetic data. In the tropical, deeply weathered lateritic context of the study area, soil magnetic susceptibility reveals similarities with magnetic and/or geochemical survey results, suggesting this rapid and easy to use technique can be an effective tool for exploration and geological mapping programs.

Théveniaut, Hervé; Clarke, Brendan

2013-01-01

427

Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation  

E-print Network

Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation Specialization: Protected Areas Management. Summer FOR3200C Foundations in Forest Resources and Conservation 3 credits FOR3434C Forest Resources Information Systems 3 credits Fall FNR3410C Natural Resource Sampling

Watson, Craig A.

428

High prevalence of PfCRT K76T mutation in Plasmodium falciparum isolates in Ghana.  

PubMed

Plasmodium falciparum has successfully developed resistance to almost all currently used antimalarials. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (Pfcrt) gene at position 76 resulting in a change in coding from lysine to threonine (K76T) has been implicated to be the corner stone of chloroquine resistance. Widespread resistance to chloroquine in endemic regions led to its replacement with other antimalarials. In some areas this replacement resulted in a reversion of the mutant T76 allele to the wild-type K76 allele. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of the K76T mutation of the Pfcrt gene eight years after the ban on chloroquine sales and use. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 6 regional hospitals in Ghana. PCR-RFLP was used to analyse samples collected to determine the prevalence of Pfcrt K76T mutation. Of the 1318 participants recruited for this study, 246 were found to harbour the P. falciparum parasites, of which 60.98% (150/246) showed symptoms for malaria. The prevalence of the Pfcrt T76 mutant allele was 58.54% (144/246) and that of the K76 wild-type allele was 41.46% (102/246). No difference of statistical significance was observed in the distribution of the alleles in the symptomatic and asymptomatic participants (P=0.632). No significant association was, again, observed between the alleles and parasite density (P=0.314), as well as between the alleles and Hb levels of the participants (P=0.254). Notwithstanding the decline in the prevalence of the Pfcrt T76 mutation since the antimalarial policy change in 2004, the 58.54% prevalence recorded in this study is considered high after eight years of the abolishment of chloroquine usage in Ghana. This is in contrast to findings from other endemic areas where the mutant allele significantly reduced in the population after a reduction chloroquine use. PMID:24727053

Afoakwah, Richmond; Boampong, Johnson N; Egyir-Yawson, Alexander; Nwaefuna, Ekene K; Verner, Orish N; Asare, Kwame K

2014-08-01

429

Evaluation of rockfish conservation area networks in the United States and Canada relative to the dispersal distance for black rockfish (Sebastes melanops)  

PubMed Central

Marine reserves networks are implemented as a way to mitigate the impact of fishing on marine ecosystems. Theory suggests that a reserve network will function synergistically when connected by dispersal, but the scale of dispersal is often unknown. On the Pacific coast of the United States and Canada, both countries have recently implemented a number of rockfish conservation areas (RCAs) to protect exploited rockfish species, but no study has evaluated the connectivity within networks in each country or between the two countries. We used isolation-by-distance theory to estimate the scale of dispersal from microsatellite data in the black rockfish, Sebastes melanops, and compared this estimate with the distance between RCAs that would protect this species. Within each country, we found that the distance between RCAs was generally within the confidence intervals of mean dispersal per generation. The distance between these two RCA networks, however, was greater than the average dispersal per generation. The data were also consistent with a genetic break between southern Oregon and central Oregon. We discuss whether additional nearshore RCAs in southern Oregon and Washington would help promote connectivity between RCA's for shallow-water rockfishes. PMID:24567745

Lotterhos, Katie E; Dick, Stefan J; Haggarty, Dana R

2014-01-01

430

Gastrointestinal parasites of captive and free-roaming primates at the Afi Mountain Primate Conservation Area in Calabar, Nigeria and their zoonotic implications.  

