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1

The Impact of Human Activities on Biodiversity Conservation in a Coastal Wetland in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was undertaken at the Muni-Pomadze coastal wetland in the Central Region of Ghana. The wetland, located about 56 km west of Accra, is an important habitat for wildlife of both local and global conservation significance. This study investigated the effects of human activities (e.g. farming, hunting, fuelwood harvesting, etc.) on the environment and biodiversity conservation in the area,

A. M. Wuver; D. K. Attuquayefio

2

Yankey's dilemma: conservation versus the people of Ghana.  

PubMed

The past 20 years have seen a shift in conservation approaches to realize the importance of people in conservation and wildlife management (CWM). To this extent, in most conservation circles the concept of community involvement is no longer debated. The following factors have influenced the growth of CWM, especially in Africa: (i) recent developments in postcolonial governments have made them unable to manage and control the use of natural resources in the restrictive manner mandated by the legislation of the colonial past still in place; (ii) successes, particularly in southern Africa, of approaches that involved devolution of greater access rights and responsibilities to communities have led to these approaches being used by other countries; (iii) donor agencies, encouraged by the success of these approaches, have allocated more of their resources to community-based projects; and (iv) changes in international perceptions have been heavily influenced by the growing voice of the "South" in international fora. While there has been some success, there have also been failures. In Ghana, there has been considerable effort to develop programs that incorporate community aspirations into specific objectives; one inherent problem with these programs-not exclusive to Ghana-is the tendency for conservation programs to try to fit community aspirations into conservation objectives as opposed to finding ways of using conservation to help fulfill community aspirations. When community-based programs fail to recognize this, they are generally unable to deliver on their expected outputs. Some critics have used this to dismiss the community approach, which poses a dangerous reversion to a paradigm that has significantly failed in Africa, and much of the developing world, especially in regard to wildlife outside of protected areas. PMID:12381557

Murphree, Michael

2002-10-01

3

Malaria epidemiology in the Ahafo area of Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains endemic in sub-Saharan Africa including Ghana. The epidemiology of malaria in special areas, such as mining areas needs to be monitored and controlled. Newmont Ghana Gold Limited is conducting mining activities in the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana that may have an impact on the diseases such as malaria in the mining area. Methods Prior to the start of mining activities, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2006/2007 to determine malaria epidemiology, including malaria parasitaemia and anaemia among children < 5 years and monthly malaria transmission in a mining area of Ghana. Results A total of 1,671 households with a child less than five years were selected. About 50% of the household heads were males. The prevalence of any malaria parasitaemia was 22.8% (95% CI 20.8 - 24.9). Plasmodium falciparum represented 98.1% (95% CI 96.2 - 99.2) of parasitaemia. The geometric mean P. falciparum asexual parasite count was 1,602 (95% CI 1,140 - 2,252) and 1,195 (95% CI 985 - 1,449) among children < 24 months and ? 24 months respectively. Health insurance membership (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.45 - 0.80, p = 0.001) and the least poor (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.37 - 0.90, p = 0.001) were protected against malaria parasitaemia. The prevalence of anaemia was high among children < 24 months compared to children ? 24 months (44.1% (95% CI 40.0 - 48.3) and 23.8% (95% CI 21.2 - 26.5) respectively. About 69% (95% CI 66.3 - 70.9) of households own at least one ITN. The highest EIRs were record in May 2007 (669 ib/p/m) and June 2007 (826 ib/p/m). The EIR of Anopheles gambiae were generally higher than Anopheles funestus. Conclusion The baseline malaria epidemiology suggests a high malaria transmission in the mining area prior to the start of mining activities. Efforts at controlling malaria in this mining area have been intensified but could be enhanced with increased resources and partnerships between the government and the private sector.

2011-01-01

4

Municipal Solid Waste Management in the Accra Metropolitan Area, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Municipal solid waste management in Accra, Ghana, is at present delivered in an unsustainable manner. Due to uncontrolled urbanisation, large quantities of waste are generated daily in Accra, and this exerts much pressure on an over strained solid waste management system. Coupled with weak institutional capacity, and lack of resources, both human and capital, the city authorities face difficulties in

Kwasi Owusu Boadi; Markku Kuitunen

2003-01-01

5

Environment, wealth, inequality and the burden of disease in the Accra metropolitan area, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examines environmental problems and adverse impacts on the health of urban households in the Accra metropolitan area, Ghana. Accra is faced with severe inadequacy of urban infrastructure in the face of rapid population growth in the metropolis. More than half of the city's population do not have access to solid waste collection services. Only 39.8% of households have

Kwasi Owusu Boadi; Markku Kuitunen

2005-01-01

6

Sachet drinking water in Ghana's Accra-Tema metropolitan area: past, present, and future  

PubMed Central

Population growth in West Africa has outpaced local efforts to expand potable water services, and private sector sale of packaged drinking water has filled an important gap in household water security. Consumption of drinking water packaged in plastic sachets has soared in West Africa over the last decade, but the long-term implications of these changing consumption patterns remain unclear and unstudied. This paper reviews recent shifts in drinking water, drawing upon data from the 2003 and 2008 Demographic and Health Surveys, and provides an overview of the history, economics, quality, and regulation of sachet water in Ghana’s Accra-Tema Metropolitan Area. Given the pros and cons of sachet water, we suggest that a more holistic understanding of the drinking water landscape is necessary for municipal planning and sustainable drinking water provision.

Weeks, John R.; Fink, Gunther

2013-01-01

7

Groundwater resources management in the Afram Plains area, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

A groundwater flow simulation model was developed using available hydrogeological data to describe groundwater flow in the\\u000a Afram Plains area. A nonlinear optimization model was then developed and solved for the management of groundwater resources\\u000a to meet irrigation and household needs. The objective was to maximize groundwater extraction from the shallow aquifers of\\u000a the southern Voltaian Sedimentary Basin that underly

Sandow Mark Yidana; Duke Ophori

2008-01-01

8

Evaluating Local Benefits from Conservation in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protected areas are integral to the global effort to conserve biodiversity, and, over the past two decades, protected area managers have begun to recognize that conservation objectives are next to impossible to achieve without considering the needs and concerns of local communities. Incentive-based programs (IBPs) have become a favored approach to protected area management, geared at fostering local stewardship by delivering benefits tied to conservation to local people. Effective IBPs require benefits to accrue to and be recognized by those experiencing the greatest consequences as a result of the protected area, and those likely to continue extractive activities if their livelihood needs are compromised. This research examines dispersal of IBP benefits, as perceived by local residents in Nepal’s Annapurna Conservation Area. Results reported here are based on questionnaire interviews with 188 households conducted between September and December 2004. Results indicate that local residents primarily identify benefits from social development activities, provisions for resource extraction, and economic opportunities. Overall, benefits have been dispersed equally to households in villages on and off the main tourist route, and regardless of a household’s participation in tourism. However, benefits are not effectively targeted to poorer residents, those highly dependent on natural resources, and those experiencing the most crop damage and livestock loss from protected wildlife. This article provides several suggestions for improving the delivery of conservation incentives.

Spiteri, Arian; Nepal, Sanjay K.

2008-09-01

9

Evaluating local benefits from conservation in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area.  

PubMed

Protected areas are integral to the global effort to conserve biodiversity, and, over the past two decades, protected area managers have begun to recognize that conservation objectives are next to impossible to achieve without considering the needs and concerns of local communities. Incentive-based programs (IBPs) have become a favored approach to protected area management, geared at fostering local stewardship by delivering benefits tied to conservation to local people. Effective IBPs require benefits to accrue to and be recognized by those experiencing the greatest consequences as a result of the protected area, and those likely to continue extractive activities if their livelihood needs are compromised. This research examines dispersal of IBP benefits, as perceived by local residents in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area. Results reported here are based on questionnaire interviews with 188 households conducted between September and December 2004. Results indicate that local residents primarily identify benefits from social development activities, provisions for resource extraction, and economic opportunities. Overall, benefits have been dispersed equally to households in villages on and off the main tourist route, and regardless of a household's participation in tourism. However, benefits are not effectively targeted to poorer residents, those highly dependent on natural resources, and those experiencing the most crop damage and livestock loss from protected wildlife. This article provides several suggestions for improving the delivery of conservation incentives. PMID:18458999

Spiteri, Arian; Nepal, Sanjay K

2008-09-01

10

Local responses to participatory conservation in Annapurna conservation area, Nepal.  

PubMed

Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for participation. In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the barriers encountered in its implementation, a questionnaire survey of 188 households was employed in the communities of the Upper Mustang extension of Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. The study provides a comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers between Non-Tourist (NT) and Tourist (TV) villages. The results revealed important differences between the two groups in terms of their participation in community programs, barriers to participation, and perception of benefits from participation. Owing to their distinct spatial, demographic and attitudinal differences, the two village groups have their own sets of needs, values and motivation factors which cannot be generalized and treated as such. The research clearly identifies the need for the conservation agency to be creative in devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific social groups so as to optimize their input in participatory conservation. PMID:19967362

Khadka, Damodar; Nepal, Sanjay K

2010-02-01

11

Local Responses to Participatory Conservation in Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for participation. In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the barriers encountered in its implementation, a questionnaire survey of 188 households was employed in the communities of the Upper Mustang extension of Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. The study provides a comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers between Non-Tourist (NT) and Tourist (TV) villages. The results revealed important differences between the two groups in terms of their participation in community programs, barriers to participation, and perception of benefits from participation. Owing to their distinct spatial, demographic and attitudinal differences, the two village groups have their own sets of needs, values and motivation factors which cannot be generalized and treated as such. The research clearly identifies the need for the conservation agency to be creative in devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific social groups so as to optimize their input in participatory conservation.

Khadka, Damodar; Nepal, Sanjay K.

2010-02-01

12

7 CFR 1410.8 - Conservation priority areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...designation must clearly define conservation and environmental objectives...the total acreage of all conservation priority areas, in aggregate...Federal and State environmental laws. (d) Conservation priority area...

2009-01-01

13

7 CFR 1410.8 - Conservation priority areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...designation must clearly define conservation and environmental objectives...the total acreage of all conservation priority areas, in aggregate...Federal and State environmental laws. (d) Conservation priority area...

2010-01-01

14

50 CFR 660.76 - EFH Conservation Areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false EFH Conservation Areas. 660.76 Section 660.76 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION...WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.76 EFH Conservation Areas. EFH...

2013-10-01

15

Hydrogeochemistry and isotope studies of groundwater in the Ga West Municipal Area, Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper assesses groundwater in the Ga West Municipal Area of Ghana using hydrogeochemistry and isotope approaches. High salinity groundwaters are obtained in the municipality which poses problems for current and future domestic water supply exploitation. The increase in salinity is related to the dissolution of minerals in the host rocks and the evaporative concentration of solutes. The dominant groundwater composition in both shallow and deep wells sampled is Na-Cl. The concentration of the Na-Cl was observed to increase substantially with well depths. The mixing of freshwater of the shallow hand dug wells with that of saline water of the deep boreholes was noted in the shift from Ca-HCO3 facies to Ca-Cl facies. Schoeller diagram showed that groundwater in the study area is recharged from a similar source. The Schoeller diagram also showed the gradual increase in concentration of the major ions with depth. This leads to salinization in the deep boreholes. The oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions in the groundwater samples suggest that groundwater recharge is of meteoric origin with few samples showing evidence of evaporation. An average deuterium excess of rainfall of 14.2 ‰ was observed, which indicates the significance of kinetic evaporation due to low humidity conditions prevalent in the study area. The d-excess also indicates modern recharge along the foothills of the Akwapim-Togo Ranges.

Saka, David; Akiti, Tetteh T.; Osae, Shiloh; Appenteng, Michael K.; Gibrilla, Abass

2013-09-01

16

Conservation and Education in Murchison Falls Conservation Area, Uganda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This thesis forms the foundation for a conservation education training manual to help guides in Murchison Falls National Park, Uganda, communicate to foreign visitors about conservation issues. For background information I used a combination of text-based research and interviews to examine the application of community conservation and…

Jordahl, Mark D.

2005-01-01

17

Protected Area Economics and Policy: Linking Conservation and Sustainable Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Economic and Policy Issues in Natural Habitats and Protected Areas; Conservation, Protected Areas, and the Global Economic System: How Debt, Trade, Exchange Rates, Inflation, and Macroeconomic Policy Affect Biological Diversity; Conservation in ...

M. Munasinghe J. A. McNeely

1994-01-01

18

Spatial dependency of cholera prevalence on potential cholera reservoirs in an urban area, Kumasi, Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cholera has been a public health burden in Ghana since the early 1970s. Between 1999 and 2005, a total of 25,636 cases and 620 deaths were officially reported to the WHO. In one of the worst affected urban cities, fecal contamination of surface water is extremely high, and the disease is reported to be prevalent among inhabitants living in close proximity to surface water bodies. Surface runoff from dump sites is a major source of fecal and bacterial contamination of rivers and streams in the study area. This study aims to determine (a) the impacts of surface water contamination on cholera infection and (b) detect and map arbitrary shaped clusters of cholera. A Geographic Information System (GIS) based spatial analysis is used to delineate potential reservoirs of the cholera vibrios; possibly contaminated by surface runoff from open space refuse dumps. Statistical modeling using OLS model reveals a significant negative association between (a) cholera prevalence and proximity to all the potential cholera reservoirs ( R2 = 0.18, p < 0.001) and (b) cholera prevalence and proximity to upstream potential cholera reservoirs ( R2 = 0.25, p < 0.001). The inclusion of spatial autoregressive coefficients in the OLS model reveals the dependency of the spatial distribution of cholera prevalence on the spatial neighbors of the communities. A flexible scan statistic identifies a most likely cluster with a higher relative risk (RR = 2.04, p < 0.01) compared with the cluster detected by circular scan statistic (RR = 1.60, p < 0.01). We conclude that surface water pollution through runoff from waste dump sites play a significant role in cholera infection.

Osei, Frank B.; Duker, Alfred A.; Augustijn, Ellen-Wien; Stein, Alfred

2010-10-01

19

Mapping irrigated areas of Ghana using fusion of 30 m and 250 m resolution remote-sensing data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Maps of irrigated areas are essential for Ghana's agricultural development. The goal of this research was to map irrigated agricultural areas and explain methods and protocols using remote sensing. Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) data and time-series Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data were used to map irrigated agricultural areas as well as other land use/land cover (LULC) classes, for Ghana. Temporal variations in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) pattern obtained in the LULC class were used to identify irrigated and non-irrigated areas. First, the temporal variations in NDVI pattern were found to be more consistent in long-duration irrigated crops than with short-duration rainfed crops due to more assured water supply for irrigated areas. Second, surface water availability for irrigated areas is dependent on shallow dug-wells (on river banks) and dug-outs (in river bottoms) that affect the timing of crop sowing and growth stages, which was in turn reflected in the seasonal NDVI pattern. A decision tree approach using Landsat 30 m one time data fusion with MODIS 250 m time-series data was adopted to classify, group, and label classes. Finally, classes were tested and verified using ground truth data and national statistics. Fuzzy classification accuracy assessment for the irrigated classes varied between 67 and 93%. An irrigated area derived from remote sensing (32,421 ha) was 20-57% higher than irrigated areas reported by Ghana's Irrigation Development Authority (GIDA). This was because of the uncertainties involved in factors such as: (a) absence of shallow irrigated area statistics in GIDA statistics, (b) non-clarity in the irrigated areas in its use, under-development, and potential for development in GIDA statistics, (c) errors of omissions and commissions in the remote sensing approach, and (d) comparison involving widely varying data types, methods, and approaches used in determining irrigated area statistics using GIDA and remote sensing. Extensive field campaigns to help in better classification and validation of irrigated areas using high (30 m ) to very high (<5 m) resolution remote sensing data that are fused with multi temporal data like MODIS are the way forward. This is especially true in accounting for small yet contiguous patches of irrigated areas from dug-wells and dug-outs. ?? 2011 by the authors.

Gumma, M. K.; Thenkabail, P. S.; Hideto, F.; Nelson, A.; Dheeravath, V.; Busia, D.; Rala, A.

2011-01-01

20

Chlamydia Trachomatis and Neisseria Gonorrhoeae prevalence among women of reproductive age living in urogenital schistosomiasis endemic area in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Many studies have shown an overlap in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and urogenital schistosomiasis among young women living in schistosomiasis endemic areas. Yet we found no study assessing the prevalence of STI infections in urogenital schistosomiasis endemic areas in Ghana. As part of an epidemiological study on urogenital schistosomiasis and HIV, we sought to assess the prevalence of both Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorhoeae (NG) infections among women living in schistosomiasis endemic communities and explore the relationship between the sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and demographic characteristics, sexual behaviour and self-reported symptoms. Methods This was a cross-sectional study in which endocervical samples were collected from 191 women aged 15–49 years from October 2005 to March 2006. Samples were examined for CT and NG using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). A structured questionnaire was also used to elicit information on study participant’s gynaecological and obstetric history and symptoms for genital infection. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression were used to assess association between CT and NG and other variables such as age, sexual behaviour and self-reported symptoms. Results The overall prevalence of CT and NG were 6.3% and 2.6% respectively.The highest prevalence rates of CT were in the 15 to 19 year group while only individuals between 15 and 39 years were positive for NG. There was no association between CT and age, contraceptive use and the other variables assessed. NG on the other hand was found to be associated with age, number of births and number of sexual partners only by chi-square test. Conclusions Our research revealed higher prevalence of CT and NG infections when compared to previous studies conducted among higher risk groups in non-urogenital schistosomiasis areas in Ghana. We therefore recommend further studies of these STIs in urogenital schistosomiasis endemic areas in the country.

2014-01-01

21

Conservation: Making marine protected areas work  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Globally consistent surveys of five factors influencing the success of marine protected areas -- age, size, isolation, protection and enforcement -- reveal that only when all five are present does nature thrive. See Letter p.216

Halpern, Benjamin S.

2014-02-01

22

Hydrogeochemical study on the contamination of water resources in a part of Tarkwa mining area, Western Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to investigate the groundwater chemistry with special concern to metal pollution in selected communities in the Wassa West district, Ghana. In this mining area, 40 ground water samples, mainly from drilled wells, were collected. The groundwaters have generally from neutral to acidic pH values and their Eh values indicate oxidising conditions. The dominating ions are calcium, sodium, and bicarbonate. The metal concentrations in the study area are generally lower than those typically found in mining regions. Only 17 wells show metal concentrations exceeding WHO guidelines for at least one metal. The main contaminants are manganese and iron, but arsenic and aluminium also exceed the guidelines in some wells probably affected by acid mine drainage (AMD). Metal concentrations in the groundwater seem to be controlled by the adsorption processes. Hydrogeochemical modelling indicates supersaturation of groundwater with respect to several mineral phases including iron-hydroxides/oxides, suggesting that adsorption on these minerals may control heavy metal and arsenic concentrations in groundwater. The area is hilly, with many groundwater flow divides that result in several local flow systems. The aquifers therefore are not strongly affected by weathering of minerals due to short groundwater residence times and intense flushing. The local character of groundwater flow systems also prevents a strong impact of acid mine drainage on groundwater systems in a regional scale.

Bhattacharya, Prosun; Sracek, Ondra; Eldvall, Björn; Asklund, Ragnar; Barmen, Gerhard; Jacks, Gunnar; Koku, John; Gustafsson, Jan-Erik; Singh, Nandita; Balfors, Berit Brokking

2012-05-01

23

15 CFR 922.73 - Marine reserves and marine conservation area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Marine reserves and marine conservation area. 922.73 Section...73 Marine reserves and marine conservation area. (a) Marine reserves...anchor or in transit. (b) Marine conservation area. Unless...

2009-01-01

24

Spatial models for selecting the most suitable areas of rice cultivation in the Inland Valley Wetlands of Ghana using remote sensing and geographic information systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overarching goal of this research was to develop spatial models and demonstrate their use in selecting the most suitable areas for the inland valley (IV) wetland rice cultivation. The process involved comprehensive sets of methods and protocols involving: (1) Identification and development of necessary spatial data layers; (2) Providing weightages to these spatial data layers based on expert knowledge, (3) Development of spatial models, and (4) Running spatial models for determining most suitable areas for rice cultivation. The study was conducted in Ghana. The model results, based on weightages to 16-22 spatial data layers, showed only 3-4 % of the total IV wetland areas were "highly suitable" but 39-47 % of the total IV wetland areas were "suitable" for rice cultivation. The outputs were verified using field-plot data which showed accuracy between 84.4 to 87.5% with errors of omissions and commissions less than 23%. Given that only a small fraction (<15% overall) of the total IV wetland areas (about 20-28% of total geographic area in Ghana) are currently utilized for agriculture and constitute very rich land-units in terms of soil depth, soil fertility, and water availability, these agroecosystems offer an excellent opportunity for a green and a blue revolution in Africa.

Gumma, Muralikrishna; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Fujii, Hideto; Namara, Regassa

2009-06-01

25

Forrest Conservation Area : Management & Implementation FY 2004 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribes) acquired the Forrest Conservation Area during July of 2002. The property is located in the Upper John Day subbasin within the Columbia basin. The property consists of two parcels comprising 4,232 acres. The Mainstem parcel consists of 3,445 acres and is located 1/2 mile to the east of Prairie City, Oregon on the mainstem John Day River. The Middle Fork parcel consists of 786 acres and is located one mile to the west of the town of Austin, OR on the Middle Fork John Day River. The Forrest Conservation Area is under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to provide an annual written report generally describing the real property interests of the project and management activities undertaken or in progress. Acquisition of the Forrest Conservation Area was funded by BPA as part of their program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife habitat affected by hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries. The intent of the Conservation Area is to partially mitigate fish and wildlife impacts for the John Day Dam on the Columbia River as outlined in the Northwest Power Planning Council's Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994, {section}11.1, {section}7.6). While the Tribes hold fee-title to the property, the BPA has assured a level of management funding for the protection and restoration of fish and wildlife habitat through a memorandum of agreement.

Smith, Brent

2008-12-01

26

Hydrochemical study of water collected at a section of the Lower Volta River (Akuse to Sogakope area), Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present hydrochemical study at the Lower Volta River (Akuse to Sogakope area), Ghana was conducted by determining the physico-chemical parameters (pH, temperature, total dissolved solute, electrical conductivity, total hardness, phosphate (PO4 3-), nitrate (NO3 -), sulfate (SO4 2-), dissolve oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand, calcium (Ca2+), sodium (Na+), magnesium (Mg2+), total iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) nickel (Ni), and total chromium (Cr) at 38 sampling sites during the wet and the dry seasons. The physical and ionic parameters were mostly found within the WHO (Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 3rd edn, Geneva 2004) standard for drinking water. The trace metals except Cu at some sites recorded values above the WHO (Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 3rd edn, Geneva 2004) standard for drinking water. This shows that the river water is not entirely fit for drinking. Mean values of physico-chemical parameters were mostly found to be high in the dry season as compared to the wet season. Cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were employed to evaluate the water quality and the interrelationship between variables. CA grouped the physico-chemical parameters into three groups (physical/minor ions, major ions and trace elements). Correlation analysis showed that physico-chemical parameters do not vary much in terms of the sampling sites. Thus, based on obtained information, it is possible to design a future, desirable sampling strategy, which could reduce the number of sampling stations and associated costs for effective river water quality management. Results showed that four principal components (industrial effect, domestic factor, natural source and agricultural effect) accounted for 65.59 % of the total variance among the water quality parameters. PCA also identified sampling sites 69R, 63R, 51M, 87L, 35L, 74L and 84L as polluted with metals. Therefore, water quality monitoring and control of release of industrial and anthropogenic wastes into the river are strongly needed.

Gampson, E. K.; Nartey, V. K.; Golow, A. A.; Akiti, T. T.

2014-06-01

27

A simulation/optimization model for groundwater resources management in the Afram Plains area, Ghana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A groundwater flow simulation model was developed using available hydrogeo logical data to A groundwater flow simulation model was developed using available hydrogeological data to describe groundwater flow in the Afram Plains area. A nonlinear optimization model was then developed and solved for the management of groundwater resources to meet irrigation and household needs. The objective was to maximize groundwater extraction for irrigation activities from the shallow aquifers of the southern Voltaian Sedimentary Basin that underly the area This would improve food security, raise the standard of living and ultimately alleviate poverty in the Afram Plains. The calibrated flow model is in tandem with the general hydrochemical evolution of groundwater in the area and fits the observed data with about a 98% degree of confidence. Groundwater resources may not be the limiting factor in the development of irrigated agriculture. Groundwater has tremendous potential to meet current and future irrigation needs. It was determined from this study that profit from maize irrigation in the Afram Plains area could rise from US$301, 000 in 2007 to over US$3.5 million by the end of the last management period (2013) as irrigation practice is improved, and the economic strength to increase the acreage for irrigation improves. Even with these margins of profit, the drawdown constraint was not reached in any of the management periods. It is expected that rechargefrom the irrigation water would reclaim the lost hydraulic head. The single significant constraint was the amount of land area that could be developed for irrigation in the area. The profit obtained per unit cubic meter of water used also improved over the same management period.

Yidana, S. M.

2008-01-01

28

Water needs and women's health in the Kumasi metropolitan area, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of water fetching by women and the quality of water during periods of water scarcity on the health of women in the Kumasi metropolitan area. A sample of 210 women drawn using systematic random procedure is used for the study. Formal interview is the main instrument used. The survey has established that income, quality of

Daniel Buor

2004-01-01

29

Modeling the Relationship between Precipitation and Malaria Incidence in Children from a Holoendemic Area in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Climatic factors influence the incidence of vector-borne diseases such as malaria. They modify the abundance of mosquito populations, the length of the extrinsic parasite cycle in the mosquito, the malarial dynamics, and the emergence of epidemics in areas of low endemicity. The objective of this study was to investigate temporal associations between weekly malaria incidence in 1,993 children < 15 years of age and weekly rainfall. A time series analysis was conducted by using cross-correlation function and autoregressive modeling. The regression model showed that the level of rainfall predicted the malaria incidence after a time lag of 9 weeks (mean = 60 days) and after a time lag between one and two weeks. The analyses provide evidence that high-resolution precipitation data can directly predict malaria incidence in a highly endemic area. Such models might enable the development of early warning systems and support intervention measures.

Krefis, Anne Caroline; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Kruger, Andreas; Fobil, Julius; Nkrumah, Bernard; Acquah, Samuel; Loag, Wibke; Sarpong, Nimako; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Ranft, Ulrich; May, Jurgen

2011-01-01

30

Missing links in solid waste management in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, solid waste management (SWM) policies and programmes have received lots of attention in the menu of most\\u000a political leaders in developing countries. However, these concerns often focus on the efficiency criterion. Even that, efficiency\\u000a is only narrowed down to the removal of waste from residential areas without much concern for either its safe disposal or\\u000a its impact

Martin Oteng-Ababio

31

History of Water Conservation in Shendong Mining Area, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shendong Coalfield is located in the semi-arid, semi-desert Ordos Basin of the NW China, where surface water is rare, the shallow Pleistocene Sala-u-su Formation is the main available aquifer and the environment is vulnerable. This article presents the history of water conservation in the Shendong Mining area since the 1980s.The coal excavation from the shallow-buried Jurassic Yan'an Formation inevitably destroys

Changshen Wang; Yajun Sun; Xiexing Miao; Guoyong Yang

32

Human migration, protected areas, and conservation outreach in Tanzania.  

PubMed

A recent discussion debates the extent of human in-migration around protected areas (PAs) in the tropics. One proposed argument is that rural migrants move to bordering areas to access conservation outreach benefits. A counter proposal maintains that PAs have largely negative effects on local populations and that outreach initiatives even if successful present insufficient benefits to drive in-migration. Using data from Tanzania, we examined merits of statistical tests and spatial methods used previously to evaluate migration near PAs and applied hierarchical modeling with appropriate controls for demographic and geographic factors to advance the debate. Areas bordering national parks in Tanzania did not have elevated rates of in-migration. Low baseline population density and high vegetation productivity with low interannual variation rather than conservation outreach explained observed migration patterns. More generally we argue that to produce results of conservation policy significance, analyses must be conducted at appropriate scales, and we caution against use of demographic data without appropriate controls when drawing conclusions about migration dynamics. PMID:24476123

Salerno, Jonathan D; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; Kefauver, Shawn C

2014-06-01

33

Characterization of mosquito larval habitats and assessment of insecticide-resistance status of Anopheles gambiae senso lato in urban areas in southwestern Ghana.  

PubMed

The study was carried out to characterize potential larval habitats in the city of Sekondi with the aim of assessing the relative importance of anthropogenic and natural water bodies as larval habitats. Insecticide-resistance status of Anopheles gambiae senso lato in the southwestern part of the coastal savannah zone in Ghana was also assessed against four different classes of insecticides. Larval surveys were carried out in two communities that are separated by a lagoon. Although the lagoon was a potential mosquito larval habitat, we showed that it was not an important mosquito breeding site. The major larval habitats were anthropogenic, resulting from human behavior. Some of the organically polluted breeding sites were inhabited by both An. gambiae s.l. and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. The data also showed that An. gambiae s.l. has currently developed a strong resistance to DDT and pyrethroid insecticides in southwestern Ghana, where the species was reported to be susceptible about a decade ago. The use of insecticides in households was implicated as a possible cause of the development of resistance among An. gambiae s.l. populations in the area. The management of insecticide resistance among malaria vectors needs urgent attention if insecticide-treated materials can continue to be used for malaria control. PMID:22548539

Kudom, Andreas Adutwum; Mensah, Ben A; Agyemang, Thomas Kwaku

2012-06-01

34

Time and Change in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The disastrous state of Ghanaian finances immediately before and after the coup against Nkrumah has had the effect of virtually eliminating community development and health services, particularly in non-urban areas of Ghana. It is hoped that new regional and district structure and improved staff morale can now bring about more effective programs.…

Hodge, Peter

1969-01-01

35

Protected Areas: Mixed Success in Conserving East Africa's Evergreen Forests  

PubMed Central

In East Africa, human population growth and demands for natural resources cause forest loss contributing to increased carbon emissions and reduced biodiversity. Protected Areas (PAs) are intended to conserve habitats and species. Variability in PA effectiveness and ‘leakage’ (here defined as displacement of deforestation) may lead to different trends in forest loss within, and adjacent to, existing PAs. Here, we quantify spatial variation in trends of evergreen forest coverage in East Africa between 2001 and 2009, and test for correlations with forest accessibility and environmental drivers. We investigate PA effectiveness at local, landscape and national scales, comparing rates of deforestation within park boundaries with those detected in park buffer zones and in unprotected land more generally. Background forest loss (BFL) was estimated at ?9.3% (17,167 km2), but varied between countries (range: ?0.9% to ?85.7%; note: no BFL in South Sudan). We document high variability in PA effectiveness within and between PA categories. The most successful PAs were National Parks, although only 26 out of 48 parks increased or maintained their forest area (i.e. Effective parks). Forest Reserves (Ineffective parks, i.e. parks that lose forest from within boundaries: 204 out of 337), Nature Reserves (six out of 12) and Game Parks (24 out of 26) were more likely to lose forest cover. Forest loss in buffer zones around PAs exceeded background forest loss, in some areas indicating leakage driven by Effective National Parks. Human pressure, forest accessibility, protection status, distance to fires and long-term annual rainfall were highly significant drivers of forest loss in East Africa. Some of these factors can be addressed by adjusting park management. However, addressing close links between livelihoods, natural capital and poverty remains a fundamental challenge in East Africa’s forest conservation efforts.

Pfeifer, Marion; Burgess, Neil D.; Swetnam, Ruth D.; Platts, Philip J.; Willcock, Simon; Marchant, Robert

2012-01-01

36

Conservation Planning for the Management and Protection of Natural Areas in the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuarine Study Area of Virginia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Individual objectives for this conservation planning project include the development of natural area protection boundaries, natural area management and protection strategies, the implementation of a natural area landowner contact and education program, an...

C. Caljouw L. Smith M. Donoff S. Erdle

1994-01-01

37

Integrated conservation and development project life cycles in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal: Is development overpowering conservation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The merits of integrated conservation and development projects (ICDPs), which aim to provide development incentives to citizens\\u000a in return for conservation behaviors, have long been debated in the literature. Some of the most common critiques suggest\\u000a that conservation activities tend to be strongly overpowered by development activities. We studied this assertion through\\u000a participant observation and archival analysis of five Conservation

Nabin Baral; Marc J. Stern; Joel T. Heinen

2007-01-01

38

INTEGRATING REPRESENTATION AND VULNERABILITY: TWO APPROACHES FOR PRIORITIZING AREAS FOR CONSERVATION  

EPA Science Inventory

One fundamental step in conservation planning involves determining where to concentrate efforts to protect conservation targets. Here we demonstrate two approaches to prioritizing areas based on both species composition and potential threats facing the species. The first approa...

39

Environmental education praxis toward a natural conservation area.  

PubMed

A non-formal Environmental Education (EE) Program has been implemented in the natural conservation area (Ecological Station of Jataí, Luiz Ant nio, São Paulo State), through (EE) paradigms, which consider the objectives of education about, in and for the environment within cultural and natural perspectives. The aim of this Program is to support information and scientific knowledge to provide opportunities to the local population to be aware of environmental impacts and risks resulting from the soil use that threaten the environmental quality and the bio diversity of the Ecological Station of Jataí. The Program understands that the promotion of community empowerment could bring the sense of participation and the directives to management for decision-making for local sustainable. The model was projected on local reality, but considering the global issues of environmental paradigms. The environmental characterization (biophysical components) through a Geographical Information Systems was related to the hydrographic basin analysis. The environmental perception was utilized as a main tool to analyse population understanding of local environment, and (EE) pedagogical tools were produced to promote environmental awareness. Since the ecological dimension of (EE) was the main approach, the programme intends to assemble the cultural perspective, achieving the global view of (EE). PMID:11188862

dos Santos, J E; Sato, M; Pires, J S; Maroti, P S

2000-08-01

40

Hydrostratigraphy of Tree Island Cores from Water Conservation Area 3  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cores and borehole-geophysical logs collected on and around two tree islands in Water Conservation Area 3 have been examined to develop a stratigraphic framework for these ecosystems. Especially important is the potential for the exchange of ground water and surface water within these features. The hydrostratigraphic results from this study document the lithologic nature of the foundation of the tree islands, the distribution of porous intervals, the potential for paleotopographic influence on their formation, and the importance of low-permeability, subaerial-exposure horizons on the vertical exchange of ground water and surface water. Figure 1. Location of Tree Islands 3AS3 and 3BS1. [larger image] Results from this hydrostratigraphic study indicate that subtle differences occur in lithofacies and topography between the on-island and off-island subsurface geologic records. Specifics are described herein. Firstly, at both tree-island sites, the top of the limestone bedrock is slightly elevated beneath the head of the tree islands relative to the off-island core sites and the tail of the tree islands, which suggests that bedrock 'highs' acted as 'seeds' for the development of the tree islands of this study and possibly many others. Secondly, examination of the recovered core and the caliper logs tentatively suggest that the elevated limestone beneath the tree islands may have a preferentially more porous framework relative to limestone beneath the adjacent areas, possibly providing a ground-water-to-surface-water connection that sustains the tree island system. Finally, because the elevation of the top of the limestone bedrock at the head of Tree Island 3AS3 is slightly higher than the surrounding upper surface of the peat, and because the wetland peats have a lower hydraulic conductivity than the limestone bedrock (Miami Limestone and Fort Thompson Formation), it is possible that there is a head difference between surface water of the wetlands and the ground water in underlying limestone bedrock.

McNeill, Donald F.; Cunningham, Kevin J.

2003-01-01

41

Wildlife tuberculosis in South African conservation areas: Implications and challenges  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, was first diagnosed in African buffalo in South Africa's Kruger National Park in 1990. Over the past 15 years the disease has spread northwards leaving only the most northern buffalo herds unaffected. Evidence suggests that 10 other small and large mammalian species, including large predators, are spillover hosts. Wildlife tuberculosis has also been diagnosed in several adjacent private game reserves and in the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, the third largest game reserve in South Africa. The tuberculosis epidemic has a number of implications, for which the full effect of some might only be seen in the long-term. Potential negative long-term effects on the population dynamics of certain social animal species and the direct threat for the survival of endangered species pose particular problems for wildlife conservationists. On the other hand, the risk of spillover infection to neighboring communal cattle raises concerns about human health at the wildlife-livestock-human interface, not only along the western boundary of Kruger National Park, but also with regards to the joint development of the Greater Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area with Zimbabwe and Mozambique. From an economic point of view, wildlife tuberculosis has resulted in national and international trade restrictions for affected species. The lack of diagnostic tools for most species and the absence of an effective vaccine make it currently impossible to contain and control this disease within an infected free-ranging ecosystem. Veterinary researchers and policy-makers have recognized the need to intensify research on this disease and the need to develop tools for control, initially targeting buffalo and lion. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Michel, A. L.; Bengis, R. G.; Keet, D. F.; Hofmeyr, M.; De Klerk, L. M.; Cross, P. C.; Jolles, A. E.; Cooper, D.; Whyte, I. J.; Buss, P.; Godfroid, J.

2006-01-01

42

Hydrokinetic power for energy access in rural Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately half of Ghana’s overall population has access to electricity and, of this, much of it is in urban areas. Often in regions where modern energy is not available, kerosene lamps, for example, are used for indoor lighting. This produces harmful emissions, leading to poor respiratory effects. Implementation of hydrokinetic power (HKP) within nearby streams can provide low impact, robust

Veronica B. Miller; Emmanuel W. Ramde; Robert T. Gradoville; Laura A. Schaefer

2011-01-01

43

Ground-water flow beneath levee 35A from conservation area 2B, Broward County, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Conservation Area 2B is an area of recharge for the surficial aquifer system in Broward County. Water stored in the conservation area provides the hydraulic potential for downward flow to the high permeability zone of the Biscayne aquifer. A 5.64 ft head differential (average for the period of record) between water levels in Conservation Area 2B and water levels in the adjacent levee 35A borrow canal causes water to leak into the canal at an average rate of about 0.0022 cu ft per sec per lineal foot of canal and accounts for a loss of 0.013 foot per day of surface water from Conservation Area 2B. Amounts of canal leakage and underflow are constantly changing and are dependent upon the head differential between Conservation Area 2B and the levee 35A borrow canal. (Author 's abstract)

Swayze, L. J.

1988-01-01

44

Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Oxbow Conservation Area, 2002-2005 Technical Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) study was performed to determine baseline habitat units on the Oxbow Conservation Area in Grant County, Oregon. The evaluation is a required part of the Memorandum of Agreement between the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) relating to the acquisition and management of the Oxbow Conservation Area. The HEP team

2005-01-01

45

43 CFR 21.4 - Occupancy under permit of privately owned cabins on recreation areas and conservation areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...public recreation or conservation area are sufficient...otherwise required by law, be granted for any...otherwise required by law, if an investment...public recreation or conservation use, that expires prior...otherwise authorized by law, be extended to...

2013-10-01

46

A Learning Environment for the Conservation of Area and Its Measurement: A Computer Microworld.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a computer microworld for learning the concept of conservation of area and its measurement; analyzes its main features (drawing segments and polygons, manipulation of areas using simulations of children's sensory-motor actions, measuring areas, transforming areas into equivalent ones, and measuring lengths and angles); and presents the…

Kordaki, Maria; Potari, Despina

1998-01-01

47

Optimum Selection of Clustered Conservation Areas Within Military Installations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Suitable habitat areas for many rare, threatened, or endangered species in the United States are found inside the boundaries of military installations. Because these same lands are also needed for conventional and emerging training requirements, there is ...

H. Onal H. E. Balbach J. D. Westervelt S. T. Dissanayake

2011-01-01

48

Broken forest: Applying the integrated conservation and development paradigm to Madagascar's protected areas  

SciTech Connect

The destruction of Madagascar's primary forests through agricultural clearing poses a grave threat to the island's biodiversity. The report assesses the potential of the planned Sustainable and Viable Environmental Management (SAVEM) Project to minimize this threat by implementing Integrated Conservation Development Projects (ICDP's), which link resource conservation to income-generating activities, in the peripheral zones of Madagascar's protected areas.

Barbour, R.; Rabezandria, R.; Daviesson, R.; Guyton, W.; Rakotobe.

1992-06-01

49

Community Conservation, Inequality and Injustice: Myths of Power in Protected Area Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principle of local support states that protected areas cannot survive without the support of their neighbours. It is the dominant motif of much writing about community conservation and the integration of conservation with development. However, we should be sceptical of it for several reasons. First, it implies that the weak can defeat the agendas of the strong. Second, the

Dan Brockington

50

Developing a scale for evaluating ecotourism by visitors: a study in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecotourism has become a valuable industry in developing countries with a promise of reconciling nature conservation and economic development goals. A sample of 315 international visitors to the Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA), Nepal was surveyed in April and May of 2006 to assess how they gathered information, evaluated ecotourism and rated their levels of satisfaction from their ecotourism experience. We

Nabin Baral; Marc J. Stern; A. L. Hammett

2012-01-01

51

Evaluation of the Bird Conservation Area Concept in the Northern Tallgrass Prairie Annual Report: 19  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new resource on the management and conservation of grassland/prairie birds has been posted at the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center site. This report "contains findings from the first year of a study to test the idea that Bird Conservation Areas can maintain populations of breeding grassland birds." It is available for download in .zip format.

Donovan, Therese M.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Svedarsky, W. D.; Winter, Maiken.

2007-08-14

52

78 FR 4868 - Notice of Intent To Amend the California Desert Conservation Area Plan and Prepare an Associated...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Intent To Amend the California Desert Conservation Area Plan and Prepare an Associated...an amendment to the California Desert Conservation Area (CDCA) Plan with an associated...the disciplines of land use planning, biology and archaeology. This plan...

2013-01-23

53

78 FR 40764 - Notice of Intent To Amend the California Desert Conservation Area Plan for the Needles Field...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Intent To Amend the California Desert Conservation Area Plan for the Needles Field Office...amendment to the 1980 California Desert Conservation Area (CDCA) Plan with an associated...the disciplines of land use planning, biology, and archaeology. This plan...

2013-07-08

54

78 FR 64004 - Notice of Intent To Collect Fees on Public Lands in the Red Cliffs National Conservation Area...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EB000] Notice of Intent To Collect Fees on Public Lands in the Red Cliffs National Conservation Area, Washington County, UT...54676), Notice of Intent to Collect Fees on Public Lands in the Red Cliffs National Conservation Area, Washington County,...

2013-10-25

55

The Fate of Priority Areas for Conservation in Protected Areas: A Fine-Scale Markov Chain Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Park managers in alpine areas must deal with the increase in forest coverage that has been observed in most European mountain\\u000a areas, where traditional farming and agricultural practices have been abandoned. The aim of this study is to develop a fine-scale\\u000a model of a broad area to support the managers of Paneveggio Nature Park (Italy) in conservation planning by focusing

Clara Tattoni; Marco Ciolli; Fabrizio Ferretti

2011-01-01

56

Lower Expression of TLR2 and SOCS-3 Is Associated with Schistosoma haematobium Infection and with Lower Risk for Allergic Reactivity in Children Living in a Rural Area in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Helminth infections are prevalent in rural areas of developing countries and have in some studies been negatively associated with allergic disorders and atopy. In this context little is known of the molecular mechanisms of modulation involved. We have characterized the innate immune responses, at the molecular level, in children according to their helminth infection status and their atopic reactivity to allergens. Methodology/Principal Findings The mRNA expression of several genes of the innate immune system that have been associated with microbial exposure and allergy was examined in 120 school children in a rural area in Ghana. Helminth infections were common and atopy rare in the study area. The analysis of gene expression in ex vivo whole blood samples reflected the levels of corresponding proteins. Using this approach in a population of school children in whom the presence of Schistosoma haematobium infection was associated with protection from atopic reactivity, we found that the level of TLR2 and SOCS-3, genes associated with atopy in the children, were significantly downregulated by presence of S. haematobium infection. Conclusions S. haematobium infections modulate the expression of genes of the innate immune system (TLR2 and SOCS-3); these are genes that are associated with increased allergic inflammatory processes, providing a molecular link between the negative association of this infection and atopy in rural children in Ghana.

Hartgers, Franca C.; Obeng, Benedicta B.; Kruize, Yvonne C. M.; Duijvestein, Marjolijn; de Breij, Anna; Amoah, Abena; Larbi, Irene A.; van Ree, Ronald; Wilson, Michael D.; Rodrigues, Laura C.; Boakye, Daniel A.; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria

2008-01-01

57

High body mass index is not associated with atopy in schoolchildren living in rural and urban areas of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Factors which determine the development of atopy and the observed rural-urban gradient in its prevalence are not fully understood.\\u000a High body mass index (BMI) has been associated with asthma and potentially atopy in industrialized countries. In developing\\u000a countries, the transition from rural to urban areas has been associated with lifestyle changes and an increased prevalence\\u000a of high BMI; however, the

Irene A Larbi; Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch; Abena S Amoah; Benedicta B Obeng; Michael D Wilson; Maria Yazdanbakhsh; Daniel A Boakye

2011-01-01

58

78 FR 54675 - Notice of Intent To Collect Fees on Public Lands in the Red Cliffs National Conservation Area...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Intent To Collect Fees on Public Lands in the Red Cliffs National Conservation Area, Washington...at the White Reef Park, located in the Red Cliffs National Conservation Area (NCA...Mail: NCA Manager, Beaver Dam Wash and Red Cliffs National Conservation Areas,...

2013-09-05

59

THE ROLE OF PROTECTED AREAS IN CONSERVING BIODIVERSITY AND SUSTAINING LOCAL LIVELIHOODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract The world’s system of protected areas has grown,exponentially over the past 25 years, particularly in developing countries where biodiversity is greatest. Con- currently, the mission of protected areas has expanded from biodiversity conservation to improving,human,welfare. The result is a shift in favor of protected areas allowing local resource use. Given the multiple purposes of many protected areas, measuring

Lisa Naughton-Treves; Margaret Buck Holland; Katrina Brandon

2005-01-01

60

Socioeconomic issues for the Bear River Watershed Conservation Land Area Protection Plan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Bear River Watershed Conservation Area is located in the Bear River Watershed, a vast basin covering fourteen counties across three states. Located in Wyoming, Utah, and Idaho, the watershed spans roughly 7,500 squares miles: 1,500 squares miles in Wyoming; 2,700 squares miles in Idaho; and 3,300 squares miles in Utah (Utah Division of Water Resources, 2004). Three National Wildlife Refuges are currently contained within the boundary of the BRWCA: the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge in Utah, the Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Idaho, and the Cokeville Meadows National Wildlife Refuge in Wyoming. In 2010, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service conducted a Preliminary Project Proposal and identified the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area as having high-value wildlife habitat. This finding initiated the Land Protection Planning process, which is used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to study land conservation opportunities including adding lands to the National Wildlife Refuge System. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposes to include part of the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area in the Refuge System by acquiring up to 920,000 acres of conservation easements from willing landowners to maintain landscape integrity and habitat connectivity in the region. The analysis described in this report provides a profile of the social and economic conditions in the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area and addresses social and economic questions and concerns raised during public involvement in the Land Protection Planning process.

Thomas, Catherine Cullinane; Huber, Christopher; Gascoigne, William; Koontz, Lynne

2012-01-01

61

Tourism in Protected Areas: Integrating Conservation and Community Development in Liwonde National Park (Malawi)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the spatial significance of protected areas and the increasing threats posed to the world's biodiversity by various agents, successful conservation still remains controversial and inconsistent. In this context, protected areas have become a core attraction for nature-based tourism activities, valued for their ability to generate financial benefits in a non-extractive way, thus effectively enabling the sustainability of biodiversity. This

Marina Novelli; Amy Scarth

2007-01-01

62

Distribution of small cetaceans within a candidate Special Area of Conservation; implications for management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on cetacean distribution plays an important role in the identification of suitable boundaries for marine protected areas, but is also crucial for developing management and monitoring programmes. In response to the European 'Habitats Directive', a candidate Special Area of Conservation (cSAC) has been established in the Moray Firth, northeast Scotland to protect a small and isolated populat ion of

Gordon D. Hastie; Tim R. Barton; Kate Grellier; Philip S. Hammond; René J. Swift; Paul M. Thompson; Ben Wilson

63

Use of inverse spatial conservation prioritization to avoid biological diversity loss outside protected areas.  

