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Sample records for conservation measures-a case

  1. Case studies in conservation science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisulca, Christina

    The research presented in this dissertation covers three separate topics of conservation as defined by the National Science Foundation: 1) Materials Stabilization, Strengthening, Monitoring, and Repair; 2. Understanding Material Degradation and Aging; and 3) Materials and Structural Characterization of Cultural Heritage Objects (the 'technical study'). The first topic is addressed through a study to assess the consolidant tetraethoxysilane for the stabilization of alum treated wood. Falling under materials degradation studies is a study published in American Museum Novitates to understand how environmental conditions affect the aging of fossil resins from five different deposits. Two separate studies are included in technical study of cultural heritage objects which comprises the third research area of materials characterization. The first is a survey of red dyes used in Chinese paintings from the Ming Dynasty to the Early Republic (1364-1911). The second is a study of the pigments, dyes and binders used in Hawaiian barkcloth (kapa) from the 19th century.

  2. Species Conservation and Management: Case Studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Akcakaya, H.R.; Burgman, M.A.; Kindvall, O.; Wood, C.C.; Sjogren-Gulve, P.; Hatfield, J.S.; McCarthy, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    This edited volume is a collection of population and metapopulation models for a wide variety of species, including plants, invertebrates, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Each chapter of the book describes the application of RAMAS GIS 4.0 to one species, with the aim of demonstrating how various life history characteristics of the species are incorporated into the model, and how the results of the model has been or can be used in conservation and management of the species. The book comes with a CD that includes a demo version of the program, and the data files for each species.

  3. Energy conservation in the textile industry: 10 case histories

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    Presented are ten case studies of energy conserving technologies that have been implemented by the textile industry. For each case is given: the name and location of the plant and an employee contact, description of products, energy consumption and costs in years before and after the energy conserving technology was implemented, energy savings since the energy conserving technology was implemented, description of investment decision-making process, and description of any institutional and environmental considerations. Measures included are: tandem preparation line, dyebath reuse, bump-and-run (dyebath temperature drifts for the last 85% of the hold time), foam finishing, wastewater heat recovery, wastewater chlorination and reuse, oven exhaust air counterflow, boiler economizer, wood-fired boiler, and solar industrial process heat. Several other energy conserving technologies that were not studied are briefly summarized. (LEW)

  4. Significance of Perceived Social Expectation and Implications to Conservation Education: Turtle Conservation as a Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Alex Y.; Chow, Alex T.; Cheung, Sze Man

    2012-11-01

    The likelihood of participating in wildlife conservation programs is dependent on social influences and circumstances. This view is validated by a case study of behavioral intention to support conservation of Asian turtles. A total of 776 college students in China completed a questionnaire survey designed to identify factors associated with their intention to support conservation. A regression model explained 48 % of variance in the level of intention. Perceived social expectation was the strongest predictor, followed by attitudes toward turtle protection and perceived behavioral control, altogether explaining 44 %. Strong ethics and socio-economic variables had some statistical significant impacts and accounted for 3 % of the variance. The effects of general environmental awareness, trust and responsibility ascription were modest. Knowledge about turtles was a weak predictor. We conclude that perceived social expectation is a limiting factor of conservation behavior. Sustained interest and commitment to conservation can be created by enhancing positive social influences. Conservation educators should explore the potential of professionally supported, group-based actions that can nurture a sense of collective achievement as part of an educational campaign.

  5. Conservation markets for wildlife management with case studies from whaling.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Leah R; Costello, Christopher; Gaines, Steven D

    2014-01-01

    Although market-based incentives have helped resolve many environmental challenges, conservation markets still play a relatively minor role in wildlife management. Establishing property rights for environmental goods and allowing trade between resource extractors and resource conservationists may offer a path forward in conserving charismatic species like whales, wolves, turtles, and sharks. In this paper, we provide a conceptual model for implementing a conservation market for wildlife and evaluate how such a market could be applied to three case studies for whales (minke [Balaenoptera acutorostrata], bowhead [Balaena mysticetus], and gray [Eschrictius robustus]). We show that, if designed and operated properly, such a market could ensure persistence of imperiled populations, while simultaneously improving the welfare of resource harvesters. PMID:24640529

  6. A methodology of healthcare quality measurement: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecoraro, F.; Luzi, D.; Cesarelli, M.; Clemente, F.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we present a comprehensive model for quality assessment taking into account structure, process and outcome dimensions introduced in the Donabedian framework. To test our hypothesis a case study based on the Italian healthcare services is reported focusing on the analysis of the hospital bed management and on the phenomenon of both active and passive patient mobility.

  7. Designing climate-smart conservation: guidance and case studies.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Lara; Hoffman, Jennifer; Drews, Carlos; Mielbrecht, Eric

    2010-02-01

    To be successful, conservation practitioners and resource managers must fully integrate the effects of climate change into all planning projects. Some conservation practitioners are beginning to develop, test, and implement new approaches that are designed to deal with climate change. We devised four basic tenets that are essential in climate-change adaptation for conservation: protect adequate and appropriate space, reduce nonclimate stresses, use adaptive management to implement and test climate-change adaptation strategies, and work to reduce the rate and extent of climate change to reduce overall risk. To illustrate how this approach applies in the real world, we explored case studies of coral reefs in the Florida Keys; mangrove forests in Fiji, Tanzania, and Cameroon; sea-level rise and sea turtles in the Caribbean; tigers in the Sundarbans of India; and national planning in Madagascar. Through implementation of these tenets conservation efforts in each of these regions can be made more robust in the face of climate change. Although these approaches require reconsidering some traditional approaches to conservation, this new paradigm is technologically, economically, and intellectually feasible. PMID:20121842

  8. Conservative cricoid surgery for chondrosarcoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gaio, Elena; Maggiore, Giandomenico; Canesso, Alessandra; Artico, Riccardo

    2014-02-01

    We present the case of a 39-year-old man who presented with hoarseness and progressively worsening dyspnea. Findings on laryngoscopy and computed tomography strongly suggested the presence of a chondrosarcoma. The patient underwent open surgery for removal of the lesion with wide margins. Reconstruction was carried out with two segments of costal cartilage. Laryngeal chondrosarcomas are rare, malignant, usually well-differentiated neoplasms that should be treated with conservative surgery. Recurrences should be treated more aggressively. PMID:24526490

  9. Energy conserving site design case study: Shenandoah, Georgia. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The case study examines the means by which energy conservation can be achieved at an aggregate community level by using proper planning and analytical techniques for a new town, Shenandoah, Georgia, located twenty-five miles southwest of Atlanta's Hartsfield International Airport. A potentially implementable energy conservation community plan is achieved by a study team examining the land use options, siting characteristics of each building type, alternate infrastructure plans, possible decentralized energy options, and central utility schemes to determine how community energy conservation can be achieved by use of pre-construction planning. The concept for the development of mixed land uses as a passively sited, energy conserving community is based on a plan (Level 1 Plan) that uses the natural site characteristics, maximizes on passive energy siting requirement, and allows flexibility for the changing needs of the developers. The Level 2 Plan is identical with Level 1 plan plus a series of decentraized systems that have been added to the residential units: the single-family detached, the apartments, and the townhouses. Level 3 Plan is similar to the Level 1 Plan except that higher density dwellings have been moved to areas adjacent to central site. The total energy savings for each plan relative to the conventional plan are indicated. (MCW)

  10. Case studies of conservation plans that incorporate geodiversity.

    PubMed

    Anderson, M G; Comer, P J; Beier, P; Lawler, J J; Schloss, C A; Buttrick, S; Albano, C M; Faith, D P

    2015-06-01

    Geodiversity has been used as a surrogate for biodiversity when species locations are unknown, and this utility can be extended to situations where species locations are in flux. Recently, scientists have designed conservation networks that aim to explicitly represent the range of geophysical environments, identifying a network of physical stages that could sustain biodiversity while allowing for change in species composition in response to climate change. Because there is no standard approach to designing such networks, we compiled 8 case studies illustrating a variety of ways scientists have approached the challenge. These studies show how geodiversity has been partitioned and used to develop site portfolios and connectivity designs; how geodiversity-based portfolios compare with those derived from species and communities; and how the selection and combination of variables influences the results. Collectively, they suggest 4 key steps when using geodiversity to augment traditional biodiversity-based conservation planning: create land units from species-relevant variables combined in an ecologically meaningful way; represent land units in a logical spatial configuration and integrate with species locations when possible; apply selection criteria to individual sites to ensure they are appropriate for conservation; and develop connectivity among sites to maintain movements and processes. With these considerations, conservationists can design more effective site portfolios to ensure the lasting conservation of biodiversity under a changing climate. PMID:25924074

  11. Polarized line formation by resonance scattering. II. Conservative case.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, V. V.; Grachev, S. I.; Loskutov, V. M.

    1997-05-01

    We consider multiple resonance scattering with complete frequency redistribution (CFR) in a semi-infinite conservative atmosphere (photon destruction probability ɛ_I_=0) with the sources at infinite depth. The polarization arising in resonance scattering is completely accounted for. The problem we consider is the resonance-scattering counterpart of the Chandrasekhar-Sobolev problem of Rayleigh scattering in the conservative atmosphere. The numerical data on the matrix source function S(τ) in the atmosphere with conservative dipole resonance scattering (the depolarization parameter W=1) are presented; we assume Doppler profile. The source matrix is found by a non-iterative numerical solution of the matrix Wiener-Hopf integral equation with the matrix {LAMBDA}-operator. Depth dependence of the elements of the source matrix S(τ) is discussed. Some unexpected peculiarities are revealed in the behavior of its polarization terms. The matrix I(z) which is the generalization of the Chandrasekhar H-function to the case of polarized resonance scattering is found by the iterative solution of the Chandrasekhar-type nonlinear matrix integral equation. We present high-accuracy (5 s.f.) numerical data on I(z) for dipole conservative scattering with the Doppler profile. The center-to-limb variation of the degree of polarization in the core of a Doppler broadened resonance line is found. In conservative case, the limiting limb polarization δ_0_ in the core of such a line is 9.4430% (for W=1). The dependence of δ_0_ on the depolarization parameter W is found. Simple interpolation formula, δ_0_=(9.443-38.05sqrt(ɛ)_I_)%, is suggested for the limb polarization of the radiation emerging from an isothermal nearly conservative atmosphere (ɛ_I_<<1, W=1). The data on I(z) are used to find the polarization line profiles and to trace their center-to-limb variation. The asymptotic expansions of S(τ) for τ-{infinity} (deep layers) and of I(z) for z-{infinity} (line wings) are found

  12. A case study of assigning conservation value to dispersed habitat units for conservation planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rohweder, Jason J.; Sara C. Vacek; Crimmins, Shawn M.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.

    2015-01-01

    Resource managers are increasingly tasked with developing habitat conservation plans in the face of numerous, sometimes competing, objectives. These plans must often be implemented across dispersed habitat conservation units that may contribute unequally to overall conservation objectives. Using U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service waterfowl production areas (WPA) in western Minnesota as our conservation landscape, we develop a landscape-scale approach for evaluating the conservation value of dispersed habitat conservation units with multiple conservation priorities. We evaluated conservation value based on a suite of variables directly applicable to conservation management practices, thus providing a direct link between conservation actions and outcomes. We developed spatial models specific to each of these conservation objectives and also developed two freely available prioritization tools to implement these analyses. We found that some WPAs provided high conservation value across a range of conservation objectives, suggesting that managing these specific areas would achieve multiple conservation goals. Conversely, other WPAs provided low conservation value for some objectives, suggesting they would be most effectively managed for a distinct set of specific conservation goals. Approaches such as ours provide a direct means of assessing the conservation value of dispersed habitat conservation units and could be useful in the development of habitat management plans, particularly when faced with multiple conservation objectives.

  13. Pineal cyst apoplexy: report of an unusual case managed conservatively.

    PubMed

    Ayhan, Selim; Bal, Ercan; Palaoglu, Selcuk; Cila, Aysenur

    2011-01-01

    Pineal cyst apoplexy is a very rare entity with previously reported symptoms of severe frontal or occipital headache, gaze paresis and visual field defects, nausea or vomiting, syncope, ataxia, hearing loss and sudden death. The treatment options for symptomatic pineal cysts are observation, shunting, aspiration via stereotactic guidance or endoscopy, third ventriculostomy, ventriculocysternostomy, and/or surgical resection by craniotomy and microsurgery. Here, the authors report an unusual case of a 28-year-old male patient with pineal cyst apoplexy, presenting with headache, insomnia, and sexual dysfunction symptoms who is being managed conservatively and observed for two years by an academic tertiary care unit. PMID:22212992

  14. BCG-related renal granulomas managed conservatively: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Al-Qaoud, Talal; Brimo, Fadi; Aprikian, Armen G.; Andonian, Sero

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this case series is to present two cases of renal granulomas discovered incidentally post-intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) installations and were managed conservatively. Case reports: The first case is a 68-year-old man with bladder and right ureteral orifice carcinoma in situ. After transurethral resection of the right ureteral orifice and bladder tumours, he received 6 + 3 weekly intravesical installations of BCG and then 6 + 3 weekly intravesical installations of BCG with interferon alpha (IFN) in the presence of an indwelling ureteral stent since he had refused cystoprostatectomy. At the 18-month follow-up, his computed tomography scan showed two right renal masses. Biopsy demonstrated non-necrotizing granulomatosis. Serial follow-up with imaging studies showed complete resolution of these masses without anti-tuberculous medications. The second case is a 74-year old man with left renal high-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma. After ureteral meatotomy and insertion of indwelling ureteral stents, he received 6 weekly intravesical installations of BCG followed by 3 weekly installations of BCG and IFN prior to the definitive management with laparoscopic left nephroureterectomy. Final pathology showed pT1 urothelial carcinoma and an incidental finding of BCG-related renal granulamotosis. The patient has been asymptomatic and did not require anti-tuberculous medications. Conclusions: While these two cases demonstrate the ability of intravesical BCG to reach the renal pelvis, patients with a history of intravesical BCG with incidental renal masses may benefit from renal biopsy. These renal granulomas may resolve without anti-tuberculous medications. PMID:26085879

  15. Maximizing species conservation in continental Ecuador: a case of systematic conservation planning for biodiverse regions.

    PubMed

    Lessmann, Janeth; Muñoz, Jesús; Bonaccorso, Elisa

    2014-06-01

    Ecuador has the largest number of species by area worldwide, but also a low representation of species within its protected areas. Here, we applied systematic conservation planning to identify potential areas for conservation in continental Ecuador, with the aim of increasing the representation of terrestrial species diversity in the protected area network. We selected 809 terrestrial species (amphibians, birds, mammals, and plants), for which distributions were estimated via species distribution models (SDMs), using Maxent. For each species we established conservation goals based on conservation priorities, and estimated new potential protected areas using Marxan conservation planning software. For each selected area, we determined their conservation priority and feasibility of establishment, two important aspects in the decision-making processes. We found that according to our conservation goals, the current protected area network contains large conservation gaps. Potential areas for conservation almost double the surface area of currently protected areas. Most of the newly proposed areas are located in the Coast, a region with large conservation gaps and irreversible changes in land use. The most feasible areas for conservation were found in the Amazon and Andes regions, which encompass more undisturbed habitats, and already harbor most of the current reserves. Our study allows defining a viable strategy for preserving Ecuador's biodiversity, by combining SDMs, GIS-based decision-support software, and priority and feasibility assessments of the selected areas. This approach is useful for complementing protected area networks in countries with great biodiversity, insufficient biological information, and limited resources for conservation. PMID:25360277

  16. Maximizing species conservation in continental Ecuador: a case of systematic conservation planning for biodiverse regions

    PubMed Central

    Lessmann, Janeth; Muñoz, Jesús; Bonaccorso, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    Ecuador has the largest number of species by area worldwide, but also a low representation of species within its protected areas. Here, we applied systematic conservation planning to identify potential areas for conservation in continental Ecuador, with the aim of increasing the representation of terrestrial species diversity in the protected area network. We selected 809 terrestrial species (amphibians, birds, mammals, and plants), for which distributions were estimated via species distribution models (SDMs), using Maxent. For each species we established conservation goals based on conservation priorities, and estimated new potential protected areas using Marxan conservation planning software. For each selected area, we determined their conservation priority and feasibility of establishment, two important aspects in the decision-making processes. We found that according to our conservation goals, the current protected area network contains large conservation gaps. Potential areas for conservation almost double the surface area of currently protected areas. Most of the newly proposed areas are located in the Coast, a region with large conservation gaps and irreversible changes in land use. The most feasible areas for conservation were found in the Amazon and Andes regions, which encompass more undisturbed habitats, and already harbor most of the current reserves. Our study allows defining a viable strategy for preserving Ecuador's biodiversity, by combining SDMs, GIS-based decision-support software, and priority and feasibility assessments of the selected areas. This approach is useful for complementing protected area networks in countries with great biodiversity, insufficient biological information, and limited resources for conservation. PMID:25360277

  17. Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

  18. Conservative management of a case of tarsal tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hudes, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This case study was conducted to evaluate the treatment and management of a patient presenting with chronic foot pain, diagnosed as tarsal tunnel syndrome. Case: 61 year old female presenting with plantar and dorsal foot pain and burning sensation of 6 months duration. Treatment: Treatment was initiated using custom orthotics only for the first ten weeks of care as the patient did not follow up or initially respond to follow up calls placed by the practitioner. A course of high-velocity, low-amplitude adjustments using a toggle board to the cuboid and the talonavicular joint and fascial stripping was added upon report from the patient that the orthotic therapy alone did not resolve the symptoms. Improvement of pain reported on the Verbal Rating Scale was noted with a complete resolution of the condition at the conclusion of treatment. No pain was reported on a ten month follow up with the patient. Conclusion: Conservative management, including orthotics, manipulation, and fascial stripping may be beneficial in the treatment of tarsal tunnel syndrome. PMID:20520754

  19. Innovating Conservation Agriculture: The Case of No-Till Cropping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughenour, C. Milton

    2003-01-01

    The extensive sociological studies of conservation agriculture have provided considerable understanding of farmers' use of conservation practices, but attempts to develop predictive models have failed. Reviews of research findings question the utility of the conceptual and methodological perspectives of prior research. The argument advanced here…

  20. Examining Marginalized Communities and Local Conservation Institutions: The Case of Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahal, Smriti; Nepal, Sanjay K.; Schuett, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    In developing countries, participatory conservation initiatives have been criticized for many reasons, mainly for excluding marginalized groups which have led to unequal benefits. Using concepts from the literature on participation, conservation, and political ecology, this research explored the participation of marginal groups, i.e., poor, women, lower caste, and landless, in management institutions in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area. Field work for this research was conducted through the use of interviews and participant observation during August-October 2010. Results show that although marginal groups were involved in local management institutions, their representation was minimal and had not led to meaningful participation or empowerment to influence the decisions being made in conservation and development programs. Our study findings indicate that the involvement of marginal groups in local initiatives is complex and influenced by several factors. The study concludes that the Annapurna Conservation Area Project needs to re-orient its conservation projects by adopting a more inclusive form of participation and move beyond the quota system.

  1. Modeling to Target Conservation Practices: A Case Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Targeted placement of agricultural conservation practices within rural watersheds can significantly increase the cost-effectiveness of these nonpoint source pollution reduction measures. However, agricultural management decisions are made primarily at the farm-level, with confidentiality concerns an...

  2. Case study of building of conservation coalitions to conserve ecological interactions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gao; Luo, Shihong; Mei, Nianshu; Shen, Dingfang; Sun, Weibang

    2015-12-01

    We engaged experts in various fields of study (pollination ecology, chemical ecology, and ethnobotany), invited community participation, and provided environmental education in an effort to conserve an endangered birthwort (Aristolochia delavayi) and a vulnerable pipevine swallowtail (Byasa daemonius). Scientists studied the uptake and sequestration of the secondary metabolites aristolochic acids from A. delavayi leaves by different stages of pipevine swallowtail as a defense mechanism; low fruit set of the myophilous A. delavayi due to pollinator limitation; and the emission of chemical signals that attract parasitic wasps by the prepupae of B. daemonius. The results of these studies were part of an education program delivered by personnel of non-governmental organizations. The program was devised to deliver information to the public about the health risks of consuming A. delavayi individuals (aristolochic-acid-associated cancers) and to establish a bridge between the public and scientific research. Following delivery of the program, the behavior of residents changed considerably. Community residents were involved in management activities, including participation in a program to promote understanding of ecological interactions between A. delavayi and B. daemonius; designing an in situ conservation site; monitoring A. delavayi and B. daemonius individuals; and promoting the natural fruit set of A. delavayi by scattering animal excrement to attract fly pollinators. The integration of scientific information and community participation appears to have resulted in an increase in abundance of threatened A. delavayi and B. daemonius populations. We believe the involvement of local people in conservation is necessary for successful species conservation. PMID:26372410

  3. Reconsidering Conceptualisations of Farm Conservation Activity: The Case of Conserving Hay Meadows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Changes to agri-environmental policy, with an emphasis on encouraging more environmentally friendly farming practices, have been paralleled in the last two decades by a body of research into agri-environment scheme adoption. To date much of this research has considered conservation behaviour as a static issue across whole farms, and viewed…

  4. The case for policy-relevant conservation science.

    PubMed

    Rose, David C

    2015-06-01

    Drawing on the "evidence-based" (Sutherland et al. 2013) versus "evidence-informed" debate (Adams & Sandbrook 2013), which has become prominent in conservation science, I argue that science can be influential if it holds a dual reference (Lentsch & Weingart 2011) that contributes to the needs of policy makers whilst maintaining technical rigor. In line with such a strategy, conservation scientists are increasingly recognizing the usefulness of constructing narratives through which to enhance the influence of their evidence (Leslie et al. 2013; Lawton & Rudd 2014). Yet telling stories alone is rarely enough to influence policy; instead, these narratives must be policy relevant. To ensure that evidence is persuasive alongside other factors in a complex policy-making process, conservation scientists could follow 2 steps: reframe within salient political contexts and engage more productively in boundary work, which is defined as the ways in which scientists "construct, negotiate, and defend the boundary between science and policy" (Owens et al. 2006:640). These will both improve the chances of evidence-informed conservation policy. PMID:25545991

  5. Practicing Sustainability in an Urban University: A Case Study of a Behavior Based Energy Conservation Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Stuart; Dolderman, Dan; Savan, Beth; Wakefield, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This case study of the University of Toronto Sustainability Office's energy conservation project, Rewire, explores the implementation of a social marketing campaign that encourages energy efficient behavior. Energy conservation activities have reached approximately 3,000 students and staff members annually, and have saved electricity, thermal…

  6. Prioritising in situ conservation of crop resources: A case study of African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    PubMed Central

    Moray, C.; Game, E. T.; Maxted, N.

    2014-01-01

    Conserving crop wild relatives (CWR) is critical for maintaining food security. However, CWR-focused conservation plans are lacking, and are often based on the entire genus, even though only a few taxa are useful for crop improvement. We used taxonomic and geographic prioritisation to identify the best locations for in situ conservation of the most important (priority) CWR, using African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) as a case study. Cowpea is an important crop for subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, yet its CWR are under-collected, under-conserved and under-utilised in breeding. We identified the most efficient sites to focus in situ cowpea CWR conservation and assessed whether priority CWR would be adequately represented in a genus-based conservation plan. We also investigated whether priority cowpea CWR are likely to be found in existing conservation areas and in areas important for mammal conservation. The genus-based method captured most priority CWR, and the distributions of many priority CWR overlapped with established conservation reserves and targets. These results suggest that priority cowpea CWR can be conserved by building on conservation initiatives established for other species. PMID:24936740

  7. Prioritising in situ conservation of crop resources: a case study of African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    PubMed

    Moray, C; Game, E T; Maxted, N

    2014-01-01

    Conserving crop wild relatives (CWR) is critical for maintaining food security. However, CWR-focused conservation plans are lacking, and are often based on the entire genus, even though only a few taxa are useful for crop improvement. We used taxonomic and geographic prioritisation to identify the best locations for in situ conservation of the most important (priority) CWR, using African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) as a case study. Cowpea is an important crop for subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, yet its CWR are under-collected, under-conserved and under-utilised in breeding. We identified the most efficient sites to focus in situ cowpea CWR conservation and assessed whether priority CWR would be adequately represented in a genus-based conservation plan. We also investigated whether priority cowpea CWR are likely to be found in existing conservation areas and in areas important for mammal conservation. The genus-based method captured most priority CWR, and the distributions of many priority CWR overlapped with established conservation reserves and targets. These results suggest that priority cowpea CWR can be conserved by building on conservation initiatives established for other species. PMID:24936740

  8. Conservative management of Achilles Tendinopathy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Papa, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To chronicle the conservative treatment and management of a 77-year old female patient presenting with chronic pain of 8 months duration in the midportion of the achilles tendon diagnosed as achilles tendinopathy. Clinical features: The main clinical feature was pain in the midportion of the achilles tendon, 2 to 6 cm proximal to the calcaneal insertion. Symptom onset was gradual and unrelated to any acute trauma or overt injury mechanism. Intervention and outcome: The conservative treatment approach consisted of medical acupuncture with electrical stimulation, Graston Technique®, eccentric calf training, and rehabilitative exercise prescription. Outcome measures included verbal pain rating scale, lower extremity functional scale (LEFS), and a return to activities of daily living (ADLs). The patient attained long-term resolution of her complaint and at 12 month follow-up reported no recurrence of symptoms. Conclusion: A combination of conservative rehabilitation strategies may be used by chiropractors to treat midportion achilles tendinopathy and allow an individual to return to pain free ADLs in a timely manner. PMID:22997472

  9. Understanding why landholders choose to participate or withdraw from conservation programs: a case study from a Queensland conservation auction.

    PubMed

    Comerford, Emma

    2014-08-01

    Ensuring adequate participation by private landholders in a conservation scheme is a challenge for program managers around the world. This paper uses a case study of the Vegetation Incentives Program from Queensland, Australia, to contribute additional information to the literature on influences on participation in conservation, and to offer insight into ways to improve program design to optimise participation. The research is particularly of interest to programs that include a tender mechanism or conservation covenant in their designs. Participation in the Vegetation Incentives Program was limited outside two small geographic areas, with the result that the budget was not expended. A survey of participants revealed that a narrow subset of the rural population was attracted to participate, namely highly educated, experienced landholders with positive environmental attitudes and a low opportunity cost of participation. The research also investigated why some landholders chose to withdraw from the program before full participation. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used in the analysis. There were a variety of reasons for making the decision to leave, including disliking the requirement for permanent protection, the tender mechanism employed, and not understanding the process well enough. This information can help improve conservation outcomes by understanding where to target limited efforts in a catchment, and clarifying the likely limitations of some aspects of scheme design. PMID:24815578

  10. Energy-conserving site design: case study, The Woodlands, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, M

    1980-03-01

    The Woodlands is a HUD Title VII New Town located north of Houston. It includes 22,000 acres and the plan for the new town consists of 6 residential villages, a town center called the Metro Center and several additional tracts, such as the Trade Center for larger-scale industrial use. Each village is to be structured around one large and several supporting neighborhood centers. Ultimate population is planned to be 150,000. Included in this report are sections on background, team structure and organization, methodological considerations, the conventional and energy-conserving plan, constraints to implementation, and general conclusions and next phases.

  11. Conserving Space Heritage - The Case for Tranquillity Base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fewer, G.

    One of the most important and spectacular events in the history of space exploration was the first Moon Landing of 1969. Safe from the ravages of erosion, agriculture, industry or the expansion of human settlement, the greatest threat to the site of this momentous event - Tranquillity Base - is likely to be from a meteor impact. However, with the advent of space tourism and commercial space travel, the site of humankind's first visit to a celestial body may come under threat of a different kind - that of souvenir hunters and miners. In this paper, the historical background to the Apollo programme is outlined and the sequence of events that made up the Apollo 11 mission, which conducted the first Moon landing, is described before concluding with a consideration of the heritage conservation issues of Tranquillity Base.

  12. The case for policy-relevant conservation science

    PubMed Central

    Rose, David C

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the “evidence-based” (Sutherland et al. 2013) versus “evidence-informed” debate (Adams & Sandbrook 2013), which has become prominent in conservation science, I argue that science can be influential if it holds a dual reference (Lentsch & Weingart 2011) that contributes to the needs of policy makers whilst maintaining technical rigor. In line with such a strategy, conservation scientists are increasingly recognizing the usefulness of constructing narratives through which to enhance the influence of their evidence (Leslie et al. 2013; Lawton & Rudd 2014). Yet telling stories alone is rarely enough to influence policy; instead, these narratives must be policy relevant. To ensure that evidence is persuasive alongside other factors in a complex policy-making process, conservation scientists could follow 2 steps: reframe within salient political contexts and engage more productively in boundary work, which is defined as the ways in which scientists “construct, negotiate, and defend the boundary between science and policy” (Owens et al. 2006:640). These will both improve the chances of evidence-informed conservation policy. El Caso para la Ciencia de la Conservación con Relevancia Política Resumen A partir del debate “con base en evidencia” (Sutherland et al. 2013) versus “informado con evidencia” (Adams & Sandbrook 2013), debate que se ha vuelto prominente en la ciencia de la conservación, argumento que la ciencia puede ser influyente si mantiene una referencia dual (Lentsch & Weingart 2011) que contribuya a las necesidades de quienes hacen la política a la vez que mantiene un rigor técnico. En línea con dicha estrategia, los científicos de la conservación cada vez reconocen más la utilidad de construir narrativas con las cuales pueden mejorar la influencia de sus evidencias (Leslie et al. 2013; Lawton & Rudd 2014). Sin embargo, sólo contar historias rara vez es suficiente para influir sobre la política; en su lugar, estas

  13. Conservative management of symptomatic Carpal Bossing in an elite hockey player: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kissel, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To present the characteristics and create awareness of symptomatic carpal bossing and discuss potential etiologies and the role of conservative management through the presentation of an athlete with traumatic onset of symptomatic carpal bossing. Clinical features: This case report outlines the presentation and conservative management of an elite eighteen year old hockey player with symptomatic carpal bossing after a traumatic on ice collision. Carpal bossing is a bony, dorsal prominence in the quadrangular joint of the wrist that is inconsistently symptomatic. Intervention and outcome: A conservative treatment plan consisting of education, reassurance, avoidance of aggravation, and soft tissue therapy allowed return to play in two weeks without restrictions or need for surgical consultation. Conclusion: With inconsistent recurrence rates and surgical complications, the role of conservative management for symptomatic carpal bossing deserves further exploration. The conservative practitioner should be aware of the signs and symptoms of symptomatic carpal bossing to institute suitable treatment. PMID:20037693

  14. Case of emphysematous pyelonephritis in kidney allograft: Conservative treatment

    PubMed Central

    Tienza, Antonio; Hevia, Mateo; Merino, Imanol; Velis, Jose Maria; Algarra, Ruben; Pascual, Juan Ignacio; Zudaire, Juan Javier; Robles, Jose Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Emphysematous pyelonephritis is an acute necrotizing infection with gas in the kidney and perinephric space that carries a bad prognosis. Apart from its predisposing clinical entities, diabetes mellitus and immune-incompetence are quite common in patients with this infection. We report a case of a 53-year-old kidney transplant recipient diabetic male, suffering from recurrent fever, abdominal pain and nausea episodes. Immediate broad-spectrum antibiotics were administered and percutaneous drainage was performed after the diagnosis. The bacteria involved were Stahpylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli. After 4 weeks of antibiotic treatment and abscesses drainage, the case was resolved. Consecutives urine cultures and ultrasonographies confirm the complete resolution of the disease. We discuss the predisposing factors, clinical presentation and management. PMID:24839494

  15. Recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax during pregnancy managed conservatively: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mohamed Faisal, A H; Hazwani, A; Soo, C I; Andrea Ban, Y L

    2016-04-01

    A 36-year-old lady presented with four episodes of right sided pneumothorax during pregnancy requiring multiple chest drain insertion. It was complicated with persistent air leak despite low pressure high volume suction applied to the chest drainage. She delivered safely through spontaneous vaginal delivery with chest drainage. Further imaging by high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scan of thorax done revealed bilateral scattered pulmonary cysts and sub pleural bullae and was later followed up with respiratory unit. She had no further episodes of pneumothorax postpartum. This case highlights the vital importance of prompt recognition and management of pneumothorax in pregnancy as the patient involved is at higher risk for acute respiratory failure leading to maternal and/or foetal mortality. It is essential for early involvement of obstetric team and to expedite the delivery for a better perinatal and maternal outcome. PMID:27326955

  16. Introduction of Participatory Conservation in Croatia, Residents' Perceptions: A Case Study from the Istrian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sladonja, Barbara; Brščić, Kristina; Poljuha, Danijela; Fanuko, Neda; Grgurev, Marin

    2012-06-01

    Croatia, like many other transition countries has undergone radical changes in its nature protection models. This paper discusses a historical overview, present situation and future possibilities for nature conservation in Croatia. A conservative top-down approach to nature protection was applied in the past in Croatia and is now being replaced by a prevalent bottom-up approach. Social context is crucial to introducing participatory conservation, therefore special concern is given to the perception of the local population towards protected area management in Istria as a case study in Croatia. Survey data were used to assess the conservation knowledge of local populations and their perception towards Protected Areas (PAs), leadership activities and management authorities in Istria County. This paper examines the perceptions of 313 residents living in and around six natural PAs located in Istria. The results revealed a moderate general knowledge about PAs in Istria and environmental issues, and a low awareness of institutions managing PAs, eagerness to participate in the activities of PAs and general support for the conservation cause. Understanding the perception of local residents enables the creation of feasible, long-term strategies for the implementation of participatory conservation. The research identifies the need for greater human, technical and financial efforts to strengthen the management capabilities of local agencies responsible for PAs. The process of participatory conservation optimization in Croatia is underway and world experiences must be observed in order to create a congruent, site-specific model with the best possible results.

  17. The California Conservation Corps: A Case Study. Working Paper #5. The State Youth Initiatives Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailin, Michael A.

    Through site visits, a case study was made of the California Conservation Corps (CCC) in order to provide a description of its history, objectives, program features, participants, funding patterns, future plans, and key issues scheduled to be addressed by the program. Descended from similar earlier programs, the CCC was established in 1976. After…

  18. Energy conservation case studies for model commercial buildings covered by the CACS program

    SciTech Connect

    Kedl, R.J.; Bircher, T.L.

    1985-03-01

    Case studies of four small commercial buildings are presented that show the potential conservation of electrical and gas enegy and the potential reduction in peak electrical demand that result from the retrofit of most Commercial and Apartment Conservation Service (CACS) Program Measures and Procedures. Four prototypical buildings are representative of the great majority of CACS-covered businesses were used. Energy consrvation calculations were conducted on the buildings in six cities representing six different climates in the contiguous United States. Calculations were performed using DOE-2.1, a computer program that computes energy flow in buildings on an hour-by-hour basis.

  19. Toward a Conceptual Framework for Blending Social and Biophysical Attributes in Conservation Planning: A Case-Study of Privately-Conserved Lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquini, Lorena; Twyman, Chasca; Wainwright, John

    2010-11-01

    There has been increasing recognition within systematic conservation planning of the need to include social data alongside biophysical assessments. However, in the approaches to identify potential conservation sites, there remains much room for improvement in the treatment of social data. In particular, few rigorous methods to account for the diversity of less-easily quantifiable social attributes that influence the implementation success of conservation sites (such as willingness to conserve) have been developed. We use a case-study analysis of private conservation areas within the Little Karoo, South Africa, as a practical example of the importance of incorporating social data into the process of selecting potential conservation sites to improve their implementation likelihood. We draw on extensive data on the social attributes of our case study obtained from a combination of survey questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. We discuss the need to determine the social attributes that are important for achieving the chosen implementation strategy by offering four tested examples of important social attributes in the Little Karoo: the willingness of landowners to take part in a stewardship arrangement, their willingness to conserve, their capacity to conserve, and the social capital among private conservation area owners. We then discuss the process of using an implementation likelihood ratio (derived from a combined measure of the social attributes) to assist the choice of potential conservation sites. We conclude by summarizing our discussion into a simple conceptual framework for identifying biophysically-valuable sites which possess a high likelihood that the desired implementation strategy will be realized on them.

  20. Integrating environmental gap analysis with spatial conservation prioritization: a case study from Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Sharafi, Seyedeh Mahdieh; Moilanen, Atte; White, Matt; Burgman, Mark

    2012-12-15

    Gap analysis is used to analyse reserve networks and their coverage of biodiversity, thus identifying gaps in biodiversity representation that may be filled by additional conservation measures. Gap analysis has been used to identify priorities for species and habitat types. When it is applied to identify gaps in the coverage of environmental variables, it embodies the assumption that combinations of environmental variables are effective surrogates for biodiversity attributes. The question remains of how to fill gaps in conservation systems efficiently. Conservation prioritization software can identify those areas outside existing conservation areas that contribute to the efficient covering of gaps in biodiversity features. We show how environmental gap analysis can be implemented using high-resolution information about environmental variables and ecosystem condition with the publicly available conservation prioritization software, Zonation. Our method is based on the conversion of combinations of environmental variables into biodiversity features. We also replicated the analysis by using Species Distribution Models (SDMs) as biodiversity features to evaluate the robustness and utility of our environment-based analysis. We apply the technique to a planning case study of the state of Victoria, Australia. PMID:22935646

  1. Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws: Report of a case using conservative protocol.

    PubMed

    Heggendorn, Fabiano Luiz; Leite, Taiana Campos; Cunha, Karin Soares Gonçalves; Junior, Arley Silva; Gonçalves, Lucio Souza; da Costa, Karla Bianca Fernandes Fontes; Dias, Eliane Pedra

    2016-01-01

    Bisphosphonates have been the first-line treatment option for osteometabolic diseases, such as osteoporosis, hypercalcaemia in malignant bone diseases, and in bone metastasis. It is possible to observe a growing number of cases of osteonecrosis of the jaws in patients using this medication, called bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws. The purpose of this study was to report a conservative treatment for bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws--Stage 2, using antibacterial solution and low-level laser therapy. At the end of the treatment, the patient presented improvement of the lesion with the healing of the mucosa. The literature still lacks successful definite protocols, thus the present case may contribute with another option for conservative management for bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws. More research is necessary in order to develop a good protocol management for bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws. PMID:26782365

  2. Conservative Management of Wound Dehiscence Following Pediatric Cavus Foot Surgery: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Hamdy, Reggie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Cavus foot surgeries are relatively common procedures in pediatric orthopedics. Following surgery, the tensile forces exerted on the wound by the newly corrected foot may hinder soft tissue healing and lead to wound dehiscence. Treatments including skin grafting and other plastic surgery procedures have been described in order to manage this complication. However, the effectiveness of conservative treatment regimens in cases of large dehiscence of these wounds has not yet been reported. Methods: The charts of 7 patients between the ages of 7 and 19 who had surgical correction of severe cavus deformity and who developed wound dehiscence postoperatively were reviewed. All patients were treated conservatively with regular cleaning with chlorhexedine and application of different ointments and dressings along with surgical debridements. Three patients also received antibiotics. The primary outcome was wound healing as documented by clinical notes and photographs. Results: The treatment was successful in producing the desired outcome in all cases with no other systemic or wound complications developing. Complete wound healing was obtained within a median time of 6 months and 5 days of treatment without the need for skin grafting or other plastic surgery procedures. Conclusions: In pediatric patients with wound dehiscence postcavus foot surgery, conservative management with minimal surgical debridement and regular cleaning and dressing of the wound is a viable treatment option that has been shown to be effective in 7 cases. It should be considered in such patients before proceeding to more invasive surgical treatment. PMID:26894015

  3. Conservative Treatment Protocol for Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour: a Follow-up Study of 3 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Gülsün; Ataoglu, Hanife; Kalayci, Abdullah; Kucuk, Korhan; Esen, Alparslan

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background The keratocystic odontogenic tumour is classified as a developmental cyst derived from the enamel organ or from the dental lamina. The treatment of keratocystic odontogenic tumour of the jaw remains controversial. The aim of this study was to report the outcome of our conservative treatment protocol for keratocystic odontogenic tumour. Methods Three patients with different complaints referred to Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic, Faculty of Dentistry, Selçuk University. Initial biopsy was carried out in all patients and keratocystic odontogenic tumours was diagnosed subsequent to histopathological examination. The patients with keratocystic odontogenic tumours were treated by enucleation followed by open packing. This conservative treatment protocol was selected because of existing young aged patients. The average follow-up duration of the cases was 2 years. Results Out of 3 cases, 2 lesions were present in mandible and 1 lesion in maxilla. There was no evidence of recurrence during follow-up. All the cases were monitored continuously with panoramic radiographs, computed tomography and clinical evaluations. Conclusions This conservative treatment protocol for keratocystic odontogenic tumours, based on enucleation followed by open packing would be a possible choice with a view of offering low recurrence rate and low morbidity rate particularly in young patients. PMID:24421977

  4. Case history studies of energy conservation improvements in the dairy industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    Presented are ten case histories about energy-efficient technologies implemented by the dairy industry. For each case is presented: the name and location of the company, and its product line; energy consumption and costs at the plant before and after implementation of energy-conserving technology; the factors that prompted the investment; and product quality as a result of the new equipment. The measures presented are: refrigeration compressor replacement, turbulators in boiler tubes, stack exchange on boilers, reverse osmosis, six-effect evaporator, multi-effect evaporator with thermal vapor recompressor, spray dryer heat recovery, efficient compressor operations, mechanical vapor recompression evaporator, preheated spray dryer air with recoverable waste heat. (LEW)

  5. Impact evaluation to communicate and improve conservation non-governmental organization performance: the case of Conservation International.