PubMed

A study on the gastrointestinal parasites among free-living and captive primates at the Afi Mountain, Primate Conservation Area in Calabar, Nigeria was undertaken for the first time to ascertain their zoonotic implications. Faecal samples were subjected to direct smear, floatation, quantitative estimation of helminth eggs (epg) and oocysts (opg), larval isolation and identification by modified Baerman's technique and oocyst sporulation for specie identification. Out of the 108 primates examined, 75(69.44%) were found to be shedding the ova and oocysts of several gastrointestinal parasites of which, the mona monkeys (Cercopethicus mona) 16(80%) followed by the white collared mangabey (Cercocebus torquatus) 7 (77.78) had the highest (p < 0.05) prevalence of infection. Meanwhile, the chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) had the highest ova or oocyst counts and variety of gastrointestinal parasites such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Balantidium coli, Enterobius vermicularis, Entamoeba histolytica, Strongyloides stercoralis, Blastocystis hominis, Hymenolepis nana, Schistosoma mansoni, Ancylostosoma duodenale and Cryptosporidium species. Similarly, the drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus), Sclater's white-nosed monkey (Cercopethicus erythrotis sclateri), white-collared mangabey (Cercocebus torquatus) and others, had Ascaris lumbricoides or Ancylostoma duodenale. All captive primates were more infected than those under free-roam. The young (< 12 months) and females had higher infection rates (p < 0.05) than their counterparts. In conclusion, the primates harboured several parasites of zoonotic importance. PMID:22308652

Mbaya, A W; Udendeye, U J

2011-07-01

431

Conservation of the critically endangered eastern Australian population of the grey nurse shark (Carcharias taurus) through cross-jurisdictional management of a network of marine-protected areas.  

PubMed

Between 2001 and 2009, 26 marine-protected areas (MPA) were established on the east Australian seaboard, at least in part, to manage human interactions with a critically endangered population of grey nurse shark, Carcharias taurus. This network is spread across six MPA systems and includes all 19 sites outlined in the National Recovery Plan for C. taurus, though five sites remain open to some forms of fishing. The reserve network has complex cross-jurisdictional management, as the sharks occur in waters controlled by the Australian states of New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, as well as by the Commonwealth (Federal) government. Jurisdiction is further complicated by fisheries and conservation departments both engaging in management activities within each state. This has resulted in protected area types that include IUCN category II equivalent zones in NSW, Queensland, and Commonwealth marine parks that either overlay or complement another large scaled network of protected sites called critical habitats. Across the network, seven and eight rule permutations for diving and fishing, respectively, are applied to this population of sharks. Besides sites identified by the recovery plan, additional sites have been protected as part of the general development of MPA networks. A case study at one of these sites, which historically was known to be occupied by C. taurus but had been abandoned, appears to shows re-establishment of an aggregation of juvenile and sub-adult sharks. Concurrent with the re-establishment of the aggregation, a local dive operator increased seasonal dive visitation rates at the site fourfold. As a precautionary measure, protection of abandoned sites, which includes nursery and gestating female habitats are options that may assist recovery of the east coast population of C. taurus. PMID:24213854

Lynch, Tim P; Harcourt, Robert; Edgar, Graham; Barrett, Neville

2013-12-01

432

Conservation of the Critically Endangered Eastern Australian Population of the Grey Nurse Shark ( Carcharias taurus) Through Cross-Jurisdictional Management of a Network of Marine-Protected Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between 2001 and 2009, 26 marine-protected areas (MPA) were established on the east Australian seaboard, at least in part, to manage human interactions with a critically endangered population of grey nurse shark, Carcharias taurus. This network is spread across six MPA systems and includes all 19 sites outlined in the National Recovery Plan for C. taurus, though five sites remain open to some forms of fishing. The reserve network has complex cross-jurisdictional management, as the sharks occur in waters controlled by the Australian states of New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, as well as by the Commonwealth (Federal) government. Jurisdiction is further complicated by fisheries and conservation departments both engaging in management activities within each state. This has resulted in protected area types that include IUCN category II equivalent zones in NSW, Queensland, and Commonwealth marine parks that either overlay or complement another large scaled network of protected sites called critical habitats. Across the network, seven and eight rule permutations for diving and fishing, respectively, are applied to this population of sharks. Besides sites identified by the recovery plan, additional sites have been protected as part of the general development of MPA networks. A case study at one of these sites, which historically was known to be occupied by C. taurus but had been abandoned, appears to shows re-establishment of an aggregation of juvenile and sub-adult sharks. Concurrent with the re-establishment of the aggregation, a local dive operator increased seasonal dive visitation rates at the site fourfold. As a precautionary measure, protection of abandoned sites, which includes nursery and gestating female habitats are options that may assist recovery of the east coast population of C. taurus.