PubMed

Globally expanding human land use sets constantly increasing pressure for maintenance of biological diversity and functioning ecosystems. To fight the decline of biological diversity, conservation science has broken ground with methods such as the operational model of systematic conservation planning (SCP), which focuses on design and on-the-ground implementation of conservation areas. The most commonly used method in SCP is reserve selection that focuses on the spatial design of reserve networks and their expansion. We expanded these methods by introducing another form of spatial allocation of conservation effort relevant for land-use zoning at the landscape scale that avoids negative ecological effects of human land use outside protected areas. We call our method inverse spatial conservation prioritization. It can be used to identify areas suitable for economic development while simultaneously limiting total ecological and environmental effects of that development at the landscape level by identifying areas with highest economic but lowest ecological value. Our method is not based on a priori targets, and as such it is applicable to cases where the effects of land use on, for example, individual species or ecosystem types are relatively small and would not lead to violation of regional or national conservation targets. We applied our method to land-use allocation to peat mining. Our method identified a combination of profitable production areas that provides the needed area for peat production while retaining most of the landscape-level ecological value of the ecosystem. The results of this inverse spatial conservation prioritization are being used in land-use zoning in the province of Central Finland. PMID:24033397

Kareksela, Santtu; Moilanen, Atte; Tuominen, Seppo; Kotiaho, Janne S

2013-12-01

64

Peanut production methods in Northern Ghana and some disease perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The northern regions of Ghana (Northern, Upper East and West Regions) cover Latitudes N (8 50.333 to 11 04. 146) and Longitudes E (0 02.540) to W (2 42.272). The Northern Region of Ghana alone covers 70,380 km2 of land, corresponding to 29.5 % of the total country's area. The region is located in the Guinea Savannah agro-ecological zone. The

F. K. Tsigbey; R. L. Brandenburg; V. A. Clottey

65

Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

66

The Fate of Priority Areas for Conservation in Protected Areas: A Fine-Scale Markov Chain Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Park managers in alpine areas must deal with the increase in forest coverage that has been observed in most European mountain areas, where traditional farming and agricultural practices have been abandoned. The aim of this study is to develop a fine-scale model of a broad area to support the managers of Paneveggio Nature Park (Italy) in conservation planning by focusing on the fate of priority areas for conservation in the next 50-100 years. GIS analyses were performed to assess the afforestation dynamic over time using two historical maps (from 1859 and 1936) and a series of aerial photographs and ortho-photos (taken from 1954 to 2006) covering a time span of 150 years. The results show an increase in the forest surface area of about 35%. Additionally, the forest became progressively more compact and less fragmented, with a consequent loss of ecotones and open habitats that are important for biodiversity. Markov chain-cellular automata models were used to project future changes, evaluating the effects on a habitat scale. Simulations show that some habitats defined as priority by the EU Habitat Directive will be compromised by the forest expansion by 2050 and suffer a consistent loss by 2100. This protocol, applied to other areas, can be used for designing long-term management measures with a focus on habitats where conservation status is at risk.

Tattoni, Clara; Ciolli, Marco; Ferretti, Fabrizio

2011-02-01

67

Are We Conserving What We Say We Are? Measuring Ecological Integrity within Protected Areas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience journal is about measuring the effectiveness of conserving biological diversity within protected areas. Managers of protected areas are under increasing pressure to measure their effectiveness in conserving native biological diversity in ways that are scientifically sound, practical, and comparable among protected areas over time. The Nature Conservancy and its partners have developed a "Measures of Success" framework with four core components: (1) identifying a limited number of focal conservation targets, (2) identifying key ecological attributes for these targets, (3) identifying an acceptable range of variation for each attribute as measured by properly selected indicators, and (4) rating target status based on whether or not the target's key attributes are within their acceptable ranges of variation. A target cannot be considered "conserved" if any of its key ecological attributes exceeds its acceptable range of variation. The framework provides a rigorous basis not only for measuring success but for setting conservation objectives, assessing threats to biodiversity, identifying monitoring and research needs, and communicating management information to nonspecialists.

JEFFREY D. PARRISH, DAVID P. BRAUN, and ROBERT S. UNNASCH (;)

2003-09-01

68

Forest biodiversity gradients and the human impact in Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterns of biodiversity, environment and human impact were studied in 57 sample plots in an 1,178 ha forest area in a rural\\u000a mountain area of Nepal that is administrated by the Annapurna Conservation Area Project. Alpha-, beta- and gamma-diversity\\u000a was measured or estimated for six groups of organisms: trees, shrubs, climbers, herbs, polypores and mycorrhizal fungi, and\\u000a the recorded patterns were

Morten Christensen; Jacob Heilmann-Clausen

2009-01-01

69

Identification of Priority Conservation Areas and Potential Corridors for Jaguars in the Caatinga Biome, Brazil  

PubMed Central

The jaguar, Panthera onca, is a top predator with the extant population found within the Brazilian Caatinga biome now known to be on the brink of extinction. Designing new conservation units and potential corridors are therefore crucial for the long-term survival of the species within the Caatinga biome. Thus, our aims were: 1) to recognize suitable areas for jaguar occurrence, 2) to delineate areas for jaguar conservation (PJCUs), 3) to design corridors among priority areas, and 4) to prioritize PJCUs. A total of 62 points records of jaguar occurrence and 10 potential predictors were analyzed in a GIS environment. A predictive distributional map was obtained using Species Distribution Modeling (SDM) as performed by the Maximum Entropy (Maxent) algorithm. Areas equal to or higher than the median suitability value of 0.595 were selected as of high suitability for jaguar occurrence and named as Priority Jaguar Conservation Units (PJCU). Ten PJCUs with sizes varying from 23.6 km2 to 4,311.0 km2 were identified. Afterwards, we combined the response curve, as generated by SDM, and expert opinions to create a permeability matrix and to identify least cost corridors and buffer zones between each PJCU pair. Connectivity corridors and buffer zone for jaguar movement included an area of 8.884,26 km2 and the total corridor length is about 160.94 km. Prioritizing criteria indicated the PJCU representing c.a. 68.61% of the total PJCU area (PJCU # 1) as of high priority for conservation and connectivity with others PJCUs (PJCUs # 4, 5 and 7) desirable for the long term survival of the species. In conclusion, by using the jaguar as a focal species and combining SDM and expert opinion we were able to create a valid framework for practical conservation actions at the Caatinga biome. The same approach could be used for the conservation of other carnivores.

Morato, Ronaldo Goncalves; Ferraz, Katia Maria Paschoaletto Micchi de Barros; de Paula, Rogerio Cunha; de Campos, Claudia Bueno

2014-01-01

70

Identification of priority conservation areas and potential corridors for jaguars in the Caatinga biome, Brazil.  

PubMed

The jaguar, Panthera onca, is a top predator with the extant population found within the Brazilian Caatinga biome now known to be on the brink of extinction. Designing new conservation units and potential corridors are therefore crucial for the long-term survival of the species within the Caatinga biome. Thus, our aims were: 1) to recognize suitable areas for jaguar occurrence, 2) to delineate areas for jaguar conservation (PJCUs), 3) to design corridors among priority areas, and 4) to prioritize PJCUs. A total of 62 points records of jaguar occurrence and 10 potential predictors were analyzed in a GIS environment. A predictive distributional map was obtained using Species Distribution Modeling (SDM) as performed by the Maximum Entropy (Maxent) algorithm. Areas equal to or higher than the median suitability value of 0.595 were selected as of high suitability for jaguar occurrence and named as Priority Jaguar Conservation Units (PJCU). Ten PJCUs with sizes varying from 23.6 km2 to 4,311.0 km2 were identified. Afterwards, we combined the response curve, as generated by SDM, and expert opinions to create a permeability matrix and to identify least cost corridors and buffer zones between each PJCU pair. Connectivity corridors and buffer zone for jaguar movement included an area of 8.884,26 km2 and the total corridor length is about 160.94 km. Prioritizing criteria indicated the PJCU representing c.a. 68.61% of the total PJCU area (PJCU # 1) as of high priority for conservation and connectivity with others PJCUs (PJCUs # 4, 5 and 7) desirable for the long term survival of the species. In conclusion, by using the jaguar as a focal species and combining SDM and expert opinion we were able to create a valid framework for practical conservation actions at the Caatinga biome. The same approach could be used for the conservation of other carnivores. PMID:24709817

Morato, Ronaldo Gonçalves; Ferraz, Katia Maria Paschoaletto Micchi de Barros; de Paula, Rogério Cunha; de Campos, Cláudia Bueno

2014-01-01

71

Seroprevalence of west nile virus in ghana.  

PubMed

The epidemiology of West Nile virus (WNV) in Ghana, sub-Saharan Africa, and its relevance to transfusion were newly assessed. A total of 1324 plasma samples from five Ghanaian populations, including 529 children (<6 y old, pre-transfusion) and 795 adults (236 blood donors, 226 HIV-infected or non-infected pregnant women, 203 HIV symptomatic patients, and 130 AIDS patients) were screened for WNV RNA. No WNV RNA was detected, but 4.8% (13/271) and 27.9% (127/455) carried specific IgG in children and adults, respectively, and 2.4% (4/167) of the children had IgM. The prevalence of IgG antibody to WNV increased progressively and peaked around 30% between ages 1 and 30 y, then stabilized. The absence of viremia in four WNV IgM-positive children, and of reactivation in HIV-infected patients suggests that once host immunity is established, it appears to be robust. In addition, there were no clinical reports of WNV infection in the hospital in Kumasi, Ghana, suggesting that WNV epidemiology in Ghana differs from that seen in the U.S. Most infections occur early in life, and as the window for infection is quite short, the risk of transmission by transfusion appears to be low, and the risk of pathogenicity in immunocompetent recipients appears to be limited in an endemic area such as Ghana. PMID:19210224

Wang, Wenjing; Sarkodie, Francis; Danso, Kwabena; Addo-Yobo, Emmanuel; Owusu-Ofori, Shirley; Allain, Jean-Pierre; Li, Chengyao

2009-02-01

72

An objective method to determine an area's relative significance for avian conservation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Land managers are often concerned with providing habitat affords the 'best habitat for songbirds.' However, unless management simply is directed at rare species it may not be clear which habitats or management options are best. A standard, quantifiable measure to compare the significance of different tracts of land or competing management techniques for avian conservation would benefit managers in decision making. I propose a standard measure that is based on the relative density of each species within a finite area and their respective regional Partners in Flight concern scores. I applied this method to > 100 reforested sites in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley that ranged in age from 2 to 32 years. The objectively determined avian conservation significance for each of these reforested sites was correlated with stand age and with my subjective assessment of 'habitat quality.' I also used this method to compare the avian conservation significance of forested habitats before and after selective timber harvest with high significance for avian conservation provided habitat for species of conservation concern. I recommend application of this methodology to other and areas under different management, to determine its usefulness at predicting avian conservation significance among habitats and at various avian densities.

Twedt, D.J.

2005-01-01

73

75 FR 54542 - Special Areas; Roadless Area Conservation; Applicability to the National Forests in Idaho...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Roadless Areas on the Payette National Forest. These corrections will remedy two errors regarding regulatory classification and mapping that concern Forest Plan Special Areas (Big Creek and French Creek). Notice is given pursuant to 36 CFR...

2010-09-08

74

Operation Hernia to Ghana.  

PubMed

Inguinal hernia repair and Caesarian section are the two most commonly occurring operations in Africa. Trained surgeons are few, distances between hospitals are large and strangulated hernia is the most common cause of intestinal obstruction. Numerous deaths and cases of permanent disability occur because patients with inguinal hernias requiring elective or urgent surgery are not properly cared for, or they do not actually reach hospital. Operation Hernia was a humanitarian mission between the European Hernia Society and the Plymouth-Takoradi (Ghana) Link conceived specifically to treat and teach groin hernia surgery in the Western region of Ghana. PMID:16912846

Kingsnorth, A N; Oppong, C; Akoh, J; Stephenson, B; Simmermacher, R

2006-10-01

75

Identification of areas in Brazil that optimize conservation of forest carbon, jaguars, and biodiversity.  

PubMed

A major question in global environmental policy is whether schemes to reduce carbon pollution through forest management, such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+), can also benefit biodiversity conservation in tropical countries. We identified municipalities in Brazil that are priorities for reducing rates of deforestation and thus preserving carbon stocks that are also conservation targets for the endangered jaguar (Panthera onca) and biodiversity in general. Preliminary statistical analysis showed that municipalities with high biodiversity were positively associated with high forest carbon stocks. We used a multicriteria decision analysis to identify municipalities that offered the best opportunities for the conservation of forest carbon stocks and biodiversity conservation under a range of scenarios with different rates of deforestation and carbon values. We further categorized these areas by their representativeness of the entire country (through measures such as percent forest cover) and an indirect measure of cost (number of municipalities). The municipalities that offered optimal co-benefits for forest carbon stocks and conservation were termed REDDspots (n = 159), and their spatial distribution was compared with the distribution of current and proposed REDD projects (n = 135). We defined REDDspots as the municipalities that offer the best opportunities for co-benefits between the conservation of forest carbon stocks, jaguars, and other wildlife. These areas coincided in 25% (n = 40) of municipalities. We identified a further 95 municipalities that may have the greatest potential to develop additional REDD+ projects while also targeting biodiversity conservation. We concluded that REDD+ strategies could be an efficient tool for biodiversity conservation in key locations, especially in Amazonian and Atlantic Forest biomes. PMID:24372997

De Barros, Alan E; MacDonald, Ewan A; Matsumoto, Marcelo H; Paula, Rogério C; Nijhawan, Sahil; Malhi, Y; MacDonald, David W

2014-04-01

76

Delineating priority habitat areas for the conservation of Andean bears in northern Ecuador  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We sought to identify priority areas for the conservation of Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus) habitat in the northern portion of the eastern Andean cordillera in Ecuador. The study area included pa??ramo and montane forest habitats within the Antisana and Cayambe-Coca ecological reserves, and unprotected areas north of these reserves with elevations ranging from 1,800 to 4,300 m. We collected data on bear occurrence along 53 transects during 2000-01 in the Oyacachi River basin, an area of indigenous communities within the Cayambe-Coca Ecological Reserve. We used those data and a set of 7 environmental variables to predict suitability of Andean bear habitat using Mahalanobis distance, a multivariate measure of dissimilarity. The Mahalanobis distance values were classified into 5 classes of habitat suitability and generalized to a resolution of 1,650-m ?? 1,650-m grid cells. Clusters of grid cells with high suitability values were delineated from the generalized model and denned as important habitat areas (IHAs) for conservation. The IHAs were ranked using a weighted index that included factors of elevation range, influence from disturbed areas, and current conservation status. We identified 12 IHAs, which were mainly associated with pa??ramo and cloud forest habitats; 2 of these areas have high conservation priorities because they are outside existing reserves and close to areas of human pressure. The distribution of the IHAs highlighted the role of human land use as the main source of fragmentation of Andean bear habitat in this region, emphasizing the importance of preserving habitat connectivity to allow the seasonal movements among habitat types that we documented for this species. Furthermore, the existence of areas with high habitat suitability close to areas of intense human use indicates the importance of bear-human conflict management as a critical Andean bear conservation strategy. We suggest that a promising conservation opportunity for this species is linked to its occurrence in highland habitats, which play a key role in the maintenance of long-term water supplies.

Peralvo, M. F.; Cuesta, F.; Van Manen, F.

2005-01-01

77

Inducing Conservation of Number, Weight, Volume, Area, and Mass in Pre-School Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major question this study attempted to answer was, "Can conservation of number, area, weight, mass, and volume to be induced and retained by 3- and 4-year-old children by structured instruction with a multivariate approach? Three nursery schools in Iowa City supplied subjects for this study. The Institute of Child Behavior and Development…

Young, Beverly S.

78

Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Forrest Conservation Area, Technical Report 2003-2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) study was performed to determine baseline habitat units on the 4,232-acre Forrest Conservation Area managed by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribe) in Grant County, Oregon. The habitat evaluation is required as part of the Memorandum of Agreement between the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs and Bonneville Power Administration. Representatives

2005-01-01

79

Climate change, biodiversity conservation, and the role of protected areas: An Australian perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reality of human-forced rapid climate change presents an unprecedented challenge to the conservation of biodiversity in Australia. In this paper we consider the role of Australia's current protected area network in mitigating biodiversity loss across the continent. We do this by first examining the evolutionary history of Australia's extant fauna and flora and, specifically, the reasons why species have

Brendan G. Mackey; James E. M. Watson; Geoffrey Hope; Sandy Gilmore

2008-01-01

80

Calibration of diatoms along a nutrient gradient in Florida Everglades Water Conservation Area2A, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between diatom taxa preserved in surface soils and environmental variables at 31 sites in Water Conservation Area 2A (WCA-2A) of the Florida Everglades was explored using multivariate analyses. Surface soils were collected along a phosphorus (P) gradient and analyzed for diatoms, total P, % nitrogen (N), %carbon (C), calcium (Ca), and biogenic silica (BSi). Phosphorus varied from 315-1781

Sherri R. Cooper; Jacqueline Huvane; Panchabi Vaithiyanathan; Curtis J. Richardson

1999-01-01

81

Colorado Canyons National Conservation Area 2003 visitor use survey : completion report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report represents the analysis of research conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The purpose is to provide socio-economic and recreational use information that can be used in the development of a Resource Management Plan (RMP) for the Colorado Canyons National Conservation Area (CCNCA). The results reported here deal primarily with recreation-based activities in four areas: Kokopelli Loops, Rabbit Valley, Loma Boat Launch, and Devil's Canyon.

Ponds, Phaedra D.; Gillette, Shana C.; Koontz, Lynne

2004-01-01

82

Spatial Distribution of Soil Nutrients in a Northern Everglades Marsh: Water Conservation Area 2A  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Florida Everglades developed as a nutrient-poor, rain-fed eco- system. However, for the past 30 yr, the Everglades have received nutrient-enriched surface water runoff from the adjacent Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA). This study examines the response of a pristine wetland, Water Conservation Area 1 (WCA 1), part of the northern Florida Everglades, to nutrient loading as documented by soil nutrient

W. F. DeBusk; K. R. Reddy; M. S. Koch; M. M. Fisher; G. Shih

1994-01-01

83

Country Profiles, Ghana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A profile of Ghana is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

Gaisie, S. K.; And Others

84

OBSERVATIONS ON WILSON'S WIDOWFINCH AND THE PINTAILED WHYDAH IN SOUTHERN GHANA, WITH NOTES ON THEIR HOSTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macdonald, M. A. 1980. Observations on Wilson's Widowfinch and the Pintailed Whydah in southern Ghana, with notes on their hosts. Ostrich 51:21-24.Information on the two viduines occurring at Cape Coast, southern Ghana, was collected casually between 1975 and 1978. Wilson's Widowfinch Vidua wilsoni and the Pintailed Whydah V. macroura were both common, the former in residential areas and the latter

M. A. Macdonald

1980-01-01

85

Partners in flight bird conservation plan for the Upper Great Lakes Plain (Physiographic Area 16)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1 November 2001. Conservation of bird habitats is a major focus of effort by Partners in Flight, an international coalition of agencies, citizens, and other groups dedicated to 'keeping common birds common'. USGS worked on a planning team to publish a bird conservation plan for the Upper Great Lakes Plain ecoregion (PIF 16), which includes large portions of southern Wisconsin, southern Michigan and parts of Minnesota, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. The conservation plan outlines specific habitat restoration and bird population objectives for the ecoregion over the next decade. The plan provides a context for on-the-ground conservation implementation by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, the US Forest Service, states, and conservation groups. Citation: Knutson, M. G., G. Butcher, J. Fitzgerald, and J. Shieldcastle. 2001. Partners in Flight Bird Conservation Plan for The Upper Great Lakes Plain (Physiographic Area 16). USGS Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center in cooperation with Partners in Flight, La Crosse, Wisconsin. Download from website: http://www.blm.gov/wildlife/pifplans.htm. The Upper Great Lakes Plain covers the southern half of Michigan, northwest Ohio, northern Indiana, northern Illinois, southern Wisconsin, and small portions of southwest Minnesota and northwest Iowa. Glacial moraines and dissected plateaus are characteristic of the topography. Broadleaf forests, oak savannahs, and a variety of prairie communities are the natural vegetation types. A oDriftless Areao was not glaciated during the late Pleistocene and emerged as a unique area of great biological diversity. Priority bird species for the area include the Henslow's Sparrow, Sedge Wren, Bobolink, Golden-winged Warbler, Cerulean Warbler, Black-billed Cuckoo, and Red-headed Woodpecker. There are many large urban centers in this area whose growth and sprawl will continue to consume land. The vast majority of the presettlement forest and oak savannah grasslands already have been converted to agriculture. The conversion to cropland may have benefitted some grassland birds, and forest birds still persist. Rates of cowbird parasitism and nest predation in this heavily fragmented region, however, are extremely high and it is possible that only those bird communities in the few remaining expanses of contiguous habitat are self-sustaining. Forest habitat needs to be retained or restored so that a significant number of patches of sufficient size and quality each support a healthy population of Cerulean Warblers. It is assumed that each of these patches will then support the full range of forest birds. The total area of savannah habitat also should be increased, although the need for large blocks is not as apparent. Those few areas of grassland that still exist should be retained.

Knutson, M. G.; Butcher,G.; Fitzgerald,J.; Shieldcastle,J.

2001-01-01

86

Using probability of persistence to identify important areas for biodiversity conservation.  

PubMed Central

Most attempts to identify important areas for biodiversity have sought to represent valued features from what is known of their current distribution, and have treated all included records as equivalent. We develop the idea that a more direct way of planning for conservation success is to consider the probability of persistence for the valued features. Probabilities also provide a consistent basis for integrating the many pattern and process factors affecting conservation success. To apply the approach, we describe a method for seeking networks of conservation areas that maximize probabilities of persistence across species. With data for European trees, this method requires less than half as many areas as an earlier method to represent all species with a probability of at least 0.95 (where possible). Alternatively, for trials choosing any number of areas between one and 50, the method increases the mean probability among species by more than 10%. This improvement benefits the least-widespread species the most and results in greater connectivity among selected areas. The proposed method can accommodate local differences in viability, vulnerability, threats, costs, or other social and political constraints, and is applicable in principle to any surrogate measure for biodiversity value.

Williams, P H; Araujo, M B

2000-01-01

87

CUSTOMARY WATER LAWS AND PRACTICES: GHANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The country, with an area of 92,100square miles and a population of about 18 million, is situated on the Gulf of Guinea, West Africa; and has accordingly a generally hot and humid climate in the south and hot dry climate in the northern parts. Ghana's neighbours are all francophone: La Cote D'Ivoire to the west, Togo to the east, and

G. A Sarpong

88

Smoking uptake and prevalence in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Developing countries are at high risk of epidemic increases in tobacco smoking, but the extent of this problem is not clearly defined because few collect detailed smoking data. We have surveyed tobacco smoking in the Ashanti region of Ghana, a rapidly developing African country with a long-established tobacco industry.Methods:We took a random sample of 30 regional census enumeration areas, each

E Owusu-Dabo; S Lewis; A McNeill; A Gilmore; J Britton

2009-01-01

89

Government conservation policies on Mexican coastal areas: is "top-down" management working?  

PubMed

Marine and terrestrial ecosystems are declining globally due to environmental degradation and poorly planned resource use. Traditionally, local government agencies have been responsible of the management of natural reserves to preserve biodiversity. Nonetheless, much of these approaches have failed, suggesting the development of more integrative strategies. In order to discuss the importance of a holistic approach in conservation initiatives, coastal and underwater landscape value and biological/environmental indicators of coral reef degradation were assessed using the study case of Zihuatanejo, Guerrero coastal area. This area shelters representative coral reef structures of the Eastern Pacific coast and its terrestrial biodiversity and archaeology enhance the high value of its coastal area. This study explored the landscape value of both terrestrial and marine ecosystems using the geomorphosite approach in two sites on the Zihuatanejo coastal area: Caleta de Chon and Manzanillo Beach. Sedimentation rate, water transparency, chlorophyll and total suspended solids were recorded underwater in each site for environmental characterization. 50 photo-quadrants on five transects were surveyed between 3-4m depth to record coverage (%) of living corals, dead corals, algae, sand and rocks. The conservation status of coral reefs was assessed by the coral mortality index (MI). Landscape values showed that both terrestrial and marine ecosystems had important scientific and aesthetic values, being Manzanillo Beach the site with the highest potential for conservation initiatives (TtV = 14.2). However, coral reefs face elevated sedimentation rates (up to 1.16 kg/m2d) and low water transparency (less of 5m) generated by coastal land use changes that have increased soil erosion in the adjacent coastal area. High coverage of dead corals (23.6%) and algae (up to 29%) confirm the low values in conservation status of coral reefs (MI = 0.5), reflecting a poorly-planned management. Current conditions are the result of "top-down" conservation strategies in Zihuatanejo, as Federal and Municipal authorities do not coordinate, disregard local community in coral reef management, and ignore the intimate relationship between the coastal and marine realms. This work confirms the importance of conservation strategies with a holistic approach, considering both terrestrial and marine ecosystems in coastal areas; and that these initiatives should include local coastal communities in management and decision-taking processes done by government authorities. PMID:22208068

Nava, Héctor; Ramírez-Herrera, M Teresa

2011-12-01

90

Housing growth in and near United States protected areas limits their conservation value  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Protected areas are crucial for biodiversity conservation because they provide safe havens for species threatened by land-use change and resulting habitat loss. However, protected areas are only effective when they stop habitat loss within their boundaries, and are connected via corridors to other wild areas. The effectiveness of protected areas is threatened by development; however, the extent of this threat is unknown. We compiled spatially-detailed housing growth data from 1940 to 2030, and quantified growth for each wilderness area, national park, and national forest in the conterminous United States. Our findings show that housing development in the United States may severely limit the ability of protected areas to function as a modern "Noah's Ark." Between 1940 and 2000, 28 million housing units were built within 50 km of protected areas, and 940,000 were built within national forests. Housing growth rates during the 1990s within 1 km of protected areas (20% per decade) outpaced the national average (13%). If long-term trends continue, another 17 million housing units will be built within 50 km of protected areas by 2030 (1 million within 1 km), greatly diminishing their conservation value. US protected areas are increasingly isolated, housing development in their surroundings is decreasing their effective size, and national forests are even threatened by habitat loss within their administrative boundaries. Protected areas in the United States are thus threatened similarly to those in developing countries. However, housing growth poses the main threat to protected areas in the United States whereas deforestation is the main threat in developing countries.

Radeloff, V. C.; Stewart, S. I.; Hawbaker, T. J.; Gimmi, U.; Pidgeon, A. M.; Flather, C. H.; Hammer, R. B.; Helmers, D. P.

2010-01-01

91

Assessing the value of roadless areas in a conservation reserve strategy: biodiversity and landscape connectivity in the northern Rockies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Roadless areas on United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service lands hold significant potential for the conservation of native biodiversity and ecosystem processes, primarily because of their size and location. We examined the potential increase in land-cover types, elevation representation and landscape connectivity that inventoried roadless areas would provide in a northern Rockies (USA) conservation reserve strategy,

MICHELE R. CRIST; BO WILMER; GREGORY H. APLET

2005-01-01

92

Insights for integrated conservation from attitudes of people toward protected areas near Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

Increase in human settlements at the edge of protected areas (PAs) is perceived as a major threat to conservation of biodiversity. Although it is crucial to integrate the interests of surrounding communities into PA management, key drivers of changes in local populations and the effects of conservation on local livelihoods and perceptions remain poorly understood. We assessed population changes from 1990 to 2010 in 9 villages located between 2 PAs with different management policies (access to natural resources or not). We conducted semi-directive interviews at the household level (n =217) to document reasons for settlement in the area and villager's attitudes toward the PAs. We examined drivers of these attitudes relative to household typology, feelings about conservation, and concerns for the future with mixed linear models. Population increased by 61% from 2000 to 2010, a period of political and economic crisis in Zimbabwe. Forty-seven percent of immigrants were attracted by the area; others had been resettled from other villages or were returning to family lands. Attitudes toward PAs were generally positive, but immigrants attracted by the area and who used resources within the PA with fewer restrictions expressed more negative attitudes toward PAs. Household location, losses due to wild animals, and restrictions on access to natural resources were the main drivers of this negative attitude. Profit-seeking migrants did not expect these constraints and were particularly concerned with local overpopulation and access to natural resources. To avoid socio-ecological traps near PAs (i.e., unforeseen reduced adaptive capacity) integrated conservation should address mismatches between management policy and local expectations. This requires accounting for endogenous processes, for example, local socio-ecological dynamics and values that shape the coexistence between humans and wildlife. PMID:23866038

Guerbois, Chloe; Dufour, Anne-Beatrice; Mtare, Godfrey; Fritz, Herve

2013-08-01

93

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF SOIL PROPERTIES IN WATER CONSERVATION AREA 2A, EVERGLADES, FLORIDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wetland soils are heterogenous in nature, and biogeochemical proper- ties show different spatial autocorrelation structures that translate into fine- and coarse-scale spatial patterns. Understanding these patterns and how they relate to other ecosystem properties (e.g., vegetation) is critical to restore wetlands impacted by nutrient influx. Our goal was to investigate Water Conservation Area 2A, a wetland in the Florida Everglades,

Rosanna G. Rivero; Sabine Grunwald; Todd Z. Osborne; K. Ramesh Reddy; Sue Newman

2007-01-01

94

Guidelines for conservation levels and for sizing passive-solar collection area  

SciTech Connect

Guidelines are given for selecting R-values and infiltration levels, and determining the size of the solar collection area for passive solar building. The guidelines are based on balancing the incremental cost/benefit of conservation and solar strategies. Tables are given for 209 cities in the US and the results are also displayed on maps. The procedures are developed in an appendix, which gives the cost assumptions used and explains how to develop different guidelines for different costs.

Balcomb, J.D.

1983-01-01

95

Schistosomiasis in north-western Ghana  

PubMed Central

A survey of 8 274 people in the Ghana-2101 project area showed that 12% were passing ova of Schistosoma haematobium in the urine, the infection rate rising to a peak of 34% in males 15-19 years of age. S. mansoni, despite the wide distribution of its potential intermediate host, was not encountered in 1 698 boys examined for it. Urinary schistosomiasis in northern Ghana is focal in character and is usually contracted in standing water during the dry season. A method of control was developed that depends on the identification of localities subject to relatively intense and prolonged transmission, followed by dry season mollusciciding of the water sources in each locality infested with the snail hosts. Two such control cycles were carried out in 30 localities. The results suggest that selective, dry season, focal control of schistosomiasis can be effective in reducing transmission.

Lyons, G. R. L.

1974-01-01

96

Protected areas and freshwater conservation: a survey of protected area managers in the Tennessee and Cumberland River Basins, USA.  

PubMed

As the scientific community has highlighted the plight of freshwater species, there have been increasing calls for protected area (PA) designation and management specific to the conservation of aquatic species and ecosystems. In this study we examined PA management in one relatively well-resourced (high levels of financial and technical resources) part of the world: the Tennessee and Cumberland River Basins, USA. We asked managers their perceptions about the current status of freshwater ecosystems within PAs, the sources of stress that are degrading freshwater ecosystem integrity, the degree to which PAs address these stressors, and the availability of technical, human, and financial resources for management activities that benefit freshwater ecosystems and the species they support. Managers generally perceive that freshwater ecosystems within PAs are under low levels of stress, with less than half reporting any alteration to ecosystem integrity, and very few reporting alterations at medium or high levels. Most PAs have fewer resources dedicated to freshwater conservation and management than to other activities, and some PAs completely lack resources for freshwater management. We recommend a review of every PA's goals and objectives and any needed updates to include the conservation of freshwater ecosystems. We also recommend an analysis to determine the most pressing stressors to aquatic life within each PA, stemming from sources both from within and outside of a PA's boundaries, and that this information be used to guide future management. Finally, we suggest that management resources be prioritized for PAs that include large portions of the catchments of their freshwater systems; that can address the dominant sources of stress within the PA; or that contain representative ecosystems, species assemblages or populations of rare, endemic, and threatened species. PMID:22819600

Thieme, M L; Rudulph, J; Higgins, J; Takats, J A

2012-10-30

97

Criteria for protected areas and other conservation measures in the Antarctic region  

SciTech Connect

The Antarctic region is threatened by three major anthropogenic influences: climatic change brought about by increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide, the effects of persistent pollutants carried into the region via atmosphere and ocean, and the increase in Man's activities. These include radioactive wastes, organochlorides, freons, PCBs and heavy metals. Vulnerable ecosystems can be considered as those which are under direct pressure from Man's activities, whereas fragile ecosystems are the more likely to suffer irreversible change when perturbed, but are not necessarily threatened at present. Three of the main habitat types, terrestrial, inland waters, and islands, are likely to be fragile. However, all these can be conserved reasonably adequately with a system of protected and managed areas, so long as the area covered is adequate and representative. The fourth habitat type, the oceanic ecosystem, contains few fragile elements because it is dominated by the highly dynamic physical oceanic processes. Elements of the ecosystem are vulnerable to further exploitation, and although only the whales and some of the fish stocks can be regarded as fragile, there is considerably uncertainty as what synergistic effect exploitation of apparently key elements of the ecosystem, such as the krill, will have on other important components of the communities. The highly dynamic structure of oceanic environments renders the concept of conservation based on limited protected areas developed for terrestrial environments ineffective in the majority of marine environments. Instead the whole marine environment of the Antarctic region must be considered to be a single entity and managed as such.

Angel, M.V.

1987-01-01

98

Identifying Priority Areas for Conservation: A Global Assessment for Forest-Dependent Birds  

PubMed Central

Limited resources are available to address the world's growing environmental problems, requiring conservationists to identify priority sites for action. Using new distribution maps for all of the world's forest-dependent birds (60.6% of all bird species), we quantify the contribution of remaining forest to conserving global avian biodiversity. For each of the world's partly or wholly forested 5-km cells, we estimated an impact score of its contribution to the distribution of all the forest bird species estimated to occur within it, and so is proportional to the impact on the conservation status of the world's forest-dependent birds were the forest it contains lost. The distribution of scores was highly skewed, a very small proportion of cells having scores several orders of magnitude above the global mean. Ecoregions containing the highest values of this score included relatively species-poor islands such as Hawaii and Palau, the relatively species-rich islands of Indonesia and the Philippines, and the megadiverse Atlantic Forests and northern Andes of South America. Ecoregions with high impact scores and high deforestation rates (2000–2005) included montane forests in Cameroon and the Eastern Arc of Tanzania, although deforestation data were not available for all ecoregions. Ecoregions with high impact scores, high rates of recent deforestation and low coverage by the protected area network included Indonesia's Seram rain forests and the moist forests of Trinidad and Tobago. Key sites in these ecoregions represent some of the most urgent priorities for expansion of the global protected areas network to meet Convention on Biological Diversity targets to increase the proportion of land formally protected to 17% by 2020. Areas with high impact scores, rapid deforestation, low protection and high carbon storage values may represent significant opportunities for both biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation, for example through Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) initiatives.

Buchanan, Graeme M.; Donald, Paul F.; Butchart, Stuart H. M.

2011-01-01

99

[Potential distribution of jaguar, Panthera onca (Carnivora: Felidae) in Guerrero, Mexico: persistence of areas for its conservation].  

PubMed

Studies about the permanence of natural protected areas are important, because they contribute to the promotion of the conservation target and to optimize economical and human resources of specific areas. Although there are no natural protected areas in Guerrero, it has suitable habitat for the jaguar, a common species used for planning and management of conservation areas. Since, there is actual evidence that environmental and anthropogenic variables may modify vertebrate species distribution with time, in this study we predicted the potential distribution of Panthera onca using MaxEnt for this Southeastern region. In addition, we made a projection considering the effect of a moderate climate change scenario, to evaluate the stability of the conservation area for a period of 24 years. Furthermore, we applied three threat scenarios for the actual prediction to define conservation priorities areas. In our results, we have found that 18 361Km2 (29%) of this state has a permanent suitable habitat for jaguar conservation in the Sierra Madre del Sur and Pacific coast, with a possible loss of 2 000km2 in 24 years. This habitat is characterized by a 56% of temperate forest (mainly conifers and hardwoods 34%), and 35% of tropical deciduous forest. With the projections, the Southeastern region resulted with the higher anthropogenic impacts, while at the same time, an area of 7 900km2 in the Central-Western state was determined as a priority for conservation. To assure jaguar conservation, we propose the inclusion of this new conservation area, which is located in the Sierra Madre del Sur, with which we may potentially preserve other 250 species of threatened vertebrates. This way, the suggested habitat conservation may represent a local effort in Guerrero and will strengthen the biological corridor network for P. onca protection in Latin America. PMID:23025104

Cuervo-Robayo, Angela P; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio

2012-09-01

100

Climate Change and Conservation Planning in California: The San Francisco Bay Area Upland Habitat Goals Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change threatens California's vast and unique biodiversity. The Bay Area Upland Habitat Goals is a comprehensive regional biodiversity assessment of the 9 counties surrounding San Francisco Bay, and is designing conservation land networks that will serve to protect, manage, and restore that biodiversity. Conservation goals for vegetation, rare plants, mammals, birds, fish, amphibians, reptiles, and invertebrates are set, and those goals are met using the optimization algorithm MARXAN. Climate change issues are being considered in the assessment and network design in several ways. The high spatial variability at mesoclimatic and topoclimatic scales in California creates high local biodiversity, and provides some degree of local resiliency to macroclimatic change. Mesoclimatic variability from 800 m scale PRISM climatic norms is used to assess "mesoclimate spaces" in distinct mountain ranges, so that high mesoclimatic variability, especially local extremes that likely support range limits of species and potential climatic refugia, can be captured in the network. Quantitative measures of network resiliency to climate change include the spatial range of key temperature and precipitation variables within planning units. Topoclimatic variability provides a finer-grained spatial patterning. Downscaling to the topoclimatic scale (10-50 m scale) includes modeling solar radiation across DEMs for predicting maximum temperature differentials, and topographic position indices for modeling minimum temperature differentials. PRISM data are also used to differentiate grasslands into distinct warm and cool types. The overall conservation strategy includes local and regional connectivity so that range shifts can be accommodated.

Branciforte, R.; Weiss, S. B.; Schaefer, N.

2008-12-01

101

50 CFR Figure 20 to Part 679 - Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

50 Ç Wildlife and Fisheries Ç 9 Ç 2009-10-01 Ç 2009-10-01 Ç false Ç Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea Ç 20 Ç Figure 20 to Part 679 Ç Wildlife and Fisheries Ç FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

2009-10-01

102

50 CFR Figure 20 to Part 679 - Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

50 Ç Wildlife and Fisheries Ç 9 Ç 2010-10-01 Ç 2010-10-01 Ç false Ç Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea Ç 20 Ç Figure 20 to Part 679 Ç Wildlife and Fisheries Ç FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

2010-10-01

103

Common coastal foraging areas for loggerheads in the Gulf of Mexico: Opportunities for marine conservation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Designing conservation strategies that protect wide-ranging marine species is a significant challenge, but integrating regional telemetry datasets and synthesizing modeled movements and behavior offer promise for uncovering distinct at-sea areas that are important habitats for imperiled marine species. Movement paths of 10 satellite-tracked female loggerheads (Caretta caretta) from three separate subpopulations in the Gulf of Mexico, USA, revealed migration to discrete foraging sites in two common areas at-sea in 2008, 2009, and 2010. Foraging sites were 102–904 km away from nesting and tagging sites, and located off southwest Florida and the northern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Within 3–35 days, turtles migrated to foraging sites where they all displayed high site fidelity over time. Core-use foraging areas were 13.0–335.2 km2 in size, in water <50 m deep, within a mean distance to nearest coastline of 58.5 km, and in areas of relatively high net primary productivity. The existence of shared regional foraging sites highlights an opportunity for marine conservation strategies to protect important at-sea habitats for these imperiled marine turtles, in both USA and international waters. Until now, knowledge of important at-sea foraging areas for adult loggerheads in the Gulf of Mexico has been limited. To better understand the spatial distribution of marine turtles that have complex life-histories, we propose further integration of disparate tracking data-sets at the oceanic scale along with modeling of movements to identify critical at-sea foraging habitats where individuals may be resident during non-nesting periods.

Hart, Kristen M.; Lamont, Margaret M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Tucker, Anton D.; Carthy, Raymond R.

2012-01-01

104

Forest Service Roadless Area Conservation Final Environmental Impact Statement: Specialist Report for Terrestrial and Aquatic Habitats and Species.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This specialist report provides the background and analysis for the affected environment and environmental consequences of the alternatives analyzed in detail for the Forest Service Roadless Area Conservation Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS), N...

S. Brown R. Archuleta

2000-01-01

105

Territory Occupancy and Parental Quality as Proxies for Spatial Prioritization of Conservation Areas  

PubMed Central

In order to maximize their fitness, individuals aim at choosing territories offering the most appropriate combination of resources. As population size fluctuates in time, the frequency of breeding territory occupancy reflects territory quality. We investigated the relationships between the frequency of territory occupancy (2002–2009) vs. habitat characteristics, prey abundance, reproductive success and parental traits in hoopoes Upupa epops L., with the objective to define proxies for the delineation of conservation priority areas. We predicted that the distribution of phenotypes is despotic and sought for phenotypic characteristics expressing dominance. Our findings support the hypothesis of a despotic distribution. Territory selection was non-random: frequently occupied territories were settled earlier in the season and yielded higher annual reproductive success, but the frequency of territory occupancy could not be related to any habitat characteristics. Males found in frequently occupied territories showed traits expressing dominance (i.e. larger body size and mass, and older age). In contrast, morphological traits of females were not related to the frequency of territory occupancy, suggesting that territory selection and maintenance were essentially a male's task. Settlement time in spring, reproductive success achieved in a given territory, as well as phenotypic traits and age of male territory holders reflected territory quality, providing good proxies for assessing priority areas for conservation management.

Tschumi, Matthias; Schaub, Michael; Arlettaz, Raphael

2014-01-01

106

Macrofaunal community inside and outside of the Darwin Mounds Special Area of Conservation, NE Atlantic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial distribution and patchiness of deep sea macrofaunal communities were studied from samples collected in the Rockall Trough, NE Atlantic. In June 2011, two areas, located outside and within the Darwin Mound Special Area of Conservation (SAC), were sampled. Three megacores were deployed in each area at approximately 900 m depth. The two areas, ~ 18 km apart, did not differ in terms of sediment organic matter and percentage of mud content, but small significant differences were found in sediment median grain size and depth. Macrofaunal communities were found to differ significantly, with the difference mostly driven by changes in the abundance of polychaetes, crustaceans and nematodes whilst no significant differences were seen for the other phyla. Whereas overall macrofaunal abundance was higher outside the SAC compared to within, this pattern varies considerably between phyla. Diversity indices showed no significant differences between protected and unprotected sites. Deep-water trawling regularly take place outside the Darwin Mounds SAC whilst the area inside the SAC has been closed to bottom trawling since 2004, and the above distribution patterns are discussed in the context of both environmental and anthropogenic causes.

Serpetti, N.; Gontikaki, E.; Narayanaswamy, B. E.; Witte, U.

2013-06-01

107

Three Management Challenges for Protection of Aboriginal Cultural Heritage in a Tasmanian Multiple-use Conservation Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protected areas that are created to safeguard environmental values such as Indigenous culturescapes may in fact significantly fail in this task. This study concerns such an instance in far north-west Tasmania, where the government adopted a multiple-use resource conservation-development management model for the Arthur–Pieman Conservation Area (APCA). The model offers protection of cultural heritage values whilst permitting numerous community recreational

Elizabeth R. Jones

2007-01-01

108

U. S. Teachers Learn about Family Security in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes "Ghanaian Area Studies in Diversity-Globalization," a Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Program that took 18 New Mexico classroom teachers to Ghana, West Africa, in 2003 to bring a global perspective to the classrooms of New Mexico. This Fulbright project was designed for participants to gain a greater understanding of…

Johnson, Caryl

2006-01-01

109

Interactions between spatially explicit conservation and management measures: implications for the governance of marine protected areas.  

PubMed

Marine protected areas are not established in an institutional and governance vacuum and managers should pay attention to the wider social-ecological system in which they are immersed. This article examines Islas Choros-Damas Marine Reserve, a small marine protected area located in a highly productive and biologically diverse coastal marine ecosystem in northern Chile, and the interactions between human, institutional, and ecological dimensions beyond those existing within its boundaries. Through documents analysis, surveys, and interviews, we described marine reserve implementation (governing system) and the social and natural ecosystem-to-be-governed. We analyzed the interactions and the connections between the marine reserve and other spatially explicit conservation and/or management measures existing in the area and influencing management outcomes and governance. A top-down approach with poor stakeholder involvement characterized the implementation process. The marine reserve is highly connected with other spatially explicit measures and with a wider social-ecological system through various ecological processes and socio-economic interactions. Current institutional interactions with positive effects on the management and governance are scarce, although several potential interactions may be developed. For the study area, any management action must recognize interferences from outside conditions and consider some of them (e.g., ecotourism management) as cross-cutting actions for the entire social-ecological system. We consider that institutional interactions and the development of social networks are opportunities to any collective effort aiming to improve governance of Islas Choros-Damas marine reserve. Communication of connections and interactions between marine protected areas and the wider social-ecological system (as described in this study) is proposed as a strategy to improve stakeholder participation in Chilean marine protected areas. PMID:24091586

Cárcamo, P Francisco; Gaymer, Carlos F

2013-12-01

110

Interactions Between Spatially Explicit Conservation and Management Measures: Implications for the Governance of Marine Protected Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine protected areas are not established in an institutional and governance vacuum and managers should pay attention to the wider social-ecological system in which they are immersed. This article examines Islas Choros-Damas Marine Reserve, a small marine protected area located in a highly productive and biologically diverse coastal marine ecosystem in northern Chile, and the interactions between human, institutional, and ecological dimensions beyond those existing within its boundaries. Through documents analysis, surveys, and interviews, we described marine reserve implementation (governing system) and the social and natural ecosystem-to-be-governed. We analyzed the interactions and the connections between the marine reserve and other spatially explicit conservation and/or management measures existing in the area and influencing management outcomes and governance. A top-down approach with poor stakeholder involvement characterized the implementation process. The marine reserve is highly connected with other spatially explicit measures and with a wider social-ecological system through various ecological processes and socio-economic interactions. Current institutional interactions with positive effects on the management and governance are scarce, although several potential interactions may be developed. For the study area, any management action must recognize interferences from outside conditions and consider some of them (e.g., ecotourism management) as cross-cutting actions for the entire social-ecological system. We consider that institutional interactions and the development of social networks are opportunities to any collective effort aiming to improve governance of Islas Choros-Damas marine reserve. Communication of connections and interactions between marine protected areas and the wider social-ecological system (as described in this study) is proposed as a strategy to improve stakeholder participation in Chilean marine protected areas.

Cárcamo, P. Francisco; Gaymer, Carlos F.

2013-12-01

111

[Effects of different conservation tillage measures on winter wheat water use in Wuwei oasis irrigated area].  

PubMed

Field experiments were conducted in 2006-2008 to study the effects different conservation tillage measures, including conventional tillage with stubble incorporating (TS), no-tillage without stubble retention (NT), no-tillage with stubble standing (NTSS), no-tillage with stubble retention (NTS), on the soil moisture profile, soil water storage, water use efficiency (WUE), and grain yield of winter wheat in Wuwei oasis irrigated area. Comparing with conventional tillage, NTS and NTSS could significantly increase the water storage in 0-30 cm soil layer from returning green to jointing stage, and increase this storage in 30-150 cm soil layer from returning green till maturity. NTS, NTSS, and NT increased the water storage in whole soil profile (0-150 cm) by 29.55-34.69 mm, 17.32-21.79 mm, and 0.89-15.68 mm at sowing, and 37.59-38.35 mm, 5.70-22.14 mm, and 4.61-13.93 mm at harvesting, respectively. The difference in water storage became more significant with increasing soil depth. NTS, NTSS, NT and TIS increased the grain yield of winter wheat by 15.65%-16.84%, 6.98%-12.75%, 5.88%-11.74%, and 3.92%-8.16%, and the WUE by 17.15%-17.52%, 7.75%-9.65%, 8.24%-10.00%, and 4.17%-9.91%, respectively. NTS and NTSS improved the rain water use efficiency and grain yield, being the efficient conservative tillage measures to alleviate the lack of water resource in the study area. PMID:19803160

Feng, Fu-Xue; Huang, Gao-Bao; Yu, Ai-Zhong; Chai, Qiang; Tao, Ming; Li, Jie

2009-05-01

112

Policy talk: incentives for rural service among nurses in Ghana.  