    PubMed

    McKinnon, Madeleine C; Mascia, Michael B; Yang, Wu; Turner, Will R; Bonham, Curan

    2015-11-01

    The rising prominence of more rigorous approaches to measuring conservation outcomes has included greater adoption of impact evaluation by conservation non-governmental organizations (CNGOs). Within the scientific literature, however, little consideration has been given to the unique and specific roles of CNGOs in advancing impact evaluation. We explore these issues in the context of one CNGO-Conservation International (CI)-and its experiences producing, using and funding impact evaluations over the past decade. We examine the contributions of impact evaluation to CI's mission at three different stages of CI's strategy: innovation, demonstration and amplification. Furthermore, we review incentives and barriers encountered by CI in its 10+ years' experience in impact evaluation. More coordinated and strategic use of impact evaluation by CNGOs would facilitate learning and promote accountability across the conservation community. PMID:26460134

  6. The Three Domains of Conservation Genetics: Case Histories from Hawaiian Waters.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Brian W

    2016-07-01

    The scientific field of conservation biology is dominated by 3 specialties: phylogenetics, ecology, and evolution. Under this triad, phylogenetics is oriented towards the past history of biodiversity, conserving the divergent branches in the tree of life. The ecological component is rooted in the present, maintaining the contemporary life support systems for biodiversity. Evolutionary conservation (as defined here) is concerned with preserving the raw materials for generating future biodiversity. All 3 domains can be documented with genetic case histories in the waters of the Hawaiian Archipelago, an isolated chain of volcanic islands with 2 types of biodiversity: colonists, and new species that arose from colonists. This review demonstrates that 1) phylogenetic studies have identified previously unknown branches in the tree of life that are endemic to Hawaiian waters; 2) population genetic surveys define isolated marine ecosystems as management units, and 3) phylogeographic analyses illustrate the pathways of colonization that can enhance future biodiversity. Conventional molecular markers have advanced all 3 domains in conservation biology over the last 3 decades, and recent advances in genomics are especially valuable for understanding the foundations of future evolutionary diversity. PMID:27001936

  7. Conservative Nonsurgical Treatment of Class 4 Invasive Cervical Resorption: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Salzano, Stefano; Tirone, Federico

    2015-11-01

    External cervical resorption, also called invasive cervical resorption (ICR), is a pathological process difficult to diagnose that causes a progressive replacement of dentin by granulation tissue and results in complete tooth destruction. According to the literature, class 4 ICR can be expected to have success rates of 12.5% if treated. In this case series, we show nonsurgical conservative treatment of 4 patients affected by class 4 ICR. In 4 patients affected by class 4 ICRs, granulomatous tissue was orthograde removed with the help of an operating microscope and cone-beam computed tomographic imaging. The teeth were devitalized, the granulomatous tissue was mechanically removed, and the defects were filled with either mineral trioxide aggregate or Biodentine (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, France). After a follow-up period varying from 18 months for case 1 to 4 months for case 4, neither signs of periradicular bone rarefaction nor recurrence of resorption were observed. The teeth were asymptomatic, and conservative restorations appeared to be in excellent condition. Given the results achieved in this case series, it may be assumed that many class 4 ICRs could be successfully treated with the help of an operating microscope and cone-beam computed tomographic imaging. PMID:26395913

  8. An Audit of Skills and Qualifications in Preservation and Conservation Techniques: The Case of the University of Zambia Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shameenda, Kimbo Lemmy; Kanyengo, Christine Wamunyima

    2012-01-01

    This article establishes the level of skills and experience in preservation and conservation management using a case study methodological approach conducted in the 3 university libraries at the University of Zambia. The findings revealed that 20 (57%) of the library staff had not received formal training in preservation and conservation of library…

  9. Iatrogenic post-intubation tracheal rupture treated conservatively without intubation: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Prunet, Bertrand; Lacroix, Guillaume; Asencio, Yves; Cathelinaud, Olivier; Avaro, Jean-Philippe; Goutorbe, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Background Tracheal rupture is a rare but life-threatening complication that most commonly occurrs after blunt trauma to the chest, but which may also complicate tracheal intubation. We report a case of post-intubation tracheal rupture after cataract surgery under general anesthesia treated conservatively. Case presentation Four hours after extubation, a 67 year-old woman developed subcutaneous emphysema of the facial, bilateral laterocervical and upper anterior chest. Tracheobronchial fiberendoscopy showed a posterior tracheal transmural rupture 4 cm long located 2.5 cm above the carina that opened in inspiration. The location of the lesion and features of the patient favoured conservative treatment with antibiotic cover. The patient made a full and uncomplicated recovery and was discharged fourteen days after the original injury. Conclusion Two therapeutic strategies are currently employed for post-intubation tracheal rupture: a non-surgical strategy for small injuries and a surgical strategy for larger injuries. This case report presented the non-surgical therapeutic strategy of a large tracheal injury. PMID:18945364

  10. Conservation education in Madagascar: three case studies in the biologically diverse island-continent.

    PubMed

    Dolins, Francine L; Jolly, Alison; Rasamimanana, Hantanirina; Ratsimbazafy, Jonah; Feistner, Anna T C; Ravoavy, Florent

    2010-05-01

    Few Malagasy children and adults are aware of the rare and unique fauna and flora indigenous to their island-continent, including flagship lemur species. Even the Malagasy ancestral proverbs never mentioned lemurs, but these same proverbs talked about the now extinct hippopotamus. Madagascar's geography, history, and economic constraints contribute to severe biodiversity loss. Deforestation on Madagascar is reported to be over 100,000 ha/year, with only 10-15% of the island retaining natural forest [Green & Sussman, 1990]. Educating children, teacher-training, and community projects about environmental and conservation efforts to protect the remaining natural habitats of endangered lemur species provide a basis for long-term changes in attitudes and practices. Case studies of three conservation education projects located in different geographical regions of Madagascar, Centre ValBio, Madagacar Wildlife Conservation Alaotra Comic Book Project, and The Ako Book Project, are presented together with their ongoing stages of development, assessment, and outcomes. We argue that while nongovernmental organizational efforts are and will be very important, the Ministry of Education urgently needs to incorporate biodiversity education in the curriculum at all levels, from primary school to university. PMID:20039330

  11. Biocomplexity and conservation of biodiversity hotspots: three case studies from the Americas.

    PubMed

    Callicott, J Baird; Rozzi, Ricardo; Delgado, Luz; Monticino, Michael; Acevedo, Miguel; Harcombe, Paul

    2007-02-28

    The perspective of 'biocomplexity' in the form of 'coupled natural and human systems' represents a resource for the future conservation of biodiversity hotspots in three direct ways: (i) modelling the impact on biodiversity of private land-use decisions and public land-use policies, (ii) indicating how the biocultural history of a biodiversity hotspot may be a resource for its future conservation, and (iii) identifying and deploying the nodes of both the material and psycho-spiritual connectivity between human and natural systems in service to conservation goals. Three biocomplexity case studies of areas notable for their biodiversity, selected for their variability along a latitudinal climate gradient and a human-impact gradient, are developed: the Big Thicket in southeast Texas, the Upper Botanamo River Basin in eastern Venezuela, and the Cape Horn Archipelago at the austral tip of Chile. More deeply, the biocomplexity perspective reveals alternative ways of understanding biodiversity itself, because it directs attention to the human concepts through which biodiversity is perceived and understood. The very meaning of biodiversity is contestable and varies according to the cognitive lenses through which it is perceived. PMID:17255039

  12. Overview of energy-conserving development planning and design techniques based on five case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Findings and recommendations are presented of a review of five case studies of ways to conserve energy through development planning and site design in communities. Two approaches were used. In the first approach, a conventional, pre-existing plan was analyzed to determine potential energy use. Once energy-conservation options were identified and evaluated, the conventional plan was modified by employing those options. This approach was used in The Woodlands, Burke Center, and Radisson studies. In the second approach, energy-conservation options are independently identified and evaluated. Those options that passed specific criteria screening were then utilized in developing one or more totally new plans based on energy objectives. This approach was used in Greenbrier and Shenandoah. Radisson is a new town on the outskirts of Syracuse, New York. Greenbrier is a 3000 acre planned community adjacent to Norfolk and Virginia Beach. Shenandoah is a proposed new town in the Atlanta urbanized area. The Woodlands is a new community under development north of Houston. Burke Center is a residential planned unit development in Fairfax County, Virgnia. (MCW)

  13. Using Analysis of Governance to Unpack Community-Based Conservation: A Case Study from Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Lance W; Makupa, Enock

    2015-11-01

    Community-based conservation policies and programs are often hollow with little real devolution. But to pass a judgment of community-based or not community-based on such initiatives and programs obscures what is actually a suite of attributes. In this paper, we analyze governance around a specific case of what is nominally community-based conservation-Ikona Wildlife Management Area (WMA) in Tanzania-using two complementary sets of criteria. The first relates to governance "powers": planning powers, regulatory powers, spending powers, revenue-generating powers, and the power to enter into agreements. The second set of criteria derive from the understanding of governance as a set of social functions: social coordination, shaping power, setting direction, and building community. The analysis helps to detail ways in which the Tanzanian state through policy and regulations has constrained the potential for Ikona WMA to empower communities and community actors. Although it has some features of community-based conservation, community input into how the governance social functions would be carried out in the WMA was constrained from the start and is now largely out of community hands. The two governance powers that have any significant community-based flavor-spending powers and revenue-generating powers-relate to the WMA's tourism activities, but even here the picture is equivocal at best. The unpacking of governance that we have done, however, reveals that community empowerment through the processes associated with creating and recognizing indigenous and community-conserved areas is something that can be pursued through multiple channels, some of which might be more strategic than others. PMID:26133481

  14. Relevance of genetics for conservation policies: the case of Minorcan cork oaks

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo, Zaida; Burgarella, Concetta; de Heredia, Unai López; Lumaret, Roselyne; Petit, Rémy J.; Soto, Álvaro; Gil, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Marginal populations of widely distributed species can be of high conservation interest when they hold a significant or unique portion of the genetic diversity of the species. However, such genetic information is frequently lacking. Here the relevance of genetic surveys to develop efficient conservation strategies for such populations is illustrated using cork oak (Quercus suber) from Minorca (Balearic Islands, Spain) as a case study. Cork oak is highly endangered on the island, where no more than 67 individuals live in small, isolated stands in siliceous sites. As a consequence, it was recently granted protected status. Methods Two Bayesian clustering approaches were used to analyse the genetic structure of the Minorcan population, on the basis of nuclear microsatellite data. The different groups within the island were also compared with additional island and continental populations surrounding Minorca. Key Results Very high genetic diversity was found, with values comparable with those observed in continental parts of the species' range. Furthermore, the Minorcan oak stands were highly differentiated from one another and were genetically related to different continental populations of France and Spain. Conclusions The high levels of genetic diversity and inter-stands differentiation make Minorcan cork oak eligible for specific conservation efforts. The relationship of Minorcan stands to different continental populations in France and Spain probably reflects multiple colonization events. However, discrepancy between chloroplast DNA- and nuclear DNA-based groups does not support a simple scenario of recent introduction. Gene exchanges between neighbouring cork oak stands and with holm oak have created specific and exceptional genetic combinations. They also constitute a wide range of potential genetic resources for research on adaptation to new environmental conditions. Conservation guidelines that take into account these findings are provided

  15. Case history studies of energy conservation improvements in the meat industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    Presented are case histories for ten energy-efficient technologies implemented by the meat industry. For each case is presented: the name and location of the plant, name of plant employee contact with address and telephone number, energy consumption and costs at the plant before and after implementation of energy-conserving technology, description of the investment decision process, and changes in production or product quality as a result of the new equipment. The measures presented are: continuous rendering, high-pressure return on the boiler, heat recovery from condensate return and flash steam, continuous whole blood processing, preheating of process water with recovered refrigeration waste heat, continuous rendering of poultry scraps, electrical stimulation of beef, preheating and storing process water with recovered refrigeration waste heat, microcomputer control system, and housekeeping improvements. (LEW)

  16. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Natura 2000 Network for Wolf Conservation: A Case-Study in Greece.

    PubMed

    Votsi, Nefta-Eleftheria P; Zomeni, Maria S; Pantis, J D

    2016-02-01

    The wolf (Canis lupus) is used as a case study to rate Natura 2000 sites in Greece based on preferred wolf habitat characteristics and test whether the network is suitable for their conservation. Road density, agricultural area, site area, connectivity, food availability (i.e., presence of natural prey), and elevation in 237 sites are combined in a logistic regression model. The occurrence of the wolf's natural prey was the most prevalent factor determining wolf presence, followed by agricultural cover. Considering the current status of these features at N2K site level, most sites currently hosting wolves (85.7%) have good or excellent prospects for the long-term presence of the wolf. On the contrary, 11 sites which now have wolves are predicted to be ineffective in keeping them in the future due to the absence of wild ungulates and their high agricultural coverage. Four sites with no wolf presence currently have excellent prospects to host wolves in the future. Roadless sites are a priority for protection and retaining their current condition is strongly suggested. The proposed approach aims to detect gaps in protection for the wolf and identify priority sites in need of mitigation actions. It can also assist the assessment of conservation policies in Greece and elsewhere toward accomplishing set goals in protected areas. By focusing on wolf protection, we hope to increase agencies' attention to deal with conservation effectiveness, especially in cases like Greece, where a number of sites are insufficiently known and protected and management measures are not properly implemented. PMID:26411554

  17. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Natura 2000 Network for Wolf Conservation: A Case-Study in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votsi, Nefta-Eleftheria P.; Zomeni, Maria S.; Pantis, J. D.

    2016-02-01

    The wolf ( Canis lupus) is used as a case study to rate Natura 2000 sites in Greece based on preferred wolf habitat characteristics and test whether the network is suitable for their conservation. Road density, agricultural area, site area, connectivity, food availability (i.e., presence of natural prey), and elevation in 237 sites are combined in a logistic regression model. The occurrence of the wolf's natural prey was the most prevalent factor determining wolf presence, followed by agricultural cover. Considering the current status of these features at N2K site level, most sites currently hosting wolves (85.7 %) have good or excellent prospects for the long-term presence of the wolf. On the contrary, 11 sites which now have wolves are predicted to be ineffective in keeping them in the future due to the absence of wild ungulates and their high agricultural coverage. Four sites with no wolf presence currently have excellent prospects to host wolves in the future. Roadless sites are a priority for protection and retaining their current condition is strongly suggested. The proposed approach aims to detect gaps in protection for the wolf and identify priority sites in need of mitigation actions. It can also assist the assessment of conservation policies in Greece and elsewhere toward accomplishing set goals in protected areas. By focusing on wolf protection, we hope to increase agencies' attention to deal with conservation effectiveness, especially in cases like Greece, where a number of sites are insufficiently known and protected and management measures are not properly implemented.

  18. Placenta Previa Percreta: A Case Report of Successful Management via Conservative Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Canonico, Silvia; Arduini, Maurizio; Epicoco, Giorgio; Luzi, Giuseppe; Arena, Saverio; Clerici, Graziano; Affronti, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Placenta percreta is one of the most serious complications of placenta previa and is frequently associated with severe obstetric hemorrhage usually necessitating hysterectomy. We present a case of placenta previa percreta diagnosed by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging techniques, in which we accomplished conservative management of postpartum hemorrhage. The management we propose includes the following steps: preventive catheterization of the descending aorta via transhumeral access; Stark cesarean delivery; uterotonics drugs; Affronti endouterine square hemostatic sutures; intrauterine application of Bakri balloon and partial filling with 100 mL of normal saline; B Lynch suture, hysterorrhaphy, and filling a Bakri balloon with up to 500 mL of normal saline; reversible radiological embolization; and/or surgical ligation of the uterine arteries. The bleeding stopped following placement of Affronti sutures combined with external (B-Lynch suture) and internal (Bakri balloon) uterine compression. Our experience indicates that this conservative method can be considered an option in the management of selected cases of pregnancy at high risk for intrapartum hemorrhage. PMID:23401816

  19. Placenta Previa Percreta: A Case Report of Successful Management via Conservative Surgery.

    PubMed

    Canonico, Silvia; Arduini, Maurizio; Epicoco, Giorgio; Luzi, Giuseppe; Arena, Saverio; Clerici, Graziano; Affronti, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Placenta percreta is one of the most serious complications of placenta previa and is frequently associated with severe obstetric hemorrhage usually necessitating hysterectomy. We present a case of placenta previa percreta diagnosed by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging techniques, in which we accomplished conservative management of postpartum hemorrhage. The management we propose includes the following steps: preventive catheterization of the descending aorta via transhumeral access; Stark cesarean delivery; uterotonics drugs; Affronti endouterine square hemostatic sutures; intrauterine application of Bakri balloon and partial filling with 100 mL of normal saline; B Lynch suture, hysterorrhaphy, and filling a Bakri balloon with up to 500 mL of normal saline; reversible radiological embolization; and/or surgical ligation of the uterine arteries. The bleeding stopped following placement of Affronti sutures combined with external (B-Lynch suture) and internal (Bakri balloon) uterine compression. Our experience indicates that this conservative method can be considered an option in the management of selected cases of pregnancy at high risk for intrapartum hemorrhage. PMID:23401816

  20. EOS determination through microscopy- interferometry measurements: A low symmetry energetic materials case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavrou, Elissaios; Zaug, Joseph; Crowhurst, Jonathan; Bastea, Sorin; Armstrong, Mike

    2015-03-01

    Measuring equation of state (EOS) of solid specimens under pressure usually involves the determination of the primitive cell volume using x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. However, in the case of low symmetry (e.g. triclinic) materials with twining features and large primitive cells, this can be problematic and ambiguous. In order to address this issue we examine the possibility of a direct approach which is based on measuring the surface area and thickness with microscopy and optical interferometry respectively. To test the validity of this approach applied to a crystalline material, we first compared our results from Triamino-Trinitrobenzene (TATB, SG P-1) with the published EOS, as determined with XRD measurements, by Stevens et al. [1]. A near perfect match between the two sets of data has been observed. We also present the results of our study on the energetic material 5-nitro-2,4-dihydro-1,2,4,-triazol-3-one (a-NTO) which crystallizes as a four-component twin [2] with triclinic symmetry. No high-pressure XRD data have been published on a-NTO, probably due to its highly complex crystal structure, making this technique a viable way to probe the cold compression EOS of such compounds. Work performed by the U.S. Department of Energy jointly by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  1. Using Analysis of Governance to Unpack Community-Based Conservation: A Case Study from Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Lance W.; Makupa, Enock

    2015-11-01

    Community-based conservation policies and programs are often hollow with little real devolution. But to pass a judgment of community-based or not community-based on such initiatives and programs obscures what is actually a suite of attributes. In this paper, we analyze governance around a specific case of what is nominally community-based conservation—Ikona Wildlife Management Area (WMA) in Tanzania—using two complementary sets of criteria. The first relates to governance "powers": planning powers, regulatory powers, spending powers, revenue-generating powers, and the power to enter into agreements. The second set of criteria derive from the understanding of governance as a set of social functions: social coordination, shaping power, setting direction, and building community. The analysis helps to detail ways in which the Tanzanian state through policy and regulations has constrained the potential for Ikona WMA to empower communities and community actors. Although it has some features of community-based conservation, community input into how the governance social functions would be carried out in the WMA was constrained from the start and is now largely out of community hands. The two governance powers that have any significant community-based flavor—spending powers and revenue-generating powers—relate to the WMA's tourism activities, but even here the picture is equivocal at best. The unpacking of governance that we have done, however, reveals that community empowerment through the processes associated with creating and recognizing indigenous and community-conserved areas is something that can be pursued through multiple channels, some of which might be more strategic than others.

  2. Conservative management of idiopathic anterior atlantoaxial subluxation without neurological deficits in an 83-year-old female: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Marchand, Andrée-Anne; Wong, Jessica J.

    2014-01-01

    Atlantoaxial subluxation that is not related to traumatic, congenital, or rheumatological conditions is rare and can be a diagnostic challenge. This case report details a case of anterior atlantoaxial subluxation in an 83-year-old female without history of trauma, congenital, or rheumatological conditions. She presented to the chiropractor with insidious neck pain and headaches, without neurological deficits. Radiographs revealed a widened atlantodental space (measuring 6 mm) indicating anterior atlantoaxial subluxation and potential sagittal atlantoaxial instability. Prompt detection and appropriate conservative management resulted in favourable long-term outcome at 13-months follow-up. Conservative management included education, mobilizations, soft tissue therapy, monitoring for neurological progression, and co-management with the family physician. The purpose of this case report is to heighten awareness of the clinical presentation of idiopathic anterior atlantoaxial subluxation without neurological deficits. Discussion will focus on the incidence, mechanism, clinical presentation, and conservative management of a complex case of anterior atlantoaxial subluxation. PMID:24587500

  3. Conservative treatment of a rock climber with a SLAP lesion: a case report.

    PubMed

    Blanchette, Marc-André; Pham, Ai-Thu; Grenier, Julie-Marthe

    2015-09-01

    This case report describes the clinical presentation and conservative treatment of a patient who suffered from a superior labrum anteroposterior (SLAP) tear of the shoulder after a rock climbing session. The 26 year old man had injured his right shoulder while trying to reach a distant socket with his shoulder 90° abducted and in extreme external rotation. After initial treatment failure in chiropractic, the patient sought an orthopaedist and physiotherapy care. A contrast magnetic resonance examination revealed a SLAP lesion. Awaiting orthopaedic consultation and in the absence of clinical improvement the patient sought care from a second chiropractor. Clinical examination revealed a mild winging of the right scapula and the presence of trigger points in the rotator cuff muscles, biceps, rhomboids and serratus anterior. The chiropractic treatment then included soft tissue mobilization and the prescription of strengthening exercises of the serratus anterior and rotator cuff muscles. After 4 sessions, the patient did not feel any pain and gradually resumed all his recreational activities. Clinicians should be aware that SLAP lesions are difficult to identify clinically and that manual therapy might be an important component of conservative treatment of SLAP lesions. PMID:26500357

  4. Conservative treatment of a rock climber with a SLAP lesion: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Blanchette, Marc-André; Pham, Ai-Thu; Grenier, Julie-Marthe

    2015-01-01

    This case report describes the clinical presentation and conservative treatment of a patient who suffered from a superior labrum anteroposterior (SLAP) tear of the shoulder after a rock climbing session. The 26 year old man had injured his right shoulder while trying to reach a distant socket with his shoulder 90° abducted and in extreme external rotation. After initial treatment failure in chiropractic, the patient sought an orthopaedist and physiotherapy care. A contrast magnetic resonance examination revealed a SLAP lesion. Awaiting orthopaedic consultation and in the absence of clinical improvement the patient sought care from a second chiropractor. Clinical examination revealed a mild winging of the right scapula and the presence of trigger points in the rotator cuff muscles, biceps, rhomboids and serratus anterior. The chiropractic treatment then included soft tissue mobilization and the prescription of strengthening exercises of the serratus anterior and rotator cuff muscles. After 4 sessions, the patient did not feel any pain and gradually resumed all his recreational activities. Clinicians should be aware that SLAP lesions are difficult to identify clinically and that manual therapy might be an important component of conservative treatment of SLAP lesions. PMID:26500357

  5. Conservative Management of Unset Mineral Trioxide Aggregate Root-End Filling: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Parirokh, Masoud; Farzaneh, Sedigheh; Hallajmofrad, Ali Reza

    2016-01-01

    This case report presents conservative management of unset mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) after being placed as a root-end filling material following periapical surgery. Periapical surgery was indicated for a maxillary lateral incisor of a 15-year-old male due to persistent exudate and a large periapical lesion. During surgery Angelus MTA was placed as root-end filling. The next session it was noticed that MTA had failed to completely set. In an orthograde approach, calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement was used to obturate the root canal space. The patient was followed up for 27 months and did not exhibit any clinical signs and symptoms. Radiographic images showed complete healing of the lesion. PMID:27471540

  6. Proven profits from pollution prevention: case studies in resource conservation and waste reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Huisingh, D.; Martin, L.; Hilger, H.; Seldman, N.

    1986-01-01

    The authors make their point persuasively: Opportunities to increase profits by saving resources and/or reducing pollution abound, especially in old industries or in facilities designed before the first OPEC embargo. Innovation, ingenuity, and leadership have enabled the firms in these case studies to take advantage of these opportunities. Their competitive economy, based on efficiency and profit maximization, can and does promote the values of energy conservation, resource efficiency, and pollution reduction needed to build a sustainable world. While too dry for bedside reading, and while not detailed at all in the sense of engineering design, this book tells an important story. With increased competition from overseas, and with a need to manage all their resources even more carefully, they need success stories to spread the philosophy and the methods of making profits from pollution prevention.

  7. Conservative Management of Unset Mineral Trioxide Aggregate Root-End Filling: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Parirokh, Masoud; Farzaneh, Sedigheh; Hallajmofrad, Ali Reza

    2016-01-01

    This case report presents conservative management of unset mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) after being placed as a root-end filling material following periapical surgery. Periapical surgery was indicated for a maxillary lateral incisor of a 15-year-old male due to persistent exudate and a large periapical lesion. During surgery Angelus MTA was placed as root-end filling. The next session it was noticed that MTA had failed to completely set. In an orthograde approach, calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement was used to obturate the root canal space. The patient was followed up for 27 months and did not exhibit any clinical signs and symptoms. Radiographic images showed complete healing of the lesion. PMID:27471540

  8. Conservative treatment of a young patient with thyroid carcinoma in adult ovarian teratoma - case report.

    PubMed

    Cymbaluk-Ploska, Aneta; Chudecka-Głaz, Anita; Chosia, Maria; Ashuryk, Olgierd; Menkiszak, Janusz

    2014-03-01

    The cystic mature teratomas, including dermoid cysts, are one of the most frequently occurring benign ovarian tumors diagnosed in female patients. The process of neoplastic transformation in mature dermoid cysts is applicable only to 1-2% of cases. In our article, we present a rare case of thyroid carcinoma development in adult teratoma in 21-year-old patient. The young age, certain pathomorphological features and clinical data (small size of neoplastic lesion, correct values of tumour markers, unilateral character, regular levels of thyreoglobulin and absence of any significant deviations in imaging examinations), were the basis for attempting to apply the conservative treatment both in the scope of gynecological surgery and in the supplemental endocrinological therapy. In the patient, the one-sided adnexectomy was performed, considering pathological lesions on the adnexa, as well as the other ovary dermoid cyst was enucleated, without the hysteroctomy procedure. Considering the lack of any morphological lesions and functional changes relating to thyroid gland, the treatment was not radicalised in this scope, either. At present, one year after the primary operation treatment, the patient does not manifest any disease symptoms, whereas the other ovary, in the follow-up ultrasound examinations, shows normal size and echostructure. The thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) suppression keeps being applied. PMID:24397359

  9. Why evolution matters for species conservation: perspectives from three case studies of plant metapopulations.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Isabelle; Tonnabel, Jeanne; Ronce, Ophélie; Mignot, Agnès

    2016-01-01

    We advocate the advantage of an evolutionary approach to conservation biology that considers evolutionary history at various levels of biological organization. We review work on three separate plant taxa, spanning from one to multiple decades, illustrating extremes in metapopulation functioning. We show how the rare endemics Centaurea corymbosa (Clape Massif, France) and Brassica insularis in Corsica (France) may be caught in an evolutionary trap: disruption of metapopulation functioning due to lack of colonization of new sites may have counterselected traits such as dispersal ability or self-compatibility, making these species particularly vulnerable to any disturbance. The third case study concerns the evolution of life history strategies in the highly diverse genus Leucadendron of the South African fynbos. There, fire disturbance and the recolonization phase after fires are so integral to the functioning of populations that recruitment of new individuals is conditioned by fire. We show how past adaptation to different fire regimes and climatic constraints make species with different life history syndromes more or less vulnerable to global changes. These different case studies suggest that management strategies should promote evolutionary potential and evolutionary processes to better protect extant biodiversity and biodiversification. PMID:27087848

  10. The Woodlands Metro Center energy study. Case studies of project planning and design for energy conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    The Woodlands is a HUD Title VII New Town located near Houston, including 22,000 acres; the plan for the new town consists of 6 residential villages, a town center (Metro), and a Trade Center for larger-scale industrial use. Included within the program for each village are schools and commercial activities, as well as employment activities. The Woodlands is planned to be developed over a 26-year period (commenced in 1972) with an ultimate population of 150,000. Following a summary chapter, Chapter II presents background material on The Woodlands and results of the study are summarized. Chapter III describes the project team and its organizational structure. Chapter IV outlines and documents the methodology that was employed in developing, analyzing, and evaluating the case study. The next chapter describes and analyzes the conventional plan, documents the process by which energy-conserving methods were selected, and evaluates the application of these methods to the Metro Center Study area. Chapter VI discusses constraints to implementation and is followed by a final chapter that presents the general conclusions from the case study and suggests directions for further investigation.

  11. Energy conserving site design: Greenbrier case study, Chesapeake, Virginia. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    A specific case study of project planning for energy conservation for a major planned unit development at the 3000-acre Greenbrier development site in Chesapeake, Virginia, is summarized. The research suggests that very considerable reductions in energy conservation can be achieved within the confines of private-sector land development and residential construction with increased incremental costs of $200.00 to $3150.00 per dwelling unit. It is hypothesized that energy consumption at Greenbrier can be reduced by one-half with an average annual savings of 21,275 kWh per residential unit, using state-of-the-art technology with careful planning and control. This represents an annual savings $750.00 per unit at the current utility rate of 3.5 cents per kWh. These savings can be achieved through reduction in heating and cooling loads and application of more-efficient heating and cooling of the remaining loads. The reduction in loads are achieved by redesign of the land plan to include a higher percentage of south-facing lots, use of vegetation to modify microclimate, decreases in air infiltration, the use of 2 x 6 framing, better insulation, and the use of an insulated slab-on-grade foundation. Further energy savings can be expected by increased efficiencies in mechanical systems used for space heating and cooling and domestic hot water. When applied to the single-family portion of Greenbrier, containing 541 dwelling units, these options reduce the total end-use energy consumption 54.7%. This reduction represents an annual savings of $432,800.00 for an initial capital investment of $1.7 million.

  12. Remote Sensing Forage Quality for Browsing Herbivores: A Case Study of Cutting Edge Koala Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youngentob, K. N.; Au, J.; Held, A. A.; Foley, W. J.; Possingham, H. P.

    2014-12-01

    Managing landscapes for conservation requires a capacity to measure habitat quality. Although multiple factors are often responsible for the distribution and abundance of herbivores, spatial variations in the quality and quantity of plant forage are known to be important for many species. While we cannot see the chemical complexity of landscapes with our naked-eye, advances in imaging spectroscopy are making it possible to assess the quality of forage on a landscape-scale. Much research in this area has focused on the ability to estimate foliar nitrogen (N), because N is believed to be a limiting nutrient for many leaf eating animals. However, the total quantity of foliar N does not necessarily reflect the amount of N that can be utilized by herbivores. Available nitrogen (AvailN) is an invitro measure of forage quality that integrates the influence of tannins and fibre on the amount of foliar N that is available for digestion by herbivores. This may be a more meaningful measure of forage quality than total N for the many herbivorous species that are sensitive to the effects of tannins. Our previous research has demonstrated that it is possible to estimate this integrated measure of foliar nutritional quality at an individual tree crown level across multiple tree species using imaging spectroscopy (HyMap). Here we present a case study of how this remote sensing data is being used to help inform landscape management and conservation decisions for an iconic Australian species, the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). We review the methods involved in developing maps of integrated measures of foliar nutritional quality for browsing herbivores with airborne imaging spectroscopy data and discuss their applications for wildlife management.

  13. Planning Interventions for Lake Conservation: A Case of Shahpura Lake, Bhopal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoth, Navneet; Nagaich, Anugrah Anilkumar

    2015-09-01

    With due increment in the development process of India, the problems related to environment are under constant increment and its contamination has now became a great threat for the rich ecology of the country. Particularly, the problems regarding the water quality are now becoming more acute and complicated due to increasing urbanization, industrialization, siltation, agricultural run-off and discharge of untreated sewage water. The city Bhopal in India having named as the city of lakes, is also experiencing similar issues. The famous characteristic lakes of Bhopal are under great environmental stress due to pollution from various sources. The Shahpura lake is one such lake, situated well within the city. A number of wards and colonies surrounding the lake boundary discharge their sewage and silage into the existing drainage network of the area, which ultimately finds its way into the lake through open drains. The main source of contamination in the lake is sewage fed drains, which are dumped into the lake during the summers. Besides this, other activities like bathing, cloth washing, cattle bathing and religious activities like idol immersion etc. also paves the way for high concentration of harmful chemicals in the lake. This work mainly discusses the existing situation and causes of water pollution in the Shahpura lake of Bhopal. It also brings into light the constitutional safeguards related to Lake Conservation in India and reviews their practical implications. In the end, it focuses on recommending the lake conservation strategies for the case of Shahpura lake; and suggests measures that could be adopted elsewhere to prevent the issue of lake pollution from various sources, emphasizing the importance of lakes.

  14. Adoption potential of conservation agriculture practices in sub-Saharan Africa: results from five case studies.

    PubMed

    Ndah, Hycenth Tim; Schuler, Johannes; Uthes, Sandra; Zander, Peter; Traore, Karim; Gama, Mphatso-S; Nyagumbo, Isaiah; Triomphe, Bernard; Sieber, Stefan; Corbeels, Marc

    2014-03-01

    Despite the reported benefits of conservation agriculture (CA), its wider up-scaling in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has remained fairly limited. This paper shows how a newly developed qualitative expert assessment approach for CA adoption (QAToCA) was applied to determine its adoption potential in SSA. CA adoption potential is not a predictor of observed adoption rates. Instead, our aim was to systematically check relevant factors that may be influencing its adoption. QAToCA delivers an assessment of how suitable conditions "and thus the likelihood for CA adoption" are. Results show that the high CA adoption potentials exhibited by the Malawi and Zambia case relate mostly to positive institutional factors. On the other hand, the low adoption potential of the Zimbabwe case, in spite of observed higher estimates, is attributed mainly to unstable and less secured market conditions for CA. In the case of Southern Burkina Faso, the potential for CA adoption is determined to be high, and this assessment deviates from lower observed figures. This is attributed mainly to strong competition of CA and livestock for residues in this region. Lastly, the high adoption potential found in Northern Burkina Faso is explained mainly by the fact that farmers here have no alternative other than to adopt the locally adapted CA system-Zaï farming. Results of this assessment should help promoters of CA in the given regions to reflect on their activities and to eventually adjust or redesign them based on a more explicit understanding of where problems and opportunities are found. PMID:24337194

  15. Conservative Management of Second Metatarsophalangeal Joint Instability in a Professional Dancer: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ojofeitimi, Sheyi; Bronner, Shaw; Becica, Laura

    2016-02-01

    Study Design Case report. Background Professional ballet and modern dancers spend an inordinate amount of time on demi pointe (rising onto their forefeet), placing excessive force on the metatarsophalangeal joints and putting them at risk of instability. Surgical treatment of this condition is well described in the literature. However, studies describing conservative management, particularly in dance populations, are lacking. Case Description A 33-year-old dancer presented with insidious onset of medial arch and second and third metatarsophalangeal joint pain. Functional deficits included the inability to walk barefoot, perform demi relevé, or balance on demi pointe. Imaging studies revealed osteoarthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint, second metatarsophalangeal joint calcification, capsulitis, and plantar plate rupture, leading to a diagnosis of instability. The dancer underwent a treatment program that included taping, padding, physical therapy, a series of prolotherapy injections, and activity modification. Outcomes The dancer was seen for a total of 37 physical therapy sessions over the 16-week rehabilitation period. At the time of discharge, the patient had returned to full duty and performed all choreography with taping and padding. Repeated single-leg jumps and turns on the right foot, however, still caused discomfort. At her 6-month follow-up, the dancer's total Dance Functional Outcome Survey (DFOS) score had improved from 16% to 86%, and her Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) physical scores improved from 24 to 47. One year after discharge, the dancer reported pain-free dancing with no taping or padding. Discussion This case report describes early diagnosis and a multimodal treatment approach in a professional dancer with significant disability secondary to metatarsophalangeal joint instability. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(2):114-123. Epub 11 Jan 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016

  16. Adoption Potential of Conservation Agriculture Practices in Sub-Saharan Africa: Results from Five Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndah, Hycenth Tim; Schuler, Johannes; Uthes, Sandra; Zander, Peter; Traore, Karim; Gama, Mphatso-S.; Nyagumbo, Isaiah; Triomphe, Bernard; Sieber, Stefan; Corbeels, Marc

    2014-03-01

    Despite the reported benefits of conservation agriculture (CA), its wider up-scaling in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has remained fairly limited. This paper shows how a newly developed qualitative expert assessment approach for CA adoption (QAToCA) was applied to determine its adoption potential in SSA. CA adoption potential is not a predictor of observed adoption rates. Instead, our aim was to systematically check relevant factors that may be influencing its adoption. QAToCA delivers an assessment of how suitable conditions "and thus the likelihood for CA adoption" are. Results show that the high CA adoption potentials exhibited by the Malawi and Zambia case relate mostly to positive institutional factors. On the other hand, the low adoption potential of the Zimbabwe case, in spite of observed higher estimates, is attributed mainly to unstable and less secured market conditions for CA. In the case of Southern Burkina Faso, the potential for CA adoption is determined to be high, and this assessment deviates from lower observed figures. This is attributed mainly to strong competition of CA and livestock for residues in this region. Lastly, the high adoption potential found in Northern Burkina Faso is explained mainly by the fact that farmers here have no alternative other than to adopt the locally adapted CA system—Zaï farming. Results of this assessment should help promoters of CA in the given regions to reflect on their activities and to eventually adjust or redesign them based on a more explicit understanding of where problems and opportunities are found.

  17. Aplasia cutis congenita: a conservative approach of a case with large, extensive skin, and underlying skull defect

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Dalila; Rodrigues, Joana; Marques, Jorge Sales; Pinto, Rui; Gomes, Anabela

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Aplasia cutis congenita is a disease in which skin, bone, and dura mater can be absent. In majority of the cases it affects the scalp. We report a baby girl born at term with a large scalp and skull defect measuring 9 × 10 cm. Conservative treatment led to complete epithelization. PMID:26509020

  18. Reducing Energy Consumption and Creating a Conservation Culture in Organizations: A Case Study of One Public School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schelly, Chelsea; Cross, Jennifer E.; Franzen, William S.; Hall, Pete; Reeve, Stu

    2011-01-01

    How can existing schools significantly reduce their energy use? With energy costs rising and school budgets shrinking, energy use is a substantial cost that can be reduced through conservation efforts. Using a case study methodology, the authors compare two public high schools from the same school district, one that has achieved moderate energy…

  19. Conservative approach to mitral valve replacement in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with systolic anterior motion – a case report

    PubMed Central

    Suder, Bogdan; Szymoński, Krzysztof; Wasilewski, Grzegorz; Sadowski, Jerzy; Kapelak, Boguslaw

    2015-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 60-year-old patient with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), systolic anterior motion (SAM), and high gradient in the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) who underwent surgical treatment. During the surgery, myomectomy of the septum was performed using the Morrow method: despite the persisting SAM and increased LVOT gradients, the mitral valve was not replaced. The case study presents a conservative approach to mitral valve replacement during HCM surgery. PMID:26855652

  20. Parasites and the conservation of small populations: The case of Baylisascaris procyonis☆

    PubMed Central

    Kristen Page, L.

    2013-01-01

    Human demands on natural resources result in landscape changes that facilitate the emergence of disease. Most emerging diseases are zoonotic, and some of these pathogens play a role in the decline of vulnerable wildlife species. Baylisascaris procyonis, the common roundworm parasite of raccoons (Procyon lotor), is a well recognized zoonotic infection that has many of the properties associated with a pathogen capable of driving extinction. It is highly non-specific and frequently pathogenic with regard to paratenic hosts, which contact eggs of B. procyonis at raccoon latrines. Eggs accumulate at latrines and remain viable for many years. Transmission of B. procyonis is sensitive to changes in land-use, and fragmented habitats increase contact rates between raccoons, potential paratenic hosts, and the parasite. Raccoons, and subsequently B. procyonis, have been introduced to Europe and Japan, where naïve vertebrates may be exposed to the parasite. Finally, domestic animals and exotic pets can carry patent infections with B. procyonis, thus increasing environmental contamination beyond raccoon latrines, and expanding the area of risk to potential paratenic hosts. This parasite can potentially contribute to extinctions of vulnerable species, as exemplified by the case of the Allegheny woodrat (Neotoma magister), a species that has experienced local declines and extinctions that are linked to B. procyonis. Conservation strategies for vulnerable species should consider the transmission ecology of parasitic pathogens, like B. procyonis. PMID:24533336

  1. Conservative management of an elite ice hockey goaltender with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI): a case report

    PubMed Central

    MacIntyre, Kyle; Gomes, Brendan; MacKenzie, Steven; D’Angelo, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To detail the presentation of an elite male ice hockey goaltender with cam-type femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and acetabular labral tears. This case will outline the prevalence, clinical presentation, imaging criteria, pathomechanics, and management of FAI, with specific emphasis on the ice hockey goaltender. Clinical Features: A 22-year old retired ice hockey goaltender presented to a chiropractor after being diagnosed by an orthopaedic surgeon with MRI confirmed left longitudinal and chondral flap acetabular labral tears and cam-type femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). As the patient was not a candidate for surgical intervention, a multimodal conservative treatment approach including manual therapy, electroacupuncture and rehabilitation exercises were implemented. Summary: FAI is prevalent in ice hockey players, particularly with goaltenders. Both skating and position-dependent hip joint mechanics involved in ice hockey may exacerbate or contribute to acquired and congenital forms of symptomatic FAI. As such, practitioners managing this population must address sport-specific demands in manual therapy, rehabilitation and physical training, to improve functional outcomes and prevent future injury. PMID:26816416

  2. Changing strategies in utility regulation: the case of energy conservation in California

    SciTech Connect

    Barkovich, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper considers changes in the strategy of utility regulators. It finds that prior to the early 1970s regulators pursued largely unintrusive regulatory strategies, deferring to utility managers or ratifying the latters' decisions after minimal review. Since the early 1970s regulators have become more interventionist, undertaking widespread oversight of utility management decisions and assuming some responsibility for such decisions. The intent of interventionist regulation during the 1970s and early 1980s is found to be (1) minimizing utility cost increases and (2) reducing the impact of related rate increases on customers. The paper explores reasons for this strategy change. It finds theories of regulation differentially see 3 factors as influencing regulator decision-making: interest groups, the regulatory commission as organization, and regular ideology. Its analysis suggests that all 3 help explain interventionism and proposes some consolidation and extension of existing theory to join these factors. This analysis is applied to a case study of interventionism: the decision of the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) to implement energy conservation through utilities during 1975-1984.