Lynch, Tim P.; Harcourt, Robert; Edgar, Graham; Barrett, Neville

2013-12-01

433

Resource Conservation Glossary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This glossary is a composite of terms selected from 13 technologies, and is the expanded revision of the original 1952 edition of "The Soil and Water Conservation Glossary." The terms were selected from these areas: agronomy, biology, conservation, ecology, economics, engineering, forestry, geology, hydrology, range, recreation, soils, and…

Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

434

Systematic conservation planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The realization of conservation goals requires strategies for managing whole landscapes including areas allocated to both production and protection. Reserves alone are not adequate for nature conservation but they are the cornerstone on which regional strategies are built. Reserves have two main roles. They should sample or represent the biodiversity of each region and they should separate this biodiversity from

C. R. Margules; R. L. Pressey

2000-01-01

435

Assessment of indigenous soil and water conservation technology for smallholder farms in semi-arid areas in Africa and close spaced trash lines effect on erosion and crop yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Runoff and soil erosion are responsible for about 83% of the land degradation worldwide. Many smallholder farmers in arid\\u000a and semi-arid areas of Africa often use inexpensive indigenous soil and water conservation (ISWC) techniques to control runoff\\u000a and erosion. This paper is a review of the ISWC methods and categorizes them into three: those suitable for semi-arid areas,\\u000a those suitable

Isaiah I. C. Wakindiki; B. O. Mochoge; Meni Ben-Hur

436

Jobs, Skills and Incomes in Ghana: How Was Poverty Halved?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On the basis of official statistics, poverty has halved in Ghana over the period from 1991 to 2005. Our objective in this paper is to assess how far this fall was linked to the creation of better paying jobs and the increase in education. We find that earnings rose rapidly in the period from 1998 to 2005, by 64% for men and by 55% for women. While…

Nsowah-Nuamah, Nicholas; Teal, Francis; Awoonor-Williams, Moses

2012-01-01

437

Analysis of fatal road traffic crashes in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major objective of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with fatal road traffic crashes (RTCs) and to propose remedial measures to address them. Fatal RTC data for the period 2005–2007 in Ghana were analysed using the Micro-computer Accident Analysis Package (MAAP) software. Other transport-related research works were reviewed and incorporated in the article. The study showed

Williams Ackaah; David O. Adonteng

2011-01-01

438

Physical violence during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background In pregnancy, violence can have serious health consequences that could affect both mother and child. In Ghana there are limited data on this subject. We sought to assess the relationship between physical violence during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes (early pregnancy loss, perinatal mortality and neonatal mortality) in Ghana. Method The 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey data were used. For the domestic violence module, 2563 women were approached of whom 2442 women completed the module. After excluding missing values and applying the weight factor, 1745 women remained. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between physical violence in pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes with adjustments for potential confounders. Results About five percent of the women experienced violence during their pregnancy. Physical violence in pregnancy was positively associated with perinatal mortality and neonatal mortality, but not with early pregnancy loss. The differences remained largely unchanged after adjustment for age, parity, education level, wealth status, marital status and place of residence: adjusted odds ratios were 2.32; 95% CI: 1.34-4.01 for perinatal mortality, 1.86; 95% CI: 1.05-3.30 for neonatal mortality and 1.16; 95% CI: 0.60-2.24 for early pregnancy loss. Conclusion Our findings suggest that violence during pregnancy is related to adverse pregnancy outcomes in Ghana. Major efforts are needed to tackle violence during pregnancy. This can be achieved through measures that are directed towards the right target groups. Measures should include education, empowerment and improving socio-economic status of women. PMID:24528555