PubMed

Like many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Ghana is faced with the simultaneous challenges of increasing its health workforce, retaining them in country and promoting a rational distribution of staff in remote or deprived areas of the country. Recent increases in both public-sector doctor and nurse salaries have contributed to a decline in international out-migration, but problems of geographic mal-distribution remain. As part of a research project on human resources in the Ghanaian health sector, this study was conducted to elicit in-depth views from nursing leaders and practicing nurses in rural and urban Ghana on motivations for urban vs rural practice, job satisfaction and potential rural incentives. In-depth interviews were conducted with 115 nurses selected using a stratified sample of public, private and Christian Health Association of Ghana (CHAG) facilities in three regions of the country (Greater Accra, Brong Ahafo and Upper West), and among 13 nurse managers from across Ghana. Many respondents reported low satisfaction with rural practice. This was influenced by the high workload and difficult working conditions, perception of being 'forgotten' in rural areas by the Ministry of Health (MOH), lack of professional advancement and the lack of formal learning or structured mentoring. Older nurses without academic degrees who were posted to remote areas were especially frustrated, citing a lack of opportunities to upgrade their skills. Nursing leaders echoed these themes, emphasizing the need to bring learning and communication technologies to rural areas. Proposed solutions included clearer terms of contract detailing length of stay at a post, and transparent procedures for transfer and promotion; career opportunities for all cadres of nursing; and benefits such as better on-the-job housing, better mentoring and more recognition from leaders. An integrated set of recruitment and retention policies focusing on career development may improve job satisfaction and retention of nurses in rural Ghana. PMID:22349086

Kwansah, Janet; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Mutumba, Massy; Asabir, Kwesi; Koomson, Elizabeth; Gyakobo, Mawuli; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Kruk, Margaret E; Snow, Rachel C

2012-12-01

113

Identification of potential conflict areas between land transformation and biodiversity conservation in north-eastern South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transformation of natural vegetation to other land-uses, such as crop cultivation and urban development, presents the most important threat to biodiversity. Plant and animal species distribution data were employed to identify areas of high biodiversity value in the major summer crop production region in north-eastern South Africa. These areas of biodiversity conservation importance were then evaluated in terms of their

Konrad J Wessels; Belinda Reyers; Albert S van Jaarsveld; Mike C Rutherford

2003-01-01

114

Are species coexistence areas a good option for conservation management? Applications from fine scale modelling in two steppe birds.  

PubMed

Biotic interactions and land uses have been proposed as factors that determine the distribution of the species at local scale. The presence of heterospecifics may modify the habitat selection pattern of the individuals and this may have important implications for the design of effective conservation strategies. However, conservation proposals are often focused on a single flagship or umbrella species taken as representative of an entire assemblage requirements. Our aim is to identify and evaluate the role of coexistence areas at local scale as conservation tools, by using distribution data of two endangered birds, the Little Bustard and the Great Bustard. Presence-only based suitability models for each species were built with MaxEnt using variables of substrate type and topography. Probability maps of habitat suitability for each species were combined to generate a map in which coexistence and exclusive use areas were delimitated. Probabilities of suitable habitat for each species inside coexistence and exclusive areas were compared. As expected, habitat requirements of Little and Great Bustards differed. Coexistence areas presented lower probabilities of habitat suitability than exclusive use ones. We conclude that differences in species' habitat preferences can hinder the efficiency of protected areas with multi-species conservation purposes. Our results highlight the importance of taking into account the role of biotic interactions when designing conservation measurements. PMID:24498210

Tarjuelo, Rocío; Morales, Manuel B; Traba, Juan; Delgado, M Paula

2014-01-01

115

Are Species Coexistence Areas a Good Option for Conservation Management? Applications from Fine Scale Modelling in Two Steppe Birds  

PubMed Central

Biotic interactions and land uses have been proposed as factors that determine the distribution of the species at local scale. The presence of heterospecifics may modify the habitat selection pattern of the individuals and this may have important implications for the design of effective conservation strategies. However, conservation proposals are often focused on a single flagship or umbrella species taken as representative of an entire assemblage requirements. Our aim is to identify and evaluate the role of coexistence areas at local scale as conservation tools, by using distribution data of two endangered birds, the Little Bustard and the Great Bustard. Presence-only based suitability models for each species were built with MaxEnt using variables of substrate type and topography. Probability maps of habitat suitability for each species were combined to generate a map in which coexistence and exclusive use areas were delimitated. Probabilities of suitable habitat for each species inside coexistence and exclusive areas were compared. As expected, habitat requirements of Little and Great Bustards differed. Coexistence areas presented lower probabilities of habitat suitability than exclusive use ones. We conclude that differences in species' habitat preferences can hinder the efficiency of protected areas with multi-species conservation purposes. Our results highlight the importance of taking into account the role of biotic interactions when designing conservation measurements.

Tarjuelo, Rocio; Morales, Manuel B.; Traba, Juan; Delgado, M. Paula

2014-01-01

116

Allocating conservation resources between areas where persistence of a species is uncertain.  

PubMed

Research on the allocation of resources to manage threatened species typically assumes that the state of the system is completely observable; for example whether a species is present or not. The majority of this research has converged on modeling problems as Markov decision processes (MDP), which give an optimal strategy driven by the current state of the system being managed. However, the presence of threatened species in an area can be uncertain. Typically, resource allocation among multiple conservation areas has been based on the biggest expected benefit (return on investment) but fails to incorporate the risk of imperfect detection. We provide the first decision-making framework for confronting the trade-off between information and return on investment, and we illustrate the approach for populations of the Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) in Kerinci Seblat National Park. The problem is posed as a partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP), which extends MDP to incorporate incomplete detection and allows decisions based on our confidence in particular states. POMDP has previously been used for making optimal management decisions for a single population of a threatened species. We extend this work by investigating two populations, enabling us to explore the importance of variation in expected return on investment between populations on how we should act. We compare the performance of optimal strategies derived assuming complete (MDP) and incomplete (POMDP) observability. We find that uncertainty about the presence of a species affects how we should act. Further, we show that assuming full knowledge of a species presence will deliver poorer strategic outcomes than if uncertainty about a species status is explicitly considered. MDP solutions perform up to 90% worse than the POMDP for highly cryptic species, and they only converge in performance when we are certain of observing the species during management: an unlikely scenario for many threatened species. This study illustrates an approach to allocating limited resources to threatened species where the conservation status of the species in different areas is uncertain. The results highlight the importance of including partial observability in future models of optimal species management when the species of concern is cryptic in nature. PMID:21639049

McDonald-Madden, Eve; Chadès, Iadine; McCarthy, Michael A; Linkie, Matthew; Possingham, Hugh P

2011-04-01

117

Earthquake catalogue of Ghana for the time period 1615-2003 with special reference to the tectono-structural evolution of south-east Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ghana is situated on the West Africa Craton and far away from any plate boundary. However, the southern part of the country is seismically active. The continental and coastal area of southeast Ghana is dominated by the Akwapim fault zone and coastal boundary fault. The Akwapim fault zone represents overthrusts of Neoproterozoic age, but there are also indications of recent faulting on some sections of the fault zone. The coastal boundary fault commenced to become tectonically active in Jurassic times and is probably still active. The two fault systems intersect some tens of kilometers to the southwest of Accra and it is at this intersection where most of the seismic activity has been observed. Historical documents describing damaging earthquakes in Ghana date as far back as 1615. The two major destructive earthquakes which struck Southern Ghana occurred close to the capital city Accra in 1862 (intensity IX) and 1939 (intensity VIII). The surveillance of the seismic activity of Southern Ghana with seismometers has been discontinuous with irregular long periods of disruption. All known earthquakes from 1615 to 2003, based on historical documents and instrumental recordings are collected in a data catalogue and compiled in a computer readable format. Based on macroseismic maps and detailed descriptions of the damages, the epicentral intensity of some strong events as well as the radii of different isoseismals could be newly estimated. The catalogue can be the basis for a deterministic seismic hazard assessment for Southern Ghana to develop a building code for this region.

Amponsah, Paulina; Leydecker, Günter; Muff, Rolf

2012-10-01

118

A survey for Echinococcus spp. of carnivores in six wildlife conservation areas in Kenya.  

PubMed

To investigate the presence of Echinococcus spp. in wild mammals of Kenya, 832 faecal samples from wild carnivores (lions, leopards, spotted hyenas, wild dogs and silver-backed jackals) were collected in six different conservation areas of Kenya (Meru, Nairobi, Tsavo West and Tsavo East National Parks, Samburu and Maasai Mara National Reserves). Taeniid eggs were found in 120 samples (14.4%). In total, 1160 eggs were isolated and further analysed using RFLP-PCR of the nad1 gene and sequencing. 38 of these samples contained eggs of Echinococcus spp., which were identified as either Echinococcus felidis (n=27) or Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (n=12); one sample contained eggs from both taxa. E. felidis was found in faeces from lions (n=20) and hyenas (n=5) while E. granulosus in faeces from lions (n=8), leopards (n=1) and hyenas (n=3). The host species for two samples containing E. felidis could not be identified with certainty. As the majority of isolated eggs could not be analysed with the methods used (no amplification), we do not attempt to give estimates of faecal prevalences. Both taxa of Echinococcus were found in all conservation areas except Meru (only E. felidis) and Tsavo West (only E. granulosus). Host species identification for environmental faecal samples, based on field signs, was found to be unreliable. All samples with taeniid eggs were subjected to a confirmatory host species RLFP-PCR of the cytochrome B gene. 60% had been correctly identified in the field. Frequently, hyena faeces were mistaken for lion and vice versa, and none of the samples from jackals and wild dogs could be confirmed in the tested sub-sample. This is the first molecular study on the distribution of Echinococcus spp. in Kenyan wildlife. The presence of E. felidis is confirmed for lions and newly reported for spotted hyenas. Lions and hyenas are newly recognized hosts for E. granulosus s.s., while the role of leopards remains uncertain. These data provide the basis for further studies on the lifecycles and the possible link between wild and domestic cycles of cystic echinococcosis in eastern Africa. PMID:24732034

Kagendo, D; Magambo, J; Agola, E L; Njenga, S M; Zeyhle, E; Mulinge, E; Gitonga, P; Mbae, C; Muchiri, E; Wassermann, M; Kern, P; Romig, T

2014-08-01

119

THE THREATENED AND THE IRREPLACEABLE: IDENTIFYING AREAS FOR THE CONSERVATION OF FAUNAL SPECIES DIVERSITY IN THE MIDDLE-ATLANTIC REGION OF THE UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

One fundamental step in conservation planning involves determining where to concentrate efforts to protect conservation targets. Here we demonstrate an approach to prioritizing areas based on both species composition and potential threats facing the species. First, we determine...

120

Water footprint of Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is used in almost all human endeavour. Unlike oil, water does not have a substitute. There are many factors that affect the water consumption pattern of people. These include climatic condition, income level and agricultural practices among others. The water footprint concept has been developed in order to have an indicator of water use in relation to its consumption by people. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country (Chapagain and Hoekstra, 2008). Due to the bulky nature of water, it is not in its raw state a tradable commodity though it could be traded through the exchange of goods and services from one point to the other. Closely linked to the water footprint concept is the virtual water concept. Virtual water can be defined as the volume of water required to produce a commodity or service (Chapagain and Hoekstra, 2008 and Allan, 1999). The international trade of these commodities implies flows of virtual water over large distances. The water footprint of a nation can therefore be assessed by quantifying the use of domestic water resources, taking out the virtual water flow that leaves the country and adding the virtual water flow that enters the country to it. This research focuses on the assessment and analysis of the water footprints of Ghana considering only the consumptive component of the water footprint. In addition to livestock, 13 crops were considered, 4 of which were cash crops. Data was analysed for the year 2001 to 2005 The most recent framework for the analysis of water footprint is offered by Chapagain and Hoekstra. This was adopted for the study. The water footprint calculations show that the water footprint of Ghana is about 20011 Gm³/yr. Base on this the average water footprint of a Ghanaian is 823 m³/cap/yr. Not only agricultural crops but also other products require water for their manufacture, aluminium being a case in point. The water required for energy production through hydropower is important to account for, as well as the question to what extent this may or may not be considered non-consumptive water use. Further research is needed to correctly estimate the water footprint of energy-intensive products. Keywords: water footprint, virtual water, trade, commodity

Debrah, E. R.; Odai, S. N.; Annor, F. O.; Adjei, K. A.; van der Zaag, P.

2009-04-01

121

Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Forrest Conservation Area, Technical Report 2003-2004.  

SciTech Connect

The Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) study was performed to determine baseline habitat units on the 4,232-acre Forrest Conservation Area managed by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribe) in Grant County, Oregon. The habitat evaluation is required as part of the Memorandum of Agreement between the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs and Bonneville Power Administration. Representatives from the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife and the Tribes conducted the field surveys for the HEP. The survey collected data for habitat variables contained in habitat suitability index (HIS) models for wildlife species; the key species were black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapilla), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), mink (Mustela vison), western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), California Quail (Callipepla californica), and yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia). Cover types surveyed were grassland, meadow grassland, conifer forest, riparian tree shrub, shrub steppe, juniper forest, and juniper steppe. Other cover types mapped, but not used in the models were open water, roads, gravel pits, corrals, and residential.

Smith, Brent

2005-01-01

122

Oxbow Conservation Area; Middle Fork John Day River, Annual Report 2003-2004.  

SciTech Connect

In early 2001, the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs, through their John Day Basin Office, concluded the acquisition of the Oxbow Ranch, now know as the Oxbow Conservation Area (OCA). Under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Tribes are required to provided BPA an 'annual written report generally describing the real property interests in the Project, HEP analyses undertaken or in progress, and management activities undertaken or in progress'. The project during 2003 was crippled due to the aftermath of the BPA budget crisis. Some objectives were not completed during the first half of this contract because of limited funds in the 2003 fiscal year. The success of this property purchase can be seen on a daily basis. Water rights were utilized only in the early, high water season and only from diversion points with functional fish screens. After July 1, all of the OCA water rights were put instream. Riparian fences on the river, Ruby and Granite Boulder creeks continued to promote important vegetation to provide shade and bank stabilization. Hundreds of willow, dogwood, Douglas-fir, and cottonwood were planted along the Middle Fork John Day River. Livestock grazing on the property was carefully managed to ensure the protection of fish and wildlife habitat, while promoting meadow vigor and producing revenue for property taxes. Monitoring of property populations, resources, and management activities continued in 2003 to build a database for future management of this and other properties in the region.

Cochran, Brian

2004-02-01

123

The Effects of Governmental Protected Areas and Social Initiatives for Land Protection on the Conservation of Mexican Amphibians  

PubMed Central

Traditionally, biodiversity conservation gap analyses have been focused on governmental protected areas (PAs). However, an increasing number of social initiatives in conservation (SICs) are promoting a new perspective for analysis. SICs include all of the efforts that society implements to conserve biodiversity, such as land protection, from private reserves to community zoning plans some of which have generated community-protected areas. This is the first attempt to analyze the status of conservation in Latin America when some of these social initiatives are included. The analyses were focused on amphibians because they are one of the most threatened groups worldwide. Mexico is not an exception, where more than 60% of its amphibians are endemic. We used a niche model approach to map the potential and real geographical distribution (extracting the transformed areas) of the endemic amphibians. Based on remnant distribution, all the species have suffered some degree of loss, but 36 species have lost more than 50% of their potential distribution. For 50 micro-endemic species we could not model their potential distribution range due to the small number of records per species, therefore the analyses were performed using these records directly. We then evaluated the efficiency of the existing set of governmental protected areas and established the contribution of social initiatives (private and community) for land protection for amphibian conservation. We found that most of the species have some proportion of their potential ecological niche distribution protected, but 20% are not protected at all within governmental PAs. 73% of endemic and 26% of micro-endemic amphibians are represented within SICs. However, 30 micro-endemic species are not represented within either governmental PAs or SICs. This study shows how the role of land conservation through social initiatives is therefore becoming a crucial element for an important number of species not protected by governmental PAs.

Ochoa-Ochoa, Leticia; Urbina-Cardona, J. Nicolas; Vazquez, Luis-Bernardo; Flores-Villela, Oscar; Bezaury-Creel, Juan

2009-01-01

124

The Effect of Tools of a Computer Microworld on Students' Strategies Regarding the Concept of Conservation of Area.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the role of tools, provided by a computer microworld (C.AR.ME), on the strategies developed by 14-year-old students regarding the concept of conservation of area of a non-convex polygon. Indicates that the nature of the tools used affected the nature of solution strategies that students constructed. (Author/KHR)

Kordaki, Maria

2003-01-01

125

Temporal trajectories of phosphorus and pedo-patterns mapped in Water Conservation Area 2, Everglades, Florida, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Documenting local change of soil properties over longer periods of time is critical to assess trends along trajectories. We present two types of temporal trajectories that document change in soil phosphorus (P) and pedo-patterns in Water Conservation Area 2, a subtropical wetland in the Everglades, Florida. Our specific objectives were to (i) quantify the spatial distribution of total P (TP)

S. Grunwald; T. Z. Osborne; K. R. Reddy

2008-01-01

126

ON THE THEORY AND PROCEDURE FOR CONSTRUCTING A MINIMAL-LENGTH, AREA-CONSERVING FREQUENCY POLYGON FROM GROUPED DATA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS PAPER IS CONCERNED WITH GRAPHIC PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF GROUPED OBSERVATIONS. IT PRESENTS A METHOD AND SUPPORTING THEORY FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF AN AREA-CONSERVING, MINIMAL LENGTH FREQUENCY POLYGON CORRESPONDING TO A GIVEN HISTOGRAM. TRADITIONALLY, THE CONCEPT OF A FREQUENCY POLYGON CORRESPONDING TO A GIVEN HISTOGRAM HAS REFERRED TO THAT…

CASE, C. MARSTON

127

78 FR 35639 - Establishment of the Rio Mora National Wildlife Refuge and Rio Mora Conservation Area, Colfax...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FWS-R2-R-2013-N265: FF02R06000-FXRS1265022LPP-134] Establishment of the Rio Mora National Wildlife Refuge and Rio Mora Conservation Area, Colfax, Mora, and San Miguel Counties, NM AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior....

2013-06-13

128

Bat Inventory of the Multiple Species Conservation Program Area in San Diego County, California, 2002-2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We conducted a bat species inventory of the Multiple Species Conservation Program (MSCP) area in San Diego County, California. The study began in the early summer of 2002 and terminated in the winter of 2003. We used a variety of bat survey techniques inc...

C. S. Brehme D. C. Stokes R. N. Fisher S. A. Hathaway

2005-01-01

129

The potential and pitfalls of global environmental governance: The politics of transfrontier conservation areas in Southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the potential and problems associated with global environmental governance with particular reference to Transfrontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs) in Southern Africa. By taking a political ecology approach, it reflects on theories and practices of global environmental governance through an analysis of transboundary environmental management. In particular, it examines the politics of the struggle over control of and access

Rosaleen Duffy

2006-01-01

130

Molecular epidemiological studies on animal trypanosomiases in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background African trypanosomes are extracellular protozoan parasites that are transmitted between mammalian hosts by the bite of an infected tsetse fly. Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping sickness is caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense or T. brucei gambiense, while African Animal Trypanosomiasis (AAT) is caused mainly by T. vivax, T. congolense, T. simiae,T. evansi and T. brucei brucei. Trypanosomiasis is of public health importance in humans and is also the major constraint for livestock productivity in sub-Saharan African countries. Scanty information exists about the trypanosomiasis status in Ghana especially regarding molecular epidemiology. Therefore, this study intended to apply molecular tools to identify and characterize trypanosomes in Ghana. Methods A total of 219 tsetse flies, 248 pigs and 146 cattle blood samples were collected from Adidome and Koforidua regions in Ghana in 2010. Initial PCR assays were conducted using the internal transcribed spacer one (ITS1) of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) primers, which can detect most of the pathogenic trypanosome species and T. vivax-specific cathepsin L-like gene primers. In addition, species- or subgroup-specific PCRs were performed for T. b. rhodesiense, T. b. gambiense, T. evansi and three subgroups of T. congolense. Results The overall prevalence of trypanosomes were 17.4% (38/219), 57.5% (84/146) and 28.6% (71/248) in tsetse flies, cattle and pigs, respectively. T. congolense subgroup-specific PCR revealed that T. congolense Savannah (52.6%) and T. congolense Forest (66.0%) were the endemic subgroups in Ghana with 18.6% being mixed infections. T. evansi was detected in a single tsetse fly. Human infective trypanosomes were not detected in the tested samples. Conclusion Our results showed that there is a high prevalence of parasites in both tsetse flies and livestock in the study areas in Ghana. This enhances the need to strengthen control policies and institute measures that help prevent the spread of the parasites.

2012-01-01

131

Forest Area, Fragmentation, and Loss in the Eastern Arc Mountains: Implications For the Conservation of Biological Diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

An understanding of forest area, fragmentation and loss is central to developing strategies to conserve biological diversity in the Eastern Arc Mountains. Using recent 1:250,000 land cover and use maps (Tanzanian Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism, 1996) and 1:250,000 and 1:500,000 topographic maps, I examine natural forest area, fragmentation, and loss in the Eastern Arc Mountains. I estimate the

W. D. Newmark

1998-01-01

132

Moving into protected areas? Setting conservation priorities for Romanian reptiles and amphibians at risk from climate change.  

PubMed

Rapid climate change represents one of the top threats to biodiversity, causing declines and extinctions of many species. Range shifts are a key response, but in many cases are incompatible with the current extent of protected areas. In this study we used ensemble species distribution models to identify range changes for 21 reptile and 16 amphibian species in Romania for the 2020s and 2050s time horizons under three emission scenarios (A1B = integrated world, rapid economic growth, A2A = divided world, rapid economic growth [realistic scenario], B2A = regional development, environmentally-friendly scenario) and no- and limited-dispersal assumptions. We then used irreplaceability analysis to test the efficacy of the Natura 2000 network to meet conservation targets. Under all scenarios and time horizons, 90% of the species suffered range contractions (greatest loses under scenarios B2A for 2020s, and A1B for 2050s), and four reptile species expanded their ranges. Two reptile and two amphibian species are predicted to completely lose climate space by 2050s. Currently, 35 species do not meet conservation targets (>40% representation in protected areas), but the target is predicted to be met for 4 - 14 species under future climate conditions, with higher representation under the limited-dispersal scenario. The Alpine and Steppic-Black Sea biogeographic regions have the highest irreplaceability value, and act as climate refugia for many reptiles and amphibians. The Natura 2000 network performs better for achieving herpetofauna conservation goals in the future, owing to the interaction between drastic range contractions, and range shifts towards existing protected areas. Thus, conservation actions for herpetofauna in Romania need to focus on: (1) building institutional capacity of protected areas in the Alpine and Steppic-Black Sea biogeographic regions, and (2) facilitating natural range shifts by improving the conservation status of herpetofauna outside protected areas, specifically in traditionally-managed landscapes and abandoned cropland. PMID:24324547

Popescu, Viorel D; Rozylowicz, Lauren?iu; Cog?lniceanu, Dan; Niculae, Iulian Mih?i??; Cucu, Adina Livia

2013-01-01

133

Moving into Protected Areas? Setting Conservation Priorities for Romanian Reptiles and Amphibians at Risk from Climate Change  

PubMed Central

Rapid climate change represents one of the top threats to biodiversity, causing declines and extinctions of many species. Range shifts are a key response, but in many cases are incompatible with the current extent of protected areas. In this study we used ensemble species distribution models to identify range changes for 21 reptile and 16 amphibian species in Romania for the 2020s and 2050s time horizons under three emission scenarios (A1B = integrated world, rapid economic growth, A2A = divided world, rapid economic growth [realistic scenario], B2A = regional development, environmentally-friendly scenario) and no- and limited-dispersal assumptions. We then used irreplaceability analysis to test the efficacy of the Natura 2000 network to meet conservation targets. Under all scenarios and time horizons, 90% of the species suffered range contractions (greatest loses under scenarios B2A for 2020s, and A1B for 2050s), and four reptile species expanded their ranges. Two reptile and two amphibian species are predicted to completely lose climate space by 2050s. Currently, 35 species do not meet conservation targets (>40% representation in protected areas), but the target is predicted to be met for 4 - 14 species under future climate conditions, with higher representation under the limited-dispersal scenario. The Alpine and Steppic-Black Sea biogeographic regions have the highest irreplaceability value, and act as climate refugia for many reptiles and amphibians. The Natura 2000 network performs better for achieving herpetofauna conservation goals in the future, owing to the interaction between drastic range contractions, and range shifts towards existing protected areas. Thus, conservation actions for herpetofauna in Romania need to focus on: (1) building institutional capacity of protected areas in the Alpine and Steppic-Black Sea biogeographic regions, and (2) facilitating natural range shifts by improving the conservation status of herpetofauna outside protected areas, specifically in traditionally-managed landscapes and abandoned cropland.

Popescu, Viorel D.; Rozylowicz, Laurentiu; Cogalniceanu, Dan; Niculae, Iulian Mihaita; Cucu, Adina Livia

2013-01-01

134

Uncovering the fruit bat bushmeat commodity chain and the true extent of fruit bat hunting in Ghana, West Africa  

PubMed Central

Harvesting, consumption and trade of bushmeat are important causes of both biodiversity loss and potential zoonotic disease emergence. In order to identify possible ways to mitigate these threats, it is essential to improve our understanding of the mechanisms by which bushmeat gets from the site of capture to the consumer’s table. In this paper we highlight the previously unrecognized scale of hunting of the African straw-colored fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, a species which is important in both ecological and public health contexts, and describe the commodity chain in southern Ghana for its trade. Based on interviews with 551 Ghanaians, including bat hunters, vendors and consumers, we estimate that a minimum of 128,000 E. helvum bats are sold each year through a commodity chain stretching up to 400 km and involving multiple vendors. Unlike the general bushmeat trade in Ghana, where animals are sold in both specialized bushmeat markets and in restaurants, E. helvum is sold primarily in marketplaces; many bats are also kept by hunters for personal consumption. The offtake estimated in this paper raises serious conservation concerns, while the commodity chain identified in this study may offer possible points for management intervention. The separation of the E. helvum commodity chain from that of other bushmeat highlights the need for species-specific research in this area, particularly for bats, whose status as bushmeat is largely unknown.

Kamins, A.O.; Restif, O.; Ntiamoa-Baidu, Y.; Suu-Ire, R.; Hayman, D.T.S.; Cunningham, A.A.; Wood, J.L.N.; Rowcliffe, J.M.

2011-01-01

135

Oxbow Conservation Area; Middle Fork John Day River, Annual Report 2002-2003.  

SciTech Connect

In early 2001, the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs, through their John Day Basin Office, concluded the acquisition of the Oxbow Ranch, now know as the Oxbow Conservation Area (OCA). Under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Tribes are required to provided BPA an 'annual written report generally describing the real property interests in the Project, HEP analyses undertaken or in progress, and management activities undertaken or in progress'. The 2002 contract period was well funded and the second year of the project. A new manager started in April, allowing the previous manager to focus his efforts on the Forrest Ranch acquisition. However, the Oxbow Habitat manager's position was vacant from October through mid February of 2003. During this time, much progress, mainly O&M, was at a minimum level. Many of the objectives were not completed during this contract due to both the size and duration needed to complete such activities (example: dredge mine tailings restoration project) or because budget crisis issues with BPA ending accrual carryover on the fiscal calendar. Although the property had been acquired a year earlier, there were numerous repairs and discoveries, which on a daily basis could pull personnel from making progress on objectives for the SOW, aside from O&M objectives. A lack of fencing on a portion of the property's boundary and deteriorating fences in other areas are some reasons much time was spent chasing trespassing cattle off of the property. The success of this property purchase can be seen on a daily basis. Water rights were used seldom in the summer of 2002, with minor irrigation water diverted from only Granite Boulder Creek. Riparian fences on the river, Ruby and Granite Boulder creeks help promote important vegetation to provide shade and bank stabilization. Trees planted in this and past years are growing and will someday provide cover fish and wildlife. Even grazing on the property was carefully managed to ensure the protection of fish and wildlife habitat. Monitoring of property populations, resources, and management activities continued in 2002 to build a database for future management of this and other properties in the region.

Cochran, Brian; Smith, Brent

2003-07-01

136

76 FR 66321 - Proposed Establishment of Everglades Headwaters National Wildlife Refuge and Conservation Area...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...environmental assessment to Everglades Headwaters Proposal, by U...proposed establishment of the Everglades Headwaters NWR and Conservation...Counties in central and south Florida in accordance with the National...proposed establishment of the Everglades Headwaters NWR and...

2011-10-26

137

Resource use among rural agricultural households near protected areas in Vietnam: the social costs of conservation and implications for enforcement.  

PubMed

This article examines the use of forests in a protected area by nearby agriculturalists in central Vietnam. Research indicates that the majority of rural farmers interviewed who lived near a state designated protected area were receiving both subsistence and cash incomes from forest-based activities, primarily from the collection of forest products. However, much of the collection of forest produce was officially illegal, as it occurred in state protected forests, and interdiction efforts were on the increase. Yet, little attention has been paid in Vietnam to the need for income substitution for households who lose access to forest produce as a result of conservation enforcement, particularly in the case of farmers who live near, but not in, protected areas; their resources use has been 'invisible' due to a lack of attention and research on the topic. This misunderstanding of the importance of forests to rural farmers has the potential to result in households facing adverse welfare and livelihood outcomes as protected areas boundaries are tightened, and local communities face increased opportunity costs due to stricter conservation enforcement. The article concludes that substitution for loss of income due to conservation activities would best be achieved through carefully targeted interventions to specific high-impact and high-dependency households. Additionally, investments in new sources of wage labor and other low capital-input activities, rather than in agriculture, would likely be of most benefit. PMID:19924473

McElwee, Pamela D

2010-01-01

138

Resource Use Among Rural Agricultural Households Near Protected Areas in Vietnam: The Social Costs of Conservation and Implications for Enforcement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article examines the use of forests in a protected area by nearby agriculturalists in central Vietnam. Research indicates that the majority of rural farmers interviewed who lived near a state designated protected area were receiving both subsistence and cash incomes from forest-based activities, primarily from the collection of forest products. However, much of the collection of forest produce was officially illegal, as it occurred in state protected forests, and interdiction efforts were on the increase. Yet, little attention has been paid in Vietnam to the need for income substitution for households who lose access to forest produce as a result of conservation enforcement, particularly in the case of farmers who live near, but not in, protected areas; their resources use has been ‘invisible’ due to a lack of attention and research on the topic. This misunderstanding of the importance of forests to rural farmers has the potential to result in households facing adverse welfare and livelihood outcomes as protected areas boundaries are tightened, and local communities face increased opportunity costs due to stricter conservation enforcement. The article concludes that substitution for loss of income due to conservation activities would best be achieved through carefully targeted interventions to specific high-impact and high-dependency households. Additionally, investments in new sources of wage labor and other low capital-input activities, rather than in agriculture, would likely be of most benefit.

McElwee, Pamela D.

2010-01-01

139

Nitrogen and phosphorus uptake in the Everglades Conservation Areas, Florida : with special reference to the effects of backpumping runoff  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In much of the water pumped into the northern Everglades, Florida, concentrations of inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus are relatively high. These nutrients are transported in the canals or into the peripheral marshes. Concentrations decrease sharply within 330 feet or less of the canals, whereas specific conductance remains essentially unchanged within this distance. The sharp decrease in inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus near the canal edge indicates net uptake in these shallow waters. Concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus also decrease as water moves through the conservation areas in canals. This decrease is due partly to dilution by rainfall and runoff, and partly to net uptake in the canals and their peripheral marsh. The large canals of the northern and eastern parts of the conservation areas often have relatively low concentrations of dissolved oxygen which show little fluctuation within 24 hours. Backpumping 50 percent of the total annual canal runoff in southeast Florida would add from 990 to 6,160 tons of nitrogen and from 10 to 62 tons of phosphorus to the conservation areas. The bottom sediments of the Everglades are a sink for nitrogen and phosphorus. They can, however, be a source of these nutrients when anaerobic conditions exist at the water-sediment interface or when bottom material becomes resuspended. (Woodard-USGS)

McPherson, Benjamin F.; Waller, Bradley G.; Mattraw, H. C.

1976-01-01

140

Herpetofaunal communities at Muni Lagoon in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

A herpetofaunal survey of Muni-Pomadze Lagoon, during the main rainy season (May–June), recorded a total of 32 species (13 amphibians and 19 reptiles). Three species are the first records for coastal habitats in Ghana: Kinixys homeana, Calabaria reinhardti, and Bothrophthalmus lineatus. None of the surveyed species are restricted to Ghana. The most diverse herpetofaunal community occurs in grassland thicket, with

Christopher J. Raxworthy; Daniel K. Attuquayefio

2000-01-01

141

Educational Access in Ghana. Country Policy Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Policy Brief describes and explains patterns of access to schools in Ghana. It outlines policy and legislation on access to education and provides an analysis of access, vulnerability and exclusion. It is based on findings from the Country Analytic Report on Access to Basic Education in Ghana (Akyeampong et al, 2007) [ED508809] which can be…

Akyeampong, K.; Djangmah, J.; Oduro, A.; Seidu, A.; Hunt, F.

2008-01-01

142

Creating safety nets through semi-parametric index-based insurance: A simulation for Northern Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

In West Africa, farm income is highly exposed to risks from crop failure in the drier, inland areas, and from fluctuations in (world market) prices in the wetter coastal areas. As individuals and even extended families are poorly equipped to deal with these, provision of social safety nets is required Our paper reviews the situation in Ghana and the way

Vasco Molini; Michiel A. Keyzer; Bart van den Boom; Wouter Zant

2007-01-01

143

Agroforestry systems for soil and water conservation and sustainable production from foothill areas of north India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some conservation based agroforestry systems (AFS) were developed for possible adoption in place of high risk rainfed farming on land capability classes Ito IV of a typical topo-sequence of foothill north India. The agri-silvi-horticulture system integrating leucaena, lemon, papaya and turmeric on class I irrigated land provided sustainable mean net returns of Rs. 17066 against Rs. 7852 ha.–1 yr.–1 from

S. S. Grewal; S. P. Mittal; Surjit Dyal; Y. Agnihotri

1992-01-01

144

Smoking uptake and prevalence in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background: Developing countries are at high risk of epidemic increases in tobacco smoking, but the extent of this problem is not clearly defined because few collect detailed smoking data. We have surveyed tobacco smoking in the Ashanti region of Ghana, a rapidly developing African country with a long-established tobacco industry. Methods: We took a random sample of 30 regional census enumeration areas, each comprising about 100 households, and a systematic sample of 20 households from each. These were visited, a complete listing of residents obtained and questionnaire interviews on current and past smoking, age at smoking uptake, sources of cigarettes and other variables carried out in all consenting residents aged 14 or over. Results: Of 7096 eligible individuals resident in the sampled households, 6258 (88%; median age 31 (range 14–105) years; 64% female) participated. The prevalence of self-reported current smoking (weighted for gender differences in response) was 3.8% (males 8.9%, females 0.3%) and of ever smoking 9.7% (males 22.0%, females 1.2%). Smoking was more common in older people, those of Traditionalist belief, those of low educational level, the unemployed and the less affluent. Smokers were more likely to drink alcohol and to have friends who smoke. About 10% of cigarettes were smuggled brands. About a third of smokers were highly or very highly dependent. Conclusions: Despite rapid economic growth and a sustained tobacco industry presence, smoking prevalence in Ghana is low, particularly among younger people. This suggests that progression of an epidemic increase in smoking has to date been avoided.

Owusu-Dabo, E; Lewis, S; McNeill, A; Gilmore, A; Britton, J

2009-01-01

145

Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao, Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) nest characteristics in the Osa Peninsula Conservation Area (ACOSA), Costa Rica.  

PubMed

The Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) is an endangered species. In Costa Rica, the Scarlet Macaw population of the Central Pacific Conservation Area (ACOPAC, n =432 individuals) has undergone considdrable study and has been used effectively as a flagship species for regional conservation. Costa Rica's only other viable Scarlet Macaw population, located in the Osa Peninsula Conservation Area (ACOSA, n=800-1200 individuals), remains virtually unstudied. We studied ACOSA Scarlet Macaw nest cavities from February 19th to March 22nd 2006. Through informal interviews with park guards and residents, we found a total of 57 potential nests in 52 trees. Eleven nests were reported as frequently poached. Scarlet Macaws used 14 identified tree species, ten of which are unrecorded in Costa Rica. The most common nesting trees were Caryocar costaricense (n=12, 24%), Schizolobium parahyba (n=9, 18.0%), Ceibapentandra (n=7, 14.0%) and Ficus sp. (n=5, 10.0%). We compare nesting characteristics to those recorded in ACOPAC. A combination of bottom-up and top-down strategies are necessary to ensure the Scarlet Macaw's long-term success, including environmental education in local schools, community stewardship of active nests, and the advertisement of stricter penalties for poaching. PMID:19637716

Guittar, John L; Dear, Fiona; Vaughan, Christopher

2009-01-01

146

Effects of spearfishing on reef fish populations in a multi-use conservation area.  

PubMed

Although spearfishing is a popular method of capturing fish, its ecological effects on fish populations are poorly understood, which makes it difficult to assess the legitimacy and desirability of spearfishing in multi-use marine reserves. Recent management changes within the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP) fortuitously created a unique scenario by which to quantify the effects of spearfishing on fish populations. As such, we employed underwater visual surveys and a before-after-control-impact experimental design to investigate the effects of spearfishing on the density and size structure of target and non-target fishes in a multi-use conservation park zone (CPZ) within the GBRMP. Three years after spearfishing was first allowed in the CPZ, there was a 54% reduction in density and a 27% reduction in mean size of coral trout (Plectropomus spp.), the primary target species. These changes were attributed to spearfishing because benthic habitat characteristics and the density of non-target fishes were stable through time, and the density and mean size of coral trout in a nearby control zone (where spearfishing was prohibited) remained unchanged. We conclude that spearfishing, like other forms of fishing, can have rapid and substantial negative effects on target fish populations. Careful management of spearfishing is therefore needed to ensure that conservation obligations are achieved and that fishery resources are harvested sustainably. This is particularly important both for the GBRMP, due to its extraordinarily high conservation value and world heritage status, and for tropical island nations where people depend on spearfishing for food and income. To minimize the effects of spearfishing on target species and to enhance protection of functionally important fishes (herbivores), we recommend that fishery managers adjust output controls such as size- and catch-limits, rather than prohibit spearfishing altogether. This will preserve the cultural and social importance of spearfishing in coastal communities where it is practised. PMID:23251656

Frisch, Ashley J; Cole, Andrew J; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; Rizzari, Justin R; Munkres, Katherine P

2012-01-01

147

Soil and Water Conservation in Arid and Semiarid Areas: The Chinese Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

In China, soil erosion is a serious environmental problem and a major threat to the sustainability of agriculture and economic development. The total area subjected to soil erosion covers 3 670 000 km 2, i.e., 38.2% of the total land area. For a long period of time, particularly since the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, the

Xiao-Yan Li

148

Conservation outside protected areas and the effect of human-dominated landscapes on stress hormones in Savannah elephants.  

PubMed

Biodiversity conservation strategies are increasingly focused on regions outside national protected areas, where animals face numerous anthropogenic threats and must coexist with human settlements, livestock, and agriculture. The effects of these potential threats are not always clear, but they could have profound implications for population viability. We used savannah elephants (Loxodonta africana) as a case study to assess the physiological stress associated with living in a human-livestock-dominated landscape. We collected samples over two 3-month periods in 2007 and 2008. We used fecal DNA to identify 96 individual elephants in a community conservation area (CCA) and measured fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) concentrations as a proxy for stress. The CCA is community Maasai land managed for livestock and wildlife. We compared the FGM concentrations from the CCA to FGM concentrations of 40 elephants in Amboseli National Park and 32 elephants in the Maasai Mara National Reserve, where human settlements and intense livestock grazing were absent. In the CCA, we found no significant individual differences in FGM concentrations among the elephants in 2007 (p = 0.312) or 2008 (p = 0.412) and no difference between years (p = 0.616). The elephants in the CCA had similar FGM concentrations to the Maasai Mara population, but Amboseli elephants had significantly lower FGM concentrations than those in either Maasai Mara or the CCA (Tukey pairwise test, p < 0.001), due primarily to females excreting significantly lower FGM relative to males (p = 0.025). In the CCA, there was no relation among female group size, average pairwise group relatedness, and average group FGM concentration. We found no clear evidence of chronic stress in elephants living on CCA communal land, which is encouraging for conservation strategies promoting the protection of animals living outside protected areas. PMID:23692020

Ahlering, M A; Maldonado, J E; Eggert, L S; Fleischer, R C; Western, D; Brown, J L

2013-06-01

149

Evolutionary History of Rabies in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Rabies virus (RABV) is enzootic throughout Africa, with the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) being the principal vector. Dog rabies is estimated to cause 24,000 human deaths per year in Africa, however, this estimate is still considered to be conservative. Two sub-Saharan African RABV lineages have been detected in West Africa. Lineage 2 is present throughout West Africa, whereas Africa 1a dominates in northern and eastern Africa, but has been detected in Nigeria and Gabon, and Africa 1b was previously absent from West Africa. We confirmed the presence of RABV in a cohort of 76 brain samples obtained from rabid animals in Ghana collected over an eighteen-month period (2007–2009). Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences obtained confirmed all viruses to be RABV, belonging to lineages previously detected in sub-Saharan Africa. However, unlike earlier reported studies that suggested a single lineage (Africa 2) circulates in West Africa, we identified viruses belonging to the Africa 2 lineage and both Africa 1 (a and b) sub-lineages. Phylogeographic Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis of a 405 bp fragment of the RABV nucleoprotein gene from the 76 new sequences derived from Ghanaian animals suggest that within the Africa 2 lineage three clades co-circulate with their origins in other West African countries. Africa 1a is probably a western extension of a clade circulating in central Africa and the Africa 1b virus a probable recent introduction from eastern Africa. We also developed and tested a novel reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for the detection of RABV in African laboratories. This RT-LAMP was shown to detect both Africa 1 and 2 viruses, including its adaptation to a lateral flow device format for product visualization. These data suggest that RABV epidemiology is more complex than previously thought in West Africa and that there have been repeated introductions of RABV into Ghana. This analysis highlights the potential problems of individual developing nations implementing rabies control programmes in the absence of a regional programme.

Hayman, David T. S.; Johnson, Nicholas; Horton, Daniel L.; Hedge, Jessica; Wakeley, Philip R.; Banyard, Ashley C.; Zhang, Shoufeng; Alhassan, Andy; Fooks, Anthony R.

2011-01-01

150

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act industrial site environmental restoration site characterization report - area 6 steam cleaning effluent ponds  

SciTech Connect

The Area 6 North and South Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEPs) are historic disposal units located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada. The NTS is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) which has been required by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) to characterize the site under the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit for the NTS and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 265.

NONE

1996-09-01

151

76 FR 38370 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Approval of a Marine Conservation Plan for Pacific Insular Areas...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Pacific Insular Areas; Western Pacific Sustainable Fisheries Fund AGENCY: National Marine...INFORMATION CONTACT: Jarad Makaiau, Sustainable Fisheries, NMFS Pacific Islands Regional...be deposited into the Western Pacific Sustainable Fisheries Fund (Fund) for use by...

2011-06-30

152

78 FR 48861 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Approval of a Marine Conservation Plan for Pacific Insular Areas...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Pacific Insular Areas; Western Pacific Sustainable Fisheries Fund AGENCY: National Marine...INFORMATION CONTACT: Jarad Makaiau, Sustainable Fisheries, NMFS Pacific Islands Regional...be deposited into the Western Pacific Sustainable Fisheries Fund (Fund) for use by...

2013-08-12

153

Global Priority Conservation Areas in the Face of 21st Century Climate Change  

PubMed Central

In an era when global biodiversity is increasingly impacted by rapidly changing climate, efforts to conserve global biodiversity may be compromised if we do not consider the uneven distribution of climate-induced threats. Here, via a novel application of an aggregate Regional Climate Change Index (RCCI) that combines changes in mean annual temperature and precipitation with changes in their interannual variability, we assess multi-dimensional climate changes across the “Global 200” ecoregions – a set of priority ecoregions designed to “achieve the goal of saving a broad diversity of the Earth’s ecosystems” – over the 21st century. Using an ensemble of 62 climate scenarios, our analyses show that, between 1991–2010 and 2081–2100, 96% of the ecoregions considered will be likely (more than 66% probability) to face moderate-to-pronounced climate changes, when compared to the magnitudes of change during the past five decades. Ecoregions at high northern latitudes are projected to experience most pronounced climate change, followed by those in the Mediterranean Basin, Amazon Basin, East Africa, and South Asia. Relatively modest RCCI signals are expected over ecoregions in Northwest South America, West Africa, and Southeast Asia, yet with considerable uncertainties. Although not indicative of climate-change impacts per se, the RCCI-based assessment can help policy-makers gain a quantitative and comprehensive overview of the unevenly distributed climate risks across the G200 ecoregions. Whether due to significant climate change signals or large uncertainties, the ecoregions highlighted in the assessment deserve special attention in more detailed impact assessments to inform effective conservation strategies under future climate change.

Li, Junsheng; Lin, Xin; Chen, Anping; Peterson, Townsend; Ma, Keping; Bertzky, Monika; Ciais, Philippe; Kapos, Valerie; Peng, Changhui; Poulter, Benjamin

2013-01-01

154

Analysis of trends in water-quality data for water conservation area 3A, the Everglades, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rainfall and water quality data bases from the South Florida Water Management District were used to evaluate water quality trends at 10 locations near or in Water Conservation Area 3A in The Everglades. The Seasonal Kendall test was applied to specific conductance, orthophosphate-phosphorus, nitrate-nitrogen, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, and total nitrogen regression residuals for the period 1978-82. Residuals of orthophosphate and nitrate quadratic models, based on antecedent 7-day rainfall at inflow gate S-11B, were the only two constituent-structure pairs that showed apparent significant (p < 0.05) increases in constituent concentrations. Elimination of regression models with distinct residual patterns and data outlines resulted in 17 statistically significant station water quality combinations for trend analysis. No water quality trends were observed. The 1979 Memorandum of Agreement outlining the water quality monitoring program between the Everglades National Park and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers stressed collection four times a year at three stations, and extensive coverage of water quality properties. Trend analysis and other rigorous statistical evaluation programs are better suited to data monitoring programs that include more frequent sampling and that are organized in a water quality data management system. Pronounced areal differences in water quality suggest that a water quality monitoring system for Shark River Slough in Everglades National Park include collection locations near the source of inflow to Water Conservation Area 3A. (Author 's abstract)

Mattraw, H. C., Jr.; Scheidt, D. J.; Federico, A. C.

1987-01-01

155

Characterisation of the European Marine Sites in South West England: The Fal and Helford Candidate Special Area of Conservation (cSAC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Conservation (Natural Habitats, & c.) Regulations 1994 which implement the Habitats Directive (Council Directive 92\\/43\\/EEC) and Birds Directive (79\\/409\\/EEC) in the UK include a number of provisions for the protection of European Marine Sites (marine candidate Special Areas of Conservation (cSAC) and Special Protection Areas (SPAs)), including the requirement for competent authorities to assess the effects of new and

W. J. Langston; B. S. Chesman; G. R. Burt; M. Taylor; R. Covey; N. Cunningham; P. Jonas; S. J. Hawkins

2006-01-01

156

Science-based health innovation in Ghana: health entrepreneurs point the way to a new development path  

PubMed Central

Background Science, technology and innovation have long played a role in Ghana’s vision for development, including in improving its health outcomes. However, so far little research has been conducted on Ghana’s capacity for health innovation to address local diseases. This research aims to fill that gap, mapping out the key actors involved, highlighting examples of indigenous innovation, setting out the challenges ahead and outlining recommendations for strengthening Ghana’s health innovation system. Methods Case study research methodology was used. Data were collected through reviews of academic literature and policy documents and through open-ended, face-to-face interviews with 48 people from across the science-based health innovation system. Data was collected over three visits to Ghana from February 2007 to August 2008, and stakeholders engaged subsequently. Results Ghana has strengths which could underpin science-based health innovation in the future, including health and biosciences research institutions with strong foreign linkages and donor support; a relatively strong regulatory system which is building capacity in other West African countries; the beginnings of new funding forms such as venture capital; and the return of professionals from the diaspora, bringing expertise and contacts. Some health products and services are already being developed in Ghana by individual entrepreneurs, which are innovative in the sense of being new to the country and, in some cases, the continent. They include essential medicines, raw pharmaceutical materials, new formulations for pediatric use and plant medicines at various stages of development. Conclusions While Ghana has many institutions concerned with health research and its commercialization, their ability to work together to address clear health goals is low. If Ghana is to capitalize on its assets, including political and macroeconomic stability which underpin investment in health enterprises, it needs to improve the health innovation environment through increasing support for its small firms; coordinating policies; and beginning a dialogue with donors on how health research can create locally-owned knowledge and be more demand-driven. Mobilizing stakeholders around health product development areas, such as traditional medicines and diagnostics, would help to create trust between groups and build a stronger health innovation system.

