Sample records for conservation area ghana

  1. Illegal wildlife use and protected area management in Ghana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugo Jachmann

    2008-01-01

    Starting in 2004, a system to monitor patrol staff performance, illegal wildlife use and trends in large-mammal populations was established in nine protected areas in Ghana. The main objectives were to use monitoring feedback as the foundation for informed decisions to aid adaptive and performance management, and to identify the most important factors contributing to wildlife conservation. The competitive management

  2. [Ghana].

    PubMed

    The capital of Ghana is Accra. As of 1995, Ghana had a population of 17.5 million governed by a multiparty, presidential regime. 1994 gross national product and per capita income were, respectively, $7.3 billion and $430. Per capita income grew at 1.4% per year over the period 1985-94. In 1994, Ghana owed $5.389 billion, then being serviced at $322 million. For the same year, Ghana exported $1.395 billion in goods and services and imported $2.123 billion. As of 1995, the population was growing in size by 2.9% annually. In 1992-93, life expectancy at birth was 56 years, the infant mortality rate was 81 per 1000 births, 60% had access to health services, and 68% had access to drinkable water. Other data are presented on the country's topography, climate and vegetation, demographics, principal cities, population distribution, religions, political structure, economics and finances, foreign commerce, and transportation and communications. PMID:12347090

  3. Hydrochemical characterization of groundwater in the Akyem area, Ghana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banoeng-Yakubo, B.; Yidana, S.M.; Anku, Y.; Akabzaa, T.; Asiedu, D.

    2008-01-01

    The Akyem area is a small farming community located in southeastern Ghana. Groundwater samples from wells in the area were analyzed for concentrations of the major ions, silica, electrical conductivity and pH. The objective was to determine the main controls on the hydrochemistry of ground-water. Mass balance modeling was used together with multivariate R-mode hierarchical cluster analysis to determine the significant sources of variation in the hydrochemistry. Two water types exist in this area. The first is influenced most by the weathering of silicate minerals from the underlying geology, and is thus rich in silica, sodium, calcium, bicarbonate, and magnesium ions. The second is water that has been influenced by the effects of fertilizers and other anthropogenic activities in the area. Mineral speciation and silicate mineral stability diagrams suggest that montmorillonite, probably derived from the incongruent dissolution of feldspars and micas, is the most stable silicate phase in the groundwaters. The apparent incongruent weathering of silicate minerals in the groundwater system has led to the enrichment of sodium, calcium, magnesium and bicarbonate ions as well as silica, leading to the supersaturation of calcite, aragonite, dolomite and quartz. Stability in the montmorillonite field suggests restricted flow conditions and a long groundwater residence time, leading to greater exposure of the rock to weathering. Cation exchange processes appear to play minor roles in the hydrochemistry of groundwater.

  4. MAINE MUSSEL SEED CONSERVATION AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SEED shows point locations of Maine mussel seed conservation areas at 1:24,000 scale. Data for this coverage were screen digitized on a 1:24000 scale base using descriptions contained in Maine Department of Marine Resources (MDMR) rules. Coastal arcs from Maine Office of GIS 1:24...

  5. Biological Inventory Colorado Canyons National Conservation Area

    E-print Network

    Biological Inventory of the Colorado Canyons National Conservation Area Prepared by: Joe Stevens............................................................................................................................. 1 II. The Natural Heritage Network and Biological Diversity ...................................................... 3 What is Biological Diversity

  6. Conservation Area Networks Sahotra Sarkar

    E-print Network

    Sarkar, Sahotra

    assumption: that the appropriate spatial units of conservation interest were reserves such as national parks. As Indias Project Tiger demonstrated, lack of local support is a recipe for disaster for conservation that many types of human activity, for instance, the conversion of natural habitat to industrial parks

  7. Key Biodiversity Areas as Site Conservation Targets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    GÃ?VEN EKEN, LEON BENNUN, THOMAS M. BROOKS, WILL DARWALL, LINCOLN D. C. FISHPOOL, MATT FOSTER, DAVID KNOX, PENNY LANGHAMMER, PAUL MATIKU, ELIZABETH RADFORD, PAUL SALAMAN, WES SECHREST, MICHAEL L. SMITH, SACHA SPECTOR, and ANDREW TORDOFF (; )

    2004-12-01

    This peer-reviewed resource from Bioscience journal discusses the concept of key biodiversity areas (KBAs) for use in site conservation. Site conservation is among the most effective means to reduce global biodiversity loss. Therefore, it is critical to identify those sites where unique biodiversity must be conserved immediately. To this end, the concept of key biodiversity areas (KBAs) has been developed, seeking to identify and, ultimately, ensure that networks of globally important sites are safeguarded. This methodology builds up from the identification of species conservation targets (through the IUCN Red List) and nests within larger-scale conservation approaches. Sites are selected using standardized, globally applicable, threshold-based criteria, driven by the distribution and population of species that require site-level conservation. The criteria address the two key issues for setting site conservation priorities: vulnerability and irreplaceability. We also propose quantitative thresholds for the identification of KBAs meeting each criterion, based on a review of existing approaches and ecological theory to date. However, these thresholds require extensive testing, especially in aquatic systems.

  8. Hydrogeochemistry and isotope studies of groundwater in the Ga West Municipal Area, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saka, David; Akiti, Tetteh T.; Osae, Shiloh; Appenteng, Michael K.; Gibrilla, Abass

    2013-09-01

    This paper assesses groundwater in the Ga West Municipal Area of Ghana using hydrogeochemistry and isotope approaches. High salinity groundwaters are obtained in the municipality which poses problems for current and future domestic water supply exploitation. The increase in salinity is related to the dissolution of minerals in the host rocks and the evaporative concentration of solutes. The dominant groundwater composition in both shallow and deep wells sampled is Na-Cl. The concentration of the Na-Cl was observed to increase substantially with well depths. The mixing of freshwater of the shallow hand dug wells with that of saline water of the deep boreholes was noted in the shift from Ca-HCO3 facies to Ca-Cl facies. Schoeller diagram showed that groundwater in the study area is recharged from a similar source. The Schoeller diagram also showed the gradual increase in concentration of the major ions with depth. This leads to salinization in the deep boreholes. The oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions in the groundwater samples suggest that groundwater recharge is of meteoric origin with few samples showing evidence of evaporation. An average deuterium excess of rainfall of 14.2 ‰ was observed, which indicates the significance of kinetic evaporation due to low humidity conditions prevalent in the study area. The d-excess also indicates modern recharge along the foothills of the Akwapim-Togo Ranges.

  9. 50 CFR 660.390 - Groundfish conservation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Groundfish conservation areas. 660.390 Section...Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL...Fisheries § 660.390 Groundfish conservation areas. In § 660.302,...

  10. 50 CFR 660.70 - Groundfish conservation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Groundfish conservation areas. 660.70 Section...Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL...Fisheries § 660.70 Groundfish conservation areas. In § 660.11,...

  11. 50 CFR 660.70 - Groundfish conservation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Groundfish conservation areas. 660.70 Section...Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL...Fisheries § 660.70 Groundfish conservation areas. In § 660.11,...

  12. 50 CFR 660.70 - Groundfish conservation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Groundfish conservation areas. 660.70 Section...Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL...Fisheries § 660.70 Groundfish conservation areas. In § 660.11,...

  13. 50 CFR 660.70 - Groundfish conservation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Groundfish conservation areas. 660.70 Section...Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL...Fisheries § 660.70 Groundfish conservation areas. In § 660.11,...

  14. 7 CFR 1410.8 - Conservation priority areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...designation must clearly define conservation and environmental objectives...the total acreage of all conservation priority areas, in aggregate...Federal and State environmental laws. (d) Conservation priority area...

  15. 7 CFR 1410.8 - Conservation priority areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...designation must clearly define conservation and environmental objectives...the total acreage of all conservation priority areas, in aggregate...Federal and State environmental laws. (d) Conservation priority area...

  16. 7 CFR 1410.8 - Conservation priority areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...designation must clearly define conservation and environmental objectives...the total acreage of all conservation priority areas, in aggregate...Federal and State environmental laws. (d) Conservation priority area...

  17. 7 CFR 1410.8 - Conservation priority areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...designation must clearly define conservation and environmental objectives...the total acreage of all conservation priority areas, in aggregate...Federal and State environmental laws. (d) Conservation priority area...

  18. 7 CFR 1410.8 - Conservation priority areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...designation must clearly define conservation and environmental objectives...the total acreage of all conservation priority areas, in aggregate...Federal and State environmental laws. (d) Conservation priority area...

  19. Conservation justice in metropolitan Cape Town: A study at the Macassar Dunes Conservation Area

    E-print Network

    Silander Jr., John A.

    Conservation justice in metropolitan Cape Town: A study at the Macassar Dunes Conservation Area J xxxx Keywords: Conservation justice Community-based conservation South Africa Urban conservation Stakeholder analysis a b s t r a c t Conservation justice, a concept analogous to environmental justice

  20. Mapping irrigated areas of Ghana using fusion of 30 m and 250 m resolution remote-sensing data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gumma, M.K.; Thenkabail, P.S.; Hideto, F.; Nelson, A.; Dheeravath, V.; Busia, D.; Rala, A.

    2011-01-01

    Maps of irrigated areas are essential for Ghana's agricultural development. The goal of this research was to map irrigated agricultural areas and explain methods and protocols using remote sensing. Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) data and time-series Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data were used to map irrigated agricultural areas as well as other land use/land cover (LULC) classes, for Ghana. Temporal variations in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) pattern obtained in the LULC class were used to identify irrigated and non-irrigated areas. First, the temporal variations in NDVI pattern were found to be more consistent in long-duration irrigated crops than with short-duration rainfed crops due to more assured water supply for irrigated areas. Second, surface water availability for irrigated areas is dependent on shallow dug-wells (on river banks) and dug-outs (in river bottoms) that affect the timing of crop sowing and growth stages, which was in turn reflected in the seasonal NDVI pattern. A decision tree approach using Landsat 30 m one time data fusion with MODIS 250 m time-series data was adopted to classify, group, and label classes. Finally, classes were tested and verified using ground truth data and national statistics. Fuzzy classification accuracy assessment for the irrigated classes varied between 67 and 93%. An irrigated area derived from remote sensing (32,421 ha) was 20-57% higher than irrigated areas reported by Ghana's Irrigation Development Authority (GIDA). This was because of the uncertainties involved in factors such as: (a) absence of shallow irrigated area statistics in GIDA statistics, (b) non-clarity in the irrigated areas in its use, under-development, and potential for development in GIDA statistics, (c) errors of omissions and commissions in the remote sensing approach, and (d) comparison involving widely varying data types, methods, and approaches used in determining irrigated area statistics using GIDA and remote sensing. Extensive field campaigns to help in better classification and validation of irrigated areas using high (30 m ) to very high (<5 m) resolution remote sensing data that are fused with multi temporal data like MODIS are the way forward. This is especially true in accounting for small yet contiguous patches of irrigated areas from dug-wells and dug-outs. ?? 2011 by the authors.

  1. Geochemistry and geochronology of granitoids in the Kibi-Asamankese area of the Kibi-Winneba volcanic belt, southern Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anum, Solomon; Sakyi, Patrick Asamoah; Su, Ben-Xun; Nude, Prosper M.; Nyame, Frank; Asiedu, Daniel; Kwayisi, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    In Ghana the West African Craton is represented by Birimian and Tarkwaian rocks with extensive granitoid bodies. Granitoids from Asamankese area of the Kibi-Winneba volcanic belt, southern Ghana were analysed for major and trace element contents and found to be characterised by highly-fractionated REE, enrichments, in LILE, and depletion in Nb, Ta and Sr. The LILE enrichment relative to strong Nb-Ta depression, indicates that these granitoids were emplaced in an active margin. Based on field relations, geochemical composition and geochronological data, the granitoids from the Kibi-Asamankese area can be divided into three types, namely; the Eburnean biotite granodiorite (2133-2127 Ma) and hornblende granodiorite (2147 Ma), and the Pre-Eburnean gneissic biotite granite (2193 Ma). The geochemical data of the studied rocks plot in the tholeiitic field, whereas on the A/CNK-A/NK diagram, they generally fall within the metaluminous field, with A/CNK values between 0.69 and 0.88. U-Pb dating of zircons in the granitoids yielded ages ranging from 2193 to 2127 Ma, which are among the oldest ages obtained from the granitoid plutons in Ghana. Such high-precision geochronological data indicate that magmatism occurred over a time-span of about 70 Ma. This provides further evidence that the period 2.1-2.2 Ga was one of the important stages of Birimian magmatism that led to the generation of the granitoids. From the above-mentioned ages, it is possible to link the geological activities to crustal processes and establish the cyclic geotectonic evolution in the West African Craton over time as part of an arc-back-arc basin system.

  2. 78 FR 3026 - Establishment of Swan Valley Conservation Area, Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ...FF06R06000-FXRS1265066CCP0S2-123] Establishment of Swan Valley Conservation Area, Montana AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife...Service) has established the Swan Valley Conservation Area as a unit of the National Wildlife...Service established the Swan Valley Conservation Area on August 6, 2012, with...

  3. Ghana Watershed Prototype Products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2007-01-01

    Introduction/Background A number of satellite data sets are available through the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for monitoring land surface features. Representative data sets include Landsat, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The Ghana Watershed Prototype Products cover an area within southern Ghana, Africa, and include examples of the aforementioned data sets along with sample SRTM derivative data sets.

  4. 43 CFR 21.4 - Occupancy under permit of privately owned cabins on recreation areas and conservation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...owned cabins on recreation areas and conservation areas. 21.4 Section 21.4... OCCUPANCY OF CABIN SITES ON PUBLIC CONSERVATION AND RECREATION AREAS § 21.4 ...owned cabins on recreation areas and conservation areas. (a) In any areas...

  5. 43 CFR 21.4 - Occupancy under permit of privately owned cabins on recreation areas and conservation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...owned cabins on recreation areas and conservation areas. 21.4 Section 21.4... OCCUPANCY OF CABIN SITES ON PUBLIC CONSERVATION AND RECREATION AREAS § 21.4 ...owned cabins on recreation areas and conservation areas. (a) In any areas...

  6. 43 CFR 21.4 - Occupancy under permit of privately owned cabins on recreation areas and conservation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...owned cabins on recreation areas and conservation areas. 21.4 Section 21.4... OCCUPANCY OF CABIN SITES ON PUBLIC CONSERVATION AND RECREATION AREAS § 21.4 ...owned cabins on recreation areas and conservation areas. (a) In any areas...

  7. 43 CFR 21.4 - Occupancy under permit of privately owned cabins on recreation areas and conservation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...owned cabins on recreation areas and conservation areas. 21.4 Section 21.4... OCCUPANCY OF CABIN SITES ON PUBLIC CONSERVATION AND RECREATION AREAS § 21.4 ...owned cabins on recreation areas and conservation areas. (a) In any areas...

  8. 43 CFR 21.4 - Occupancy under permit of privately owned cabins on recreation areas and conservation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...owned cabins on recreation areas and conservation areas. 21.4 Section 21.4... OCCUPANCY OF CABIN SITES ON PUBLIC CONSERVATION AND RECREATION AREAS § 21.4 ...owned cabins on recreation areas and conservation areas. (a) In any areas...

  9. First Detection of Leishmania tropica DNA and Trypanosoma Species in Sergentomyia Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from an Outbreak Area of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Nzelu, Chukwunonso O.; Kato, Hirotomo; Puplampu, Naiki; Desewu, Kwame; Odoom, Shirley; Wilson, Michael D.; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Katakura, Ken; Boakye, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Leishmania major and an uncharacterized species have been reported from human patients in a cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) outbreak area in Ghana. Reports from the area indicate the presence of anthropophilic Sergentomyia species that were found with Leishmania DNA. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we analyzed the Leishmania DNA positive sand fly pools by PCR-RFLP and ITS1 gene sequencing. The trypanosome was determined using the SSU rRNA gene sequence. We observed DNA of L. major, L. tropica and Trypanosoma species to be associated with the sand fly infections. This study provides the first detection of L. tropica DNA and Trypanosoma species as well as the confirmation of L. major DNA within Sergentomyia sand flies in Ghana and suggests that S. ingrami and S. hamoni are possible vectors of CL in the study area. Conclusions/Significance The detection of L. tropica DNA in this CL focus is a novel finding in Ghana as well as West Africa. In addition, the unexpected infection of Trypanosoma DNA within S. africana africana indicates that more attention is necessary when identifying parasitic organisms by PCR within sand fly vectors in Ghana and other areas where leishmaniasis is endemic. PMID:24516676

  10. Impacts of Community-based Conservation on Local Communities in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siddhartha B. Bajracharya; Peter A. Furley; Adrian C. Newton

    2006-01-01

    Approaches to the management of protected areas that involve the participation of local communities are now being widely promoted.\\u000a However, the impacts of such community-based conservation initiatives on local communities remain poorly defined. This research\\u000a examines the socio-economic impacts of community-based conservation within the Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA), Nepal, through\\u000a semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire survey with local residents, situated

  11. Impacts of community-based conservation on local communities in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siddhartha B. Bajracharya; Peter A. Furley; Adrian C. Newton

    Approaches to the management of protected areas that involve the participation of local communities are now being widely promoted.\\u000a However, the impacts of such community-based conservation initiatives on local communities remain poorly defined. This research\\u000a examines the socio-economic impacts of community-based conservation within the Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA), Nepal, through\\u000a semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire survey with local residents, situated

  12. Hydrogeochemical study on the contamination of water resources in a part of Tarkwa mining area, Western Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Prosun; Sracek, Ondra; Eldvall, Björn; Asklund, Ragnar; Barmen, Gerhard; Jacks, Gunnar; Koku, John; Gustafsson, Jan-Erik; Singh, Nandita; Balfors, Berit Brokking

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the groundwater chemistry with special concern to metal pollution in selected communities in the Wassa West district, Ghana. In this mining area, 40 ground water samples, mainly from drilled wells, were collected. The groundwaters have generally from neutral to acidic pH values and their Eh values indicate oxidising conditions. The dominating ions are calcium, sodium, and bicarbonate. The metal concentrations in the study area are generally lower than those typically found in mining regions. Only 17 wells show metal concentrations exceeding WHO guidelines for at least one metal. The main contaminants are manganese and iron, but arsenic and aluminium also exceed the guidelines in some wells probably affected by acid mine drainage (AMD). Metal concentrations in the groundwater seem to be controlled by the adsorption processes. Hydrogeochemical modelling indicates supersaturation of groundwater with respect to several mineral phases including iron-hydroxides/oxides, suggesting that adsorption on these minerals may control heavy metal and arsenic concentrations in groundwater. The area is hilly, with many groundwater flow divides that result in several local flow systems. The aquifers therefore are not strongly affected by weathering of minerals due to short groundwater residence times and intense flushing. The local character of groundwater flow systems also prevents a strong impact of acid mine drainage on groundwater systems in a regional scale.

  13. Private Sector Participation in Urban Water and Sanitation Provision in Ghana: Experiences from the Tamale Metropolitan Area (TMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osumanu, Issaka Kanton

    2008-07-01

    African governments, like most countries in the developing world, face daunting tasks in their attempts to provide effective and equitable water and sanitation services for their ever increasing urban populations. Consequently, the past few years have witnessed increased private sector participation in urban water and sanitation provision, as many African governments strive to improve access to water and sanitation services for their citizens in line with Millennium Development Goal 7 (MDG7). Since the early 1990s, the government of Ghana and many local authorities have entered into various forms of public-private partnerships in urban water and sanitation provision. This article examines the outcome of such partnerships using the Tamale Metropolitan Area (TMA) as a case study with the aim of providing policy guidelines for the way forward. The article argues that the public-private arrangement for water supply and sanitation infrastructure management in the Tamale Metropolis has done nothing that an invigorated public sector could not have possibly achieved. It concludes that there can be no sustainable improvement in water and sanitation provision without political commitment, stakeholder ownership, and strong support for community driven initiatives.

  14. Environmental Conservation/Studies "focus area" (with potential courses listed) Natural Resource and Conservation Policy

    E-print Network

    Schweik, Charles M.

    Environmental Conservation/Studies "focus area" (with potential courses listed) Natural Resource Forest Management NRC 540 Forest Resources Management NRC 597C Case Studies in Conservation NRC 597E and Management NRC 597T Adv. Human Dimensions NRC 597U Urban Natural Resource Management PLSOILIN 185 Sustainable

  15. 50 CFR Table 27 to Part 679 - Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat Conservation Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat Conservation Areas 27 Table 27 to Part...Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat Conservation Areas Area number Name...

  16. 50 CFR Table 27 to Part 679 - Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat Conservation Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat Conservation Areas 27 Table 27 to Part...Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat Conservation Areas Area number Name...

  17. Level 4 Potential Conservation Area (PCA) Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    South Canyon; Montane Riparian Forest

    2009-01-01

    - - Site Description East Snowmass Creek flows south from its headwaters near Baldy Mountain, and enters Snowmass Creek just west of the Snowmass ski area. The PCA includes a roughly two mile stretch of East Snowmass Creek, and supports a mosaic of good quality riparian vegetation, including a globally-vulnerable community dominated by Drummond's willow (Salix drummondiana) and Canada reedgrass

  18. Hydrochemical study of water collected at a section of the Lower Volta River (Akuse to Sogakope area), Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gampson, E. K.; Nartey, V. K.; Golow, A. A.; Akiti, T. T.

    2014-06-01

    The present hydrochemical study at the Lower Volta River (Akuse to Sogakope area), Ghana was conducted by determining the physico-chemical parameters (pH, temperature, total dissolved solute, electrical conductivity, total hardness, phosphate (PO4 3-), nitrate (NO3 -), sulfate (SO4 2-), dissolve oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand, calcium (Ca2+), sodium (Na+), magnesium (Mg2+), total iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) nickel (Ni), and total chromium (Cr) at 38 sampling sites during the wet and the dry seasons. The physical and ionic parameters were mostly found within the WHO (Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 3rd edn, Geneva 2004) standard for drinking water. The trace metals except Cu at some sites recorded values above the WHO (Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 3rd edn, Geneva 2004) standard for drinking water. This shows that the river water is not entirely fit for drinking. Mean values of physico-chemical parameters were mostly found to be high in the dry season as compared to the wet season. Cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were employed to evaluate the water quality and the interrelationship between variables. CA grouped the physico-chemical parameters into three groups (physical/minor ions, major ions and trace elements). Correlation analysis showed that physico-chemical parameters do not vary much in terms of the sampling sites. Thus, based on obtained information, it is possible to design a future, desirable sampling strategy, which could reduce the number of sampling stations and associated costs for effective river water quality management. Results showed that four principal components (industrial effect, domestic factor, natural source and agricultural effect) accounted for 65.59 % of the total variance among the water quality parameters. PCA also identified sampling sites 69R, 63R, 51M, 87L, 35L, 74L and 84L as polluted with metals. Therefore, water quality monitoring and control of release of industrial and anthropogenic wastes into the river are strongly needed.

  19. 50 CFR Table 45 to Part 679 - St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area 45 Table 45 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude...

  20. 50 CFR 660.79 - EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of California... Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...Groundfish Fisheries § 660.79 EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of...

  1. 50 CFR Table 42 to Part 679 - Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area 42 Table 42 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...Part 679—Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude...

  2. 50 CFR Table 46 to Part 679 - St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area 46 Table 46 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude...

  3. 50 CFR 660.77 - EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Washington.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Washington... Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...Groundfish Fisheries § 660.77 EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of...

  4. 50 CFR Table 46 to Part 679 - St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area 46 Table 46 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude...

  5. 50 CFR 660.79 - EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of California... Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...Groundfish Fisheries § 660.79 EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of...

  6. 50 CFR 660.397 - EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Washington.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Washington... Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...Groundfish Fisheries § 660.397 EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of...

  7. 50 CFR 660.77 - EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Washington.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Washington... Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...Groundfish Fisheries § 660.77 EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of...

  8. 50 CFR Figure 19 to Part 679 - Shelikof Strait Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Shelikof Strait Conservation Area 19 Figure 19 to Part...Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...to Part 679—Shelikof Strait Conservation Area ER30NO09.001...

  9. 50 CFR Figure 19 to Part 679 - Shelikof Strait Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Shelikof Strait Conservation Area 19 Figure 19 to Part...Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...to Part 679—Shelikof Strait Conservation Area ER30NO09.001...

  10. 50 CFR 660.79 - EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of California... Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...Groundfish Fisheries § 660.79 EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of...

  11. 50 CFR 660.77 - EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Washington.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Washington... Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...Groundfish Fisheries § 660.77 EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of...

  12. 50 CFR 660.77 - EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Washington.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Washington... Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...Groundfish Fisheries § 660.77 EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of...

  13. 50 CFR Table 45 to Part 679 - St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area 45 Table 45 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude...

  14. Hydrochemical evaluation of the Voltaian system--the Afram Plains area, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Yidana, Sandow Mark; Ophori, Duke; Banoeng-Yakubo, Bruce

    2008-09-01

    Inverse geochemical modeling from PHREEQC, and multivariate statistical methods were jointly used to define the genetic origin of chemical parameters of groundwater from the Voltaian aquifers in the Afram Plains area. The study finds, from hierarchical cluster analysis that there are two main hydrochemical facies namely the calcium-sodium-chloride-bicarbonate waters and the magnesium-potassium-sulfate-nitrate waters in the northern and southern sections, respectively, of the Afram Plains area. This facies differentiation is confirmed by the distribution of the SO(4)(2-)/Cl(-) ratio, which associates groundwater from the northern and southern sections to areas influenced by contact with evaporites and seawater, respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA) with varimax rotation using the Kaiser criterion identifies four principal sources of variation in the hydrochemistry. Mineral saturation indices calculated from both major ions and trace elements, indicate saturation-supersaturation with respect to calcite, aragonite, k-mica, chlorite, rhodochrosite, kaolinite, sepiolite, and talc, and undersaturation with respect to albite, anorthite, and gypsum in the area. Inverse geochemical modeling along groundwater flowpaths indicates the dissolution of albite, anorthite and gypsum and the precipitation of kaolinite, k-mica, talc, and quartz. Both the PCA and inverse geochemical modeling identify the incongruent weathering of feldspars as the principal factors controlling the hydrochemistry in the Afram Plains area. General phase transfer equations have been developed to characterize the geochemical evolution of groundwater in the area. A very good relationship has been established between calcite and aragonite saturation indices in the Afram Plains area, with R(2)=1.00. PMID:17499422

  15. Energy and other resource conservation within urbanizing areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Peter G.

    1982-05-01

    The reported research seeks to answer several questions regarding energy conservation within urbanizing areas. As a practical matter, to what extent can dependence upon exhaustible resources be reduced? Can these reductions be achieved without severely impairing social well-being and environmental quality? And, what seem to be the prevailing institutional constraints limiting energy conservation within urbanizing areas? The study area was the proposed “downtown” of The Woodlands, a new town north of Houston, Texas. Two plans were developed for this area. In one, no particular attempt was made to conserve energy (conventional plan), while in the other, energy conservation was a primary consideration (conservation plan). For both plans, estimates were made of energy consumption within buildings, in the transportation sector, and in the actual production of building materials themselves (embodied energy). In addition, economic and environmental analyses were performed, including investigation of other resource issues such as water supply, solid waste disposal, stormwater management, and atmospheric emissions. Alternative on-site power systems were also investigated. Within the bounds of economic feasibility and development practicality, it was found that application of energy-conserving methods could yield annual energy savings of as much as 23%, and reduce dependence on prime fuels by 30%. Adverse economic effects on consumers were found to be minimal and environmental quality could be sustained. The major institutional constraints appeared to be those associated with traditional property ownership and with the use of common property resources. The resistance to change of everyday practices in land development and building industries also seemed to constrain potential applications.

  16. Exploring Students' Strategies in Area Conservation Geometrical Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kospentaris, George; Spyrou, Panagiotis; Lappas, Dionyssios

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the strategies employed by advanced high school and university students working on six tasks concerning comparison and conservation of area. Special care has been taken in the test design so that the problems could be dealt with using a variety of solution methods. Written responses and in-depth interviews…

  17. Conservation of tanks\\/lakes in the Bangalore metropolitan area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krishne Gowda; M. V. Sridhara

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to build up perspectives for the conservation and restoration of the various spoilt water bodies within the Bangalore metropolitan area. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper describes how Bangalore city is typical of the features of peninsular India in that it is made up of ridges, valleys and undulating terrain. Monsoon rainfall is substantial

  18. Protected Areas in Tropical Africa: Assessing Threats and Conservation Activities

    PubMed Central

    Tranquilli, Sandra; Abedi-Lartey, Michael; Abernethy, Katharine; Amsini, Fidèle; Asamoah, Augustus; Balangtaa, Cletus; Blake, Stephen; Bouanga, Estelle; Breuer, Thomas; Brncic, Terry M.; Campbell, Geneviève; Chancellor, Rebecca; Chapman, Colin A.; Davenport, Tim R. B.; Dunn, Andrew; Dupain, Jef; Ekobo, Atanga; Eno-Nku, Manasseh; Etoga, Gilles; Furuichi, Takeshi; Gatti, Sylvain; Ghiurghi, Andrea; Hashimoto, Chie; Hart, John A.; Head, Josephine; Hega, Martin; Herbinger, Ilka; Hicks, Thurston C.; Holbech, Lars H.; Huijbregts, Bas; Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Imong, Inaoyom; Yeno, Stephane Le-Duc; Linder, Joshua; Marshall, Phil; Lero, Peter Minasoma; Morgan, David; Mubalama, Leonard; N'Goran, Paul K.; Nicholas, Aaron; Nixon, Stuart; Normand, Emmanuelle; Nziguyimpa, Leonidas; Nzooh-Dongmo, Zacharie; Ofori-Amanfo, Richard; Ogunjemite, Babafemi G.; Petre, Charles-Albert; Rainey, Hugo J.; Regnaut, Sebastien; Robinson, Orume; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette M.; Okon, David Tiku; Todd, Angelique; Warren, Ymke; Sommer, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Numerous protected areas (PAs) have been created in Africa to safeguard wildlife and other natural resources. However, significant threats from anthropogenic activities and decline of wildlife populations persist, while conservation efforts in most PAs are still minimal. We assessed the impact level of the most common threats to wildlife within PAs in tropical Africa and the relationship of conservation activities with threat impact level. We collated data on 98 PAs with tropical forest cover from 15 countries across West, Central and East Africa. For this, we assembled information about local threats as well as conservation activities from published and unpublished literature, and questionnaires sent to long-term field workers. We constructed general linear models to test the significance of specific conservation activities in relation to the threat impact level. Subsistence and commercial hunting were identified as the most common direct threats to wildlife and found to be most prevalent in West and Central Africa. Agriculture and logging represented the most common indirect threats, and were most prevalent in West Africa. We found that the long-term presence of conservation activities (such as law enforcement, research and tourism) was associated with lower threat impact levels. Our results highlight deficiencies in the management effectiveness of several PAs across tropical Africa, and conclude that PA management should invest more into conservation activities with long-term duration. PMID:25469888

  19. Examining marginalized communities and local conservation institutions: the case of Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area.

    PubMed

    Dahal, Smriti; Nepal, Sanjay K; Schuett, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    In developing countries, participatory conservation initiatives have been criticized for many reasons, mainly for excluding marginalized groups which have led to unequal benefits. Using concepts from the literature on participation, conservation, and political ecology, this research explored the participation of marginal groups, i.e., poor, women, lower caste, and landless, in management institutions in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area. Field work for this research was conducted through the use of interviews and participant observation during August-October 2010. Results show that although marginal groups were involved in local management institutions, their representation was minimal and had not led to meaningful participation or empowerment to influence the decisions being made in conservation and development programs. Our study findings indicate that the involvement of marginal groups in local initiatives is complex and influenced by several factors. The study concludes that the Annapurna Conservation Area Project needs to re-orient its conservation projects by adopting a more inclusive form of participation and move beyond the quota system. PMID:24271617

  20. X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Analysis of Soil Heavy Metal Pollution from an Industrial Area in Kumasi, Ghana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kodom; K. Preko; D. Boamah

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of soil heavy metal concentration is very important for assessing the purity and quality of the soil in an environment. The concentrations of nine heavy metals (NHM), Zn, Pb, Cr, Cu, Co, Ni, Cd, Hg, and As from the near-surface soils (? 0–15 cm) from an industrial cluster in Kumasi, Ghana were qualitatively and quantitatively measured and analyzed using X-ray

  1. Initiatives: Ghana.

    PubMed

    Tetteh, N

    1996-04-01

    In an attempt to get men involved in family planning and to either practice or support their wives in accepting and practicing modern contraception, the Planned Parenthood Association of Ghana (PPAG) established the first pilot project for males in 1980, providing men with information on family planning. The goal was to increase knowledge of family planning in hopes of garnering increased acceptance and practice among Ghanaian males. The 1993 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey indicated that only 20% and 14% of married men use modern and traditional forms of birth control, respectively. Only 20% of married women use any form of family planning. The program has concentrated upon targeting men at daddies' clubs in male-dominated workplaces, industrial centers and national vocational training institutes, hotels and bars, and functional literacy groups. PMID:12292588

  2. Priority Areas for Large Mammal Conservation in Equatorial Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Murai, Mizuki; Ruffler, Heidi; Berlemont, Antoine; Campbell, Genevieve; Esono, Fidel; Agbor, Anthony; Mbomio, Domingo; Ebana, Agustín; Nze, Antonio; Kühl, Hjalmar S.

    2013-01-01

    Hunting is one of the main driving forces behind large mammal density distribution in many regions of the world. In tropical Africa, urban demand for bushmeat has been shown to dominate over subsistence hunting and its impact often overrides spatial-ecological species characteristics. To effectively protect remaining mammal populations the main factors that influence their distribution need to be integrated into conservation area prioritisation and management plans. This information has been lacking for Río Muni, Equatorial Guinea, as prior studies have been outdated or have not systematically covered the continental region of the country. In this study we evaluated: 1) the relative importance of local vs. commercial hunting; 2) wildlife density of protected vs. non-protected areas; and 3) the importance of ecological factors vs. human influence in driving mammal density distribution in Río Muni. We adopted a systematic countrywide line transect approach with particular focus on apes and elephants, but also including other mammal species. For analysis of field data we used generalised linear models with a set of predictor variables representing ecological conditions, anthropogenic pressure and protected areas. We estimate that there are currently 884 (437–1,789) elephants and 11,097 (8,719–13,592) chimpanzees and gorillas remaining in Río Muni. The results indicate strong hunting pressures on both local and commercial levels, with roads demonstrating a negative impact on elephants and overall mammal body mass. Protected areas played no role in determining any of the mammal species distributions and significant human hunting signs were found inside these protected areas, illustrating the lack of environmental law enforcement throughout the country. Río Muni is currently under-represented in conservation efforts in Western Equatorial Africa, and we recommend a focus on cross-boundary conservation, in particular in the Monte Alén-Monts de Cristal and Río Campo Ma’an conservation landscapes, where the highest densities and diversity of large mammals remain. PMID:24086426

  3. Priority areas for large mammal conservation in Equatorial Guinea.

    PubMed

    Murai, Mizuki; Ruffler, Heidi; Berlemont, Antoine; Campbell, Genevieve; Esono, Fidel; Agbor, Anthony; Mbomio, Domingo; Ebana, Agustín; Nze, Antonio; Kühl, Hjalmar S

    2013-01-01

    Hunting is one of the main driving forces behind large mammal density distribution in many regions of the world. In tropical Africa, urban demand for bushmeat has been shown to dominate over subsistence hunting and its impact often overrides spatial-ecological species characteristics. To effectively protect remaining mammal populations the main factors that influence their distribution need to be integrated into conservation area prioritisation and management plans. This information has been lacking for Río Muni, Equatorial Guinea, as prior studies have been outdated or have not systematically covered the continental region of the country. In this study we evaluated: 1) the relative importance of local vs. commercial hunting; 2) wildlife density of protected vs. non-protected areas; and 3) the importance of ecological factors vs. human influence in driving mammal density distribution in Río Muni. We adopted a systematic countrywide line transect approach with particular focus on apes and elephants, but also including other mammal species. For analysis of field data we used generalised linear models with a set of predictor variables representing ecological conditions, anthropogenic pressure and protected areas. We estimate that there are currently 884 (437-1,789) elephants and 11,097 (8,719-13,592) chimpanzees and gorillas remaining in Río Muni. The results indicate strong hunting pressures on both local and commercial levels, with roads demonstrating a negative impact on elephants and overall mammal body mass. Protected areas played no role in determining any of the mammal species distributions and significant human hunting signs were found inside these protected areas, illustrating the lack of environmental law enforcement throughout the country. Río Muni is currently under-represented in conservation efforts in Western Equatorial Africa, and we recommend a focus on cross-boundary conservation, in particular in the Monte Alén-Monts de Cristal and Río Campo Ma'an conservation landscapes, where the highest densities and diversity of large mammals remain. PMID:24086426

  4. Ghana: Western Ghana's Fisherfolk Starve Amid Algae Infestation BY JESSICA MCDIARMID, 18 APRIL 2012

    E-print Network

    Belogay, Eugene A.

    Ghana: Western Ghana's Fisherfolk Starve Amid Algae Infestation BY JESSICA MCDIARMID, 18 APRIL 2012 not to continue fishing." Sargassum is the algae after which the Sargasso Sea - an elongated region in the middle down while tonnes of the algae were removed. In some areas people were warned not to swim due

  5. 75 FR 54542 - Special Areas; Roadless Area Conservation; Applicability to the National Forests in Idaho...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ...Areas; Roadless Area Conservation; Applicability to the...Placer Creek, Secesh, and Smith Creek Idaho Roadless...2008 (73 FR 61456) and associated maps. These...September 11, 2009, and no concerns were expressed...to reduce fuels in the wildland urban interface...

  6. The role of ecological compensation areas in conservation biological control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Burgio

    2007-01-01

    Ecological compensation areas (ECAs), defined as all natural vegetation and non-crop plants within the rural landscape, are considered an important tool in multifunctional agriculture. In particular, ECAs are crucial in enhancing functional biodiversity for pest suppression and for the conservation of rare species. In my PhD thesis I focused on the role of ECAs on functional biodiversity, which is associated

  7. [Forestry Law and the conservation of natural areas and wildlife].

    PubMed

    Villacrés, V; Suárez, M; Tafur, V

    1996-04-01

    The Forest Law of Ecuador consists of 107 articles, whereas its regulations contain 269 articles. They are related to forestry resources, forestry patrimony protection, forests and vegetation, forest production and benefits, the control and mobilization of the forestry resources, research and capacitation, and the forestry industry protection; to natural areas, wild flora and fauna, their patrimony, conservation, and economic support; and to the violation of the law and its judgment. PMID:9213612

  8. Human migration, protected areas, and conservation outreach in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Jonathan D; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; Kefauver, Shawn C

    2014-06-01

    A recent discussion debates the extent of human in-migration around protected areas (PAs) in the tropics. One proposed argument is that rural migrants move to bordering areas to access conservation outreach benefits. A counter proposal maintains that PAs have largely negative effects on local populations and that outreach initiatives even if successful present insufficient benefits to drive in-migration. Using data from Tanzania, we examined merits of statistical tests and spatial methods used previously to evaluate migration near PAs and applied hierarchical modeling with appropriate controls for demographic and geographic factors to advance the debate. Areas bordering national parks in Tanzania did not have elevated rates of in-migration. Low baseline population density and high vegetation productivity with low interannual variation rather than conservation outreach explained observed migration patterns. More generally we argue that to produce results of conservation policy significance, analyses must be conducted at appropriate scales, and we caution against use of demographic data without appropriate controls when drawing conclusions about migration dynamics. PMID:24476123

  9. Natural Resource Dependency and Decentralized Conservation Within Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Pete; Thapa, Brijesh

    2012-02-01

    Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project (KCAP) in Nepal is among the first protected areas in the world to institute a completely decentralized system of conservation and development. Proponents of decentralized conservation claim that it increases management efficiency, enhances the responsiveness to local needs, and promotes greater equity among local residents. This study assessed local equity by evaluating the levels of dependencies on natural resources among households and the factors affecting that dependency. Data were collected via detailed surveys among 205 randomly selected households within the KCAP. Natural resource dependency was evaluated by comparing the ratio of total household income to income derived from access to natural resources. Economic, social, and access-related variables were employed to determine potential significant predictors of dependency. Overall, households were heavily dependent on natural resources for their income, especially households at higher elevations and those with more adult members. The households that received remittances were most able to supplement their income and, therefore, drastically reduced their reliance on the access to natural resources. Socio-economic variables, such as land holdings, education, caste, and ethnicity, failed to predict dependency. Household participation in KCAP-sponsored training programs also failed to affect household dependency; however, fewer than 20% of the households had any form of direct contact with KCAP personnel within the past year. The success of the KCAP as a decentralized conservation program is contingent on project capacity-building via social mobilization, training programs, and participatory inclusion in decision making to help alleviate the dependency on natural resources.

  10. Natural resource dependency and decentralized conservation within Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Parker, Pete; Thapa, Brijesh

    2012-02-01

    Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project (KCAP) in Nepal is among the first protected areas in the world to institute a completely decentralized system of conservation and development. Proponents of decentralized conservation claim that it increases management efficiency, enhances the responsiveness to local needs, and promotes greater equity among local residents. This study assessed local equity by evaluating the levels of dependencies on natural resources among households and the factors affecting that dependency. Data were collected via detailed surveys among 205 randomly selected households within the KCAP. Natural resource dependency was evaluated by comparing the ratio of total household income to income derived from access to natural resources. Economic, social, and access-related variables were employed to determine potential significant predictors of dependency. Overall, households were heavily dependent on natural resources for their income, especially households at higher elevations and those with more adult members. The households that received remittances were most able to supplement their income and, therefore, drastically reduced their reliance on the access to natural resources. Socio-economic variables, such as land holdings, education, caste, and ethnicity, failed to predict dependency. Household participation in KCAP-sponsored training programs also failed to affect household dependency; however, fewer than 20% of the households had any form of direct contact with KCAP personnel within the past year. The success of the KCAP as a decentralized conservation program is contingent on project capacity-building via social mobilization, training programs, and participatory inclusion in decision making to help alleviate the dependency on natural resources. PMID:22127405

  11. General principles for integrating geoheritage conservation in protected area management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, John E.; Crofts, Roger

    2015-04-01

    Development of more integrated approaches to the management of protected areas requires not only the protection of geosites, but also the effective application of geoconservation principles that apply more widely to the sustainable management of natural systems. Key guiding principles include: working with natural processes; managing natural systems and processes in a spatially integrated manner; accepting the inevitability of natural change; considering the responses of geomorphological processes to the effects of global climate change; recognising the sensitivity of natural systems and managing them within the limits of their capacity to absorb change; basing conservation management of active systems on a sound understanding of the underlying physical processes; making provision for managing visitors at sensitive sites; and acknowledging the interdependency of geodiversity and biodiversity management. As well as recognising the value of geoheritage in its own right, a more integrated approach to conservation across the full range of IUCN Protected Area Management Categories would benefit both biodiversity and geodiversity, through application of the concept of 'conserving nature's stage' and adopting an ecosystem approach.

  12. Spatial Distribution of Soil Nutrients in a Northern Everglades Marsh: Water Conservation Area 1

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Spatial Distribution of Soil Nutrients in a Northern Everglades Marsh: Water Conservation Area 1 S examines the response of a pristine wetland, Water ConservationArea 1 (WCA 1), part of the northern Florida

  13. Sediment Inventory and Phosphorus Fractions for Water Conservation Area Canals in the Everglades

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Sediment Inventory and Phosphorus Fractions for Water Conservation Area Canals in the Everglades O in the Water Conservation Area (WCA) canals in the Ever- glades. A study was conducted to characterize

  14. 50 CFR Figure 17 to Part 679 - Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA) 17 Figure 17 to part 679 Wildlife...Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA) ER06OC10.048 [75 FR...

  15. 50 CFR Figure 17 to Part 679 - Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA) 17 Figure 17 to part 679 Wildlife...Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA) ER06OC10.048 [75 FR...

  16. 50 CFR Figure 17 to Part 679 - Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA) 17 Figure 17 to part 679 Wildlife...Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA) ER06OC10.048 [75 FR...

  17. 50 CFR Figure 17 to Part 679 - Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA) 17 Figure 17 to part 679 Wildlife...Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA) ER06OC10.048 [75 FR...