2014-01-01

439

Weed Control in Rainfed Cotton in Northern Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

In field experiments conducted at the Nyankpala Agricultural Station, Ghana, during 1976–77, soil moisture conditions appeared to be the deciding factor in determining the frequency of handweeding needed to obtain maximum seed cotton yields. In 1976, when planting was early and the late, heavy rains in October prolonged weed growth, two handweedings at 4 and 8 weeks after seeding (w.a.s.)

A. G. Carson

1979-01-01

440

The Earthquake Of 22nd June 1939 And Its Effect In Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though Ghana is far away from the major earthquake zones of the world, it is however, prone to earthquake disaster. Ghana has records of damaging earthquakes dating as far back as 1636. The last three major ones occurred in 1862, 1906 and 1939. The most destructive earthquake that struck the then Gold Coast and caused a lot of damage and

P. Amponsah

2003-01-01

441

Ghana. Part One-Class Materials. Development Studies No. 1, Third Impression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background readings and classroom materials dealing with Ghana for use with secondary and college students are provided in this publication. The major historical, social, geographical, and political aspects which have contributed to the present day development of Ghana are examined. The background readings for teachers which comprise section one…

Jones, Paula; Bourne, Fay

442

THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF ECONOMIC REFORM IN GHANA: IMPLICATIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT by  

Microsoft Academic Search

SAP, by design, encourages the more rapid exploitation of the natural environment. The difficulty of dealing with the environment-development problem is, therefore, obvious. The question whether the joint pursuit of economic growth and environmental sustainability is possible in Ghana is still worth exploring. What this paper has demonstrated is that the Economic Recover Program of Ghana, as a strategy of

Abdul-Nashiru Issahaku

443

Creating energy choices for the future: Alternative energy planning in Ghana; an agenda for the study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to assess and evaluate Ghana's response to its energy dilemma, focusing primarily on the use of renewable energy resource, as a potential source in strategic planning. The objectives of the study are: (1) to identify and report on the energy situation in Ghana, the framework of policy, strategy, options and action programs being undertaken

Angmorter

1992-01-01

444

The metallogenic relationship between Birimian and Tarkwaian gold deposits in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional concept of the Early Proterozoic gold deposits in Ghana — i.e. gold-bearing shear zones overlain by Tarkwaian paleoplacers containing reworked gold derived from the shear-zones — needs to be reconsidered in the light of recent research in Ghana, the Ivory Coast and French Guiana. This research has revealed a consistent pattern of geostructural and metallogenic evolution in which

J. P. Milési; P. Ledru; P. Ankrah; V. Johan; E. Marcoux; Ch. Vinchon

1991-01-01

445

Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract of Ocimum canum Sims grown in Ghana  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O.canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Interestingly, rosmarinic acid content and p...

446

Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract from ocimum canum sims in Ghana  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O. canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Analytical TLC was used to examine the compos...

447

Typology of school dropout: The dimensions and dynamics of dropout in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the dropout experience of children who dropped out of schools located in two rural communities11The two rural communities are located in the newly created Mfantseman District in of the Central region in Ghana. in the Central Region of Ghana. The main research question sought to explore the meaning and types of drop out founded on the views

Eric Daniel Ananga

2011-01-01

448

The Determination of Exclusion: Evidence from the Ghana Living Standards Surveys 1991-2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines access to and exclusion from basic education in Ghana over the period 1991-2006, using data derived from the Ghana Living Standards Surveys. It uses the CREATE "zones of exclusion" model to explore schooling access outcomes within the framework of the household production function. Empirical findings indicate that the period…