2010-01-01

157

The environmental imprints and complexes of social dynamics in rural Africa: cases from Zimbabwe and Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses land use and vegetation change in the savanna contexts of central Zimbabwe and coastal Ghana. The results of analyses based on field surveys, time series aerial photographs\\/satellite images and GIS methods challenge current assumptions of linear vegetation change under social dynamics in these two contexts. The evidence from these areas rather points to multi-directional and patch dynamic

Jennifer A Elliott; Michael Campbell

2002-01-01

158

Effect of vitamin A supplementation on the growth of young children in northern Ghana13  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of prophylactic vitamin A supple- mentation on child growth was studied in two randomized, place- bo-controlled trials carried out in adjacent areas of northern Ghana between 1989 and 1991. In the Health Study, the midupper arm circumference (MUAC) and weight of the ? 1500 children (aged 6-59 mo) in the trial were measured every 4 wk for up

Betty R Kirk; David A Ross; Paul Arthur; Saul S Morris; Nicola Dollimore; Fred N Binka; Rosie P Shier; Hutton A Addy; Peter G Smith

159

Groundwater Exploration for Rural Communities in Ghana, West Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exploration for potable water in developing countries continues to be a major activity, as there are more than one billion people without access to safe drinking water. Exploration for groundwater becomes more critical in regions where groundwater movement and occurrence is controlled by secondary features such as fractures and faults. Drilling success rates in such geological settings are generally very low, but can be improved by integrating geological, hydrogeological, aerial photo interpretation with land-based geophysical technology in the selection of drilling sites. To help alleviate water supply problems in West Africa, the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation and other donors, since 1990, have funded the World Vision Ghana Rural Water Project (GRWP) to drill wells for potable water supplies in the Greater Afram Plains (GAP) of Ghana. During the first two years of the program, drilling success rates using traditional methods ranged from 35 to 80 percent, depending on the area. The average drilling success rate for the program was approximately 50 percent. In an effort to increase the efficiency of drilling operations, the Desert Research Institute evaluated and developed techniques for application to well-siting strategies in the GAP area of Ghana. A critical project element was developing technical capabilities of in-country staff to independently implement the new strategies. Simple cost-benefit relationships were then used to evaluate the economic advantages of developing water resources using advanced siting methods. The application of advanced methods in the GAP area reveal an increase of 10 to 15 percent in the success rate over traditional methods. Aerial photography has been found to be the most useful of the imagery products covering the GAP area. An effective approach to geophysical exploration for groundwater has been the combined use of EM and resistivity methods. Economic analyses showed that the use of advanced methods is cost-effective when success rates with traditional methods are less than 70 to 90 percent. Finally, with the focus of GRWP activities shifting to Ghana's northern regions, new challenges in drilling success rates are being encountered. In certain districts, success rates as low as 35 percent are observed, raising questions about the efficacy of existing well-siting strategies in the current physical setting, and the validity of traditional cost-benefit analyses for assessing the economic aspects of water exploration in drought-stricken areas.

McKay, W. A.

2001-05-01

160

Underperformance of African Protected Area Networks and the Case for New Conservation Models: Insights from Zambia  

PubMed Central

Many African protected areas (PAs) are not functioning effectively. We reviewed the performance of Zambia’s PA network and provide insights into how their effectiveness might be improved. Zambia’s PAs are under-performing in ecological, economic and social terms. Reasons include: a) rapidly expanding human populations, poverty and open-access systems in Game Management Areas (GMAs) resulting in widespread bushmeat poaching and habitat encroachment; b) underfunding of the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA) resulting in inadequate law enforcement; c) reliance of ZAWA on extracting revenues from GMAs to cover operational costs which has prevented proper devolution of user-rights over wildlife to communities; d) on-going marginalization of communities from legal benefits from wildlife; e) under-development of the photo-tourism industry with the effect that earnings are limited to a fraction of the PA network; f) unfavourable terms and corruption which discourage good practice and adequate investment by hunting operators in GMAs; g) blurred responsibilities regarding anti-poaching in GMAs resulting in under-investment by all stakeholders. The combined effect of these challenges has been a major reduction in wildlife densities in most PAs and the loss of habitat in GMAs. Wildlife fares better in areas with investment from the private and/or NGO sector and where human settlement is absent. There is a need for: elevated government funding for ZAWA; greater international donor investment in protected area management; a shift in the role of ZAWA such that they focus primarily on national parks while facilitating the development of wildlife-based land uses by other stakeholders elsewhere; and new models for the functioning of GMAs based on joint-ventures between communities and the private and/or NGO sector. Such joint-ventures should provide defined communities with ownership of land, user-rights over wildlife and aim to attract long-term private/donor investment. These recommendations are relevant for many of the under-funded PAs occurring in other African countries.

Lindsey, Peter A.; Nyirenda, Vincent R.; Barnes, Jonathan I.; Becker, Matthew S.; McRobb, Rachel; Tambling, Craig J.; Taylor, W. Andrew; Watson, Frederick G.; t'Sas-Rolfes, Michael

2014-01-01

161

Management of hazardous waste containers and container storage areas under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act  

SciTech Connect

DOE`s Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division, has prepared this guidance document to assist waste management personnel in complying with the numerous and complex regulatory requirements associated with RCRA hazardous waste and radioactive mixed waste containers and container management areas. This document is designed using a systematic graphic approach that features detailed, step-by-step guidance and extensive references to additional relevant guidance materials. Diagrams, flowcharts, reference, and overview graphics accompany the narrative descriptions to illustrate and highlight the topics being discussed. Step-by-step narrative is accompanied by flowchart graphics in an easy-to-follow, ``roadmap`` format.

Not Available

1993-08-01

162

Underperformance of african protected area networks and the case for new conservation models: insights from zambia.  

PubMed

Many African protected areas (PAs) are not functioning effectively. We reviewed the performance of Zambia's PA network and provide insights into how their effectiveness might be improved. Zambia's PAs are under-performing in ecological, economic and social terms. Reasons include: a) rapidly expanding human populations, poverty and open-access systems in Game Management Areas (GMAs) resulting in widespread bushmeat poaching and habitat encroachment; b) underfunding of the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA) resulting in inadequate law enforcement; c) reliance of ZAWA on extracting revenues from GMAs to cover operational costs which has prevented proper devolution of user-rights over wildlife to communities; d) on-going marginalization of communities from legal benefits from wildlife; e) under-development of the photo-tourism industry with the effect that earnings are limited to a fraction of the PA network; f) unfavourable terms and corruption which discourage good practice and adequate investment by hunting operators in GMAs; g) blurred responsibilities regarding anti-poaching in GMAs resulting in under-investment by all stakeholders. The combined effect of these challenges has been a major reduction in wildlife densities in most PAs and the loss of habitat in GMAs. Wildlife fares better in areas with investment from the private and/or NGO sector and where human settlement is absent. There is a need for: elevated government funding for ZAWA; greater international donor investment in protected area management; a shift in the role of ZAWA such that they focus primarily on national parks while facilitating the development of wildlife-based land uses by other stakeholders elsewhere; and new models for the functioning of GMAs based on joint-ventures between communities and the private and/or NGO sector. Such joint-ventures should provide defined communities with ownership of land, user-rights over wildlife and aim to attract long-term private/donor investment. These recommendations are relevant for many of the under-funded PAs occurring in other African countries. PMID:24847712

Lindsey, Peter A; Nyirenda, Vincent R; Barnes, Jonathan I; Becker, Matthew S; McRobb, Rachel; Tambling, Craig J; Taylor, W Andrew; Watson, Frederick G; t'Sas-Rolfes, Michael

2014-01-01

163

Aquatic Communities Of Temporary Streams Of The Guanacaste Conservation Area In Northwest Costa Rica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Santa Rosa National Park in northwestern Costa Rica is a seasonally dry region with little or no rain for 5-6 months of the year. Streams here are intermittent, with moderate or rapid flows for 2 months or less during the first downpours of the rainy season. Thereafter the streams become a connected series of pools during the remainder of the rainy season, with most pools disappearing during the dry months. The serpentine area of the Santa Elena peninsula is one of the driest habitats in Santa Rosa; nevertheless the temporary streams in this area have a diverse aquatic invertebrate community dominated by Ephemeroptera and Coleoptera. The mayfly genera Caenis (Caenidae), Ulmeritoides, Choroterpes, and Tikuna (Leptophlebiidae: Ephemeroptera) are abundant in these streams but the leptophlebiids are rare elsewhere in Costa Rica. Ulmeritoides appears to be a specialist in lentic microhabitats in lowland streams along both coasts of Costa Rica. Among tropical intermittent streams studied so far, the streams in Santa Elena have an unusually abundant and diverse Ephemeroptera fauna.

Flowers, R.; Chavarria Diaz, M. M.

2005-05-01

164

Euthanasia, assisted dying and the right to die in Ghana: a socio-legal analysis.  

PubMed

There is unanimity among states to protect the continuation of life of the individual as a safeguard against their collective extinction. The right to life is accordingly guaranteed but its antithesis, the right to die is the subject of an unending debate. The controversy over the right to die is deepened by rapid advances in medicine, creating the capability for prolongation of life beyond the span which one's natural strength can endure. Ghana's supreme law explicitly guarantees the right to life but remains ambiguous on right to die, particularly euthanasia and assisted dying. Thus, some of the other rights, such as the right to dignity and not to be tortured, can creatively be exploited to justify some instances of euthanasia. Ghana's criminal code largely proscribes euthanasia. Notwithstanding, proscription of euthanasia and assisted dying by the law, in Ghana's empirical work undertaken in some of the communities in Ghana, suggests that euthanasia is quietly practisedin health facilities and private homes, especially in the rural areas. Contrary to the popular reasons assigned in the literature of the Western world, with respect to the practice or quest for legalization of euthanasia as being a necessity for providing relief from pain or hopeless quality of life, empirical data from social and anthropological studies conducted in Ghana reveal that poverty is the motivation for informal euthanasia practice in Ghana rather than genuine desire on part of patients to die or their relatives to see to their accelerated death. Apart from poverty, traditional cultural values of African societies consider non-natural death as a taboo and ignominy to the victim and his family. Thus, any move by the government to legalize euthanasia will need to be informed by widely held consultations and a possible referendum; otherwise the law may be just a mere transplant of Western models of legislation on euthanasia without reflecting the ethos of the African people. PMID:24552118

Owusu-Dapaa, Ernest

2013-12-01

165

Identifying the demographic processes relevant for species conservation in human-impacted areas: does the model matter?  

PubMed

The identification of the demographic processes responsible for the decline in population growth rate (?) in disturbed areas would allow conservation efforts to be efficiently directed. Integral projection models (IPMs) are used for this purpose, but it is unclear whether the conclusions drawn from their analysis are sensitive to how functional structures (the functions that describe how survival, growth and fecundity vary with individual size) are selected. We constructed 12 IPMs that differed in their functional structure by combining two reproduction models and three functional expressions (generalized linear, cubic and additive models), each with and without simplification. Models were parameterized with data from two populations of two endangered cacti subject to different disturbance intensities. For each model, we identified the demographic processes that most affected ? in the presence of disturbance. Simulations were performed on artificial data and analyzed as above to assess the generality of the results. In both empirical and simulated data, the same processes were identified as making the largest contribution to changes in ? regardless of the functional structure. The major differences in the results were due to misspecification of the fecundity functions, whilst functional expression and model simplification had lesser effects. Therefore, as long as the demographic attributes of the species are well known and incorporated into the model, IPMs will robustly identify the processes that most affect the growth of populations subject to disturbance, making them a reliable tool for developing conservation strategies. PMID:22955702

González, Edgar J; Rees, Mark; Martorell, Carlos

2013-02-01

166

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure report: Area 2 Bitcutter and Postshot Containment Shops Injection Wells, Correction Action Unit 90  

SciTech Connect

This Closure Report provides documentation of the activities conducted during the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) closure of the Bitcutter and Postshot Containment Shops Injection Wells located in Area 2 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Oak Spring Quadrangle (USGS, 1986), Township 10 South, Range 53 East, Nye County, Nevada. This report discusses the Bitcutter Shop Inside Injection Well (CAU 90-A) closure-in-place and the Bitcutter Shop Outside Injection Well (CAU 90-B) and Postshot Containment Shop Injection Well (CAU 90-C) clean closures. This Closure Report provides background information about the unit, the results of the characterization activities and actions conducted to determine the closure design. It also provides a discussion of the drainage analysis, preliminary closure activities, final closure activities, waste management activities, and the Post-Closure Care requirements.

NONE

1996-12-01

167

The hydrochemical framework of surface water basins in southern Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface water resources play a crucial role in the domestic water delivery system in Ghana. In addition, sustainable food production is based on the quality and quantity of water resources available for irrigation purposes to supplement rain-fed agricultural activities in the country. The objective of this research was to determine the main controls on the hydrochemistry of surface water resources in the southern part of Ghana and assess the quality of water from these basins for irrigation activities in the area. R-mode factor and cluster analyses were applied to 625 data points from 6 river basins in southern Ghana after the data had been log transformed and standardized for homogeneity. This study finds that surface water chemistry in the south is controlled by the chemistry of silicate mineral weathering, chemistry of rainfall, fertilizers from agricultural activities in the area, as well as the weathering of carbonate minerals. A Gibb’s diagram plotted with total dissolved solids (TDS) on the vertical axis against (Na+ + K+)/(Ca2+ + K+ + Na+) on the horizontal axis indicates that rock weathering plays a significant role in the hydrochemistry. Activity diagrams for the CaO-Na2O-Al2O-SiO2-H2O and CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O systems suggest that kaolinite is the most stable clay mineral phase in the system. In addition, an assessment of the irrigation quality of water from these basins suggests that the basins are largely low sodium—low to medium salinity basins, delivering water of acceptable quality for irrigation purposes.

Yidana, Sandow Mark

2009-04-01

168

[Arthropod collection for biodiversity prospection in the Guanacaste Conservation Area, Costa Rica].  

PubMed

This study describes the results and collection practices for obtaining arthropod samples to be studied as potential sources of new medicines in a bioprospecting effort. From 1994 to 1998, 1800 arthropod samples of 6-10 g were collected in 21 sites of the Area de Conservaci6n Guancaste (A.C.G) in Northwestern Costa Rica. The samples corresponded to 642 species distributed in 21 orders and 95 families. Most of the collections were obtained in the rainy season and in the tropical rainforest and dry forest of the ACG. Samples were obtained from a diversity of arthropod orders: 49.72% of the samples collected corresponded to Lepidoptera, 15.75% to Coleoptera, 13.33% to Hymenoptera, 11.43% to Orthoptera, 6.75% to Hemiptera, 3.20% to Homoptera and 7.89% to other groups. Different life stages per arthropod species were obtained in most samples, 54.26% of them were adults, 19.90% corresponded to larvae, 6.46% to pupae, 6.12% to pre-pupae, 2.07% to nymphs and 3.74% to other stages. Other materials associated to insects like frass represented 11.20% of the samples collected. Several collecting methods were explored, based on the possibility of accessing the necessary amount of material causing the less impact. Most of the samples were obtained by manual collection (44.38%),. followed by insects breeding (25.73%), light traps (18.80%), different types of nets (10.52%) and other methods (0.16%). In general, collecting methods and practices excluded the use of solvents, mixing different species or life stages in the same bag, which might have introduced undesirable effects in the screening systems for new compounds. Based on the possibility of finding new chemicals in similar samples associated to one arthropod species, the collecting strategy included the generation of several samples from same species, separated according to differences in life stages, collecting sites, ecosystems. seasons, feeding materials or behavioral aspects. This strategy allowed the generation a larger number of samples submitted to bioassays in different areas of pharmaceutical research. PMID:17357408

Nielsen, Vanessa; Hurtado, Priscilla; Janzen, Daniel H; Tamayo, Giselle; Sittenfeld, Ana

2004-03-01

169

Habitat collapse due to overgrazing threatens turtle conservation in marine protected areas.  

PubMed

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are key tools for combatting the global overexploitation of endangered species. The prevailing paradigm is that MPAs are beneficial in helping to restore ecosystems to more 'natural' conditions. However, MPAs may have unintended negative effects when increasing densities of protected species exert destructive effects on their habitat. Here, we report on severe seagrass degradation in a decade-old MPA where hyper-abundant green turtles adopted a previously undescribed below-ground foraging strategy. By digging for and consuming rhizomes and roots, turtles create abundant bare gaps, thereby enhancing erosion and reducing seagrass regrowth. A fully parametrized model reveals that the ecosystem is approaching a tipping point, where consumption overwhelms regrowth, which could potentially lead to complete collapse of the seagrass habitat. Seagrass recovery will not ensue unless turtle density is reduced to nearly zero, eliminating the MPA's value as a turtle reserve. Our results reveal an unrecognized, yet imminent threat to MPAs, as sea turtle densities are increasing at major nesting sites and the decline of seagrass habitat forces turtles to concentrate on the remaining meadows inside reserves. This emphasizes the need for policy and management approaches that consider the interactions of protected species with their habitat. PMID:24403341

Christianen, Marjolijn J A; Herman, Peter M J; Bouma, Tjeerd J; Lamers, Leon P M; van Katwijk, Marieke M; van der Heide, Tjisse; Mumby, Peter J; Silliman, Brian R; Engelhard, Sarah L; van de Kerk, Madelon; Kiswara, Wawan; van de Koppel, Johan

2014-02-22

170

Seismicity and seismotectonics of southern Ghana: lessons for seismic hazard mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ghana is located on the West African craton and is far from the major earthquake zone of the world. It is therefore largely considered a stable region. However, the southern part of the country is seismically active. Records of damaging earthquakes in Ghana date as far back as 1615. A study on the microseismic activity in southern Ghana shows that the seismic activity is linked with active faulting between the east-west trending Coastal boundary fault and a northeast-southwest trending Akwapim fault zone. Epicentres of most of the earthquakes have been located close to the area where the two major faults intersect. This can be related to the level of activity of the faults. Some of the epicentres have been located offshore and can be associated with the level of activity of the coastal boundary fault. A review of the geological and instrumental recordings of earthquakes in Ghana show that earthquakes have occurred in the past and are still liable to occur within the vicinity of the intersection of the Akwapim fault zone and the Coastal boundary fault. Data from both historical and instrumental records indicate that the most seismically active areas in Ghana are the west of Accra, where the Akwapim fault zone and the Coastal boundary fault intersect. There are numerous minor faults in the intersection area between the Akwapim fault zone and the Coastal boundary fault. This mosaic of faults has a major implication for seismic activity in the area. Earthquake disaster mitigation measures are being put in place in recent times to reduce the impact of any major event that may occur in the country. The National Disaster Management Organization has come out with a building guide to assist in the mitigation effort of earthquake disasters and floods in the country. The building guide clearly stipulates the kind of material to be used, the proportion, what should go into the foundation for one or two storey building, the electrical materials to be used and many others.

Amponsah, Paulina

2014-05-01

171

The maternal and child health services in Ghana (their origins and future).  

PubMed

Before 1920, Ghana did not have any organized modern maternal and child health (MCH) services. Since then, substantial developments have taken place in all aspects of life in Ghana. Hospitals and maternity centers were established, and a campaign against maternal and infant mortality was initiated. The infant mortality rate fell from 360 in 1915 to the current country average of 121. However, the decline is not attributed solely or even mainly to MCH services, which has many weaknesses and problems relating to distribution of services, personnel development, and coordination with related agencies. In the north of Ghana, infant mortality rate is estimated at 234/1000 while in the south, the urban city of Accra has an estimated 85/1000. Trained midwives deliver only about 25% of babies; this is probably a valid measure of the outreach of services. Accra, accounting for only 10% of the population of Ghana, appears to utilize 30% of the health services: 1/3 of all deliveries and of all immunizations take place in Accra, and 28% of all public health nurses but only 15% of the community health nurses are in Accra. Another problem of MCH is the lack of amenities in the rural areas, such as safe water supplies, electricity, or educational facilities for children. It appears that the only hope of servicing these areas is by the use of lesser trained persons. Large numbers of local persons should be given training. Another alternative is to make better use of already exisiting MCH personnel by giving them resources to do their jobs effectively and enabling them to work more closely with their local communities. Ghana's MCH services have done well in urban areas. A major task now is to improve the quality of life in the rural and disadvantaged areas. PMID:7033560

Ofosu-Amaah, S

1981-12-01

172

Pedestrians Injury Patterns in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Objective To establish the associations between pedestrian injury and explanatory variables such as vehicular characteristics, temporal trends, and road environment. Methods A retrospective analysis of de-identified pedestrian crash data between 2002 and 2006 was conducted using the Building & Road Research Institute’s crash data bank. We estimated the odds ratios associated with casualty fatalities using a multinomial logistic regression. Results There were 812 pedestrian casualties reported, out of which 33% were fatal, 45% sustained serious injuries requiring hospitalization, and 22% were slightly injured but were not hospitalized. Crossing the roadway accounted for over 70% of all pedestrians deaths. Whereas fatalities in 2002 and 2003 were statistically indistinguishable from those of 2004(p>0.05), in comparison with 2004, there were significantly fewer fatalities in 2005 and 2006 (78% and 65% reduction respectively). According to police report, the probability that a pedestrian fatality occurring in Ghana is attributable to excessive speeding is 65%. The adjusted odds ratio of pedestrian fatality associated with speeding compared with driver inattentiveness was 3.6(95% CI: 2.5 to 5.2). It was also observed that generally, lighter vehicular masses were associated with lower pedestrian fatalities. Compared with buses, pedestrians were less likely to die when struck by private cars (52%), pick-up trucks (57%), and motorcycles (86%). Conclusion Pedestrian death remains the leading cause of fatality among urban road users in Ghana. Risk factors associated with pedestrian fatality include being hit by heavy vehicles, speeding, and roadside activities such as street hawking, jaywalking and nighttime walking. Steps which may contribute to reducing pedestrian fatalities include measures to reduce vehicles speeds in settlements, providing traffic medians and lighting streets in settlements, and discouraging street and roadside activities such as hawking.

Damsere-Derry, James; Ebel, Beth E.; Mock, Charles N.; Afukaar, Francis; Donkor, Peter

2010-01-01

173

HIV-1 and HIV-2 in Ghana, west Africa: community surveys compared to surveys of pregnant women.  

PubMed

We conducted a population-based serosurvey of HIV-1/2 in 2,410 residents of two urban and two rural areas of southern Ghana, West Africa and compared the results to serosurveys of 1,417 pregnant women. Using conservative criteria, we found the prevalence of HIV-1/2 in community survey adults (> 15 years old) to be 1.5% in women and 1.0% in men. Among pregnant women, the prevalence was 9.3% in one rural area but only 1.0% in other areas. Many samples, especially among the pregnant women were HIV-1 and -2 dual reactive on serology. We attribute the disparity between prevalence in the community survey participants and pregnant women to local socio-economic factors. Women in this area have a tradition of working throughout West Africa as trader/ commercial sex workers. When pregnant or ill, they return to their home villages to be with their families. HIV surveillance programs which rely on pregnant women need to be sure that sampled populations are truly typical of the communities they are intended to represent. PMID:9257546

Neequaye, A R; Neequaye, J E; Biggar, R J; Mingle, J A; Drummond, J; Waters, D

1997-01-01

174

Stochastic Dominance Analysis of Soil and Water Conservation in Subsistence Crop Production in the Eastern Ethiopian Highlands: The Case of the Hunde-Lafto Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to analyze whether investment in soil and water conservation results in a higher yield and income\\u000a and\\/or mitigate variability in yield and income to subsistence farm households in the Hunde-Lafto area. Net returns from crop\\u000a production with and without soil and water conservation (SWC) are compared based on stochastic dominance (SD) criteria. A\\u000a non-parametric

Wagayehu Bekele

2005-01-01

175

Soil and water conservation decision behavior of subsistence farmers in the Eastern Highlands of Ethiopia: a case study of the Hunde-Lafto area  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a plot-level analysis of factors influencing the adoption of soil and water conservation structures in the Hunde-Lafto area of the Eastern Ethiopian Highlands. The analysis is based on a survey of 145 farm households managing a total of 265 farm plots. The multinomial logit analysis of the survey data shows that plot-level adoption of conservation measures is

Wagayehu Bekele; Lars Drake

2003-01-01

176

A new analytical method for wildlife habitat conservation planning on a city scale using the classification of physiologically homogeneous areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kyoto has a tradition of positively protecting scenic landscapes. However, a question has arisen about the effectiveness of the present legislative system on biodiversity conservation because most laws aim to essentially preserve the aesthetic value of the landscape. It is necessary to identify gaps in the present conservation system to develop an effective conservation policy for the city. The authors

Junichi Imanishi; Yuko Shimabayashi; Yukihiro Morimoto

2005-01-01

177

77 FR 52754 - Draft Midwest Wind Energy Multi-Species Habitat Conservation Plan Within Eight-State Planning Area  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FXES11120300000F2-123-FF03E00000] Draft Midwest Wind Energy Multi-Species Habitat Conservation...partners, intend to prepare the Midwest Wind Energy Multi-Species Habitat Conservation...The Conservation Fund, and the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA). We...

2012-08-30

178

Species-area relationships as a tool for the conservation of benthic invertebrates in Italian coastal lagoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the recent decades, the preservation of coastal and estuarine waters has been recognised as a priority at national and international levels. At the European scale, the Water Framework Directive (WFD) was established with the aim to achieve a good ecological status of all significant water bodies by the year 2015. Among the descriptors used to define the ecological status of water bodies, taxonomic diversity (usually species richness) is a widespread metric employed across taxa and habitats. However, species richness is known to increase with area at a decelerating rate, producing the species-area relationship (SAR). Thus, removing the effect of area (even in case of low magnitude), is mandatory before comparing species richness between sites. Here we tested recently developed multi-model SARs as a standardisation tool for comparing benthic species richness (annelids, arthropods, molluscs and total species richness) in 18 Italian coastal lagoons with a surface area ranging from 0.19 to 552 km2, i.e. three orders of magnitude. However, the sampling effort was often incompletely described and certainly heterogeneous among the studies retrieved from the database. Therefore, we used the number of studies as a proxy for the sampling effort in each lagoon and estimated species richness from observed values using non-parametric occurrence-based estimators. We further corrected for bias that might be induced by sampling efforts being unrepresentative for the surface area of different lagoons. After applying these corrections, we estimated that c. 25-30% of species richness could be explained by surface area. We investigated the spatial congruence of species richness patterns across taxa and showed that molluscs could serve as a potential surrogate for total macro-invertebrate species richness. We further found that the intensity of conservation focus and the gradient of ecological status are decoupled in Italian coastal lagoons. More generally, our study pave the way for the use of flexible tools for the comparison of species richness across water bodies in the context of the WFD.

Guilhaumon, François; Basset, Alberto; Barbone, Enrico; Mouillot, David

2012-12-01

179

Community and household determinants of water quality in coastal Ghana  

PubMed Central

Associations between water sources, socio-demographic characteristics and household drinking water quality are described in a representative sample of six coastal districts of Ghana’s Central Region. Thirty-six enumeration areas (EAs) were randomly chosen from a representative survey of 90 EAs in rural, semi-urban and urban residence strata. In each EA, 24 households were randomly chosen for water quality sampling and socio-demographic interview. Escherichia coli per 100 ml H2O was quantified using the IDEXX Colilert® system and multi-stage regression models estimated cross-sectional associations between water sources, sanitation and socio-demographic factors. Almost three quarters, 74%, of the households have > 2 E. coli /100 ml H2O. Tap water has significantly lower E. coli levels compared with surface or rainwater and well water had the highest levels. Households with a water closet toilet have significantly lower E. coli compared with those using pit latrines or no toilets. Household size is positively associated, and a possessions index is negatively associated, with E. coli. Variations in community and household socio-demographic and behavioural factors are key determinants of drinking water quality. These factors should be included in planning health education associated with investments in water systems.

McGarvey, Stephen T.; Buszin, Justin; Reed, Holly; Smith, David C.; Rahman, Zarah; Andrzejewski, Catherine; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; White, Michael J.

2013-01-01

180

A legal and ecological perspective of 'site integrity' to inform policy development and management of Special Areas of Conservation in Europe.  

PubMed

The European Union Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) provides for the designation and management of Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) and requires that impacting activities are subject to 'an appropriate assessment' of their implications for the 'integrity' of the site. We define the term 'site integrity' from a legal and an ecological perspective. We demonstrate that 'site integrity' is the maintenance of ecological processes and functions that support the wider delivery of ecosystem services. 'Site integrity' can be influenced by SAC management. Management that seeks to support 'site integrity' may include the use of buffer zones or connecting areas that extend beyond the SAC site's designated features. We conclude that 'site integrity' and 'favourable conservation status' are powerful legal terms that if fully transposed into the law and policy of Member States can enable the achievement of broader European and International goals for marine conservation. PMID:23628546

Rees, Siân E; Sheehan, Emma V; Jackson, Emma L; Gall, Sarah C; Cousens, Sophie L; Solandt, Jean-Luc; Boyer, Matthew; Attrill, Martin J

2013-07-15

181

Conservation where people work: A role for business districts and industrial areas in enhancing endangered butterfly populations?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urbanization is often identified as a primary cause of species decline. Yet little is known about biodiversity conservation in human settlements, the ‘places where people live and work’. In this study, conducted in the densely populated Netherlands, our main objective was to explore new conservation planning strategies to strengthen metapopulations in urbanized landscapes. We focused on a rarely studied part

Robbert P. H. Snep; Michiel F. WallisDeVries; Paul Opdam

2011-01-01

182

Przewalski's Horse (Equus ferus przewalskii) Re-introduction in the Great Gobi B Strictly Protected Area: from Species to Ecosystem Conservation  

PubMed Central

The Przewalski’s horse (Equus ferus przewalskii Poljakov, 1881), or “Takhi” in Mongolian, became extinct in the wild by the mid 1960’s. The last recorded sightings of Przewalski’s horses occurred in the Dzungarian Gobi desert in SW Mongolia, today’s Great Gobi B Strictly Protected Area (SPA). A re-introduction program was initiated in 1992 and the first group of captive-born Przewalski’s horses was airlifted to the SPA. Given the logistical challenges associated with such a venture, the initial project focus has been on transport logistics and the well-being of the re-introduced horses. Today, conservation efforts are spread over the entire protected area. Present day efforts include other mammals, vegetation and the local people. Due to its important symbolic value in Mongolian culture, the Przewalski’s horse became an important flagship species for the protected area’s conservation and management.

Kaczensky, P.; Ganbaatar, O.; von Wehrden, H.; Enksaikhan, N.; Lkhagvasuren, D.; Walzer, C.

2011-01-01

183

The Efficacy of a Mathematics Readiness Program for Inducing Conservation of Number, Weight, Area, Mass, and Volume in Disadvantaged Preschool Children in the Southern United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study was designed to determine whether conservation of number, weight, volume, area, and mass could be learned and retained by disadvantaged preschool children when taught by an inexperienced classroom teacher. An instructional sequence of 10-minute lessons was presented on alternate days over a 3 1/2 week period by preservice…

Young, Beverly S.

184

Rights of the Child in Ghana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child by the Republic of Ghana. The report's introduction asserts that although OMCT welcomes the measures taken by the Ghanian…

Lacroix, Anne Laurence

185

Association of Childless Couples Of Ghana (ACCOG)  

PubMed Central

The Association of Childless Couples of Ghana (ACCOG) is a Ghanaian non-faith based Non-Governmental Organization. ACCOG provides a platform for childless couples to find options for accessible infertility care. It provides counselling and other support services to childless couples to enable them to cope with their situation.

Yaw Osei, N.

2014-01-01

186

Child Labor and Schooling Decisions in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigate the choices involved in the tradeoff between a child's labor outside of household work and their schooling hours from a sample of data from Ghana in the late 1980's. While households are interviewed only once during the survey, the data were collected over an 11 month period for both the Northern and Southern regions of

Michael A. Boozer; Tavneet K. Suri

2001-01-01

187

Phosphorus fractionation and distribution in sediments from wetlands and canals of a water conservation area in the Florida Everglades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus (P) fractionation and distribution in sediments are of great concern in the Florida Everglades ecosystem because potential eutrophication of surface waters usually results from P external loading and stability. Intact core sediment samples were collected to a depth of 35 cm from wetlands and canals across Water Conservation Area 3 (WCA-3) of the Florida Everglades. These sediment cores were sliced into 5 cm increments and analyzed for P contents in different fractions by sequential extraction. These fractions mainly included total P (TP), readily available P (Pi-KCl), Fe/Al-bound P (Pi-NaOH), Ca/Mg-bound P (Pi-HCl), organic P (Po-NaOH), and residual P (PoResidue). Results showed that the canal sediments had the highest concentrations of TP, with about 87% in the form of Ca/Mg-bound fraction, and the concentrations of TP in these sediments increased with depth. In contrast, the wetland sediments contained the lowest concentrations of TP (predominantly in the organic fraction), with 43% residual P and 27% Po-NaOH, and the concentrations of TP in these sediments decreased with depth. In addition, a large amount of the readily available P (up to 1500 mg kg-1) in the canal sediments was accumulated at the top layer of 0-5 cm. This study suggests that any disturbance and/or environmental alterations, such as high canal flow and dredging in canal sediments, could pose a potential risk of a P increase in the water column and, consequently, in the wetlands because of the release of readily available P despite the relatively stable nature of such P fractions in these sediments.

Wang, Qingren; Li, Yuncong; Ouyang, Ying

2011-05-01

188

Role of species composition in malaria transmission by the Anopheles funestus group (Diptera: Culicidae) in Ghana.  

PubMed

Malaria remains a public health problem in Ghana, with Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus as the predominant vectors. While much information exists on the species composition of An. gambiae, very little exists for An. funestus. This study was carried out to determine the species composition of An. funestus Giles populations from three ecological areas in Ghana and investigate their role in malaria transmission. Mosquitoes were collected using human landing and pyrethrum spray methods. A total of 10,254 Anopheles individuals were collected, out of which An. funestus constituted 53.6% (5,496). An. funestus sensu stricto (s.s.) and Anopheles lessoni were identified as the only members of the An. funestus group in all three ecological areas. All 62 sporozoite positive specimens that were identified as An. funestus s.s. were highly anthropophilic with a human blood index in the range of 80-96%, whereas more than 83% of the An. leesoni had fed on either bovine, goat, or sheep. Malaria transmission was higher in the Sahel savannah area than the rest of the ecological zones, with An. funestus s.s. being implicated as a vector of malaria in all ecological zones. Anopheles leesoni occurred in all the ecological areas but played no role in malaria transmission. The study established the importance of An. funestus s.s. in malaria transmission in Ghana. PMID:23701614

Dadzie, Samuel K; Brenyah, Ruth; Appawu, Maxwell A

2013-06-01

189

When urban taps run dry: Sachet water consumption and health effects in low income neighborhoods of Accra, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intraurban differentials in safe drinking water in developing cities have been exacerbated by rapid population growth that exceeds expansion of local water infrastructure. In Accra, Ghana, municipal water is rationed to meet demand, and the gap in water services is increasingly being filled by private water vendors selling packaged “sachet” water. Sachets extend drinking water coverage deeper into low-income areas

Justin Stoler; Günther Fink; Richard Appiah Otoo; Joseph A. Ampofo; Allan G. Hill

190

Nitrate contamination in groundwater at farmlands in Nsawam, Ghana: The role of fractures from azimuthal resistivity surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrate contamination of groundwater at farmlands in Nsawam, Ghana, has become a growing concern in recent times. Water samples were obtained from water groundwater wells in the study area and concentrations of nitrates, lead, arsenic, cadmium, copper, zinc and chromium were measured and analyzed. Three of the wells showed nitrate concentrations levels that reached 3-5 times the permissible limits for

F. K. Boadu

2006-01-01

191

Use of azimuthal resistivity survey in mapping subsurface fractures and assessing their hydraulic properties in crystalline rocks in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Azimuthal resistivity surveys (ARS) using the square array configuration were conducted at selected farmland sites in Nsawam District, Ghana with the objective of predicting the orientation of subsurface fractures which may serve as conduits for fluid flow and contaminant transport. Information about the orientations, apertures and lengths of fractures in the study area were obtained from geological mapping of few

J. Gyamfi; F. Boadu

2003-01-01

192

Przewalski's Horse (Equus ferus przewalskii) Re-introduction in the Great Gobi B Strictly Protected Area: from Species to Ecosystem Conservation.  

PubMed

The Przewalski's horse (Equus ferus przewalskii Poljakov, 1881), or "Takhi" in Mongolian, became extinct in the wild by the mid 1960's. The last recorded sightings of Przewalski's horses occurred in the Dzungarian Gobi desert in SW Mongolia, today's Great Gobi B Strictly Protected Area (SPA). A re-introduction program was initiated in 1992 and the first group of captive-born Przewalski's horses was airlifted to the SPA. Given the logistical challenges associated with such a venture, the initial project focus has been on transport logistics and the well-being of the re-introduced horses. Today, conservation efforts are spread over the entire protected area. Present day efforts include other mammals, vegetation and the local people. Due to its important symbolic value in Mongolian culture, the Przewalski's horse became an important flagship species for the protected area's conservation and management. PMID:22064815

Kaczensky, P; Ganbaatar, O; von Wehrden, H; Enksaikhan, N; Lkhagvasuren, D; Walzer, C

2007-12-01

193

Combining the species-area-habitat relationship and environmental cluster analysis to set conservation priorities: a study in the Zhoushan Archipelago, China.  

PubMed

Identification of priority areas is a fundamental goal in conservation biology. Because of a lack of detailed information about species distributions, conservation targets in the Zhoushan Archipelago (China) were established on the basis of a species-area-habitat relationship (choros model) combined with an environmental cluster analysis (ECA). An environmental-distinctness index was introduced to rank areas in the dendrogram obtained with the ECA. To reduce the effects of spatial autocorrelation, the ECA was performed considering spatial constraints. To test the validity of the proposed index, a principal component analysis-based environmental diversity approach was also performed. The priority set of islands obtained from the spatially constrained cluster analysis coupled with the environmental-distinctness index had high congruence with that from the traditional environmental-diversity approach. Nevertheless, the environmental-distinctness index offered the advantage of giving hotspot rankings that could be readily integrated with those obtained from the choros model. Although the Wilcoxon matched-pairs test showed no significant difference among the rankings from constrained and unconstrained clustering process, as indicated by cophenetic correlation, spatially constrained cluster analysis performed better than the unconstrained cluster analysis, which suggests the importance of incorporating spatial autocorrelation into ECA. Overall, the integration of the choros model and the ECA showed that the islands Liuheng, Mayi, Zhoushan, Fodu, and Huaniao may be good candidates on which to focus future efforts to conserve regional biodiversity. The 4 types of priority areas, generated from the combination of the 2 approaches, were explained in descending order on the basis of their conservation importance: hotspots with distinct environmental conditions, hotspots with general environmental conditions, areas that are not hotspots with distinct environmental conditions, and areas that are not hotspots with general environmental conditions. PMID:18983599

Chen, You-Hua

2009-06-01

194

Impacts of public solar PV electrification on rural micro-enterprises: The case of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro-enterprises are a key component in rural enterprise creation and income generation. In rural areas far removed from grid-electricity, public solar photovoltaic (PV) electrification projects have served useful purposes by contributing to improve the economic activities of micro-enterprises beyond daylight hours. Through fee-for-service approach some rural micro-enterprises in Ghana were provided with access to solar PV systems to enhance their

G. Y. Obeng; H.-D. Evers

2010-01-01

195

Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from Ghana.  

PubMed

The results of a preliminary antimicrobial screening of the methanol extracts of Aframomum melegueta, Piper guineense, Xylopia aethiopica, Zingiber officinale, medicinal plants of Ghana, are reported. PMID:14693222

Konning, G H; Agyare, C; Ennison, B

2004-01-01

196

Conserving Biodiversity in a Human-Dominated World: Degradation of Marine Sessile Communities within a Protected Area with Conflicting Human Uses  

PubMed Central

Conservation research aims at understanding whether present protection schemes are adequate for the maintenance of ecosystems structure and function across time. We evaluated long-term variation in rocky reef communities by comparing sites surveyed in 1993 and again in 2008. This research took place in Tigullio Gulf, an emblematic case study where various conservation measures, including a marine protected area, have been implemented to manage multiple human uses. Contrary to our prediction that protection should have favored ecosystem stability, we found that communities subjected to conservation measures (especially within the marine protected area) exhibited the greatest variation toward architectural complexity loss. Between 1993 and 2008, chronic anthropogenic pressures (especially organic load) that had already altered unprotected sites in 1993 expanded their influence into protected areas. This expansion of human pressure likely explains our observed changes in the benthic communities. Our results suggest that adaptive ecosystem-based management (EBM), that is management taking into account human interactions, informed by continuous monitoring, is needed in order to attempt reversing the current trend towards less architecturally complex communities. Protected areas are not sufficient to stop ecosystem alteration by pressures coming from outside. Monitoring, and consequent management actions, should therefore extend to cover the relevant scales of those pressures.

Parravicini, Valeriano; Micheli, Fiorenza; Montefalcone, Monica; Morri, Carla; Villa, Elisa; Castellano, Michela; Povero, Paolo; Bianchi, Carlo Nike

2013-01-01

197

Geo-conservation: an example of the application of its principles in the sanitation of the polluted Laarder Wasmeren area near Hilversum, het Gooi, The Netherlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Laarder Wasmeren area near Hilversum, a nature reserve under management of the Goois Natuurreservaat with extensive drift sands and several fens, was heavily polluted by heavy metals and toxic organic substances as a result of prolonged discharge of sewage water onto the fens. Already upon the start of its environmental restoration in 2004, it became clear that the area holds important geological phenomena, including LateGlacial paleosols and multiple Holocene drift sands with intercalated paleosols. This discovery induced the Province of Noord-Holland in 2006 to declare het Gooi, of which the Laarder Wasmeren area forms part, a geological monument and thus to set limits for future activities that might lead to disturbance of its superficial geology. Today het Gooi is one of the 17 geological monuments of the province. The basic principle of provincial geo-conservation - minimal disturbance of the superficial geology - was also applied in the further restoration of the LWM area that included its ecological restoration as a nature reserve. This restoration project was supervised by the author and belongs to the major operations of that kind in the Netherlands. Completed in 2010/2011, it resulted in the discovery and conservation of a complex of Holocene drift sands and paleosols that is unique for the Netherlands. The project forms an excellent example of the application of a provincial geo-conservation policy.

Sevink, J.; Khodabux, E. R.; Landsmeer, D.; Stoeten, G. J.

2012-04-01

198

Geo-conservation: an example of the application of its principles in the sanitation of the polluted Laarder Wasmeren area near Hilversum, het Gooi, The Netherlands.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Laarder Wasmeren area near Hilversum, a nature reserve under management of the Goois Natuurreservaat with extensive drift sands and several fens, was heavily polluted by heavy metals and toxic organic substances as a result of prolonged discharge of sewage water onto the fens. Already upon the start of its environmental restoration in 2004, it became clear that the area holds important geological phenomena, including LateGlacial paleosols and multiple Holocene drift sands with intercalated paleosols. This discovery induced the Province of Noord-Holland in 2006 to declare het Gooi, of which the Laarder Wasmeren area forms part, a geological monument and thus to set limits for future activities that might lead to disturbance of its superficial geology. Today het Gooi is one of the 17 geological monuments of the province. The basic principle of provincial geo-conservation - minimal disturbance of the superficial geology - was also applied in the further restoration of the LWM area that included its ecological restoration as a nature reserve. This restoration project was supervised by the author and belongs to the major operations of that kind in the Netherlands. Completed in 2010/2011, it resulted in the discovery and conservation of a complex of Holocene drift sands and paleosols that is unique for the Netherlands. The project forms an excellent example of the application of a provincial geo-conservation policy.

Sevink, Jan; Khodabux, Eric; Landsmeer, Dick; Stoeten, Jan

2013-04-01

199

Integrating Collaboration, Adaptive Management, and Scenario-Planning to Address Rapid Change: Experiences at Las Cienegas National Conservation Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is growing recognition that public lands cannot be managed as islands; rather, land management must address the ecological, social, and temporal complexity that often spans jurisdictions and traditional planning horizons. Collaborative decision-making and adaptive management (CAM) have been promoted as methods to reconcile competing societal demands and respond to complex ecosystem dynamics. We present the experiences of land managers and stakeholders in using CAM at Las Cienegas National Conservation Area (LCNCA), a highly valued site under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The CAM process at Las Cienegas is marked by strong stakeholder engagement, with four core elements: 1) shared watershed goals with measurable resource objectives; 2) mechanisms to incorporate new information into decision-making; 3) efforts to make information increasingly relevant and reliable; and 4) shared learning to improve both the process and management actions. The combination of stakeholder engagement and adaptive management has led to agreement on contentious issues, more innovative solutions, and more effective land management. Yet the region is now experiencing rapid changes outside managers' control—including climate change, human population growth, and reduced federal budgets—with large but unpredictable impacts on natural resources. While CAM experience provides a strong foundation for making the difficult and contentious management decisions that such changes are likely to require, neither collaboration nor adaptive management provides a sufficient structure for addressing uncontrollable and unpredictable change. As a result, LCNCA is exploring two specific modifications to CAM that may better address emerging challenges, including: 1) Creating nested resource objectives to distinguish between those objectives which may be crucial from those which may hinder a flexible response to climate change, and 2) Incorporating scenario planning into CAM to explore how climate change may interact with other drivers and alter options for the future, to identify robust management, and to prioritize ecological monitoring efforts. The experiences at LCNCA demonstrate how collaboration and adaptive management can be used to improve social and environmental outcomes and, with a few modifications, may help address the complexity and change that threatens to overwhelm even the best efforts to sustain public lands.

Caves, J. K.; Bodner, G.; Simms, K.; Fisher, L.; Robertson, T.

2012-12-01

200

The development of community water supplies in Ghana*  

PubMed Central

Ghana, with a population of 6 700 000, largely distributed in rural districts, is representative of many a country where the problem of water supply is associated with the construction of numerous small supplies for the villages and towns scattered over the whole area. This paper gives a general impression of the various methods in use for tackling the problem. Well-sinking, drilling, and pond-digging, and the advantages and disadvantages of a variety of methods, are described, and the problems met with under different geological conditions are considered. Details of the various systems for pumping the water from the source to the villages and towns are given. The important question of standardization, both in design and equipment, is dealt with, and reference is made to the operation of supplies and to the training of operatives.

Ferguson, W. R. W.

1962-01-01

201

Eco-floristic sectors and deforestation threats in Sumatra: identifying new conservation area network priorities for ecosystem-based land use planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogeographical studies are a necessary step in establishing conservation area networks. Determining the ecological factors\\u000a influencing vegetation is also a basic principle for hierarchical ecological classifications and a necessary prerequisite\\u000a for ecosystem-based land use planning. Eco-floristic sectors (EFS) have already been identified for the Indonesian island\\u000a of Sumatra, combining both approaches, dividing it into 38 EFSs representing unique ecosystems in

Yves LaumonierYumiko; Yumiko Uryu; Michael Stüwe; Arif Budiman; Budi Setiabudi; Oki Hadian

2010-01-01

202

Assessment of radiofrequency radiation within the vicinity of some GSM base stations in Ghana.  

PubMed

A radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic radiation safety survey had been carried out at public access points in 46 towns with 76 Global Systems for Mobile communication cell sites in two major cities in Ghana. The objective was to determine the levels of RF field in residential areas, schools and market places, and compare the measured results with the guidelines set by the International Commission of Non-Ionising Radiation (ICNIRP). Measurements were made with log-periodic antenna coupled with spectrum analyzer. The results varied from 0.85 to 1.07 mW m(-2) and 0.78 to 1.19 mW m(-2) for the transmission frequencies of 900 and 1800 MHz, respectively. The result generally shows a compliance with the ICNIRP limit of 0.024 % but was 108 times higher than a similar survey carried out in Ghana 2 y ago. PMID:22262818

Deatanyah, P; Amoako, J K; Fletcher, J J; Asiedu, G O; Adjei, D N; Dwapanyin, G O; Amoatey, E A

2012-08-01

203

Patterns of female suicidal behavior in Ghana.  

PubMed

The suicidal behavior of African females is a rarely explored topic. The present study is a descriptive analysis of fatal and nonfatal female suicidal behavior in Ghana. Patterns of both fatal and nonfatal female suicidal behavior recorded by the Ghana Police Service during 2006-2008 are examined and described in depth. The data show that during the 3-yr. period, there were 11 fatal and 4 nonfatal suicidal acts by females, out of the total 243 fatal and 44 nonfatal suicidal acts found in the official data. The author describes the ages and occupations of the women and girls who engaged in fatal and nonfatal suicidal behavior, as well as the suicide method, location, circumstances, and police-assigned motives for the suicidal acts. The author concludes that additional research on female suicidal behavior in Africa and other non-Western societies is warranted to develop a more precise understanding of suicidality. PMID:22238863

Adinkrah, Mensah

2011-10-01

204

Traditional antimalarial phytotherapy remedies in herbal markets in southern Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnopharmacological relevanceAlthough traditional antimalarial plant remedies in herbal markets are a very important component of the health care system in Ghana this has not been previously studied to allow for the formulation of effective strategy for malaria control in Ghana.

Alex Asase; Gloria Oppong-Mensah

2009-01-01

205

Cacao-coconut intercropping in Ghana: agronomic and economic perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Ghana, shade for cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is becoming a critical issue because of extensive deforestation. Unlike in some other cacao-growing countries, cacao is not grown under the shade of coconut (Cocos nucifera) in Ghana. An experiment to compare the merits of four cacao-coconut intercropping systems with the traditional cultivation of cacao under Gliricidia sepium shade was undertaken at

K. Osei-Bonsu; K. Opoku-Ameyaw; F. M. Amoah; F. K. Oppong

2002-01-01

206

Spatial Accessibility to Health Care Facilities in Suhum District, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve geographical accessibility to health facilities in rural Ghana, it has been recommended that additional health facilities be built. Resource constraints make this recommendation infeasible. Using location-allocation models, this paper demonstrates that in the Suhum District of Ghana substantial improvements in accessibility can be achieved with better locational choices and without additional facilities. Also, additional facilities will produce little

Joseph R. Oppong; M. John Hodgson

1994-01-01

207

Sources of International Economic Spillovers to Ghana's Economic Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a world where policy co-ordination among countries is paramount, the growth of one depends on the behaviour of another in terms of policy instruments being pursued. One important question this study sought to answer was whether international economic spillovers emanating from all trading partners mattered for Ghana’s growth. The study therefore investigated the spillover effects emanating from three of

F. Ofori

2011-01-01

208

The Pricing of the Emergent Leasehold (Possessory) Estates of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper develops hedonic analyses of the pricing of leasehold versus freehold estates in Ghana. The motivation of the paper is the passage of Act 267(5) in 1992 that effectively abolished outright sale of stool lands in Ghana. Stool lands are lands controlled by tribal \\

Paul K. Asabere

2004-01-01

209

The first cases of Lassa fever in Ghana.  

PubMed

Lassa fever is a zoonotic disease endemic in West Africa but with no previous case reported in Ghana. We describe the first two laboratory confirmed cases of Lassa fever from the Ashanti Region of Ghana detected in October and December, 2011. PMID:23661832

Dzotsi, E K; Ohene, S-A; Asiedu-Bekoe, F; Amankwa, J; Sarkodie, B; Adjabeng, M; Thouphique, A M; Ofei, A; Oduro, J; Atitogo, D; Bonney, J H K; Paintsil, S C N; Ampofo, W

2012-09-01

210

An overview of Ghana's mental health system: results from an assessment using the World Health Organization's Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO-AIMS)  

PubMed Central

Background This survey provides data on the Mental Health System in Ghana for the year 2011. It supplies essential planning information for the implementation of Ghana’s new Mental Health Act 846 of 2012, a renewal of the Ghana 5 year plan for mental health and it contributes to international knowledge base on mental health. It provides a baseline from which to measure future progress in Ghana and comparison data for use in other countries. In addition to reporting our findings we describe and analyse deficiencies and strengths of the Ghana mental health system. Methods We used the World Health Organization’s Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO-AIMS) to collect, analyse, and report data on the mental health system and services for all districts of the ten regions of Ghana. Data was collected in 2012, based on the year 2011. Results In 2011, Ghana was a lower middle income country with a population of approximately 25 million. A mental health policy, plan and legislation were in place. Mental health legislation was outdated and no longer in line with best practice standards. Services were significantly underfunded with only 1.4% of the health expenditure going to mental health, and spending very much skewed towards urban areas. There were 123 mental health outpatient facilities, 3 psychiatric hospitals, 7 community based psychiatric inpatient units, 4 community residential facilities and 1 day treatment centre, which is well below what would be expected for Ghana’s economic status. The majority of patients were treated in outpatient facilities and psychiatric hospitals and most of the inpatient beds were provided by the latter. There were an estimated 2.4 million people with mental health problems of which 67,780 (ie 2.8%) received treatment in 2011. The were 18 psychiatrists, 1,068 Registered Mental Nurses, 19 psychologists, 72 Community Mental Health Officers and 21 social workers working in mental health which is unbalanced with an unbalanced emphasis on nurses compared to what would be expected. Conclusions The main strength of the mental health system was the presence of a long established service with staff working across the country in outpatients departments and hospitals. The main weakness was that government spending on mental health was very low and the bulk of services, albeit very sparse, were centred around the capital city leaving much of the rest of the country with almost no provision. Service provision was dominated by nurses with few other professions groups present.

2014-01-01

211

Spatio-Temporal Rainfall Patterns in Northern Ghana, West Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rainfall reliability in West Africa has important societal consequences. However, our understanding of the rainfall generating processes in this region remains incomplete. This study aims at the detection of different rainfall producing processes and their characteristics during the later part of the rainy season in Northern Ghana. Rainfall in this region has three main origins: monsoonal advection, local convection, and squall lines. Different processes dominate during different parts of the rainy season, which runs from May through October. Rainfall measurements were taken with tipping-bucket rain gages with high temporal resolution. A total of 16 rain gages were used, organized in two nested grids covering areas of 9x9 km and 3x3 km, respectively. The recorded rainfall events were classified according to their origin primarily on the basis of intensity, duration, and spatial pattern and distribution. As local convective and squall line rainfall show similar characteristics, TRMM Precipitation Radar imagery was analyzed visually to help further distinguish between these two types. The main result is a procedure that allows to differentiate rainfall origins and a set of characteristic rainfall events. Special attention is paid to squall line induced rainfall. Squall lines are crescent shaped atmospheric disturbances that move from East to West over the sub-continent and are associated with violent wind gusts and high rainfall intensities of up to 300 mm/h. These squall lines are mainly caused by interaction between the monsoonal air layer and the African Easterly Jet. In Northern Ghana, line squalls produce most of the annual rainfall. At the end of the wet season, rain almost exclusively originates from squall lines. Because of their high intensities, squall lines and convective storms are hydrologically important for understanding runoff generation.

Friesen, J.; van de Giesen, N.

2002-12-01

212

Recruitment and Retention of Mental Health Workers in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Introduction The lack of trained mental health workers is a primary contributor to the mental health treatment gap worldwide. Despite the great need to recruit and retain mental health workers in low-income countries, little is known about how these workers perceive their jobs and what drives them to work in mental health care. Using qualitative interviews, we aimed to explore factors motivating mental health workers in order to inform interventions to increase recruitment and retention. Methods We conducted 28 in-depth, open-ended interviews with staff in Ghana’s three public psychiatric hospitals. We used the snowballing method to recruit participants and the constant comparative method for qualitative data analysis, with multiple members of the research team participating in data coding to enhance the validity and reliability of the analysis. The use of qualitative methods allowed us to understand the range and depth of motivating and demotivating factors. Results Respondents described many factors that influenced their choice to enter and remain in mental health care. Motivating factors included 1) desire to help patients who are vulnerable and in need, 2) positive day-to-day interactions with patients, 3) intellectual or academic interest in psychiatry or behavior, and 4) good relationships with colleagues. Demotivating factors included 1) lack of resources at the hospital, 2) a rigid supervisory hierarchy, 3) lack of positive or negative feedback on work performance, and 4) few opportunities for career advancement within mental health. Conclusions Because many of the factors are related to relationships, these findings suggest that strengthening the interpersonal and team dynamics may be a critical and relatively low cost way to increase worker motivation. The data also allowed us to highlight key areas for resource allocation to improve both recruitment and retention, including risk pay, adequate tools for patient care, improved hospital work environment, and stigma reduction efforts.

Jack, Helen; Canavan, Maureen; Ofori-Atta, Angela; Taylor, Lauren; Bradley, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

213

Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on utility demand-side management and conservation and renewable energy programs  

SciTech Connect

The Western Area Power Administration (Western) requires all of its long-term firm power customers to implement programs that promote the conservation of electric energy or facilitate the use of renewable energy resources. Western has also proposed that all customers develop integrated resource plans that include cost-effective demand-side management programs. As part of the preparation of Western`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) developed estimates of the reductions in energy demand resulting from Western`s conservation and renewable energy activities in its Salt Lake City Area Office. ANL has also estimated the energy-demand reductions from cost-effective, demand-side management programs that could be included in the integrated resource plans of the customers served by Western`s Salt Lake City Area Office. The results of this study have been used to adjust the expected hourly demand for Western`s major systems in the Salt Lake City Area. The expected hourly demand served as the basis for capacity expansion plans develops with ANL`s Production and Capacity Expansion (PACE) model.

Cavallo, J.D.; Germer, M.F.; Tompkins, M.M.

1995-03-01

214

Child Labor and Schooling in Ghana. Ghana: Labor Markets and Poverty. Policy Research Working Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines the determinants of child labor in conjunction with school participation trends for children ages 7-14 in Ghana. The report is based on data from national household surveys conducted 1987-92. Specifically, the study examined the influence of variables such as child age and sex; parent's education, religion, and employment; and…

Canagarajah, Sudharshan; Coulombe, Harold

215

Massachusetts Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Massachusetts has long been a leader in the conservation and preservation movements. From early attempts to create an Emerald Necklace around Boston to the battle to save the Old State House, the commonwealth has rich, fascinating tales and experiences. This wonderful travel itinerary was created by the National Park Service's Heritage Education Services in partnership with the Massachusetts Historical Commission and the National Conference of State Historic Preservation Officers. On the site, visitors can look over essays, a list of sites, maps, and external websites. The powerful essays include "Conservation and Landscape Planning in Massachusetts" and "American Conservation in the Twentieth Century." Checking out the List of Sites area, visitors can read a complete list of all the places mentioned in the itinerary (complete with details and photos) such as the Boston Public Garden, the Lynn Woods Historic District, and the Fruitlands Museums Historic District.

216

Land-cover mapping of Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area and Coyote Springs, Piute-Eldorado Valley, and Mormon Mesa Areas of Critical Environmental Concern, Clark County, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

DigitalGlobe’s QuickBird satellite high-resolution multispectral imagery was classified by using Visual Learning Systems’ Feature Analyst feature extraction software to produce land-cover data sets for the Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area and the Coyote Springs, Piute-Eldorado Valley, and Mormon Mesa Areas of Critical Environmental Concern in Clark County, Nevada. Over 1,000 vegetation field samples were collected at the stand level. The field samples were classified to the National Vegetation Classification Standard, Version 2 hierarchy at the alliance level and above. Feature extraction models were developed for vegetation on the basis of the spectral and spatial characteristics of selected field samples by using the Feature Analyst hierarchical learning process. Individual model results were merged to create one data set for the Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area and one for each of the Areas of Critical Environmental Concern. Field sample points and photographs were used to validate and update the data set after model results were merged. Non-vegetation data layers, such as roads and disturbed areas, were delineated from the imagery and added to the final data sets. The resulting land-cover data sets are significantly more detailed than previously were available, both in resolution and in vegetation classes.

Smith, J. LaRue; Damar, Nancy A.; Charlet, David A.; Westenburg, Craig L.

2014-01-01

217

Effect of cultivating croplands and grazing in arid grassland habitats on the conservation of melitaeine butterflies in a mountainous area in northern China.  

PubMed

In the study area (Yanjiaping Village, Hebei Province, China), grazing extensity varies at different locations, small and discontinuous croplands are imbedded in some arid grassland, which are habitats for the melitaeine butterflies, Euphydryas aurinia and Melitaea phoebe. These two species of butterflies coexist in this area, in which grazing and cultivation are the main disturbances. Grazing and cultivation have a reciprocal effect on E. aurinia, rather than M. phoebe. We observed that E. aurinia preferred to occupy patches with moderate grazing and imbedded with small and discontinuous croplands, where E. aurinia also has high population density. The percentage of E. aurinia larval groups in the ribbings was significantly higher than that of M. phoebe, whereas larvae of both species tended to increase in recent years. Our data also showed that the population density and the patch occupancy rate of both E. aurinia and M. phoebe were the highest under moderate grazing. It indicates that cultivation of small and discontinuous croplands within the patch has a significant effect on the population density of both species of melitaeine butterflies. Thus, to artificially create or maintain semi-natural habitats, complemented by moderate grazing, might be an ecological strategy to conserve melitaeine butterflies effectively. Considering the distinct impacts of cultivation and grazing on the population distribution and dynamics of the two different species, human disturbance in the mountainous area might be strategically involved in proposing conservation plans for the target species in the future. PMID:17393081

Wang, YiFei; Chen, JieJun; Liu, WenHua; Xu, RuMei

2007-02-01

218

Who pays for health care in Ghana?  

PubMed Central

Background Financial protection against the cost of unforeseen ill health has become a global concern as expressed in the 2005 World Health Assembly resolution (WHA58.33), which urges its member states to "plan the transition to universal coverage of their citizens". An important element of financial risk protection is to distribute health care financing fairly in relation to ability to pay. The distribution of health care financing burden across socio-economic groups has been estimated for European countries, the USA and Asia. Until recently there was no such analysis in Africa and this paper seeks to contribute to filling this gap. It presents the first comprehensive analysis of the distribution of health care financing in relation to ability to pay in Ghana. Methods Secondary data from the Ghana Living Standard Survey (GLSS) 2005/2006 were used. This was triangulated with data from the Ministry of Finance and other relevant sources, and further complemented with primary household data collected in six districts. We implored standard methodologies (including Kakwani index and test for dominance) for assessing progressivity in health care financing in this paper. Results Ghana's health care financing system is generally progressive. The progressivity of health financing is driven largely by the overall progressivity of taxes, which account for close to 50% of health care funding. The national health insurance (NHI) levy (part of VAT) is mildly progressive and formal sector NHI payroll deductions are also progressive. However, informal sector NHI contributions were found to be regressive. Out-of-pocket payments, which account for 45% of funding, are regressive form of health payment to households. Conclusion For Ghana to attain adequate financial risk protection and ultimately achieve universal coverage, it needs to extend pre-payment cover to all in the informal sector, possibly through funding their contributions entirely from tax, and address other issues affecting the expansion of the National Health Insurance. Furthermore, the pre-payment funding pool for health care needs to grow so budgetary allocation to the health sector can be enhanced.

2011-01-01

219

Correlates of stunting among children in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Stunting, is a linear growth retardation, which results from inadequate intake of food over a long period of time that may be worsened by chronic illness. Over a long period of time, inadequate nutrition or its effects could result in stunting. This paper examines the correlates of stunting among children in Ghana using data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS). Methods The paper uses data from the children recode file of the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), a nationally representative cross sectional survey conducted in Ghana. A total of 2379 children under five years who had valid anthropometric data were used for the study. Data on the stunting of children were collected by measuring the height of all children under six years of age. A measuring board produced by Shorr Productions was used to obtain the height of the children. Children under 2 years of age were measured lying down on the board while those above 2 years were measured standing. In the DHS data, a z-score is given for the child’s height relative to the age. Both bi-variate and multi-variate statistics are used to examine the correlates of stunting. Results Stunting was common among males than females. Age of child was a significant determinant of stunting with the highest odd of stunting been among children aged 36–47 months. Region was significantly related to stunting. Children from the Eastern Region were more likely to be stunted than children from the Western Region which is the reference group (OR?=?1.7 at p?Ghana.

2014-01-01

220

Role of a large marine protected area for conserving landscape attributes of sand habitats on Georges Bank (NW Atlantic)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mobile fishing gear reduces seafloor habitat complexity through the removal of structure-building fauna, e.g. emergent organisms that create pits and burrows, as well as by smoothing of sedimentary bedforms (e.g. sand ripples). In this study, we compared the relative abundance of microhabitat features (the scale at which individual fish associate with seafloor habitat) inside and outside of a large fishery closed area (6917 km2) on Georges Bank. Starting in late 1994, the closed area excluded all bottom tending fishing gear capable of capturing demersal fishes. A total of 32 stations were selected inside and outside of the closed area in sand habitats. Video and still photographic transects were conducted at each station using the Seabed Observation and Sampling System (SEABOSS). Seven common (i.e. featureless sand, rippled sand, sand with emergent fauna, bare gravelly sand, gravelly sand with attached-erect fauna, whole shell, shell fragment) and 2 rare (sponges, biogenic depressions) microhabitat types were compared separately. Results showed significant differences in the relative abundance of the shell fragment and sponge microhabitat types between fished and unfished areas. The lack of differences for the other microhabitats may indicate that the level of fishing activity in the area is matched by the system's ability to recover.

Lindholm, J.; Auster, P.; Valentine, P.

2004-01-01

221

Cancer incidence in Ghana, 2012: evidence from a population-based cancer registry  

PubMed Central

Background Data on cancers is a challenge in most developing countries. Population-based cancer registries are also not common in developing countries despite the usefulness of such registries in informing cancer prevention and control programmes. The availability of population-based data on cancers in Africa varies across different countries. In Ghana, data and research on cancer have focussed on specific cancers and have been hospital-based with no reference population. The Kumasi Cancer Registry was established as the first population-based cancer registry in Ghana in 2012 to provide information on cancer cases seen in the city of Kumasi. Methods This paper reviews data from the Kumasi Cancer Registry for the year 2012. The reference geographic area for the registry is the city of Kumasi as designated by the 2010 Ghana Population and Housing Census. Data was from all clinical departments of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Pathology Laboratory Results, Death Certificates and the Kumasi South Regional Hospital. Data was abstracted and entered into Canreg 5 database. Analysis was conducted using Canreg 5, Microsoft Excel and Epi Info Version 7.1.2.0. Results The majority of cancers were recorded among females accounting for 69.6% of all cases. The mean age at diagnosis for all cases was 51.6 years. Among males, the mean age at diagnosis was 48.4 compared with 53.0 years for females. The commonest cancers among males were cancers of the Liver (21.1%), Prostate (13.2%), Lung (5.3%) and Stomach (5.3%). Among females, the commonest cancers were cancers of the Breast (33.9%), Cervix (29.4%), Ovary (11.3%) and Endometrium (4.5%). Histology of the primary tumour was the basis of diagnosis in 74% of cases with clinical and other investigations accounting for 17% and 9% respectively. The estimated cancer incidence Age Adjusted Standardised Rate for males was 10.9/100,000 and 22.4/100, 000 for females. Conclusion This first attempt at population-based cancer registration in Ghana indicates that such registries are feasible in resource limited settings as ours. Strengthening Public Health Surveillance and establishing more Population-based Cancer Registries will help improve data quality and national efforts at cancer prevention and control in Ghana.

2014-01-01

222

Site Alias None Network of Conservation Areas (NCA) NCA Site ID NCA Site Name NCA Site Code  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cobert Mesa is a part of the Mesa de Maya uplift straddling the Colorado\\/New Mexico state line. The area is capped with basaltic material which forms extensive cliffs around the edge of the mesa. The southern slopes are generally xeric grasses with the vegetation nearer the cliffs grading to pinon - juniper. Some Gambel oaks are found in the understory

Chapin Mesa; Mesa Verde

2009-01-01

223

Conservation on International Boundaries: The Impact of Security Barriers on Selected Terrestrial Mammals in Four Protected Areas in Arizona, USA  

PubMed Central

Several thousand terrestrial protected areas (PAs) lie on international boundaries. Because international boundaries can be focal points for trade, illegal activity and development, such PAs can be vulnerable to a range of anthropogenic threats. There is an increasing trend towards the erection of international boundary infrastructure (including fences, barriers and ditches) in many parts of the world, which may reduce the risk of these anthropogenic threats to some PAs. However this may restrict home range and access to resources for some native species. We sought to understand the impacts of these two different types of threat by using camera traps to measure the activity level of humans, native and invasive mammals in four US PAs on the Mexican international boundary. Comparisons were made between treatment areas with barriers and those without. Results showed that puma and coati were more likely to appear in treatment areas without barriers, whereas humans were not observed more frequently in one treatment area over another. The suggestion is that the intermittent fencing present in this part of the world does affect some native species, but does not necessarily restrict the movement of humans (including illegal migrants), who may negatively impact native species.

McCallum, Jamie W.; Rowcliffe, J. Marcus; Cuthill, Innes C.

2014-01-01

224

Conservation on international boundaries: the impact of security barriers on selected terrestrial mammals in four protected areas in Arizona, USA.  

PubMed

Several thousand terrestrial protected areas (PAs) lie on international boundaries. Because international boundaries can be focal points for trade, illegal activity and development, such PAs can be vulnerable to a range of anthropogenic threats. There is an increasing trend towards the erection of international boundary infrastructure (including fences, barriers and ditches) in many parts of the world, which may reduce the risk of these anthropogenic threats to some PAs. However this may restrict home range and access to resources for some native species. We sought to understand the impacts of these two different types of threat by using camera traps to measure the activity level of humans, native and invasive mammals in four US PAs on the Mexican international boundary. Comparisons were made between treatment areas with barriers and those without. Results showed that puma and coati were more likely to appear in treatment areas without barriers, whereas humans were not observed more frequently in one treatment area over another. The suggestion is that the intermittent fencing present in this part of the world does affect some native species, but does not necessarily restrict the movement of humans (including illegal migrants), who may negatively impact native species. PMID:24717982

McCallum, Jamie W; Rowcliffe, J Marcus; Cuthill, Innes C

2014-01-01

225

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act corrective measures study: Area 6 decontamination pond facility, corrective action unit no. 92.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 92, the Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility (DPF), is an historic disposal unit located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada (Figures 1 - 1, 1-2, and 1-3). The NTS is operated by the U.S. Department of Ener...

1997-01-01

226

The malaria candidate vaccine liver stage antigen-3 is highly conserved in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from diverse geographical areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A high level of genetic stability has been formerly identified in segments of the gene coding for the liver stage antigen-3 (LSA-3), a subunit vaccine candidate against Plasmodium falciparum. The exploration of lsa-3 polymorphisms was extended to the whole sequence of this large antigen in 20 clinical isolates from four geographical areas; Senegal, Comoro islands, Brazil and Thailand. METHODS:

Eric Prieur; Pierre Druilhe

2009-01-01

227

The Genetic Diversity of Merozoite Surface Antigen 1 (MSA-1) among Babesia bovis Detected from Cattle Populations in Thailand, Brazil and Ghana  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT In the present study, we screened blood DNA samples obtained from cattle bred in Brazil (n=164) and Ghana (n=80) for Babesia bovis using a diagnostic PCR assay and found prevalences of 14.6% and 46.3%, respectively. Subsequently, the genetic diversity of B. bovis in Thailand, Brazil and Ghana was analyzed, based on the DNA sequence of merozoite surface antigen-1 (MSA-1). In Thailand, MSA-1 sequences were relatively conserved and found in a single clade of the phylogram, while Brazilian MSA-1 sequences showed high genetic diversity and were dispersed across three different clades. In contrast, the sequences from Ghanaian samples were detected in two different clades, one of which contained only a single Ghanaian sequence. The identities among the MSA-1 sequences from Thailand, Brazil and Ghana were 99.0–100%, 57.5–99.4% and 60.3–100%, respectively, while the similarities among the deduced MSA-1 amino acid sequences within the respective countries were 98.4–100%, 59.4–99.7% and 58.7–100%, respectively. These observations suggested that the genetic diversity of B. bovis based on MSA-1 sequences was higher in Brazil and Ghana than in Thailand. The current data highlight the importance of conducting extensive studies on the genetic diversity of B. bovis before designing immune control strategies in each surveyed country.

NAGANO, Daisuke; SIVAKUMAR, Thillaiampalam; DE DE MACEDO, Alane Caine Costa; INPANKAEW, Tawin; ALHASSAN, Andy; IGARASHI, Ikuo; YOKOYAMA, Naoaki

2013-01-01

228

The genetic diversity of merozoite surface antigen 1 (MSA-1) among Babesia bovis detected from cattle populations in Thailand, Brazil and Ghana.  

PubMed

In the present study, we screened blood DNA samples obtained from cattle bred in Brazil (n=164) and Ghana (n=80) for Babesia bovis using a diagnostic PCR assay and found prevalences of 14.6% and 46.3%, respectively. Subsequently, the genetic diversity of B. bovis in Thailand, Brazil and Ghana was analyzed, based on the DNA sequence of merozoite surface antigen-1 (MSA-1). In Thailand, MSA-1 sequences were relatively conserved and found in a single clade of the phylogram, while Brazilian MSA-1 sequences showed high genetic diversity and were dispersed across three different clades. In contrast, the sequences from Ghanaian samples were detected in two different clades, one of which contained only a single Ghanaian sequence. The identities among the MSA-1 sequences from Thailand, Brazil and Ghana were 99.0-100%, 57.5-99.4% and 60.3-100%, respectively, while the similarities among the deduced MSA-1 amino acid sequences within the respective countries were 98.4-100%, 59.4-99.7% and 58.7-100%, respectively. These observations suggested that the genetic diversity of B. bovis based on MSA-1 sequences was higher in Brazil and Ghana than in Thailand. The current data highlight the importance of conducting extensive studies on the genetic diversity of B. bovis before designing immune control strategies in each surveyed country. PMID:23856760

Nagano, Daisuke; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; De De Macedo, Alane Caine Costa; Inpankaew, Tawin; Alhassan, Andy; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki

2013-11-01

229

Resistance to antimicrobial drugs in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Antimicrobial drug resistance is a global issue that affects health, economic, and social development. The problem has been attributed to misuse of antimicrobial agents. Purpose To identify the agents of bacterial infection in Ghana, determine their antibiogram, and the possibility of setting up a surveillance program. Patients and methods A prospective quantitative study set in various hospitals including two teaching hospitals, seven regional hospitals, and two district hospitals in Ghana. A total of 5099 bacterial isolates from various clinical specimens were collected over a period of 1 year, including data related to the patients. Susceptibility of the isolates was determined by the Kirby–Bauer method. In addition, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of multidrug-resistant isolates of epidemiological significance was also determined using the E-test. Results A wide range of bacterial isolates were identified in both teaching and regional hospitals. High percentage of resistance was observed for tetracycline (82%), cotrimoxazole (73%), ampicillin (76%), and chloramphenicol (75%). Multidrug resistance was observed to a combination of ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and cotrimoxazole. On the other hand, a lower percentage of resistance was observed for ceftriaxone (6.3%), ciprofloxacin (11%), and amikacin (9.9%). Conclusion Generally, the prevalence of multidrug resistance was widespread among the various isolates. Some multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, and non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) had high MIC to cefuroxime (>256), gentamicin (>256), and ciprofloxacin (>32).

Newman, Mercy J; Frimpong, Enoch; Donkor, Eric S; Opintan, Japheth A; Asamoah-Adu, Alex

2011-01-01

230

The changing face of women in physics in Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ghana is said to be the first independent sub-Saharan African country outside South Africa to promote science education and the application of science in industrial and social development. It has long been recognized that many schools' science curricula extend the extracurricular activities of boys more than those of girls. In order to bridge this gap, efforts have been made to give girls extra assistance in the learning of science by exposing them to science activities through specific camps, road shows, exhibitions, and so on. The best known of such efforts is the Science, Technology, and Mathematics Education (STME) camps and clinics for girls, which started in Ghana 23 years ago. Since our attendance at the Third International Conference on Women in Physics in Seoul, Korea, a lot has been achieved to further improve female science education, and this credit goes to STME. The first female nuclear engineer from Ghana graduated from the University of Ghana in March 2010.

Andam, Aba Bentil; Amponsah, Paulina Ekua; Nsiah-Akoto, Irene; Gyamfi, Kwame; Hood, Christiana Odumah

2013-03-01

231

Conservation physiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation biologists increasingly face the need to provide legislators, courts and conservation managers with data on causal mechanisms underlying conservation problems such as species decline. To develop and monitor solutions, conservation biologists are progressively using more techniques that are physiological. Here, we review the emerging discipline of conservation physiology and suggest that, for conservation strategies to be successful, it is

Martin Wikelski; Steven J. Cooke

2006-01-01

232

A comparative study of ethnic residential segregation in Ghana’s two largest cities, Accra and Kumasi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate of urbanization is far more rapid in sub-Saharan Africa than in any other major region of the world. However, little\\u000a is known about patterns of ethnic residential segregation in rapidly urbanizing African cities. This paper is crafted to make\\u000a an important contribution through its focus on Ghana’s two largest cities: Accra and Kumasi. Making use of the most

George Owusu; Samuel Agyei-Mensah

2011-01-01

233

Unseen blindness, unheard deafness, and unrecorded death and disability: congenital rubella in Kumasi, Ghana.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Although rubella serosusceptibility among women of reproductive age in West Africa ranges from 10% to 30%, congenital rubella syndrome has not been reported. In Ghana, rubella immunization and serologic testing are unavailable. Our objectives were to identify congenital rubella syndrome cases, ascertain rubella antibody seroprevalence during pregnancy, and recommend strategies for congenital rubella syndrome surveillance. METHODS: Congenital rubella syndrome cases were identified through prospective surveillance and retrospective surveys of hospital records. A rubella serosurvey of pregnant urban and rural women was performed. RESULTS: Eighteen infants born within a 5-month period met the congenital rubella syndrome case definitions, coinciding with a 9-fold increase in presentation of infantile congenital cataract. The congenital rubella syndrome rate for this otherwise unrecorded rubella epidemic was conservatively estimated to be 0.8 per 1000 live births. A postepidemic rubella immunity rate of 92.6% was documented among 405 pregnant women; susceptibility was significantly associated with younger age (P = .000) and ethnicity (northern tribes, P = .024). CONCLUSIONS: Congenital rubella syndrome occurs in Ghana but is not reported. Information about congenital rubella syndrome and rubella in sub-Saharan Africa is needed to evaluate inclusion of rubella vaccine in proposed measles control campaigns.

Lawn, J E; Reef, S; Baffoe-Bonnie, B; Adadevoh, S; Caul, E O; Griffin, G E

2000-01-01

234

Women, religion, and maternal health care in ghana, 1945-2000.  

PubMed

This article documents the historical factors that led to shifts in mission work toward a greater emphasis on community health for the poor and most vulnerable of society in sub-Saharan Africa after 1945. Using the example of the Medical Mission Sisters from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and their work in Ghana, we challenge the conventional narrative of medical missions as agents of imperialism. We assert that missions-particularly those run by Catholic sister physicians, nurses, and midwives-have changed over time and that those changes have been beneficial to the expansion of community health, particularly in the area of improvement of maternal care. PMID:24892862

Johnson, Lauren; Wall, Barbra Mann

2014-01-01

235

Importance of Protected Areas for Biodiversity Conservation in Central C?te D'ivoire: Comparison of Termite Assemblages between Two Neighboring Areas Under Differing Levels of Disturbance  

PubMed Central

To highlight human impact on biodiversity in the Lamto region, termites were studied with regard to their use as bio-indicators of habitat change in the tropics. Using a standardized method, termites were sampled in the three most common habitat types, i.e., in semi-deciduous forest, savanna woodland, and annually burned savanna, all inside Lamto Reserve and its surrounding rural domain. Termite species richness fell from 25 species in the Lamto forest to 13 species in the rural area, involving strong modification in the species composition (species turnover = 59 %). In contrast, no significant change in diversity was found between the Lamto savannas and the rural ones. In addition, the relative abundance of termites showed a significantly greater decline in the rural domain, even in the species Ancistrotermes cavithorax (Sjöstedt) (Isoptera: Termitidae), which is known to be ecologically especially versatile. Overall, the findings of this study suggest further investigation around Lamto Reserve on the impact of human activities on biodiversity, focusing on forest conversion to land uses (e.g. agricultural and silvicultural systems).

Dosso, Kanvaly; Yeo, Kolo; Konate, Souleymane; Linsenmair, Karl Eduard

2012-01-01

236

[Use and conservation of palm swamps Raphia taedigera (Arecaceae) in the Area de Conservación Tortuguero, Costa Rica].  

PubMed

The swamps dominated by raffia palm Raphia taedigera are conspicuous environments in the Tortuguero floodplains and in other wet regions along the Caribbean and Pacific coasts of Costa Rica. However, these environments have been little studied and are exposed to numerous threats, most importantly their replacement by agricultural activities or pastureland. In this paper, we describe some applications and uses of the raffia palms and other palms that are common in these flooded swamps. We also describe the efforts that have been made in Costa Rica for the protection or raffia-dominated swamps, through the environmental law frame of the country and the establishment of a protection system based on wilderness areas under different categories of protection. We discuss issues relevant to the future of these environments in the regions where they are distributed. PMID:24459759

Calvo-Gutiérrez, Carlos M; Bonilla-Murillo, Fabián; Sasa, Mahmood

2013-09-01

237

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act industrial site environmental restoration, site characterization plan: Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This plan presents the strategy for the characterization of the Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility at the Nevada Test Site which will be conducted for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, Environmental Restoration Division. The objectives of the planned activities are to: obtain sufficient, sample analytical data from which further assessment, remediation, and/or closure strategies may be developed for the site; obtain sufficient, sample analytical data for management of investigation-derived waste. The scope of the characterization may include surface radiation survey(s), surface soil sampling, subsurface soil boring (i.e., drilling), and sampling of soil in and around the pond; in situ sampling of the soil within subsurface soil borings; and sample analysis for both site characterization and waste management purposes.

NONE

1996-08-01

238

Identities and Archaeological Heritage Preservation at the Crossroads: Understanding the Challenges of Economic Development at Tengzug, Upper East Region, Ghana  

PubMed Central

It is evident that both tangible and intangible elements constitute heritage and this needs to be recognized by researchers, heritage professionals and government bodies charged with implementing development policies. However, the relationship between traditional beliefs, worldview, heritage conservation, and archaeological investigation is a complex one. This is considered with reference to the conflict that can occur between government policy and indigenous beliefs in relation to architecture, and with reference to perceptions of landscape amongst the Talensi communities of Tengzug in Upper East Region, Ghana.

Kankpeyeng, Benjamin W.; Insoll, Timothy; MacLean, Rachel

2011-01-01

239

Incidence and Characteristics of Bacteremia among Children in Rural Ghana  

PubMed Central

The objective of the study was to describe systemic bacterial infections occurring in acutely ill and hospitalized children in a rural region in Ghana, regarding frequency, incidence, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and associations with anthropometrical data. Blood cultures were performed in all children below the age of five years, who were admitted to Agogo Presbyterian Hospital (APH), Asante Region, Ghana, between September 2007 and July 2009. Medical history and anthropometrical data were assessed using a standardized questionnaire at admission. Incidences were calculated after considering the coverage population adjusted for village-dependent health-seeking behavior. Among 1,196 hospitalized children, 19.9% (n?=?238) were blood culture positive. The four most frequent isolated pathogens were nontyphoidal salmonellae (NTS) (53.3%; n?=?129), Staphylococcus aureus (13.2%; n?=?32), Streptococcus pneumoniae (9.1%; n?=?22) and Salmonella ser. Typhi (7.0%; n?=?17). Yearly cumulative incidence of bacteremia was 46.6 cases/1,000 (CI 40.9–52.2). Yearly cumulative incidences per 1,000 of the four most frequent isolates were 25.2 (CI 21.1–29.4) for NTS, 6.3 (CI 4.1–8.4) for S. aureus, 4.3 (CI 2.5–6.1) for S. pneumoniae and 3.3 (CI 1.8–4.9) for Salmonella ser. Typhi. Wasting was positively associated with bacteremia and systemic NTS bloodstream infection. Children older than three months had more often NTS bacteremia than younger children. Ninety-eight percent of NTS and 100% of Salmonella ser. Typhi isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, whereas both tested 100% susceptible to ceftriaxone. Seventy-seven percent of NTS and 65% of Salmonella ser. Typhi isolates were multi-drug resistant (MDR). Systemic bacterial infections in nearly 20% of hospitalized children underline the need for microbiological diagnostics, to guide targeted antimicrobial treatment and prevention of bacteremia. If microbiological diagnostics are lacking, calculated antimicrobial treatment of severely ill children in malaria-endemic areas should be considered.

Nielsen, Maja Verena; Sarpong, Nimako; Krumkamp, Ralf; Dekker, Denise; Loag, Wibke; Amemasor, Solomon; Agyekum, Alex; Marks, Florian; Huenger, Frank; Krefis, Anne Caroline; Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; May, Jurgen; Schwarz, Norbert Georg

2012-01-01

240

Factors that influence midwifery students in Ghana when deciding where to practice: a discrete choice experiment  

PubMed Central

Background Mal-distribution of the health workforce with a strong bias for urban living is a major constraint to expanding midwifery services in Ghana. According to the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDG) report, the high risk of dying in pregnancy or childbirth continues in Africa. Maternal death is currently estimated at 350 per 100,000, partially a reflection of the low rates of professional support during birth. Many women in rural areas of Ghana give birth alone or with a non-skilled attendant. Midwives are key healthcare providers in achieving the MDGs, specifically in reducing maternal mortality by three-quarters and reducing by two-thirds the under 5 child mortality rate by 2015. Methods This quantitative research study used a computerized structured survey containing a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to quantify the importance of different incentives and policies to encourage service to deprived, rural and remote areas by upper-year midwifery students following graduation. Using a hierarchical Bayes procedure we estimated individual and mean utility parameters for two hundred and ninety eight third year midwifery students from two of the largest midwifery training schools in Ghana. Results Midwifery students in our sample identified: 1) study leave after two years of rural service; 2) an advanced work environment with reliable electricity, appropriate technology and a constant drug supply; and 3) superior housing (2 bedroom, 1 bathroom, kitchen, living room, not shared) as the top three motivating factors to accept a rural posting. Conclusion Addressing the motivating factors for rural postings among midwifery students who are about to graduate and enter the workforce could significantly contribute to the current mal-distribution of the health workforce.

2013-01-01

241

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act industrial site environmental restoration site characterization plan: Area 23, Building 650 Leachfield  

SciTech Connect

This plan presents the strategy for the characterization of Corrective Action Unit 94, Area 23, Building 650 Leachfield. It is a land disposal unit, located southeast of Building 650, that was in operation from 1965 to October 1992, with an estimated annual discharge rate of less than 984 liters from designated sinks, floor drains, and emergency decontamination showers in Building 650. The objectives of the planned activities are to: obtain sufficient sample analytical data from which further assessment, remediation, and/or closure strategies may be developed for the site: and obtain sufficient sample analytical data for management of investigation-derived waste (IDW). All references to regulations in this plan are to the versions of the regulations that are current at the time of publication of this plan. The scope of the characterization will include subsurface soil boring (i.e., drilling), in situ sampling of the soil within subsurface soil borings, and sample analysis for both site characterization and waste management purposes.

NONE

1997-03-01

242

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Industrial Site Environmental Restoration Site Characterization Plan, Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility, Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This plan presents the strategy for the characterization of the Area 6 Decontamination Pond Facility (DPF) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) which will be conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations OffIce (DOE/NV), Environmental Restoration Division (ERD). The objectives of the planned activities are to: o Obtain sufficient, ample analytical data from which further assessment, remediation, and/or closure strategies maybe developed for the site. o Obtain sufficient, sample analytical data for management of investigation-derived waste. All references to regulations contained in this plan are to the versions of the regulations that are current at the time of publication of this plan. The scope of the characterization may include surface radiation survey(s), surface soil sampling, subsurface soil boring (i.e., drilling), and sampling of soil in and Mound the pond; in situ sampling of the soil within subsurface soil borings; and sample analysis for both site . . characterization and waste management purposes.

NONE

1996-08-12

243

Community and household determinants of water quality in coastal Ghana.  

PubMed

Associations between water sources, socio-demographic characteristics and household drinking water quality are described in a representative sample of six coastal districts of Ghana's Central Region. Thirty-six enumeration areas (EAs) were randomly chosen from a representative survey of 90 EAs in rural, semi-urban and urban residence strata. In each EA, 24 households were randomly chosen for water quality sampling and socio-demographic interview. Escherichia coli per 100 ml H2O was quantified using the IDEXX Colilert system and multi-stage regression models estimated cross-sectional associations between water sources, sanitation and socio-demographic factors. Almost three quarters, 74%, of the households have > 2 E. coli /100 ml H2O. Tap water has significantly lower E. coli levels compared with surface or rainwater and well water had the highest levels. Households with a water closet toilet have significantly lower E. coli compared with those using pit latrines or no toilets. Household size is positively associated, and a possessions index is negatively associated, with E. coli. Variations in community and household socio-demographic and behavioural factors are key determinants of drinking water quality. These factors should be included in planning health education associated with investments in water systems. PMID:19108554

McGarvey, Stephen T; Buszin, Justin; Reed, Holly; Smith, David C; Rahman, Zarah; Andrzejewski, Catherine; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; White, Michael J

2008-09-01

244

Smoking in Ghana: a review of tobacco industry activity  

PubMed Central

Background: African countries are a major potential market for the tobacco industry, and the smoking epidemic is at various stages of evolution across the continent. Ghana is an African country with a low prevalence of smoking despite an active tobacco industry presence for over 50 years. This study explores potential reasons for this apparent lack of industry success. Objective: To explore the history of tobacco industry activity in Ghana and to identify potential reasons for the current low prevalence of smoking. Methods: A search was made of tobacco industry archives and other local sources to obtain data relevant to marketing and consumption of tobacco in Ghana. Findings: British American Tobacco, and latterly the International Tobacco Company and its successor the Meridian Tobacco Company, have been manufacturing cigarettes in Ghana since 1954. After an initial sales boom in the two decades after independence in 1957, the sustained further increases in consumption typical of the tobacco epidemic in most countries did not occur. Possible key reasons include the taking of tobacco companies into state ownership and a lack of foreign exchange to fund tobacco leaf importation in the 1970s, both of which may have inhibited growth at a key stage of development, and the introduction of an advertising ban in 1982. BAT ceased manufacturing cigarettes in Ghana in 2006. Conclusion: The tobacco industry has been active in Ghana for over 50 years but with variable success. The combination of an early advertising ban and periods of unfavourable economic conditions, which may have restricted industry growth, are likely to have contributed to the sustained low levels of tobacco consumption in Ghana to date.

Owusu-Dabo, E; Lewis, S; McNeill, A; Anderson, S; Gilmore, A; Britton, J

2009-01-01

245

Mapping Irrigation Potential in the Upper East Region of Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Upper East Region together with the other two regions in Northern Ghana (Upper West and Northern Region) is seen as the locus of perennial food deficit (GPRS, 2003). Despite, the provision of over 200 small scale dams and various mechanisms aimed at poverty alleviation, the region is still plagued with poverty and yearly food shortages. To achieve food security and alleviate poverty in the region however, modernization of agriculture through irrigation is deemed inevitable. While it is true that considerable potential still exists for future expansion of irrigation, it cannot be refuted that water is becoming scarcer in the regions where the need for irrigation is most important, hence mapping the irrigation potential of the region will be the first step toward ensuring sound planning and sustainability of the irrigation developments. In this study, an attempt has been made to map out the irrigation potential of the Upper East Region. The river basin approach was used in assessing the irrigation potential. The catchments drained by The White Volta river, Red volta river, River Sissili and River Kulpawn were considered in the assessment. The irrigation potential for the sub basins was computed by combining information on gross irrigation water requirements for the selected cash crops, area of soil suitable for irrigation and available water resources. The capacity of 80%, 70%, 60% and 50% time of exceedance flow of the available surface water resources in the respective sub basins was estimated. The area that can be irrigated with this flow was computed with selected cropping pattern. Combining the results of the potential irrigable areas and the land use map of the respective sub basins, an irrigation potential map has been generated showing potential sites in the upper east region that can be brought under irrigation. Keywords: Irrigation potential, irrigation water requirement, land evaluation, dependable flow

Akomeah, E.; Odai, S. N.; Annor, F. O.; Adjei, K. A.; Barry, B.

2009-04-01

246

How landscape scale changes affect ecological processes in conservation areas: external factors influence land use by zebra (Equus burchelli) in the Okavango Delta.  

PubMed

Most large-bodied wildlife populations in sub-Saharan Africa only survive in conservation areas, but are continuing to decline because external changes influence ecological processes within reserves, leading to a lack of functionality. However, failure to understand how landscape scale changes influence ecological processes limits our ability to manage protected areas. We used GPS movement data to calculate dry season home ranges for 14 zebra mares in the Okavango Delta and investigated the effects of a range of landscape characteristics (number of habitat patches, mean patch shape, mean index of juxtaposition, and interspersion) on home range size. Resource utilization functions (RUF) were calculated to investigate how specific landscape characteristics affected space use. Space use by all zebra was clustered. In the wetter (Central) parts of the Delta home range size was negatively correlated with the density of habitat patches, more complex patch shapes, low juxtaposition of habitats and an increased availability of floodplain and grassland habitats. In the drier (Peripheral) parts of the Delta, higher use by zebra was also associated with a greater availability of floodplain and grassland habitats, but a lower density of patches and simpler patch shapes. The most important landscape characteristic was not consistent between zebra within the same area of the Delta, suggesting that no single foraging strategy is substantially superior to others, and so animals using different foraging strategies may all thrive. The distribution and complexity of habitat patches are crucial in determining space use by zebra. The extent and duration of seasonal flooding is the principal process affecting habitat patch characteristics in the Okavango Delta, particularly the availability of floodplains, which are the habitat at greatest risk from climate change and anthropogenic disturbance to the Okavango's catchment basin. Understanding how the factors that determine habitat complexity may change in the future is critical to the conservation of large mammal populations. Our study shows the importance of maintaining flood levels in the Okavango Delta and how the loss of seasonal floodplains will be compounded by changes in habitat configuration, forcing zebra to change their relative space use and enlarge home ranges, leading to increased competition for key resources and population declines. PMID:24101973

Bartlam-Brooks, Hattie L A; Bonyongo, Mpaphi C; Harris, Stephen

2013-09-01

247

Grounding a theory of African migration in recent data on Ghana.  

PubMed

This article discusses the development of a single theory of migration in Africa, which accounts for social, economic, cultural, psychological, and demographic factors. Prior migration literature refers to many countries in Africa. The empirical test in this paper is based on Ghana and data for 1960, 1970, and 1984. Ghana is described as having rapid population growth and urbanization reaching 12.5 million in 1984. The economy is based on agriculture, mining, and manufacturing. Education is available for free through the secondary school level (since 1965). The general theory of migration holds that the nature, intensity, direction, and patterns of migration are shaped by social, cultural, economic, and political developments. Sociocultural developments, or nonagricultural occupations and educational resources, may influence the flow of migration to urban areas. The regression model shows that 70% of the variance in net migration is explained by education, economic activity, and population growth. Education determines the direction and intensity of migration. A unit value of education causes a change of 0.251952 in the value of net migration. Norms, values, and beliefs are affected by educational and employment opportunities and are influenced by factors such as kinship, clan, language, beliefs, and religion. Economic infrastructure, industrialization, employment opportunities, and increased wages and salaries exert a pull on migrants. During the 1960s, Ghana attracted migrants from Nigeria. During the 1970s and 1980s, the reverse occurred. Migrants tend to move based on expectations of higher wages and better employment. In a bivariate relationship, economic activity explains 62% of the variance in migration. A unit change in the value of economic activity leads to a change of 1.379382 in the value of net migration. The literature emphasizes rural-urban flows, but migration in Gwan state in Cameroon and Udo state in Nigeria reflects the prevalence of rural-to-rural migration. The study of migration in Africa must consider a multivariate approach. PMID:12179894

Achanfuo-yeboah, D

1993-06-01

248

Evaluation of AFP surveillance indicators in polio-free Ghana, 2009-2013  

PubMed Central

Background Ghana recorded the last case of indigenous wild poliovirus in 1999 but suffered two more outbreaks in 2003 and 2008. Following the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, transmission was interrupted through high routine immunisation coverage with live-attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV), effective acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance and supplementary immunisation activities (SIA). This article describes the results of a five-year surveillance of AFP in polio-free Ghana, evaluate the surveillance indicators and identify areas that need improvement. Methods We investigated 1345 cases of AFP from children aged less than 15 years reported to the Disease Surveillance Department from January 2009 to December 2013. Data on demographic characteristics, vaccination history, clinical presentation and virological investigation on stool specimens collected during investigation were analysed. Results Of the specimens analysed, 56% were from males and 76.3% were from children less than 5 years of age. Twenty-four percent of the children received up to 3 doses of OPV, 57% received at least 4 doses while the status of 19% was unknown. Core AFP surveillance indicators were partly met for non-polio AFP rate while the WHO target for stool adequacy and timeliness was exceeded over the period of study. All the cases were classified virologically, however no wild polio was found. Sixty-day follow-up was conducted for 56.3% of cases and 8.6% cases classified as compactible with polio. Conclusion Both laboratory and epidemiological surveillance for AFP were efficient and many WHO targets were met. However, due to the risk of poliovirus importation prior to global eradication, longterm surveillance is required to provide a high degree of confidence in prevention of poliovirus infection in Ghana. Thus, efforts should be made to strengthen regional performance and to follow–up on all AFP cases in order to establish proper diagnoses for the causes of the AFP leading to proper care.