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF SOIL PROPERTIES IN WATER CONSERVATION AREA 2A,

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF SOIL PROPERTIES IN WATER CONSERVATION AREA 2A to restore wetlands impacted by nutrient influx. Our goal was to investigate Water Conservation Area 2A), total nitrogen (TN), total calcium (TCa), total carbon (TC), and floc depth in Water Conservation Area 2

  19. Collapse of a pollination web in small conservation areas.

    PubMed

    Pauw, Anton

    2007-07-01

    A suspected global decline in pollinators has heightened interest in their ecological significance. In a worst-case scenario, the decline of generalist pollinators is predicted to trigger cascades of linked declines among the multiple specialist plant species to which they are linked, but this has not been documented. I studied a portion of a pollination web involving a generalist pollinator, the oil-collecting bee Rediviva peringueyi, and a community of oil-secreting plants. Across 27 established conservation areas located in the Cape Floral Region, I found substantial variation in the bees' occurrence in relation to soil type and the successional stage of the vegetation. Anthropogenic declines were detectable against this background of naturally occurring variation: R. peringueyi was absent from small conservation areas (< 385 ha) in an urban matrix. In the absence of the bee, seed set failed in six specialist plant species that are pollinated only by R. peringueyi but remained high in a pollination generalist, which had replacement pollinators. The findings are consistent with theoretical predictions of the importance of generalist pollinators in maintaining the structure of pollination webs. PMID:17645022

  20. 50 CFR 660.78 - EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Oregon. 660... Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...Groundfish Fisheries § 660.78 EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Oregon....

  1. 50 CFR 660.78 - EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Oregon. 660... Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...Groundfish Fisheries § 660.78 EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Oregon....

  2. 50 CFR 660.78 - EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Oregon. 660... Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...Groundfish Fisheries § 660.78 EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Oregon....

  3. 50 CFR 660.398 - EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Oregon. 660... Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...Groundfish Fisheries § 660.398 EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Oregon....

  4. 50 CFR 660.78 - EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Oregon. 660... Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...Groundfish Fisheries § 660.78 EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Oregon....

  5. INTEGRATING REPRESENTATION AND VULNERABILITY: TWO APPROACHES FOR PRIORITIZING AREAS FOR CONSERVATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    One fundamental step in conservation planning involves determining where to concentrate efforts to protect conservation targets. Here we demonstrate two approaches to prioritizing areas based on both species composition and potential threats facing the species. The first approa...

  6. Spatial Distribution of Soil Nutrients in a Northern Everglades Marsh: Water Conservation Area 2A

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Spatial Distribution of Soil Nutrients in a Northern Everglades Marsh: Water Conservation Area 2A W of P, N, C, and related physico-chemical parameters in the peat soils (Histosols) of Water Conservation

  7. Recent Changes in Soil Total Phosphorus in the Everglades: Water Conservation Area 3

    E-print Network

    Grunwald, Sabine

    Recent Changes in Soil Total Phosphorus in the Everglades: Water Conservation Area 3 Gregory L nutrient loading from drained agricul- tural lands, annual phosphorus (P) inputs to the Water Conservation

  8. 50 CFR Figure 21 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 21 Figure 21 to Part...Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.012...

  9. 50 CFR Table 44 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 44 Table 44 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude...

  10. 50 CFR Figure 21 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 21 Figure 21 to Part...Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.012...

  11. 50 CFR Figure 20 to Part 679 - Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea 20... Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...20 to Part 679—Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea...

  12. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 679 - Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...false Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea 10 Figure... Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...679—Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea...

  13. 50 CFR Table 44 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 44 Table 44 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude...

  14. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 679 - Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea 10 Figure... Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...679—Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea...

  15. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 679 - Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea 10 Figure... Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...679—Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea...

  16. Fluid inclusions in quartz-pebbles of the gold-bearing Tarkwaian conglomerates of Ghana as guides to their provenance area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Klemd; W. Hirdes; M. Olesch; T. Oberthür

    1993-01-01

    Quartz-pebbles of the early Proterozoic Au-bearing Tarkwaian conglomerates in Ghana reveal several original (inherited) pre-sedimentary\\u000a fluid inclusions. These inclusions are CO2-N2 rich and display a distinct high density (up to 1.15 g\\/cm3). The unusual high density and composition compare well with CO2-N2-rich inclusions in quartz-vein type gold deposits of the Birimian Supergroup in Ghana and Burkina Faso. This type of

  17. 50 CFR Table 27 to Part 679 - Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat Conservation Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat Conservation Areas 27 Table 27 to Part 679 Wildlife and...679, Table 27 Table 27 to Part 679—Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat Conservation Areas Area number Name Latitude...

  18. 50 CFR Table 27 to Part 679 - Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat Conservation Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat Conservation Areas 27 Table 27 to Part 679 Wildlife and...679, Table 27 Table 27 to Part 679—Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat Conservation Areas Area number Name Latitude...

  19. 50 CFR Table 27 to Part 679 - Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat Conservation Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat Conservation Areas 27 Table 27 to Part 679 Wildlife and...679, Table 27 Table 27 to Part 679—Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat Conservation Areas Area number Name Latitude...

  20. Using High Resolution Commercial Satellite Imagery to Quantify Spatial Features of Urban Areas and their Relationship to Quality of Life Indicators in Accra, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandborn, A.; Engstrom, R.; Yu, Q.

    2014-12-01

    Mapping urban areas via satellite imagery is an important task for detecting and anticipating land cover and land use change at multiple scales. As developing countries experience substantial urban growth and expansion, remotely sensed based estimates of population and quality of life indicators can provide timely and spatially explicit information to researchers and planners working to determine how cities are changing. In this study, we use commercial high spatial resolution satellite imagery in combination with fine resolution census data to determine the ability of using remotely sensed data to reveal the spatial patterns of quality of life in Accra, Ghana. Traditionally, spectral characteristics are used on a per-pixel basis to determine land cover; however, in this study, we test a new methodology that quantifies spatial characteristics using a variety of spatial features observed in the imagery to determine the properties of an urban area. The spatial characteristics used in this study include histograms of oriented gradients, PanTex, Fourier transform, and line support regions. These spatial features focus on extracting structural and textural patterns of built-up areas, such as homogeneous building orientations and straight line indices. Information derived from aggregating the descriptive statistics of the spatial features at both the fine-resolution census unit and the larger neighborhood level are then compared to census derived quality of life indicators including information about housing, education, and population estimates. Preliminary results indicate that there are correlations between straight line indices and census data including available electricity and literacy rates. Results from this study will be used to determine if this methodology provides a new and improved way to measure a city structure in developing cities and differentiate between residential and commercial land use zones, as well as formal versus informal housing areas.

  1. Hydrostratigraphy of Tree Island Cores from Water Conservation Area 3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McNeill, Donald F.; Cunningham, Kevin J.

    2003-01-01

    Cores and borehole-geophysical logs collected on and around two tree islands in Water Conservation Area 3 have been examined to develop a stratigraphic framework for these ecosystems. Especially important is the potential for the exchange of ground water and surface water within these features. The hydrostratigraphic results from this study document the lithologic nature of the foundation of the tree islands, the distribution of porous intervals, the potential for paleotopographic influence on their formation, and the importance of low-permeability, subaerial-exposure horizons on the vertical exchange of ground water and surface water. Figure 1. Location of Tree Islands 3AS3 and 3BS1. [larger image] Results from this hydrostratigraphic study indicate that subtle differences occur in lithofacies and topography between the on-island and off-island subsurface geologic records. Specifics are described herein. Firstly, at both tree-island sites, the top of the limestone bedrock is slightly elevated beneath the head of the tree islands relative to the off-island core sites and the tail of the tree islands, which suggests that bedrock 'highs' acted as 'seeds' for the development of the tree islands of this study and possibly many others. Secondly, examination of the recovered core and the caliper logs tentatively suggest that the elevated limestone beneath the tree islands may have a preferentially more porous framework relative to limestone beneath the adjacent areas, possibly providing a ground-water-to-surface-water connection that sustains the tree island system. Finally, because the elevation of the top of the limestone bedrock at the head of Tree Island 3AS3 is slightly higher than the surrounding upper surface of the peat, and because the wetland peats have a lower hydraulic conductivity than the limestone bedrock (Miami Limestone and Fort Thompson Formation), it is possible that there is a head difference between surface water of the wetlands and the ground water in underlying limestone bedrock.

  2. Ground-water flow beneath levee 35A from conservation area 2B, Broward County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swayze, L.J.

    1988-01-01

    Conservation Area 2B is an area of recharge for the surficial aquifer system in Broward County. Water stored in the conservation area provides the hydraulic potential for downward flow to the high permeability zone of the Biscayne aquifer. A 5.64 ft head differential (average for the period of record) between water levels in Conservation Area 2B and water levels in the adjacent levee 35A borrow canal causes water to leak into the canal at an average rate of about 0.0022 cu ft per sec per lineal foot of canal and accounts for a loss of 0.013 foot per day of surface water from Conservation Area 2B. Amounts of canal leakage and underflow are constantly changing and are dependent upon the head differential between Conservation Area 2B and the levee 35A borrow canal. (Author 's abstract)

  3. Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Habitat and Conservation Priority Areas for Lynx canadensis (Canada Lynx)

    E-print Network

    Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Habitat and Conservation Priority Areas for Lynx canadensis canadensis (Canada Lynx) Acknowledgements Thanks to Chris Iverson (Assistant Director, Watershed, Fish areas for Lynx canadensis (Canada Lynx) Abstract The dependence of Lynx canadensis (Canada Lynx

  4. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Oxbow Conservation Area, 2002-2005 Technical Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2005-01-01

    This Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) study was performed to determine baseline habitat units on the Oxbow Conservation Area in Grant County, Oregon. The evaluation is a required part of the Memorandum of Agreement between the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) relating to the acquisition and management of the Oxbow Conservation Area. The HEP team

  5. 50 CFR Figure 16 to Part 679 - Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area 16 Figure 16 to part 679 Wildlife and... Pt. 679, Fig. 16 Figure 16 to part 679—Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.010 [73 FR 43371,...

  6. 50 CFR Table 42 to Part 679 - Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area 42 Table 42 to Part 679 Wildlife and...ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 42 Table 42 to Part 679—Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 17919.95W...

  7. 50 CFR Table 46 to Part 679 - St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area 46 Table 46 to Part 679 Wildlife and...679, Table 46 Table 46 to Part 679—St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 171 45.00...

  8. 50 CFR Table 42 to Part 679 - Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area 42 Table 42 to Part 679 Wildlife and...ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 42 Table 42 to Part 679—Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 17919.95W...

  9. 50 CFR Table 45 to Part 679 - St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area 45 Table 45 to Part 679 Wildlife and...679, Table 45 Table 45 to Part 679—St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 16824.00W...

  10. 50 CFR Table 42 to Part 679 - Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area 42 Table 42 to Part 679 Wildlife and...ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 42 Table 42 to Part 679—Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 17919.95W...

  11. 50 CFR Table 46 to Part 679 - St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area 46 Table 46 to Part 679 Wildlife and...679, Table 46 Table 46 to Part 679—St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 171 45.00...

  12. 50 CFR Table 45 to Part 679 - St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area 45 Table 45 to Part 679 Wildlife and...679, Table 45 Table 45 to Part 679—St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 16824.00W...

  13. 50 CFR Table 42 to Part 679 - Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area 42 Table 42 to Part 679 Wildlife and...ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 42 Table 42 to Part 679—Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 17919.95W...

  14. 50 CFR Figure 16 to Part 679 - Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area 16 Figure 16 to part 679 Wildlife and... Pt. 679, Fig. 16 Figure 16 to part 679—Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.010 [73 FR 43371,...

  15. 50 CFR Figure 16 to Part 679 - Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area 16 Figure 16 to part 679 Wildlife and... Pt. 679, Fig. 16 Figure 16 to part 679—Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.010 [73 FR 43371,...

  16. 50 CFR Figure 16 to Part 679 - Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area 16 Figure 16 to part 679 Wildlife and... Pt. 679, Fig. 16 Figure 16 to part 679—Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.010 [73 FR 43371,...

  17. 50 CFR Table 45 to Part 679 - St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area 45 Table 45 to Part 679 Wildlife and...679, Table 45 Table 45 to Part 679—St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 16824.00W...

  18. 50 CFR Table 46 to Part 679 - St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area 46 Table 46 to Part 679 Wildlife and...679, Table 46 Table 46 to Part 679—St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 171 45.00...

  19. Mammal indicator species for protected areas and managed forests in a landscape conservation area of northern India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pradeep K. Mathur; Harish Kumar; John F. Lehmkuhl; Anshuman Tripathi; Vishwas B. Sawarkar; Rupak De

    2011-01-01

    There is a realization that managed forests and other natural areas in the landscape matrix can and must make significant\\u000a contributions to biodiversity conservation. Often, however, there are no consistent baseline vegetation or wildlife data for\\u000a assessing the status of biodiversity elements across protected and managed areas for conservation planning, nor is there a\\u000a rapid and efficient means to acquire

  20. Environmental and health impacts of household solid waste handling and disposal practices in third world cities: the case of the Accra Metropolitan Area, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Boadi, Kwasi Owusu; Kuitunen, Markku

    2005-11-01

    Inadequate provision of solid waste management facilities in Third World cities results in indiscriminate disposal and unsanitary environments, which threatens the health of urban residents. The study reported here examined household-level waste management and disposal practices in the Accra Metropolitan Area, Ghana. The residents of Accra currently generate large amounts of solid waste, beyond the management capabilities of the existing waste management system. Because the solid waste infrastructure is inadequate, over 80 percent of the population do not have home collection services. Only 13.5 percent of respondents are served with door-to-door collection of solid waste, while the rest dispose of their waste at communal collection points, in open spaces, and in waterways. The majority of households store their waste in open containers and plastic bags in the home. Waste storage in the home is associated with the presence of houseflies in the kitchen (r = .17, p < .0001). The presence of houseflies in the kitchen during cooking is correlated with the incidence of childhood diarrhea (r = .36, p < .0001). Inadequate solid waste facilities result in indiscriminate burning and burying of solid waste. There is an association between waste burning and the incidence of respiratory health symptoms among adults (r = .25, p < .0001) and children (r = .22, p < .05). Poor handling and disposal of waste are major causes of environmental pollution, which creates breeding grounds for pathogenic organisms, and the spread of infectious diseases. Improving access to solid waste collection facilities and services will help achieve sound environmental health in Accra. PMID:16334095

  1. Arsenic in rural groundwater in Ghana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pauline L. Smedley

    1996-01-01

    Arsenic concentrations in groundwaters from two areas in Ghana, the Obuasi area in the Ashanti region and the Bolgatanga area of the Upper East region vary from <1–64 ?g 1?1 and <1–141 ?g 1?1, respectively. Sulphide minerals such as arsenopyrite and pyrite are present in the Birimian basement rocks of both areas and these form the dominant As sources. The

  2. Temporal trajectories of phosphorus and pedo-patterns mapped in Water Conservation Area 2, Everglades, Florida, USA

    E-print Network

    Grunwald, Sabine

    Temporal trajectories of phosphorus and pedo-patterns mapped in Water Conservation Area 2-patterns in Water Conservation Area 2, a subtropical wetland in the Everglades, Florida. Our specific objectives

  3. 50 CFR Table 44 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 44 Table 44 to Part 679 Wildlife and...Part 679—Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 1651.54W...

  4. 50 CFR Table 44 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 44 Table 44 to Part 679 Wildlife and...Part 679—Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 1651.54W...

  5. 50 CFR Table 44 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 44 Table 44 to Part 679 Wildlife and...Part 679—Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area Longitude Latitude 1651.54W...

  6. 78 FR 64004 - Notice of Intent To Collect Fees on Public Lands in the Red Cliffs National Conservation Area...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ...EB000] Notice of Intent To Collect Fees on Public Lands in the Red Cliffs National Conservation Area, Washington County, UT...54676), Notice of Intent to Collect Fees on Public Lands in the Red Cliffs National Conservation Area, Washington County,...

  7. Environmental Conservation/Studies "focus area" (with potential courses listed) Land and Water Resources

    E-print Network

    Schweik, Charles M.

    in Conservation NRC 597WR Water Resources Management & Policy NRC 597R Watershed Science and Management NRC 597U Urban Natural Resource Management NRC 597W Wetlands Assessment and Field Tech. PLNTSOIL 555 Urban EnvEnvironmental Conservation/Studies "focus area" (with potential courses listed) Land and Water

  8. Identification and Implementation of Native Fish Conservation Areas in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel C. Dauwalter; John S. Sanderson; Jack E. Williams; James R. Sedell

    2011-01-01

    Freshwater fishes continue to decline at a rapid rate despite substantial conservation efforts. Native fish conservation areas (NFCAs) are a management approach emphasizing persistent native fish communities and healthy watersheds while simultaneously allowing for compatible human uses. We identified potential NFCAs in the Upper Colorado River Basin in Wyoming—focusing on Colorado River cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus), flannelmouth sucker (Catostomus

  9. 77 FR 67830 - Establishment of Sangre de Cristo Conservation Area, Colorado and New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ...Ranch in Costilla County, Colorado. ADDRESSES: A map depicting...Conservation Area in south-central Colorado and far northern New Mexico...portions of Costilla County, Colorado, and Taos County, New Mexico...easements is from the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of...

  10. Opuntia in México: Identifying Priority Areas for Conserving Biodiversity in a Multi-Use Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Illoldi-Rangel, Patricia; Ciarleglio, Michael; Sheinvar, Leia; Linaje, Miguel; Sánchez-Cordero, Victor; Sarkar, Sahotra

    2012-01-01

    Background México is one of the world's centers of species diversity (richness) for Opuntia cacti. Yet, in spite of their economic and ecological importance, Opuntia species remain poorly studied and protected in México. Many of the species are sparsely but widely distributed across the landscape and are subject to a variety of human uses, so devising implementable conservation plans for them presents formidable difficulties. Multi–criteria analysis can be used to design a spatially coherent conservation area network while permitting sustainable human usage. Methods and Findings Species distribution models were created for 60 Opuntia species using MaxEnt. Targets of representation within conservation area networks were assigned at 100% for the geographically rarest species and 10% for the most common ones. Three different conservation plans were developed to represent the species within these networks using total area, shape, and connectivity as relevant criteria. Multi–criteria analysis and a metaheuristic adaptive tabu search algorithm were used to search for optimal solutions. The plans were built on the existing protected areas of México and prioritized additional areas for management for the persistence of Opuntia species. All plans required around one–third of México's total area to be prioritized for attention for Opuntia conservation, underscoring the implausibility of Opuntia conservation through traditional land reservation. Tabu search turned out to be both computationally tractable and easily implementable for search problems of this kind. Conclusions Opuntia conservation in México require the management of large areas of land for multiple uses. The multi-criteria analyses identified priority areas and organized them in large contiguous blocks that can be effectively managed. A high level of connectivity was established among the prioritized areas resulting in the enhancement of possible modes of plant dispersal as well as only a small number of blocks that would be recommended for conservation management. PMID:22606279

  11. Reconstructed Oceanic Sedimentary Sequence in the Cape Three Points Area, Southern Axim-Konongo (Ashanti) Greenstone Belt in the Paleoproterozoic Birimian of Ghana.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyokawa, S.; Ito, T.; Frank, N. K.; George, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Birimian greenstone belt likely formed through collision between the West African and Congo Cratons ~2.2 Ga. Accreted greenstone belts that formed through collision especially during the Palaeoproterozoic are usually not only good targets for preservation of oceanic sedimentary sequences but also greatly help understand the nature of the Paleoproterozoic deeper oceanic environments. In this study, we focused on the coastal area around Cape Three Points at the southernmost part of the Axim-Konongo (Ashanti) greenstone belt in Ghana where excellently preserved Paleoprotrozoic deeper oceanic sedimentary sequences extensively outcrop. The Birimian greenstone belt in both the Birimian rock (partly Sefwi Group) and Ashanti belts are separated from the Tarkwaian Group which is a paleoplacer deposit (Perrouty et al., 2012). The Birimian rock was identified as volcanic rich greenstone belt; Kumasi Group is foreland basin with shale and sandstone, quartzite and turbidite derived from 2.1 Ga granite in the Birimian; Tarkwaian Group is composed of coarse detrital sedimentary rocks deposited along a strike-slip fault in the Birimian. In the eastern part of the Cape Three Point area, over 4km long of volcanic-sedimentary sequence outcrops and is affected by greenschist facies metamorphism. Four demarcated zones along the coast as Kutike, Atwepo, Kwtakor and Akodaa zones. The boundaries of each zone were not observed, but each zone displays a well preserved and continuous sedimentary sequence. Structurally, this region is west vergent structure and younging direction to the East. Kutike zone exhibits synform structure with S0 younging direction. Provisional stratigraphic columns in all the zones total about 500m thick. Kutike, Atwepo zones (> 200m thick) have coarsening upward characteristics from black shale to bedded volcanic sandstone. Kwtakor zone (> 150m) is the thickest volcaniclastic sequence and has fining upward sections. Akodaa zone (> 150m) consists of finer bed of volcaniclastics with black shales and has fining upward character. This continuous sequence indicate distal portion of submarine volcaniclastic section in an oceanic island arc between the West African and Congo Cratons.

  12. Evaluation of the Diagnostic Accuracy of CareStart G6PD Deficiency Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) in a Malaria Endemic Area in Ghana, Africa

    PubMed Central

    Adu-Gyasi, Dennis; Asante, Kwaku Poku; Newton, Sam; Dosoo, David; Amoako, Sabastina; Adjei, George; Amoako, Nicholas; Ankrah, Love; Tchum, Samuel Kofi; Mahama, Emmanuel; Agyemang, Veronica; Kayan, Kingsley; Owusu-Agyei, Seth

    2015-01-01

    Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most widespread enzyme defect that can result in red cell breakdown under oxidative stress when exposed to certain medicines including antimalarials. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of CareStart G6PD deficiency Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) as a point-of-care tool for screening G6PD deficiency. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 206 randomly selected and consented participants from a group with known G6PD deficiency status between February 2013 and June 2013. A maximum of 1.6ml of capillary blood samples were used for G6PD deficiency screening using CareStart G6PD RDT and Trinity qualitative with Trinity quantitative methods as the “gold standard”. Samples were also screened for the presence of malaria parasites. Data entry and analysis were done using Microsoft Access 2010 and Stata Software version 12. Kintampo Health Research Centre Institutional Ethics Committee granted ethical approval. Results The sensitivity (SE) and specificity (SP) of CareStart G6PD deficiency RDT was 100% and 72.1% compared to Trinity quantitative method respectively and was 98.9% and 96.2% compared to Trinity qualitative method. Malaria infection status had no significant (P=0.199) change on the performance of the G6PD RDT test kit compared to the “gold standard”. Conclusions The outcome of this study suggests that the diagnostic performance of the CareStart G6PD deficiency RDT kit was high and it is acceptable at determining the G6PD deficiency status in a high malaria endemic area in Ghana. The RDT kit presents as an attractive tool for point-of-care G6PD deficiency for rapid testing in areas with high temperatures and less expertise. The CareStart G6PD deficiency RDT kit could be used to screen malaria patients before administration of the fixed dose primaquine with artemisinin-based combination therapy. PMID:25885097

  13. Understanding the Participation of Marginal Groups in Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal

    E-print Network

    Dahal, Smriti

    2012-02-14

    as barriers to sustainable development of resources and communities. Using a political ecology approach, this research explored the participation of marginal groups (poor, women, and lower caste) in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area. The main objectives...

  14. 43 CFR 21.5 - Occupancy under permit of Government-owned cabins on public recreation and conservation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Government-owned cabins on public recreation and conservation areas. 21.5 Section 21.5... OCCUPANCY OF CABIN SITES ON PUBLIC CONSERVATION AND RECREATION AREAS § 21.5 ...Government-owned cabins on public recreation and conservation areas. (a) Those...

  15. 43 CFR 21.5 - Occupancy under permit of Government-owned cabins on public recreation and conservation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Government-owned cabins on public recreation and conservation areas. 21.5 Section 21.5... OCCUPANCY OF CABIN SITES ON PUBLIC CONSERVATION AND RECREATION AREAS § 21.5 ...Government-owned cabins on public recreation and conservation areas. (a) Those...

  16. 43 CFR 21.5 - Occupancy under permit of Government-owned cabins on public recreation and conservation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Government-owned cabins on public recreation and conservation areas. 21.5 Section 21.5... OCCUPANCY OF CABIN SITES ON PUBLIC CONSERVATION AND RECREATION AREAS § 21.5 ...Government-owned cabins on public recreation and conservation areas. (a) Those...

  17. 78 FR 54675 - Notice of Intent To Collect Fees on Public Lands in the Red Cliffs National Conservation Area...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ...Intent To Collect Fees on Public Lands in the Red Cliffs National Conservation Area, Washington...at the White Reef Park, located in the Red Cliffs National Conservation Area (NCA...Mail: NCA Manager, Beaver Dam Wash and Red Cliffs National Conservation Areas,...

  18. Environmental Conservation/Studies "focus area" (with potential courses listed) Biodiversity Conservation

    E-print Network

    Schweik, Charles M.

    Conservation ANTHRO 317 Primate Behavior BIOLOGY 108 Biodiversity BIOLOGY 297B Marine Vertebrates BIOLOGY 426 New England Flora BIOLOGY 540 Herpetology BIOLOGY 542 Icthyology BIOLOGY 544 Ornithology BIOLOGY 548 Mammalogy BIOLOGY 550 Animal Behavior BIOLOGY 597G Env Evolution ENTOMOL 572 Forest Insects ENVIRDES 335

  19. 43 CFR 21.6 - Cabin site occupancy where a recreation or conservation area has been leased to, or turned over...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...occupancy where a recreation or conservation area has been leased to...OCCUPANCY OF CABIN SITES ON PUBLIC CONSERVATION AND RECREATION AREAS § 21...occupancy where a recreation or conservation area has been leased...

  20. 43 CFR 21.6 - Cabin site occupancy where a recreation or conservation area has been leased to, or turned over...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...occupancy where a recreation or conservation area has been leased to...OCCUPANCY OF CABIN SITES ON PUBLIC CONSERVATION AND RECREATION AREAS § 21...occupancy where a recreation or conservation area has been leased...

  1. 43 CFR 21.6 - Cabin site occupancy where a recreation or conservation area has been leased to, or turned over...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...occupancy where a recreation or conservation area has been leased to...OCCUPANCY OF CABIN SITES ON PUBLIC CONSERVATION AND RECREATION AREAS § 21...occupancy where a recreation or conservation area has been leased...

  2. 43 CFR 21.6 - Cabin site occupancy where a recreation or conservation area has been leased to, or turned over...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...occupancy where a recreation or conservation area has been leased to...OCCUPANCY OF CABIN SITES ON PUBLIC CONSERVATION AND RECREATION AREAS § 21...occupancy where a recreation or conservation area has been leased...

  3. 43 CFR 21.6 - Cabin site occupancy where a recreation or conservation area has been leased to, or turned over...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...occupancy where a recreation or conservation area has been leased to...OCCUPANCY OF CABIN SITES ON PUBLIC CONSERVATION AND RECREATION AREAS § 21...occupancy where a recreation or conservation area has been leased...

  4. Socioeconomic issues for the Bear River Watershed Conservation Land Area Protection Plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Catherine Cullinane; Huber, Christopher; Gascoigne, William; Koontz, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    The Bear River Watershed Conservation Area is located in the Bear River Watershed, a vast basin covering fourteen counties across three states. Located in Wyoming, Utah, and Idaho, the watershed spans roughly 7,500 squares miles: 1,500 squares miles in Wyoming; 2,700 squares miles in Idaho; and 3,300 squares miles in Utah (Utah Division of Water Resources, 2004). Three National Wildlife Refuges are currently contained within the boundary of the BRWCA: the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge in Utah, the Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Idaho, and the Cokeville Meadows National Wildlife Refuge in Wyoming. In 2010, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service conducted a Preliminary Project Proposal and identified the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area as having high-value wildlife habitat. This finding initiated the Land Protection Planning process, which is used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to study land conservation opportunities including adding lands to the National Wildlife Refuge System. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposes to include part of the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area in the Refuge System by acquiring up to 920,000 acres of conservation easements from willing landowners to maintain landscape integrity and habitat connectivity in the region. The analysis described in this report provides a profile of the social and economic conditions in the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area and addresses social and economic questions and concerns raised during public involvement in the Land Protection Planning process.

  5. Distribution of small cetaceans within a candidate Special Area of Conservation; implications for management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gordon D. Hastie; Tim R. Barton; Kate Grellier; Philip S. Hammond; René J. Swift; Paul M. Thompson; Ben Wilson

    Information on cetacean distribution plays an important role in the identification of suitable boundaries for marine protected areas, but is also crucial for developing management and monitoring programmes. In response to the European 'Habitats Directive', a candidate Special Area of Conservation (cSAC) has been established in the Moray Firth, northeast Scotland to protect a small and isolated populat ion of

  6. Sand pads: A promising technique to quantify human visitation into nature conservation areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael A. Weston; Mark J. Antos; Chris L. Tzaros

    2009-01-01

    In many places the expansion of urban areas has brought recreationists into close proximity to nature conservation areas, sometimes leading to conflict where recreation and sensitive environmental or natural values are incompatible. An important first step in managing these conflicts is to assess the degree and nature of the problem. We describe the application, and methodological considerations, associated with the

  7. Using a distribution and conservation status weighted hotspot approach to identify areas in need of conservation action to benefit Idaho bird species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, Aaron M.; Leu, Matthias; Svancara, Leona K.; Wilson, Gina; Scott, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Identification of biodiversity hotspots (hereafter, hotspots) has become a common strategy to delineate important areas for wildlife conservation. However, the use of hotspots has not often incorporated important habitat types, ecosystem services, anthropogenic activity, or consistency in identifying important conservation areas. The purpose of this study was to identify hotspots to improve avian conservation efforts for Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN) in the state of Idaho, United States. We evaluated multiple approaches to define hotspots and used a unique approach based on weighting species by their distribution size and conservation status to identify hotspot areas. All hotspot approaches identified bodies of water (Bear Lake, Grays Lake, and American Falls Reservoir) as important hotspots for Idaho avian SGCN, but we found that the weighted approach produced more congruent hotspot areas when compared to other hotspot approaches. To incorporate anthropogenic activity into hotspot analysis, we grouped species based on their sensitivity to specific human threats (i.e., urban development, agriculture, fire suppression, grazing, roads, and logging) and identified ecological sections within Idaho that may require specific conservation actions to address these human threats using the weighted approach. The Snake River Basalts and Overthrust Mountains ecological sections were important areas for potential implementation of conservation actions to conserve biodiversity. Our approach to identifying hotspots may be useful as part of a larger conservation strategy to aid land managers or local governments in applying conservation actions on the ground.

  8. Wood density as a conservation tool: quantification of disturbance and identification of conservation-priority areas in tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Slik, J W Ferry; Bernard, Caroline S; Breman, Floris C; VAN Beek, Marloes; Salim, Agus; Sheil, Douglas

    2008-10-01

    Inventories of tree species are often conducted to guide conservation efforts in tropical forests. Such surveys are time consuming, demanding of expertise, and expensive to perform and interpret. Approaches to make survey efforts simpler or more effective would be valuable. In particular, it would be good to be able to easily identify areas of old-growth forest. The average density of the wood of a tree species is closely linked to its successional status. We used tree inventory data from eastern Borneo to determine whether wood density can be used to quantify forest disturbance and conservation importance. The average density of wood in a plot was significantly and negatively related to disturbance levels, with plots with higher wood densities occurring almost exclusively in old-growth forests. Average wood density was unimodally related to the diversity of tree species, indicating that the average wood density in a plot might be a better indicator of old-growth forest than species diversity. In addition, Borneo endemics had significantly heavier wood than species that are common throughout the Malesian region, and they were more common in plots with higher average wood density. We concluded that wood density at the plot level could be a powerful tool for identifying areas of conservation priority in the tropical rain forests of Southeast Asia. PMID:18637916

  9. A conservation planning approach to mitigate the impacts of leakage from protected area networks.

    PubMed

    Bode, Michael; Tulloch, Ayesha I T; Mills, Morena; Venter, Oscar; W Ando, Amy

    2015-06-01

    Protected area networks are designed to restrict anthropogenic pressures in areas of high biodiversity. Resource users respond by seeking to replace some or all of the lost resources from locations elsewhere in the landscape. Protected area networks thereby perturb the pattern of human pressures by displacing extractive effort from within protected areas into the broader landscape, a process known as leakage. The negative effects of leakage on conservation outcomes have been empirically documented and modeled using homogeneous descriptions of conservation landscapes. Human resource use and biodiversity vary greatly in space, however, and a theory of leakage must describe how this heterogeneity affects the magnitude, pattern, and biodiversity impacts of leakage. We combined models of household utility, adaptive human foraging, and biodiversity conservation to provide a bioeconomic model of leakage that accounts for spatial heterogeneity. Leakage had strong and divergent impacts on the performance of protected area networks, undermining biodiversity benefits but mitigating the negative impacts on local resource users. When leakage was present, our model showed that poorly designed protected area networks resulted in a substantial net loss of biodiversity. However, the effects of leakage can be mitigated if they are incorporated ex-ante into the conservation planning process. If protected areas are coupled with nonreserve policy instruments such as market subsidies, our model shows that the trade-offs between biodiversity and human well-being can be further and more directly reduced. PMID:25494874

  10. Fuel conservation possibilities for terminal area compatible aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Design features and operational procedures are identified, which would reduce fuel consumption of future transport aircraft. The fuel-saving potential can be realized during the last decade of this century only if the necessary research and technology programs are implemented in the areas of composite primary structure, airfoil/wing design, and stability augmentation systems. The necessary individual R and T programs are defined. The sensitivity to fuel usage of several design parameters (wing geometry, cruise speed, propulsion) is investigated, and the results applied to a candidate 18, 140-kg (40,000-lb) payload, 5556-km (3000-nmi) transport design. Technical and economic comparisons are made with current commercial aircraft and other advanced designs.

  11. Identification of Priority Conservation Areas and Potential Corridors for Jaguars in the Caatinga Biome, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Morato, Ronaldo Gonçalves; Ferraz, Katia Maria Paschoaletto Micchi de Barros; de Paula, Rogério Cunha; de Campos, Cláudia Bueno

    2014-01-01

    The jaguar, Panthera onca, is a top predator with the extant population found within the Brazilian Caatinga biome now known to be on the brink of extinction. Designing new conservation units and potential corridors are therefore crucial for the long-term survival of the species within the Caatinga biome. Thus, our aims were: 1) to recognize suitable areas for jaguar occurrence, 2) to delineate areas for jaguar conservation (PJCUs), 3) to design corridors among priority areas, and 4) to prioritize PJCUs. A total of 62 points records of jaguar occurrence and 10 potential predictors were analyzed in a GIS environment. A predictive distributional map was obtained using Species Distribution Modeling (SDM) as performed by the Maximum Entropy (Maxent) algorithm. Areas equal to or higher than the median suitability value of 0.595 were selected as of high suitability for jaguar occurrence and named as Priority Jaguar Conservation Units (PJCU). Ten PJCUs with sizes varying from 23.6 km2 to 4,311.0 km2 were identified. Afterwards, we combined the response curve, as generated by SDM, and expert opinions to create a permeability matrix and to identify least cost corridors and buffer zones between each PJCU pair. Connectivity corridors and buffer zone for jaguar movement included an area of 8.884,26 km2 and the total corridor length is about 160.94 km. Prioritizing criteria indicated the PJCU representing c.a. 68.61% of the total PJCU area (PJCU # 1) as of high priority for conservation and connectivity with others PJCUs (PJCUs # 4, 5 and 7) desirable for the long term survival of the species. In conclusion, by using the jaguar as a focal species and combining SDM and expert opinion we were able to create a valid framework for practical conservation actions at the Caatinga biome. The same approach could be used for the conservation of other carnivores. PMID:24709817

  12. Identification of priority conservation areas and potential corridors for jaguars in the Caatinga biome, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Morato, Ronaldo Gonçalves; Ferraz, Katia Maria Paschoaletto Micchi de Barros; de Paula, Rogério Cunha; de Campos, Cláudia Bueno

    2014-01-01

    The jaguar, Panthera onca, is a top predator with the extant population found within the Brazilian Caatinga biome now known to be on the brink of extinction. Designing new conservation units and potential corridors are therefore crucial for the long-term survival of the species within the Caatinga biome. Thus, our aims were: 1) to recognize suitable areas for jaguar occurrence, 2) to delineate areas for jaguar conservation (PJCUs), 3) to design corridors among priority areas, and 4) to prioritize PJCUs. A total of 62 points records of jaguar occurrence and 10 potential predictors were analyzed in a GIS environment. A predictive distributional map was obtained using Species Distribution Modeling (SDM) as performed by the Maximum Entropy (Maxent) algorithm. Areas equal to or higher than the median suitability value of 0.595 were selected as of high suitability for jaguar occurrence and named as Priority Jaguar Conservation Units (PJCU). Ten PJCUs with sizes varying from 23.6 km2 to 4,311.0 km2 were identified. Afterwards, we combined the response curve, as generated by SDM, and expert opinions to create a permeability matrix and to identify least cost corridors and buffer zones between each PJCU pair. Connectivity corridors and buffer zone for jaguar movement included an area of 8.884,26 km2 and the total corridor length is about 160.94 km. Prioritizing criteria indicated the PJCU representing c.a. 68.61% of the total PJCU area (PJCU # 1) as of high priority for conservation and connectivity with others PJCUs (PJCUs # 4, 5 and 7) desirable for the long term survival of the species. In conclusion, by using the jaguar as a focal species and combining SDM and expert opinion we were able to create a valid framework for practical conservation actions at the Caatinga biome. The same approach could be used for the conservation of other carnivores. PMID:24709817

  13. 50 CFR Table 2 (south) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed Gear South of 40°10...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry... Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...Subpart E—Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited...

  14. 50 CFR Table 3 (south) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears South of 40°10? N. Lat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access... Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...Subpart F—Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open...

  15. 50 CFR Table 2 (south) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed Gear South of 40°10...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry... Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...Subpart E—Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited...

  16. 50 CFR Table 2 (south) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed Gear South of 40°10...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry... Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...Subpart E—Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited...

  17. 50 CFR Table 3 (north) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears North of 40°10? N. Lat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access... Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...Subpart F—Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open...

  18. 50 CFR Table 2 (north) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed Gear North of 40°10...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry... Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...Subpart E—Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited...

  19. 50 CFR Table 24 to Part 679 - Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic Trawl Fishing... Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic Trawl...

  20. 50 CFR Table 24 to Part 679 - Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic Trawl Fishing... Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic Trawl...

  1. 50 CFR Table 2 (north) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed Gear North of 40°10...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry... Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...Subpart E—Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited...

  2. Impacts of climate change on prioritizing conservation areas of hydrological ecosystem services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lien, Wan Yu; Lin, Yu Pin

    2015-04-01

    Ecosystem services (ESs) including hydrological services play important roles in our daily life and provide a lot of benefits for human beings from ecological systems. The systems and their services may be threatened by climate change from global to local scales. We herein developed a systematic approach to assess the impacts of climate change on the hydrological ecosystem services, such as water yield, nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorous) retention, and soil retention in a watershed in Northern Taiwan. We first used an ecosystem service evaluation model, InVEST, to estimate the amount and spatial patterns of annual and monthly hydrological ecosystem services under historical weather data, and different climate change scenarios based on five GMSs. The monthly and annual spatiotemporal variations of the ESs were analyzed in this study. Finally, the multiple estimated ESs were considered as the protection conservation targets and regarded as the input data of the systematic conservation planning software, Zonation, to systematically prioritize reserve areas of the ESs under the climate change scenarios. The ES estimation results indicated that the increasing rainfall in wet season leads to the higher water yield and results in the higher sediment and nutrient export indirectly. The Zonation successfully fielded conservation priorities of the ESs. The conservation priorities of the ESs significantly varied spatially and monthly under the climate change scenarios. The ESs results also indicated that the areas where ESs values and conservation priorities with low resilience under climate change should be considered as high priority protected area to ensure the hydrological services in future. Our proposed approach is a novel systematic approach which can be applied to assess impacts of climate change on spatiotemporal variations of ESs as well as prioritize protected area of the ESs under various climate change scenarios. Keyword: climate change, ecosystem service, conservation planning, spatial analysis.

  3. Ghana: Disability and Spirituality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botts, Betsy H.; Evans, William H.

    2010-01-01

    This descriptive study explores the educational system and attitudes toward disability in the Volta Region of Ghana. Traditional, Christian, and Islamic beliefs toward disability are explored. Educators from Accra and three families from the Volta Region with children with special needs are interviewed in an effort to explore the connection…

  4. Current models broadly neglect specific needs of biodiversity conservation in protected areas under climate change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mungla Sieck; Pierre L Ibisch; Kirk A Moloney; Florian Jeltsch

    2011-01-01

    Background  Protected areas are the most common and important instrument for the conservation of biological diversity and are called for\\u000a under the United Nations' Convention on Biological Diversity. Growing human population densities, intensified land-use, invasive species and increasing habitat fragmentation threaten\\u000a ecosystems worldwide and protected areas are often the only refuge for endangered species. Climate change is posing an additional\\u000a threat

  5. Spatial Distribution of Soil Nutrients in a Northern Everglades Marsh: Water Conservation Area 2A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. F. DeBusk; K. R. Reddy; M. S. Koch; M. M. Fisher; G. Shih

    1994-01-01

    The Florida Everglades developed as a nutrient-poor, rain-fed eco- system. However, for the past 30 yr, the Everglades have received nutrient-enriched surface water runoff from the adjacent Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA). This study examines the response of a pristine wetland, Water Conservation Area 1 (WCA 1), part of the northern Florida Everglades, to nutrient loading as documented by soil nutrient

  6. Environmental Conservation/Studies "focus area" (with potential courses listed) Energy and the Environment

    E-print Network

    Schweik, Charles M.

    Environmental Conservation/Studies "focus area" (with potential courses listed) Energy Energy Efficient Housing * BCT 304 Properties of Wood * BCT 313 Light-Frame Structure Technology * BCT (minimum 3 cr) * BCT 220 Introduction to CAD in Construction and Architecture * BCT 420 Advanced Topics

  7. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Forrest Conservation Area, Technical Report 2003-2004

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2005-01-01

    The Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) study was performed to determine baseline habitat units on the 4,232-acre Forrest Conservation Area managed by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribe) in Grant County, Oregon. The habitat evaluation is required as part of the Memorandum of Agreement between the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs and Bonneville Power Administration. Representatives

  8. Calibration of diatoms along a nutrient gradient in Florida Everglades Water Conservation Area2A, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sherri R. Cooper; Jacqueline Huvane; Panchabi Vaithiyanathan; Curtis J. Richardson

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between diatom taxa preserved in surface soils and environmental variables at 31 sites in Water Conservation Area 2A (WCA-2A) of the Florida Everglades was explored using multivariate analyses. Surface soils were collected along a phosphorus (P) gradient and analyzed for diatoms, total P, % nitrogen (N), %carbon (C), calcium (Ca), and biogenic silica (BSi). Phosphorus varied from 315-1781

  9. Width of grassland linkages for the conservation of butterflies in South African afforested areas

    E-print Network

    Width of grassland linkages for the conservation of butterflies in South African afforested areas butterflies to change direction and move away from the pine edge. Only four species crossed the grassland/pine edge, and of these, only two flew farther than 20 m into the pine forest. The adjacent grassland

  10. Requirements for Sustainable Nature-based Tourism in Transfrontier Conservation Areas: a Southern African Delphi Consultation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Spenceley

    2008-01-01

    Over the years a plethora of factors have been associated with sustainable tourism in the literature, but little has been done to prioritize those that are most important to stakeholders in destinations. In particular, this research aimed to identify factors perceived as essential for sustainable nature-based tourism operating in transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs) in southern Africa. A Delphi consultation was

  11. Inducing Conservation of Number, Weight, Volume, Area, and Mass in Pre-School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Beverly S.