  3. Conservative and timely treatment in retained products of conception: a case report of placenta accreta ritention

    PubMed Central

    Antonella, Guarino; Luisa, Di Benedetto; Chiara, Assorgi; Alessandra, Rocca; Caserta, Donatella

    2015-01-01

    The term retained products of conception (RPOC) refers to intrauterine tissue that develops after conception and persists after medical and surgical pregnancy termination, miscarriage, and vaginal or cesarean delivery. One of the most important factor risk for RPOC is placenta accreta, defined as “the abnormal adherence, either in whole or in part, of the afterbirth to the underlying uterine wall”. We report a case of a 37 years old woman referred to our gynecologic department with irregular vaginal bleeding. On her medical history, she had a cesarean occurred 3 months before. Ultrasonography revealed in the uterine cavity hyperechoic mass, treated with curettage. Two weeks later the curettage, patient complained still vaginal bleeding. On the transvaginal ultrasound, the uterine cavity was occupied again by a hyperechoic mass. She underwent to hysteroscopic resection and histological diagnosis was compatible with placenta accreta residual. In the follow up she had not complications. Early diagnosis, prompt evaluation of bleeding is important for timely treatment and for preventing immediate complications and demolitive approach. A careful follow up is necessary to prevent late consequences. The purpose of this study is to report our experience in timely diagnosis and conservative management. PMID:26722586

  4. Parasites and the conservation of small populations: The case of Baylisascaris procyonis.

    PubMed

    Kristen Page, L

    2013-12-01

    Human demands on natural resources result in landscape changes that facilitate the emergence of disease. Most emerging diseases are zoonotic, and some of these pathogens play a role in the decline of vulnerable wildlife species. Baylisascaris procyonis, the common roundworm parasite of raccoons (Procyon lotor), is a well recognized zoonotic infection that has many of the properties associated with a pathogen capable of driving extinction. It is highly non-specific and frequently pathogenic with regard to paratenic hosts, which contact eggs of B. procyonis at raccoon latrines. Eggs accumulate at latrines and remain viable for many years. Transmission of B. procyonis is sensitive to changes in land-use, and fragmented habitats increase contact rates between raccoons, potential paratenic hosts, and the parasite. Raccoons, and subsequently B. procyonis, have been introduced to Europe and Japan, where naïve vertebrates may be exposed to the parasite. Finally, domestic animals and exotic pets can carry patent infections with B. procyonis, thus increasing environmental contamination beyond raccoon latrines, and expanding the area of risk to potential paratenic hosts. This parasite can potentially contribute to extinctions of vulnerable species, as exemplified by the case of the Allegheny woodrat (Neotoma magister), a species that has experienced local declines and extinctions that are linked to B. procyonis. Conservation strategies for vulnerable species should consider the transmission ecology of parasitic pathogens, like B. procyonis. PMID:24533336

  5. Conservative management of retained cardiac missiles: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Lundy, Jonathan B; Johnson, Eric K; Seery, Jason M; Pham, Tach; Frizzi, James D; Chasen, Arthur B

    2009-01-01

    Intracardiac foreign bodies may be caused by direct penetrating trauma, embolization from injury to another area of the body, or iatrogenically from fragments of intravascular access devices. Penetrating cardiac trauma commonly presents with a hemodynamically unstable patient necessitating emergent life-saving procedures. Missile embolization to the heart can occur after injury to systemic and pulmonary veins. Central venous access devices may fracture after placement and embolize. Especially in the setting of penetrating cardiac trauma, these intracardiac foreign bodies require expeditious removal. Limited data exist regarding the conservative management of intracardiac material after trauma. We present the case of a 42-year-old male soldier injured in a mortar blast in Iraq who suffered multiple injuries to include a right hemopneumothorax and soft tissue injuries to the chest and both lower extremities that was found to have a 2-cm by 2-mm intracardiac metal fragment. Additional imaging revealed a metallic fragment localized to the interatrial septum. The patient suffered no adverse sequelae from nonoperative management. A review of the world literature regarding the subject of posttraumatic retained cardiac missiles (RCMs) is also included to help future surgeons in the management of this rare entity. PMID:19896630

  6. Conservative Approach in Patients with Pemphigus Gingival Vulgaris: A Pilot Study of Five Cases

    PubMed Central

    Gambino, Alessio; Carbone, Mario; Arduino, Paolo G.; Carbone, Lucio; Broccoletti, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this pilot study was to describe the clinical efficacy of a conservative oral hygiene protocol in patients affected by gingival pemphigus vulgaris (PV) applied in a case series. Methods. Subjects suffering from PV with gingival localisation and slightly responsive to conventional treatment with systemic corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs were selected among individuals treated in the Unit of Oral Medicine Section of the University of Turin. Five subjects received nonsurgical periodontal therapy, over a 7-day period, including oral hygiene instructions; patients were instructed about domiciliary oral hygiene maintenance and instructions were reinforced at each visit and personalised if necessary. Clinical outcome variables were recorded at baseline (before starting) and 16 weeks after intervention, including full mouth plaque score (FMPS), bleeding scores (FMBS), probing pocket depth (PPD), oral pemphigus clinical score (OPCS), and patient related outcomes (visual analogue score of pain). Results. Five patients were treated and, after finishing the proposed therapy protocol, a statistical significant reduction was observed for FMBS (P = 0.043) and OPCS (P = 0.038). Conclusions. Professional oral hygiene procedures with nonsurgical therapy are related to an improvement of gingival status and a decrease of gingival bleeding in patients affected by PV with specific gingival localization. PMID:25505912

  7. Conservative approach in patients with pemphigus gingival vulgaris: a pilot study of five cases.

    PubMed

    Gambino, Alessio; Carbone, Mario; Arduino, Paolo G; Carcieri, Paola; Carbone, Lucio; Broccoletti, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this pilot study was to describe the clinical efficacy of a conservative oral hygiene protocol in patients affected by gingival pemphigus vulgaris (PV) applied in a case series. Methods. Subjects suffering from PV with gingival localisation and slightly responsive to conventional treatment with systemic corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs were selected among individuals treated in the Unit of Oral Medicine Section of the University of Turin. Five subjects received nonsurgical periodontal therapy, over a 7-day period, including oral hygiene instructions; patients were instructed about domiciliary oral hygiene maintenance and instructions were reinforced at each visit and personalised if necessary. Clinical outcome variables were recorded at baseline (before starting) and 16 weeks after intervention, including full mouth plaque score (FMPS), bleeding scores (FMBS), probing pocket depth (PPD), oral pemphigus clinical score (OPCS), and patient related outcomes (visual analogue score of pain). Results. Five patients were treated and, after finishing the proposed therapy protocol, a statistical significant reduction was observed for FMBS (P = 0.043) and OPCS (P = 0.038). Conclusions. Professional oral hygiene procedures with nonsurgical therapy are related to an improvement of gingival status and a decrease of gingival bleeding in patients affected by PV with specific gingival localization. PMID:25505912

  8. Combining Landscape-Level Conservation Planning and Biodiversity Offset Programs: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, Jared G.

    2011-01-01

    Habitat loss is major factor in the endangerment and extinction of species around the world. One promising strategy to balance continued habitat loss and biodiversity conservation is that of biodiversity offsets. However, a major concern with offset programs is their consistency with landscape-level conservation goals. While merging offset polices and landscape-level conservation planning is thought to provide advantages over a traditional disconnected approach, few such landscape-level conservation-offset plans have been designed and implemented, so the effectiveness of such a strategy remains uncertain. In this study, we quantitatively assess the conservation impact of combining landscape-level conservation planning and biodiversity offset programs by comparing regions of San Diego County, USA with the combined approach to regions with only an offset program. This comparison is generally very difficult due to a variety of complicating factors. We overcome these complications and quantify the benefits to rare and threatened species of implementing a combined approach by assessing the amount of each species' predicted distribution, and the number of documented locations, conserved in comparison to the same metric for areas with an offset policy alone. We found that adoption of the combined approach has increased conservation for many rare species, often 5-10 times more than in the comparison area, and that conservation has been focused in the areas most important for these species. The level of conservation achieved reduces uncertainty that these species will persist in the region into the future. This San Diego County example demonstrates the potential benefits of combining landscape-level conservation planning and biodiversity offset programs.

  9. Two similar cases of elderly women with moderate abdominal pain and pneumoperitoneum of unknown origin: a surgeon's successful conservative management.

    PubMed

    Vinzens, Fabrizio; Zumstein, Valentin; Bieg, Christian; Ackermann, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Patients presenting with abdominal pain and pneumoperitoneum in radiological examination usually require emergency explorative laparoscopy or laparotomy. Pneumoperitoneum mostly associates with gastrointestinal perforation. There are very few cases where surgery can be avoided. We present 2 cases of pneumoperitoneum with unknown origin and successful conservative treatment. Both patients were elderly women presenting to our emergency unit, with moderate abdominal pain. There was neither medical intervention nor trauma in their medical history. Physical examination revealed mild abdominal tenderness, but no clinical sign of peritonitis. Cardiopulmonary examination remained unremarkable. Blood studies showed only slight abnormalities, in particular, inflammation parameters were not significantly increased. Finally, obtained CTs showed free abdominal gas of unknown origin in both cases. We performed conservative management with nil per os, nasogastric tube, total parenteral nutrition and prophylactic antibiotics. After 2 weeks, both were discharged home. PMID:27229749

  10. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act permit modifications and the functional equivalency demonstration: a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Elsberry, K.; Garcia, P.; Carnes, R.; Kinker, J.; Loehr, C; Lyon, W.

    1996-02-01

    Hazardous waste operating permits issued under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) often impose requirements that specific components and equipment be used. Consequently, changing these items, may first require that the owner/operator request a potentially time-consuming and costly permit modification. However, the owner/operator may demonstrate that a modification is not required because the planned changes are ``functionally equivalent.`` The Controlled-Air Incinerator at Los Alamos National Laboratory is scheduled for maintenance and improvements. The incinerator`s carbon adsorption unit/high efficiency particulate air filtration system, was redesigned to improve reliability and minimize maintenance. A study was performed to determine whether the redesigned unit would qualify as functionally equivalent to the original component. In performing this study, the following steps were taken: (a) the key performance factors were identified; (b) performance data describing the existing unit were obtained; (c) performance of both the existing and redesigned units was simulated; and (d) the performance data were compared to ascertain whether the components could qualify as functionally equivalent. In this case, the key performance data included gas residence time and distribution of flow over the activated carbon. Because both units were custom designed and fabricated, a simple comparison of manufacturers` specifications was impossible. Therefore, numerical simulation of each unit design was performed using the TEMPEST thermal-hydraulic computer code to model isothermal hydrodynamic performance under steady-state conditions. The results of residence time calculations from the model were coupled with flow proportion and sampled using a Monte Carlo-style simulation to derive distributions that describe the predicted residence times.

  11. Molecular markers and conservation of plant species in Latin America: the case of Phaedranassa viridflora (Amaryllidaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsatellites are molecular markers with great potential for investigating genetic structure of populations. This information is valuable for generating effective conservation plans. We studied the endemic and endangered Phaedranassa viridiflora (Amaryllidaceae) to show the utility of microsatelli...

  12. Radiation recall dermatitis occurring 6 years and 4 months after breast-conserving surgery: A case report

    PubMed Central

    UBUKATA, MAMIKO; KAMIO, TAKAKO; OHCHI, TETSUYA; NOGUCHI, EIICHIRO; TSUKADA, HIROKO; KAMEOKA, SHINGO

    2016-01-01

    Currently in Japan, breast-conserving therapy, consisting of breast-conserving surgery and post-operative radiation therapy, is performed frequently for the treatment of invasive breast cancer. It has been demonstrated that radiation therapy not only prevents recurrence in the preserved breast, but that it also contributes to improved patient survival. The present study describes the case of a 37-year-old woman with radiation recall dermatitis that occurred 6 years and 4 months after breast-conserving surgery. Erythema with a relatively distinct border was observed at the irradiated site on the left breast; eczema was diagnosed by a dermatologist. Inflammatory breast cancer was ruled out, since chest X-ray, abdominal ultrasound and bone scintigraphy were negative. Following ~1 month of topical corticosteroid application and oral second generation antihistamine treatment, the erythema was alleviated and the subjective symptoms also disappeared. Only a few cases of radiation recall dermatitis have been described in the fields of radiology and dermatology, but not yet in the surgical field. In the future, the incidence of radiation recall dermatitis is predicted to increase due to the increasing number of patients undergoing breast-conserving therapy. Whether in the surgical, radiological or dermatological field, if erythema is detected at the irradiated site during post-operative follow-up, routine care should be provided, keeping in mind the possibility of radiation recall dermatitis and inflammatory breast cancer. PMID:27123065

  13. Business strategies for conservation on private lands: Koa forestry as a case study.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Joshua H; Daily, Gretchen C; Friday, James B; Matson, Pamela A; Naylor, Rosamond L; Vitousek, Peter

    2006-06-27

    Innovative financial instruments are being created to reward conservation on private, working lands. Major design challenges remain, however, to make investments in biodiversity and ecosystem services economically attractive and commonplace. From a business perspective, three key financial barriers for advancing conservation land uses must frequently be addressed: high up-front costs, long time periods with no revenue, and high project risk due to long time horizons and uncertainty. We explored ways of overcoming these barriers on grazing lands in Hawaii by realizing a suite of timber and conservation revenue streams associated with their (partial) reforestation. We calculated the financial implications of alternative strategies, focusing on Acacia koa ("koa") forestry because of its high conservation and economic potential. Koa's timber value alone creates a viable investment (mean net present value = $453/acre), but its long time horizon and poor initial cash flow pose formidable challenges for landowners. At present, subsidy payments from a government conservation program targeting benefits for biodiversity, water quality, and soil erosion have the greatest potential to move landowners beyond the tipping point in favor of investments in koa forestry, particularly when combined with future timber harvest (mean net present value = $1,661/acre). Creating financial mechanisms to capture diverse ecosystem service values through time will broaden opportunities for conservation land uses. Governments, nongovernmental organizations, and private investors have roles to play in catalyzing this transition by developing new revenue streams that can reach a broad spectrum of landowners. PMID:16782816

  14. Prevalence of conservation design in an agriculture-dominated landscape: the case of Northern Indiana.

    PubMed

    Crick, Julie; Prokopy, Linda Stalker

    2009-06-01

    We examined the prevalence of residential development that occurs with consideration of the natural features of the site, known as conservation design, within county-level planning jurisdictions across Northern Indiana. Using data from telephone interviews with representatives of planning departments, jurisdictions were ranked based on reported use of conservation design. Three categories of use emerged from the data: no use, use of individual practices associated with conservation design, and integration of multiple conservation design practices. Qualitative data analysis revealed that conservation design practices were not being used widely and, when used, were often used to fulfill stormwater requirements. Statistical analysis, using data from interviews, spatial data sets, and the U.S. Census Bureau, identified several significant positive predictors of the levels of conservation design use including conversion of forest or agricultural land cover to urban uses and education levels in the jurisdiction. Many of the interviewees noted that agricultural land is perceived to meet open space needs within their counties. Given that agricultural land does not fully meet all ecosystem needs, education about the benefits of other types of open space is suggested. PMID:19224272

  15. Prevalence of Conservation Design in an Agriculture-Dominated Landscape: The Case of Northern Indiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crick, Julie; Prokopy, Linda Stalker

    2009-06-01

    We examined the prevalence of residential development that occurs with consideration of the natural features of the site, known as conservation design, within county-level planning jurisdictions across Northern Indiana. Using data from telephone interviews with representatives of planning departments, jurisdictions were ranked based on reported use of conservation design. Three categories of use emerged from the data: no use, use of individual practices associated with conservation design, and integration of multiple conservation design practices. Qualitative data analysis revealed that conservation design practices were not being used widely and, when used, were often used to fulfill stormwater requirements. Statistical analysis, using data from interviews, spatial data sets, and the U.S. Census Bureau, identified several significant positive predictors of the levels of conservation design use including conversion of forest or agricultural land cover to urban uses and education levels in the jurisdiction. Many of the interviewees noted that agricultural land is perceived to meet open space needs within their counties. Given that agricultural land does not fully meet all ecosystem needs, education about the benefits of other types of open space is suggested.

  16. Business strategies for conservation on private lands: Koa forestry as a case study

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Joshua H.; Daily, Gretchen C.; Friday, James B.; Matson, Pamela A.; Naylor, Rosamond L.; Vitousek, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Innovative financial instruments are being created to reward conservation on private, working lands. Major design challenges remain, however, to make investments in biodiversity and ecosystem services economically attractive and commonplace. From a business perspective, three key financial barriers for advancing conservation land uses must frequently be addressed: high up-front costs, long time periods with no revenue, and high project risk due to long time horizons and uncertainty. We explored ways of overcoming these barriers on grazing lands in Hawaii by realizing a suite of timber and conservation revenue streams associated with their (partial) reforestation. We calculated the financial implications of alternative strategies, focusing on Acacia koa (“koa”) forestry because of its high conservation and economic potential. Koa’s timber value alone creates a viable investment (mean net present value = $453/acre), but its long time horizon and poor initial cash flow pose formidable challenges for landowners. At present, subsidy payments from a government conservation program targeting benefits for biodiversity, water quality, and soil erosion have the greatest potential to move landowners beyond the tipping point in favor of investments in koa forestry, particularly when combined with future timber harvest (mean net present value = $1,661/acre). Creating financial mechanisms to capture diverse ecosystem service values through time will broaden opportunities for conservation land uses. Governments, nongovernmental organizations, and private investors have roles to play in catalyzing this transition by developing new revenue streams that can reach a broad spectrum of landowners. PMID:16782816

  17. The effect of conservative management in extensor plus finger after partial amputation to the ulnar digits--a case report.

    PubMed

    Sudhakar, Gangatharam; Le blanc, Monique

    2012-03-01

    The extensor plus finger after partial amputation of ulnar digits can affect the functions of the hand. The therapist intricate knowledge of intrinsic and extrinsic mechanism of fingers and creative approach in therapy would solve the puzzle when managing complex problem (extensor plus finger). Here we study a case of extensor plus finger after partial amputation of ulnar digits, its mechanism, and our experience with conservative management in managing extensor plus finger. PMID:22411113

  18. Effectiveness of voluntary habitat stewardship in conserving grassland: case of operation burrowing owl in Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Warnock, Robert G; Skeel, Margaret A

    2004-03-01

    There have been no published performance evaluations of nongovernmental, voluntary habitat stewardship programs. The Operation Burrowing Owl (OBO) stewardship program, initiated in 1987, was evaluated for its effectiveness in conservation of grassland habitat during 1986-1993. The 108 OBO sites from 1987 to 88 and 98 randomly selected non-OBO sites that were grassland in 1986 in the Regina-Weyburn, Saskatchewan study area were classified by size and agricultural soil suitability. By 1993, 41 (38%) of the 108 OBO sites had been withdrawn from the program. The 1986 area of grassland was compared with grassland area calculated from digitized 1993 LANDSAT imagery. A correction for satellite inaccuracies was determined. Grassland retention in 1993 was significantly higher at OBO sites (66%) than at random sites (49%), demonstrating that the OBO voluntary program effectively conserved habitat. Also, grassland retention was significantly lower on sites with better agricultural soils, and for sites <12 ha in size. Site type (OBO or random), size and their interaction, followed by agricultural soil suitability, had the greatest effects on grassland retention. During an era of accelerated grassland loss, OBO strongly and positively (statistically significant) affected conservation of grassland sites most at risk: sites <12 ha in size and with good to excellent agricultural soils. This suggests that grassland conservation efforts focus on vulnerable sites (small size and/or good agricultural soils) to provide nesting habitat for burrowing owls. Our study demonstrates that a voluntary stewardship program can significantly increase conservation of habitat. PMID:15037954

  19. Conservative management of De Quervain’s stenosing tenosynovitis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Papa, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To chronicle the conservative treatment and management of a 32-year old female patient presenting with radial wrist pain of 4 months duration, diagnosed as De Quervain’s stenosing tenosynovitis. Clinical features The primary clinical feature is wrist pain at the radial styloid with resultant impairment of wrist, hand, and thumb function. Intervention and outcome The conservative treatment approach consisted of activity modification, Graston Technique®, and eccentric training. Outcome measures included verbal pain rating scale, QuickDASH Disability/Symptom Score, and a return to activities of daily living (ADLs). The patient attained symptom resolution and at 6 month follow-up reported no recurrence of wrist pain. Conclusion A combination of conservative rehabilitation strategies may be used by chiropractors to treat De Quervain’s stenosing tenosynovitis and allow for an individual to return to pain free ADLs in a timely manner. PMID:22675224

  20. Electric and gas utility marketing of residential energy conservation case studies

    SciTech Connect

    1980-05-01

    The objective of this research was to obtain information about utility conservation marketing techniques from companies actively engaged in performing residential conservation services. Many utilities currently are offering comprehensive services (audits, listing of contractors and lenders, post-installation inspection, advertising, and performing consumer research). Activities are reported for the following utilities: Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation; Tampa Electric Company; Memphis Light, Gas, and Water Division; Northern States Power-Wisconsin; Public Service Company of Colorado; Arizona Public Service Company; Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Sacramento Municipal Utility District; and Pacific Power and Light Company.

  1. Farmers' Adoption of Soil Conservation Technologies: A Case Study from Osun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junge, B.; Deji, O.; Abaidoo, R.; Chikoye, D.; Stahr, K.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the attitude of farmers towards erosion and the adoption of appropriate soil conservation technologies (SCTs). For the survey, farmers were selected from the communities Esa Oke, Elwure and Owode-Ede and Akoda in Osun State in Nigeria. In the first three communities farmers did receive training on…

  2. Applying statistical causal analyses to agricultural conservation: A case study examining P loss impacts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estimating the effect of agricultural conservation practices on reducing nutrient loss using observational data can be confounded by differing crop types and differing management practices. As we may not have the full knowledge of these confounding factors, conventional statistical methods are ofte...

  3. An integrated approach for the conservation of threatened plants: The case of Arabis kennedyae (Brassicaceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreou, M.; Delipetrou, P.; Kadis, C.; Tsiamis, G.; Bourtzis, K.; Georghiou, K.

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose an integrated approach (including population and habitat monitoring and the study of reproductive biology and genetic diversity) for the comprehensive study of threatened plants, for which conservation measures are imperative. We applied this model to the plant species Arabis kennedyae which is classified as endangered according to the IUCN criteria. The current population of the species consists of three small subpopulations (AR1, AR2, and AR3) at three locations. Population size was characterized by considerable annual fluctuations. The distribution pattern of the plant followed habitat availability. Relative Reproductive Success remained stable but moderate. Germination of dormant seeds was promoted by light and was optimal at 15 and 20 °C. Genetic analysis showed low interpopulation variability and detected two groups: haplotype I (AR1 and AR3) and haplotype II (AR2), which may represent two altitudinal ecotypes. The direct threats identified were related to recreation activities, road construction and fire. The subpopulations of the plant are regulated by density and depend on fecundity and on the soil seedbank while their persistence depends mainly on habitat availability. Low genetic diversity combined with small population size and a possible reduction in fitness suggest increased susceptibility to loss of genetic variation. The overall results suggest that ex situ conservation in a seed bank, and in situ conservation in the form of population restoration, are suitable conservation measures and the study of the different aspects of the species' biology has provided the data required for their implementation.

  4. Which Advisory System to Support Innovation in Conservation Agriculture? The Case of Madagascar's Lake Alaotra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faure, Guy; Penot, Eric; Rakotondravelo, Jean Chrysostome; Ramahatoraka, Haja Andrisoa; Dugue, Patrick; Toillier, Aurelie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To promote sustainable agriculture, various development projects are encouraging farmers around Madagascar's Lake Alaotra to adopt conservation agriculture techniques. This article's objective is to analyze the capacity of a project-funded advisory system to accompany such an innovation and to design and implement an advisory method aimed…

  5. Ecological Modernization and the US Farm Bill: The Case of the Conservation Security Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenihan, Martin H.; Brasier, Kathryn J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the debate surrounding the inception of the Conservation Security Program (CSP) under the 2002 US Farm Bill as a possible expression of ecological modernization by examining the discursive contributions made by official actors, social movement organizations, and producer organizations. Based on this analysis, the CSP embodies…

  6. Investigating the Conservation of Mechanical Energy Using Video Analysis: Four Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Inexpensive video analysis technology now enables students to make precise measurements of an object's position at incremental times during its motion. Such capability now allows users to "examine", rather than simply "assume", energy conservation in a variety of situations commonly discussed in introductory physics courses. This article describes…

  7. Conserving and promoting evenness: organic farming and fire-based wildland management as case studies.

    PubMed

    Crowder, David W; Northfield, Tobin D; Gomulkiewicz, Richard; Snyderi, William E

    2012-09-01

    Healthy ecosystems include many species (high richness) with similar abundances (high evenness). Thus, both aspects of biodiversity are worthy of conservation. Simultaneously conserving richness and evenness might be difficult, however, if, for example, the restoration of previously absent species to low densities brings a cost in reduced evenness. Using meta-analysis, we searched for benefits to biodiversity following adoption of two common land-management schemes: the implementation of organic practices by farmers and of controlled burning by natural-land managers. We used rarefaction to eliminate sampling bias in all of our estimates of richness and evenness. Both conservation practices significantly increased evenness and overall abundance across taxonomic classifications (arthropods, birds, non-bird vertebrates, plants, soil organisms). Evenness and richness varied independently, leading to no richness-evenness correlation and no significant overall change in richness. Demonstrating the importance of rarefaction, analyses of raw data that did not receive rarefaction indicated misleadingly strong benefits of organic agriculture and burning for richness while underestimating true gains in evenness. Both organic farming and burning favored species that were not numerically dominant, re-balancing communities as uncommon species gained individuals. Our results support the assertion that richness and evenness capture separate facets of biodiversity, each needing individual attention during conservation. PMID:23094371

  8. Effectiveness of conservation practices within watersheds: Case study in tile-drained systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of conservation practices are governed in part by the spatial and temporal patterns of water flow as runoff and subsurface (tile) drainage. The variability in patterns of nitrate loss were examined using data from different sized catchments with four CEAP watersheds located in cent...

  9. Conservative management of empyema-complicated post-lobectomy bronchopleural fistulas: experience of consecutive 13 cases in 9 years

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Rui; Ying, Peng-Qing; Xie, Dong; Dai, Chen-Yang; Zha, Jun-Yan; Chen, Tao; Jiang, Ge-Ning; Fei, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Background Bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is an infrequent but life-threatening complication after lung surgery. Tentative closure of the fistula and irrigation have been the conventional treatments, but are also surgically challenging and associated with a considerable failure rate. This study reports on a conservative practice of this difficult issue, in aim to examine its outcomes. Method All enrolled cases were handled consecutively from September 2006 to June 2015. The empyema was first properly drained till disseminated pneumonia controlled. After conducting lavage, tube drainage was gradually transited to postural drainage. During the follow-up, information on tube removal, fistula healing, and survival were recorded. Results Thirteen cases were enrolled, including 9 rights and 4 lefts. The primary diseases were lung cancer [10], lung abscess [1], organizing pneumonia [1], and aspergillosis [1]. Early fistula (≤30 days postoperatively) occurred in 8 cases and late fistula (>30 days postoperatively) in 5 cases. Two patients underwent debridement to ascertain complete drainage. Chest tubes retained from 7 to 114 days (mean 40.54±30.49 days) before removal. At follow-up, we observed gradually narrowing-down of all residual cavities, and symptoms of fistula and empyema eventually disappeared in all patients. No complication or death occurred during the follow-up. Conclusions Conservative management by a combination of tube and postural drainage provides an effective and safe treatment for empyema-complicated post-lobectomy BPFs.

  10. Delayed-Onset Chylous Ascites After a Living-Donor Liver Transplant: First Case Successfully Treated With Conservative Treatment?

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-Han; Chang, Chun-Ming; Lu, Min-Chi; Wei, Chang-Kuo; Yin, Wen-Yao

    2016-06-01

    Chylous ascites is a rare complication in liver transplant. Few cases have been reported to date. In most cases, chylous ascites is diagnosed within 1 month after surgery because of intraoperative injury of the hilar lymphatic system. Preoperative massive ascites and use of a LigaSure vessel sealing system for hilar dissection have been reported as risk factors. We report a case of chylous ascites after a living-donor liver transplant that was diagnosed after 6 months of uneventful follow-up. Sirolimus was added to cyclosporine early (2 wk after the operation) owing to poor renal function and it was found to be high (> 22 ng/mL) when the chylous ascites occurred. The patient was treated with total parenteral nutrition in combination with Sandostatin and rapid tapering of sirolimus after the failed initial conservative treatment. Residual abdominal fullness after meals and lymphedema of the legs disappeared 1 month after discontinuing sirolimus. This is the first case of delayed-onset chylous ascites after a liver transplant that was successfully treated conservatively. PMID:25365187

  11. Conservative management of intestinal obstruction by isolated intramural duodenal hematoma. A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    D'Arpa, Francesco; Orlando, Giuseppina; Tutino, Roberta; Salamone, Giuseppe; Battaglia, Emanuele Onofrio; Gulotta, Gaspare

    2015-01-01

    The duodenal injuries occur in the 3-5% of blunt abdominal traumas. The isolated intramural duodenal hematoma is a very rare lesion. An early diagnosis and an adequate therapy are crucial because a delay, beyond 24 hours, increases the mortality from the 11% to 40%. However, diagnosis is often hindered by a lack of specific symptoms. We report a case of a 21 years-old man with an intestinal obstruction from isolated intramural duodenal hematoma occurred after a blunt abdominal trauma in a sport competition. The patient was treated conservatively with total parenteral nutrition, gastric decompression and intravenous PPIs. The progressive spontaneous resolution of the hematoma was checked with periodical endoscopies. The discharge occurred after three weeks with no early complications. No late complications occurred at one-year follow-up. The endoscopy is a good and safe tool in the management of this intestinal obstructions with the possibility of conservative or interventional treatment. PMID:26675664

  12. Conservation Planning for Offsetting the Impacts of Development: A Case Study of Biodiversity and Renewable Energy in the Mojave Desert.

    PubMed

    Kreitler, Jason; Schloss, Carrie A; Soong, Oliver; Hannah, Lee; Davis, Frank W

    2015-01-01

    Balancing society's competing needs of development and conservation requires careful consideration of tradeoffs. Renewable energy development and biodiversity conservation are often considered beneficial environmental goals. The direct footprint and disturbance of renewable energy, however, can displace species' habitat and negatively impact populations and natural communities if sited without ecological consideration. Offsets have emerged as a potentially useful tool to mitigate residual impacts after trying to avoid, minimize, or restore affected sites. Yet the problem of efficiently designing a set of offset sites becomes increasingly complex where many species or many sites are involved. Spatial conservation prioritization tools are designed to handle this problem, but have seen little application to offset siting and analysis. To address this need we designed an offset siting support tool for the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP) of California, and present a case study of hypothetical impacts from solar development in the Western Mojave subsection. We compare two offset scenarios designed to mitigate a hypothetical 15,331 ha derived from proposed utility-scale solar energy development (USSED) projects. The first scenario prioritizes offsets based precisely on impacted features, while the second scenario offsets impacts to maximize biodiversity conservation gains in the region. The two methods only agree on 28% of their prioritized sites and differ in meeting species-specific offset goals. Differences between the two scenarios highlight the importance of clearly specifying choices and priorities for offset siting and mitigation in general. Similarly, the effects of background climate and land use change may lessen the durability or effectiveness of offsets if not considered. Our offset siting support tool was designed specifically for the DRECP area, but with minor code modification could work well in other offset analyses, and could provide

  13. Conservation planning for offsetting the impacts of development: a case study of biodiversity and renewable energy in the Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kreitler, Jason R.; Schloss, Carrie A.; Soong, Oliver; Lee Hannah; Davis, Frank W.

    2015-01-01

    Balancing society’s competing needs of development and conservation requires careful consideration of tradeoffs. Renewable energy development and biodiversity conservation are often considered beneficial environmental goals. The direct footprint and disturbance of renewable energy, however, can displace species’ habitat and negatively impact populations and natural communities if sited without ecological consideration. Offsets have emerged as a potentially useful tool to mitigate residual impacts after trying to avoid, minimize, or restore affected sites. Yet the problem of efficiently designing a set of offset sites becomes increasingly complex where many species or many sites are involved. Spatial conservation prioritization tools are designed to handle this problem, but have seen little application to offset siting and analysis. To address this need we designed an offset siting support tool for the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP) of California, and present a case study of hypothetical impacts from solar development in the Western Mojave subsection. We compare two offset scenarios designed to mitigate a hypothetical 15,331 ha derived from proposed utility-scale solar energy development (USSED) projects. The first scenario prioritizes offsets based precisely on impacted features, while the second scenario offsets impacts to maximize biodiversity conservation gains in the region. The two methods only agree on 28% of their prioritized sites and differ in meeting species-specific offset goals. Differences between the two scenarios highlight the importance of clearly specifying choices and priorities for offset siting and mitigation in general. Similarly, the effects of background climate and land use change may lessen the durability or effectiveness of offsets if not considered. Our offset siting support tool was designed specifically for the DRECP area, but with minor code modification could work well in other offset analyses, and could provide

  14. Conservation Planning for Offsetting the Impacts of Development: A Case Study of Biodiversity and Renewable Energy in the Mojave Desert

    PubMed Central

    Kreitler, Jason; Schloss, Carrie A.; Soong, Oliver; Hannah, Lee; Davis, Frank W.

    2015-01-01

    Balancing society’s competing needs of development and conservation requires careful consideration of tradeoffs. Renewable energy development and biodiversity conservation are often considered beneficial environmental goals. The direct footprint and disturbance of renewable energy, however, can displace species’ habitat and negatively impact populations and natural communities if sited without ecological consideration. Offsets have emerged as a potentially useful tool to mitigate residual impacts after trying to avoid, minimize, or restore affected sites. Yet the problem of efficiently designing a set of offset sites becomes increasingly complex where many species or many sites are involved. Spatial conservation prioritization tools are designed to handle this problem, but have seen little application to offset siting and analysis. To address this need we designed an offset siting support tool for the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP) of California, and present a case study of hypothetical impacts from solar development in the Western Mojave subsection. We compare two offset scenarios designed to mitigate a hypothetical 15,331 ha derived from proposed utility-scale solar energy development (USSED) projects. The first scenario prioritizes offsets based precisely on impacted features, while the second scenario offsets impacts to maximize biodiversity conservation gains in the region. The two methods only agree on 28% of their prioritized sites and differ in meeting species-specific offset goals. Differences between the two scenarios highlight the importance of clearly specifying choices and priorities for offset siting and mitigation in general. Similarly, the effects of background climate and land use change may lessen the durability or effectiveness of offsets if not considered. Our offset siting support tool was designed specifically for the DRECP area, but with minor code modification could work well in other offset analyses, and could provide

  15. Stakeholder management for conservation projects: a case study of Ream National Park, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    De Lopez, T T

    2001-07-01

    The paper gives an account of the development and implementation of a stakeholder management framework at Ream National Park, Cambodia. Firstly, the concept of stakeholder is reviewed in management and in conservation literatures. Secondly, the context in which the stakeholder framework was implemented is described. Thirdly, a five-step methodological framework is suggested: (1) stakeholder analysis, (2) stakeholder mapping, (3) development of generic strategies and workplan, (4) presentation of the workplan to stakeholders, and (5) implementation of the workplan. This framework classifies stakeholders according to their level of influence on the project and their potential for the conservation of natural resources. In a situation characterized by conflicting claims on natural resources, park authorities were able to successfully develop specific strategies for the management of stakeholders. The conclusion discusses the implications of the Ream experience and the generalization of the framework to other protected areas. PMID:11437000

  16. Two cases of food-borne botulism in Finland caused by conserved olives, October 2011.

    PubMed

    Jalava, K; Selby, K; Pihlajasaari, A; Kolho, E; Dahlsten, E; Forss, N; Bäcklund, T; Korkeala, H; Honkanen-Buzalski, T; Hulkko, T; Derman, Y; Järvinen, A; Kotilainen, H; Kultanen, L; Ruutu, P; Lyytikaïnen, O; Lindström, M

    2011-01-01

    In October 2011 in Finland, two persons fell ill with symptoms compatible with botulism after having eaten conserved olives stuffed with almonds. One of these two died. Clostridium botulinum type B and its neurotoxin were detected in the implicated olives by PCR and mouse bioassay, respectively. The olives were traced back to an Italian manufacturer and withdrawn from the market. The public and other European countries were informed through media and Europe-wide notifications. PMID:22172330

  17. The Impacts of Water Conservation Strategies on Water Use: Four Case Studies1

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Yushiou; Cohen, Sara; Vogel, Richard M

    2011-01-01

    We assessed impacts on water use achieved by implementation of controlled experiments relating to four water conservation strategies in four towns within the Ipswich watershed in Massachusetts. The strategies included (1) installation of weather-sensitive irrigation controller switches (WSICS) in residences and municipal athletic fields; (2) installation of rainwater harvesting systems in residences; (3) two outreach programs: (a) free home indoor water use audits and water fixture retrofit kits and (b) rebates for low-water-demand toilets and washing machines; and (4) soil amendments to improve soil moisture retention at a municipal athletic field. The goals of this study are to summarize the effectiveness of the four water conservation strategies and to introduce nonparametric statistical methods for evaluating the effectiveness of these conservation strategies in reducing water use. It was found that (1) the municipal WSICS significantly reduced water use; (2) residences with high irrigation demand were more likely than low water users to experience a substantial demand decrease when equipped with the WSICS; (3) rainwater harvesting provided substantial rainwater use, but these volumes were small relative to total domestic water use and relative to the natural fluctuations in domestic water use; (4) both the audits/retrofit and rebate programs resulted in significant water savings; and (5) a modeling approach showed potential water savings from soil amendments in ball fields. PMID:22457572

  18. Splinted Porcelain Laminate Veneers With a Natural Tooth Pontic: A Provisional Approach for Conservative and Esthetic Treatment of a Challenging Case.

    PubMed

    Jang, J-H; Lee, S-H; Paek, J; Kim, S-Y

    2015-01-01

    Esthetic rehabilitation of discolored anterior teeth is always a great challenge, especially in the presence of pathology. Fortunately, conservative management in the esthetic zone has become more feasible in compromised cases because of the development of restorative materials and advances in dental adhesives. This report presents a complicated case of a patient with tetracycline-related discoloration, multiple root resorption, and a periapical lesion. Treatment was conservative and used a natural tooth pontic and splinted porcelain laminate veneers. PMID:26332738

  19. Modelling interspecific hybridization with genome exclusion to identify conservation actions: the case of native and invasive Pelophylax waterfrogs

    PubMed Central

    Quilodrán, Claudio S; Montoya-Burgos, Juan I; Currat, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization occurs in nature but can also be caused by human actions. It often leads to infertile or fertile hybrids that exclude one parental genome during gametogenesis, escaping genetic recombination and introgression. The threat that genome-exclusion hybridization might represent on parental species is poorly understood, especially when invasive species are involved. Here, we show how to assess the effects of genome-exclusion hybridization and how to elaborate conservation actions by simulating scenarios using a model of nonintrogressive hybridization. We examine the case of the frog Pelophylax ridibundus, introduced in Western Europe, which can hybridize with the native Pelophylax lessonae and the pre-existing hybrid Pelophylax esculentus, maintained by hybridogenesis. If translocated from Southern Europe, P. ridibundus produces new sterile hybrids and we show that it mainly threatens P. esculentus. Translocation from Central Europe leads to new fertile hybrids, threatening all native waterfrogs. Local extinction is demographically mediated via wasted reproductive potential or via demographic flow through generations towards P. ridibundus. We reveal that enlarging the habitat size of the native P. lessonae relative to that of the invader is a promising conservation strategy, avoiding the difficulties of fighting the invader. We finally stress that nonintrogressive hybridization is to be considered in conservation programmes. PMID:25685194

  20. Conservative treatment of coexisting microinvasive squamous and adenocarcinoma of the cervix: report of two cases and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Sopracordevole, Francesco; Di Giuseppe, Jacopo; Cervo, Silvia; Buttignol, Monica; Giorda, Giorgio; Ciavattini, Andrea; Canzonieri, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Coexistence of microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma (MISCC) and microinvasive adenocarcinoma (MIAC) of the cervix is a rare phenomenon with very few clinically significant cases described in the literature. While a conservative approach has been studied, and may be effective in MISCC, a lower number of studies that recommend conservative treatment are available for MIAC. We report two cases of synchronous cervix lesions in two separate foci, MISCC and MIAC, who underwent fertility-sparing treatment with long-term follow-up. We describe clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical features of the two cases. The first case is a 41-year-old female with a diagnosis of MIAC of endocervical type, grade 1 differentiation, with a stromal invasion, associated with a separate area of squamous cell carcinoma (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics/TNM stage: pT1a1G1). The second case is a 45-year-old female with a diagnosis of plurifocal MISCC, associated with an MIAC of endocervical type with a stromal invasion (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics/TNM stage: pT1a1G1). After multidisciplinary counseling, both patients accepted conization as definitive treatment. Eleven years after the conization, all tests (Papanicolaou smear, colposcopy, cervical curettage, and hybrid capture 2-human papillomavirus test) planned quarterly in the first year and every 6 months in the subsequent years were negative in both patients. In women affected by stage IA1 squamous cervical cancer coexisting with stage IA1 adenocarcinoma endocervical type, with clear margins, and without lymphovascular space invasion, cervical conization may be considered a fertility-preserving, safe, and definitive therapeutic option. PMID:26869798

  1. Nonlinear Fluctuating Hydrodynamics in One Dimension: The Case of Two Conserved Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spohn, Herbert; Stoltz, Gabriel

    2015-08-01

    We study the BS model, which is a one-dimensional lattice field theory taking real values. Its dynamics is governed by coupled differential equations plus random nearest neighbor exchanges. The BS model has two locally conserved fields. The peak structure of their steady state space-time correlations is determined through numerical simulations and compared with nonlinear fluctuating hydrodynamics, which predicts a traveling peak with KPZ scaling function and a standing peak with a scaling function given by the maximally asymmetric Lévy distribution with parameter . As a by-product, we completely classify the universality classes for two coupled stochastic Burgers equations with arbitrary coupling coefficients.

  2. Comminuted scapular body fractures: A report of three cases managed conservatively in chiropractic settings

    PubMed Central

    Scarano, Julie Lynn; Richardson, Matthew; Taylor, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Fractures of the scapula are relatively uncommon. Fractures specific to the scapular body comprise 35–65% of these fractures. Currently, 99% of all isolated scapular body fractures are being treated nonoperatively with an immobilizing sling or brace and some form of manual therapy with an 86% success rate. We present the conservative management of three patients with comminuted fractures involving the scapular body that were managed in chiropractic settings. Residual disabilities in these three patients as measured by a standardized outcome tool were 2%, 5% and 23% after 3 years, 2 years, and 6 years respectively. PMID:23754863

  3. [Contamination with Sphingomonas paucimobilis: about seven cases isolated in conservation and transport mediums of corneal grafts].

    PubMed

    Bourigault, C; Daniel, L; Jourdain, S; Hardy, E; Heriaud, K; Virmaux, M; Eniafe-Eveillard, B; Lejeune, B

    2007-03-01

    From September to December 2004, contaminations were found in fifteen conservation and transport mediums of corneal grafts at the tissue bank of Brest, including seven by Sphingomonas paucimobilis. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis made it possible to establish the genotypic profiles of each strain and to compare them. Similarities were found between certain strains of the contaminated mediums and those of the thermostated double boiler of the tissue bank. The link between the contamination and the defrosting of the mediums in the double boiler was thus established. Measures of prevention are currently proposed to defrost the bottles like the use of a dry bath to replace the current one. PMID:16631318

  4. Conservation of Socioculturally Important Local Crop Biodiversity in the Oromia Region of Ethiopia: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balemie, Kebu; Singh, Ranjay K.