Rolleston, Caine

2009-01-01

449

School Feeding and Educational Access in Rural Ghana: Is Poor Targeting and Delivery Limiting Impact?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to address social imbalances and equity in Ghana's education delivery and to achieve her Education for All (EFA) agenda, some pro-poor programmes have been introduced. Among these is the Ghana School Feeding Programme (GSFP) that aims among others, at providing safety nets for the poor, increasing school enrolment in addition to…

Essuman, Ato; Bosumtwi-Sam, Cynthia

2013-01-01

450

Religious Differences in Modernization of the Family: Family Demographics Trends in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examines trends in a broad set of reproductive and marital behaviors in Ghana, focusing on religious group differences. These comparisons provide evidence of how family trends are constrained by religious identity in a less developed country. Three waves of the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys are used to track trends in the age…

Heaton, Tim B.; Darkwah, Akosua

2011-01-01

451

Education Reform for the Expansion of Mother-Tongue Education in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1957 Ghana was the first sub-Saharan colonial nation-state to achieve independence from British rule. The language of literacy instruction, however, remained English throughout most of Ghana's independence, effectively thwarting reading and writing in 11 major and 67 minor indigenous languages in use today. After years of policy shifts,…

Rosekrans, Kristin; Sherris, Arieh; Chatry-Komarek, Marie

2012-01-01

452

Public Health and Education Spending in Ghana in 1992?98: Issues of Equity and Efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an economy facing fiscal constraints, public spending in the social sectors needs to be linked to outcomes to ensure efficient and equitable delivery of services.Using primary data from the health and education ministries and household survey data from the Ghana Statistical Service, Canagarajah and Ye analyze equity and efficiency issues in public spending on health and education in Ghana

Xiao Ye; Sudharshan Canagarajah

2001-01-01

453

IWRM and developing countries: Implementation challenges in Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1990, there has been growing theoretical consensus on the need for integrated water resource management. At the same time, there is growing empirical evidence that challenges the scientific consensus and the practical implications of implementing IWRM in the developed and the developing countries, although the nature of the implementation challenges may differ in the different contexts. Against this background, this paper investigates into the nature of the empirical challenges to implementing integrated water resource management in Ghana. It describes the actual implementation process and contrasts eleven elements of the substantive content of IWRM with the implementation practice in Ghana. The paper then concludes that Ghana, like other developing countries often adopts such paradigm shifts in the management of their water resources primarily as a result of exogenous pressures (and to a limited extent endogenous factors) but that (a) lack of domestic ownership and leadership of the concept, (b) limited resources, and (c) institutional mis-matches, often results in an implementation of the ideas that is limited to implementation in form rather than practice.

Agyenim, Joseph Boateng; Gupta, Joyeeta

454

Traditional Herbalists and Cancer Management in Kumasi, Ghana  

PubMed Central

Cancer incidence rates are increasing in sub-Saharan Africa where traditional medical practitioners (TMPs) are involved in cancer management. Little is known about the specific role that TMPs play in cancer management in Ghana; we hypothesize that an understanding of the practices of TMPs with regard to cancer patients would help to enhance literacy about cancer amongst TMPs and would contribute to the diagnosis of cancer at earlier stages, by avoiding the detrimental delays while enlisting their help in certain activities that enhance cancer care. To elucidate the nature of the involvement of TMPs in cancer management, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 42 TMPs who practice in Kumasi, Ghana. The interviews elicited information about their knowledge and practices regarding cancer management and interactions with local hospitals. The results showed that TMPs tended to identify cancers as diseases of visible masses, fungating lesions, ulceration, and bleeding reflecting the advanced stages and types of cancers they usually encounter. TMPs identified certain causes of cancer and believed that they can treat and prevent cancer. These results indicate that TMPs are significant health service delivery resources in Ghana for patients potentially affected with cancer. Our work suggests that dedicated efforts to further integrate TMPs into the overall health care system would be beneficial to patients. Future research should examine the role of cancer education and training programs for TMPs to enhance their knowledge, strengthen their ability to complement allopathic practitioners, and increase early detection and treatment efforts through appropriate and timely referrals. PMID:22549472

O’Brien, Kieran S.; Annan, Kofi; Lartey, Richard N.; Awuah, Baffour; Merajver, Sofia D.