2014-01-01

249

Child feeding knowledge and practices among women participating in growth monitoring and promotion in Accra, Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Child undernutrition and poor feeding practices remain a concern in Ghana. The Growth Monitoring and Promotion (GMP) programme seeks to empower mothers to provide appropriate child care. Although the program has been implemented in Ghana for over four decades, little is known about its impact on child feeding outcomes. The current study assessed the association between GMP exposure and mothers' child feeding knowledge and practices in the Accra Metropolitan Area (AMA), Ghana. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 199 mother-child pairs accessing child welfare services in six public health facilities in the AMA was conducted. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on respondent characteristics and child feeding knowledge; a 24-hour dietary recall tool was used to record child feeding practices. Linear regression analysis was used to determine the association between mothers' exposure to GMP and their knowledge and practices on child feeding. Results Seventy four percent of mothers had not missed any scheduled child welfare clinic sessions. Over 60% of mothers knew the appropriate age of introduction of foods; 86% also gave correct response regarding minimum number of times their child should be fed daily. About 81% of children less than 6 months were exclusively breastfed in the preceding 24 hours, although 36% had received water since birth. Forty two percent of children 6–23 months received dietary diverse meals while 64% were fed the required number of times in a day. Overall, only 32% of children 6–23 months received a minimum acceptable diet in the preceding 24 hours. A higher GMP exposure was positively associated with feeding knowledge scores among mothers with children below 6 months (p?

2014-01-01

250

Ghana's experience in the establishment of a national data center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The government of Ghana in a bilateral agreement with the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) has established a National Data Center in Ghana with the aim of monitoring the testing of nuclear explosions. Seismic, hydroacoustic, radionuclide and infrasound methods are used for the monitoring. The data center was commissioned on 3 February, 2010 at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. At present Ghana does not have any operational, centralised data (seismic, hydroacoustic, radionuclide and infrasound) acquisition system with the capability of accessing data from other international stations. Hence, the need of setting up the National Data Center which would enable us constantly monitor, manage and coordinate both natural and man-made seismic activities in the country and around the globe, upload data to the International Data Center (IDC) as well as receive and use International Monitoring System (IMS) data and IDC products for treaty verification and compliance. Apart from these, the center also accesses and analyzes seismic waveforms relevant to its needs from the International Data Center; makes data available to its stakeholder institutions for earthquake disaster mitigation; reports on all aspects of disasters related to earthquake to the relevant government agencies that deal with disasters; makes recommendations to the government of Ghana on earthquake safety measures; provides information to assist government institutions to develop appropriate land and building policies. The center in collaboration with stakeholder agencies periodically organises public lectures on earthquake disaster risk mitigation.

Ekua, Amponsah Paulina; Yaw, Serfor-Armah

2012-08-01

251

Possible contributing factors to the paucity of yellow fever epidemics in the Ashanti region of Ghana, west Africa.  

PubMed

Yellow fever virus vectors identified in the Ashanti region of Ghana included Aedes aegypti, Aedes africanus, Aedes luteocephalus and Aedes vittatus. Other mosquito species, unrelated to yellow fever transmission, identified in this study included Culex tigripes, Culex thalassius, Culex decens, Culex tarsalis, Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephansi and Toxorynchites brevipalpis. Factors generally known to influence yellow fever transmission were also studied in the Ashanti region. These included Aedes mosquito larval indices, biting or man-contact rates, rainfall, relative humidity and duration of sunshine. Calculated values for these factors were found to be far below internationally accepted threshold values, due, perhaps, to the vast distribution, resilience and preferential predatory propensity of the larvae of T. brevipalpis, a mosquito species we found exclusively in the Ashanti region of Ghana, for A. aegypti larvae. Other predators of mosquito larvae encountered included Notonecta (Nepa species), Hydromerta, Culex tigripes, Belostoma and Lispa. The observed paucity of yellow fever outbreaks in the Ashanti region of Ghana may, in the main, be due to the preponderance resilience and selective predatory propensity and preference of T. brevipalpis for A. aegypti larvae. Furthermore, the observed presence of other predators which prey on A. aegypti larvae in the study areas, the low larval indices and the low man-vector contact rates recorded as well as the high prevalence of Group B antibodies found in the blood of the population of this region may also be contributory to the paucity of yellow fever outbreaks in the Ashanti region. PMID:8625858

Addy, P A; Esena, R K; Atuahene, S K

1996-01-01

252

Wealth and antenatal care use: implications for maternal health care utilisation in Ghana  

PubMed Central

The study investigates the effect of wealth on maternal health care utilization in Ghana via its effect on Antenatal care use. Antenatal care serves as the initial point of contact of expectant mothers to maternal health care providers before delivery. The study is pivoted on the introduction of the free maternal health care policy in April 2005 in Ghana with the aim of reducing the financial barrier to the use of maternal health care services, to help reduce the high rate of maternal deaths. Prior to the introduction of the policy, studies found wealth to have a positive and significant influence on the use of Antenatal care. It is thus expected that with the policy, wealth should not influence the use of maternal health care significantly. Using secondary data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health survey, the results have revealed that wealth still has a significant influence on adequate use of Antenatal care. Education, age, number of living children, transportation and health insurance are other factors that were found to influence the use of Antenatal care in Ghana. There also exist considerable variations in the use of Antenatal care in the geographical regions and between the rural and urban dwellers. It is recommended that to improve the use of Antenatal care and hence maternal health care utilization, some means of support is provided especially to women within the lowest wealth quintiles, like the provision and availability of recommended medication at the health center; secondly, women should be encouraged to pursue education to at least the secondary level since this improves their use of maternal health services. Policy should also target mothers who have had the experience of child birth on the need to use adequate Antenatal care for each pregnancy, since these mothers tend to use less antenatal care for subsequent pregnancies. The regional disparities found may be due to inaccessibility and unavailability of health facilities and services in the rural areas and in some of the regions. The government and other service providers (NGOs, religious institutions and private providers) may endeavor to improve on the distribution of health facilities, human resources, good roads and necessary infrastructure among other things in order to facilitate easy access to health care providers especially for the rural dwellers.

2012-01-01

253

A Silent Enzootic of an Orthopoxvirus in Ghana, West Africa: Evidence for Multi-Species Involvement in the Absence of Widespread Human Disease  

PubMed Central

Human monkeypox has never been reported in Ghana, but rodents captured in forested areas of southern Ghana were the source of the monkeypox virus introduced into the United States in 2003. Subsequent to the outbreak in the United States, 204 animals were collected from two commercial trapping sites in Ghana. Animal tissues were examined for the presence of orthopoxvirus (OPXV) DNA using a real-time polymerase chain reaction, and sera were assayed for antibodies against OPXV. Animals from five genera (Cricetomys, Graphiurus, Funiscirus, and Heliosciurus) had antibodies against OPXV, and three genera (Cricetomys, Graphiurus, and Xerus) had evidence of OPXV DNA in tissues. Additionally, 172 persons living near the trapping sites were interviewed regarding risk factors for OPXV exposure, and their sera were analyzed. Fifty-three percent had IgG against OPXV; none had IgM. Our findings suggest that several species of forest-dwelling rodents from Ghana are susceptible to naturally occurring OPXV infection, and that persons living near forests may have low-level or indirect exposure to OPXV-infected animals, possibly resulting in sub-clinical infections.

Reynolds, Mary G.; Carroll, Darin S.; Olson, Victoria A.; Hughes, Christine; Galley, Jack; Likos, Anna; Montgomery, Joel M.; Suu-Ire, Richard; Kwasi, Mubarak O.; Jeffrey Root, J.; Braden, Zach; Abel, Jason; Clemmons, Cody; Regnery, Russell; Karem, Kevin; Damon, Inger K.

2010-01-01

254

Conserving Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will learn what energy is, how energy is used , and how to conserve it What are new ways of protecting the environment to conserve energy? Use your 4- column chart to record information about the questions i ask and you learn about. Begin by seeing what energy isEnergy Quest Tells different ways of conserving energy. List what you learn. What are simple ways to conserve energy everyday? How are vehicle manufactures inventing ways to conserve ...

Y, Mr.

2009-10-21

255

Mosquito avoidance and bed net use in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana.  

PubMed

Qualitative research and cross-sectional survey methods were used in a study conducted in rural and urban areas of the Greater Accra Region, Ghana, to explore people's understanding of the cause of malaria and patterns of mosquito avoidance, in particular bed net ownership and use. The study indicated far higher bed net ownership and use in rural than urban areas, which was related partly to perceived affordability and partly to the different contexts of and reasons for avoiding mosquitoes. Knowledge of an association between mosquitoes and malaria, the most common cause of illness in both areas, was related to residence but not to literacy or formal education, and this knowledge did not predict bed net use. The paper points to the complexity of social and personal factors implicated in behavioural interventions for malaria control, and questions behavioural models that assume a linear relationship between knowledge and practice. PMID:10081239

Agyepong, I A; Manderson, L

1999-01-01

256

Conservation of the Critically Endangered Eastern Australian Population of the Grey Nurse Shark ( Carcharias taurus) Through Cross-Jurisdictional Management of a Network of Marine-Protected Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between 2001 and 2009, 26 marine-protected areas (MPA) were established on the east Australian seaboard, at least in part, to manage human interactions with a critically endangered population of grey nurse shark, Carcharias taurus. This network is spread across six MPA systems and includes all 19 sites outlined in the National Recovery Plan for C. taurus, though five sites remain open to some forms of fishing. The reserve network has complex cross-jurisdictional management, as the sharks occur in waters controlled by the Australian states of New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, as well as by the Commonwealth (Federal) government. Jurisdiction is further complicated by fisheries and conservation departments both engaging in management activities within each state. This has resulted in protected area types that include IUCN category II equivalent zones in NSW, Queensland, and Commonwealth marine parks that either overlay or complement another large scaled network of protected sites called critical habitats. Across the network, seven and eight rule permutations for diving and fishing, respectively, are applied to this population of sharks. Besides sites identified by the recovery plan, additional sites have been protected as part of the general development of MPA networks. A case study at one of these sites, which historically was known to be occupied by C. taurus but had been abandoned, appears to shows re-establishment of an aggregation of juvenile and sub-adult sharks. Concurrent with the re-establishment of the aggregation, a local dive operator increased seasonal dive visitation rates at the site fourfold. As a precautionary measure, protection of abandoned sites, which includes nursery and gestating female habitats are options that may assist recovery of the east coast population of C. taurus.

Lynch, Tim P.; Harcourt, Robert; Edgar, Graham; Barrett, Neville

2013-12-01

257

Travel time to maternity care and its effect on utilization in rural Ghana: a multilevel analysis.  

PubMed

Rates of neonatal and maternal mortality are high in Ghana. In-facility delivery and other maternal services could reduce this burden, yet utilization rates of key maternal services are relatively low, especially in rural areas. We tested a theoretical implication that travel time negatively affects the use of in-facility delivery and other maternal services. Empirically, we used geospatial techniques to estimate travel times between populations and health facilities. To account for uncertainty in Ghana Demographic and Health Survey cluster locations, we adopted a novel approach of treating the location selection as an imputation problem. We estimated a multilevel random-intercept logistic regression model. For rural households, we found that travel time had a significant effect on the likelihood of in-facility delivery and antenatal care visits, holding constant education, wealth, maternal age, facility capacity, female autonomy, and the season of birth. In contrast, a facility's capacity to provide sophisticated maternity care had no detectable effect on utilization. As the Ghanaian health network expands, our results suggest that increasing the availability of basic obstetric services and improving transport infrastructure may be important interventions. PMID:23906132

Masters, Samuel H; Burstein, Roy; Amofah, George; Abaogye, Patrick; Kumar, Santosh; Hanlon, Michael

2013-09-01

258

Public exposure to hazards associated with natural radioactivity in open-pit mining in Ghana.  

PubMed

The results of studies carried out on public exposure contribution from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMS) in two open-pit mines in the Western and Ashanti regions of Ghana are reported. The studies were carried out under International Atomic Energy Agency-supported Technical Co-operation Project GHA/9/005. Measurements were made on samples of water, soil, ore, mine tailings and air using gamma spectrometry. Solid-state nuclear track detectors were used for radon concentration measurements. Survey was also carried out to determine the ambient gamma dose rate in the vicinity of the mines and surrounding areas. The effective doses due to external gamma irradiation, ingestion of water and inhalation of radon and ore dusts were calculated for the two mines. The average annual effective dose was found to be 0.30 +/- 0.06 mSv. The result was found to be within the levels published by other countries. The study provides a useful information and data for establishing a comprehensive framework to investigate other mines and develop guidelines for monitoring and control of NORMS in the mining industry and the environment as a whole in Ghana. PMID:19767601

Darko, E O; Faanu, A; Awudu, A R; Emi-Reynolds, G; Yeboah, J; Oppon, O C; Akaho, E H K

2010-01-01

259

Spatial Analysis of Land Cover Determinants of Malaria Incidence in the Ashanti Region, Ghana  

PubMed Central

Malaria belongs to the infectious diseases with the highest morbidity and mortality worldwide. As a vector-borne disease malaria distribution is strongly influenced by environmental factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between malaria risk and different land cover classes by using high-resolution multispectral Ikonos images and Poisson regression analyses. The association of malaria incidence with land cover around 12 villages in the Ashanti Region, Ghana, was assessed in 1,988 children <15 years of age. The median malaria incidence was 85.7 per 1,000 inhabitants and year (range 28.4–272.7). Swampy areas and banana/plantain production in the proximity of villages were strong predictors of a high malaria incidence. An increase of 10% of swampy area coverage in the 2 km radius around a village led to a 43% higher incidence (relative risk [RR]?=?1.43, p<0.001). Each 10% increase of area with banana/plantain production around a village tripled the risk for malaria (RR?=?3.25, p<0.001). An increase in forested area of 10% was associated with a 47% decrease of malaria incidence (RR?=?0.53, p?=?0.029). Distinct cultivation in the proximity of homesteads was associated with childhood malaria in a rural area in Ghana. The analyses demonstrate the usefulness of satellite images for the prediction of malaria endemicity. Thus, planning and monitoring of malaria control measures should be assisted by models based on geographic information systems.

Krefis, Anne Caroline; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Nkrumah, Bernard; Acquah, Samuel; Loag, Wibke; Oldeland, Jens; Sarpong, Nimako; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Ranft, Ulrich; May, Jurgen

2011-01-01

260

"If you do vasectomy and come back here weak, I will divorce you": a qualitative study of community perceptions about vasectomy in Southern Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Male involvement in contraceptive use is increasingly becoming a global reproductive health issue. Vasectomy is one of the two male modern contraceptive methods espoused by the National Family Planning Policy in Ghana. Despite these advocacies, there are reports of low patronage of this method in Ghana. This study adhering to RATS guidelines on qualitative research therefore explored the social and cultural factors that may be affecting the low vasectomy uptake in Southern Ghana. Methods The study was conducted in Sefwi Bibiani-Ahwiaso Bekwai (SBAB) District and Komenda-Edina-Eguafo-Abrem (KEEA) Municipal area in the Western and Central regions of Ghana respectively. Twelve Focus Group Discussions were held with both male and female community members. In-depth interviews were also carried out with Community Health Officers (CHOs), Community Health Volunteers (CHVs) and health managers at both the district and regional levels. The discussions and interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using Nvivo 10. Results The study revealed that vasectomy was perceived as an act against God, which was punishable either by death or answerable on judgement day. Vasectomy was also perceived to be a form of castration, which can make men weak and incapable, thereby unable to satisfy their wives sexually, leading to marital conflicts. Women were more concerned about the negative effects of vasectomy on men. Cafalgin and panacin which are locally manufactured analgesics were perceived to have contraceptive abilities and therefore used by men as an alternative to modern contraceptive methods. Conclusions Stigma and the misconceptions in the community may be accounting for the low vasectomy uptake in Ghana despite several advocacy strategies. Women were highly influential in a man's decision on vasectomy. This calls for the need to increase health education to demystify the misconceptions about vasectomy. Vasectomy-related campaign messages should target both men and women.

2014-01-01

261

The maternity waiting home concept: the Nsawam, Ghana experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary studies: Focus group discussions with community members in Nsawam District, Ghana, identified poor roads, scarce transport and exorbitant fees for emergency transport as barriers to reaching the district hospital for treatment of an obstetric complication. Interventions: To minimize delay in the event of a complication, a maternity waiting home (MWH) was established in Nsawam in 1994. One ward of

J. B Wilson; A. H. K Collison; D Richardson; G Kwofie; K. A Senah; E. K Tinkorang

1997-01-01

262

Harmattan dust deposition and particle size in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Ghana, a dust-laden Harmattan wind blows from the Sahara from November to March. Some of the dust is trapped in the vegetation, in the lakes and other inland waters, while the rest is blown further away into the Ivory Coast or into the Atlantic Ocean. Several methods have been used to trap the Harmattan dust, mainly bowls with or

Henrik Breuning-Madsen; Theodore W. Awadzi

2005-01-01

263

Library Computerization at the Forestry Research Institute of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the computerization of the library of the Forestry Research Institute of Ghana (FORIG) using ADLIB software. Describes the process of selection, acquisition and installation of the software, the training of library staff, the impact of computerization on the staff, the users and the institute, and problems encountered.

Margaret Sraku-Lartey; Kennedy Asamoah

2003-01-01

264

Oburoni outside the Whale: Reflections on an Experience in Ghana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reflects on a social studies teacher's experiences during a Fulbright professorship in Ghana. Relates how, as an outsider from the United States, she learned about Ghanian perspectives of history, economics, women's issues, and culture, and was reminded of the dominating power of Western cultural and economic imperialism. (DSK)

Wilson, Angene H.

1998-01-01

265

Religion and Subjective Well-Being in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using 2008 Afrobarometer survey data, we examine the relationship between religion and subjective well-being (SWB) in Ghana, as well as religious group differences in their experiences of SWB. Two measures of religion--religious affiliation and religious importance, and two measures of SWB--absolute SWB (own perceived living conditions) and…

Pokimica, Jelena; Addai, Isaac; Takyi, Baffour K.

2012-01-01

266

Something old or something new? Social health insurance in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is considerable interest at present in exploring the potential of social health insurance to increase access to and affordability of health care in Africa. A number of countries are currently experimenting with different approaches. Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) was passed into law in 2003 but fully implemented from late 2005. It has already reached impressive coverage

Sophie Witter; Bertha Garshong

2009-01-01

267

Managing healthcare quality in Ghana: a necessity of patient satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The study aims to examine how communication, provider courtesy, support\\/care, environment of the facility and waiting time significantly predict patients' satisfaction with quality of healthcare in two hospitals located in northern Ghana. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An exploratory study of which 324 respondents were selected using stratified and convenient sampling techniques. Results are presented using a multiple regression model. Findings

Roger Ayimbillah Atinga; Gordon Abekah-Nkrumah; Kwame Ameyaw Domfeh

2011-01-01

268

Urban Waste Pollution in the Korle Lagoon, Accra, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Korle Lagoon in Accra, Ghana, has become one of the most polluted water bodies on earth. It is the principal outlet through which all major drainage channels in the city empty their wastes into the sea. Large amounts of untreated industrial waste emptied into surface drains has led to severe pollution in the lagoon and disrupted its natural ecology.

Kwasi Owusu Boadi; Markku Kuitunen

2002-01-01

269

Literacy and Family Planning Education in Rural Ghana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes the need for education on fertility in rural Ghana. Notes the success of the adult literacy group approach which provides family planning information and increases literacy. Discusses the significance and activities of the literacy facilitator (usually a woman) within this system who works with groups and individuals as a member of the…

Fiagbey, Emmanuel D. K.

1998-01-01

270

Infection with Mansonella perstans Nematodes in Buruli Ulcer Patients, Ghana  

PubMed Central

During August 2010–December 2012, we conducted a study of patients in Ghana who had Buruli ulcer, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, and found that 23% were co-infected with Mansonella perstans nematodes; 13% of controls also had M. perstans infection. M. perstans co-infection should be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of Buruli ulcer.

Frimpong, Michael; Sarfo, Fred S.; Kretschmer, Birte; Beissner, Marcus; Debrah, Alexander; Ampem-Amoako, Yaw; Abass, Kabiru M.; Thompson, William; Duah, Mabel Sarpong; Abotsi, Justice; Adjei, Ohene; Fleischer, Bernhard; Bretzel, Gisela; Wansbrough-Jones, Mark; Jacobsen, Marc

2014-01-01

271

Utilisation by sheep of herbage under tree crops in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study conducted into the utilisation by sheep of herbage under a mango\\/cashew plantation at Kade (Ghana) showed the native herb,Asystasia gangetica to be the most preferred herbage.Centrosema pubescens was preferred toPueraria phaseoloides. The physical condition of the herbage affected their preference but the crude protein content did not have any influence.

F. H. K. Asiedu; E. N. W. Oppong; A. A. Opoku

1978-01-01

272

The political economy of timber taxation: The case of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the political economy of timber taxation in Ghana. Our results show that politicians maintain control over allocation of timber rights, that taxation constitutes an insignificant share of the value of the timber resource, and that the distribution of timber revenues hardly contributes towards the official forest policy justifications. Our analysis suggests that politicians wield control over rent-seeking opportunities

Christian P. Hansen; Jens F. Lund

2011-01-01

273

Agricultural Decline and Access to Food in Ghana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the causes and impacts of agricultural decline in Ghana. Presents a macroeconomic overview and discusses the nature of decline. Emphasizes the roles of prices and migration. Examines changes in incomes and access to food as both a result and a cause of poor performance in agriculture. (CH)

Tabatabai, Hamid

1988-01-01

274

Gender, Lineage, and Fertility-Related Outcomes in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing literature examines the empirical relationship between the joint reproductive preferences of marital partners and reproductive outcomes in Africa. Less explored is how spousal power in decision making may be influenced by lineage type. Using pooled data from Ghana, we investigate how lineage affects gendered reproductive decision…

Takyi, Baffour K.; Nii-Amoo Dodoo, F.

2005-01-01

275

Two novel arenaviruses detected in pygmy mice, Ghana.  

PubMed

Two arenaviruses were detected in pygmy mice (Mus spp.) by screening 764 small mammals in Ghana. The Natal multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis), the known Lassa virus reservoir, was the dominant indoor rodent species in 4 of 10 sites, and accounted for 27% of all captured rodents. No rodent captured indoors tested positive for an arenavirus. PMID:24188212

Kronmann, Karl C; Nimo-Paintsil, Shirley; Guirguis, Fady; Kronmann, Lisha C; Bonney, Kofi; Obiri-Danso, Kwasi; Ampofo, William; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth

2013-11-01

276

A national diabetes care and education programme: the Ghana model  

Microsoft Academic Search

An account is given of how a national diabetes care and education programme was developed in Ghana, a developing country, through international collaboration of medical schools, industry and government health care institutions. The approach is by way of trained diabetes teams consisting of physicians, dietitians and nurse educators at two tertiary institutional levels (teaching hospitals) who in turn trained teams

A. G. B Amoah; S. K Owusu; J. W Acheampong; K Agyenim-Boateng; H. R Asare; A. A Owusu; M. F Mensah-Poku; F. C Adamu; R. A Amegashie; J. Terry Saunders; W. L Fang; J. G Pastors; C Sanborn; E. J Barrett; M. K. A Woode

2000-01-01

277

Pattern of Intentional Burns to Children in Ghana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A community-based survey of children aged 0 to 5 years in Ghana found that of 650 childhood burns, 5.4 percent were purposefully inflicted. Perpetrators were mostly friends (43 percent), siblings (37 percent), and traditional healers (6 percent). Healers inflicted burns on children who were comatose after convulsions. (Author/DB)

Forjuoh, Samuel N.

1995-01-01

278

Examining Teachers' Concerns and Attitudes to Inclusive Education in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a study that examined teachers' concerns and attitude toward inclusive education of students with disabilities in Ghana. A 20 item Attitudes Toward Inclusion in Africa Scale (ATIAS) was completed by 100 teachers from five "Inclusive Project" schools and five Non-Project coeducational basic schools in three different…

Agbenyega, Joseph

2007-01-01

279

Diagnosing Poverty in northern Ghana: Institutional versus community views  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper attempts a diagnosis of poverty at institutional and community levels. This diagnosis entails an examination and comparison of various articulations of poverty in the formal, official and\\/or so- called high places of government and global institutions as well as at the grassroots such as households, individuals and communities within northern Ghana. The goal is to foster a better

Agnes Atia Apusigah

280

Spatio-Temporal Rainfall Patterns in Northern Ghana, West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rainfall reliability in West Africa has important societal consequences. However, our understanding of the rainfall generating processes in this region remains incomplete. This study aims at the detection of different rainfall producing processes and their characteristics during the later part of the rainy season in Northern Ghana. Rainfall in this region has three main origins: monsoonal advection, local convection, and

J. Friesen; N. van de Giesen

2002-01-01

281

The Determinants of Household Education Expenditure in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of formal education in the socio-economic development of a country cannot be over-emphasized. It is in this light, that over the years, governments of Ghana and other organizations have supported the education sector in many ways. Despite the efforts, many people think that a lot more can be done, but resources are not unlimited. Against…

Donkoh, S. A.; Amikuzuno, J. A.

2011-01-01

282

Water Pricing and Water Sector Reforms Information Study in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study seeks to provide information on water pricing in Ghana. It looks at the experiences in water pricing practices, the problems and successes encountered in the country. It outlines the reforms instituted in the water sector for the provision and sustainability of urban, rural, and agricultural water supplies to address the problems. Also discussed are the institutional arrangements put

Philip Gyau-Boakye; Ben Y. Ampomah

2003-01-01

283

Infection with Mansonella perstans Nematodes in Buruli Ulcer Patients, Ghana.  

PubMed

During August 2010-December 2012, we conducted a study of patients in Ghana who had Buruli ulcer, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, and found that 23% were co-infected with Mansonella perstans nematodes; 13% of controls also had M. perstans infection. M. perstans co-infection should be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of Buruli ulcer. PMID:24857346

Phillips, Richard O; Frimpong, Michael; Sarfo, Fred S; Kretschmer, Birte; Beissner, Marcus; Debrah, Alexander; Ampem-Amoako, Yaw; Abass, Kabiru M; Thompson, William; Duah, Mabel Sarpong; Abotsi, Justice; Adjei, Ohene; Fleischer, Bernhard; Bretzel, Gisela; Wansbrough-Jones, Mark; Jacobsen, Marc

2014-06-01

284

Comparing Power Spaces: The Shaping of Ghana's Education Strategic Plan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article compares the power spaces occupied by both donors and the Ministry of Education in the formulation of Ghana's Education Strategic Plan (ESP). It shows that the formulation of the ESP was more donor-led than Ministry-led due to the donor-initiated global policy frameworks also referred to as the non-negotiables. Consequently, donors…

Takyi-Amoako, Emefa

2012-01-01

285

Using Natural Materials for Educational Toys: Examples from Ghana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes educational toys that are made from natural and readily available materials in Ghana. Directions and diagrams for the pawpaw-leaf horn, milk-tin helicopter, pen-top propeller, bow and arrow, spinning top, and feather helicopter are included. (DDR)

William, Musah; Preston, Christine

1998-01-01

286

Ghana Fiasco Shows Risks of Faculty-Led Study Trips  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article illustrates the importance of preparation for professors who take students overseas. A University of Washington study-abroad program in Ghana that was cut short last summer after the medical evacuation of half of its participants highlights the potential hazards associated with programs led by individual faculty members who may lack…

Fischer, Karin

2007-01-01

287

Tackling Poverty-Migration Linkages: Evidence from Ghana and Egypt  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Are migrants able to use the migration experience to their benefit, that is to improve their livelihoods, and is this result nuanced by whether migrants are poor or non-poor? This paper explores these questions quantitatively using data on migrants and non-migrants from Ghana and Egypt. It describes the main challenges in the empirical literature…

Sabates-Wheeler, Rachel; Sabates, Ricardo; Castaldo, Adriana

2008-01-01

288

Measuring Nutritional Intake of Adolescents in Ghana, West Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With 85% of the world's adolescent populations residing in developing countries, it is important to monitor and track their nutrition status and habits. The purpose of this study, conducted in Ghana, was to provide results from a nutrition intake and eating habits questionnaire which was modified from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Questions were…

Owusu, Andrew; Murdock, Peggy O'Hara; Weatherby, Norman L.

2007-01-01

289

Getting by on credit: how district health managers in Ghana cope with the untimely release of funds  

PubMed Central

Background District health systems in Africa depend largely on public funding. In many countries, not only are these funds insufficient, but they are also released in an untimely fashion, thereby creating serious cash flow problems for district health managers. This paper examines how the untimely release of public sector health funds in Ghana affects district health activities and the way district managers cope with the situation. Methods A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews was adopted. Two regions (Northern and Ashanti) covering the northern and southern sectors of Ghana were strategically selected. Sixteen managers (eight directors of health services and eight district health accountants) were interviewed between 2003/2004. Data generated were analysed for themes and patterns. Results The results showed that untimely release of funds disrupts the implementation of health activities and demoralises district health staff. However, based on their prior knowledge of when funds are likely to be released, district health managers adopt a range of informal mechanisms to cope with the situation. These include obtaining supplies on credit, borrowing cash internally, pre-purchasing materials, and conserving part of the fourth quarter donor-pooled funds for the first quarter of the next year. While these informal mechanisms have kept the district health system in Ghana running in the face of persistent delays in funding, some of them are open to abuse and could be a potential source of corruption in the health system. Conclusion Official recognition of some of these informal managerial strategies will contribute to eliminating potential risks of corruption in the Ghanaian health system and also serve as an acknowledgement of the efforts being made by local managers to keep the district health system functioning in the face of budgetary constraints and funding delays. It may boost the confidence of the managers and even enhance service delivery.

Asante, Augustine D; Zwi, Anthony B; Ho, Maria T

2006-01-01

290

Geophysical Exploration for Groudwater in the Tolon-Kumbungu District of Ghana.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geophysical exploration for groundwater has been carried out in seven rural communities the Tolon-Kumbungu District of the Northern Region of Ghana. The communities involved are Gbullung, Woribogu, Gun, Nyorong, Yoggu, Nyankpala-Tuunayili and Nyerishegu. These communities are mostly located in the south-eastern half of Tolon and lie in the Lower Voltaian Sedimentary Basin, with a geology of thinbedded sequences of sanstone, mudstone, shale and their intercalation predominating (Kesse, 1985) Hydrogeologically, the area is described as unsuitable for boreholes and there are records of several groundwater exploration companies being unsucessful in this area. This study is as a result of collaboration between World Vision, Ghana and the University of science and Technology, Kumasi, to provide potable water (boreholes fitted with handpumps) to some guineaworm endemic communities within a district which had dugouts and shalow handdug wells as the best source of drinking water. The geophysical techniques used were the Electromagnetic (EM) survey for ground profiling with the EM 34-3 ground conductivity meter and the dipole-dipole configuration in Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) with the Swedish ABEM SAS 300C resistivity equipment. Results show that major aquifers are confined to hard, fractured sandstone formation. No water was found for weathered zone or fresh rock aquifers. Analysis of data also revealed several thin-bedded sequences of between 4 m and 10 m thickness of sandstone, mudstone shale and their intercalations to be the dominant formations here. Groundwater was confined to between 25 m and 45 m with major aquifers occurring approximately between 34 m and 45 m depths. Groundwater availability to beyond 55 m was not possible. The potential success rate is estimated at 75%.The surveys show conclusively that the EM method and the dipole-dipole array in VES when combined is an effective tool for the location of groundwater in the survey area of the Tolon-Kunbumgu District. Kesse,G.O.,(1985). The rock and mineral resources of Ghana. A.A Balkema Publishers. Pp 44-67.

BAYOR, J. S.; MENYE, A.

2001-12-01

291

Wilderness and biodiversity conservation  

PubMed Central

Human pressure threatens many species and ecosystems, so conservation efforts necessarily prioritize saving them. However, conservation should clearly be proactive wherever possible. In this article, we assess the biodiversity conservation value, and specifically the irreplaceability in terms of species endemism, of those of the planet's ecosystems that remain intact. We find that 24 wilderness areas, all > 1 million hectares, are > 70% intact and have human densities of less than or equal to five people per km2. This wilderness covers 44% of all land but is inhabited by only 3% of people. Given this sparse population, wilderness conservation is cost-effective, especially if ecosystem service value is incorporated. Soberingly, however, most wilderness is not speciose: only 18% of plants and 10% of terrestrial vertebrates are endemic to individual wildernesses, the majority restricted to Amazonia, Congo, New Guinea, the Miombo-Mopane woodlands, and the North American deserts. Global conservation strategy must target these five wildernesses while continuing to prioritize threatened biodiversity hotspots.

Mittermeier, R. A.; Mittermeier, C. G.; Brooks, T. M.; Pilgrim, J. D.; Konstant, W. R.; da Fonseca, G. A. B.; Kormos, C.

2003-01-01

292

Conservation Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started as a germ of an idea back in 1987 (on a real, live bulletin board, as opposed to an electronic one), Conservation Online (CoOL) has been providing online resources for conservation professionals since 1993. As its website announces, it is a "full text library of conservation information," covering a wide array of topics ranging from digital imaging to reprographics, and quite a bit of material in between. By clicking on any given topic, visitors will receive a brief overview of the subject, its terminology, and then a list of general online resources for consideration. Another nice feature of the site is the mailing list archive, which contain the archives of various queries submitted to different professional conservation groups, such as the Association of Moving Image Archivists, the Textiles Conservation Discussion List, and the Conservation Framer's Mailing List. The site is rounded out by a timeline that traces the CoOL's history from the summer of 1987 to July 2003.

293

Prediction of the distribution of Glossina tachinoides (Diptera: Glossinidae) in the Volta basin of northern Ghana.  

PubMed

The classification of a Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite image helped demonstrate prevailing habitat types and land use intensity in the Volta basin of the Northern Region of Ghana. A geo-referenced data layer comprising the capture results of a cross-sectional survey of Glossina tachinoides Westwood was over-laid on a data layer of habitat types within 500 m of either bank of the Volta river and its tributaries. An evaluation of the relationship between habitat types and the capture results of G. tachinoides suggested a strong preference of G. tachinoides for woodland, followed by shrubland, grassland and flood plains. The findings were used to classify the suitability of habitat types for G. tachinoides as 'high', 'medium' and 'low' and a prediction map for the distribution of G. tachinoides in the entire river network was produced. The usefulness of this method in estimating the potential distribution of G. tachinoides in an area of increasing agricultural expansion is discussed. PMID:15705216

Mahama, C I; Koné, A; de la Rocque, S; De Deken, R; Geerts, S

2005-02-01

294

Housing and Health in Ghana: The Psychosocial Impacts of Renting a Home  

PubMed Central

This paper reports the findings of a qualitative study investigating the impacts of renting a home on the psychosocial health of tenants in the Accra Metropolitan Area (AMA) in Ghana. In-depth interviews (n = 33) were conducted with private renters in Adabraka, Accra. The findings show that private renters in the AMA face serious problems in finding appropriate and affordable rental units, as well as a persistent threat of eviction by homeowners. These challenges tend to predispose renters to psychosocial distress and diminishing ontological security. Findings are relevant to a range of pluralistic policy options that emphasize both formal and informal housing provision, together with the reorganization and decentralization of the Rent Control Board to the district level to facilitate easy access by the citizenry.

Luginaah, Isaac; Arku, Godwin; Baiden, Philip

2010-01-01

295

Can we spot a neighborhood from the air? Defining neighborhood structure in Accra, Ghana  

PubMed Central

Slums are home to a large fraction of urban residents in cities of developing nations, but little attempt has been made to go beyond a simple slum/non-slum dichotomy, nor to identify slums more quantitatively than through local reputation. We use census data from Accra, Ghana, to create an index that applies the UN-Habitat criteria for a place to be a slum. We use this index to identify neighborhoods on a continuum of slum characteristics and on that basis are able to locate the worst slums in Accra. These do include the areas with a local reputation for being slums, lending qualitative validation to the index. We show that slums also have footprints that can be identified from data classified from satellite imagery. However, variability among slums in Accra is also associated with some variability in the land cover characteristics of slums.

Hill, Allan; Stow, Douglas; Getis, Arthur; Fugate, Debbie

2009-01-01

296

Geographic object-based delineation of neighborhoods of Accra, Ghana using QuickBird satellite imagery  

PubMed Central

The objective was to test GEographic Object-based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) techniques for delineating neighborhoods of Accra, Ghana using QuickBird multispectral imagery. Two approaches to aggregating census enumeration areas (EAs) based on image-derived measures of vegetation objects were tested: (1) merging adjacent EAs according to vegetation measures and (2) image segmentation. Both approaches exploit readily available functions within commercial GEOBIA software. Image-derived neighborhood maps were compared to a reference map derived by spatial clustering of slum index values (from census data), to provide a relative assessment of potential map utility. A size-constrained iterative segmentation approach to aggregation was more successful than standard image segmentation or feature merge techniques. The segmentation approaches account for size and shape characteristics, enabling more realistic neighborhood boundaries to be delineated. The percentage of vegetation patches within each EA yielded more realistic delineation of potential neighborhoods than mean vegetation patch size per EA.

Stow, Douglas A.; Lippitt, Christopher D.; Weeks, John R.

2010-01-01

297

High prevalence of PfCRT K76T mutation in Plasmodium falciparum isolates in Ghana.  

PubMed

Plasmodium falciparum has successfully developed resistance to almost all currently used antimalarials. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (Pfcrt) gene at position 76 resulting in a change in coding from lysine to threonine (K76T) has been implicated to be the corner stone of chloroquine resistance. Widespread resistance to chloroquine in endemic regions led to its replacement with other antimalarials. In some areas this replacement resulted in a reversion of the mutant T76 allele to the wild-type K76 allele. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of the K76T mutation of the Pfcrt gene eight years after the ban on chloroquine sales and use. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 6 regional hospitals in Ghana. PCR-RFLP was used to analyse samples collected to determine the prevalence of Pfcrt K76T mutation. Of the 1318 participants recruited for this study, 246 were found to harbour the P. falciparum parasites, of which 60.98% (150/246) showed symptoms for malaria. The prevalence of the Pfcrt T76 mutant allele was 58.54% (144/246) and that of the K76 wild-type allele was 41.46% (102/246). No difference of statistical significance was observed in the distribution of the alleles in the symptomatic and asymptomatic participants (P=0.632). No significant association was, again, observed between the alleles and parasite density (P=0.314), as well as between the alleles and Hb levels of the participants (P=0.254). Notwithstanding the decline in the prevalence of the Pfcrt T76 mutation since the antimalarial policy change in 2004, the 58.54% prevalence recorded in this study is considered high after eight years of the abolishment of chloroquine usage in Ghana. This is in contrast to findings from other endemic areas where the mutant allele significantly reduced in the population after a reduction chloroquine use. PMID:24727053

Afoakwah, Richmond; Boampong, Johnson N; Egyir-Yawson, Alexander; Nwaefuna, Ekene K; Verner, Orish N; Asare, Kwame K

2014-08-01

298

Energy conservation and its implication for architectural design and town planning in the hot-arid areas of Saudi Arabia and the Gulf States Saudi Arabia  

SciTech Connect

Saudi Arabia and the Gulf States keep their oil output high to satisfy an energy-hungry world. Correspondingly their income is high and national development intensive. A more modest development programme, better architectural designs, better town planning and more intensive use of solar energy would dramatically reduce the need for this high income and so would lead to production cuts and oil conservation.

Abd-El-Hamid; Khair-El-Din

1985-01-01

299

Scientific equity: experiments in laboratory education in Ghana.  

PubMed

During the 1960s the Ministry of Education in Ghana created a network of school laboratories to increase scientific literacy among young citizens. The ministry stocked these "Science Centres" with imported beakers, Bunsen burners, and books. Education officials and university scientists worked with teachers to create lesson plans on water, air, plants, and other topics. The government hoped that scientifically minded schoolchildren would be better prepared to staff the industries of the future. The adoption of laboratory norms represented a desire for scientific equity, rather than a condition of cultural mimicry. Interviews with ministry officials and science educators, alongside letters and reports, indicate how students and teachers appropriated the laboratories in the small West African nation. Their experiences in mobilizing resources from across Ghana and around the world provide a metaphor for ongoing efforts to establish access to scientific goods in Africa. PMID:24783491

Osseo-Asare, Abena Dove

2013-12-01

300

Conservation tillage.  

PubMed

Conservation production systems combine tillage and planting practices to reduce soil erosion and loss of water from farmland. Successful conservation tillage practices depend on the ability of farm managers to integrate sound crop production practices with effective pest management systems. More scientific information is needed to determine the relations between tillage practices and physical, chemical, and biological soil factors that affect plant and pest ecology. There is a need to devise improved pest management strategies for conservation tillage and to better understand the impact of conservation tillage on water-quality, especially as it is related to use of agricultural chemicals. While savings in fuel, labor, and soil have induced many farmers to adopt conservation tillage, improved methods and equipment should increase adoption even more. PMID:17797277

Gebhardt, M R; Daniel, T C; Schweizer, E E; Allmaras, R R

1985-11-01

301

Detection and clinical manifestation of placental malaria in southern Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum can be detected by microscopy, histidine-rich-protein-2 (HRP2) capture test or PCR but the respective clinical relevance of the thereby diagnosed infections in pregnant women is not well established. METHODS: In a cross-sectional, year-round study among 839 delivering women in Agogo, Ghana, P. falciparum was screened for in both, peripheral and placental blood samples, and associations with maternal

Frank P Mockenhaupt; George Bedu-Addo; Christiane von Gaertner; Renate Boyé; Katrin Fricke; Iris Hannibal; Filiz Karakaya; Marieke Schaller; Ulrike Ulmen; Patrick A Acquah; Ekkehart Dietz; Teunis A Eggelte; Ulrich Bienzle

2006-01-01

302

Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in Accra, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To assess factors associated with exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) in Accra, Ghana.Design, subjects, setting:Data on current and past infant feeding patterns, sociodemographic, biomedical and biocultural factors were collected using a cross-sectional design, from a sample of 376 women with infants 0–6 months, attending maternal and child health (MCH) clinics in Accra. EBF was defined in two ways: (a) based on a

B A Aidam; R Pérez-Escamilla; A Lartey; J Aidam

2005-01-01

303

MULTIELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SOME TRADITIONAL PLANT MEDICINES USED IN GHANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential elements in six traditional Ghanaian plant medicines used at the Center for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine (CSRPM), Mampong-Akwapim, Ghana, for the management and cure of various diseases were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), using thermal neutrons at a flux of 5 E 11 ns cm. The plant medicines were: Ninga powder, Lippia tea, Ritchiea powder, Momordica powder, Kenken powder

Y. Serfor-Armah; B. J. B. Nyarko; E. H. K. Akaho; A. W. K. Kyere; S. Osae; K. Oppong-Boachie

2002-01-01

304

Inventory analysis of the timber industry in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  The timber sector, i.e., forestry and timber industry, plays an important role in the socioeconomic development of Ghana through\\u000a timber products export. Timber production in this sector is associated with increasing environmental burdens in terms of use\\u000a of materials and energy, production of emissions and waste, and land use changes. The purpose of this study was to

John Frank Eshun; José Potting; Rik Leemans

2010-01-01

305

Pattern of road traffic injuries in Ghana: Implications for control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Road traffic injuries and fatalities are increasing in Ghana. Police-collected crash and injury data for the period 1994-1998 were aggregated and analyzed using the MAAP5 accident analysis package developed by the Transport Research Laboratory, U.K. Published results of recent transport-related epidemiological and other surveys provided an additional data source. According to the 1994-1998 police data, road traffic crashes were a

Francis K. Afukaar; Phyllis Antwi; Samuel Ofosu-Amaah

2003-01-01

306

Under colonialism to democratization: Early childhood development in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work chronicles the phases of early childhood development in Ghana. This West African country experienced a change in\\u000a education after the inception of colonialism. Education of the very young became a part, though limited, of the missionary-based\\u000a education system under colonialism. The country moved from colonialism to a republic form of government in 1957. The republic\\u000a was determined and

Johnetta Wade Morrison

2000-01-01

307

Pattern of intentional burns to children in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intentional (inflicted) injury to children through burns has been studied and mentioned extensively in the literature, although much less so in developing countries. A community-based survey of children aged 0–5 years in the Ashanti Region of Ghana found that of 650 childhood burns, 35 (5.4%) were purposefully inflicted. The perpetrators were mostly friends (43%) and siblings (37%) of the victims,

Samuel N. Forjuoh

1995-01-01

308

Exploring corruption practices in public procurement of infrastructural projects in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – While corruption has long been recognized as a destructive social problem, the subject has not yet been given much attention in the literature of the management of procurement of infrastructure projects in Ghana. The purpose of this paper is to explore and discuss corruption practices inherent in public procurement of infrastructural projects in Ghana with the aim of

E. Osei-Tutu; E. Badu; D. Owusu-Manu

2010-01-01

309

Education Reform for the Expansion of Mother-Tongue Education in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1957 Ghana was the first sub-Saharan colonial nation-state to achieve independence from British rule. The language of literacy instruction, however, remained English throughout most of Ghana's independence, effectively thwarting reading and writing in 11 major and 67 minor indigenous languages in use today. After years of policy shifts,…

Rosekrans, Kristin; Sherris, Arieh; Chatry-Komarek, Marie

2012-01-01

310

Earthworm abundance related to soil physicochemical and microbial properties in Accra, Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of vermicomposting as a cost effective method of managing organic waste in Ghana depends on the suitability of local earthworms. At nine locations across Accra, the capital of Ghana, the soil-litter layer was sampled to evaluate the occurrence and abundance of surface dwelling earthworms (0 - 10 cm depth) and to investigate the relationship between earthworm abundance and

Nana-Osei K. Mainoo; Joann K. Whalen; Suzelle Barrington; Ste Anne de Bellevue

2008-01-01

311

Multiple scales of diamond mining in Akwatia, Ghana: addressing environmental and human development impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ghana is the second largest producer of gold in sub-Saharan Africa, and has experienced a significant increase in national mining production over the last two decades. Between 1983 and 1998, the mining industry brought approximately US $4 billion in foreign direct investment to Ghana. While large-scale gold mining has seen a significant increase, artisanal gold and diamond mining product have

Kaakpema Yelpaala; Saleem H. Ali

2005-01-01

312

The Development of a Scale Measuring Consumers' Selection of Retail Banks in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ghana, one of the fastest growing liberalized developing economies in Africa, has, in recent years, established a nationwide rural bank system and has witnessed an increase in the entry of foreign retail banks. Although there are increased activities and interest about bank offerings and bank–customer relationships in Ghana (Dadzie, Akaah, and Dunson, 1989), to date, researchers have overlooked the factors

Charles Blankson; Chris H. N. Mbah; Lambert Yaw Owusu-Frempong

2009-01-01

313

What Is the Effect of Child Labour on Learning Achievement? Evidence from Ghana. Innocenti Working Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a study that analyzed the links between child labor and poor school performance. Using data gathered in Ghana in recent years through the administration of tests, the study measured reading achievement and mathematics achievement to about half of the individuals surveyed as part of the Ghana Living Standards Survey. The paper…

Heady, Christopher

314

Displaced Women in Northern GhanaIndigenous Knowledge About Ethnic Conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the findings of field research in Ghana in 2002 about internal displacement stemming from multiethnic violence in northern Ghana in 1994, known as the “Guinea Fowl War.” Indigenous, gender-specific knowledge from displaced Ghanaian women is presented in the context of feminist perspectives on the consequences of regional wars on non-combatants. The research generated indigenous material for social

Brenda Faye McGadney-Douglass; William K. Ahadzie

2008-01-01

315

Information use and policy decision making by district assembly members in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates information utilization for policy decision making by assembly members in Ghana’s local government system. The survey method using questionnaires was used to collect data from 200 respondents drawn from a sample of 278 (72 percent response). The study revealed that the information needs of assembly members were related to their legislative and policy-making tasks within the assembly.

David Kobla Fiankor; Harry Akussah

2012-01-01

316

Dissolved nitrogen in drinking water resources of farming communities in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Regional Programmes DivisionEnvironmental Protection Agency, Sunyani - Ghana. Accepted 31 January, 2008 A water quality study was carried out on streams and boreholes which serve as drinking water sources in farming communities in the Brong Ahafo region of the Republic of Ghana. The objective of this research was to determine concentrations of different forms of nitrogen in drinking water

Osei Akoto; Jackson Adiyiah

317

Private Returns to Education in Ghana: Implications for Investments in Schooling and Migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the determinants of school attendance and attainment in Ghana with a view to deriving implications for policy direction. Using micro-level data from the Ghana living standards surveys, our gender disaggregated probit models on current schoolattendance and attainment show that parental education and household resources are significant determinants of schooling. The effect of household resources on current schoolattendance

Sackey

2008-01-01

318

Librarians in Ghana: A Survey of their Social Origins and Status.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the social origins and professional status of librarians in Ghana. Topics discussed include personal characteristics, i.e., age, sex, and marital status; types of libraries; parental influences on career choice; satisfaction with current status; the role of the Ghana Library Association; and the training of nonprofessional staff. (19…

Alemna, A. A.

1991-01-01

319

The Determination of Exclusion: Evidence from the Ghana Living Standards Surveys 1991-2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines access to and exclusion from basic education in Ghana over the period 1991-2006, using data derived from the Ghana Living Standards Surveys. It uses the CREATE "zones of exclusion" model to explore schooling access outcomes within the framework of the household production function. Empirical findings indicate that the period…

Rolleston, Caine

2009-01-01

320

Criminal prosecution of suicide attempt survivors in Ghana.  

PubMed

Recently, there have been calls for the decriminalization (or depenalization) of nonfatal suicidal behavior (attempted suicide) in Ghana, India, Uganda, and other societies that currently criminalize nonfatal suicidal behavior. Despite this, there is a dearth of systematic studies that examine the extent, nature, and characteristics of attempted suicide prosecutions in countries that currently criminalize nonfatal suicidal behavior. The current study, therefore, explores the phenomenon of criminal prosecution and punishment for suicide attempters in Ghana, one among several countries where nonfatal suicidal behavior is a crime. Drawing from data extracted from local Ghanaian print and electronic news media articles, the study examines the sociodemographic characteristics of suicide attempt survivors, the patterns of nonfatal suicidal behavior, as well as the criminal justice outcomes of the criminal prosecutions. The findings indicate that the majority of defendants pled guilty to or were found guilty of the charge and sentenced to penalties ranging from monetary fines to incarceration. The results are discussed with regard to their implications for reducing nonfatal suicidal behavior in Ghana. PMID:22923775

Adinkrah, Mensah

2013-12-01

321

Sustaining water supply through a phased community management approach: lessons from Ghana’s “oats” water supply scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water sector reforms in Ghana and in other developing countries resulted in the adoption of the community management approach\\u000a for water systems in an effort to ensure better management and service delivery. However, community management is also plagued\\u000a internal differences, paucity of technical skills, and insufficient management experience. This article presents a case study\\u000a of a successful community management system

2011-01-01

322

Hospital-Based Surveillance for Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers and Hepatitides in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHF) are acute diseases associated with bleeding, organ failure, and shock. VHF may hardly be distinguished clinically from other diseases in the African hospital, including viral hepatitis. This study was conducted to determine if VHF and viral hepatitis contribute to hospital morbidity in the Central and Northern parts of Ghana. Methodology/Principal Findings From 2009 to 2011, blood samples of 258 patients with VHF symptoms were collected at 18 hospitals in Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Northern, Upper West, and Upper East regions. Patients were tested by PCR for Lassa, Rift Valley, Crimean-Congo, Ebola/Marburg, and yellow fever viruses; hepatitis A (HAV), B (HBV), C (HCV), and E (HEV) viruses; and by ELISA for serological hepatitis markers. None of the patients tested positive for VHF. However, 21 (8.1%) showed anti-HBc IgM plus HBV DNA and/or HBsAg; 37 (14%) showed HBsAg and HBV DNA without anti-HBc IgM; 26 (10%) showed anti-HAV IgM and/or HAV RNA; and 20 (7.8%) were HCV RNA-positive. None was positive for HEV RNA or anti-HEV IgM plus IgG. Viral genotypes were determined as HAV-IB, HBV-A and E, and HCV-1, 2, and 4. Conclusions/Significance VHFs do not cause significant hospital morbidity in the study area. However, the incidence of acute hepatitis A and B, and hepatitis B and C with active virus replication is high. These infections may mimic VHF and need to be considered if VHF is suspected. The data may help decision makers to allocate resources and focus surveillance systems on the diseases of relevance in Ghana.

Bonney, Joseph Humphrey Kofi; Osei-Kwasi, Mubarak; Adiku, Theophilus Korku; Barnor, Jacob Samson; Amesiya, Robert; Kubio, Chrysantus; Ahadzie, Lawson; Olschlager, Stephan; Lelke, Michaela; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Pahlmann, Meike; Gunther, Stephan

2013-01-01

323

Health Services for Buruli Ulcer Control: Lessons from a Field Study in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Buruli ulcer (BU), caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans infection, is a debilitating disease of the skin and underlying tissue. The first phase of a BU prevention and treatment programme (BUPaT) was initiated from 2005–2008, in the Ga-West and Ga-South municipalities in Ghana to increase access to BU treatment and to improve early case detection and case management. This paper assesses achievements of the BUPaT programme and lessons learnt. It also considers the impact of the programme on broader interests of the health system. Methods A mixed-methods approach included patients' records review, review of programme reports, a stakeholder forum, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, clinic visits and observations. Principal Findings Extensive collaboration existed across all levels, (national, municipality, and community), thus strengthening the health system. The programme enhanced capacities of all stakeholders in various aspects of health services delivery and demonstrated the importance of health education and community-based surveillance to create awareness and encourage early treatment. A patient database was also created using recommended World Health Organisation (WHO) forms which showed that 297 patients were treated from 2005–2008. The proportion of patients requiring only antibiotic treatment, introduced in the course of the programme, was highest in the last year (35.4% in the first, 23.5% in the second and 42.5% in the third year). Early antibiotic treatment prevented recurrences which was consistent with programme aims. Conclusions To improve early case management of BU, strengthening existing clinics to increase access to antibiotic therapy is critical. Intensifying health education and surveillance would ultimately increase early reporting and treatment for all cases. Further research is needed to explain the role of environmental factors for BU contagion. Programme strategies reported in our study: collaboration among stakeholders, health education, community surveillance and regular antibiotic treatment can be adopted for any BU-endemic area in Ghana.

Ackumey, Mercy M.; Kwakye-Maclean, Cynthia; Ampadu, Edwin O.; de Savigny, Don; Weiss, Mitchell G.

2011-01-01

324

Perceived barriers and motivating factors influencing student midwives' acceptance of rural postings in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Research on the mal-distribution of health care workers has focused mainly on physicians and nurses. To meet the Millennium Development Goal Five and the reproductive needs of all women, it is predicted that an additional 334,000 midwives are needed. Despite the on-going efforts to increase this cadre of health workers there are still glaring gaps and inequities in distribution. The objectives of this study are to determine the perceived barriers and motivators influencing final year midwifery students’ acceptance of rural postings in Ghana, West Africa. Methods An exploratory qualitative study using focus group interviews as the data collection strategy was conducted in two of the largest midwifery training schools in Ghana. All final year midwifery students from the two training schools were invited to participate in the focus groups. A purposive sample of 49 final year midwifery students participated in 6 focus groups. All students were women. Average age was 23.2?years. Glaser’s constant comparative method of analysis was used to identify patterns or themes from the data. Results Three themes were identified through a broad inductive process: 1) social amenities; 2) professional life; and 3) further education/career advancement. Together they create the overarching theme, quality of life, we use to describe the influences on midwifery students’ decision to accept a rural posting following graduation. Conclusions In countries where there are too few health workers, deployment of midwives to rural postings is a continuing challenge. Until more midwives are attracted to work in rural, remote areas health inequities will exist and the targeted reduction for maternal mortality will remain elusive.

2012-01-01

325

Eliciting expert knowledge to inform landscape modeling of conservation scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation and land management organizations such as The Nature Conservancy are developing strategies to distribute conservation efforts over larger areas. Relative to fee-simple protection efforts, strategies that allow ecologically sustainable timber harvest and recreation activities, such as working forest conservation easements, should yield greater socioeconomic benefits (ecosystem services) with less investment per area without significantly compromising the conservation of biodiversity

Jessica Price; Janet Silbernagel; Nicholas Miller; Randy Swaty; Mark White; Kristina Nixon

326

Factors Affecting Adoption of Agroforestry Farming System as a Mean for Sustainable Agricultural Development and Environment Conservation in Arid Areas of Northern Kordofan State, Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arid and semi-arid areas represent about 60 percent of Sudan total area. One of the main environmental problems in the arid and semi-arid areas is desertification which reduces the natural potential of the already fragile ecosystems and renders rural people vulnerable to food shortages, the vagaries of weather and natural disasters. Deforestation which is considered one of the most critical

Siddig El Tayeb Muneer

2008-01-01

327

Conserving the birds of Uganda's banana-coffee arc: land sparing and land sharing compared.  

PubMed

Reconciling the aims of feeding an ever more demanding human population and conserving biodiversity is a difficult challenge. Here, we explore potential solutions by assessing whether land sparing (farming for high yield, potentially enabling the protection of non-farmland habitat), land sharing (lower yielding farming with more biodiversity within farmland) or a mixed strategy would result in better bird conservation outcomes for a specified level of agricultural production. We surveyed forest and farmland study areas in southern Uganda, measuring the population density of 256 bird species and agricultural yield: food energy and gross income. Parametric non-linear functions relating density to yield were fitted. Species were identified as "winners" (total population size always at least as great with agriculture present as without it) or "losers" (total population sometimes or always reduced with agriculture present) for a range of targets for total agricultural production. For each target we determined whether each species would be predicted to have a higher total population with land sparing, land sharing or with any intermediate level of sparing at an intermediate yield. We found that most species were expected to have their highest total populations with land sparing, particularly loser species and species with small global range sizes. Hence, more species would benefit from high-yield farming if used as part of a strategy to reduce forest loss than from low-yield farming and land sharing, as has been found in Ghana and India in a previous study. We caution against advocacy for high-yield farming alone as a means to deliver land sparing if it is done without strong protection for natural habitats, other ecosystem services and social welfare. Instead, we suggest that conservationists explore how conservation and agricultural policies can be better integrated to deliver land sparing by, for example, combining land-use planning and agronomic support for small farmers. PMID:23390501

Hulme, Mark F; Vickery, Juliet A; Green, Rhys E; Phalan, Ben; Chamberlain, Dan E; Pomeroy, Derek E; Nalwanga, Dianah; Mushabe, David; Katebaka, Raymond; Bolwig, Simon; Atkinson, Philip W

2013-01-01

328

Conserving the Birds of Uganda's Banana-Coffee Arc: Land Sparing and Land Sharing Compared  

PubMed Central

Reconciling the aims of feeding an ever more demanding human population and conserving biodiversity is a difficult challenge. Here, we explore potential solutions by assessing whether land sparing (farming for high yield, potentially enabling the protection of non-farmland habitat), land sharing (lower yielding farming with more biodiversity within farmland) or a mixed strategy would result in better bird conservation outcomes for a specified level of agricultural production. We surveyed forest and farmland study areas in southern Uganda, measuring the population density of 256 bird species and agricultural yield: food energy and gross income. Parametric non-linear functions relating density to yield were fitted. Species were identified as “winners” (total population size always at least as great with agriculture present as without it) or “losers” (total population sometimes or always reduced with agriculture present) for a range of targets for total agricultural production. For each target we determined whether each species would be predicted to have a higher total population with land sparing, land sharing or with any intermediate level of sparing at an intermediate yield. We found that most species were expected to have their highest total populations with land sparing, particularly loser species and species with small global range sizes. Hence, more species would benefit from high-yield farming if used as part of a strategy to reduce forest loss than from low-yield farming and land sharing, as has been found in Ghana and India in a previous study. We caution against advocacy for high-yield farming alone as a means to deliver land sparing if it is done without strong protection for natural habitats, other ecosystem services and social welfare. Instead, we suggest that conservationists explore how conservation and agricultural policies can be better integrated to deliver land sparing by, for example, combining land-use planning and agronomic support for small farmers.

Hulme, Mark F.; Vickery, Juliet A.; Green, Rhys E.; Phalan, Ben; Chamberlain, Dan E.; Pomeroy, Derek E.; Nalwanga, Dianah; Mushabe, David; Katebaka, Raymond; Bolwig, Simon; Atkinson, Philip W.

2013-01-01

329

Conservation businesses and conservation planning in a biological diversity hotspot.  

PubMed

The allocation of land to biological diversity conservation competes with other land uses and the needs of society for development, food, and extraction of natural resources. Trade-offs between biological diversity conservation and alternative land uses are unavoidable, given the realities of limited conservation resources and the competing demands of society. We developed a conservation-planning assessment for the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal, which forms the central component of the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany biological diversity hotspot. Our objective was to enhance biological diversity protection while promoting sustainable development and providing spatial guidance in the resolution of potential policy conflicts over priority areas for conservation at risk of transformation. The conservation-planning assessment combined spatial-distribution models for 646 conservation features, spatial economic-return models for 28 alternative land uses, and spatial maps for 4 threats. Nature-based tourism businesses were competitive with other land uses and could provide revenues of >US$60 million/year to local stakeholders and simultaneously help meeting conservation goals for almost half the conservation features in the planning region. Accounting for opportunity costs substantially decreased conflicts between biological diversity, agricultural use, commercial forestry, and mining. Accounting for economic benefits arising from conservation and reducing potential policy conflicts with alternative plans for development can provide opportunities for successful strategies that combine conservation and sustainable development and facilitate conservation action. PMID:23565917

Di Minin, Enrico; Macmillan, Douglas Craig; Goodman, Peter Styan; Escott, Boyd; Slotow, Rob; Moilanen, Atte

2013-08-01

330

Energy Conservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Possibilities of energy conservation in domestic buildings and households are reviewed, i.e. in technical systems, heating and air conditioning systems and other energy-consuming appliances. The present situation is reviewed, and suggestions for improveme...

J. Branch A. Gsponer B. Giovanni

1981-01-01

331

Conservation Presentation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces a project in which students teach about the importance of recycling and conservation by presenting demonstrations. Includes demonstrations on water, plastic, and other recycling products such as steel. (YDS)

Friday, Gerald

2001-01-01

332

Conservative News Service (CNS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the Media Resource Center, the Conservative News Service aims to give users an alternative to what it calls "a liberal bias in the American news media and a frequent, liberal double-standard in editorial decisions on what constitutes 'news'." It does this via a mix of short digest news articles and longer analytical articles in eight areas, including politics, economics, defense, religion, and culture. The X-Pert/Files/Links section contains links to conservative experts and their institutions in 45 subject areas. In addition, the site includes links to information about several conservative talk shows ("Radio Uplink") and several bulletin boards. CNS was created by MRC Chairman L. Brent Bozell III.

1998-01-01

333

Determination of levels of polychlorinated biphenyl in transformers oil from some selected transformers in parts of the Greater Accra Region of Ghana.  

PubMed

Although polychlorinated biphenyls have never been manufactured in Ghana, it has been used extensively as dielectric fluid in electric transformers and capacitors. However, very little is known of its health and environmental impacts by both managers of these transformers and capacitors and also the general public. This work therefore seeks to explore INAA as a possible alternative to screening transformer oils for PCBs by determining the total chlorine content. The total chlorine content of transformer oil samples from Ghana that tested positive and some randomly selected samples that tested negative from screening using CLOR-N-OIL test kits, have had their total chlorine estimated. INAA using the Research Reactor located at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission was used to estimate the total chlorine content of the oil samples. Neutron Activation and gamma ray spectroscopy using HPGe detector coupled to MAESTRO 32 software was used to determine the total chlorine content by integrating the peak area of the spectrum into a simplified program that was developed from the activation equation. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis was able to validate the result obtained from the test kits screening with accuracy 7.5%. The minimum total chlorine content of the positive samples determined by NAA was 71.34 ?g g?¹. PMID:21047666

Buah-Kwofie, Archibold; Yeboah, Philip O; Pwamang, John

2011-01-01

334

Mansonia africana and Mansonia uniformis are Vectors in the transmission of Wuchereria bancrofti lymphatic filariasis in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Recent data from Ghana indicates that after seven rounds of annual mass drug administration (MDA) there is still sustained transmission albeit at low levels in certain areas where Anopheles melas, An. gambiae s.s., Mansonia and Culex species are the main biting mosquitoes. Anopheles gambiae s.l. and An. funestus are the known vectors in Ghana and a recent report indicated that An. melas could transmit at low level microfilaraemia. However, because An. melas is not found everywhere there was the need to determine whether any of the other culicine species could also be playing a role in the transmission of LF. Methods Indoor mosquitoes collected once a month for three months using pyrethrum spray catches in six communities within the Kommenda-Edina-Eguafo-Abirem (KEEA) District, Central Region of Ghana were morphologically identified, dissected and examined for the presence of W. bancrofti. Additionally, stored mosquito samples collected during previous years in 8 communities from the Gomoa District also in the Central Region were similarly processed. The identities of all W. bancrofti parasites found were confirmed using an established PCR method. Results A total of 825 indoor resting mosquitoes comprising of 501 Anopheles species, 239 Mansonia species, 84 Culex species and 1 Aedes species were dissected and examined for the presence of W. bancrofti. Mansonia africana had infection and infectivity rates of 2.5%. and 2.1% respectively. Anopheles gambiae s.l. had an infection rate of 0.4% and a similar infectivity rate. None of the Culex sp. and Aedes sp were found with infection. From the stored mosquitoes the infection and infectivity rates for M. africana were 7.6% (N?=?144) and 2.8% respectively whilst the corresponding rates for M. uniformis were 2.9% (N?=?244) and 0.8%. Conclusions This is the first report of Mansonia species as vectors of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in Ghana and in West Africa since that of 1958 in Guinea. The revelation of a hitherto unrecognised vector which is possibly more efficient in transmission than the recognised ones has a profound implication for elimination of lymphatic filariasis programmes in the sub-region.

2012-01-01

335

Marine Conservation Biology Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stay current with the latest marine conservation issues, plus find information on workshops and job and research opportunities. Access information on the latest research, legislation, and MCBI's latest publications. Learn about marine protected areas, destructive fishing practices, endangered species, and how MCBI is advancing marine science. Features include a photo gallery, links to an abundance of worldwide external resources, and several downloadable videos.

336

Marine Conservation Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stay current with the latest marine conservation issues, plus find information on workshops and job and research opportunities. Access information on the latest research, legislation, and MCI's latest publications. Learn about marine protected areas, destructive fishing practices, endangered species, and how MCI is advancing marine science. Features include a photo gallery, links to an abundance of worldwide external resources, and several downloadable videos.

2012-07-06

337

Conservation in Conflict  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What happens when war occurs in areas where there is war? Ecologist Peter Zahler who has worked in Afghanistan since 2002, talks about how conserving biodiversity may bring peace to the war-torn region. You can read more about Zahler's work in the article Nurturing Wildlife in War-Torn Afghanistan that appeared in the New Yorker Times in December, 2011.

Society, Wildlife C.

338

Communities, Cameras, and Conservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Communities, Cameras, and Conservation (CCC) is the most exciting and valuable program the author has seen in her 30 years of teaching field science courses. In this citizen science project, students and community volunteers collect data on mountain lions ("Puma concolor") at four natural areas and public parks along the Front Range of Colorado.…

Patterson, Barbara

2012-01-01

339

Energy Conservation Guidelines - 1: District Level Plan for Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are suggestions written to help local school districts develop an energy conservation program in order to minimize budget problems brought about by rising energy costs. Program areas covered include formation of the district energy conservation team, assignment of duties, operation of energy audit systems, and evaluation procedures. To…

Peterson, Irving M., Ed.; Colavita, Leon J., Ed.

340

Status and potential of locally-managed marine areas in the Pacific Island Region: meeting nature conservation and sustainable livelihood targets through wide-spread implementation of LMMAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The South Pacific has experienced a remarkable proliferation of Marine Managed Areas in the last decade. These protected areas, implemented by over 500 communities spanning 15 independent countries and territories represent a unique global achievement. The approaches being developed at national levels are built on a unique feature of the region, customary tenure and resource access, and make use of,

Hugh Govan

2009-01-01

341

36 CFR 910.36 - Energy conservation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Energy conservation. 910.36 Section...the Development Area § 910.36 Energy conservation. All new development shall be designed to be economical in energy consumption. The Energy...

2013-07-01

342

Hookworm infection among school age children in Kintampo north municipality, Ghana: nutritional risk factors and response to albendazole treatment.  

PubMed

Children (n = 812) 6-11 years of age attending 16 schools in the Kintampo North Municipality of Ghana were screened for participation in a study on hookworm infection, nutrition, and response to albendazole. The prevalence of Necator americanus hookworm infection (n = 286) was 39.1%, and significant predictors of infection included age, malaria parasitemia, lack of health care, school area, levels of antibodies against hookworm, and low consumption of animal foods. The cure rate after a single dose (400 mg) albendazole was 43%, and the mean fecal egg count reduction rate was 87.3%. Data for an in vitro egg hatch assay showed a trend toward reduced albendazole susceptibility in post-treatment hookworm isolates (P = 0.06). In summary, hookworm infection is prevalent among school age children in the Kintampo North Municipality and animal food intake inversely correlates with infection status. Modest cure rates and fecal egg count reduction rates reinforce the need for further investigation of potential benzimidazole resistance in Ghana. PMID:23836564

Humphries, Debbie; Simms, Benjamin T; Davey, Dylan; Otchere, Joseph; Quagraine, Josephine; Terryah, Shawn; Newton, Samuel; Berg, Elyssa; Harrison, Lisa M; Boakye, Daniel; Wilson, Michael; Cappello, Michael

2013-09-01

343

Unmet need for family planning in ghana: the shifting contributions of lack of access and attitudinal resistance.  

PubMed

In Ghana, despite a 38 percent decline in the total fertility rate from 1988 to 2008, unmet need for family planning among married women exposed to pregnancy risk declined only modestly in this period: from 50 percent to 42 percent. Examining data from the five DHS surveys conducted in Ghana during these years, we find that the relative contribution to unmet need of lack of access to contraceptive methods has diminished, whereas attitudinal resistance has grown. In 2008, 45 percent of women with unmet need experienced no apparent obstacles associated with access or attitude, 32 percent had access but an unfavorable attitude, and 23 percent had no access. Concerns regarding health as a reason for nonuse have been reported in greater numbers over these years and are now the dominant reason, followed by infrequent sex. An enduring resistance to hormonal methods, much of it based on prior experience of side effects, may lead many Ghanaian women, particularly the educated in urban areas, to use periodic abstinence or reduced coital frequency as an alternative to modern contraception. PMID:24931076

Machiyama, Kazuyo; Cleland, John

2014-06-01

344

Public awareness and attitudes towards naval sonar mitigation for cetacean conservation: a preliminary case study in Fairfax County, Virginia. (the DC Metro area).  

PubMed

The potential impacts of naval sonar on cetaceans has led to a series of court cases and statements of concern by international organizations. However, there has been no research conducted on attitudes of the general public with respect to this issue. To investigate this, a preliminary public survey was conducted in Fairfax, Virginia (the Washington, DC Metro region). The majority of the public sampled believed that naval sonar impacted marine mammals (51.3%), that the US Navy should not be exempt from environmental regulations in time of peace (75.2%), and that sonar use should be moderated if it impacts cetaceans (75.8%). Individuals who were conservative, Republican, and have served in the military were more likely to believe the Navy should be exempt from marine mammal protection regulations. In addition, expert interviews were conducted to gain opinions on the potential ramifications of the recent US Supreme Court case on naval sonar mitigation. PMID:21453936

Zirbel, K; Balint, P; Parsons, E C M

2011-01-01

345

The State of Information and Communication Technology and Health Informatics in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become a major tool in delivery of health services and has had an innovative impact on quality of life. ICT is affecting the way healthcare is delivered to clients. In this paper, we discuss the state of ICT and health informatics in Ghana. We also discuss the state of various relevant infrastructures for the successful implementation of ehealth projects. We analyse the past and present state of health informatics in Ghana, in comparison to other African countries. We also review the challenges facing successful implementation of health informatics projects in Ghana and suggest possible solutions.

Achampong, Emmanuel Kusi

2012-01-01

346

The state of information and communication technology and health informatics in ghana.  

PubMed

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become a major tool in delivery of health services and has had an innovative impact on quality of life. ICT is affecting the way healthcare is delivered to clients. In this paper, we discuss the state of ICT and health informatics in Ghana. We also discuss the state of various relevant infrastructures for the successful implementation of ehealth projects. We analyse the past and present state of health informatics in Ghana, in comparison to other African countries. We also review the challenges facing successful implementation of health informatics projects in Ghana and suggest possible solutions. PMID:23569633

Achampong, Emmanuel Kusi

2012-01-01

347

Marketing Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1986, Northeast Utilities began helping shool administrators combat school building energy wastage through a program called Energy Alliance. The typical school can reduce its energy bill by 30 percent by adopting a wide range of conservation measures, including cogeneration, relamping, and energy audits. (MLH)

Ellis, William B.

1987-01-01

348

Colorful Conservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some people only think about conservation on Earth Day. Being in the "art business" however, this author is always conscious of the many products she thinks get wasted when they could be reused, recycled, and restored--especially in a school building and art room. In this article, she describes an art lesson that allows students to paint…

Skophammer, Karen

2011-01-01

349

Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This selection of class activities involves a sequence of 10 class sessions. The goal of the collection is to aid students in learning the concepts of energy conservation and to put this knowledge into practice. Attention is also given to the development of alternate energy sources. Each lesson includes an activity title, motivational hints,…

Land, Amy A.

350

Conserving Soil.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed as enrichment materials for grades six through nine, this program is an interdisciplinary study of soils. As part of the program students: (1) examine soil organisms; (2) research history of local Native Americans to see how they and others have used the land and its soils; (3) investigate how soils are degraded and how they are conserved

Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

351

Water Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students study the availability of fresh water on Earth and the methods that can be used to purify and conserve it. They also assess how much water they and their families typically use, and think about ways to reduce water usage.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2005-12-17

352

Ohio State Energy Conservation Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Ohio state conservation program expenditures are presented for the following areas: local government; lighting efficiency; thermal and lighting standards; residential; public education; and administrative. (ERA citation 09:043545)

1983-01-01

353

The expansion of conservation genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 'crisis discipline' of conservation biology has voraciously incorporated many technologies to speed up and increase the accuracy of conservation decision-making. Genetic approaches to characterizing endangered species or areas that contain endangered species are prime examples of this. Technical advances in areas such as high-throughput sequencing, microsatellite analysis and non-invasive DNA sampling have led to a much-expanded role for genetics

George Amato; Rob DeSalle

2004-01-01

354

Incidence and outcome of injury in Ghana: a community-based survey.  

PubMed Central

Injury is an increasingly significant health problem in most low-income countries. However, strategies for preventing injury have not been well addressed. The present study was carried out to measure the incidence and outcome of various mechanisms of injury in Ghana in order to provide data for use in developing priorities for injury prevention efforts. For this purpose, using two-stage cluster sampling and household interviews, we surveyed 21,105 persons living in 431 urban and rural sites. During the preceding year, 1609 injuries resulting in one or more days of loss of normal activity were reported. Injury-related mortality was slightly higher in the urban (83 per 100,000) than in the rural area (53 per 100,000). However, the burden of disability from nonfatal injuries, as assessed by disability days, was higher in the rural (4697 disability days per 1000 person-years) than in the urban area (2671 days per 1000 person-years). Based on incidence rates and disability times, the major types of injury in the urban area were transport-related injury and falls. In the rural area, agricultural injuries predominated, followed by falls and transport-related injury. In rural and urban areas combined, 73% of motor vehicle-related injuries involved commercial vehicles. In this and other similar developing-country settings, injury prevention efforts should focus on falls and on transport safety in both urban and rural areas, with special attention being paid to commercial vehicles. In rural areas, agricultural injuries contributed the largest burden of morbidity, and should be a priority for prevention efforts.

Mock, C. N.; Abantanga, F.; Cummings, P.; Koepsell, T. D.

1999-01-01

355

Importance of local knowledge in plant resources management and conservation in two protected areas from Tr?s-os-Montes, Portugal  

PubMed Central

Many European protected areas were legally created to preserve and maintain biological diversity, unique natural features and associated cultural heritage. Built over centuries as a result of geographical and historical factors interacting with human activity, these territories are reservoirs of resources, practices and knowledge that have been the essential basis of their creation. Under social and economical transformations several components of such areas tend to be affected and their protection status endangered. Carrying out ethnobotanical surveys and extensive field work using anthropological methodologies, particularly with key-informants, we report changes observed and perceived in two natural parks in Trás-os-Montes, Portugal, that affect local plant-use systems and consequently local knowledge. By means of informants' testimonies and of our own observation and experience we discuss the importance of local knowledge and of local communities' participation to protected areas design, management and maintenance. We confirm that local knowledge provides new insights and opportunities for sustainable and multipurpose use of resources and offers contemporary strategies for preserving cultural and ecological diversity, which are the main purposes and challenges of protected areas. To be successful it is absolutely necessary to make people active participants, not simply integrate and validate their knowledge and expertise. Local knowledge is also an interesting tool for educational and promotional programs.

2011-01-01

356

Conserving biodiversity in production landscapes.  

PubMed

Alternative land uses make different contributions to the conservation of biodiversity and have different implementation and management costs. Conservation planning analyses to date have generally assumed that land is either protected or unprotected, and that the unprotected portion does not contribute to conservation goals. We develop and apply a new planning approach that explicitly accounts for the contribution of a diverse range of land uses to achieving conservation goals. Using East Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo) as a case study, we prioritize investments in alternative conservation strategies and account for the relative contribution of land uses ranging from production forest to well-managed protected areas. We employ data on the distribution of mammals and assign species-specific conservation targets to achieve equitable protection by accounting for life history characteristics and home range sizes. The relative sensitivity of each species to forest degradation determines the contribution of each land use to achieving targets. We compare the cost effectiveness of our approach to a plan that considers only the contribution of protected areas to biodiversity conservation, and to a plan that assumes that the cost of conservation is represented by only the opportunity costs of conservation to the timber industry. Our preliminary results will require further development and substantial stakeholder engagement prior to implementation; nonetheless we reveal that, by accounting for the contribution of unprotected land, we can obtain more refined estimates of the costs of conservation. Using traditional planning approaches would overestimate the cost of achieving the conservation targets by an order of magnitude. Our approach reveals not only where to invest, but which strategies to invest in, in order to effectively and efficiently conserve biodiversity. PMID:20945770

Wilson, K A; Meijaard, E; Drummond, S; Grantham, H S; Boitani, L; Catullo, G; Christie, L; Dennis, R; Dutton, I; Falcucci, A; Maiorano, L; Possingham, H P; Rondinini, C; Turner, W R; Venter, O; Watts, M

2010-09-01

357

Torrenticolid water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia: Torrenticolidae) from Ghana.  

PubMed

New records of water mites of the family Torrenticolidae (Acari: Hydrachnidia) from streams in Ghana are presented. One new subgenus, Vietsclio n. subgen., is erected to accommodate Monatractides uniscutatus (K. Viets, 1925), characterized by the presence of swimming setae on leg II-IV. Seven new species are described: Neoatractides (Allotorrenticola) erato n. sp., Monatractides (Monatractides) euterpe n. sp., M. (M.) melpomene n. sp., M. (M.) polyhymnia n. sp., M. (M.) thalia n. sp., M. (M.) terpsichore n. sp., M. (M.) urania n. sp. Torrenticola calliope is established as the new name for previously reported populations of T. harrisoni K. Viets, 1956 from Ethiopia. The first description of the female is given for Monatractides (Monatractides) acutiscutatus (K. Viets, 1914) and M. (Vietsclio) uniscutatus K. Viets 1925. The subgenus Allotorrenticola Cook, 1967, previously known only from Asia, is reported for the first time from the Afrotropical region. Additionally, first records for Ghana are given for Torrenticola anomallela Cook, 1966, T. bomiensis Cook, 1966, T. fasciata (K. Viets, 1916), T. motasi Cook, 1966, T. harrisoni K. Viets, 1956, Pseudotorrenticola mitchelli Cook, 1966, Monatractides (Monatractides) acutiscutatus (K. Viets, 1914), M. (M.) convexiscutata (K. Viets, 1958), M. (M.) koenikei (K. Viets, 1916), M. (M.) stigeophora (Cook, 1966), M. (M.) ventriosus (K. Viets, 1916), M. (M.) microstoma Koenike, 1898-species complex, and M. uniscutatus (K. Viets 1925). PMID:24943805

Peši?, Vladimir; Smit, Harry

2014-01-01

358

Public university entry in Ghana: Is it equitable?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Public universities in Ghana are highly subsidised by the central government and account for about 80 per cent of university students in the country. Yet issues of fairness in terms of entry into the public university system have so far hardly been addressed. To find out whether participation in public university education is equitable, the authors of this paper carried out a binary logistic regression analysis. Individual data were collected from 1,129 (614 male and 515 female) final year senior high school (SHS) students for the 2009 cohort. The authors measured student, father and mother characteristics likely to influence admission to a public university. The results show that the major predictors of public university entry are students' academic ability, quality of SHS attended and number of siblings. This seems to suggest that there is a significant bias in the selection of students from different socio-economic groups for admission to highly subsidised public universities. The implication is that public financing of university education in Ghana may not be equitable.

Yusif, Hadrat; Yussof, Ishak; Osman, Zulkifly

2013-06-01

359

Further observations on Bulinus (Bulinus) truncatus rohlfsi (Clessin) in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Bulinus (B.) truncatus rohlfsi is an important snail host of Schistosoma haematobium in Ghana and probably elsewhere in West Africa. Study of this snail in natural habitats in Northern Ghana has shown that the pronounced population fluctuations can be broadly related to the alternating wet and dry seasons and to any marked changes in the aquatic vegetation. An increase in snail density and reproductive activity begins during the rainy season, reaching a peak in the dry season. The onset of the contraction phase in the snail population is often abrupt, although it may be preceded by intense oviposition; during this phase there are but a few widely scattered snails and little reproductive activity with a low level of survival, particularly of juvenile snails. The factors which favour the survival of young specimens are clearly critical in the evolution of the snail population. The findings are related to snail population studies carried out elsewhere in Africa, and to the application as well as limitations of molluscicides in bilharziasis control programmes.

McCullough, Fergus S.

1962-01-01

360

Viral Association with the Elusive Rickettsia of Viper Plague from Ghana, West Africa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We previously reported a rickettsial heartwater-like disease in vipers from Ghana that resembled heartwater in its gross lesions, that was apparently transmittedby ticks (Aponomma and Amblyomma), and responded clinically favorably to early treatment with ...

C. Andrews D. Martinez J. E. Parker J. L. Kiel Y. Gonzalez

2008-01-01

361

Agricultural Cooperatives and Quasi-Cooperatives in Ghana, 1951-1965.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report traces the history of cooperatives in Ghana from 1928 to 1965, bases on government records. From the beginning the movement has suffered from government domination, inept management and instability. Single or multi-purpose cooperatives have eng...

M. P. Miracle A. Seidman

1968-01-01

362

Determinants of Fertility and Child Mortality in Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper examines the relationship between child mortality and fertility in two neighboring West African countries: Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana. We first explore separately the reduced form determinants of fertility and child mortality, as explained by indi...

K. D. Benefo T. P. Schultz

1994-01-01

363

Soundscape conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We argue that soundscapes possess both ecological and social value and that they should be considered natural resources worthy\\u000a of management and conservation. In this paper we bring together diverse bodies of literature that identify the human and ecological\\u000a benefits provided by soundscapes. Sense of place, cultural significance, interactions with landscape perceptions, and wildlife\\u000a wellbeing are a few of the

Sarah L. Dumyahn; Bryan C. Pijanowski

364

Heron conservation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Herons are large, popular and, in many cases, spectacular birds found in wetlands world-wide, both tropical and temperate, natural and man-made. Some populations are very small and localized, some have decreased, some have expanded their ranges, and a few are pests of human activities. In the fifteen years since the publication of the latest monographic treatment of the family, The Herons Handbook, there has been a tremendous increase in our knowledge of heron status and conservation requirements, set against a backdrop of increasing concern about the future of the world?s wetland habitats. This book provides a comprehensive update following two distinct threads. The status and conservation needs of herons are first presented on a regional basis, in a series of chapters set at a continental or subcontinental scale. Over 200 biologists and heron conservationists have contributed to the data summarized here, and the very latest census and survey results provide the most up-to-date and detailed picture of heron populations currently available. Chapters discussing several critical issues in heron conservation follow, tending to focus on the international nature of the problems.

2000-01-01

365

Epidemiology of malaria in the forest-savanna transitional zone of Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Information on the epidemiology of malaria is essential for designing and interpreting results of clinical trials of drugs, vaccines and other interventions. As a background to the establishment of a site for anti-malarial drugs and vaccine trials, the epidemiology of malaria in a rural site in central Ghana was investigated. Methods Active surveillance of clinical malaria was carried out in a cohort of children below five years of age (n = 335) and the prevalence of malaria was estimated in a cohort of subjects of all ages (n = 1484) over a 12-month period. Participants were sampled from clusters drawn around sixteen index houses randomly selected from a total of about 22,000 houses within the study area. The child cohort was visited thrice weekly to screen for any illness and a blood slide was taken if a child had a history of fever or a temperature greater than or equal to 37.5 degree Celsius. The all-age cohort was screened for malaria once every eight weeks over a 12-month period. Estimation of Entomological Inoculation Rate (EIR) and characterization of Anopheline malaria vectors in the study area were also carried out. Results The average parasite prevalence in the all age cohort was 58% (95% CI: 56.9, 59.4). In children below five years of age, the average prevalence was 64% (95% CI: 61.9, 66.0). Geometric mean parasite densities decreased significantly with increasing age. More than 50% of all children less than 10 years of age were anaemic. Children less than 5 years of age had as many as seven malaria attacks per child per year. The attack rates decreased significantly with increasing cut-offs of parasite density. The average Multiplicity of Infection (MOI) was of 6.1. All three pyrimethamine resistance mutant alleles of the Plasmodium falciparum dhfr gene were prevalent in this population and 25% of infections had a fourth mutant of pfdhps-A437G. The main vectors were Anopheles funestus and Anopheles gambiae and the EIR was 269 infective bites per person per year. Conclusion The transmission of malaria in the forest-savanna region of central Ghana is high and perennial and this is an appropriate site for conducting clinical trials of anti-malarial drugs and vaccines.

Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Asante, Kwaku Poku; Adjuik, Martin; Adjei, George; Awini, Elizabeth; Adams, Mohammed; Newton, Sam; Dosoo, David; Dery, Dominic; Agyeman-Budu, Akua; Gyapong, John; Greenwood, Brian; Chandramohan, Daniel

2009-01-01

366

Hard times and common mental health disorders in developing countries: insights from urban Ghana.  

PubMed

Over the past century, the world has rapidly become urbanized, meaning more people now live in urban areas and cities than in rural areas. The mass movement of the rural poor to urban centers and cities has also changed the dynamics of poverty. Scarce employment opportunities, lack of assets, and sudden changes in economic conditions have been proposed as increasing the stress level for most urban residents, especially the poorer ones. Using a face-to-face household survey that included a six-item non-specific psychometric instrument, the data revealed how psychological distress may be patterned by socioeconomic status among urban residents in Ghana during difficult times characterized by food and fuel price hikes. The data collected in interviews of 1,158 adults (49% males and 51% females) who were 18 years and above were analyzed using multinomial logit regressions. The results confirmed previous findings and showed negative links between socioeconomic status, adverse life events, and psychological distress. Specifically, low income, low level of education, large household size, undesirable life events and being employed in agriculture was found to be associated with psychological disorders. The outcomes of this research project are consistent with previous findings-that people in lower socioeconomic strata and those who have suffered adverse events are more likely to suffer psychological distress. The implications of these results for behavioral health are discussed. PMID:23250769

Dzator, Janet

2013-01-01

367

Defining Neighborhood Boundaries for Urban Health Research in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Accra, Ghana.  

PubMed

The neighborhood has been used as a sampling unit for exploring variations in health outcomes. In a variety of studies census tracts or ZIP codes have been used as proxies for neighborhoods because the boundaries are pre-defined units for which other data are readily available. However these spatial units can be arbitrary and do not account for social-cultural behaviors and identities that are significant to residents. In this study for the city of Accra, Ghana, our goal was to create a neighborhood map that represented the boundaries generally agreed upon by the residents of the city using the smallest available census unit, the enumeration area (EA), as the base unit. This neighborhood map was then used as the basis for mapping spatial variations in health within the city. The first step in demarcating the boundaries was to identify features that limit a person's movement including the major roads, drainage features, and railroad tracks that people use to partially define their neighborhood boundaries. Once an initial set of boundaries were established, they were iteratively modified by walking the neighborhoods, talking to residents, public officials, and others. The resulting neighborhood map consolidated 1,723 EAs into 108 neighborhoods covering the entire Accra metropolitan area. Results indicated that the team achieved 71 percent accuracy in mapping neighborhoods when the neighborhood keyed to the survey EA was compared with the response given by the interviewees in the 2008-2009 Women's Health Survey of Accra when asked which neighborhood they lived in. PMID:23690870

Engstrom, Ryan; Ofiesh, Caetlin; Rain, David; Jewell, Henry; Weeks, John

2013-01-01

368

Water quality analysis of groundwater in crystalline basement rocks, Northern Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrochemical data are presented for groundwater samples, collected from fractured aquifers in parts of northern Ghana. The data was collected to assess the groundwater suitability for domestic and agricultural use. Results of the study reveal that the pH of the groundwater in the area is slightly acidic to slightly alkaline. The electrical conductivity values, total dissolved solids (TDS) values and calcium, magnesium and sodium concentrations in the groundwater are generally below the limit set by the WHO for potable water supply. On the basis of activity diagrams, groundwater from the fractured aquifers appears to be stable within the montmorillonite field, suggesting weathering of silicate minerals. An inverse distance weighting interpolator with a power of 2 was applied to the data points to produce prediction maps for nitrate and fluoride. The distribution maps show the presence of high nitrate concentrations (50-194 mg/l) in some of the boreholes in the western part of the study area indicating anthropogenic impact on the groundwater. Elevated fluoride level (1.5-4 mg/l), higher than the WHO allowable fluoride concentration of 1.5, is recorded in the groundwater underlying the northeastern part of the study area, more specifically Bongo and its surrounding communities of the Upper East region. Results of this study suggest that groundwater from the fractured aquifers in the area exhibit low sodicity-low salinity (S1-C1), low sodicity-medium salinity (S1-C2) characteristics [United States Salinity Laboratory (USSL) classification scheme]. All data points from this study plot within the ‘Excellent to good’ category on a Wilcox diagram. Groundwater in this area thus appears to provide irrigation water of excellent quality. The hydrochemical results indicate that, although nitrate and fluoride concentrations in some boreholes are high, the groundwater in the study area, based on the parameters analyzed, is chemically potable and suitable for domestic and agricultural purposes.

Anku, Yvonne S.; Banoeng-Yakubo, Bruce; Asiedu, Daniel K.; Yidana, Sandow M.

2009-09-01

369

Knowledge and awareness of HIV/AIDS among high school girls in Ghana  

PubMed Central

HIV/AIDS is recognized as a national priority health issue in Ghana. Consequently, the Ghana AIDS Commission and the National AIDS Control Programme were established, among other things, to enhance the knowledge and awareness on the nature, causes, effects and means of managing the spread of HIV/AIDS among populations at risk in Ghana. Through the efforts of these bodies and other stakeholders in health, several awareness creation and sensitization efforts have been targeted at teenage girls, a high risk group in Ghana. This study therefore assesses the knowledge and awareness of HIV/AIDS among senior high school girls in their teens in Ghana using a sample of 260 female students of West African Senior High School. The data collected were analyzed and discussed under relevant themes and within the context of the literature. The study revealed that generally, senior high school girls were knowledgeable on the nature, modes of transmission, and prevention of HIV/AIDS. There were however some students who exhibited limited knowledge on some issues including the spiritual causes and treatment of HIV/AIDS, contacts and associations with infected persons, as well as determination of HIV infection from appearances rather than testing. The study also raised important concerns about the reluctance of senior high school girls to use condoms as a preventive measure and the need to reorient HIV/AIDS awareness interventions in Ghana.

Appiah-Agyekum, Nana Nimo; Suapim, Robert Henry

2013-01-01

370

Joint 15. biennial conference of the West African Science Association and 19. biennial conference of Ghana Science Association: Book of abstracts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication contains abstracts of the joint fifteenth biennial conference of the West African Science Association and the nineteenth biennial conference of the Ghana Science Association,held at the University of Cape Coast,Ghana in September 1995. The...

1995-01-01

371

Hydrology and Conservation Ecology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Responses to change in the behavior of ecological systems are largely governed by interactions at different levels. Research is essential and is to be necessarily designed to gain insights into various interactions at the community level. Sustainable resource management is only possible if conservation of biodiversity can be accomplished by properly using the knowledge discovered. It is well known that the United States Department of Agriculture provides technical information, resources, and data necessary to assist the researchers in addressing their conservation needs. Conservation aims to protect, preserve and conserve the earth's natural resources. These include, but not limited to the conservation of soil, water, minerals, air, plants and all living beings. The United States Department of Agriculture also encourages farmers and ranchers to voluntarily address threats to soil and water. Protection of wetlands and wildlife habitat has been on the radar screen of conservation experts for a very long time. The main objective has always been to help farmers and landowners conform and comply with federal and state environmental laws. During the implementation phase, farmers should be encouraged to make beneficial, cost-effective changes to methods of irrigation systems. In some cases, the hydrologic regime of the project area can be thought of as principally an issue of river flow regimes for floodplain forests. In this presentation, the author tries to focus on the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology on global warming. He also discusses the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology global air concerns such as greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. References: Chow, V. T, D. R. Maidment, and L. W. Mays. 1988. Applied Hydrology. McGraw-Hill, Inc. U.S. Soil Conservation Service. Technical Release 55: Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds. USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture). June 1986. Lehner, B. and P. Döll (2004). Development and validation of a global database of lakes, reservoirs and wetlands. Journal of Hydrology 296/1-4. 1-22. http://www.wcc.nrcs.usda.gov http://www.ceh-nerc.ac.uk http://www.usda.gov

Narayanan, M.

2006-12-01

372

Factors in the effective utilization of a LANDSAT related inventory in West Africa. [resource management in onchocerciasis-free Benin, Upper Volta, and Ghana  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive LANDSAT related resource inventory was performed in parts of Ghana, Benin, and Upper Volta to determine resource development potential in areas freed of the disease onchocerciasis. The ultimate success of the project lies in the effective use of the data by host country personnel in resource development projects. This requires project follow-through, adequate training of regional counterparts, and integration of the data into an easily used framework. Present levels of support systems and technical expertise in West Africa indicate that an automated system for natural resource data is not currently appropriate. Suggestions for the greater implementation of such inventories are explored.

Hall, L.

1982-01-01

373

Poor mental health in Ghana: who is at risk?  

PubMed Central

Background Poor mental health is a leading cause of disability worldwide with considerable negative impacts, particularly in low-income countries. Nevertheless, empirical evidence on its national prevalence in low-income countries, particularly in Africa, is limited. Additionally, researchers and policy makers are now calling for empirical investigations of the association between empowerment and poor mental health among women. We therefore sought to estimate the national prevalence of poor mental health in Ghana, explore its correlates on a national level, and examine associations between empowerment and poor mental health among women. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using data from a nationally representative survey conducted in Ghana in 2009–2010. Interviews were conducted face-to-face with participants (N?=?9,524 for overall sample; n?=?3,007 for women in relationships). We used the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) to measure psychological distress and assessed women’s attitudes about their roles in decision-making, attitudes towards intimate partner violence, partner control, and partner abuse. We used weighted multivariable multinomial regression models to determine the factors independently associated with experiencing psychological distress for our overall sample and for women in relationships. Results Overall, 18.7% of the sample reported either moderate (11.7%) or severe (7.0%) psychological distress. The prevalence of psychological distress was higher among women than men. Overall, the prevalence of psychological distress differed by gender, marital status, education, wealth, region, health and religion, but not by age or urban/rural location. Women who reported having experienced physical abuse, increased partner control, and who were more accepting of women’s disempowerment had greater likelihoods of psychological distress (P-values?Ghana, with nearly 20% having moderate or severe psychological distress, an estimate higher than those found among South African (16%) or Australian (11%) adults. Women who are disempowered in the context of intimate relationships may be particularly vulnerable to psychological distress. Results identify populations to be targeted by interventions aiming to improve mental health.

2013-01-01

374

Land Use, Water Quality, and Incidence of Buruli Ulcer in Gold-Mining Regions of Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Buruli ulcer, an emerging bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, affects populations in many equatorial countries, predominantly in western Africa. Occurring in over thirty countries worldwide, it is the third most common Mycobacterial disease after tuberculosis and leprosy. The disease causes ulcerative lesions and can lead to severe deformity if untreated. While methods of treatment for Buruli ulcer are well known and have a high rate of success, the mode of transmission of Buruli ulcer remains elusive. Multiple hypotheses have been put forward in the search for the vector for this disease. Studies of Buruli ulcer to date seem to conclude that water is, in some way, closely related to the transmission of this disease. In particular, changes in water quality due to changes in land use may contribute to the emergence of Buruli ulcer. We hypothesize that stagnant pools, especially those with low dissolved oxygen and high metals, nitrogen, and phosphorus concentrations, will provide a favorable environment for M. ulcerans growth and transmission. To explore how climate, land use, and soil and water quality interact to create a favorable environment for Buruli ulcer emergence, we explore seasonal and annual variability in rainfall and temperature, land use, and physical and chemical properties of soil and water at five sites within the country: four in the southern part of the country (three Buruli-endemic communities and one control) and one non-endemic community in the north. The southern control accounts for differences between endemic and non-endemic communities with similar land uses and geological setting. The northern community has experienced massive floods in recent years, and we suspect that, due to this, Buruli ulcer may start to appear in the community. Results from groundwater data indicate that aquifer rock type does not strongly correlate with groundwater chemistry and that groundwater chemistry does not relate to incidence of Buruli ulcer, thus highlighting that the problems are likely largely surface water based. Analyses of rainfall data collected from eleven stations throughout Ghana show that patterns of annual rainfall do not vary greatly between Buruli-endemic and non-endemic areas, suggesting that normal rainfall patterns do not affect incidence of disease, and that event-based precipitation may be a driving factor for the onset of Buruli ulcer. Analysis of localized soil and water chemistry is ongoing, with samples collected from mining pits, farms, rivers, ponds, swamps, and wells in our five communities within Ghana.

Hagarty, J.; Voegborlo, R.; Smithwick, E. A.; Singha, K.

2011-12-01

375

Results of Chemical Analyses of Soil, Shale, and Soil/Shale Extract from the Mancos Shale Formation in the Gunnison Gorge National Conservation Area, Southwestern Colorado, and at Hanksville, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Results of chemical and some isotopic analyses of soil, shale, and water extracts collected from the surface, trenches, and pits in the Mancos Shale are presented in this report. Most data are for sites on the Gunnison Gorge National Conservation Area (GGNCA) in southwestern Colorado. For comparison, data from a few sites from the Mancos landscape near Hanksville, Utah, are included. Twelve trenches were dug on the GGNCA from which 258 samples for whole-rock (total) analyses and 187 samples for saturation paste extracts were collected. Sixteen of the extract samples were duplicated and subjected to a 1:5 water extraction for comparison. A regional soil survey across the Mancos landscape on the GGNCA generated 253 samples for whole-rock analyses and saturation paste extractions. Seventeen gypsum samples were collected on the GGNCA for sulfur and oxygen isotopic analysis. Sixteen samples were collected from shallow pits in the Mancos Shale near Hanksville, Utah.

Tuttle, Michele L. W.; Fahy, Juli; Grauch, Richard I.; Ball, Bridget A.; Chong, Geneva W.; Elliott, John G.; Kosovich, John J.; Livo, Keith E.; Stillings, Lisa L.

2007-01-01

376

Summary of data from onsite and laboratory analyses of surface water and marsh porewater from South Florida Water Management District Water Conservation Areas, the Everglades, South Florida, March 1995  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents results of chemical analysis for samples collected during March, 1995, as part of a study to quantify the interaction of aquatic organic material (referred to here as dissolved organic carbon with dissolved metal ions). The work was done in conjunction with the South Florida Water Management District, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Geological Survey South Florida Ecosystems Initiative, and the South Florida National Water Quality Assessment Study Unit. Samples were collected from surface canals and from marsh sites. Results are based on onsite and laboratory measurements for 27 samples collected at 10 locations. The data file contains sample description, dissolved organic carbon concentration and specific ultraviolet absorbance, and additional analytical data for samples collected at several sites in the Water Conservation Areas, the Everglades, south Florida.

Reddy, Michael M.; Gunther, Charmaine D.

2012-01-01

377

Assessing the Utility of Satellite Imagery with Differing Spatial Resolutions for Deriving Proxy Measures of Slum Presence in Accra, Ghana  

PubMed Central

Little research has been conducted on how differing spatial resolutions or classification techniques affect image-driven identification and categorization of slum neighborhoods in developing nations. This study assesses the correlation between satellite-derived land cover and census-derived socioeconomic variables in Accra, Ghana to determine whether the relationship between these variables is altered with a change in spatial resolution or scale. ASTER and Landsat TM satellite images are each used to classify land cover using spectral mixture analysis (SMA), and land cover proportions are summarized across Enumeration Areas in Accra and compared to socioeconomic data for the same areas. Correlation and regression analyses compare the SMA results with a Slum Index created from various socio-economic data taken from the Census of Ghana, as well as to data derived from a “hard” per-pixel classification of a 2.4 m Quickbird image. Results show that the vegetation fraction is significantly correlated with the Slum Index (Pearson’s r ranges from ?0.33 to ?0.51 depending on which image-derived product is compared), and the use of a spatial error model improves results (multivariate model pseudo-R2 ranges from 0.37 to 0.40 by image product). We also find that SMA products derived from ASTER are a sufficient substitute for classification products derived from higher spatial resolution QB data when using land cover fractions as a proxy for slum presence, suggesting that SMA might be more cost-effective for deriving land cover fractions than the use of high-resolution imagery for this type of demographic analysis.

Stoler, Justin; Daniels, Dean; Weeks, John R.; Stow, Douglas A.; Coulter, Lloyd L.; Finch, Brian Karl

2012-01-01

378

Using the community-based health planning and services program to promote skilled delivery in rural Ghana: socio-demographic factors that influence women utilization of skilled attendants at birth in Northern Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background The burden of maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa is enormous. In Ghana the maternal mortality ratio was 350 per 100,000 live births in 2010. Skilled birth attendance has been shown to reduce maternal deaths and disabilities, yet in 2010 only 68% of mothers in Ghana gave birth with skilled birth attendants. In 2005, the Ghana Health Service piloted an enhancement of its Community-Based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) program, training Community Health Officers (CHOs) as midwives, to address the gap in skilled attendance in rural Upper East Region (UER). The study determined the extent to which CHO-midwives skilled delivery program achieved its desired outcomes in UER among birthing women. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional household survey with women who had ever given birth in the three years prior to the survey. We employed a two stage sampling techniques: In the first stage we proportionally selected enumeration areas, and the second stage involved random selection of households. In each household, where there is more than one woman with a child within the age limit, we interviewed the woman with the youngest child. We collected data on awareness of the program, use of the services and factors that are associated with skilled attendants at birth. Results A total of 407 households/women were interviewed. Eighty three percent of respondents knew that CHO-midwives provided delivery services in CHPS zones. Seventy nine percent of the deliveries were with skilled attendants; and over half of these skilled births (42% of total) were by CHO-midwives. Multivariate analyses showed that women of the Nankana ethnic group and those with uneducated husbands were less likely to access skilled attendants at birth in rural settings. Conclusions The implementation of the CHO-midwife program in UER appeared to have contributed to expanded skilled delivery care access and utilization for rural women. However, women of the Nankana ethnic group and uneducated men must be targeted with health education to improve women utilizing skilled delivery services in rural communities of the region.

2014-01-01

379

78 FR 30870 - Nomination of Existing Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Laguna Beach State Marine Conservation Area Laguna Beach State Marine Reserve Long Point (Catalina Island) State Marine Reserve Lover's Cove (Catalina Island) State Marine Conservation Area MacKerricher State Marine Conservation Area Matlahuayl State...

2013-05-23

380

Multivariate characterisation of the phenotypic traits of Djallonke and Sahel sheep in Northern Ghana.  

PubMed

The characterisation of the small ruminant populations in developing countries will play a major role in the maintenance of the genetic resources as the basis for future improvement in livestock production. The present study aimed at morphological characterisation of the two main breeds of sheep in Ghana by assessing variation within and between breed populations using principal component and discriminant analyses. The two breeds were the Sahel and the Djallonke sheep of both sexes and of two groups namely, young (1 year old, consisting of 74 animals) and mature sheep (? 2 years old, comprising 219 animals). The analysis of variance revealed significant (P < 0.05) differences in the morphological traits of the Sahel and the Djallonke sheep breeds with higher values recorded for the former. Sexual dimorphism was in favour of male animals in all the morphological traits examined. Mature animals also had comparative advantage over the young. Two principal components were extracted to discern the structure of the two genetic groups. The most discriminating traits between the two sheep breeds were rump height, height at withers, neck girth and pin-bone width. Mahalanobis distance between the two genetic groups was 5.723 (P < 0.0001). The developed discriminant functions clearly discriminated and classified the Sahel and the Djallonke sheep into their breeds of origin, thus yielding 100, 93.4 and 90.4 % accurate classification for the rams, ewes and the overall sheep population, respectively. The present approach would greatly help in establishing management and conservation policies for the sustainable production of the two Ghanaian sheep breeds. PMID:22710941

Birteeb, Peter T; Peters, Sunday Olusola; Yakubu, Abdulmojeed; Adeleke, Matthew Adekunle; Ozoje, Michael Ohiokhuaobo

2012-12-01

381

Efficiency of Simulium sanctipauli as a vector of Onchocerca volvulus in the forest zone of Ghana.  

PubMed

The role of Simulium sanctipauli Vajime & Dunbar (Diptera: Simuliidae) as a vector of Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart) (Spirurida: Onchocercidae) in the forest zone of central Ghana was studied in the Upper Denkyira district, where onchocerciasis is hyperendemic. Simulium sanctipauli was found to be a highly efficient vector, with a mean of 377 infective (L3) larvae in the heads of 1000 parous and 122 in the heads of 1000 biting flies. The overall infection rate of 44% of the parous flies with L1, L2 and L3 stages of O. volvulus (identity confirmed by polymerase chain reaction) demonstrates marked anthropophily. Female flies dispersed over a wide area and can transmit onchocerciasis up to at least 10 km away from their breeding sites. Annual community-directed treatments with ivermectin did not have a noticeable effect on the infection rates and parasitic loads of fly populations, which were as high 2 months after as 3 months before the distribution of ivermectin. This failure can be attributed to poor coverage, with treatment taken by only 24.4% of the population of the six study villages. PMID:15189242

Kutin, K; Kruppa, T F; Brenya, R; Garms, R

2004-06-01

382

Linked exhumation-driven brittle fracture and fluid generation at Damang gold mine, Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Damang gold deposit in southwest Ghana is unique amongst other known orogenic gold deposits of the Birimian Terrane of West Africa. It comprises a stratigraphically-controlled, sub-horizontal fault-fracture quartz vein array and associated hydrothermal alteration haloes. Petrological, thermodynamic and geochronological data are used to constrain the evolution of the Damang deposit. Regional compression, following staurolite-grade, amphibolite facies regional metamorphism, which peaked at 2005±26 Ma, resulted in localized exhumation of the Damang area at a rate of ~2.6 mm/yr for approximately 5 Ma. This decompression led to the formation of the sub-horizontal, brittle fracture array. A gold-bearing fluid, generated through 'prograde' metamorphic devolatilization reactions during decompression, fed the vein array. Orogenic gold mineralization occurred at conditions of around 400-450°C and 1-2 kbar. Exhumation rates following gold mineralization were less than 0.01 mm/yr, while 40Ar/39Ar dating of biotites give ages ranging ranging between 1978.8±6.2 Ma and 1898±11 Ma, indicating extremely prolonged cooling through the interval 300-250°C. Ultimately, the Damang deposit represents the interplay between regional scale tectonics, localized brittle deformation, and fluid generation through metamorphic reaction to produce an economic gold deposit.

Robb, L.; White, A.; Waters, D.

2012-12-01

383

Management and conservation of San Francisco Bay salt ponds: Effects of pond salinity, area, tide, and season on pacific flyway waterbirds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Throughout the world, coastal salt ponds provide habitat for large numbers and diversities of waterbirds. San Francisco Bay contains the most important coastal salt pond complexes for waterbirds in the United States, supporting more than a million waterbirds through the year. As an initial step in attempting to understand how the anticipated conversion of salt ponds to tidal marsh might affect the Bay's bird populations, the number of birds using salt ponds on high and low tides was counted during the winter months of 1999/00 and 2000/01. Behavior and habitat use of birds in these ponds were assessed, and the effects of tide cycle, pond salinity, and pond area on bird use were examined. We recorded 75 species of waterbirds in surveys of salt ponds in the South Bay from September 1999 to February 2001, totaling over a million bird use days on high tide. Shorebirds and dabbling ducks were the most abundant groups of birds using the salt ponds. Waterbird numbers and diversity were significantly affected by the salinity of ponds in a non-linear fashion with lower numbers and diversity on the highest salinity ponds. With the exception of ducks and Eared Grebe (Podiceps nigricollis), tide height at the Bay significantly affected bird numbers in the salt ponds with ponds at high tides having higher numbers of birds than the same ponds on low tides. Considerable numbers of birds fed in the salt ponds on high and low tides, although this varied greatly by species. Habitat use varied by tide. Management recommendations include maintaining ponds of varying salinities and depths. Restoring salt ponds to tidal marsh should proceed with caution to avoid loss of waterbird diversity and numbers in San Francisco Bay.

Warnock, N.; Page, G. W.; Ruhlen, T. D.; Nur, N.; Takekawa, J. Y.; Hanson, J. T.

2002-01-01

384

A survey on depression among infertile women in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background The desire of many young women to become parents may be influenced by the premium placed on children by society. In Africa, children are highly valued for social, cultural and economic reasons. Infertile and childless women in Africa are therefore confronted with a series of societal discrimination and stigmatization which may lead to psychological disorders such as anxiety and depression. Even though some research has been done on the prevalence of infertility in Ghana, very little is known about the psychological impact of childlessness among infertile women. The present study aimed to examine prevalence and severity of depression in relation to age, type of infertility and duration of infertility in Ghanaian infertile women. Methods A total of 100 infertile women who met the selection criteria and had agreed to participate in the study were interviewed using the Beck Depression Inventory questionnaire from December 2012 to April 2013 at the Tamale Teaching Hospital, Tamale/Ghana. Data concerning socio-demographic characteristics such as age, monthly income, duration of infertility, marital status, educational level, number of previous conception, number of previous children, religion, as well as occupation of the respondents were recorded. Results The prevalence of depression among the women was 62.0% with the level of depression showing a significant positive correlation with age of the women and the duration of infertility. The level of depression was significantly higher among subjects with low or no formal education and among the unemployed. Women with primary infertility also presented with high depression scores as measured by BDI. Conclusions In conclusion, the prevalence of depression among the infertile women is high, especially among infertile women age 26 and above, those who are less educated, those with primary infertility, as well as those who have been diagnosed as infertile for more than 3 years. Interventions to decrease and prevent the development of severe depression among these patients should be considered.

2014-01-01

385

Groundwater classification using multivariate statistical methods: Southern Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study demonstrates the strength of R-mode factor analysis and Q-mode hierarchical cluster analysis in determining spatial groundwater salinity groups in southeastern Ghana. Three hundred and eighty three (383) groundwater samples were taken from six hydrogeological terrains and surface water bodies and analyzed for the concentrations of the major ions, electrical conductivity and pH. Q-mode hierarchical cluster analysis and R-mode factor analysis were respectively used to spatially classify groundwater samples and determine the probable sources of variation in groundwater salinity. The quality of groundwater for irrigation was then determined using three major indices. The analyses revealed two major sources of variation in groundwater salinity: silicate mineral weathering on one hand, and seawater intrusion and anthropogenic contamination on the other. A plot of the factor scores for the two major sources of variation in the salinity revealed trends which can be used in hydrogeological mapping and assist in drilling potable water boreholes in southeastern Ghana. This study also revealed four major spatial groundwater groups: low salinity, acidic groundwaters which are mainly derived from the Birimian and Togo Series aquifers; low salinity, moderate to neutral pH groundwaters which draw membership mainly from samples of the Voltaian, Buem and Cape Coast granitoids; very high salinity waters which are not suitable for most domestic and irrigation purposes and are mainly from the Keta Basin aquifers; and intermediate salinity groundwaters consisting of groundwater from the Keta basin aquifers with minor contributions from the other major terrains. The major water type identified in this study is the Ca-Mg-HCO 3 type, which degrades into predominantly Na-Cl-SO 4 more saline groundwaters towards the coast.

Yidana, Sandow Mark

2010-07-01

386

A National Vision for Girls' Education in Ghana and a Framework for Action: Charting the Way Forward.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents a national vision for girls' education in Ghana and a strategic framework for achieving that vision. The vision statement is: "All Ghana's girl-children and their brothers are healthy, attend safe, welcoming schools, are well-taught by qualified teachers who understand their needs, achieve according to their potential,…

Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.

387

AN INVESTIGATION OF SERVQUAL DIMENSIONS IN THE DELIVERY OF SATISFIED SERVICES TO CUSTOMERS IN THE DOMESTIC AIRLINES INDUSTRY IN GHANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates SERQUAL Dimensions in the delivery of satisfied services in the domestic airline industry in Ghana. Questionnaires were distributed to four hundred and fifty (450) customers from three domestic airlines namely Antrak Air, Fly 540 and Star Bow using the convenience sampling technique. The responses from the field indicate that domestic airlines operating in Ghana fall short in

Isaac Ofori; Seyram Pearl Kumah

2014-01-01

388

Self-Reported Suicidal Behavior and Attitudes Toward Suicide and Suicide Prevention Among Psychology Students in Ghana, Uganda, and Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-reported suicidal behavior and attitudes toward suicide in psychology students are reported and compared in Ghana, Uganda, and Norway. Small differences only were found in own suicidal behavior. However, experience of suicidal behavior in the surroundings was more common in Uganda than in Ghana and Norway. Although differences were found between the three countries in attitudes toward suicide, which emphasizes

Heidi Hjelmeland; Charity S. Akotia; Vicki Owens; Birthe L. Knizek; Hilmar Nordvik; Rose Schroeder; Eugene Kinyanda

2008-01-01

389

African Regional Seminar for Advanced Training In Systematic Curriculum Development and Evaluation. (Achimota, Ghana, 14 July--15 August 1975). Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes the African Regional Seminar for Advanced Training in Systematic Curriculum Development and Evaluation that was held at Achimota, Ghana, July 14-August 15 1975. Attending the seminar were 67 participants from 12 African countries, including Cameroon, Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Swaziland,…

Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA).

390

IMPLICATIONS OF THE WORLD FOOD CRISES ON TRENDS OF LOCAL FOOD PRICES IN THE UPPER EAST REGION OF GHANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global food crisis led to upward trends in food prices across the world. The millions of impoverished people living in developing countries including Ghana were the worst affected by the phenomenal increases in world food prices. This paper examines the implications of the global food crisis on the trends of food prices in the Upper East Region of Ghana.

M. A. Akudugu

2010-01-01

391

Biodiversity conservation and sustainable tourism: Philippine initiatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable tourism or ecotourism has been identified as one of the measures to achieve biodiversity conservation at both in situ (e.g. protected areas) and ex situ (e.g. zoos) conditions. The management strategies to harmonize biodiversity conservation and tourism development in the Philippines include the establishment of the National Integrated Protected Areas System, which incorporates tourism as a source of alternative

Corazon Catibog-Sinha

2010-01-01

392

Northeast Document Conservation Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1973, the Northeast Document Conservation Center (NDCC) was created to address the rapid deterioration of older paper-based documents in a number of institutions across New England. On their website, visitors can learn about their conservation and imaging services, and also examine some of their fine resources intended for members of the preservation community. The "Resources" area is a good place to start, as it contains a number of suggestions for preserving private and family collections and also contains a set of additional web-based resources and links. Beyond those materials, there are a number of digitized leaflets here, such as "Assessing Preservation Needs: A Self-Survey Guide" and "Preservation of Library and Archival Materials". The site is rounded out by an excellent disaster assistance section that includes an online disaster planning tool called "dPlan" and a set of general guidelines for archival institutions that may be coping with such situations.

393

Environmental Conservation Online System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Conservation Online System (ECOS) is a gateway web site that provides access to data systems in the Endangered Species and Fisheries and Habitat Conservation program areas, as well as other FWS and Government data sources. ECOS provides a central point of access to assist FWS personnel in managing data and information as well as provide general public access to information from numerous FWS databases. ECOS allows users to view, query, and, in some cases, edit data. Some of the larger applications are: Threatened and Endangered Species System (TESS), Habitat Tracking Information System (HabITS), Fish Passage Decision Support System (FPDSS), Contaminant Assessment Program (CAP), and Environmental Contaminants Data Management System (ECDMS). Mapping capabilities are also available, utilizing spatially referenced data in these databases. The general mapping utility, Geotract, is an interactive tool that includes data relevant to many service personnel and the public. Other specialized mapping tools are available for specific project and end-user needs.

394

Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme in the Context of the Health MDGs – An Empirical Evaluation Using Propensity Score Matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2003 the Government of Ghana established a National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) to improve health care access for Ghanaians and eventually replace the cashand- carry system. This study evaluates the NHIS to determine whether it is fulfi lling its purpose in the context of the Millennium Development Goals #4 and #5 which deal with the health of women and

Joseph Mensah; Joseph R. Oppong; Christoph M. Schmidt

2009-01-01

395

15 CFR 922.73 - Additional prohibited or otherwise regulated activities-marine reserves and marine conservation...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...activities-marine reserves and marine conservation area. 922.73 Section...activitiesâmarine reserves and marine conservation area. (a) Marine reserves...anchor or in transit. (b) Marine conservation area. Unless...

2010-01-01

396

Why Are Babies Dying in the First Month after Birth? A 7-Year Study of Neonatal Mortality in Northern Ghana  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the neonatal mortality rate in the Kassena-Nankana District (KND) of northern Ghana, and to identify the leading causes and timing of neonatal deaths. Methods The KND falls within the Navrongo Health Research Centre’s Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), which uses trained field workers to gather and update health and demographic information from community members every four months. We utilized HDSS data from 2003–2009 to examine patterns of neonatal mortality. Results A total of 17,751 live births between January 2003 and December 2009 were recorded, including 424 neonatal deaths 64.8%(275) of neonatal deaths occurred in the first week of life. The overall neonatal mortality rate was 24 per 1000 live births (95%CI 22 to 26) and early neonatal mortality rate was 16 per 1000 live births (95% CI 14 to 17). Neonatal mortality rates decreased over the period from 26 per 1000 live births in 2003 to 19 per 1000 live births in 2009. In all, 32%(137) of the neonatal deaths were from infections, 21%(88) from birth injury and asphyxia and 18%(76) from prematurity, making these three the leading causes of neonatal deaths in the area. Birth injury and asphyxia (31%) and prematurity (26%) were the leading causes of early neonatal deaths, while infection accounted for 59% of late neonatal deaths. Nearly 46% of all neonatal deaths occurred during the first three postnatal days. In multivariate analysis, multiple births, gestational age <32 weeks and first pregnancies conferred the highest odds of neonatal deaths. Conclusions Neonatal mortality rates are declining in rural northern Ghana, with majority of deaths occurring within the first week of life. This has major policy, programmatic and research implications. Further research is needed to better understand the social, cultural, and logistical factors that drive high mortality in the early days following delivery.

Welaga, Paul; Moyer, Cheryl A.; Aborigo, Raymond; Adongo, Philip; Williams, John; Hodgson, Abraham; Oduro, Abraham; Engmann, Cyril

2013-01-01

397

Assessing the groundwater fortunes of aquifers in the White Volta Basin, Ghana: An application of numerical groundwater flow modeling and isotopic studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effective development and informed management of groundwater resources represent a critical opportunity for improved rural water supply in Ghana and enhanced livelihoods particularly in the northern part of the White Volta Basin, a region already prone to a myriad of water-related infirmities. If adequately developed, the resource will form a sufficient buffer against the effects of climate change/variability and foster food security and sustainable livelihoods among the largely peasant communities in the region. This research presents the results of a preliminary assessment of the hydrogeological conditions and recharge regimes of the aquifers in the Northern parts of the White Volta Basin, Ghana. Results of estimates of groundwater recharge through the conventional isotopic and mass balance techniques are presented. Details of the groundwater flow pattern and preliminary delineation of local and regional groundwater recharge areas are presented from initial simulations of the hydrogeological system with a robust groundwater flow simulation code, MODFLOW, in the Groundwater Modeling System, GMS, version 7.1. The stream flow and evapotranspiration components of the program were activated to incorporate surface flow processes, so that the resulting model represents the conditions of the entire hydrological system. The results of this study form a platform for detailed numerical assessment of the conditions of the aquifers in the area under transient conditions of fluctuating rainfall patterns in the face of climate change/variability.

Oteng, F. M.; Yidana, S. M.; Alo, C. A.

2012-12-01

398

Estimation of small reservoir storage capacities in the São Francisco, Limpopo, Bandama and Volta river basins using remotely sensed surface areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

People living in areas with highly variable rainfall, experience droughts and floods and often have insecure livelihoods. Small multi-purpose reservoirs (SR) are a widely used form of infrastructures to provide people in such areas with water during the dry season, e.g. in the basins of São Francisco, Brazil, Limpopo, Zimbabwe, Bandama, Ivory Coast and Volta, Ghana. In these areas, the

Lineu Rodrigues; Aidan Senzanje; Philippe Cecchi; Jens Liebe

2010-01-01

399

Forest conservation delivers highly variable coral reef conservation outcomes.  

PubMed

Coral reefs are threatened by human activities on both the land (e.g., deforestation) and the sea (e.g., overfishing). Most conservation planning for coral reefs focuses on removing threats in the sea, neglecting management actions on the land. A more integrated approach to coral reef conservation, inclusive of land-sea connections, requires an understanding of how and where terrestrial conservation actions influence reefs. We address this by developing a land-sea planning approach to inform fine-scale spatial management decisions and test it in Fiji. Our aim is to determine where the protection of forest can deliver the greatest return on investment for coral reef ecosystems. To assess the benefits of conservation to coral reefs, we estimate their relative condition as influenced by watershed-based pollution and fishing. We calculate the cost-effectiveness of protecting forest and find that investments deliver rapidly diminishing returns for improvements to relative reef condition. For example, protecting 2% of forest in one area is almost 500 times more beneficial than protecting 2% in another area, making prioritization essential. For the scenarios evaluated, relative coral reef condition could be improved by 8-58% if all remnant forest in Fiji were protected rather than deforested. Finally, we determine the priority of each coral reef for implementing a marine protected area when all remnant forest is protected for conservation. The general results will support decisions made by the Fiji Protected Area Committee as they establish a national protected area network that aims to protect 20% of the land and 30% of the inshore waters by 2020. Although challenges remain, we can inform conservation decisions around the globe by tackling the complex issues relevant to integrated land-sea planning. PMID:22827132

Klein, Carissa J; Jupiter, Stacy D; Selig, Elizabeth R; Watts, Matthew E; Halpern, Benjamin S; Kamal, Muhammad; Roelfsema, Chris; Possingham, Hugh P

2012-06-01

400

LOWER PEARL CONSERVATION AREA PLAN MX964235  

EPA Science Inventory

The Lower Pearl River serves as the boudary between Mississippi and Louisiana. The Lower Pearl Partnership (LPP) is a coalition of local and state interest focused on improving the quality of the Lower Pearl River. The MDEQ, in support of the LPP will develop and implement a Co...

401

Fear of Crime among an Immigrant Population in the Washington, DC Metropolitan Area.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied fear of crime among Ghanaian immigrants in the Washington, D.C. area, taking aspects of Ghanaian culture into account. Survey responses of 300 immigrants showed that the majority of the Ghanaian immigrants experienced fear of crime, but those who had been urban residents in Ghana were less fearful, probably because they were already…

Ackah, Yaw

2000-01-01

402

A New Era in the Management of Burns Trauma in Kumasi, Ghana  

PubMed Central

Summary The aim of the study was to investigate the factors affecting the outcome of treatment of burns patients admitted to the Burns Intensive Care Unit (BICU) of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana. Information on patients admitted to the BICU from February 2001 to January 2006 was recorded. Parameters recorded included: admission record and demographics, causes of the injury, burned surface area, laboratory investigations, treatment regime, and record of discharge/death. The data were analysed with SPSS version 12.0 and Spearman's rank correlation. A total of 826 patients were recorded; males (n = 492, 60%) outnumbered females (n= 334, 40%). The mean age was 10.5 ± 5 yr, the majority (n = 441, 53%) in the range 0-10 yr. Flame burns (n = 587, 71%), scalds (n = 209, 25%), and chemicals (n = 19, 2%) were the three significant causes of burn injuries. The mean range of the total body surface area (TBSA) burned was 11-20%; 94% (n = 775) had up to 60% TBSA; 64% (n = 527) had only wound dressings for treatment; 21% (n = 174) had early excision with skin grafting, while 15% (n = 125) had delayed excision with skin grafting. The majority (n = 563, 68%) of the patients stayed for less than 10 days after admission. The mortality rate fell over the years, decreasing drastically between 2001 (20.4%) and 2002 (8.6%) and remaining at single digit level in 2003 (7.6%), 2004 (7.9%), and 2005 (7.4 %). The factors affecting the mortality trends were proper case management, increases in the number of professional medical personnel, and their greater dedication.

Agbenorku, P.; Akpaloo, J.; Yalley, D.; Appiah, A.

2010-01-01

403

Historical and simulated ecosystem carbon dynamics in Ghana: Land use, management, and climate  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used the General Ensemble biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS) to simulate responses of natural and managed ecosystems to changes in land use and land cover, management, and climate for a forest/savanna transitional zone in central Ghana. Model results show that deforestation for crop production during the 20th century resulted in a substantial reduction in ecosystem carbon (C) stock from 135.4 Mg C ha-1 in 1900 to 77.0 Mg C ha-1 in 2000, and in soil organic C stock within the top 20 cm of soil from 26.6 Mg C ha-1 to 21.2 Mg C ha-1. If no land use change takes place from 2000 through 2100, low and high climate change scenarios (increase in temperature and decrease in precipitation over time) will result in losses of soil organic C stock by 16% and 20%, respectively. A low nitrogen (N) fertilization rate is the principal constraint on current crop production. An increase in N fertilization under the low climate change scenario would lead to an increase in the average crop yield by 21% with 30 kg N ha-1 and by 42% with 60 kg N ha-1 (varying with crop species), accordingly, the average soil C stock would decrease by 2% and increase by 17%, in all cropping systems by 2100. The results suggest that a reasonable N fertilization rate is critical to achieve food security and agricultural sustainability in the study area through the 21st century. Adaptation strategies for climate change in this study area require national plans to support policies and practices that provide adequate N fertilizers to sustain soil C and crop yields and to consider high temperature tolerant crop species if these temperature projections are exceeded. ?? Author(s) 2009.

Tan, Z.; Tieszen, L. L.; Tachie-Obeng, E.; Liu, S.; Dieye, A. M.

2009-01-01

404

Defining Neighborhood Boundaries for Urban Health Research in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Accra, Ghana  

PubMed Central

The neighborhood has been used as a sampling unit for exploring variations in health outcomes. In a variety of studies census tracts or ZIP codes have been used as proxies for neighborhoods because the boundaries are pre-defined units for which other data are readily available. However these spatial units can be arbitrary and do not account for social-cultural behaviors and identities that are significant to residents. In this study for the city of Accra, Ghana, our goal was to create a neighborhood map that represented the boundaries generally agreed upon by the residents of the city using the smallest available census unit, the enumeration area (EA), as the base unit. This neighborhood map was then used as the basis for mapping spatial variations in health within the city. The first step in demarcating the boundaries was to identify features that limit a person’s movement including the major roads, drainage features, and railroad tracks that people use to partially define their neighborhood boundaries. Once an initial set of boundaries were established, they were iteratively modified by walking the neighborhoods, talking to residents, public officials, and others. The resulting neighborhood map consolidated 1,723 EAs into 108 neighborhoods covering the entire Accra metropolitan area. Results indicated that the team achieved 71 percent accuracy in mapping neighborhoods when the neighborhood keyed to the survey EA was compared with the response given by the interviewees in the 2008–2009 Women’s Health Survey of Accra when asked which neighborhood they lived in.

Ofiesh, Caetlin; Rain, David; Jewell, Henry; Weeks, John

2013-01-01

405

Policy on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) and adherence to food preparation guidelines: a cross sectional survey of stakeholders in food service in Kumasi, Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Food borne diseases claim more lives and are growing public health concerns. Simple preventive techniques such as adoption and adherence to hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) policy can significantly reduce this disease burden. Though food screening and inspection are done, the ultimate regulation, Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point, which is known and accepted worldwide, appears not to be popular among food operators in Ghana. This paper examines the level of awareness of the existence of policy on hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) and its adherence to food preparation guidelines among food service providers in Ghana. Results The results revealed the mean age of food providers as 33.1 years with a standard deviation of 7.5, range of 18–55 years, more females, in full time employment and with basic education. Of the fifty institutional managers, 42 (84%) were senior officers and had worked for more than five years. Education and type of food operator had strong statistically significant relationship with the implementation of HCCP policy and adherence with food preparation guidelines. The enforcement of HACCP policy and adherence with food safety guidelines was led by the Ghana Tourist Board, Public Health officers, and KMA, respectively. While a majority of food operators 373/450 (83.3%) did not know HACCP policy is part of food safety guidelines, staff of food safety law enforcement 44/50 (88%) confirmed knowing that food operators were not aware of the HACCP policy. Conclusion The study documents evidence on the practice of food safety principles or HACCP policy or adherence to food preparation guidelines. Existing food safety guidelines incorporate varying principles of HACCP, however, awareness is low among food operators. The implication is that food production is likely to fall short of acceptable standards and not be wholesome putting consumers at health risk. Repeating this study in rural and urban areas in Ghana is necessary to provide much more evidence to inform food safety guidelines. Further studies on chemical analysis of food and implementing training modules on HACCP policy for food producers and law enforcement agencies may be helpful to improve existing situation.

2013-01-01

406

Getting research into policy - Herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) treatment and HIV infection: international guidelines formulation and the case of Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Observational epidemiological and biological data indicate clear synergies between Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and HIV, whereby HSV-2 enhances the potential for HIV acquisition or transmission. In 2001, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched a call for research into the possibilities of disrupting this cofactor effect through the use of antiherpetic therapy. A WHO Expert Meeting was convened in 2008 to review the research results. The results of the trials were mostly inconclusive or showed no impact. However, the WHO syndromic management treatment guidelines were modified to include acyclovir as first line therapy to treat genital ulcer disease on the basis of the high prevalence of HSV-2 in most settings, impact and cost-benefit of treatment on ulcer healing and quality of life among patients. Methods This paper examines the process through which the evidence related to HIV–HSV-2 interactions influenced policy at the international level and then the mechanism of international to national policy transfer, with Ghana as a case study. To better understand the context within which national policy change occurs, special attention was paid to the relationships between researchers and policy-makers as integral to the process of getting evidence into policy. Data from this study were then collected through interviews conducted with researchers, program managers and policy-makers working in sexual health/STI at the 2008 WHO Expert Meeting in Montreux, Switzerland, and in Accra, Ghana. Results The major findings of this study indicate that investigations into HSV-2 as a cofactor of HIV generated the political will necessary to reform HSV-2 treatment policy. Playing a pivotal role at both the international level and within the Ghanaian policy context were ‘policy networks’ formed either formally (WHO) or informally (Ghana) around an issue area. These networks of professionals serve as the primary conduit of information between researchers and policy-makers. Donor influence was cited as the single strongest impetus and impediment to policy change nationally. Conclusions Policy networks may serve as the primary driving force of change in both international context and in the case of Ghana. Communication among researchers and policy-makers is critical for uptake of evidence and opportunities may exist to formalize policy networks and engage donors in a productive and ethical way.

2011-01-01

407

Better dead than dishonored: masculinity and male suicidal behavior in contemporary Ghana.  

PubMed

In Ghana reliable official data on suicidal behavior are not available. There is also limited empirical research on suicidal behavior in the country. At the same time, police-recorded suicide data, media reports, and communication from professionals in the field indicate that suicidal behavior is a growing problem. To identify current patterns and meanings of male suicidal behavior in Ghana, the study examined official police data spanning 2006-2008. This investigation revealed that reported cases of fatal and nonfatal suicidal behavior overwhelmingly involved males. Furthermore, the majority of males who engaged in suicidal acts did so to deal with feelings of shame and dishonor of variable sources. Findings suggest changing the rigid dichotomization associated with male-female gender roles and socialization that emphasize masculinity ideals in Ghana and the need for increased research and the promotion of counseling for males facing emotional stress. PMID:21075496

Adinkrah, Mensah

2012-02-01

408

Women, microcredit and family planning practices: a case study from rural Ghana.  

PubMed

This paper examines the influence of informal banking club participation on family planning practices in rural Ghana. Research from Asia suggests that family planning practices are improved by club participation. This study examines this thesis in an African context, using rural Ghana as a case study. A sample of 204 women (19 years and older) was drawn from Abokobi village, Ghana. Multivariate analyses of direct, mediating and moderating effects of women’s demographic background characteristics, membership status and length, and women’s empowerment status as predictors of family planning practices are assessed. Findings suggest that club membership and membership length is not associated with family planning practices; however, age, education level, number of children and empowerment status are. PMID:21901899

Norwood, Carolette

2011-01-01

409

First Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis for Second-line Anti-tuberculosis Drugs in Ghana  

PubMed Central

We performed drug susceptibility testing on first- and second-line drugs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) for the first time in Ghana to obtain preliminary data on drug-resistant tuberculosis. Of 21 isolates (4 new cases and 17 treated cases), 5 (23.8%) were multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and 19 (90.5%) were resistant to at least one drug, but no extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) was identified. Since the target patients were Category II, IV or smear positive at follow-up microscopy, it is understandable that there were many drug-resistant TB cases. Six isolates were resistant to one or two second-line drugs, but the second-line drugs were not approved in Ghana. It is considered that the bacilli were imported from abroad. Preventing the import of drug-resistant TB bacilli is probably one of best ways to control TB in Ghana.

Kato, Tomoko; Addo, Kennedy Kwasi; Nartey, Naomi; Nyarko, Alexander Kwadwo; Bonsu, Frank Adae; Mitarai, Satoshi

2014-01-01

410

Water Conservation Devices: Residential Water Conservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A consumer-oriented capsule report highlights findings of research projects funded through the Office of Water Research and Technology which treat the significance, economics, and application of water conservation. Water conservation measures and devices,...

1977-01-01

411

Saharan Dust Particle Size And Concentration Distribution In Central Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A.K. Sunnu*, G. M. Afeti* and F. Resch+ *Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) Kumasi, Ghana. E-mail: albertsunnu@yahoo.com +Laboratoire Lepi, ISITV-Université du Sud Toulon-Var, 83162 La Valette cedex, France E-mail: resch@univ-tln.fr Keywords: Atmospheric aerosol; Saharan dust; Particle size distributions; Particle concentrations. Abstract The Saharan dust that is transported and deposited over many countries in the West African atmospheric environment (5°N), every year, during the months of November to March, known locally as the Harmattan season, have been studied over a 13-year period, between 1996 and 2009, using a location at Kumasi in central Ghana (6° 40'N, 1° 34'W) as the reference geographical point. The suspended Saharan dust particles were sampled by an optical particle counter, and the particle size distributions and concentrations were analysed. The counter gives the total dust loads as number of particles per unit volume of air. The optical particle counter used did not discriminate the smoke fractions (due to spontaneous bush fires during the dry season) from the Saharan dust. Within the particle size range measured (0.5 ?m-25 ?m.), the average inter-annual mean particle diameter, number and mass concentrations during the northern winter months of January and February were determined. The average daily number concentrations ranged from 15 particles/cm3 to 63 particles/cm3 with an average of 31 particles/cm3. The average daily mass concentrations ranged from 122 ?g/m3 to 1344 ?g/m3 with an average of 532 ?g/m3. The measured particle concentrations outside the winter period were consistently less than 10 cm-3. The overall dust mean particle diameter, analyzed from the peak representative Harmattan periods over the 13-year period, ranged from 0.89 ?m to 2.43 ?m with an average of 1.5 ?m ± 0.5. The particle size distributions exhibited the typical distribution pattern for atmospheric aerosols with a coarse mode diameter situated at about 3.5 ?m. The experimental results reported in this study will be important in validating satellite based observations and simulation models of the African dust plume towards the Gulf of Guinea during winter.

Sunnu, A. K.

2010-12-01

412

Healthy Firms: Constraints to Growth among Private Health Sector Facilities in Ghana and Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background Health outcomes in developing countries continue to lag the developed world, and many countries are not on target to meet the Millennium Development Goals. The private health sector provides much of the care in many developing countries (e.g., approximately 50 percent in Sub-Saharan Africa), but private providers are often poorly integrated into the health system. Efforts to improve health systems performance will need to include the private sector and increase its contributions to national health goals. However, the literature on constraints private health care providers face is limited. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyze data from a survey of private health facilities in Kenya and Ghana to evaluate growth constraints facing private providers. A significant portion of facilities (Ghana: 62 percent; Kenya: 40 percent) report limited access to finance as the most significant barrier they face; only a small minority of facilities report using formal credit institutions to finance day to day operations (Ghana: 6 percent; Kenya: 11 percent). Other important barriers include corruption, crime, limited demand for goods and services, and poor public infrastructure. Most facilities have paper-based rather than electronic systems for patient records (Ghana: 30 percent; Kenya: 22 percent), accounting (Ghana: 45 percent; Kenya: 27 percent), and inventory control (Ghana: 41 percent; Kenya: 24 percent). A majority of clinics in both countries report undertaking activities to improve provider skills and to monitor the level and quality of care they provide. However, only a minority of pharmacies report undertaking such activities. Conclusions/Significance The results suggest that improved access to finance and improving business processes especially among pharmacies would support improved contributions by private health facilities. These strategies might be complementary if providers are more able to take advantage of increased access to finance when they have the business processes in place for operating a successful business and health facility.

Burger, Nicholas E.; Kopf, Daniel; Spreng, Connor P.; Yoong, Joanne; Sood, Neeraj

2012-01-01

413

Interactive Distributed Conservation Planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the environmental and agricultural conservation planning process, more efficient and effective tools are needed for planners to assist private landowners with making wiser land use decisions. Current methods are slow, inefficient, and costly. Scientific techniques have not been fully implemented within the planning process, yet such plans are increasingly needed to meet water quality and Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) requirements. The objectives of this study are to (a) utilize the web for accessing an integrated science-based land use decision support system; (b) link decision tools, models, and databases to the user via the web; (c) link distributed models and databases for enhanced planning efficiency; and (d) integrate the above into an easily usable and readily accessible system. The procedures resulting in the initial design involved planning expertise and focus groups' input. The system was developed in partnership with the Natural Resources Conservation Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and several state agencies. A survey of 150 certified conservation planners, the end users, was conducted to identify the data sets and planning tools needed. Data, tools, and models then were selected and integrated into a web accessible system. Specifically, the first generation used a web interactive Geographic Information System (GIS) that overlaid onto digital orthoquads and/or soils polygons field boundaries, transportation, hydrologic features (such as drains, rivers, lakes, etc.), and high pesticide risk runoff or infiltration areas. Conservation planners found they could save time with the system. Clients could access the system quickly to help them prepare for meeting with their planner. Previously acquiring GIS maps in some cases had been a lengthy process that limited use of the information in land use decisions.

Brown, Elaine M.; Ouyang, Da; Jeremiah Asher, A.; Batholic, Jon F.

2002-08-01

414

Providing animal health services to the poor in Northern Ghana: rethinking the role of community animal health workers?  

PubMed

The Community Animal Health Workers (CAHWs) system has been promoted as an alternative solution to providing animal health services in marginal areas. Yet, access to quality animal health services still remains a fundamental problem for livestock dependent communities. This paper uses the concepts of accessibility, affordability, and transaction costs to examine the perceptions of livestock keepers about the various animal health service providers. The empirical analysis is based on a survey of 120 livestock-keeping households in the Tolon-Kumbungu and Savelugu-Nanton districts in the Northern Region of Ghana. A multinomial logit model was used to determine the factors that influence households' choice of alternative animal health service providers. The results show that the government para-vets are the most preferred type of animal health service providers while CAHWs are the least preferred. Reasons for this observation include high transaction costs and low performance resulting from limited training. In areas with few or no government para-vets, farmers have resorted to self-treatment or to selling sick animals for consumption, which has undesirable health implications. These practices also result in significant financial losses for farmers. This paper finds that the CAHWs' system is insufficient for providing quality animal health services to the rural poor in marginal areas. Therefore, market-smart alternative solutions requiring strong public sector engagement to support livestock farmers in marginal areas and setting minimum training standards for animal health service providers merit policy consideration. PMID:24346862

Mockshell, Jonathan; Ilukor, John; Birner, Regina

2014-02-01

415

Modernization of Native Healers: Implications for Health Care Delivery in Ghana  

PubMed Central

There are two major categories of traditional healers in contemporary Ghana. The traditionalists still adhere to the basic concepts and methods of traditional healing. A significant proportion of healers have, however, adopted a new approach to healing. These new-style healers are rejecting some of the traditional beliefs about etiology of illness, and are reorganizing their medical practice. They have more education, live in cities, and acquire “modern” medical knowledge through formal training at Traditional Medical Training Centers. This new development has had a significant impact on the contributions of traditional medicine in health care delivery in Ghana.

Bonsi, Stephen K.

1980-01-01

416

The meanings of suicidal behaviour to psychology students in Ghana: a qualitative approach.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine psychology students' attitudes toward suicidal behaviour and the meanings they assign to the act. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 final year psychology students at a university in Ghana. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to analyze the data. The results indicated that the students had a generalized negative attitude toward suicide. Religious beliefs and family harmony are cultural contexts influencing the interpretation of suicidal behaviour as breach of divine and communal moralities. The implications of these meanings of suicidal behaviour for suicide prevention in Ghana are discussed. PMID:22021107

Osafo, Joseph; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Akotia, Charity S; Knizek, Birthe Loa

2011-11-01

417

Sibling rivalry and the gender gap: evidence from child health outcomes in Ghana.  

PubMed

"When capital and labor markets are imperfect, choice sets narrow, and parents must choose how to ration available funds and time between their children. One consequence is that children become rivals for household resources. In economies with pro-male bias, such rivalries can yield gains to having relatively more sisters than brothers. Using a rich household survey from Ghana [the 1988-1989 Ghana Living Standards Survey], we find that on average if children had all sisters (and no brothers) they would do roughly 25-40% better on measured health indicators than if they had all brothers (and no sisters)." PMID:12294784

Garg, A; Morduch, J

1998-01-01

418

Immunization determinants in the eastern region of Ghana.  

PubMed

A study of the immunization determinants of children aged 12 to 18 months was conducted in 1991 in the Eastern Region of Ghana, using structured interviews of mothers and fathers. The completion of immunization schedules by one year, among the 294 children, was positively associated (P < 0.005) with the town of residence of the child and mother, the ability of the mother to speak English, the target child having been treated for illness at the local hospital, the child's mother having given birth to less than 5 children, the possession of a sewing machine by the mother, and the birth of the child in the current town of residence. Significantly higher immunization coverage levels were achieved where the Under Fives' Clinic was an affordable and acceptable service, integrating preventive and curative care, and where measures were implemented by the community to increase attendance levels at the Clinic. This was achieved among a target group who were otherwise at a relatively high risk of failing to complete immunization schedules on-time. PMID:10151849

Brugha, R; Kevany, J

1995-09-01