    The major question this study attempted to answer was, "Can conservation of number, area, weight, mass, and volume to be induced and retained by 3- and 4-year-old children by structured instruction with a multivariate approach? Three nursery schools in Iowa City supplied subjects for this study. The Institute of Child Behavior and Development…

  12. Northwest Power and Conservation Council Protected Areas Designations, Fish and Wildlife Program

    E-print Network

    identified for the Pacific Northwest Region (Region 17) from the 2014 US Department of Energy Study (E-1 fromPage | 1 Northwest Power and Conservation Council Protected Areas Designations, Fish and Wildlife Program There are hydropower projects identified in the studies that can be developed at existing

  13. Marine and terrestrial protected areas in Mexico: Importance of their functional connectivity in conservation management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Ortiz-Lozano; A. L. Gutiérrez-Velázquez; A. Granados-Barba

    2009-01-01

    In coastal zones, natural protected areas have been created without considering the relationship between the two environments they involve. This is currently a crucial challenge for conservation efforts, because the protection initiatives taken in coastal watersheds need to be integrated with the marine component. With the aim of contributing to increase the knowledge in this issue, the present work analyzes

  14. The role of IUCN protected area categories in the conservation of geoheritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Kyung Sik; Gordon, John E.; Crofts, Roger; Diaz-Martinez, Enrique; McKeever, Patrick J.; Hill, Wesley

    2015-04-01

    Geoheritage comprises those elements of the Earth's geodiversity that are considered to have significant scientific, educational, cultural/aesthetic, ecological or ecosystem service value. IUCN Resolutions 4.040 (2008) and 5.048 (2012) both clearly recognise that geodiversity is part of nature and geoheritage is part of natural heritage. Formal recognition of the geodiversity component of protected areas was made in 2008 in the revised IUCN Guidelines for Applying Protected Area Management Categories (Dudley, 2008). All 6 of the IUCN Protected Area Management Categories (strict nature reserve/wilderness area, national park, national monument or feature, habitat/species management area, protected landscape/seascape, and protected area with sustainable use of natural resources) are applicable to the protection of geoheritage and provide opportunities to integrate conservation of geosites and the wider landscape values of geodiversity much more closely in protected area networks (Crofts & Gordon, 2015). Although geoparks are not a protected area category as such, and may only include some parts of protected areas as geosites, the UNESCO-supported Global Geoparks Network also provides an international framework to conserve and enhance geoheritage, as does the UNESCO World Heritage List. The Geoheritage Specialist Group of the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas provides specialist advice and guidance on all aspects of geodiversity and geoheritage in relation to the establishment and management of protected areas, the integration of geodiversity into IUCN's programmes, and the promotion of better understanding of the links between geodiversity and biodiversity. http://www.iucn.org/about/work/programmes/gpap_home/gpap_biodiversity/gpap_wcpabiodiv/gpap_geoheritage/). Crofts, R., Gordon, J. E. (2015) Geoconservation in protected areas. In: G.L. Worboys, M. Lockwood, A. Kothari, S. Feary, I. Pulsford (eds), Protected Area Governance and Management. ANU Press, Canberra, 531-567. Dudley, N. (ed.) (2008) Guidelines for Applying Protected Area Management Categories. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

  15. Report on the feasibility study for improving electric motor service centers in Ghana

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, J.S.; Jallouk, P.A.; Staunton, R.H.

    1999-12-10

    On March 3 and 4, 1998, a visit was made to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by two officials from Ghana: Mr. I.K. Mintah, Acting Executive Director, Technical Wing, Ministry of Mines and Energy (MOME) and Dr. A.K. Ofosu-Ahenkorah, Coordinator, Energy Efficiency and Conservation Program, MOME. As a result of this visit, Dr. John S. Hsu of ORNL was invited by MOME to visit the Republic of Ghana in order to study the feasibility of improving electric motor service centers in Ghana.

  16. Using probability of persistence to identify important areas for biodiversity conservation.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, P H; Araújo, M B

    2000-01-01

    Most attempts to identify important areas for biodiversity have sought to represent valued features from what is known of their current distribution, and have treated all included records as equivalent. We develop the idea that a more direct way of planning for conservation success is to consider the probability of persistence for the valued features. Probabilities also provide a consistent basis for integrating the many pattern and process factors affecting conservation success. To apply the approach, we describe a method for seeking networks of conservation areas that maximize probabilities of persistence across species. With data for European trees, this method requires less than half as many areas as an earlier method to represent all species with a probability of at least 0.95 (where possible). Alternatively, for trials choosing any number of areas between one and 50, the method increases the mean probability among species by more than 10%. This improvement benefits the least-widespread species the most and results in greater connectivity among selected areas. The proposed method can accommodate local differences in viability, vulnerability, threats, costs, or other social and political constraints, and is applicable in principle to any surrogate measure for biodiversity value. PMID:11075708

  17. Phylogenetic diversity meets conservation policy: small areas are key to preserving eucalypt lineages

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Laura J.; Rosauer, Dan F.; Thornhill, Andrew H.; Kujala, Heini; Crisp, Michael D.; Miller, Joseph T.; McCarthy, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary and genetic knowledge is increasingly being valued in conservation theory, but is rarely considered in conservation planning and policy. Here, we integrate phylogenetic diversity (PD) with spatial reserve prioritization to evaluate how well the existing reserve system in Victoria, Australia captures the evolutionary lineages of eucalypts, which dominate forest canopies across the state. Forty-three per cent of remaining native woody vegetation in Victoria is located in protected areas (mostly national parks) representing 48% of the extant PD found in the state. A modest expansion in protected areas of 5% (less than 1% of the state area) would increase protected PD by 33% over current levels. In a recent policy change, portions of the national parks were opened for development. These tourism development zones hold over half the PD found in national parks with some species and clades falling entirely outside of protected zones within the national parks. This approach of using PD in spatial prioritization could be extended to any clade or area that has spatial and phylogenetic data. Our results demonstrate the relevance of PD to regional conservation policy by highlighting that small but strategically located areas disproportionally impact the preservation of evolutionary lineages. PMID:25561668

  18. Housing growth in and near United States protected areas limits their conservation value

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Radeloff, V.C.; Stewart, S.I.; Hawbaker, T.J.; Gimmi, U.; Pidgeon, A.M.; Flather, C.H.; Hammer, R.B.; Helmers, D.P.

    2010-01-01

    Protected areas are crucial for biodiversity conservation because they provide safe havens for species threatened by land-use change and resulting habitat loss. However, protected areas are only effective when they stop habitat loss within their boundaries, and are connected via corridors to other wild areas. The effectiveness of protected areas is threatened by development; however, the extent of this threat is unknown. We compiled spatially-detailed housing growth data from 1940 to 2030, and quantified growth for each wilderness area, national park, and national forest in the conterminous United States. Our findings show that housing development in the United States may severely limit the ability of protected areas to function as a modern "Noah's Ark." Between 1940 and 2000, 28 million housing units were built within 50 km of protected areas, and 940,000 were built within national forests. Housing growth rates during the 1990s within 1 km of protected areas (20% per decade) outpaced the national average (13%). If long-term trends continue, another 17 million housing units will be built within 50 km of protected areas by 2030 (1 million within 1 km), greatly diminishing their conservation value. US protected areas are increasingly isolated, housing development in their surroundings is decreasing their effective size, and national forests are even threatened by habitat loss within their administrative boundaries. Protected areas in the United States are thus threatened similarly to those in developing countries. However, housing growth poses the main threat to protected areas in the United States whereas deforestation is the main threat in developing countries.

  19. Housing growth in and near United States protected areas limits their conservation value

    PubMed Central

    Radeloff, Volker C.; Stewart, Susan I.; Hawbaker, Todd J.; Gimmi, Urs; Pidgeon, Anna M.; Flather, Curtis H.; Hammer, Roger B.; Helmers, David P.

    2009-01-01

    Protected areas are crucial for biodiversity conservation because they provide safe havens for species threatened by land-use change and resulting habitat loss. However, protected areas are only effective when they stop habitat loss within their boundaries, and are connected via corridors to other wild areas. The effectiveness of protected areas is threatened by development; however, the extent of this threat is unknown. We compiled spatially-detailed housing growth data from 1940 to 2030, and quantified growth for each wilderness area, national park, and national forest in the conterminous United States. Our findings show that housing development in the United States may severely limit the ability of protected areas to function as a modern “Noah’s Ark.” Between 1940 and 2000, 28 million housing units were built within 50 km of protected areas, and 940,000 were built within national forests. Housing growth rates during the 1990s within 1 km of protected areas (20% per decade) outpaced the national average (13%). If long-term trends continue, another 17 million housing units will be built within 50 km of protected areas by 2030 (1 million within 1 km), greatly diminishing their conservation value. US protected areas are increasingly isolated, housing development in their surroundings is decreasing their effective size, and national forests are even threatened by habitat loss within their administrative boundaries. Protected areas in the United States are thus threatened similarly to those in developing countries. However, housing growth poses the main threat to protected areas in the United States whereas deforestation is the main threat in developing countries. PMID:20080780

  20. 50 CFR Figure 21 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 21 Figure 21 to Part 679 Wildlife and...Part 679—Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.012 [73 FR 43372,...

  1. 50 CFR Figure 21 to Part 679 - Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... false Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area 21 Figure 21 to Part 679 Wildlife and...Part 679—Nunivak Island, Etolin Strait, and Kuskokwim Bay Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.012 [73 FR 43372,...

  2. 50 CFR Figure 20 to Part 679 - Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea 20 Figure 20...ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 20 Figure 20 to Part 679—Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea...

  3. 50 CFR Figure 20 to Part 679 - Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea 20 Figure 20...ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 20 Figure 20 to Part 679—Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea...

  4. Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

  5. Protected areas alleviate climate change effects on northern bird species of conservation concern

    PubMed Central

    Virkkala, Raimo; Pöyry, Juha; Heikkinen, Risto K; Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Valkama, Jari

    2014-01-01

    Global climate change is a major threat to biodiversity, posing increasing pressures on species to adapt in situ or shift their ranges. A protected area network is one of the main instruments to alleviate the negative impacts of climate change. Importantly, protected area networks might be expected to enhance the resilience of regional populations of species of conservation concern, resulting in slower species loss in landscapes with a significant amount of protected habitat compared to unprotected landscapes. Based on national bird atlases compiled in 1974–1989 and 2006–2010, this study examines the recent range shifts in 90 forest, mire, marshland, and Arctic mountain heath bird species of conservation concern in Finland, as well as the changes in their species richness in protected versus unprotected areas. The trends emerging from the atlas data comparisons were also related to the earlier study dealing with predictions of distributional changes for these species for the time slice of 2051–2080, developed using bioclimatic envelope models (BEMs). Our results suggest that the observed changes in bird distributions are in the same direction as the BEM-based predictions, resulting in a decrease in species richness of mire and Arctic mountain heath species and an increase in marshland species. The patterns of changes in species richness between the two time slices are in general parallel in protected and unprotected areas. However, importantly, protected areas maintained a higher level of species richness than unprotected areas. This finding provides support for the significance and resilience provision of protected area networks in preserving species of conservation concern under climate change. PMID:25247057

  6. Protected areas alleviate climate change effects on northern bird species of conservation concern.

    PubMed

    Virkkala, Raimo; Pöyry, Juha; Heikkinen, Risto K; Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Valkama, Jari

    2014-08-01

    Global climate change is a major threat to biodiversity, posing increasing pressures on species to adapt in situ or shift their ranges. A protected area network is one of the main instruments to alleviate the negative impacts of climate change. Importantly, protected area networks might be expected to enhance the resilience of regional populations of species of conservation concern, resulting in slower species loss in landscapes with a significant amount of protected habitat compared to unprotected landscapes. Based on national bird atlases compiled in 1974-1989 and 2006-2010, this study examines the recent range shifts in 90 forest, mire, marshland, and Arctic mountain heath bird species of conservation concern in Finland, as well as the changes in their species richness in protected versus unprotected areas. The trends emerging from the atlas data comparisons were also related to the earlier study dealing with predictions of distributional changes for these species for the time slice of 2051-2080, developed using bioclimatic envelope models (BEMs). Our results suggest that the observed changes in bird distributions are in the same direction as the BEM-based predictions, resulting in a decrease in species richness of mire and Arctic mountain heath species and an increase in marshland species. The patterns of changes in species richness between the two time slices are in general parallel in protected and unprotected areas. However, importantly, protected areas maintained a higher level of species richness than unprotected areas. This finding provides support for the significance and resilience provision of protected area networks in preserving species of conservation concern under climate change. PMID:25247057

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF SOIL PROPERTIES IN WATER CONSERVATION AREA 2A, EVERGLADES, FLORIDA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosanna G. Rivero; Sabine Grunwald; Todd Z. Osborne; K. Ramesh Reddy; Sue Newman

    2007-01-01

    Wetland soils are heterogenous in nature, and biogeochemical proper- ties show different spatial autocorrelation structures that translate into fine- and coarse-scale spatial patterns. Understanding these patterns and how they relate to other ecosystem properties (e.g., vegetation) is critical to restore wetlands impacted by nutrient influx. Our goal was to investigate Water Conservation Area 2A, a wetland in the Florida Everglades,

  8. Global conservation outcomes depend on marine protected areas with five key features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgar, Graham J.; Stuart-Smith, Rick D.; Willis, Trevor J.; Kininmonth, Stuart; Baker, Susan C.; Banks, Stuart; Barrett, Neville S.; Becerro, Mikel A.; Bernard, Anthony T. F.; Berkhout, Just; Buxton, Colin D.; Campbell, Stuart J.; Cooper, Antonia T.; Davey, Marlene; Edgar, Sophie C.; Försterra, Günter; Galván, David E.; Irigoyen, Alejo J.; Kushner, David J.; Moura, Rodrigo; Parnell, P. Ed; Shears, Nick T.; Soler, German; Strain, Elisabeth M. A.; Thomson, Russell J.

    2014-02-01

    In line with global targets agreed under the Convention on Biological Diversity, the number of marine protected areas (MPAs) is increasing rapidly, yet socio-economic benefits generated by MPAs remain difficult to predict and under debate. MPAs often fail to reach their full potential as a consequence of factors such as illegal harvesting, regulations that legally allow detrimental harvesting, or emigration of animals outside boundaries because of continuous habitat or inadequate size of reserve. Here we show that the conservation benefits of 87 MPAs investigated worldwide increase exponentially with the accumulation of five key features: no take, well enforced, old (>10 years), large (>100km2), and isolated by deep water or sand. Using effective MPAs with four or five key features as an unfished standard, comparisons of underwater survey data from effective MPAs with predictions based on survey data from fished coasts indicate that total fish biomass has declined about two-thirds from historical baselines as a result of fishing. Effective MPAs also had twice as many large (>250mm total length) fish species per transect, five times more large fish biomass, and fourteen times more shark biomass than fished areas. Most (59%) of the MPAs studied had only one or two key features and were not ecologically distinguishable from fished sites. Our results show that global conservation targets based on area alone will not optimize protection of marine biodiversity. More emphasis is needed on better MPA design, durable management and compliance to ensure that MPAs achieve their desired conservation value.

  9. Global conservation outcomes depend on marine protected areas with five key features.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Graham J; Stuart-Smith, Rick D; Willis, Trevor J; Kininmonth, Stuart; Baker, Susan C; Banks, Stuart; Barrett, Neville S; Becerro, Mikel A; Bernard, Anthony T F; Berkhout, Just; Buxton, Colin D; Campbell, Stuart J; Cooper, Antonia T; Davey, Marlene; Edgar, Sophie C; Försterra, Günter; Galván, David E; Irigoyen, Alejo J; Kushner, David J; Moura, Rodrigo; Parnell, P Ed; Shears, Nick T; Soler, German; Strain, Elisabeth M A; Thomson, Russell J

    2014-02-13

    In line with global targets agreed under the Convention on Biological Diversity, the number of marine protected areas (MPAs) is increasing rapidly, yet socio-economic benefits generated by MPAs remain difficult to predict and under debate. MPAs often fail to reach their full potential as a consequence of factors such as illegal harvesting, regulations that legally allow detrimental harvesting, or emigration of animals outside boundaries because of continuous habitat or inadequate size of reserve. Here we show that the conservation benefits of 87 MPAs investigated worldwide increase exponentially with the accumulation of five key features: no take, well enforced, old (>10 years), large (>100?km(2)), and isolated by deep water or sand. Using effective MPAs with four or five key features as an unfished standard, comparisons of underwater survey data from effective MPAs with predictions based on survey data from fished coasts indicate that total fish biomass has declined about two-thirds from historical baselines as a result of fishing. Effective MPAs also had twice as many large (>250?mm total length) fish species per transect, five times more large fish biomass, and fourteen times more shark biomass than fished areas. Most (59%) of the MPAs studied had only one or two key features and were not ecologically distinguishable from fished sites. Our results show that global conservation targets based on area alone will not optimize protection of marine biodiversity. More emphasis is needed on better MPA design, durable management and compliance to ensure that MPAs achieve their desired conservation value. PMID:24499817

  10. Body size of Chrysomelidae (Coleoptera, Insecta) in areas with different levels of conservation in South Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Linzmeier, Adelita M.; Ribeiro-Costa, Cibele S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Body size is correlated with many species traits such as morphology, physiology, life history and abundance as well; it is one of the most discussed topics in macroecological studies. The aim of this paper was to analyze the body size distribution of Chrysomelidae, caught with Malaise traps during two years in four areas with different levels of conservation in the Araucaria Forest, Paraná, Brazil, determining if body size is a good predictor of abundance, and if body size could be used to indicate environmental quality. Body size was considered the total length of the specimen from the anterior region of head to the apex of abdomen/elytron. Measurements were taken for up to ten specimens of each species for each area and for all specimens of those species represented by fewer than ten individuals. The highest abundance and richness of Chrysomelidae were obtained in the lowest body size classes. This herbivorous group showed a trend toward a decrease in body size with increasing abundance, but body size was not a good predictor of its abundance. There was a trend toward a decrease in body size from the less to the most conserved areas; however, the definition of a pattern in successional areas not seems to be entirely clear. PMID:22303100

  11. Human-Related Factors Regulate the Spatial Ecology of Domestic Cats in Sensitive Areas for Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Joaquim P.; Leitão, Inês; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Revilla, Eloy

    2011-01-01

    Background Domestic cats ranging freely in natural areas are a conservation concern due to competition, predation, disease transmission or hybridization with wildcats. In order to improve our ability to design effective control policies, we investigate the factors affecting their numbers and space use in natural areas of continental Europe. Methodology/Principal Findings We describe the patterns of cat presence, abundance and space use and analyse the associated environmental and human constraints in a well-preserved Mediterranean natural area with small scattered local farms. We failed in detecting cats in areas away from human settlements (trapping effort above 4000 trap-nights), while we captured 30 individuals near inhabited farms. We identified 130 cats, all of them in farms still in use by people (30% of 128 farms). All cats were free-ranging and very wary of people. The main factor explaining the presence of cats was the presence of people, while the number of cats per farm was mostly affected by the occasional food provisioning with human refuse and the presence of people. The home ranges of eight radio tagged cats were centred at inhabited farms. Males went furthest away from the farms during the mating season (3.8 km on average, maximum 6.3 km), using inhabited farms as stepping-stones in their mating displacements (2.2 km of maximum inter-farm distance moved). In their daily movements, cats notably avoided entering in areas with high fox density. Conclusions The presence, abundance and space use of cats were heavily dependent on human settlements. Any strategy aiming at reducing their impact in areas of conservation concern should aim at the presence of settlements and their spatial spread and avoid any access to human refuse. The movements of domestic cats would be limited in areas with large patches of natural vegetation providing good conditions for other carnivore mammals such as red foxes. PMID:22043298

  12. Art at the Crossroads: The Contested Position of Indigenous Arts in Ghana's Post-Colonial Education Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Mariama

    2004-01-01

    In Ghana, as in many areas of the world, the meanings attached to indigenous art forms are based on larger philosophical foundations. Those meanings are at the crux of the ongoing struggle in the minds of many Ghanaians over the appropriateness of Ghana's traditional arts in their contemporary education system. The indigenous arts are caught in…

  13. Determination of the age of oil palm from crown projection area detected from WorldView-2 multispectral remote sensing data: The case of Ejisu-Juaben district, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemura, Abel; van Duren, Iris; van Leeuwen, Louise M.

    2015-02-01

    Information about age of oil palm is important in sustainability assessments, carbon mapping, yield projections and precision agriculture. The aim of this study was to develop and test an approach to determine the age of oil palm plantations (years after planting) by combining high resolution multispectral remote sensing data and regression techniques using a case study of Ejisu-Juaben district of Ghana. Firstly, we determined the relationship between age and crown projection area of oil palms from sample fields. Secondly, we did hierarchical classification using object based image analysis techniques on WorldView-2 multispectral data to determine the crown projection areas of oil palms from remote sensing data. Finally, the crown projection areas obtained from the hierarchical classification were combined with the field-developed regression model to determine the age of oil palms at field level for a wider area. Field collected data showed a strong linear relationship between age and crown area of oil palm up to 13 years beyond which no relationship was observed. A user's accuracy of 80.6% and a producer's accuracy of 68.4% were obtained for the delineation of oil palm crowns while for delineation of non-crown objects a user's accuracy of 65.6% and a producer's accuracy of 78.6% were obtained, with an overall accuracy of 72.8% for the OBIA delineation. Automatic crown projection area delineation from remote sensing data produced crown projection areas which closely matched the field measured crown areas except for older oil palms (13+ years) where the error was greatest. Combining the remote sensing detected crown projection area and the regression model accurately estimated oil palm ages for 27.9% of the fields and had an estimation error of 1 year or less for 74.6% of the fields and an error of a maximum 2 years for 92.4% of the fields. The results showed that 6 and 11 year old oil palm stands were dominating age categories in the study area. Although the method could be reliably applied for estimating oil palm age at field level, more attention is required in improving crown area delineation to improve the accuracy of the approach.

  14. 50 CFR Table 24 to Part 679 - Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic Trawl Fishing 24 Table...679—Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic Trawl Fishing...

  15. 50 CFR Table 24 to Part 679 - Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic Trawl Fishing 24 Table...679—Except as Noted, Locations in the Aleutian Islands Habitat Conservation Area Open to Nonpelagic Trawl Fishing...

  16. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 679 - Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    50 ? Wildlife and Fisheries ? 13 ? 2014-10-01 ? 2014-10-01 ? false ? Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea ? 10 ? Figure 10 to Part 679 ? Wildlife and Fisheries ? FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  17. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 679 - Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    50 ? Wildlife and Fisheries ? 11 ? 2011-10-01 ? 2011-10-01 ? false ? Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea ? 10 ? Figure 10 to Part 679 ? Wildlife and Fisheries ? FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  18. Wildlife Viewing Preferences of Visitors to Protected Areas in South Africa: Implications for the Role of Ecotourism in Conservation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter A. Lindsey; R. Alexander; M. G. L. Mills; S. Romañach; R. Woodroffe

    2007-01-01

    Ecotourism has a potentially vital role to play in conservation by generating economic incentives for nature conservation. However, some authors contend that this potential may be limited by narrow viewing preferences among visitors to protected areas, suggesting that most tourists are primarily interested in seeing charismatic mega-fauna largely confined to government or privately-owned parks. We assessed viewing preferences among tourists

  19. Nutrient content of the moist tropical forest of Ghana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Greenland; J. M. L. Kowal

    1960-01-01

    Summary The total weight of vegetation on an area of just over 1 acre of old secondary forest in the moist forest zone of Ghana has been determined, and found to be equivalent to roughly 150 tons per acre dry weight. The nutrient content of each component of the vegetation was also determined and showed that the amounts of the

  20. Biological Review of Draft Environmental Impact Statement Akyem Project, Ghana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott G. Cardiff

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY This document is a review of the biological aspects of the April 2008 Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) of the proposed Akyem gold mine in Eastern Ghana. The DEIS is an inadequate assessment of existing biodiversity in the Akyem project area and is not an acceptable documentation of probable environmental impacts of the proposed mine. Information in the DEIS

  1. Expansion of Nature Conservation Areas: Problems with Natura 2000 Implementation in Poland?

    PubMed Central

    Cent, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    In spite of widespread support from most member countries’ societies for European Union policy, including support for the sustainable development idea, in many EU countries the levels of acceptance of new environmental protection programmes have been and, in particular in new member states, still are considerably low. The experience of the countries which were the first to implement union directives show that they cannot be effectively applied without widespread public participation. The goal of this study was, using the example of Poland, to assess public acceptance of the expansion of nature conservation in the context of sustainable development principles and to discover whether existing nature governance should be modified when establishing new protected areas. The increase in protected areas in Poland has become a hotbed of numerous conflicts. In spite of the generally favourable attitudes to nature which Polish people generally have, Natura 2000 is perceived as an unnecessary additional conservation tool. Both local authorities and communities residing in the Natura areas think that the programme is a hindrance, rather than a help in the economic development of municipalities or regions, as was initially supposed. This lack of acceptance results from many factors, mainly social, historic and economic. The implications of these findings for current approach to the nature governance in Poland are discussed. PMID:21107836

  2. Tourist satisfaction in relation to attractions and implications for conservation in the protected areas of the Northern Circuit, Tanzania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moses Makonjio Okello; Sarah Yerian

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed tourist satisfaction and its links with tourist attractions and infrastructure at the following six protected areas on the Northern Tourist Circuit of Tanzania: Tarangire National Park, Lake Manyara National Park, Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Serengeti National Park, Arusha National Park, and Mt. Kilimanjaro National Park. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 185 tourists visiting the protected areas. Satisfaction ratings

  3. Identifying priority areas for conservation: a global assessment for forest-dependent birds.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Graeme M; Donald, Paul F; Butchart, Stuart H M

    2011-01-01

    Limited resources are available to address the world's growing environmental problems, requiring conservationists to identify priority sites for action. Using new distribution maps for all of the world's forest-dependent birds (60.6% of all bird species), we quantify the contribution of remaining forest to conserving global avian biodiversity. For each of the world's partly or wholly forested 5-km cells, we estimated an impact score of its contribution to the distribution of all the forest bird species estimated to occur within it, and so is proportional to the impact on the conservation status of the world's forest-dependent birds were the forest it contains lost. The distribution of scores was highly skewed, a very small proportion of cells having scores several orders of magnitude above the global mean. Ecoregions containing the highest values of this score included relatively species-poor islands such as Hawaii and Palau, the relatively species-rich islands of Indonesia and the Philippines, and the megadiverse Atlantic Forests and northern Andes of South America. Ecoregions with high impact scores and high deforestation rates (2000-2005) included montane forests in Cameroon and the Eastern Arc of Tanzania, although deforestation data were not available for all ecoregions. Ecoregions with high impact scores, high rates of recent deforestation and low coverage by the protected area network included Indonesia's Seram rain forests and the moist forests of Trinidad and Tobago. Key sites in these ecoregions represent some of the most urgent priorities for expansion of the global protected areas network to meet Convention on Biological Diversity targets to increase the proportion of land formally protected to 17% by 2020. Areas with high impact scores, rapid deforestation, low protection and high carbon storage values may represent significant opportunities for both biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation, for example through Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) initiatives. PMID:22205998

  4. Domestic Dogs in Rural Communities around Protected Areas: Conservation Problem or Conflict Solution?

    PubMed Central

    Sepúlveda, Maximiliano A.; Singer, Randall S.; Silva-Rodríguez, Eduardo; Stowhas, Paulina; Pelican, Katharine

    2014-01-01

    Although domestic dogs play many important roles in rural households, they can also be an important threat to the conservation of wild vertebrates due to predation, competition and transmission of infectious diseases. An increasing number of studies have addressed the impact of dogs on wildlife but have tended to ignore the motivations and attitudes of the humans who keep these dogs and how the function of dogs might influence dog-wildlife interactions. To determine whether the function of domestic dogs in rural communities influences their interactions with wildlife, we conducted surveys in rural areas surrounding protected lands in the Valdivian Temperate Forests of Chile. Sixty percent of farm animal owners reported the use of dogs as one of the primary means of protecting livestock from predators. The probability of dog–wild carnivore interactions was significantly associated with the raising of poultry. In contrast, dog–wild prey interactions were not associated with livestock presence but had a significant association with poor quality diet as observed in previous studies. Dog owners reported that they actively encouraged the dogs to chase off predators, accounting for 25–75% of the dog–wild carnivore interactions observed, depending on the predator species. Humans controlled the dog population by killing pups and unwanted individuals resulting in few additions to the dog population through breeding; the importation of predominantly male dogs from urban areas resulted in a sex ratios highly dominated by males. These results indicate that dog interactions with wildlife are related to the role of the dog in the household and are directly influenced by their owners. To avoid conflict with local communities in conservation areas, it is important to develop strategies for managing dogs that balance conservation needs with the roles that dogs play in these rural households. PMID:24465930

  5. Multi-objective reserve design using MARXAN analysis for protected area conservation in savanna ecosystems in Belize 

    E-print Network

    Fingler, Theresa

    2012-11-28

    Belize has long been considered a leader in conservation within the Mesoamerican region with 36% of its terrestrial area under protection status. However, a gap analysis conducted in 2005 reveal savannas are under-represented by the existing...

  6. 77 FR 60718 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Amendment to the California Desert Conservation Area Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLCAD08000; L51010000; EU0000; LVRWB11B4700; CACA-53705] Notice of Intent To Prepare an Amendment to the California Desert Conservation Area Plan and Associated...

  7. Macrofaunal community inside and outside of the Darwin Mounds Special Area of Conservation, NE Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serpetti, N.; Gontikaki, E.; Narayanaswamy, B. E.; Witte, U.

    2013-06-01

    Spatial distribution and patchiness of deep sea macrofaunal communities were studied from samples collected in the Rockall Trough, NE Atlantic. In June 2011, two areas, located outside and within the Darwin Mound Special Area of Conservation (SAC), were sampled. Three megacores were deployed in each area at approximately 900 m depth. The two areas, ~ 18 km apart, did not differ in terms of sediment organic matter and percentage of mud content, but small significant differences were found in sediment median grain size and depth. Macrofaunal communities were found to differ significantly, with the difference mostly driven by changes in the abundance of polychaetes, crustaceans and nematodes whilst no significant differences were seen for the other phyla. Whereas overall macrofaunal abundance was higher outside the SAC compared to within, this pattern varies considerably between phyla. Diversity indices showed no significant differences between protected and unprotected sites. Deep-water trawling regularly take place outside the Darwin Mounds SAC whilst the area inside the SAC has been closed to bottom trawling since 2004, and the above distribution patterns are discussed in the context of both environmental and anthropogenic causes.

  8. 7 CFR 1468.4 - Establishing Conservation Farm Option (CFO) pilot project areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Establishing Conservation Farm Option (CFO) pilot project...PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION FARM OPTION General Provisions § 1468.4 Establishing Conservation Farm Option (CFO) pilot...

  9. 7 CFR 1468.4 - Establishing Conservation Farm Option (CFO) pilot project areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Establishing Conservation Farm Option (CFO) pilot project...PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION FARM OPTION General Provisions § 1468.4 Establishing Conservation Farm Option (CFO) pilot...

  10. 7 CFR 1468.4 - Establishing Conservation Farm Option (CFO) pilot project areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Establishing Conservation Farm Option (CFO) pilot project...PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION FARM OPTION General Provisions § 1468.4 Establishing Conservation Farm Option (CFO) pilot...

  11. 7 CFR 1468.4 - Establishing Conservation Farm Option (CFO) pilot project areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Establishing Conservation Farm Option (CFO) pilot project...PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION FARM OPTION General Provisions § 1468.4 Establishing Conservation Farm Option (CFO) pilot...

  12. 7 CFR 1468.4 - Establishing Conservation Farm Option (CFO) pilot project areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Establishing Conservation Farm Option (CFO) pilot project...PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION FARM OPTION General Provisions § 1468.4 Establishing Conservation Farm Option (CFO) pilot...

  13. Territory Occupancy and Parental Quality as Proxies for Spatial Prioritization of Conservation Areas

    PubMed Central

    Tschumi, Matthias; Schaub, Michael; Arlettaz, Raphaël

    2014-01-01

    In order to maximize their fitness, individuals aim at choosing territories offering the most appropriate combination of resources. As population size fluctuates in time, the frequency of breeding territory occupancy reflects territory quality. We investigated the relationships between the frequency of territory occupancy (2002–2009) vs. habitat characteristics, prey abundance, reproductive success and parental traits in hoopoes Upupa epops L., with the objective to define proxies for the delineation of conservation priority areas. We predicted that the distribution of phenotypes is despotic and sought for phenotypic characteristics expressing dominance. Our findings support the hypothesis of a despotic distribution. Territory selection was non-random: frequently occupied territories were settled earlier in the season and yielded higher annual reproductive success, but the frequency of territory occupancy could not be related to any habitat characteristics. Males found in frequently occupied territories showed traits expressing dominance (i.e. larger body size and mass, and older age). In contrast, morphological traits of females were not related to the frequency of territory occupancy, suggesting that territory selection and maintenance were essentially a male's task. Settlement time in spring, reproductive success achieved in a given territory, as well as phenotypic traits and age of male territory holders reflected territory quality, providing good proxies for assessing priority areas for conservation management. PMID:24836965

  14. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Oxbow Conservation Area, 2002-2005 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, Brian

    2005-02-01

    This Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) study was performed to determine baseline habitat units on the Oxbow Conservation Area in Grant County, Oregon. The evaluation is a required part of the Memorandum of Agreement between the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) relating to the acquisition and management of the Oxbow Conservation Area. The HEP team was comprised of individuals from the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife and the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon. The survey was conducted using the following HEP evaluation models for key species: black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapilla), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), mink (Mustela vison), western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginiana), and yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia). Cover types used in this survey were conifer forest, irrigated meadow, riparian meadow, upland meadow, riparian shrub, upland shrub, and mine tailings. The project generated 701.3 habitat units for mitigation crediting purposes. Results for each HEP species are: (1) Black-capped chickadee habitat was good, with only isolated areas lacking snags or having low tree canopy cover. (2) Mallard habitat was poor in upland meadows and marginal elsewhere due to a lack of herbaceous/shrub cover and low herbaceous height. (3) Mink habitat was good, limited only by the lack of the shrub component. (4) Western meadowlark habitat was marginal in upland meadow and mine tailing cover types and good in irrigated meadow. Percent cover of grass and height of herbaceous variables were limiting factors. (5) White-tailed deer habitat was marginal due to relatively low tree canopy cover, reduced shrub cover, and limited browse diversity. (6) Yellow Warbler habitat was marginal due to less than optimum shrub height and the lack of hydrophytic shrubs. General ratings (poor, marginal, etc.) are described in the introduction section.

  15. Knowledge and Uses of African Pangolins as a Source of Traditional Medicine in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Boakye, Maxwell Kwame; Pietersen, Darren William; Kotzé, Antoinette; Dalton, Desiré-Lee; Jansen, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Traditional medicine has been practised in Ghana for centuries with the majority of Ghanaians still patronising the services of traditional healers. Throughout Africa a large number of people use pangolins as a source of traditional medicine, however, there is a dearth of information on the use of animals in folk medicine in Ghana, in particular the use of pangolins. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalent use of pangolins and the level of knowledge of pangolin use among traditional healers in Ghana for the treatment of human ailments. Data was gathered from 48 traditional healers using semi-structured interviews on the traditional medicinal use of pangolin body parts in the Kumasi metropolis of Ghana. The cultural importance index, relative frequency of citation, informant agreement ratio and use agreement values were calculated to ascertain the most culturally important pangolin body part as well as the level of knowledge dissemination among traditional healers with regards pangolin body parts. Our study revealed that 13 body parts of pangolins are used to treat various medicinal ailments. Pangolin scales and bones were the most prevalent prescribed body parts and indicated the highest cultural significance among traditional healing practices primarily for the treatment of spiritual protection, rheumatism, financial rituals and convulsions. Despite being classified under Schedule 1 of Ghana’s Wildlife Conservation Act of 1971 (LI 685), that prohibits anyone from hunting or being in possession of a pangolin, our results indicated that the use of pangolins for traditional medicinal purposes is widespread among traditional healers in Ghana. A study on the population status and ecology of the three species of African pangolins occurring in Ghana is urgently required in order to determine the impact this harvest for traditional medical purposes has on their respective populations as current levels appear to be unmonitored and unsustainable. PMID:25602281

  16. The Conservation and Habitat Ecology of Antillean Manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) in the Drowned Cayes Area of Belize, Central America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine Spencer LaCommare

    2011-01-01

    The Drowned Cayes area of Belize, Central America is regionally important for the conservation of Antillean manatees in the Caribbean (Lefebvre et al. 2001; Quintana-Rizzo & Reynolds 2008). These islands are increasingly threatened by human activities such as tourism, development and population growth. The objective of this dissertation is to evaluate manatee habitat use and status in this area. The

  17. Earthquake catalogue of Ghana for the time period 1615-2003 with special reference to the tectono-structural evolution of south-east Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amponsah, Paulina; Leydecker, Günter; Muff, Rolf

    2012-10-01

    Ghana is situated on the West Africa Craton and far away from any plate boundary. However, the southern part of the country is seismically active. The continental and coastal area of southeast Ghana is dominated by the Akwapim fault zone and coastal boundary fault. The Akwapim fault zone represents overthrusts of Neoproterozoic age, but there are also indications of recent faulting on some sections of the fault zone. The coastal boundary fault commenced to become tectonically active in Jurassic times and is probably still active. The two fault systems intersect some tens of kilometers to the southwest of Accra and it is at this intersection where most of the seismic activity has been observed. Historical documents describing damaging earthquakes in Ghana date as far back as 1615. The two major destructive earthquakes which struck Southern Ghana occurred close to the capital city Accra in 1862 (intensity IX) and 1939 (intensity VIII). The surveillance of the seismic activity of Southern Ghana with seismometers has been discontinuous with irregular long periods of disruption. All known earthquakes from 1615 to 2003, based on historical documents and instrumental recordings are collected in a data catalogue and compiled in a computer readable format. Based on macroseismic maps and detailed descriptions of the damages, the epicentral intensity of some strong events as well as the radii of different isoseismals could be newly estimated. The catalogue can be the basis for a deterministic seismic hazard assessment for Southern Ghana to develop a building code for this region.

  18. Conservation, Spillover and Gene Flow within a Network of Northern European Marine Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Huserbråten, Mats Brockstedt Olsen; Moland, Even; Knutsen, Halvor; Olsen, Esben Moland; André, Carl; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2013-01-01

    To ensure that marine protected areas (MPAs) benefit conservation and fisheries, the effectiveness of MPA designs has to be evaluated in field studies. Using an interdisciplinary approach, we empirically assessed the design of a network of northern MPAs where fishing for European lobster (Homarusgammarus) is prohibited. First, we demonstrate a high level of residency and survival (50%) for almost a year (363 days) within MPAs, despite small MPA sizes (0.5-1 km2). Second, we demonstrate limited export (4.7%) of lobsters tagged within MPAs (N = 1810) to neighbouring fished areas, over a median distance of 1.6 km out to maximum 21 km away from MPA centres. In comparison, median movement distance of lobsters recaptured within MPAs was 164 m, and recapture rate was high (40%). Third, we demonstrate a high level of gene flow within the study region, with an estimated FST of less than 0.0001 over a ? 400 km coastline. Thus, the restricted movement of older life stages, combined with a high level of gene flow suggests that connectivity is primarily driven by larval drift. Larval export from the MPAs can most likely affect areas far beyond their borders. Our findings are of high importance for the design of MPA networks for sedentary species with pelagic early life stages. PMID:24039927

  19. Are species coexistence areas a good option for conservation management? Applications from fine scale modelling in two steppe birds.

    PubMed

    Tarjuelo, Rocío; Morales, Manuel B; Traba, Juan; Delgado, M Paula

    2014-01-01

    Biotic interactions and land uses have been proposed as factors that determine the distribution of the species at local scale. The presence of heterospecifics may modify the habitat selection pattern of the individuals and this may have important implications for the design of effective conservation strategies. However, conservation proposals are often focused on a single flagship or umbrella species taken as representative of an entire assemblage requirements. Our aim is to identify and evaluate the role of coexistence areas at local scale as conservation tools, by using distribution data of two endangered birds, the Little Bustard and the Great Bustard. Presence-only based suitability models for each species were built with MaxEnt using variables of substrate type and topography. Probability maps of habitat suitability for each species were combined to generate a map in which coexistence and exclusive use areas were delimitated. Probabilities of suitable habitat for each species inside coexistence and exclusive areas were compared. As expected, habitat requirements of Little and Great Bustards differed. Coexistence areas presented lower probabilities of habitat suitability than exclusive use ones. We conclude that differences in species' habitat preferences can hinder the efficiency of protected areas with multi-species conservation purposes. Our results highlight the importance of taking into account the role of biotic interactions when designing conservation measurements. PMID:24498210

  20. Soil Geochemical Data for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative Study Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, David B.; Ellefsen, Karl J.

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, soil samples were collected at 139 sites throughout the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative study area in southwest Wyoming. These samples, representing a density of 1 site per 440 square kilometers, were collected from a depth of 0-5 cm and analyzed for a suite of more than 40 major and trace elements following a near-total multi-acid extraction. In addition, soil pH, electrical conductivity, total nitrogen, total and organic carbon, and sodium adsorption ratio were determined. The resulting data set provides a baseline for detecting changes in soil composition that might result from natural processes or anthropogenic activities. This report describes the sampling and analytical protocols used, and makes available all the soil geochemical data generated in the study.

  1. THE THREATENED AND THE IRREPLACEABLE: IDENTIFYING AREAS FOR THE CONSERVATION OF FAUNAL SPECIES DIVERSITY IN THE MIDDLE-ATLANTIC REGION OF THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    One fundamental step in conservation planning involves determining where to concentrate efforts to protect conservation targets. Here we demonstrate an approach to prioritizing areas based on both species composition and potential threats facing the species. First, we determine...

  2. Design of ecoregional monitoring in conservation areas of high-latitude ecosystems under contemporary climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beever, Erik A.; Woodward, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Land ownership in Alaska includes a mosaic of federally managed units. Within its agency’s context, each unit has its own management strategy, authority, and resources of conservation concern, many of which are migratory animals. Though some units are geographically isolated, many are nevertheless linked by paths of abiotic and biotic flows, such as rivers, air masses, flyways, and terrestrial and aquatic migration routes. Furthermore, individual land units exist within the context of a larger landscape pattern of shifting conditions, requiring managers to understand at larger spatial scales the status and trends in the synchrony and spatial concurrence of species and associated suitable habitats. Results of these changes will determine the ability of Alaska lands to continue to: provide habitat for local and migratory species; absorb species whose ranges are shifting northward; and experience mitigation or exacerbation of climate change through positive and negative atmospheric feedbacks. We discuss the geographic and statutory contexts that influence development of ecological monitoring; argue for the inclusion of significant amounts of broad-scale monitoring; discuss the importance of defining clear programmatic and monitoring objectives; and draw from lessons learned from existing long-term, broad-scale monitoring programs to apply to the specific contexts relevant to high-latitude protected areas such as those in Alaska. Such areas are distinguished by their: marked seasonality; relatively large magnitudes of contemporary change in climatic parameters; and relative inaccessibility due to broad spatial extent, very low (or zero) road density, and steep and glaciated areas. For ecological monitoring to effectively support management decisions in high-latitude areas such as Alaska, a monitoring program ideally would be structured to address the actual spatial and temporal scales of relevant processes, rather than the artificial boundaries of individual land-management units. Heuristic models provide a means by which to integrate understanding of ecosystem structure, composition, and function, in the midst of numerous ecosystem drivers.