2014-01-01

455

Criminal prosecution of suicide attempt survivors in Ghana.  

PubMed

Recently, there have been calls for the decriminalization (or depenalization) of nonfatal suicidal behavior (attempted suicide) in Ghana, India, Uganda, and other societies that currently criminalize nonfatal suicidal behavior. Despite this, there is a dearth of systematic studies that examine the extent, nature, and characteristics of attempted suicide prosecutions in countries that currently criminalize nonfatal suicidal behavior. The current study, therefore, explores the phenomenon of criminal prosecution and punishment for suicide attempters in Ghana, one among several countries where nonfatal suicidal behavior is a crime. Drawing from data extracted from local Ghanaian print and electronic news media articles, the study examines the sociodemographic characteristics of suicide attempt survivors, the patterns of nonfatal suicidal behavior, as well as the criminal justice outcomes of the criminal prosecutions. The findings indicate that the majority of defendants pled guilty to or were found guilty of the charge and sentenced to penalties ranging from monetary fines to incarceration. The results are discussed with regard to their implications for reducing nonfatal suicidal behavior in Ghana. PMID:22923775

Adinkrah, Mensah

2013-12-01

456

Soil radon concentration along fault systems in parts of south eastern Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radon gas emission from soils in parts of southeastern Ghana (Accra) have been measured to find a possible correlation of the gas emanation with faults and seismic activity in the area. LR-115 alpha track sensitive plastics were used for the detection of the gas at 47 sampling points within a 500 m × 500 m spaced grid. The obtained radon data was analyzed and superimposed on the geological and structural map to highlight the correlation between the gas emission and seismicity. In the highly faulted area, radon activity up to 115.00 kBq m -3 was measured; on the contrary in non-faulted areas radon activity was less than 20.00 kBq m -3. In the highly faulted area radon activity above 50.00 kBq m -3 have been considered anomalous. The background level increased to 115.00 kBq m -3 before a magnitude 1.5 earthquake struck the area.

Amponsah, Paulina; Banoeng-Yakubo, Bruce; Andam, Aba; Asiedu, Daniel

2008-04-01

457

Hospital-Based Surveillance for Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers and Hepatitides in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHF) are acute diseases associated with bleeding, organ failure, and shock. VHF may hardly be distinguished clinically from other diseases in the African hospital, including viral hepatitis. This study was conducted to determine if VHF and viral hepatitis contribute to hospital morbidity in the Central and Northern parts of Ghana. Methodology/Principal Findings From 2009 to 2011, blood samples of 258 patients with VHF symptoms were collected at 18 hospitals in Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Northern, Upper West, and Upper East regions. Patients were tested by PCR for Lassa, Rift Valley, Crimean-Congo, Ebola/Marburg, and yellow fever viruses; hepatitis A (HAV), B (HBV), C (HCV), and E (HEV) viruses; and by ELISA for serological hepatitis markers. None of the patients tested positive for VHF. However, 21 (8.1%) showed anti-HBc IgM plus HBV DNA and/or HBsAg; 37 (14%) showed HBsAg and HBV DNA without anti-HBc IgM; 26 (10%) showed anti-HAV IgM and/or HAV RNA; and 20 (7.8%) were HCV RNA-positive. None was positive for HEV RNA or anti-HEV IgM plus IgG. Viral genotypes were determined as HAV-IB, HBV-A and E, and HCV-1, 2, and 4. Conclusions/Significance VHFs do not cause significant hospital morbidity in the study area. However, the incidence of acute hepatitis A and B, and hepatitis B and C with active virus replication is high. These infections may mimic VHF and need to be considered if VHF is suspected. The data may help decision makers to allocate resources and focus surveillance systems on the diseases of relevance in Ghana. PMID:24069490