    2012-09-01

    In this study, we surveyed diversity in a range of local crops in the Lume and Gimbichu districts of Ethiopia, together with the knowledge of local people regarding crop uses, socio-economic importance, conservation, management and existing threats. Data were collected using semistructured interviews and participant observation. The study identified 28 farmers' varieties of 12 crop species. Among these, wheat ( Triticum turgidum) and tef ( Eragrostis tef) have high intra-specific diversity, with 9 and 6 varieties respectively. Self-seed supply or seed saving was the main (80 %) source of seeds for replanting. Agronomic performance (yield and pest resistance), market demand, nutritional and use diversity attributes of the crop varieties were highlighted as important criteria for making decisions regarding planting and maintenance. Over 74 % of the informants grow a combination of "improved" and farmers' varieties. Of the farmers' varieties, the most obvious decline and/or loss was reported for wheat varieties. Introduction of improved wheat varieties, pest infestation, shortage of land, low yield performance and climate variability were identified as the principal factors contributing to this loss or decline. Appropriate interventions for future conservation and sustainable use of farmers' varieties were suggested.

  5. Conservation of socioculturally important local crop biodiversity in the Oromia region of Ethiopia: a case study.

    PubMed

    Balemie, Kebu; Singh, Ranjay K

    2012-09-01

    In this study, we surveyed diversity in a range of local crops in the Lume and Gimbichu districts of Ethiopia, together with the knowledge of local people regarding crop uses, socio-economic importance, conservation, management and existing threats. Data were collected using semistructured interviews and participant observation. The study identified 28 farmers' varieties of 12 crop species. Among these, wheat (Triticum turgidum) and tef (Eragrostis tef) have high intra-specific diversity, with 9 and 6 varieties respectively. Self-seed supply or seed saving was the main (80 %) source of seeds for replanting. Agronomic performance (yield and pest resistance), market demand, nutritional and use diversity attributes of the crop varieties were highlighted as important criteria for making decisions regarding planting and maintenance. Over 74 % of the informants grow a combination of "improved" and farmers' varieties. Of the farmers' varieties, the most obvious decline and/or loss was reported for wheat varieties. Introduction of improved wheat varieties, pest infestation, shortage of land, low yield performance and climate variability were identified as the principal factors contributing to this loss or decline. Appropriate interventions for future conservation and sustainable use of farmers' varieties were suggested. PMID:22729809

  6. Conservative Management of Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumour with Enucleation, Excision of the Overlying Mucosa and Electrocauterization – A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Gambhir, A; Rani, G

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Odontogenic keratocyst remains an enigma for clinicians and researchers, although gains in knowledge in recent years have improved the understanding of this interesting lesion. The diagnostic problems are mainly related to the relative lack of specific clinical and radiographic features that unequivocally point to a proper diagnosis. Of particular interest to clinicians is the biologic behaviour of keratocysts which includes high rates of recurrence and potential existence as a benign odontogenic neoplasm, keratocystic odontogenic tumour. Various surgical modalities have evolved in an attempt to reduce the recurrence rate, including curettage, peripheral ostectomy, removal of overlying mucosa in cases of cortical perforation and osseous resection in the form of marginal or segmental osteotomies. The present case report describes the conservative surgical management of a large keratocystic odontogenic tumour in a young patient with no evidence of recurrence at two years follow-up. PMID:25867564

  7. Balancing Conservation with National Development: A Socio-Economic Case Study of the Alternatives to the Serengeti Road

    PubMed Central

    Hopcraft, J. Grant C.; Bigurube, Gerald; Lembeli, James Daudi; Borner, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Developing countries often have rich natural resources but poor infrastructure to capitalize on them, which leads to significant challenges in terms of balancing poverty alleviation with conservation. The underlying premise in development strategies is to increase the socio-economic welfare of the people while simultaneously ensuring environmental sustainability, however these objectives are often in direct conflict. National progress is dependent on developing infrastructure such as effective transportation networks, however roads can be ecologically catastrophic in terms of disrupting habitat connectivity and facilitating illegal activity. How can national development and conservation be balanced? The proposed Serengeti road epitomizes the conflict between poverty alleviation on one hand, and the conservation of a critical ecosystem on the other. We use the Serengeti as an exemplar case-study in which the relative economic and social benefits of a road can be assessed against the ecological impacts. Specifically, we compare three possible transportation routes and ask which route maximizes the socio-economic returns for the people while minimizing the ecological costs. The findings suggest that one route in particular that circumnavigates the Serengeti links the greatest number of small and medium sized entrepreneurial businesses to the largest labour force in the region. Furthermore, this route connects the most children to schools, provisions the greatest access to hospitals, and opens the most fertile crop and livestock production areas, and does not compromise the ecology and tourism revenue of the Serengeti. This route would improve Tanzania’s food security and self-reliance and would facilitate future infrastructure development which would not be possible if the road were to pass through the Serengeti. This case study provides a compelling example of how a detailed spatial analysis can balance the national objectives of poverty alleviation while

  8. Balancing Conservation with National Development: A Socio-Economic Case Study of the Alternatives to the Serengeti Road.

    PubMed

    Hopcraft, J Grant C; Bigurube, Gerald; Lembeli, James Daudi; Borner, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Developing countries often have rich natural resources but poor infrastructure to capitalize on them, which leads to significant challenges in terms of balancing poverty alleviation with conservation. The underlying premise in development strategies is to increase the socio-economic welfare of the people while simultaneously ensuring environmental sustainability, however these objectives are often in direct conflict. National progress is dependent on developing infrastructure such as effective transportation networks, however roads can be ecologically catastrophic in terms of disrupting habitat connectivity and facilitating illegal activity. How can national development and conservation be balanced? The proposed Serengeti road epitomizes the conflict between poverty alleviation on one hand, and the conservation of a critical ecosystem on the other. We use the Serengeti as an exemplar case-study in which the relative economic and social benefits of a road can be assessed against the ecological impacts. Specifically, we compare three possible transportation routes and ask which route maximizes the socio-economic returns for the people while minimizing the ecological costs. The findings suggest that one route in particular that circumnavigates the Serengeti links the greatest number of small and medium sized entrepreneurial businesses to the largest labour force in the region. Furthermore, this route connects the most children to schools, provisions the greatest access to hospitals, and opens the most fertile crop and livestock production areas, and does not compromise the ecology and tourism revenue of the Serengeti. This route would improve Tanzania's food security and self-reliance and would facilitate future infrastructure development which would not be possible if the road were to pass through the Serengeti. This case study provides a compelling example of how a detailed spatial analysis can balance the national objectives of poverty alleviation while maintaining

  9. Two cases of medial knee pain involving the medial coronary ligament in adolescents treated with conservative rehabilitation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hudes, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This case study chronicled the assessment, treatment and management of two adolescent patients presenting with acute knee pain, diagnosed as medial meniscus tear, with or without a medial collateral ligament sprain, with coronary ligament involvement. Cases Patient 1: A 16 year old male football player presented with right medial knee pain of 2 days duration after having been tackled during practice from the left side. Patient 2: A 16 year old female presented with right medial knee pain that began 1 week prior to presentation after a fall down the stairs. Treatment: Treatment was initiated in both cases using inflammatory control techniques of icing and fascial stripping and progressed to rehabilitative exercises including VMO (vastus medialis oblique) exercises and squatting exercises to strengthen the quadriceps femoris musculature and proprioceptive exercise. Rehabilitation occurred over a four week duration in both cases with progression of exercises on an individual basis. Both cases resolved within four weeks and return to normal activities resumed at the three week mark including a return to play in patient 1. Both patients reported complete resolution of symptoms at the four week mark with no recurrence on follow up a number of months later. Summary: Conservative management, including icing, fascial stripping, and rehabilitative exercises may be beneficial in the treatment of medial meniscus tears with coronary ligament involvement in adolescents. PMID:21629464

  10. De-anthropomorphizing energy and energy conservation: The case of Max Planck and Ernst Mach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegener, Daan

    Discussions on the relation between Mach and Planck usually focus on their famous controversy, a conflict between 'instrumentalist' and realist philosophies of science that revolved around the specific issue of the existence of atoms. This article approaches their relation from a different perspective, comparing their analyses of energy and energy conservation. It is argued that this reveals a number of striking similarities and differences. Both Mach and Planck agreed that the law was valid, and they sought to purge energy of its anthropomorphic elements. They did so in radically different ways, however, illustrating the differences between Mach's 'historical' and Planck's 'rationalistic' accounts of knowledge. Planck's attempt to de-anthropomorphize energy was part of his attempt to demarcate theoretical physics from other disciplines. Mach's attempt to de-anthropomorphize energy is placed in the context of fin-de-siècle Vienna. By doing so, this article also proposes a new interpretation of Mach as a philosopher, historian and sociologist of science.

  11. Distorting Gene Pools by Conservation: Assessing the Case of Doomed Turtle Eggs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrosovsky, N.

    2006-10-01

    Sea turtles have a high reproductive output and high mortality at early stages of the life cycle. In particular, many nests are laid below or close to high tide lines, and subsequently large numbers of eggs may be inundated and destroyed. A common conservation procedure is to relocate such doomed eggs to higher ground. This article examines this practice in the light of recent data revealing that some individual turtles tend to nest relatively near the water and others relatively higher up the beach. Discussion is focused on the question of why apparently poor placement of nests has not been selected against. Comparison between the ecology of leatherback and hawksbill turtle nesting beaches suggests that predictability of environmental conditions on the nesting beaches has an important influence on patterns of nest-site selection. Options are outlined for the management of nesting beaches where a high proportion of turtle eggs is subject to destruction by flooding.

  12. Improving In Vitro to In Vivo Extrapolation by Incorporating Toxicokinetic Measurements: A Case Study of Lindane-Induced Neurotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Approaches for extrapolating in vitro toxicity testing results for prediction of human in vivo outcomes are needed. The purpose of this case study was to employ in vitro toxicokinetics and PBPK modeling to perform in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) of lindane neurotoxicit...

  13. A Conservation-Based Approach to Compensation for Livestock Depredation: The Florida Panther Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Caitlin E.; Main, Martin B.

    2015-01-01

    Calf (Bos taurus) depredation by the federally endangered Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi) on ranches in southwest Florida is an important issue because ranches represent mixed landscapes that provide habitat critical to panther recovery. The objectives of this study were to (1) quantify calf depredation by panthers on two ranches in southwest Florida, and (2) develop a habitat suitability model to evaluate the quality of panther hunting habitat on ranchlands, assess whether the model could predict predation risk to calves, and discuss its potential to be incorporated into an incentive-based compensation program. We ear-tagged 409 calves with VHF transmitters on two ranches during 2011–2013 to document calf mortality. We developed a model to evaluate the quality of panther hunting habitat on private lands in southwest Florida using environmental variables obtained from the Florida Natural Areas Inventory (FNAI) Cooperative Landcover Database and nocturnal GPS locations of panthers provided by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC). We then tested whether the model could predict the location of calf depredation sites. Tagged calf loss to panthers varied between the two ranches (0.5%/yr to 5.3%/yr) and may have been influenced by the amount of panther hunting habitat on each ranch as the ranch that experienced higher depredation rates contained a significantly higher probability of panther presence. Depredation sites of tagged calves had a significantly greater probability of panther presence than depredation sites of untagged calves that were found by ranchers in open pastures. This suggests that there may be more calves killed in high risk environments than are being found and reported by ranchers and that panthers can hunt effectively in open environments. It also suggests that the model may provide a means for evaluating the quality of panther hunting habitat and the corresponding risk of depredation to livestock across the landscape

  14. A Conservation-Based Approach to Compensation for Livestock Depredation: The Florida Panther Case Study.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Caitlin E; Main, Martin B

    2015-01-01

    Calf (Bos taurus) depredation by the federally endangered Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi) on ranches in southwest Florida is an important issue because ranches represent mixed landscapes that provide habitat critical to panther recovery. The objectives of this study were to (1) quantify calf depredation by panthers on two ranches in southwest Florida, and (2) develop a habitat suitability model to evaluate the quality of panther hunting habitat on ranchlands, assess whether the model could predict predation risk to calves, and discuss its potential to be incorporated into an incentive-based compensation program. We ear-tagged 409 calves with VHF transmitters on two ranches during 2011-2013 to document calf mortality. We developed a model to evaluate the quality of panther hunting habitat on private lands in southwest Florida using environmental variables obtained from the Florida Natural Areas Inventory (FNAI) Cooperative Landcover Database and nocturnal GPS locations of panthers provided by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC). We then tested whether the model could predict the location of calf depredation sites. Tagged calf loss to panthers varied between the two ranches (0.5%/yr to 5.3%/yr) and may have been influenced by the amount of panther hunting habitat on each ranch as the ranch that experienced higher depredation rates contained a significantly higher probability of panther presence. Depredation sites of tagged calves had a significantly greater probability of panther presence than depredation sites of untagged calves that were found by ranchers in open pastures. This suggests that there may be more calves killed in high risk environments than are being found and reported by ranchers and that panthers can hunt effectively in open environments. It also suggests that the model may provide a means for evaluating the quality of panther hunting habitat and the corresponding risk of depredation to livestock across the landscape. We

  15. Gone, Gone from the Range: A Case Study in Conservation Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    Presents a case study that explores the effects of removing coyotes from different types of environments. Students investigate the effects of coyote removal from west Texas with mock proposal funding in which they design the experiment and discuss the effects. Includes teaching notes and classroom management strategies. (YDS)

  16. Surgical versus conservative management of adult intussusception: Case series and review

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Nail; Roth, Andrew; Misra, Subhasis

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Intussusception is the telescoping of a segment of bowel into its adjacent segment. It is a known cause of abdominal pain in the pediatric population, however, it is rare in the adult. Adults do not always present with the typical symptoms seen in young children, making the clinical diagnosis more difficult. The etiology of adult intussusception can be idiopathic, benign, or malignant. Diagnosis is most accurately made with computed tomography, which is sensitive in detecting intussusception as well as potential lead points. Presentation of cases This study presents four adult patients with intussusception. The first three patients are adults with idiopathic intussusception and no evidence of a lead point. The fourth case involves intussusception secondary to a jejunal carcinoid tumor which was treated surgically. Each case has unique features in terms of length and number of intussusceptions, duration of symptoms, and recurrence. Discussion Surgical treatment was once argued to be universally appropriate for adult intussusceptions; however, with increased use of advanced imaging, newer literature is demonstrating that this is not true in all cases. Idiopathic intussusception presents with nonspecific symptoms and can be managed with supportive care when the history and clinical picture indicate low probability of a neoplasm. Conclusion This study aims to raise awareness to the potential diagnosis and management of intussusceptions, particularly the symptomatic idiopathic type in the young adult. PMID:26859872

  17. Case report: Conservative management of an arteriovenous fistula of the inferior epigastric artery.

    PubMed

    Piñero, A; Reus, M; Agea, B; Capel, A; Riquelme, J; Parrilla, P

    2003-02-01

    We present a case of pseudoaneurysm and arteriovenous fistula of the inferior epigastric artery secondary to the placement of a drain during a surgical intervention. We stress the utility of colour Doppler ultrasound and arteriography embolisation in diagnosis and treatment, respectively. PMID:12642284

  18. Administrative Co-management: The Case of Special-Use Forest Conservation in Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KimDung, Nguyen; Bush, Simon; Mol, Arthur P. J.

    2013-03-01

    Special-use forests (SUFs) are nature protected areas in Vietnam used to conserve nature and its biodiversity. While the Vietnamese government has managed to increase the size and number of SUFs, biodiversity within these areas continues to decline. To improve protection of these SUFs, co-management has been advocated in Vietnam. Successfully implementing co-management requires decentralization of authority and a certain extent of public involvement in management activities. This paper assesses how and to what extent the governance of Vietnam's SUFs have taken up the challenge of shifting from conventional government-based management to co-management. Current practices of (co-) management were investigated in 105 of the 143 SUFs. The results show that the type of co-management varies little between different categories of SUFs. Nevertheless, a national `style' of Vietnamese co-management could be identified, labelled `administrative' co-management; fostering interaction between a variety of actors, but final decision-making power on management remaining strongly in the hands of the provincial government.

  19. Importance of well-designed monitoring programs for the conservation of endangered species: case study of the Snail Kite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, J.; Kitchens, W.M.; Hines, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Monitoring natural populations is often a necessary step to establish the conservation status of species and to help improve management decisions. Nevertheless, many monitoring programs do not effectively address primary sources of variability in monitoring data, which ultimately may limit the utility of monitoring in identifying declines and improving management. To illustrate the importance of taking into account detectability and spatial variation, we used a recently proposed estimator of abundance (superpopulation estimator) to estimate population size of and number of young produced by the Snail Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus) in Florida. During the last decade, primary recovery targets set by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for the Snail Kite that were based on deficient monitoring programs (i.e., uncorrected counts) were close to being met (by simply increasing search effort during count surveys). During that same period, the Snail Kite population declined dramatically (by 55% from 1997 to 2005) and the number of young decreased by 70% between 1992?1998 and 1999?2005. Our results provide a strong practical case in favor of the argument that investing a sufficient amount of time and resources into designing and implementing monitoring programs that carefully address detectability and spatial variation is critical for the conservation of endangered species.

  20. Role of Ayurveda in the conservative management of avascular necrosis of the femoral head: A case study.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Ashutosh; Kumar, M Ashvini; Lohith, B A; Praveen, B S; Swathi, C

    2016-01-01

    Avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head is the most common type of necrosis affecting the bones. Management of AVN aims at the preservation of structure, function and relief of from pain. Many surgical procedures such as drilling and insertion of bone grafts, modified Whitman or Colonna reconstruction and insertion of prosthesis are carried out to remedy the condition but all these procedures are costly with the prognosis being poor. Signs and symptoms of Avascular necrosis are nearer to asthivāha srotoduṣṭi vikāra (disorders of musculoskeletal origin) and can be considered with gambhīra avasthā (chronic stage). An effort has been made in the present study to evaluate the efficiency of Ayurvedic formulations in the conservative management of AVN of the femoral head. A case of AVN with bilateral femoral head was treated with rūkṣaṇa (Drying therapy) followed by śodhana (bio purification) and bṛhmaṇa (rejuvenation). Patient was observed for complications during whole course of treatment, untoward complications were not seen. Patient was observed for symptomatic improvements based on assessment done by the questionnaire over graded signs and symptoms before and after treatment. The results were encouraging. The therapy provided marked relief from pain, tenderness, stiffness and improvement in the gait. Conservative management of AVN through Ayurvedic principles provides significant relief and improves quality of life. PMID:27143802

  1. Role of Ayurveda in the conservative management of avascular necrosis of the femoral head: A case study

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Ashutosh; Kumar, M. Ashvini; Lohith, B. A.; Praveen, B. S.; Swathi, C.

    2016-01-01

    Avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head is the most common type of necrosis affecting the bones. Management of AVN aims at the preservation of structure, function and relief of from pain. Many surgical procedures such as drilling and insertion of bone grafts, modified Whitman or Colonna reconstruction and insertion of prosthesis are carried out to remedy the condition but all these procedures are costly with the prognosis being poor. Signs and symptoms of Avascular necrosis are nearer to asthivāha srotoduṣṭi vikāra (disorders of musculoskeletal origin) and can be considered with gambhīra avasthā (chronic stage). An effort has been made in the present study to evaluate the efficiency of Ayurvedic formulations in the conservative management of AVN of the femoral head. A case of AVN with bilateral femoral head was treated with rūkṣaṇa (Drying therapy) followed by śodhana (bio purification) and bṛhmaṇa (rejuvenation). Patient was observed for complications during whole course of treatment, untoward complications were not seen. Patient was observed for symptomatic improvements based on assessment done by the questionnaire over graded signs and symptoms before and after treatment. The results were encouraging. The therapy provided marked relief from pain, tenderness, stiffness and improvement in the gait. Conservative management of AVN through Ayurvedic principles provides significant relief and improves quality of life. PMID:27143802

  2. Experiences integrating productivity, pollution prevention, and energy conservation including case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kasten, D.J.; Muller, M.R.; Barnish, T.J.

    1997-07-01

    Energy auditors have traditionally considered energy conservation opportunities as being independent of other industrial opportunities, such as waste reduction/pollution prevention, and other management issues relating to productivity. The authors experience has indicated that energy conservation decisions are not viewed as independent by management in industry, and that many otherwise attractive modifications are not undertaken due to their relation to other production issues. The energy audit team cannot afford to be naive to the bottom line corporate mentality of the industrial managers involved. If a recommendation cannot be shown to have a secondary or even tertiary benefit to the company, the project cannot be sold to management. In this paper the authors introduce an integrated system approach in which the authors consider such factors as risk, internal yields, and defect rates, and a procedure the authors call industrial triage, using experiences gathered from assessments at a styrofoam cup manufacturer, glass bottle manufacturer, and a tire manufacturer. These companies are similar in that the raw materials can be recycled back into the product in the event these materials are spilled, misused, are incorporated in internal defects, or otherwise wasted. Such firms consistently report that they have little or no defects, since they do not have a specific expense in disposing of the defective product. Energy-only recommendations can have little or no impact on the productivity of a manufacturing plant. Worse, these recommendations can have a negative effect, or be considered too risky. In many industries, energy costs are a small portion of the production costs. Competition for capital is strong, and equipment purchases that increase production, or profits, will generally be favored. Internal defects have costs that are difficult to measure or estimate, such as labor for rework, moving or relocating the materials, space to warehouse raw materials or products

  3. Multiparametric surveillance of conservation measures at subterranean rock-art sites: case of Altamira cave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Anton, E.; Cuezva, S.; Fernandez-Cortes, A.; Sanchez-Moral, S.; Canaveras, J. C.

    2012-04-01

    Altamira cave (North of Spain) contains one of the most worldwide important representations of Palaeolithic art. Changes introduced in the cave environment due to the numerous conditioning projects and massive amounts of visitors in the past led in severe disruptions on the pattern of energy-matter exchange with the external atmosphere. Once the Altamira Cave was definitely closed to visitors in 2002, several conservation actions were progressively carried out with the aim to reinforce the isolation of the main cave emplacement with rock art (Polychrome Hall) and, therefore, limiting the dispersion of microorganisms and the supply of nutrients by airflow, water condensation on rock surfaces or seepage water. Main preservation measure was the installation of new access doors equipped with a thermal insulation system. Multi-annual instrumental monitoring of the atmosphere-soil-cave system has allowed us to control the degree of environmental recovery of cave environment and its trend towards the equilibrium and quasi-natural conditions. The monitoring program was focused on the main microclimatic parameters (air temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide, radon, air velocity, among others) in several profiles from floor to ceiling along the main rooms of the cave. Since the entrance system was modified in 2008 several changes in cave environment have been registered. Absolute annual values of temperature, velocity of air and their annual ranges variation have progressively been reduced. Observed 222Rn and CO2 convective short period fluctuations have been reduced, mainly during the winter season. The beginning of the degassing period in the cave has been delayed. Differences between inner and outer zones of the cavity have increased reaching the maximum value during the summer season (period of greater connexion with outside environment). For instance: in Polychrome Hall the range temperature falls from 1.41oC in 2007-2008 to 1.28oC in 2010-2011; in Crossing Hall

  4. Conservative approach of a symptomatic carious immature permanent tooth using a tricalcium silicate cement (Biodentine): a case report.

    PubMed

    Villat, Cyril; Grosgogeat, Brigitte; Seux, Dominique; Farge, Pierre

    2013-11-01

    The restorative management of deep carious lesions and the preservation of pulp vitality of immature teeth present real challenges for dental practitioners. New tricalcium silicate cements are of interest in the treatment of such cases. This case describes the immediate management and the follow-up of an extensive carious lesion on an immature second right mandibular premolar. Following anesthesia and rubber dam isolation, the carious lesion was removed and a partial pulpotomy was performed. After obtaining hemostasis, the exposed pulp was covered with a tricalcium silicate cement (Biodentine, Septodont) and a glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX extra, GC Corp.) restoration was placed over the tricalcium silicate cement. A review appointment was arranged after seven days, where the tooth was asymptomatic with the patient reporting no pain during the intervening period. At both 3 and 6 mon follow up, it was noted that the tooth was vital, with normal responses to thermal tests. Radiographic examination of the tooth indicated dentin-bridge formation in the pulp chamber and the continuous root formation. This case report demonstrates a fast tissue response both at the pulpal and root dentin level. The use of tricalcium silicate cement should be considered as a conservative intervention in the treatment of symptomatic immature teeth. PMID:24303363

  5. Management of large radicular cyst by conservative surgical approach: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kadam, Nilesh S; Ataide, Ida De Noronha De; Raghava, Phani; Fernandes, Marina; Hede, Ruby

    2014-02-01

    Radicular cysts are the most common cystic lesions which affect the jaw. They are most common among all the jaw cysts and comprise about 52% to 68% of the entire cysts which affect the human jaw. They are generally symptomless and are diagnosed during routine radiologic investigations. The treatment of radicular cysts includes conventional nonsurgical root canal therapy when lesion is localized or surgical treatment like enucleation, marsupialization or decompression when lesion is large. This case report presents the successful surgical management of a large infected radicular cyst which was associated with maxillary central incisor with open apex. PMID:24701544

  6. Conservative management of a large neonatal ovarian cyst: a case report.

    PubMed

    Aamir, Mohd; Punia, Harish; Dalal, Poonam; Sharma, Deepak

    2015-04-01

    We describe a case of a large simple neonatal ovarian cyst, which was managed successfully using "wait and watch" approach and serial ultrasound monitoring. A cystic lesion arising from right ovary was noted in antenatal ultrasound (USG) which was followed up with postnatal USG which revealed a large simple ovarian cyst without any complications. Patient was kept on expectant management with close clinical and USG monitoring. Cyst resolved spontaneously at 10 wk of age. A brief review of literature for likely aetio-pathogenesis and management is also presented. PMID:26023615

  7. Conservative Management of Macrodontia in the Mixed Dentition Stage--A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Harker, Ann R; Walley, Sian; Albadri, Sondos

    2015-12-01

    Macrodontia is a rare dental abnormality, which can cause cosmetic concerns. Various management techniques for this condition have been documented in the literature. This case describes the initial management of macrodontia in the mixed dentition stage with the use of a minimally invasive approach to treatment. CPD/Clinical Relevance: The importance of early referral of dental abnormities is highlighted. Short- and long-term treatment options for macrodontia are described, including the impact such anomalies can have on the developing dentition. PMID:26856003

  8. Conservative management of unicystic ameloblastoma in a young child: Report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Kalaskar, Ritesh; Unawane, Ashok S.; Kalaskar, Ashita R.; Pandilwar, Prashant

    2011-01-01

    Unicystic ameloblastoma is a rare, benign, locally invasive odontogenic neoplasm of young age that show clinical, radiographic, or gross features of an odontogenic cyst, but histologically shows typical ameloblastomatous epithelium lining part of the cyst cavity, with or without luminal and/or mural tumor growth. The article presents atypical cases of a large, asymptomatic unicystic ameloblastoma of posterior maxilla and mandibular molar-ramus regions which were treated by surgical enucleation and application of Carnoy's solution for 3 min. The article also describes the importance and complexity of differential diagnosis of an odontogenic lesion sharing common clinical and radiographical features. PMID:22346168

  9. Cu-sil dentures - a novel approach to conserve few remaining teeth: Case reports.

    PubMed

    Jain, Jayesh Kumar; Prabhu, C R Allama; Zahrane, Mohammed Al; Esawy, Mohammed Sayed Al; Ajagannanavar, Sunil Lingaraj; Pal, Kapil Singh

    2015-08-01

    The present prime concern in dentistry is on preservation of remaining natural teeth. Presence of few teeth in oral cavity help in preserving alveolar ridge integrity, maintain the proprioception, and gives psychological benefit to the patient. Transitional denture provides us with alternative treatment plan for the patients willing to replace their missing teeth while retaining their very few remaining teeth. A relatively newer type of transitional denture is Cu-sil denture. A Cu-sil denture is a denture with holes, lined by a gasket of silicone rubber, the holes thus providing space for remaining natural teeth to emerge into the oral cavity through the denture. Cu-sil denture is the simplest removable partial denture, but its fabrication requires special armamentarium and material. This case report represents a simple chairside technique to fabricate Cu-sil dentures in usual dental set-up. PMID:26464557

  10. B-lynch: a technique for uterine conservation or deformation? A case report with literature review.

    PubMed

    Begum, Jasmina; Pallave, P; Ghose, Seetesh

    2014-04-01

    Postpartum haemorrhage is a leading cause of global maternal mortality and morbidity, accounting for 25-30% of all maternal deaths, and 75-90% of these casualties result from uterine atony. Uterine compressive sutures are a well established measure for control of haemorrhage following atonic postpartum haemorrhage, when medical and nonmedical interventions fail. Here, we are reporting a case of secondary infertility in a 24-year-old lady who had undergone an elective caesarean section for central placenta previa in her first pregnancy. She had massive postpartum haemorrhage, for which B-Lynch suture and vessel ligation were done. Subsequently, she failed to conceive for 4 years. This was because of severe pelvic adhesions and uterine deformation which were found intraoperatively, as a consequence of previous use of B-Lynch suture. As no definitive treatment could be offered to her, we suggested her to go for adoption. PMID:24959485

  11. Conservative approaches for the management of failed resin-based posterior restorations: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nahsan, Flavia Pardo Salata; Oliveira, Gabriela Ulian; Medina-Valdivia, Juan Rommel; Franco, Eduardo Batista; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Wang, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Composite resin restorations have been shown to be functionally reliable and esthetically acceptable to patients, primarily due to improvements in their chemicophysical characteristics. Nevertheless, clinical limitations, such as marginal discoloration, disadaptation, and microleakage, are observed in some patients with these restorations. The choice of treatment pursued to repair such restorations depends primarily on the analysis of the compromised restoration with regard to these aforementioned imperfections. The most common procedures invoked to treat compromised restorations include resurfacing, repairing the restoration with or without the use of surface sealants, and completely replacing the compromised restoration. This case report describes the proper implementation of a simple technique, known as composite resin posterior restoration, that yields a satisfactory outcome for patients who have been characterized with these clinical limitations. PMID:22025995

  12. Conservative Management of an Intraoperative Chyle Leak: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Charles D; McLeod, Ian K; Gallagher, Daniel J

    2016-09-01

    Chyle leaks are a rare but potentially fatal complication of head and neck surgery carrying an incidence as high as 8.3%. The development of a chyle leak carries significant morbidity ranging from delayed wound healing to oropharyngeal fistulas. Presented here is a case of a chyle leak that developed following a left posterolateral neck dissection that was successfully managed with a combination of drain suction, pressure dressing, and a fat-restricted diet. However, the patient's course was complicated by repeated chyle leak recurrences that may have been associated with the initiation of medium-chain triglyceride supplementation. Although further research is required to establish a causal relationship, these findings support the concerns of other investigators about the possible counterproductive role of medium-chain triglyceride supplementation in the management of chyle leaks. PMID:27612380

  13. Observed outcomes on the use of oxidized and regenerated cellulose polymer for breast conserving surgery – A case series

    PubMed Central

    Rassu, Pier Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Background Oxidized regenerated cellulose polymer (ORCP) may be used for reshaping and filling lack of volume in breast-conserving surgery (BCS). The study aimed to observe both the aesthetic and diagnostic outcomes in patients with different age, BMI, breast volume, and breast tissue composition over 36 months after BCS with ORCP. Patients and methods 18 patients with early breast cancer and with proliferative benign lesions underwent BCS with ORCP that was layered in three-dimensional wafer, and placed into the Chassaignac space between the mammary gland and the fascia of pectoralis major with no fixation. After surgery, patients started a clinical and instrumental 36-month follow-up with mammography, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and cytological examination with fine needle aspiration when seroma occurred. Results Below the median age of 66 years old no complications were observed even in case both of overweight, and large breasts with low density. Over the median age seromas occurred with either small or large skin retraction, with the exception of 1 patient having quite dense breasts and low BMI, which had no complications. In elderly patients, 1 case with quite dense breasts and high BMI showed severe seroma and skin retraction, while 1 case with low BMI and less dense breasts highlighted milder complications. Conclusion During 36 months after BCS with ORCP, a significant correlation between positive diagnostic and aesthetic outcomes and low age, dense breasts, and low BMI of patient was observed. Despite of the few number of cases, either low BMI, or high breast density improved the aesthetic outcomes and reduced the entity of complications even in the elderly patients. PMID:26865976

  14. Improving in vitro to in vivo extrapolation by incorporating toxicokinetic measurements: A case study of lindane-induced neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Croom, Edward L.; Shafer, Timothy J.; Evans, Marina V.; Mundy, William R.; Eklund, Chris R.; Johnstone, Andrew F.M.; Mack, Cina M.; Pegram, Rex A.

    2015-02-15

    Approaches for extrapolating in vitro toxicity testing results for prediction of human in vivo outcomes are needed. The purpose of this case study was to employ in vitro toxicokinetics and PBPK modeling to perform in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) of lindane neurotoxicity. Lindane cell and media concentrations in vitro, together with in vitro concentration-response data for lindane effects on neuronal network firing rates, were compared to in vivo data and model simulations as an exercise in extrapolation for chemical-induced neurotoxicity in rodents and humans. Time- and concentration-dependent lindane dosimetry was determined in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons in vitro using “faux” (without electrodes) microelectrode arrays (MEAs). In vivo data were derived from literature values, and physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was used to extrapolate from rat to human. The previously determined EC{sub 50} for increased firing rates in primary cultures of cortical neurons was 0.6 μg/ml. Media and cell lindane concentrations at the EC{sub 50} were 0.4 μg/ml and 7.1 μg/ml, respectively, and cellular lindane accumulation was time- and concentration-dependent. Rat blood and brain lindane levels during seizures were 1.7–1.9 μg/ml and 5–11 μg/ml, respectively. Brain lindane levels associated with seizures in rats and those predicted for humans (average = 7 μg/ml) by PBPK modeling were very similar to in vitro concentrations detected in cortical cells at the EC{sub 50} dose. PBPK model predictions matched literature data and timing. These findings indicate that in vitro MEA results are predictive of in vivo responses to lindane and demonstrate a successful modeling approach for IVIVE of rat and human neurotoxicity. - Highlights: • In vitro to in vivo extrapolation for lindane neurotoxicity was performed. • Dosimetry of lindane in a micro-electrode array (MEA) test system was assessed. • Cell concentrations at the MEA EC

  15. The Role of Conserved Tyrosine Residues in NiSOD Catalysis: A Case of Convergent Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, Robert W.; Guce, Abigail; Bryngelson, Peter A.; Higgins, Khadine A.; Ryan, Kelly C.; Cabelli, Diane E.; Garman, Scott C.; Maroney, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Superoxide dismutases rely on protein structural elements to adjust the redox potential of the metallocenter to an optimum value near 300 mV (vs. NHE), to provide a source of protons for catalysis, and to control the access of anions to the active site. These aspects of the catalytic mechanism are examined herein for recombinant preparations of the nickel-dependent SOD (NiSOD) from Streptomyces coelicolor, and for a series of mutants that affect a key tyrosine residue, Tyr9 (Y9F-, Y62F-, Y9FY62F- and D3A-NiSOD). Structural aspects of the nickel sites are examined by a combination of EPR and x-ray absorption spectroscopies, and by single crystal x-ray diffraction at ~ 1.9 Å resolution in the case of Y9F- and D3A-NiSODs. The functional effects of the mutations are examined by kinetic studies employing pulse radiolytic generation of O2− and by redox titrations. These studies reveal that although the structure of the nickel center in NiSOD is unique, the ligand environment is designed to optimize the redox potential at 290 mV and results in the oxidation of 50% of the nickel centers in the oxidized hexamer. Kinetic investigations show that all of the mutant proteins have considerable activity. In the case of Y9F-NiSOD, the enzyme shows saturation behavior that is not observed in WT-NiSOD and suggests that release of peroxide is inhibited. The crystal structure of Y9F-NiSOD reveals an anion binding site that is occupied by either Cl− or Br− and is located close to, but not within bonding distance of the nickel center. The structure of D3A-NiSOD reveals that in addition to affecting the interaction between subunits, this mutation repositions Y9 and leads to altered chemistry with peroxide. Comparisons with Mn(SOD) and Fe(SOD) reveal that although different strategies are employed to adjust the redox potential and supply of protons, NiSOD has evolved a similar strategy to control the access of anions to the active site. PMID:19183068

  16. Clinical improvement and radiological progression in a girl with early onset scoliosis (EOS) treated conservatively – a case report

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Hans-Rudolf

    2006-01-01

    . However, the weight the patient gained cannot explain the cosmetical improvement in this case. Conservative treatment with a certain standard of quality seems a viable alternative for patients with Cobb angles of > 60° when surgical treatment is refused. Specialists in scoliosis management should be aware of the fact that curve progression can occur even if the clinical measurements show an improvement. PMID:16872503

  17. Problems with the use of breast conservation therapy for breast cancer in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hasson, Danielle M; Khera, Samira Y; Meade, Tammi L; Dupont, Elisabeth L; Greenberg, Harvey M; Diaz, Nils M; Romilly, A Pat; Cox, Charles E

    2008-01-01

    Patients with neurofibromatosis type I and breast cancer represent a subset of people who may be considered at high risk for secondary cancers after conventional whole breast radiation therapy and breast conservation surgery. A case of a 49-year-old woman with neurofibromatosis type I is presented. She was diagnosed with a 1.1-cm right breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma. Clinical, diagnostic imaging, and pathologic features are discussed. Her initial treatment plan of breast conserving therapy was thwarted when her sentinel node biopsy was positive for micrometastatic disease in 1/14 lymph nodes. She elected to have a bilateral simple mastectomy. This case addresses the rare dilemma of offering breast conservation therapy as a viable option for patients with neurofibromatosis type I. Current data on radiation-induced secondary cancers such as sarcoma after treatment for breast and other cancers are reviewed. PMID:18248558

  18. Changing Ecological and Cultural States and Preferences of Nature Conservation Policy: The Case of Nature Values Trade in South-Western Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paloniemi, Riikka; Vilja, Varho

    2009-01-01

    We present a rural Finnish case of nature conservation called the nature values trade (NVT) as an example of the process of changing ecological and cultural states and preferences of environmental policy. We emphasise the importance of local ecological and cultural circumstances for the formulation of environmental policy. The study shows how…

  19. Impact of socioeconomic development on ecosystem services and its conservation strategies: a case study of Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shujun; Liu, Jian; Wang, Renqing; Ni, Zirong; Xu, Shipeng; Sun, Yueyao

    2012-05-01

    Ecosystems and their components provide a lot of benefits for the welfare of human beings. Coupled with increasing socioeconomic development, most of the rapidly developing and transitional countries and regions have been experiencing dramatic land use changes. This has resulted in a large amount of forestland, grassland, and wetland being occupied as residential and industrial land or reclaimed for arable land, which in turn results in a sharp deterioration of ecosystem services around the world. Shandong Province, an economically powerful province of China, was chosen as a case study in order to capture the impact of socioeconomic development on ecosystem services. By way of the study, land uses and their changes were categorized between 1980 and 2006, and the ecosystem services capital and changes of 111 counties of Shandong Province in different phases were evaluated, as well as the total ecosystem services capital, followed by the zoning of ecosystem services function region of Shandong Province. We found that the counties in mountainous areas and wetlands, where generally the prefectural-level cities are located with a rapid socioeconomic development, experienced a successive deterioration of ecosystem services especially during the 2000s. Finally, three conservation strategies for managing and improving ecosystem services were proposed and discussed with the aim of achieving coordinate and sustainable development of the socioeconomy, environment, and ecosystems not only in Shandong Province but also in other provinces of China, as well as in other developing and transitional countries and regions. PMID:21713473

  20. Matsu Cultural Heritage and Its Conservation in Bohai Rim - Case Study on the Hall of Fujian in Yantai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, S.

    2015-08-01

    Since the Yuan Dynasty, the belief of Matsu had started to spread from the birthplace to the northern coastal areas in China. Matsu worship developed to the pinnacle with the official promotion on account of the government's dependence on grain transported by sea since the mid-Qing Dynasty. A large amount of Matsu temples emerged in coastal cities of Bohai Rim where it still keeps a large number of them until now. It has much relationship between the spread of Matsu culture and the flow of Fujian population. It was one of the main building way that the Matsu temples attached to the local hall of Fujian in Bohai Rim. The Hall of Fujian in Yantai, Which was built with materials taken from Fujian, in the feature of traditional architectural style from QuanZhou, is very different from the local building style of Yantai. This case indicates that maritime culture of the south area had spread and developed in the north areas under the promotion of the population flow and the economic transaction. The essay introduces briefly about the development of Matsu culture in Bohai Rim and takes the case study of the Hall of Fujian in Yantai analyzing its causes and features, and the value as Matsu heritage. Then the paper will discuss the conservation of Matsu culture mere include the tangible and the intangible culture heritage around the origin area, the heritages of the spread area also have the same importance significance. With the evolution of the society, it calls urgent attention and protection of Matsu culture in Bohai Rim.

  1. Modulation of Habitat-Based Conservation Plans by Fishery Opportunity Costs: A New Caledonia Case Study Using Fine-Scale Catch Data

    PubMed Central

    Deas, Marilyn; Andréfouët, Serge; Léopold, Marc; Guillemot, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Numerous threats impact coral reefs and conservation actions are urgently needed. Fast production of marine habitat maps promotes the use of habitat-only conservation plans, where a given percentage of the area of each habitat is set as conservation objectives. However, marine reserves can impact access to fishing grounds and generate opportunity costs for fishers that need to be minimized. In New Caledonia (Southwest Pacific), we used fine-scale fishery catch maps to define nineteen opportunity costs layers (expressed as biomass catch loss) considering i) total catches, ii) target fish families, iii) local marine tenure, and iv) gear type. The expected lower impacts on fishery catch when using the different cost constraints were ranked according to effectiveness in decreasing the costs generated by the habitat-only scenarios. The exercise was done for two habitat maps with different thematic richness. In most cases, habitat conservation objectives remained achievable, but effectiveness varied widely between scenarios and between habitat maps. The results provide practical guidelines for coral reef conservation and management. Habitat-only scenarios can be used to initiate conservation projects with stakeholders but the costs induced by such scenarios can be lowered by up to 50–60% when detailed exhaustive fishery data are used. When using partial data, the gain would be only in the 15–25% range. The best compromises are achieved when using local data. PMID:24835216

  2. Modulation of habitat-based conservation plans by fishery opportunity costs: a New Caledonia case study using fine-scale catch data.

    PubMed

    Deas, Marilyn; Andréfouët, Serge; Léopold, Marc; Guillemot, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Numerous threats impact coral reefs and conservation actions are urgently needed. Fast production of marine habitat maps promotes the use of habitat-only conservation plans, where a given percentage of the area of each habitat is set as conservation objectives. However, marine reserves can impact access to fishing grounds and generate opportunity costs for fishers that need to be minimized. In New Caledonia (Southwest Pacific), we used fine-scale fishery catch maps to define nineteen opportunity costs layers (expressed as biomass catch loss) considering i) total catches, ii) target fish families, iii) local marine tenure, and iv) gear type. The expected lower impacts on fishery catch when using the different cost constraints were ranked according to effectiveness in decreasing the costs generated by the habitat-only scenarios. The exercise was done for two habitat maps with different thematic richness. In most cases, habitat conservation objectives remained achievable, but effectiveness varied widely between scenarios and between habitat maps. The results provide practical guidelines for coral reef conservation and management. Habitat-only scenarios can be used to initiate conservation projects with stakeholders but the costs induced by such scenarios can be lowered by up to 50-60% when detailed exhaustive fishery data are used. When using partial data, the gain would be only in the 15-25% range. The best compromises are achieved when using local data. PMID:24835216

  3. Post-bariatric abdominoplasty resulting in wound infection and dehiscence—Conservative treatment with medical grade honey: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Dina Jarjis, Reem; Thomas Crewe, Bjørn; Henrik Matzen, Steen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Wound complications in post-bariatric patients undergoing body-contouring surgery after massive weight loss are not uncommon and often, surgical debridement or conservative management is necessary. Honey is one of the most ancient remedies for wound care and it is also considered to possess debriding effects. Current research has demonstrated promising results showing that honey can improve wound granulation and epithelialization, reduce exudate and shorten healing times. Methods This case report has been reported in line with the CARE criteria. Presentation of case A 40 year-old female suffered wound infection and dehiscence after undergoing post-bariatric abdominoplasty. The patient was not interested in surgical revision and split skin grafting. Therefore, conservative wound treatment with topical Manuka honey was instituted resulting in significant clinical improvement and effective healing concurrently with good patient satisfaction. Discussion Surgical wound complications in post-bariatric patients undergoing abdominoplasty are common and often require surgical revision or conservative wound treatment. No previous publication has addressed outpatient treatment of post-bariatric abdominoplasty wound complications with medical grade honey. Conclusion Although more research is needed for definitive conclusions of honey’s efficacy, it is safe and as presented in our case, it may under certain circumstances reduce the need of surgical wound debridement and serve as a remedy for conservative treatment. PMID:26773204

  4. Heron conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2000-01-01

    Herons are large, popular and, in many cases, spectacular birds found in wetlands world-wide, both tropical and temperate, natural and man-made. Some populations are very small and localized, some have decreased, some have expanded their ranges, and a few are pests of human activities. In the fifteen years since the publication of the latest monographic treatment of the family, The Herons Handbook, there has been a tremendous increase in our knowledge of heron status and conservation requirements, set against a backdrop of increasing concern about the future of the world?s wetland habitats. This book provides a comprehensive update following two distinct threads. The status and conservation needs of herons are first presented on a regional basis, in a series of chapters set at a continental or subcontinental scale. Over 200 biologists and heron conservationists have contributed to the data summarized here, and the very latest census and survey results provide the most up-to-date and detailed picture of heron populations currently available. Chapters discussing several critical issues in heron conservation follow, tending to focus on the international nature of the problems.

  5. Wilderness and woodland ranchers in California: A total income case study of public grazing permits and their impacts on conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oviedo Pro, J. L.; Huntsinger, L.; Campos, P.; Caparros, A.

    2009-04-01

    Mediterranean woodlands in California are managed as agro-silvo-pastoral systems producing a number of commercial products as well as a huge variety of environmental services, including private amenities for the landowner. In many parts of the woodlands, grazing on government owned (public) lands has traditionally had an important role in private ranching. In recent decades the risk of conversion to alternative uses (such as urban development or vineyards) has threatened these woodlands due to the increasing opportunity costs of capital. Understanding the economy of these woodlands and the potential effects of public grazing policies on the total income perceived by the landowner is crucial when considering strategies attempting to slow or stop land use change. However, traditional cash-flow analyses are lacking crucial information needed to understand all the elements that have an important role in the economic decisions that landowners make about their woodlands. For more than half a century, the use of public lands by private ranchers has been one of the most controversial debates in the American west. Wilderness conservationist groups have denounced grazing as destructive and argue for the removal of any kind of livestock. Ranchers have fought for their right to hold public grazing leases, arguing that they are crucial for the continuity of private ranching and consequently for the conservation of extensive rangeland habitat that otherwise could be converted to alternative uses. In this study, we apply the Agroforestry Accounting System (AAS) methodology to a California oak woodland case study to estimate the total private income generated in an accounting period. The presented case study is characterized by a household economy with self-employed labour and with part of the grazing dependent on public land leases. The AAS methodology extends traditional cash-flow analysis in order to estimate the total private income that would accurately explain the woodland

  6. From Paper to Forest: Local Motives for Participation in Different Conservation Initiatives. Case Studies in Southeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Méndez-López, María Elena; García-Frapolli, Eduardo; Ruiz-Mallén, Isabel; Porter-Bolland, Luciana; Reyes-Garcia, Victoria

    2015-09-01

    Under the assumption that local participation can contribute toward conservation, various policies have sought to increase the participation of local communities in conservation, but not always with success. Despite this failure, the drivers that explain local participation remain unclear and few studies have attempted to understand the motivations behind involvement (or lack of it) in different conservation initiatives and adopting the perspective of the local stakeholder. In this study, we analyze the motives behind the participation (or lack thereof) of local populations in three conservation schemes: Protected Areas, Areas Voluntary Devoted to Conservation, and areas under Payment for Environmental Services. The study, conducted in 6 communities of southeastern Mexico, comprises an ethnographic stage and the application of a survey exploring the motives for participation. Our results show similarities among the motives for participation in these three initiatives, predominantly the obligation to comply with acquired commitments and a desire to "care for the land". Results also show that 77 % of the people interviewed did not participate in any conservation initiatives, often due to the lack of mechanisms by which to participate. We conclude by questioning the feasibility of achieving local participation in conservation as currently proposed and for the aims that are outlined. PMID:25931299

  7. From Paper to Forest: Local Motives for Participation in Different Conservation Initiatives. Case Studies in Southeastern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez-López, María Elena; García-Frapolli, Eduardo; Ruiz-Mallén, Isabel; Porter-Bolland, Luciana; Reyes-Garcia, Victoria

    2015-09-01

    Under the assumption that local participation can contribute toward conservation, various policies have sought to increase the participation of local communities in conservation, but not always with success. Despite this failure, the drivers that explain local participation remain unclear and few studies have attempted to understand the motivations behind involvement (or lack of it) in different conservation initiatives and adopting the perspective of the local stakeholder. In this study, we analyze the motives behind the participation (or lack thereof) of local populations in three conservation schemes: Protected Areas, Areas Voluntary Devoted to Conservation, and areas under Payment for Environmental Services. The study, conducted in 6 communities of southeastern Mexico, comprises an ethnographic stage and the application of a survey exploring the motives for participation. Our results show similarities among the motives for participation in these three initiatives, predominantly the obligation to comply with acquired commitments and a desire to "care for the land". Results also show that 77 % of the people interviewed did not participate in any conservation initiatives, often due to the lack of mechanisms by which to participate. We conclude by questioning the feasibility of achieving local participation in conservation as currently proposed and for the aims that are outlined.

  8. Efficacy of vitamin E in the conservative treatment of Peyronie's disease: legend or reality? A controlled study of 70 cases.

    PubMed

    Paulis, G; Brancato, T; D'Ascenzo, R; De Giorgio, G; Nupieri, P; Orsolini, G; Alvaro, R

    2013-01-01

    The medical treatment is indicated in the development stage of Peyronie's disease (PD) for at least 1 year after diagnosis and whenever in case of penile pain. This research was conducted to demonstrate the possible effectiveness of vitamin E in PD treatment, whereas in the scientific literature this topic is much discussed. A total of 70 patients (age:26-69 years, mean: 54.1 ± 9.71) diagnosed with PD were enrolled in a conservative treatment. In addition to medical histories and physical examinations all patients underwent the following tests: International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire, penile ultrasound and photographic documentation, pain evaluation by a conventional 10-point pain scale Visual analogue pain scale (VAS). All 70 patients were divided into two different treatment groups: A and B, with different combinations of drugs: A = vitamin E + verapamil (injection + iontophoresis) + blueberries + propolis + topical diclofenac; B = verapamil (injection + iontophoresis) + blueberries + propolis + topical diclofenac. All patients were treated for 6 months after which they underwent the same follow-up tests as performed prior to the treatment. Intergroup analysis revealed statistically significant differences: in the vitamin E group the effective plaque size reduction was -50.2% whereas in the control group the reduction was -35.8% (p = 0.027). In group A the improvement of curvature occurred in 96.6% of the cases whereas in the control group B this occurred in 48.4% (p = 0.0001), moreover, the mean curvature decrease was respectively -12.25° and -6.73° (p = 0.01). IIEF score was significantly improved in group A patients with comorbidities and erectile dysfunction (p = 0.025). Increase in plaque size occurred only in the control group (17.1%) (p = 0.032). We can affirm that vitamin E can help to prevent the progression of PD. This study strongly supports the recommendation that the best approach for

  9. A case study of global stability of strong rarefaction waves for 2×2 hyperbolic conservation laws with artificial viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Ran; Ma, Xuan; Zhao, Huijiang

    This paper is concerned with the global stability of strong rarefaction waves for a class of 2×2 hyperbolic conservation laws with artificial viscosity, i.e., the p-system with artificial viscosity {

  10. The role of research in evaluating conservation strategies in Tanzania: the case of the Katavi-Rukwa ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Monique Borgerhoff; Caro, Tim; Msago, Omari Ayubu

    2007-06-01

    Strict protectionism, resource extraction, protected-area community outreach, ecotourism, an integrated conservation and development program, comanagement schemes, and citizen-science initiatives are all being used to help conserve the remote Katavi-Rukwa ecosystem in western Tanzania. Biological and social research show that protectionism is successful in the conservation of large mammals but fails to capture diverse species communities; extractivism is appropriate for some resources but not for others; protected-area outreach can be effective for some communities; and devolved control over wildlife, in conjunction with ecotourism and citizen science, has considerable potential in the area. The long-term nature of the research provides the necessary time frame to evaluate outcomes of different conservation strategies, uncovers dynamics within communities that affect attitudes and responses to conservation initiatives, provides impartial recommendations because changing research personnel offers different viewpoints, and, probably most importantly, enhances trust among stakeholders. Currently, there are limited institutional mechanisms for ensuring the input of biological and social science in shaping conservation practice in Tanzania, and long-term research can help informally bridge the gap. PMID:17531043

  11. Sustainable utilization and conservation of plant biodiversity in montane ecosystems: the western Himalayas as a case study

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Shujaul Mulk; Page, Sue E.; Ahmad, Habib; Harper, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Conservation of the unique biodiversity of mountain ecosystems needs trans-disciplinary approaches to succeed in a crowded colloquial world. Geographers, conservationists, ecologists and social scientists have, in the past, had the same conservation goals but have tended to work independently. In this review, the need to integrate different conservation criteria and methodologies is discussed. New criteria are offered for prioritizing species and habitats for conservation in montane ecosystems that combine both ecological and social data. Scope Ecological attributes of plant species, analysed through robust community statistical packages, provide unbiased classifications of species assemblages and environmental biodiversity gradients and yield importance value indices (IVIs). Surveys of local communities’ utilization of the vegetation provides use values (UVs). This review suggests a new means of assessing anthropogenic pressure on plant biodiversity at both species and community levels by integrating IVI and UV data sets in a combined analysis. Conclusions Mountain ecosystems are hot spots for plant conservation efforts because they hold a high overall plant diversity as communities replace each other along altitudinal and climatic gradients, including a high proportion of endemic species. This review contributes an enhanced understanding of (1) plant diversity in mountain ecosystems with special reference to the western Himalayas; (2) ethnobotanical and ecosystem service values of mountain vegetation within the context of anthropogenic impacts; and (3) local and regional plant conservation strategies and priorities. PMID:23825353

  12. Assessing the willingness of the public to pay to conserve urban green space: the Hangzhou City, China, case.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Bao, Zhiyi; Zhu, Zhujun

    2006-12-01

    The authors assessed the willingness of residents to pay for urban green-space conservation in Hangzhou, China, using the contingent-valuation method. The aim of the study was to provide policy makers with information that would be useful for making informed decisions in urban-development planning. The findings of the study are as follows: 1) The willingness of residents to pay for urban green-space conservation was positively correlated with their perceptions of the benefits of green spaces and negatively correlated with perceptions of the annoyances. 2) The willingness to pay a higher premium for green-space conservation is directly related to gender, income level, and residential-ownership status. Age and education level are not significantly correlated with willingness to pay. 3) A majority of respondents view the conservation of urban green spaces as a very important function of the city, and most of them are willing to pay additional taxes for this conservation. 4) The total value per year to the public of the conservation program in Hangzhou is about $15.4 million. These qualitative and quantitative findings can be used in the policy-making process for urban-development plans. PMID:17190339

  13. CONSERVATIVE MANAGEMENT OF AN ISOLATED GRADE III LATERAL COLLATERAL LIGAMENT INJURY IN AN ADOLESCENT MULTI-SPORT ATHLETE: A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, M. Alex; Budich, Justin M.; Eckenrode, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Study design Case report Background Isolated, grade III lateral collateral ligament knee injuries are an uncommon traumatic injury with little guidance available in the literature for conservative management and prognosis for return to sport. The purpose of this case report is to describe the clinical decision-making in both differential diagnosis and physical therapy management of an isolated grade III lateral collateral ligament sprain in an adolescent multi-sport high school athlete. Case Description A 16 year-old male, high school, multi-sport athlete (cross country, wrestling, track and field) sustained a traumatic knee injury during a wrestling match when his involved lower extremity was forcefully externally rotated by his opponent. Initial clinical presentation revealed pain and increased laxity with varus stress testing of the left knee, which was subsequently identified via MRI as a complete lateral collateral ligament rupture (grade III). A conservative physical therapy program was developed targeting the active and neuromuscular subsystems, theorized to compensate for the lack of an intact lateral collateral ligament. Outcomes The subject attended 18 visits of physical therapy over a period of 12 weeks. His rehabilitation program focused on functional strengthening of the posterolateral corner, enhancement of neuromuscular control, and graded progression to sports specific drills. Return to play decisions were based on a combination of lower extremity functional performance measures, condition specific outcome measures and subjective performance on sports specific tasks. At discharge from physical therapy, he reported 0/10 pain, scored a 76/80 on the Lower Extremity Functional Scale, and was able to return to competitive track and field events. Discussion Few descriptions in the literature exist for the conservative management of isolated, grade III lateral collateral ligament injuries. A program of selective functional strengthening

  14. Cave conservation priority index to adopt a rapid protection strategy: a case study in Brazilian Atlantic rain forest.

    PubMed

    Souza Silva, Marconi; Martins, Rogério Parentoni; Ferreira, Rodrigo Lopes

    2015-02-01

    Cave environments are characterized by possessing specialized fauna living in high environmental stability with limited food conditions. These fauna are highly vulnerable to impacts, because this condition can frequently be easily altered. Moreover, environmental determinants of the biodiversity patterns of caves remain poorly understood and protected. Therefore, the main goal of this work is to propose a cave conservation priority index (CCPi) for a rapid assessment for troglobiotic and troglophile protection. Furthermore, the troglobiotic diversity, distribution and threats have been mapped in the Brazilian Atlantic forest. To propose the CCPi, the human impacts and richness of troglobiotic and troglophile species of 100 caves were associated. Data related to troglomorphic/troglobiotic fauna from another 200 caves were used to map the troglobiotic diversity and distribution. The CCPi reveals extremely high conservation priority for 15% of the caves, high for 36% and average for 46% of the caves. Fourteen caves with extremely high priorities should have urgent conservation and management actions. The geographical distribution of the 221 known troglobiotic/troglomorphic species allowed us to select 19 karst areas that need conservation actions. Seven areas were considered to have urgent priority for conservation actions. The two richest areas correspond to the "iron quadrangle" with iron ore caves (67 spp.) and the "Açungui limestone group" (56 spp.). Both areas have several caves and are important aquifers. The use of the CCPi can prevent future losses because it helps assessors to select caves with priorities for conservation which should receive emergency attention in relation to protection, management and conservation actions. PMID:25528593

  15. Cave Conservation Priority Index to Adopt a Rapid Protection Strategy: A Case Study in Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza Silva, Marconi; Martins, Rogério Parentoni; Ferreira, Rodrigo Lopes

    2015-02-01

    Cave environments are characterized by possessing specialized fauna living in high environmental stability with limited food conditions. These fauna are highly vulnerable to impacts, because this condition can frequently be easily altered. Moreover, environmental determinants of the biodiversity patterns of caves remain poorly understood and protected. Therefore, the main goal of this work is to propose a cave conservation priority index (CCPi) for a rapid assessment for troglobiotic and troglophile protection. Furthermore, the troglobiotic diversity, distribution and threats have been mapped in the Brazilian Atlantic forest. To propose the CCPi, the human impacts and richness of troglobiotic and troglophile species of 100 caves were associated. Data related to troglomorphic/troglobiotic fauna from another 200 caves were used to map the troglobiotic diversity and distribution. The CCPi reveals extremely high conservation priority for 15 % of the caves, high for 36 % and average for 46 % of the caves. Fourteen caves with extremely high priorities should have urgent conservation and management actions. The geographical distribution of the 221 known troglobiotic/troglomorphic species allowed us to select 19 karst areas that need conservation actions. Seven areas were considered to have urgent priority for conservation actions. The two richest areas correspond to the "iron quadrangle" with iron ore caves (67 spp.) and the "Açungui limestone group" (56 spp.). Both areas have several caves and are important aquifers. The use of the CCPi can prevent future losses because it helps assessors to select caves with priorities for conservation which should receive emergency attention in relation to protection, management and conservation actions.

  16. Impacts of Urban Water Conservation Strategies on Energy, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Health: Southern California as a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Sokolow, Sharona; Godwin, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To determine how urban water conservation strategies in California cities can affect water and energy conservation efforts, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and benefit public health. Methods. We expanded upon our 2014 health impact assessment of California's urban water conservation strategies by comparing the status quo to 2 options with the greatest potential impact on the interrelated issues of water and energy in California: (1) banning landscape irrigation and (2) expanding alternative water sources (e.g., desalination, recycled water). Results. Among the water conservation strategies evaluated, expanded use of recycled water stood out as the water conservation strategy with potential to reduce water use, energy use, and greenhouse gas emissions, with relatively small negative impacts for the public’s health. Conclusions. Although the suitability of recycled water for urban uses depends on local climate, geography, current infrastructure, and finances, analyses similar to that presented here can help guide water policy decisions in cities across the globe facing challenges of supplying clean, sustainable water to urban populations. PMID:26985606

  17. Do protected areas and conservation incentives contribute to sustainable livelihoods? A case study of Bardia National Park, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Thapa Karki, Shova

    2013-10-15

    Effective biodiversity protection and improved human welfare as 'win-win' situations have been the foundation for protected areas and conservation incentives. However, conserving land in this way can become a development issue that restricts agricultural expansion and resource exploitation, with potentially substantial costs to people living in conditions of high social impoverishment and high critical natural capital. This paper investigates whether Nepal's Bardia National Park and conservation incentives have contributed to the sustainable livelihoods of households. Data on household livelihoods and conservation benefits were collected through a questionnaire survey of 358 households and community workshops in three villages. Different impacts on household livelihoods were observed between the villages. It was found that these impacts were dependent on household characteristics, access to prior capital, and the social position of the household within society. Households lacking resources, being poor and belonging to lower castes were least included and also benefited less from development projects. As finance in the form of development projects from organisations continues to flow to the communities, it is important that detailed livelihood planning focussing on alternative regenerative livelihoods and micro-enterprises in the informal sector is included to target those households that are highly dependent on park resources. Livelihood planning must also include a clear linkage between livelihood enhancing activities and the conservation programme so that communities are aware that the benefits they receive are due to the protected area. Appreciation of benefits and their positive impact on livelihoods is important for the sustainability of incentive-based programmes. PMID:23895911

  18. Threats, conservation strategies, and prognosis for suckers (Catostomidae) in North America: insights from regional case studies of a diverse family of non-game fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooke, Steven J.; Bunt, Christopher M.; Hamilton, Steven J.; Jennings, Cecil A.; Pearson, Micheal P.; Cooperman, Micheal S.; Markle, Douglas F.

    2005-01-01

    Catostomid fishes are a diverse family of 76+ freshwater species that are distributed across North America in many different habitats. This group of fish is facing a variety of impacts and conservation issues that are somewhat unique relative to more economically valuable and heavily managed fish species. Here, we present a brief series of case studies to highlight the threats such as migration barriers, flow regulation, environmental contamination, habitat degradation, exploitation and impacts from introduced (non-native) species that are facing catostomids in different regions. Collectively, the case studies reveal that individual species usually are not threatened by a single, isolated factor. Instead, species in general face numerous stressors that threaten multiple stages of their life history. Several factors have retarded sucker conservation including widespread inabilities of field workers to distinguish some species, lack of basic natural history and ecological knowledge of life history, and the misconception that suckers are tolerant of degraded conditions and are of little social or ecological value. Without a specific constituent group lobbying for conservation of non-game fishes, all such species, including members of the catostomid family, will continue to face serious risks because of neglect, ignorance, and misunderstanding. We suggest that conservation strategies should incorporate research and education/outreach components. Other conservation strategies that would be effective for protecting suckers include freshwater protected areas for critical habitat, restoration of degraded habitat, and design of catostomid-friendly fish bypass facilities. We believe that the plight of the catostomids is representative of the threats facing many other non-game freshwater fishes with diverse life-history strategies globally.

  19. California Institute of Technology: Caltech Energy Conservation Investment Program. Green Revolving Funds in Action: Case Study Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caine, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The Caltech Energy Conservation Investment Program (CECIP) was initiated in 2009. It manages $8 million within an existing fund in the school's endowment, which had been created to finance capital projects. Any member of the Caltech community may submit a project proposal, and projects are considered for approval as long as they have at least a 15…

  20. Case 3018. Cervus gouazoubira Fischer, 1814 (currently Mazama gouazoubira; Mammalia, Artiodactyla): proposed conservation as the correct original spelling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this application is to conserve the spelling of the specific name of Cervus gouazoubira Fischer, 1814 for the brown brocket deer of South America (family Cervidae). This spelling, rather than the original gouazoubira, has been in virtually universal usage for almost 50 years.

  1. The Effects of Long Time Conservation of Heavily Grazed Shrubland: A Case Study in the Northern Negev, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leu, Stefan; Mussery, Amir Mor; Budovsky, Arie

    2014-08-01

    One of the major reasons for desertification is unrestricted grazing leading to vegetation depletion, soil erosion and degradation, phenomena often considered irreversible in the short term. Here, we compare soil and biological parameters of degraded and conserved, recently rehabilitated arid shrubland in the Northern Negev, Israel. The study area was restored by conservation efforts including a strictly controlled grazing regime initiated in 1992. The visually recognizable improvement in the ecology of the restored shrubland is reflected in significant improvement in all examined biotic (herbaceous biomass, shrub patch density, and insect activity), and soil parameters (nutrients, organic matter content, moisture, and water infiltration). The difference is created predominantly by restoration of large biological patches composed of shrubs and other perennial plants often associated with ant or termite nests, where the most significant increases in productivity and soil quality were observed. In the conserved shrubland such patches covered 35 or 25 % of the area (in a normal and a drought year, respectively). In the degraded shrubland 5 % or less of the area was occupied by such patches that were much smaller and of lower biological complexity. With respect to plant biodiversity, six plant species were found only—and 18 others became significantly more common—in the rehabilitated area. The results of this article indicate that functional arid drylands can be restored within <16 years relying on strict conservation management with reduced grazing intensity.

  2. Conservation Education and Environmental Communication in Great Ape Re-Introduction Projects: Two Cases from the Republic of Congo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright, Barbara J.; Wall, John E.; Kaya, J. A. Placide

    2012-01-01

    Among species recovery tools available, re-introduction of animals to the wild is one of the more complex. Since the mid-1990s two successful great ape re-introductions have taken place in the Republic of Congo, leading some conservationists to revisit re-introduction as a strategy. This research explored the role of conservation education and…

  3. Connecting to the World's Collections: Making the Case for the Conservation and Preservation of Our Cultural Heritage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoner, Joyce Hill

    2009-01-01

    Sixty cultural heritage leaders from thirty-two countries, including representatives from Africa, Asia, the Middle East, South America, Australia, Europe, and North America gathered in October 2009 in Salzburg, Austria, to develop a series of practical recommendations to ensure optimal collections conservation worldwide. Convened at Schloss…

  4. Attitudes of local communities towards conservation of mangrove forests: A case study from the east coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badola, Ruchi; Barthwal, Shivani; Hussain, Syed Ainul

    2012-01-01

    The ecological and economic importance of mangrove ecosystems is well established and highlighted by studies establishing a correlation between the protective function of mangroves and the loss of lives and property caused by coastal hazards. Nevertheless, degradation of this ecosystem remains a matter of concern, emphasizing the fact that effective conservation of natural resources is possible only with an understanding of the attitudes and perceptions of local communities. In the present study, we examined the attitudes and perceptions of local communities towards mangrove forests through questionnaire surveys in 36 villages in the Bhitarkanika Conservation Area, India. The sample villages were selected from 336 villages using hierarchical cluster analysis. The study revealed that local communities in the area had positive attitudes towards conservation and that their demographic and socio-economic conditions influenced people's attitudes. Local communities valued those functions of mangrove forests that were directly linked to their wellbeing. Despite human-wildlife conflict, the attitudes of the local communities were not altogether negative, and they were willing to participate in mangrove restoration. People agreed to adopt alternative resources if access to forest resources were curtailed. Respondents living near the forests, who could not afford alternatives, admitted that they would resort to pilfering. Hence, increasing their livelihood options may reduce the pressure on mangrove forests. In contrast with other ecosystems, the linkages of mangrove ecosystem services with local livelihoods and security are direct and tangible. It is therefore possible to develop strong local support for sustainable management of mangrove forests in areas where a positive attitude towards mangrove conservation prevails. The current debates on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) and payment for ecosystem services provide ample scope for

  5. Breast conserving surgery with preservation of the nipple-areola complex as a feasible and safe approach in male breast cancer: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Lanitis, Sophocles; Filippakis, George; Al Mufti, Ragheed; Hadjiminas, Dimitri J

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer in men is rare. The evidence about treatment has been derived from data on the management of the disease in women. The usual treatment is for male patients to undergo modified radical mastectomy. There is insufficient experience of breast conserving surgery with preservation of the nipple. The management of patients who demand such an approach for personal reasons remains a challenge for both the surgeon and oncologist. Case presentation A 50-year-old man with a breast cancer was successfully managed with breast conserving surgery with nipple preservation combined with axillary clearance and postoperative radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone treatment. Since there are no similar cases in the literature, we discuss the feasibility, safety and possible indications of such an approach. Conclusion Despite the limited indications and evidence about the safety and efficacy of breast conserving surgery with nipple preservation in men with breast cancer, it is a feasible approach if other options are declined by the patient. More studies are necessary to reach firm conclusions about the safety of such an approach. PMID:18442386

  6. Sequence Evaluation of FGF and FGFR Gene Conserved Non-Coding Elements in Non-Syndromic Cleft Lip and Palate Cases

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Bridget M.; Murray, Jeffrey C.

    2009-01-01

    Non-syndromic cleft lip and palate (NS CLP) is a complex birth defect resulting from multiple genetic and environmental factors. We have previously reported the sequencing of the coding region of genes in the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling pathway, in which missense and non-sense mutations contribute to approximately 5%–6% NS CLP cases. In this article we report the sequencing of conserved non-coding elements (CNEs) in and around 11 of the FGF and FGFR genes, which identified 55 novel variants. Seven of variants are highly conserved among ≥8 species and 31 variants alter transcription factor binding sites, 8 of which are important for craniofacial development. Additionally, 15 NS CLP patients had a combination of coding mutations and CNE variants, suggesting that an accumulation of variants in the FGF signaling pathway may contribute to clefting. PMID:17963255

  7. Asymptotic stability of rarefaction waves for 2 × 2 viscous hyperbolic conservation laws—The two-modes case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Zhouping

    In this paper, we continue our study on the asymptotic behavior toward rare-faction waves of a general 2 × 2 system of hyperbolic conservation laws with positive viscosity matrix. It is shown that when the initial data is a small perturbation of a weak rarefaction wave (a linear superposition of a 1-rarefaction wave and a 2-rarefaction wave) for the corresponding inviscid hyperbolic conservation laws, then the solution of the Cauchy problem for the viscous system globally exists and tends to the rarefaction wave. The result is proved by using an energy method, combining the technique in [Z. P. Xin, J. Differential Equations73 (1988), 45-77], and using the characteristic-energy method of T. P. Liu [ Mem. Amer. Math. Soc.328 (1975), 1-108].

  8. Strategic Actions to Value, Conserve, and Restore the Natural Capital of Megadiversity Countries: The Case of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Sarukhán, José; Urquiza-Haas, Tania; Koleff, Patricia; Carabias, Julia; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Ezcurra, Exequiel; Cerdeira-Estrada, Sergio; Soberón, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Decisionmakers need updated, scientifically sound and relevant information to implement appropriate policy measures and make innovative commitments to halt biodiversity loss and improve human well-being. Here, we present a recent science-based synthesis on the biodiversity and ecosystem services of Mexico, intended to be a tool for policymakers. We describe the methodological approach used to undertake such an assessment and highlight the major findings. Organized into five volumes and originally written in Spanish (Capital Natural de México), it summarizes the available knowledge on the components, structure, and functioning of the biodiversity of Mexico; the threats and trajectories of anthropogenic impact, together with its conservation status; and the policies, institutions, and instruments available for its sustainable management. We stress the lessons learned that can be useful for similar exercises in other megadiverse developing countries and identify major gaps and strategic actions to conserve the natural capital in light of the challenges of the Anthropocene. PMID:26955077

  9. Soil and water conservation strategies and impact on sustainable livelihood in Cape Verde - Case study of Ribeira Seca watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, I.; Ferreira, A. D.; Tavares, J.; Querido, A. L. E.; Reis, A. E. A.; Geissen, V.; Ritsema, C.; Varela, A.

    2012-04-01

    Cape Verde, located off the coast of Senegal in western Africa, is a volcanic archipelago where a combination of human, climatic, geomorphologic and pedologic factors has led to extensive degradation of the soils. Like other Sahelian countries, Cape Verde has suffered the effects of desertification through the years, threatening the livelihood of the islands population and its fragile environment. In fact, the steep slopes in the ore agricultural islands, together with semi-arid and arid environments, characterized by an irregular and poorly distributed rainy season, with high intensity rainfall events, make dryland production a challenge. To survive in these fragile conditions, the stabilization of the farming systems and the maintenance of sustainable yields have become absolute priorities, making the islands an erosion control laboratory. Soil and water conservation strategies have been a centerpiece of the government's agricultural policies for the last half century. Aiming to maintain the soil in place and the water inside the soil, the successive governments of Cape Verde have implemented a number of soil and water conservation techniques, the most common ones being terraces, half moons, live barriers, contour rock walls, contour furrows and microcatchments, check dams and reforestation with drought resistant species. The soil and water conservation techniques implemented have contributed to the improvement of the economical and environmental conditions of the treated landscape, making crop production possible, consequently, improving the livelihood of the people living on the islands. In this paper, we survey the existing soil and water conservation techniques, analyze their impact on the livelihood condition of the population through a thorough literature review and field monitoring using a semi-quantitative methodology and evaluate their effectiveness and impact on crop yield in the Ribeira Seca watershed. A brief discussion is given on the cost and

  10. A Case of Secondary Angiosarcoma of the Breast after Breast-conserving Surgery and Radiation: Review of Radiologic and Pathologic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Eppelheimer, Christine N; Marti, Jennifer L; Eisenberg, Amanda; Gan, Qiong; Shabalova, Rena; Cohen, Jean-Marc; Fulop, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Angiosarcoma of the breast is a rare and potentially life-threatening disease. It can present as a palpable mass or subtle erythematous lesion, depending on the predisposing clinical factors. Erythematous skin lesions may be confused for a benign process, which may lead to a delay in diagnosis. We present a case of an 80-year-old woman who developed secondary angiosarcoma after undergoing breast-conserving therapy for Stage IA breast cancer. In this article, we review our experience with a case of secondary angiosarcoma of the breast and discuss the presentation, evaluation, and treatment of this disease. This case demonstrates the importance of vigilance regarding erythematous or papular breast lesions in the setting of prior local radiation. PMID:26430538

  11. Collections Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCandido, Robert

    Collections conservation is an approach to the preservation treatment of books and book-like materials that is conceptualized and organized in terms of large groups of materials. This guide is intended to enable a library to evaluate its current collections conservation activities. The introduction describes collections conservation and gives…

  12. 43 CFR 418.31 - Conservation measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Conservation measures. 418.31 Section 418... THE INTERIOR OPERATING CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR THE NEWLANDS RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA Water Management and Conservation § 418.31 Conservation measures. (a) Specific conservation actions will be...

  13. 43 CFR 418.31 - Conservation measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Conservation measures. 418.31 Section 418... THE INTERIOR OPERATING CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR THE NEWLANDS RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA Water Management and Conservation § 418.31 Conservation measures. (a) Specific conservation actions will be...

  14. 43 CFR 418.31 - Conservation measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conservation measures. 418.31 Section 418... THE INTERIOR OPERATING CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR THE NEWLANDS RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA Water Management and Conservation § 418.31 Conservation measures. (a) Specific conservation actions will be...

  15. 43 CFR 418.31 - Conservation measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Conservation measures. 418.31 Section 418... THE INTERIOR OPERATING CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR THE NEWLANDS RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA Water Management and Conservation § 418.31 Conservation measures. (a) Specific conservation actions will be...

  16. 43 CFR 418.31 - Conservation measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conservation measures. 418.31 Section 418... THE INTERIOR OPERATING CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR THE NEWLANDS RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA Water Management and Conservation § 418.31 Conservation measures. (a) Specific conservation actions will be...

  17. Understanding farmers' intention and behavior regarding water conservation in the Middle-East and North Africa: a case study in Iran.

    PubMed

    Yazdanpanah, Masoud; Hayati, Dariush; Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan; Zamani, Gholam Hosein

    2014-03-15

    There is a high risk of serious water shortages in Middle-East and North African countries. To decrease this threat water conservation strategies are gaining overall importance and one main focus is now on farmer's behavior. Among other dimensions it is assumed that normative issues play an important role in predicting environmental oriented intentions and actual actions. To empirically test the possible interactions the Theory of Planned Behavior was used, revised and expanded for the specific case on water management issues and applied to Iranian farmers. The results could not validate the TPB framework which emphasizes the importance of perceived behavioral control for intention and actual behavior and findings are much more in line with the Theory of Reasoned Action. Normative inclinations as well as perception of risk are found to be important for intention as well as actual water conservation behavior. Additionally, the importance and linkages of the dimensions are found to be different between sub-groups of farmers, especially between traditional water management farmers and those who already using advanced water management strategies. This raises the question if one-fits-all behavioral models are adequate for practical studies where sub-groups may very much differ in their actions. Still, our study suggests that in the context of water conservation, normative inclination is a key dimension and it may be useful to consider the role of positive, self-rewarding feelings for farmers when setting up policy measures in the region. PMID:24513405

  18. Managing polyploidy in ex situ conservation genetics: the case of the critically endangered Adriatic sturgeon (Acipenser naccarii).

    PubMed

    Congiu, Leonardo; Pujolar, Jose Martin; Forlani, Anna; Cenadelli, Silvia; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Barbisan, Federica; Galli, Andrea; Fontana, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    While the current expansion of conservation genetics enables to address more efficiently the management of threatened species, alternative methods for genetic relatedness data analysis in polyploid species are necessary. Within this framework, we present a standardized and simple protocol specifically designed for polyploid species that can facilitate management of genetic diversity, as exemplified by the ex situ conservation program for the tetraploid Adriatic sturgeon Acipenser naccarii. A critically endangered endemic species of the Adriatic Sea tributaries, its persistence is strictly linked to the ex situ conservation of a single captive broodstock currently decimated to about 25 individuals, which represents the last remaining population of Adriatic sturgeon of certain wild origin. The genetic variability of three F1 broodstocks available as future breeders was estimated based on mitochondrial and microsatellite information and compared with the variability of the parental generation. Genetic data showed that the F1 stocks have only retained part of the genetic variation present in the original stock due to the few parent pairs used as founders. This prompts for the urgent improvement of the current F1 stocks by incorporating new founders that better represent the genetic diversity available. Following parental allocation based on band sharing values, we set up a user-friendly tool for selection of candidate breeders according to relatedness between all possible parent-pairs that secures the use of non-related individuals. The approach developed here could also be applied to other endangered tetraploid sturgeon species overexploited for caviar production, particularly in regions lacking proper infrastructure and/or expertise. PMID:21483472

  19. Integration of carbon conservation into sustainable forest management using high resolution satellite imagery: A case study in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langner, Andreas; Samejima, Hiromitsu; Ong, Robert C.; Titin, Jupiri; Kitayama, Kanehiro

    2012-08-01

    Conservation of tropical forests is of outstanding importance for mitigation of climate change effects and preserving biodiversity. In Borneo most of the forests are classified as permanent forest estates and are selectively logged using conventional logging techniques causing high damage to the forest ecosystems. Incorporation of sustainable forest management into climate change mitigation measures such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) can help to avert further forest degradation by synergizing sustainable timber production with the conservation of biodiversity. In order to evaluate the efficiency of such initiatives, monitoring methods for forest degradation and above-ground biomass in tropical forests are urgently needed. In this study we developed an index using Landsat satellite data to describe the crown cover condition of lowland mixed dipterocarp forests. We showed that this index combined with field data can be used to estimate above-ground biomass using a regression model in two permanent forest estates in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Tangkulap represented a conventionally logged forest estate while Deramakot has been managed in accordance with sustainable forestry principles. The results revealed that conventional logging techniques used in Tangkulap during 1991 and 2000 decreased the above-ground biomass by an annual amount of average -6.0 t C/ha (-5.2 to -7.0 t C/ha, 95% confidential interval) whereas the biomass in Deramakot increased by 6.1 t C/ha per year (5.3-7.2 t C/ha, 95% confidential interval) between 2000 and 2007 while under sustainable forest management. This indicates that sustainable forest management with reduced-impact logging helps to protect above-ground biomass. In absolute terms, a conservative amount of 10.5 t C/ha per year, as documented using the methodology developed in this study, can be attributed to the different management systems, which will be of interest when implementing REDD+ that

  20. The utility of state parks as a conservation tool for isolated and ephemeral wetlands: A case study from the southern Blue Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, J. H.; Baldwin, R.; Pitt, A. L.; Baldwin, E. D.

    2013-12-01

    Biodiversity management has been historically confined to parks and protected areas and these types of formally-protected areas may help to mitigate the effects of climate change and habitat loss by preventing further fragmentation, degradation and the spread of invasive species. Much research has demonstrated the importance of parks and other such protected areas for their ecological, conservational, and socio-cultural benefits. Protected areas constitute ~ 12% of the earth's land surface and are described as an essential core unit for for in situ conservation. State parks provide a type of a priori conservation, allowing areas which are identified as ecologically important within state park boundaries to be more rapidly prioritized for conservation and management. The development of South Carolina's state parks strongly contributed to cultural, social and ecological improvement across the state and we demonstrate that this network of protected areas can also help scientists to better locate, study and conserve cryptic or unprotected habitats. Our goals for this study were to use the SC state park system to 1) examine the structural and functional differences between wetlands located inside versus outside the state park system, and 2) suggest a conservation framework for small wetlands incorporating both state parks and adjacent areas with variable ownership status. At each wetland, we variables at the within-pond and local (5 m buffer around pool) scales. We visited each study wetland (N = 41, park pool = 19, non-park pools = 22) 5 times during both 2010 and 2011; collected water quality data and recorded the presence and activity of mammals, reptiles, amphibians, benthic invertebrates, zooplankton, phytoplankton and benthic algae. We hypothesized that wetlands within state parks would have better water quality and higher species richness compared to non-park wetlands. Our case study revealed that wetlands outside of state parks exhibited less variable depths and

  1. Gravel Bars Can Be Critical for Biodiversity Conservation: A Case Study on Scaly-Sided Merganser in South China

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Qing; Shi, Linlu; Wen, Li; Chen, Junzhu; Duo, Hairui; Lei, Guangchun

    2015-01-01

    Gravel bars are characteristic components of river landscapes and are increasingly recognized as key sites for many waterbirds, though detailed studies on the ecological function of gravel bars for waterbirds are rare. In this study, we surveyed the endangered Scaly-sided Merganser Mergus squamatus along a 40 km river section of Yuan River, in Central China, for three consecutive winters. We derived the landscape metrics of river gravel bars from geo-rectified fine resolution (0.6 m) aerial image data. We then built habitat suitability models (Generalized Linear Models—GLMs) to study the effects of landscape metrics and human disturbance on Scaly-sided Merganser presence probability. We found that 1) the Scaly-sided Merganser tended to congregate at river segments with more gravel patches; 2) the Scaly-sided Merganser preferred areas with larger and more contiguous gravel patches; and 3) the number of houses along the river bank (a proxy for anthropogenic disturbance) had significantly negative impacts on the occurrence of the Scaly-sided Merganser. Our results suggest that gravel bars are vital to the Scaly-sided Merganser as shelters from disturbance, as well as sites for feeding and roosting. Therefore, maintaining the exposure of gravel bars in regulated rivers during the low water period in winter might be the key for the conservation of the endangered species. These findings have important implications for understanding behavioral evolution and distribution of the species and for delineating between habitats of different quality for conservation and management. PMID:25996671

  2. Gravel bars can be critical for biodiversity conservation: a case study on scaly-sided Merganser in South china.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qing; Shi, Linlu; Wen, Li; Chen, Junzhu; Duo, Hairui; Lei, Guangchun

    2015-01-01

    Gravel bars are characteristic components of river landscapes and are increasingly recognized as key sites for many waterbirds, though detailed studies on the ecological function of gravel bars for waterbirds are rare. In this study, we surveyed the endangered Scaly-sided Merganser Mergus squamatus along a 40 km river section of Yuan River, in Central China, for three consecutive winters. We derived the landscape metrics of river gravel bars from geo-rectified fine resolution (0.6 m) aerial image data. We then built habitat suitability models (Generalized Linear Models-GLMs) to study the effects of landscape metrics and human disturbance on Scaly-sided Merganser presence probability. We found that 1) the Scaly-sided Merganser tended to congregate at river segments with more gravel patches; 2) the Scaly-sided Merganser preferred areas with larger and more contiguous gravel patches; and 3) the number of houses along the river bank (a proxy for anthropogenic disturbance) had significantly negative impacts on the occurrence of the Scaly-sided Merganser. Our results suggest that gravel bars are vital to the Scaly-sided Merganser as shelters from disturbance, as well as sites for feeding and roosting. Therefore, maintaining the exposure of gravel bars in regulated rivers during the low water period in winter might be the key for the conservation of the endangered species. These findings have important implications for understanding behavioral evolution and distribution of the species and for delineating between habitats of different quality for conservation and management. PMID:25996671

  3. Area-preserving dynamics of a long slender finger by curvature: A test case for globally conserved phase ordering

    SciTech Connect

    Peleg, Avner; Meerson, Baruch; Vilenkin, Arkady; Conti, Massimo

    2001-06-01

    A long and slender finger can serve as a simple {open_quotes}test bed{close_quotes} for different phase-ordering models. In this work, the globally conserved, interface-controlled dynamics of a long finger is investigated, analytically and numerically, in two dimensions. An important limit is considered when the finger dynamics is reducible to area-preserving motion by curvature. A free boundary problem for the finger shape is formulated. An asymptotic perturbation theory is developed that uses the finger aspect ratio as a small parameter. The leading-order approximation is a modification of the Mullins finger (a well-known analytic solution) whose width is allowed to slowly vary with time. This time dependence is described, in the leading order, by an exponential law with the characteristic time proportional to the (constant) finger area. The subleading terms of the asymptotic theory are also calculated. Finally, the finger dynamics is investigated numerically, employing the Ginzburg-Landau equation with a global conservation law. The theory is in very good agreement with the numerical solution.

  4. Public awareness and attitudes towards naval sonar mitigation for cetacean conservation: a preliminary case study in Fairfax County, Virginia. (the DC Metro area).

    PubMed

    Zirbel, K; Balint, P; Parsons, E C M

    2011-01-01

    The potential impacts of naval sonar on cetaceans has led to a series of court cases and statements of concern by international organizations. However, there has been no research conducted on attitudes of the general public with respect to this issue. To investigate this, a preliminary public survey was conducted in Fairfax, Virginia (the Washington, DC Metro region). The majority of the public sampled believed that naval sonar impacted marine mammals (51.3%), that the US Navy should not be exempt from environmental regulations in time of peace (75.2%), and that sonar use should be moderated if it impacts cetaceans (75.8%). Individuals who were conservative, Republican, and have served in the military were more likely to believe the Navy should be exempt from marine mammal protection regulations. In addition, expert interviews were conducted to gain opinions on the potential ramifications of the recent US Supreme Court case on naval sonar mitigation. PMID:21453936

  5. Conservative Management and Planned Surgery for Periviable Advanced Extrauterine Abdominal Pregnancy with Favorable Outcome: Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Harirah, Hassan M.; Smith, J. Michael; Dixon, C. Luke; Hankins, Gary D. V.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced abdominal pregnancy is an extremely rare condition that poses diagnostic and management challenges. A high index of suspicion and careful assessment of the patient's symptoms, supplemented with obstetric ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging, are crucial for timely diagnosis and management to prevent life-threatening complications. The presence of periviable fetuses in advanced abdominal pregnancies increases the challenge to achieve a balance between maternal and fetal benefits and risks. Early diagnosis and management decisions via a multidisciplinary approach and planned delivery are of paramount importance to minimize complications and achieve favorable maternal and fetal outcomes. Even in the setting of oligohydramnios and suspected preterm premature rupture of membranes, in-patient conservative management and an individualized planned surgical approach that includes removing or leaving the placenta in place are appropriate for managing the periviable abdominal pregnancy. PMID:27595049

  6. Conservative Management and Planned Surgery for Periviable Advanced Extrauterine Abdominal Pregnancy with Favorable Outcome: Report of Two Cases.

    PubMed

    Harirah, Hassan M; Smith, J Michael; Dixon, C Luke; Hankins, Gary D V

    2016-07-01

    Advanced abdominal pregnancy is an extremely rare condition that poses diagnostic and management challenges. A high index of suspicion and careful assessment of the patient's symptoms, supplemented with obstetric ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging, are crucial for timely diagnosis and management to prevent life-threatening complications. The presence of periviable fetuses in advanced abdominal pregnancies increases the challenge to achieve a balance between maternal and fetal benefits and risks. Early diagnosis and management decisions via a multidisciplinary approach and planned delivery are of paramount importance to minimize complications and achieve favorable maternal and fetal outcomes. Even in the setting of oligohydramnios and suspected preterm premature rupture of membranes, in-patient conservative management and an individualized planned surgical approach that includes removing or leaving the placenta in place are appropriate for managing the periviable abdominal pregnancy. PMID:27595049

  7. Nonlinear stability of periodic traveling wave solutions of systems of viscous conservation laws in the generic case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Mathew A.; Zumbrun, Kevin

    Extending previous results of Oh-Zumbrun and Johnson-Zumbrun, we show that spectral stability implies linearized and nonlinear stability of spatially periodic traveling wave solutions of viscous systems of conservation laws for systems of generic type, removing a restrictive assumption that wave speed be constant to first order along the manifold of nearby periodic solutions. Key to our analysis is a nonlinear cancellation estimate observed by Johnson and Zumbrun, along with a detailed understanding of the Whitham averaged system. The latter motivates a careful analysis of the Bloch perturbation expansion near zero frequency and suggests factoring out an appropriate translational modulation of the underlying wave, allowing us to derive the sharpened low-frequency estimates needed to close the nonlinear iteration arguments.

  8. [Threats to and conservation of North African wetlands: the case of the Ramsar site of Beni-Belaid (NE Algeria)].

    PubMed

    Bouldjedri, Mohammed; de Bélair, Gérard; Mayache, Boualem; Muller, Serge D

    2011-10-01

    Because of their biogeographical and geomorphological context, the northeastern Algeria wetlands present high species and community richness. The vegetation study of the Ramsar site of Beni-Belaid (Kabylia) showed the existence of four main communities, distributed along gradients of hydrology and disturbance. The obtained results reveal worrying threats on short term: overgrazing results in the lake invasion by the sand eroded from the coastal dune; agriculture induces illegal cutting, water pollution and excessive groundwater pumping; finally, hunting and fishing are illegally practiced into the Ramsar site. The awareness of public authorities is needed in order: (1) to completely protect the wetland with the aim of restoring a riparian forest belt; and (2) to initiate a campaign for increasing the local population awareness, and its involvement in conservation programs. PMID:21943525

  9. Analyzing large-scale conservation interventions with Bayesian hierarchical models: a case study of supplementing threatened Pacific salmon

    PubMed Central

    Scheuerell, Mark D; Buhle, Eric R; Semmens, Brice X; Ford, Michael J; Cooney, Tom; Carmichael, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    Myriad human activities increasingly threaten the existence of many species. A variety of conservation interventions such as habitat restoration, protected areas, and captive breeding have been used to prevent extinctions. Evaluating the effectiveness of these interventions requires appropriate statistical methods, given the quantity and quality of available data. Historically, analysis of variance has been used with some form of predetermined before-after control-impact design to estimate the effects of large-scale experiments or conservation interventions. However, ad hoc retrospective study designs or the presence of random effects at multiple scales may preclude the use of these tools. We evaluated the effects of a large-scale supplementation program on the density of adult Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the Snake River basin in the northwestern United States currently listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. We analyzed 43 years of data from 22 populations, accounting for random effects across time and space using a form of Bayesian hierarchical time-series model common in analyses of financial markets. We found that varying degrees of supplementation over a period of 25 years increased the density of natural-origin adults, on average, by 0–8% relative to nonsupplementation years. Thirty-nine of the 43 year effects were at least two times larger in magnitude than the mean supplementation effect, suggesting common environmental variables play a more important role in driving interannual variability in adult density. Additional residual variation in density varied considerably across the region, but there was no systematic difference between supplemented and reference populations. Our results demonstrate the power of hierarchical Bayesian models to detect the diffuse effects of management interventions and to quantitatively describe the variability of intervention success. Nevertheless, our study could not address whether ecological

  10. Analyzing large-scale conservation interventions with Bayesian hierarchical models: a case study of supplementing threatened Pacific salmon.

    PubMed

    Scheuerell, Mark D; Buhle, Eric R; Semmens, Brice X; Ford, Michael J; Cooney, Tom; Carmichael, Richard W

    2015-05-01

    Myriad human activities increasingly threaten the existence of many species. A variety of conservation interventions such as habitat restoration, protected areas, and captive breeding have been used to prevent extinctions. Evaluating the effectiveness of these interventions requires appropriate statistical methods, given the quantity and quality of available data. Historically, analysis of variance has been used with some form of predetermined before-after control-impact design to estimate the effects of large-scale experiments or conservation interventions. However, ad hoc retrospective study designs or the presence of random effects at multiple scales may preclude the use of these tools. We evaluated the effects of a large-scale supplementation program on the density of adult Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the Snake River basin in the northwestern United States currently listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. We analyzed 43 years of data from 22 populations, accounting for random effects across time and space using a form of Bayesian hierarchical time-series model common in analyses of financial markets. We found that varying degrees of supplementation over a period of 25 years increased the density of natural-origin adults, on average, by 0-8% relative to nonsupplementation years. Thirty-nine of the 43 year effects were at least two times larger in magnitude than the mean supplementation effect, suggesting common environmental variables play a more important role in driving interannual variability in adult density. Additional residual variation in density varied considerably across the region, but there was no systematic difference between supplemented and reference populations. Our results demonstrate the power of hierarchical Bayesian models to detect the diffuse effects of management interventions and to quantitatively describe the variability of intervention success. Nevertheless, our study could not address whether ecological factors

  11. Dietary use and conservation concern of edible wetland plants at indo-burma hotspot: a case study from northeast India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The wetlands of the North East India fall among the global hotspots of biodiversity. However, they have received very little attention with relation to their intrinsic values to human kind; therefore their conservation is hardly addressed. These wetlands are critical for the sustenance of the tribal communities. Methods Field research was conducted during 2003 to 2006 in seven major wetlands of four districts of Manipur state, Northeast India (viz. Imphal-East, Imphal-West, Thoubal, and Bishnupur). A total of 224 wetland-plant-collectors were interviewed for the use and economics of species using semi-structured questionnaires and interview schedules. Imphal, Bishenpur and Thoubal markets were investigated in detail for influx and consumption pattern of these plants. The collectors were also inquired for medicinal use of wetland species. Nutritive values of 21 species were analyzed in laboratory. The vouchers were collected for all the species and deposited in the CSIR-NEIST (Formerly Regional Research Laboratory), Substation, Lamphelpat, Imphal, Manipur, India. Results We recorded 51 edible wetland species used by indigenous people for food and medicinal purposes. Thirty eight species had high medicinal values and used in the traditional system to treat over 22 diseases. At least 27 species were traded in three markets studied (i.e. Imphal, Thoubal and Bishenpur), involving an annual turnover of 113 tons of wetland edible plants and a gross revenue of Rs. 907, 770/- (US$1 = Rs. 45/-). The Imphal market alone supplies 60% of the total business. Eighty per cent of the above mentioned species are very often used by the community. The community has a general opinion that the availability of 45% species has depleted in recent times, 15 species need consideration for conservation while another 7 species deserved immediate protection measures. The nutrient analysis showed that these species contribute to the dietary balance of tribal communities. Conclusions

  12. Sea change under climate change: case studies in rare plant conservation from the dynamic San Francisco Estuary

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We present case studies supporting management of two rare plant species in tidal wetlands of the San Francisco Estuary. For an annual hemiparasite, we used demographic analyses to identify factors to enhance population establishment, survivorship and fitness, and to compare reintroduced with natura...

  13. Corn-Based Ethanol Production and Environmental Quality: A Case of Iowa and the Conservation Reserve Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Secchi, Silvia; Gassman, Philip W.; Williams, Jimmy R.; Babcock, Bruce A.

    2009-10-01

    Growing demand for corn due to the expansion of ethanol has increased concerns that environmentally sensitive lands retired from agricultural production and enrolled into the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) will be cropped again. Iowa produces more ethanol than any other state in the United States, and it also produces the most corn. Thus, an examination of the impacts of higher crop prices on CRP land in Iowa can give insight into what we might expect nationally in the years ahead if crop prices remain high. We construct CRP land supply curves for various corn prices and then estimate the environmental impacts of cropping CRP land through the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model. EPIC provides edge-of-field estimates of soil erosion, nutrient loss, and carbon sequestration. We find that incremental impacts increase dramatically as higher corn prices bring into production more and more environmentally fragile land. Maintaining current levels of environmental quality will require substantially higher spending levels. Even allowing for the cost savings that would accrue as CRP land leaves the program, a change in targeting strategies will likely be required to ensure that the most sensitive land does not leave the program.

  14. Conservative treatment of intraosseous hemangiomas in the mandible: case report with a 17-year follow-up period.

    PubMed

    Frizzera, Fausto; Beccalli, Ivette; Maia, Rosa Maria Lourenço Carlos; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Zanetti, Liliane Scheidegger da Silva; de Barros, Liliana Pimenta Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    Intraosseous hemangiomas in the jaws are rare lesions and may lead to several complications. The authors present a case of a 12-year-old girl with a radiolucent periapical lesion between tooth 35 and 36 where nocturnal exsanguinating bleeding started to occur from periodontal sulcus during orthodontic treatment. Diagnosis of an intraosseous hemangioma in the mandible was based on positive needle aspiration for blood, computed tomography and arteriography. At first the family chose to only follow-up the lesion but episodes of nocturnal hemorrhage were becoming more frequent and a treatment was requested. Embolization and dental extraction were performed in order to treat the lesion. After a follow-up period of 17 years no more cases of hemorrhage occurred and lesion regressed. PMID:25307825

  15. Paradigms for parasite conservation.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Eric R; Carlson, Colin J; Bueno, Veronica M; Burgio, Kevin R; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Clements, Christopher F; Seidel, Dana P; Harris, Nyeema C

    2016-08-01

    Parasitic species, which depend directly on host species for their survival, represent a major regulatory force in ecosystems and a significant component of Earth's biodiversity. Yet the negative impacts of parasites observed at the host level have motivated a conservation paradigm of eradication, moving us farther from attainment of taxonomically unbiased conservation goals. Despite a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of parasite-inclusive conservation, most parasite species remain understudied, underfunded, and underappreciated. We argue the protection of parasitic biodiversity requires a paradigm shift in the perception and valuation of their role as consumer species, similar to that of apex predators in the mid-20th century. Beyond recognizing parasites as vital trophic regulators, existing tools available to conservation practitioners should explicitly account for the unique threats facing dependent species. We built upon concepts from epidemiology and economics (e.g., host-density threshold and cost-benefit analysis) to devise novel metrics of margin of error and minimum investment for parasite conservation. We define margin of error as the risk of accidental host extinction from misestimating equilibrium population sizes and predicted oscillations, while minimum investment represents the cost associated with conserving the additional hosts required to maintain viable parasite populations. This framework will aid in the identification of readily conserved parasites that present minimal health risks. To establish parasite conservation, we propose an extension of population viability analysis for host-parasite assemblages to assess extinction risk. In the direst cases, ex situ breeding programs for parasites should be evaluated to maximize success without undermining host protection. Though parasitic species pose a considerable conservation challenge, adaptations to conservation tools will help protect parasite biodiversity in the face of

  16. A Case Report of Thyroid Carcinoma Confined to Ovary and Concurrently Occult in the Thyroid: Is Conservative Treatment Always Advised?

    PubMed Central

    Brusca, Nunzia; Del Duca, Susanna Carlotta; Salvatori, Rita; D’Agostini, Antonio; Cannas, Pina; Santaguida, Maria Giulia; Virili, Camilla; Bianchi, Loredana; Gargano, Lucilla; Centanni, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Struma ovarii is an ovarian teratoma, represented in more than 50% by thyroid tissue. Five percent of struma ovarii cases have been proven to be malignant and, as in the thyroid gland, papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common histotype arising in struma ovarii. Because of the unusual occurrence of this tumor, its management and follow-up after pelvic surgery is still controversial. Usually, total thyroidectomy followed by radioiodine treatment is the choice treatment in metastatic malignant struma ovarii, while these procedures are still controversial in non-metastatic thyroid cancer arising in struma ovarii. Case Presentation: We report a female with follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma arising in struma ovarii. After pelvic surgery, thyroid morphofunctional examinations were performed and a single nodular lesion in the left lobe was discovered. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy and histological examination showed a papillary carcinoma. Radioiodine-ablation of residual thyroid tissue was performed and levothyroxine mildly-suppressive treatment was started. Conclusions: A more aggressive treatment should not be denied for malignant struma ovarii without any evidence, even when apparently confined into the ovary. However, in selected cases, aggressive treatment may be advisable to decrease the risk of recurrence and to allow an accurate follow-up. PMID:25745492

  17. Towards a more holistic research approach to plant conservation: the case of rare plants on oceanic islands.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luís; Dias, Elisabete Furtado; Sardos, Julie; Azevedo, Eduardo Brito; Schaefer, Hanno; Moura, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    . This research could be the basis for the design of a recovery plan, showing the pertinence of more holistic research approaches to plant conservation. PMID:26068940

  18. Long-term Strategic Planning for a Resilient Metro Colombo: An Economic Case for Wetland Conservation and Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozenberg, J.

    2015-12-01

    Colombo faces recurrent floods that threaten its long-term economic development. Its urban wetlands have been identified by local agencies as a critical component of its flood reduction system, but they have declined rapidly in recent years due to continuous infilling, unmanaged land development and dredging to create lakes. In collaboration with government agencies, NGOs and local universities, the World Bank has carried out a Robust Decision Making analysis to examine the value of Colombo urban wetlands, both in the short-term and long-term, and identify what are the most viable strategies available to increase the city's flood resilience in an unclear future (in terms of climate change and patterns of urban development). This has involved the use of numerous hydrological and socio-economic scenarios as well as the evaluation of some wetlands benefits, like ecosystem services, wastewater treatment, or recreational services. The analysis has determined that if all urban wetlands across the Colombo catchment were lost, in some scenarios the metropolitan area would have to cope with an annual average flood loss of approximately 1% of Colombo GDP in the near future. For long-term strategies, trade-offs between urban development, lake creation and wetland conservation were analyzed and it was concluded that an active management of urban wetlands was the lowest regret option. Finally, the analysis also revealed that in the future, with climate change and fast urban development, wetlands will not be sufficient to protect Colombo against severe floods. Pro-active urban planning and land-use management are therefore necessary, both to protect existing wetlands and to reduce future exposure. The use of many different scenarios, the consideration of several policy options, and the open participatory process ensured policy-makers' buy-in and lead to the decision to actively protect urban wetlands in Colombo.

  19. Towards a more holistic research approach to plant conservation: the case of rare plants on oceanic islands

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Luís; Dias, Elisabete Furtado; Sardos, Julie; Azevedo, Eduardo Brito; Schaefer, Hanno; Moura, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    . This research could be the basis for the design of a recovery plan, showing the pertinence of more holistic research approaches to plant conservation. PMID:26068940

  20. Comparative genetic diversity in a sample of pony breeds from the U.K. and North America: a case study in the conservation of global genetic resources

    PubMed Central

    Winton, Clare L; Plante, Yves; Hind, Pamela; McMahon, Robert; Hegarty, Matthew J; McEwan, Neil R; Davies-Morel, Mina C G; Morgan, Charly M; Powell, Wayne; Nash, Deborah M

    2015-01-01

    Most species exist as subdivided ex situ daughter population(s) derived from a single original group of individuals. Such subdivision occurs for many reasons both natural and manmade. Traditional British and Irish pony breeds were introduced to North America (U.S.A. and Canada) within the last 150 years, and subsequently equivalent breed societies were established. We have analyzed selected U.K. and North American equivalent pony populations as a case study for understanding the relationship between putative source and derived subpopulations. Diversity was measured using mitochondrial DNA and a panel of microsatellite markers. Genetic signatures differed between the North American subpopulations according to historical management processes. Founder effect and stochastic drift was apparent, particularly pronounced in some breeds, with evidence of admixture of imported mares of different North American breeds. This demonstrates the importance of analysis of subpopulations to facilitate understanding the genetic effects of past management practices and to lead to informed future conservation strategies. PMID:26380682

  1. Comparative genetic diversity in a sample of pony breeds from the U.K. and North America: a case study in the conservation of global genetic resources.

    PubMed

    Winton, Clare L; Plante, Yves; Hind, Pamela; McMahon, Robert; Hegarty, Matthew J; McEwan, Neil R; Davies-Morel, Mina C G; Morgan, Charly M; Powell, Wayne; Nash, Deborah M

    2015-08-01

    Most species exist as subdivided ex situ daughter population(s) derived from a single original group of individuals. Such subdivision occurs for many reasons both natural and manmade. Traditional British and Irish pony breeds were introduced to North America (U.S.A. and Canada) within the last 150 years, and subsequently equivalent breed societies were established. We have analyzed selected U.K. and North American equivalent pony populations as a case study for understanding the relationship between putative source and derived subpopulations. Diversity was measured using mitochondrial DNA and a panel of microsatellite markers. Genetic signatures differed between the North American subpopulations according to historical management processes. Founder effect and stochastic drift was apparent, particularly pronounced in some breeds, with evidence of admixture of imported mares of different North American breeds. This demonstrates the importance of analysis of subpopulations to facilitate understanding the genetic effects of past management practices and to lead to informed future conservation strategies. PMID:26380682

  2. Conservative Treatment of Subacute Proximal Hamstring Tendinopathy Using Eccentric Exercises Performed With a Treadmill: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    CUSHMAN, DANIEL; RHO, MONICA E.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN Case report. BACKGROUND Proximal hamstring tendinopathy in runners is characterized by pain with passive hip flexion with the knee extended, active hip extension, and pain with sitting. Relatively little literature exists on the condition, and publications on nonsurgical treatment protocols are even more scarce. Surgical intervention, which comprises the majority of literature for treatment of this condition, is an option for cases that fail to respond to nonsurgical treatment. CASE DESCRIPTION The patient was a 34-year-old, otherwise healthy male triathlete with unilateral proximal hamstring tendinopathy diagnosed by ultrasound, who had pain only with running and prolonged sitting. After he failed to respond to 4 weeks of eccentric knee flexion and lumbopelvic musculature strengthening exercises, an eccentric hip extensor strengthening program using a treadmill was initiated. This treadmill exercise was performed on a daily basis, in addition to a lumbopelvic musculature strengthening program. OUTCOMES The patient noted a decrease in pain within 2 weeks of initiating the new exercise, and was able to return to gradual running after 4 weeks and to speed training after 12 weeks. He returned to competition shortly thereafter and had no recurrence for 12 months after the initiation of therapy. His score on the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-proximal hamstring tendons improved from 23 on initial presentation to 83 at 12 weeks after the initiation of therapy. DISCUSSION We described the management of a triathlete with subacute proximal hamstring tendinopathy, who responded well to nonsurgical treatment using eccentric hip extension strengthening using a treadmill. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Therapy, level 4. PMID:25996362

  3. Conservation Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friday, Gerald

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a project in which students teach about the importance of recycling and conservation by presenting demonstrations. Includes demonstrations on water, plastic, and other recycling products such as steel. (YDS)

  4. Rock falls in high-alpine rock walls quantified by terrestrial lidar measurements: A case study in the Mont Blanc area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabatel, Antoine; Deline, Philip; Jaillet, Stéphane; Ravanel, Ludovic

    2008-05-01

    The global warming observed in recent decades and its future increase may affect permafrost distribution on high-mountain faces with consequences for their stability. In this paper, we show that rock falls from high-alpine rock walls can be computed with a decimetre-resolution using lidar measurements. A laser scanner was used to create point clouds and triangulated irregular network models on the east face of the Tour Ronde at 3792 m asl (Mont Blanc massif). Comparison of the models realised from measurements of July 2005 and July 2006 enabled quantification of rock falls with reduced uncertainty. The volume of rock fall reached a total of 536 m3 in the scanned area, which matches an erosion rate of 8.4 mm yr-1. This rate slightly higher to the ones reported in former studies enable to assume that this rock fall may be the consequence of the permafrost degradation in this rock face.

  5. White spots on Smoke rings by Bruce Nauman: a case study on contemporary art conservation using microanalytical techniques.

    PubMed

    Mafalda, Ana Cardeira; da Câmara, Rodrigo Bettencourt; Strzelec, Patrick; Schiavon, Nick; Mirão, José; Candeias, António; Carvalho, Maria Luísa; Manso, Marta

    2015-02-01

    The artwork "Smoke Rings: Two Concentric Tunnels, Non-Communicating" by Bruce Nauman represents a case study of corrosion of a black patina-coated Al-alloy contemporary artwork. The main concern over this artwork was the widespread presence of white spots on its surface. Alloy substrate, patina, and white spots were characterized by means of energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Alloy substrate was identified as an aluminum alloy 6,000 series Al-Si-Mg. Patina's identified composition confirmed the documentation provided by the atelier. Concerning the white spots, zircon particles were found on patina surface as external elements. PMID:25158782

  6. Multiple Cutaneous Angiosarcomas after Breast Conserving Surgery and Bilateral Adjuvant Radiotherapy: An Unusual Case and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Meattini, Icro; Santi, Raffaella; Scartoni, Daniele; Giacomelli, Irene; De Luca Cardillo, Carla; Scotti, Vieri; Casella, Donato; Simoncini, Roberta; Orzalesi, Lorenzo; Nori, Jacopo; Paglierani, Milena; Livi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Breast angiosarcomas (BAs) are rare but serious events that may arise after radiation exposure. Disease outcome is poor, with high risk of local and distant failure. Recurrences are frequent also after resection with negative margins. The spectrum of vascular proliferations associated with radiotherapy in the setting of breast cancer has expanded, including radiation-associated atypical vascular lesions (AVLs) of the breast skin as a rare, but well-recognized, entity. Although pursuing a benign behavior, AVLs have been regarded as possible precursors of postradiation BAs. We report an unusual case of a 71-year-old woman affected by well-differentiated bilateral cutaneous BA, diagnosed 1.9 years after adjuvant RT for synchronous bilateral breast cancer. Whole-life clinical followup is of crucial importance in breast cancer patients. PMID:24744928

  7. Conservative management of cervical pregnancy with intramuscular administration of methotrexate and KCl injection: Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Petousis, Stamatios; Margioula-Siarkou, Chrysoula; Kalogiannidis, Ioannis; Karavas, George; Palapelas, Vasileios; Prapas, Nikolaos; Rousso, David

    2015-01-16

    We report the case of a cervical pregnancy successfully treated with intramuscular injection of methotrexate (MTX) and intramniotic administration of potassium chloride. A 41-year-old woman was admitted to our Department with the suspicion of ectopic pregnancy. Transvaginal ultrasound revealed empty endometrial cavity, gestational sac within the cervical canal and embryonic echo measuring crown rump length 1.5 mm. Serum beta human chorionic gonadotropine (β-HCG) was measured 28590 IU/L. No cardiac activity was detected. The diagnosis of a cervical pregnancy was made. Patient was treated with intramuscular administration of methotrexate (50 mg/m(2)) in combination with ultrasound-guided intramniotic injection of KCl (2 meq/mL). Gradual decrease of β-HCG levels as well as ultrasound observation of collapsed gestational sac was observed. No curettage was necessitated. Patient was discharged on day 10(th) and was set in follow-up on a weekly basis. β-HCG values were measured < 10 IU/L on 56(th) day after MTX administration. Intramuscular administration of MTX may be effective in treatment of cervical pregnancy without additional interventional measures. PMID:25610854

  8. A Software for soil quality conservation at organic waste disposal areas: The case of olive mill and pistachio wastes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doula, Maria; Sarris, Apostolos; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Hliaoutakis, Aggelos; Kydonakis, Aris; Argyriou, Lemonia; Theocharopoulos, Sid; Kolovos, Chronis

    2016-04-01

    For the sustainable reuse of organic wastes at agricultural areas, apart from extensive evaluation of waste properties and characteristics, it is of significant importance, in order to protect soil quality, to evaluate land suitability and estimate the correct application doses prior waste landspreading. In the light of this precondition, a software was developed that integrates GIS maps of land suitability for waste reuse (wastewater and solid waste) and an algorithm for waste doses estimation in relation to soil analysis, and in case of reuse for fertilization with soil analysis, irrigation water quality and plant needs. EU and legislation frameworks of European Member States are also considered for the assessment of waste suitability for landspreading and for the estimation of the correct doses that will not cause adverse effects on soil and also to underground water (e.g. Nitrate Directive). Two examples of software functionality are presented in this study using data collected during two LIFE projects, i.e. Prosodol for landspreading of olive mill wastes and AgroStrat for pistachio wastes.

  9. The Reproducibility of Indoor Air Pollution (IAP) Measurement: A Test Case for the Measurement of Key Air Pollutants from the Pan Frying of Fish Samples

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bo-Won; Ahn, Jeong-Hyeon; Bae, Min-Suk; Brown, Richard J. C.

    2014-01-01

    To assess the robustness of various indoor air quality (IAQ) indices, we explored the possible role of reproducibility-induced variability in the measurements of different pollutants under similar sampling and emissions conditions. Polluted indoor conditions were generated by pan frying fish samples in a closed room. A total of 11 experiments were carried out to measure a list of key variables commonly used to represent indoor air pollution (IAP) indicators such as particulate matter (PM: PM1, PM2.5, PM10, and TSP) and a set of individual volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with some odor markers. The cooking activity conducted as part of our experiments was successful to consistently generate significant pollution levels (mean PM10: 7110 μg m−3 and mean total VOC (TVOC): 1400 μg m−3, resp.). Then, relative standard error (RSE) was computed to assess the reproducibility between different IAP paramters measured across the repeated experiments. If the results were evaluated by an arbitrary criterion of 10%, the patterns were divided into two data groups (e.g., <10% for benzene and some aldehydes and >10% for the remainders). Most noticeably, TVOC had the most repeatable results with a reproducibility (RSE) value of 3.2% (n = 11). PMID:25054167

  10. Potential Applicability of Persuasive Communication to Light-Glow Reduction Efforts: A Case Study of Marine Turtle Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamrowski, Ruth L.; Sutton, Stephen G.; Tobin, Renae C.; Hamann, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Artificial lighting along coastlines poses a significant threat to marine turtles due to the importance of light for their natural orientation at the nesting beach. Effective lighting management requires widespread support and participation, yet engaging the public with light reduction initiatives is difficult because benefits associated with artificial lighting are deeply entrenched within modern society. We present a case study from Queensland, Australia, where an active light-glow reduction campaign has been in place since 2008 to protect nesting turtles. Semi-structured questionnaires explored community beliefs about reducing light and evaluated the potential for using persuasive communication techniques based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to increase engagement with light reduction. Respondents ( n = 352) had moderate to strong intentions to reduce light. TPB variables explained a significant proportion of variance in intention (multiple regression: R 2 = 0.54-0.69, P < 0.001), but adding a personal norm variable improved the model ( R 2 = 0.73-0.79, P < 0.001). Significant differences in belief strength between campaign compliers and non-compliers suggest that targeting the beliefs reducing light leads to "increased protection of local turtles" ( P < 0.01) and/or "benefits to the local economy" ( P < 0.05), in combination with an appeal to personal norms, would produce the strongest persuasion potential for future communications. Selective legislation and commitment strategies may be further useful strategies to increase community light reduction. As artificial light continues to gain attention as a pollutant, our methods and findings will be of interest to anyone needing to manage public artificial lighting.

  11. Potential applicability of persuasive communication to light-glow reduction efforts: a case study of marine turtle conservation.

    PubMed

    Kamrowski, Ruth L; Sutton, Stephen G; Tobin, Renae C; Hamann, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Artificial lighting along coastlines poses a significant threat to marine turtles due to the importance of light for their natural orientation at the nesting beach. Effective lighting management requires widespread support and participation, yet engaging the public with light reduction initiatives is difficult because benefits associated with artificial lighting are deeply entrenched within modern society. We present a case study from Queensland, Australia, where an active light-glow reduction campaign has been in place since 2008 to protect nesting turtles. Semi-structured questionnaires explored community beliefs about reducing light and evaluated the potential for using persuasive communication techniques based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to increase engagement with light reduction. Respondents (n = 352) had moderate to strong intentions to reduce light. TPB variables explained a significant proportion of variance in intention (multiple regression: R (2) = 0.54-0.69, P < 0.001), but adding a personal norm variable improved the model (R (2) = 0.73-0.79, P < 0.001). Significant differences in belief strength between campaign compliers and non-compliers suggest that targeting the beliefs reducing light leads to "increased protection of local turtles" (P < 0.01) and/or "benefits to the local economy" (P < 0.05), in combination with an appeal to personal norms, would produce the strongest persuasion potential for future communications. Selective legislation and commitment strategies may be further useful strategies to increase community light reduction. As artificial light continues to gain attention as a pollutant, our methods and findings will be of interest to anyone needing to manage public artificial lighting. PMID:24957580

  12. Assessing the magnitude of recent compositional changes in marine ecosystems: a conservation paleobiology case study from the Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albano, Paolo G.; Tomašových, Adam; Stachowitsch, Michael; Zuschin, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Nearly every modern marine ecosystem has experienced major changes due to anthropogenic stressors such as habitat modification, pollution, overexploitation and climate change. However, our knowledge of ecosystem dynamics in a historical time-frame (decades to few centuries) is restricted by the lack of direct, recorded human observations: properly designed ecological surveys have been conducted for comparatively short durations in the last few decades only, and in merely a few localities, poorly representative of large-scale phenomena. A unique but under-exploited source of information is hidden in death assemblages (DAs), the taxonomically identifiable, dead or discarded organic remains in a seabed. Due to the slow degradation of hard skeletal parts such as shells in the sea, DAs represent archives that accumulate information on species composition and community states over time and are inert to recent changes. Assessing the degree in compositional and ecological similarity between living (LAs) and death assemblages can be used to reconstruct the degree of recent community disturbances. Previous studies have shown that live-dead (LD) agreement tends to be poorer in anthropogenically disturbed settings, because LAs respond faster than DAs to pressures, thus increasing the LD disagreement in composition. As a complementary approach, age dating of shells (using radiocarbon calibrated amino acid racemization) allows identifying the timing of ecosystem change. These approaches help recognize community shifts in time, overcoming the lack of direct observation. As a case study, we present the results of applying these techniques to the impacts of oil platforms on the benthic assemblages in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf. This semi-enclosed basin originated 12,500 years ago and currently hosts the highest concentration of infrastructures for oil and gas extraction in the world. Moreover, it has been affected by major oil spills. Contaminants show a weak gradient within each

  13. Quantification of magnetic nanoparticles with broad-band-frequency magnetic susceptibility measurements: a case study of an upper loess/palaeosol succession at Luochuan, Chinese Loess Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Kazuto; An, Zhisheng; Chang, Hong; Qiang, Xiaoke

    2014-11-01

    Broad-band magnetic susceptibility (MS) measurement, a novel magnetic method capable of quantifying a narrow grain size distribution (GSD) of superparamagnetic (SP) particles by measuring low-field MS at a number of frequency steps spanning four orders of magnitude, has been tested in a loess/palaeosol section at Luochuan in the Chinese Loess Plateau. The studied succession consists of sequences from the latest palaeosol unit (S0) to the upper part of the loess unit (L2), spanning the last glacial-interglacial cycle. Reconstructed GSDs consist of volume fractions on the order of 10-24 m3, and the mean GSDs are modal but with distinctive skewness among the loess, the weakly developed palaeosols (weak palaeosols), and the mature palaeosols. This indicates that the mean volume of SP particles in this loess/palaeosol sequence tends to increase during the transition from loess → weak palaeosol → palaeosol, an indication of grain growth as pedogenesis progresses. Total frequency dependence, or TFD(per cent), the difference between χ130 at the lowest (130 Hz) and χ500k at the highest (500 kHz) frequencies normalized to χ130, is judged to be a more suitable index than previous frequency dependence parameters for the concentration of SP particles. TFD(per cent) has a strong correlation with χ130, showing a continuous `growth curve' with the rate of increase being highest for the loess, moderate for the weak palaeosols, and saturated for the palaeosols. The characteristic curve suggests that smaller SP particles are preferentially formed in the earlier stage of pedogenesis rather than the later phase when even larger particles are formed in mature palaeosols. These results demonstrate that the broad-band MS measurement method will be useful for the quantitative assessment of magnetic nanoparticles in soils and sediments.

  14. An optimization model for regional air pollutants mitigation based on the economic structure adjustment and multiple measures: A case study in Urumqi city, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaowei; Li, Wei; Xie, Yulei; Huang, Guohe; Dong, Changjuan; Yin, Jianguang

    2016-11-01

    A model based on economic structure adjustment and pollutants mitigation was proposed and applied in Urumqi. Best-worst case analysis and scenarios analysis were performed in the model to guarantee the parameters accuracy, and to analyze the effect of changes of emission reduction styles. Results indicated that pollutant-mitigations of electric power industry, iron and steel industry, and traffic relied mainly on technological transformation measures, engineering transformation measures and structure emission reduction measures, respectively; Pollutant-mitigations of cement industry relied mainly on structure emission reduction measures and technological transformation measures; Pollutant-mitigations of thermal industry relied mainly on the four mitigation measures. They also indicated that structure emission reduction was a better measure for pollutants mitigation of Urumqi. Iron and steel industry contributed greatly in SO2, NOx and PM (particulate matters) emission reduction and should be given special attention in pollutants emission reduction. In addition, the scales of iron and steel industry should be reduced with the decrease of SO2 mitigation amounts. The scales of traffic and electric power industry should be reduced with the decrease of NOx mitigation amounts, and the scales of cement industry and iron and steel industry should be reduced with the decrease of PM mitigation amounts. The study can provide references of pollutants mitigation schemes to decision-makers for regional economic and environmental development in the 12th Five-Year Plan on National Economic and Social Development of Urumqi. PMID:27454097

  15. Marketing Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, William B.

    1987-01-01

    In 1986, Northeast Utilities began helping shool administrators combat school building energy wastage through a program called Energy Alliance. The typical school can reduce its energy bill by 30 percent by adopting a wide range of conservation measures, including cogeneration, relamping, and energy audits. (MLH)

  16. Colorful Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Some people only think about conservation on Earth Day. Being in the "art business" however, this author is always conscious of the many products she thinks get wasted when they could be reused, recycled, and restored--especially in a school building and art room. In this article, she describes an art lesson that allows students to paint…

  17. [Conservation Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Instructional units deal with each aspect of conservation: forests, wildlife, rangelands, water, minerals, and soil. The area of the secondary school curriculum with which each is correlated is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the topic, questions to…

  18. [Conservation Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  19. A Case Study of Landholder Attitudes and Behaviour Toward the Conservation of Renosterveld, a Critically Endangered Vegetation Type in Cape Floral Kingdom, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Susan J.; Prozesky, Heidi; Esler, Karen J.

    2007-07-01

    The attitudes and behaviours of private landholders toward the conservation of a highly transformed and critically endangered habitat, Overberg Coastal Renosterveld (OCR) (a grassy shrubland of the Cape Floral Region, South Africa) are described. Personal, semistructured interviews were conducted with landholders, representing 40 properties in the Overberg region, on topics such as management and utilisation of OCR, the depth of their knowledge of its conservation importance, what they perceive its value to be, and the extent of their willingness to conserve it. General attitudes toward conservation incentives and provincial conservation authorities were also investigated. Farmers more willing to conserve were younger, did not necessarily have a better education, and owned larger farms (>500 ha) with a greater amount of remnant renosterveld (>300 ha) than those less willing to conserve. Attitudes toward the OCR were largely negative, related to associated problem plants and animals and the fact that it is believed not to be economically advantageous to retain it. However, farmers are of the opinion that provision of incentives and increased extension support will provide practical positive inducements for conservation. Landholder education is paramount to prevent further transformation of critically endangered habitats. The success of private-conservation programs depends on the attitudes of landowners toward (1) the particular habitat or species to be conserved (which can vary depending on the type of land use practised and the associated benefits and disadvantages of that habitat type); (2) the conservation agency or extension officers responsible for that area; and (3) willingness of landowners to participate in a conservation program, which is influenced by landowner age, farm size, and the amount of natural habitat left to conserve.

  20. Physics-based Tests to Identify the Accuracy of Solar Wind Ion Measurements: A Case Study with the Wind Faraday Cups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasper, J. C.; Lazarus, A. J.; Steinberg, J. T.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Szabo, A.

    2006-01-01

    We present techniques for comparing measurements of velocity, temperature, and density with constraints imposed by the plasma physics of magnetized bi-Maxwellian ions. Deviations from these physics-based constraints are interpreted as arising from measurement errors. Two million ion spectra from the Solar Wind Experiment Faraday Cup instruments on the Wind spacecraft are used as a case study. The accuracy of velocity measurements is determined by the fact that differential flow between hydrogen and helium should be aligned with the ambient magnetic field. Modeling the breakdown of field alignment suggests velocity uncertainties are less than 0.16% in magnitude and 3deg in direction. Temperature uncertainty is found by examining the distribution of observed temperature anisotropies in high-beta solar wind intervals where the firehose, mirror, and cyclotron microinstabilities should drive the distribution to isotropy. The presence of a finite anisotropy at high beta suggests overall temperature uncertainties of 8%. Hydrogen and helium number densities are compared with the electron density inferred from observations of the local electron plasma frequency as a function of solar wind speed and year. We find that after accounting for the contribution of minor ions, the results are consistent with a systematic offset between the two instruments of 34%. The temperature and density methods are sensitive to non-Maxwellian features such as heat flux and proton beams and as a result are more suited to slow solar wind where these features are rare. These procedures are of general use in identifying the accuracy of observations from any solar wind ion instrument.

  1. Assessment of aquifer vulnerability to industrial waste water using resistivity measurements. A case study, along El-Gharbyia main drain, Nile Delta, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemail, Kh. S.; El-Shishtawy, A. M.; El-Alfy, M.; Ghoneim, M. F.; Abd El-Bary, M. H.

    2011-09-01

    1D resistivity sounding and 2D resistivity imaging surveys were integrated with geological and hydrochemical data to assess the aquifer vulnerability and saltwater intrusion in the north of Nile Delta, Egypt. In the present study, the El-Gharbyia main drain was considered as a case study to map the sand bodies within the upper silt and clay aquitard. Twenty Schlumberger soundings and six 2D dipole-dipole profiles were executed along one profile close to the western side of the main drain. In addition, 14 groundwater samples and 4 surface water samples from the main drain were chemically analyzed to obtain the major and trace elements concentrations. The results from the resistivity and hydrochemical data were used to assess the protection of the groundwater aquifer and the potential risk of groundwater pollution. The inverted resistivities and thicknesses of the layers above the aquifer layer were used to estimate the integrated electrical conductivity (IEC) that can be used for quantification of aquifer vulnerability. According to the aquifer vulnerability assessment of an underlying sand aquifer, the southern part of the area is characterized by high vulnerability zone with slightly fresh to brackish groundwater and resistivity values of 11-23 Ω.m below the clay cap. The resistivity sections exhibit some sand bodies within the clay cap that lead to increase the recharging of surface waste water (650 mg/l salinity) and flushing the upper part of underlying saltwater aquifer. The region in the north has saltwater with resistivity less than 6 Ω.m and local vulnerable zones within the clay cap. The inverted 2D dipole-dipole profiles in the vulnerable zones, in combination with drilling information have allowed the identification of subsoil structure around the main drain that is highly affected by waste water.

  2. Conservation physiology

    PubMed Central

    Kronfeld-Schor, Noga

    2014-01-01

    Global change presents a huge and exciting challenge to the study of thermal physiology. The implication of thermoregulatory strategies and abilities for the survival of individuals and species, are of high importance for predicting species response to global change challenges and ways to mitigate them, and for conservation acts. A good example of such a study is the paper by Cooper and Withers in this issue.1

  3. Creative Conservation Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houston, Jason

    2015-04-01

    I am a fellow with the International League of Conservation photographers (iLCP) and have been focused on photographing conservation dynamics at the intersection of social and environmental issues for a decade. Subjects have included traditional concerns such as deforestation, water conservation, endangered species, and fisheries. However, I rarely make photographs of the traditional nature, wildlife, landscapes, or environmental atrocities that most people think of when they think about environmentalism. Instead, I photograph people and how they live on the planet, as I believe passionately that without also considering social and cultural concerns, we will not be able to effectively and sustainably do conservation work or achieve positive environmental change. My presentation will share recent photography projects on forest conservation in Indonesian Borneo and fisheries management in Central America where I used a 'stakeholder profile-based' process to broadly survey the complexity of the issues while also making personal connections for these projects' diverse audiences. Through these case studies I will explore the opportunities and challenges of combining the authenticity, accuracy, and scientific validity of journalistic and documentary work with the emotional impact of the conventions of art and storytelling.

  4. Organic weed conrol and cover crop residue integration impacts on weed control, quality, and yield and economics in conservation tillage tomato - A case study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increased use of conservation tillage in vegetable production requires more information be developed on the role of cover crops in weed control, tomato quality and yield. Three conservation-tillage systems utilizing crimson clover, brassica and cereal rye as winter cover crops were compared to ...

  5. Organic weed conrol and cover crop residue integration impacts on weed control, quality, and yield and economics in conservation tillage tomato- A case study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increased use of conservation tillage in vegetable production requires more information be developed on the role of cover crops in weed control, tomato quality and yield. Three conservation-tillage systems utilizing crimson clover, brassica and cereal rye as winter cover crops were compared to ...

  6. Identification of conserved regulatory elements in upstream promoter regions of mammals at relaxed thresholds by comparative genomics - a case study using PEPCK

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Comparative genomics is the primary method to discover regulatory elements by identifying conserved sequences due to evolutionary constraints by cross-species genome comparison. Except for the most conserved and prominent transcription factor binding sites (TFBS), there is a general lack ...

  7. Hydrology and Conservation Ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2006-12-01

    Responses to change in the behavior of ecological systems are largely governed by interactions at different levels. Research is essential and is to be necessarily designed to gain insights into various interactions at the community level. Sustainable resource management is only possible if conservation of biodiversity can be accomplished by properly using the knowledge discovered. It is well known that the United States Department of Agriculture provides technical information, resources, and data necessary to assist the researchers in addressing their conservation needs. Conservation aims to protect, preserve and conserve the earth's natural resources. These include, but not limited to the conservation of soil, water, minerals, air, plants and all living beings. The United States Department of Agriculture also encourages farmers and ranchers to voluntarily address threats to soil and water. Protection of wetlands and wildlife habitat has been on the radar screen of conservation experts for a very long time. The main objective has always been to help farmers and landowners conform and comply with federal and state environmental laws. During the implementation phase, farmers should be encouraged to make beneficial, cost-effective changes to methods of irrigation systems. In some cases, the hydrologic regime of the project area can be thought of as principally an issue of river flow regimes for floodplain forests. In this presentation, the author tries to focus on the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology on global warming. He also discusses the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology global air concerns such as greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. References: Chow, V. T, D. R. Maidment, and L. W. Mays. 1988. Applied Hydrology. McGraw-Hill, Inc. U.S. Soil Conservation Service. Technical Release 55: Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds. USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture). June 1986. Lehner, B. and P. Döll (2004). Development and validation

  8. A synthetic methodology to assess Soil and Water Conservation measures effectiveness on the catchment sediment budget: the case of the Laaba watershed, Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeluccetti, I.; Coviello, V.; Grimaldi, S.; Vezza, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Sahelian countries are increasingly affected by lack of water, soil erosion, desertification and loss of biodiversity. Land and water resources are currently facing an overwhelming pressure due to population growth and to a significant decrease in rainfall rates since the 1970s. Nevertheless, the decrease of the number of rainy days did not affect neither rainfall aggressiveness nor daily rainfall extreme values. Rill and gully erosion, the progressive disappearance of the vegetation and the extension of soil surface crusting result in the reduction of soil thickness, the decrease of nutrients holding capability and water storage loss. To cope with these issues, Soil and Water Conservation (SWC) works have been highly employed in the Sahelian area. However, a proper cost-effectiveness analysis of these interventions at catchment scale requires a quantitative survey on erosion and sedimentation processes, which is expensive and time-consuming. Where data for calibration and validation of process-based models are scarce, a synthetic method to evaluate the economical sustainability of a proposed intervention could be of paramount importance. Referring to a field data collection and to a literature survey, the study herein proposed aims to assess the effectiveness of SWC measures, employed to limit soil erosion and reservoir siltation. Using the Laaba watershed (Northern Burkina Faso, Department of Koumbri) as a case study, the catchment sediment budget is estimated by means of topographical, pedologic and land use parameters and the sedimentation rates of the reservoir and the SWC works. Finally, a cost-effectiveness analysis is performed to assess the economical sustainability of SWC interventions. Although not intended to be quantitative at a local scale, the proposed methodology can be easily implemented for land and water management to prioritize the areas of intervention when data and financial resources are limited, and it is beneficial where the application

  9. Conservative Remapper

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-03-31

    Conservative Remapper (CORE) is a C++ language software library for remapping cell masses and cell-averaged densities on unstructured two dimensional grids, maintaining conservation of total mass in the process. CORE contains implementation of two remapping algorithms: a new, efficient "swept region" algorithm, and a more traditional algorithm basedon the computation of cell intersections. Grids may be Cartesian or cylindrical, and cells may have three or more vertices, with no upper limit. CORE can run inmore » serial and in parallel, but in order to achieve wide applicability, CORE used no particular parallel communication library. Instead it achieves parallel communication through strategically placed, user defined callbacks. Users can also provide callbacks to redefine different parts or subcomponents of the remapping process. CORE allows the use of different data types, e.g. single-, double-, and quadruple- precision floating-point numbers, through the use of C++ templates. Using CORE is simple, and requires no configuration scripts or makefiles.« less

  10. "Conservative" views of abortion.

    PubMed

    Devine, P E

    1997-01-01

    The introduction to this essay, which presents and defends the "conservative" position on abortion, explains that this position holds that 1) abortion is wrong because it destroys the fetus; 2) the fetus has full personhood from conception (or very near conception); 3) abortion is only justified under special circumstances, such as when the pregnancy poses a threat to the woman's life; and 4) these conclusions should be reflected in law and public policy. Part 2 sets forth the moral foundations for this position. The third part considers the status of the fetus and reviews the various arguments that have been forwarded to resolve the question, such as the species principle, the potentiality principle, the sentience principle, and the conventionalist principle. Part 4 applies the conservative position to problems posed by hard cases, determines that abortion is a form of homicide from two weeks after fertilization (at the latest), reviews circumstances in which various legal definitions of homicide are applicable, argues for the denial of abortion funding by the state, and notes that violent militancy is not the appropriate response to a belief that abortion should be illegal. Section 5 refutes objections to the conservative position based on the fact that some opponents of abortion also oppose contraception, based on feminist ideals, and based on calls for religious freedom in a pluralistic society. In conclusion, the labels applied to the abortion debate are examined, and it is suggested that "communitarian" is the best term for the conservative position. PMID:12348327

  11. Is international conservation aid enough?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Elizabeth A.

    2016-02-01

    Bare et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 125010) ask an important question: is international conservation enough? Since the 1990’s international conservation donors have spent over 3.4 billion on biodiversity conservation related projects in sub-Saharan Africa. Both donors and recipients have a right to know if this is effective. Surprisingly, this question is rarely asked. It is a difficult question—involving many rival social, environmental, and economic explanations. Bare, Kauffman and Miller uncover some interesting associations, supporting existing hypotheses and proposing their own: that conservation aid alone is insufficient to mitigate drivers of deforestation (and in some cases may even exacerbate forest loss). This controversial result warrants further investigation—but what is needed now is nuance and robustness in further analyses, to have more confidence in the critique and it’s implications for international conservation aid.

  12. Value basis for conservation policy

    SciTech Connect

    Leiss, W.

    1981-01-01

    This paper is a case study in attempting to apply a particular value (caring) to the domain of social policy, specifically resource conservation policy. The argument is that our consumer society erodes the social basis for the development by individuals of a sense of well-being and personal identity, and that a conservation ethic based on the concept of caring could provide a foundation in practical morality and public policy for a viable sense of well-being. Conservation, then, goes beyond eliminating wasteful consumption to encompass a public commitment that can further economic and social goals. 11 references.

  13. Energy-conservation indicators

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, D.B.

    1982-06-01

    A series of Energy Conservation Indicators were developed for the Department of Energy to assist in the evaluation of current and proposed conservation strategies. As descriptive statistics that signify current conditions and trends related to efficiency of energy use, indicators provide a way of measuring, monitoring, or inferring actual responses by consumers in markets for energy services. Related sets of indicators are presented in some 30 one-page indicator summaries. Indicators are shown graphically, followed by several paragraphs that explain their derivation and highlight key findings. Indicators are classified according to broad end-use sectors: Aggregate (economy), Residential, Commercial, Industrial, and transportation. In most cases annual time series information is presented covering the period 1960 through 1981.

  14. Conservative condylectomy alone for the correction of mandibular asymmetry caused by osteochondroma of the mandibular condyle: a report of five cases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Sung; Kim, Jae-Young; Jeong, Chan-Woo; Park, Kwang-Ho

    2015-01-01

    We describe our experience with conservative condylectomy for the correction of facial asymmetry in five patients with osteochondroma of the mandibular condyle. All five patients presented with malocclusion and facial asymmetry, which are common clinical findings of osteochondroma involving the mandibular condyle. We performed conservative condylectomy without additional orthognathic surgery for all five patients, preserving the vertical height of the condylar process as much as possible. Following surgery, intermaxillary traction using a skeletal anchorage system with rubber elastics was performed on all patients to improve occlusion, and, when necessary, additional minimal orthodontic treatment was performed. The mean follow-up period was 42 months. At the last follow-up visit, all patients exhibited satisfactory facial symmetry and remodeling of the remaining condyle, with stable health and no signs of recurrence. In conclusion, conservative condylectomy alone, without subsequent orthognathic surgery, is adequate for the restoration of facial symmetry and the preservation of vertical condylar height in select patients with condylar osteochondroma. PMID:26568928

  15. Reproductive isolation, evolutionary distinctiveness and setting conservation priorities: The case of European lake whitefish and the endangered North Sea houting (Coregonus spp.)

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Adaptive radiation within fishes of the Coregonus lavaretus complex has created numerous morphs, posing significant challenges for taxonomy and conservation priorities. The highly endangered North Sea houting (C. oxyrhynchus; abbreviated NSH) has been considered a separate species from European lake whitefish (C. lavaretus; abbreviated ELW) due to morphological divergence and adaptation to oceanic salinities. However, its evolutionary and taxonomic status is controversial. We analysed microsatellite DNA polymorphism in nine populations from the Jutland Peninsula and the Baltic Sea, representing NSH (three populations, two of which are reintroduced) and ELW (six populations). The objectives were to: 1) analyse postglacial recolonization of whitefish in the region; 2) assess the evolutionary distinctiveness of NSH, and 3) apply several approaches for defining conservation units towards setting conservation priorities for NSH. Results Bayesian cluster analyses of genetic differentiation identified four major groups, corresponding to NSH and three groups of ELW (Western Jutland, Central Jutland, Baltic Sea). Estimates of historical migration rates indicated recolonization in a north-eastern direction, suggesting that all except the Baltic Sea population predominantly represent postglacial recolonization via the ancient Elbe River. Contemporary gene flow has not occurred between NSH and ELW, with a divergence time within the last 4,000 years suggested from coalescence methods. NSH showed interbreeding with ELW when brought into contact by stocking. Thus, reproductive isolation of NSH was not absolute, although possible interbreeding beyond the F1 level could not be resolved. Conclusion Fishes of the C. lavaretus complex in the Jutland Peninsula originate from the same recolonization event. NSH has evolved recently and its species status may be questioned due to incomplete reproductive isolation from ELW, but it was shown to merit consideration as an

  16. Using Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) to Fund a Residential Energy Efficiency Loan Program: Case Study on Saint Louis County, MO

    SciTech Connect

    Zimring, Mark

    2011-06-23

    Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) are federally-subsidized debt instruments that enable state, tribal, and local government issuers to borrow money to fund a range of qualified energy conservation projects. QECBs offer issuers very attractive borrowing rates and long terms, and can fund low-interest energy efficiency loans for home and commercial property owners. Saint Louis County, MO recently issued over $10 million of QECBs to finance the Saint Louis County SAVES residential energy efficiency loan program. The county's experience negotiating QECB regulations and restrictions can inform future issuers.

  17. The impact of a shade coffee certification program on forest conservation: a case study from a wild coffee forest in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ryo; Todo, Yasuyuki

    2013-11-30

    In recent years, shade coffee certification programs have attracted increasing attention from conservation and development organizations. Certification programs offer an opportunity to link environmental and economic goals by providing a premium price to producers and thereby contributing to forest conservation. However, the significance of the conservation efforts of certification programs remains unclear because of a lack of empirical evidence. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a shade coffee certification program on forest conservation. The study was conducted in the Belete-Gera Regional Forest Priority Area in Ethiopia, and remote sensing data of 2005 and 2010 were used to gauge the change of forest area. Using propensity score matching estimation, we found that forests under the coffee certification program were less likely to be deforested than forests without forest coffee. By contrast, the difference in the degree of deforestation between forests with forest coffee but not under the certification program and forests with no forest coffee is statistically insignificant. These results suggest that the certification program has had a large effect on forest protection, decreasing the probability of deforestation by 1.7 percentage points. PMID:24061085

  18. Multicultural Challenges in Educational Policies within a Non-Conservative Scenario: The Case of the Emerging Reforms in Higher Education in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canen, Ana

    2005-01-01

    The article discusses the extent to which multiculturalism has had an impact in the emerging reforms in higher education in Brazil, against the backdrop of the rise of a new non-Conservative, Labour-oriented government whose political agenda is marked by a discursive stand against conservatism, neo-liberalism and neocolonialism. Building on a…

  19. Integrating species distributional, conservation planning, and individual based population models: A case study in critical habitat evaluation for the Northern Spotted Owl

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background / Question / Methods As part of the ongoing northern spotted owl recovery planning effort, we evaluated a series of alternative potential critical habitat scenarios using a species-distribution model (MaxEnt), a conservation-planning model (Zonation), and an individua...

  20. Positive impacts in soil and water conservation in an Andean region of South America: Case scenarios from a USAID multidisciplinary cooperative project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USAID-SANREM-Virginia Polytechnic Institute project has made and continues to make an excellent impact, specifically showcasing the positive results of soil and water conservation (Barrera et al. 2010a; 2010b). This project has strong international cooperation between the USA, Ecuador and Bolivi...

  1. A Conservation Ethic and the Collecting of Animals by Institutions of Natural Heritage in the Twenty-First Century: Case Study of the Australian Museum

    PubMed Central

    Ikin, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary It is a core task of collecting institutions like museums to take examples of animals and preserve them as specimens in collections. In the twenty-first century, museums are equally the places where research is conducted and education is promoted in the service of conservation of animals in an era of the decline of biodiversity. In this paper, the balance of co-operation between collecting of animals by museums and the promotion and scientific pursuit of conservation of fauna in those museums is considered. As a “challenge” to museum science, it is considered in the context of Australia's oldest museum, and its policy and practice in the current century. Abstract Collecting of animals from their habitats for preservation by museums and related bodies is a core operation of such institutions. Conservation of biodiversity in the current era is a priority in the scientific agendas of museums of natural heritage in Australia and the world. Intuitively, to take animals from the wild, while engaged in scientific or other practices that are supposed to promote their ongoing survival, may appear be incompatible. The Australian Museum presents an interesting ground to consider zoological collecting by museums in the twenty-first century. Anderson and Reeves in 1994 argued that a milieu existed that undervalued native species, and that the role of natural history museums, up to as late as the mid-twentieth century, was only to make a record the faunal diversity of Australia, which would inevitably be extinct. Despite the latter, conservation of Australia's faunal diversity is a key aspect of research programmes in Australia's institutions of natural heritage in the current era. This paper analyses collecting of animals, a core task for institutions of natural heritage, and how this interacts with a professed “conservation ethic” in a twenty-first century Australian setting. PMID:26486222

  2. Conservation Through Different Lenses: Reflection, Responsibility, and the Politics of Participation in Conservation Advocacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrash Walton, Abigail

    2010-01-01

    This essay considers the arenas of advocacy, politics, and self-reflection in strengthening conservation and resource management initiatives. It frames key questions that reflective conservation practitioners may address in seeking to enhance the results of conservation projects, including equity and more inclusive participation by nonprivileged groups. The essay touches on the importance of understanding conservation work within particular political and historic dynamics, including the need to understand non-Western and/or indigenous or traditional perspectives on conservation. The author makes the case that Western or privileged conservation practitioners are uniquely situated to advocate effectively for change.

  3. Landscapes, tourism, and conservation

    PubMed

    Burger

    2000-04-17

    One key aspect of global change is a decrease in ecological integrity as more and more landscapes are developed, leaving a mosaic of intact refuges and degraded patches that may not be sufficient for conserving biodiversity. While increases in human population and shifts in the distribution of people affect land use, the temporary movement of people can have major implications for conservation and biodiversity. Three examples are presented where recreation/tourism can enhance the conservation of land on a landscape scale, leading to habitat protection and biodiversity preservation: (1) Shorebirds often require a matrix of different habitat types during migratory stopovers, and ecotourism can serve as a catalyst for landscape scale protection of habitat. (2) Riparian habitats can serve as corridors to link diverse habitat patches, as well as serving as biodiversity hotspots. (3) Remediation and rehabilitation of contaminated lands, such as those of the US Department of Energy, aimed at developing recreational activities on the uncontaminated portions, can be the most economical form of re-development with no increase in human or ecological risk. Since large areas on many DOE sites have been undisturbed since the Second World War, when they were acquired, they contain unique or valuable ecosystems that serve an important role within their regional landscapes. In all three cases the judicious development of recreational/tourist interests can encourage both the conservation of habitats and the wise management of habitats on a landscape scale. While some species or habitats are too fragile for sustained tourism, many can be managed so that species, ecosystems and ecotourists flourish. By contributing to the economic base of regions, ecotourists/recreationists can influence the protection of land and biodiversity on a landscape scale, contributing to ecosystem management. The human dimensions of land preservation and biodiversity protection are key to long

  4. Is forest cover conserved and restored by protected areas?: The case of two wild protected areas inthe Central Pacific of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Antonio Guzmán, J; Heiner Vega, S

    2015-09-01

    Changes in land use are mainly a consequence of anthropogenic actions. The current agricultural and urban transformations in Costa Rica have raised questions about the effectiveness of conservation and restoration within protected areas. Herein we analyzed the patterns of land use change between three periods: 1997, 2005 and 2010 in terms of magnitude, direction, and pace through categorical maps generated by the photointerpretation for La Cangreja National Park (LCNP), Rancho Mastatal Wildlife Refuge (RMWR), and their surrounding areas (SA), this last compound of one kilometer radius outside the protected areas' boundaries. The matrix which describes the landscape within the protected areas is natural coverage, composed mainly by forest cover and thickets. We found that the most abundant natural cover for both protected areas was forest cover for all years tested. The stability and large areas of forest cover in LCNP and RMWR for 2005 and 2010, reflected that policies, management actions and vigilance, have a positive impact on the conservation and restoration of natural habitats in these Costa Rican Central Pacific areas. However, the high landscape complexity of the SA in 1997, 2005 and 2010 was an evidence of the anthropogenic pressure on these protected areas, and suggested the ineffectiveness of local governments to monitor and abate land use changes, that could hinder the management, conservation and restoration of species in the protected areas. PMID:26666116

  5. Integrable viscous conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsie, Alessandro; Lorenzoni, Paolo; Moro, Antonio

    2015-06-01

    We propose an extension of the Dubrovin-Zhang perturbative approach to the study of normal forms for non-Hamiltonian integrable scalar conservation laws. The explicit computation of the first few corrections leads to the conjecture that such normal forms are parameterized by one single functional parameter, named the viscous central invariant. A constant valued viscous central invariant corresponds to the well-known Burgers hierarchy. The case of a linear viscous central invariant provides a viscous analog of the Camassa-Holm equation, that formerly appeared as a reduction of two-component Hamiltonian integrable systems. We write explicitly the negative and positive hierarchy associated with this equation and prove the integrability showing that they can be mapped respectively into the heat hierarchy and its negative counterpart, named the Klein-Gordon hierarchy. A local well-posedness theorem for periodic initial data is also proven. We show how transport equations can be used to effectively construct asymptotic solutions via an extension of the quasi-Miura map that preserves the initial datum. The method is alternative to the method of the string equation for Hamiltonian conservation laws and naturally extends to the viscous case. Using these tools we derive the viscous analog of the Painlevé I2 equation that describes the universal behaviour of the solution at the critical point of gradient catastrophe.

  6. Arizona Conserve Water Educators Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This award-winning, 350-page, full-color book provides a thorough study of Arizona water resources from a water conservation perspective. Its background section contains maps, graphs, diagrams and photos that facilitate the teaching of 15 interactive, multi-disciplinary lessons to K-12 students. In addition, 10 Arizona case studies are highlighted…

  7. A fine-scale assessment of using barriers to conserve native stream salmonids: a case study in Akokala Creek, Glacier National Park, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; D'Angelo, Vincent S.; S. T. Kalinowski; Landguth, Erin L.; C. C. Downs; J. Tohtz; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    Biologists are often faced with the difficult decision in managing native salmonids of where and when to install barriers as a conservation action to prevent upstream invasion of nonnative fishes. However, fine-scale approaches to assess long-term persistence of populations within streams and watersheds chosen for isolation management are often lacking. We employed a spatially-explicit approach to evaluate stream habitat conditions, relative abundance, and genetic diversity of native westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) within the Akokala Creek watershed in Glacier National Park- a population threatened by introgressive hybridization with nonnative rainbow trout (O. mykiss) from nearby sources. The systematic survey of 24 stream reaches showed broad overlap in fish population and suitable habitat characteristics among reaches and no natural barriers to fish migration were found. Analysis of population structure using 16 microsatellite loci showed modest amounts of genetic diversity among reaches, and that fish from Long Bow Creek were the only moderately distinct genetic group. We then used this information to assess the potential impacts of three barrier placement scenarios on long-term population persistence and genetic diversity. The two barrier placement scenarios in headwater areas generally failed to meet general persistence criteria for minimum population size (2,500 individuals, Ne = 500), maintenance of long-term genetic diversity (He), and no population subdivision. Conversely, placing a barrier near the stream mouth and selectively passing non-hybridized, migratory spawners entering Akokala Creek met all persistence criteria and may offer the best option to conserve native trout populations and life history diversity. Systematic, fine-scale stream habitat, fish distribution, and genetic assessments in streams chosen for barrier installation are needed in conjunction with broader scale assessments to understand the potential impacts of

  8. Role of New Nature Reserve in Assisting Endangered Species Conservation - Case Study of Giant Pandas in the Northern Qionglai Mountains, China.

    PubMed

    Guan, Tian-Pei; Owens, Jacob R; Gong, Ming-Hao; Liu, Gang; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun; Song, Yan-Ling

    2016-01-01

    The creation of nature reserves is the most direct way to save endangered species populations and their habitat. Development of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) nature reserve network in China was initiated in the 1960s, though the effort to create new reserves boomed considerably after the year 2000. Given this rapid development of protected areas in panda habitats, and the potential conflicting interests between conservation administrations and local economic development, it is essential to assess the role of new nature reserves in the overall giant panda conservation effort and reserve network. We utilized data from national giant panda surveys conducted in 2000 and 2012 to compare the size, spatial use, and distribution of panda populations, as well as the habitat suitability and connectivity in the Northern Qionglai Mountains between the two survey years. Our results show that although the total giant panda population in the study area did not change remarkably, local changes did occur. Most notably, the population in Wolong Nature Reserve declined by 27.3% (N = 39) and the population in Caopo Nature Reserve increased by 71.4% (N = 29) over the 12-year study period. We also found habitat suitability and availability decreased in both Wolong (12.4%) and Caopo (7.4%), but that the relative density of giant pandas declined (19.2%) and increased (84.6%) at each site, respectively. The distance between centers of high IUA were more distant in 2012 (14.1±1.9km) than that in 2000 (6.1±0.9km; t = -7.4, df = 5, p = 0.001), showing a scattered spatial pattern. Habitat availability decreased by 42% within the corridor between the two reserves, however panda occurrences in the corridor increased 24.6%. Compared to the total number of encounters, the proportion of the corridor increased 45.76%. Our results show the importance and success of the newly established Caopo to the conservation of giant pandas, and how crucial it is to identify and repair reserve

  9. Role of New Nature Reserve in Assisting Endangered Species Conservation - Case Study of Giant Pandas in the Northern Qionglai Mountains, China

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Tian-Pei; Owens, Jacob R.; Gong, Ming-Hao; Liu, Gang; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun; Song, Yan-Ling

    2016-01-01

    The creation of nature reserves is the most direct way to save endangered species populations and their habitat. Development of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) nature reserve network in China was initiated in the 1960s, though the effort to create new reserves boomed considerably after the year 2000. Given this rapid development of protected areas in panda habitats, and the potential conflicting interests between conservation administrations and local economic development, it is essential to assess the role of new nature reserves in the overall giant panda conservation effort and reserve network. We utilized data from national giant panda surveys conducted in 2000 and 2012 to compare the size, spatial use, and distribution of panda populations, as well as the habitat suitability and connectivity in the Northern Qionglai Mountains between the two survey years. Our results show that although the total giant panda population in the study area did not change remarkably, local changes did occur. Most notably, the population in Wolong Nature Reserve declined by 27.3% (N = 39) and the population in Caopo Nature Reserve increased by 71.4% (N = 29) over the 12-year study period. We also found habitat suitability and availability decreased in both Wolong (12.4%) and Caopo (7.4%), but that the relative density of giant pandas declined (19.2%) and increased (84.6%) at each site, respectively. The distance between centers of high IUA were more distant in 2012 (14.1±1.9km) than that in 2000 (6.1±0.9km; t = -7.4, df = 5, p = 0.001), showing a scattered spatial pattern. Habitat availability decreased by 42% within the corridor between the two reserves, however panda occurrences in the corridor increased 24.6%. Compared to the total number of encounters, the proportion of the corridor increased 45.76%. Our results show the importance and success of the newly established Caopo to the conservation of giant pandas, and how crucial it is to identify and repair reserve

  10. Perforation of a duodenal ulcer into a non-parasitic liver cyst: a rare case of a penetrate hole blockaded with conservative medical management.

    PubMed

    Ono, Koichi; Takeda, Masaharu; Makihata, Eiichi; Okazaki, Junji; Nagai, Akira

    2014-01-01

    An 88-year-old Japanese woman was admitted to our hospital for abdominal pain with a raised inflammatory reaction. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and computed tomography (CT) showed a duodenal ulcer punching a liver cyst. Since neither ascites nor free air were detected on CT and her family did not wish for aggressive medical treatment, the patient received clinical observation and conservative management. Antibiotic and proton-pump inhibitor therapy was effective, and she exhibited an uneventful recovery. A reexamination of EGD and CT confirmed that the fistulous tract between the liver cyst and duodenum was blockaded. PMID:24827482

  11. Hyperbolic conservation laws and numerical methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveque, Randall J.

    1990-01-01

    The mathematical structure of hyperbolic systems and the scalar equation case of conservation laws are discussed. Linear, nonlinear systems and the Riemann problem for the Euler equations are also studied. The numerical methods for conservation laws are presented in a nonstandard manner which leads to large time steps generalizations and computations on irregular grids. The solution of conservation laws with stiff source terms is examined.

  12. Feasibility, safety, and economic implications of whey-recovered water in cleaning-in-place systems: A case study on water conservation for the dairy industry.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Yulie E; Flores, Rolando A

    2016-05-01

    Water scarcity is threatening food security and business growth in the United States. In the dairy sector, most of the water is used in cleaning applications; therefore, any attempt to support water conservation in these processes will have a considerable effect on the water footprint of dairy products. This study demonstrates the viability for recovering good quality water from whey, a highly pollutant cheese-making by-product, to be reused in cleaning-in-place systems. The results obtained in this study indicate that by using a combined ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis system, 47% of water can be recovered. This system generates protein and lactose concentrates, by-products that once spray-dried fulfill commercial standards for protein and lactose powders. The physicochemical and microbiological quality of the recovered permeate was also analyzed, suggesting suitable properties to be reused in the cleaning-in-place system without affecting the quality and safety of the product manufactured on the cleaned equipment. A cost analysis was conducted for 3 cheese manufacturing levels, considering an annual production of 1, 20, and 225 million liters of whey. Results indicate the feasibility of this intervention in the dairy industry, generating revenues of $0.18, $3.05, and $33.4 million per year, respectively. The findings provide scientific evidence to promote the safety of reuse of reconditioned water in food processing plants, contributing to building a culture of water conservation and sustainable production throughout the food supply chain. PMID:26923044

  13. Conservation opportunities for securing in-stream flows in the Platte River Basin: a case study drawing on Casper, Wyoming's municipal water strategy.

    PubMed

    Waller, Aaron; Mcleod, Donald; Taylor, David

    2004-11-01

    The Platte River Basin consists of tributaries largely in Wyoming, Colorado and Western Nebraska, with the main stem in Central Nebraska. Critical wildlife habitat on the main stem requires additional in-stream flows. The watershed is one hosting multiple resources, a variety of users, and managed by an array of state and federal agencies. This study proposes a basis for securing in-stream flows for the Platte River. Candidate water supply mechanisms are suggested based on the way in which Casper, Wyoming secured water for its municipal needs. Canal lining is compared to a dam project, increasing reservoir storage, and purchasing water rights, with consideration also made for water pricing to reduce municipal use. Comparisons are based on economic efficiency, potential water conservation, and property rights criteria. Canal lining, coupled with demand management, is shown to conserve water best, given the set of efficiency and cost criteria for in-stream flow enhancement. The approach offers an opportunity to organize the water supply choice context in a transboundary watershed when quantitative information is limited. PMID:15696304

  14. Indicators used to assess the quantity and quality of water in Special Area of Conservation located in the valleys of large lowland rivers - case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utratna, Marta; Okruszko, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    One of the aims of Ecological network Natura 2000 is to protect rare habitats from complete disappearance in Europe. That is why natural and transformed river valleys were and still are often included into this form of protection. The problem of influences on Natura 2000 areas an their impact on the conservation status of protected habitats within the network is well known. Solving this issue may have a significant impact on the planning of protection tasks, as well as on assessing the impact of new and existing investments on protected areas. The aim of this study was to build a statistical model for assessing the impact of selected external factors related to the quantity and quality of water on the conservation status of habitats in large lowland river areas protected under the Natura 2000 network. The method used in the study is based on a structural study which uses the knowledge and experience of experts in the field of Phytosociology as well as indicators used to assess the quantity and quality of water in the analyzed area.

  15. Successful conservative treatment of rheumatoid subaxial subluxation resulting in improvement of myelopathy, reduction of subluxation, and stabilisation of the cervical spine. A report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Oostveen, J.; van de Laar, M. A F J; Geelen, J.; de Graaff, R.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To report the efficacy of conservative treatment with cervical traction and immobilisation with a Halo vest, in two consecutive rheumatoid arthritis patients with progressive cervical myelopathy caused by subaxial subluxation.
METHODS—Description of neurological symptoms and signs and findings in plain radiography (PR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine before and after treatment of the subaxial subluxation by traction and immobilisation with a Halo vest during four months.
RESULTS—During four months of traction and immobilisation neurological examination showed a considerable improvement of the signs and symptoms of cervical myelopathy. Afterwards PR and MRI of the cervical spine showed reduction of the subaxial subluxation. Eventually firm stabilisation was obtained in both patients without surgery of the cervical spine.
CONCLUSION—Cervical traction and immobilisation with a Halo vest can be considered as an independent conservative treatment in rheumatoid arthritis patients with cervical myelopathy caused by subaxial subluxation.

 Keywords: rheumatoid arthrits; rheumatoid subaxial subluxation PMID:10343530

  16. Interference and the Law of Energy Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drosd, Robert; Minkin, Leonid; Shapovalov, Alexander S.

    2014-01-01

    Introductory physics textbooks consider interference to be a process of redistribution of energy from the wave sources in the surrounding space resulting in constructive and destructive interferences. As one can expect, the total energy flux is conserved. However, one case of apparent non-conservation energy attracts great attention. Imagine that…

  17. Molecular contributions to conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haig, Susan M.

    1998-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular technology have opened a new chapter in species conservation efforts, as well as population biology. DNA sequencing, MHC (major histocompatibility complex), minisatellite, microsatellite, and RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) procedures allow for identification of parentage, more distant relatives, founders to new populations, unidentified individuals, population structure, effective population size, population-specific markers, etc. PCR (polymerase chain reaction) amplification of mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA, ribosomal DNA, chloroplast DNA, and other systems provide for more sophisticated analyses of metapopulation structure, hybridization events, and delineation of species, subspecies, and races, all of which aid in setting species recovery priorities. Each technique can be powerful in its own right but is most credible when used in conjunction with other molecular techniques and, most importantly, with ecological and demographic data collected from the field. Surprisingly few taxa of concern have been assayed with any molecular technique. Thus, rather than showcasing exhaustive details from a few well-known examples, this paper attempts to present a broad range of cases in which molecular techniques have been used to provide insight into conservation efforts.

  18. Lyme disease and conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, H.

    1994-01-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness that is wide-spread in North America, especially in the northeastern and northcentral United States. This disease could negatively influence efforts to conserve natural populations in two ways: (1) the disease could directly affect wild animal health; and (2) tick control efforts could adversely affect natural populations and communities. Lyme disease affects several domestic animals, but symptoms have been reported in only a few wild species. Direct effects of Lyme disease on wild animal populations have not been reported, but the disease should be considered as a possible cause in cases of unexplained population declines in endemic areas. Methods available to manage ticks and Lyme disease include human self-protection techniques, manipulation of habitats and hosts species populations, biological control, and pesticide applications. The diversity of available techniques allows selection of approaches to minimize environmental effects by (1) emphasizing personal protection techniques, (2) carefully targeting management efforts to maximize efficiency, and (3) integrating environmentally benign techniques to improve management while avoiding broad-scale environmentally destructive approaches. The environmental effects of Lyme disease depend, to a large extent, on the methods chosen to minimize human exposure to infected ticks. Conservation biologists can help design tick management programs that effectively lower the incidence of human Lyme disease while simultaneously minimizing negative effects on natural populations.

  19. Assessing the utility WorldView-2 imagery for tree species mapping in South African subtropical humid forest and the conservation implications: Dukuduku forest patch as case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Moses Azong; Malahlela, Oupa; Ramoelo, Abel

    2015-06-01

    Indigenous forest biome in South Africa is highly fragmented into patches of various sizes (most patches < 1 km2). The utilization of timber and non-timber resources by poor rural communities living around protected forest patches produce subtle changes in the forest canopy which can be hardly detected on a timely manner using traditional field surveys. The aims of this study were to assess: (i) the utility of very high resolution (VHR) remote sensing imagery (WorldView-2, 0.5-2 m spatial resolution) for mapping tree species and canopy gaps in one of the protected subtropical coastal forests in South Africa (the Dukuduku forest patch (ca.3200 ha) located in the province of KwaZulu-Natal) and (ii) the implications of the map products to forest conservation. Three dominant canopy tree species namely, Albizia adianthifolia, Strychnos spp. and Acacia spp., and canopy gap types including bushes (grass/shrubby), bare soil and burnt patches were accurately mapped (overall accuracy = 89.3 ± 2.1%) using WorldView-2 image and support vector machine classifier. The maps revealed subtle forest disturbances such as bush encroachment and edge effects resulting from forest fragmentation by roads and a power-line. In two stakeholders' workshops organised to assess the implications of the map products to conservation, participants generally agreed amongst others implications that the VHR maps provide valuable information that could be used for implementing and monitoring the effects of rehabilitation measures. The use of VHR imagery is recommended for timely inventorying and monitoring of the small and fragile patches of subtropical forests in Southern Africa.

  20. Low sequence identity but high structural and functional conservation: The case of Hsp70/Hsp90 organizing protein (Hop/Sti1) of Leishmania braziliensis.

    PubMed

    Batista, Fernanda A H; Seraphim, Thiago V; Santos, Clelton A; Gonzaga, Marisvanda R; Barbosa, Leandro R S; Ramos, Carlos H I; Borges, Júlio C

    2016-06-15

    Parasites belonging to the genus Leishmania are subjected to extensive environmental changes during their life cycle; molecular chaperones/co-chaperones act as protagonists in this scenario to maintain cellular homeostasis. Hop/Sti1 is a co-chaperone that connects the Hsp90 and Hsp70 systems, modulating their ATPase activities and affecting the fate of client proteins because it facilitates their transfer from the Hsp70 to the Hsp90 chaperone. Hop/Sti1 is one of the most prevalent co-chaperones, highlighting its importance despite the relatively low sequence identity among orthologue proteins. This multi-domain protein comprises three tetratricopeptides domains (TPR1, TPR2A and TPR2B) and two Asp/Pro-rich domains. Given the importance of Hop/Sti1 for the chaperone system and for Leishmania protozoa viability, the Leishmania braziliensis Hop (LbHop) and a truncated mutant (LbHop(TPR2AB)) were characterized. Structurally, both proteins are α-helix-rich and highly elongated monomeric proteins. Functionally, they inhibited the ATPase activity of Leishmania braziliensis Hsp90 (LbHsp90) to a similar extent, and the thermodynamic parameters of their interactions with LbHsp90 were similar, indicating that TPR2A-TPR2B forms the functional center for the LbHop interaction with LbHsp90. These results highlight the structural and functional similarity of Hop/Sti1 proteins, despite their low sequence conservation compared to the Hsp70 and Hsp90 systems, which are phylogenetic highly conserved. PMID:27103305

  1. Can marine reserves conserve vulnerable sharks in the deep sea? A case study of Centrophorus zeehaani (Centrophoridae), examined with acoustic telemetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daley, Ross K.; Williams, Alan; Green, Mark; Barker, Bruce; Brodie, Pamela

    2015-05-01

    Centrophorus zeehaani is one of at least 10 deep-sea shark species globally suffering major population declines attributable to expanding human resource use. Spatial closures have the potential to contribute to recovery of populations if home range and movements can be studied and understood. We implemented the first passive acoustic tracking study of sharks in the deep ocean (300-700 m depths) to evaluate the effectiveness of a large (~100 km long) fishery closure off southern Australia implemented to protect C. zeehaani. Using an array of 21 moored acoustic receivers, we passively tracked 71 tagged individuals over a 15-month period. Sixty-one sharks were detected repeatedly over an average duration of 408±153 days. The average along-slope range was 19.2±12.2 km and the maximum was 75 km - the full width of the array. Each month an average of 0.71 fewer males were detected; the number of females detected did not vary significantly between months. Individual males left the closure, but returned during the study period. Movement along-slope was influenced by month and release point, with shifts south and eastward occurring during austral winter - particularly by some males. Detection depth was strongly correlated with seafloor depth confirming that synchronous diel vertical migration (night time ascent) between population average depths of 640 m and 340 m occurred mainly on the seafloor. Different individuals occupied different depths on the seafloor. We conclude that the closure studied is effectively located to help conserve C. zeehaani because it has sufficient along-slope extent and depth range to encompass the home range of a high proportion of the individuals in the local population. Our work demonstrates the utility and uncertainties associated with acoustic tracking in the deep ocean, and the need to evaluate species movement and behaviour when relying on spatial closures to meet conservation objectives.

  2. Annual variation of spawning Cutthroat Trout in a small Western USA stream: A case study with implications for the conservation of potamodromous trout life history diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, Stephen; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Roper, Brett B.; Budy, Phaedra

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the variability in the spatial and temporal distribution of spawning potamodromous trout despite decades of research directed at salmonid spawning ecology and the increased awareness that conserving life history diversity should be a focus of management. We monitored a population of fluvial–resident Bonneville Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii utah in a tributary to the Logan River, Utah, from 2006 to 2012 to gain insight into the distribution and timing of spawning and what factors may influence these spawning activities. We monitored Bonneville Cutthroat Trout using redd surveys with multiple observers and georeferenced redd locations. We documented an extended spawning period that lasted from late April to mid-July. The onset, median, and end of spawning was best predicted by the mean maximum water temperature during the first 13 weeks of the year (F = 130. 4, df = 5, R2 = 0.96, P < 0.0001) with spawning beginning and ending earlier in years that had warmer water temperatures prior to spawning. The distribution of redds was clumped each year and the relative density of redds was greater in a reach dominated by dams constructed by beavers Castor canadensis. Both dam failure and construction appeared to be responsible for creating new spawning habitat that was quickly occupied, demonstrating rapid temporal response to local habitat changes. Bonneville Cutthroat Trout appeared to establish and defend a redd for up to 2 d, and spawning most often occurred between similar-sized individuals. Spawning surveys for potamodromous trout are an underutilized tool that could be used to better understand the distribution and timing of spawning as well as determine the size and trends of the reproducing portion of populations of management concern. Without efforts to document the diversity of this important aspect of potamodromous trout life history, prioritization of conservation will be problematic.

  3. Annual variation of spawning cutthroat trout in a small western USA stream: a case study with implications for the conservation of potamodromous trout life history diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, Stephen; Al-Chokhachy, Robert; Roper, Brett B.; Budy, Phaedra

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the variability in the spatial and temporal distribution of spawning potamodromous trout despite decades of research directed at salmonid spawning ecology and the increased awareness that conserving life history diversity should be a focus of management. We monitored a population of fluvial–resident Bonneville Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii utah in a tributary to the Logan River, Utah, from 2006 to 2012 to gain insight into the distribution and timing of spawning and what factors may influence these spawning activities. We monitored Bonneville Cutthroat Trout using redd surveys with multiple observers and georeferenced redd locations. We documented an extended spawning period that lasted from late April to mid-July. The onset, median, and end of spawning was best predicted by the mean maximum water temperature during the first 13 weeks of the year (F = 130. 4, df = 5, R2 = 0.96, P < 0.0001) with spawning beginning and ending earlier in years that had warmer water temperatures prior to spawning. The distribution of redds was clumped each year and the relative density of redds was greater in a reach dominated by dams constructed by beavers Castor canadensis. Both dam failure and construction appeared to be responsible for creating new spawning habitat that was quickly occupied, demonstrating rapid temporal response to local habitat changes. Bonneville Cutthroat Trout appeared to establish and defend a redd for up to 2 d, and spawning most often occurred between similar-sized individuals. Spawning surveys for potamodromous trout are an underutilized tool that could be used to better understand the distribution and timing of spawning as well as determine the size and trends of the reproducing portion of populations of management concern. Without efforts to document the diversity of this important aspect of potamodromous trout life history, prioritization of conservation will be problematic.

  4. Non-conservation of Carter in black hole spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Alexander; Flanagan, Éanna É.

    2015-08-01

    Freely falling point particles in the vicinity of Kerr black holes are subject to a conservation law, that of their Carter constant. We consider the conjecture that this conservation law is a special case of a more general conservation law, valid for arbitrary processes obeying local energy momentum conservation. Under some fairly general assumptions we prove that the conjecture is false: there is no conservation law for conserved stress-energy tensors on the Kerr background that reduces to conservation of Carter for a single point particle.

  5. Energy Conservation Code Decoded

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Pam C.; Taylor, Zachary T.

    2006-09-01

    Designing an energy-efficient, affordable, and comfortable home is a lot easier thanks to a slime, easier to read booklet, the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC), published in March 2006. States, counties, and cities have begun reviewing the new code as a potential upgrade to their existing codes. Maintained under the public consensus process of the International Code Council, the IECC is designed to do just what its title says: promote the design and construction of energy-efficient homes and commercial buildings. Homes in this case means traditional single-family homes, duplexes, condominiums, and apartment buildings having three or fewer stories. The U.S. Department of Energy, which played a key role in proposing the changes that resulted in the new code, is offering a free training course that covers the residential provisions of the 2006 IECC.

  6. Conservation laws in embedding theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo, Oscar; Mustafaev, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    In this work is considered embedding theory, a theory in which independent variables which describe gravity are functions of the space-time embedding into a ten-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean space. Neother's theorem is used to find conservation laws for energy and angular momentum as a result from the action's invariance in relation to the rotation and translation of the system. The form of these conservation laws and their consequences depending on the different formulations of embedding theory is discussed. It is also analyzed a transition from embedding theory to a field theory in a flat space-time with a number of dimensions greater than four. The same procedure is followed in this case to find conservation laws, resulting in the solution of the problem of time present in Einstein's theory of general relativity.

  7. Understanding and managing conservation conflicts.

    PubMed

    Redpath, Steve M; Young, Juliette; Evely, Anna; Adams, William M; Sutherland, William J; Whitehouse, Andrew; Amar, Arjun; Lambert, Robert A; Linnell, John D C; Watt, Allan; Gutiérrez, R J

    2013-02-01

    Conservation conflicts are increasing and need to be managed to minimise negative impacts on biodiversity, human livelihoods, and human well-being. Here, we explore strategies and case studies that highlight the long-term, dynamic nature of conflicts and the challenges to their management. Conflict management requires parties to recognise problems as shared ones, and engage with clear goals, a transparent evidence base, and an awareness of trade-offs. We hypothesise that conservation outcomes will be less durable when conservationists assert their interests to the detriment of others. Effective conflict management and long-term conservation benefit will be enhanced by better integration of the underpinning social context with the material impacts and evaluation of the efficacy of alternative conflict management approaches. PMID:23040462

  8. Invariant conserved currents in generalized gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obukhov, Yuri N.; Portales-Oliva, Felipe; Puetzfeld, Dirk; Rubilar, Guillermo F.

    2015-11-01

    We study conservation laws for gravity theories invariant under general coordinate transformations. The class of models under consideration includes Einstein's general relativity theory as a special case as well as its generalizations to non-Riemannian spacetime geometry and nonminimal coupling. We demonstrate that an arbitrary vector field on the spacetime manifold generates a current density that is conserved under certain conditions, and find the expression of the corresponding superpotential. For a family of models including nonminimal coupling between geometry and matter, we discuss in detail the differential conservation laws and the conserved quantities defined in terms of covariant multipole moments. We show that the equations of motion for the multipole moments of extended microstructured test bodies lead to conserved quantities that are closely related to the conserved currents derived in the field-theoretic framework.

  9. Balancing genetic uniqueness and genetic variation in determining conservation and translocation strategies: a comprehensive case study of threatened dwarf galaxias, Galaxiella pusilla (Mack) (Pisces: Galaxiidae).

    PubMed

    Coleman, R A; Weeks, A R; Hoffmann, A A

    2013-04-01

    Genetic markers are widely used to define and manage populations of threatened species based on the notion that populations with unique lineages of mtDNA and well-differentiated nuclear marker frequencies should be treated separately. However, a danger of this approach is that genetic uniqueness might be emphasized at the cost of genetic diversity, which is essential for adaptation and is potentially boosted by mixing geographically separate populations. Here, we re-explore the issue of defining management units, focussing on a detailed study of Galaxiella pusilla, a small freshwater fish of national conservation significance in Australia. Using a combination of microsatellite and mitochondrial markers, 51 populations across the species range were surveyed for genetic structure and diversity. We found an inverse relationship between genetic differentiation and genetic diversity, highlighting a long-term risk of deliberate isolation of G. pusilla populations based on protection of unique lineages. Instead, we adopt a method for identifying genetic management units that takes into consideration both uniqueness and genetic variation. This produced a management framework to guide future translocation and re-introduction efforts for G. pusilla, which contrasted to the framework based on a more traditional approach that may overlook important genetic variation in populations. PMID:23432132

  10. Quantifying the effectiveness of conservation measures to control the spread of anthropogenic hybridization in stream salmonids: a climate adaptation case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Boyer, Matthew; Jones, Leslie A.; Steed, Amber; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying the effectiveness of management actions to mitigate the effects of changing climatic conditions (i.e., climate adaptation) can be difficult, yet critical for conservation. We used population genetic data from 1984 to 2011 to assess the degree to which ambient climatic conditions and targeted suppression of sources of nonnative Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss have influenced the spread of introgressive hybridization in native populations of Westslope Cutthroat Trout O. clarkii lewisi. We found rapid expansion in the spatial distribution and proportion of nonnative genetic admixture in hybridized populations from 1984 to 2004, but minimal change since 2004. The spread of hybridization was negatively correlated with the number of streamflow events in May that exceeded the 75th percentile of historic flows (r = −0.98) and positively correlated with August stream temperatures (r = 0.89). Concomitantly, suppression data showed a 60% decline in catch per unit effort for fish with a high proportion of Rainbow Trout admixture, rendering some uncertainty as to the relative strength of factors controlling the spread of hybridization. Our results illustrate the importance of initiating management actions to mitigate the potential effects of climate change, even where data describing the effectiveness of such actions are initially limited but the risks are severe.

  11. A system to evaluate the scientific quality of biological and restoration objectives using National Wildlife Refuge Comprehensive Conservation Plans as a case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    It is widely accepted that plans for restoration projects should contain specific, measurable, and science-based objectives to guide restoration efforts. The United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) is in the process of developing Comprehensive Conservation Plans (CCPs) for more than 500 units in the National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS). These plans contain objectives for biological and ecosystem restoration efforts on the refuges. Based on USFWS policy, a system was developed to evaluate the scientific quality of such objectives based on three critical factors: (1) Is the objective specific, measurable, achievable, results-oriented, and time-fixed? (2) What is the extent of the rationale that explains the assumptions, logic, and reasoning for the objective? (3) How well was available science used in the development of the objective? The evaluation system scores each factor on a scale of 1 (poor) to 4 (excellent) according to detailed criteria. The biological and restoration objectives from CCPs published as of September 2004 (60 total) were evaluated. The overall average score for all biological and restoration objectives was 1.73. Average scores for each factor were: Factor 1-1.97; Factor 2-1.86; Factor 3-1.38. The overall scores increased from 1997 to 2004. Future restoration efforts may benefit by using this evaluation system during the process of plan development, to ensure that biological and restoration objectives are of the highest scientific quality possible prior to the implementation of restoration plans, and to allow for improved monitoring and adaptive management.

  12. Culture and conservation

    SciTech Connect

    McNeely, J.A.; Pitt, D.

    1985-01-01

    The threat posed by human activity in the natural environment is one of the major global problems of the present time. Much has been done throughout the world to promote conservation, but one theme that has generally been neglected is the contribution that local culture can make to conservation. Many people pass on from one generation to the next traditional lore and customs which amount to effective conservation policies. This book identifies such traditional conservation measures, examines their extent, and judges their effectiveness.

  13. Postoperative Cyst Associated with Bone Morphogenetic Protein Use in Posterior and Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion Managed Conservatively: Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Mejía, Diana M; Drazin, Doniel; Anand, Neel

    2016-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein use in spinal surgery for off-label indications continues to remain popular. One area where its use has known associated radicular complications is posterior or transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion. These complications include radiculitis, cyst development, and heterotopic ossification, amongst others. Typically, cyst development has been treated surgically. We present two cases of bone morphogenetic protein-related cysts treated medically and thus, present medical treatment as an alternative treatment option. PMID:27014519

  14. The influence of indoor microclimate on thermal comfort and conservation of artworks: the case study of the cathedral of Matera (South Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardinale, Tiziana; Rospi, Gianluca; Cardinale, Nicola; Paterino, Lucia; Persia, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    of the Cathedral of Matera is suitable both from the point of view of indoor comfort (both during the summer and the winter season) and of microclimatic parameters that are in the intervals prescribed by the regulations on the conservation of artworks of art (Ministerial Decree of 10/05/2001 dictated by the Ministry for heritage and cultural activities). Moreover the energy performance of the building-plant system was evaluated according to the Italian Norm UNI TS 11300. In particular the summer comfort is guaranteed by the huge thermal inertia of the structure that reduces the internal temperature fluctuation. Instead, the winter comfort is guaranteed by the floor heating system, which through the use of evolving fluid at low temperatures, also ensures higher efficiency and significant energy savings, as well as the protection and conservation of the artistic heritage present in the Cathedral.

  15. Moment of inertia of even-even proton-rich nuclei using a particle-number conserving approach in the isovector neutron-proton pairing case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammache, Faiza; Allal, N. H.; Fellah, M.; Oudih, M. R.

    2016-05-01

    An expression of the particle-number projected nuclear moment of inertia (MOI) has been established in the neutron-proton (np) isovector pairing case within the cranking model. It generalizes the one obtained in the like-particles pairing case. The formalism has been, as a first step, applied to the picket-fence model. As a second step, it has been applied to deformed even-even nuclei such as (N ‑ Z) = 0, 2, 4, and of which the experimentally deduced values of the pairing gap parameters Δtt‧, t,t‧ = n,p, are known. The single-particle energies and eigenstates used are those of a deformed Woods-Saxon mean-field. It was shown, in both models, that the np pairing effect and the projection one are non-negligible. In realistic cases, it also appears that the np pairing effect strongly depends on (N ‑ Z), whereas the projection effect is practically independent from the same quantity.

  16. Conservation in Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Edward

    1991-01-01

    Discussed is the physical concept of conservation as it is framed within the laws of conservation of mass, of momentum, and of energy. The derivation of Ohm's Law as a generalization of the relationship between the observed measurements of voltage and current serves as the exemplar of how conservation theories are formed. (JJK)

  17. Conservation Action Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Rifle Association, Washington, DC.

    Conservation problems are identified, with some suggestions for action. General areas covered are: Wildlife Conservation, Soil Conservation, Clean Water, Air Pollution Action, and Outdoor Recreation Action. Appendices list private organizations or agencies concerned with natural resource use and/or management, congressional committees considering…

  18. The impact of industrial oil development on a protected area landscape: A case study on human population growth and landscape level change in Murchison Falls Conservation Area, Uganda.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowhaniuk, Nicholas; Hartter, Joel; Congalton, Russell G.; Palace, Michael W.; Ryan, Sadie J.

    2016-04-01

    Protected areas in Sub-Saharan Africa are sanctuaries for rich biodiversity and are important economic engines for African nations, but they are becoming increasingly threatened by discoveries of mineral deposits within and nearby their boundaries. In 2006, viable oil reserves were discovered in Murchison Falls Conservation Area (MFCA) in northern Uganda. Exploratory and appraisal activities concluded in 2014, and production is expected to begin in 2016. The oil development is associated with a substantial increase in human population outside MFCA, with people seeking jobs, land, and economic opportunity. Concomitant with this change is increased truck traffic, a sprawling and denser road network, and infrastructure within the park, which could have large impacts on both the flora and fauna. We examined the broader protected area landscape and the potential feedbacks from resource development on the ecosystem and local livelihoods. Our analysis combines a land cover analysis using Object Based Image Analysis of Landsat data (2002 and 2014), migration patterns and population change (1959-2014), and qualitative interview data. Our results suggest that most of the larger-scale impacts on the landscape and people are occurring in the western and northern sections, both inside and outside of the park. Additionally, oil development is not the only factor in the region influencing population growth and landscape change. Post conflict regrowth in the north, sugarcane production in the south, and migration to this region from conflict-ridden neighboring countries are also playing a vital role in human migration shaping the MFCA Landscape. Understanding the social and environmental changes and impacts in the MFCA and its surrounding areas will add to limited literature on the impacts of resource extraction on local, subsistence communities and landscape level change, which will be important as access and pressure for oil and minerals within protected areas continues to rise.

  19. Identifying appropriate spatial scales for marine conservation and management using a larval dispersal model: The case of Concholepas concholepas (loco) in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garavelli, Lysel; Kaplan, David Michael; Colas, François; Stotz, Wolfgang; Yannicelli, Beatriz; Lett, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Along the coast of Chile, fisheries targeting the marine gastropod Concholepas concholepas, commonly named “loco”, were highly valuable until the end of the 80s when catches declined significantly. Since the late 90s, a management plan based on territorial-user-rights areas has been implemented, with limited effect on stock recovery. More effective loco conservation and management is impeded by lack of information regarding connectivity via larval dispersal between these individually-managed areas. To develop a regional view of loco connectivity, we integrate loco life history information into a biophysical, individual-based larval dispersal model. This model is used to evaluate scales of loco connectivity and seasonality in connectivity patterns, as well as to partition the coast into largely disconnected subpopulations using a recently developed connectivity-matrix clustering algorithm. We find mean dispersal distances ranging from 170 to 220 km depending on release depth of larvae and planktonic larval duration. Settlement success levels depend quantitatively on the physical and biological processes included in the model, but connectivity patterns remain qualitatively similar. Model estimates of settlement success peak for larval release dates in late austral autumn, consistent with field results and with favorable conditions for larval coastal retention due to weak upwelling during austral autumn. Despite the relatively homogeneous Chilean coastline, distinct subpopulations with minimal connectivity between them are readily identifiable. Barriers to connectivity that are robust to changes in model configuration exist at 23°S and 29°S latitudes. These zones are all associated with important headlands and embayments of the Chilean coast.

  20. Exactly conservative integrators

    SciTech Connect

    Shadwick, B.A.; Bowman, J.C.; Morrison, P.J.

    1995-07-19

    Traditional numerical discretizations of conservative systems generically yield an artificial secular drift of any nonlinear invariants. In this work we present an explicit nontraditional algorithm that exactly conserves invariants. We illustrate the general method by applying it to the Three-Wave truncation of the Euler equations, the Volterra-Lotka predator-prey model, and the Kepler problem. We discuss our method in the context of symplectic (phase space conserving) integration methods as well as nonsymplectic conservative methods. We comment on the application of our method to general conservative systems.

  1. Conservation: Toward firmer ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The following aspects of energy conservation were reviewed in order to place the problems in proper perspective: history and goals, conservation accounting-criteria, and a method to overcome obstacles. The effect of changing prices and available supplies of energy sources and their causes on consumption levels during the last few decades were described. Some examples of attainable conservation goals were listed and justified. A number of specific criteria applicable to conservation accounting were given. Finally, a discussion was presented to relate together the following aspects of energy conservation: widespread impact, involvement of government, industry, politics, moral and ethical aspects, urgency and time element.

  2. Effectiveness of soil and water conservation structures in reducing runoff and soil loss for different land use and slope gradients: Case study from northern Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taye, Gebeyehu; Poesen, Jean; Vanwesemael, Bas; Vanmaercke, Matthias; Teka, Daniel; Deckers, Jozef; Goosse, Tom; Maetens, Willem; Nyssen, Jan; Hallet, Vincent; Haregeweyn, Nigussie

    2014-05-01

    Land degradation and recurrent drought are the major threats to rain-fed agriculture in the semi-arid Ethiopian highlands. To mitigate drought and to ensure food security in the Tigray region, water harvesting using reservoirs for irrigation development has become a priority since 1990. However, the success of water harvesting in reservoirs is limited due to the reduced inflow. As a result, less area is irrigated than originally planned. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of soil and water conservation (SWC) structures in reducing runoff and soil loss under different land use types and slope gradients. Six runoff measuring sites, corresponding to three slope gradients (5%, 12% and 16%) were established for cropland and rangeland in the Mayleba catchment (Tigray). In total, 21 large runoff plots (with lengths of 60 to 100 m and widths of 10 m) were monitored daily for runoff production and soil loss during the main rainy season (July-September) in 2010. For each site in cropland, three plots were installed and treated with stone bunds and stone bunds with trenches in addition to a control plot. At each site in rangeland four runoff plots were installed: a plot treated with stone bunds, a plot treated with trenches, a plot treated with stone bunds and trenches as well as a control plot. Overall uncertainties on the runoff and soil loss measurements were estimated by means of Monte Carlo simulation techniques. The results show that the seasonal runoff coefficient (RCs) was much higher for rangeland (0.38 < RCs < 0.50) compared to RCs-values for cropland (0.11 < RCS < 0.15). Seasonal soil loss (SLs) values were five to six times larger on rangeland (28.6 < SLs < 50.0 ton ha-1) compared to that for cropland (4.6 < SLs < 11.4 ton ha-1). All tested SWC structures are effective in reducing runoff and soil loss compared to control plots. However, reduction in RCs were relatively much smaller than reductions in SLs. Trenches and stone bunds with

  3. A conservation law for virus infection kinetics in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kakizoe, Yusuke; Morita, Satoru; Nakaoka, Shinji; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Sato, Kei; Miura, Tomoyuki; Beauchemin, Catherine A A; Iwami, Shingo

    2015-07-01

    Conservation laws are among the most important properties of a physical system, but are not commonplace in biology. We derived a conservation law from the basic model for viral infections which consists in a small set of ordinary differential equations. We challenged the conservation law experimentally for the case of a virus infection in a cell culture. We found that the derived, conserved quantity remained almost constant throughout the infection period, implying that the derived conservation law holds in this biological system. We also suggest a potential use for the conservation law in evaluating the accuracy of experimental measurements. PMID:25882746

  4. 7 CFR 12.23 - Conservation plans and conservation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conservation plans and conservation systems. 12.23 Section 12.23 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION Highly Erodible Land Conservation § 12.23 Conservation plans and conservation systems. (a) Use of field office technical guide. A...

  5. Conservative management of posterior interosseous neuropathy in an elite baseball pitcher's return to play: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Robb, Andrew; Sajko, Sandy

    2009-12-01

    This report documents retrospectively a case of Posterior Interosseous Neuropathy (PIN) occurring in an elite baseball pitcher experiencing a deep ache in the radial aspect of the forearm and altered sensation in the dorsum of the hand on the throwing arm during his pitching motion. The initial clinical goal was to control for inflammation to the nerve and muscle with active rest, microcurrent therapy, low-level laser therapy, and cessation of throwing. Minimizing mechanosensitivity at the common extensor region of the right elbow and PIN, was achieved by employing the use of myofascial release and augmented soft tissue mobilization techniques. Neurodynamic mobilization technique was also administered to improve neural function. Implementation of a sport specific protocol for the purposes of maintaining throwing mechanics and overall conditioning was utilized. Successful resolution of symptomatology and return to pre-injury status was achieved in 5 weeks. A review of literature and an evidence-based discussion for the differential diagnoses, clinical examination, diagnosis, management and rehabilitation of PIN is presented. PMID:20037695

  6. Conservative management of posterior interosseous neuropathy in an elite baseball pitcher’s return to play: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Robb, Andrew; Sajko, Sandy

    2009-01-01

    This report documents retrospectively a case of Posterior Interosseous Neuropathy (PIN) occurring in an elite baseball pitcher experiencing a deep ache in the radial aspect of the forearm and altered sensation in the dorsum of the hand on the throwing arm during his pitching motion. The initial clinical goal was to control for inflammation to the nerve and muscle with active rest, microcurrent therapy, low-level laser therapy, and cessation of throwing. Minimizing mechanosensitivity at the common extensor region of the right elbow and PIN, was achieved by employing the use of myofascial release and augmented soft tissue mobilization techniques. Neurodynamic mobilization technique was also administered to improve neural function. Implementation of a sport specific protocol for the purposes of maintaining throwing mechanics and overall conditioning was utilized. Successful resolution of symptomatology and return to pre-injury status was achieved in 5 weeks. A review of literature and an evidence-based discussion for the differential diagnoses, clinical examination, diagnosis, management and rehabilitation of PIN is presented. PMID:20037695

  7. Conservation: Toward firmer ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The following aspects of energy conservation were discussed: conservation history and goals, conservation modes, conservation accounting-criteria, and a method to overcome obstacles. The conservation modes tested fall into one of the following categories: reduced energy consumption, increased efficiency of energy utilization, or substitution of one or more forms of energy for another which is in shorter supply or in some sense thought to be of more value. The conservation accounting criteria include net energy reduction, economic, and technical criteria. A method to overcome obstacles includes (approaches such as: direct personal impact (life style, income, security, aspiration), an element of crisis, large scale involvement of environmental, safety, and health issues, connections to big government, big business, big politics, involvement of known and speculative science and technology, appeal to moral and ethical standards, the transient nature of opportunities to correct the system.

  8. Surgical decision making in conservative mastectomies

    PubMed Central

    Rocco, Nicola; Nava, Maurizio Bruno

    2016-01-01

    We present some clinical advice to drive the decision process in performing conservative mastectomies. Several factors are taken into consideration to indicate these techniques. First of all, we need to identify patients who need a mastectomy due to the extension of the disease. In this case we suggest assessing patients anthropometric characteristics (breast volume—ptosis), and personal preferences regarding the extension of surgical treatment. Small, medium size, without ptosis or with moderate ptosis can be better served by standard nipple-sparing mastectomy. Large and ptotic breast can be removed and reconstructed performing a skin-reducing mastectomy. Mastectomies cannot replace breast conservation and should be discouraged whenever breast-conserving surgery can be performed with good results. However, in some selected cases, and especially in patients with small breast, conservative mastectomies with contralateral reshape can yield favourable results. PMID:26855911

  9. Numerical simulation of conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Sin-Chung; To, Wai-Ming

    1992-01-01

    A new numerical framework for solving conservation laws is being developed. This new approach differs substantially from the well established methods, i.e., finite difference, finite volume, finite element and spectral methods, in both concept and methodology. The key features of the current scheme include: (1) direct discretization of the integral forms of conservation laws, (2) treating space and time on the same footing, (3) flux conservation in space and time, and (4) unified treatment of the convection and diffusion fluxes. The model equation considered in the initial study is the standard one dimensional unsteady constant-coefficient convection-diffusion equation. In a stability study, it is shown that the principal and spurious amplification factors of the current scheme, respectively, are structurally similar to those of the leapfrog/DuFort-Frankel scheme. As a result, the current scheme has no numerical diffusion in the special case of pure convection and is unconditionally stable in the special case of pure diffusion. Assuming smooth initial data, it will be shown theoretically and numerically that, by using an easily determined optimal time step, the accuracy of the current scheme may reach a level which is several orders of magnitude higher than that of the MacCormack scheme, with virtually identical operation count.

  10. A long-term experimental case study of the ecological effectiveness and cost effectiveness of invasive plant management in achieving conservation goals: bitou bush control in booderee national park in eastern australia.

    PubMed

    Lindenmayer, David B; Wood, Jeff; MacGregor, Christopher; Buckley, Yvonne M; Dexter, Nicholas; Fortescue, Martin; Hobbs, Richard J; Catford, Jane A

    2015-01-01

    Invasive plant management is often justified in terms of conservation goals, yet progress is rarely assessed against these broader goals, instead focussing on short-term reductions of the invader as a measure of success. Key questions commonly remain unanswered including whether invader removal reverses invader impacts and whether management itself has negative ecosystem impacts. We addressed these knowledge gaps using a seven year experimental investigation of Bitou Bush, Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. rotundata. Our case study took advantage of the realities of applied management interventions for Bitou Bush to assess whether it is a driver or passenger of environmental change, and quantified conservation benefits relative to management costs of different treatment regimes. Among treatments examined, spraying with herbicide followed by burning and subsequent re-spraying (spray-fire-spray) proved the most effective for reducing the number of individuals and cover of Bitou Bush. Other treatment regimes (e.g. fire followed by spraying, or two fires in succession) were less effective or even exacerbated Bitou Bush invasion. The spray-fire-spray regime did not increase susceptibility of treated areas to re-invasion by Bitou Bush or other exotic species. This regime significantly reduced plant species richness and cover, but these effects were short-lived. The spray-fire-spray regime was the most cost-effective approach to controlling a highly invasive species and facilitating restoration of native plant species richness to levels characteristic of uninvaded sites. We provide a decision tree to guide management, where recommended actions depend on the outcome of post-treatment monitoring and performance against objectives. Critical to success is avoiding partial treatments and treatment sequences that may exacerbate invasive species impacts. We also show the value of taking advantage of unplanned events, such as wildfires, to achieve management objectives at

  11. A Long-Term Experimental Case Study of the Ecological Effectiveness and Cost Effectiveness of Invasive Plant Management in Achieving Conservation Goals: Bitou Bush Control in Booderee National Park in Eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Lindenmayer, David B.; Wood, Jeff; MacGregor, Christopher; Buckley, Yvonne M.; Dexter, Nicholas; Fortescue, Martin; Hobbs, Richard J.; Catford, Jane A.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive plant management is often justified in terms of conservation goals, yet progress is rarely assessed against these broader goals, instead focussing on short-term reductions of the invader as a measure of success. Key questions commonly remain unanswered including whether invader removal reverses invader impacts and whether management itself has negative ecosystem impacts. We addressed these knowledge gaps using a seven year experimental investigation of Bitou Bush, Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. rotundata. Our case study took advantage of the realities of applied management interventions for Bitou Bush to assess whether it is a driver or passenger of environmental change, and quantified conservation benefits relative to management costs of different treatment regimes. Among treatments examined, spraying with herbicide followed by burning and subsequent re-spraying (spray-fire-spray) proved the most effective for reducing the number of individuals and cover of Bitou Bush. Other treatment regimes (e.g. fire followed by spraying, or two fires in succession) were less effective or even exacerbated Bitou Bush invasion. The spray-fire-spray regime did not increase susceptibility of treated areas to re-invasion by Bitou Bush or other exotic species. This regime significantly reduced plant species richness and cover, but these effects were short-lived. The spray-fire-spray regime was the most cost-effective approach to controlling a highly invasive species and facilitating restoration of native plant species richness to levels characteristic of uninvaded sites. We provide a decision tree to guide management, where recommended actions depend on the outcome of post-treatment monitoring and performance against objectives. Critical to success is avoiding partial treatments and treatment sequences that may exacerbate invasive species impacts. We also show the value of taking advantage of unplanned events, such as wildfires, to achieve management objectives at

  12. Biodiversity Conservation and Conservation Biotechnology Tools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This special issue is dedicated to the in vitro tools and methods used to conserve the genetic diversity of rare and threatened species from around the world. Species that are on the brink of extinction, due to the rapid loss of genetic diversity and habitat, come mainly from resource poor areas the...

  13. Shallow-water conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostapenko, V. V.

    2015-10-01

    The derivation of basic conservation laws in the shallow-water theory from the multidimensional integral laws of conservation of mass and total momentum describing the plane-parallel flow of an ideal incompressible fluid above a horizontal bottom is proposed. The restrictions on flow parameters arising in this case have the integral form and are much weaker in comparison with the requirement of flow potentiality and the condition of long-wavelength approximation. The last fact substantiates the use of the shallow-water model for the mathematical modeling of a much wider class of wave flows, the parameters of which are not related directly to the restrictions of the long-wavelength approximation.

  14. Conservative treatment of liver trauma.

    PubMed

    Andersson, R; Bengmark, S

    1990-01-01

    A marked change toward a more conservative approach in the treatment of abdominal trauma has been noted, especially during the last decade. This change in regimen was first seen in the handling of splenic trauma, initiated by pediatric surgeons. Later, the concept of conservative management was also introduced among adults and it is now widely accepted. Here, an almost mandatory splenectomy has been replaced by attempts at various forms of splenic salvage. The development followed an initial report by King and Shumacker in 1952 on an increased susceptibility to overwhelming sepsis in splenectomized children, findings which later also were demonstrated among adults. It has also been shown that the bleeding from intraparenchymal lesions with an intact splenic capsule or minor capsular tears frequently ceases spontaneously, hereby making nonoperative management possible in selective cases. PMID:2200210

  15. Conservation of North American rallids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddleman, William R.; Knopf, Fritz L.; Manley, Brooke; Reid, Frederic A.; Zembal, Richard

    1988-01-01

    The Rallidae are a diverse group in their habitat selection, yet most North American species occur in or near wetlands As a consequence, most species are subject to habitat enhancement or perturbation from waterfowl management programs. The overall effects of these management programs relative to rallid conservation have been assessed for few species, and there is a need for synthesis of such information. In the cases of some species or raves, population status is not known, and suggested directions for conservation and management are needed. Rare, endangered, or status undetermined species or races often occur in areas where related species are classified as game birds, and the effects of such hunting on rarer forms are not known. Their generally secretive nature, the endangered status of several races and populations, and continued loss of habitat and threats to present habitat, warrant an examination of the conservation status of the North American taxa in this group. In 1977, a committee of the International Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies summarized available information on management and biology of American Coots (Fulica americana), rails, and gallinules in North America (Holliman 1977). That summary was intended to provide relatively complete information on conservation of these species, and also to provide guidance for research within the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's (FWS) Accelerated Research Program for Webless Migratory Shore and Upland Game Birds (ARP). Subsequently, a number of rallid studies were funded under this program. The program was eliminated in 1982, following substantial research activities on North American rallids. Since the demise of the ARP, additional research on rallids in North America has focused on an area the International Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies report failed to cover in detail--that of endangered rallids in the U.S. and their possessions. Most of these studies have been of threatened and endangered

  16. Conservation Science Fair Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    Included are ideas, suggestions, and examples for selecting and designing conservation science projects. Over 70 possible conservation subject areas are presented with suggested projects. References are cited with each of these subject areas, and a separate list of annotated references is included. The references pertain to general subject…

  17. Creative Soil Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Martha

    2010-01-01

    Take plant lessons outdoors with this engaging and inquiry-based activity in which third-grade students learn how to apply soil conservation methods to growing plants. They also collect data and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of their method of soil conservation. An added benefit to this activity is that the third-grade students played…

  18. On exactly conservative integrators

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, J.C.; Shadwick, B.A.; Morrison, P.J.

    1997-06-01

    Traditional explicit numerical discretizations of conservative systems generically predict artificial secular drifts of nonlinear invariants. These algorithms are based on polynomial functions of the time step. The authors discuss a general approach for developing explicit algorithms that conserve such invariants exactly. They illustrate the method by applying it to the truncated two-dimensional Euler equations.

  19. Introducing Conservation of Momentum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunt, Marjorie; Brunt, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    The teaching of the principle of conservation of linear momentum is considered (ages 15 + ). From the principle, the momenta of two masses in an isolated system are considered. Sketch graphs of the momenta make Newton's laws appear obvious. Examples using different collision conditions are considered. Conservation of momentum is considered…

  20. Conservation in perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, A.; Goldsmith, F.B.; Goldsmith, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book reflects the changes that have taken place in the nature conservation movement over the last decade. It includes essays on issues of nature conservation itself, rather than on environmental issues. Habitats, elements of the ecosystem, and some of the political and organizational activity currently of interest are covered.

  1. Resource Conservation Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    This glossary is a composite of terms selected from 13 technologies, and is the expanded revision of the original 1952 edition of "The Soil and Water Conservation Glossary." The terms were selected from these areas: agronomy, biology, conservation, ecology, economics, engineering, forestry, geology, hydrology, range, recreation, soils, and…

  2. The Syntax of Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargis, Charles H.

    This paper outlines the syntactic structures which represent a stage in the cognitive development of children, and focusses on an aspect of cognitive development known as conservation. The cognitive components of conservation are presented as the primordial base for the set of syntactic structures which map or mirror them. Piaget proposed four…

  3. Conservation and Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backus, Mary Giafagleone

    In this study it was hypothesized that those students classified as conservers would score significantly higher on cloze passages related to the concepts of number, quantity, and volume than would those students classified as non-conservers. The subjects consisted of a group of 42 sixth grade urban public school students judged to be of low socio…

  4. Conservation in transportation

    SciTech Connect

    1980-05-30

    A nationwide examination was made of grassroots energy conservation programs related to transportation. Information compiled from civic groups, trade associations, and corporations is included on driver awareness/mass transit; travel; and ride sharing. It is concluded that a willingness by the public to cooperate in transportation energy conservation exists and should be exploited. (LCL)

  5. Water Conservation Resource List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NJEA Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Alarmed by the growing water shortage, the New Jersey State Office of Dissemination has prepared this annotated list of free or inexpensive instructional materials for teaching about water conservation, K-l2. A tipsheet for home water conservation is appended. (Editor/SJL)

  6. Conservation--Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Conservation Foundation, Parkville, Victoria.

    Developed by the Australian Conservation Foundation to meet the need for a general conservation bibliography, this booklet offers resources for a wide spectrum of possible users. Material selected is that which is relevant and helpful for conservationists in their various fields of activity and what is likely to be in print and obtainable without…

  7. Home Energy Conservation Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLuca, V. William; And Others

    This guide was prepared to support a program of training for community specialists in contemporary and practical techniques of home energy conservation. It is designed to assist professionals in efficient operation of energy conservation programs and to provide ideas for expanding education operations. Eight major sections are presented: (1)…

  8. Conservation: Threatened by Luxury.

    PubMed

    Webb, Thomas J

    2016-06-20

    When animals are traded in lucrative international luxury markets, individuals really do matter to conservation. Identifying the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that make some species especially vulnerable to this kind of threat helps set guidelines for more effective conservation. PMID:27326710

  9. Conservative mastectomies: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Nava, Maurizio Bruno; Catanuto, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Conservative mastectomies provide removal of the entire breast parenchyma, saving the outer covering of the mammary gland with the possibility of performing an immediate reconstruction preserving women body image. We rationalised and systematically organized our reconstructive algorythms giving a new different light to mastectomies, the so-called “conservative mastectomies”, an oxymoron indicating skin-sparing mastectomies (SSM), nipple-areola complex-sparing mastectomies (NSM) and skin-reducing mastectomies (SRM). Eventhough randomized controlled trials comparing conservative mastectomies with traditional mastectomy and breast conserving surgery would be auspicable in order to achieve higher levels of evidence, we could confidently conclude that conservative mastectomies offer the psychological advantages of good cosmesis and maintenance of woman body image without compromising the oncological safety of mastectomy. PMID:26645000

  10. Wilderness and biodiversity conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittermeier, R. A.; Mittermeier, C. G.; Brooks, T. M.; Pilgrim, J. D.; Konstant, W. R.; da Fonseca, G. A. B.; Kormos, C.

    2003-09-01

    Human pressure threatens many species and ecosystems, so conservation efforts necessarily prioritize saving them. However, conservation should clearly be proactive wherever possible. In this article, we assess the biodiversity conservation value, and specifically the irreplaceability in terms of species endemism, of those of the planet's ecosystems that remain intact. We find that 24 wilderness areas, all > 1 million hectares, are > 70% intact and have human densities of less than or equal to five people per km2. This wilderness covers 44% of all land but is inhabited by only 3% of people. Given this sparse population, wilderness conservation is cost-effective, especially if ecosystem service value is incorporated. Soberingly, however, most wilderness is not speciose: only 18% of plants and 10% of terrestrial vertebrates are endemic to individual wildernesses, the majority restricted to Amazonia, Congo, New Guinea, the Miombo-Mopane woodlands, and the North American deserts. Global conservation strategy must target these five wildernesses while continuing to prioritize threatened biodiversity hotspots.

  11. Urban Water Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moomaw, Ronald L.

    According to its abstract, this book attempts ‘an assessment of various water conservation measures aimed at reducing residential water usage.’ Its intent is to develop a research program whose ‘ultimate goal is to engender a conservation ethic among water users and managers and develop a predictable array of conservation methodologies. …’ Professor Flack indeed has presented an excellent assessment of conservation methodologies, but I believe that the proposed research program is too limited.Following a brief introductory chapter, chapter II presents an extensive review of the water conservation literature published in the 1970's and earlier. It and chapter III, which describes Flack's systematic comparison of the technical, economic, and political aspects of each conservation methodology, are the heart of the book. Chapter IV is a brief discussion and analysis of conservation programs (with examples) that a water utility might adopt. Chapter V is essentially a pilot study of methods of assessing political and social feasibility. Finally, a set of recommendations is presented in chapter VI. All in all, this book is a nice blend of literature review and original research that deals with an important issue.

  12. Conservation by design.

    PubMed

    Root-Bernstein, Meredith; Ladle, Richard J

    2010-10-01

    Conservation researchers are increasingly aware of the need to conduct interdisciplinary research and to engage nonscientists in practical applications of conservation biology. But so far, industrial designers have been left out of such collaboration and outreach efforts. Conservation of wildlife often depends on products such as nest boxes, feeders, barriers, and corridors, all of which have a designed component that is frequently overlooked. Furthermore, many products are adopted without testing on short or long time scales. We argue that the design of products for conservation, and hence their functionality, effectiveness, and value, can be improved through collaboration with industrial designers. We see four key benefits that can arise from interactions with industrial designers: improvement of product quality and value, innovation and improvement in functionality of products, harmonization of conservation products with local values, and development of a psychological biomimesis approach to design. The role of industrial designers in conservation projects would be to improve factors such as product durability, affordability, functionality, and aesthetic appeal to local people. Designers can also help to create multiple product options whose success can be tested in the field. We propose that collaborations with industrial designers can contribute to the development of improvements to existing products and innovations in the practice of animal conservation. PMID:20408866

  13. Conservation caring: measuring the influence of zoo visitors' connection to wildlife on pro-conservation behaviors.

    PubMed

    Skibins, Jeffrey C; Powell, Robert B

    2013-01-01

    Zoos in the 21st century are striving to make effective contributions to conservation. Although zoos are extremely popular and host over 600 million visitors worldwide, one challenge zoos face is how to effectively engage visitors and raise awareness and action for conservation. To this end, zoos commonly rely on charismatic megafauna, which have been shown to elicit a connection with zoo visitors. However, little is known about how to measure a connection to a species or how this connection may influence conservation behaviors. This study had two sequential objectives. The first was to develop a scale to measure visitors' connection to a species (Conservation Caring). The second was to investigate the relationship of Conservation Caring to pro-conservation behaviors, following a zoo experience. Pre- (n = 411) and post-visit (n = 452) responses were collected from three sites in order to assess the reliability and validity of a scale to measure Conservation Caring. Structural equation modeling was used to explore the relationship between Conservation Caring and pro-conservation behaviors. Conservation Caring was deemed a valid and reliable scale and was a strong predictor of species oriented behaviors (β = 0.62), for example, "adopting" an animal, but a weak predictor for biodiversity oriented behaviors (β = 0.07), for example, supporting sustainability policies. Results support the role zoos can play in fostering a connection to wildlife and stimulating pro-conservation behaviors. Additionally, visitors connected to a wide array of animals. On the basis of these results, zoos may recruit a wider assemblage of species as potential flagships. PMID:23877958

  14. Energy conservation and existing rental housing

    SciTech Connect

    Bleviss, D.L.; Gravitz, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    The authors take an in-depth look at the federal, state, and local policies affecting energy efficiency in US rental dwellings. They examine the incentives and barriers to conservation investments. Case studies show how federal, utility, non-profit energy service companies, and rental codes have approached the problems inherent in the housing market's failure to make energy conservation investment. The report recommends an evolutionary approach involving three phases that begins with the identification of needs and culminates in mandated retrofits. A major case study explores program options for North Carolina. 32 references, 3 figures, 18 tables.

  15. Conservation and economic development

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, M.J.

    1992-05-01

    This oral presentation is about the Espanola Power Savers Project which involves both the utility and for the community. I`m going to spend much of my time today discussing why this project makes sense for the community, but I would like to start with a brief word about why community-based conservation makes sense for utilities. A number of reasons are listed to show why conservation is today`s energy resource of choice. But if, for a moment, we take that as a given and ask why community-based conservation programs are the right way to develop that resource, the answer is simple: They work!

  16. Conservation and economic development

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, M.J.

    1992-05-01

    This oral presentation is about the Espanola Power Savers Project which involves both the utility and for the community. I'm going to spend much of my time today discussing why this project makes sense for the community, but I would like to start with a brief word about why community-based conservation makes sense for utilities. A number of reasons are listed to show why conservation is today's energy resource of choice. But if, for a moment, we take that as a given and ask why community-based conservation programs are the right way to develop that resource, the answer is simple: They work

  17. Commitment and energy conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Pallak, M.S.; Cook, D.A.; Sullivan, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    The authors discuss the process of becoming committed to energy conservation research, then describe practical issues of field research and several data sets on household energy conservation. Their results show that taking a stand affected behavior in reducing the levels of natural gas and electricity usage, with the effect continuing even after the study ended. Although based on the assumption that homeowners were initially favorable toward energy conservation, the studies suggest that energy-related behavior is malleable and amenable to approaches familiar to psychologists. The study indicates that feedback on energy use during peak seasons could help to avoid power shortages. 16 references, 6 tables.

  18. Climate change, wine, and conservation

    PubMed Central

    Hannah, Lee; Roehrdanz, Patrick R.; Ikegami, Makihiko; Shepard, Anderson V.; Shaw, M. Rebecca; Tabor, Gary; Zhi, Lu; Marquet, