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1

Environment, wealth, inequality and the burden of disease in the Accra metropolitan area, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examines environmental problems and adverse impacts on the health of urban households in the Accra metropolitan area, Ghana. Accra is faced with severe inadequacy of urban infrastructure in the face of rapid population growth in the metropolis. More than half of the city's population do not have access to solid waste collection services. Only 39.8% of households have

Kwasi Owusu Boadi; Markku Kuitunen

2005-01-01

2

Sachet drinking water in Ghana's Accra-Tema metropolitan area: past, present, and future  

PubMed Central

Population growth in West Africa has outpaced local efforts to expand potable water services, and private sector sale of packaged drinking water has filled an important gap in household water security. Consumption of drinking water packaged in plastic sachets has soared in West Africa over the last decade, but the long-term implications of these changing consumption patterns remain unclear and unstudied. This paper reviews recent shifts in drinking water, drawing upon data from the 2003 and 2008 Demographic and Health Surveys, and provides an overview of the history, economics, quality, and regulation of sachet water in Ghana’s Accra-Tema Metropolitan Area. Given the pros and cons of sachet water, we suggest that a more holistic understanding of the drinking water landscape is necessary for municipal planning and sustainable drinking water provision. PMID:24294481

Weeks, John R.; Fink, Gunther

2013-01-01

3

Coral Reef Conservation in Marine Protected Areas  

E-print Network

Coral Reef Conservation in Marine Protected Areas A Case Study of Parque Nacional del Este 22203, USA Telephone: (703) 841-4860 Coral Reef Conservation in Marine Protected Areas: A Case Study Bello y Georgina Bustamante Coral(inside)-R1.id 11/5/01, 4:55 PM1 #12;Derechos reservados © 2001

Greer, Lisa

4

The role of taboos in conservation of sacred groves in Ghana's Tallensi-Nabdam district  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than half of Ghana's forest cover has been lost to deforestation. Although the Tallensi-Nabdam district has suffered deforestation, portions of the biosphere called sacred groves have survived. The purpose of this study was to explore the particular reasons why the groves have thrived by articulating precise sacred grove taboos, many of which are gender specific. Our enquiry led to

Rita Yembilah Barre; Miriam Grant; Dianne Draper

2009-01-01

5

Estimating unmet need for contraception by district within Ghana: an application of small-area estimation techniques.  

PubMed

The importance of meeting the unmet need for contraception is nowhere more urgent than in the countries of sub-Saharan Africa, where the fertility decline is stalling and total unmet need exceeds 30 per cent among married women. In Ghana, where fertility levels vary considerably, demographic information at sub-national level is essential for building effective family planning programmes. We used small-area estimation techniques, linking data from the 2003 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey to the 2000 Ghana Population and Housing Census, to derive district-level estimates of contraceptive use and unmet need for contraception. The results show considerable variation between districts in contraceptive use and unmet need. The prevalence of contraceptive use varies from 4.1 to 41.7 per cent, while that of the use of modern methods varies from 4.0 to 34.8 per cent. The findings identify districts where family planning programmes need to be strengthened. PMID:22553978

Amoako Johnson, Fiifi; Padmadas, Sabu S; Chandra, Hukum; Matthews, Zoe; Madise, Nyovani J

2012-07-01

6

Water Quality Conservation in Marine Protected Areas  

E-print Network

Water Quality Conservation in Marine Protected Areas A Case Study of Parque Nacional del Este por María Bello y Georgina Bustamante Water (inside pages)-R1.id 6/14/01, 5:25 PM1 #12;Derechos reservados © 2001, The Nature Conservancy. Todos los derechos reservados. Ninguna parte de este documento

Greer, Lisa

7

Local Responses to Participatory Conservation in Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for participation. In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the barriers encountered in its implementation, a questionnaire survey of 188 households was employed in the communities of the Upper Mustang extension of Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. The study provides a comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers between Non-Tourist (NT) and Tourist (TV) villages. The results revealed important differences between the two groups in terms of their participation in community programs, barriers to participation, and perception of benefits from participation. Owing to their distinct spatial, demographic and attitudinal differences, the two village groups have their own sets of needs, values and motivation factors which cannot be generalized and treated as such. The research clearly identifies the need for the conservation agency to be creative in devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific social groups so as to optimize their input in participatory conservation.

Khadka, Damodar; Nepal, Sanjay K.

2010-02-01

8

Evaluation of trace elements contents in staple foodstuffs from the gold mining areas in southwestern part of Ghana using neutron activation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most studies in gold mining areas in Ghana have been concentrated on soil, sediment and atmospheric pollution, very limited\\u000a work has been conducted on consumed crops. This work therefore aims at shedding more light on the effects of gold mining activities\\u000a on selected consumed food crops (“Xanthosoma sagittifolium”, “Colocasia esculenta”, “Musa paradisiacal” and “Manihot Esculentus” in Ghana using Neutron Activation

H. Ahiamadjie; Y. Serfor-Armah; J. B. Tandoh; O. Gyampo; F. G. Ofosu; S. B. Dampare; D. K. Adotey; B. J. B. Nyarko

2011-01-01

9

50 CFR 660.70 - Groundfish conservation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Bank Yelloweye Rockfish Conservation Area. The Stonewall Bank Yelloweye Rockfish Conservation Area (YRCA...southwest of Crescent City, intended to...groundfish is prohibited in waters of depths...long. (p) Rockfish Conservation...

2011-10-01

10

50 CFR 660.70 - Groundfish conservation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Bank Yelloweye Rockfish Conservation Area. The Stonewall Bank Yelloweye Rockfish Conservation Area (YRCA...southwest of Crescent City, intended to...groundfish is prohibited in waters of depths...long. (p) Rockfish Conservation...

2012-10-01

11

50 CFR 660.70 - Groundfish conservation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Bank Yelloweye Rockfish Conservation Area. The Stonewall Bank Yelloweye Rockfish Conservation Area (YRCA...southwest of Crescent City, intended to...groundfish is prohibited in waters of depths...long. (p) Rockfish Conservation...

2013-10-01

12

Spatial dependency of cholera prevalence on potential cholera reservoirs in an urban area, Kumasi, Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cholera has been a public health burden in Ghana since the early 1970s. Between 1999 and 2005, a total of 25,636 cases and 620 deaths were officially reported to the WHO. In one of the worst affected urban cities, fecal contamination of surface water is extremely high, and the disease is reported to be prevalent among inhabitants living in close proximity to surface water bodies. Surface runoff from dump sites is a major source of fecal and bacterial contamination of rivers and streams in the study area. This study aims to determine (a) the impacts of surface water contamination on cholera infection and (b) detect and map arbitrary shaped clusters of cholera. A Geographic Information System (GIS) based spatial analysis is used to delineate potential reservoirs of the cholera vibrios; possibly contaminated by surface runoff from open space refuse dumps. Statistical modeling using OLS model reveals a significant negative association between (a) cholera prevalence and proximity to all the potential cholera reservoirs ( R2 = 0.18, p < 0.001) and (b) cholera prevalence and proximity to upstream potential cholera reservoirs ( R2 = 0.25, p < 0.001). The inclusion of spatial autoregressive coefficients in the OLS model reveals the dependency of the spatial distribution of cholera prevalence on the spatial neighbors of the communities. A flexible scan statistic identifies a most likely cluster with a higher relative risk (RR = 2.04, p < 0.01) compared with the cluster detected by circular scan statistic (RR = 1.60, p < 0.01). We conclude that surface water pollution through runoff from waste dump sites play a significant role in cholera infection.

Osei, Frank B.; Duker, Alfred A.; Augustijn, Ellen-Wien; Stein, Alfred

2010-10-01

13

Mapping irrigated areas of Ghana using fusion of 30 m and 250 m resolution remote-sensing data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Maps of irrigated areas are essential for Ghana's agricultural development. The goal of this research was to map irrigated agricultural areas and explain methods and protocols using remote sensing. Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) data and time-series Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data were used to map irrigated agricultural areas as well as other land use/land cover (LULC) classes, for Ghana. Temporal variations in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) pattern obtained in the LULC class were used to identify irrigated and non-irrigated areas. First, the temporal variations in NDVI pattern were found to be more consistent in long-duration irrigated crops than with short-duration rainfed crops due to more assured water supply for irrigated areas. Second, surface water availability for irrigated areas is dependent on shallow dug-wells (on river banks) and dug-outs (in river bottoms) that affect the timing of crop sowing and growth stages, which was in turn reflected in the seasonal NDVI pattern. A decision tree approach using Landsat 30 m one time data fusion with MODIS 250 m time-series data was adopted to classify, group, and label classes. Finally, classes were tested and verified using ground truth data and national statistics. Fuzzy classification accuracy assessment for the irrigated classes varied between 67 and 93%. An irrigated area derived from remote sensing (32,421 ha) was 20-57% higher than irrigated areas reported by Ghana's Irrigation Development Authority (GIDA). This was because of the uncertainties involved in factors such as: (a) absence of shallow irrigated area statistics in GIDA statistics, (b) non-clarity in the irrigated areas in its use, under-development, and potential for development in GIDA statistics, (c) errors of omissions and commissions in the remote sensing approach, and (d) comparison involving widely varying data types, methods, and approaches used in determining irrigated area statistics using GIDA and remote sensing. Extensive field campaigns to help in better classification and validation of irrigated areas using high (30 m ) to very high (<5 m) resolution remote sensing data that are fused with multi temporal data like MODIS are the way forward. This is especially true in accounting for small yet contiguous patches of irrigated areas from dug-wells and dug-outs. ?? 2011 by the authors.

Gumma, M. K.; Thenkabail, P. S.; Hideto, F.; Nelson, A.; Dheeravath, V.; Busia, D.; Rala, A.

2011-01-01

14

A survey of gastrointestinal parasites of olive baboons (Papio anubis) in human settlement areas of Mole National Park, Ghana.  

PubMed

Fecal samples from 55 free-ranging olive baboons (Papio anubis) in Mole National Park, Ghana, were collected 22 June-7 July 2008 and analyzed for gastrointestinal parasites. This is the first survey of baboon gastrointestinal parasites in Ghana and provides baseline data for this area. Ninety-three percent of samples were infected, leaving 7% with no parasites observed. Of those infected, there was a 76% prevalence of strongyles, 53% Strongyloides spp., 11% Abbreviata caucasica , 62% prevalence of Balantidium coli (trophozoites and cysts identified), 4% Entomeba hystolytica/dispar, and 47% unidentified protozoan parasites. Of the strongyle infections, 9% were identified as Oesophagostamum sp. One sample contained an unidentified spirurid nematode that resembled Gongylonema sp. Mole has a mixed forest-savanna habitat, and baboons frequently range into human areas, which makes them subject to parasites from each habitat and multiple sources of exposure. We found a high prevalence of nematode parasites, consistent with a wet or cooler forest environment, or high rates of fecal contamination. The presence of Strongyloides sp., E. hystolitica/dispar, and B. coli suggest potential public health risk from baboons, but molecular identification of these parasites, and documentation of their presence in local human populations, would be necessary to confirm zoonotic transmission. PMID:22300265

Ryan, Sadie J; Brashares, Justin S; Walsh, Chesley; Milbers, Katherine; Kilroy, Cailean; Chapman, Colin A

2012-08-01

15

78 FR 3026 - Establishment of Swan Valley Conservation Area, Montana  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

This notice advises the public that the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) has established the Swan Valley Conservation Area as a unit of the National Wildlife Refuge System. The Service established the Swan Valley Conservation Area on August 6, 2012, with the donation of an 80-acre conservation easement in Missoula County,...

2013-01-15

16

7 CFR 1410.8 - Conservation priority areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Deputy Administrator. Such designation must clearly define conservation and environmental objectives and provide analysis of how CRP can cost-effectively address such objectives. Generally, the total acreage of all conservation priority areas, in...

2010-01-01

17

Area prioritization for optimal conservation planning.  

E-print Network

?? This dissertation develops an optimization framework for conservation planning and illustrates the framework using case studies from Alaska, Balcones Canyonlands National Wildlife Refuge (BCNWR)… (more)

Fuller, Trevon Louis

2009-01-01

18

43 CFR 21.4 - Occupancy under permit of privately owned cabins on recreation areas and conservation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...areas and conservation areas. (a...area where private cabin site...recreation or conservation area has grown...continued private cabin...recreation or conservation area are sufficient...area for private cabin...

2010-10-01

19

Hydrogeochemical study on the contamination of water resources in a part of Tarkwa mining area, Western Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to investigate the groundwater chemistry with special concern to metal pollution in selected communities in the Wassa West district, Ghana. In this mining area, 40 ground water samples, mainly from drilled wells, were collected. The groundwaters have generally from neutral to acidic pH values and their Eh values indicate oxidising conditions. The dominating ions are calcium, sodium, and bicarbonate. The metal concentrations in the study area are generally lower than those typically found in mining regions. Only 17 wells show metal concentrations exceeding WHO guidelines for at least one metal. The main contaminants are manganese and iron, but arsenic and aluminium also exceed the guidelines in some wells probably affected by acid mine drainage (AMD). Metal concentrations in the groundwater seem to be controlled by the adsorption processes. Hydrogeochemical modelling indicates supersaturation of groundwater with respect to several mineral phases including iron-hydroxides/oxides, suggesting that adsorption on these minerals may control heavy metal and arsenic concentrations in groundwater. The area is hilly, with many groundwater flow divides that result in several local flow systems. The aquifers therefore are not strongly affected by weathering of minerals due to short groundwater residence times and intense flushing. The local character of groundwater flow systems also prevents a strong impact of acid mine drainage on groundwater systems in a regional scale.

Bhattacharya, Prosun; Sracek, Ondra; Eldvall, Björn; Asklund, Ragnar; Barmen, Gerhard; Jacks, Gunnar; Koku, John; Gustafsson, Jan-Erik; Singh, Nandita; Balfors, Berit Brokking

2012-05-01

20

Key factors leading to reduced recruitment and retention of health professionals in remote areas of Ghana: a qualitative study and proposed policy solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The ability of many countries to achieve national health goals such as the Millennium Development Goals remains hindered by\\u000a inadequate and poorly distributed health personnel, including doctors. The distribution of doctors in Ghana is highly skewed,\\u000a with a majority serving in two major metropolitan areas (Accra and Kumasi), and inadequate numbers in remote and rural districts.\\u000a Recent policies increasing health

Rachel C Snow; Kwesi Asabir; Massy Mutumba; Elizabeth Koomson; Kofi Gyan; Mawuli Dzodzomenyo; Margaret Kruk; Janet Kwansah

2011-01-01

21

Impacts of community-based conservation on local communities in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approaches to the management of protected areas that involve the participation of local communities are now being widely promoted.\\u000a However, the impacts of such community-based conservation initiatives on local communities remain poorly defined. This research\\u000a examines the socio-economic impacts of community-based conservation within the Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA), Nepal, through\\u000a semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire survey with local residents, situated

Siddhartha B. Bajracharya; Peter A. Furley; Adrian C. Newton

22

Impacts of Community-based Conservation on Local Communities in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approaches to the management of protected areas that involve the participation of local communities are now being widely promoted.\\u000a However, the impacts of such community-based conservation initiatives on local communities remain poorly defined. This research\\u000a examines the socio-economic impacts of community-based conservation within the Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA), Nepal, through\\u000a semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire survey with local residents, situated

Siddhartha B. Bajracharya; Peter A. Furley; Adrian C. Newton

2006-01-01

23

Effectiveness of Medicinal Plant Conservation Areas in Western Ghats, India  

E-print Network

Effectiveness of Medicinal Plant Conservation Areas in Western Ghats, India Narayani Barve Medicinal Plant Conservation Areas (MPCA) ? Designated by State Forest Department ? Established early 1990s ? Network of 200 sites all over India... ? Selection based on Plant diversity and known medicinal plant hotspots The Western Ghats (Sahyadri) Biodiversity Hotspot ? Less than 6% of the land area of India, but contains more than 30% of all plant, bird, and mammal species found in the country...

Barve, Narayani

2014-04-25

24

Grassland Bird Conservation Area Bird Quiz Name: _________________ Date:_____________  

E-print Network

1 Grassland Bird Conservation Area Bird Quiz Name: _________________ Date:_____________ Part. Focal Species Savanna Grassland Thickets Farmland Grassland/Prairie Pasture Eastern Meadowlark Song ­ Song Identification We will play the recording of 12 bird species commonly found in the grassland

Mladenoff, David

25

Political Ecology and Coastal Conservation: A Case Study of Menai Bay Conservation Area, Tanzania  

E-print Network

Many of Africa's coastal areas are experiencing alarming levels of degradation. In response, marine conservation efforts there are on the rise, many of which claim community empowerment as an essential goal. Researchers have begun to use theories...

Shinn, Jamie Elizabeth

2010-06-04

26

Key factors leading to reduced recruitment and retention of health professionals in remote areas of Ghana: a qualitative study and proposed policy solutions  

PubMed Central

Background The ability of many countries to achieve national health goals such as the Millennium Development Goals remains hindered by inadequate and poorly distributed health personnel, including doctors. The distribution of doctors in Ghana is highly skewed, with a majority serving in two major metropolitan areas (Accra and Kumasi), and inadequate numbers in remote and rural districts. Recent policies increasing health worker salaries have reduced migration of doctors out of Ghana, but made little difference to distribution within the country. This qualitative study was undertaken to understand how practicing doctors and medical leaders in Ghana describe the key factors reducing recruitment and retention of health professionals into remote areas, and to document their proposed policy solutions. Methods In-depth interviews were carried out with 84 doctors and medical leaders, including 17 regional medical directors and deputy directors from across Ghana, and 67 doctors currently practicing in 3 regions (Greater Accra, Brong Ahafo, and Upper West); these 3 regions were chosen to represent progressively more remote distances from the capital of Accra. Results and discussion All participants felt that rural postings must have special career or monetary incentives given the loss of locum (i.e. moonlighting income), the higher workload, and professional isolation of remote assignments. Career 'death' and prolonged rural appointments were a common fear, and proposed policy solutions focused considerably on career incentives, such as guaranteed promotion or a study opportunity after some fixed term of service in a remote or hardship area. There was considerable stress placed on the need for rural doctors to have periodic contact with mentors through rural rotation of specialists, or remote learning centers, and reliable terms of appointment with fixed end-points. Also raised, but given less emphasis, were concerns about the adequacy of clinical equipment in remote facilities, and remote accommodations. Conclusions In-depth discussions with doctors suggest that while salary is important, it is career development priorities that are keeping doctors in urban centers. Short-term service in rural areas would be more appealing if it were linked to special mentoring and/or training, and led to career advancement. PMID:21600002

2011-01-01

27

A simulation/optimization model for groundwater resources management in the Afram Plains area, Ghana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A groundwater flow simulation model was developed using available hydrogeo logical data to A groundwater flow simulation model was developed using available hydrogeological data to describe groundwater flow in the Afram Plains area. A nonlinear optimization model was then developed and solved for the management of groundwater resources to meet irrigation and household needs. The objective was to maximize groundwater extraction for irrigation activities from the shallow aquifers of the southern Voltaian Sedimentary Basin that underly the area This would improve food security, raise the standard of living and ultimately alleviate poverty in the Afram Plains. The calibrated flow model is in tandem with the general hydrochemical evolution of groundwater in the area and fits the observed data with about a 98% degree of confidence. Groundwater resources may not be the limiting factor in the development of irrigated agriculture. Groundwater has tremendous potential to meet current and future irrigation needs. It was determined from this study that profit from maize irrigation in the Afram Plains area could rise from US$301, 000 in 2007 to over US$3.5 million by the end of the last management period (2013) as irrigation practice is improved, and the economic strength to increase the acreage for irrigation improves. Even with these margins of profit, the drawdown constraint was not reached in any of the management periods. It is expected that rechargefrom the irrigation water would reclaim the lost hydraulic head. The single significant constraint was the amount of land area that could be developed for irrigation in the area. The profit obtained per unit cubic meter of water used also improved over the same management period.

Yidana, S.M.

2008-01-01

28

Robert Frost Trailhead Acquisition Stella and Carroll Strysko Conservation Area  

E-print Network

Robert Frost Trailhead Acquisition Stella and Carroll Strysko Conservation Area The Rattlesnake,500. Such acquisition will protect the natural habitat and the Robert Frost Trail where it crosses Route 63 near will: · Protect trailhead access and a portion of the Robert Frost Trail ­ part of the Amherst Literary

Schweik, Charles M.

29

Forrest Conservation Area : Management & Implementation FY 2004 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribes) acquired the Forrest Conservation Area during July of 2002. The property is located in the Upper John Day subbasin within the Columbia basin. The property consists of two parcels comprising 4,232 acres. The Mainstem parcel consists of 3,445 acres and is located 1/2 mile to the east of Prairie City, Oregon on the mainstem John Day River. The Middle Fork parcel consists of 786 acres and is located one mile to the west of the town of Austin, OR on the Middle Fork John Day River. The Forrest Conservation Area is under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to provide an annual written report generally describing the real property interests of the project and management activities undertaken or in progress. Acquisition of the Forrest Conservation Area was funded by BPA as part of their program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife habitat affected by hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries. The intent of the Conservation Area is to partially mitigate fish and wildlife impacts for the John Day Dam on the Columbia River as outlined in the Northwest Power Planning Council's Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994, {section}11.1, {section}7.6). While the Tribes hold fee-title to the property, the BPA has assured a level of management funding for the protection and restoration of fish and wildlife habitat through a memorandum of agreement.

Smith, Brent

2008-12-01

30

Invertebrate conservation in urban areas: Ants in the Brazilian Cerrado  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the potential of different types of urban green spaces for conservation of ground-dwelling ants. The study area, which included 12 public squares, two urban parks, and three natural reserves, is within the highly threatened Cerrado biome of central Brazil. We compared ant species richness and composition among the different types of urban green spaces, and evaluated how ant

Renata Pacheco; Heraldo L. Vasconcelos

2007-01-01

31

Exploring Students' Strategies in Area Conservation Geometrical Tasks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to investigate the strategies employed by advanced high school and university students working on six tasks concerning comparison and conservation of area. Special care has been taken in the test design so that the problems could be dealt with using a variety of solution methods. Written responses and in-depth interviews…

Kospentaris, George; Spyrou, Panagiotis; Lappas, Dionyssios

2011-01-01

32

Examining marginalized communities and local conservation institutions: the case of Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area.  

PubMed

In developing countries, participatory conservation initiatives have been criticized for many reasons, mainly for excluding marginalized groups which have led to unequal benefits. Using concepts from the literature on participation, conservation, and political ecology, this research explored the participation of marginal groups, i.e., poor, women, lower caste, and landless, in management institutions in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area. Field work for this research was conducted through the use of interviews and participant observation during August-October 2010. Results show that although marginal groups were involved in local management institutions, their representation was minimal and had not led to meaningful participation or empowerment to influence the decisions being made in conservation and development programs. Our study findings indicate that the involvement of marginal groups in local initiatives is complex and influenced by several factors. The study concludes that the Annapurna Conservation Area Project needs to re-orient its conservation projects by adopting a more inclusive form of participation and move beyond the quota system. PMID:24271617

Dahal, Smriti; Nepal, Sanjay K; Schuett, Michael A

2014-01-01

33

Water needs and women's health in the Kumasi metropolitan area, Ghana.  

PubMed

This paper examines the impact of water fetching by women and the quality of water during periods of water scarcity on the health of women in the Kumasi metropolitan area. A sample of 210 women drawn using systematic random procedure is used for the study. Formal interview is the main instrument used. The survey has established that income, quality of water, hours spent fetching water during scarcity and age are the main factors influencing women's health in the metropolis during water scarcity. In both the core and periphery, the water-related problem influencing health is hours spent fetching water during scarcity. An empirical model on water needs and women's health has emerged from the survey. Recommendations have been made on strategies to ensure regular volume of surface water, effective management of scarce water resources with the participation of women, and ensuring gender equity in domestic services. PMID:14637289

Buor, Daniel

2004-03-01

34

Native fish conservation areas: A vision for large-scale conservation of native fish communities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The status of freshwater fishes continues to decline despite substantial conservation efforts to reverse this trend and recover threatened and endangered aquatic species. Lack of success is partially due to working at smaller spatial scales and focusing on habitats and species that are already degraded. Protecting entire watersheds and aquatic communities, which we term "native fish conservation areas" (NFCAs), would complement existing conservation efforts by protecting intact aquatic communities while allowing compatible uses. Four critical elements need to be met within a NFCA: (1) maintain processes that create habitat complexity, diversity, and connectivity; (2) nurture all of the life history stages of the fishes being protected; (3) include a long-term enough watershed to provide long-term persistence of native fish populations; and (4) provide management that is sustainable over time. We describe how a network of protected watersheds could be created that would anchor aquatic conservation needs in river basins across the country.

Williams, Jack E.; Williams, Richard N.; Thurow, Russell F.; Elwell, Leah; Philipp, David P.; Harris, Fred A.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.; Martinez, Patrick J.; Miller, Dirk; Reeves, Gordon H.; Frissell, Christopher A.; Sedell, James R.

2011-01-01

35

78 FR 28621 - Notice of Dominguez-Escalante National Conservation Area Advisory Council Meeting Cancellation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...LLCON06000-L16100000-DP0000] Notice of Dominguez-Escalante National Conservation Area...FACA), notice is hereby given that the Dominguez-Escalante National Conservation Area...resource management planning process for the Dominguez-Escalante National Conservation...

2013-05-15

36

78 FR 21628 - Notice of Dominguez-Escalante National Conservation Area Advisory Council Meeting Cancellation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...LLCON06000-L16100000-DP0000] Notice of Dominguez-Escalante National Conservation Area...FACA), notice is hereby given that the Dominguez-Escalante National Conservation Area...resource management planning process for the Dominguez-Escalante National Conservation...

2013-04-11

37

75 FR 7626 - Notice of Establishment of the Dominguez-Escalante National Conservation Area Advisory Council...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AL0000] Notice of Establishment of the Dominguez-Escalante National Conservation Area...established the Bureau of Land Management's Dominguez-Escalante National Conservation Area...term protection and management of the Dominguez-Escalante National Conservation...

2010-02-22

38

[Priority areas for biodiversity conservation in Hainan Island: evaluation and systematic conservation planning].  

PubMed

A total of 140 endangered species in Hainan Island were selected as indicator species, and their spatial distribution patterns were analyzed by using mechanism habitat model. Based on the iterative operation with systematic conservation planning tool MARXAN, the priority areas of these species were identified and evaluated. The priority areas had an area of 5383.7 km2, accounting for 15.6% of the total land area of the Island, and mainly distributed in some forest regions (Yinggeling, Jianfengling and Wuzhishan) and in northern part water source regions. In the priority areas, the conservation proportion of 11 1st grade indicator species habitats occupied at least 65% of all the habitats. Through the gap analysis of priority areas and current nature reserves, it was suggested that an expansion of Jianfengling, Yinggeling-Limushan, and Wuzhishan-Diaoluoshan nature reserves and the establishment of Baolonglinchang-Linbiling-Fuwanling protection system should be made, and the protection areas for water source conservation and endangered species should be established in the northern part of the Island. PMID:22097374

Zhang, Lu; Ouyang, Zhi-yun; Xiao, Yi; Wu, Wei-hua; Zheng, Hua; Jiang, Bo

2011-08-01

39

Priority areas for large mammal conservation in Equatorial Guinea.  

PubMed

Hunting is one of the main driving forces behind large mammal density distribution in many regions of the world. In tropical Africa, urban demand for bushmeat has been shown to dominate over subsistence hunting and its impact often overrides spatial-ecological species characteristics. To effectively protect remaining mammal populations the main factors that influence their distribution need to be integrated into conservation area prioritisation and management plans. This information has been lacking for Río Muni, Equatorial Guinea, as prior studies have been outdated or have not systematically covered the continental region of the country. In this study we evaluated: 1) the relative importance of local vs. commercial hunting; 2) wildlife density of protected vs. non-protected areas; and 3) the importance of ecological factors vs. human influence in driving mammal density distribution in Río Muni. We adopted a systematic countrywide line transect approach with particular focus on apes and elephants, but also including other mammal species. For analysis of field data we used generalised linear models with a set of predictor variables representing ecological conditions, anthropogenic pressure and protected areas. We estimate that there are currently 884 (437-1,789) elephants and 11,097 (8,719-13,592) chimpanzees and gorillas remaining in Río Muni. The results indicate strong hunting pressures on both local and commercial levels, with roads demonstrating a negative impact on elephants and overall mammal body mass. Protected areas played no role in determining any of the mammal species distributions and significant human hunting signs were found inside these protected areas, illustrating the lack of environmental law enforcement throughout the country. Río Muni is currently under-represented in conservation efforts in Western Equatorial Africa, and we recommend a focus on cross-boundary conservation, in particular in the Monte Alén-Monts de Cristal and Río Campo Ma'an conservation landscapes, where the highest densities and diversity of large mammals remain. PMID:24086426

Murai, Mizuki; Ruffler, Heidi; Berlemont, Antoine; Campbell, Genevieve; Esono, Fidel; Agbor, Anthony; Mbomio, Domingo; Ebana, Agustín; Nze, Antonio; Kühl, Hjalmar S

2013-01-01

40

Priority Areas for Large Mammal Conservation in Equatorial Guinea  

PubMed Central

Hunting is one of the main driving forces behind large mammal density distribution in many regions of the world. In tropical Africa, urban demand for bushmeat has been shown to dominate over subsistence hunting and its impact often overrides spatial-ecological species characteristics. To effectively protect remaining mammal populations the main factors that influence their distribution need to be integrated into conservation area prioritisation and management plans. This information has been lacking for Río Muni, Equatorial Guinea, as prior studies have been outdated or have not systematically covered the continental region of the country. In this study we evaluated: 1) the relative importance of local vs. commercial hunting; 2) wildlife density of protected vs. non-protected areas; and 3) the importance of ecological factors vs. human influence in driving mammal density distribution in Río Muni. We adopted a systematic countrywide line transect approach with particular focus on apes and elephants, but also including other mammal species. For analysis of field data we used generalised linear models with a set of predictor variables representing ecological conditions, anthropogenic pressure and protected areas. We estimate that there are currently 884 (437–1,789) elephants and 11,097 (8,719–13,592) chimpanzees and gorillas remaining in Río Muni. The results indicate strong hunting pressures on both local and commercial levels, with roads demonstrating a negative impact on elephants and overall mammal body mass. Protected areas played no role in determining any of the mammal species distributions and significant human hunting signs were found inside these protected areas, illustrating the lack of environmental law enforcement throughout the country. Río Muni is currently under-represented in conservation efforts in Western Equatorial Africa, and we recommend a focus on cross-boundary conservation, in particular in the Monte Alén-Monts de Cristal and Río Campo Ma’an conservation landscapes, where the highest densities and diversity of large mammals remain. PMID:24086426

Murai, Mizuki; Ruffler, Heidi; Berlemont, Antoine; Campbell, Genevieve; Esono, Fidel; Agbor, Anthony; Mbomio, Domingo; Ebana, Agustin; Nze, Antonio; Kuhl, Hjalmar S.

2013-01-01

41

Designing sanitation projects in rural Ghana  

E-print Network

Providing sanitation to rural areas in Ghana remains a huge challenge. Government funding is scarce while many international donor projects are ineffective. This thesis explores the difficulties with rural sanitation ...

Lau, Jonathan (Jonathan Ho Yin)

2011-01-01

42

Human migration, protected areas, and conservation outreach in Tanzania.  

PubMed

A recent discussion debates the extent of human in-migration around protected areas (PAs) in the tropics. One proposed argument is that rural migrants move to bordering areas to access conservation outreach benefits. A counter proposal maintains that PAs have largely negative effects on local populations and that outreach initiatives even if successful present insufficient benefits to drive in-migration. Using data from Tanzania, we examined merits of statistical tests and spatial methods used previously to evaluate migration near PAs and applied hierarchical modeling with appropriate controls for demographic and geographic factors to advance the debate. Areas bordering national parks in Tanzania did not have elevated rates of in-migration. Low baseline population density and high vegetation productivity with low interannual variation rather than conservation outreach explained observed migration patterns. More generally we argue that to produce results of conservation policy significance, analyses must be conducted at appropriate scales, and we caution against use of demographic data without appropriate controls when drawing conclusions about migration dynamics. PMID:24476123

Salerno, Jonathan D; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; Kefauver, Shawn C

2014-06-01

43

50 CFR Figure 17 to Part 679 - Northern Bering Sea Research Area and St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Area and St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area 17 Figure 17 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION...THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 17 Figure 17 to part 679—Northern Bering Sea...

2010-10-01

44

Incorporating private lands in conservation planning: protected areas in Britain.  

PubMed

Evaluations of the effectiveness of protected areas often report their inadequate representation of regional variation in environmental conditions, land cover, and biological diversity. One frequent contributory explanation is the heavy reliance placed upon the designation of public as opposed to private lands for statutory protection. Given that protected area designation in Britain has no such constraint, and indeed that more than half of such areas are on private lands, we tested the a priori assumption that within this region the representation of environmental conditions and land cover within statutory protected areas would be more equitable. Despite the reduction in land ownership constraints on where protected areas can be established, a marked bias in protected area coverage remains. Protected areas in Britain tend toward regions of higher elevation, soils of lower economic potential, and coastal/estuarine habitat and fail adequately to represent areas of lower elevation and woodland habitats. Improving the current situation requires not only a more systematic approach to site selection, but a more equitable and diverse portfolio of incentives for private landowners to facilitate the decision to manage sites for conservation. PMID:18536262

Jackson, Sarah F; Gaston, Kevin J

2008-06-01

45

Area, length and thickness conservation: Dogma or reality?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic assumption of quantitative structural geology is the preservation of material during deformation. However the hypothesis of volume conservation alone does not help to predict past or future geometries and so this assumption is usually translated into bed length in 2D (or area in 3D) and thickness conservation. When subsurface data are missing, geologists may extrapolate surface data to depth using the kink-band approach. These extrapolations, preserving both thicknesses and dips, lead to geometries which are restorable but often erroneous, due to both disharmonic deformation and internal deformation of layers. First, the Bolivian Sub-Andean Zone case is presented to highlight the evolution of the concepts on which balancing is based, and the important role played by a decoupling level in enhancing disharmony. Second, analogue models are analyzed to test the validity of the balancing techniques. Chamberlin's excess area approach is shown to be on average valid. However, neither the length nor the thicknesses are preserved. We propose that in real cases, the length preservation hypothesis during shortening could also be a wrong assumption. If the data are good enough to image the decollement level, the Chamberlin excess area method could be used to compute the bed length changes.

Moretti, Isabelle; Callot, Jean Paul

2012-08-01

46

77 FR 67830 - Establishment of Sangre de Cristo Conservation Area, Colorado and New Mexico  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...objectives for the conservation area are to protect...trust species. The conservation area is a landscape-scale...prioritization for land protection will incorporate the...of strategic habitat conservation (SHC) to ensure effective...is from the Land and Water Conservation Fund...

2012-11-14

47

78 FR 10634 - Notice of Meetings, Dominguez-Escalante National Conservation Area Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...L16100000.DP0000 ] Notice of Meetings, Dominguez-Escalante National Conservation Area...Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Dominguez- Escalante National Conservation Area...of the meetings will be posted on the Dominguez-Escalante Resource Management...

2013-02-14

48

Sediment Inventory and Phosphorus Fractions for Water Conservation Area Canals in the Everglades  

E-print Network

Sediment Inventory and Phosphorus Fractions for Water Conservation Area Canals in the Everglades O in the Water Conservation Area (WCA) canals in the Ever- glades. A study was conducted to characterize

Florida, University of

49

Spatial Distribution of Soil Nutrients in a Northern Everglades Marsh: Water Conservation Area 1  

E-print Network

Spatial Distribution of Soil Nutrients in a Northern Everglades Marsh: Water Conservation Area 1 S examines the response of a pristine wetland, Water ConservationArea 1 (WCA 1), part of the northern Florida

Florida, University of

50

75 FR 10814 - Proposed Programmatic Safe Harbor Agreement for the Sacramento River Conservation Area Forum in...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Sacramento River Conservation Area Forum in Shasta, Tehama, Butte, Glenn, Colusa...the Sacramento River Conservation Area Forum (applicant) under the Endangered Species...the Sacramento River Conservation Area Forum under the Act (16 U.S.C 1531 et...

2010-03-09

51

77 FR 9693 - Establishment of Flint Hills Legacy Conservation Area, Kansas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FF06R06000-FXRS1265066CCP0S2-123] Establishment of Flint Hills Legacy Conservation Area, Kansas AGENCY...Service (Service) has established the Flint Hills Legacy Conservation Area, the 555th unit...System. The Service established the Flint Hills Legacy Conservation Area on September...

2012-02-17

52

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF SOIL PROPERTIES IN WATER CONSERVATION AREA 2A,  

E-print Network

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF SOIL PROPERTIES IN WATER CONSERVATION AREA 2A to restore wetlands impacted by nutrient influx. Our goal was to investigate Water Conservation Area 2A), total nitrogen (TN), total calcium (TCa), total carbon (TC), and floc depth in Water Conservation Area 2

Florida, University of

53

50 CFR Figure 17 to Part 679 - Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA) 17 Figure 17 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION...THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 17 Figure 17 to part 679—Northern Bering Sea...

2011-10-01

54

50 CFR Figure 17 to Part 679 - Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA) 17 Figure 17 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION...THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 17 Figure 17 to part 679—Northern Bering Sea...

2013-10-01

55

50 CFR Figure 17 to Part 679 - Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA) 17 Figure 17 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION...THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 17 Figure 17 to part 679—Northern Bering Sea...

2012-10-01

56

Application of Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment to analyze the public health risk from poor drinking water quality in a low income area in Accra, Ghana.  

PubMed

In Accra, Ghana, a majority of inhabitants lives in over-crowded areas with limited access to piped water supply, which is often also intermittent. This study assessed in a densely populated area the risk from microbial contamination of various sources of drinking water, by conducting a Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA) to estimate the risk to human health from microorganism exposure and dose-response relationships. Furthermore the cost-effectiveness in reducing the disease burden through targeted interventions was evaluated. Five risk pathways for drinking water were identified through a survey (110 families), namely household storage, private yard taps, communal taps, communal wells and water sachets. Samples from each source were analyzed for Escherichia coli and Ascaris contamination. Published ratios between E. coli and other pathogens were used for the QMRA and disease burden calculations. The major part of the burden of disease originated from E. coli O157:H7 (78%) and the least important contributor was Cryptosporidium (0.01%). Other pathogens contributed 16% (Campylobacter), 5% (Rotavirus) and 0.3% (Ascaris). The sum of the disease burden of these pathogens was 0.5 DALYs per person per year, which is much higher than the WHO reference level. The major contamination pathway was found to be household storage. Disinfection of water at household level was the most cost-effective intervention (<5 USD/DALY-averted) together with hygiene education. Water supply network improvements were significantly less cost-effective. PMID:23416990

Machdar, E; van der Steen, N P; Raschid-Sally, L; Lens, P N L

2013-04-01

57

Wetland conservation: Change and fragmentation in Trinidad’s protected areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation efforts often neglect the importance of monitoring of protected areas, which is key to adaptively managing dynamic landscapes. In many developing countries, like Trinidad, protected areas are set aside as a result of an agreement with an international conservation organization, often resulting in inadequate planning and monitoring of the protected area. Monitoring of protected areas allows for an examination

Cerian Gibbes; Jane Southworth; Eric Keys

2009-01-01

58

50 CFR Figure 19 to Part 679 - Shelikof Strait Conservation Area  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Shelikof Strait Conservation Area 19 Figure 19 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION...THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 19 Figure 19 to Part 679—Shelikof Strait...

2010-10-01

59

50 CFR Table 42 to Part 679 - Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area 42 Table 42 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION...THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 42 Table 42 to Part 679—Bering Sea Habitat...

2012-10-01

60

50 CFR Table 42 to Part 679 - Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area 42 Table 42 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION...THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 42 Table 42 to Part 679—Bering Sea Habitat...

2013-10-01

61

Recent Changes in Soil Total Phosphorus in the Everglades: Water Conservation Area 3  

E-print Network

Recent Changes in Soil Total Phosphorus in the Everglades: Water Conservation Area 3 Gregory L nutrient loading from drained agricul- tural lands, annual phosphorus (P) inputs to the Water Conservation

Grunwald, Sabine

62

Spatial Distribution of Soil Nutrients in a Northern Everglades Marsh: Water Conservation Area 2A  

E-print Network

Spatial Distribution of Soil Nutrients in a Northern Everglades Marsh: Water Conservation Area 2A W of P, N, C, and related physico-chemical parameters in the peat soils (Histosols) of Water Conservation

Florida, University of

63

INTEGRATING REPRESENTATION AND VULNERABILITY: TWO APPROACHES FOR PRIORITIZING AREAS FOR CONSERVATION  

EPA Science Inventory

One fundamental step in conservation planning involves determining where to concentrate efforts to protect conservation targets. Here we demonstrate two approaches to prioritizing areas based on both species composition and potential threats facing the species. The first approa...

64

Environmental Conservation/Studies "focus area" (with potential courses listed) Natural Resource and Conservation Policy  

E-print Network

-Conservation Geography HISTORY 383 American Env History HT-MGT 230 Introduction to Travel and Tourism LEGAL 250 Intro Forest Management NRC 540 Forest Resources Management NRC 597C Case Studies in Conservation NRC 597E

Schweik, Charles M.

65

Prioritization of areas in China for the conservation of endangered birds using modelled geographical distributions  

E-print Network

We developed distributional models for 90 threatened bird species in China, and used heuristic complementarity algorithms to prioritize areas for conservation. The pixel-based area selection prioritized 20 areas for ...

Chen, Guojun; Peterson, A. Townsend

2002-01-01

66

Conservation Concerns for Butterflies in Urban Areas of Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The threats of rapid urbanisation to Australian butterflies are discussed, and examples given of the taxa of conservation concern and measures for their management. Compounding threats, such as intensive recreational activity in coastal regions, are also important consequences of urbanisation. Maintenance of threatened specialist species and more generalist widespread species may demand rather different approaches for practical conservation. Most species

T. R. New; D. P. A. Sands

2002-01-01

67

Buffering external threats to heritage conservation areas: a planner's perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper centres on the fundamental issue of environmental conservation from a planning perspective. For many years planners have been criticised for not integrating conservation with the need for development with one usually occurring in isolation to the other. Thus, this paper reviews environmental planning to disclose a gap that may exist in current practice in relation to protection of

J. Kozlowski; N. Vass-Bowen

1997-01-01

68

Assessing the Extent to Which Roadless Areas Complement the Conservation of Biological Diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the extent to which inventoried roadless areas (IRAs) on USDA Forest Service lands contain biophysical features that complement the conservation reserve network (e.g., national parks, designated wilderness areas, and wildlife refuges) in the United States. We compared the percentage of land area in IRAs and conservation reserves across three geographic divisions (Alaska, East, and West), 83 ecoregions, 10

Robert L. DeVelice; Jon R. Martin

2001-01-01

69

Sustainable Development Through a Rights Based Approach to Conserve Protected Areas in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protected areas are the world’s most effective tool for biodiversity conservation, and their role in helping mitigate and adapt to climate change is also increasingly recognized. However, neglecting internationally and domestically guaranteed rights can be a trigger for protected areas destruction. The crossroads of protected areas conservation on the one hand and human rights protection on the other is an

Miao He

2012-01-01

70

50 CFR 660.77 - EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Washington.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

Boundary line coordinates for EFH Conservation Areas off Washington are provided in this section. Fishing activity that is prohibited or permitted within the EEZ in a particular area designated as a groundfish EFH Conservation Area is detailed at §§ 660.11; §§ 660.112 and 660.130; §§...

2011-10-01

71

50 CFR 660.397 - EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Washington.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

Boundary line coordinates for EFH Conservation Areas off Washington are provided in this § 660.397. Fishing activity that is prohibited or permitted within the EEZ in a particular area designated as a groundfish EFH Conservation Area is detailed at § 660.306 and § 660.385. (a) Olympic...

2010-10-01

72

50 CFR 660.77 - EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Washington.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

Boundary line coordinates for EFH Conservation Areas off Washington are provided in this section. Fishing activity that is prohibited or permitted within the EEZ in a particular area designated as a groundfish EFH Conservation Area is detailed at §§ 660.11; §§ 660.112 and 660.130; §§...

2013-10-01

73

50 CFR 660.77 - EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Washington.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

Boundary line coordinates for EFH Conservation Areas off Washington are provided in this section. Fishing activity that is prohibited or permitted within the EEZ in a particular area designated as a groundfish EFH Conservation Area is detailed at §§ 660.11; §§ 660.112 and 660.130; §§...

2012-10-01

74

Conservation justice in metropolitan Cape Town: A study at the Macassar Dunes Conservation Area  

E-print Network

con- ducted semi-structured interviews with members of interested and affected communities of sustainable development and motivated conservationists to consider community-based conservation or Integrated

Silander Jr., John A.

75

Wildlife tuberculosis in South African conservation areas: Implications and challenges  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, was first diagnosed in African buffalo in South Africa's Kruger National Park in 1990. Over the past 15 years the disease has spread northwards leaving only the most northern buffalo herds unaffected. Evidence suggests that 10 other small and large mammalian species, including large predators, are spillover hosts. Wildlife tuberculosis has also been diagnosed in several adjacent private game reserves and in the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, the third largest game reserve in South Africa. The tuberculosis epidemic has a number of implications, for which the full effect of some might only be seen in the long-term. Potential negative long-term effects on the population dynamics of certain social animal species and the direct threat for the survival of endangered species pose particular problems for wildlife conservationists. On the other hand, the risk of spillover infection to neighboring communal cattle raises concerns about human health at the wildlife-livestock-human interface, not only along the western boundary of Kruger National Park, but also with regards to the joint development of the Greater Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area with Zimbabwe and Mozambique. From an economic point of view, wildlife tuberculosis has resulted in national and international trade restrictions for affected species. The lack of diagnostic tools for most species and the absence of an effective vaccine make it currently impossible to contain and control this disease within an infected free-ranging ecosystem. Veterinary researchers and policy-makers have recognized the need to intensify research on this disease and the need to develop tools for control, initially targeting buffalo and lion. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Michel, A. L.; Bengis, R. G.; Keet, D. F.; Hofmeyr, M.; De Klerk, L. M.; Cross, P. C.; Jolles, A. E.; Cooper, D.; Whyte, I. J.; Buss, P.; Godfroid, J.

2006-01-01

76

Wildlife tuberculosis in South African conservation areas: implications and challenges.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, was first diagnosed in African buffalo in South Africa's Kruger National Park in 1990. Over the past 15 years the disease has spread northwards leaving only the most northern buffalo herds unaffected. Evidence suggests that 10 other small and large mammalian species, including large predators, are spillover hosts. Wildlife tuberculosis has also been diagnosed in several adjacent private game reserves and in the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, the third largest game reserve in South Africa. The tuberculosis epidemic has a number of implications, for which the full effect of some might only be seen in the long-term. Potential negative long-term effects on the population dynamics of certain social animal species and the direct threat for the survival of endangered species pose particular problems for wildlife conservationists. On the other hand, the risk of spillover infection to neighboring communal cattle raises concerns about human health at the wildlife-livestock-human interface, not only along the western boundary of Kruger National Park, but also with regards to the joint development of the Greater Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area with Zimbabwe and Mozambique. From an economic point of view, wildlife tuberculosis has resulted in national and international trade restrictions for affected species. The lack of diagnostic tools for most species and the absence of an effective vaccine make it currently impossible to contain and control this disease within an infected free-ranging ecosystem. Veterinary researchers and policy-makers have recognized the need to intensify research on this disease and the need to develop tools for control, initially targeting buffalo and lion. PMID:16343819

Michel, A L; Bengis, R G; Keet, D F; Hofmeyr, M; Klerk, L M de; Cross, P C; Jolles, A E; Cooper, D; Whyte, I J; Buss, P; Godfroid, J

2006-02-25

77

Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Habitat and Conservation Priority Areas for Lynx canadensis (Canada Lynx)  

E-print Network

Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Habitat and Conservation Priority Areas for Lynx canadensis canadensis (Canada Lynx) Acknowledgements Thanks to Chris Iverson (Assistant Director, Watershed, Fish areas for Lynx canadensis (Canada Lynx) Abstract The dependence of Lynx canadensis (Canada Lynx

78

Knowing But Not Doing: Selecting Priority Conservation Areas and the Research–Implementation Gap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation assessment is a rapidly evolving discipline whose stated goal is the design of networks of protected areas that represent and ensure the persistence of nature (i.e., species, habitats, and environmental processes) by separating priority areas from the activities that degrade or destroy them. Nevertheless, despite a burgeoning scientific literature that ever refines these techniques for allocating conservation resources, it

ANDREW T. KNIGHT; RICHARD M. COWLING; MATHIEU ROUGET; ANDREW BALMFORD; AMANDA T. LOMBARD; BRUCE M. CAMPBELL

2008-01-01

79

50 CFR Table 27 to Part 679 - Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat Conservation Areas  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat Conservation Areas 27...FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 27 Table 27 to Part 679—Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat Conservation Areas...

2012-10-01

80

50 CFR Table 27 to Part 679 - Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat Conservation Areas  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat Conservation Areas 27...FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 27 Table 27 to Part 679—Gulf of Alaska Slope Habitat Conservation Areas...

2013-10-01

81

Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Oxbow Conservation Area, 2002-2005 Technical Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) study was performed to determine baseline habitat units on the Oxbow Conservation Area in Grant County, Oregon. The evaluation is a required part of the Memorandum of Agreement between the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) relating to the acquisition and management of the Oxbow Conservation Area. The HEP team

2005-01-01

82

Selection of Marine Protected Areas for conserving estuaries using surrogate approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Establishing marine protected areas in estuaries has been advocated as the efficient route in conserving the sensitive estuarine environment. However, selecting priority areas for conservation of estuarine biodiversity require detailed biodiversity inventories that are difficult to access. A potential solution is the use of surrogates that are readily measured and reflect the total biodiversity. Indicator groups and higher taxa are

M. R. Shokri; W. Gladstone; A. Kepert

2007-01-01

83

Atmospheric burden of organochlorine pesticides in Ghana.  

PubMed

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are subject to the Stockholm Convention on POPs and have been banned or restricted globally. In Ghana, concerns of illicit applications of some OCPs have been raised in recent times. Applying polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air samplers (PAS), the levels of OCPs in the atmosphere and their spatial resolution were investigated. It was the first nationwide coverage of OCPs monitoring in Ghana. ?DDTs and endusulfans constituted the highest burden of atmospheric OCPs in Ghana, at average concentrations of 156±36 and 153±28 pg m(-3), respectively. Mirex had the lowest concentration (0.2±0.01 pg m(-3)). From the chemical signatures of the various OCPs, we deduced that DDT, endosulfans and heptachlor were freshly applied at certain sites, which were all agricultural sites. The OCPs were spatially resolved as a function of the types of crops cultivated in different areas, legacy issues and recent applications. PMID:24210596

Hogarh, J N; Seike, N; Kobara, Y; Ofosu-Budu, G K; Carboo, D; Masunaga, S

2014-05-01

84

Mammal indicator species for protected areas and managed forests in a landscape conservation area of northern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a realization that managed forests and other natural areas in the landscape matrix can and must make significant\\u000a contributions to biodiversity conservation. Often, however, there are no consistent baseline vegetation or wildlife data for\\u000a assessing the status of biodiversity elements across protected and managed areas for conservation planning, nor is there a\\u000a rapid and efficient means to acquire

Pradeep K. Mathur; Harish Kumar; John F. Lehmkuhl; Anshuman Tripathi; Vishwas B. Sawarkar; Rupak De

2011-01-01

85

High body mass index is not associated with atopy in schoolchildren living in rural and urban areas of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Factors which determine the development of atopy and the observed rural-urban gradient in its prevalence are not fully understood.\\u000a High body mass index (BMI) has been associated with asthma and potentially atopy in industrialized countries. In developing\\u000a countries, the transition from rural to urban areas has been associated with lifestyle changes and an increased prevalence\\u000a of high BMI; however, the

Irene A Larbi; Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch; Abena S Amoah; Benedicta B Obeng; Michael D Wilson; Maria Yazdanbakhsh; Daniel A Boakye

2011-01-01

86

Land trust defense and enforcement of conserved areas Adena R. Rissman & Van Butsic  

E-print Network

to legal defense of conserved areas are relatively unknown. A national survey of 205 land trusts provides have become im- portant practitioners of land conservation in the United States and globally (Press and legal systems and on the capacity, willingness, and legitimacy of governments, nonprofit or- ganizations

Rissman, Adena

87

Evaluation of the Bird Conservation Area Concept in the Northern Tallgrass Prairie Annual Report: 19  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new resource on the management and conservation of grassland/prairie birds has been posted at the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center site. This report "contains findings from the first year of a study to test the idea that Bird Conservation Areas can maintain populations of breeding grassland birds." It is available for download in .zip format.

Donovan, Therese M.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Svedarsky, W. D.; Winter, Maiken.

2007-08-14

88

Community Conservation, Inequality and Injustice: Myths of Power in Protected Area Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principle of local support states that protected areas cannot survive without the support of their neighbours. It is the dominant motif of much writing about community conservation and the integration of conservation with development. However, we should be sceptical of it for several reasons. First, it implies that the weak can defeat the agendas of the strong. Second, the

Dan Brockington

89

Broken forest: Applying the integrated conservation and development paradigm to Madagascar's protected areas  

SciTech Connect

The destruction of Madagascar's primary forests through agricultural clearing poses a grave threat to the island's biodiversity. The report assesses the potential of the planned Sustainable and Viable Environmental Management (SAVEM) Project to minimize this threat by implementing Integrated Conservation Development Projects (ICDP's), which link resource conservation to income-generating activities, in the peripheral zones of Madagascar's protected areas.

Barbour, R.; Rabezandria, R.; Daviesson, R.; Guyton, W.; Rakotobe.

1992-06-01

90

Opuntia in México: Identifying Priority Areas for Conserving Biodiversity in a Multi-Use Landscape  

PubMed Central

Background México is one of the world's centers of species diversity (richness) for Opuntia cacti. Yet, in spite of their economic and ecological importance, Opuntia species remain poorly studied and protected in México. Many of the species are sparsely but widely distributed across the landscape and are subject to a variety of human uses, so devising implementable conservation plans for them presents formidable difficulties. Multi–criteria analysis can be used to design a spatially coherent conservation area network while permitting sustainable human usage. Methods and Findings Species distribution models were created for 60 Opuntia species using MaxEnt. Targets of representation within conservation area networks were assigned at 100% for the geographically rarest species and 10% for the most common ones. Three different conservation plans were developed to represent the species within these networks using total area, shape, and connectivity as relevant criteria. Multi–criteria analysis and a metaheuristic adaptive tabu search algorithm were used to search for optimal solutions. The plans were built on the existing protected areas of México and prioritized additional areas for management for the persistence of Opuntia species. All plans required around one–third of México's total area to be prioritized for attention for Opuntia conservation, underscoring the implausibility of Opuntia conservation through traditional land reservation. Tabu search turned out to be both computationally tractable and easily implementable for search problems of this kind. Conclusions Opuntia conservation in México require the management of large areas of land for multiple uses. The multi-criteria analyses identified priority areas and organized them in large contiguous blocks that can be effectively managed. A high level of connectivity was established among the prioritized areas resulting in the enhancement of possible modes of plant dispersal as well as only a small number of blocks that would be recommended for conservation management. PMID:22606279

Illoldi-Rangel, Patricia; Ciarleglio, Michael; Sheinvar, Leia; Linaje, Miguel; Sánchez-Cordero, Victor; Sarkar, Sahotra

2012-01-01

91

Understanding the Participation of Marginal Groups in Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal  

E-print Network

as barriers to sustainable development of resources and communities. Using a political ecology approach, this research explored the participation of marginal groups (poor, women, and lower caste) in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area. The main objectives...

Dahal, Smriti

2012-02-14

92

77 FR 9260 - Establishment of Dakota Grassland Conservation Area, North Dakota and South Dakota  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Grassland Conservation Area, North Dakota and South Dakota AGENCY: Fish and...in the eastern parts of North Dakota and South Dakota, which cover all...North Dakota; Jamestown, North Dakota; and Huron, South Dakota;...

2012-02-16

93

50 CFR 660.78 - EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Oregon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and connecting back to 43°08.83? N. lat., 124°50.93? W. long. (j) President Jackson Seamount. The boundary of the President Jackson Seamount EFH Conservation Area is defined by straight lines connecting all of the...

2011-10-01

94

Housing growth in and near United States protected areas limits their conservation value  

E-print Network

-use intensity in surrounding areas (12). Further, though deforestation is a good indicator of conservation effec to protected areas in the United States whereas deforestation is the main threat in developing countries countries, some protected areas have failed even to limit internal habitat loss (7, 8), and deforestation

Radeloff, Volker C.

95

Mediterranean Coastal Areas at Risk Between Conservation and Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The WADI project (INCO-CT2005-015226, sixth Framework Programme of the European Commission, 2006–2008) analysed a number of\\u000a fresh and trans­itional water bodies in Mediterranean coastal areas suffering from scarcity and\\/or bad quality of water. Integrated\\u000a multidisciplinary studies were made to highlight natural and human impacts on the ecological and socioeconomic systems depending\\u000a on these water bodies. A study-site approach was adopted

Felicita Scapini

96

Fuel conservation possibilities for terminal area compatible aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design features and operational procedures are identified, which would reduce fuel consumption of future transport aircraft. The fuel-saving potential can be realized during the last decade of this century only if the necessary research and technology programs are implemented in the areas of composite primary structure, airfoil/wing design, and stability augmentation systems. The necessary individual R and T programs are defined. The sensitivity to fuel usage of several design parameters (wing geometry, cruise speed, propulsion) is investigated, and the results applied to a candidate 18, 140-kg (40,000-lb) payload, 5556-km (3000-nmi) transport design. Technical and economic comparisons are made with current commercial aircraft and other advanced designs.

1975-01-01

97

Identifying Priority Areas for Conservation and Management in Diverse Tropical Forests  

PubMed Central

The high concentration of the world’s species in tropical forests endows these systems with particular importance for retaining global biodiversity, yet it also presents significant challenges for ecology and conservation science. The vast number of rare and yet to be discovered species restricts the applicability of species-level modelling for tropical forests, while the capacity of community classification approaches to identify priorities for conservation and management is also limited. Here we assessed the degree to which macroecological modelling can overcome shortfalls in our knowledge of biodiversity in tropical forests and help identify priority areas for their conservation and management. We used 527 plant community survey plots in the Australian Wet Tropics to generate models and predictions of species richness, compositional dissimilarity, and community composition for all the 4,313 vascular plant species recorded across the region (>1.3 million communities (grid cells)). We then applied these predictions to identify areas of tropical forest likely to contain the greatest concentration of species, rare species, endemic species and primitive angiosperm families. Synthesising these alternative attributes of diversity into a single index of conservation value, we identified two areas within the Australian wet tropics that should be a high priority for future conservation actions: the Atherton Tablelands and Daintree rainforest. Our findings demonstrate the value of macroecological modelling in identifying priority areas for conservation and management actions within highly diverse systems, such as tropical forests. PMID:24551222

Mokany, Karel; Westcott, David A.; Prasad, Soumya; Ford, Andrew J.; Metcalfe, Daniel J.

2014-01-01

98

Indigenous Peoples and Neotropical Forest Conservation: Impacts of Protected Area Systems on Traditional Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the race to protect remaining tracts of neotropical forests and the resources they harbor, the Western concept of biological conservation has become the dominate modus operandi for protecting natural areas in Latin America. Through the establishment of first-world style protected area systems, indigenous cultures and traditional resource-uses have historically been considered only in light of how they may affect

Amy E. Daniels

2002-01-01

99

Sediment Inventory and Phosphorus Fractions for Water Conservation Area Canals in the Everglades  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient loading from the Everglades Agricultural Area and nearby urban communities plus water flow rate and canal size have signif- icantly influenced the amount of sediment and phosphorus (P) pools stored in the Water Conservation Area (WCA) canals in the Ever- glades.A study was conducted to characterize the potential impact that sediments might have on the overlying water column by

O. A. Diaz; S. H. Daroub; J. D. Stuck; M. W. Clark; T. A. Lang; K. R. Reddy

2006-01-01

100

78 FR 35639 - Establishment of the Rio Mora National Wildlife Refuge and Rio Mora Conservation Area, Colfax...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Service may pursue protection and management...resources in the conservation area through...the Land and Water Conservation...Hunting and Conservation Stamp Act of...acquire lands, waters, or interest...and wildlife conservation purposes through...a draft land protection plan were...

2013-06-13

101

Past and present effectiveness of protected areas for conservation of naturally and anthropogenically rare plant species.  

PubMed

The Global Strategy of Plant Conservation states that at least 60% of threatened plant species should be within protected areas. This goal has been met in some regions with long traditions of plant protection. We used gap analysis to explore how particular groups of species of conservation interest, representing different types of natural or anthropogenic rarity, have been covered by protected areas on a national scale in Estonia during the last 100 years. Species-accumulation curves indicated that plant species that are naturally rare (restricted global or local distribution, always small populations, or very rare habitat requirements) needed almost twice as many protected areas to reach the 60% target as plant species that are rare owing to lack of suitable management (species depending on grassland management, moderate forest disturbances, extensive traditional agriculture, or species potentially threatened by collecting). Temporal analysis of the establishment of protected areas suggested that grouping plant species according to the predominant cause of rarity accurately reflected the history of conservation decision making. Species found in very rare habitats have previously received special conservation attention; species dependent on traditional extensive agriculture have been largely ignored until recently. Legislative initiative and new nature-protection schemes (e.g., Natura 2000, network of protected areas in the European Union) have had a positive influence on all species groups. Consequently, the species groups needing similar action for their conservation are sensitive indicators of the effectiveness of protected-area networks. Different species groups, however, may not be uniformly conserved within protected areas, and all species groups should fulfill the target of 60% coverage within protected areas. PMID:19128324

Vellak, Ain; Tuvi, Eva-Liis; Reier, Ülle; Kalamees, Rein; Roosaluste, Elle; Zobel, Martin; Pärtel, Meelis

2009-06-01

102

Representation of Global and National Conservation Priorities by Colombia's Protected Area Network  

PubMed Central

Background How do national-level actions overlap with global priorities for conservation? Answering this question is especially important in countries with high and unique biological diversity like Colombia. Global biodiversity schemes provide conservation guidance at a large scale, while national governments gazette land for protection based on a combination of criteria at regional or local scales. Information on how a protected area network represents global and national conservation priorities is crucial for finding gaps in coverage and for future expansion of the system. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the agreement of Colombia's protected area network with global conservation priorities, and the extent to which the network reflects the country's biomes, species richness, and common environmental and physical conditions. We used this information to identify priority biomes for conservation. We find the dominant strategy in Colombia has been a proactive one, allocating the highest proportion of protected land on intact, difficult to access and species rich areas like the Amazon. Threatened and unique areas are disproportionately absent from Colombia's protected lands. We highlight six biomes in Colombia as conservation priorities that should be considered in any future expansion of Colombia's protected area network. Two of these biomes have less than 3% of their area protected and more than 70% of their area transformed for human use. One has less than 3% protected and high numbers of threatened vertebrates. Three biomes fall in both categories. Conclusions Expansion of Colombia's Protected Area Network should consider the current representativeness of the network. We indicate six priority biomes that can contribute to improving the representation of threatened species and biomes in Colombia. PMID:20967270

Forero-Medina, German; Joppa, Lucas

2010-01-01

103

Using a distribution and conservation status weighted hotspot approach to identify areas in need of conservation action to benefit Idaho bird species  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Identification of biodiversity hotspots (hereafter, hotspots) has become a common strategy to delineate important areas for wildlife conservation. However, the use of hotspots has not often incorporated important habitat types, ecosystem services, anthropogenic activity, or consistency in identifying important conservation areas. The purpose of this study was to identify hotspots to improve avian conservation efforts for Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN) in the state of Idaho, United States. We evaluated multiple approaches to define hotspots and used a unique approach based on weighting species by their distribution size and conservation status to identify hotspot areas. All hotspot approaches identified bodies of water (Bear Lake, Grays Lake, and American Falls Reservoir) as important hotspots for Idaho avian SGCN, but we found that the weighted approach produced more congruent hotspot areas when compared to other hotspot approaches. To incorporate anthropogenic activity into hotspot analysis, we grouped species based on their sensitivity to specific human threats (i.e., urban development, agriculture, fire suppression, grazing, roads, and logging) and identified ecological sections within Idaho that may require specific conservation actions to address these human threats using the weighted approach. The Snake River Basalts and Overthrust Mountains ecological sections were important areas for potential implementation of conservation actions to conserve biodiversity. Our approach to identifying hotspots may be useful as part of a larger conservation strategy to aid land managers or local governments in applying conservation actions on the ground.

Haines, Aaron M.; Leu, Matthias; Svancara, Leona K.; Wilson, Gina; Scott, J. Michael

2010-01-01

104

The fate of priority areas for conservation in protected areas: a fine-scale Markov chain approach.  

PubMed

Park managers in alpine areas must deal with the increase in forest coverage that has been observed in most European mountain areas, where traditional farming and agricultural practices have been abandoned. The aim of this study is to develop a fine-scale model of a broad area to support the managers of Paneveggio Nature Park (Italy) in conservation planning by focusing on the fate of priority areas for conservation in the next 50-100 years. GIS analyses were performed to assess the afforestation dynamic over time using two historical maps (from 1859 and 1936) and a series of aerial photographs and ortho-photos (taken from 1954 to 2006) covering a time span of 150 years. The results show an increase in the forest surface area of about 35%. Additionally, the forest became progressively more compact and less fragmented, with a consequent loss of ecotones and open habitats that are important for biodiversity. Markov chain-cellular automata models were used to project future changes, evaluating the effects on a habitat scale. Simulations show that some habitats defined as priority by the EU Habitat Directive will be compromised by the forest expansion by 2050 and suffer a consistent loss by 2100. This protocol, applied to other areas, can be used for designing long-term management measures with a focus on habitats where conservation status is at risk. PMID:21190021

Tattoni, Clara; Ciolli, Marco; Ferretti, Fabrizio

2011-02-01

105

The Fate of Priority Areas for Conservation in Protected Areas: A Fine-Scale Markov Chain Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Park managers in alpine areas must deal with the increase in forest coverage that has been observed in most European mountain areas, where traditional farming and agricultural practices have been abandoned. The aim of this study is to develop a fine-scale model of a broad area to support the managers of Paneveggio Nature Park (Italy) in conservation planning by focusing on the fate of priority areas for conservation in the next 50-100 years. GIS analyses were performed to assess the afforestation dynamic over time using two historical maps (from 1859 and 1936) and a series of aerial photographs and ortho-photos (taken from 1954 to 2006) covering a time span of 150 years. The results show an increase in the forest surface area of about 35%. Additionally, the forest became progressively more compact and less fragmented, with a consequent loss of ecotones and open habitats that are important for biodiversity. Markov chain-cellular automata models were used to project future changes, evaluating the effects on a habitat scale. Simulations show that some habitats defined as priority by the EU Habitat Directive will be compromised by the forest expansion by 2050 and suffer a consistent loss by 2100. This protocol, applied to other areas, can be used for designing long-term management measures with a focus on habitats where conservation status is at risk.

Tattoni, Clara; Ciolli, Marco; Ferretti, Fabrizio

2011-02-01

106

Ecosystem services-based SWOT analysis of protected areas for conservation strategies.  

PubMed

An ecosystem services-based SWOT analysis is proposed in order to identify and quantify internal and external factors supporting or threatening the conservation effectiveness of protected areas. The proposed approach concerns both the ecological and the social perspective. Strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats were evaluated based on 12 selected environmental and socio-economic indicators for all terrestrial Italian protected areas, belonging to the Natura 2000 network, and for their 5-km buffer area. The indicators, used as criteria within a multi-criteria assessment, include: core area, cost-distance between protected areas, changes in ecosystem services values, intensification of land use, and urbanization. The results were aggregated for three biogeographical regions, Alpine, Continental, and Mediterranean, indicating that Alpine sites have more opportunities and strengths than Continental and Mediterranean sites. The results call attention to where connectivity and land-use changes may have stronger influence on protected areas, in particular, whereas urbanization or intensification of agriculture may hamper conservation goals of protected areas. The proposed SWOT analysis provides helpful information for a multiple scale perspective and for identifying conservation priorities and for defining management strategies to assure biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services provision. PMID:25218331

Scolozzi, Rocco; Schirpke, Uta; Morri, Elisa; D'Amato, Dalia; Santolini, Riccardo

2014-12-15

107

Are We Conserving What We Say We Are? Measuring Ecological Integrity within Protected Areas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience journal is about measuring the effectiveness of conserving biological diversity within protected areas. Managers of protected areas are under increasing pressure to measure their effectiveness in conserving native biological diversity in ways that are scientifically sound, practical, and comparable among protected areas over time. The Nature Conservancy and its partners have developed a "Measures of Success" framework with four core components: (1) identifying a limited number of focal conservation targets, (2) identifying key ecological attributes for these targets, (3) identifying an acceptable range of variation for each attribute as measured by properly selected indicators, and (4) rating target status based on whether or not the target's key attributes are within their acceptable ranges of variation. A target cannot be considered "conserved" if any of its key ecological attributes exceeds its acceptable range of variation. The framework provides a rigorous basis not only for measuring success but for setting conservation objectives, assessing threats to biodiversity, identifying monitoring and research needs, and communicating management information to nonspecialists.

JEFFREY D. PARRISH, DAVID P. BRAUN, and ROBERT S. UNNASCH (;)

2003-09-01

108

Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao, Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) Nest Characteristics in the Osa Peninsula Conservation Area (ACOSA), Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) is an endangered species. In Costa Rica, the Scarlet Macaw popula- tion of the Central Pacific Conservation Area (ACOPAC, n =432 individuals) has undergone considerable study and has been used effectively as a flagship species for regional conservation. Costa Rica's only other viable Scarlet Macaw population, located in the Osa Peninsula Conservation Area (ACOSA, n=800-1200

John L. Guittar; Fiona Dear; Christopher Vaughan

2009-01-01

109

The Effects of Governmental Protected Areas and Social Initiatives for Land Protection on the Conservation of Mexican Amphibians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, biodiversity conservation gap analyses have been focused on governmental protected areas (PAs). However, an increasing number of social initiatives in conservation (SICs) are promoting a new perspective for analysis. SICs include all of the efforts that society implements to conserve biodiversity, such as land protection, from private reserves to community zoning plans some of which have generated community-protected areas.

Leticia Ochoa-Ochoa; J. Nicolás Urbina-Cardona; Luis-Bernardo Vázquez; Oscar Flores-Villela; Juan Bezaury-Creel; Sean Rands

2009-01-01

110

Identification of priority conservation areas and potential corridors for jaguars in the Caatinga biome, Brazil.  

PubMed

The jaguar, Panthera onca, is a top predator with the extant population found within the Brazilian Caatinga biome now known to be on the brink of extinction. Designing new conservation units and potential corridors are therefore crucial for the long-term survival of the species within the Caatinga biome. Thus, our aims were: 1) to recognize suitable areas for jaguar occurrence, 2) to delineate areas for jaguar conservation (PJCUs), 3) to design corridors among priority areas, and 4) to prioritize PJCUs. A total of 62 points records of jaguar occurrence and 10 potential predictors were analyzed in a GIS environment. A predictive distributional map was obtained using Species Distribution Modeling (SDM) as performed by the Maximum Entropy (Maxent) algorithm. Areas equal to or higher than the median suitability value of 0.595 were selected as of high suitability for jaguar occurrence and named as Priority Jaguar Conservation Units (PJCU). Ten PJCUs with sizes varying from 23.6 km2 to 4,311.0 km2 were identified. Afterwards, we combined the response curve, as generated by SDM, and expert opinions to create a permeability matrix and to identify least cost corridors and buffer zones between each PJCU pair. Connectivity corridors and buffer zone for jaguar movement included an area of 8.884,26 km2 and the total corridor length is about 160.94 km. Prioritizing criteria indicated the PJCU representing c.a. 68.61% of the total PJCU area (PJCU # 1) as of high priority for conservation and connectivity with others PJCUs (PJCUs # 4, 5 and 7) desirable for the long term survival of the species. In conclusion, by using the jaguar as a focal species and combining SDM and expert opinion we were able to create a valid framework for practical conservation actions at the Caatinga biome. The same approach could be used for the conservation of other carnivores. PMID:24709817

Morato, Ronaldo Gonçalves; Ferraz, Katia Maria Paschoaletto Micchi de Barros; de Paula, Rogério Cunha; de Campos, Cláudia Bueno

2014-01-01

111

An objective method to determine an area's relative significance for avian conservation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Land managers are often concerned with providing habitat affords the 'best habitat for songbirds.' However, unless management simply is directed at rare species it may not be clear which habitats or management options are best. A standard, quantifiable measure to compare the significance of different tracts of land or competing management techniques for avian conservation would benefit managers in decision making. I propose a standard measure that is based on the relative density of each species within a finite area and their respective regional Partners in Flight concern scores. I applied this method to > 100 reforested sites in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley that ranged in age from 2 to 32 years. The objectively determined avian conservation significance for each of these reforested sites was correlated with stand age and with my subjective assessment of 'habitat quality.' I also used this method to compare the avian conservation significance of forested habitats before and after selective timber harvest with high significance for avian conservation provided habitat for species of conservation concern. I recommend application of this methodology to other and areas under different management, to determine its usefulness at predicting avian conservation significance among habitats and at various avian densities.

Twedt, D.J.

2005-01-01

112

Identification of areas in Brazil that optimize conservation of forest carbon, jaguars, and biodiversity.  

PubMed

A major question in global environmental policy is whether schemes to reduce carbon pollution through forest management, such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+), can also benefit biodiversity conservation in tropical countries. We identified municipalities in Brazil that are priorities for reducing rates of deforestation and thus preserving carbon stocks that are also conservation targets for the endangered jaguar (Panthera onca) and biodiversity in general. Preliminary statistical analysis showed that municipalities with high biodiversity were positively associated with high forest carbon stocks. We used a multicriteria decision analysis to identify municipalities that offered the best opportunities for the conservation of forest carbon stocks and biodiversity conservation under a range of scenarios with different rates of deforestation and carbon values. We further categorized these areas by their representativeness of the entire country (through measures such as percent forest cover) and an indirect measure of cost (number of municipalities). The municipalities that offered optimal co-benefits for forest carbon stocks and conservation were termed REDDspots (n = 159), and their spatial distribution was compared with the distribution of current and proposed REDD projects (n = 135). We defined REDDspots as the municipalities that offer the best opportunities for co-benefits between the conservation of forest carbon stocks, jaguars, and other wildlife. These areas coincided in 25% (n = 40) of municipalities. We identified a further 95 municipalities that may have the greatest potential to develop additional REDD+ projects while also targeting biodiversity conservation. We concluded that REDD+ strategies could be an efficient tool for biodiversity conservation in key locations, especially in Amazonian and Atlantic Forest biomes. PMID:24372997

De Barros, Alan E; MacDonald, Ewan A; Matsumoto, Marcelo H; Paula, Rogério C; Nijhawan, Sahil; Malhi, Y; MacDonald, David W

2014-04-01

113

Report on the feasibility study for improving electric motor service centers in Ghana  

SciTech Connect

On March 3 and 4, 1998, a visit was made to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by two officials from Ghana: Mr. I.K. Mintah, Acting Executive Director, Technical Wing, Ministry of Mines and Energy (MOME) and Dr. A.K. Ofosu-Ahenkorah, Coordinator, Energy Efficiency and Conservation Program, MOME. As a result of this visit, Dr. John S. Hsu of ORNL was invited by MOME to visit the Republic of Ghana in order to study the feasibility of improving electric motor service centers in Ghana.

Hsu, J.S.; Jallouk, P.A.; Staunton, R.H.

1999-12-10

114

The use of cumulative area curves in biological conservation: A cautionary note  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small-to-large (STL) and large-to-small (LTS) cumulative curves are used in conservation biology to investigate how species accumulate with area. A common result from application of STL and LTS curves to conservation biology is that a collection of small islands/fragments host more species than a few large islands/fragments with the same total area. However, when there is little overlap between the STL and LTS curves, this graphical method may be of little practical use because a very large number of small islands would need to be protected if one is basing a decision on the shape of the curves. An exercise with the tenebrionid beetles (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) of the Aegean Islands (Greece) shows there is no evidence of a clearly preferable design strategy with respect to single large or several small sites, indicating that no obvious recommendation about species conservation can be inferred from STL and LTS curves.

Fattorini, Simone

2010-03-01

115

50 CFR 660.398 - EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Oregon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...connecting back to 44°42.72? N. lat., 125°18.49? W. long. (e) Daisy Bank/Nelson Island. The boundary of the Daisy Bank/Nelson Island EFH Conservation Area is defined by straight lines connecting all of the following...

2010-10-01

116

Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Forrest Conservation Area, Technical Report 2003-2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) study was performed to determine baseline habitat units on the 4,232-acre Forrest Conservation Area managed by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribe) in Grant County, Oregon. The habitat evaluation is required as part of the Memorandum of Agreement between the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs and Bonneville Power Administration. Representatives

2005-01-01

117

Environmental Conservation/Studies "focus area" (with potential courses listed) Environmental Law Enforcement/Legal Studies  

E-print Network

Environmental Conservation/Studies "focus area" (with potential courses listed) Environmental Law LEGAL 497D ST-Envrmtl & Pub Pol Dspte Res LEGAL 497N Env Justice NRC 396B IS-Nps Law Enf Trng (6 credits'l Envrn Pol&Plc POLISCI 382 Environmental Policy REGIONPL 553 Resource Policy & Planning REGIONPL 577

Schweik, Charles M.

118

Calibration of diatoms along a nutrient gradient in Florida Everglades Water Conservation Area2A, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between diatom taxa preserved in surface soils and environmental variables at 31 sites in Water Conservation Area 2A (WCA-2A) of the Florida Everglades was explored using multivariate analyses. Surface soils were collected along a phosphorus (P) gradient and analyzed for diatoms, total P, % nitrogen (N), %carbon (C), calcium (Ca), and biogenic silica (BSi). Phosphorus varied from 315-1781

Sherri R. Cooper; Jacqueline Huvane; Panchabi Vaithiyanathan; Curtis J. Richardson

1999-01-01

119

Width of grassland linkages for the conservation of butterflies in South African afforested areas  

E-print Network

Width of grassland linkages for the conservation of butterflies in South African afforested areas butterflies to change direction and move away from the pine edge. Only four species crossed the grassland/pine edge, and of these, only two flew farther than 20 m into the pine forest. The adjacent grassland

120

Are roads and railroads barriers to bumblebee movement in a temperate suburban conservation area?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated how habitat fragmentation affects the movement of marked bumblebees between plant patches in a temperate conservation area in metropolitan Boston, Massachusetts. Our study was conducted on populations of sweet pepperbush (Clethra alnifolia L. f.) separated by a road and natural woodland, and buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis L.) separated by a railroad. Bumblebees showed high site fidelity and only rarely

Madhumita Bhattacharya; Richard B. Primack; Joel Gerwein

2003-01-01

121

ECOREGIONS AND VERTEBRATE ASSEMBLAGES: INVESTIGATING INDICATORS FOR PRIORITIZING AREAS OF CONSERVATION CONCERN  

EPA Science Inventory

Surrogates and indicator groups have been proposed as useful tools for selecting areas for conservation when the knowledge of species distributions is limited. Tests of these concepts often produce a wide range of results which depend on the surrogates chosen as well as the spat...

122

Nature conservation and timber production in areas with fragmented ownership patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forestry has transformed the tree species composition and structure of Swedish forests. The fragmented ownership pattern in areas with non-industrial private forest ownership (NIPF), in combination with these forestry practices, have created fragmented forests with relatively low proportions of habitat types important to many species. Ecological landscape planning has been suggested and tested as a mean for integrating nature conservation

Peter Ask; Mattias Carlsson

2000-01-01

123

Models and indicators for assessing conservation and fisheries-related effects of marine protected areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two kinds of approaches have been used for assessing conservation and fisheries-related effects of marine protected areas (MPAs): (i) statistical modelling based on field data and (ii) mathematical modelling quantifying the consequences of MPAs on the dynamics of populations, communities, and fisheries. Statistical models provide a diagnostic on the impact of MPAs on the ecosystem and resources; they are also

Dominique Pelletier; Joachim Claudet; Jocelyne Ferraris; Lisandro Benedetti-Cecchi; José Antonio Garcìa-Charton

2008-01-01

124

50 CFR 660.79 - EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of California.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...long.; and connecting back to 37°51.58? N. lat., 123°14.07? W. long. (k) Half Moon Bay. The boundary of the Half Moon Bay EFH Conservation Area is defined by straight lines connecting all of the following points in...

2011-10-01

125

50 CFR 660.399 - EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of California.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...long.; and connecting back to 37°51.58? N. lat., 123°14.07? W. long. (k) Half Moon Bay. The boundary of the Half Moon Bay EFH Conservation Area is defined by straight lines connecting all of the following points in...

2010-10-01

126

Diversity and Conservation of Butterflies in the New York City Metropolitan Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Butterflies are charismatic microfauna that provide opportunities for humans living in urbanized landscapes to directly experience biodiversity. However, very little has been published on which butterfly species currently persist in densely populated urban landscapes, such as the New York City metropolitan area. As a first step towards conservation of butterflies in this heavily populated landscape, we analyzed data on butterfly

Kevin C Matteson; Nell Roberts

2010-01-01

127

Spatial Distribution of Soil Nutrients in a Northern Everglades Marsh: Water Conservation Area 2A  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Florida Everglades developed as a nutrient-poor, rain-fed eco- system. However, for the past 30 yr, the Everglades have received nutrient-enriched surface water runoff from the adjacent Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA). This study examines the response of a pristine wetland, Water Conservation Area 1 (WCA 1), part of the northern Florida Everglades, to nutrient loading as documented by soil nutrient

W. F. DeBusk; K. R. Reddy; M. S. Koch; M. M. Fisher; G. Shih

1994-01-01

128

Colorado Canyons National Conservation Area 2003 visitor use survey : completion report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report represents the analysis of research conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The purpose is to provide socio-economic and recreational use information that can be used in the development of a Resource Management Plan (RMP) for the Colorado Canyons National Conservation Area (CCNCA). The results reported here deal primarily with recreation-based activities in four areas: Kokopelli Loops, Rabbit Valley, Loma Boat Launch, and Devil's Canyon.

Ponds, Phaedra D.; Gillette, Shana C.; Koontz, Lynne

2004-01-01

129

Partners in flight bird conservation plan for the Upper Great Lakes Plain (Physiographic Area 16)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1 November 2001. Conservation of bird habitats is a major focus of effort by Partners in Flight, an international coalition of agencies, citizens, and other groups dedicated to 'keeping common birds common'. USGS worked on a planning team to publish a bird conservation plan for the Upper Great Lakes Plain ecoregion (PIF 16), which includes large portions of southern Wisconsin, southern Michigan and parts of Minnesota, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. The conservation plan outlines specific habitat restoration and bird population objectives for the ecoregion over the next decade. The plan provides a context for on-the-ground conservation implementation by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, the US Forest Service, states, and conservation groups. Citation: Knutson, M. G., G. Butcher, J. Fitzgerald, and J. Shieldcastle. 2001. Partners in Flight Bird Conservation Plan for The Upper Great Lakes Plain (Physiographic Area 16). USGS Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center in cooperation with Partners in Flight, La Crosse, Wisconsin. Download from website: http://www.blm.gov/wildlife/pifplans.htm. The Upper Great Lakes Plain covers the southern half of Michigan, northwest Ohio, northern Indiana, northern Illinois, southern Wisconsin, and small portions of southwest Minnesota and northwest Iowa. Glacial moraines and dissected plateaus are characteristic of the topography. Broadleaf forests, oak savannahs, and a variety of prairie communities are the natural vegetation types. A oDriftless Areao was not glaciated during the late Pleistocene and emerged as a unique area of great biological diversity. Priority bird species for the area include the Henslow's Sparrow, Sedge Wren, Bobolink, Golden-winged Warbler, Cerulean Warbler, Black-billed Cuckoo, and Red-headed Woodpecker. There are many large urban centers in this area whose growth and sprawl will continue to consume land. The vast majority of the presettlement forest and oak savannah grasslands already have been converted to agriculture. The conversion to cropland may have benefitted some grassland birds, and forest birds still persist. Rates of cowbird parasitism and nest predation in this heavily fragmented region, however, are extremely high and it is possible that only those bird communities in the few remaining expanses of contiguous habitat are self-sustaining. Forest habitat needs to be retained or restored so that a significant number of patches of sufficient size and quality each support a healthy population of Cerulean Warblers. It is assumed that each of these patches will then support the full range of forest birds. The total area of savannah habitat also should be increased, although the need for large blocks is not as apparent. Those few areas of grassland that still exist should be retained.

Knutson, M.G.; Butcher, G.; Fitzgerald, J.; Shieldcastle, J.

2001-01-01

130

Characterization of malaria transmission by vector populations for improved interventions during the dry season in the Kpone-on-Sea area of coastal Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria is a major public health problem in Ghana. We present a site-specific entomological study of malaria vectors and transmission indices as part of an effort to develop a site for the testing of improved control strategies including possible vaccine trials. Methods Pyrethrum spray catches (PSC), and indoor and outdoor human landing collections of adult female anopheline mosquitoes were carried out over a six-month period (November 2005 - April 2006) at Kpone-on-Sea, a fishing village in southern Ghana. These were morphologically identified to species level and sibling species of the Anopheles gambiae complex further characterized by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect Plasmodium falciparum mosquito infectivity and host blood meal sources. Parity rate was examined based on dilatation of ovarian tracheoles following dissection. Results Of the 1233 Anopheles mosquitoes collected, An. gambiae s.l. was predominant (99.5%), followed by An. funestus (0.4%) and An. pharoensis (0.1%). All An. gambiae s.l. examined (480) were identified as An. gambiae s.s. with a majority of M molecular form (98.2%) and only 1.8%?S form with no record of M/S hybrid. A significantly higher proportion of anophelines were observed outdoors relative to indoors (?2?=?159.34, df?=?1, p?

2012-01-01

131

Government conservation policies on Mexican coastal areas: is "top-down" management working?  

PubMed

Marine and terrestrial ecosystems are declining globally due to environmental degradation and poorly planned resource use. Traditionally, local government agencies have been responsible of the management of natural reserves to preserve biodiversity. Nonetheless, much of these approaches have failed, suggesting the development of more integrative strategies. In order to discuss the importance of a holistic approach in conservation initiatives, coastal and underwater landscape value and biological/environmental indicators of coral reef degradation were assessed using the study case of Zihuatanejo, Guerrero coastal area. This area shelters representative coral reef structures of the Eastern Pacific coast and its terrestrial biodiversity and archaeology enhance the high value of its coastal area. This study explored the landscape value of both terrestrial and marine ecosystems using the geomorphosite approach in two sites on the Zihuatanejo coastal area: Caleta de Chon and Manzanillo Beach. Sedimentation rate, water transparency, chlorophyll and total suspended solids were recorded underwater in each site for environmental characterization. 50 photo-quadrants on five transects were surveyed between 3-4m depth to record coverage (%) of living corals, dead corals, algae, sand and rocks. The conservation status of coral reefs was assessed by the coral mortality index (MI). Landscape values showed that both terrestrial and marine ecosystems had important scientific and aesthetic values, being Manzanillo Beach the site with the highest potential for conservation initiatives (TtV = 14.2). However, coral reefs face elevated sedimentation rates (up to 1.16 kg/m2d) and low water transparency (less of 5m) generated by coastal land use changes that have increased soil erosion in the adjacent coastal area. High coverage of dead corals (23.6%) and algae (up to 29%) confirm the low values in conservation status of coral reefs (MI = 0.5), reflecting a poorly-planned management. Current conditions are the result of "top-down" conservation strategies in Zihuatanejo, as Federal and Municipal authorities do not coordinate, disregard local community in coral reef management, and ignore the intimate relationship between the coastal and marine realms. This work confirms the importance of conservation strategies with a holistic approach, considering both terrestrial and marine ecosystems in coastal areas; and that these initiatives should include local coastal communities in management and decision-taking processes done by government authorities. PMID:22208068

Nava, Héctor; Ramírez-Herrera, M Teresa

2011-12-01

132

Housing growth in and near United States protected areas limits their conservation value  

PubMed Central

Protected areas are crucial for biodiversity conservation because they provide safe havens for species threatened by land-use change and resulting habitat loss. However, protected areas are only effective when they stop habitat loss within their boundaries, and are connected via corridors to other wild areas. The effectiveness of protected areas is threatened by development; however, the extent of this threat is unknown. We compiled spatially-detailed housing growth data from 1940 to 2030, and quantified growth for each wilderness area, national park, and national forest in the conterminous United States. Our findings show that housing development in the United States may severely limit the ability of protected areas to function as a modern “Noah’s Ark.” Between 1940 and 2000, 28 million housing units were built within 50 km of protected areas, and 940,000 were built within national forests. Housing growth rates during the 1990s within 1 km of protected areas (20% per decade) outpaced the national average (13%). If long-term trends continue, another 17 million housing units will be built within 50 km of protected areas by 2030 (1 million within 1 km), greatly diminishing their conservation value. US protected areas are increasingly isolated, housing development in their surroundings is decreasing their effective size, and national forests are even threatened by habitat loss within their administrative boundaries. Protected areas in the United States are thus threatened similarly to those in developing countries. However, housing growth poses the main threat to protected areas in the United States whereas deforestation is the main threat in developing countries. PMID:20080780

Radeloff, Volker C.; Stewart, Susan I.; Hawbaker, Todd J.; Gimmi, Urs; Pidgeon, Anna M.; Flather, Curtis H.; Hammer, Roger B.; Helmers, David P.

2009-01-01

133

Rethinking Biodiversity Conservation Effectiveness and Evaluation in the National Protected Areas Systems of Tropical Islands: The Case of Jamaica and the Dominican Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Island conservation theory and practice with regard to conservation of tropical terrestrial biodiversity in protected areas systems has yet to be adequately addressed in conservation literature. This knowledge gap is identified as a key contributor to the adoption of scientific principles for in situ biodiversity conservation, and “universal” conservation and protected area management paradigms that are unsuitable for island contexts

Suzanne Mae Camille Davis

2010-01-01

134

Protected areas alleviate climate change effects on northern bird species of conservation concern.  

PubMed

Global climate change is a major threat to biodiversity, posing increasing pressures on species to adapt in situ or shift their ranges. A protected area network is one of the main instruments to alleviate the negative impacts of climate change. Importantly, protected area networks might be expected to enhance the resilience of regional populations of species of conservation concern, resulting in slower species loss in landscapes with a significant amount of protected habitat compared to unprotected landscapes. Based on national bird atlases compiled in 1974-1989 and 2006-2010, this study examines the recent range shifts in 90 forest, mire, marshland, and Arctic mountain heath bird species of conservation concern in Finland, as well as the changes in their species richness in protected versus unprotected areas. The trends emerging from the atlas data comparisons were also related to the earlier study dealing with predictions of distributional changes for these species for the time slice of 2051-2080, developed using bioclimatic envelope models (BEMs). Our results suggest that the observed changes in bird distributions are in the same direction as the BEM-based predictions, resulting in a decrease in species richness of mire and Arctic mountain heath species and an increase in marshland species. The patterns of changes in species richness between the two time slices are in general parallel in protected and unprotected areas. However, importantly, protected areas maintained a higher level of species richness than unprotected areas. This finding provides support for the significance and resilience provision of protected area networks in preserving species of conservation concern under climate change. PMID:25247057

Virkkala, Raimo; Pöyry, Juha; Heikkinen, Risto K; Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Valkama, Jari

2014-08-01

135

Protected areas alleviate climate change effects on northern bird species of conservation concern  

PubMed Central

Global climate change is a major threat to biodiversity, posing increasing pressures on species to adapt in situ or shift their ranges. A protected area network is one of the main instruments to alleviate the negative impacts of climate change. Importantly, protected area networks might be expected to enhance the resilience of regional populations of species of conservation concern, resulting in slower species loss in landscapes with a significant amount of protected habitat compared to unprotected landscapes. Based on national bird atlases compiled in 1974–1989 and 2006–2010, this study examines the recent range shifts in 90 forest, mire, marshland, and Arctic mountain heath bird species of conservation concern in Finland, as well as the changes in their species richness in protected versus unprotected areas. The trends emerging from the atlas data comparisons were also related to the earlier study dealing with predictions of distributional changes for these species for the time slice of 2051–2080, developed using bioclimatic envelope models (BEMs). Our results suggest that the observed changes in bird distributions are in the same direction as the BEM-based predictions, resulting in a decrease in species richness of mire and Arctic mountain heath species and an increase in marshland species. The patterns of changes in species richness between the two time slices are in general parallel in protected and unprotected areas. However, importantly, protected areas maintained a higher level of species richness than unprotected areas. This finding provides support for the significance and resilience provision of protected area networks in preserving species of conservation concern under climate change.

Virkkala, Raimo; Poyry, Juha; Heikkinen, Risto K; Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Valkama, Jari

2014-01-01

136

On the Conservative Nature of the Leaf Mass–Area Relationship  

PubMed Central

In a previous empirical study, Hughes and colleagues showed that for several herbaceous species there is apparently a unique species?specific relationship between the area and mass of leaves. We tested this proposition using measurements from 15 broad?leaved species. We found that to a reasonable approximation, leaf area was proportional to leaf mass within a given species despite relatively large variations in both leaf thickness and the mass fraction of liquid matter. These observations show that the inverse density–thickness of leaves from a given species, which we call the Hughes constant, is approximately conserved. We conclude that the Hughes constant is likely to be more conservative than other traits traditionally used to describe leaves. PMID:12099526

RODERICK, MICHAEL L.; COCHRANE, MICHELLE J.

2002-01-01

137

50 CFR Figure 20 to Part 679 - Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea 20 Figure 20...ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 20 Figure 20 to Part 679—Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea...

2011-10-01

138

50 CFR Figure 20 to Part 679 - Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea 20 Figure 20...ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 20 Figure 20 to Part 679—Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea...

2012-10-01

139

50 CFR Figure 20 to Part 679 - Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea 20 Figure 20...ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 20 Figure 20 to Part 679—Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea...

2013-10-01

140

Is the surface area of the red cell membrane skeleton locally conserved?  

PubMed Central

The incompressibility of the lipid bilayer keeps the total surface area of the red cell membrane constant. Local conservation of membrane surface area requires that each surface element of the membrane skeleton keeps its area when its aspect ratio is changed. A change in area would require a flow of lipids past the intrinsic proteins to which the skeleton is anchored. in fast red cell deformations, there is no time for such a flow. Consequently, the bilayer provides for local area conservation. In quasistatic deformations, the extent of local change in surface area is the smaller the larger the isotropic modulus of the skeleton in relation to the shear modulus. Estimates indicate: (a) the velocity of relative flow between lipid and intrinsic proteins is proportional to the gradient in normal tension within the skeleton and inversely proportional to the viscosity of the bilayer; (b) lateral diffusion of lipids is much slower than this flow; (c) membrane tanktreading at frequencies prevailing in vivo as well as the release of a membrane tongue from a micropipette are fast deformations; and (d) the slow phase in micropipette aspiration may be dominated by a local change in skeleton surface. PMID:1547320

Fischer, T M

1992-01-01

141

Insights for integrated conservation from attitudes of people toward protected areas near Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

Increase in human settlements at the edge of protected areas (PAs) is perceived as a major threat to conservation of biodiversity. Although it is crucial to integrate the interests of surrounding communities into PA management, key drivers of changes in local populations and the effects of conservation on local livelihoods and perceptions remain poorly understood. We assessed population changes from 1990 to 2010 in 9 villages located between 2 PAs with different management policies (access to natural resources or not). We conducted semi-directive interviews at the household level (n =217) to document reasons for settlement in the area and villager's attitudes toward the PAs. We examined drivers of these attitudes relative to household typology, feelings about conservation, and concerns for the future with mixed linear models. Population increased by 61% from 2000 to 2010, a period of political and economic crisis in Zimbabwe. Forty-seven percent of immigrants were attracted by the area; others had been resettled from other villages or were returning to family lands. Attitudes toward PAs were generally positive, but immigrants attracted by the area and who used resources within the PA with fewer restrictions expressed more negative attitudes toward PAs. Household location, losses due to wild animals, and restrictions on access to natural resources were the main drivers of this negative attitude. Profit-seeking migrants did not expect these constraints and were particularly concerned with local overpopulation and access to natural resources. To avoid socio-ecological traps near PAs (i.e., unforeseen reduced adaptive capacity) integrated conservation should address mismatches between management policy and local expectations. This requires accounting for endogenous processes, for example, local socio-ecological dynamics and values that shape the coexistence between humans and wildlife. PMID:23866038

Guerbois, Chloe; Dufour, Anne-Beatrice; Mtare, Godfrey; Fritz, Herve

2013-08-01

142

Recent Changes in Soil Total Phosphorus in the Everglades: Water Conservation Area 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed recent changes in the distribution of soil total phosphorus (TP) in Water Conservation Area 3 (WCA-3) of the Everglades.\\u000a Soil cores were collected in 1992 and 2003 at 176 sites. To reflect hydrologic boundaries within the system, WCA-3 was divided\\u000a into three zones (3AN, 3AS, and 3B). Total P was mapped on both a mass (TPm) and a

Gregory L. Bruland; Todd Z. Osborne; K. R. Reddy; Sabine Grunwald; Susan Newman; William F. DeBusk

2007-01-01

143

The importance of conserving biodiversity outside of protected areas in mediterranean ecosystems.  

PubMed

Mediterranean-type ecosystems constitute one of the rarest terrestrial biomes and yet they are extraordinarily biodiverse. Home to over 250 million people, the five regions where these ecosystems are found have climate and coastal conditions that make them highly desirable human habitats. The current conservation landscape does not reflect the mediterranean biome's rarity and its importance for plant endemism. Habitat conversion will clearly outpace expansion of formal protected-area networks, and conservationists must augment this traditional strategy with new approaches to sustain the mediterranean biota. Using regional scale datasets, we determine the area of land in each of the five regions that is protected, converted (e.g., to urban or industrial), impacted (e.g., intensive, cultivated agriculture), or lands that we consider to have conservation potential. The latter are natural and semi-natural lands that are unprotected (e.g., private range lands) but sustain numerous native species and associated habitats. Chile has the greatest proportion of its land (75%) in this category and California-Mexico the least (48%). To illustrate the potential for achieving mediterranean biodiversity conservation on these lands, we use species-area curves generated from ecoregion scale data on native plant species richness and vertebrate species richness. For example, if biodiversity could be sustained on even 25% of existing unprotected, natural and semi-natural lands, we estimate that the habitat of more than 6,000 species could be represented. This analysis suggests that if unprotected natural and semi-natural lands are managed in a manner that allows for persistence of native species, we can realize significant additional biodiversity gains. Lasting biodiversity protection at the scale needed requires unprecedented collaboration among stakeholders to promote conservation both inside and outside of traditional protected areas, including on lands where people live and work. PMID:21249126

Cox, Robin L; Underwood, Emma C

2011-01-01

144

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF SOIL PROPERTIES IN WATER CONSERVATION AREA 2A, EVERGLADES, FLORIDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wetland soils are heterogenous in nature, and biogeochemical proper- ties show different spatial autocorrelation structures that translate into fine- and coarse-scale spatial patterns. Understanding these patterns and how they relate to other ecosystem properties (e.g., vegetation) is critical to restore wetlands impacted by nutrient influx. Our goal was to investigate Water Conservation Area 2A, a wetland in the Florida Everglades,

Rosanna G. Rivero; Sabine Grunwald; Todd Z. Osborne; K. Ramesh Reddy; Sue Newman

2007-01-01

145

Total mercury loadings in sediment from gold mining and conservation areas in Guyana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Low Carbon Development Strategy proposed in June 2009 by the government of Guyana in response to the Reducing Emissions\\u000a from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries program has triggered evaluation of forest-related activities,\\u000a thereby acting as a catalyst for improvements in Guyana’s small- to medium-scale gold mining industry. This has also shed\\u000a light on areas committed to conservation,

Joniqua Howard; Maya A. Trotz; Ken Thomas; Erlande Omisca; Hong Ting Chiu; Trina Halfhide; Fenda Akiwumi; Ryan Michael; Amy L. Stuart

2011-01-01

146

7 CFR 1468.4 - Establishing Conservation Farm Option (CFO) pilot project areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Proposes innovative conservation technologies and...following: (i) Conservation of soil, water, and related natural...resources, (ii) Water quality protection or improvement...Or other similar conservation...

2011-01-01

147

7 CFR 1468.4 - Establishing Conservation Farm Option (CFO) pilot project areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Proposes innovative conservation technologies and...following: (i) Conservation of soil, water, and related natural...resources, (ii) Water quality protection or improvement...Or other similar conservation...

2010-01-01

148

7 CFR 1468.4 - Establishing Conservation Farm Option (CFO) pilot project areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Proposes innovative conservation technologies and...following: (i) Conservation of soil, water, and related natural...resources, (ii) Water quality protection or improvement...Or other similar conservation...

2012-01-01

149

7 CFR 1468.4 - Establishing Conservation Farm Option (CFO) pilot project areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Proposes innovative conservation technologies and...following: (i) Conservation of soil, water, and related natural...resources, (ii) Water quality protection or improvement...Or other similar conservation...

2013-01-01

150

Global conservation outcomes depend on marine protected areas with five key features.  

PubMed

In line with global targets agreed under the Convention on Biological Diversity, the number of marine protected areas (MPAs) is increasing rapidly, yet socio-economic benefits generated by MPAs remain difficult to predict and under debate. MPAs often fail to reach their full potential as a consequence of factors such as illegal harvesting, regulations that legally allow detrimental harvesting, or emigration of animals outside boundaries because of continuous habitat or inadequate size of reserve. Here we show that the conservation benefits of 87 MPAs investigated worldwide increase exponentially with the accumulation of five key features: no take, well enforced, old (>10 years), large (>100?km(2)), and isolated by deep water or sand. Using effective MPAs with four or five key features as an unfished standard, comparisons of underwater survey data from effective MPAs with predictions based on survey data from fished coasts indicate that total fish biomass has declined about two-thirds from historical baselines as a result of fishing. Effective MPAs also had twice as many large (>250?mm total length) fish species per transect, five times more large fish biomass, and fourteen times more shark biomass than fished areas. Most (59%) of the MPAs studied had only one or two key features and were not ecologically distinguishable from fished sites. Our results show that global conservation targets based on area alone will not optimize protection of marine biodiversity. More emphasis is needed on better MPA design, durable management and compliance to ensure that MPAs achieve their desired conservation value. PMID:24499817

Edgar, Graham J; Stuart-Smith, Rick D; Willis, Trevor J; Kininmonth, Stuart; Baker, Susan C; Banks, Stuart; Barrett, Neville S; Becerro, Mikel A; Bernard, Anthony T F; Berkhout, Just; Buxton, Colin D; Campbell, Stuart J; Cooper, Antonia T; Davey, Marlene; Edgar, Sophie C; Försterra, Günter; Galván, David E; Irigoyen, Alejo J; Kushner, David J; Moura, Rodrigo; Parnell, P Ed; Shears, Nick T; Soler, German; Strain, Elisabeth M A; Thomson, Russell J

2014-02-13

151

Current models broadly neglect specific needs of biodiversity conservation in protected areas under climate change  

PubMed Central

Background Protected areas are the most common and important instrument for the conservation of biological diversity and are called for under the United Nations' Convention on Biological Diversity. Growing human population densities, intensified land-use, invasive species and increasing habitat fragmentation threaten ecosystems worldwide and protected areas are often the only refuge for endangered species. Climate change is posing an additional threat that may also impact ecosystems currently under protection. Therefore, it is of crucial importance to include the potential impact of climate change when designing future nature conservation strategies and implementing protected area management. This approach would go beyond reactive crisis management and, by necessity, would include anticipatory risk assessments. One avenue for doing so is being provided by simulation models that take advantage of the increase in computing capacity and performance that has occurred over the last two decades. Here we review the literature to determine the state-of-the-art in modeling terrestrial protected areas under climate change, with the aim of evaluating and detecting trends and gaps in the current approaches being employed, as well as to provide a useful overview and guidelines for future research. Results Most studies apply statistical, bioclimatic envelope models and focus primarily on plant species as compared to other taxa. Very few studies utilize a mechanistic, process-based approach and none examine biotic interactions like predation and competition. Important factors like land-use, habitat fragmentation, invasion and dispersal are rarely incorporated, restricting the informative value of the resulting predictions considerably. Conclusion The general impression that emerges is that biodiversity conservation in protected areas could benefit from the application of modern modeling approaches to a greater extent than is currently reflected in the scientific literature. It is particularly true that existing models have been underutilized in testing different management options under climate change. Based on these findings we suggest a strategic framework for more effectively incorporating the impact of climate change in models exploring the effectiveness of protected areas. PMID:21539736

2011-01-01

152

U. S. Teachers Learn about Family Security in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes "Ghanaian Area Studies in Diversity-Globalization," a Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Program that took 18 New Mexico classroom teachers to Ghana, West Africa, in 2003 to bring a global perspective to the classrooms of New Mexico. This Fulbright project was designed for participants to gain a greater understanding of…

Johnson, Caryl

2006-01-01

153

Body size of Chrysomelidae (Coleoptera, Insecta) in areas with different levels of conservation in South Brazil  

PubMed Central

Abstract Body size is correlated with many species traits such as morphology, physiology, life history and abundance as well; it is one of the most discussed topics in macroecological studies. The aim of this paper was to analyze the body size distribution of Chrysomelidae, caught with Malaise traps during two years in four areas with different levels of conservation in the Araucaria Forest, Paraná, Brazil, determining if body size is a good predictor of abundance, and if body size could be used to indicate environmental quality. Body size was considered the total length of the specimen from the anterior region of head to the apex of abdomen/elytron. Measurements were taken for up to ten specimens of each species for each area and for all specimens of those species represented by fewer than ten individuals. The highest abundance and richness of Chrysomelidae were obtained in the lowest body size classes. This herbivorous group showed a trend toward a decrease in body size with increasing abundance, but body size was not a good predictor of its abundance. There was a trend toward a decrease in body size from the less to the most conserved areas; however, the definition of a pattern in successional areas not seems to be entirely clear. PMID:22303100

Linzmeier, Adelita M.; Ribeiro-Costa, Cibele S.

2011-01-01

154

GHANA'S ACTIVIST-DEVELOPERS DIGITAL NATIONALISM  

E-print Network

GHANA'S ACTIVIST-DEVELOPERS DIGITAL NATIONALISM IN WEST AFRICA Reginold Royston - BCNM, African · Conflict Coltan (CONGO) · 419 Scams + Sakawa (NIGERIA / GHANA) · eWaste (WEST AFRICA) #12;`LEAPFROG

California at Irvine, University of

155

Criteria for protected areas and other conservation measures in the Antarctic region  

SciTech Connect

The Antarctic region is threatened by three major anthropogenic influences: climatic change brought about by increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide, the effects of persistent pollutants carried into the region via atmosphere and ocean, and the increase in Man's activities. These include radioactive wastes, organochlorides, freons, PCBs and heavy metals. Vulnerable ecosystems can be considered as those which are under direct pressure from Man's activities, whereas fragile ecosystems are the more likely to suffer irreversible change when perturbed, but are not necessarily threatened at present. Three of the main habitat types, terrestrial, inland waters, and islands, are likely to be fragile. However, all these can be conserved reasonably adequately with a system of protected and managed areas, so long as the area covered is adequate and representative. The fourth habitat type, the oceanic ecosystem, contains few fragile elements because it is dominated by the highly dynamic physical oceanic processes. Elements of the ecosystem are vulnerable to further exploitation, and although only the whales and some of the fish stocks can be regarded as fragile, there is considerably uncertainty as what synergistic effect exploitation of apparently key elements of the ecosystem, such as the krill, will have on other important components of the communities. The highly dynamic structure of oceanic environments renders the concept of conservation based on limited protected areas developed for terrestrial environments ineffective in the majority of marine environments. Instead the whole marine environment of the Antarctic region must be considered to be a single entity and managed as such.

Angel, M.V.

1987-01-01

156

Expansion of Nature Conservation Areas: Problems with Natura 2000 Implementation in Poland?  

PubMed Central

In spite of widespread support from most member countries’ societies for European Union policy, including support for the sustainable development idea, in many EU countries the levels of acceptance of new environmental protection programmes have been and, in particular in new member states, still are considerably low. The experience of the countries which were the first to implement union directives show that they cannot be effectively applied without widespread public participation. The goal of this study was, using the example of Poland, to assess public acceptance of the expansion of nature conservation in the context of sustainable development principles and to discover whether existing nature governance should be modified when establishing new protected areas. The increase in protected areas in Poland has become a hotbed of numerous conflicts. In spite of the generally favourable attitudes to nature which Polish people generally have, Natura 2000 is perceived as an unnecessary additional conservation tool. Both local authorities and communities residing in the Natura areas think that the programme is a hindrance, rather than a help in the economic development of municipalities or regions, as was initially supposed. This lack of acceptance results from many factors, mainly social, historic and economic. The implications of these findings for current approach to the nature governance in Poland are discussed. PMID:21107836

Cent, Joanna

2010-01-01

157

Domestic dogs in rural communities around protected areas: conservation problem or conflict solution?  

PubMed

Although domestic dogs play many important roles in rural households, they can also be an important threat to the conservation of wild vertebrates due to predation, competition and transmission of infectious diseases. An increasing number of studies have addressed the impact of dogs on wildlife but have tended to ignore the motivations and attitudes of the humans who keep these dogs and how the function of dogs might influence dog-wildlife interactions. To determine whether the function of domestic dogs in rural communities influences their interactions with wildlife, we conducted surveys in rural areas surrounding protected lands in the Valdivian Temperate Forests of Chile. Sixty percent of farm animal owners reported the use of dogs as one of the primary means of protecting livestock from predators. The probability of dog-wild carnivore interactions was significantly associated with the raising of poultry. In contrast, dog-wild prey interactions were not associated with livestock presence but had a significant association with poor quality diet as observed in previous studies. Dog owners reported that they actively encouraged the dogs to chase off predators, accounting for 25-75% of the dog-wild carnivore interactions observed, depending on the predator species. Humans controlled the dog population by killing pups and unwanted individuals resulting in few additions to the dog population through breeding; the importation of predominantly male dogs from urban areas resulted in a sex ratios highly dominated by males. These results indicate that dog interactions with wildlife are related to the role of the dog in the household and are directly influenced by their owners. To avoid conflict with local communities in conservation areas, it is important to develop strategies for managing dogs that balance conservation needs with the roles that dogs play in these rural households. PMID:24465930

Sepúlveda, Maximiliano A; Singer, Randall S; Silva-Rodríguez, Eduardo; Stowhas, Paulina; Pelican, Katharine

2014-01-01

158

50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 679 - Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

50 ? Wildlife and Fisheries ? 13 ? 2013-10-01 ? 2013-10-01 ? false ? Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea ? 10 ? Figure 10 to Part 679 ? Wildlife and Fisheries ? FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

2013-10-01

159

50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 679 - Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

50 ? Wildlife and Fisheries ? 13 ? 2012-10-01 ? 2012-10-01 ? false ? Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea ? 10 ? Figure 10 to Part 679 ? Wildlife and Fisheries ? FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

2012-10-01

160

Conserving the Grassland Important Bird Areas (IBAs) of Southern South America: Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and Brazil1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the southern part of South America, knowledge about bird species distribution is still not used as a tool for land use planning and conservation priority-setting. BirdLife International's Important Bird Areas (IBA) Program is an appropriate vehicle for analyzing exist- ing information about birds, and to generate new data where necessary. IBA inventories should provide input to urgent regional conservation

Adrián S. Di Giacomo; Santiago Krapovickas

161

Finite Element Method for Conservation Equations in Electrical Gas Discharge Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A powerful finite element method for numerical solution of hydrodynamic conservation equations of electrons and ions, including drift, diffusion, and source terms, is proposed and applied in the area of electrical gas discharges dominated by space charge effects and having steep variation of charge carrier densities. This numerical method, having a quite good conservative property and valid also for nonuniform mesh case, is able to take properly into account the possible discontinuities in space and/or time variation of electron and ion densities. Comparisons with an implicit finite difference scheme are first undertaken in the case of a standard problem of propagation of rectangular and Gaussian initial waves without source term and with or without diffusion. Then, in the case of real discharges between two plane parallel electrodes, hydrodynamic equations for charge carrier conservation coupled to Poisson equation have been solved. This has been undertaken to show the ability of the present numerical method to treat the classical discharges dominated by space charge effects such as the cathodic region of usual glow discharge in Ar and the propagation of ionizing waves in high pressure N 2 discharge under overvoltage stress.

Yousfi, M.; Poinsignon, A.; Hamani, A.

1994-08-01

162

Common coastal foraging areas for loggerheads in the Gulf of Mexico: Opportunities for marine conservation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Designing conservation strategies that protect wide-ranging marine species is a significant challenge, but integrating regional telemetry datasets and synthesizing modeled movements and behavior offer promise for uncovering distinct at-sea areas that are important habitats for imperiled marine species. Movement paths of 10 satellite-tracked female loggerheads (Caretta caretta) from three separate subpopulations in the Gulf of Mexico, USA, revealed migration to discrete foraging sites in two common areas at-sea in 2008, 2009, and 2010. Foraging sites were 102–904 km away from nesting and tagging sites, and located off southwest Florida and the northern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Within 3–35 days, turtles migrated to foraging sites where they all displayed high site fidelity over time. Core-use foraging areas were 13.0–335.2 km2 in size, in water <50 m deep, within a mean distance to nearest coastline of 58.5 km, and in areas of relatively high net primary productivity. The existence of shared regional foraging sites highlights an opportunity for marine conservation strategies to protect important at-sea habitats for these imperiled marine turtles, in both USA and international waters. Until now, knowledge of important at-sea foraging areas for adult loggerheads in the Gulf of Mexico has been limited. To better understand the spatial distribution of marine turtles that have complex life-histories, we propose further integration of disparate tracking data-sets at the oceanic scale along with modeling of movements to identify critical at-sea foraging habitats where individuals may be resident during non-nesting periods.

Hart, Kristen M.; Lamont, Margaret M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Tucker, Anton D.; Carthy, Raymond R.

2012-01-01

163

Policy talk: incentives for rural service among nurses in Ghana.  

PubMed

Like many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Ghana is faced with the simultaneous challenges of increasing its health workforce, retaining them in country and promoting a rational distribution of staff in remote or deprived areas of the country. Recent increases in both public-sector doctor and nurse salaries have contributed to a decline in international out-migration, but problems of geographic mal-distribution remain. As part of a research project on human resources in the Ghanaian health sector, this study was conducted to elicit in-depth views from nursing leaders and practicing nurses in rural and urban Ghana on motivations for urban vs rural practice, job satisfaction and potential rural incentives. In-depth interviews were conducted with 115 nurses selected using a stratified sample of public, private and Christian Health Association of Ghana (CHAG) facilities in three regions of the country (Greater Accra, Brong Ahafo and Upper West), and among 13 nurse managers from across Ghana. Many respondents reported low satisfaction with rural practice. This was influenced by the high workload and difficult working conditions, perception of being 'forgotten' in rural areas by the Ministry of Health (MOH), lack of professional advancement and the lack of formal learning or structured mentoring. Older nurses without academic degrees who were posted to remote areas were especially frustrated, citing a lack of opportunities to upgrade their skills. Nursing leaders echoed these themes, emphasizing the need to bring learning and communication technologies to rural areas. Proposed solutions included clearer terms of contract detailing length of stay at a post, and transparent procedures for transfer and promotion; career opportunities for all cadres of nursing; and benefits such as better on-the-job housing, better mentoring and more recognition from leaders. An integrated set of recruitment and retention policies focusing on career development may improve job satisfaction and retention of nurses in rural Ghana. PMID:22349086

Kwansah, Janet; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Mutumba, Massy; Asabir, Kwesi; Koomson, Elizabeth; Gyakobo, Mawuli; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Kruk, Margaret E; Snow, Rachel C

2012-12-01

164

Designing protected areas to conserve riverine biodiversity: Lessons from a hypothetical redesign of the Kruger National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of designing protected areas to represent all ecosystems in an area adequately is becoming increasingly sophisticated. To date freshwater aquatic ecosystems have seldom been considered in this process. How much of a difference does it make when they are considered as well?This study examined the conservation of riverine biodiversity within 17 assessment units contained by the catchment areas

Dirk J. Roux; Jeanne L. Nel; Peter J. Ashton; Andrew R. Deacon; Ferdinand C. de Moor; Devlyn Hardwick; Liesl Hill; Cornelius J. Kleynhans; Gillian A. Maree; Juanita Moolman; Robert J. Scholes

2008-01-01

165

Territory Occupancy and Parental Quality as Proxies for Spatial Prioritization of Conservation Areas  

PubMed Central

In order to maximize their fitness, individuals aim at choosing territories offering the most appropriate combination of resources. As population size fluctuates in time, the frequency of breeding territory occupancy reflects territory quality. We investigated the relationships between the frequency of territory occupancy (2002–2009) vs. habitat characteristics, prey abundance, reproductive success and parental traits in hoopoes Upupa epops L., with the objective to define proxies for the delineation of conservation priority areas. We predicted that the distribution of phenotypes is despotic and sought for phenotypic characteristics expressing dominance. Our findings support the hypothesis of a despotic distribution. Territory selection was non-random: frequently occupied territories were settled earlier in the season and yielded higher annual reproductive success, but the frequency of territory occupancy could not be related to any habitat characteristics. Males found in frequently occupied territories showed traits expressing dominance (i.e. larger body size and mass, and older age). In contrast, morphological traits of females were not related to the frequency of territory occupancy, suggesting that territory selection and maintenance were essentially a male's task. Settlement time in spring, reproductive success achieved in a given territory, as well as phenotypic traits and age of male territory holders reflected territory quality, providing good proxies for assessing priority areas for conservation management. PMID:24836965

Tschumi, Matthias; Schaub, Michael; Arlettaz, Raphael

2014-01-01

166

Conservation for the landscape ecological diversity in Wulingyuan scenic area of China.  

PubMed

Wulingyuan is located at the mountainous area of the middle reach of the Yangtze River, it is one of the three nature heritages in China which ranks in the "List of World's Heritage" by UNESCO. It is characterized by quartz sandstone peaks landform with several landform components (pattern, corridor) and rich in landscape ecological diversity and biodiversity. The main patterns (ecosystem) include mid-height mountain peaks, rift-valley and streams among peaks, peaks and gullies on slopes, square mountain-platforms and peaks among blind valleys and so on. The corridor system consists of natural corridors and artificial corridors among which the stream corridors account for a major part. The fracturing of habitat is unfavorable for the biodiversity conservation, but meanwhile the habitat diversity leads to an increase in biodiversity. Therefore, it is still rich in landscape ecological diversity in Wulingyuan. The biodiversity at the level of landscape component (ecosystem) and the function of the Wulingyuan complex ecosystem, and the measures for the biodiversity conservation in Wulingyuan ecotourism area are discussed in this paper. PMID:12765273

Yan, Fu

2003-03-01

167

The contribution of very large marine protected areas to marine conservation: Giant leaps or smoke and mirrors?  

PubMed

In recent years, marine protected areas have been "super-sized". At first glance, this seems a gift to marine conservation. Yet, the new wave of very large marine protected areas ("VLMPAs") have faced criticism from the scientific community. In this article we examine the merits and the criticisms of VLMPAS, and consider whether they provide a much-needed boost to marine conservation, or are simply too good to be true. PMID:25152184

Singleton, Rebecca L; Roberts, Callum M

2014-10-15

168

Macrofaunal community inside and outside of the Darwin Mounds Special Area of Conservation, NE Atlantic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial distribution and patchiness of deep sea macrofaunal communities were studied from samples collected in the Rockall Trough, NE Atlantic. In June 2011, two areas, located outside and within the Darwin Mound Special Area of Conservation (SAC), were sampled. Three megacores were deployed in each area at approximately 900 m depth. The two areas, ~ 18 km apart, did not differ in terms of sediment organic matter and percentage of mud content, but small significant differences were found in sediment median grain size and depth. Macrofaunal communities were found to differ significantly, with the difference mostly driven by changes in the abundance of polychaetes, crustaceans and nematodes whilst no significant differences were seen for the other phyla. Whereas overall macrofaunal abundance was higher outside the SAC compared to within, this pattern varies considerably between phyla. Diversity indices showed no significant differences between protected and unprotected sites. Deep-water trawling regularly take place outside the Darwin Mounds SAC whilst the area inside the SAC has been closed to bottom trawling since 2004, and the above distribution patterns are discussed in the context of both environmental and anthropogenic causes.

Serpetti, N.; Gontikaki, E.; Narayanaswamy, B. E.; Witte, U.

2013-06-01

169

Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Oxbow Conservation Area, 2002-2005 Technical Report.  

SciTech Connect

This Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) study was performed to determine baseline habitat units on the Oxbow Conservation Area in Grant County, Oregon. The evaluation is a required part of the Memorandum of Agreement between the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) relating to the acquisition and management of the Oxbow Conservation Area. The HEP team was comprised of individuals from the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife and the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon. The survey was conducted using the following HEP evaluation models for key species: black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapilla), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), mink (Mustela vison), western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginiana), and yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia). Cover types used in this survey were conifer forest, irrigated meadow, riparian meadow, upland meadow, riparian shrub, upland shrub, and mine tailings. The project generated 701.3 habitat units for mitigation crediting purposes. Results for each HEP species are: (1) Black-capped chickadee habitat was good, with only isolated areas lacking snags or having low tree canopy cover. (2) Mallard habitat was poor in upland meadows and marginal elsewhere due to a lack of herbaceous/shrub cover and low herbaceous height. (3) Mink habitat was good, limited only by the lack of the shrub component. (4) Western meadowlark habitat was marginal in upland meadow and mine tailing cover types and good in irrigated meadow. Percent cover of grass and height of herbaceous variables were limiting factors. (5) White-tailed deer habitat was marginal due to relatively low tree canopy cover, reduced shrub cover, and limited browse diversity. (6) Yellow Warbler habitat was marginal due to less than optimum shrub height and the lack of hydrophytic shrubs. General ratings (poor, marginal, etc.) are described in the introduction section.

Cochran, Brian

2005-02-01

170

Interactions Between Spatially Explicit Conservation and Management Measures: Implications for the Governance of Marine Protected Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine protected areas are not established in an institutional and governance vacuum and managers should pay attention to the wider social-ecological system in which they are immersed. This article examines Islas Choros-Damas Marine Reserve, a small marine protected area located in a highly productive and biologically diverse coastal marine ecosystem in northern Chile, and the interactions between human, institutional, and ecological dimensions beyond those existing within its boundaries. Through documents analysis, surveys, and interviews, we described marine reserve implementation (governing system) and the social and natural ecosystem-to-be-governed. We analyzed the interactions and the connections between the marine reserve and other spatially explicit conservation and/or management measures existing in the area and influencing management outcomes and governance. A top-down approach with poor stakeholder involvement characterized the implementation process. The marine reserve is highly connected with other spatially explicit measures and with a wider social-ecological system through various ecological processes and socio-economic interactions. Current institutional interactions with positive effects on the management and governance are scarce, although several potential interactions may be developed. For the study area, any management action must recognize interferences from outside conditions and consider some of them (e.g., ecotourism management) as cross-cutting actions for the entire social-ecological system. We consider that institutional interactions and the development of social networks are opportunities to any collective effort aiming to improve governance of Islas Choros-Damas marine reserve. Communication of connections and interactions between marine protected areas and the wider social-ecological system (as described in this study) is proposed as a strategy to improve stakeholder participation in Chilean marine protected areas.

Cárcamo, P. Francisco; Gaymer, Carlos F.

2013-12-01

171

Interactions between spatially explicit conservation and management measures: implications for the governance of marine protected areas.  

PubMed

Marine protected areas are not established in an institutional and governance vacuum and managers should pay attention to the wider social-ecological system in which they are immersed. This article examines Islas Choros-Damas Marine Reserve, a small marine protected area located in a highly productive and biologically diverse coastal marine ecosystem in northern Chile, and the interactions between human, institutional, and ecological dimensions beyond those existing within its boundaries. Through documents analysis, surveys, and interviews, we described marine reserve implementation (governing system) and the social and natural ecosystem-to-be-governed. We analyzed the interactions and the connections between the marine reserve and other spatially explicit conservation and/or management measures existing in the area and influencing management outcomes and governance. A top-down approach with poor stakeholder involvement characterized the implementation process. The marine reserve is highly connected with other spatially explicit measures and with a wider social-ecological system through various ecological processes and socio-economic interactions. Current institutional interactions with positive effects on the management and governance are scarce, although several potential interactions may be developed. For the study area, any management action must recognize interferences from outside conditions and consider some of them (e.g., ecotourism management) as cross-cutting actions for the entire social-ecological system. We consider that institutional interactions and the development of social networks are opportunities to any collective effort aiming to improve governance of Islas Choros-Damas marine reserve. Communication of connections and interactions between marine protected areas and the wider social-ecological system (as described in this study) is proposed as a strategy to improve stakeholder participation in Chilean marine protected areas. PMID:24091586

Cárcamo, P Francisco; Gaymer, Carlos F

2013-12-01

172

Land planarian assemblages in protected areas of the interior atlantic forest: implications for conservation.  

PubMed

Land planarians are an interesting group of free-living flatworms that can be useful as bioindicators because of their high sensitivity to environmental changes and low dispersal capacity. In this study, we describe and compare assemblages of land planarians from areas with different conservation degrees of the Interior Atlantic Forest (Misiones, Argentina), and assess factors that could be related to their abundance and richness. Eight sites were tracked in search of land planarians in Reserva de Vida Silvestre Urugua-í (RVSU) and Campo Anexo Manuel Belgrano (CAMB). Diurnal and nocturnal surveys were performed in each site along nine sampling campaigns. We collected 237 individuals belonging to 18 species of the subfamily Geoplaninae. All sites were dominated by Geoplana sp. 1 and Pasipha hauseri. The richness estimators showed that there would be more species in RVSU than in CAMB. The abundance and richness of land planarians was high during the night and after rainfalls, suggesting an increased activity of flatworms under such conditions. The abundance and richness of land planarians were also related to the conservation condition of the sites. Disturbed sites showed less abundance and richness, and were segregated from non-disturbed ones by nmMDS analysis. Beta diversity between sites was higher than expected, indicating that the species turnover between sites contributed more to the total richness (gamma diversity) than the alpha diversity. PMID:24598934

Negrete, Lisandro; Colpo, Karine D; Brusa, Francisco

2014-01-01

173

Deforestation and sustainability in Ghana  

SciTech Connect

The global importance of tropical forests is well recognized, and while much has been written about the Amazon forests, West African tropical forests are also being affected by logging and commercial timber harvesting. While the forests in Ghana are no longer vast, untouched wilderness, they are far from being ecologically bankrupt. This article describes the forest of Ghana, discusses the integrity of the remaining forest in terms of sustainable timber resources, and examines the prospects for tropical forests. 12 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Wagner, M.R. (Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff (United States)); Cobbinah, J.R. (Forestry Research Institute of Ghana, Kumasi (Ghana))

1993-06-01

174

Conservation, Spillover and Gene Flow within a Network of Northern European Marine Protected Areas  

PubMed Central

To ensure that marine protected areas (MPAs) benefit conservation and fisheries, the effectiveness of MPA designs has to be evaluated in field studies. Using an interdisciplinary approach, we empirically assessed the design of a network of northern MPAs where fishing for European lobster (Homarusgammarus) is prohibited. First, we demonstrate a high level of residency and survival (50%) for almost a year (363 days) within MPAs, despite small MPA sizes (0.5-1 km2). Second, we demonstrate limited export (4.7%) of lobsters tagged within MPAs (N = 1810) to neighbouring fished areas, over a median distance of 1.6 km out to maximum 21 km away from MPA centres. In comparison, median movement distance of lobsters recaptured within MPAs was 164 m, and recapture rate was high (40%). Third, we demonstrate a high level of gene flow within the study region, with an estimated FST of less than 0.0001 over a ? 400 km coastline. Thus, the restricted movement of older life stages, combined with a high level of gene flow suggests that connectivity is primarily driven by larval drift. Larval export from the MPAs can most likely affect areas far beyond their borders. Our findings are of high importance for the design of MPA networks for sedentary species with pelagic early life stages. PMID:24039927

Huserbraten, Mats Brockstedt Olsen; Moland, Even; Knutsen, Halvor; Olsen, Esben Moland; Andre, Carl; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

2013-01-01

175

Land Cover Change Analysis in Tropical Forest Ecosystems Using GIS and Remote Sensing: The Kakum Conservation Area (KCA) of Ghana as a case  

E-print Network

. To analyse these changes, change detection techniques based on remote sensing data (Landsat TM and ETM+) were cocoa farming communities-leading to the clearance of forests to give way to farms, mainly in close 2012/2013, course mates for their love and support throughout the course; they were like a great family

Malhi, Yadvinder

176

Are species coexistence areas a good option for conservation management? Applications from fine scale modelling in two steppe birds.  

PubMed

Biotic interactions and land uses have been proposed as factors that determine the distribution of the species at local scale. The presence of heterospecifics may modify the habitat selection pattern of the individuals and this may have important implications for the design of effective conservation strategies. However, conservation proposals are often focused on a single flagship or umbrella species taken as representative of an entire assemblage requirements. Our aim is to identify and evaluate the role of coexistence areas at local scale as conservation tools, by using distribution data of two endangered birds, the Little Bustard and the Great Bustard. Presence-only based suitability models for each species were built with MaxEnt using variables of substrate type and topography. Probability maps of habitat suitability for each species were combined to generate a map in which coexistence and exclusive use areas were delimitated. Probabilities of suitable habitat for each species inside coexistence and exclusive areas were compared. As expected, habitat requirements of Little and Great Bustards differed. Coexistence areas presented lower probabilities of habitat suitability than exclusive use ones. We conclude that differences in species' habitat preferences can hinder the efficiency of protected areas with multi-species conservation purposes. Our results highlight the importance of taking into account the role of biotic interactions when designing conservation measurements. PMID:24498210

Tarjuelo, Rocío; Morales, Manuel B; Traba, Juan; Delgado, M Paula

2014-01-01

177

Are Species Coexistence Areas a Good Option for Conservation Management? Applications from Fine Scale Modelling in Two Steppe Birds  

PubMed Central

Biotic interactions and land uses have been proposed as factors that determine the distribution of the species at local scale. The presence of heterospecifics may modify the habitat selection pattern of the individuals and this may have important implications for the design of effective conservation strategies. However, conservation proposals are often focused on a single flagship or umbrella species taken as representative of an entire assemblage requirements. Our aim is to identify and evaluate the role of coexistence areas at local scale as conservation tools, by using distribution data of two endangered birds, the Little Bustard and the Great Bustard. Presence-only based suitability models for each species were built with MaxEnt using variables of substrate type and topography. Probability maps of habitat suitability for each species were combined to generate a map in which coexistence and exclusive use areas were delimitated. Probabilities of suitable habitat for each species inside coexistence and exclusive areas were compared. As expected, habitat requirements of Little and Great Bustards differed. Coexistence areas presented lower probabilities of habitat suitability than exclusive use ones. We conclude that differences in species' habitat preferences can hinder the efficiency of protected areas with multi-species conservation purposes. Our results highlight the importance of taking into account the role of biotic interactions when designing conservation measurements. PMID:24498210

Tarjuelo, Rocio; Morales, Manuel B.; Traba, Juan; Delgado, M. Paula

2014-01-01

178

Simulation study of the effect of fuel-conservative approaches on ATC procedures and terminal area capacity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fuel-conservative procedures have been investigated using real-time air traffic control simulations linked to two piloted simulators. The fuel-conservative procedures studied were profile descents and two types of landing approaches. The investigation determined the effect of these procedures on the ATC system and terminal area capacity. It examined the mixing of aircraft executing fuel-conservative approaches with those executing conventional approaches. The results indicate a systems fuel savings for the landing approaches under all tested conditions except at, or near, maximum system capacity. Also, there is a fuel savings and reduced controller workload for the profile descent procedures.

Tobias, L.; Palmer, E. A.; Obrien, P. J.

1978-01-01

179

A GIS-based multi-criteria decision making approach to forest conservation planning at a landscape scale: a case study in the Kinabalu Area, Sabah, Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a geographic information system (GIS)-based multi-criteria decision making approach for forest conservation planning at a landscape scale. This approach enables decision makers to evaluate the relative priorities of conserving forest areas based on a set of preferences, criteria and indicators for the area. Compromise programming techniques are used to integrate the forest conservation priority maps of decision

Mui-How Phua; Mitsuhiro Minowa

2005-01-01

180

Children's Health and Nutrition as Educational Issues: A Case Study of the Ghana Partnership for Child Development's Intervention Research in the Volta Region of Ghana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper describes the operations research intervention carried out by the Ghana Partnership for Child Development (GPCD) in the Volta Region of Ghana in collaboration with the Ministries of Education and Health and the Ghana Education Service. Ghana was...

J. H. Williams, K. Leherr

1998-01-01

181

THE THREATENED AND THE IRREPLACEABLE: IDENTIFYING AREAS FOR THE CONSERVATION OF FAUNAL SPECIES DIVERSITY IN THE MIDDLE-ATLANTIC REGION OF THE UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

One fundamental step in conservation planning involves determining where to concentrate efforts to protect conservation targets. Here we demonstrate an approach to prioritizing areas based on both species composition and potential threats facing the species. First, we determine...

182

A survey for Echinococcus spp. of carnivores in six wildlife conservation areas in Kenya.  

PubMed

To investigate the presence of Echinococcus spp. in wild mammals of Kenya, 832 faecal samples from wild carnivores (lions, leopards, spotted hyenas, wild dogs and silver-backed jackals) were collected in six different conservation areas of Kenya (Meru, Nairobi, Tsavo West and Tsavo East National Parks, Samburu and Maasai Mara National Reserves). Taeniid eggs were found in 120 samples (14.4%). In total, 1160 eggs were isolated and further analysed using RFLP-PCR of the nad1 gene and sequencing. 38 of these samples contained eggs of Echinococcus spp., which were identified as either Echinococcus felidis (n=27) or Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (n=12); one sample contained eggs from both taxa. E. felidis was found in faeces from lions (n=20) and hyenas (n=5) while E. granulosus in faeces from lions (n=8), leopards (n=1) and hyenas (n=3). The host species for two samples containing E. felidis could not be identified with certainty. As the majority of isolated eggs could not be analysed with the methods used (no amplification), we do not attempt to give estimates of faecal prevalences. Both taxa of Echinococcus were found in all conservation areas except Meru (only E. felidis) and Tsavo West (only E. granulosus). Host species identification for environmental faecal samples, based on field signs, was found to be unreliable. All samples with taeniid eggs were subjected to a confirmatory host species RLFP-PCR of the cytochrome B gene. 60% had been correctly identified in the field. Frequently, hyena faeces were mistaken for lion and vice versa, and none of the samples from jackals and wild dogs could be confirmed in the tested sub-sample. This is the first molecular study on the distribution of Echinococcus spp. in Kenyan wildlife. The presence of E. felidis is confirmed for lions and newly reported for spotted hyenas. Lions and hyenas are newly recognized hosts for E. granulosus s.s., while the role of leopards remains uncertain. These data provide the basis for further studies on the lifecycles and the possible link between wild and domestic cycles of cystic echinococcosis in eastern Africa. PMID:24732034

Kagendo, D; Magambo, J; Agola, E L; Njenga, S M; Zeyhle, E; Mulinge, E; Gitonga, P; Mbae, C; Muchiri, E; Wassermann, M; Kern, P; Romig, T

2014-08-01

183

Uncovering the fruit bat bushmeat commodity chain and the true extent of fruit bat hunting in Ghana, West Africa  

PubMed Central

Harvesting, consumption and trade of bushmeat are important causes of both biodiversity loss and potential zoonotic disease emergence. In order to identify possible ways to mitigate these threats, it is essential to improve our understanding of the mechanisms by which bushmeat gets from the site of capture to the consumer’s table. In this paper we highlight the previously unrecognized scale of hunting of the African straw-colored fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, a species which is important in both ecological and public health contexts, and describe the commodity chain in southern Ghana for its trade. Based on interviews with 551 Ghanaians, including bat hunters, vendors and consumers, we estimate that a minimum of 128,000 E. helvum bats are sold each year through a commodity chain stretching up to 400 km and involving multiple vendors. Unlike the general bushmeat trade in Ghana, where animals are sold in both specialized bushmeat markets and in restaurants, E. helvum is sold primarily in marketplaces; many bats are also kept by hunters for personal consumption. The offtake estimated in this paper raises serious conservation concerns, while the commodity chain identified in this study may offer possible points for management intervention. The separation of the E. helvum commodity chain from that of other bushmeat highlights the need for species-specific research in this area, particularly for bats, whose status as bushmeat is largely unknown. PMID:22514356

Kamins, A.O.; Restif, O.; Ntiamoa-Baidu, Y.; Suu-Ire, R.; Hayman, D.T.S.; Cunningham, A.A.; Wood, J.L.N.; Rowcliffe, J.M.

2011-01-01

184

Climate change is predicted to negatively influence Moroccan endemic reptile richness. Implications for conservation in protected areas.  

PubMed

The identification of species-rich areas and their prognosticated turnover under climate change are crucial for the conservation of endemic taxa. This study aims to identify areas of reptile endemicity richness in a global biodiversity hot spot (Morocco) under current and future climatic conditions and to investigate the role of protected areas in biodiversity conservation under climate change. Species distribution models (SDM) were performed over the distribution of 21 endemic reptiles, combined to estimate current species richness at 1?×?1 km resolution and projected to years 2050 and 2080 according to distinct story lines and ensemble global circulation models, assuming unlimited and null dispersion ability. Generalized additive models were performed between species richness and geographic characteristics of 43 protected areas. SDM found precipitation as the most important factor related to current species distributions. Important reductions in future suitable areas were predicted for 50 % of species, and four species were identified as highly vulnerable to extinction. Drastic reductions in species-rich areas were predicted for the future, with considerable variability between years and dispersal scenarios. High turnover rates of species composition were predicted for eastern Morocco, whereas low values were forecasted for the Northern Atlantic coast and mountains. Species richness for current and future conditions was significantly related to the altitude and latitude of protected areas. Protected areas located in mountains and/or in the Northern Atlantic coast were identified as refugia, where population monitoring and conservation management is needed. PMID:23942550

Martínez-Freiría, Fernando; Argaz, Hamida; Fahd, Soumía; Brito, José C

2013-09-01

185

Climate change is predicted to negatively influence Moroccan endemic reptile richness. Implications for conservation in protected areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The identification of species-rich areas and their prognosticated turnover under climate change are crucial for the conservation of endemic taxa. This study aims to identify areas of reptile endemicity richness in a global biodiversity hot spot (Morocco) under current and future climatic conditions and to investigate the role of protected areas in biodiversity conservation under climate change. Species distribution models (SDM) were performed over the distribution of 21 endemic reptiles, combined to estimate current species richness at 1 × 1 km resolution and projected to years 2050 and 2080 according to distinct story lines and ensemble global circulation models, assuming unlimited and null dispersion ability. Generalized additive models were performed between species richness and geographic characteristics of 43 protected areas. SDM found precipitation as the most important factor related to current species distributions. Important reductions in future suitable areas were predicted for 50 % of species, and four species were identified as highly vulnerable to extinction. Drastic reductions in species-rich areas were predicted for the future, with considerable variability between years and dispersal scenarios. High turnover rates of species composition were predicted for eastern Morocco, whereas low values were forecasted for the Northern Atlantic coast and mountains. Species richness for current and future conditions was significantly related to the altitude and latitude of protected areas. Protected areas located in mountains and/or in the Northern Atlantic coast were identified as refugia, where population monitoring and conservation management is needed.

Martínez-Freiría, Fernando; Argaz, Hamida; Fahd, Soumía; Brito, José C.

2013-09-01

186

Title: Prioritising areas for dugong conservation in a marine protected area using a spatially explicit population model  

E-print Network

dugon, universal kriging, marine protected areas, Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area Abstract The Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA) covers an area of approximately 348,000km2 making/or the preservation of cultural values (Kelleher et al. 1995). The Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA

Marsh, Helene

187

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Closure Plan Summary for Interim reasctive Waste Treatment Area (IRWTA)  

SciTech Connect

This closure plan has been prepared for the interim Reactive Waste Treatment Area (IRWT'A) located at the Y-12 Pkmt in oak Ridge, Tennessee (Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] Identification TN 389-009-0001). The actions required to achieve closure of the IRWTA are outlined in this plan, which is being submitted in accordance with Tennessee Ruie 1200- 1-1 1-.0S(7) and Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 265, Subpart G. The IRWTA was used to treat waste sodium and potassium (NaK) that are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The location of the IRWT'A is shown in Figures 1 and 2, and a diagram is shown in Figure 3. This pkm details all steps that wdi be petiormed to close the IRWTA. Note that this is a fmai ciosure.and a diagram is shown in Figure 3. This pkm details all steps that wdi be petiormed to close the IRWTA. Note that this is a fmai ciosure.

Collins, E.T.

1997-07-01

188

Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Forrest Conservation Area, Technical Report 2003-2004.  

SciTech Connect

The Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) study was performed to determine baseline habitat units on the 4,232-acre Forrest Conservation Area managed by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribe) in Grant County, Oregon. The habitat evaluation is required as part of the Memorandum of Agreement between the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs and Bonneville Power Administration. Representatives from the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife and the Tribes conducted the field surveys for the HEP. The survey collected data for habitat variables contained in habitat suitability index (HIS) models for wildlife species; the key species were black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapilla), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), mink (Mustela vison), western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), California Quail (Callipepla californica), and yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia). Cover types surveyed were grassland, meadow grassland, conifer forest, riparian tree shrub, shrub steppe, juniper forest, and juniper steppe. Other cover types mapped, but not used in the models were open water, roads, gravel pits, corrals, and residential.

Smith, Brent

2005-01-01

189

Oxbow Conservation Area; Middle Fork John Day River, Annual Report 2003-2004.  

SciTech Connect

In early 2001, the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs, through their John Day Basin Office, concluded the acquisition of the Oxbow Ranch, now know as the Oxbow Conservation Area (OCA). Under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Tribes are required to provided BPA an 'annual written report generally describing the real property interests in the Project, HEP analyses undertaken or in progress, and management activities undertaken or in progress'. The project during 2003 was crippled due to the aftermath of the BPA budget crisis. Some objectives were not completed during the first half of this contract because of limited funds in the 2003 fiscal year. The success of this property purchase can be seen on a daily basis. Water rights were utilized only in the early, high water season and only from diversion points with functional fish screens. After July 1, all of the OCA water rights were put instream. Riparian fences on the river, Ruby and Granite Boulder creeks continued to promote important vegetation to provide shade and bank stabilization. Hundreds of willow, dogwood, Douglas-fir, and cottonwood were planted along the Middle Fork John Day River. Livestock grazing on the property was carefully managed to ensure the protection of fish and wildlife habitat, while promoting meadow vigor and producing revenue for property taxes. Monitoring of property populations, resources, and management activities continued in 2003 to build a database for future management of this and other properties in the region.

Cochran, Brian

2004-02-01

190

Adaptation in Practice: How Managers of Nature Conservation Areas in Eastern England are Responding to Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although good general principles for climate change adaptation in conservation have been developed, it is proving a challenge to translate them into more detailed recommendations for action. To improve our understanding of what adaptation might involve in practice, we investigated how the managers of conservation areas in eastern England are considering climate change. We used a written questionnaire and semi-structured interviews to collect information from managers of a range of different conservation areas. Topics investigated include the impacts of climate change perceived to be of the greatest importance; adaptation goals being set; management actions being carried out to achieve these goals; sources of information used; and perceived barriers to taking action. We identified major themes and issues that were apparent across the sites studied. Specifically, we found ways in which adaptation had been informed by past experience; different strategies relating to whether to accept or resist change; approaches for coping with more variable conditions; ways of taking a large-scale approach and managing sites as networks; some practical examples of aspects of adaptive management; and examples of the role that other sectors can play in both constraining and increasing a conservation area's capacity to adapt. We discuss the relevance of these findings to the growing discussion in conservation about identifying adaptation pathways for different conservation areas and a potential progression from a focus on resilience and incremental change to embracing "transformation." Though adaptation will be place-specific, we believe these findings provide useful lessons for future action in both England and other countries.

Macgregor, Nicholas A.; van Dijk, Nikki

2014-10-01

191

Adaptation in Practice: How Managers of Nature Conservation Areas in Eastern England are Responding to Climate Change.  

PubMed

Although good general principles for climate change adaptation in conservation have been developed, it is proving a challenge to translate them into more detailed recommendations for action. To improve our understanding of what adaptation might involve in practice, we investigated how the managers of conservation areas in eastern England are considering climate change. We used a written questionnaire and semi-structured interviews to collect information from managers of a range of different conservation areas. Topics investigated include the impacts of climate change perceived to be of the greatest importance; adaptation goals being set; management actions being carried out to achieve these goals; sources of information used; and perceived barriers to taking action. We identified major themes and issues that were apparent across the sites studied. Specifically, we found ways in which adaptation had been informed by past experience; different strategies relating to whether to accept or resist change; approaches for coping with more variable conditions; ways of taking a large-scale approach and managing sites as networks; some practical examples of aspects of adaptive management; and examples of the role that other sectors can play in both constraining and increasing a conservation area's capacity to adapt. We discuss the relevance of these findings to the growing discussion in conservation about identifying adaptation pathways for different conservation areas and a potential progression from a focus on resilience and incremental change to embracing "transformation." Though adaptation will be place-specific, we believe these findings provide useful lessons for future action in both England and other countries. PMID:24647625

Macgregor, Nicholas A; van Dijk, Nikki

2014-10-01

192

Priority conservation areas for butterflies (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) in the Philippine islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective representation of all species in local conservation planning is a major challenge, particularly in poorly known but highly fragmented biological 'hotspots'. Based on 105 months of studies over 49 years, we reviewed the status of 915 species and 910 subspecies of butterflies known in the Philippines. We identified 133 globally threatened and conservation-dependent endemic Philippine taxa. The current system

Finn Danielsen; Colin G. Treadaway

2004-01-01

193

Does a voluntary conservation program result in a representative protected area network?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation contracting has attained growing interest worldwide as a tool for protecting biodiversity in privately owned lands. In this policy, landowners receive payments from an environmental agency in exchange for land use practices that contribute to the supply of biodiversity. This approach may result in a conservation network which does not cover all focal ecological characteristics, because landowners determine the

Artti Juutinen; Mikko Mönkkönen; Anna-Liisa Ylisirniö

2009-01-01

194

Common coastal foraging areas for loggerheads in the Gulf of Mexico: Opportunities for marine conservation  

E-print Network

of Mexico Kernel density estimation Foraging a b s t r a c t Designing conservation strategies that protect to protect important at-sea habitats for these imperiled marine turtles, in both USA and international waters conservation Kristen M. Hart a, , Margaret M. Lamont b , Ikuko Fujisaki c , Anton D. Tucker d , Raymond R

Florida, University of

195

Natural protected areas of San Luis Potosí, Mexico: ecological representativeness, risks, and conservation implications across scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessments of the conservation status of natural resources have been conducted at large (i.e., global, continental, and countrywide) extents. Studies at finer scales, however, can yield increased detail needed to identify conservation strategies for smaller scales which can contribute to goals at the larger extents. Our study was conducted at the scale of a single state, San Luis Potosí, in

Leonardo Chapa-Vargas; Karina Monzalvo-Santos

2012-01-01

196

Temporal trajectories of phosphorus and pedo-patterns mapped in Water Conservation Area 2, Everglades, Florida, USA  

E-print Network

Temporal trajectories of phosphorus and pedo-patterns mapped in Water Conservation Area 2 trajectories of soil and ecosystem properties is a daunting task that includes mapping across geographic space and through time (i.e., xyz space and the time dimension). To map change in soil nutrient status across

Grunwald, Sabine

197

Conservation of bats in suburban landscapes: roost selection by Myotis yumanensis in a residential area in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protection of roosting habitat is essential to the conservation of bats in human-dominated landscapes. To help define bat roosting needs in suburban settings, we used radio telemetry to locate day roosts of a common North American species (Myotis yumanensis) within a residential area in California. Between June and August 2000, we tracked 16 bats to 20 roosts in two buildings

Michelle J. Evelyn; David A. Stiles; Rebecca A. Young

2004-01-01

198

Post-pastoral changes in composition and guilds in a semi-arid conservation area, Central Otago, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the vegetation of Flat Top Hill, a highly modified conservation area in semi-arid Central Otago, New Zealand, are described four years after the cessation of sheep and rabbit grazing. Unusually moist weather conditions coincide with the four-year period of change in response to the cessation of grazing. Between 1993 and 1997, the average richness and diversity (H') of

Susan Walker

2000-01-01

199

Distributions of Mercury and Phosphorous in Everglades Soils From Water Conservation Area 3A, Florida, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils in the southern half of Water Conservation Area3A are mostly peats with some organic-rich marls. Mercury contents of 64 surface samples over a500 km2 area average 28.7 ng cc-1 (209 ppb drysediment), which is typical of organic-rich soils. High Hg contents in Everglades fish are therefore notcaused by anomalously high soil Hg. Hg contents showno systematic lateral variation, consistent

Cleone Arfstrom; Andrew W. Macfarlane; Ronald D. Jones

2000-01-01

200

Moving into protected areas? Setting conservation priorities for Romanian reptiles and amphibians at risk from climate change.  

PubMed

Rapid climate change represents one of the top threats to biodiversity, causing declines and extinctions of many species. Range shifts are a key response, but in many cases are incompatible with the current extent of protected areas. In this study we used ensemble species distribution models to identify range changes for 21 reptile and 16 amphibian species in Romania for the 2020s and 2050s time horizons under three emission scenarios (A1B = integrated world, rapid economic growth, A2A = divided world, rapid economic growth [realistic scenario], B2A = regional development, environmentally-friendly scenario) and no- and limited-dispersal assumptions. We then used irreplaceability analysis to test the efficacy of the Natura 2000 network to meet conservation targets. Under all scenarios and time horizons, 90% of the species suffered range contractions (greatest loses under scenarios B2A for 2020s, and A1B for 2050s), and four reptile species expanded their ranges. Two reptile and two amphibian species are predicted to completely lose climate space by 2050s. Currently, 35 species do not meet conservation targets (>40% representation in protected areas), but the target is predicted to be met for 4 - 14 species under future climate conditions, with higher representation under the limited-dispersal scenario. The Alpine and Steppic-Black Sea biogeographic regions have the highest irreplaceability value, and act as climate refugia for many reptiles and amphibians. The Natura 2000 network performs better for achieving herpetofauna conservation goals in the future, owing to the interaction between drastic range contractions, and range shifts towards existing protected areas. Thus, conservation actions for herpetofauna in Romania need to focus on: (1) building institutional capacity of protected areas in the Alpine and Steppic-Black Sea biogeographic regions, and (2) facilitating natural range shifts by improving the conservation status of herpetofauna outside protected areas, specifically in traditionally-managed landscapes and abandoned cropland. PMID:24324547

Popescu, Viorel D; Rozylowicz, Lauren?iu; Cog?lniceanu, Dan; Niculae, Iulian Mih?i??; Cucu, Adina Livia

2013-01-01

201

Moving into Protected Areas? Setting Conservation Priorities for Romanian Reptiles and Amphibians at Risk from Climate Change  

PubMed Central

Rapid climate change represents one of the top threats to biodiversity, causing declines and extinctions of many species. Range shifts are a key response, but in many cases are incompatible with the current extent of protected areas. In this study we used ensemble species distribution models to identify range changes for 21 reptile and 16 amphibian species in Romania for the 2020s and 2050s time horizons under three emission scenarios (A1B = integrated world, rapid economic growth, A2A = divided world, rapid economic growth [realistic scenario], B2A = regional development, environmentally-friendly scenario) and no- and limited-dispersal assumptions. We then used irreplaceability analysis to test the efficacy of the Natura 2000 network to meet conservation targets. Under all scenarios and time horizons, 90% of the species suffered range contractions (greatest loses under scenarios B2A for 2020s, and A1B for 2050s), and four reptile species expanded their ranges. Two reptile and two amphibian species are predicted to completely lose climate space by 2050s. Currently, 35 species do not meet conservation targets (>40% representation in protected areas), but the target is predicted to be met for 4 - 14 species under future climate conditions, with higher representation under the limited-dispersal scenario. The Alpine and Steppic-Black Sea biogeographic regions have the highest irreplaceability value, and act as climate refugia for many reptiles and amphibians. The Natura 2000 network performs better for achieving herpetofauna conservation goals in the future, owing to the interaction between drastic range contractions, and range shifts towards existing protected areas. Thus, conservation actions for herpetofauna in Romania need to focus on: (1) building institutional capacity of protected areas in the Alpine and Steppic-Black Sea biogeographic regions, and (2) facilitating natural range shifts by improving the conservation status of herpetofauna outside protected areas, specifically in traditionally-managed landscapes and abandoned cropland. PMID:24324547

Popescu, Viorel D.; Rozylowicz, Laurentiu; Cogalniceanu, Dan; Niculae, Iulian Mihaita; Cucu, Adina Livia

2013-01-01

202

((((((((((((((((((Conserving Biodiversity) in) a) Human-Dominated) World:) Degradation) of) Marine) Sessile) Communities) Within) A) Protected) Area) With) Conflicting) Human) Uses)  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Search instead for ((((((((((((((((((Conserving Biodiversity) in) a) Human-Dominated) World:) Degradation) of) Marine) Sessile) Communities) Within) A) Protected) Area) With) Conflicting) Human) Uses) ?

203

((((((((((((((((((Conserving Biodiversity) in) a) Human-Dominated) World:) Degradation) of) Marine) Sessile) Communities) Within) A) Protected) Area) With) Conflicting) Human) Uses.)  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Search instead for ((((((((((((((((((Conserving Biodiversity) in) a) Human-Dominated) World:) Degradation) of) Marine) Sessile) Communities) Within) A) Protected) Area) With) Conflicting) Human) Uses.) ?

204

Water Hazard in Coastal Area: Actions for conserving and protecting European World Heritage Cities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that many of the European UNESCO World Heritage sites and cities are closely related to water bodies in their different forms, as they have close links with the sea (such as Venice, San Rossore, Dubrovnik) and with rivers (like Florence, Rome, Ferrara, etc). Surely there are many others with problems of water supply, water treatment, wastewater disposal, etc. The main objective of the work is therefore to institute measures which will permit to contribute towards the conservation and protection of such precious heritage sites and cities, particularly in coastal area, in the context of present urbanization and climatic modifications. It has therefore become necessary to identify and classify not only urban centres of historical importance but also historical hydraulic structures and works developed for both beneficial and harmful water management, hereinafter referred to as good water and bad water respectively. Another objective is to raise the awareness of institutions and the public in general on the historical values of Heritage cities and hence the need to protect them. The main activities of the study are directed at the following: 1) Collection and collation of information and documentation on water sources, intakes and distribution structures, flood events especially around urban centres, structural characteristics of bridges, defensive hydraulic structures of rivers from ancient times to the present. 2) Creation of an integrative water-urban data base in the form of a virtual museum. 3) Design and preparation of feasibility strategies for relevant historical works for renovation purposes and also hydrological analysis of flood events and reconstruction of historical flood series towards re-qualification of urban and riverine environments in the face of climate change. 4) Hydraulic risk analysis of complex hydraulic systems, performing flooding scenarios at different flow rates.

Biscarini, C.; Carnevali, C.; Andah, K.

2009-04-01

205

Ghana Green Building Council public launch  

E-print Network

of : . overcrowding . irregular supplies of water and energy . poor sanitation and transport infrastructure social . compelling each other water waste people food security #12;Ghana Green Building Council public launch water waste people food security #12;Ghana Green Building Council public launch | examples of green

206

Copyright, folklore and music piracy in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the problems inadvertently created by modern notions of musical copyright (i.e. based on the individual ownership of specific works) introduced to Ghana via trans-national organisations such as multinational record companies, the business side of international ‘superstars’ and global copyright societies. The resulting conundrums for Ghana's musical evolution that will be examined in this paper, are of three

John Collins

2006-01-01

207

Ghana. Country Demographic Profiles, No. 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tables of demographic information about Ghana are presented, including size of population and estimates of fertility and mortality. The data were obtained primarily from population censuses in 1960 and 1970, a 1960 post-enumeration survey, and a 1971 supplementary enquiry. Because Ghana's vital registration system is incomplete, the data are not…

Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD. Population Div.

208

Oxbow Conservation Area; Middle Fork John Day River, Annual Report 2002-2003.  

SciTech Connect

In early 2001, the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs, through their John Day Basin Office, concluded the acquisition of the Oxbow Ranch, now know as the Oxbow Conservation Area (OCA). Under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Tribes are required to provided BPA an 'annual written report generally describing the real property interests in the Project, HEP analyses undertaken or in progress, and management activities undertaken or in progress'. The 2002 contract period was well funded and the second year of the project. A new manager started in April, allowing the previous manager to focus his efforts on the Forrest Ranch acquisition. However, the Oxbow Habitat manager's position was vacant from October through mid February of 2003. During this time, much progress, mainly O&M, was at a minimum level. Many of the objectives were not completed during this contract due to both the size and duration needed to complete such activities (example: dredge mine tailings restoration project) or because budget crisis issues with BPA ending accrual carryover on the fiscal calendar. Although the property had been acquired a year earlier, there were numerous repairs and discoveries, which on a daily basis could pull personnel from making progress on objectives for the SOW, aside from O&M objectives. A lack of fencing on a portion of the property's boundary and deteriorating fences in other areas are some reasons much time was spent chasing trespassing cattle off of the property. The success of this property purchase can be seen on a daily basis. Water rights were used seldom in the summer of 2002, with minor irrigation water diverted from only Granite Boulder Creek. Riparian fences on the river, Ruby and Granite Boulder creeks help promote important vegetation to provide shade and bank stabilization. Trees planted in this and past years are growing and will someday provide cover fish and wildlife. Even grazing on the property was carefully managed to ensure the protection of fish and wildlife habitat. Monitoring of property populations, resources, and management activities continued in 2002 to build a database for future management of this and other properties in the region.

Cochran, Brian; Smith, Brent

2003-07-01

209

Richness, Abundance, and Complementarity of Fruit-feeding Butterfly Species in Relict Sacred Forests and Forest Reserves of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sacred forest groves in Ghana are centuries old protected areas that were once part of continuous forest cover but now mostly\\u000a exist as relict forest patches embedded in an agropastoral landscape. We conducted a year-long survey of the fruit-feeding\\u000a butterfly fauna of four sacred groves and two forest reserves in the moist semi-deciduous forest zone of Ghana to characterize\\u000a resident

J. L. Bossart; E. Opuni-Frimpong; S. Kuudaar; E. Nkrumah

2006-01-01

210

Richness, abundance, and complementarity of fruit-feeding butterfly species in relict sacred forests and forest reserves of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sacred forest groves in Ghana are centuries old protected areas that were once part of continuous forest cover but now mostly exist as relict forest patches embedded in an agropastoral landscape. We conducted a year-long survey of the fruit-feeding butterfly fauna of four sacred groves and two forest reserves in the moist semi-deciduous forest zone of Ghana to characterize resident

J. L. BOSSART; E. Opuni-Frimpong; S. Kuudaar; E. Nkrumah

211

77 FR 2754 - Establishment of Everglades Headwaters National Wildlife Refuge and Conservation Area  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...serve as an interim management plan until the Service develops a Comprehensive Conservation Plan and/or appropriate step-down management plans. Authority This notice is published under the authority of the National Wildlife Refuge System...

2012-01-19

212

78 FR 20942 - Niobrara Confluence and Ponca Bluffs Conservation Areas, NE and SD; Draft Environmental Impact...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...conservation; enhance recreation; increase tourism; instill new money into local economies; improve quality of life through healthy air, water, and ecosystems; and increase the appreciation and awareness of the natural resources. This...

2013-04-08

213

Energy conservation manual for builders in the Mid-Columbia Basin area  

SciTech Connect

Results of a comprehensive cost-effectiveness evaluation of energy conservation measures currently available for use in typical residential buildings are presented. Section 2 discusses construction techniques for energy-efficient buildings and presents estimates of the cost of incorporating the conservation measures in the prototype building, the resultant annual energy savings, and the value of that annual energy savings based upon typical regional fuel prices. In Section 3 this information is summarized to prioritize conservation investments according to their economic effectiveness and offer general recommendations to home builders. Appendix A contains detailed information pertaining to the energy consumption calculations. Appendix B presents the methodology, assumptions, and results of a detail cash flow analysis of each of the conservation items for which sufficient performance and cost data are currently available. (MCW)

Mazzucchi, R.P.; Nieves, L.A.; Hopp, W.J.

1981-03-01

214

The role of published information in reviewing conservation objectives for Natura 2000 protected areas in the European Union.  

PubMed

Protected areas are designated to protect species and other features known to be present at the time of designation, but over time the information about the presence of protected species may change and this should call for a continued review of conservation objectives. Published scientific literature is one of the possible information sources that would trigger a review of conservation objectives. We studied how published data on new discoveries of protected animal species were taken into account by the nature conservation authorities in updating species lists of Natura 2000 sites in the European Union, which are the basis for conservation planning at the site-level. Over the period studied (2000-2011) only 40 % of published new protected species records were recognized by the authorities. The two main reasons for this seem to be a reliance on other sources of information by authorities and the difficulty in finding relevant information in scientific papers. The latter is because published faunistic information is very fragmented among different journals, and often insufficient in details. We recommend better cooperation between authors, publishers, and nature conservation authorities in terms of information presentation, publishing policy, and a regular review of published information. PMID:24318402

Opermanis, Otars; MacSharry, Brian; Bailly-Maitre, Jerome; Evans, Douglas; Sipkova, Zelmira

2014-03-01

215

The Role of Published Information in Reviewing Conservation Objectives for Natura 2000 Protected Areas in the European Union  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protected areas are designated to protect species and other features known to be present at the time of designation, but over time the information about the presence of protected species may change and this should call for a continued review of conservation objectives. Published scientific literature is one of the possible information sources that would trigger a review of conservation objectives. We studied how published data on new discoveries of protected animal species were taken into account by the nature conservation authorities in updating species lists of Natura 2000 sites in the European Union, which are the basis for conservation planning at the site-level. Over the period studied (2000-2011) only 40 % of published new protected species records were recognized by the authorities. The two main reasons for this seem to be a reliance on other sources of information by authorities and the difficulty in finding relevant information in scientific papers. The latter is because published faunistic information is very fragmented among different journals, and often insufficient in details. We recommend better cooperation between authors, publishers, and nature conservation authorities in terms of information presentation, publishing policy, and a regular review of published information.

Opermanis, Otars; MacSharry, Brian; Bailly-Maitre, Jerome; Evans, Douglas; Sipkova, Zelmira

2014-03-01

216

Resource use among rural agricultural households near protected areas in Vietnam: the social costs of conservation and implications for enforcement.  

PubMed

This article examines the use of forests in a protected area by nearby agriculturalists in central Vietnam. Research indicates that the majority of rural farmers interviewed who lived near a state designated protected area were receiving both subsistence and cash incomes from forest-based activities, primarily from the collection of forest products. However, much of the collection of forest produce was officially illegal, as it occurred in state protected forests, and interdiction efforts were on the increase. Yet, little attention has been paid in Vietnam to the need for income substitution for households who lose access to forest produce as a result of conservation enforcement, particularly in the case of farmers who live near, but not in, protected areas; their resources use has been 'invisible' due to a lack of attention and research on the topic. This misunderstanding of the importance of forests to rural farmers has the potential to result in households facing adverse welfare and livelihood outcomes as protected areas boundaries are tightened, and local communities face increased opportunity costs due to stricter conservation enforcement. The article concludes that substitution for loss of income due to conservation activities would best be achieved through carefully targeted interventions to specific high-impact and high-dependency households. Additionally, investments in new sources of wage labor and other low capital-input activities, rather than in agriculture, would likely be of most benefit. PMID:19924473

McElwee, Pamela D

2010-01-01

217

Insect Conservation in an Urban Biodiversity Hotspot: The San Francisco Bay Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The San Francisco Bay Area hosts a diverse insect fauna and a dense cluster of urban areas. The high diversity of insects in the Bay Area arises for three primary reasons: its location in the California biotic province, the diverse local environment and the entomologist-area effect. The juxtaposition of high insect diversity and an area intensively used by humans led

Edward F. Connor; John Hafernik; Jacqueline Levy; Vicki Lee Moore; Jancy K. Rickman

2002-01-01

218

Factors Affecting Perceptions of Human–Wildlife Interactions in Residential Areas of Northern New York and Implications for Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explored factors influencing people's perceptions of human–wildlife interactions in residential areas, reporting interactions to authorities, and potential conservation implications. Data were obtained from a mail survey of 1,439 landowners. We used logistic regression to predict probabilities of having non-positive perceptions and reporting interactions to authorities. Our models predicted perceptions relatively well; factors influencing perceptions included attitudes toward wildlife, experiences

Heidi E. Kretser; Paul D. Curtis; Joseph D. Francis; Rolf J. Pendall; Barbara A. Knuth

2009-01-01

219

Identifying new buffer areas for conserving waterbirds in the Mediterranean basin: the importance of the rice fields in Extremadura, Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of wetland loss on migratory waterbirds can be mitigated by the presence of anthropogenic habitats such as rice\\u000a fields. In the Mediterranean basin, wetlands have been drained and altered to such a degree that their very existence is threatened.\\u000a It is, therefore, essential to identify key buffer areas in the basin to develop conservation strategies for migratory waterbirds.

J. M. Sánchez-Guzmán; R. Morán; J. A. Masero; C. Corbacho; E. Costillo; A. Villegas; F. Santiago-Quesada

2007-01-01

220

Identifying new buffer areas for conserving waterbirds in the Mediterranean basin: the importance of the rice fields in Extremadura, Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of wetland loss on migratory waterbirds can be mitigated by the presence of anthropogenic habitats such as rice\\u000a fields. In the Mediterranean basin, wetlands have been drained and altered to such a degree that their very existence is threatened.\\u000a It is, therefore, essential to identify key buffer areas in the basin to develop conservation strategies for migratory waterbirds.

J. M. Sánchez-Guzmán; R. Morán; J. A. Masero; C. Corbacho; E. Costillo; A. Villegas; F. Santiago-Quesada

221

Survey of brucellosis at the wildlife–livestock interface on the Zimbabwean side of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in communal cattle and wildlife\\u000a at a wildlife–livestock interface in the southeast lowveld of Zimbabwe, part of the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation\\u000a Area. RBT and c-Elisa were used in serial for detection of antibodies against Brucella spp. Between July 2007 and October 2009, a total of 1,158 cattle

Calvin Gomo; Michel de Garine-Wichatitsky; Alexandre Caron; Davies Mubika Pfukenyi

222

Ghana Business News Ghana to remove taxes on imported timber products Print http://ghanabusinessnews.com/2009/06/30/ghana-to-remove-taxes-on-imported-timber-products/print/[10/1/2009 8:23:47 AM  

E-print Network

Ghana Business News » Ghana to remove taxes on imported timber products » Print http://ghanabusinessnews.com/2009/06/30/ghana-to-remove-taxes-on-imported-timber-products/print/[10/1/2009 8:23:47 AM] - Ghana Business News - http://ghanabusinessnews.com - Ghana to remove taxes on imported timber products Posted

223

Evolutionary History of Rabies in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Rabies virus (RABV) is enzootic throughout Africa, with the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) being the principal vector. Dog rabies is estimated to cause 24,000 human deaths per year in Africa, however, this estimate is still considered to be conservative. Two sub-Saharan African RABV lineages have been detected in West Africa. Lineage 2 is present throughout West Africa, whereas Africa 1a dominates in northern and eastern Africa, but has been detected in Nigeria and Gabon, and Africa 1b was previously absent from West Africa. We confirmed the presence of RABV in a cohort of 76 brain samples obtained from rabid animals in Ghana collected over an eighteen-month period (2007–2009). Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences obtained confirmed all viruses to be RABV, belonging to lineages previously detected in sub-Saharan Africa. However, unlike earlier reported studies that suggested a single lineage (Africa 2) circulates in West Africa, we identified viruses belonging to the Africa 2 lineage and both Africa 1 (a and b) sub-lineages. Phylogeographic Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis of a 405 bp fragment of the RABV nucleoprotein gene from the 76 new sequences derived from Ghanaian animals suggest that within the Africa 2 lineage three clades co-circulate with their origins in other West African countries. Africa 1a is probably a western extension of a clade circulating in central Africa and the Africa 1b virus a probable recent introduction from eastern Africa. We also developed and tested a novel reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for the detection of RABV in African laboratories. This RT-LAMP was shown to detect both Africa 1 and 2 viruses, including its adaptation to a lateral flow device format for product visualization. These data suggest that RABV epidemiology is more complex than previously thought in West Africa and that there have been repeated introductions of RABV into Ghana. This analysis highlights the potential problems of individual developing nations implementing rabies control programmes in the absence of a regional programme. PMID:21483707

Hayman, David T. S.; Johnson, Nicholas; Horton, Daniel L.; Hedge, Jessica; Wakeley, Philip R.; Banyard, Ashley C.; Zhang, Shoufeng; Alhassan, Andy; Fooks, Anthony R.

2011-01-01

224

Evolutionary history of rabies in Ghana.  

PubMed

Rabies virus (RABV) is enzootic throughout Africa, with the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) being the principal vector. Dog rabies is estimated to cause 24,000 human deaths per year in Africa, however, this estimate is still considered to be conservative. Two sub-Saharan African RABV lineages have been detected in West Africa. Lineage 2 is present throughout West Africa, whereas Africa 1a dominates in northern and eastern Africa, but has been detected in Nigeria and Gabon, and Africa 1b was previously absent from West Africa. We confirmed the presence of RABV in a cohort of 76 brain samples obtained from rabid animals in Ghana collected over an eighteen-month period (2007-2009). Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences obtained confirmed all viruses to be RABV, belonging to lineages previously detected in sub-Saharan Africa. However, unlike earlier reported studies that suggested a single lineage (Africa 2) circulates in West Africa, we identified viruses belonging to the Africa 2 lineage and both Africa 1 (a and b) sub-lineages. Phylogeographic Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis of a 405 bp fragment of the RABV nucleoprotein gene from the 76 new sequences derived from Ghanaian animals suggest that within the Africa 2 lineage three clades co-circulate with their origins in other West African countries. Africa 1a is probably a western extension of a clade circulating in central Africa and the Africa 1b virus a probable recent introduction from eastern Africa. We also developed and tested a novel reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for the detection of RABV in African laboratories. This RT-LAMP was shown to detect both Africa 1 and 2 viruses, including its adaptation to a lateral flow device format for product visualization. These data suggest that RABV epidemiology is more complex than previously thought in West Africa and that there have been repeated introductions of RABV into Ghana. This analysis highlights the potential problems of individual developing nations implementing rabies control programmes in the absence of a regional programme. PMID:21483707

Hayman, David T S; Johnson, Nicholas; Horton, Daniel L; Hedge, Jessica; Wakeley, Philip R; Banyard, Ashley C; Zhang, Shoufeng; Alhassan, Andy; Fooks, Anthony R

2011-01-01

225

Priority Areas for Conservation of Migratory and Resident Waterbirds on the Coast of Brazilian Amazonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study provides a georeferenced map of the occurrence of migratory and resident waterbirds on the coast of Brazilian Amazo- nia, and identifies priorities for the implementation of conservation strategies. The data base is derived from censuses of populations conducted at 44 localities in the Brazilian states of Amapá, Pará and Maranhão between 1998 and 2005, covering a total

Antonio Augusto; Ferreira Rodrigues

226

Maximising phylogenetic diversity in the selection of networks of conservation areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenetic diversity (PD) is a biodiversity measure that takes account of phylogenetic relationships (hence evolutionary history) between taxa. It may therefore provide a better currency for conservation evaluation than taxonomic richness. Here, we demonstrate that, contrary to recent assertions, optimisation tools can be used to maximise PD in the context of complementary reserve selection, and that the spatial overlap between

Ana S. L. Rodrigues; Kevin J. Gaston

2002-01-01

227

Environmental Conservation/Studies "focus area" (with potential courses listed) Urban Stewardship  

E-print Network

of Arboriculture NRC 597WR Water Resources Management & Policy NRC 597R Watershed Science and Management NRC 597T ENVIRSCI 342 Pest, Env & Public Policy ENVIRSCI 397B Plants & Env ENVIRSCI 452 Haz Material OSHA GEO-SCI 597K ST-Conservation Geography HISTORY 383 American Env History HT-MGT 230 Introduction to Travel

Schweik, Charles M.

228

Biochar/compost project in Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In cooperation with the organization Abokobi Society Switzerlands (ASS) the biochar/compost project tries to assist impecunious farmers in the Tamale /Walewale area in the northern region of Ghana. The soil of these farmers is often overused and low in organic matter and minerals. Field tests have been carried out since 2009 in the Walewale area and in the year 2011 also in the Tamale area. In 2011 combinations of Biochar with other natural fertilizers were tested, such as poultry manure and compost. By using the combination of biochar, compost and poultry manure as an organic soil improvement material the soil quality could be improved and higher crop yields of 50% and more could be achieved, without the use of chemical fertilizer. It is possible to achieve remarkably higher crop yields for a longer period of time, with only one single application. Local farmers were shown the new trial results in the field. They were convinced by the positive results of the crop yields. Those who would also like to improve the soil of their fields, could be given initial aid allowing them to help themselves to improve their dire situation. The biochar/compost project provided the occasion to raise awareness amongst local farmers for sustainable agriculture.

Roessler, K.; Jenny, F.

2012-04-01

229

Conservation and tourism development of house settlements in Moso matriarchate in Lugu Lake area  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the present situation of the settlement and the influence of tourism development and construction. It\\u000a discusses the attitude toward the conservation and development of the settlement as well as the way to maintain the production,\\u000a life, and culture of the Mosian and the way to promote the sustainable development of the settlement by tourism.

Yaoyun Xing; Zhujiu Xia; Jian Dai

2009-01-01

230

Assessment of rainwater harvesting in Northern Ghana  

E-print Network

This study assesses the current state of rainwater harvesting in the Northern Region of Ghana and makes recommendations regarding if and how rainwater harvesting could be used to address Pure Home Water's goal of reaching ...

Barnes, David Allen

2009-01-01

231

Aging and Old Age in Ghana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides a profile of aging and old age in Ghana. It covers aging trends and their implications for development. It is noted that, although the population aged 60 and over in Ghana is estimated to rise from 286,000 in 1960 to 2,425,000 in 2025, the aging of the population will not get under way until well after 2025. It is suggested…

Brown, C. K.

232

The amphibians of the forested parts of south-western Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the herpetofauna of four forests, designated as Globally Significant Biodiversity Areas in the Western Region, Ghana. We recorded a total of 47 amphibian species, among them the first country records for the genera Acanthixalus and Phlyctimantis, as well as new taxa within the genera Arthroleptis and Astylosternus. The species Acanthixalus sonjae was so far only known from Ivory

MARK-OLIVER R ÖDEL; ALEX C; ADAM D. LEACHÉ; RAUL E. DIAZ; MATTHEW K. FUJITA; RAFFAEL ERNST

233

From a technology focus to innovation development : the management of cocoa pests and diseases in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ghana is a major producer of cocoa in the world and relies heavily on the crop for foreign exchange revenue. However, production levels declined from the mid 1960s reaching the lowest level in 1983. The decline in production was a result of decreasing areas under cultivation, and low yields. Pests and diseases are inadequately controlled, and the use of synthetic

E. N. A. Dormon

2006-01-01

234

Evaluating Team Project-Work Using Triangulation: Lessons from Communities in Northern Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper uses triangulation to assess key aspects of a team-based, participatory action research programme for undergraduates in rural communities across northern Ghana. The perceptions of the programme and its effects on the students, staff and host communities are compared, showing areas of agreement and disagreement. The successes of the…

Clark, Gordon; Jasaw, Godfred Seidu

2014-01-01

235

Boron Levels in Soils Cropped to Coffee and their Relationships to some Soil Properties in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on boron levels in soils cropped to coffee were carried out in Ghana due to widespread reports on boron deficiency in soils of some coffee producing countr ies. Leaves and soils were sampled from Cocobod coffee plantations at Bogoso, Suhuma, Manso-Mim, Bunso and Bepong, which represent the main coffee growing areas in the Western, Ashanti and Eastern regions of

A. A. Afrifa; K. Ofori-Frimpong; M. K. Abekoe

236

Using vessel monitoring system data to improve systematic conservation planning of a multiple-use marine protected area, the Kosterhavet National Park (Sweden).  

PubMed

When spatial fishing data is fed into systematic conservation planning processes the cost to a fishery could be ensured to be minimal in the zoning of marine protected areas. We used vessel monitoring system (VMS) data to map the distribution of prawn trawling and calculate fishing intensity for 1-ha grid cells, in the Kosterhavet National Park (Sweden). We then used the software Marxan to generate cost-efficient reserve networks that represented every biotope in the Park. We asked what were the potential gains and losses in terms of fishing effort and species conservation of different planning scenarios. Given a conservation target of 10 % representation of each biotope, the fishery need not lose more than 20 % of its fishing grounds to give way to cost-efficient conservation of benthic diversity. No additional reserved area was needed to achieve conservation targets while minimizing fishing costs. We discuss the benefits of using VMS data for conservation planning. PMID:23715796

Gonzalez-Mirelis, Genoveva; Lindegarth, Mats; Sköld, Mattias

2014-03-01

237

Groundwater Exploration for Rural Communities in Ghana, West Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exploration for potable water in developing countries continues to be a major activity, as there are more than one billion people without access to safe drinking water. Exploration for groundwater becomes more critical in regions where groundwater movement and occurrence is controlled by secondary features such as fractures and faults. Drilling success rates in such geological settings are generally very low, but can be improved by integrating geological, hydrogeological, aerial photo interpretation with land-based geophysical technology in the selection of drilling sites. To help alleviate water supply problems in West Africa, the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation and other donors, since 1990, have funded the World Vision Ghana Rural Water Project (GRWP) to drill wells for potable water supplies in the Greater Afram Plains (GAP) of Ghana. During the first two years of the program, drilling success rates using traditional methods ranged from 35 to 80 percent, depending on the area. The average drilling success rate for the program was approximately 50 percent. In an effort to increase the efficiency of drilling operations, the Desert Research Institute evaluated and developed techniques for application to well-siting strategies in the GAP area of Ghana. A critical project element was developing technical capabilities of in-country staff to independently implement the new strategies. Simple cost-benefit relationships were then used to evaluate the economic advantages of developing water resources using advanced siting methods. The application of advanced methods in the GAP area reveal an increase of 10 to 15 percent in the success rate over traditional methods. Aerial photography has been found to be the most useful of the imagery products covering the GAP area. An effective approach to geophysical exploration for groundwater has been the combined use of EM and resistivity methods. Economic analyses showed that the use of advanced methods is cost-effective when success rates with traditional methods are less than 70 to 90 percent. Finally, with the focus of GRWP activities shifting to Ghana's northern regions, new challenges in drilling success rates are being encountered. In certain districts, success rates as low as 35 percent are observed, raising questions about the efficacy of existing well-siting strategies in the current physical setting, and the validity of traditional cost-benefit analyses for assessing the economic aspects of water exploration in drought-stricken areas.

McKay, W. A.

2001-05-01

238

Effects of Spearfishing on Reef Fish Populations in a Multi-Use Conservation Area  

PubMed Central

Although spearfishing is a popular method of capturing fish, its ecological effects on fish populations are poorly understood, which makes it difficult to assess the legitimacy and desirability of spearfishing in multi-use marine reserves. Recent management changes within the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP) fortuitously created a unique scenario by which to quantify the effects of spearfishing on fish populations. As such, we employed underwater visual surveys and a before-after-control-impact experimental design to investigate the effects of spearfishing on the density and size structure of target and non-target fishes in a multi-use conservation park zone (CPZ) within the GBRMP. Three years after spearfishing was first allowed in the CPZ, there was a 54% reduction in density and a 27% reduction in mean size of coral trout (Plectropomus spp.), the primary target species. These changes were attributed to spearfishing because benthic habitat characteristics and the density of non-target fishes were stable through time, and the density and mean size of coral trout in a nearby control zone (where spearfishing was prohibited) remained unchanged. We conclude that spearfishing, like other forms of fishing, can have rapid and substantial negative effects on target fish populations. Careful management of spearfishing is therefore needed to ensure that conservation obligations are achieved and that fishery resources are harvested sustainably. This is particularly important both for the GBRMP, due to its extraordinarily high conservation value and world heritage status, and for tropical island nations where people depend on spearfishing for food and income. To minimize the effects of spearfishing on target species and to enhance protection of functionally important fishes (herbivores), we recommend that fishery managers adjust output controls such as size- and catch-limits, rather than prohibit spearfishing altogether. This will preserve the cultural and social importance of spearfishing in coastal communities where it is practised. PMID:23251656

Frisch, Ashley J.; Cole, Andrew J.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Rizzari, Justin R.; Munkres, Katherine P.

2012-01-01

239

Soil and Water Conservation in Arid and Semiarid Areas: The Chinese Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

In China, soil erosion is a serious environmental problem and a major threat to the sustainability of agriculture and economic development. The total area subjected to soil erosion covers 3 670 000 km 2, i.e., 38.2% of the total land area. For a long period of time, particularly since the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, the

Xiao-Yan Li

240

Development of a School Based Hearing Conservation Program for Use in Rural Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project was designed to develop and evaluate hearing loss prevention programs for use with youth in grades 4 and 7 in rural areas. There is a high prevalence of hearing impairment among adolescents living in rural areas, particularly those with farmi...

G. A. Flamme, S. Myers-Verhage, J. A. Merchant, A. M. Stromquist, C. Zwerling

2005-01-01

241

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act corrective measures study: Area 6 decontamination pond facility, corrective action unit no. 92  

SciTech Connect

Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 92, the Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility (DPF), is an historic disposal unit located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada (Figures 1 - 1, 1-2, and 1-3). The NTS is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), which has been required by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) to characterize the DPF under the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part A Permit (NDEP, 1995) for the NTS and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 265 (1996c). The DPF is prioritized in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) but is governed by the permit. The DPF was characterized through sampling events in 1994, 1996, and 1997. The results of these sampling events are contained in the Final Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Industrial Site Environmental Restoration Site Characterization Report, Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility, Revision I (DOE/NV, 1997). This Corrective Measures Study (CMS) for the Area 6 DPF has been prepared for the DOE/NV`s Environmental Restoration Project. The CMS has been developed to support the preparation of a Closure Plan for the DPF. Because of the complexities of the contamination and regulatory issues associated with the DPF, DOE/NV determined a CMS would be beneficial to the evaluation and selection of a closure alternative.

NONE

1997-10-01

242

Picking up the pieces: conserving remnant natural areas in the post-industrial landscape of the Calumet Region  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Calumet Region was shaped by geologic forces, succession, and interacting biomes converging on a unique natural landscape. Over the past 4500 years, a strand plain has formed to the north of a geologic area called Toleston Beach. Sequential and differential primary succession of dune and swale communities in this region allowed species from different biomes to interact freely. In the mid-nineteenth century, commerce and settlement drastically changed the area, and natural areas were fragmented, manipulated, and degraded by cultural intrusions and industrialization. Despite the near obliteration of dune and swale habitat, small fragments of natural land escaped destruction. These native fragments maintained some semblance of the landscape that once covered the region. Currently, these native fragments are threatened by the lingering intrusion of historic contamination and the continuing presence of industry and commerce. Restoration and conservation of these remnants will need to be a process of integrating biological diversity goals into the landscape of the industrialized region through planning and design. We outline here the natural history of the region, the philosophical rationale for conservation, and possible approaches for integrating and maintaining these valuable remnant resources and processes.

Labus, Paul; Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith Becker

1999-01-01

243

Interactions between a Trawl Fishery and Spatial Closures for Biodiversity Conservation in the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area, Australia  

PubMed Central

Background The Queensland East Coast Otter Trawl Fishery (ECOTF) for penaeid shrimp fishes within Australia's Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA). The past decade has seen the implementation of conservation and fisheries management strategies to reduce the impact of the ECOTF on the seabed and improve biodiversity conservation. New information from electronic vessel location monitoring systems (VMS) provides an opportunity to review the interactions between the ECOTF and spatial closures for biodiversity conservation. Methodology and Results We used fishing metrics and spatial information on the distribution of closures and modelled VMS data in a geographical information system (GIS) to assess change in effort of the trawl fishery from 2001–2009 and to quantify the exposure of 70 reef, non-reef and deep water bioregions to trawl fishing. The number of trawlers and the number of days fished almost halved between 2001 and 2009 and new spatial closures introduced in 2004 reduced the area zoned available for trawl fishing by 33%. However, we found that there was only a relatively minor change in the spatial footprint of the fishery as a result of new spatial closures. Non-reef bioregions benefited the most from new spatial closures followed by deep and reef bioregions. Conclusions/Significance Although the catch of non target species remains an issue of concern for fisheries management, the small spatial footprint of the ECOTF relative to the size of the GBRWHA means that the impact on benthic habitats is likely to be negligible. The decline in effort as a result of fishing industry structural adjustment, increasing variable costs and business decisions of fishers is likely to continue a trend to fish only in the most productive areas. This will provide protection for most benthic habitats without any further legislative or management intervention. PMID:21695155

Grech, Alana; Coles, Rob

2011-01-01

244

Knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to meningitis in northern Ghana.  

PubMed

Meningitis has a significant impact in the Sahel, but the mechanisms for transmission and factors determining a person's vulnerability are not well understood. Our survey examined the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of people in a meningitis-endemic area in the Upper East region of northern Ghana to identify social, economic, and behavioral factors that may contribute to disease transmission and possible interventions that might improve health outcomes. Key results suggest potential interventions in response to the risk posed by migration, especially seasonal migration, a lack of knowledge about early symptoms causing delayed treatment, and a need for further education about the protective benefits of vaccination. PMID:23775016

Hayden, Mary H; Dalaba, Maxwell; Awine, Timothy; Akweongo, Patricia; Nyaaba, Gertrude; Anaseba, Dominic; Pelzman, Jamie; Hodgson, Abraham; Pandya, Rajul

2013-08-01

245

Conservation priorities and population structure of woody medicinal plants in an area of caatinga vegetation (Pernambuco State, NE Brazil).  

PubMed

In spite of heavy harvesting pressure on some of the most popular medicinal plant species, there are very few published studies concerning their conservation the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil. In light of this fact, the present work sought to evaluate the local conservation and the harvesting sustainability of medicinal plants in an region of caatinga vegetation employing a fusion of biological and cultural approaches. Ethnobotanical methodologies and techniques were employed in the community of "Riachão de "Malhada de Pedra" (municipality of Caruaru, state of Pernambuco, Brazil) in order to document local knowledge concerning medicinal plants and to examine the availability of those plants in a caatinga vegetation fragment located near that community. A total of 21 medicinal plant species were identified in the area and classified according to ecological factors and local uses. Two plants (Ziziphus joazeiro and Myracrodruon urundeuva) stood out has having high priority for conservation efforts. Sixteen species were identified as having populations adequate for harvesting through a system of pre-determined quotas, while four species were deemed sufficiently abundant to be harvested without risk of causing significant impact on their sustainability. PMID:17279457

de Oliveira, Rodrigo L C; Lins Neto, Ernani M F; Araújo, Elcida L; Albuquerque, Ulysses P

2007-09-01

246

76 FR 38370 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Approval of a Marine Conservation Plan for Pacific Insular Areas...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Pacific Insular Areas; Western Pacific Sustainable Fisheries Fund AGENCY: National Marine...INFORMATION CONTACT: Jarad Makaiau, Sustainable Fisheries, NMFS Pacific Islands Regional...be deposited into the Western Pacific Sustainable Fisheries Fund (Fund) for use by...

2011-06-30

247

78 FR 48861 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Approval of a Marine Conservation Plan for Pacific Insular Areas...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Pacific Insular Areas; Western Pacific Sustainable Fisheries Fund AGENCY: National Marine...INFORMATION CONTACT: Jarad Makaiau, Sustainable Fisheries, NMFS Pacific Islands Regional...be deposited into the Western Pacific Sustainable Fisheries Fund (Fund) for use by...

2013-08-12

248

Global Priority Conservation Areas in the Face of 21st Century Climate Change  

PubMed Central

In an era when global biodiversity is increasingly impacted by rapidly changing climate, efforts to conserve global biodiversity may be compromised if we do not consider the uneven distribution of climate-induced threats. Here, via a novel application of an aggregate Regional Climate Change Index (RCCI) that combines changes in mean annual temperature and precipitation with changes in their interannual variability, we assess multi-dimensional climate changes across the “Global 200” ecoregions – a set of priority ecoregions designed to “achieve the goal of saving a broad diversity of the Earth’s ecosystems” – over the 21st century. Using an ensemble of 62 climate scenarios, our analyses show that, between 1991–2010 and 2081–2100, 96% of the ecoregions considered will be likely (more than 66% probability) to face moderate-to-pronounced climate changes, when compared to the magnitudes of change during the past five decades. Ecoregions at high northern latitudes are projected to experience most pronounced climate change, followed by those in the Mediterranean Basin, Amazon Basin, East Africa, and South Asia. Relatively modest RCCI signals are expected over ecoregions in Northwest South America, West Africa, and Southeast Asia, yet with considerable uncertainties. Although not indicative of climate-change impacts per se, the RCCI-based assessment can help policy-makers gain a quantitative and comprehensive overview of the unevenly distributed climate risks across the G200 ecoregions. Whether due to significant climate change signals or large uncertainties, the ecoregions highlighted in the assessment deserve special attention in more detailed impact assessments to inform effective conservation strategies under future climate change. PMID:23359638

Li, Junsheng; Lin, Xin; Chen, Anping; Peterson, Townsend; Ma, Keping; Bertzky, Monika; Ciais, Philippe; Kapos, Valerie; Peng, Changhui; Poulter, Benjamin

2013-01-01

249

Conditions associated with protected area success in conservation and poverty reduction  

PubMed Central

Protected areas are the dominant approach to protecting biodiversity and the supply of ecosystem services. Because these protected areas are often placed in regions with widespread poverty and because they can limit agricultural development and exploitation of natural resources, concerns have been raised about their potential to create or reinforce poverty traps. Previous studies suggest that the protected area systems in Costa Rica and Thailand, on average, reduced deforestation and alleviated poverty. We examine these results in more detail by characterizing the heterogeneity of responses to protection conditional on observable characteristics. We find no evidence that protected areas trap historically poorer areas in poverty. In fact, we find that poorer areas at baseline seem to have the greatest levels of poverty reduction as a result of protection. However, we do find that the spatial characteristics associated with the most poverty alleviation are not necessarily the characteristics associated with the most avoided deforestation. We show how an understanding of these spatially heterogeneous responses to protection can be used to generate suitability maps that identify locations in which both environmental and poverty alleviation goals are most likely to be achieved. PMID:21873177

Ferraro, Paul J.; Hanauer, Merlin M.; Sims, Katharine R. E.

2011-01-01

250

Pedestrians Injury Patterns in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Objective To establish the associations between pedestrian injury and explanatory variables such as vehicular characteristics, temporal trends, and road environment. Methods A retrospective analysis of de-identified pedestrian crash data between 2002 and 2006 was conducted using the Building & Road Research Institute’s crash data bank. We estimated the odds ratios associated with casualty fatalities using a multinomial logistic regression. Results There were 812 pedestrian casualties reported, out of which 33% were fatal, 45% sustained serious injuries requiring hospitalization, and 22% were slightly injured but were not hospitalized. Crossing the roadway accounted for over 70% of all pedestrians deaths. Whereas fatalities in 2002 and 2003 were statistically indistinguishable from those of 2004(p>0.05), in comparison with 2004, there were significantly fewer fatalities in 2005 and 2006 (78% and 65% reduction respectively). According to police report, the probability that a pedestrian fatality occurring in Ghana is attributable to excessive speeding is 65%. The adjusted odds ratio of pedestrian fatality associated with speeding compared with driver inattentiveness was 3.6(95% CI: 2.5 to 5.2). It was also observed that generally, lighter vehicular masses were associated with lower pedestrian fatalities. Compared with buses, pedestrians were less likely to die when struck by private cars (52%), pick-up trucks (57%), and motorcycles (86%). Conclusion Pedestrian death remains the leading cause of fatality among urban road users in Ghana. Risk factors associated with pedestrian fatality include being hit by heavy vehicles, speeding, and roadside activities such as street hawking, jaywalking and nighttime walking. Steps which may contribute to reducing pedestrian fatalities include measures to reduce vehicles speeds in settlements, providing traffic medians and lighting streets in settlements, and discouraging street and roadside activities such as hawking. PMID:20441816

Damsere-Derry, James; Ebel, Beth E.; Mock, Charles N.; Afukaar, Francis; Donkor, Peter

2010-01-01

251

Demographic patterns and sustainable development in Ghana.  

PubMed

There is a growing recognition that the present demographic patterns in sub-Saharan Africa, including Ghana, do not augur well for the achievement of sustainable development. Ghana is characterized by a youthful population, rapid population growth, uneven population distribution, high fertility, and rural-urban migration which has brought human numbers into collision with resources to sustain them. It is submitted that the issues discussed are equally applicable to the subregion as well. The estimated population in 1993 was about 16.4 million. The population of Ghana increased from 1970 to 1984 at a rate of growth of 2.6% per annum. The proliferation of small settlements has serious implications for sustainable development. Urban centers comprised about 12.9% of the total population in 1948, 23% in 1960, 28.3% in 1970, and 31.3% in 1984. The average woman in Ghana still has more than six children. The 1988 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS) indicated that the median age at first marriage for women was 16.5 years. Contraceptive use is low in sub-Sahara Africa. Currently married women (15-49) currently using any modern method ranged from 1% in Burundi (1987) and Mali (1987) to 36% in Zimbabwe (1988/89). The rapid population growth in Ghana, coupled with the concentration of infrastructural facilities and job opportunities in the urban centers, has resulted in a massive rural-urban migration. Basic social facilities like health, water, housing, and electricity have been stretched to their breakpoints. The Government of Ghana initiated a major effort to put environmental issues on the priority agenda in March 1988. This led to the preparation of an Environmental Action Plan (EAP) in 1991 to address issues relating to the protection of the environment, but the need is still urgent to adopt relevant population policies as a basic strategy in sustainable development. PMID:12290510

Tawiah, E O

1995-01-01

252

Characterisation of the European Marine Sites in South West England: The Fal and Helford Candidate Special Area of Conservation (cSAC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Conservation (Natural Habitats, & c.) Regulations 1994 which implement the Habitats Directive (Council Directive 92\\/43\\/EEC) and Birds Directive (79\\/409\\/EEC) in the UK include a number of provisions for the protection of European Marine Sites (marine candidate Special Areas of Conservation (cSAC) and Special Protection Areas (SPAs)), including the requirement for competent authorities to assess the effects of new and

W. J. Langston; B. S. Chesman; G. R. Burt; M. Taylor; R. Covey; N. Cunningham; P. Jonas; S. J. Hawkins

2006-01-01

253

Characterisation of the European Marine Sites in South West England: the Fal and Helford candidate Special Area of Conservation (cSAC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Conservation (Natural Habitats, & c.) Regulations 1994 which implement the Habitats Directive (Council Directive 92\\/43\\/EEC) and Birds Directive (79\\/409\\/EEC) in the UK include a number of provisions for the protection of European Marine Sites (marine candidate Special Areas of Conservation (cSAC) and Special Protection Areas (SPAs)), including the requirement for competent authorities to assess the effects of new and

W. Langston; B. Chesman; G. Burt; M. Taylor; R. Covey; N. Cunningham; P. Jonas; S. Hawkins

254

Seismicity and seismotectonics of southern Ghana: lessons for seismic hazard mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ghana is located on the West African craton and is far from the major earthquake zone of the world. It is therefore largely considered a stable region. However, the southern part of the country is seismically active. Records of damaging earthquakes in Ghana date as far back as 1615. A study on the microseismic activity in southern Ghana shows that the seismic activity is linked with active faulting between the east-west trending Coastal boundary fault and a northeast-southwest trending Akwapim fault zone. Epicentres of most of the earthquakes have been located close to the area where the two major faults intersect. This can be related to the level of activity of the faults. Some of the epicentres have been located offshore and can be associated with the level of activity of the coastal boundary fault. A review of the geological and instrumental recordings of earthquakes in Ghana show that earthquakes have occurred in the past and are still liable to occur within the vicinity of the intersection of the Akwapim fault zone and the Coastal boundary fault. Data from both historical and instrumental records indicate that the most seismically active areas in Ghana are the west of Accra, where the Akwapim fault zone and the Coastal boundary fault intersect. There are numerous minor faults in the intersection area between the Akwapim fault zone and the Coastal boundary fault. This mosaic of faults has a major implication for seismic activity in the area. Earthquake disaster mitigation measures are being put in place in recent times to reduce the impact of any major event that may occur in the country. The National Disaster Management Organization has come out with a building guide to assist in the mitigation effort of earthquake disasters and floods in the country. The building guide clearly stipulates the kind of material to be used, the proportion, what should go into the foundation for one or two storey building, the electrical materials to be used and many others.

Amponsah, Paulina

2014-05-01

255

Explosive Growth, Protected Areas and Conservation Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence is given on very rapid growth in the cities and suburbs of Abu Dhabi and Dubai as well as in hinterland areas of UAE. Some environmental and socioeconomic effects are discussed, notably high demand for space, water and energy in the desert environment as well as impacts on ecosystems of land and sea. Responses are illustrated on the basis

Gordon Nelson; Amer Rghei

256

Area Standard: Proposal of a Measure for Environmental Conservation, Corresponding to Changes in Land Improvement Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land improvement projects including farm land readjustment change the space composition of farmland, and have strong influence not only on working environment but on natural environment. Thus, the MAFF (Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries) is requesting for the project operation in harmony with the environment. However, recent farm land readjustment projects often introduce subsurface irrigation/drainage channels in place of open channels which provide habitat for the local ecosystem. If such a situation advanced, rapid decrease of surface water is likely to trigger new environmental degradation. This research examined measures for environmental preservation in land improvement projects based on recent technical developments. The authors contend that priority should be given to “space” preservation among other environmental elements, and proposed a provision of “area standard” to avoid potential threats on the local ecosystem. “Area standard” would be a promising measure since it could be easily applied in our country where the “no net loss principle” has yet to been established.

Arita, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Shizuka

257

Conservation genetics of maned wolves in a highly impacted area of the Brazilian Cerrado biome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maned wolves are large canids currently considered vulnerable to extinction due to habitat loss. They are still commonly found\\u000a within the urban mesh inside the Brazilian Federal District (Distrito Federal—DF), in nearby Protected Areas (PAs), and in\\u000a surrounding farms. We evaluated the genetic diversity of maned wolves in three PAs of the DF, using both invasive and noninvasive\\u000a techniques to

Marília Bruzzi Lion; Eduardo Eizirik; Adrian Antonio Garda; Manoel Ludwig da Fontoura-Rodrigues; Flávio Henrique Guimarães Rodrigues; Jader Soares Marinho-Filho

2011-01-01

258

Conservation of Aquatic Resources through the Use of Freshwater Protected Areas: Opportunities and Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater environments are currently experiencing an alarming decline in biodiversity. As a result, scientists and managers\\u000a must look for alternative management techniques to protect these aquatic systems. One such option that has potential to protect\\u000a freshwater environments from numerous threats is the use of freshwater protected areas (FPAs). FPAs are portions of the freshwater\\u000a environment partitioned to minimize disturbances and

Cory D. Suski; Steven J. Cooke

2007-01-01

259

Management of hazardous waste containers and container storage areas under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act  

SciTech Connect

DOE`s Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division, has prepared this guidance document to assist waste management personnel in complying with the numerous and complex regulatory requirements associated with RCRA hazardous waste and radioactive mixed waste containers and container management areas. This document is designed using a systematic graphic approach that features detailed, step-by-step guidance and extensive references to additional relevant guidance materials. Diagrams, flowcharts, reference, and overview graphics accompany the narrative descriptions to illustrate and highlight the topics being discussed. Step-by-step narrative is accompanied by flowchart graphics in an easy-to-follow, ``roadmap`` format.

Not Available

1993-08-01

260

National waste management infrastructure in Ghana.  

PubMed

Radioactive materials have been used in Ghana for more than four decades. Radioactive waste generated from their applications in various fields has been managed without adequate infrastructure and any legal framework to control and regulate them. The expanded use of nuclear facilities and radiation sources in Ghana with the concomitant exposure to human population necessitates effective infrastructure to deal with the increasing problems of waste. The Ghana Atomic Energy Act 204 (1963) and the Radiation Protection Instrument LI 1559 (1993) made inadequate provision for the management of waste. With the amendment of the Atomic Energy Act, PNDCL 308, a radioactive waste management centre has been established to take care of all waste in the country. To achieve the set objectives for an effective waste management regime, a waste management regulation has been drafted and relevant codes of practice are being developed to guide generators of waste, operators of waste management facilities and the regulatory authority. PMID:9915643

Darko, E O; Fletcher, J J

1998-12-01

261

Conservation genetics of maned wolves in a highly impacted area of the Brazilian Cerrado biome.  

PubMed

Maned wolves are large canids currently considered vulnerable to extinction due to habitat loss. They are still commonly found within the urban mesh inside the Brazilian Federal District (Distrito Federal--DF), in nearby Protected Areas (PAs), and in surrounding farms. We evaluated the genetic diversity of maned wolves in three PAs of the DF, using both invasive and noninvasive techniques to obtain DNA that was later amplified for five microsatellite markers. We sampled 23 wolves: 10 with the noninvasive method, three captured in traps, six road-killed, and four rescued in urban areas. In Águas Emendadas Ecological Station (ESECAE) we also used samples from six specimens captured between 1997 and 1998 for a temporal comparison. For maned wolves, non-invasive techniques are affordable and easier to conduct in the field, while laboratory costs are much lower for invasive samples. Hence, a sampling strategy combining both techniques may provide an interesting approach for molecular ecology studies requiring comprehensive coverage of local individuals. On the basis of such integrated sampling scheme, our analyses indicated that none of the investigated populations currently present deviations from Hardy-Weinberg expectations or indication of inbreeding. Furthermore, in ESECAE there was no reduction in genetic diversity during the last 9 years. Overall, maned wolves did not present evidence of genetic structuring among the three sampled PAs. These results thus indicate that individual exchange among PAs is still occurring at sufficient rates to avoid differentiation, and/or that the recent fragmentation in the region has not yet produced measurable effects in the genetic diversity of maned wolves. PMID:21298553

Lion, Marília Bruzzi; Eizirik, Eduardo; Garda, Adrian Antonio; Fontoura-Rodrigues, Manoel Ludwig da; Rodrigues, Flávio Henrique Guimarães; Marinho-Filho, Jader Soares

2011-03-01

262

Predicting the spatial distribution of a seabird community to identify priority conservation areas in the timor sea.  

PubMed

Understanding spatial and temporal variability in the distribution of species is fundamental to the conservation of marine and terrestrial ecosystems. To support strategic decision making aimed at sustainable management of the oceans, such as the establishment of protected areas for marine wildlife, we identified areas predicted to support multispecies seabird aggregations in the Timor Sea. We developed species distribution models for 21 seabird species based on at-sea survey observations from 2000-2013 and oceanographic variables (e.g., bathymetry). We applied 4 statistical modeling techniques and combined the results into an ensemble model with robust performance. The ensemble model predicted the probability of seabird occurrence in areas where few or no surveys had been conducted and demonstrated 3 areas of high seabird richness that varied little between seasons. These were located within 150 km of Adele Island, Ashmore Reef, and the Lacepede Islands, 3 of the largest aggregations of breeding seabirds in Australia. Although these breeding islands were foci for high species richness, model performance was greatest for 3 nonbreeding migratory species that would have been overlooked had regional monitoring been restricted to islands. Our results indicate many seabird hotspots in the Timor Sea occur outside existing reserves (e.g., Ashmore Reef Marine Reserve), where shipping, fisheries, and offshore development likely pose a threat to resident and migratory populations. Our results highlight the need to expand marine spatial planning efforts to ensure biodiversity assets are appropriately represented in marine reserves. Correspondingly, our results support the designation of at least 4 new important bird areas, for example, surrounding Adele Island and Ashmore Reef. Pronostico de la Distribución Espacial de una Comunidad de Aves Marinas para Identificar Áreas Prioritarias de Conservación en el Mar de Timor. PMID:24976050

Lavers, Jennifer L; Miller, Mark G R; Carter, Michael J; Swann, George; Clarke, Rohan H

2014-12-01

263

Community and household determinants of water quality in coastal Ghana  

PubMed Central

Associations between water sources, socio-demographic characteristics and household drinking water quality are described in a representative sample of six coastal districts of Ghana’s Central Region. Thirty-six enumeration areas (EAs) were randomly chosen from a representative survey of 90 EAs in rural, semi-urban and urban residence strata. In each EA, 24 households were randomly chosen for water quality sampling and socio-demographic interview. Escherichia coli per 100 ml H2O was quantified using the IDEXX Colilert® system and multi-stage regression models estimated cross-sectional associations between water sources, sanitation and socio-demographic factors. Almost three quarters, 74%, of the households have > 2 E. coli /100 ml H2O. Tap water has significantly lower E. coli levels compared with surface or rainwater and well water had the highest levels. Households with a water closet toilet have significantly lower E. coli compared with those using pit latrines or no toilets. Household size is positively associated, and a possessions index is negatively associated, with E. coli. Variations in community and household socio-demographic and behavioural factors are key determinants of drinking water quality. These factors should be included in planning health education associated with investments in water systems. PMID:19108554

McGarvey, Stephen T.; Buszin, Justin; Reed, Holly; Smith, David C.; Rahman, Zarah; Andrzejewski, Catherine; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; White, Michael J.

2013-01-01

264

Soil and water conservation decision behavior of subsistence farmers in the Eastern Highlands of Ethiopia: a case study of the Hunde-Lafto area  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a plot-level analysis of factors influencing the adoption of soil and water conservation structures in the Hunde-Lafto area of the Eastern Ethiopian Highlands. The analysis is based on a survey of 145 farm households managing a total of 265 farm plots. The multinomial logit analysis of the survey data shows that plot-level adoption of conservation measures is

Wagayehu Bekele; Lars Drake

2003-01-01

265

Stochastic Dominance Analysis of Soil and Water Conservation in Subsistence Crop Production in the Eastern Ethiopian Highlands: The Case of the Hunde-Lafto Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to analyze whether investment in soil and water conservation results in a higher yield and income\\u000a and\\/or mitigate variability in yield and income to subsistence farm households in the Hunde-Lafto area. Net returns from crop\\u000a production with and without soil and water conservation (SWC) are compared based on stochastic dominance (SD) criteria. A\\u000a non-parametric

Wagayehu Bekele

2005-01-01

266

Conservation Potential of Abandoned Military Areas Matches That of Established Reserves: Plants and Butterflies in the Czech Republic  

PubMed Central

Military training generates frequent and irregular disturbance followed by succession, resulting in fine-scaled mosaics of ecological conditions in military training areas (MTAs). The awareness that MTAs may represent important biodiversity sanctuaries is increasing recently. Concurrently, changes in military doctrine are leading to abandonment of many MTAs, which are being brought under civilian administration and opened for development. We surveyed vascular plants in 43 and butterflies in 41 MTAs in the Czech Republic and compared the records with plants and butterfly records from 301 and 125 nature reserves, respectively. After controlling for effects of area, geography, and climate, we found that plant species richness was equal in the two land use categories; butterfly richness was higher in MTAs; reserves hosted more endangered plants and more endangered butterflies. Ordination analyses, again controlled for potential nuisance effects, showed that MTAs and reserves differed also in species composition. While specialist species of nationally rarest habitat types inclined towards the reserves, MTAs hosted a high representation of endangered species depending on either disturbed ground, or successionaly transient conditions. These patterns reflect the history of the national nature reserves network, and the disturbance-succession dynamics within MTAs. The conservation value of formerly army-used lands is increasingly threatened by abandonment, and conservationists should support either alternative uses mimicking army activities, or sustainable management regimes. PMID:23326388

Cizek, Oldrich; Vrba, Pavel; Benes, Jiri; Hrazsky, Zaboj; Koptik, Jiri; Kucera, Tomas; Marhoul, Pavel; Zamecnik, Jaroslav; Konvicka, Martin

2013-01-01

267

Species-area relationships as a tool for the conservation of benthic invertebrates in Italian coastal lagoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the recent decades, the preservation of coastal and estuarine waters has been recognised as a priority at national and international levels. At the European scale, the Water Framework Directive (WFD) was established with the aim to achieve a good ecological status of all significant water bodies by the year 2015. Among the descriptors used to define the ecological status of water bodies, taxonomic diversity (usually species richness) is a widespread metric employed across taxa and habitats. However, species richness is known to increase with area at a decelerating rate, producing the species-area relationship (SAR). Thus, removing the effect of area (even in case of low magnitude), is mandatory before comparing species richness between sites. Here we tested recently developed multi-model SARs as a standardisation tool for comparing benthic species richness (annelids, arthropods, molluscs and total species richness) in 18 Italian coastal lagoons with a surface area ranging from 0.19 to 552 km2, i.e. three orders of magnitude. However, the sampling effort was often incompletely described and certainly heterogeneous among the studies retrieved from the database. Therefore, we used the number of studies as a proxy for the sampling effort in each lagoon and estimated species richness from observed values using non-parametric occurrence-based estimators. We further corrected for bias that might be induced by sampling efforts being unrepresentative for the surface area of different lagoons. After applying these corrections, we estimated that c. 25-30% of species richness could be explained by surface area. We investigated the spatial congruence of species richness patterns across taxa and showed that molluscs could serve as a potential surrogate for total macro-invertebrate species richness. We further found that the intensity of conservation focus and the gradient of ecological status are decoupled in Italian coastal lagoons. More generally, our study pave the way for the use of flexible tools for the comparison of species richness across water bodies in the context of the WFD.

Guilhaumon, François; Basset, Alberto; Barbone, Enrico; Mouillot, David

2012-12-01

268

Rights of the Child in Ghana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child by the Republic of Ghana. The report's introduction asserts that although OMCT welcomes the measures taken by the Ghanian…

Lacroix, Anne Laurence

269

The enforcement of commercial contracts in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using case studies of manufacturing and trading firms, this paper documents how commercial contracts are enforced in Ghana. Interviews were guided by a conceptual framework emphasizing credible enforcement mechanisms and information asymmetries. Results show that compliance with contractual obligations is mostly motivated by the desire to preserve personalized relationships based on mutual trust. Harassment is the main form of debt

Marcel Fafchamps

1996-01-01

270

When urban taps run dry: Sachet water consumption and health effects in low income neighborhoods of Accra, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intraurban differentials in safe drinking water in developing cities have been exacerbated by rapid population growth that exceeds expansion of local water infrastructure. In Accra, Ghana, municipal water is rationed to meet demand, and the gap in water services is increasingly being filled by private water vendors selling packaged “sachet” water. Sachets extend drinking water coverage deeper into low-income areas

Justin Stoler; Günther Fink; Richard Appiah Otoo; Joseph A. Ampofo; Allan G. Hill

271

Household Segmentation in Food Insecurity and Soil Improving Practices in Ghana  

E-print Network

, the main livelihood in Greater Accra is agriculture. Approximately 70 percent of the population in this region depends on agriculture and agriculture related activities (Ghana Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development (GMoLGRD) 2006). Primary... sources of livelihood are crop farming, livestock, fisheries, and distribution of farm produce (GMoLGRD 2006). Six districts comprise the Greater Accra region (Figure 5). Total land area in this region is 324,000 km2 Agricultural production...

Nata, Jifar T

2013-08-09

272

The long-term impacts of fisheries on epifaunal assemblage function and structure, in a Special Area of Conservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fisheries can have profound effects on epifaunal community function and structure. We analysed the results from five dive surveys (1975-1976, 1980, 1983, 2003 and 2007), taken in a Special Area of Conservation, Strangford Lough, Northern Ireland before and after a ten year period of increased trawling activity between 1985 and 1995. There were no detectable differences in the species richness or taxonomic distinctiveness before (1975-1983) and after (2003-2007) this period. However, there was a shift in the epifaunal assemblage between the surveys in 1975-1983 and 2003-2007. In general, the slow-moving, or sessile, erect, filter-feeders were replaced by highly mobile, swimming, scavengers and predators. There were declines in the frequency of the fished bivalve Aequipecten opercularis and the non-fished bivalves Modiolus modiolus and Chlamys varia and some erect sessile invertebrates between the surveys in 1975-1983 and 2003-2007. In contrast, there were increases in the frequency of the fished and reseeded bivalves Pecten maximus and Ostrea edulis, the fished crabs Cancer pagurus and Necora puber and the non-fished sea stars Asterias rubens, Crossaster papposus and Henricia oculata between the surveys in 1975-1983 and 2003-2007. We suggest that these shifts could be directly and indirectly attributed to the long-term impacts of trawl fishing gear, although increases in the supply of discarded bait and influxes of sediment may also have contributed to changes in the frequency of some taxa. These results suggest that despite their limitations, historical surveys and repeat sampling over long periods can help to elucidate the inferred patterns in the epifaunal community. The use of commercial fishing gear was banned from two areas in Strangford Lough in 2011, making it a model ecosystem for assessing the long-term recovery of the epifaunal community from the impacts of mobile and pot fishing gear.

Strain, E. M. A.; Allcock, A. L.; Goodwin, C. E.; Maggs, C. A.; Picton, B. E.; Roberts, D.

2012-01-01

273

Acoustic and satellite remote sensing of shallow nearshore marine habitats in the Gwaii Haanas National Marine Conservation Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to map nearshore habitat (i.e. submerged aquatic vegetation) is an integral component of marine conservation. The main goal of this thesis was to examine the ability of high resolution, multispectral satellite imagery and a single-beam acoustic ground discrimination system to map the location of marine habitats in Bag Harbour, found in the Gwaii Haanas National Marine Conservation Area Reserve. To meet this goal, two objectives were addressed: (1) Using the QTC View V sing-beam acoustic ground discrimination system, identify which frequency (50 kHz or 200 kHz) is best suited for mapping marine habitat; (2) evaluate the ability to map nearshore marine habitat using WorldView-2 high resolution, multispectral satellite imagery and compare the results of marine habitat maps derived from the acoustic and satellite datasets. Ground-truth data for both acoustic and satellite data were collected via towed underwater video camera on June 3rd and 4th, 2012. Acoustic data (50 and 200 kHz) were collected on June 23rd and 24 th, 2012, respectively. The results of this study are organized into two papers. The first paper focuses on objective 1 where the QTC View V single-beam acoustic ground discrimination system was used to map nearshore habitat at a site within the Gwaii Haanas National Marine Conservation Area using two survey frequencies -- 50 kHz and 200 kHz. The results show that the 200 kHz data outperformed the 50 kHz data set in both thematic and spatial accuracy. The 200 kHz dataset was able to identify two species of submerged aquatic vegetation, eelgrass ( Zostera marina) and a red algae (Chondrocanthus exasperatus ) while the 50 kHz dataset was only able to detect the distribution of eelgrass. The best overall accuracy achieved with the 200 kHz dataset was 86% for a habitat map with three classes (dense eelgrass, dense red algae and unvegetated substrate) compared to the 50 kHz habitat classification with two classes (dense eelgrass and unvegetated substrate) that had an overall accuracy of 70%. Neither dataset was capable if discerning the distribution of green algae (Ulva spp.) or brown algae (Fucus spp.), also present at the site. The second paper examines the benthic habitat maps created using WorldView-2 satellite imagery and the QTC View V single-beam acoustic ground discrimination system (AGDS) at 200 kHz (objective 2). Optical and acoustic remote sensing technologies both present unique capabilities of mapping nearshore habitat. Acoustic systems are able to map habitat in subtidal regions outside of the range of optical sensors while optical sensors such as WorldView-2 provide higher spatial and spectral resolution. The results of this study found that the WorldView-2 achieved the highest overall accuracy (75%) for mapping shallow (<3 m) benthic classes (green algae, brown algae, eelgrass and unvegetated substrate). The 200 kHz data were found to perform best in deeper (>3 m) regions and were able to detect the distribution of eelgrass, red algae and unvegetated substrate. A final habitat map was produced composed of these outputs to create a final, comprehensive habitat map of Bag Harbour. These results highlight the benefits and limitations of each remote sensing technology from a conservation management perspective. The main benefits of the WorldView-2 imagery stem from the high resolution (2 x 2 m) pixel resolution, with a single image covering many kilometers of coastline, and ability to discern habitats in the intertidal region that were undetectable by AGDS. However, the main limitation of this technology is the ability to acquire imagery under ideal conditions (low tide and calm seas). In contrast, the QTC View V system requires more hours spent collecting acoustic data in the field, is limited in the number of habitats it is able to detect and creates maps based on interpolated point data (compared to the continuous raster data of the WorldView-2 imagery). If, however, the objectives of the conservation management to create high resolution benthic habitat maps of subtidal habitats (e.g

Reshitnyk, Luba Yvanka

274

Application of a taxon priority system for conservation planning by selecting areas which are most distinct from environments already reserved  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measures of phylogenetic diversity have been used to establish conservation priorities amongst groups of taxa. We adapt one such measure (‘Phylogenetic Diversity’ or ‘PD’) to a hierarchical environmental classification and use its algorithm to design a conservation reserve system (using the Northern Territory of Australia as a case study). This approach accords priority selection to sites which are most dissimilar

D. P. Faith

1996-01-01

275

Comparison of Soil Phosphorus Storage in the Ridge and Slough Landscape in Water Conservation Area 3A (WCA3A) of the Everglades  

E-print Network

Comparison of Soil Phosphorus Storage in the Ridge and Slough Landscape in Water Conservation Area analyzed in 2 cm increments for Total Phosphorus (TP) and five metals (Ca, Cu, Fe, Al, and K). The ridge of the historic Everglades landscape. Ridge soils, known as Everglades peat, are comprised of brownish black

Ma, Lena

276

Habitat use during the aquatic phase of the newts Triturus vulgaris (L.) and T. cristatus (Laurenti) in central Norway: proposition for a conservation and monitoring area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amphibian populations are declining at an alarming pace in many parts of the world. Consequently, as part of the strategy for establishing a 360 km2 conservation and reference area for amphibians in central Norway, 341 lentic water bodies were surveyed to investigate and briefly describe their hydrography and the occurrence of the newts Triturus vulgaris (L.) and T. cristatus (Laurenti)

Jon K. Skei; Dag Dolmen; Lars Rønning; Thor H. Ringsby

2006-01-01

277

The development of community water supplies in Ghana*  

PubMed Central

Ghana, with a population of 6 700 000, largely distributed in rural districts, is representative of many a country where the problem of water supply is associated with the construction of numerous small supplies for the villages and towns scattered over the whole area. This paper gives a general impression of the various methods in use for tackling the problem. Well-sinking, drilling, and pond-digging, and the advantages and disadvantages of a variety of methods, are described, and the problems met with under different geological conditions are considered. Details of the various systems for pumping the water from the source to the villages and towns are given. The important question of standardization, both in design and equipment, is dealt with, and reference is made to the operation of supplies and to the training of operatives. PMID:13892347

Ferguson, W. R. W.

1962-01-01

278

Patterns of female suicidal behavior in Ghana.  

PubMed

The suicidal behavior of African females is a rarely explored topic. The present study is a descriptive analysis of fatal and nonfatal female suicidal behavior in Ghana. Patterns of both fatal and nonfatal female suicidal behavior recorded by the Ghana Police Service during 2006-2008 are examined and described in depth. The data show that during the 3-yr. period, there were 11 fatal and 4 nonfatal suicidal acts by females, out of the total 243 fatal and 44 nonfatal suicidal acts found in the official data. The author describes the ages and occupations of the women and girls who engaged in fatal and nonfatal suicidal behavior, as well as the suicide method, location, circumstances, and police-assigned motives for the suicidal acts. The author concludes that additional research on female suicidal behavior in Africa and other non-Western societies is warranted to develop a more precise understanding of suicidality. PMID:22238863

Adinkrah, Mensah

2011-10-01

279

The James Koetting Ghana Field Recording Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Throughout the 1970s, Professor James Koetting of Brown University spent a great deal of time in Ghana recording traditional and popular music. Recently the Center for Digital Initiatives at the Brown University Library created this excellent online digital collection that brings together Koetting's field recordings, field notebooks, photographs, and recorded interviews. The collection affords a number of insights into the performances of musicians in Accra and others in the Kasena region of Ghana. Visitors can read through several essays before looking closer into the collection, which they can navigate by clicking on sections like "Gallery" and "Field Recordings". The "Field Recordings" section offers a fine introduction into Koetting's important work and this particular genre of music. Lastly, visitors can also look through the additional "Resources", which include a bibliography, a discography, and a glossary of relevant musical terms.

280

Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation  

E-print Network

Resources & 1 credit Conservation Spring FNR4343C Forest Water ResourcesMajoring in Forest Resources & Conservation Specialization: Protected Areas Management Protected Areas Management is for students interested in managing lands for conservation and restoration

Watson, Craig A.

281

Assessment of radiofrequency radiation within the vicinity of some GSM base stations in Ghana.  

PubMed

A radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic radiation safety survey had been carried out at public access points in 46 towns with 76 Global Systems for Mobile communication cell sites in two major cities in Ghana. The objective was to determine the levels of RF field in residential areas, schools and market places, and compare the measured results with the guidelines set by the International Commission of Non-Ionising Radiation (ICNIRP). Measurements were made with log-periodic antenna coupled with spectrum analyzer. The results varied from 0.85 to 1.07 mW m(-2) and 0.78 to 1.19 mW m(-2) for the transmission frequencies of 900 and 1800 MHz, respectively. The result generally shows a compliance with the ICNIRP limit of 0.024 % but was 108 times higher than a similar survey carried out in Ghana 2 y ago. PMID:22262818

Deatanyah, P; Amoako, J K; Fletcher, J J; Asiedu, G O; Adjei, D N; Dwapanyin, G O; Amoatey, E A

2012-08-01

282

A statistical model for spatial patterns of Buruli ulcer in the Amansie West district, Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Buruli ulcer (BU), a skin ulceration caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU), is the second most widespread mycobacterium infection in Ghana. Its infection pathway is possibly related to the potable and agricultural water supply. This study aims to identify environmental factors that influence infection in a part of Ghana. It examines the significance of contaminated surface drainage channels and groundwater using conditional autoregressive (CAR) statistical modelling. This type of modelling implies that the spatial pattern of BU incidence in one community depends on the influence of the environment in neighbouring communities. Covariates were included to assess the spatial relationship between environmental risk factors and BU incidence in the study area. The study reveals an association between (a) the mean As content of soil and spatial distribution of BU and (b) the distance to sites of gold mining and spatial distribution of BU. We conclude that both arsenic in the natural environment and gold mining influence BU infection.

Duker, Alfred A.; Stein, Alfred; Hale, Martin

2006-06-01

283

(Kyoto University African Studies Seminar) Conservation and Sustainable Use of Wildlife and Native Livestock  

E-print Network

been put in place to ensure the sustainable management and conservation of wildlife resources in Ghana. In conjunction with wildlife conservation, it is both logical and necessary to sustainably manage and utilize. This would go a long way to curb hunting and overharvesting of wildlife which often employs techniques

Takada, Shoji

284

Ghana and the World Music Boom  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the 1950s to the early 1970s Ghana led the way in West Africa with its popular highlife and Afro-rock music and its viable recording and music production industry. However, things began to decline from the late 1970s due to a corrupt military government, followed by two coups, several years of night curfew and the imposition of massive import duties

John Collins

2009-01-01

285

Community awareness of stroke in Accra, Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Community awareness of stroke, especially the risk factors and warning signs is important in the control of the disease. In sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about community awareness of stroke though the brunt of stroke is currently borne in this region. The aim of the study was to evaluate stroke awareness in Accra (capital city of Ghana) particularly, the risk factors and warning signs. Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving systematic sampling of 63 households in each of the 11 sub metropolitan areas of Accra. A structured questionnaire was used to collect stroke awareness data from respondents randomly sampled in the selected households. Logistic regression analyses were done to identify predictors of the main outcome variables including recognition of stroke risk factors, stroke warning signs and the organ affected by stroke. Results Only 40% (n?=?277) of the 693 respondents correctly identified the brain as the organ affected in stroke. Similarly, less than half of the respondents could recognize any of the established stroke risk factors as well as any of the established stroke warning signs. Over 70% (n?>?485) of the respondents either believed that stroke is a preventable disease, or lifestyle alterations can be made to reduce the risk of stroke, or stroke requires emergency treatment. In multivariate analysis, predictors of stroke awareness were: age <50 years (OR?=?0.56, CI?=?0.35-0.92, p?=?0.021), presence of a stroke risk factor (OR?=?2.37, CI?=?1.52-3.71, p?

2014-01-01

286

Water Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity was developed to get students thinking about the many ways that people use freshwater and how we can conserve this precious and fundamental natural resource. Students will watch a short documentary describing issues related to clean water availability, analyze water-use data and start to think about how they consume and can conserve water. This background knowledge will lead to students collecting data about their own water use and finding areas in their lives to conserve water. This activity uses the 5E instructional model and is part of the "Survivor Earth" series of one-hour lessons.

287

www.deafrica.net Botswana Ghana Mali Senegal Tanzania Zambia  

E-print Network

1 www.deafrica.net Botswana Ghana Mali Senegal Tanzania Zambia Development and Energy in Africa countries · Senegal to Tanzania · Ethiopia to South Africa · Plus 14 in between! · Wide selection of energy (DEA) Regional Workshop, Arusha, 16-18 Oct. 2007 #12;2 www.deafrica.net Botswana Ghana Mali Senegal

288

Artisanal Mining of Gold with Mercury in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the environmental impact of artisanal mining of gold with mercury (Hg) in Ghana. In spite of its positive socio- economic contributions, it is well known that artisanal mining of gold contributes in no small measure to land degradation, loss of biodiversity and natural resources, deforestation, water pollution, etc. In Ghana, these environmental problems remain poorly studied. In

A. K. Donkor; V. K. Nartey; J. C. Bonzongo; D. K. Adotey

289

USAID, Disability and Development in GhanaAnalysis and Recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors conducted research in Ghana in 1995 to determine the extent to which the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) mission in Ghana included people with disabilities as providers and recipients of services. Finding that no attempt had been made by USAID to include people with disabilities in any of its activities, the authors then examined the current

ROBERT L. METTS; NANSEA METTS

1998-01-01

290

Rainfall-Runoff and Erosion Data from the Mancos Shale Formation in the Gunnison Gorge National Conservation Area, Southwestern Colorado, 2003-2006  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data were collected and experiments were conducted from 2003 to 2006 by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, to support research into understanding processes that liberate, disperse, and concentrate erosion byproducts in Mancos Shale landscapes. The study area was the Gunnison Gorge National Conservation Area near Montrose and Delta, Colorado. This report includes data collected from 24, small-plot, rainfall-runoff simulations, 6 hillslope-erosion monitoring plots, 20 hillslope-creep monitoring sites, and 3 precipitation gages. Small-plot rainfall-runoff simulations were performed on paired (undisturbed and disturbed) plots to examine the effect of off-highway vehicle use on runoff and erosion. These data were collected in conjunction with several other studies done by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Gunnison Gorge National Conservation Area. Data collected in companion studies are published in separate open-file reports.

Elliott, John G.; Herring, James R.; Ingersoll, George P.; Kosovich, John J.; Fahy, Juli

2008-01-01

291

Migration, sexual networks, and HIV in Agbogbloshie, Ghana  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND HIV is spread through structured sexual networks, which are influenced by migration patterns, but network-oriented studies of mobility and HIV risk behavior have been limited. OBJECTIVE We present a comprehensive description and initial results from our Migration & HIV in Ghana (MHG) study in Agbogbloshie, an urban slum area within Accra, Ghana. METHODS The MHG study was a population-based cross-sectional study of adults aged 18–49 in Agbogbloshie in 2012. We used a one-year retrospective relationship history calendar to collect egocentric network data on sexual partners as well as migration and short-term mobility, and tested for prevalent HIV-1/2 infection. RESULTS HIV prevalence was 5.5%, with prevalence among women (7.2%) over twice that of men (2.8%). Three-quarters of residents were born outside the Greater Accra region, but had lived in Agbogbloshie an average of 10.7 years. Only 7% had moved housing structures within the past year. However, short-term mobility was common. Residents had an average of 7.3 overnight trips in the last year, with women reporting more travel than men. Thirty-seven percent of men and 9% of women reported more than one sexual partner in the last year. CONCLUSIONS Population-based surveys of migration and sexual risk behavior using relationship history calendars in low-resource settings can produce high quality data. Residents in Agbogbloshie are disproportionately affected by HIV, and have high levels of short-term mobility. HIV prevention interventions targeted to highly mobile populations in high prevalence settings may have far-reaching and long-term implications. PMID:25364298

Cassels, Susan; Jenness, Samuel M.; Biney, Adriana A. E.; Ampofo, William Kwabena; Dodoo, F. Nii-Amoo

2014-01-01

292

Geo-conservation: an example of the application of its principles in the sanitation of the polluted Laarder Wasmeren area near Hilversum, het Gooi, The Netherlands.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Laarder Wasmeren area near Hilversum, a nature reserve under management of the Goois Natuurreservaat with extensive drift sands and several fens, was heavily polluted by heavy metals and toxic organic substances as a result of prolonged discharge of sewage water onto the fens. Already upon the start of its environmental restoration in 2004, it became clear that the area holds important geological phenomena, including LateGlacial paleosols and multiple Holocene drift sands with intercalated paleosols. This discovery induced the Province of Noord-Holland in 2006 to declare het Gooi, of which the Laarder Wasmeren area forms part, a geological monument and thus to set limits for future activities that might lead to disturbance of its superficial geology. Today het Gooi is one of the 17 geological monuments of the province. The basic principle of provincial geo-conservation - minimal disturbance of the superficial geology - was also applied in the further restoration of the LWM area that included its ecological restoration as a nature reserve. This restoration project was supervised by the author and belongs to the major operations of that kind in the Netherlands. Completed in 2010/2011, it resulted in the discovery and conservation of a complex of Holocene drift sands and paleosols that is unique for the Netherlands. The project forms an excellent example of the application of a provincial geo-conservation policy.

Sevink, Jan; Khodabux, Eric; Landsmeer, Dick; Stoeten, Jan

2013-04-01

293

Geo-conservation: an example of the application of its principles in the sanitation of the polluted Laarder Wasmeren area near Hilversum, het Gooi, The Netherlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Laarder Wasmeren area near Hilversum, a nature reserve under management of the Goois Natuurreservaat with extensive drift sands and several fens, was heavily polluted by heavy metals and toxic organic substances as a result of prolonged discharge of sewage water onto the fens. Already upon the start of its environmental restoration in 2004, it became clear that the area holds important geological phenomena, including LateGlacial paleosols and multiple Holocene drift sands with intercalated paleosols. This discovery induced the Province of Noord-Holland in 2006 to declare het Gooi, of which the Laarder Wasmeren area forms part, a geological monument and thus to set limits for future activities that might lead to disturbance of its superficial geology. Today het Gooi is one of the 17 geological monuments of the province. The basic principle of provincial geo-conservation - minimal disturbance of the superficial geology - was also applied in the further restoration of the LWM area that included its ecological restoration as a nature reserve. This restoration project was supervised by the author and belongs to the major operations of that kind in the Netherlands. Completed in 2010/2011, it resulted in the discovery and conservation of a complex of Holocene drift sands and paleosols that is unique for the Netherlands. The project forms an excellent example of the application of a provincial geo-conservation policy.

Sevink, J.; Khodabux, E. R.; Landsmeer, D.; Stoeten, G. J.

2012-04-01

294

Conserving Biodiversity in a Human-Dominated World: Degradation of Marine Sessile Communities within a Protected Area with Conflicting Human Uses  

PubMed Central

Conservation research aims at understanding whether present protection schemes are adequate for the maintenance of ecosystems structure and function across time. We evaluated long-term variation in rocky reef communities by comparing sites surveyed in 1993 and again in 2008. This research took place in Tigullio Gulf, an emblematic case study where various conservation measures, including a marine protected area, have been implemented to manage multiple human uses. Contrary to our prediction that protection should have favored ecosystem stability, we found that communities subjected to conservation measures (especially within the marine protected area) exhibited the greatest variation toward architectural complexity loss. Between 1993 and 2008, chronic anthropogenic pressures (especially organic load) that had already altered unprotected sites in 1993 expanded their influence into protected areas. This expansion of human pressure likely explains our observed changes in the benthic communities. Our results suggest that adaptive ecosystem-based management (EBM), that is management taking into account human interactions, informed by continuous monitoring, is needed in order to attempt reversing the current trend towards less architecturally complex communities. Protected areas are not sufficient to stop ecosystem alteration by pressures coming from outside. Monitoring, and consequent management actions, should therefore extend to cover the relevant scales of those pressures. PMID:24143173

Parravicini, Valeriano; Micheli, Fiorenza; Montefalcone, Monica; Morri, Carla; Villa, Elisa; Castellano, Michela; Povero, Paolo; Bianchi, Carlo Nike

2013-01-01

295

Indicators of the statuses of amphibian populations and their potential for exposure to atrazine in four midwestern U.S. conservation areas.  

PubMed

Extensive corn production in the midwestern United States has physically eliminated or fragmented vast areas of historical amphibian habitat. Midwestern corn farmers also apply large quantities of fertilizers and herbicides, which can cause direct and indirect effects on amphibians. Limited field research regarding the statuses of midwestern amphibian populations near areas of corn production has left resource managers, conservation planners, and other stakeholders needing more information to improve conservation strategies and management plans. We repeatedly sampled amphibians in wetlands in four conservation areas along a gradient of proximity to corn production in Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin from 2002 to 2005 and estimated site occupancy. We measured frequencies of gross physical deformities in recent metamorphs and triazine concentrations in the water at breeding sites. We also measured trematode infection rates in kidneys of recently metamorphosed Lithobates pipiens collected from nine wetlands in 2003 and 2004. We detected all possible amphibian species in each study area. The amount of nearby row crops was limited in importance as a covariate for estimating site occupancy. We observed deformities in <5% of metamorphs sampled and proportions were not associated with triazine concentrations. Trematode infections were high in metamorphs from all sites we sampled, but not associated with site triazine concentrations, except perhaps for a subset of sites sampled in both years. We detected triazines more often and in higher concentrations in breeding wetlands closer to corn production. Triazine concentrations increased in floodplain wetlands as water levels rose after rainfall and were similar among lotic and lentic sites. Overall, our results suggest amphibian populations were not faring differently among these four conservation areas, regardless of their proximity to corn production, and that the ecological dynamics of atrazine exposure were complex. PMID:25216249

Sadinski, Walt; Roth, Mark; Hayes, Tyrone; Jones, Perry; Gallant, Alisa

2014-01-01

296

Indicators of the statuses of amphibian populations and their potential for exposure to atrazine in four midwestern U.S. conservation areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Extensive corn production in the midwestern United States has physically eliminated or fragmented vast areas of historical amphibian habitat. Midwestern corn farmers also apply large quantities of fertilizers and herbicides, which can cause direct and indirect effects on amphibians. Limited field research regarding the statuses of midwestern amphibian populations near areas of corn production has left resource managers, conservation planners, and other stakeholders needing more information to improve conservation strategies and management plans. We repeatedly sampled amphibians in wetlands in four conservation areas along a gradient of proximity to corn production in Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin from 2002 to 2005 and estimated site occupancy. We measured frequencies of gross physical deformities in recent metamorphs and triazine concentrations in the water at breeding sites. We also measured trematode infection rates in kidneys of recently metamorphosed Lithobates pipiens collected from nine wetlands in 2003 and 2004. We detected all possible amphibian species in each study area. The amount of nearby row crops was limited in importance as a covariate for estimating site occupancy. We observed deformities in <5% of metamorphs sampled and proportions were not associated with triazine concentrations. Trematode infections were high in metamorphs from all sites we sampled, but not associated with site triazine concentrations, except perhaps for a subset of sites sampled in both years. We detected triazines more often and in higher concentrations in breeding wetlands closer to corn production. Triazine concentrations increased in floodplain wetlands as water levels rose after rainfall and were similar among lotic and lentic sites. Overall, our results suggest amphibian populations were not faring differently among these four conservation areas, regardless of their proximity to corn production, and that the ecological dynamics of atrazine exposure were complex.

Sadinski, Walter; Roth, Mark; Hayes, Tyrone; Jones, Perry; Gallant, Alisa

2014-01-01

297

Child Labor and Schooling in Ghana. Ghana: Labor Markets and Poverty. Policy Research Working Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines the determinants of child labor in conjunction with school participation trends for children ages 7-14 in Ghana. The report is based on data from national household surveys conducted 1987-92. Specifically, the study examined the influence of variables such as child age and sex; parent's education, religion, and employment; and…

Canagarajah, Sudharshan; Coulombe, Harold

298

Evaluation of facilitative supervision visits in primary health care service delivery in Northern Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background In Ghana’s health delivery services, facilitative supervisory visit (FSV) as a system of management is new. This paper presents the standard evaluation results of FSV, which formed an integral part of the community-based health planning services (CHPS) initiative. Methods The study was conducted in the Upper West Region of Ghana. The Project developed guidelines and tools for FSV for four different health system levels – regional, district, sub-district and community levels. Electronic data from all four levels representing quarterly results were compiled into their annual equivalents, and summarized graphically for comparison. Results The data show that all the nine districts embraced the FSV concept even though they differed markedly with regard to the degree of adherence to some set benchmarks. Three DHMTs (Wa Municipal, Lawra and Jirapa) were graded as good while the remaining six DHMTs were adjudged as fair in relation to management of supplies, transport and equipment, information, meeting, and technical support. Conclusions The data further suggest that there is much to gain both individually and institutionally from FSVs. Generally, FSVs are crucial to the delivery of primary health care services in especially rural areas. PMID:24063365

2013-01-01

299

Migrant fertility in Ghana: selection versus adaptation and disruption as causal mechanisms.  

PubMed

The aim of the study presented in this paper is to disentangle the roles of three mechanisms -- selection, adaptation, and disruption -- in influencing migrant fertility in Ghana. Using data from the 1998 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, we fit Poisson and sequential logit regression models to discern the effects of the above mechanisms on cumulative fertility and annual probabilities of birth. Characteristics of migrants from four types of migration stream are examined and compared with those of non-migrants at origin and destination. We find substantial support for the selection hypothesis among both rural-urban and urban-rural migrants. Disruption is evident only in the fertility timing of second and higher-order births in Ghana. Our finding that migrants bear children at about the same rates as the natives at destination implies that the growth rate of cities will slow down quickly and that the rural population will continue to have high fertility. Thus to achieve a reduction in the national fertility level, family planning activities need to be directed towards rural areas. PMID:16754251

Chattopadhyay, Arpita; White, Michael J; Debpuur, Cornelius

2006-07-01

300

Feasibility evaluation of fired brick technology as a construction material and income-generating industry in Northern Ghana  

E-print Network

This work evaluates the potential to develop fired brick production in the Northern Region of Ghana. While several brick factories operate in southern Ghana, no factories are known to exist in northern Ghana, which remains ...

Bates, Caroline Nijole

2014-01-01

301

Distribution of two species of sea snakes, Aipysurus laevis and Emydocephalus annulatus , in the southern Great Barrier Reef: metapopulation dynamics, marine protected areas and conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aipysurus laevis and Emydocephalus annulatus typically occur in spatially discrete populations, characteristic of metapopulations; however, little is known about the\\u000a factors influencing the spatial and temporal stability of populations or whether specific conservation strategies, such as\\u000a networks of marine protected areas, will ensure the persistence of species. Classification tree analyses of 35 years of distribution\\u000a data (90 reefs, surveyed 1–11 times)

V. Lukoschek; H. Heatwole; A. Grech; G. Burns; H. Marsh

2007-01-01

302

Eco-floristic sectors and deforestation threats in Sumatra: identifying new conservation area network priorities for ecosystem-based land use planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogeographical studies are a necessary step in establishing conservation area networks. Determining the ecological factors\\u000a influencing vegetation is also a basic principle for hierarchical ecological classifications and a necessary prerequisite\\u000a for ecosystem-based land use planning. Eco-floristic sectors (EFS) have already been identified for the Indonesian island\\u000a of Sumatra, combining both approaches, dividing it into 38 EFSs representing unique ecosystems in

Yves LaumonierYumiko; Yumiko Uryu; Michael Stüwe; Arif Budiman; Budi Setiabudi; Oki Hadian

2010-01-01

303

Environmental and habitat management: the case of Ethiopia and Ghana.  

PubMed

This article examines the environment and habitat management experiences of Ethiopia and Ghana in the postindependence period (1960-2000). Based on extensive archival research, semistructured focused interviews of environment and habitat officers of the World Bank, the United Nations System and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and personal professional field experiences, the paper argues that the uncritical adoption of externally generated discourses, narratives, policy guidelines, and strategies of environmental and habitat management has structured thought and action in both countries. The experience of both countries in defining and responding to environmental and human settlement management is explored from a political ecology perspective. The analysis indicates that both countries have essentially adopted a technocratic, state-centered, and unsustainable management strategy framework based on population control, poverty reduction, sustainable development, and capacity-building. It also suggests that international organizations such as the World Bank, INCN, and the United Nations system have been important sources of thought and action in both countries. Conversely, regional international organizations such as the Economic Commission for Africa, the Organization of African Unity and the African Development Bank have largely served as conduits for the diffusion of global discourses, narratives, policies and strategies. The need for adopting management policies and strategies that are based on principles of multiple engagement, decentralization, incentives, public education, and participation is underscored. PMID:12592447

Kidane-Mariam, Tadesse

2003-03-01

304

Effects of deforestation pattern and private nature reserves on the forest conservation in settlement areas of the Brazilian Amazon  

E-print Network

Effects of deforestation pattern and private nature reserves on the forest conservation The effects of deforestation patterns, private nature-reserve extents and agricultural fallow periods deforestation pattern that allow to group the reserves from different farmers at the end of the lot. When

Metzger, Jean Paul Walter

305

Rivers in peril inside and outside protected areas: a systematic approach to conservation assessment of river ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper establishes a framework within which a rapid and pragmatic assessment of river ecosystems can be undertaken at a broad, subcontinental scale, highlighting some implications for achieving conservation of river biodiversity in water-limited countries. The status of river ecosystems associated with main rivers in South Africa was assessed based on the extent to which each ecosystem had been altered

Jeanne L. Nel; Dirk J. Roux; Gillian Maree; Cornelius J. Kleynhans; Juanita Moolman; Belinda Reyers; Mathieu Rouget; Richard M. Cowling

2007-01-01

306

[Conservation Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

Texas Education Agency, Austin.

307

Lighting Conservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the energy crisis has come an awareness of wasteful consumption practices. One area where research is being done is in lighting conservation. Information in this article is concerned with finding more effective and efficient lighting designs which include daylight utilization, task-oriented lighting, and lighting controls. (MA)

Arnold, Frank D.

1975-01-01

308

Who pays for health care in Ghana?  

PubMed Central

Background Financial protection against the cost of unforeseen ill health has become a global concern as expressed in the 2005 World Health Assembly resolution (WHA58.33), which urges its member states to "plan the transition to universal coverage of their citizens". An important element of financial risk protection is to distribute health care financing fairly in relation to ability to pay. The distribution of health care financing burden across socio-economic groups has been estimated for European countries, the USA and Asia. Until recently there was no such analysis in Africa and this paper seeks to contribute to filling this gap. It presents the first comprehensive analysis of the distribution of health care financing in relation to ability to pay in Ghana. Methods Secondary data from the Ghana Living Standard Survey (GLSS) 2005/2006 were used. This was triangulated with data from the Ministry of Finance and other relevant sources, and further complemented with primary household data collected in six districts. We implored standard methodologies (including Kakwani index and test for dominance) for assessing progressivity in health care financing in this paper. Results Ghana's health care financing system is generally progressive. The progressivity of health financing is driven largely by the overall progressivity of taxes, which account for close to 50% of health care funding. The national health insurance (NHI) levy (part of VAT) is mildly progressive and formal sector NHI payroll deductions are also progressive. However, informal sector NHI contributions were found to be regressive. Out-of-pocket payments, which account for 45% of funding, are regressive form of health payment to households. Conclusion For Ghana to attain adequate financial risk protection and ultimately achieve universal coverage, it needs to extend pre-payment cover to all in the informal sector, possibly through funding their contributions entirely from tax, and address other issues affecting the expansion of the National Health Insurance. Furthermore, the pre-payment funding pool for health care needs to grow so budgetary allocation to the health sector can be enhanced. PMID:21708026

2011-01-01

309

Ethnicity and sexual behavior in Ghana.  

PubMed

Using data from the 1993 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, this study explores the relationship between ethnicity and sexual behavior: having sex before age 17 and premarital sexual experience. All ethnic groups show substantial sexual experience before age 17 and premarital sexual engagement. Logistic regression analyses reveal that in general ethnicity influences the behaviors studied, especially for ever-married women. The data suggest that groups that practice matrilineal and patrilineal systems show differences in the likelihood of having sex before age 17. Contrary to expectation, there is an inverse relationship between education and sexual experience before age 17. The findings highlight the importance of group-specific programs in Africa. PMID:10842499

Addai, I

1999-01-01

310

Use of object-oriented classification and fragmentation analysis (1985-2008) to identify important areas for conservation in Cockpit Country, Jamaica.  

PubMed

Forest fragmentation is one of the most important threats to global biodiversity, particularly in tropical developing countries. Identifying priority areas for conservation within these forests is essential to their effective management. However, this requires current, accurate environmental information that is often lacking in developing countries. The Cockpit Country, Jamaica, contains forests of international importance in terms of levels of endemism and overall diversity. These forests are under severe threat from the prospect of bauxite mining and other anthropogenic disturbances. In the absence of adequate, up-to-date ecological information, we used satellite remote sensing data and fragmentation analysis to identify interior forested areas that have experienced little or no change as priority conservation sites. We classified Landsat images from 1985, 1989, 1995, 2002, and 2008, using an object-oriented method, which allowed for the inclusion of roads. We conducted our fragmentation analysis using metrics to quantify changes in forest patch number, area, shape, and aggregation. Deforestation and fragmentation fluctuated within the 23-year period but were mostly confined to the periphery of the forest, close to roads and access trails. An area of core forest that remained intact over the period of study was identified within the largest forest patch, most of which was located within the boundaries of a forest reserve and included the last remaining patches of closed-broadleaf forest. These areas should be given highest priority for conservation, as they constitute important refuges for endemic or threatened biodiversity. Minimizing and controlling access will be important in maintaining this core. PMID:20145994

Newman, Minke E; McLaren, Kurt P; Wilson, Byron S

2011-01-01

311

The importance of conflict-induced mortality for conservation planning in areas of humanelephant co-occurrence  

E-print Network

thresholds Human�wildlife conflict Multiple-use areas Population persistence Protected areas a b s t r a c t Multiple-use zones around protected areas are designed to balance human resource needs with wildlife aug- ment available wildlife habitat and population size (Pimm et al., 1988) while allowing for human

Oli, Madan K.

312

Site Alias None Network of Conservation Areas (NCA) NCA Site ID NCA Site Name NCA Site Code  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a large level grassland dominated by alkali sacaton (Sporobolus airoides), in a mosaic with sagebrush (Artemisia tridentate ssp. tridentata), greasewood (Sarcrobatus vermiculatus) and galleta (Hilaria jamesii) dominated areas. Adjacent Cinder Bluffs and other hills in the area have pinyon-juniper woodlands. This area was formerly heavily grazed, and had a dense sagebrush cover of 80% with a minimal understory.

Cinder Gulch

2009-01-01

313

The Role of a Global Protected Areas System in Conserving Biodiversity in the Face of Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impending global change requires levels of coordination, long-range planning and funding never before required of protected areas. To meet this need a truly global system of protected areas is required. This system will require major funding and must ensure the persistence of biodiversity over decades and centuries. It will need to include corridors of semi-natural areas, as well as core

Lee Hannah

314

The process of conserving biodiversity : from planning to evaluating conservation actions on private land in the Cape Lowlands, South Africa.  

E-print Network

??Includes abstract. Keywords: adaptive improvement, conservation-area selection, conservation planning, operational model, social learning institutions Conservation planning is composed of a systematic conservation assessment coupled with… (more)

Von Hase, Amrei

2009-01-01

315

Representing connectivity: quantifying effective habitat availability based on area and connectivity for conservation status assessment and recovery.  

PubMed

We apply a comprehensive suite of graph theoretic metrics to illustrate how landscape connectivity can be effectively incorporated into conservation status assessments and in setting conservation objectives. These metrics allow conservation practitioners to evaluate and quantify connectivity in terms of representation, resiliency, and redundancy and the approach can be applied in spite of incomplete knowledge of species-specific biology and dispersal processes. We demonstrate utility of the graph metrics by evaluating changes in distribution and connectivity that would result from implementing two conservation plans for three endangered plant species (Erigeron parishii, Acanthoscyphus parishii var. goodmaniana, and Eriogonum ovalifolium var. vineum) relative to connectivity under current conditions. Although distributions of the species differ from one another in terms of extent and specific location of occupied patches within the study landscape, the spatial scale of potential connectivity in existing networks were strikingly similar for Erigeron and Eriogonum, but differed for Acanthoscyphus. Specifically, patches of the first two species were more regularly distributed whereas subsets of patches of Acanthoscyphus were clustered into more isolated components. Reserves based on US Fish and Wildlife Service critical habitat designation would not greatly contribute to maintain connectivity; they include 83-91% of the extant occurrences and >92% of the aerial extent of each species. Effective connectivity remains within 10% of that in the whole network for all species. A Forest Service habitat management strategy excluded up to 40% of the occupied habitat of each species resulting in both range reductions and loss of occurrences from the central portions of each species' distribution. Overall effective network connectivity was reduced to 62-74% of the full networks. The distance at which each CHMS network first became fully connected was reduced relative to the full network in Erigeron and Acanthoscyphus due to exclusion of peripheral patches, but was slightly increased for Eriogonum. Distances at which networks were sensitive to loss of connectivity due to presence non-redundant connections were affected mostly for Acanthoscyphos. Of most concern was that the range of distances at which lack of redundancy yielded high risk was much greater than in the full network. Through this in-depth example evaluating connectivity using a comprehensive suite of developed graph theoretic metrics, we establish an approach as well as provide sample interpretations of subtle variations in connectivity that conservation managers can incorporate into planning. PMID:25320685

Neel, Maile; Tumas, Hayley R; Marsden, Brittany W

2014-01-01

316

Representing connectivity: quantifying effective habitat availability based on area and connectivity for conservation status assessment and recovery  

PubMed Central

We apply a comprehensive suite of graph theoretic metrics to illustrate how landscape connectivity can be effectively incorporated into conservation status assessments and in setting conservation objectives. These metrics allow conservation practitioners to evaluate and quantify connectivity in terms of representation, resiliency, and redundancy and the approach can be applied in spite of incomplete knowledge of species-specific biology and dispersal processes. We demonstrate utility of the graph metrics by evaluating changes in distribution and connectivity that would result from implementing two conservation plans for three endangered plant species (Erigeron parishii, Acanthoscyphus parishii var. goodmaniana, and Eriogonum ovalifolium var. vineum) relative to connectivity under current conditions. Although distributions of the species differ from one another in terms of extent and specific location of occupied patches within the study landscape, the spatial scale of potential connectivity in existing networks were strikingly similar for Erigeron and Eriogonum, but differed for Acanthoscyphus. Specifically, patches of the first two species were more regularly distributed whereas subsets of patches of Acanthoscyphus were clustered into more isolated components. Reserves based on US Fish and Wildlife Service critical habitat designation would not greatly contribute to maintain connectivity; they include 83–91% of the extant occurrences and >92% of the aerial extent of each species. Effective connectivity remains within 10% of that in the whole network for all species. A Forest Service habitat management strategy excluded up to 40% of the occupied habitat of each species resulting in both range reductions and loss of occurrences from the central portions of each species’ distribution. Overall effective network connectivity was reduced to 62–74% of the full networks. The distance at which each CHMS network first became fully connected was reduced relative to the full network in Erigeron and Acanthoscyphus due to exclusion of peripheral patches, but was slightly increased for Eriogonum. Distances at which networks were sensitive to loss of connectivity due to presence non-redundant connections were affected mostly for Acanthoscyphos. Of most concern was that the range of distances at which lack of redundancy yielded high risk was much greater than in the full network. Through this in-depth example evaluating connectivity using a comprehensive suite of developed graph theoretic metrics, we establish an approach as well as provide sample interpretations of subtle variations in connectivity that conservation managers can incorporate into planning.

Tumas, Hayley R.; Marsden, Brittany W.

2014-01-01

317

Sustainable and Unsustainable Agriculture in Ghana and  

E-print Network

The agricultural sector of African economies has faced considerable challenges within the past 50 years or so. Although agricultural production on the continent rose by an annual average of 2 % between 1965 and 1980 and has continued to increase by 1.8 % annually since then, population growth of 2.9 % per year has resulted in a per capita decline in agricultural production. From self-sufficiency in food production before the 1960s, many African countries have become net food importers, with a handful of them facing severe food shortages arising from drought, desertification, climate change and wars. In this paper we use the case of Ghana and Nigeria to explore some of the salient dynamics that have resulted in the current crisis in the agricultural sector of African economies. We argue that soil conditions, climate change, population growth, in combination with ineffective economic policies have contributed immensely to the sordid state of agriculture in Africa. We use historical and contemporary evidence gathered from Ghana and Nigeria during several visits to show how economic policies have interacted with biophysical and environmental factors to generate an unsustainable use of land, agricultural labor, and natural resources. Based on our field research, we propose an “agroentrepreneurial” model of agriculture that combines sustainable farming practices with entrepreneurship. This model enables farmers to take advantage of emerging markets in the food value chain, as well as enhance their living standards and self-esteem.

Steve Onyeiwu; Eric Pallant; Meredith Hanlon

318

Cancer incidence in Ghana, 2012: evidence from a population-based cancer registry  

PubMed Central

Background Data on cancers is a challenge in most developing countries. Population-based cancer registries are also not common in developing countries despite the usefulness of such registries in informing cancer prevention and control programmes. The availability of population-based data on cancers in Africa varies across different countries. In Ghana, data and research on cancer have focussed on specific cancers and have been hospital-based with no reference population. The Kumasi Cancer Registry was established as the first population-based cancer registry in Ghana in 2012 to provide information on cancer cases seen in the city of Kumasi. Methods This paper reviews data from the Kumasi Cancer Registry for the year 2012. The reference geographic area for the registry is the city of Kumasi as designated by the 2010 Ghana Population and Housing Census. Data was from all clinical departments of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Pathology Laboratory Results, Death Certificates and the Kumasi South Regional Hospital. Data was abstracted and entered into Canreg 5 database. Analysis was conducted using Canreg 5, Microsoft Excel and Epi Info Version 7.1.2.0. Results The majority of cancers were recorded among females accounting for 69.6% of all cases. The mean age at diagnosis for all cases was 51.6 years. Among males, the mean age at diagnosis was 48.4 compared with 53.0 years for females. The commonest cancers among males were cancers of the Liver (21.1%), Prostate (13.2%), Lung (5.3%) and Stomach (5.3%). Among females, the commonest cancers were cancers of the Breast (33.9%), Cervix (29.4%), Ovary (11.3%) and Endometrium (4.5%). Histology of the primary tumour was the basis of diagnosis in 74% of cases with clinical and other investigations accounting for 17% and 9% respectively. The estimated cancer incidence Age Adjusted Standardised Rate for males was 10.9/100,000 and 22.4/100, 000 for females. Conclusion This first attempt at population-based cancer registration in Ghana indicates that such registries are feasible in resource limited settings as ours. Strengthening Public Health Surveillance and establishing more Population-based Cancer Registries will help improve data quality and national efforts at cancer prevention and control in Ghana. PMID:24884730

2014-01-01

319

Marketing of Tropical Hardwood Wood Products from Ghana  

E-print Network

- The Forest of Ghana · Deforestation: 30% in 17 years (1955-1972) 750 km2/year since the turn of the 20C productive · Causes: farming, bush fires, fuel wood, wasteful logging practices, mining and quarrying #12

320

Household water treatment and safe storage product development in Ghana  

E-print Network

Microbial and/or chemical contaminants can infiltrate into piped water systems, especially when the system is intermittent. Ghana has been suffering from aged and intermittent piped water networks, and an added barrier of ...

Yang, Shengkun, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01

321

Consultative Processes in Community Development in Northern Ghana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the newly decentralized local government system in Ghana, communities have been slow to develop broad-based participatory consultative processes for community development. Inflexible bureaucracy also hinders involvement of stakeholders. (SK)

Aryeetey, Ellen Bortei-Doku

1998-01-01

322

Yaoundé-like virus in resident wild bird, Ghana  

E-print Network

Tissue and swab samples from 551 wild birds collected in Ghana (October-November 2007) were assayed for alphaviruses, flaviviruses, and influenza A viruses using polymerase chain (PCR) techniques. One pool sample tested positive for Flavivirus RNA...

Williams, Richard A. J.; Vá zquez, Ana; Asamte, Ivy; Bonney, Kofi; Odoom, Shirley; Puplampu, Naiki; Ampofo, William; Sá nchez-Seco, Marí a Paz; Tenorio, Antonio; Peterson, A. Townsend

2012-03-01

323

Dependence on forest resources and tropical deforestation in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Ghana, forests provide many products on which the local population subsists. However, these resources are depleting due\\u000a to a variety of factors including agricultural expansion and over-exploitation of forest resources. This paper presents an\\u000a analysis of the level of local dependence on forest resources and its implications for forest management in Ghana. The paper\\u000a also outlines the causes of

Mark Appiah; Dominic Blay; Lawrence Damnyag; Francis K. Dwomoh; Ari Pappinen; Olavi Luukkanen

2009-01-01

324

Anthropogenic sources and environmentally relevant concentrations of heavy metals in surface water of a mining district in Ghana: a multivariate statistical approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of heavy metals in surface water and their potential origin (natural and anthropogenic) were respectively determined and analysed for the Obuasi mining area in Ghana. Using Hawth's tool an extension in ArcGIS 9.2 software, a total of 48 water sample points in Obuasi and its environs were randomly selected for study. The magnitude of As, Cu, Mn, Fe,

Frederick A. Armah; Samuel Obiri; David O. Yawson; Edward E. Onumah; Genesis T. Yengoh; Ernest K. A. Afrifa; Justice O. Odoi

2010-01-01

325

What has Corruption Got to do with it? Understanding the Persistence ofRural-Urban and Inter-Regional Inequalities in Ghana and Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inequalities are no respecter of countries, including the affluent ones. Nevertheless, these problems appear to prevail more in the developing countries, which have the dubious distinction of having the highest degrees of inequalities in the world. Inequalities exist between urban and rural areas, as well as between the various regions. This paper discusses inequalities in Ghana and Zimbabwe, emphasizing the

Kwadwo Konadu-Agyemang; Judith Shabaya

2005-01-01

326

Evaluation the consistency of location of moist desquamation and skin high dose area for breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy after breast conservative surgery  

PubMed Central

Background To evaluate whether the location of moist desquamation matches high dose area for breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) after breast conservative surgery. Methods One hundred and nine breast cancer patients were enrolled to this study. Their highest skin dose area (the hot spot) was estimated from the treatment planning. We divided the irradiated field into breast; sternal/parasternal; axillary; and inframammary fold areas. The location for moist desquamation was recorded to see if it matches the hot spot. We also analyzed other possible risk factors which may be related to the moist desquamation. Results Forty-eight patients with 65 locations developed moist desquamation during the RT course. Patients with larger breast sizes and easy to sweat are two independent risk factors for moist desquamation. The distribution of moist desquamation occurred most in the axillary area. All nine patients with the hot spots located at the axillary area developed moist desquamation at the axillary area, and six out of seven patients with the hot spots located at the inframammary fold developed moist desquamation there. The majority of patients with moist desquamation over the breast or sternal/parasternal areas had the hot spots located at these areas. Conclusions For a patient with moist desquamation, if a hot spot is located at the axillary or inframammary fold areas, it is very likely to have moist desquamation occur there. On the other hand, if moist desquamation occurs over the breast or sternal/parasternal areas, we can highly expect these two areas are also the hot spot locations. PMID:23497574

2013-01-01

327

Poll: Sacramento Residents Concerned about Environment and Support Water Conservation, Dam Construction, and Housing Controls in Flood-Prone Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sacramento has become one of the fastest growing regions in California, and the area has witnessed exceptional growth in new home construction as people relocate from the Bay Area and other expensive coastal communities in search of affordable housing. The Sacramento region, as part of the Central Valley, is also responsible for the delivery of fresh water to two-thirds of

Amy Q. Liu; Kevin Wehr; Jessica Hayes; Otis Scott

328

Ecosystem consideration in conservation planning: energy demand of foraging bottlenose whales ( Hyperoodon ampullatus) in a marine protected area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gully, a submarine canyon off eastern Canada, was nominated as a pilot Marine Protected Area (MPA) in 1998, largely to safeguard the vulnerable population of northern bottlenose whales (Hyperoodon ampullatus) found there. The boundaries and ultimate management regime for the MPA for this area remain under review. We have estimated the energy consumption of bottlenose whales in the Gully

Sascha K. Hooker; Hal Whitehead; Shannon Gowans

2002-01-01

329

Effect of cultivating croplands and grazing in arid grassland habitats on the conservation of melitaeine butterflies in a mountainous area in northern China.  

PubMed

In the study area (Yanjiaping Village, Hebei Province, China), grazing extensity varies at different locations, small and discontinuous croplands are imbedded in some arid grassland, which are habitats for the melitaeine butterflies, Euphydryas aurinia and Melitaea phoebe. These two species of butterflies coexist in this area, in which grazing and cultivation are the main disturbances. Grazing and cultivation have a reciprocal effect on E. aurinia, rather than M. phoebe. We observed that E. aurinia preferred to occupy patches with moderate grazing and imbedded with small and discontinuous croplands, where E. aurinia also has high population density. The percentage of E. aurinia larval groups in the ribbings was significantly higher than that of M. phoebe, whereas larvae of both species tended to increase in recent years. Our data also showed that the population density and the patch occupancy rate of both E. aurinia and M. phoebe were the highest under moderate grazing. It indicates that cultivation of small and discontinuous croplands within the patch has a significant effect on the population density of both species of melitaeine butterflies. Thus, to artificially create or maintain semi-natural habitats, complemented by moderate grazing, might be an ecological strategy to conserve melitaeine butterflies effectively. Considering the distinct impacts of cultivation and grazing on the population distribution and dynamics of the two different species, human disturbance in the mountainous area might be strategically involved in proposing conservation plans for the target species in the future. PMID:17393081

Wang, YiFei; Chen, JieJun; Liu, WenHua; Xu, RuMei

2007-02-01

330

Ceramic filter manufacturing in Northern Ghana : water storage and quality control  

E-print Network

In 2009, Pure Home Water (PHW), a Ghana based non-profit organization working to provide affordable and safe drinking water to people in the Northern Region of Ghana, began the construction of a ceramic pot filter (CPF) ...

Kleiman, Shanti Lisa

2011-01-01

331

Evaluation of the complementary use of the ceramic (Kosim) filter and Aquatabs in Northern Region, Ghana  

E-print Network

The Kosim filter is a ceramic water filter that is currently used in Northern Ghana. Based on prior MIT research in Northern Ghana, this technology is effective at removing 92% of turbidity, 99.4% of total coliforms, and ...

Swanton, Andrew A

2008-01-01

332

Hemispheric ceramic pot filter evaluation and quality assurance program in Northern Ghana  

E-print Network

Pure Home Water (PHW) is a non-profit based in Ghana that seeks to bring safe drinking water to those most in need in Northern Ghana through the production, sale, and distribution of ceramic pot filters (CPF) and other ...

Miller, Matthew Rhodes

2012-01-01

333

A Strategic Overview of the Forest Sector in Ghana Odoom Domson  

E-print Network

, 2007 #12;2 A Brief Description of Ghana Geography Ghana is located on the west coast of Africa in the south. Ecologically, the country is divided into a highforest zone in the south, accounting for about

334

IMPACT OF SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF PERMETHRIN-IMPREGNATED BED NETS ON CHILD MORTALITY IN RURAL NORTHERN GHANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of the distribution in space of permethrin (insecticide)-impregnated bed nets (IIBNS) on child mortality were studied in a randomized controlled trial of IIBNs in a an area highly endemic for Plasmodium falcip- arum malaria in rural northern Ghana. Eight hundred sixty-two deaths occurred among children 6-59 months of age during 16,841 child-years-at-risk. Mortality increased with the distance from health

F. N. BINKA; F. INDOME; T. SMITH

1998-01-01

335

Research, part of a Special Feature on Do we need new management paradigms to achieve sustainability in tropical forests? Integrating Ecosystem Management, Protected Areas, and Mammal Conservation in the Brazilian Amazon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Amazon forest has been converted to a matrix of pristine and modified habitats. Landscape-scale biodiversity conservation requires an understanding of species' distributions over this matrix to guarantee both effective protection and use for present and future generations. In this study, we evaluated how much of the existing and future planned protected areas (PAs) would be contributing to the conservation

Claudia Azevedo-Ramos; Benedito Domingues; Daniel C. Nepstad; Britaldo Soares Filho; Robert Nasi

336

Women, religion, and maternal health care in Ghana, 1945-2000.  

PubMed

This article documents the historical factors that led to shifts in mission work toward a greater emphasis on community health for the poor and most vulnerable of society in sub-Saharan Africa after 1945. Using the example of the Medical Mission Sisters from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and their work in Ghana, we challenge the conventional narrative of medical missions as agents of imperialism. We assert that missions-particularly those run by Catholic sister physicians, nurses, and midwives-have changed over time and that those changes have been beneficial to the expansion of community health, particularly in the area of improvement of maternal care. PMID:24892862

Johnson, Lauren; Wall, Barbra Mann

2014-01-01

337

Conservation Action Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conservation problems are identified, with some suggestions for action. General areas covered are: Wildlife Conservation, Soil Conservation, Clean Water, Air Pollution Action, and Outdoor Recreation Action. Appendices list private organizations or agencies concerned with natural resource use and/or management, congressional committees considering…

National Rifle Association, Washington, DC.

338

Simulating the Impact of the Global Economic Crisis and Policy Responses on Children in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Ghana is experiencing the impact of the global crisis and the uncertain economic outlook. Indeed, as Ghana’s economy is among the most open in Africa, it is expected that the country has been and will continue to be severely affected by the crisis, although strong export prices of its main exports (gold and cocoa)

John Cockburn; Luca Tiberti; Ismaël Fofana; Theodore Antwi-Asare; Edgar A. Cooke; Daniel K. Twerefou

2010-01-01

339

Mass media effects on AIDS knowledge and sexual behavior in Africa with special reference to Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shows, in detail, how many African countries have concentrated on prevention of HIV through changing their citizens sexual behaviours with Ghana being spotlighted. Posits that Ghana is at the mid-stage of the epidemic and uses data to explain this. Uses tables to show the lack of knowledge, by the citizens of Ghana, to AIDS prevention. Concludes that this study has

Kofi D. Benefo; Baffuor K. Takyi

2002-01-01

340

Identities and Archaeological Heritage Preservation at the Crossroads: Understanding the Challenges of Economic Development at Tengzug, Upper East Region, Ghana  

PubMed Central

It is evident that both tangible and intangible elements constitute heritage and this needs to be recognized by researchers, heritage professionals and government bodies charged with implementing development policies. However, the relationship between traditional beliefs, worldview, heritage conservation, and archaeological investigation is a complex one. This is considered with reference to the conflict that can occur between government policy and indigenous beliefs in relation to architecture, and with reference to perceptions of landscape amongst the Talensi communities of Tengzug in Upper East Region, Ghana. PMID:22003263

Kankpeyeng, Benjamin W.; Insoll, Timothy; MacLean, Rachel

2011-01-01

341

Measuring and Incorporating Vulnerability into Conservation Planning  

E-print Network

FORUM Measuring and Incorporating Vulnerability into Conservation Planning KERRIE WILSON / Conservation planning is the process of locating and designing conservation areas to promote the persistence, measuring and incorporating vul- nerability into conservation planning have been problematic. We develop

Queensland, University of

342

Anthropometric Measurements: Options for Identifying Low Birth Weight Newborns in Kumasi, Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background In Ghana, 32% of deliveries take place outside a health facility, and birth weight is not measured. Low birth weight (LBW) newborns who are at increased risk of death and disability, are not identified; 13%–14% of newborns in Ghana are LBW. We aimed at determining whether alternative anthropometrics could be used to identify LBW newborns when weighing scales are not available to measure birth weight. Methods We studied 973 mother and newborn pairs at the Komfo Anokye Teaching and the Suntreso Government hospitals between November 2011 and October 2012. We used standard techniques to record anthropometric measurements of newborns within 24 hours of birth; low birth weight was defined as birth weight <2.5kg. Pearson's correlation coefficient and the area under the curve were used to determine the best predictors of low birth weight. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were reported with 95% confidence intervals at generated cut-off values. Results One-fifth (21.7%) of newborns weighed less than 2.5 kg. Among LBW newborns, the following measurements had the highest correlations with birth weight: chest circumference (r?=?0.69), mid-upper arm circumference (r?=?0.68) and calf circumference (r?=?0.66); the areas under the curves of these three measurements demonstrated the highest accuracy in determining LBW newborns. Chest, mid-upper arm and calf circumferences at cut-off values of ?29.8 cm, ?9.4 cm and ?9.5 cm respectively, had the best combination of maximum sensitivity, specificity and predictive values for identifying newborns with LBW. Conclusions Anthropometric measurements, such as the chest circumference, mid-upper arm circumference and calf circumference, offer an opportunity for the identification of and subsequent support for LBW newborns in settings in Ghana, where birth weights are not measured by standardized weighing scales. PMID:25226505

Otupiri, Easmon; Wobil, Priscilla; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Hindin, Michelle J.

2014-01-01

343

Mapping Helminth Co-Infection and Co-Intensity: Geostatistical Prediction in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Morbidity due to Schistosoma haematobium and hookworm infections is marked in those with intense co-infections by these parasites. The development of a spatial predictive decision-support tool is crucial for targeting the delivery of integrated mass drug administration (MDA) to those most in need. We investigated the co-distribution of S. haematobium and hookworm infection, plus the spatial overlap of infection intensity of both parasites, in Ghana. The aim was to produce maps to assist the planning and evaluation of national parasitic disease control programs. Methodology/Principal Findings A national cross-sectional school-based parasitological survey was conducted in Ghana in 2008, using standardized sampling and parasitological methods. Bayesian geostatistical models were built, including a multinomial regression model for S. haematobium and hookworm mono- and co-infections and zero-inflated Poisson regression models for S. haematobium and hookworm infection intensity as measured by egg counts in urine and stool respectively. The resulting infection intensity maps were overlaid to determine the extent of geographical overlap of S. haematobium and hookworm infection intensity. In Ghana, prevalence of S. haematobium mono-infection was 14.4%, hookworm mono-infection was 3.2%, and S. haematobium and hookworm co-infection was 0.7%. Distance to water bodies was negatively associated with S. haematobium and hookworm co-infections, hookworm mono-infections and S. haematobium infection intensity. Land surface temperature was positively associated with hookworm mono-infections and S. haematobium infection intensity. While high-risk (prevalence >10–20%) of co-infection was predicted in an area around Lake Volta, co-intensity was predicted to be highest in foci within that area. Conclusions/Significance Our approach, based on the combination of co-infection and co-intensity maps allows the identification of communities at increased risk of severe morbidity and environmental contamination and provides a platform to evaluate progress of control efforts. PMID:21666800

Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J.; Biritwum, Nana-Kwadwo; Gyapong, John O.; Brooker, Simon; Zhang, Yaobi; Blair, Lynsey; Fenwick, Alan; Clements, Archie C. A.

2011-01-01

344

Bat assemblages in conservation areas of a metropolitan region in Southeastern Brazil, including an important karst habitat.  

PubMed

Species richness and abundance of bats were studied in four nature reserves, including a karst area which has many potential rocky shelters for bats, such as caves and rock crevices. The reserves were located in the greater Belo Horizonte metropolitan area, one of the most populated regions of Brazil, within the Atlantic Forest, and Cerrado (Brazilian savanna) ecological domains. Bats were sampled using mist-nets and, in the karst area, also by active searches in shelters. A total of 1,599 bats were captured representing 30 species belonging to four families. There was little similarity among the four chiropteran faunas. The greatest species richness was found in the karst area with 22 species recorded whereas richness estimates in the other areas indicated the need for further studies. Two hundred and sixty-five individuals of 14 species were captured from 56 shelters. Most of the shelters were frequently used for diurnal roosts, and all the bats found belonged to the Phyllostomidae, with the exception of Myotis nigricans (Vespertilionidae), Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Molossidae) and Peropteryx macrotis (Emballonuridae). The sanguinivorous Desmodus rotundus was the most common species in the shelters. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of maintaining multiple protected areas to ensure a representative fauna of bats in a region characterized by a vegetation transition zone and with intense economic activity and high environmental impact. This study also demonstrates the importance of rock shelters for maintaining local bat richness and the importance of active searches for bats in their diurnal roosts for a more thorough sampling of the bat fauna at a given locality. PMID:23917558

Talamoni, S A; Coelho, D A; Dias-Silva, L H; Amaral, A S

2013-05-01

345

Blood biochemistry reveals malnutrition in black-necked swans (Cygnus melanocoryphus) living in a conservation priority area.  

PubMed

The application of clinical biochemical techniques to determine the products of intermediary metabolism has proved to be a reliable approach for the study of the physiological state of animals in nature. More specifically, the determination of plasma metabolites, such as glucose, total proteins (PRO), albumin (ALB), globulins (GL), urea, uric acid, triglycerides (TG) and beta-hydroxy-butyrate (BHB), and plasma enzymes such as creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in wild animals is a valuable possibility for a non-destructive assessment of health in endangered populations. Since August 2004 to January 2005, we conducted a temporal study in a conservation priority site, the "Carlos Anwandter Nature Sanctuary" to determine blood biochemistry of a wild population of black-necked swans (Cygnus melanocoryphus). This population was experiencing a drastic reduction, according to the actual knowledge about yearly fluctuations in numbers and breeding pairs. In six months, we periodically sampled about 12 swans (a total of 122 individuals), which exhibited a reduction near 30% in body mass (body mass corrected by total length). Our results showed reductions in most plasma biochemical parameters (glucose, PRO, ALB, uric acid, TG) and increase in BHB, which taken together indicated signs of chronic malnutrition. Also, the increase in AST and CK that we found, together with additional evidences of sub-lethal hepatic damage (in dead individuals), and iron pollution in aquatic plants and water confirmed that water pollution was the ultimate cause of this population reduction. PMID:17158079

Artacho, Paulina; Soto-Gamboa, Mauricio; Verdugo, Claudio; Nespolo, Roberto F

2007-02-01

346

Conservation on International Boundaries: The Impact of Security Barriers on Selected Terrestrial Mammals in Four Protected Areas in Arizona, USA  

PubMed Central

Several thousand terrestrial protected areas (PAs) lie on international boundaries. Because international boundaries can be focal points for trade, illegal activity and development, such PAs can be vulnerable to a range of anthropogenic threats. There is an increasing trend towards the erection of international boundary infrastructure (including fences, barriers and ditches) in many parts of the world, which may reduce the risk of these anthropogenic threats to some PAs. However this may restrict home range and access to resources for some native species. We sought to understand the impacts of these two different types of threat by using camera traps to measure the activity level of humans, native and invasive mammals in four US PAs on the Mexican international boundary. Comparisons were made between treatment areas with barriers and those without. Results showed that puma and coati were more likely to appear in treatment areas without barriers, whereas humans were not observed more frequently in one treatment area over another. The suggestion is that the intermittent fencing present in this part of the world does affect some native species, but does not necessarily restrict the movement of humans (including illegal migrants), who may negatively impact native species. PMID:24717982

McCallum, Jamie W.; Rowcliffe, J. Marcus; Cuthill, Innes C.

2014-01-01

347

High seas marine protected areas: Benthic environmental conservation priorities from a GIS analysis of global ocean biophysical data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designing a representative network of high seas marine protected areas (MPAs) requires an acceptable scheme to classify the benthic (as well as the pelagic) bioregions of the oceans. Given the lack of sufficient biological information to accomplish this task, we used a multivariate statistical method with 6 biophysical variables (depth, seabed slope, sediment thickness, primary production, bottom water dissolved oxygen

Peter T. Harris; Tanya Whiteway

2009-01-01

348

Electronic health in ghana: current status and future prospects.  

PubMed

The health-care system in Ghana is similar to those in other developing countries and access to health services for remote communities is extremely limited. In July, 2010, the Government of Ghana launched the national e health strategy. A number of international organizations have initiated various pilot projects, including disseminating and collecting data, education initiatives and telemedicine. In addition, several institutions and organizations are dedicated to the promotion of e-health and a range of Web-based health consultancy services have begun. The main objective of this study is to provide an overview of eHealth activities in Ghana. It was a daunting task, not least because of the need to gather information on eHealth projects and initiatives in Ghana, as there is no existing repository of such information. Through literature search in Africa journals online, Hinari, Medline, Google.com, Journal of Telemedicine and e-Health, Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, Journal of Medical Internet Research and Interaction with eHealth experts, followed up with some of the authors' for directions to other projects, and following the references in some articles. A total of twenty-two (22) pilot projects have been identified in Ghana. Mobile devices in use range from PDAs to simple phones and smart phones. The key findings of this research are that there are about 22 eHealth project at various stages of implementation in Ghana. Some of these projects have wind up and others are still being implemented. Mobile devices in use range from PDAs to simple mobile phones and smart phones. Most of the projects have been donor initiated. Data collection started in March 2010 to June 2013. Although eHealth seems to have a limited role in Ghana at present, there is growing interest in the opportunities it may offer in terms of improving the delivery and access to services, especially in remote locations. Recommendations for further research are provided. PMID:24678382

Afarikumah, Ebenezer

2014-01-01

349

Smoking in Ghana: a review of tobacco industry activity  

PubMed Central

Background: African countries are a major potential market for the tobacco industry, and the smoking epidemic is at various stages of evolution across the continent. Ghana is an African country with a low prevalence of smoking despite an active tobacco industry presence for over 50 years. This study explores potential reasons for this apparent lack of industry success. Objective: To explore the history of tobacco industry activity in Ghana and to identify potential reasons for the current low prevalence of smoking. Methods: A search was made of tobacco industry archives and other local sources to obtain data relevant to marketing and consumption of tobacco in Ghana. Findings: British American Tobacco, and latterly the International Tobacco Company and its successor the Meridian Tobacco Company, have been manufacturing cigarettes in Ghana since 1954. After an initial sales boom in the two decades after independence in 1957, the sustained further increases in consumption typical of the tobacco epidemic in most countries did not occur. Possible key reasons include the taking of tobacco companies into state ownership and a lack of foreign exchange to fund tobacco leaf importation in the 1970s, both of which may have inhibited growth at a key stage of development, and the introduction of an advertising ban in 1982. BAT ceased manufacturing cigarettes in Ghana in 2006. Conclusion: The tobacco industry has been active in Ghana for over 50 years but with variable success. The combination of an early advertising ban and periods of unfavourable economic conditions, which may have restricted industry growth, are likely to have contributed to the sustained low levels of tobacco consumption in Ghana to date. PMID:19359263

Owusu-Dabo, E; Lewis, S; McNeill, A; Anderson, S; Gilmore, A; Britton, J

2009-01-01

350

ELECTRONIC HEALTH IN GHANA: CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE PROSPECTS  

PubMed Central

The health-care system in Ghana is similar to those in other developing countries and access to health services for remote communities is extremely limited. In July, 2010, the Government of Ghana launched the national e health strategy. A number of international organizations have initiated various pilot projects, including disseminating and collecting data, education initiatives and telemedicine. In addition, several institutions and organizations are dedicated to the promotion of e-health and a range of Web-based health consultancy services have begun. The main objective of this study is to provide an overview of eHealth activities in Ghana. It was a daunting task, not least because of the need to gather information on eHealth projects and initiatives in Ghana, as there is no existing repository of such information. Through literature search in Africa journals online, Hinari, Medline, Google.com, Journal of Telemedicine and e-Health, Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, Journal of Medical Internet Research and Interaction with eHealth experts, followed up with some of the authors' for directions to other projects, and following the references in some articles. A total of twenty-two (22) pilot projects have been identified in Ghana. Mobile devices in use range from PDAs to simple phones and smart phones. The key findings of this research are that there are about 22 eHealth project at various stages of implementation in Ghana. Some of these projects have wind up and others are still being implemented. Mobile devices in use range from PDAs to simple mobile phones and smart phones. Most of the projects have been donor initiated. Data collection started in March 2010 to June 2013. Although eHealth seems to have a limited role in Ghana at present, there is growing interest in the opportunities it may offer in terms of improving the delivery and access to services, especially in remote locations. Recommendations for further research are provided. PMID:24678382

Afarikumah, Ebenezer

2014-01-01

351

Composition and conservation of Orchidaceae on an inselberg in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and floristic relationships with areas of Eastern Brazil.  

PubMed

The Brazilian Atlantic Forest presents high levels of richness and endemism of several taxonomic groups. Within this forest, the Orchidaceae may be highlighted as the richest family of Angiosperms found there, and is highly threatened due to collection and habitat destruction. The inselbergs of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest are mostly unknown regarding their floristic composition, but the available information points to occurrence of endemic species, with adaptations to survive to this dry environment. The objectives of this study were to conduct a floristic survey of the Orchidaceae species on the Maciço do Itaoca, an inselberg located in the Northern region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, make a comparative analysis with other sites in Eastern Brazil, and discuss the geographic distribution, floristic relationships and conservation status of the orchid species present on the inselbergs. The floristic composition of the study area was compared with 24 other locations in Eastern Brazil (of which 13 are inselbergs) and the influence of the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the Orchidaceae flora on the inselbergs. On Maciço do Itaoca we recorded 18 species from 17 genera: Brasiliorchis picta, Brassavola tuberculata, Campylocentrum robustum; C sellowii, Catasetum luridum, Cattleya guttata, Cyclopogon congestus, Cyrtopodium glutiniferum, Leptotes bicolor, Lophiaris pumila, Miltonia moreliana, Oeceoclades maculata, Phymatochilum brasiliense, Prescottia plantaginifolia, Pseudolaelia vellozicola, Sarcoglottis fasciculata, Sophronitis cernua. and Vanilla chamissonis. The highest floristic similarity was with the Pedra da Botelha (0.43), an inselberg located in the North of Espírito Santo. This result is probably due to the similarity in altitude and distance from the coast in both areas despite the geographical distance between them. Apparently, little influence is exerted by the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the flora of inselbergs, due to their unique environmental characteristics which exert a strong selection pressure on plants that are adapted to survive on these inselbergs. The threats observed to the species on this inselberg are the same as for other inselbergs and include the collection of ornamental species, fire and quarrying. Specifically for the Maciço do Itaoca, a possibility for conservation may be the annexation of this area to the Desengano State Park, an important conservation area in the Northern of the State of Rio de Janeiro. PMID:25102662

Pessanha, Alexandre Soares; Menini Neto, Luiz; Forzza, Rafaela Campostrini; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade

2014-06-01

352

Use of Parsimony Analysis to Identify Areas of Endemism of Chinese Birds: Implications for Conservation and Biogeography  

PubMed Central

Parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE) was used to identify areas of endemism (AOEs) for Chinese birds at the subregional level. Four AOEs were identified based on a distribution database of 105 endemic species and using 18 avifaunal subregions as the operating geographical units (OGUs). The four AOEs are the Qinghai-Zangnan Subregion, the Southwest Mountainous Subregion, the Hainan Subregion and the Taiwan Subregion. Cladistic analysis of subregions generally supports the division of China’s avifauna into Palaearctic and Oriental realms. Two PAE area trees were produced from two different distribution datasets (year 1976 and 2007). The 1976 topology has four distinct subregional branches; however, the 2007 topology has three distinct branches. Moreover, three Palaearctic subregions in the 1976 tree clustered together with the Oriental subregions in the 2007 tree. Such topological differences may reflect changes in the distribution of bird species through circa three decades. PMID:20559504

Huang, Xiao-Lei; Qiao, Ge-Xia; Lei, Fu-Min

2010-01-01

353

Surprisingly high orchid diversity in travertine and forest areas in the Huanglong valley, China, and implications for conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of such a large number of terrestrial orchid species in a small area (ca. 1 km2) of the Huanglong valley in southwestern China is uncommon for this country. Studying the relationship between the distribution\\u000a patterns of these orchid species and their microenvironments may help us understand this uncommon phenomenon. We established\\u000a 662 1 m × 1 m plots, measured the cover of each

Bao-Qiang Huang; Xiao-Qin Yang; Fei-Hai Yu; Yi-Bo Luo; Yun-Dong Tai

2008-01-01

354

Mediterranean coastal areas at risk between conservation and development - the WADI project as an effort of integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The WADI project (INCO-CT2005-015226) analyses a number of fresh and transitional water bodies in Mediterranean coastal areas suffering from scarcity and\\/or bad quality of water. Holistic multidisciplinary approaches have been adopted to highlight impacts on the ecological and socioeco- nomic systems depending on these water bodies. The ultimate goal of the project is to mitigate existing conflicts among stakeholders for

Felicita Scapini

355

WATER CONSERVATION  

E-print Network

distribution is unlimited. MIL-HDBK-1165 Water conservation, maximizing the efficient use of water resources, is rapidly becoming a critical part of many military operations as more and more demands are placed upon existing water supplies. In order to remain a good neighbor and preserve the environment in which we live, engineers throughout the Department of Defense are frequently called upon to review the beneficial use of their water resources. This military handbook provides numerous methods to increase water efficiency and details the requirements of Executive Order 12902 as it relates to water conservation within the Department of Defense. In addition, this handbook also includes, in its appendices, procedures for submitting water conservation projects for central funding programs. ii MIL-HDBK-1165 FOREWORD This handbook is designed to provide guidance to the installation energy or facilities manager and project designers in the area of water conservation. This handbook is intended to assist installations in reducing their water consumption and thereby assist in complying with the provisions of Executive Order 12902. Recommendations for improvement are encouraged from within the Navy, other government agencies, and the private sector and should be furnished on the DD Form 1426 provided inside the back

Distribution Statement

1997-01-01

356

Application of geographical information system (GIS) technology in the control of Buruli ulcer in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Buruli ulcer (BU) disease is a chronic debilitating skin disease caused by Mycobacteriumulcerans. It is associated with areas where the water is slow-flowing or stagnant. Policy makers take the necessary strategic and policy decisions especially where to target interventions based on available evidence including spatial distribution of the disease. Unfortunately, there is limited information on the spatial distribution of BU in Ghana. The aim of the study was to use Geographical Information System (GIS) technology to show the spatial distribution and hot spots of BU in Greater Accra and Eastern Regions in Ghana. The information could then be used by decision makers to make the necessary strategic and policy decisions, especially where to target intervention. Methods We conducted a community case search and spatial mapping in two districts in Eastern region (Akuapem South and Suhum- Kraboa-Coaltar) and two districts in Greater Accra region (Ga West and Ga South Municipalities) of Ghana to identify the spatial distribution of BU cases in the communities along the Densu River. These municipalities are already known to the Ministry of Health as having high case load of BU. Structured questionnaires on demographic characteristics, environmental factors and general practices were administered to the cases. Using the E-trex Garmin Geographical Positioning System (GPS), the location of the case patient was marked along with any important attributes of the community. ArcGIS was used to generate maps showing BU distribution and hot spots. Results Two hundred and fifty-seven (257) probable BU patients were enrolled in the study after the case search. These cases and their houses (or homes) were located with the GPS. The GIS maps generated showed a varying distribution of BU in the various communities. We observed clustering of BU patients downstream of the Densu River which had hitherto not been observed. Conclusions There is clustering of BU in areas where the river was most contaminated. The identified hot spots for BU should be targeted for interventions by policy makers to ensure effective control of BU in Ghana. PMID:25027028

2014-01-01

357

Mapping Irrigation Potential in the Upper East Region of Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Upper East Region together with the other two regions in Northern Ghana (Upper West and Northern Region) is seen as the locus of perennial food deficit (GPRS, 2003). Despite, the provision of over 200 small scale dams and various mechanisms aimed at poverty alleviation, the region is still plagued with poverty and yearly food shortages. To achieve food security and alleviate poverty in the region however, modernization of agriculture through irrigation is deemed inevitable. While it is true that considerable potential still exists for future expansion of irrigation, it cannot be refuted that water is becoming scarcer in the regions where the need for irrigation is most important, hence mapping the irrigation potential of the region will be the first step toward ensuring sound planning and sustainability of the irrigation developments. In this study, an attempt has been made to map out the irrigation potential of the Upper East Region. The river basin approach was used in assessing the irrigation potential. The catchments drained by The White Volta river, Red volta river, River Sissili and River Kulpawn were considered in the assessment. The irrigation potential for the sub basins was computed by combining information on gross irrigation water requirements for the selected cash crops, area of soil suitable for irrigation and available water resources. The capacity of 80%, 70%, 60% and 50% time of exceedance flow of the available surface water resources in the respective sub basins was estimated. The area that can be irrigated with this flow was computed with selected cropping pattern. Combining the results of the potential irrigable areas and the land use map of the respective sub basins, an irrigation potential map has been generated showing potential sites in the upper east region that can be brought under irrigation. Keywords: Irrigation potential, irrigation water requirement, land evaluation, dependable flow

Akomeah, E.; Odai, S. N.; Annor, F. O.; Adjei, K. A.; Barry, B.

2009-04-01

358

Noninvasive genetic population survey of snow leopards (Panthera uncia) in Kangchenjunga conservation area, Shey Phoksundo National Park and surrounding buffer zones of Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background The endangered snow leopard is found throughout major mountain ranges of Central Asia, including the remote Himalayas. However, because of their elusive behavior, sparse distribution, and poor access to their habitat, there is a lack of reliable information on their population status and demography, particularly in Nepal. Therefore, we utilized noninvasive genetic techniques to conduct a preliminary snow leopard survey in two protected areas of Nepal. Results A total of 71 putative snow leopard scats were collected and analyzed from two different areas; Shey Phoksundo National Park (SPNP) in the west and Kangchanjunga Conservation Area (KCA) in the east. Nineteen (27%) scats were genetically identified as snow leopards, and 10 (53%) of these were successfully genotyped at 6 microsatellite loci. Two samples showed identical genotype profiles indicating a total of 9 individual snow leopards. Four individual snow leopards were identified in SPNP (1 male and 3 females) and five (2 males and 3 females) in KCA. Conclusions We were able to confirm the occurrence of snow leopards in both study areas and determine the minimum number present. This information can be used to design more in-depth population surveys that will enable estimation of snow leopard population abundance at these sites. PMID:22117538

2011-01-01

359

Ghana's experience in the establishment of a national data center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The government of Ghana in a bilateral agreement with the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) has established a National Data Center in Ghana with the aim of monitoring the testing of nuclear explosions. Seismic, hydroacoustic, radionuclide and infrasound methods are used for the monitoring. The data center was commissioned on 3 February, 2010 at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. At present Ghana does not have any operational, centralised data (seismic, hydroacoustic, radionuclide and infrasound) acquisition system with the capability of accessing data from other international stations. Hence, the need of setting up the National Data Center which would enable us constantly monitor, manage and coordinate both natural and man-made seismic activities in the country and around the globe, upload data to the International Data Center (IDC) as well as receive and use International Monitoring System (IMS) data and IDC products for treaty verification and compliance. Apart from these, the center also accesses and analyzes seismic waveforms relevant to its needs from the International Data Center; makes data available to its stakeholder institutions for earthquake disaster mitigation; reports on all aspects of disasters related to earthquake to the relevant government agencies that deal with disasters; makes recommendations to the government of Ghana on earthquake safety measures; provides information to assist government institutions to develop appropriate land and building policies. The center in collaboration with stakeholder agencies periodically organises public lectures on earthquake disaster risk mitigation.

Ekua, Amponsah Paulina; Yaw, Serfor-Armah

2012-08-01

360

Evaluation of AFP surveillance indicators in polio-free Ghana, 2009-2013  

PubMed Central

Background Ghana recorded the last case of indigenous wild poliovirus in 1999 but suffered two more outbreaks in 2003 and 2008. Following the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, transmission was interrupted through high routine immunisation coverage with live-attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV), effective acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance and supplementary immunisation activities (SIA). This article describes the results of a five-year surveillance of AFP in polio-free Ghana, evaluate the surveillance indicators and identify areas that need improvement. Methods We investigated 1345 cases of AFP from children aged less than 15 years reported to the Disease Surveillance Department from January 2009 to December 2013. Data on demographic characteristics, vaccination history, clinical presentation and virological investigation on stool specimens collected during investigation were analysed. Results Of the specimens analysed, 56% were from males and 76.3% were from children less than 5 years of age. Twenty-four percent of the children received up to 3 doses of OPV, 57% received at least 4 doses while the status of 19% was unknown. Core AFP surveillance indicators were partly met for non-polio AFP rate while the WHO target for stool adequacy and timeliness was exceeded over the period of study. All the cases were classified virologically, however no wild polio was found. Sixty-day follow-up was conducted for 56.3% of cases and 8.6% cases classified as compactible with polio. Conclusion Both laboratory and epidemiological surveillance for AFP were efficient and many WHO targets were met. However, due to the risk of poliovirus importation prior to global eradication, longterm surveillance is required to provide a high degree of confidence in prevention of poliovirus infection in Ghana. Thus, efforts should be made to strengthen regional performance and to follow–up on all AFP cases in order to establish proper diagnoses for the causes of the AFP leading to proper care. PMID:24996415

2014-01-01

361

Conservation Science Fair Projects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included are ideas, suggestions, and examples for selecting and designing conservation science projects. Over 70 possible conservation subject areas are presented with suggested projects. References are cited with each of these subject areas, and a separate list of annotated references is included. The references pertain to general subject…

Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

362

Area  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to develop students' understanding of the concepts of area and how it can relate to perimeter. The shapes explored in this lesson are constructed of adjacent squares on a coordinate plane. This lesson provides links to discussions and activities related to area as well as suggested ways to integrate them into the lesson. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with the current one. Note, the reading level for this resourceâs worksheet is at the grade 8 level.

2010-01-01

363

Long-term indigenous soil conservation technology in the Chencha area, southern ethiopia: origin, characteristics, and sustainability.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to examine the origin, development, and characteristics of terraces (kella), plus their potentials and determinants for sustainable use in the Chencha-Dorze Belle area of southern Ethiopia. Field surveys were conducted to determine the various parameters of the indigenous terraces and in order to collect samples for radiocarbon dating. To identify farmers' views of the terrace systems, semi-structured interviews and group discussions were also carried out. Terraces were built and used-as radiocarbon dating proves-at least over the last 800 years. The long-term continued usage of the indigenous terraces is the result of social commitments, the structural features of the terraces, and the farmers' responses to the dynamics of social and cultural circumstances. We dubbed that the terraces are a success story of fruitful environmental management over generations. Thus, a strong need is to preserve and develop this important cultural heritage and example of sustainable land use. PMID:24805921

Engdawork, Assefa; Bork, Hans-Rudolf

2014-11-01

364

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act industrial site environmental restoration, site characterization plan: Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This plan presents the strategy for the characterization of the Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility at the Nevada Test Site which will be conducted for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, Environmental Restoration Division. The objectives of the planned activities are to: obtain sufficient, sample analytical data from which further assessment, remediation, and/or closure strategies may be developed for the site; obtain sufficient, sample analytical data for management of investigation-derived waste. The scope of the characterization may include surface radiation survey(s), surface soil sampling, subsurface soil boring (i.e., drilling), and sampling of soil in and around the pond; in situ sampling of the soil within subsurface soil borings; and sample analysis for both site characterization and waste management purposes.

NONE

1996-08-01

365

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Industrial Site Environmental Restoration Site Characterization Plan, Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility, Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This plan presents the strategy for the characterization of the Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility (DPF) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) which will be conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations OffIce (DOE/NV), Environmental Restoration Division (ERD). The objectives of the planned activities are to: o Obtain sufficient, ample analytical data from which further assessment, remediation, and/or closure strategies maybe developed for the site. o Obtain sufficient, sample analytical data for management of investigation-derived waste. All references to regulations contained in this plan are to the versions of the regulations that are current at the time of publication of this plan. The scope of the characterization may include surface radiation survey(s), surface soil sampling, subsurface soil boring (i.e., drilling), and sampling of soil in and Mound the pond; in situ sampling of the soil within subsurface soil borings; and sample analysis for both site . . characterization and waste management purposes.

NONE

1996-08-12

366

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act industrial site environmental restoration site characterization plan: Area 23, Building 650 Leachfield  

SciTech Connect

This plan presents the strategy for the characterization of Corrective Action Unit 94, Area 23, Building 650 Leachfield. It is a land disposal unit, located southeast of Building 650, that was in operation from 1965 to October 1992, with an estimated annual discharge rate of less than 984 liters from designated sinks, floor drains, and emergency decontamination showers in Building 650. The objectives of the planned activities are to: obtain sufficient sample analytical data from which further assessment, remediation, and/or closure strategies may be developed for the site: and obtain sufficient sample analytical data for management of investigation-derived waste (IDW). All references to regulations in this plan are to the versions of the regulations that are current at the time of publication of this plan. The scope of the characterization will include subsurface soil boring (i.e., drilling), in situ sampling of the soil within subsurface soil borings, and sample analysis for both site characterization and waste management purposes.

NONE

1997-03-01

367

Supply of essential drugs for church hospitals in Ghana.  

PubMed

Based on the results of an inquiry, answered by 39 out of the 53 rural Church hospitals and clinics in Ghana, a list of 34 indispensable drugs was compiled. At a cost of less than US $600 000 it is possible to provide all Church health institutions (30% of all health facilities in Ghana) with these 34 essential drugs for one year (at 1982 prices). When the drugs are prepacked in Units, distribution can easily be carried out from a very limited number of distribution points, without the need for extensive logistic provisions such as trucks, stores, personnel and security checks. PMID:6729969

Hogerzeil, H V; Lamberts, P J

1984-01-01

368

IdentIfyIng prIorIty areas for marIne conservatIon In BrItIsH coLUmBIa: a coLLaBoratIve approacH  

E-print Network

Willis Ladell14 1 ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville 4811251 IdentIfyIng prIorIty areas for marIne conservatIon In BrItIsH coLUmBIa: a coLLaBoratIve approac: (250) 356-5283; Fax: (250) 387-7116; E-mail: charles.short@gov.bc.ca 4 BC Marine Conservation Analysis

369

Distribution of two species of sea snakes, Aipysurus laevis and Emydocephalus annulatus, in the southern Great Barrier Reef: metapopulation dynamics, marine protected areas and conservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aipysurus laevis and Emydocephalus annulatus typically occur in spatially discrete populations, characteristic of metapopulations; however, little is known about the factors influencing the spatial and temporal stability of populations or whether specific conservation strategies, such as networks of marine protected areas, will ensure the persistence of species. Classification tree analyses of 35 years of distribution data (90 reefs, surveyed 1-11 times) in the southern Great Barrier Reef (GBR) revealed that longitude was a major factor determining the status of A. laevis on reefs (present = 38, absent = 38 and changed = 14). Reef exposure and reef area were also important; however, these factors did not specifically account for the population fluctuations and the recent local extinctions of A. laevis in this region. There were no relationships between the status of E. annulatus (present = 16, absent = 68 and changed = 6) and spatial or physical variables. Moreover, prior protection status of reefs did not account for the distribution of either species. Biotic factors, such as habitat and prey availability and the distribution of predators, which may account for the observed patterns of distribution, are discussed. The potential for inter-population exchange among sea snake populations is poorly understood, as is the degree of protection that will be afforded to sea snakes by the recently implemented network of No-take areas in the GBR. Data from this study provide a baseline for evaluating the responses of A. laevis and E. annulatus populations to changes in biotic factors and the degree of protection afforded on reefs within an ecosystem network of No-take marine protected areas in the southern GBR.

Lukoschek, V.; Heatwole, H.; Grech, A.; Burns, G.; Marsh, H.

2007-06-01

370

Estimates of the maternal mortality ratio in two districts of the Brong-Ahafo region, Ghana.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) by the sisterhood method in two districts of the Brong-Ahafo region of Ghana, and to determine the impact of different assumptions and analytical decisions on these estimates. METHODS: Indirect estimates of the MMR were calculated from data collected in 1995 by Family Health International (FHI) on 5202 women aged 15-49 years, using a household screen of randomly selected areas in the two districts. Other data from the nationally representative 1994 Ghana Infant, Child and Maternal Mortality Survey (ICMMS) and from the 1997 Kassena-Nankana District study were also used for comparison. FINDINGS: Based on the FHI data, the MMR was estimated to be 269 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births for both districts combined, a figure higher than ICMMS estimates. Biases during data collection may account for this difference, including the fact that biases underestimating mortality are more common than those overestimating it. Biases introduced during data analysis were also considered, but only the total fertility rate used to calculate the MMR seemed to affect the estimates significantly. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the sisterhood method is still being refined and the extent and impact of biases have only recently received attention. Users of this method should be aware of limitations when interpreting results. We recommend using confidence limits around estimates, both to dispel false impressions of precision and to reduce overinterpretation of data. PMID:11417035

Smith, J. B.; Fortney, J. A.; Wong, E.; Amatya, R.; Coleman, N. A.; de Graft Johnson, J.

2001-01-01

371

How landscape scale changes affect ecological processes in conservation areas: external factors influence land use by zebra (Equus burchelli) in the Okavango Delta.  

PubMed

Most large-bodied wildlife populations in sub-Saharan Africa only survive in conservation areas, but are continuing to decline because external changes influence ecological processes within reserves, leading to a lack of functionality. However, failure to understand how landscape scale changes influence ecological processes limits our ability to manage protected areas. We used GPS movement data to calculate dry season home ranges for 14 zebra mares in the Okavango Delta and investigated the effects of a range of landscape characteristics (number of habitat patches, mean patch shape, mean index of juxtaposition, and interspersion) on home range size. Resource utilization functions (RUF) were calculated to investigate how specific landscape characteristics affected space use. Space use by all zebra was clustered. In the wetter (Central) parts of the Delta home range size was negatively correlated with the density of habitat patches, more complex patch shapes, low juxtaposition of habitats and an increased availability of floodplain and grassland habitats. In the drier (Peripheral) parts of the Delta, higher use by zebra was also associated with a greater availability of floodplain and grassland habitats, but a lower density of patches and simpler patch shapes. The most important landscape characteristic was not consistent between zebra within the same area of the Delta, suggesting that no single foraging strategy is substantially superior to others, and so animals using different foraging strategies may all thrive. The distribution and complexity of habitat patches are crucial in determining space use by zebra. The extent and duration of seasonal flooding is the principal process affecting habitat patch characteristics in the Okavango Delta, particularly the availability of floodplains, which are the habitat at greatest risk from climate change and anthropogenic disturbance to the Okavango's catchment basin. Understanding how the factors that determine habitat complexity may change in the future is critical to the conservation of large mammal populations. Our study shows the importance of maintaining flood levels in the Okavango Delta and how the loss of seasonal floodplains will be compounded by changes in habitat configuration, forcing zebra to change their relative space use and enlarge home ranges, leading to increased competition for key resources and population declines. PMID:24101973

Bartlam-Brooks, Hattie L A; Bonyongo, Mpaphi C; Harris, Stephen

2013-09-01

372

How landscape scale changes affect ecological processes in conservation areas: external factors influence land use by zebra (Equus burchelli) in the Okavango Delta  

PubMed Central

Most large-bodied wildlife populations in sub-Saharan Africa only survive in conservation areas, but are continuing to decline because external changes influence ecological processes within reserves, leading to a lack of functionality. However, failure to understand how landscape scale changes influence ecological processes limits our ability to manage protected areas. We used GPS movement data to calculate dry season home ranges for 14 zebra mares in the Okavango Delta and investigated the effects of a range of landscape characteristics (number of habitat patches, mean patch shape, mean index of juxtaposition, and interspersion) on home range size. Resource utilization functions (RUF) were calculated to investigate how specific landscape characteristics affected space use. Space use by all zebra was clustered. In the wetter (Central) parts of the Delta home range size was negatively correlated with the density of habitat patches, more complex patch shapes, low juxtaposition of habitats and an increased availability of floodplain and grassland habitats. In the drier (Peripheral) parts of the Delta, higher use by zebra was also associated with a greater availability of floodplain and grassland habitats, but a lower density of patches and simpler patch shapes. The most important landscape characteristic was not consistent between zebra within the same area of the Delta, suggesting that no single foraging strategy is substantially superior to others, and so animals using different foraging strategies may all thrive. The distribution and complexity of habitat patches are crucial in determining space use by zebra. The extent and duration of seasonal flooding is the principal process affecting habitat patch characteristics in the Okavango Delta, particularly the availability of floodplains, which are the habitat at greatest risk from climate change and anthropogenic disturbance to the Okavango's catchment basin. Understanding how the factors that determine habitat complexity may change in the future is critical to the conservation of large mammal populations. Our study shows the importance of maintaining flood levels in the Okavango Delta and how the loss of seasonal floodplains will be compounded by changes in habitat configuration, forcing zebra to change their relative space use and enlarge home ranges, leading to increased competition for key resources and population declines. PMID:24101973

Bartlam-Brooks, Hattie L A; Bonyongo, Mpaphi C; Harris, Stephen

2013-01-01

373

Priority areas for anuran conservation using biogeographical data: a comparison of greedy, rarity, and simulated annealing algorithms to define reserve networks in cerrado.  

PubMed

Spatial patterns in biodiversity variation at a regional scale are rarely taken into account when a natural reserve is to be established, despite many available methods for determining them. In this paper, we used dimensions of occurrence of 105 species of Anura (Amphibia) in the cerrado region of central Brazil to create a regional system of potential areas that preserves all regional diversity, using three different algorithms to establish reserve networks: "greedy", rarity, and simulated annealing algorithms. These generated networks based on complementarity with 10, 12, and 8 regions, respectively, widely distributed in the biome, and encompassing various Brazilian states. Although the purpose of these algorithms is to find a small number of regions for which all species are represented at least once, the results showed that 67.6%, 76.2%, and 69.5% of the species were represented in two or more regions in the three networks. Simulated annealing produced the smallest network, but it left out three species (one endemic). On the other hand, while the greedy algorithm produce a smaller solution, the rarity-based algorithm ensured that more species were represented more than once, which can be advantageous because it takes into consideration the high levels of habitat loss in the cerrado. Although usually coarse, these macro-scale approaches can provide overall guidelines for conservation and are useful in determining the focus for more local and effective conservation efforts, which is especially important when dealing with a taxonomic group such as anurans, for which quick and drastic population declines have been reported throughout the world. PMID:16097727

Diniz-Filho, J A F; Bini, L M; Bastos, R P; Vieira, C M; Vieira, L C G

2005-05-01

374

The Determinants of Household Education Expenditure in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of formal education in the socio-economic development of a country cannot be over-emphasized. It is in this light, that over the years, governments of Ghana and other organizations have supported the education sector in many ways. Despite the efforts, many people think that a lot more can be done, but resources are not unlimited. Against…

Donkoh, S. A.; Amikuzuno, J. A.

2011-01-01

375

Tackling Poverty-Migration Linkages: Evidence from Ghana and Egypt  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Are migrants able to use the migration experience to their benefit, that is to improve their livelihoods, and is this result nuanced by whether migrants are poor or non-poor? This paper explores these questions quantitatively using data on migrants and non-migrants from Ghana and Egypt. It describes the main challenges in the empirical literature…

Sabates-Wheeler, Rachel; Sabates, Ricardo; Castaldo, Adriana

2008-01-01

376

Health education in rural settings in Ghana: a methodological approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the search for appropriate methodol- ogy in educating and training rural community populations is on going, previous efforts have yielded few results, some of which have not been successful with consequences for scarce resour- ces. This paper, based on field reports from the Population Communication Project in Ghana, demonstrates that community learning theory can offer understanding of appropriate method-

Theophilus Kofi Gokah

2007-01-01

377

Homicide-suicide in Ghana: perpetrators, victims, and incidence characteristics.  

PubMed

Homicide-suicide in the industrialized West has been studied for many years. Yet, only limited scholarly research currently exists on the subject in Africa and other non-Western societies. The aim of the present descriptive study was to investigate homicide-suicides in contemporary Ghana. A content analysis of homicide-suicide reports in a major Ghanaian daily newspaper during 1990 to 2009 was conducted. The results overwhelmingly support findings in the literature, suggesting that homicide-suicides are extremely rare events in Ghana. The overwhelming majority of reported homicide-suicides were committed by males, with females substantially more likely to be the homicide victims. The offenders and victims were generally of low socioeconomic status. Most homicide-suicides involved victims and offenders who were intimately acquainted as family members. The majority of cases involved men who killed their wives on suspicion of infidelity; the next largest category involved men who murdered wives who threatened divorce or separation. The principal homicide and suicide methods were shooting with firearms, hacking with machetes, and stabbing with knives. The findings of the study are discussed in relation to Ghana's patriarchal family system and ideology and present socioeconomic issues in the country. This study recommends further research on this subject in Ghana and other African countries. This is necessary to further an understanding of homicide-suicide as a phenomenon, as well as a necessary prelude to the development and implementation of effective preventive programs. PMID:23267240

Adinkrah, Mensah

2014-03-01

378

Situation Report--Ghana, India, and South Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data relating to population and family planning in three foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Ghana, India, and South Africa. Information is provided under two topics: general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is available. General background covers ethnic groups,…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

379

Employee Motivation in University Libraries in Ghana: a comparative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison of motivational preferences of the staff of two university libraries in Ghana indicates that age groups and professional positions of the workers in a survey determine their motivational factor preferences. Respondents from the two sites have different motivational values. Different strategies are therefore required to motivate the workers and it is suggested that library managers avoid the assumption that

Edwin Ellis Badu

2005-01-01

380

Economic reform and food prices: Evidence from markets in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates trends in food prices in Ghana during 1970–1993. Regression results confirm that real wholesale prices of food have been declining since the 1970s. Price trends in the 1980s are characterized by a downward shift at the beginning of the postreform period and a subsequent continuing downward trend. Despite falling grain prices, we find that agricultural wage rates

Gerald Shively

1996-01-01

381

Police effectiveness and police trustworthiness in Ghana: An empirical appraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although police researchers have often assumed that perceptions of police effectiveness enhance police legitimacy, there has been very little empirical support for this assumption. Employing the legitimacy scale developed by Sunshine and Tyler, this study sought to fill this gap in our criminological knowledge using data from a representative public survey in Accra, Ghana (N= 374). The article reports a

Justice Tankebe

2008-01-01

382

Epidemic of hypertension in Ghana: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a major risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases in developing countries. A comprehensive review of the prevalence of hypertension provides crucial information for the evaluation and implementation of appropriate programmes. METHODS: The PubMed and Google Scholar databases were searched for published articles on the population-based prevalence of adult hypertension in Ghana between 1970 and August 2009, supplemented

William K Bosu

2010-01-01

383

Gender, Lineage, and Fertility-Related Outcomes in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing literature examines the empirical relationship between the joint reproductive preferences of marital partners and reproductive outcomes in Africa. Less explored is how spousal power in decision making may be influenced by lineage type. Using pooled data from Ghana, we investigate how lineage affects gendered reproductive decision…

Takyi, Baffour K.; Nii-Amoo Dodoo, F.

2005-01-01

384

LAY CONCEPTS OF TOURISM IN BOSOMTWE BASIN, GHANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the subjective definitions of tourism and its perceived impacts by the residents around a natural lake, Lake Bosomtwe Basin, in Ghana. Data were based on a survey of residents on their understanding of the term tourism in January, 2006. Although, residents demonstrated possessing an ample knowledge of tourism, a marked difference was found in their knowledge about

Francis Eric Amuquandoh

2010-01-01

385

Asynchronous Remote Medical Consultation for Ghana Intel Research  

E-print Network

Ghana and draws on three key design principles (social networks as a framework on which to build social networks as a framework on which to build incentives within a self-organizing network; optional remote consultation system intended to provide the social, institutional and infrastructural context

Aoki, Paul M.

386

Religion and Subjective Well-Being in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using 2008 Afrobarometer survey data, we examine the relationship between religion and subjective well-being (SWB) in Ghana, as well as religious group differences in their experiences of SWB. Two measures of religion--religious affiliation and religious importance, and two measures of SWB--absolute SWB (own perceived living conditions) and…

Pokimica, Jelena; Addai, Isaac; Takyi, Baffour K.

2012-01-01

387

An Exploratory Study of Trust and Material Hardship in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We explore associations among interpersonal (thick and thin) and institutional (legislative, executive, and judicial) trust and material hardship outcomes in Ghana. We use data from the 2008 Afrobarometer survey. Material hardship is conceptualized in terms of frequency of going without five basic necessities/consumptive deprivations, each of…

Addai, Isaac; Pokimica, Jelena

2012-01-01

388

Funeral rites participation and health services utilization in rural Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional health care services (CHCS) have failed to meet the health needs of many people in rural Ghana. Relevant literature highlights poverty, underdevelopment and inequities in allocation of resources as largely accountable. Currently in vogue and as a solution to these inequalities is the concept of comprehensive primary health care (CPHC) which implies community participation or \\

Daniel Anleu-Mwine Bagah

1996-01-01

389

Funeral Rites Participation and Health Services Utilization in Rural Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional health care services (CHCS) have failed to meet the health needs of many people in rural Ghana. Relevant literature highlights poverty, underdevelopment and inequities in allocation of resources as largely accountable. Currently in vogue and as a solution to these inequalities is the concept of comprehensive primary health care (CPHC) which implies community participation or \\

Daniel Anleu-Mwine Bagah

1995-01-01

390

The Perils and Promises of Inclusive Education in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inclusion of students with disabilities into the mainstream educational system continues to be a major issue and concern faced by many developing nations. Many individuals with disabilities face the challenge of exclusion from any form of education and failure by society to recognize their capabilities and rights. The educational system in Ghana

Adera, Beatrice A.; Asimeng-Boahene, Lewis

2011-01-01

391

Notions and treatment of guinea worm in Northern Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dracunculiasis, infection with Dracunculus medinensis or guinea worm, is widespread in the Northern Region of Ghana, where rural people drink from unprotected water sources such as ponds and small-scale dams.This paper discusses the results of an anthropological study of beliefs and practices concerning commonly occurring illnesses, such as infection with guinea worm (nierifu), in two rural Dagomba communities in the

Bernhard Bierlich

1995-01-01

392

Mobile GIS for Cadastral Data Collection in Ghana Eric MENSAHOKANTEY  

E-print Network

Mobile GIS for Cadastral Data Collection in Ghana Eric MENSAH­OKANTEY Barend K�BBEN 1 Introduction With the development of Web GIS and the emergence of Mobile GIS new possibilities of data capture and maintenance objective was to design a system of Mobile GIS suitable for building and revising a cadastral database. Up

Köbben, Barend

393

How do rms organize trade? Evidence from Ghana Jens Krger  

E-print Network

How do rms organize trade? Evidence from Ghana Jens Krüger Abstract The literature on rm at how rms organize their export trade. If selling directly, sunk costs of foreign market entry heterogeneity in international trade posits that only the most productive rms become exporters (Melitz 2003

Krivobokova, Tatyana

394

AN ANALYSIS OF ELECTRICITY GENERATION AND TARIFF OPTIONS IN GHANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

For most electric utility in developing countries the choice of generation technology, the type of financing that is available, the type of ownership of the facility, and electricity tariff policies are not independent variables. This paper reports on an integrated financial, economic and stakeholder analysis of a prospective investment in the Bui hydroelectric generation dam in Ghana. The appraisal of

Glenn P. Jenkins; MARIA MARCHESINI

1999-01-01

395

BELIEFS AND ATTITUDES TOWARD BURULI ULCER IN GHANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buruli ulcer is a devastating emerging disease in tropical countries. Quantitative and qualitative data were obtained by interviewing patients with this disease and control subjects in Ghana. Common perceived causes were witchcraft and curses. Other reported causes were personal hygiene, environment, and close contact with a patient with this disease. Financial difficulties, fear of the mutilating aspects of treatment, and

YMKJE STIENSTRA; T. A. VAN DER GRAAF; KWAME ASAMOA; S. VAN DER WERF

396

Infection with Mansonella perstans Nematodes in Buruli Ulcer Patients, Ghana.  

PubMed

During August 2010-December 2012, we conducted a study of patients in Ghana who had Buruli ulcer, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, and found that 23% were co-infected with Mansonella perstans nematodes; 13% of controls also had M. perstans infection. M. perstans co-infection should be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of Buruli ulcer. PMID:24857346

Phillips, Richard O; Frimpong, Michael; Sarfo, Fred S; Kretschmer, Birte; Beissner, Marcus; Debrah, Alexander; Ampem-Amoako, Yaw; Abass, Kabiru M; Thompson, William; Duah, Mabel Sarpong; Abotsi, Justice; Adjei, Ohene; Fleischer, Bernhard; Bretzel, Gisela; Wansbrough-Jones, Mark; Jacobsen, Marc

2014-06-01

397

Two Novel Arenaviruses Detected in Pygmy Mice, Ghana  

PubMed Central

Two arenaviruses were detected in pygmy mice (Mus spp.) by screening 764 small mammals in Ghana. The Natal multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis), the known Lassa virus reservoir, was the dominant indoor rodent species in 4 of 10 sites, and accounted for 27% of all captured rodents. No rodent captured indoors tested positive for an arenavirus. PMID:24188212

Nimo-Paintsil, Shirley; Guirguis, Fady; Kronmann, Lisha C.; Bonney, Kofi; Obiri-Danso, Kwasi; Ampofo, William; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth

2013-01-01

398

Race Portrayals in Ghana, Kenya, and South Africa Television Advertisements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examines racial portrayals in television advertisements from Ghana, Kenya, and South Africa. Whites are over-represented relative to their actual demographic presence in all three countries, and both Blacks and Whites are depicted as over-employed. In general, however, depictions are not significantly different for either race, though there is a hint that a stereotyped portrayal of Blacks as

Laura M. Milner

2007-01-01

399

Measuring Nutritional Intake of Adolescents in Ghana, West Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With 85% of the world's adolescent populations residing in developing countries, it is important to monitor and track their nutrition status and habits. The purpose of this study, conducted in Ghana, was to provide results from a nutrition intake and eating habits questionnaire which was modified from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Questions were…

Owusu, Andrew; Murdock, Peggy O'Hara; Weatherby, Norman L.

2007-01-01

400

Capturing Ambiguities: Communal Conflict Management Alternative in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purpose of this paper is to propose an alternative land conflict management method for rural Ghana. The paper adopts the country's legislative and judicial decentralization programs as a framework for integrating aspects of the existing conflict management methods and skills of the national government and the country's ethnic groups. The paper argues that the continuing outbursts and protraction

Ben K. Fred-Mensah

1999-01-01

401

Public University Entry in Ghana: Is It Equitable?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public universities in Ghana are highly subsidised by the central government and account for about 80 per cent of university students in the country. Yet issues of fairness in terms of entry into the public university system have so far hardly been addressed. To find out whether participation in public university education is equitable, the…

Yusif, Hadrat; Yussof, Ishak; Osman, Zulkifly

2013-01-01

402

Groundwater Conservation Districts: Success Stories  

E-print Network

Demand for water is increasing, so our aquifers must be conserved and protected. The Groundwater Conservation Districts in Texas are carrying out a number of successful programs in the areas of education and public awareness, technical assistance...

Porter, Dana; Persyn, Russell A.; Enciso, Juan

1999-09-06

403

Systematic conservation planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The realization of conservation goals requires strategies for managing whole landscapes including areas allocated to both production and protection. Reserves alone are not adequate for nature conservation but they are the cornerstone on which regional strategies are built. Reserves have two main roles. They should sample or represent the biodiversity of each region and they should separate this biodiversity from

C. R. Margules; R. L. Pressey

2000-01-01

404

Resource Conservation Glossary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This glossary is a composite of terms selected from 13 technologies, and is the expanded revision of the original 1952 edition of "The Soil and Water Conservation Glossary." The terms were selected from these areas: agronomy, biology, conservation, ecology, economics, engineering, forestry, geology, hydrology, range, recreation, soils, and…

Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

405

The rise of gated housing estates in Ghana: Empirical insights from three communities in metropolitan Accra  

Microsoft Academic Search

In metropolitan Accra, Ghana’s economic and administrative hub, the global phenomenon of the gated housing estate is burgeoning,\\u000a representing a substantial part of the new housing market. It has a recent history dating back only to the neoliberal era\\u000a of the mid-1990s. Because it is a new phenomenon in Ghana very little is known about the motivations and contentment of

Alex Boakye Asiedu; Godwin Arku

2009-01-01

406

Correlates of HIV testing among women in Ghana: some evidence from the Demographic and Health Surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ghana's strategic framework for controlling HIV\\/AIDS endorses voluntary HIV testing as an important strategy toward risk reduction and HIV\\/AIDS prevention. Yet, like other sub-Saharan African countries, utilization of testing services in Ghana is very low. Using the 2003 Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys and applying both complementary and negative log-log models, this study investigates the correlates of HIV testing among

Eric Y. Tenkorang; Gertrude A. Owusu

2010-01-01

407

Land use, food production, and the future of tropical forest species in Ghana  

E-print Network

cedi, the unit of currency of Ghana GIS Geographic Information System GJ Gigajoule: one billion joules (1 GJ = 109 J) GMT Greenwich Mean Time GOPDC Ghana Oil Palm Development Company, Eastern Region, Ghana GPS Global Positioning System GSBA... written I = P?A?T where A represents affluence and T represents technology. Affluence and technology are just two of the determinants of per capita impact. Others include behavioural choices and spatial patterns of resource consumption. 4 the world...

Phalan, Benjamin Timothy

2010-07-06

408

Evaluation of rockfish conservation area networks in the United States and Canada relative to the dispersal distance for black rockfish (Sebastes melanops)  

PubMed Central

Marine reserves networks are implemented as a way to mitigate the impact of fishing on marine ecosystems. Theory suggests that a reserve network will function synergistically when connected by dispersal, but the scale of dispersal is often unknown. On the Pacific coast of the United States and Canada, both countries have recently implemented a number of rockfish conservation areas (RCAs) to protect exploited rockfish species, but no study has evaluated the connectivity within networks in each country or between the two countries. We used isolation-by-distance theory to estimate the scale of dispersal from microsatellite data in the black rockfish, Sebastes melanops, and compared this estimate with the distance between RCAs that would protect this species. Within each country, we found that the distance between RCAs was generally within the confidence intervals of mean dispersal per generation. The distance between these two RCA networks, however, was greater than the average dispersal per generation. The data were also consistent with a genetic break between southern Oregon and central Oregon. We discuss whether additional nearshore RCAs in southern Oregon and Washington would help promote connectivity between RCA's for shallow-water rockfishes. PMID:24567745

Lotterhos, Katie E; Dick, Stefan J; Haggarty, Dana R

2014-01-01

409

Conservation of the critically endangered eastern Australian population of the grey nurse shark (Carcharias taurus) through cross-jurisdictional management of a network of marine-protected areas.  

PubMed

Between 2001 and 2009, 26 marine-protected areas (MPA) were established on the east Australian seaboard, at least in part, to manage human interactions with a critically endangered population of grey nurse shark, Carcharias taurus. This network is spread across six MPA systems and includes all 19 sites outlined in the National Recovery Plan for C. taurus, though five sites remain open to some forms of fishing. The reserve network has complex cross-jurisdictional management, as the sharks occur in waters controlled by the Australian states of New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, as well as by the Commonwealth (Federal) government. Jurisdiction is further complicated by fisheries and conservation departments both engaging in management activities within each state. This has resulted in protected area types that include IUCN category II equivalent zones in NSW, Queensland, and Commonwealth marine parks that either overlay or complement another large scaled network of protected sites called critical habitats. Across the network, seven and eight rule permutations for diving and fishing, respectively, are applied to this population of sharks. Besides sites identified by the recovery plan, additional sites have been protected as part of the general development of MPA networks. A case study at one of these sites, which historically was known to be occupied by C. taurus but had been abandoned, appears to shows re-establishment of an aggregation of juvenile and sub-adult sharks. Concurrent with the re-establishment of the aggregation, a local dive operator increased seasonal dive visitation rates at the site fourfold. As a precautionary measure, protection of abandoned sites, which includes nursery and gestating female habitats are options that may assist recovery of the east coast population of C. taurus. PMID:24213854

Lynch, Tim P; Harcourt, Robert; Edgar, Graham; Barrett, Neville

2013-12-01

410

Investigating Coastal Processes and Hazards Along the Coastline of Ghana, West Africa (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As with many coastlines worldwide, erosion is a chronic issue along the Ghana coast. Erosion is presently impacting coastal infrastructure ranging from urban areas to small fishing villages, and threatening important cultural and historical resources in some locales. The Ghanaian coast displays significant geomorphological variability, ranging from rocky and bluffed shores to low-lying barrier beaches. Rates and trends of coastal change vary along the coast, interacting with physical oceanographic processes, alongshore sediment transport gradients, and anthropogenic disruptions of sediment supply. Little data are available for the systematic assessment of the relative importance of the various factors controlling coastal change, and thus the understanding of erosion threats and the response has been haphazard and inconsiderate of the system as a whole. Information on historical coastal change rates, alongshore geomorphic and geologic variation, sediment budgets, wave climates and other factors that shape the coast is limited. An enhanced understanding of basic coastal processes is critical as development pressures, including eco- and cultural tourism, and oil and gas exploration, continue to increase. An initiative is underway to develop a more comprehensive scientific understanding of coastal processes along the Ghana coastline. An international team of scientists, working in collaboration with researchers at the University of Ghana, are building the data- and knowledge-base required for a holistic and systematic assessment to understand coastal change and its driving forces. The approach includes regional analyses of shoreline change, field mapping of geology and geomorphology, short-term monitoring surveys, collection of geophysical data, deployment of a remote camera system, deployment of a directional wave buoy, and regional hydrodynamic modeling. These data and analyses will ultimately provide the foundation needed to make informed decisions on managing the coast and responding to erosion issues. Funding for program development and equipment has been provided via the Coastal Geosciences Program of the U.S. Office of Naval Research through the Navy’s Africa Partnership Station. Data collection and analysis to date include the first regional shoreline change assessment of the Ghana coast, utilizing aerial photography spanning 31 years and RTK-GPS field surveys and reconnaissance mapping. Initial results from the shoreline change analysis indicate highly variable alongshore rates of change, although the trend is predominantly erosional. The highest erosion rates are found in the east, on the downdrift flank of the low-lying, sandy Volta Delta complex. The rapid erosion rates are likely due to the disruption of sediment supplied to the coast by the damming of the Volta River in the 1960s, as well as alongshore transport gradients generated by the progradation and morphologic evolution of the delta. Continuing investigations of coastal processes in Ghana will allow for a better understanding of erosion hazards and will aid in the development of appropriate, systematic, and sustainable responses to future increased hazards associated with rising sea-levels.

Hapke, C. J.; Ashton, A. D.; Wiafe, G.; Addo, K. A.; Ababio, S.; Agyekum, K. A.; Lippmann, T. C.; Roelvink, J.

2010-12-01

411

A Conservation Practices for Conserving  

E-print Network

to water resources. The Catalog also describes conservation practices that provide other benefits to soilA Conservation Catalog Practices for Conserving Pennsylvania's Natural Resources #12;#12;A Conservation Catalog 1 Introduction P ennsylvania is a land of great natural resources and Pennsylvania

Kaye, Jason P.

412

Understanding and retention of the informed consent process among parents in rural northern Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background The individual informed consent model remains critical to the ethical conduct and regulation of research involving human beings. Parental informed consent process in a rural setting of northern Ghana was studied to describe comprehension and retention among parents as part of the evaluation of the existing informed consent process. Methods The study involved 270 female parents who gave consent for their children to participate in a prospective cohort study that evaluated immune correlates of protection against childhood malaria in northern Ghana. A semi-structured interview with questions based on the informed consent themes was administered. Parents were interviewed on their comprehension and retention of the process and also on ways to improve upon the existing process. Results The average parental age was 33.3 years (range 18–62), married women constituted a majority (91.9%), Christians (71.9%), farmers (62.2%) and those with no formal education (53.7%). Only 3% had ever taken part in a research and 54% had at least one relation ever participate in a research. About 90% of parents knew their children were involved in a research study that was not related to medical care, and 66% said the study procedures were thoroughly explained to them. Approximately, 70% recalled the study involved direct benefits compared with 20% for direct risks. The majority (95%) understood study participation was completely voluntary but only 21% recalled they could withdraw from the study without giving reasons. Younger parents had more consistent comprehension than older ones. Maternal reasons for allowing their children to take part in the research were free medical care (36.5%), better medical care (18.8%), general benefits (29.4%), contribution to research in the area (8.8%) and benefit to the community (1.8%). Parental suggestions for improving the consent process included devoting more time for explanations (46.9%), use of the local languages (15.9%) and obtaining consent at home (10.3%). Conclusion Significant but varied comprehension of the informed consent process exists among parents who participate in research activities in northern Ghana and it appears the existing practices are fairly effective in informing research participants in the study area. PMID:18565230

Oduro, Abraham R; Aborigo, Raymond A; Amugsi, Dickson; Anto, Francis; Anyorigiya, Thomas; Atuguba, Frank; Hodgson, Abraham; Koram, Kwadwo A

2008-01-01

413

Urban Vegetation Cover and Vegetation Change in Accra, Ghana: Connection to Housing Quality  

PubMed Central

The objectives are to (1) quantify, map, and analyze vegetation cover distributions and changes across Accra, Ghana, for 2002 and 2010; and (2) examine the statistical relationship between vegetation cover and a housing quality index (HQI) for 2000 at the neighborhood level. Pixel-level vegetation cover maps derived using threshold classification of 2002 and 2010 QuickBird normalized difference vegetation index images have very high overall accuracies and yield an estimate of 5.9 percent vegetation cover reduction over the study area between 2002 and 2010. A high degree of variance in vegetation cover for individual dates is explained by HQI at the neighborhood level, although minimal covariability between absolute or relative vegetation cover change and HQI for 2000 was observed. PMID:24293703

Stow, Douglas A.; Weeks, John R.; Toure, Sory; Coulter, Lloyd L.; Lippitt, Christopher D.; Ashcroft, Eric

2013-01-01

414

Housing and Health in Ghana: The Psychosocial Impacts of Renting a Home  

PubMed Central

This paper reports the findings of a qualitative study investigating the impacts of renting a home on the psychosocial health of tenants in the Accra Metropolitan Area (AMA) in Ghana. In-depth interviews (n = 33) were conducted with private renters in Adabraka, Accra. The findings show that private renters in the AMA face serious problems in finding appropriate and affordable rental units, as well as a persistent threat of eviction by homeowners. These challenges tend to predispose renters to psychosocial distress and diminishing ontological security. Findings are relevant to a range of pluralistic policy options that emphasize both formal and informal housing provision, together with the reorganization and decentralization of the Rent Control Board to the district level to facilitate easy access by the citizenry. PMID:20616989

Luginaah, Isaac; Arku, Godwin; Baiden, Philip

2010-01-01

415

Geographic object-based delineation of neighborhoods of Accra, Ghana using QuickBird satellite imagery  

PubMed Central

The objective was to test GEographic Object-based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) techniques for delineating neighborhoods of Accra, Ghana using QuickBird multispectral imagery. Two approaches to aggregating census enumeration areas (EAs) based on image-derived measures of vegetation objects were tested: (1) merging adjacent EAs according to vegetation measures and (2) image segmentation. Both approaches exploit readily available functions within commercial GEOBIA software. Image-derived neighborhood maps were compared to a reference map derived by spatial clustering of slum index values (from census data), to provide a relative assessment of potential map utility. A size-constrained iterative segmentation approach to aggregation was more successful than standard image segmentation or feature merge techniques. The segmentation approaches account for size and shape characteristics, enabling more realistic neighborhood boundaries to be delineated. The percentage of vegetation patches within each EA yielded more realistic delineation of potential neighborhoods than mean vegetation patch size per EA. PMID:20689664

Stow, Douglas A.; Lippitt, Christopher D.; Weeks, John R.

2010-01-01

416

Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation  

E-print Network

in Contemporary Issues in Forest Resources & 1 credit Conservation Spring FNR4343C Forest Water Resources 3Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation University of Florida/IFAS School of Forest Resources & Conservation www.sfrc.ufl.edu ~ 352-846-0847 ~ khaselier@ufl.edu Protected Areas Management is for students

Watson, Craig A.

417

Collections Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collections conservation is an approach to the preservation treatment of books and book-like materials that is conceptualized and organized in terms of large groups of materials. This guide is intended to enable a library to evaluate its current collections conservation activities. The introduction describes collections conservation and gives…

DeCandido, Robert

418

An Exploratory Study of Trust and Material Hardship in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore associations among interpersonal (thick and thin) and institutional (legislative, executive, and judicial) trust\\u000a and material hardship outcomes in Ghana. We use data from the 2008 Afrobarometer survey. Material hardship is conceptualized\\u000a in terms of frequency of going without five basic necessities\\/consumptive deprivations, each of which a separate outcome (food,\\u000a water, medical care, cooking fuel, and cash income). Five

Isaac Addai; Jelena Pokimica

419

Histories of water and fisheries management in North Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

To counteract low water productivity in many developing countries, international donors promote community-based management. This practice was meant to replace top-down governmental approaches. In Ghana, the water sector has come under review in the 1990s. Institutions have been decentralized, and management tasks transferred to communities, associations, and private-sector entities. While assigning ownership and responsibilities to communities is feasible for rural

Jennifer Hauck; Eva Youkhana

420

Determinants of banks selection in USA, Taiwan and Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this paper is to investigate bank choice\\/selection criteria in a range of cultural and country economic scenarios. More specifically, the purpose of this study is to understand international consumers' selection criteria of banks using the USA, Taiwan, and Ghana as illustrations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Following a literature review, the paper adopts the classical multi-step scale development

Charles Blankson; Julian Ming-Sung Cheng; Nancy Spears

2007-01-01

421

Democratising Higher Education in Ghana and Tanzania: Opportunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses work-in-progress on the ESRC-DFID funded research project on Widening Participation in Higher Education in Ghana and Tanzania: Developing an Equity Scorecard (www.sussex.ac.uk\\/education\\/wideningparticipation). This project is examining patterns of inclusion and exclusion in higher education in two African countries with a view to interrogating the role that universities play in poverty reduction and achievement of the Millennium Development

Louise Morley; Fiona Leach; Rosemary Lugg

422

Buruli Ulcer in Ghana: Results of a National Case Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

A national search for cases of Buruli ulcer in Ghana identified 5,619 patients, with 6,332 clinical lesions at various stages. The overall crude national prevalence rate of active lesions was 20.7 per 100,000, but the rate was 150.8 per 100,000 in the most disease-endemic district. The case search demonstrated wide- spread disease and gross underreporting compared with the routine reporting

George Amofah; Frank Bonsu; Christopher Tetteh; Jane Okrah; Kwame Asamoa; Kingsley Asiedu; Jonathan Addy

2002-01-01

423

Comparative urbanization in Ghana and Kenya in time and space  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are few inter-African country urban analyses because of the continent’s enormous size and socioeconomic diversity, language\\u000a barriers, and wide variations in national and regional urban research capacity. Nevertheless, comparative urban studies are\\u000a critical in understanding contemporary African urbanization. In this comparative spatial and temporal analysis of Ghana and\\u000a Kenya’s urbanization, we find that both countries are urbanizing rapidly and

Kefa M. Otiso; George Owusu

2008-01-01

424

The Determination of Exclusion: Evidence from the Ghana Living Standards Surveys 1991-2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines access to and exclusion from basic education in Ghana over the period 1991-2006, using data derived from the Ghana Living Standards Surveys. It uses the CREATE "zones of exclusion" model to explore schooling access outcomes within the framework of the household production function. Empirical findings indicate that the period…

Rolleston, Caine

2009-01-01

425

Education Reform for the Expansion of Mother-Tongue Education in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1957 Ghana was the first sub-Saharan colonial nation-state to achieve independence from British rule. The language of literacy instruction, however, remained English throughout most of Ghana's independence, effectively thwarting reading and writing in 11 major and 67 minor indigenous languages in use today. After years of policy shifts,…

Rosekrans, Kristin; Sherris, Arieh; Chatry-Komarek, Marie

2012-01-01

426

Democratic consolidation in Ghana: the role and contribution of the media, civil society and state institutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following a democratic transition in 1992, Ghana has made significant efforts to promote a liberal democratic culture and system of government. This paper provides an analysis of the extent to which Ghana's liberal democratic process is being consolidated, focusing on the role and contribution of the media, civil society and state political institutions to this process. It is argued that

Peter Arthur

2010-01-01

427

The Determinants of School Attendance and Attainment in Ghana: A Gender Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the determinants of school attendance and attainment in Ghana with a view to deriving implications for policy direction. Using micro-level data from the Ghana living standards surveys, our gender disaggregated probit models on current schoolattendance and attainment show that parental education and household resources are significant determinants of schooling. The effect of household resources on current schoolattendance

Harry A. Sackey

2007-01-01

428

What Is the Effect of Child Labour on Learning Achievement? Evidence from Ghana. Innocenti Working Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a study that analyzed the links between child labor and poor school performance. Using data gathered in Ghana in recent years through the administration of tests, the study measured reading achievement and mathematics achievement to about half of the individuals surveyed as part of the Ghana Living Standards Survey. The paper…

Heady, Christopher

429

The Growth of Islamic Learning in Northern Ghana and Its Interaction with Western Secular Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the growth of Islamic learning in northern Ghana and its in- teraction with western secular education. It argues that colonial policies and prac- tice had far-reaching implications for Islamic learning, stifling attempts at growth, and suggests that the contemporary situation with regard to Islamic learning in Ghana cannot be properly understood without an appreciation of the historical

Abdulai Iddrisu

430

Migrant fertility in Ghana: Selection versus adaptation and disruption as causal mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study presented in this paper is to disentangle the roles of three mechanisms—selection, adaptation, and disruption—in influencing migrant fertility in Ghana. Using data from the 1998 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, we fit Poisson and sequential logit regression models to discern the effects of the above mechanisms on cumulative fertility and annual probabilities of birth. Characteristics

Arpita Chattopadhyay; Michael J. White; Cornelius Debpuur

2006-01-01

431

Cervical cancer screening using visual inspection with acetic acid: operational experiences from Ghana and Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thailand in 2000 and Ghana in 2001 initiated cervical cancer prevention programmes using a single-visit approach with visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) with cryotherapy for pre-cancerous lesions. This service was integrated into existing reproductive health services, provided by trained nurses. The providers maintained a high level of competence and performance, including after the withdrawal of external funding. In Ghana,

Harshad Sanghvi; Khunying Kobchitt Limpaphayom; Marya Plotkin; Elaine Charurat; Amy Kleine; Enriquito Lu; Wachara Eamratsameekool; Buncha Palanuwong

2008-01-01

432

Religious Differences in Modernization of the Family: Family Demographics Trends in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examines trends in a broad set of reproductive and marital behaviors in Ghana, focusing on religious group differences. These comparisons provide evidence of how family trends are constrained by religious identity in a less developed country. Three waves of the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys are used to track trends in the age…

Heaton, Tim B.; Darkwah, Akosua

2011-01-01

433

Restructuring the delivery of clean water to rural communities in Ghana: the institutional and regulatory issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clean water is an important natural resource. In recent times, there has been a radical change in the institutional and regulatory mechanism for providing clean water to the rural communities of Ghana. The object of this paper is to examine the strengths and weaknesses of the two regimes for providing water to rural communities in Ghana. These are the traditional

Kwadwo B Mensah

1998-01-01

434

Multiple scales of diamond mining in Akwatia, Ghana: addressing environmental and human development impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ghana is the second largest producer of gold in sub-Saharan Africa, and has experienced a significant increase in national mining production over the last two decades. Between 1983 and 1998, the mining industry brought approximately US $4 billion in foreign direct investment to Ghana. While large-scale gold mining has seen a significant increase, artisanal gold and diamond mining product have

Kaakpema Yelpaala; Saleem H. Ali

2005-01-01

435

Policies and programs to prevent child maltreatment and promote family wellness in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined policies and programs to prevent child maltreatment and promote family wellness in Ghana. In the thesis, I discussed values that guide child-care in Ghana, the daily realities of children and families, and policies and programs to promote family wellness and prevent child maltreatment. Lastly, I looked at the climate for prevention and early intervention. I presented recommendations

Bright Isaac Asante

1999-01-01

436

Local responses to an agrarian crisis: Evidence from northern Ghana Dr. Joseph Yaro  

E-print Network

that of the 1970s as global commodity chains intensified under globalization with negligible state support for foodLocal responses to an agrarian crisis: Evidence from northern Ghana Dr. Joseph Yaro Visiting adequate food for feeding and surplus for markets southern Ghana. The surplus agrarian system over

437

Stakeholders' perceptions of the main challenges facing Ghana's mental health care system: a qualitative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mental health remains a low priority in Ghana. No comprehensive studies have assessed the current status of mental health policy, legislation and services in Ghana. This paper presents the qualitative results of a situation analysis conducted as part of the first phase of the Mental Health and Poverty Project. The aim of this paper was to explore what a range

Victor Doku; Angela Ofori-Atta; Bright Akpalu; Akwasi Osei; Ursula Read; Sara Cooper

2011-01-01

438

A statistical model for spatial patterns of Buruli ulcer in the Amansie West district, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buruli ulcer (BU), a skin ulceration caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU), is the second most widespread mycobacterium infection in Ghana. Its infection pathway is possibly related to the potable and agricultural water supply. This study aims to identify environmental factors that influence infection in a part of Ghana. It examines the significance of contaminated surface drainage channels and groundwater using

Alfred A. Duker; Alfred Stein; Martin Hale

2006-01-01

439

Sustainable Waste Management in Africa Accra, Ghana, May 26th-30th, 2014  

E-print Network

& Waste Management (ISWM) of Ghana are pleased to announce that an interdisciplinary course and workshop course will focus on state of the art technologies for advancing sustainable waste management in AfricaSustainable Waste Management in Africa Accra, Ghana, May 26th-30th, 2014 The Earth Engineering

440

Criminal prosecution of suicide attempt survivors in Ghana.  

PubMed

Recently, there have been calls for the decriminalization (or depenalization) of nonfatal suicidal behavior (attempted suicide) in Ghana, India, Uganda, and other societies that currently criminalize nonfatal suicidal behavior. Despite this, there is a dearth of systematic studies that examine the extent, nature, and characteristics of attempted suicide prosecutions in countries that currently criminalize nonfatal suicidal behavior. The current study, therefore, explores the phenomenon of criminal prosecution and punishment for suicide attempters in Ghana, one among several countries where nonfatal suicidal behavior is a crime. Drawing from data extracted from local Ghanaian print and electronic news media articles, the study examines the sociodemographic characteristics of suicide attempt survivors, the patterns of nonfatal suicidal behavior, as well as the criminal justice outcomes of the criminal prosecutions. The findings indicate that the majority of defendants pled guilty to or were found guilty of the charge and sentenced to penalties ranging from monetary fines to incarceration. The results are discussed with regard to their implications for reducing nonfatal suicidal behavior in Ghana. PMID:22923775

Adinkrah, Mensah

2013-12-01

441

Postmodernism and African conservation science  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Africa, the movement away from traditional protectionist conservation to community-based approaches is partially related to postmodernist influences. Proposed transfrontier conservation areas will incorporate local communities, and a clearer understanding of the limitations of community-based conservation is thus needed. The sustainability of community-based conservation projects is questioned on economic and other grounds, and many African countries lack the prerequisites (ecological,

C. A. M. Attwell; F. P. D. Cotterill

2000-01-01

442

Sustaining water supply through a phased community management approach: lessons from Ghana’s “oats” water supply scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water sector reforms in Ghana and in other developing countries resulted in the adoption of the community management approach\\u000a for water systems in an effort to ensure better management and service delivery. However, community management is also plagued\\u000a internal differences, paucity of technical skills, and insufficient management experience. This article presents a case study\\u000a of a successful community management system

2011-01-01

443

Evolutionary History of Rabies in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rabies virus (RABV) is enzootic throughout Africa, with the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) being the principal vector. Dog rabies is estimated to cause 24,000 human deaths per year in Africa, however, this estimate is still considered to be conservative. Two sub-Saharan African RABV lineages have been detected in West Africa. Lineage 2 is present throughout West Africa, whereas Africa 1a

David T. S. Hayman; Nicholas Johnson; Daniel L. Horton; Jessica Hedge; Philip R. Wakeley; Ashley C. Banyard; Shoufeng Zhang; Andy Alhassan; Anthony R. Fooks

2011-01-01

444

Perceived barriers and motivating factors influencing student midwives' acceptance of rural postings in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Research on the mal-distribution of health care workers has focused mainly on physicians and nurses. To meet the Millennium Development Goal Five and the reproductive needs of all women, it is predicted that an additional 334,000 midwives are needed. Despite the on-going efforts to increase this cadre of health workers there are still glaring gaps and inequities in distribution. The objectives of this study are to determine the perceived barriers and motivators influencing final year midwifery students’ acceptance of rural postings in Ghana, West Africa. Methods An exploratory qualitative study using focus group interviews as the data collection strategy was conducted in two of the largest midwifery training schools in Ghana. All final year midwifery students from the two training schools were invited to participate in the focus groups. A purposive sample of 49 final year midwifery students participated in 6 focus groups. All students were women. Average age was 23.2?years. Glaser’s constant comparative method of analysis was used to identify patterns or themes from the data. Results Three themes were identified through a broad inductive process: 1) social amenities; 2) professional life; and 3) further education/career advancement. Together they create the overarching theme, quality of life, we use to describe the influences on midwifery students’ decision to accept a rural posting following graduation. Conclusions In countries where there are too few health workers, deployment of midwives to rural postings is a continuing challenge. Until more midwives are attracted to work in rural, remote areas health inequities will exist and the targeted reduction for maternal mortality will remain elusive. PMID:22828497

2012-01-01

445

Conservation Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started as a germ of an idea back in 1987 (on a real, live bulletin board, as opposed to an electronic one), Conservation Online (CoOL) has been providing online resources for conservation professionals since 1993. As its website announces, it is a "full text library of conservation information," covering a wide array of topics ranging from digital imaging to reprographics, and quite a bit of material in between. By clicking on any given topic, visitors will receive a brief overview of the subject, its terminology, and then a list of general online resources for consideration. Another nice feature of the site is the mailing list archive, which contain the archives of various queries submitted to different professional conservation groups, such as the Association of Moving Image Archivists, the Textiles Conservation Discussion List, and the Conservation Framer's Mailing List. The site is rounded out by a timeline that traces the CoOL's history from the summer of 1987 to July 2003.

446

Chronic non-communicable diseases and the challenge of universal health coverage: insights from community-based cardiovascular disease research in urban poor communities in Accra, Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background The rising burden of chronic non-communicable diseases in low and middle income countries has major implications on the ability of these countries to achieve universal health coverage. In this paper we discuss the impact of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) on primary healthcare services in urban poor communities in Accra, Ghana. Methods We review the evidence on the evolution of universal health coverage in Ghana and the central role of the community-based health planning services (CHPS) programme and the National Health Insurance Scheme in primary health care. We present preliminary findings from a study on community CVD knowledge, experiences, responses and access to services. Results The rising burden of NCDs in Ghana will affect the achievement of universal health coverage, particularly in urban areas. There is a significant unmet need for CVD care in the study communities. The provision of primary healthcare services for CVD is not accessible, equitable or responsive to the needs of target communities. Conclusions We consider these findings in the context of the primary healthcare system and discuss the challenges and opportunities for strengthening health systems in low and middle-income countries. PMID:25082497

2014-01-01

447

Conservation Biology Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Conservation Biology Institute (CBI), a non-profit organization founded in 1997, is active in three primary areas related to conservation biology - applied research, education, and professional services. Through its research - alone or in collaboration with others - CBI actively seeks to develop new conservation tools, techniques, and analyses that can be used to better address a wide range of ecological concerns from endangered species protection to regional conservation planning. Based on a combination of field-based biology and computer mapping technologies (i.e., remote sensing and geographic information systems), CBIs primary research areas include: forest, aquatic, an