Bonney, Joseph Humphrey Kofi; Osei-Kwasi, Mubarak; Adiku, Theophilus Korku; Barnor, Jacob Samson; Amesiya, Robert; Kubio, Chrysantus; Ahadzie, Lawson; Ölschläger, Stephan; Lelke, Michaela; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Pahlmann, Meike; Günther, Stephan

2013-01-01

458

Community concepts of poverty: an application to premium exemptions in Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme  

PubMed Central

Background Poverty is multi dimensional. Beyond the quantitative and tangible issues related to inadequate income it also has equally important social, more intangible and difficult if not impossible to quantify dimensions. In 2009, we explored these social and relativist dimension of poverty in five communities in the South of Ghana with differing socio economic characteristics to inform the development and implementation of policies and programs to identify and target the poor for premium exemptions under Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme. Methods We employed participatory wealth ranking (PWR) a qualitative tool for the exploration of community concepts, identification and ranking of households into socioeconomic groups. Key informants within the community ranked households into wealth categories after discussing in detail concepts and indicators of poverty. Results Community defined indicators of poverty covered themes related to type of employment, educational attainment of children, food availability, physical appearance, housing conditions, asset ownership, health seeking behavior, social exclusion and marginalization. The poverty indicators discussed shared commonalities but contrasted in the patterns of ranking per community. Conclusion The in-depth nature of the PWR process precludes it from being used for identification of the poor on a large national scale in a program such as the NHIS. However, PWR can provide valuable qualitative input to enrich discussions, development and implementation of policies, programs and tools for large scale interventions and targeting of the poor for social welfare programs such as premium exemption for health care. PMID:23497484

2013-01-01

459

Determination of levels of polychlorinated biphenyl in transformers oil from some selected transformers in parts of the Greater Accra Region of Ghana.  

PubMed

Although polychlorinated biphenyls have never been manufactured in Ghana, it has been used extensively as dielectric fluid in electric transformers and capacitors. However, very little is known of its health and environmental impacts by both managers of these transformers and capacitors and also the general public. This work therefore seeks to explore INAA as a possible alternative to screening transformer oils for PCBs by determining the total chlorine content. The total chlorine content of transformer oil samples from Ghana that tested positive and some randomly selected samples that tested negative from screening using CLOR-N-OIL test kits, have had their total chlorine estimated. INAA using the Research Reactor located at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission was used to estimate the total chlorine content of the oil samples. Neutron Activation and gamma ray spectroscopy using HPGe detector coupled to MAESTRO 32 software was used to determine the total chlorine content by integrating the peak area of the spectrum into a simplified program that was developed from the activation equation. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis was able to validate the result obtained from the test kits screening with accuracy 7.5%. The minimum total chlorine content of the positive samples determined by NAA was 71.34 ?g g?¹. PMID:21047666

Buah-Kwofie, Archibold; Yeboah, Philip O; Pwamang, John

2011-01-01

460

Chronic non-communicable diseases and the challenge of universal health coverage: insights from community-based cardiovascular disease research in urban poor communities in Accra, Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background The rising burden of chronic non-communicable diseases in low and middle income countries has major implications on the ability of these countries to achieve universal health coverage. In this paper we discuss the impact of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) on primary healthcare services in urban poor communities in Accra, Ghana. Methods We review the evidence on the evolution of universal health coverage in Ghana and the central role of the community-based health planning services (CHPS) programme and the National Health Insurance Scheme in primary health care. We present preliminary findings from a study on community CVD knowledge, experiences, responses and access to services. Results The rising burden of NCDs in Ghana will affect the achievement of universal health coverage, particularly in urban areas. There is a significant unmet need for CVD care in the study communities. The provision of primary healthcare services for CVD is not accessible, equitable or responsive to the needs of target communities. Conclusions We consider these findings in the context of the primary healthcare system and discuss the challenges and opportunities for strengthening health systems in low and middle-income countries. PMID:25082497

2014-01-01