  3. Deforestation and sustainability in Ghana

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, M.R. (Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff (United States)); Cobbinah, J.R. (Forestry Research Institute of Ghana, Kumasi (Ghana))

    1993-06-01

    The global importance of tropical forests is well recognized, and while much has been written about the Amazon forests, West African tropical forests are also being affected by logging and commercial timber harvesting. While the forests in Ghana are no longer vast, untouched wilderness, they are far from being ecologically bankrupt. This article describes the forest of Ghana, discusses the integrity of the remaining forest in terms of sustainable timber resources, and examines the prospects for tropical forests. 12 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Building communities in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Andriessen, B

    1996-03-01

    In Ghana, 11 communities are participating in a Community Management Program (CMP) sponsored by the UN Centre for Human Settlements/Danida and jointly implemented with the Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development. The main goal of the program is to reduce poverty by strengthening district- and community-level capacity to improve living and working conditions in low-income settlements. Currently, the CMP is operating training programs in 1) community participation and management, 2) technical skills, 3) income generation and business management, and 4) family life and health education. The community participation and management training includes strategies for problem-solving, identifying the steps of participatory planning, and negotiating project funding. Technical assistance is also given during project implementation. Technical skills training in carpentry, masonry, and painting allows selected community members to assist in the construction and maintenance of a community facility as part of their training. Income generation and business management training is offered to women organized in solidarity groups. Family life and health education involves training community mobilizers in family planning, oral rehydration, child health, and environmental health. The training materials developed for each program will soon be incorporated in the curriculum of a new Local Government Training Institute. The CMP has already sparked a range of related initiatives and has built the capacity for local communities to demand involvement in planning of initiatives that will affect their lives. PMID:12293485

  5. The Effects of Governmental Protected Areas and Social Initiatives for Land Protection on the Conservation of Mexican Amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Ochoa-Ochoa, Leticia; Urbina-Cardona, J. Nicolás; Vázquez, Luis-Bernardo; Flores-Villela, Oscar; Bezaury-Creel, Juan

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, biodiversity conservation gap analyses have been focused on governmental protected areas (PAs). However, an increasing number of social initiatives in conservation (SICs) are promoting a new perspective for analysis. SICs include all of the efforts that society implements to conserve biodiversity, such as land protection, from private reserves to community zoning plans some of which have generated community-protected areas. This is the first attempt to analyze the status of conservation in Latin America when some of these social initiatives are included. The analyses were focused on amphibians because they are one of the most threatened groups worldwide. Mexico is not an exception, where more than 60% of its amphibians are endemic. We used a niche model approach to map the potential and real geographical distribution (extracting the transformed areas) of the endemic amphibians. Based on remnant distribution, all the species have suffered some degree of loss, but 36 species have lost more than 50% of their potential distribution. For 50 micro-endemic species we could not model their potential distribution range due to the small number of records per species, therefore the analyses were performed using these records directly. We then evaluated the efficiency of the existing set of governmental protected areas and established the contribution of social initiatives (private and community) for land protection for amphibian conservation. We found that most of the species have some proportion of their potential ecological niche distribution protected, but 20% are not protected at all within governmental PAs. 73% of endemic and 26% of micro-endemic amphibians are represented within SICs. However, 30 micro-endemic species are not represented within either governmental PAs or SICs. This study shows how the role of land conservation through social initiatives is therefore becoming a crucial element for an important number of species not protected by governmental PAs. PMID:19721719

  6. 80 FR 7030 - Notice of Intent To Amend the California Desert Conservation Area Plan and Prepare an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2015-02-09

    In compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended (NEPA), and the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976, as amended (FLPMA), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) El Centro Field Office, California, and California Department of Parks and Recreation Off-Highway Motor Vehicle Recreation Division (OHMVR) intend to prepare a California Desert Conservation Area (CDCA)......

  7. Conservation of bats in suburban landscapes: roost selection by Myotis yumanensis in a residential area in California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle J. Evelyn; David A. Stiles; Rebecca A. Young

    2004-01-01

    Protection of roosting habitat is essential to the conservation of bats in human-dominated landscapes. To help define bat roosting needs in suburban settings, we used radio telemetry to locate day roosts of a common North American species (Myotis yumanensis) within a residential area in California. Between June and August 2000, we tracked 16 bats to 20 roosts in two buildings

  8. Ghana: Country Status Report (Revision).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFerren, Margaret

    A survey of the status of language usage in Ghana begins with an overview of the distribution and usage of English, as the sole official language, and of the local languages Akan, Ewe, Adangme, Dagbani, Nzema, Ga, Dagaari, and Hausa. A matrix follows that rates these languages on: (1) their usage rating using State Department classifications; (2)…

  9. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Closure Plan Summary for Interim reasctive Waste Treatment Area (IRWTA)

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, E.T.

    1997-07-01

    This closure plan has been prepared for the interim Reactive Waste Treatment Area (IRWT'A) located at the Y-12 Pkmt in oak Ridge, Tennessee (Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] Identification TN 389-009-0001). The actions required to achieve closure of the IRWTA are outlined in this plan, which is being submitted in accordance with Tennessee Ruie 1200- 1-1 1-.0S(7) and Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 265, Subpart G. The IRWTA was used to treat waste sodium and potassium (NaK) that are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The location of the IRWT'A is shown in Figures 1 and 2, and a diagram is shown in Figure 3. This pkm details all steps that wdi be petiormed to close the IRWTA. Note that this is a fmai ciosure.and a diagram is shown in Figure 3. This pkm details all steps that wdi be petiormed to close the IRWTA. Note that this is a fmai ciosure.

  10. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Forrest Conservation Area, Technical Report 2003-2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Brent

    2005-01-01

    The Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) study was performed to determine baseline habitat units on the 4,232-acre Forrest Conservation Area managed by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribe) in Grant County, Oregon. The habitat evaluation is required as part of the Memorandum of Agreement between the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs and Bonneville Power Administration. Representatives from the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife and the Tribes conducted the field surveys for the HEP. The survey collected data for habitat variables contained in habitat suitability index (HIS) models for wildlife species; the key species were black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapilla), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), mink (Mustela vison), western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), California Quail (Callipepla californica), and yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia). Cover types surveyed were grassland, meadow grassland, conifer forest, riparian tree shrub, shrub steppe, juniper forest, and juniper steppe. Other cover types mapped, but not used in the models were open water, roads, gravel pits, corrals, and residential.

  11. Moving into Protected Areas? Setting Conservation Priorities for Romanian Reptiles and Amphibians at Risk from Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Popescu, Viorel D.; Rozylowicz, Lauren?iu; Cog?lniceanu, Dan; Niculae, Iulian Mih?i??; Cucu, Adina Livia

    2013-01-01

    Rapid climate change represents one of the top threats to biodiversity, causing declines and extinctions of many species. Range shifts are a key response, but in many cases are incompatible with the current extent of protected areas. In this study we used ensemble species distribution models to identify range changes for 21 reptile and 16 amphibian species in Romania for the 2020s and 2050s time horizons under three emission scenarios (A1B = integrated world, rapid economic growth, A2A = divided world, rapid economic growth [realistic scenario], B2A = regional development, environmentally-friendly scenario) and no- and limited-dispersal assumptions. We then used irreplaceability analysis to test the efficacy of the Natura 2000 network to meet conservation targets. Under all scenarios and time horizons, 90% of the species suffered range contractions (greatest loses under scenarios B2A for 2020s, and A1B for 2050s), and four reptile species expanded their ranges. Two reptile and two amphibian species are predicted to completely lose climate space by 2050s. Currently, 35 species do not meet conservation targets (>40% representation in protected areas), but the target is predicted to be met for 4 - 14 species under future climate conditions, with higher representation under the limited-dispersal scenario. The Alpine and Steppic-Black Sea biogeographic regions have the highest irreplaceability value, and act as climate refugia for many reptiles and amphibians. The Natura 2000 network performs better for achieving herpetofauna conservation goals in the future, owing to the interaction between drastic range contractions, and range shifts towards existing protected areas. Thus, conservation actions for herpetofauna in Romania need to focus on: (1) building institutional capacity of protected areas in the Alpine and Steppic-Black Sea biogeographic regions, and (2) facilitating natural range shifts by improving the conservation status of herpetofauna outside protected areas, specifically in traditionally-managed landscapes and abandoned cropland. PMID:24324547

  12. Do protected areas and conservation incentives contribute to sustainable livelihoods? A case study of Bardia National Park, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Thapa Karki, Shova

    2013-10-15

    Effective biodiversity protection and improved human welfare as 'win-win' situations have been the foundation for protected areas and conservation incentives. However, conserving land in this way can become a development issue that restricts agricultural expansion and resource exploitation, with potentially substantial costs to people living in conditions of high social impoverishment and high critical natural capital. This paper investigates whether Nepal's Bardia National Park and conservation incentives have contributed to the sustainable livelihoods of households. Data on household livelihoods and conservation benefits were collected through a questionnaire survey of 358 households and community workshops in three villages. Different impacts on household livelihoods were observed between the villages. It was found that these impacts were dependent on household characteristics, access to prior capital, and the social position of the household within society. Households lacking resources, being poor and belonging to lower castes were least included and also benefited less from development projects. As finance in the form of development projects from organisations continues to flow to the communities, it is important that detailed livelihood planning focussing on alternative regenerative livelihoods and micro-enterprises in the informal sector is included to target those households that are highly dependent on park resources. Livelihood planning must also include a clear linkage between livelihood enhancing activities and the conservation programme so that communities are aware that the benefits they receive are due to the protected area. Appreciation of benefits and their positive impact on livelihoods is important for the sustainability of incentive-based programmes. PMID:23895911

  13. Oxbow Conservation Area; Middle Fork John Day River, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, Brian; Smith, Brent

    2003-07-01

    In early 2001, the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs, through their John Day Basin Office, concluded the acquisition of the Oxbow Ranch, now know as the Oxbow Conservation Area (OCA). Under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Tribes are required to provided BPA an 'annual written report generally describing the real property interests in the Project, HEP analyses undertaken or in progress, and management activities undertaken or in progress'. The 2002 contract period was well funded and the second year of the project. A new manager started in April, allowing the previous manager to focus his efforts on the Forrest Ranch acquisition. However, the Oxbow Habitat manager's position was vacant from October through mid February of 2003. During this time, much progress, mainly O&M, was at a minimum level. Many of the objectives were not completed during this contract due to both the size and duration needed to complete such activities (example: dredge mine tailings restoration project) or because budget crisis issues with BPA ending accrual carryover on the fiscal calendar. Although the property had been acquired a year earlier, there were numerous repairs and discoveries, which on a daily basis could pull personnel from making progress on objectives for the SOW, aside from O&M objectives. A lack of fencing on a portion of the property's boundary and deteriorating fences in other areas are some reasons much time was spent chasing trespassing cattle off of the property. The success of this property purchase can be seen on a daily basis. Water rights were used seldom in the summer of 2002, with minor irrigation water diverted from only Granite Boulder Creek. Riparian fences on the river, Ruby and Granite Boulder creeks help promote important vegetation to provide shade and bank stabilization. Trees planted in this and past years are growing and will someday provide cover fish and wildlife. Even grazing on the property was carefully managed to ensure the protection of fish and wildlife habitat. Monitoring of property populations, resources, and management activities continued in 2002 to build a database for future management of this and other properties in the region.

  14. Creating safety nets through semi-parametric index-based insurance: A simulation for Northern Ghana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vasco Molini; Michiel A. Keyzer; Bart van den Boom; Wouter Zant

    2007-01-01

    In West Africa, farm income is highly exposed to risks from crop failure in the drier, inland areas, and from fluctuations in (world market) prices in the wetter coastal areas. As individuals and even extended families are poorly equipped to deal with these, provision of social safety nets is required Our paper reviews the situation in Ghana and the way

  15. Global Priority Conservation Areas in the Face of 21st Century Climate Change

    E-print Network

    Li, Junsheng; Lin, Xin; Chen, Anping; Peterson, A. Townsend; Ma, Keping; Bertzky, Monika; Ciais, Philippe; Kapos, Valerie; Peng, Changhui; Poulter, Benjamin

    2013-01-24

    In an era when global biodiversity is increasingly impacted by rapidly changing climate, efforts to conserve global biodiversity may be compromised if we do not consider the uneven distribution of climate-induced threats. ...

  16. Energy conservation manual for builders in the Mid-Columbia Basin area

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzucchi, R.P.; Nieves, L.A.; Hopp, W.J.

    1981-03-01

    Results of a comprehensive cost-effectiveness evaluation of energy conservation measures currently available for use in typical residential buildings are presented. Section 2 discusses construction techniques for energy-efficient buildings and presents estimates of the cost of incorporating the conservation measures in the prototype building, the resultant annual energy savings, and the value of that annual energy savings based upon typical regional fuel prices. In Section 3 this information is summarized to prioritize conservation investments according to their economic effectiveness and offer general recommendations to home builders. Appendix A contains detailed information pertaining to the energy consumption calculations. Appendix B presents the methodology, assumptions, and results of a detail cash flow analysis of each of the conservation items for which sufficient performance and cost data are currently available. (MCW)

  17. Understanding the Participation of Marginal Groups in Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal 

    E-print Network

    Dahal, Smriti

    2012-02-14

    Participation has been promoted and studied in diverse disciplines including tourism, development, planning, health, politics, and others. In natural resource conservation, the shift from centralized to decentralized decision making which emphasizes...

  18. Using Range-Wide Abundance Modeling to Identify Key Conservation Areas for the Micro-Endemic Bolson Tortoise (Gopherus flavomarginatus)

    PubMed Central

    Ureña-Aranda, Cinthya A.; Rojas-Soto, Octavio; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique; Yáñez-Arenas, Carlos; Landgrave Ramírez, Rosario; Espinosa de los Monteros, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    A widespread biogeographic pattern in nature is that population abundance is not uniform across the geographic range of species: most occurrence sites have relatively low numbers, whereas a few places contain orders of magnitude more individuals. The Bolson tortoise Gopherus flavomarginatus is endemic to a small region of the Chihuahuan Desert in Mexico, where habitat deterioration threatens this species with extinction. In this study we combined field burrows counts and the approach for modeling species abundance based on calculating the distance to the niche centroid to obtain range-wide abundance estimates. For the Bolson tortoise, we found a robust, negative relationship between observed burrows abundance and distance to the niche centroid, with a predictive capacity of 71%. Based on these results we identified four priority areas for the conservation of this microendemic and threatened tortoise. We conclude that this approach may be a useful approximation for identifying key areas for sampling and conservation efforts in elusive and rare species. PMID:26115482

  19. Insect Conservation in an Urban Biodiversity Hotspot: The San Francisco Bay Area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward F. Connor; John Hafernik; Jacqueline Levy; Vicki Lee Moore; Jancy K. Rickman

    2002-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay Area hosts a diverse insect fauna and a dense cluster of urban areas. The high diversity of insects in the Bay Area arises for three primary reasons: its location in the California biotic province, the diverse local environment and the entomologist-area effect. The juxtaposition of high insect diversity and an area intensively used by humans led

  20. Ghana Green Building Council public launch

    E-print Network

    . compelling each other water waste people food security #12;Ghana Green Building Council public launch water waste people food security #12;Ghana Green Building Council public launch | examples of green energy biodiversity six interrelated `ticking time bombs' . tipping point . compelling each other waste

  1. Educational Access in Ghana. Country Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyeampong, K.; Djangmah, J.; Oduro, A.; Seidu, A.; Hunt, F.

    2008-01-01

    This Policy Brief describes and explains patterns of access to schools in Ghana. It outlines policy and legislation on access to education and provides an analysis of access, vulnerability and exclusion. It is based on findings from the Country Analytic Report on Access to Basic Education in Ghana (Akyeampong et al, 2007) [ED508809] which can be…

  2. Scientific and technical information in Ghana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Alemna

    1992-01-01

    Describes the situation of scientific research and the provision of scientific and technical information in Ghana, with special reference to the role of the Ghana National Scientific and Technological Information Network (GHASTINET). Obstacles to the provision of adequate resources of scientific literature include: lack of finance; difficulty in identifying local publications; inappropriate gifts from donors; and lack of library staff

  3. Survey of brucellosis at the wildlife–livestock interface on the Zimbabwean side of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Calvin Gomo; Michel de Garine-Wichatitsky; Alexandre Caron; Davies Mubika Pfukenyi

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in communal cattle and wildlife\\u000a at a wildlife–livestock interface in the southeast lowveld of Zimbabwe, part of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation\\u000a Area. RBT and c-Elisa were used in serial for detection of antibodies against Brucella spp. Between July 2007 and October 2009, a total of 1,158 cattle

  4. ABUNDANCE ESTIMATE AND ACOUSTIC MONITORING OF HARBOUR PORPOISES ( PHOCOENA PHOCOENA (L.)) IN THE BLASKET ISLANDS' CANDIDATE SPECIAL AREA OF CONSERVATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Berrow; Joanne O'Brien; Ian O'Connor; David McGrath

    2009-01-01

    Visual surveys and acoustic monitoring of harbour porpoises were conducted between July and October 2007 within the Blasket Islands' candidate Special Area of Conservation (cSAC) to derive density estimates and acoustic-detection rates. A total of 44 sightings of 102 individual harbour porpoises were recorded on 74 tracks with a total distance of 389km. Density estimates9SE, determined using DISTANCE software, ranged

  5. Nitrogen and phosphorus uptake in the Everglades Conservation Areas, Florida : with special reference to the effects of backpumping runoff

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPherson, Benjamin F.; Waller, Bradley G.; Mattraw, H.C.

    1976-01-01

    In much of the water pumped into the northern Everglades, Florida, concentrations of inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus are relatively high. These nutrients are transported in the canals or into the peripheral marshes. Concentrations decrease sharply within 330 feet or less of the canals, whereas specific conductance remains essentially unchanged within this distance. The sharp decrease in inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus near the canal edge indicates net uptake in these shallow waters. Concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus also decrease as water moves through the conservation areas in canals. This decrease is due partly to dilution by rainfall and runoff, and partly to net uptake in the canals and their peripheral marsh. The large canals of the northern and eastern parts of the conservation areas often have relatively low concentrations of dissolved oxygen which show little fluctuation within 24 hours. Backpumping 50 percent of the total annual canal runoff in southeast Florida would add from 990 to 6,160 tons of nitrogen and from 10 to 62 tons of phosphorus to the conservation areas. The bottom sediments of the Everglades are a sink for nitrogen and phosphorus. They can, however, be a source of these nutrients when anaerobic conditions exist at the water-sediment interface or when bottom material becomes resuspended. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Prioritizing conservation potential of arid-land montane natural springs and associated riparian areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce C. Thompson; Patricia L. Matusik-Rowanw; Kenneth G. Boykin

    2002-01-01

    Using inventory data and input from natural resource professionals, we developed a classification system that categorizes conservation potential for montane natural springs. This system contains 18 classes based on the presence of a riparian patch, wetland species, surface water, and evidence of human activity. We measured physical and biological components of 276 montane springs in the Oscura Mountains above 1450

  7. Natural resources development in Mexico: biological diversity conservation and protected areas 

    E-print Network

    Goebel, John Martin

    1989-01-01

    areas were established dunng the MMH administrauon Sources: Vargas 191arquez 1984, and de la 6laza personal colnmunrcarron. FIGURE l. Establishment of Protected Areas by Presidential Administration in Mexico 15 In the hopes of stalling...

  8. Measuring, understanding and implementing (or at least trying) soil and water conservation in agricultural areas in Mediterranean conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Jose Alfonso; Burguet, María; Castillo, Carlos; de Luna, Elena; Guzmán, Gema; Lora, Ángel; Lorite, Ignacio; Mora, José; Pérez, Rafael; Soriano, María A.; Taguas, Encarnación V.

    2015-04-01

    Understanding soil erosion processes is the first step for designing and implementing effective soil conservation strategies. In agricultural areas, spatially in arid and semiarid conditions, water conservation is interlinked with soil conservation, and usually need to be addressed simultaneously to achieve success in their use by farmers. This is so for different reasons, but usually because some reduction in runoff is required to prevent soil erosion or to the need to design soil conservation systems that do maintain a favourable water balance for the crop to prevent yield reductions. The team presenting this communication works around both issues in Southern Spain, interconnecting several lines of research with the final objective of contribute to reverse some severe issues relating soil conservation in agricultural areas, mostly on tree crops (olives and vineyards). One of these lines is long-term experiments measuring, runoff and sediment losses at plot and small catchment scale. In these experiments we test the effect of different soil management alternatives on soil and water conservation. We also measured the evolution of soil properties and, in some cases, the evolution of soil moisture as well as nutrient and carbon losses with runoff and sediment. We also tests in these experiments new cover crops, from species better adapted to the rainfall regime of the region to mixes with several species to increase biodiversity. We complement these studies with surveys of soil properties in commercial farms. I some of these farms we follow the introduction by farmers of the cover crop strategies previously developed in our experimental fields. These data are invaluable to elaborate, calibrate and validate different runoff generation, water balance, and water erosion models and hillslope and small catchment scale. This allows us to elaborate regional analysis of the effect of different strategies to soil and water conservation in olive growing areas, and to refine these strategies under predicted climate change scenarios in a few decades from now. The models are also used to evaluate historical erosion rates, and the long-term impact of soil erosion on olive yield due to the loss of soil profile. This is our second major line of research. Our their key line of research is the analysis of gully erosion processes, from field based observation to evaluation at regional scale, and the development of cost-effective strategies for gully control at farm scale. This includes the testing of some of these strategies with farmers. We integrate the use of vegetation in gully erosion control strategies to enhance biodiversity and landscape values; both severely degraded in many agricultural areas in the Mediterranean. The fourth, and last, major line of research is the development or improvement of technologies for soil erosion studies. Among them is the use of rainfall simulations, laboratory flumes, photoreconstruction techniques for 3D model, improved sampling devices, etc. Within this line we have improved the use of sediment tracers to understand the processes of sediment mobilization within the landscape, or at plot scale. This greatly improves our understanding of erosion processes and the actual effectiveness of erosion control strategies. The results of these lines of research are put together in the form of Good Agricultural Practices, and technical notes, software, for implementation by farmers and technicians working at the fields that are disseminated through seminars, cooperation with government and non-government agencies and other documents such as videos or web sites. In this communication we mention some of the our research in order to highlight the major problems and questions that are faced when trying to develop viable soil and water conservation techniques, specially the need for transdisciplinary research and the cooperation, form the start, with key stakeholders, specially farmers.

  9. Integrating conservation and development: incorporating vulnerability into biodiversity-assessment of areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. P. Faith; P. A. Walker

    1996-01-01

    Protection of regional biodiversity requires that priority for protection of individual areas be based on both the contribution the area can make to representing overall biodiversity and the degree to which the area, in the absence of action, is vulnerable to loss of its biodiversity. Attempts to apply these criteria together largely have been ad hoc. A solution to this

  10. Biochar/compost project in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roessler, K.; Jenny, F.

    2012-04-01

    In cooperation with the organization Abokobi Society Switzerlands (ASS) the biochar/compost project tries to assist impecunious farmers in the Tamale /Walewale area in the northern region of Ghana. The soil of these farmers is often overused and low in organic matter and minerals. Field tests have been carried out since 2009 in the Walewale area and in the year 2011 also in the Tamale area. In 2011 combinations of Biochar with other natural fertilizers were tested, such as poultry manure and compost. By using the combination of biochar, compost and poultry manure as an organic soil improvement material the soil quality could be improved and higher crop yields of 50% and more could be achieved, without the use of chemical fertilizer. It is possible to achieve remarkably higher crop yields for a longer period of time, with only one single application. Local farmers were shown the new trial results in the field. They were convinced by the positive results of the crop yields. Those who would also like to improve the soil of their fields, could be given initial aid allowing them to help themselves to improve their dire situation. The biochar/compost project provided the occasion to raise awareness amongst local farmers for sustainable agriculture.

  11. Conservation and tourism development of house settlements in Moso matriarchate in Lugu Lake area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yaoyun Xing; Zhujiu Xia; Jian Dai

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the present situation of the settlement and the influence of tourism development and construction. It\\u000a discusses the attitude toward the conservation and development of the settlement as well as the way to maintain the production,\\u000a life, and culture of the Mosian and the way to promote the sustainable development of the settlement by tourism.

  12. Analysis of MIMO Systems used in planning a 4G- WiMAX Network in Ghana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. T. Tchao; K. Diawuo; W. K. Ofosu; E. Affum; Kwame Nkrumah

    2013-01-01

    with the increasing demand for mobile data services, Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) is emerging as one of the fastest growing areas within mobile communications. Innovative wireless communication systems, such as WiMAX, are expected to offer highly reliable broadband radio access in order to meet the increasing demands of emerging high speed data and multimedia services. In Ghana, deployment of WiMAX

  13. Case Studies in U.S. Distance Education: Implications for Ghana's Under-Served High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nsiah, Gabriel Kofi Boahen

    2010-01-01

    Ghana, like many other nations in recent years, has made education a top priority for national development. Despite newly developed policies, however, there remains a significant quality gap among high schools; due largely to an inequitable ratio of government's educational spending by geographic area. While most urban schools flourish with better…

  14. Evaluating Team Project-Work Using Triangulation: Lessons from Communities in Northern Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Gordon; Jasaw, Godfred Seidu

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses triangulation to assess key aspects of a team-based, participatory action research programme for undergraduates in rural communities across northern Ghana. The perceptions of the programme and its effects on the students, staff and host communities are compared, showing areas of agreement and disagreement. The successes of the…

  15. Investigating Coastal Processes and Hazards Along the Coastline of Ghana, West Africa (Invited)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Hapke; A. D. Ashton; G. Wiafe; K. A. Addo; S. Ababio; K. A. Agyekum; T. C. Lippmann; J. Roelvink

    2010-01-01

    As with many coastlines worldwide, erosion is a chronic issue along the Ghana coast. Erosion is presently impacting coastal infrastructure ranging from urban areas to small fishing villages, and threatening important cultural and historical resources in some locales. The Ghanaian coast displays significant geomorphological variability, ranging from rocky and bluffed shores to low-lying barrier beaches. Rates and trends of coastal

  16. An evaluation of customers' perception and usage of rural community banks (RCBs) in Ghana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nana Owusu-Frimpong

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – To ascertain customers' usage level and perceptions of the image of rural community banks (RCBs) in Ghana. This research examines whether women and men differ in their levels of satisfaction and expectation about the banks' services. It also assesses the contribution of RCBs towards infrastructural development in the rural areas. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Both desk and primary research methods

  17. Boron Levels in Soils Cropped to Coffee and their Relationships to some Soil Properties in Ghana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Afrifa; K. Ofori-Frimpong; M. K. Abekoe

    Studies on boron levels in soils cropped to coffee were carried out in Ghana due to widespread reports on boron deficiency in soils of some coffee producing countr ies. Leaves and soils were sampled from Cocobod coffee plantations at Bogoso, Suhuma, Manso-Mim, Bunso and Bepong, which represent the main coffee growing areas in the Western, Ashanti and Eastern regions of

  18. Singing to farmers: Non-formal adult education through folksongs for food production in rural Ghana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kofi Poku Quan-Baffour

    2011-01-01

    Agriculture is the main occupation of the people of Ghana. More than half of the country's population of about 20 million people depend on farming for their livelihoods. They are either engaged in commercial or in small-scale farming activities for socioeconomic purposes. In the rural areas in particular, almost every community member is a farmer. They are engaged in crop

  19. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act corrective measures study: Area 6 decontamination pond facility, corrective action unit no. 92

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 92, the Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility (DPF), is an historic disposal unit located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada (Figures 1 - 1, 1-2, and 1-3). The NTS is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), which has been required by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) to characterize the DPF under the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part A Permit (NDEP, 1995) for the NTS and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 265 (1996c). The DPF is prioritized in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) but is governed by the permit. The DPF was characterized through sampling events in 1994, 1996, and 1997. The results of these sampling events are contained in the Final Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Industrial Site Environmental Restoration Site Characterization Report, Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility, Revision I (DOE/NV, 1997). This Corrective Measures Study (CMS) for the Area 6 DPF has been prepared for the DOE/NV`s Environmental Restoration Project. The CMS has been developed to support the preparation of a Closure Plan for the DPF. Because of the complexities of the contamination and regulatory issues associated with the DPF, DOE/NV determined a CMS would be beneficial to the evaluation and selection of a closure alternative.

  20. Picking up the pieces: conserving remnant natural areas in the post-industrial landscape of the Calumet Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Labus, Paul; Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith Becker

    1999-01-01

    The Calumet Region was shaped by geologic forces, succession, and interacting biomes converging on a unique natural landscape. Over the past 4500 years, a strand plain has formed to the north of a geologic area called Toleston Beach. Sequential and differential primary succession of dune and swale communities in this region allowed species from different biomes to interact freely. In the mid-nineteenth century, commerce and settlement drastically changed the area, and natural areas were fragmented, manipulated, and degraded by cultural intrusions and industrialization. Despite the near obliteration of dune and swale habitat, small fragments of natural land escaped destruction. These native fragments maintained some semblance of the landscape that once covered the region. Currently, these native fragments are threatened by the lingering intrusion of historic contamination and the continuing presence of industry and commerce. Restoration and conservation of these remnants will need to be a process of integrating biological diversity goals into the landscape of the industrialized region through planning and design. We outline here the natural history of the region, the philosophical rationale for conservation, and possible approaches for integrating and maintaining these valuable remnant resources and processes.

  1. Science-based health innovation in Ghana: health entrepreneurs point the way to a new development path

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Science, technology and innovation have long played a role in Ghana’s vision for development, including in improving its health outcomes. However, so far little research has been conducted on Ghana’s capacity for health innovation to address local diseases. This research aims to fill that gap, mapping out the key actors involved, highlighting examples of indigenous innovation, setting out the challenges ahead and outlining recommendations for strengthening Ghana’s health innovation system. Methods Case study research methodology was used. Data were collected through reviews of academic literature and policy documents and through open-ended, face-to-face interviews with 48 people from across the science-based health innovation system. Data was collected over three visits to Ghana from February 2007 to August 2008, and stakeholders engaged subsequently. Results Ghana has strengths which could underpin science-based health innovation in the future, including health and biosciences research institutions with strong foreign linkages and donor support; a relatively strong regulatory system which is building capacity in other West African countries; the beginnings of new funding forms such as venture capital; and the return of professionals from the diaspora, bringing expertise and contacts. Some health products and services are already being developed in Ghana by individual entrepreneurs, which are innovative in the sense of being new to the country and, in some cases, the continent. They include essential medicines, raw pharmaceutical materials, new formulations for pediatric use and plant medicines at various stages of development. Conclusions While Ghana has many institutions concerned with health research and its commercialization, their ability to work together to address clear health goals is low. If Ghana is to capitalize on its assets, including political and macroeconomic stability which underpin investment in health enterprises, it needs to improve the health innovation environment through increasing support for its small firms; coordinating policies; and beginning a dialogue with donors on how health research can create locally-owned knowledge and be more demand-driven. Mobilizing stakeholders around health product development areas, such as traditional medicines and diagnostics, would help to create trust between groups and build a stronger health innovation system. PMID:21144073

  2. Characterisation of the European Marine Sites in South West England: the Fal and Helford candidate Special Area of Conservation (cSAC)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Langston; B. Chesman; G. Burt; M. Taylor; R. Covey; N. Cunningham; P. Jonas; S. Hawkins

    The Conservation (Natural Habitats, & c.) Regulations 1994 which implement the Habitats Directive (Council Directive 92\\/43\\/EEC) and Birds Directive (79\\/409\\/EEC) in the UK include a number of provisions for the protection of European Marine Sites (marine candidate Special Areas of Conservation (cSAC) and Special Protection Areas (SPAs)), including the requirement for competent authorities to assess the effects of new and

  3. Characterisation of the European Marine Sites in South West England: The Fal and Helford Candidate Special Area of Conservation (cSAC)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Langston; B. S. Chesman; G. R. Burt; M. Taylor; R. Covey; N. Cunningham; P. Jonas; S. J. Hawkins

    2006-01-01

    The Conservation (Natural Habitats, & c.) Regulations 1994 which implement the Habitats Directive (Council Directive 92\\/43\\/EEC) and Birds Directive (79\\/409\\/EEC) in the UK include a number of provisions for the protection of European Marine Sites (marine candidate Special Areas of Conservation (cSAC) and Special Protection Areas (SPAs)), including the requirement for competent authorities to assess the effects of new and

  4. Soil and Water Conservation in Arid and Semiarid Areas: The Chinese Experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-Yan Li

    In China, soil erosion is a serious environmental problem and a major threat to the sustainability of agriculture and economic development. The total area subjected to soil erosion covers 3 670 000 km 2, i.e., 38.2% of the total land area. For a long period of time, particularly since the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, the

  5. Requirements for marine protected areas to conserve the biodiversity of rocky reef fishes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Gladstone

    2007-01-01

    This study describes spatial patterns in the biodiversity (species, assemblages) of rocky reef fishes at a spatial scale relevant to management, and compared the outcomes for this biodiversity from alternative procedures for selecting marine protected areas (MPAs) and from the selection of MPAs for fisheries-related objectives. 2. The study area included 104 species in two assemblage types; 36 species and

  6. Youth Employment in Ghana: Conditions and Determinants

    E-print Network

    Barrett, Zachary; Berrios, Andrea; He, Yukuai; Larsen, Sean; Novoa, Miguel; Twumasi-Ankrah, Kwame; Vega, Camille

    2015-06-11

    Youth employment, and its limitations, is a pertinent problem that most developing nations face. “Youth Employment in Ghana: Conditions and Determinants” is a student-led research project that summarizes and analyzes the conditions of youth...

  7. 76 FR 55699 - Proposed Establishment of Everglades Headwaters National Wildlife Refuge and Conservation Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ...processes, and the impacts from global climate change. Key species and habitats of concern for this area include: Florida grasshopper sparrow, Everglades snail kite, Florida black bear, Audubon's crested caracara, red- cockaded woodpecker, and...

  8. Analysis of trends in water-quality data for water conservation area 3A, the Everglades, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattraw, H.C., Jr.; Scheidt, D.J.; Federico, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    Rainfall and water quality data bases from the South Florida Water Management District were used to evaluate water quality trends at 10 locations near or in Water Conservation Area 3A in The Everglades. The Seasonal Kendall test was applied to specific conductance, orthophosphate-phosphorus, nitrate-nitrogen, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, and total nitrogen regression residuals for the period 1978-82. Residuals of orthophosphate and nitrate quadratic models, based on antecedent 7-day rainfall at inflow gate S-11B, were the only two constituent-structure pairs that showed apparent significant (p < 0.05) increases in constituent concentrations. Elimination of regression models with distinct residual patterns and data outlines resulted in 17 statistically significant station water quality combinations for trend analysis. No water quality trends were observed. The 1979 Memorandum of Agreement outlining the water quality monitoring program between the Everglades National Park and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers stressed collection four times a year at three stations, and extensive coverage of water quality properties. Trend analysis and other rigorous statistical evaluation programs are better suited to data monitoring programs that include more frequent sampling and that are organized in a water quality data management system. Pronounced areal differences in water quality suggest that a water quality monitoring system for Shark River Slough in Everglades National Park include collection locations near the source of inflow to Water Conservation Area 3A. (Author 's abstract)

  9. Natural resources development in Mexico: biological diversity conservation and protected areas

    E-print Network

    Goebel, John Martin

    1989-01-01

    Gil who supplied invaluable information for this paper. In addition, I would like to express my gratitude to Richard A. Meganck, Allan S. Mills, and Ernst and Joan Goebel, for their persistent encouragement and support. This paper would not have... of Protected Areas by Presidential Administration, 1876-1988. . . . . . . Figure 2 . Mexico ' s Protected Areas. Page 14 17 Figure 3. Mexico~ s Population Pyramid, 1980. . . 19 Figure 4. Population Growth Rate and Urban-Rural Distribution, 1900...

  10. Ecoregional-scale monitoring within conservation areas, in a rapidly changing climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beever, Erik A.; Woodward, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Long-term monitoring of ecological systems can prove invaluable for resource management and conservation. Such monitoring can: (1) detect instances of long-term trend (either improvement or deterioration) in monitored resources, thus providing an early-warning indication of system change to resource managers; (2) inform management decisions and help assess the effects of management actions, as well as anthropogenic and natural disturbances; and (3) provide the grist for supplemental research on mechanisms of system dynamics and cause-effect relationships (Fancy et al., 2009). Such monitoring additionally provides a snapshot of the status of monitored resources during each sampling cycle, and helps assess whether legal standards and regulations are being met. Until the last 1-2 decades, tracking and understanding changes in condition of natural resources across broad spatial extents have been infrequently attempted. Several factors, however, are facilitating the achievement of such broad-scale investigation and monitoring. These include increasing awareness of the importance of landscape context, greater prevalence of regional and global environmental stressors, and the rise of landscape-scale programs designed to manage and monitor biological systems. Such programs include the US Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program (Moser et al., 2008), Canada's National Forest Inventory, the 3Q Programme for monitoring agricultural landscapes of Norway (Dramstad et al., 2002), and the emerging (US) Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (USDOI Secretarial Order 3289, 2009; Anonymous, 2011). This Special Section explores the underlying design considerations, as well as many pragmatic aspects associated with program implementation and interpretation of results from broad-scale monitoring systems, particularly within the constraints of high-latitude contexts (e.g., low road density, short field season, dramatic fluctuations in temperature). Although Alaska is the focus of most papers in this Special Section, we posit that many of the issues that characterize the remote, relatively undisturbed ecosystems of high northern latitudes are widespread and thus applicable to natural-resource management and conservation across northern portions of the Holarctic ecozone and indeed anywhere broad-scale monitoring is contemplated.

  11. Euthanasia, assisted dying and the right to die in Ghana: a socio-legal analysis.

    PubMed

    Owusu-Dapaa, Ernest

    2013-12-01

    There is unanimity among states to protect the continuation of life of the individual as a safeguard against their collective extinction. The right to life is accordingly guaranteed but its antithesis, the right to die is the subject of an unending debate. The controversy over the right to die is deepened by rapid advances in medicine, creating the capability for prolongation of life beyond the span which one's natural strength can endure. Ghana's supreme law explicitly guarantees the right to life but remains ambiguous on right to die, particularly euthanasia and assisted dying. Thus, some of the other rights, such as the right to dignity and not to be tortured, can creatively be exploited to justify some instances of euthanasia. Ghana's criminal code largely proscribes euthanasia. Notwithstanding, proscription of euthanasia and assisted dying by the law, in Ghana's empirical work undertaken in some of the communities in Ghana, suggests that euthanasia is quietly practisedin health facilities and private homes, especially in the rural areas. Contrary to the popular reasons assigned in the literature of the Western world, with respect to the practice or quest for legalization of euthanasia as being a necessity for providing relief from pain or hopeless quality of life, empirical data from social and anthropological studies conducted in Ghana reveal that poverty is the motivation for informal euthanasia practice in Ghana rather than genuine desire on part of patients to die or their relatives to see to their accelerated death. Apart from poverty, traditional cultural values of African societies consider non-natural death as a taboo and ignominy to the victim and his family. Thus, any move by the government to legalize euthanasia will need to be informed by widely held consultations and a possible referendum; otherwise the law may be just a mere transplant of Western models of legislation on euthanasia without reflecting the ethos of the African people. PMID:24552118

  12. Seismicity and seismotectonics of southern Ghana: lessons for seismic hazard mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amponsah, Paulina

    2014-05-01

    Ghana is located on the West African craton and is far from the major earthquake zone of the world. It is therefore largely considered a stable region. However, the southern part of the country is seismically active. Records of damaging earthquakes in Ghana date as far back as 1615. A study on the microseismic activity in southern Ghana shows that the seismic activity is linked with active faulting between the east-west trending Coastal boundary fault and a northeast-southwest trending Akwapim fault zone. Epicentres of most of the earthquakes have been located close to the area where the two major faults intersect. This can be related to the level of activity of the faults. Some of the epicentres have been located offshore and can be associated with the level of activity of the coastal boundary fault. A review of the geological and instrumental recordings of earthquakes in Ghana show that earthquakes have occurred in the past and are still liable to occur within the vicinity of the intersection of the Akwapim fault zone and the Coastal boundary fault. Data from both historical and instrumental records indicate that the most seismically active areas in Ghana are the west of Accra, where the Akwapim fault zone and the Coastal boundary fault intersect. There are numerous minor faults in the intersection area between the Akwapim fault zone and the Coastal boundary fault. This mosaic of faults has a major implication for seismic activity in the area. Earthquake disaster mitigation measures are being put in place in recent times to reduce the impact of any major event that may occur in the country. The National Disaster Management Organization has come out with a building guide to assist in the mitigation effort of earthquake disasters and floods in the country. The building guide clearly stipulates the kind of material to be used, the proportion, what should go into the foundation for one or two storey building, the electrical materials to be used and many others.

  13. Lehigh in Ghana Summer 2014 Abroad -Earn 6 Credits HU

    E-print Network

    Gilchrist, James F.

    Lehigh in Ghana Summer 2014 Abroad - Earn 6 Credits HU May 22-June 20, 2014 (Apply through February/Africana Studies Two courses offered each 3 credits HU AAS/History 198 - Economic Development in Ghana (3) HU AAS/History 298 - History and Culture in Ghana (3) HU PROGRAM OVERVIEW: The Africana Studies Program

  14. Piagetian Conservation Tasks in Ghanaian Children: The Role of Geographical Location, Gender and Age Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assan, Evelyn Ama; Sarfo, Jacob Owusu

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the influence of geographical location, gender and age on the performance of Piagetian Conservation tasks. Four conservation tasks; conservation of liquid, length, substance amount and number respectively were administered to children [4-6 years] from rural and urban Ghana and their performance on each task were recorded.…

  15. Stochastic Dominance Analysis of Soil and Water Conservation in Subsistence Crop Production in the Eastern Ethiopian Highlands: The Case of the Hunde-Lafto Area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wagayehu Bekele

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze whether investment in soil and water conservation results in a higher yield and income\\u000a and\\/or mitigate variability in yield and income to subsistence farm households in the Hunde-Lafto area. Net returns from crop\\u000a production with and without soil and water conservation (SWC) are compared based on stochastic dominance (SD) criteria. A\\u000a non-parametric

  16. Soil and water conservation decision behavior of subsistence farmers in the Eastern Highlands of Ethiopia: a case study of the Hunde-Lafto area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wagayehu Bekele; Lars Drake

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a plot-level analysis of factors influencing the adoption of soil and water conservation structures in the Hunde-Lafto area of the Eastern Ethiopian Highlands. The analysis is based on a survey of 145 farm households managing a total of 265 farm plots. The multinomial logit analysis of the survey data shows that plot-level adoption of conservation measures is

  17. Integrating livelihoods and conservation in protected areas: understanding the role and stakeholder views on prospects for non-timber forest products, a Bangladesh case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharif Ahmed Mukul; Mohammad Belal Uddin; A. Z. M. Manzoor Rashid; Jefferson Fox

    2010-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) represent a key global strategy in biodiversity conservation. In tropical developing countries, the management of PAs is a great challenge as many contain resources on which local communities rely. Collection and trading of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) is a well-established forest-based livelihood strategy, which has been promoted as a potential means for enhanced conservation and improved rural

  18. Habitat collapse due to overgrazing threatens turtle conservation in marine protected areas

    PubMed Central

    Christianen, Marjolijn J. A.; Herman, Peter M. J.; Bouma, Tjeerd J.; Lamers, Leon P. M.; van Katwijk, Marieke M.; van der Heide, Tjisse; Mumby, Peter J.; Silliman, Brian R.; Engelhard, Sarah L.; van de Kerk, Madelon; Kiswara, Wawan; van de Koppel, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are key tools for combatting the global overexploitation of endangered species. The prevailing paradigm is that MPAs are beneficial in helping to restore ecosystems to more ‘natural’ conditions. However, MPAs may have unintended negative effects when increasing densities of protected species exert destructive effects on their habitat. Here, we report on severe seagrass degradation in a decade-old MPA where hyper-abundant green turtles adopted a previously undescribed below-ground foraging strategy. By digging for and consuming rhizomes and roots, turtles create abundant bare gaps, thereby enhancing erosion and reducing seagrass regrowth. A fully parametrized model reveals that the ecosystem is approaching a tipping point, where consumption overwhelms regrowth, which could potentially lead to complete collapse of the seagrass habitat. Seagrass recovery will not ensue unless turtle density is reduced to nearly zero, eliminating the MPA's value as a turtle reserve. Our results reveal an unrecognized, yet imminent threat to MPAs, as sea turtle densities are increasing at major nesting sites and the decline of seagrass habitat forces turtles to concentrate on the remaining meadows inside reserves. This emphasizes the need for policy and management approaches that consider the interactions of protected species with their habitat. PMID:24403341

  19. Household dietary practices and family nutritional status in rural Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    A cross-sectional study involving 400 mothers was conducted in the Manya Krobo district of Ghana with the objective of studying household dietary practices, quality of diets and family nutritional status of rural Ghana. A combination of methods, including structured interviews using questionnaire, dietary assessments and anthropometry was used to collect data for the study. The data obtained was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 10 in Windows. Means and standard deviations were generated for continuous variables and frequency distribution for categorical variables. Most women consumed meals three times a day but only a few (12.5%) cooked all three meals at home. Breakfast and lunch were the two main meals purchased from food vendors. The most frequently consumed food items on daily basis were the starchy staples, maize, fish, pepper, onion, tomato and palm fruits. The nutritional qualities of diets were poor in terms of calcium and the B-vitamins. A significant proportion of the women were nutritionally at risk of being either underweight (12%), overweight (17%) or obese (5%). For adequate nutrition in this population, nutrition education intervention programs aimed at improving nutrient intake through improved diet diversity and increased use of local foods rich in calcium and the B-vitamins needs to be undertaken. There is also the need to intensify education on excessive weight gain and its attendant health problems in the area. PMID:20126363

  20. A legal and ecological perspective of 'site integrity' to inform policy development and management of Special Areas of Conservation in Europe.

    PubMed

    Rees, Siân E; Sheehan, Emma V; Jackson, Emma L; Gall, Sarah C; Cousens, Sophie L; Solandt, Jean-Luc; Boyer, Matthew; Attrill, Martin J

    2013-07-15

    The European Union Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) provides for the designation and management of Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) and requires that impacting activities are subject to 'an appropriate assessment' of their implications for the 'integrity' of the site. We define the term 'site integrity' from a legal and an ecological perspective. We demonstrate that 'site integrity' is the maintenance of ecological processes and functions that support the wider delivery of ecosystem services. 'Site integrity' can be influenced by SAC management. Management that seeks to support 'site integrity' may include the use of buffer zones or connecting areas that extend beyond the SAC site's designated features. We conclude that 'site integrity' and 'favourable conservation status' are powerful legal terms that if fully transposed into the law and policy of Member States can enable the achievement of broader European and International goals for marine conservation. PMID:23628546

  1. Habitat use during the aquatic phase of the newts Triturus vulgaris (L.) and T. cristatus (Laurenti) in central Norway: proposition for a conservation and monitoring area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon K. Skei; Dag Dolmen; Lars Rønning; Thor H. Ringsby

    2006-01-01

    Amphibian populations are declining at an alarming pace in many parts of the world. Consequently, as part of the strategy for establishing a 360 km2 conservation and reference area for amphibians in central Norway, 341 lentic water bodies were surveyed to investigate and briefly describe their hydrography and the occurrence of the newts Triturus vulgaris (L.) and T. cristatus (Laurenti)

  2. Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation Specialization: Protected Areas Management Protected Areas Management is for students interested in managing lands for conservation and restoration purposes, usually on lands owned by the government or by private conservation organizations. The program

  3. The long-term impacts of fisheries on epifaunal assemblage function and structure, in a Special Area of Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strain, E. M. A.; Allcock, A. L.; Goodwin, C. E.; Maggs, C. A.; Picton, B. E.; Roberts, D.

    2012-01-01

    Fisheries can have profound effects on epifaunal community function and structure. We analysed the results from five dive surveys (1975-1976, 1980, 1983, 2003 and 2007), taken in a Special Area of Conservation, Strangford Lough, Northern Ireland before and after a ten year period of increased trawling activity between 1985 and 1995. There were no detectable differences in the species richness or taxonomic distinctiveness before (1975-1983) and after (2003-2007) this period. However, there was a shift in the epifaunal assemblage between the surveys in 1975-1983 and 2003-2007. In general, the slow-moving, or sessile, erect, filter-feeders were replaced by highly mobile, swimming, scavengers and predators. There were declines in the frequency of the fished bivalve Aequipecten opercularis and the non-fished bivalves Modiolus modiolus and Chlamys varia and some erect sessile invertebrates between the surveys in 1975-1983 and 2003-2007. In contrast, there were increases in the frequency of the fished and reseeded bivalves Pecten maximus and Ostrea edulis, the fished crabs Cancer pagurus and Necora puber and the non-fished sea stars Asterias rubens, Crossaster papposus and Henricia oculata between the surveys in 1975-1983 and 2003-2007. We suggest that these shifts could be directly and indirectly attributed to the long-term impacts of trawl fishing gear, although increases in the supply of discarded bait and influxes of sediment may also have contributed to changes in the frequency of some taxa. These results suggest that despite their limitations, historical surveys and repeat sampling over long periods can help to elucidate the inferred patterns in the epifaunal community. The use of commercial fishing gear was banned from two areas in Strangford Lough in 2011, making it a model ecosystem for assessing the long-term recovery of the epifaunal community from the impacts of mobile and pot fishing gear.

  4. Formalising the Informal: Ghana's National Apprenticeship Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Since 2001 there has been a renewed government focus on skills development and its relationship with combating unemployment in Ghana. Technical and vocational education and training (hereinafter; TVET), delivered through public and private schools, vocational training institutes and informal apprenticeship training, continues to be seen as an…

  5. Abuse of Disabled Children in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassah, Alexander Kwesi; Kassah, Bente Lilljan Lind; Agbota, Tete Kobla

    2012-01-01

    Even though disabled children are targets of various forms of abuse, such issues remain mostly undocumented open secrets in many countries including Ghana. The article is based on a qualitative data provided by three key informants. Six stories emerged from the data and are discussed in terms of four main forms of abuse. Labelling theories are…

  6. The Development of School Libraries in Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemna, A. A.

    1983-01-01

    This brief description of school library development in Ghana includes the history of the service, its present situation (facilities, stocks of books and other materials, acquisition and processing of books, finances, library staff, relationship with public library), and suggestions for improvement. (EJS)

  7. Ghana and UAP: Obstacles and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deHeer, Andrew N.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the situation of the publishing industry in Ghana, the Ghanaian economy and book availability, the need for a national focal point for publishing, censorship and copyright, interlibrary lending, publications exchanges, and actions at the national and international levels to promote the Universal Availability of Publications (UAP) in…

  8. Community Literacy Programmes in Northern Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bendor-Samuel, David H.; Bendor-Samuel, Margaret M.

    This study describes efforts by the Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL) to promote literacy among six language groups of northern Ghana during the years 1972-1979. The report is organized into three parts. Part I provides general background for an understanding and evaluation of what took place. It first describes the national and local setting…

  9. Rights of the Child in Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacroix, Anne Laurence

    This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child by the Republic of Ghana. The report's introduction asserts that although OMCT welcomes the measures taken by the Ghanian…

  10. Child immunisation in Ghana: the effects of family, location and social disparity.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Z; Diamond, I

    1997-07-01

    The data from the Demographic and Health Survey conducted in Ghana in 1988 are used to identify determinants of immunisation uptake for children under 5 years. The logistic binomial analysis shows that socioeconomic factors are significant, especially women's education and region, and that the type of prenatal care received by the mother is also important. There is a strong familial correlation of vaccination behaviours, and there is also clustering of data within enumeration areas. PMID:9881139

  11. Acoustic and satellite remote sensing of shallow nearshore marine habitats in the Gwaii Haanas National Marine Conservation Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshitnyk, Luba Yvanka

    The ability to map nearshore habitat (i.e. submerged aquatic vegetation) is an integral component of marine conservation. The main goal of this thesis was to examine the ability of high resolution, multispectral satellite imagery and a single-beam acoustic ground discrimination system to map the location of marine habitats in Bag Harbour, found in the Gwaii Haanas National Marine Conservation Area Reserve. To meet this goal, two objectives were addressed: (1) Using the QTC View V sing-beam acoustic ground discrimination system, identify which frequency (50 kHz or 200 kHz) is best suited for mapping marine habitat; (2) evaluate the ability to map nearshore marine habitat using WorldView-2 high resolution, multispectral satellite imagery and compare the results of marine habitat maps derived from the acoustic and satellite datasets. Ground-truth data for both acoustic and satellite data were collected via towed underwater video camera on June 3rd and 4th, 2012. Acoustic data (50 and 200 kHz) were collected on June 23rd and 24 th, 2012, respectively. The results of this study are organized into two papers. The first paper focuses on objective 1 where the QTC View V single-beam acoustic ground discrimination system was used to map nearshore habitat at a site within the Gwaii Haanas National Marine Conservation Area using two survey frequencies -- 50 kHz and 200 kHz. The results show that the 200 kHz data outperformed the 50 kHz data set in both thematic and spatial accuracy. The 200 kHz dataset was able to identify two species of submerged aquatic vegetation, eelgrass ( Zostera marina) and a red algae (Chondrocanthus exasperatus ) while the 50 kHz dataset was only able to detect the distribution of eelgrass. The best overall accuracy achieved with the 200 kHz dataset was 86% for a habitat map with three classes (dense eelgrass, dense red algae and unvegetated substrate) compared to the 50 kHz habitat classification with two classes (dense eelgrass and unvegetated substrate) that had an overall accuracy of 70%. Neither dataset was capable if discerning the distribution of green algae (Ulva spp.) or brown algae (Fucus spp.), also present at the site. The second paper examines the benthic habitat maps created using WorldView-2 satellite imagery and the QTC View V single-beam acoustic ground discrimination system (AGDS) at 200 kHz (objective 2). Optical and acoustic remote sensing technologies both present unique capabilities of mapping nearshore habitat. Acoustic systems are able to map habitat in subtidal regions outside of the range of optical sensors while optical sensors such as WorldView-2 provide higher spatial and spectral resolution. The results of this study found that the WorldView-2 achieved the highest overall accuracy (75%) for mapping shallow (<3 m) benthic classes (green algae, brown algae, eelgrass and unvegetated substrate). The 200 kHz data were found to perform best in deeper (>3 m) regions and were able to detect the distribution of eelgrass, red algae and unvegetated substrate. A final habitat map was produced composed of these outputs to create a final, comprehensive habitat map of Bag Harbour. These results highlight the benefits and limitations of each remote sensing technology from a conservation management perspective. The main benefits of the WorldView-2 imagery stem from the high resolution (2 x 2 m) pixel resolution, with a single image covering many kilometers of coastline, and ability to discern habitats in the intertidal region that were undetectable by AGDS. However, the main limitation of this technology is the ability to acquire imagery under ideal conditions (low tide and calm seas). In contrast, the QTC View V system requires more hours spent collecting acoustic data in the field, is limited in the number of habitats it is able to detect and creates maps based on interpolated point data (compared to the continuous raster data of the WorldView-2 imagery). If, however, the objectives of the conservation management to create high resolution benthic habitat maps of subtidal habitats (e.g

  12. Conserving Biodiversity in a Human-Dominated World: Degradation of Marine Sessile Communities within a Protected Area with Conflicting Human Uses

    PubMed Central

    Parravicini, Valeriano; Micheli, Fiorenza; Montefalcone, Monica; Morri, Carla; Villa, Elisa; Castellano, Michela; Povero, Paolo; Bianchi, Carlo Nike

    2013-01-01

    Conservation research aims at understanding whether present protection schemes are adequate for the maintenance of ecosystems structure and function across time. We evaluated long-term variation in rocky reef communities by comparing sites surveyed in 1993 and again in 2008. This research took place in Tigullio Gulf, an emblematic case study where various conservation measures, including a marine protected area, have been implemented to manage multiple human uses. Contrary to our prediction that protection should have favored ecosystem stability, we found that communities subjected to conservation measures (especially within the marine protected area) exhibited the greatest variation toward architectural complexity loss. Between 1993 and 2008, chronic anthropogenic pressures (especially organic load) that had already altered unprotected sites in 1993 expanded their influence into protected areas. This expansion of human pressure likely explains our observed changes in the benthic communities. Our results suggest that adaptive ecosystem-based management (EBM), that is management taking into account human interactions, informed by continuous monitoring, is needed in order to attempt reversing the current trend towards less architecturally complex communities. Protected areas are not sufficient to stop ecosystem alteration by pressures coming from outside. Monitoring, and consequent management actions, should therefore extend to cover the relevant scales of those pressures. PMID:24143173

  13. Water Conservation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity was developed to get students thinking about the many ways that people use freshwater and how we can conserve this precious and fundamental natural resource. Students will watch a short documentary describing issues related to clean water availability, analyze water-use data and start to think about how they consume and can conserve water. This background knowledge will lead to students collecting data about their own water use and finding areas in their lives to conserve water. This activity uses the 5E instructional model and is part of the "Survivor Earth" series of one-hour lessons.

  14. LAND & WATER CONSERVATION PROGRAM

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    and resources in a geographic area Promote conservation of these natural features and resources Guide ________________________________________________________________________ Preparing a Conservation Plan INTRODUCTION Conservation of land, water and other natural features and resources is a priority for many New Hampshire communities. In order to implement conservation projects

  15. Responses to donor proliferation in Ghana’s health sector: a qualitative case study

    PubMed Central

    Nonvignon, Justice; Aikins, Moses; Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate how donors and government agencies responded to a proliferation of donors providing aid to Ghana’s health sector between 1995 and 2012. Methods We interviewed 39 key informants from donor agencies, central government and nongovernmental organizations in Accra. These respondents were purposively selected to provide local and international views from the three types of institutions. Data collected from the respondents were compared with relevant documentary materials – e.g. reports and media articles – collected during interviews and through online research. Findings Ghana’s response to donor proliferation included creation of a sector-wide approach, a shift to sector budget support, the institutionalization of a Health Sector Working Group and anticipation of donor withdrawal following the country’s change from low-income to lower-middle income status. Key themes included the importance of leadership and political support, the internalization of norms for harmonization, alignment and ownership, tension between the different methods used to improve aid effectiveness, and a shift to a unidirectional accountability paradigm for health-sector performance. Conclusion In 1995–2012, the country’s central government and donors responded to donor proliferation in health-sector aid by promoting harmonization and alignment. This response was motivated by Ghana’s need for foreign aid, constraints on the capacity of governmental human resources and inefficiencies created by donor proliferation. Although this decreased the government’s transaction costs, it also increased the donors’ coordination costs and reduced the government’s negotiation options. Harmonization and alignment measures may have prompted donors to return to stand-alone projects to increase accountability and identification with beneficial impacts of projects. PMID:25558103

  16. The James Koetting Ghana Field Recording Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Throughout the 1970s, Professor James Koetting of Brown University spent a great deal of time in Ghana recording traditional and popular music. Recently the Center for Digital Initiatives at the Brown University Library created this excellent online digital collection that brings together Koetting's field recordings, field notebooks, photographs, and recorded interviews. The collection affords a number of insights into the performances of musicians in Accra and others in the Kasena region of Ghana. Visitors can read through several essays before looking closer into the collection, which they can navigate by clicking on sections like "Gallery" and "Field Recordings". The "Field Recordings" section offers a fine introduction into Koetting's important work and this particular genre of music. Lastly, visitors can also look through the additional "Resources", which include a bibliography, a discography, and a glossary of relevant musical terms.

  17. The Determinants of Girls' Educational Enrollment in Ghana. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Rebecca; Kyle, Steven

    This study examined the determinants of school enrollment in Ghana, considering historical and social information to formulate an econometric model of school enrollment patterns for households. Data came from a 1989 survey of households in Ghana. The survey collected basic information about community characteristics, health and school facilities,…

  18. Peace Corps/Ghana. Country Program Evaluation. ACTION Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Neil; And Others

    Ghana first received Peace Corps assistance in 1961 (the first country in the world to receive volunteers) and since then volunteer strength has fluctuated from between 185 to 415 (presently 179). Secondary education has been the major thrust in programing until recently when Peace Corps/Ghana (PC/G) shifted its emphases to agriculture and rural…

  19. The first cases of Lassa fever in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Dzotsi, E K; Ohene, S-A; Asiedu-Bekoe, F; Amankwa, J; Sarkodie, B; Adjabeng, M; Thouphique, A M; Ofei, A; Oduro, J; Atitogo, D; Bonney, J H K; Paintsil, S C N; Ampofo, W

    2012-09-01

    Lassa fever is a zoonotic disease endemic in West Africa but with no previous case reported in Ghana. We describe the first two laboratory confirmed cases of Lassa fever from the Ashanti Region of Ghana detected in October and December, 2011. PMID:23661832

  20. FARM RADIO FORUM PROJECT-GHANA, 1964-65.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ABELL, HELEN C.

    IN 1964-65 THE GOVERNMENT OF GHANA, IN COOPERATION WITH UNESCO AND THE GOVERNMENT OF CANADA, CARRIED ON THE FARM RADIO FORUM PILOT PROJECT IN 80 VILLAGES IN GHANA TO TRANSMIT INFORMATION AND STIMULATE RURAL SELF-HELP ACTIVITIES. IN 20 VILLAGES ONE FORUM LISTENING GROUP WAS ORGANIZED, 20 VILLAGES HAD TWO LISTENING GROUPS, 20 CONTROL VILLAGES WERE…

  1. PPP – policies, practices and problems in Ghana's urban water supply

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Veronika Fuest; Stefan A. Haffner

    2007-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1990s, comprehensive reforms of the Ghanaian water sector were initiated by the Bretton Woods Institutions. The Government of Ghana was obliged to restructure the sector by establishing regulatory bodies, opening the sector to private sector participation and separating responsibilities for urban water supply from rural water supply. The parastatal Ghana Water Company Limited (GWCL) was

  2. Recruitment and Retention of Mental Health Workers in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Jack, Helen; Canavan, Maureen; Ofori-Atta, Angela; Taylor, Lauren; Bradley, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The lack of trained mental health workers is a primary contributor to the mental health treatment gap worldwide. Despite the great need to recruit and retain mental health workers in low-income countries, little is known about how these workers perceive their jobs and what drives them to work in mental health care. Using qualitative interviews, we aimed to explore factors motivating mental health workers in order to inform interventions to increase recruitment and retention. Methods We conducted 28 in-depth, open-ended interviews with staff in Ghana’s three public psychiatric hospitals. We used the snowballing method to recruit participants and the constant comparative method for qualitative data analysis, with multiple members of the research team participating in data coding to enhance the validity and reliability of the analysis. The use of qualitative methods allowed us to understand the range and depth of motivating and demotivating factors. Results Respondents described many factors that influenced their choice to enter and remain in mental health care. Motivating factors included 1) desire to help patients who are vulnerable and in need, 2) positive day-to-day interactions with patients, 3) intellectual or academic interest in psychiatry or behavior, and 4) good relationships with colleagues. Demotivating factors included 1) lack of resources at the hospital, 2) a rigid supervisory hierarchy, 3) lack of positive or negative feedback on work performance, and 4) few opportunities for career advancement within mental health. Conclusions Because many of the factors are related to relationships, these findings suggest that strengthening the interpersonal and team dynamics may be a critical and relatively low cost way to increase worker motivation. The data also allowed us to highlight key areas for resource allocation to improve both recruitment and retention, including risk pay, adequate tools for patient care, improved hospital work environment, and stigma reduction efforts. PMID:23469111

  3. A ground-water reconnaissance of the Republic of Ghana, with a description of geohydrologic provinces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gill, H.E.

    1969-01-01

    This report gives a general summary of the availability and use of ground water and describes the occurrence of ground water in five major geohydrologic provinces lying in the eight administrative regions of Ghana. The identification and delineation of the geohydrologic provinces are based on their distinctive characteristics with respect to the occurrence and availability of ground water. The Precambrian province occupies the southern, western, and northern parts of Ghana and is underlain largely by intrusive crystalline and metasedimentary rocks. The Voltaian province includes that part of the Voltaian sedimentary basin in central Ghana and is underlain chiefly by consolidated sandstone, mudstone, and shale. Narrow discontinuous bands of consolidated Devonian and Jurassic sedimentary rocks near the coast constitute the Coastal Block Fault province. The Coastal Plain province includes semiconsolidated to unconsolidated sediments of Cretaceous to Holocene age that underlie coastal plain areas in southwestern and southeastern Ghana. The Alluvial province includes the Quaternary alluvial deposits in the principal river valleys and on the delta of the Volta River. Because of the widespread distribution of crystalline and consolidated sedimentary rocks of low permeability in the Precambrian, Voltaian, and Coastal Block Fault provinces, it is difficult to develop large or event adequate groundwater supplies in much of Ghana. On the other hand, small (1 to 50 gallons per minute) supplies of water of usable quality are available from carefully sited boreholes in most parts of the country. Also, moderate (50 to 200 gpm) supplies of water are currently (1964) obtained from small-diameter screened boreholes tapping sand and limestone aquifers in the Coastal Plain province in southwestern and southeastern Ghana, but larger supplies could be obtained through properly constructed boreholes. In the Alluvial province, unconsolidated deposits in the larger stream valleys that are now largely undeveloped offer desirable locations for shallow vertical or horizontal wells, which can induce infiltration from streams and yield moderate to large water supplies. The principal factors that limit development of ground-water supplies in Ghana are (1) prevailing low permeability and water-yielding potential of the crystalline and consolidated sedimentary rocks that underlie most of the country, (2) highly mineralized ground water which appears to be widely distributed in the northern part of the Voltaian province, and (3) potential problems of salt-water encroachment in the Coastal Plain province in the Western Region and in the Keta area. On the other hand, weathering has increased porosity and has thus substantially increased the water-yielding potential of the crystalline and consolidated sedimentary rocks in much of central and northern Ghana. Also, with proper construction and development, much larger yields than those now (1964) prevalent could be obtained from boreholes tapping sand and limestone aquifers in the Coastal Plain province.

  4. ESTIMATING THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE STELLER SEA LION CONSERVATION AREA: DEVELOPING AND APPLYING NEW METHODS FOR EVALUATING SPATIALLY COMPLEX AREA CLOSURES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Haynie; David Layton

    2004-01-01

    Economists and biologists have recognized that spatial and temporal area-closures may provide an effective means of managing the impact that fisheries have on one another and upon threatened species. To date, however, little work has been done to estimate the economic impact of protected areas on commercial fishing. One significant protected area in the Bering Sea is the Steller sea

  5. Effects of deforestation pattern and private nature reserves on the forest conservation in settlement areas of the Brazilian Amazon

    E-print Network

    Metzger, Jean Paul Walter

    Effects of deforestation pattern and private nature reserves on the forest conservation The effects of deforestation patterns, private nature-reserve extents and agricultural fallow periods deforestation pattern that allow to group the reserves from different farmers at the end of the lot. When

  6. Feasibility evaluation of fired brick technology as a construction material and income-generating industry in Northern Ghana

    E-print Network

    Bates, Caroline Nijole

    2014-01-01

    This work evaluates the potential to develop fired brick production in the Northern Region of Ghana. While several brick factories operate in southern Ghana, no factories are known to exist in northern Ghana, which remains ...

  7. Child Labor and Schooling in Ghana. Ghana: Labor Markets and Poverty. Policy Research Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canagarajah, Sudharshan; Coulombe, Harold

    This report examines the determinants of child labor in conjunction with school participation trends for children ages 7-14 in Ghana. The report is based on data from national household surveys conducted 1987-92. Specifically, the study examined the influence of variables such as child age and sex; parent's education, religion, and employment; and…

  8. Coexisting with wildlife in transfrontier conservation areas in Zimbabwe: cattle owners' awareness of disease risks and perceptions of the role played by wildlife.

    PubMed

    de Garine-Wichatitsky, M; Miguel, E; Mukamuri, B; Garine-Wichatitsky, E; Wencelius, J; Pfukenyi, D M; Caron, A

    2013-05-01

    Diseases transmitted between wildlife and livestock may have significant impacts on local farmers' health, livestock health and productivity, overall national economies, and conservation initiatives, such as Transfrontier Conservation Areas in Southern Africa. However, little is known on local farmers' awareness of the potential risks, and how they perceive the role played by wildlife in the epidemiology of these diseases. We investigated the knowledge base regarding livestock diseases of local cattle owners living at the periphery of conservation areas within the Great Limpopo TFCA and the Kavango-Zambezi TFCA in Zimbabwe, using free-listing and semi-structured questionnaires during dipping sessions. The results suggest that information related to cattle diseases circulates widely between cattle farmers, including between different socio-cultural groups, using English and vernacular languages. Most respondents had an accurate perception of the epidemiology of diseases affecting their livestock, and their perception of the potential role played by wildlife species was usually in agreement with current state of veterinary knowledge. However, we found significant variations in the cultural importance of livestock diseases between sites, and owners' perceptions were not directly related with the local abundance of wildlife. As the establishment of TFCAs will potentially increase the risk of Transboundary Animal Diseases, we recommend an increased participation of communities at a local level in the prioritisation of livestock diseases control and surveillance, including zoonoses. PMID:23219685

  9. The African Conservation Foundation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Terry Harnwell

    2001-08-15

    This portal provides in-depth information about conservation issues and initiatives in Africa. The online searchable databases and forums showcase, promote and provide background information on almost 300 conservation organisations and protected area institutions across the continent. The African Conservation Foundation (ACF) is primarily concerned with education and capacity building in Africa in the areas of environment and conservation. Its mission is to support and link African conservation initiatives, groups and NGOs, with the aim of strengthening their capacity, building partnerships and promoting effective communication and co-ordination of conservation efforts.

  10. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on utility demand-side management and conservation and renewable energy programs

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallo, J.D.; Germer, M.F.; Tompkins, M.M.

    1995-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) requires all of its long-term firm power customers to implement programs that promote the conservation of electric energy or facilitate the use of renewable energy resources. Western has also proposed that all customers develop integrated resource plans that include cost-effective demand-side management programs. As part of the preparation of Western`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) developed estimates of the reductions in energy demand resulting from Western`s conservation and renewable energy activities in its Salt Lake City Area Office. ANL has also estimated the energy-demand reductions from cost-effective, demand-side management programs that could be included in the integrated resource plans of the customers served by Western`s Salt Lake City Area Office. The results of this study have been used to adjust the expected hourly demand for Western`s major systems in the Salt Lake City Area. The expected hourly demand served as the basis for capacity expansion plans develops with ANL`s Production and Capacity Expansion (PACE) model.

  11. Site Alias None Network of Conservation Areas (NCA) NCA Site ID NCA Site Name NCA Site Code

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cinder Gulch

    2009-01-01

    This is a large level grassland dominated by alkali sacaton (Sporobolus airoides), in a mosaic with sagebrush (Artemisia tridentate ssp. tridentata), greasewood (Sarcrobatus vermiculatus) and galleta (Hilaria jamesii) dominated areas. Adjacent Cinder Bluffs and other hills in the area have pinyon-juniper woodlands. This area was formerly heavily grazed, and had a dense sagebrush cover of 80% with a minimal understory.

  12. [Conservation Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  13. Research, part of a Special Feature on Do we need new management paradigms to achieve sustainability in tropical forests? Integrating Ecosystem Management, Protected Areas, and Mammal Conservation in the Brazilian Amazon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia Azevedo-Ramos; Benedito Domingues; Daniel C. Nepstad; Britaldo Soares Filho; Robert Nasi

    The Amazon forest has been converted to a matrix of pristine and modified habitats. Landscape-scale biodiversity conservation requires an understanding of species' distributions over this matrix to guarantee both effective protection and use for present and future generations. In this study, we evaluated how much of the existing and future planned protected areas (PAs) would be contributing to the conservation

  14. Representing connectivity: quantifying effective habitat availability based on area and connectivity for conservation status assessment and recovery

    PubMed Central

    Tumas, Hayley R.; Marsden, Brittany W.

    2014-01-01

    We apply a comprehensive suite of graph theoretic metrics to illustrate how landscape connectivity can be effectively incorporated into conservation status assessments and in setting conservation objectives. These metrics allow conservation practitioners to evaluate and quantify connectivity in terms of representation, resiliency, and redundancy and the approach can be applied in spite of incomplete knowledge of species-specific biology and dispersal processes. We demonstrate utility of the graph metrics by evaluating changes in distribution and connectivity that would result from implementing two conservation plans for three endangered plant species (Erigeron parishii, Acanthoscyphus parishii var. goodmaniana, and Eriogonum ovalifolium var. vineum) relative to connectivity under current conditions. Although distributions of the species differ from one another in terms of extent and specific location of occupied patches within the study landscape, the spatial scale of potential connectivity in existing networks were strikingly similar for Erigeron and Eriogonum, but differed for Acanthoscyphus. Specifically, patches of the first two species were more regularly distributed whereas subsets of patches of Acanthoscyphus were clustered into more isolated components. Reserves based on US Fish and Wildlife Service critical habitat designation would not greatly contribute to maintain connectivity; they include 83–91% of the extant occurrences and >92% of the aerial extent of each species. Effective connectivity remains within 10% of that in the whole network for all species. A Forest Service habitat management strategy excluded up to 40% of the occupied habitat of each species resulting in both range reductions and loss of occurrences from the central portions of each species’ distribution. Overall effective network connectivity was reduced to 62–74% of the full networks. The distance at which each CHMS network first became fully connected was reduced relative to the full network in Erigeron and Acanthoscyphus due to exclusion of peripheral patches, but was slightly increased for Eriogonum. Distances at which networks were sensitive to loss of connectivity due to presence non-redundant connections were affected mostly for Acanthoscyphos. Of most concern was that the range of distances at which lack of redundancy yielded high risk was much greater than in the full network. Through this in-depth example evaluating connectivity using a comprehensive suite of developed graph theoretic metrics, we establish an approach as well as provide sample interpretations of subtle variations in connectivity that conservation managers can incorporate into planning. PMID:25320685

  15. Representing connectivity: quantifying effective habitat availability based on area and connectivity for conservation status assessment and recovery.

    PubMed

    Neel, Maile; Tumas, Hayley R; Marsden, Brittany W

    2014-01-01

    We apply a comprehensive suite of graph theoretic metrics to illustrate how landscape connectivity can be effectively incorporated into conservation status assessments and in setting conservation objectives. These metrics allow conservation practitioners to evaluate and quantify connectivity in terms of representation, resiliency, and redundancy and the approach can be applied in spite of incomplete knowledge of species-specific biology and dispersal processes. We demonstrate utility of the graph metrics by evaluating changes in distribution and connectivity that would result from implementing two conservation plans for three endangered plant species (Erigeron parishii, Acanthoscyphus parishii var. goodmaniana, and Eriogonum ovalifolium var. vineum) relative to connectivity under current conditions. Although distributions of the species differ from one another in terms of extent and specific location of occupied patches within the study landscape, the spatial scale of potential connectivity in existing networks were strikingly similar for Erigeron and Eriogonum, but differed for Acanthoscyphus. Specifically, patches of the first two species were more regularly distributed whereas subsets of patches of Acanthoscyphus were clustered into more isolated components. Reserves based on US Fish and Wildlife Service critical habitat designation would not greatly contribute to maintain connectivity; they include 83-91% of the extant occurrences and >92% of the aerial extent of each species. Effective connectivity remains within 10% of that in the whole network for all species. A Forest Service habitat management strategy excluded up to 40% of the occupied habitat of each species resulting in both range reductions and loss of occurrences from the central portions of each species' distribution. Overall effective network connectivity was reduced to 62-74% of the full networks. The distance at which each CHMS network first became fully connected was reduced relative to the full network in Erigeron and Acanthoscyphus due to exclusion of peripheral patches, but was slightly increased for Eriogonum. Distances at which networks were sensitive to loss of connectivity due to presence non-redundant connections were affected mostly for Acanthoscyphos. Of most concern was that the range of distances at which lack of redundancy yielded high risk was much greater than in the full network. Through this in-depth example evaluating connectivity using a comprehensive suite of developed graph theoretic metrics, we establish an approach as well as provide sample interpretations of subtle variations in connectivity that conservation managers can incorporate into planning. PMID:25320685

  16. Maritime Cultural Resource Investigation, Management, and Mitigation in Coastal Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horlings, Rachel L.

    2012-10-01

    Four field seasons of maritime archaeological research in coastal Ghana offer insights into submerged cultural heritage, but also highlight serious concerns for its preservation and protection. A discussion of cultural heritage legislation and its ineffective implementation, as well as imminent and potential threats to submerged cultural heritage frames the argument for the mitigation and protection of submerged sites in coastal Ghana. Work on the Benya Lagoon vessel and the Elmina Wreck site is presented here as both documentation and mitigation in terms of the context of threats to submerged heritage in coastal Ghana, and preventative mitigation is proposed for its protection.

  17. Calibration of Shallow Borehole Drilling Sites Using the Electrical Resistivity Imaging Technique in the Granitoids of Central Region, Ghana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony Ewusi; Jerry S. Kuma

    2011-01-01

    The electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) technique has been used to calibrate existing successful and dry borehole drilling\\u000a locations in the Cape Coast Granitoid Complex of the Central Region of Ghana. The area has a low groundwater potential and\\u000a most of the communities do not have access to potable water. Surface water is generally expensive to treat and is therefore\\u000a not

  18. 76 FR 47234 - Notice of Intent To Solicit Nominations for the Dominguez-Escalante National Conservation Area...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ...Field Office, 2465 S. Townsend Ave., Montrose, Colorado 81401. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...Canyon Wilderness Area located in Delta, Montrose, and Mesa counties, Colorado. The...considering the recommendations of the Montrose County Commission; 3. One member...

  19. Women, religion, and maternal health care in Ghana, 1945-2000.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Lauren; Wall, Barbra Mann

    2014-01-01

    This article documents the historical factors that led to shifts in mission work toward a greater emphasis on community health for the poor and most vulnerable of society in sub-Saharan Africa after 1945. Using the example of the Medical Mission Sisters from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and their work in Ghana, we challenge the conventional narrative of medical missions as agents of imperialism. We assert that missions-particularly those run by Catholic sister physicians, nurses, and midwives-have changed over time and that those changes have been beneficial to the expansion of community health, particularly in the area of improvement of maternal care. PMID:24892862

  20. Conservation Conservation ResourcesConservation Resources

    E-print Network

    Northwest Power and Conservation Council Conservation ResourcesConservation Resources in thein the Draft 5Draft 5thth Northwest Power PlanNorthwest Power Plan Tom EckmanTom Eckman Manager, Conservation ResourcesManager, Conservation Resources Northwest Power and Conservation CouncilNorthwest Power

  1. Identities and Archaeological Heritage Preservation at the Crossroads: Understanding the Challenges of Economic Development at Tengzug, Upper East Region, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Kankpeyeng, Benjamin W.; Insoll, Timothy; MacLean, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    It is evident that both tangible and intangible elements constitute heritage and this needs to be recognized by researchers, heritage professionals and government bodies charged with implementing development policies. However, the relationship between traditional beliefs, worldview, heritage conservation, and archaeological investigation is a complex one. This is considered with reference to the conflict that can occur between government policy and indigenous beliefs in relation to architecture, and with reference to perceptions of landscape amongst the Talensi communities of Tengzug in Upper East Region, Ghana. PMID:22003263

  2. Composition and conservation of Orchidaceae on an inselberg in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and floristic relationships with areas of Eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pessanha, Alexandre Soares; Menini Neto, Luiz; Forzza, Rafaela Campostrini; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade

    2014-06-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Forest presents high levels of richness and endemism of several taxonomic groups. Within this forest, the Orchidaceae may be highlighted as the richest family of Angiosperms found there, and is highly threatened due to collection and habitat destruction. The inselbergs of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest are mostly unknown regarding their floristic composition, but the available information points to occurrence of endemic species, with adaptations to survive to this dry environment. The objectives of this study were to conduct a floristic survey of the Orchidaceae species on the Maciço do Itaoca, an inselberg located in the Northern region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, make a comparative analysis with other sites in Eastern Brazil, and discuss the geographic distribution, floristic relationships and conservation status of the orchid species present on the inselbergs. The floristic composition of the study area was compared with 24 other locations in Eastern Brazil (of which 13 are inselbergs) and the influence of the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the Orchidaceae flora on the inselbergs. On Maciço do Itaoca we recorded 18 species from 17 genera: Brasiliorchis picta, Brassavola tuberculata, Campylocentrum robustum; C sellowii, Catasetum luridum, Cattleya guttata, Cyclopogon congestus, Cyrtopodium glutiniferum, Leptotes bicolor, Lophiaris pumila, Miltonia moreliana, Oeceoclades maculata, Phymatochilum brasiliense, Prescottia plantaginifolia, Pseudolaelia vellozicola, Sarcoglottis fasciculata, Sophronitis cernua. and Vanilla chamissonis. The highest floristic similarity was with the Pedra da Botelha (0.43), an inselberg located in the North of Espírito Santo. This result is probably due to the similarity in altitude and distance from the coast in both areas despite the geographical distance between them. Apparently, little influence is exerted by the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the flora of inselbergs, due to their unique environmental characteristics which exert a strong selection pressure on plants that are adapted to survive on these inselbergs. The threats observed to the species on this inselberg are the same as for other inselbergs and include the collection of ornamental species, fire and quarrying. Specifically for the Maciço do Itaoca, a possibility for conservation may be the annexation of this area to the Desengano State Park, an important conservation area in the Northern of the State of Rio de Janeiro. PMID:25102662

  3. CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE: ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS OF REDUCED TILLAGE AND SOIL CARBON MANAGEMENT IN WATER-LIMITED AREAS OF CENTRAL ASIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural carbon (C) sequestration may be one of the most cost-effective ways to slow processes of global warming and enhance plant-available water in water-limited areas of Central Asia. Numerous environmental benefits and enhanced water-use efficiency result from agricultural activities that s...

  4. The role of social aggregations and protected areas in killer whale conservation: The mixed blessing of critical habitat

    E-print Network

    mortality limits (ML) of 2.2 animals. Mean group size in the area exceeded ML on 55.8% of days overall (Noss et al., 1996), African dogs (Woodroffe and Ginsburg, 1999), 0006-3207/$ - see front matter Ó 2009

  5. Non Timber Forest Products and Biodiversity Conservation - A Study of Tribals in a Protected Area in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. N. Ninan

    2006-01-01

    This study analyses the economics of Non Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) and the economic values appropriated by tribals in a protected area in India. Using primary data covering a cross section of tribals in the Nagarhole National Park (NNP), South India the stud y notes that the economic values appropriated by the tribals are quite high. Even after including external

  6. Importance of local knowledge in plant resources management and conservation in two protected areas from Trás-os-Montes, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Many European protected areas were legally created to preserve and maintain biological diversity, unique natural features and associated cultural heritage. Built over centuries as a result of geographical and historical factors interacting with human activity, these territories are reservoirs of resources, practices and knowledge that have been the essential basis of their creation. Under social and economical transformations several components of such areas tend to be affected and their protection status endangered. Carrying out ethnobotanical surveys and extensive field work using anthropological methodologies, particularly with key-informants, we report changes observed and perceived in two natural parks in Trás-os-Montes, Portugal, that affect local plant-use systems and consequently local knowledge. By means of informants' testimonies and of our own observation and experience we discuss the importance of local knowledge and of local communities' participation to protected areas design, management and maintenance. We confirm that local knowledge provides new insights and opportunities for sustainable and multipurpose use of resources and offers contemporary strategies for preserving cultural and ecological diversity, which are the main purposes and challenges of protected areas. To be successful it is absolutely necessary to make people active participants, not simply integrate and validate their knowledge and expertise. Local knowledge is also an interesting tool for educational and promotional programs. PMID:22112242

  7. Blood biochemistry reveals malnutrition in black-necked swans (Cygnus melanocoryphus) living in a conservation priority area.

    PubMed

    Artacho, Paulina; Soto-Gamboa, Mauricio; Verdugo, Claudio; Nespolo, Roberto F

    2007-02-01

    The application of clinical biochemical techniques to determine the products of intermediary metabolism has proved to be a reliable approach for the study of the physiological state of animals in nature. More specifically, the determination of plasma metabolites, such as glucose, total proteins (PRO), albumin (ALB), globulins (GL), urea, uric acid, triglycerides (TG) and beta-hydroxy-butyrate (BHB), and plasma enzymes such as creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in wild animals is a valuable possibility for a non-destructive assessment of health in endangered populations. Since August 2004 to January 2005, we conducted a temporal study in a conservation priority site, the "Carlos Anwandter Nature Sanctuary" to determine blood biochemistry of a wild population of black-necked swans (Cygnus melanocoryphus). This population was experiencing a drastic reduction, according to the actual knowledge about yearly fluctuations in numbers and breeding pairs. In six months, we periodically sampled about 12 swans (a total of 122 individuals), which exhibited a reduction near 30% in body mass (body mass corrected by total length). Our results showed reductions in most plasma biochemical parameters (glucose, PRO, ALB, uric acid, TG) and increase in BHB, which taken together indicated signs of chronic malnutrition. Also, the increase in AST and CK that we found, together with additional evidences of sub-lethal hepatic damage (in dead individuals), and iron pollution in aquatic plants and water confirmed that water pollution was the ultimate cause of this population reduction. PMID:17158079

  8. Use of Parsimony Analysis to Identify Areas of Endemism of Chinese Birds: Implications for Conservation and Biogeography

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiao-Lei; Qiao, Ge-Xia; Lei, Fu-Min

    2010-01-01

    Parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE) was used to identify areas of endemism (AOEs) for Chinese birds at the subregional level. Four AOEs were identified based on a distribution database of 105 endemic species and using 18 avifaunal subregions as the operating geographical units (OGUs). The four AOEs are the Qinghai-Zangnan Subregion, the Southwest Mountainous Subregion, the Hainan Subregion and the Taiwan Subregion. Cladistic analysis of subregions generally supports the division of China’s avifauna into Palaearctic and Oriental realms. Two PAE area trees were produced from two different distribution datasets (year 1976 and 2007). The 1976 topology has four distinct subregional branches; however, the 2007 topology has three distinct branches. Moreover, three Palaearctic subregions in the 1976 tree clustered together with the Oriental subregions in the 2007 tree. Such topological differences may reflect changes in the distribution of bird species through circa three decades. PMID:20559504

  9. Use of parsimony analysis to identify areas of endemism of chinese birds: implications for conservation and biogeography.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-Lei; Qiao, Ge-Xia; Lei, Fu-Min

    2010-01-01

    Parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE) was used to identify areas of endemism (AOEs) for Chinese birds at the subregional level. Four AOEs were identified based on a distribution database of 105 endemic species and using 18 avifaunal subregions as the operating geographical units (OGUs). The four AOEs are the Qinghai-Zangnan Subregion, the Southwest Mountainous Subregion, the Hainan Subregion and the Taiwan Subregion. Cladistic analysis of subregions generally supports the division of China's avifauna into Palaearctic and Oriental realms. Two PAE area trees were produced from two different distribution datasets (year 1976 and 2007). The 1976 topology has four distinct subregional branches; however, the 2007 topology has three distinct branches. Moreover, three Palaearctic subregions in the 1976 tree clustered together with the Oriental subregions in the 2007 tree. Such topological differences may reflect changes in the distribution of bird species through circa three decades. PMID:20559504

  10. Surprisingly high orchid diversity in travertine and forest areas in the Huanglong valley, China, and implications for conservation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bao-Qiang Huang; Xiao-Qin Yang; Fei-Hai Yu; Yi-Bo Luo; Yun-Dong Tai

    2008-01-01

    The presence of such a large number of terrestrial orchid species in a small area (ca. 1 km2) of the Huanglong valley in southwestern China is uncommon for this country. Studying the relationship between the distribution\\u000a patterns of these orchid species and their microenvironments may help us understand this uncommon phenomenon. We established\\u000a 662 1 m × 1 m plots, measured the cover of each

  11. SPECIAL OFFER Conservation Science Trade-offs in Conservation

    E-print Network

    SPECIAL OFFER Conservation Science Trade-offs in Conservation Deciding What to Save NIGEL LEADER that surround making decisions about which species and biogeographic areas to prioritise for conservation of the Conservation Science and Practice book series Also available online. For further information, visit: www

  12. Sustainable improvements in injury surveillance in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adofo, Koranteng; Donkor, Peter; Boateng, Kofi A; Afukaar, Francis; Mock, Charles

    2010-06-01

    The mortuary is an important foundation for injury surveillance. However, mortuary data are incomplete in many developing countries. The Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) mortuary handles most injury deaths for Kumasi, Ghana. During 1994-1995, many cases in KATH's mortuary logbooks had missing information deaths. A low-cost pilot programme was adopted to improve recording of injury deaths. During 1996-1999, 633 deaths per year were recorded. Project sustainability assessment in 2006 showed that reporting was high, with 773 cases per year. Data quality was standard with similar per cents of missing values for key variables compared with the pilot period. Supplemental data constituting 20% was obtained from the intensive care unit, for which data recording in the mortuary was incomplete. Low-cost improvements can lead to improved mortuary reporting of injury deaths. Collation of data from multiple sources remains a problem at KATH. Improved organisation and training could remedy the situation. PMID:20467961

  13. Electronic health in ghana: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Afarikumah, Ebenezer

    2014-01-01

    The health-care system in Ghana is similar to those in other developing countries and access to health services for remote communities is extremely limited. In July, 2010, the Government of Ghana launched the national e health strategy. A number of international organizations have initiated various pilot projects, including disseminating and collecting data, education initiatives and telemedicine. In addition, several institutions and organizations are dedicated to the promotion of e-health and a range of Web-based health consultancy services have begun. The main objective of this study is to provide an overview of eHealth activities in Ghana. It was a daunting task, not least because of the need to gather information on eHealth projects and initiatives in Ghana, as there is no existing repository of such information. Through literature search in Africa journals online, Hinari, Medline, Google.com, Journal of Telemedicine and e-Health, Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, Journal of Medical Internet Research and Interaction with eHealth experts, followed up with some of the authors' for directions to other projects, and following the references in some articles. A total of twenty-two (22) pilot projects have been identified in Ghana. Mobile devices in use range from PDAs to simple phones and smart phones. The key findings of this research are that there are about 22 eHealth project at various stages of implementation in Ghana. Some of these projects have wind up and others are still being implemented. Mobile devices in use range from PDAs to simple mobile phones and smart phones. Most of the projects have been donor initiated. Data collection started in March 2010 to June 2013. Although eHealth seems to have a limited role in Ghana at present, there is growing interest in the opportunities it may offer in terms of improving the delivery and access to services, especially in remote locations. Recommendations for further research are provided. PMID:24678382

  14. Buruli Ulcer Disease and Its Association with Land Cover in Southwestern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Tschakert, Petra; Klutse, Erasmus; Ferring, David; Ricciardi, Vincent; Hausermann, Heidi; Oppong, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Background Buruli ulcer (BU), one of 17 neglected tropical diseases, is a debilitating skin and soft tissue infection caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. In tropical Africa, changes in land use and proximity to water have been associated with the disease. This study presents the first analysis of BU at the village level in southwestern Ghana, where prevalence rates are among the highest globally, and explores fine and medium-scale associations with land cover by comparing patterns both within BU clusters and surrounding landscapes. Methodology/Principal Findings We obtained 339 hospital-confirmed BU cases in southwestern Ghana between 2007 and 2010. The clusters of BU were identified using spatial scan statistics and the percentages of six land cover classes were calculated based on Landsat and Rapid Eye imagery for each of 154 villages/towns. The association between BU prevalence and each land cover class was calculated using negative binomial regression models. We found that older people had a significantly higher risk for BU after considering population age structure. BU cases were positively associated with the higher percentage of water and grassland surrounding each village, but negatively associated with the percent of urban. The results also showed that BU was clustered in areas with high percentage of mining activity, suggesting that water and mining play an important and potentially interactive role in BU occurrence. Conclusions/Significance Our study highlights the importance of multiple land use changes along the Offin River, particularly mining and agriculture, which might be associated with BU disease in southwestern Ghana. Our study is the first to use both medium- and high-resolution imagery to assess these changes. We also show that older populations (? 60 y) appear to be at higher risk of BU disease than children, once BU data were weighted by population age structures. PMID:26091265

  15. Drinking Water from Dug Wells in Rural Ghana — Salmonella Contamination, Environmental Factors, and Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Dekker, Denise Myriam; Krumkamp, Ralf; Sarpong, Nimako; Frickmann, Hagen; Boahen, Kennedy Gyau; Frimpong, Michael; Asare, Renate; Larbi, Richard; Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Poppert, Sven; Rabsch, Wolfgang; Marks, Florian; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; May, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Salmonellosis is an important but neglected disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Food or fecal-oral associated transmissions are the primary cause of infections, while the role of waterborne transmission is unclear. Samples were collected from different dug wells in a rural area of Ghana and analyzed for contamination with bacteria, and with Salmonella in particular. In addition, temporal dynamics and riks factors for contamination were investigated in 16 wells. For all Salmonella isolates antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed, serovars were determined and strains from the same well with the same serovar were genotyped. The frequency of well water contamination with Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria was 99.2% (n = 395). Out of 398 samples, 26 (6.5%) tested positive for Salmonella spp. The serovar distribution was diverse including strains not commonly isolated from clinical samples. Resistance to locally applied antibiotics or resistance to fluoroquinolones was not seen in the Salmonella isolates. The risk of Salmonella contamination was lower in wells surrounded by a frame and higher during the rainy season. The study confirms the overall poor microbiological quality of well water in a resource-poor area of Ghana. Well contamination with Salmonella poses a potential threat of infection, thus highlighting the important role of drinking water safety in infectious disease control. PMID:25826395

  16. The Association Between Household Consumer Durable Assets and Maternal Health-Seeking Behavior in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ansong, Eric

    2015-07-01

    This article examined the association between household consumer durable assets and maternal health-seeking behavior. Several studies have suggested a relationship between households' socioeconomic status (SES) and health outcomes. However, SES is a multidimensional concept that encompasses variables, such as wealth, education, and income. By grouping these variables together as one construct, prior studies have not provided enough insight into possible independent associations with health outcomes. This study used data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey of 2,065 women aged between 15 and 49 years to examine the association between household consumer durables (a component of SES) and maternal health-seeking behavior in Ghana. Results from a set of generalized linear models indicated that household consumer durable assets were positively associated with four measures of maternal health-seeking behaviors, namely, seeking prenatal care from skilled health personnel, delivery by skilled birth attendant, place of delivery, and the number of antenatal visits. Also, households with more assets whose residents lived in urban areas were more likely to use skilled health personnel before and during delivery, and at an approved health facility, compared those who lived in rural areas. Implications for health interventions and policies that focus on the most vulnerable households are discussed. PMID:25833407

  17. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act industrial site environmental restoration site characterization plan. Area 6 Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    This plan presents the strategy for the characterization of the Area 6 South and North Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEPs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to be conducted for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Environmental Restoration Division (ERD). The purposes of the planned activities are to: obtain sufficient, sample analytical data from which further assessment, remediation, and/or closure strategies may be developed for the site; obtain sufficient, sample analytical data for management of investigation-derived waste (IDW). The scope of the characterization may include excavation, drilling, and sampling of soil in and around both ponds; sampling of the excavated material; in situ sampling of the soil at the bottom and on the sides of the excavations as well as within subsurface borings; and conducting sample analysis for both characterization and waste management purposes. Contaminants of concern include RCRA-regulated VOCs and metals.

  18. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act industrial site environmental restoration, site characterization plan: Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This plan presents the strategy for the characterization of the Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility at the Nevada Test Site which will be conducted for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, Environmental Restoration Division. The objectives of the planned activities are to: obtain sufficient, sample analytical data from which further assessment, remediation, and/or closure strategies may be developed for the site; obtain sufficient, sample analytical data for management of investigation-derived waste. The scope of the characterization may include surface radiation survey(s), surface soil sampling, subsurface soil boring (i.e., drilling), and sampling of soil in and around the pond; in situ sampling of the soil within subsurface soil borings; and sample analysis for both site characterization and waste management purposes.

  19. Ghana's experience in the establishment of a national data center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekua, Amponsah Paulina; Yaw, Serfor-Armah

    2012-08-01

    The government of Ghana in a bilateral agreement with the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) has established a National Data Center in Ghana with the aim of monitoring the testing of nuclear explosions. Seismic, hydroacoustic, radionuclide and infrasound methods are used for the monitoring. The data center was commissioned on 3 February, 2010 at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. At present Ghana does not have any operational, centralised data (seismic, hydroacoustic, radionuclide and infrasound) acquisition system with the capability of accessing data from other international stations. Hence, the need of setting up the National Data Center which would enable us constantly monitor, manage and coordinate both natural and man-made seismic activities in the country and around the globe, upload data to the International Data Center (IDC) as well as receive and use International Monitoring System (IMS) data and IDC products for treaty verification and compliance. Apart from these, the center also accesses and analyzes seismic waveforms relevant to its needs from the International Data Center; makes data available to its stakeholder institutions for earthquake disaster mitigation; reports on all aspects of disasters related to earthquake to the relevant government agencies that deal with disasters; makes recommendations to the government of Ghana on earthquake safety measures; provides information to assist government institutions to develop appropriate land and building policies. The center in collaboration with stakeholder agencies periodically organises public lectures on earthquake disaster risk mitigation.

  20. Mosquito avoidance and bed net use in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Agyepong, I A; Manderson, L

    1999-01-01

    Qualitative research and cross-sectional survey methods were used in a study conducted in rural and urban areas of the Greater Accra Region, Ghana, to explore people's understanding of the cause of malaria and patterns of mosquito avoidance, in particular bed net ownership and use. The study indicated far higher bed net ownership and use in rural than urban areas, which was related partly to perceived affordability and partly to the different contexts of and reasons for avoiding mosquitoes. Knowledge of an association between mosquitoes and malaria, the most common cause of illness in both areas, was related to residence but not to literacy or formal education, and this knowledge did not predict bed net use. The paper points to the complexity of social and personal factors implicated in behavioural interventions for malaria control, and questions behavioural models that assume a linear relationship between knowledge and practice. PMID:10081239

  1. Predictors of skilled attendance at delivery among antenatal clinic attendants in Ghana: a cross-sectional study of population data

    PubMed Central

    Amoakoh-Coleman, Mary; Ansah, Evelyn K; Agyepong, Irene Akua; Grobbee, Diederick E; Kayode, Gbenga A; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify demographic, maternal and community predictors of skilled attendance at delivery among women who attend antenatal clinic at least once during their pregnancy in Ghana. Design A cross-sectional study using the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data. We used frequencies for descriptive analysis, ?2 test for associations and logistic regression to identify significant predictors. Predictive models were built with estimation of area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC). Setting Ghana. Participants A total of 2041 women who had a live birth in the 5?years preceding the survey, and attended an antenatal clinic having a skilled provider, at least once, during the pregnancy. Outcome Skilled attendance at delivery. Results Overall, 60.5% (1235/2041) of women in our study sample reported skilled attendance at delivery. Significant positive associations existed between skilled attendance at delivery and the variables such as maternal educational level, wealth status class, ever use of contraception, previous pregnancy complications and health insurance coverage (p<0.001). Significant predictors of skilled attendance were wealth status class, residency, previous delivery complication, health insurance coverage and religion in a model with AUC (95% CI) of 0.85 (0.83 to 0.88). Conclusions Women less likely to have skilled attendance at delivery can be identified during antenatal care by using data on wealth status class, health insurance coverage, residence, history of previous birth complications and religion, and targeted with interventions to improve skilled attendance at delivery. PMID:25991459

  2. A Call for Action to Improve Occupational Health and Safety in Ghana and a Critical Look at the Existing Legal Requirement and Legislation

    PubMed Central

    Annan, Joe-Steve; Addai, Emmanuel K.; Tulashie, Samuel K.

    2015-01-01

    Occupational health and safety (OHS) is a broad field of professional practice, which involves specialists from different disciplines including but not limited to engineers, occupational health physicians, physical and biological scientists, economists, and statisticians. The preventive systems required to ensure workers are protected from injuries and illnesses dwell heavily on engineers; however, the extent to which the engineer can go regarding planning and implementing preventive measures is dependent on specific legal requirements, leadership commitment from the company, organization, and nation. The objective of this paper is to identify the areas of opportunities for improvements in OHS management in Ghana with regard to the nation's legal requirements, commitment of the Ghana government, and Ghanaian leadership as well as appropriate structuring of Ghanaian institutions responsible for monitoring and managing OHS in Ghana. This paper identified Ghana's fragmented legal requirements concerning OHS, which are under different jurisdictions with unclear responsibilities and accountabilities. The paper also highlights the training needs of Ghanaian academic institutions regarding OHS. Among other recommendations made including structuring of Ghanaian institutions to manage OHS in line with the ILO-OSH 2001, this paper aligns the recommendations with the articles and elements of International Labour Organization convention number 155 and OHSAS 18001 elements.

  3. A Call for Action to Improve Occupational Health and Safety in Ghana and a Critical Look at the Existing Legal Requirement and Legislation.

    PubMed

    Annan, Joe-Steve; Addai, Emmanuel K; Tulashie, Samuel K

    2015-06-01

    Occupational health and safety (OHS) is a broad field of professional practice, which involves specialists from different disciplines including but not limited to engineers, occupational health physicians, physical and biological scientists, economists, and statisticians. The preventive systems required to ensure workers are protected from injuries and illnesses dwell heavily on engineers; however, the extent to which the engineer can go regarding planning and implementing preventive measures is dependent on specific legal requirements, leadership commitment from the company, organization, and nation. The objective of this paper is to identify the areas of opportunities for improvements in OHS management in Ghana with regard to the nation's legal requirements, commitment of the Ghana government, and Ghanaian leadership as well as appropriate structuring of Ghanaian institutions responsible for monitoring and managing OHS in Ghana. This paper identified Ghana's fragmented legal requirements concerning OHS, which are under different jurisdictions with unclear responsibilities and accountabilities. The paper also highlights the training needs of Ghanaian academic institutions regarding OHS. Among other recommendations made including structuring of Ghanaian institutions to manage OHS in line with the ILO-OSH 2001, this paper aligns the recommendations with the articles and elements of International Labour Organization convention number 155 and OHSAS 18001 elements. PMID:26106516

  4. A Silent Enzootic of an Orthopoxvirus in Ghana, West Africa: Evidence for Multi-Species Involvement in the Absence of Widespread Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Mary G.; Carroll, Darin S.; Olson, Victoria A.; Hughes, Christine; Galley, Jack; Likos, Anna; Montgomery, Joel M.; Suu-Ire, Richard; Kwasi, Mubarak O.; Jeffrey Root, J.; Braden, Zach; Abel, Jason; Clemmons, Cody; Regnery, Russell; Karem, Kevin; Damon, Inger K.

    2010-01-01

    Human monkeypox has never been reported in Ghana, but rodents captured in forested areas of southern Ghana were the source of the monkeypox virus introduced into the United States in 2003. Subsequent to the outbreak in the United States, 204 animals were collected from two commercial trapping sites in Ghana. Animal tissues were examined for the presence of orthopoxvirus (OPXV) DNA using a real-time polymerase chain reaction, and sera were assayed for antibodies against OPXV. Animals from five genera (Cricetomys, Graphiurus, Funiscirus, and Heliosciurus) had antibodies against OPXV, and three genera (Cricetomys, Graphiurus, and Xerus) had evidence of OPXV DNA in tissues. Additionally, 172 persons living near the trapping sites were interviewed regarding risk factors for OPXV exposure, and their sera were analyzed. Fifty-three percent had IgG against OPXV; none had IgM. Our findings suggest that several species of forest-dwelling rodents from Ghana are susceptible to naturally occurring OPXV infection, and that persons living near forests may have low-level or indirect exposure to OPXV-infected animals, possibly resulting in sub-clinical infections. PMID:20348530

  5. Distribution patterns of macrobenthic fauna communities in Deukryang Bay, one of the environment conservation areas of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jin-Young; Lim, Hyun-Sig; Choi, Jin-Woo

    2014-06-01

    Macrobenthic fauna were collected seasonally at 44 sites in Deukryang Bay from February to November, 2012. The species number of macrobenthic fauna was in the range of 140 to 181, and polychaetes comprised 41.4% of them. The average density of the whole study area changed seasonally from 755 to 1,507 ind. m-2, and the most abundant fauna group was crustaceans which accounted for 55.1% of total abundance. An amphipod species Nippopisella nagatai was the most dominant species and a decapod species Xenophthalmus pinnotheroides, an amphipod species Photis longicaudata, and a polychaete species Paralacydonia paradoxa were also dominant in all seasons. The mean seasonal values of Shannon's diversity index (H') were in the range of 2.2-2.4, and those values for the evenness index and richness index were 0.7-0.7 and 4.6-5.7, respectively. From the cluster analysis, Deukryang Bay could be divided into 3 or 4 station groups with its specific fauna composition. The cluster analysis and an nMDS ordination revealed that local environmental factors such as water depth were related to the spatial delineation of macrobenthic fauna communities in Deukryang Bay.

  6. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Industrial Site Environmental Restoration Site Characterization Plan, Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-08-12

    This plan presents the strategy for the characterization of the Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility (DPF) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) which will be conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations OffIce (DOE/NV), Environmental Restoration Division (ERD). The objectives of the planned activities are to: o Obtain sufficient, ample analytical data from which further assessment, remediation, and/or closure strategies maybe developed for the site. o Obtain sufficient, sample analytical data for management of investigation-derived waste. All references to regulations contained in this plan are to the versions of the regulations that are current at the time of publication of this plan. The scope of the characterization may include surface radiation survey(s), surface soil sampling, subsurface soil boring (i.e., drilling), and sampling of soil in and Mound the pond; in situ sampling of the soil within subsurface soil borings; and sample analysis for both site . . characterization and waste management purposes.

  7. How landscape scale changes affect ecological processes in conservation areas: external factors influence land use by zebra (Equus burchelli) in the Okavango Delta.

    PubMed

    Bartlam-Brooks, Hattie L A; Bonyongo, Mpaphi C; Harris, Stephen

    2013-09-01

    Most large-bodied wildlife populations in sub-Saharan Africa only survive in conservation areas, but are continuing to decline because external changes influence ecological processes within reserves, leading to a lack of functionality. However, failure to understand how landscape scale changes influence ecological processes limits our ability to manage protected areas. We used GPS movement data to calculate dry season home ranges for 14 zebra mares in the Okavango Delta and investigated the effects of a range of landscape characteristics (number of habitat patches, mean patch shape, mean index of juxtaposition, and interspersion) on home range size. Resource utilization functions (RUF) were calculated to investigate how specific landscape characteristics affected space use. Space use by all zebra was clustered. In the wetter (Central) parts of the Delta home range size was negatively correlated with the density of habitat patches, more complex patch shapes, low juxtaposition of habitats and an increased availability of floodplain and grassland habitats. In the drier (Peripheral) parts of the Delta, higher use by zebra was also associated with a greater availability of floodplain and grassland habitats, but a lower density of patches and simpler patch shapes. The most important landscape characteristic was not consistent between zebra within the same area of the Delta, suggesting that no single foraging strategy is substantially superior to others, and so animals using different foraging strategies may all thrive. The distribution and complexity of habitat patches are crucial in determining space use by zebra. The extent and duration of seasonal flooding is the principal process affecting habitat patch characteristics in the Okavango Delta, particularly the availability of floodplains, which are the habitat at greatest risk from climate change and anthropogenic disturbance to the Okavango's catchment basin. Understanding how the factors that determine habitat complexity may change in the future is critical to the conservation of large mammal populations. Our study shows the importance of maintaining flood levels in the Okavango Delta and how the loss of seasonal floodplains will be compounded by changes in habitat configuration, forcing zebra to change their relative space use and enlarge home ranges, leading to increased competition for key resources and population declines. PMID:24101973

  8. Spatial Analysis of Land Cover Determinants of Malaria Incidence in the Ashanti Region, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Krefis, Anne Caroline; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Nkrumah, Bernard; Acquah, Samuel; Loag, Wibke; Oldeland, Jens; Sarpong, Nimako; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Ranft, Ulrich; May, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Malaria belongs to the infectious diseases with the highest morbidity and mortality worldwide. As a vector-borne disease malaria distribution is strongly influenced by environmental factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between malaria risk and different land cover classes by using high-resolution multispectral Ikonos images and Poisson regression analyses. The association of malaria incidence with land cover around 12 villages in the Ashanti Region, Ghana, was assessed in 1,988 children <15 years of age. The median malaria incidence was 85.7 per 1,000 inhabitants and year (range 28.4–272.7). Swampy areas and banana/plantain production in the proximity of villages were strong predictors of a high malaria incidence. An increase of 10% of swampy area coverage in the 2 km radius around a village led to a 43% higher incidence (relative risk [RR]?=?1.43, p<0.001). Each 10% increase of area with banana/plantain production around a village tripled the risk for malaria (RR?=?3.25, p<0.001). An increase in forested area of 10% was associated with a 47% decrease of malaria incidence (RR?=?0.53, p?=?0.029). Distinct cultivation in the proximity of homesteads was associated with childhood malaria in a rural area in Ghana. The analyses demonstrate the usefulness of satellite images for the prediction of malaria endemicity. Thus, planning and monitoring of malaria control measures should be assisted by models based on geographic information systems. PMID:21448277

  9. Spatial analysis of land cover determinants of malaria incidence in the Ashanti Region, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Krefis, Anne Caroline; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Nkrumah, Bernard; Acquah, Samuel; Loag, Wibke; Oldeland, Jens; Sarpong, Nimako; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Ranft, Ulrich; May, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Malaria belongs to the infectious diseases with the highest morbidity and mortality worldwide. As a vector-borne disease malaria distribution is strongly influenced by environmental factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between malaria risk and different land cover classes by using high-resolution multispectral Ikonos images and Poisson regression analyses. The association of malaria incidence with land cover around 12 villages in the Ashanti Region, Ghana, was assessed in 1,988 children <15 years of age. The median malaria incidence was 85.7 per 1,000 inhabitants and year (range 28.4-272.7). Swampy areas and banana/plantain production in the proximity of villages were strong predictors of a high malaria incidence. An increase of 10% of swampy area coverage in the 2 km radius around a village led to a 43% higher incidence (relative risk [RR]?=?1.43, p<0.001). Each 10% increase of area with banana/plantain production around a village tripled the risk for malaria (RR?=?3.25, p<0.001). An increase in forested area of 10% was associated with a 47% decrease of malaria incidence (RR?=?0.53, p?=?0.029). Distinct cultivation in the proximity of homesteads was associated with childhood malaria in a rural area in Ghana. The analyses demonstrate the usefulness of satellite images for the prediction of malaria endemicity. Thus, planning and monitoring of malaria control measures should be assisted by models based on geographic information systems. PMID:21448277

  10. 36 CFR 910.36 - Energy conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Energy conservation. 910.36 Section 910...Development Area § 910.36 Energy conservation. All new development ...and the District of Columbia Energy Conservation Code Act of 1979 and its...

  11. 36 CFR 910.36 - Energy conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 true Energy conservation. 910.36 Section 910...Development Area § 910.36 Energy conservation. All new development ...and the District of Columbia Energy Conservation Code Act of 1979 and its...

  12. 36 CFR 910.36 - Energy conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Energy conservation. 910.36 Section 910...Development Area § 910.36 Energy conservation. All new development ...and the District of Columbia Energy Conservation Code Act of 1979 and its...

  13. Neighborhood Urban Environmental Quality Conditions Are Likely to Drive Malaria and Diarrhea Mortality in Accra, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Fobil, Julius N.; Kraemer, Alexander; Meyer, Christian G.; May, Juergen

    2011-01-01

    Background. Urbanization is a process which alters the structure and function of urban environments. The alteration in the quality of urban environmental conditions has significant implications for health. This applies both to the ecology of insect vectors that may transmit diseases and the burden of disease. Study Objectives. To investigate the relationship between malaria and infectious diarrhea mortality and spatially varied neighborhood environmental quality conditions in a low-income economy. Design. A one time point spatial analysis of cluster-level environmental conditions and mortality data using principal component analysis (PCA), one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and generalized linear models (GLMs). Methods. Environmental variables were extracted from the Ghana Census 2000 database while mortality data were obtained from the Ghana Births and Deaths Registry in Accra over the period 1998–2002. Results. Whereas there was a strong evidence of a difference in relative mortality of malaria across urban environmental zones of differing neighborhood environmental conditions, no such evidence of mortality differentials was observed for diarrhea. In addition, whereas bivariate analyses showed a weak to strong evidence of association between the environmental variables and malaria mortality, no evidence of association was found between diarrhea mortality and environmental variables. Conclusion. We conclude that environmental management initiatives intended for infectious disease control might substantially reduce the risk of urban malaria mortality and to a less extent that for urban diarrhea mortality in rapidly urbanizing areas in a low-income setting. PMID:21776438

  14. Travel time to maternity care and its effect on utilization in rural Ghana: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Masters, Samuel H; Burstein, Roy; Amofah, George; Abaogye, Patrick; Kumar, Santosh; Hanlon, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Rates of neonatal and maternal mortality are high in Ghana. In-facility delivery and other maternal services could reduce this burden, yet utilization rates of key maternal services are relatively low, especially in rural areas. We tested a theoretical implication that travel time negatively affects the use of in-facility delivery and other maternal services. Empirically, we used geospatial techniques to estimate travel times between populations and health facilities. To account for uncertainty in Ghana Demographic and Health Survey cluster locations, we adopted a novel approach of treating the location selection as an imputation problem. We estimated a multilevel random-intercept logistic regression model. For rural households, we found that travel time had a significant effect on the likelihood of in-facility delivery and antenatal care visits, holding constant education, wealth, maternal age, facility capacity, female autonomy, and the season of birth. In contrast, a facility's capacity to provide sophisticated maternity care had no detectable effect on utilization. As the Ghanaian health network expands, our results suggest that increasing the availability of basic obstetric services and improving transport infrastructure may be important interventions. PMID:23906132

  15. Career Ladder Policy For Teachers: The Case Of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osei, George M.

    2008-01-01

    In 1984 the Ministry of Education in Ghana introduced a career ladder policy for teachers. While reformers believe that this has improved the condition of the teaching profession, the net gains of the policy remain deceptive. There has even been a reduction in some of the benefits that teachers used to enjoy in the single salary scheme in the past. After critically assessing the major aspects of the policy, along with the voices of Ghanaian teachers, this study argues that the career ladder policy for teachers in Ghana is another prototypical case of a failed experiment in terms of both improving the lives of teachers and maintaining their professional rights.

  16. Impact of Free Delivery Care on Health Facility Delivery and Insurance Coverage in Ghana’s Brong Ahafo Region

    PubMed Central

    Dzakpasu, Susie; Soremekun, Seyi; Manu, Alexander; ten Asbroek, Guus; Tawiah, Charlotte; Hurt, Lisa; Fenty, Justin; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Hill, Zelee

    2012-01-01

    Background Many sub-Saharan countries, including Ghana, have introduced policies to provide free medical care to pregnant women. The impact of these policies, particularly on access to health services among the poor, has not been evaluated using rigorous methods, and so the empirical basis for defending these policies is weak. In Ghana, a recent report also cast doubt on the current mechanism of delivering free care – the National Health Insurance Scheme. Longitudinal surveillance data from two randomized controlled trials conducted in the Brong Ahafo Region provided a unique opportunity to assess the impact of Ghana’s policies. Methods We used time-series methods to assess the impact of Ghana’s 2005 policy on free delivery care and its 2008 policy on free national health insurance for pregnant women. We estimated their impacts on facility delivery and insurance coverage, and on socioeconomic differentials in these outcomes after controlling for temporal trends and seasonality. Results Facility delivery has been increasing significantly over time. The 2005 and 2008 policies were associated with significant jumps in coverage of 2.3% (p?=?0.015) and 7.5% (p<0.001), respectively after the policies were introduced. Health insurance coverage also jumped significantly (17.5%, p<0.001) after the 2008 policy. The increases in facility delivery and insurance were greatest among the poorest, leading to a decline in socioeconomic inequality in both outcomes. Conclusion Providing free care, particularly through free health insurance, has been effective in increasing facility delivery overall in the Brong Ahafo Region, and especially among the poor. This finding should be considered when evaluating the impact of the National Health Insurance Scheme and in supporting the continuation and expansion of free delivery care. PMID:23173061

  17. Systematic conservation planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. Margules; R. L. Pressey

    2000-01-01

    The realization of conservation goals requires strategies for managing whole landscapes including areas allocated to both production and protection. Reserves alone are not adequate for nature conservation but they are the cornerstone on which regional strategies are built. Reserves have two main roles. They should sample or represent the biodiversity of each region and they should separate this biodiversity from

  18. Resource Conservation Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    This glossary is a composite of terms selected from 13 technologies, and is the expanded revision of the original 1952 edition of "The Soil and Water Conservation Glossary." The terms were selected from these areas: agronomy, biology, conservation, ecology, economics, engineering, forestry, geology, hydrology, range, recreation, soils, and…

  19. Conservation of the Critically Endangered Eastern Australian Population of the Grey Nurse Shark ( Carcharias taurus) Through Cross-Jurisdictional Management of a Network of Marine-Protected Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Tim P.; Harcourt, Robert; Edgar, Graham; Barrett, Neville

    2013-12-01

    Between 2001 and 2009, 26 marine-protected areas (MPA) were established on the east Australian seaboard, at least in part, to manage human interactions with a critically endangered population of grey nurse shark, Carcharias taurus. This network is spread across six MPA systems and includes all 19 sites outlined in the National Recovery Plan for C. taurus, though five sites remain open to some forms of fishing. The reserve network has complex cross-jurisdictional management, as the sharks occur in waters controlled by the Australian states of New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, as well as by the Commonwealth (Federal) government. Jurisdiction is further complicated by fisheries and conservation departments both engaging in management activities within each state. This has resulted in protected area types that include IUCN category II equivalent zones in NSW, Queensland, and Commonwealth marine parks that either overlay or complement another large scaled network of protected sites called critical habitats. Across the network, seven and eight rule permutations for diving and fishing, respectively, are applied to this population of sharks. Besides sites identified by the recovery plan, additional sites have been protected as part of the general development of MPA networks. A case study at one of these sites, which historically was known to be occupied by C. taurus but had been abandoned, appears to shows re-establishment of an aggregation of juvenile and sub-adult sharks. Concurrent with the re-establishment of the aggregation, a local dive operator increased seasonal dive visitation rates at the site fourfold. As a precautionary measure, protection of abandoned sites, which includes nursery and gestating female habitats are options that may assist recovery of the east coast population of C. taurus.

  20. Conservation of the critically endangered eastern Australian population of the grey nurse shark (Carcharias taurus) through cross-jurisdictional management of a network of marine-protected areas.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Tim P; Harcourt, Robert; Edgar, Graham; Barrett, Neville

    2013-12-01

    Between 2001 and 2009, 26 marine-protected areas (MPA) were established on the east Australian seaboard, at least in part, to manage human interactions with a critically endangered population of grey nurse shark, Carcharias taurus. This network is spread across six MPA systems and includes all 19 sites outlined in the National Recovery Plan for C. taurus, though five sites remain open to some forms of fishing. The reserve network has complex cross-jurisdictional management, as the sharks occur in waters controlled by the Australian states of New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, as well as by the Commonwealth (Federal) government. Jurisdiction is further complicated by fisheries and conservation departments both engaging in management activities within each state. This has resulted in protected area types that include IUCN category II equivalent zones in NSW, Queensland, and Commonwealth marine parks that either overlay or complement another large scaled network of protected sites called critical habitats. Across the network, seven and eight rule permutations for diving and fishing, respectively, are applied to this population of sharks. Besides sites identified by the recovery plan, additional sites have been protected as part of the general development of MPA networks. A case study at one of these sites, which historically was known to be occupied by C. taurus but had been abandoned, appears to shows re-establishment of an aggregation of juvenile and sub-adult sharks. Concurrent with the re-establishment of the aggregation, a local dive operator increased seasonal dive visitation rates at the site fourfold. As a precautionary measure, protection of abandoned sites, which includes nursery and gestating female habitats are options that may assist recovery of the east coast population of C. taurus. PMID:24213854

  1. Conserving Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ember, Lois R.

    1979-01-01

    A report on a recent Technology for Energy Conservation meeting. Topics of the meeting were the need for conservation measures, legistated economic incentives to encourage conservation, and the technology to accomplish this. (BB)

  2. A Conservation Practices for Conserving

    E-print Network

    Kaye, Jason P.

    A Conservation Catalog Practices for Conserving Pennsylvania's Natural Resources #12;#12;A Conservation Catalog 1 Introduction P ennsylvania is a land of great natural resources and Pennsylvania. The Pennsylvania Conservation Catalog is a cooperative effort of the Pennsylvania Conservation Partnership which

  3. Potential For Energy Conservation

    E-print Network

    Kumar, A.

    1981-01-01

    The largest single area for industrial energy conservation is in the improvement of combustion efficiencies for heaters and boilers. A number of methods can be employed to recover heat. The most common are by use of recuperative air preheaters...

  4. Religion and Subjective Well-Being in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokimica, Jelena; Addai, Isaac; Takyi, Baffour K.

    2012-01-01

    Using 2008 Afrobarometer survey data, we examine the relationship between religion and subjective well-being (SWB) in Ghana, as well as religious group differences in their experiences of SWB. Two measures of religion--religious affiliation and religious importance, and two measures of SWB--absolute SWB (own perceived living conditions) and…

  5. Lithostratigraphy, sedimentation and evolution of the Volta Basin in Ghana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John N. Carney; Colm J. Jordan; Christopher W. Thomas; Daniel J. Condon; Simon J. Kemp; John A. Duodo

    2010-01-01

    We present a revised lithostratigraphy for the Voltaian Supergroup of Ghana, based on a review of existing literature, interpretations of remotely sensed data and reconnaissance field survey of the Volta Basin. These strata thicken eastwards, to a maximum of between 5 and 6km adjacent to the Pan-African Dahomeyide orogen. They began to accumulate some time after about 1000Ma, along the

  6. Ivory Coast-Ghana margin: model of a transform margin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Mascle; E. Blarez

    1987-01-01

    The authors present a marine study of the eastern Ivory Coast-Ghana continental margins which they consider one of the most spectacular extinct transform margins. This margin has been created during Early-Lower Cretaceous time and has not been submitted to any major geodynamic reactivation since its fabric. Based on this example, they propose to consider during the evolution of the transform

  7. Investment in Human Capital. Schooling Supply Constraints in Rural Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavy, Victor

    This paper hypothesizes that the cost differential between primary school and middle or secondary schooling will affect household decisions to invest in any one schooling level in Ghana. Human capital investment is usually modeled in an intertemporal optimization framework in which households or individuals maximize the present value of life-time…

  8. Ghana Fiasco Shows Risks of Faculty-Led Study Trips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Karin

    2007-01-01

    This article illustrates the importance of preparation for professors who take students overseas. A University of Washington study-abroad program in Ghana that was cut short last summer after the medical evacuation of half of its participants highlights the potential hazards associated with programs led by individual faculty members who may lack…

  9. A comparative analysis of fertility differentials in Ghana and Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olatoregun, Oluwaseun; Fagbamigbe, Adeniyi Francis; Akinyemi, Odunayo Joshua; Yusuf, Oyindamola Bidemi; Bamgboye, Elijah Afolabi

    2014-09-01

    Nigeria and Ghana are the most densely populated countries in the West African sub-region with fertility levels above world average. Our study compared the two countries' fertility levels and their determinants as well as the differentials in the effect of these factors across the two countries. We carried out a retrospective analysis of data from the Nigeria and Ghana Demographic Health Surveys, 2008. The sample of 33,385 and 4,916 women aged 15-49 years obtained in Nigeria and Ghana respectively was stratified into low, medium and high fertility using reported children ever born. Data was summarized using appropriate descriptive statistics. Factors influencing fertility were identified using ordinal logistic regression at 5% significance level. While unemployment significantly lowers fertility in Nigeria, it wasn't significant in Ghana. In both countries, education, age at first marriage, marital status, urban-rural residence, wealth index and use of oral contraception were the main factors influencing high fertility levels. PMID:25438508

  10. A comparative analysis of fertility differentials in Ghana and Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olatoregun, Oluwaseun; Fagbamigbe, Adeniyi Francis; Akinyemi, Odunayo Joshua; Yusuf, Oyindamola Bidemi; Bamgboye, Elijah Afolabi

    2014-09-01

    Nigeria and Ghana are the most densely populated countries in the West African sub-region with fertility levels above world average. Our study compared the two countries' fertility levels and their determinants as well as the differentials in the effect of these factors across the two countries. We carried out a retrospective analysis of data from the Nigeria and Ghana Demographic Health Surveys, 2008. The sample of 33,385 and 4,916 women aged 15-49 years obtained in Nigeria and Ghana respectively was stratified into low, medium and high fertility using reported children ever born. Data was summarized using appropriate descriptive statistics. Factors influencing fertility were identified using ordinal logistic regression at 5% significance level. While unemployment significantly lowers fertility in Nigeria, it wasn't significant in Ghana. In both countries, education, age at first marriage, marital status, urban-rural residence, wealth index and use of oral contraception were the main factors influencing high fertility levels. PMID:25508039

  11. Girl-Child Education Outcomes: A Case Study from Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arku, Frank S.; Angmor, Emmanuel N.; Tetteh, Isaac K.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of girl-child education is largely documented and initiatives to promote girl-child education are widespread. However, studies on service delivery methods, processes and the impacts are limited in the literature. This study assessed the Plan Ghana's girl-child educational project. According to the findings, the project has helped to…

  12. Two novel arenaviruses detected in pygmy mice, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kronmann, Karl C; Nimo-Paintsil, Shirley; Guirguis, Fady; Kronmann, Lisha C; Bonney, Kofi; Obiri-Danso, Kwasi; Ampofo, William; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth

    2013-11-01

    Two arenaviruses were detected in pygmy mice (Mus spp.) by screening 764 small mammals in Ghana. The Natal multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis), the known Lassa virus reservoir, was the dominant indoor rodent species in 4 of 10 sites, and accounted for 27% of all captured rodents. No rodent captured indoors tested positive for an arenavirus. PMID:24188212

  13. Asynchronous Remote Medical Consultation for Ghana Intel Research

    E-print Network

    Aoki, Paul M.

    in southern Ghana. Author Keywords Telemedicine, social networking, organizational interfaces, developing): Miscellaneous. INTRODUCTION There are many kinds of telemedicine, from continuing medical education to patient issue of how to encourage participation and trust in a dynamic, self-organizing telemedicine project

  14. Ethnicity and Economic Well-Being: The Case of Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addai, Isaac; Pokimica, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    In the context of decades of successful economic reforms in Ghana, this study investigates whether ethnicity influences economic well-being (perceived and actual) among Ghanaians at the micro-level. Drawing on Afro-barometer 2008 data, the authors employs logistic and multiple regression techniques to explore the relative effect of ethnicity on…

  15. Career Ladder Policy for Teachers: The Case of Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osei, George M.

    2008-01-01

    In 1984 the Ministry of Education in Ghana introduced a career ladder policy for teachers. While reformers believe that this has improved the condition of the teaching profession, the net gains of the policy remain deceptive. There has even been a reduction in some of the benefits that teachers used to enjoy in the single salary scheme in the…

  16. Public University Entry in Ghana: Is It Equitable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusif, Hadrat; Yussof, Ishak; Osman, Zulkifly

    2013-01-01

    Public universities in Ghana are highly subsidised by the central government and account for about 80 per cent of university students in the country. Yet issues of fairness in terms of entry into the public university system have so far hardly been addressed. To find out whether participation in public university education is equitable, the…

  17. The Perils and Promises of Inclusive Education in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adera, Beatrice A.; Asimeng-Boahene, Lewis

    2011-01-01

    Inclusion of students with disabilities into the mainstream educational system continues to be a major issue and concern faced by many developing nations. Many individuals with disabilities face the challenge of exclusion from any form of education and failure by society to recognize their capabilities and rights. The educational system in Ghana

  18. Comparing Power Spaces: The Shaping of Ghana's Education Strategic Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takyi-Amoako, Emefa

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the power spaces occupied by both donors and the Ministry of Education in the formulation of Ghana's Education Strategic Plan (ESP). It shows that the formulation of the ESP was more donor-led than Ministry-led due to the donor-initiated global policy frameworks also referred to as the non-negotiables. Consequently, donors…

  19. The Wayside Mechanic: An Analysis of Skill Acquisition in Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Stephen Douglas

    This study describes and analyzes the nature of skill acquisition process in one indigenous, informal training system--the apprenticeship of the wayside mechanics workshops in Koforidua, Ghana. Chapter 2 places apprenticeships training in the wider context of artisanship and training. It traces the history of the West African craft shop and its…

  20. The Determinants of Household Education Expenditure in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donkoh, S. A.; Amikuzuno, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    The role of formal education in the socio-economic development of a country cannot be over-emphasized. It is in this light, that over the years, governments of Ghana and other organizations have supported the education sector in many ways. Despite the efforts, many people think that a lot more can be done, but resources are not unlimited. Against…

  1. Revisiting Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education (FCUBE) in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyeampong, Kwame

    2009-01-01

    When Ghana became independent in 1957 it had one of the most developed education systems in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Over the next forty years its education system expanded to provide places for most, but not all, of its children. Since the education reforms of the late 1980s enrolments have grown steadily; this contrasts with some SSA countries…

  2. Spectral Characteristics of the Annual Mean Rainfall Series in Ghana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Oduro-Afriyie; D. C. Adukpo

    Time series of standardised (normalised) deviations of annual mean rainfall in Ghana for the period 1961-1998 was plotted using data for 30 stations. The plot revealed widespread floods in 1962, 1963 and 1996, and widespread droughts in 1977, 1983, 1992 and 1998. To check for periodicities, the time series was subjected to a power spectrum analysis using the Maximum Entropy

  3. Learning about a New Technology: Pineapple in Ghana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy G. Conley; Christopher R. Udry

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of social learning in the diffusion of a new agricultural technology in Ghana. We use unique data on farmers' communication patterns to define each individual's information neighborhood. Conditional on many potentially confounding variables, we find evidence that farmers adjust their inputs to align with those of their information neighbors who were surprisingly successful in previous

  4. Malaria Imported from Ghana by Returning Gold Miners, China, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhongjie; Yang, Yichao; Xiao, Ning; Zhou, Sheng; Lin, Kangming; Wang, Duoquan; Zhang, Qian; Jiang, Weikang; Li, Mei; Feng, Xinyu; Yu, Jianxin; Ren, Xiang; Lai, Shengjie; Sun, Junling; Fang, Zhongliao; Hu, Wenbiao; Clements, Archie C.A.; Zhou, Xiaonong

    2015-01-01

    During May-August 2013, a malaria outbreak comprising 874 persons in Shanglin County, China, was detected among 4,052 persons returning from overseas. Ghana was the predominant destination country, and 92.3% of malarial infections occurred in gold miners. Preventive measures should be enhanced for persons in high-risk occupations traveling to malaria-endemic countries. PMID:25897805

  5. Police effectiveness and police trustworthiness in Ghana: An empirical appraisal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justice Tankebe

    2008-01-01

    Although police researchers have often assumed that perceptions of police effectiveness enhance police legitimacy, there has been very little empirical support for this assumption. Employing the legitimacy scale developed by Sunshine and Tyler, this study sought to fill this gap in our criminological knowledge using data from a representative public survey in Accra, Ghana (N= 374). The article reports a

  6. Literacy and Family Planning Education in Rural Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiagbey, Emmanuel D. K.

    1998-01-01

    Notes the need for education on fertility in rural Ghana. Notes the success of the adult literacy group approach which provides family planning information and increases literacy. Discusses the significance and activities of the literacy facilitator (usually a woman) within this system who works with groups and individuals as a member of the…

  7. Examining Teachers' Concerns and Attitudes to Inclusive Education in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbenyega, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that examined teachers' concerns and attitude toward inclusive education of students with disabilities in Ghana. A 20 item Attitudes Toward Inclusion in Africa Scale (ATIAS) was completed by 100 teachers from five "Inclusive Project" schools and five Non-Project coeducational basic schools in three different…

  8. Mobile GIS for Cadastral Data Collection in Ghana Eric MENSAHOKANTEY

    E-print Network

    Köbben, Barend

    Mobile GIS for Cadastral Data Collection in Ghana Eric MENSAH­OKANTEY Barend KÖBBEN 1 Introduction With the development of Web GIS and the emergence of Mobile GIS new possibilities of data capture and maintenance objective was to design a system of Mobile GIS suitable for building and revising a cadastral database. Up

  9. Investigating Coastal Processes and Hazards Along the Coastline of Ghana, West Africa (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hapke, C. J.; Ashton, A. D.; Wiafe, G.; Addo, K. A.; Ababio, S.; Agyekum, K. A.; Lippmann, T. C.; Roelvink, J.

    2010-12-01

    As with many coastlines worldwide, erosion is a chronic issue along the Ghana coast. Erosion is presently impacting coastal infrastructure ranging from urban areas to small fishing villages, and threatening important cultural and historical resources in some locales. The Ghanaian coast displays significant geomorphological variability, ranging from rocky and bluffed shores to low-lying barrier beaches. Rates and trends of coastal change vary along the coast, interacting with physical oceanographic processes, alongshore sediment transport gradients, and anthropogenic disruptions of sediment supply. Little data are available for the systematic assessment of the relative importance of the various factors controlling coastal change, and thus the understanding of erosion threats and the response has been haphazard and inconsiderate of the system as a whole. Information on historical coastal change rates, alongshore geomorphic and geologic variation, sediment budgets, wave climates and other factors that shape the coast is limited. An enhanced understanding of basic coastal processes is critical as development pressures, including eco- and cultural tourism, and oil and gas exploration, continue to increase. An initiative is underway to develop a more comprehensive scientific understanding of coastal processes along the Ghana coastline. An international team of scientists, working in collaboration with researchers at the University of Ghana, are building the data- and knowledge-base required for a holistic and systematic assessment to understand coastal change and its driving forces. The approach includes regional analyses of shoreline change, field mapping of geology and geomorphology, short-term monitoring surveys, collection of geophysical data, deployment of a remote camera system, deployment of a directional wave buoy, and regional hydrodynamic modeling. These data and analyses will ultimately provide the foundation needed to make informed decisions on managing the coast and responding to erosion issues. Funding for program development and equipment has been provided via the Coastal Geosciences Program of the U.S. Office of Naval Research through the Navy’s Africa Partnership Station. Data collection and analysis to date include the first regional shoreline change assessment of the Ghana coast, utilizing aerial photography spanning 31 years and RTK-GPS field surveys and reconnaissance mapping. Initial results from the shoreline change analysis indicate highly variable alongshore rates of change, although the trend is predominantly erosional. The highest erosion rates are found in the east, on the downdrift flank of the low-lying, sandy Volta Delta complex. The rapid erosion rates are likely due to the disruption of sediment supplied to the coast by the damming of the Volta River in the 1960s, as well as alongshore transport gradients generated by the progradation and morphologic evolution of the delta. Continuing investigations of coastal processes in Ghana will allow for a better understanding of erosion hazards and will aid in the development of appropriate, systematic, and sustainable responses to future increased hazards associated with rising sea-levels.

  10. Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation University of Florida/IFAS School of Forest Resources & Conservation www.sfrc.ufl.edu ~ 352-846-0847 ~ khaselier@ufl.edu Protected Areas Management is for students interested in managing lands for conservation and restoration purposes, usually on lands owned

  11. Large scale magnetic susceptibility soil mapping: a proxy for geological mapping and exploration from Bogoso (Ghana)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Théveniaut, Hervé; Clarke, Brendan

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the use of magnetic susceptibility measurements on a set of nearly 3000 soil samples (one sample per km2) collected for geochemical analyses within the framework of a geological mapping program in Ghana. The result is a map of soil magnetic susceptibility which has been compared with other maps. There is a good consistency with geological domains and lithologies, as well as with some of the geochemical soil analyses and also partly with the aeromagnetic data. In the tropical, deeply weathered lateritic context of the study area, soil magnetic susceptibility reveals similarities with magnetic and/or geochemical survey results, suggesting this rapid and easy to use technique can be an effective tool for exploration and geological mapping programs.

  12. Whole Genome Comparisons Suggest Random Distribution of Mycobacterium ulcerans Genotypes in a Buruli Ulcer Endemic Region of Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Ablordey, Anthony S.; Vandelannoote, Koen; Frimpong, Isaac A.; Ahortor, Evans K.; Amissah, Nana Ama; Eddyani, Miriam; Durnez, Lies; Portaels, Françoise; de Jong, Bouke C.; Leirs, Herwig; Porter, Jessica L.; Mangas, Kirstie M.; Lam, Margaret M. C.; Buultjens, Andrew; Seemann, Torsten; Tobias, Nicholas J.; Stinear, Timothy P.

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to control the spread of Buruli ulcer – an emerging ulcerative skin infection caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans - have been hampered by our poor understanding of reservoirs and transmission. To help address this issue, we compared whole genomes from 18 clinical M. ulcerans isolates from a 30km2 region within the Asante Akim North District, Ashanti region, Ghana, with 15 other M. ulcerans isolates from elsewhere in Ghana and the surrounding countries of Ivory Coast, Togo, Benin and Nigeria. Contrary to our expectations of finding minor DNA sequence variations among isolates representing a single M. ulcerans circulating genotype, we found instead two distinct genotypes. One genotype was closely related to isolates from neighbouring regions of Amansie West and Densu, consistent with the predicted local endemic clone, but the second genotype (separated by 138 single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs] from other Ghanaian strains) most closely matched M. ulcerans from Nigeria, suggesting another introduction of M. ulcerans to Ghana, perhaps from that country. Both the exotic genotype and the local Ghanaian genotype displayed highly restricted intra-strain genetic variation, with less than 50 SNP differences across a 5.2Mbp core genome within each genotype. Interestingly, there was no discernible spatial clustering of genotypes at the local village scale. Interviews revealed no obvious epidemiological links among BU patients who had been infected with identical M. ulcerans genotypes but lived in geographically separate villages. We conclude that M. ulcerans is spread widely across the region, with multiple genotypes present in any one area. These data give us new perspectives on the behaviour of possible reservoirs and subsequent transmission mechanisms of M. ulcerans. These observations also show for the first time that M. ulcerans can be mobilized, introduced to a new area and then spread within a population. Potential reservoirs of M. ulcerans thus might include humans, or perhaps M. ulcerans-infected animals such as livestock that move regularly between countries. PMID:25826332

  13. Conservation strategy: Making it conserve

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Fisher

    1984-01-01

    Australian governments are currently developing conservation strategy. This paper seeks to raise critical awareness to the process. It suggests: 1. even the most diligent efforts (Victorian Government) treat conservation as a mechanical problem2. for conservation strategy to conserve it must recognise that our ways of life require fundamental change3. we might begin by using General Systems Theory to promote a

  14. Contests In Conservation and Horticulture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Richard D.

    1977-01-01

    Growing interest in conservation and horticulture in New York State has caused the addition of these specialized areas to the annual statewide agricultural education contests. Contest categories in both areas are listed. (MF)

  15. Health manpower planning for primary care in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Nimo, K P

    1984-02-01

    In Ghana, a 3-tier system of health manpower is being planned in conformity with the country's primary health care strategy. Since independence, the total number of hospital beds and cots has increased from 5787 in 1960 to 12,973 in 1975, resulting in a population per hospital bed of 705 in 1975. Since 1975, health manpower planning has been mainly based on training various cadres of health to work in the existing health institutions. The acceptance of the primary health care strategy, the country's health problems, the relatively simple nature of the tasks to be performed, and sometimes the refusal to conventional health workers to work in rural areas led the Ministry of Health to critically examine the types and number of health services personnel required. A human resources project team was set up in 1976 to investigate the present and projected supply of selected categories of health personnel and to make recommendations as to the types of personnel that should be the front-line health workers. The 3-tier health system is made up of Level A, the community level; Level B, the local council subareas; and Level c, the district. Level A health workers, who form the base of the system, are selected and compensated by the community itself but trained by the Minsitry of Health for 6 weeks and subsequently for weekly refresher courses as needed. The functions of these front line workers include: pregnancy management; personal health improvement with emphasis on infant and child development; community mobilization and social development projects; health education; and simple 1st level curative measures. Level B health workers, who serve the people living within 8 km of every community, comprise 1 or more community nurses/midwives and health station environmental and development workers. Their responsibilities include support and technical supervision of Level A workers, diagnosis and treatment of simple cases or referral to a higher level; immunizing infants and children at level A; and identifying pregnant women at high risk of complicatons. The district is considered the key level. Functions of the district health management team include management of the district health services serving as the basic unit for planning and budgeting, training and supervising Level B health workers within the district, and evaluating health work within the district. In all cases the Village Development Committee is responsibile for selecting Level A halth workers for training. Training should be arranged in a way that trainees can continue their routine work without being separated from their families and communities for a long time. The teaching method involves the use of demonstration and story telling. PMID:6432475

  16. Adolescent suicide in Ghana: A content analysis of media reports

    PubMed Central

    Quarshie, Emmanuel Nii-Boye; Osafo, Joseph; Akotia, Charity S.; Peprah, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent suicide is now a major health concern for many countries. However, there is paucity of systematic studies and lack of official statistics on adolescent suicide in Ghana. Mass media coverage of adolescent suicide (even though crude), at least, may reflect the reality of the phenomenon. With an ecological orientation, this study used qualitative content analysis to analyse the pattern of 44 media reports of adolescent suicide in Ghana from January 2001 through September 2014. Results showed that hanging was the dominant method used. The behaviour usually takes place within or near the adolescent's home environment. The act was often attributed to precursors within the microsystem (family and school) of the deceased. This study serves a seminal function for future empirical studies aimed at deeper examination of the phenomenon in order to inform prevention programmes. PMID:26015405

  17. Scientific equity: experiments in laboratory education in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Osseo-Asare, Abena Dove

    2013-12-01

    During the 1960s the Ministry of Education in Ghana created a network of school laboratories to increase scientific literacy among young citizens. The ministry stocked these "Science Centres" with imported beakers, Bunsen burners, and books. Education officials and university scientists worked with teachers to create lesson plans on water, air, plants, and other topics. The government hoped that scientifically minded schoolchildren would be better prepared to staff the industries of the future. The adoption of laboratory norms represented a desire for scientific equity, rather than a condition of cultural mimicry. Interviews with ministry officials and science educators, alongside letters and reports, indicate how students and teachers appropriated the laboratories in the small West African nation. Their experiences in mobilizing resources from across Ghana and around the world provide a metaphor for ongoing efforts to establish access to scientific goods in Africa. PMID:24783491

  18. Biodiversity Conservation and Conservation Biotechnology Tools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This special issue is dedicated to the in vitro tools and methods used to conserve the genetic diversity of rare and threatened species from around the world. Species that are on the brink of extinction, due to the rapid loss of genetic diversity and habitat, come mainly from resource poor areas the...

  19. Wilderness and biodiversity conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittermeier, R. A.; Mittermeier, C. G.; Brooks, T. M.; Pilgrim, J. D.; Konstant, W. R.; da Fonseca, G. A. B.; Kormos, C.

    2003-09-01

    Human pressure threatens many species and ecosystems, so conservation efforts necessarily prioritize saving them. However, conservation should clearly be proactive wherever possible. In this article, we assess the biodiversity conservation value, and specifically the irreplaceability in terms of species endemism, of those of the planet's ecosystems that remain intact. We find that 24 wilderness areas, all > 1 million hectares, are > 70% intact and have human densities of less than or equal to five people per km2. This wilderness covers 44% of all land but is inhabited by only 3% of people. Given this sparse population, wilderness conservation is cost-effective, especially if ecosystem service value is incorporated. Soberingly, however, most wilderness is not speciose: only 18% of plants and 10% of terrestrial vertebrates are endemic to individual wildernesses, the majority restricted to Amazonia, Congo, New Guinea, the Miombo-Mopane woodlands, and the North American deserts. Global conservation strategy must target these five wildernesses while continuing to prioritize threatened biodiversity hotspots.

  20. Determinants of banks selection in USA, Taiwan and Ghana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles Blankson; Julian Ming-Sung Cheng; Nancy Spears

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this paper is to investigate bank choice\\/selection criteria in a range of cultural and country economic scenarios. More specifically, the purpose of this study is to understand international consumers' selection criteria of banks using the USA, Taiwan, and Ghana as illustrations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Following a literature review, the paper adopts the classical multi-step scale development

  1. Preventing The Oil “Resource Curse” In Ghana: Lessons From Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eyene Okpanachi; Nathan Andrews

    2012-01-01

    Ghana joined the list of oil-producing countries with the export of its first oil from the Jubilee oilfield in January 2011. President John Atta Mills's statement drawing attention to the potential paradigm shift as well as risks that the discovery of oil and gas imposes not only speaks to the complexity of extractive-industry-engendered development, but it also makes it imperative

  2. Study of age misstatement among young children in Ghana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John C. Caldwell

    1966-01-01

    \\u000a Resumen  En el Censo de Poblacion de Ghana de 1960 se hizo el primer intento de enumerar la poblacióm por años de edad individuales.\\u000a El uso de estos datos para estimar niveles de fertilidad se volvió difícil por el patrón que se supuso apropiado para edad\\u000a de los niños. Este patróm fué similar a otros encontrados en muchos de los paises

  3. Exploring voter alignments in Africa: core and swing voters in Ghana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Staffan I. Lindberg; Minion K. C. Morrison

    2005-01-01

    This article describes and analyses voter alignments in the new democracy of Ghana in two recent elections, 1996 and 2000. These elections are a part of the Fourth Republic that began with a ' founding ' election in 1992, ushering Ghana into Africa's new wave of democratisation. First the size of the core voting population is established to be about

  4. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract of Ocimum canum Sims grown in Ghana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O.canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Interestingly, rosmarinic acid content and p...

  5. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract from ocimum canum sims in Ghana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O. canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Analytical TLC was used to examine the compos...

  6. The Determination of Exclusion: Evidence from the Ghana Living Standards Surveys 1991-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolleston, Caine

    2009-01-01

    This article examines access to and exclusion from basic education in Ghana over the period 1991-2006, using data derived from the Ghana Living Standards Surveys. It uses the CREATE "zones of exclusion" model to explore schooling access outcomes within the framework of the household production function. Empirical findings indicate that the period…

  7. Religious Differences in Modernization of the Family: Family Demographics Trends in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, Tim B.; Darkwah, Akosua

    2011-01-01

    This research examines trends in a broad set of reproductive and marital behaviors in Ghana, focusing on religious group differences. These comparisons provide evidence of how family trends are constrained by religious identity in a less developed country. Three waves of the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys are used to track trends in the age…

  8. The socio-economic determinants of maternal health care utilization in Ghana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patience Aseweh Abor; Gordon Abekah-Nkrumah; Kojo Sakyi; Charles K. D. Adjasi; Joshua Abor

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The study aims to examine the socio-economic determinants of maternal health services utilization in Ghana. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Probit and ordered probit models are employed in this study. Findings – The results generally indicate that most women in Ghana undertake the required visits for antenatal services and also take both doses of the tetanus toxoid vaccine as required by

  9. The Internationalisation Agenda: A Critical Examination of Internationalisation Strategies in Public Universities in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyamera, Gifty Oforiwaa

    2015-01-01

    Recently, various strategies have been adopted and adapted by universities in Ghana to re/position themselves in the international arena. Utilising postcolonial and neoliberal theories, this paper critically examines the internationalisation strategies of three public universities in Ghana. Although all the universities have adopted strategies to…

  10. Restructuring the delivery of clean water to rural communities in Ghana: the institutional and regulatory issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kwadwo B Mensah

    1998-01-01

    Clean water is an important natural resource. In recent times, there has been a radical change in the institutional and regulatory mechanism for providing clean water to the rural communities of Ghana. The object of this paper is to examine the strengths and weaknesses of the two regimes for providing water to rural communities in Ghana. These are the traditional

  11. School Feeding and Educational Access in Rural Ghana: Is Poor Targeting and Delivery Limiting Impact?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essuman, Ato; Bosumtwi-Sam, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to address social imbalances and equity in Ghana's education delivery and to achieve her Education for All (EFA) agenda, some pro-poor programmes have been introduced. Among these is the Ghana School Feeding Programme (GSFP) that aims among others, at providing safety nets for the poor, increasing school enrolment in addition to…

  12. The Politics of Managing Ethnic Cleavages, Inequalities, Nation Building and Democratisation in Ghana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Asante

    2004-01-01

    Ghana is made up of diverse socio-cultural groups. Consequently, the management of ethno-regional and other conflicts as well as nation building has been very high on the agenda of post independence governments. This paper examines how Ghana has managed its ethnic, regional and other endemic social conflicts as well as nation building, especially under liberal political conditions. The paper also

  13. Using the Southern Oscillation Index for improving rainfall prediction and agricultural water management in Ghana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G. K. Adiku; R. C. Stone

    1995-01-01

    The use of the Southern Oscillation Index (Sol) for rainfall prediction and subsequent management of water for rainfed crop production in Ghana was explored. Five sites were selected to represent the major vegetation zones in Ghana, three of which were located in the south and two in the north. For most sites, the occurrence of severe drought coincided with negative

  14. Better Dead Than Dishonored: Masculinity and Male Suicidal Behavior in Contemporary Ghana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mensah Adinkrah

    In Ghana reliable official data on suicidal behavior are not available. There is also limited empirical research on suicidal behavior in the country. At the same time, police-recorded suicide data, media reports, and communication from professionals in the field indicate that suicidal behavior is a growing problem. To identify current patterns and meanings of male suicidal behavior in Ghana, the

  15. Migrant fertility in Ghana: Selection versus adaptation and disruption as causal mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arpita Chattopadhyay; Michael J. White; Cornelius Debpuur

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study presented in this paper is to disentangle the roles of three mechanisms—selection, adaptation, and disruption—in influencing migrant fertility in Ghana. Using data from the 1998 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, we fit Poisson and sequential logit regression models to discern the effects of the above mechanisms on cumulative fertility and annual probabilities of birth. Characteristics

  16. Health implications of partner violence against women in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Issahaku, Paul Alhassan

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the health implications of partner violence against women in Ghana using data from northern Ghana. Face-to-face structured interviews were conducted with a sample of 443 women contacted at health facilities in the northern region. Results indicate that 7 out of 10 women have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) within the past 12 months; 62% had experienced psychological violence, 29% had experienced physical violence, and 34% had experienced sexual violence. Participants reported health problems associated with violence, including injury, thoughts of suicide, sleep disruption, and fear of partner (FP). Logistic regression analyses showed that women who reported physical, psychological, and sexual violence, respectively, had 3.94 times, 10.50 times, and 2.21 times the odds of reporting thoughts of suicide, whereas the odds that women who reported physical, psychological, and sexual violence would report sleep disruption were 4.82 times higher, 4.44 times higher, and 2.50 times higher, respectively. However, only physical and psychological violence predicted the odds of FP. This study shows that IPV is a health risk factor among women in Ghana. Measures that should be designed to improve the health of women experiencing marital violence are suggested. PMID:25929140

  17. Conservative logic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Fredkin; Tommaso Toffoli

    1982-01-01

    Conservative logic is a comprehensive model of computation which explicitly reflects a number of fundamental principles of physics, such as the reversibility of the dynamical laws and the conservation of certainadditive quantities (among which energy plays a distinguished role). Because it more closely mirrors physics than traditional models of computation, conservative logic is in a better position to provide indications

  18. Perceived barriers and motivating factors influencing student midwives’ acceptance of rural postings in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Research on the mal-distribution of health care workers has focused mainly on physicians and nurses. To meet the Millennium Development Goal Five and the reproductive needs of all women, it is predicted that an additional 334,000 midwives are needed. Despite the on-going efforts to increase this cadre of health workers there are still glaring gaps and inequities in distribution. The objectives of this study are to determine the perceived barriers and motivators influencing final year midwifery students’ acceptance of rural postings in Ghana, West Africa. Methods An exploratory qualitative study using focus group interviews as the data collection strategy was conducted in two of the largest midwifery training schools in Ghana. All final year midwifery students from the two training schools were invited to participate in the focus groups. A purposive sample of 49 final year midwifery students participated in 6 focus groups. All students were women. Average age was 23.2?years. Glaser’s constant comparative method of analysis was used to identify patterns or themes from the data. Results Three themes were identified through a broad inductive process: 1) social amenities; 2) professional life; and 3) further education/career advancement. Together they create the overarching theme, quality of life, we use to describe the influences on midwifery students’ decision to accept a rural posting following graduation. Conclusions In countries where there are too few health workers, deployment of midwives to rural postings is a continuing challenge. Until more midwives are attracted to work in rural, remote areas health inequities will exist and the targeted reduction for maternal mortality will remain elusive. PMID:22828497

  19. Hospital-Based Surveillance for Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers and Hepatitides in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Bonney, Joseph Humphrey Kofi; Osei-Kwasi, Mubarak; Adiku, Theophilus Korku; Barnor, Jacob Samson; Amesiya, Robert; Kubio, Chrysantus; Ahadzie, Lawson; Ölschläger, Stephan; Lelke, Michaela; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Pahlmann, Meike; Günther, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Background Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHF) are acute diseases associated with bleeding, organ failure, and shock. VHF may hardly be distinguished clinically from other diseases in the African hospital, including viral hepatitis. This study was conducted to determine if VHF and viral hepatitis contribute to hospital morbidity in the Central and Northern parts of Ghana. Methodology/Principal Findings From 2009 to 2011, blood samples of 258 patients with VHF symptoms were collected at 18 hospitals in Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Northern, Upper West, and Upper East regions. Patients were tested by PCR for Lassa, Rift Valley, Crimean-Congo, Ebola/Marburg, and yellow fever viruses; hepatitis A (HAV), B (HBV), C (HCV), and E (HEV) viruses; and by ELISA for serological hepatitis markers. None of the patients tested positive for VHF. However, 21 (8.1%) showed anti-HBc IgM plus HBV DNA and/or HBsAg; 37 (14%) showed HBsAg and HBV DNA without anti-HBc IgM; 26 (10%) showed anti-HAV IgM and/or HAV RNA; and 20 (7.8%) were HCV RNA-positive. None was positive for HEV RNA or anti-HEV IgM plus IgG. Viral genotypes were determined as HAV-IB, HBV-A and E, and HCV-1, 2, and 4. Conclusions/Significance VHFs do not cause significant hospital morbidity in the study area. However, the incidence of acute hepatitis A and B, and hepatitis B and C with active virus replication is high. These infections may mimic VHF and need to be considered if VHF is suspected. The data may help decision makers to allocate resources and focus surveillance systems on the diseases of relevance in Ghana. PMID:24069490

  20. Conservation Biology Institute

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Conservation Biology Institute (CBI), a non-profit organization founded in 1997, is active in three primary areas related to conservation biology - applied research, education, and professional services. Through its research - alone or in collaboration with others - CBI actively seeks to develop new conservation tools, techniques, and analyses that can be used to better address a wide range of ecological concerns from endangered species protection to regional conservation planning. Based on a combination of field-based biology and computer mapping technologies (i.e., remote sensing and geographic information systems), CBIs primary research areas include: forest, aquatic, and watershed assessments, local and regional conservation planning, endangered species research and management, ecosystem monitoring, and carnivore conservation. Their formal education program, still in development, currently consists of five basic subdivisions (or program areas) including internships/ fellowships, education materials, college courses, short courses, and workshops/guest lectures. CBIs professional services are conducted alone or in collaboration with outside organizations and include: biological surveys and consulting, geographical information system (GIS) mapping services, as well as scientific reviews and white papers.

  1. Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme: a national level investigation of members’ perceptions of service provision

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), established into law in 2003 and implemented in 2005 as a ‘pro-poor’ method of health financing, has made great progress in enrolling members of the general population. While many studies have focused on predictors of enrolment this study offers a novel analysis of NHIS members’ perceptions of service provision at the national level. Methods Using data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic Health Survey we analyzed the perceptions of service provision as indicated by members enrolled in the NHIS at the time of the survey (n?=?3468; m?=?1422; f?=?2046). Ordinal Logistic Regression was applied to examine the relationship between perceptions of service provision and theoretically relevant socioeconomic and demographic variables. Results Results demonstrate that wealth, gender and ethnicity all play a role in influencing members’ perceptions of NHIS service provision, distinctive from its influence on enrolment. Notably, although wealth predicted enrolment in other studies, our study found that compared to the poorest men and uneducated women, wealthy men and educated women were less likely to perceive their service provision as better/same (more likely to report it was worse). Wealth was not an important factor for women, suggesting that household gender dynamics supersede household wealth status in influencing perceptions. As well, when compared to Akan women, women from all other ethnic groups were about half as likely to perceive the service provision to be better/same. Conclusions Findings of this study suggest there is an important difference between originally enrolling in the NHIS because one believes it is potentially beneficial, and using the NHIS and perceiving it to be of benefit. We conclude that understanding the nature of this relationship is essential for Ghana’s NHIS to ensure its longevity and meet its pro-poor mandate. As national health insurance systems are a relatively new phenomenon in sub-Saharan Africa little is known about their long term viability; understanding user perceptions of service provision is an important piece of that puzzle. PMID:23968385

  2. Conservation businesses and conservation planning in a biological diversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    Di Minin, Enrico; Macmillan, Douglas Craig; Goodman, Peter Styan; Escott, Boyd; Slotow, Rob; Moilanen, Atte

    2013-08-01

    The allocation of land to biological diversity conservation competes with other land uses and the needs of society for development, food, and extraction of natural resources. Trade-offs between biological diversity conservation and alternative land uses are unavoidable, given the realities of limited conservation resources and the competing demands of society. We developed a conservation-planning assessment for the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal, which forms the central component of the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany biological diversity hotspot. Our objective was to enhance biological diversity protection while promoting sustainable development and providing spatial guidance in the resolution of potential policy conflicts over priority areas for conservation at risk of transformation. The conservation-planning assessment combined spatial-distribution models for 646 conservation features, spatial economic-return models for 28 alternative land uses, and spatial maps for 4 threats. Nature-based tourism businesses were competitive with other land uses and could provide revenues of >US$60 million/year to local stakeholders and simultaneously help meeting conservation goals for almost half the conservation features in the planning region. Accounting for opportunity costs substantially decreased conflicts between biological diversity, agricultural use, commercial forestry, and mining. Accounting for economic benefits arising from conservation and reducing potential policy conflicts with alternative plans for development can provide opportunities for successful strategies that combine conservation and sustainable development and facilitate conservation action. PMID:23565917

  3. 76 FR 6119 - Nomination of Existing Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ...Point Arena State Marine Reserve, Point Arena State Marine Conservation Area, Sea Lion Cove State Marine Conservation Area, Saunders Reef State Marine Conservation Area, Del Mar Landing State Marine Reserve, Stewarts Point State Marine Reserve, Salt...

  4. Conservation Online

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Started as a germ of an idea back in 1987 (on a real, live bulletin board, as opposed to an electronic one), Conservation Online (CoOL) has been providing online resources for conservation professionals since 1993. As its website announces, it is a "full text library of conservation information," covering a wide array of topics ranging from digital imaging to reprographics, and quite a bit of material in between. By clicking on any given topic, visitors will receive a brief overview of the subject, its terminology, and then a list of general online resources for consideration. Another nice feature of the site is the mailing list archive, which contain the archives of various queries submitted to different professional conservation groups, such as the Association of Moving Image Archivists, the Textiles Conservation Discussion List, and the Conservation Framer's Mailing List. The site is rounded out by a timeline that traces the CoOL's history from the summer of 1987 to July 2003.

  5. Planning for Biodiversity Conservation Using Stochastic Programming

    E-print Network

    Morton, David

    9 Planning for Biodiversity Conservation Using Stochastic Programming Trevon Fuller,1 David P biodiversity features worldwide have prompted the development of a systematic planning framework biol- ogy, biodiversity. 9.1 Introduction Conservation areas are broadly defined as sites administered

  6. Prioritizing global conservation efforts.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kerrie A; McBride, Marissa F; Bode, Michael; Possingham, Hugh P

    2006-03-16

    One of the most pressing issues facing the global conservation community is how to distribute limited resources between regions identified as priorities for biodiversity conservation. Approaches such as biodiversity hotspots, endemic bird areas and ecoregions are used by international organizations to prioritize conservation efforts globally. Although identifying priority regions is an important first step in solving this problem, it does not indicate how limited resources should be allocated between regions. Here we formulate how to allocate optimally conservation resources between regions identified as priorities for conservation--the 'conservation resource allocation problem'. Stochastic dynamic programming is used to find the optimal schedule of resource allocation for small problems but is intractable for large problems owing to the "curse of dimensionality". We identify two easy-to-use and easy-to-interpret heuristics that closely approximate the optimal solution. We also show the importance of both correctly formulating the problem and using information on how investment returns change through time. Our conservation resource allocation approach can be applied at any spatial scale. We demonstrate the approach with an example of optimal resource allocation among five priority regions in Wallacea and Sundaland, the transition zone between Asia and Australasia. PMID:16541073

  7. Modern contraceptive use among women in the Asuogyaman district of Ghana: is reliability more important than health concerns?

    PubMed

    Teye, Joseph Kofi

    2013-06-01

    This study examines the socio-demographic determinants of modern contraceptive use among women in the Asuogyaman district of Ghana. The results reveal that although 97% of the survey respondents knew of at least one modern method of contraception, only 16% of them were using modern contraceptives. Statistical tests show that level of education, place of residence, and work status significantly influence modern contraceptive use among women in the study area. Fear of side effects, desire for more children, and partner's disapproval were the main barriers to modern contraceptive use in the study area. The use of traditional methods of contraception was very high because of the perception that they are safer. Based on these findings, it has been suggested that in addition to making family planning services available and accessible, health workers must address attitudinal factors such as fear of side effects and high fertility preferences. PMID:24069752

  8. Incidence and outcome of injury in Ghana: a community-based survey.

    PubMed Central

    Mock, C. N.; Abantanga, F.; Cummings, P.; Koepsell, T. D.

    1999-01-01

    Injury is an increasingly significant health problem in most low-income countries. However, strategies for preventing injury have not been well addressed. The present study was carried out to measure the incidence and outcome of various mechanisms of injury in Ghana in order to provide data for use in developing priorities for injury prevention efforts. For this purpose, using two-stage cluster sampling and household interviews, we surveyed 21,105 persons living in 431 urban and rural sites. During the preceding year, 1609 injuries resulting in one or more days of loss of normal activity were reported. Injury-related mortality was slightly higher in the urban (83 per 100,000) than in the rural area (53 per 100,000). However, the burden of disability from nonfatal injuries, as assessed by disability days, was higher in the rural (4697 disability days per 1000 person-years) than in the urban area (2671 days per 1000 person-years). Based on incidence rates and disability times, the major types of injury in the urban area were transport-related injury and falls. In the rural area, agricultural injuries predominated, followed by falls and transport-related injury. In rural and urban areas combined, 73% of motor vehicle-related injuries involved commercial vehicles. In this and other similar developing-country settings, injury prevention efforts should focus on falls and on transport safety in both urban and rural areas, with special attention being paid to commercial vehicles. In rural areas, agricultural injuries contributed the largest burden of morbidity, and should be a priority for prevention efforts. PMID:10680242

  9. Assessment of range planting as a conservation practice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NRCS range-planting Conservation Practice standards are used to develop management recommendations for improving vegetation composition and productivity of grazed plant communities. Individual Conservation Practice recommendations are implemented within a Conservation-Management-System in areas whe...

  10. The State of Information and Communication Technology and Health Informatics in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Achampong, Emmanuel Kusi

    2012-01-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become a major tool in delivery of health services and has had an innovative impact on quality of life. ICT is affecting the way healthcare is delivered to clients. In this paper, we discuss the state of ICT and health informatics in Ghana. We also discuss the state of various relevant infrastructures for the successful implementation of ehealth projects. We analyse the past and present state of health informatics in Ghana, in comparison to other African countries. We also review the challenges facing successful implementation of health informatics projects in Ghana and suggest possible solutions. PMID:23569633

  11. HOUSEHOLD NUCLEATION, DEPENDENCY AND CHILD HEALTH OUTCOMES IN GHANA.

    PubMed

    Annim, Samuel Kobina; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; Amo-Adjei, Joshua

    2014-08-28

    Summary This study uses three key anthropometric measures of nutritional status among children (stunting, wasting and underweight) to explore the dual effects of household composition and dependency on nutritional outcomes of under-five children in Ghana. The objective is to examine changes in household living arrangements of under-five children to explore the interaction of dependency and nucleation on child health outcomes. The concept of nucleation refers to the changing structure and composition of household living arrangements, from highly extended with its associated socioeconomic system of production and reproduction, social behaviour and values, towards single-family households - especially the nuclear family, containing a husband and wife and their children alone. A negative relationship between levels of dependency, as measured by the number of children in the household, and child health outcomes is premised on the grounds that high dependency depletes resources, both tangible and intangible, to the disadvantage of young children. Data were drawn from the last four rounds of the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys (GDHSs), from 1993 to 2008, for the first objective - to explore changes in household composition. For the second objective, the study used data from the 2008 GDHS. The results show that, over time, households in Ghana have been changing towards nucleation. The main finding is that in households with the same number of dependent children, in nucleated households children under age 5 have better health outcomes compared with children under age 5 in non-nucleated households. The results also indicate that the effect of dependency on child health outcomes is mediated by household nucleation and wealth status and that, as such, high levels of dependency do not necessarily translate into negative health outcomes for children under age 5, based on anthropometric measures. PMID:25167165

  12. Energy Conservation Guidelines - 1: District Level Plan for Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Irving M., Ed.; Colavita, Leon J., Ed.

    Presented are suggestions written to help local school districts develop an energy conservation program in order to minimize budget problems brought about by rising energy costs. Program areas covered include formation of the district energy conservation team, assignment of duties, operation of energy audit systems, and evaluation procedures. To…

  13. Energy Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Education Association, Toronto (Ontario).

    A questionnaire distributed in March 1977 to 71 Canadian school systems sought information on any energy conservation programs that the school boards might have undertaken. Based on the 43 replies received, a 60 percent response rate, the findings are reported and some suggestions are offered. The first section on energy conservation at the board…

  14. Energy Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR.

    This chapter of "The Best of the Best of ERIC" contains 14 annotations of documents and journal articles on energy conservation, all of which are indexed in the ERIC system. Materials on teaching energy conservation to students, the energy crisis and its impact on school finances, building heating and cooling, and other topics are annotated. (DS)

  15. Attempted suicide in ghana: motivation, stigma, and coping.

    PubMed

    Osafo, Joseph; Akotia, Charity Sylvia; Andoh-Arthur, Johnny; Quarshie, Emmanuel Nii-Boye

    2015-01-01

    To understand the experiences of suicidal persons in Ghana, 10 persons were interviewed after they attempted suicide. Thematic analysis of data showed that motivation for suicidal behavior included social taunting, hopelessness, and partner's infidelity. Suicidal persons reported stigma expressed through physical molestation and social ostracism, which left them traumatized. However, they coped through social support from relations, religious faith, and use of avoidance. Community-wide sensitive education should target reducing stigma and also increase mental health education on suicidal behavior in Ghanaian communities. PMID:25562343

  16. Communities, Cameras, and Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Communities, Cameras, and Conservation (CCC) is the most exciting and valuable program the author has seen in her 30 years of teaching field science courses. In this citizen science project, students and community volunteers collect data on mountain lions ("Puma concolor") at four natural areas and public parks along the Front Range of Colorado.…

  17. Marine Conservation Biology Institute

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stay current with the latest marine conservation issues, plus find information on workshops and job and research opportunities. Access information on the latest research, legislation, and MCBI's latest publications. Learn about marine protected areas, destructive fishing practices, endangered species, and how MCBI is advancing marine science. Features include a photo gallery, links to an abundance of worldwide external resources, and several downloadable videos.

  18. The Getty Conservation Institute

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-01-01

    Started in 1985, The Getty Conservation Institute (GCI) "works internationally to advance conservation practice in the visual arts." Their mission is quite broad, as it includes conservation projects that involve architecture, individual objects, and site examinations. First-time visitors may wish to start by looking at the "What's New" area on the right-hand side of the homepage. Here they will find short videos on Asian orange colorants, information about Middle East heritage databases, and a direct link to the latest edition of the GCI's newsletter, "Conservation". Moving on, the "Free PDF Publications" area contains access to full-length books, reports, glossaries, and short papers published by the GCI. The "Videos and Audio" area contains a number of compelling talks, including a conversation with a panel of experts about long-term preservation plans for the bridges that span the Los Angeles River. Finally, the site also contains information for potential visiting scholars, graduate students, and interns within the "Public Programs" area of the site.

  19. Conservation in Conflict

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wildlife Conservation Society

    What happens when war occurs in areas where there is war? Ecologist Peter Zahler who has worked in Afghanistan since 2002, talks about how conserving biodiversity may bring peace to the war-torn region. You can read more about Zahler's work in the article Nurturing Wildlife in War-Torn Afghanistan that appeared in the New Yorker Times in December, 2011.

  20. Marine Conservation Institute

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stay current with the latest marine conservation issues, plus find information on workshops and job and research opportunities. Access information on the latest research, legislation, and MCI's latest publications. Learn about marine protected areas, destructive fishing practices, endangered species, and how MCI is advancing marine science. Features include a photo gallery, links to an abundance of worldwide external resources, and several downloadable videos.

  1. Conservation Conflicts Across Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Balmford; Joslin L. Moore; Thomas Brooks; Neil Burgess; Louis A. Hansen; Paul Williams; Carsten Rahbek

    2001-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that areas of outstanding conservation importance may coincide with dense human settlement or impact. We tested the generality of these findings using 1°-resolution data for sub-Saharan Africa. We find that human population density is positively correlated with species richness of birds, mammals, snakes, and amphibians. This association holds for widespread, narrowly endemic, and threatened species and

  2. Conservation and solar guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Guidelines are given for selecting R-values and infiltration levels, and determining the size of the solar collection area for passive solar buildings. The guidelines are based on balancing the incremental cost/benefit of conservation and passive solar strategies. Tables are given for 90 cities in the US and the results are also displayed on maps. An example is included.

  3. Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation

    E-print Network

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    Foundations in Natural Resources and Conservation 3 credits FOR3434C Forest Resources Information Systems 3Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation Specialization: Protected Areas Management Protected credits Fall FNR 3131C Dendrology/Forest Plants 3 credits FNR 3410C Natural Resource Sampling 3 credits

  4. Water quality analysis of groundwater in crystalline basement rocks, Northern Ghana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anku, Y.S.; Banoeng-Yakubo, B.; Asiedu, D.K.; Yidana, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrochemical data are presented for groundwater samples, collected from fractured aquifers in parts of northern Ghana. The data was collected to assess the groundwater suitability for domestic and agricultural use. Results of the study reveal that the pH of the groundwater in the area is slightly acidic to slightly alkaline. The electrical conductivity values, total dissolved solids (TDS) values and calcium, magnesium and sodium concentrations in the groundwater are generally below the limit set by the WHO for potable water supply. On the basis of activity diagrams, groundwater from the fractured aquifers appears to be stable within the montmorillonite field, suggesting weathering of silicate minerals. An inverse distance weighting interpolator with a power of 2 was applied to the data points to produce prediction maps for nitrate and fluoride. The distribution maps show the presence of high nitrate concentrations (50-194??mg/l) in some of the boreholes in the western part of the study area indicating anthropogenic impact on the groundwater. Elevated fluoride level (1.5-4??mg/l), higher than the WHO allowable fluoride concentration of 1.5, is recorded in the groundwater underlying the northeastern part of the study area, more specifically Bongo and its surrounding communities of the Upper East region. Results of this study suggest that groundwater from the fractured aquifers in the area exhibit low sodicity-low salinity (S1-C1), low sodicity-medium salinity (S1-C2) characteristics [United States Salinity Laboratory (USSL) classification scheme]. All data points from this study plot within the 'Excellent to good' category on a Wilcox diagram. Groundwater in this area thus appears to provide irrigation water of excellent quality. The hydrochemical results indicate that, although nitrate and fluoride concentrations in some boreholes are high, the groundwater in the study area, based on the parameters analyzed, is chemically potable and suitable for domestic and agricultural purposes. ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.

  5. GHANA: CROSS-BORDER TRADE ISSUES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gayle A. Morris

    Abstract This study is part of the EAGER Trade Regimes and Growth research that explores barriers to cross-border trade. Five commodities (iron rods, tomatoes, maize, salt, aluminum cookware) and three border crossing points ( Bawku area, Aflao, Elubo) were examined in the research. Using a regression model the researchers were able to estimate total (recorded plus unrecorded) commodity,flows. The estimation

  6. Childhood burns in Ghana: epidemiological characteristics and home-based treatment.

    PubMed

    Forjuoh, S N; Guyer, B; Smith, G S

    1995-02-01

    The objectives of this research were to study the epidemiological characteristics and home-based treatment of childhood burns in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. Children aged 0-5 years with a burn history were identified through a community-based, multisite survey. A standard questionnaire was administered to mothers of 630 of these children to elicit information on their sociodemographic characteristics and the circumstances of the burn event. Ninety-two per cent of the burns occurred in the home, particularly in the kitchen (51 per cent) and the house yard (36 per cent), with most of them happening in the late morning and around the evening meal. The main causes of the burns were scalds (45 per cent), contact with a hot object (34 per cent) and flame (20 per cent). 'Cool' water was applied to the burned area in 30 per cent of cases. Otherwise, treatment with a traditional preparation was the most popular first-aid choice. Since a considerable proportion of burns happened between meals when children 'play with fire' in the house yard, the provision of alternative play activities and community play areas may reduce the incidence of burns to these children. Secondly, we recommend that education on first-aid management of burns be intensified, with special emphasis on alternatives to the use of traditional preparations. PMID:7718113

  7. Effects of spatial location and household wealth on health insurance subscription among women in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study compares ownership of health insurance among Ghanaian women with respect to wealth status and spatial location. We explore the overarching research question by employing geographic and proxy means targeting through interactive analysis of wealth status and spatial issues. Methods The paper draws on the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Bivariate descriptive analysis coupled with binary logistic regression estimation technique was used to analyse the data. Results By wealth status, the likelihood of purchasing insurance was significantly higher among respondents from the middle, richer and richest households compared to the poorest (reference category) and these differences widened more profoundly in the Northern areas after interacting wealth with zone of residence. Among women at the bottom of household wealth (poorest and poorer), there were no statistically significant differences in insurance subscription in all the areas. Conclusions The results underscore the relevance of geographic and proxy means targeting in identifying populations who may be need of special interventions as part of the efforts to increase enrolment as well as means of social protection against the vulnerable. PMID:23768255

  8. Conservation Regional Conservation SavingsRegional Conservation Savings

    E-print Network

    1 Northwest Power and Conservation Council Regional Conservation SavingsRegional Conservation the Plan''s Targets?s Targets? March 14, 2008 slide 2 Northwest Power and Conservation Council 55thth Plan Conservation ResourcePlan Conservation Resource Acquisition TargetsAcquisition Targets 20052005 ­­ 2009 = 700 a

  9. Conservation of biodiversity in Romania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Viorel Soran; Jozsef Biro; Oana Moldovan; Aurel Ardelean

    2000-01-01

    This paper briefly discusses the history and development of nature protection in Romania. It summarises the current situation of protected areas, and discusses the ecological, ethical and philosophical ideas concerning biodiversity conservation in the country.

  10. Examining conservation attitudes, perspectives, and challenges in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krithi K. Karanth; Randall A. Kramer; Song S. Qian; Norman L. Christensen

    2008-01-01

    Biodiversity conservation issues are often contentious and complex. Polarized debates on the effectiveness of protected areas and role of people inside them, charismatic species as conservation foci, and on specific policy initiatives are common among Indian and global conservationists. We surveyed Indian conservationists about the conservation effectiveness of protected areas and charismatic species, as well as status of conservation and

  11. Water quality and business aspects of sachet-vended water in Tamale, Ghana

    E-print Network

    Okioga, Teshamulwa (Teshamulwa Irene)

    2007-01-01

    Microbial water quality analyses were conducted on 15 samples of factory-produced sachet water and 15 samples of hand-tied sachet water, sold in Tamale, Ghana. The tests included the membrane filtration (MF) test using ...

  12. Pilot study of horizontal roughing filtration in northern Ghana as pretreatment for highly turbid dugout water

    E-print Network

    Losleben, Tamar

    2008-01-01

    In Northern Region Ghana (NRG), highly turbid rainwater runoff and intermittent streams are collected in earthen dams called dugouts. These dams serve as many communities' main source of drinking and domestic water despite ...

  13. Design of fuel efficient brick kiln for ceramic water filter firing in Ghana

    E-print Network

    Adjorlolo, Eric (Eric James Kofi)

    2007-01-01

    Ceramic water filters are currently produced in Ghana in order to provide a household solution to contaminated water. These filters, locally branded with the name Kosim filter by originating from Potters for Peace-Nicaragua, ...

  14. Monitoring and evaluation of a ceramic water filter and hand-washing intervention in Northern Ghana

    E-print Network

    Lu, Connie C

    2012-01-01

    Through a Rotary Club contract, PHW will sell Kosim filters and install Tippy-Tap hand-washing stations in 1250 households in Northern Ghana. This thesis presents the following project monitoring and evaluation components: ...

  15. An Analysis of Nursing Education in Ghana: Priorities for Scaling-up the Nursing Workforce

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Sue Anne; Rominski, Sarah; Bam, Victoria; Donkor, Ernestina; Lori, Jody

    2012-01-01

    The cross-sectional study sought to describe the strengths, challenges and current status of baccalaureate nursing education in Ghana, using a descriptive design. The World Health Organization Global Standards for the Initial Education of Nurses and Midwives standards were used as the organizing framework, with baseline data on the status of nursing education from two state funded universities in Ghana presented. A serious shortage of qualified faculty was identified, along with the need for significant upgrading to the existing infrastructure. Additionally, the number of qualified applicants far exceeds the available training slots. Faculty and infrastructure shortages are common issues in nursing education and workforce expansion, however in low resource countries such as Ghana, these issues are compounded by high rates of preventable disease and injury. An understanding of the strengths and challenges of nursing education in Ghana can inform the development of strategies for nursing workforce expansion for other low resource countries. PMID:23347003

  16. "Hewers of Wood, Carriers of Water": Islam, Class, and Politics on the Eve of Ghana's Independence

    E-print Network

    Subramanian, Venkat

    "Hewers of Wood, Carriers of Water": Islam, Class, and Politics on the Eve of Ghana's Independence:16:10 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions #12;"Hewers of Wood, Carriers of Water": Islam

  17. Chemical drinking water quality in Ghana: Water costs and scope for advanced treatment 

    E-print Network

    Rossiter, Helfrid M.A.; Owusu, Peter A; Awuah, Esi; MacDonald, Alan M; Schäfer, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    To reduce child mortality and improve health in Ghana boreholes and wells are being installed across the country by the private sector, NGOs and the Ghanaian government. Water quality is not generally monitored once a ...

  18. Health education leading to community action in Ghana.

    PubMed

    2000-02-01

    In rural Ghana, women face a tough time as there is little in the way of health facilities, few health workers, and the women have to farm as well as raise children and keep house. Community male elders and the younger men in the community do not pay much attention to the reproductive health problems faced by women. Providing information and education for health is the key to enable people to realize their needs and initiate joint community actions to achieve better health. However, such information needs to be disseminated in a manner, which is easily accepted by the people. The Planned Parenthood Association of Ghana has taken the approach of utilizing drama performances by their health volunteers, which tackle the real life problems existing in a village, such as a woman troubled by too much childbirth. When information is given in this way, a form rooted in traditional culture, the messages of health education are readily acceptable. Along with the support of village elders and residents, health education becomes a valuable tool to encourage joint community efforts in solving health problems. Changes are occurring. A local steering committee was set up involving all groups, including chiefs, community leaders and CBDAs. Various activities have been initiated and expanded in the community in collaboration and participation with community leaders and the residents. Some of these are home visits by CBDAs, outreach services, environmental sanitation campaigns, and income generating activities and vocational training for women. PMID:12295748

  19. Under-reporting of road traffic crash data in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Salifu, Mohammed; Ackaah, Williams

    2012-01-01

    Having reliable estimates of the shortfalls in road traffic crash data is an important prerequisite for setting more realistic targets for crash/casualty reduction programmes and for a better appreciation of the socio-economic significance of road traffic crashes. This study was carried out to establish realistic estimates of the overall shortfall (under-reporting) in the official crash statistics in Ghana over an eight-year period (1997-2004). Surveys were conducted at hospitals and among drivers to generate relevant alternative data which were then matched against records in police crash data files and the official database. Overall shortfalls came from two sources, namely, 'non-reporting' and 'under-recording'. The results show that the level of non-reporting varied significantly with the severity of the crash from about 57% for property damage crashes through 8% for serious injury crashes to 0% for fatal crashes. Crashes involving cyclists and motorcyclists were also substantially non-reported. Under-recording on the other hand declined significantly over the period from an average of 37% in 1997-1998 to 27% in 2003-2004. Thus, the official statistics of road traffic crashes in Ghana are subject to significant shortfalls that need to be accounted for. Correction factors have therefore been suggested for adjusting the official data. PMID:22035060

  20. Radio astronomy in Africa: the case of Ghana

    E-print Network

    Asabere, Bernard Duah; Horellou, Cathy; Winkler, Hartmut; Jarrett, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    South Africa has played a leading role in radio astronomy in Africa with the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO). It continues to make strides with the current seven-dish MeerKAT precursor array (KAT-7), leading to the 64-dish MeerKAT and the giant Square Kilometer Array (SKA), which will be used for transformational radio astronomy research. Ghana, an African partner to the SKA, has been mentored by South Africa over the past six years and will soon emerge in the field of radio astronomy. The country will soon have a science-quality 32m dish converted from a redundant satellite communication antenna. Initially, it will be fitted with 5 GHz and 6.7 GHz receivers to be followed later by a 1.4 - 1.7 GHz receiver. The telescope is being designed for use as a single dish observatory and for participation in the developing African Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Network (AVN) and the European VLBI Network. Ghana is earmarked to host a remote station during a possible SKA Phase 2. The loca...

  1. Public university entry in Ghana: Is it equitable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusif, Hadrat; Yussof, Ishak; Osman, Zulkifly

    2013-06-01

    Public universities in Ghana are highly subsidised by the central government and account for about 80 per cent of university students in the country. Yet issues of fairness in terms of entry into the public university system have so far hardly been addressed. To find out whether participation in public university education is equitable, the authors of this paper carried out a binary logistic regression analysis. Individual data were collected from 1,129 (614 male and 515 female) final year senior high school (SHS) students for the 2009 cohort. The authors measured student, father and mother characteristics likely to influence admission to a public university. The results show that the major predictors of public university entry are students' academic ability, quality of SHS attended and number of siblings. This seems to suggest that there is a significant bias in the selection of students from different socio-economic groups for admission to highly subsidised public universities. The implication is that public financing of university education in Ghana may not be equitable.

  2. Spatial and demographic patterns of Cholera in Ashanti region - Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Osei, Frank B; Duker, Alfred A

    2008-01-01

    Background Cholera has claimed many lives throughout history and it continues to be a global threat, especially in countries in Africa. The disease is listed as one of three internationally quarantinable diseases by the World Health organization, along with plague and yellow fever. Between 1999 and 2005, Africa alone accounted for about 90% of over 1 million reported cholera cases worldwide. In Ghana, there have been over 27000 reported cases since 1999. In one of the affected regions in Ghana, Ashanti region, massive outbreaks and high incidences of cholera have predominated in urban and overcrowded communities. Results A GIS based spatial analysis and statistical analysis, carried out to determine clustering of cholera, showed that high cholera rates are clustered around Kumasi Metropolis (the central part of the region), with Moran's Index = 0.271 and P < 0.001. Furthermore, A Mantel-Haenszel Chi square for trend analysis reflected a direct spatial relationship between cholera and urbanization (?2 = 2995.5, P < 0.0001), overcrowding (?2 = 1757.2, P < 0.0001), and an inverse relationship between cholera and order of neighborhood with Kumasi Metropolis (?2 = 831.38, P < 0.0001). Conclusion The results suggest that high urbanization, high overcrowding, and neighborhood with Kumasi Metropolis are the most important predictors of cholera in Ashanti region. PMID:18700026

  3. Perceived impact of Ghana's conditional cash transfer on child health.

    PubMed

    Owusu-Addo, Ebenezer

    2014-07-29

    A plethora of studies from sub-Saharan Africa indicate that orphaned and vulnerable children are exposed to adverse health, education and other social outcomes. Across diverse settings, conditional cash transfer (CCT) programmes have been successful in improving health outcomes amongst vulnerable children. This study explored the pathways of CCTs' impact on the health of orphans and vulnerable children in rural Ghana. Due to the multi-dimensional nature of CCTs, the programme impact theory was used to conceptualize CCTs' pathways of impact on child health. A qualitative descriptive exploratory approach was used for this study. This study drew on the perspectives of 18 caregivers, 4 community leaders and 3 programme implementers from two rural districts in Ghana. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with the participants. Thematic content analysis was conducted on the interview transcripts to pull together core themes running through the entire data set. Five organizing themes emerged from the interview transcripts: improved child nutrition, health service utilization, poverty reduction and social transformation, improved education and improved emotional health and well-being demonstrating the pathways through which CCTs work to improve child health. The results indicated that CCTs offer a valuable social protection instrument for improving the health of orphans and vulnerable children by addressing the social determinants of child health such as nutrition, access to health care, child poverty and education. PMID:25073762

  4. Public awareness and attitudes towards naval sonar mitigation for cetacean conservation: a preliminary case study in Fairfax County, Virginia. (the DC Metro area).

    PubMed

    Zirbel, K; Balint, P; Parsons, E C M

    2011-01-01

    The potential impacts of naval sonar on cetaceans has led to a series of court cases and statements of concern by international organizations. However, there has been no research conducted on attitudes of the general public with respect to this issue. To investigate this, a preliminary public survey was conducted in Fairfax, Virginia (the Washington, DC Metro region). The majority of the public sampled believed that naval sonar impacted marine mammals (51.3%), that the US Navy should not be exempt from environmental regulations in time of peace (75.2%), and that sonar use should be moderated if it impacts cetaceans (75.8%). Individuals who were conservative, Republican, and have served in the military were more likely to believe the Navy should be exempt from marine mammal protection regulations. In addition, expert interviews were conducted to gain opinions on the potential ramifications of the recent US Supreme Court case on naval sonar mitigation. PMID:21453936

  5. Nitrous oxide emissions from soil of an African rain forest in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaldi, S.; Bertolini, T.; Valente, A.; Chiti, T.; Valentini, R.

    2013-06-01

    Recent atmospheric studies have evidenced the imprint of large N2O sources in tropical/subtropical lands. This source might be attributed to agricultural areas as well as to natural humid ecosystems. The uncertainty related to both sources is very high, due to the scarcity of data and low frequency of sampling in tropical studies, especially for the African continent. The principal objective of this work was to quantify the annual budget of N2O emissions in an African tropical rain forest. Soil N2O emissions were measured over 19 months in Ghana, National Park of Ankasa, in uphill and downhill areas, for a total of 119 days of observation. The calculated annual average emission was 2.33 ± 0.20 kg N-N2O ha-1 yr-1, taking into account the proportion of uphill vs. downhill areas, the latter being characterized by lower N2O emissions. N2O fluxes peaked between June and August and were significantly correlated with soil respiration on a daily and monthly basis. No clear correlation was found in the uphill area between N2O fluxes and soil water content or rain, whereas in the downhill area soil water content concurred with soil respiration in determining N2O flux variability. The N2O source strength calculated in this study is very close to those reported for the other two available studies in African rain forests and to the estimated mean derived from worldwide studies in humid tropical forests (2.81 ± 2.02 kg N-N2O ha-1 yr-1).

  6. A geological field trip to the Côte d'Ivoire-Ghana transform margin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean Mascle; Michel Guiraud; Jean Benkhelil; Christophe Basile; Jean-Pierre Bouillin; Georges Mascle; Michel Cousin; Marc Durand; Jean Dejax; Michel Moullade

    1998-01-01

    During the Equanaute survey (June 1992), fourteen submersible dives were performed between 4950 and 2250 m water depths across the southern slope of the Côte d'Ivoire-Ghana Marginal Ridge (CIGMR), in the eastern Equatorial Atlantic. The CIGMR, a high-standing topographic marginal ridge along the Côte d'Ivoire-Ghana transform margin, is believed to result from a complex structural evolution due to the specific

  7. The role of the Ghana coast in the annual cycle of migratory terns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Ntiamoa-Baidu; A. A. Nuoh

    2000-01-01

    Ntiamoa-Baidu, Y. & Nuoh, A. A. 2000. The role of the Ghana coast in the annual cycle of migratory terns. Ostrich 71 (1 & 2): 183.Data are presented on counts of migratory terns on the Ghana coast over a ten-year period, 1986–1996. Fourteen species of terns were recorded during the period. Influx of terns begins in late August, peaking in

  8. PRECISION CONSERVATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision conservation utilizes a set of technologies and procedures that link mapped variables with analytical capabilities to appropriate management actions. It requires the integration of spatial technologies of global positioning systems, remote sensing and geographic information systems with t...

  9. Conservation Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friday, Gerald

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a project in which students teach about the importance of recycling and conservation by presenting demonstrations. Includes demonstrations on water, plastic, and other recycling products such as steel. (YDS)

  10. Energy Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abelson, Philip H.

    1972-01-01

    Comments on The Potential for Energy Conservation,'' a study by the Office of Emergency Preparedness, emphasizing the coming dependence on foreign oil, and presses for government influence to encourage development of more efficient cars. (AL)

  11. Conserving the Birds of Uganda’s Banana-Coffee Arc: Land Sparing and Land Sharing Compared

    PubMed Central

    Hulme, Mark F.; Vickery, Juliet A.; Green, Rhys E.; Phalan, Ben; Chamberlain, Dan E.; Pomeroy, Derek E.; Nalwanga, Dianah; Mushabe, David; Katebaka, Raymond; Bolwig, Simon; Atkinson, Philip W.

    2013-01-01

    Reconciling the aims of feeding an ever more demanding human population and conserving biodiversity is a difficult challenge. Here, we explore potential solutions by assessing whether land sparing (farming for high yield, potentially enabling the protection of non-farmland habitat), land sharing (lower yielding farming with more biodiversity within farmland) or a mixed strategy would result in better bird conservation outcomes for a specified level of agricultural production. We surveyed forest and farmland study areas in southern Uganda, measuring the population density of 256 bird species and agricultural yield: food energy and gross income. Parametric non-linear functions relating density to yield were fitted. Species were identified as “winners” (total population size always at least as great with agriculture present as without it) or “losers” (total population sometimes or always reduced with agriculture present) for a range of targets for total agricultural production. For each target we determined whether each species would be predicted to have a higher total population with land sparing, land sharing or with any intermediate level of sparing at an intermediate yield. We found that most species were expected to have their highest total populations with land sparing, particularly loser species and species with small global range sizes. Hence, more species would benefit from high-yield farming if used as part of a strategy to reduce forest loss than from low-yield farming and land sharing, as has been found in Ghana and India in a previous study. We caution against advocacy for high-yield farming alone as a means to deliver land sparing if it is done without strong protection for natural habitats, other ecosystem services and social welfare. Instead, we suggest that conservationists explore how conservation and agricultural policies can be better integrated to deliver land sparing by, for example, combining land-use planning and agronomic support for small farmers. PMID:23390501

  12. Sociodemographic Determinants of Malaria among Under-Five Children in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Nyarko, Samuel Harrenson; Cobblah, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    Background. Malaria is an entrenched global health challenge particularly in the sub-Saharan African countries. However, in Ghana, little is known about the determinants of malaria prevalence among under-five children. As such, this study sought to examine the sociodemographic factors that determine malaria among under-five children in Ghana. Methods. This paper used secondary data drawn from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Bivariate analysis and complementary log-log regression models were used to examine the determinants of malaria prevalence among under-five children in Ghana for the study period. Results. The results therefore revealed that region of residence, age of child, and ownership of mosquito net were the key predictors of malaria cases among under-five children in Ghana for the five-year period preceding the survey. Conclusion. It is therefore imperative that special education on prevention of malaria should be intensified by the National Malaria Control Programme in all the regions in order to reduce malaria prevalence particularly among under-five children in Ghana. PMID:25580349

  13. National Association of Conservation Districts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The idea of creating conservation districts through the support of private landowners was one that had gestated for decades before the National Association of Conservation Districts (NACD) was formed in 1946. Currently, there are over 3000 conservation districts throughout the United States, and the NACD effectively acts as a unified voice that represents the interests of these districts and also helps develop national conservation policies and fruitful partnerships with other agencies and organizations. First-time visitors to the site will want to perhaps go to the directory section to learn more about the NACD and look through the site's interactive map to learn about where the various conservation districts are located. Students and practitioners may want to look through the electronic publications area, which includes such helpful materials as the organization's in-house weekly news briefs (called eNotes) and their publications produced through effective joint-partnerships, such as Forestry Notes and Conservation.

  14. "There are many books on how to design and create marine protected areas (MPAs), so vital for ocean conservation, but few

    E-print Network

    Jones, Peter JS

    "There are many books on how to design and create marine protected areas (MPAs), so vital for ocean to combine people, state and market approaches, rather than being based on one approach and its related.99 Order your copy: www.routledge.com/9781844076635 /9781844076635 20% discount available! Use code DC361

  15. Local People, National Parks, and International Conservation Movements: Conflicts over Nature in Southeast Asia

    E-print Network

    Rodriguez, Steven Martin

    2013-01-01

    note of the World Conservation Strategy (1980) and the WorldConservation Strategy for Phong Nha—Ke Bang Area (Quang Binh Province, Vietnam: WorldConservation Strategy for Phong Nha—Ke Bang Area. Quang Binh Province, Vietnam: World

  16. A conceptual framework of groundwater flow in some crystalline aquifers in Southeastern Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yidana, Sandow Mark; Ganyaglo, Samuel; Banoeng-Yakubo, Bruce; Akabzaa, Thomas

    2011-02-01

    A conceptual groundwater flow model was developed for the crystalline aquifers in southeastern part of the Eastern region, Ghana. The objective was to determine approximate levels of groundwater recharge, estimate aquifer hydraulic parameters, and then test various scenarios of groundwater extraction under the current conditions of recharge. A steady state groundwater flow model has been calibrated against measured water levels of 19 wells in the area. The resulting recharge is estimated to range from 8.97 × 10 -5 m/d to 7.14 × 10 -4 m/d resulting in a basin wide average recharge of about 9.6% of total annual precipitation, which results in a basin wide quantitative recharge of about 2.4 million m 3/d in the area. This compares to recharge estimated from the chloride mass balance of 7.6% of precipitation determined in this study. The general groundwater flow in the area has also been determined to conform to the general northeast-southwest structural grain of the country. The implication is that the general hydrogeology is controlled by post genetic structural entities imposed on the rocks to create ingresses for sufficient groundwater storage and transport. Calibrated aquifer hydraulic conductivities range between 0.99 m/d and over 19.4 m/d. There is a significant contribution of groundwater discharge to stream flow in the study area. Increasing groundwater extraction will have an effect on stream flow. This study finds that the current groundwater extraction levels represent only 0.17% of the annual recharge from precipitation, and that groundwater can sustain future increased groundwater demands from population growth and industrialization.

  17. Nitrous oxide emissions from soil of an African rain forest in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaldi, S.; Bertolini, T.; Valente, A.; Chiti, T.; Valentini, R.

    2012-11-01

    Most recently atmospheric studies have evidenced the imprint of large N2O sources in tropical/subtropical lands. This source might be attributed to agricultural areas as well as to natural humid ecosystems. The uncertainty related to both sources is very high, due to the paucity of data and small frequency of sampling in tropical studies. This is particularly relevant for the African continent. The principal objective of this work was to quantify the annual budget of N2O emissions in an African tropical rain forest. Soil N2O emissions were measured over 19 months in Ghana, National Park of Ankasa, in upland and lowland areas, for a total of 119 days of observation. The calculated annual average emission was 2.33 ± 0.20 kg N-N2O ha-1yr-1, taking into account the proportion of upland vs. lowland, as the two areas showed significantly different fluxes, the lowland being characterized by lower N2O emissions. N2O fluxes peaked between June and August and were significantly correlated with soil respiration on a daily and monthly basis. No clear correlation was found in the upland areas between N2O fluxes and soil water content or rain whereas in the lowland soil water content concurred with soil respiration in determining N2O flux variability. The N2O source strength calculated in this study, very close to those reported for the other two available studies in African rain forests and to the estimated mean derived from worldwide studies in humid tropical forests (2.96 ± 2.0 kg N-N2O ha-1 yr-1), supports the concept that tropical humid forests represent the strongest natural source of N2O emissions, most probably the strongest source of N2O in the African continent.

  18. Assessing the Utility of Satellite Imagery with Differing Spatial Resolutions for Deriving Proxy Measures of Slum Presence in Accra, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Stoler, Justin; Daniels, Dean; Weeks, John R.; Stow, Douglas A.; Coulter, Lloyd L.; Finch, Brian Karl

    2012-01-01

    Little research has been conducted on how differing spatial resolutions or classification techniques affect image-driven identification and categorization of slum neighborhoods in developing nations. This study assesses the correlation between satellite-derived land cover and census-derived socioeconomic variables in Accra, Ghana to determine whether the relationship between these variables is altered with a change in spatial resolution or scale. ASTER and Landsat TM satellite images are each used to classify land cover using spectral mixture analysis (SMA), and land cover proportions are summarized across Enumeration Areas in Accra and compared to socioeconomic data for the same areas. Correlation and regression analyses compare the SMA results with a Slum Index created from various socio-economic data taken from the Census of Ghana, as well as to data derived from a “hard” per-pixel classification of a 2.4 m Quickbird image. Results show that the vegetation fraction is significantly correlated with the Slum Index (Pearson’s r ranges from ?0.33 to ?0.51 depending on which image-derived product is compared), and the use of a spatial error model improves results (multivariate model pseudo-R2 ranges from 0.37 to 0.40 by image product). We also find that SMA products derived from ASTER are a sufficient substitute for classification products derived from higher spatial resolution QB data when using land cover fractions as a proxy for slum presence, suggesting that SMA might be more cost-effective for deriving land cover fractions than the use of high-resolution imagery for this type of demographic analysis. PMID:23847453

  19. Estimation of small reservoir storage capacities in the São Francisco, Limpopo, Bandama and Volta river basins using remotely sensed surface areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lineu Rodrigues; Aidan Senzanje; Philippe Cecchi; Jens Liebe

    2010-01-01

    People living in areas with highly variable rainfall, experience droughts and floods and often have insecure livelihoods. Small multi-purpose reservoirs (SR) are a widely used form of infrastructures to provide people in such areas with water during the dry season, e.g. in the basins of São Francisco, Brazil, Limpopo, Zimbabwe, Bandama, Ivory Coast and Volta, Ghana. In these areas, the

  20. Pain Associated with Wound Care Treatment among Buruli Ulcer Patients from Ghana and Benin

    PubMed Central

    Alferink, Marike; de Zeeuw, Janine; Sopoh, Ghislain; Agossadou, Chantal; Abass, Karibu M.; Phillips, Richard O.; Loth, Susanne; Jutten, Emma; Barogui, Yves T.; Stewart, Roy E.; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Stienstra, Ymkje; Ranchor, Adelita V.

    2015-01-01

    Buruli ulcer (BU) is a necrotizing skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. People living in remote areas in tropical Sub Saharan Africa are mostly affected. Wound care is an important component of BU management; this often needs to be extended for months after the initial antibiotic treatment. BU is reported in the literature as being painless, however clinical observations revealed that some patients experienced pain during wound care. This was the first study on pain intensity during and after wound care in BU patients and factors associated with pain. In Ghana and Benin, 52 BU patients above 5 years of age and their relatives were included between December 2012 and May 2014. Information on pain intensity during and after wound care was obtained during two consecutive weeks using the Wong-Baker Pain Scale. Median pain intensity during wound care was in the lower range (Mdn = 2, CV = 1), but severe pain (score > 6) was reported in nearly 30% of the patients. Nevertheless, only one patient received pain medication. Pain declined over time to low scores 2 hours after treatment. Factors associated with higher self-reported pain scores were; male gender, fear prior to treatment, pain during the night prior to treatment, and pain caused by cleaning the wound. The general idea that BU is painless is incorrect for the wound care procedure. This procedural pain deserves attention and appropriate intervention. PMID:26030764

  1. Linked exhumation-driven brittle fracture and fluid generation at Damang gold mine, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robb, L.; White, A.; Waters, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Damang gold deposit in southwest Ghana is unique amongst other known orogenic gold deposits of the Birimian Terrane of West Africa. It comprises a stratigraphically-controlled, sub-horizontal fault-fracture quartz vein array and associated hydrothermal alteration haloes. Petrological, thermodynamic and geochronological data are used to constrain the evolution of the Damang deposit. Regional compression, following staurolite-grade, amphibolite facies regional metamorphism, which peaked at 2005±26 Ma, resulted in localized exhumation of the Damang area at a rate of ~2.6 mm/yr for approximately 5 Ma. This decompression led to the formation of the sub-horizontal, brittle fracture array. A gold-bearing fluid, generated through 'prograde' metamorphic devolatilization reactions during decompression, fed the vein array. Orogenic gold mineralization occurred at conditions of around 400-450°C and 1-2 kbar. Exhumation rates following gold mineralization were less than 0.01 mm/yr, while 40Ar/39Ar dating of biotites give ages ranging ranging between 1978.8±6.2 Ma and 1898±11 Ma, indicating extremely prolonged cooling through the interval 300-250°C. Ultimately, the Damang deposit represents the interplay between regional scale tectonics, localized brittle deformation, and fluid generation through metamorphic reaction to produce an economic gold deposit.

  2. The unacknowledged impact of urinary schistosomiasis in children: 5 cases from Kumasi, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Antwi, S; Aboah, K E K; Sarpong, C K G

    2014-12-01

    Urinary schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by Shistosoma haematobium. It is prevalent in several parts of Africa particularly in areas where there are large water bodies. In most affected communities, the condition is often accepted as normal since to them, all growing children pass blood in their urine and "grow out of it". Mass treatment of school children has been a regular exercise often undertaken by stake holders to decrease the disease burden and reduce transmission in selected communities. Urinary schistosomiasis can have devastating impact on the urinary tract which is often unacknowledged and unevaluated. Such omission could have implication for progressive renal damage which, if not detected and treated, could lead to end stage renal failure and death. We present five (5) cases of urinary schistosomiasis with severe obstructive uropathy seen at the paediatric nephrology/urology units of Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Ghana. All five cases had some degree of anaemia and hypertension. Two of the five cases presented with end stage renal failure and died subsequently whilst two underwent successful surgery. One made a spontaneous recovery from the urinary obstruction though still has significant renal impairment. This potential devastating effect of urinary schistosomiasis on the kidneys calls for thorough evaluation and assessment of each confirmed case to include blood pressure measurement, full blood count, and ultrasonography of the urinary system. Mass screening programmes should be combined with portable ultrasonography of the kidneys, ureters and bladder. PMID:25709140

  3. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1997-01-01

    Established in 1992 by nine countries, the Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) project aims "to conserve Arctic flora and fauna, their diversity and their habitats; to protect the Arctic ecosystem from threats; to seek to develop improved conservation management, laws, regulations and practices for the Arctic; to collaborate for more effective research, sustainable utilization and conservation; [and] to integrate Arctic interests into global conservation fora." To that end, the CAFF homepage describes its efforts in Arctic habitat and species conservation. Here users can access technical reports, publications, and project overviews. A beautiful color map of Protected Areas in the Circumpolar Arctic may be viewed or downloaded at the site.

  4. Wilderness and biodiversity conservation

    PubMed Central

    Mittermeier, R. A.; Mittermeier, C. G.; Brooks, T. M.; Pilgrim, J. D.; Konstant, W. R.; da Fonseca, G. A. B.; Kormos, C.

    2003-01-01

    Human pressure threatens many species and ecosystems, so conservation efforts necessarily prioritize saving them. However, conservation should clearly be proactive wherever possible. In this article, we assess the biodiversity conservation value, and specifically the irreplaceability in terms of species endemism, of those of the planet's ecosystems that remain intact. We find that 24 wilderness areas, all > 1 million hectares, are > 70% intact and have human densities of less than or equal to five people per km2. This wilderness covers 44% of all land but is inhabited by only 3% of people. Given this sparse population, wilderness conservation is cost-effective, especially if ecosystem service value is incorporated. Soberingly, however, most wilderness is not speciose: only 18% of plants and 10% of terrestrial vertebrates are endemic to individual wildernesses, the majority restricted to Amazonia, Congo, New Guinea, the Miombo-Mopane woodlands, and the North American deserts. Global conservation strategy must target these five wildernesses while continuing to prioritize threatened biodiversity hotspots. PMID:12930898

  5. Multivariate statistical analysis for fluoride occurrence in groundwater in the Northern region of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Salifu, A; Petrusevski, B; Ghebremichael, K; Buamah, R; Amy, G

    2012-10-01

    The presence of excess fluoride in groundwater in the Northern region of Ghana has resulted in the closure of many boreholes for drinking water supply to avoid the incidence of fluorosis and other related health effects. The fluoride concentration in 357 groundwater samples from the area ranged between 0.0 and 11.6mg/L, with a mean value of 1.13mg/L. Piper graphical classification, correlation coefficients, principal component analysis (PCA) and thermodynamic calculations were used as an approach to gain insight into the groundwater chemical composition and to help understand the dominant mechanisms influencing the occurrence of high fluoride waters. Spatial join procedure was used to examine the relationship between the underlying geology of the study area and fluoride distribution. Six groundwater types were identified for the area: Ca-Mg-HCO(3), Ca-Mg-SO(4), Na-Cl, Na-SO(4), Na-HCO(3) and mixed water type. PCA performed on the groundwater chemical data resulted in 4 principal components (PCs) explaining 72% of the data variance. The PCs represented the predominant processes controlling the groundwater chemistry in the study area which include; mineral dissolution reactions, ion exchange processes and evapotranspiration processes. PHREEQC calculations for saturation indices for the groundwater samples indicated they were largely saturated with respect to calcite and under-saturated with respect to fluorite, suggesting that dissolution of fluorite may be occurring in the areas where it is present. A review of the PCA results and an evaluation of the equilibrium state of the groundwater based on the saturation indices, suggest that some of the processes controlling the overall groundwater chemistry in the study area also influenced the fluoride enrichment. These predominant processes include the dissolution of the mineral fluorite, anion exchange processes (F(-)/OH(-)) involving clay minerals and evapotranspiration processes. Elevated fluoride levels in the study area were found to occur predominantly in the Saboba and Cheriponi districts and also in the Yendi, Nanumba North and South districts. These areas are underlain by the Middle Voltain formation (Obossom and Oti beds), comprising mainly of sandstone, limestone, conglomerate, shale, arkose and mudstone. Results of the hydrochemical analysis show that aside from the boreholes with elevated concentrations of fluoride (beyond 1.5mg/L), groundwater in the study area based on the parameters analyzed is generally chemically acceptable and suitable for domestic use. PMID:22985626

  6. Hydrochemical analysis of groundwater using multivariate statistical methods - The Volta region, Ghana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banoeng-Yakubo, B.; Yidana, S.M.; Nti, E.

    2009-01-01

    Q and R-mode multivariate statistical analyses were applied to groundwater chemical data from boreholes and wells in the northern section of the Volta region Ghana. The objective was to determine the processes that affect the hydrochemistry and the variation of these processes in space among the three main geological terrains: the Buem formation, Voltaian System and the Togo series that underlie the area. The analyses revealed three zones in the groundwater flow system: recharge, intermediate and discharge regions. All three zones are clearly different with respect to all the major chemical parameters, with concentrations increasing from the perceived recharge areas through the intermediate regions to the discharge areas. R-mode HCA and factor analysis (using varimax rotation and Kaiser Criterion) were then applied to determine the significant sources of variation in the hydrochemistry. This study finds that groundwater hydrochemistry in the area is controlled by the weathering of silicate and carbonate minerals, as well as the chemistry of infiltrating precipitation. This study finds that the ??D and ??18O data from the area fall along the Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL). An equation of regression derived for the relationship between ??D and ??18O bears very close semblance to the equation which describes the GMWL. On the basis of this, groundwater in the study area is probably meteoric and fresh. The apparently low salinities and sodicities of the groundwater seem to support this interpretation. The suitability of groundwater for domestic and irrigation purposes is related to its source, which determines its constitution. A plot of the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and salinity (EC) data on a semilog axis, suggests that groundwater serves good irrigation quality in the area. Sixty percent (60%), 20% and 20% of the 67 data points used in this study fall within the medium salinity - low sodicity (C2-S1), low salinity -low sodicity (C1-S1) and high salinity - low sodicity (C3-S1) fields, which ascribe good irrigation quality to groundwater from this area. Salinities range from 28.1 to 1956 ??S/cm, whilst SAR values fall within the range 0-3. Extremely low sodicity waters of this kind, with salinities lower than 600 ??S/cm, have the tendency to affect the dispersive properties of irrigation soils when used for irrigation. About 50% of the groundwater in the study area fall within this category and need prior treatment before usage. ?? 2009 Korean Society of Civil Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg GmbH.

  7. An exploratory study of the policy process and early implementation of the free NHIS coverage for pregnant women in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pregnant women were offered free access to health care through National Health Insurance (NHIS) membership in Ghana in 2008, in the latest phase of policy reforms to ensure universal access to maternal health care. During the same year, free membership was made available to all children (under-18). This article presents an exploratory qualitative analysis of how the policy of free maternal membership was developed and how it is being implemented. Methods The study was based on a review of existing literature – grey and published – and on a key informant interviews (n?=?13) carried out in March-June 2012. The key informants included representatives of the key stakeholders in the health system and public administration, largely at national level but also including two districts. Results The introduction of the new policy for pregnant women was seen as primarily a political initiative, with limited stakeholder consultation. No costing was done prior to introduction, and no additional funds provided to the NHIS to support the policy after the first year. Guidelines had been issued but beyond collecting numbers of women registered, no additional monitoring and evaluation have yet been put in place to monitor its implementation. Awareness of the under-18 s policy amongst informants was so low that this component had to be removed from the final study. Initial barriers to access, such as pregnancy tests, were cited, but many appear to have been resolved now. Providers are concerned about the workload related to services and claims management but have benefited from increased financial resources. Users still face informal charges, and are reported to have responded differentially, with rises in antenatal care and in urban areas highlighted. Policy sustainability is linked to the survival of the NHIS as a whole. Conclusions Ghana has to be congratulated for its persistence in trying to address financial barriers. However, many themes from previous evaluations of exemptions policies in Ghana have recurred in this study – particularly, the difficulties of getting timely reimbursement to facilities, of controlling charging of patients, and of reaching the poorest. This suggests that providing free care through a national health insurance system has not solved systemic weaknesses. The wider concerns about raising the quality of care, and ensuring that all supply-side and demand-side elements are in place to make the policy effective will also take a longer term and bigger commitment. PMID:23446355

  8. Water Conservation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-01-01

    In this lesson, students study the availability of water on Earth and discuss methods that can be used to purify and conserve this critical resource. Using multimedia interactives, video, and classroom activities, they will identify sources of fresh water available for consumption, understand the need for water conservation, and compare the benefits and drawbacks of different water management techniques. They will also assess how much water they and their families typically use, and think about ways to reduce their water usage. Finally, students explore different techniques being employed for water management around the world, including the use of dams to create reservoirs.

  9. The changing rainy season climatology of mid-Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owusu, Kwadwo; Waylen, Peter R.

    2013-05-01

    Daily rainfall data are examined through the temporal analysis of various definitions of variable temporal units (VTUs) consisting of combinations of various starting dates and durations over mid-Ghana. These VTUs are independent of, yet encompass, the starting dates and durations of the major and minor rainy seasons. Within each VTU, total rainfall and number of rainy days are calculated to describe the rainfall characteristics of the unit. Means and variances of each variable are calculated for each unit over two 20-year periods, 1951-1970 (P1) and 1981-2000 (P2). In P2, the major and minor rainy seasons have undergone varying degrees of desiccation. This reduction in rainfall is, however, not temporally or spatially uniform. The widespread decline of mean rainfall totals and number of rainy days during the minor rainy season, often associated with greater inter-annual variability, is particularly threatening to the production of a second crop.

  10. International rotations during residency: spine deformity surgery in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Alan H

    2013-05-01

    International elective rotations are becoming increasingly common in residency training programs. These experiences offer a tremendous opportunity to help patients in medically underserved nations, and can enhance training by exposing participants to pathology not often encountered in developed countries. Additionally, there is emerging evidence that international training exposure develops a broader appreciation of cultural diversity in patient care, offers personal and professional development, and teaches residents to use limited resources more efficiently, giving them a unique perspective on the ordering of tests and delivery of care when they return. This paper highlights the author's experience on a volunteer trip to Ghana that was focused on treating pediatric spinal deformity, and reviews notable international medical volunteers, and highlights the evidence supporting the benefits of international residency rotations. PMID:23641456

  11. Rotavirus G and P Genotypes in Rural Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Asmah, Richard H.; Green, Jon; Armah, George E.; Gallimore, Chris I.; Gray, Jim J.; Iturriza-Gómara, Mirren; Anto, Francis; Oduro, Abraham; Binka, Fred N.; Brown, David W. G.; Cutts, Felicity

    2001-01-01

    An epidemiological study of rotavirus infection was conducted on specimens collected from patients with gastroenteritis and domiciled in the rural Upper Eastern Region of Ghana during 1998. Fifty isolates, randomly selected from 165 human group A rotavirus-positive samples, were G and P characterized by a reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay using a seminested multiplex method. Rotaviruses of the G3 genotype were found to be the predominant strain (78%), followed by G2 (14%) and G1 (2%). Mixed infections, as shown by combinations of G3 and G2 (4%) and G3 and G1 (2%), were also observed. P typing showed P[4] (72.34%) to be the prevalent strain, followed by P[6] (21.3%), P[8] (2.13%), and a combination of P[4] and P[6] (4.3%). PMID:11326029

  12. Wound Care in Buruli Ulcer Disease in Ghana and Benin

    PubMed Central

    Velding, Kristien; Klis, Sandor-Adrian; Abass, Kabiru M.; Tuah, Wilson; Stienstra, Ymkje; van der Werf, Tjip

    2014-01-01

    Buruli ulcer (BU) is a disease affecting the skin, subcutaneous fat, and bone tissues. Wound care is important in the prevention of disabilities. Awareness of current wound care practices in BU-endemic regions is necessary for future wound care interventions. Thirty-one health care workers in Ghana and Benin were interviewed with a semi-structured interview, complemented by structural observations. Quantitative data were analyzed through t tests and one-way analysis of variance, and qualitative data through descriptive statistics. There appeared to be a general understanding of wound assessment. A large variety of different topical antiseptics was reported to be used, pressure irrigation was never reported. Gauze was the main dressing type and a moist environment was preferred, but could not be maintained. Bleeding and pain were observed frequently. Standard of wound care differed importantly between health care personnel and between institutions and adherence to World Health Organization guidelines was low. PMID:24914002

  13. Summary of data from onsite and laboratory analyses of surface water and marsh porewater from South Florida Water Management District Water Conservation Areas, the Everglades, South Florida, March 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, Michael M.; Gunther, Charmaine D.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents results of chemical analysis for samples collected during March, 1995, as part of a study to quantify the interaction of aquatic organic material (referred to here as dissolved organic carbon with dissolved metal ions). The work was done in conjunction with the South Florida Water Management District, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Geological Survey South Florida Ecosystems Initiative, and the South Florida National Water Quality Assessment Study Unit. Samples were collected from surface canals and from marsh sites. Results are based on onsite and laboratory measurements for 27 samples collected at 10 locations. The data file contains sample description, dissolved organic carbon concentration and specific ultraviolet absorbance, and additional analytical data for samples collected at several sites in the Water Conservation Areas, the Everglades, south Florida.

  14. Priorities for global felid conservation.

    PubMed

    Dickman, Amy J; Hinks, Amy E; Macdonald, Ewan A; Burnham, Dawn; Macdonald, David W

    2015-06-01

    Conservation resources are limited, necessitating prioritization of species and locations for action. Most prioritization approaches are based solely on biologically relevant characteristics of taxa or areas and ignore geopolitical realities. Doing so risks a poor return on conservation investment due to nonbiological factors, such as economic or political instability. We considered felids, a taxon which attracts intense conservation attention, to demonstrate a new approach that incorporates both intrinsic species traits and geopolitical characteristics of countries. We developed conservation priority scores for wild felids based on their International Union for Conservation of Nature status, body mass, habitat, range within protected area, evolutionary distinctiveness, and conservation umbrella potential. We used published data on governance, economics and welfare, human population pressures, and conservation policy to assign conservation-likelihood scores to 142 felid-hosting countries. We identified 71 countries as high priorities (above median) for felid conservation. These countries collectively encompassed all 36 felid species and supported an average of 96% of each species' range. Of these countries, 60.6% had below-average conservation-likelihood scores, which indicated these countries are relatively risky conservation investments. Governance was the most common factor limiting conservation likelihood. It was the major contributor to below-median likelihood scores for 62.5% of the 32 felid species occurring in lower-likelihood countries. Governance was followed by economics for which scores were below median for 25% of these species. An average of 58% of species' ranges occurred in 43 higher-priority lower-likelihood countries. Human population pressure was second to governance as a limiting factor when accounting for percentage of species' ranges in each country. As conservation likelihood decreases, it will be increasingly important to identify relevant geopolitical limitations and tailor conservation strategies accordingly. Our analysis provides an objective framework for biodiversity conservation action planning. Our results highlight not only which species most urgently require conservation action and which countries should be prioritized for such action, but also the diverse constraints which must be overcome to maximize long-term success. PMID:25864434

  15. Who is utilizing anti-retroviral therapy in Ghana: An analysis of ART service utilization

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The global scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV patients has led to concerns regarding inequities in utilization of ART services in resource-limited contexts. In this paper, we describe regional and sex differentials in the distribution of ART among adult HIV patients in Ghana. We highlight the need for interventions to address the gender-based and geographic inequities related to the utilization of ART services in Ghana. Methods We reviewed National AIDS/STIs Control Program’s ART service provision records from January 2003 through December 2010, extracting data on adults aged 15+ who initiated ART in Ghana over a period of eight years. Data on the number of patients on treatment, year of enrollment, sex, and region were obtained and compared. Results The number of HIV patients receiving ART in Ghana increased more than 200-fold from 197 in 2003, to over 45,000 in 2010. However, for each of six continuous years (2005-2010) males comprised approximately one-third of adults newly enrolled on ART. As ART coverage has expanded in Ghana, the proportion of males receiving ART declined from 41.7% in 2004 to 30.1% in 2008 and to 27.6% in 2010. Also, there is disproportionate regional ART utilization across the country. Some regions report ART enrollment lower than their percent share of number of HIV infected persons in the country. Conclusions Attention to the comparatively fewer males initiating ART, as well as disproportionate regional ART utilization is urgently needed. All forms of gender-based inequities in relation to HIV care must be addressed in order for Ghana to realize successful outcomes at the population level. Policy makers in Ghana and elsewhere need to understand how gender-based health inequities in relation to HIV care affect both men and women and begin to design appropriate interventions. PMID:23072340

  16. Water-Well Siting in HardRock Areas: Identifying Promising Targets Using a Probabilistic Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Per Sander

    1997-01-01

    A probabilistic approach to groundwater exploration, using Bayesian statistics, was evaluated in three different settings in hard rock in Botswana and Ghana. Various existing data sources were evaluated for groundwater availability and integrated into a GIS to produce posterior probability maps for subsequent selection of target areas for detailed investigations. The groundwater indicators integrated were 1) lineaments interpreted from remote-sensing

  17. Colorful Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Some people only think about conservation on Earth Day. Being in the "art business" however, this author is always conscious of the many products she thinks get wasted when they could be reused, recycled, and restored--especially in a school building and art room. In this article, she describes an art lesson that allows students to paint…

  18. A Ghanaian Response to the Study on "Widening Participation in Higher Education in Ghana and Tanzania: Developing an Equity Scorecard"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Effah, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The study on "Widening Participation in Higher Education in Ghana and Tanzania: developing an Equity Scorecard" is a contribution to making higher education more socially inclusive in sub-Saharan Africa. The findings reinforce some of the policy initiatives taken in Ghana and Tanzania, and underscore the importance of widening participation in…

  19. Bathymetric and Stratigraphic Record of Gondwana Breakup from a Passive Transform Margin off the Coast of Ghana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Attoh; L. Brown; J. Guo

    2001-01-01

    We have reprocessed and interpreted multichannel seismic reflection data off the coast of Ghana that probe the prominent Romanche fracture zone of the Equatorial Atlantic and sedimentary basins of the Ghana transform margin. The stacked seismic profiles reveal spectacular bathymetric expressions of the paleo-transform which marks the ocean- continent transition. The paleo-transform is revealed by submarine canyons up to 2

  20. Population growth and agricultural land use in two agro?ecological zones of Ghana, 1960–2010

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel Nii Ardey Codjoe

    2006-01-01

    Multiplicative and mediating variables are combined with a demographic variable, in non?linear multiple regression models to assess the effect of population growth on agricultural land use in two agro?ecological zones of Ghana. The paper uses data from a retrospective household survey (conducted among 1568 farmers in 504 households in 24 communities), population census reports of Ghana, for 1960, 1970, 1984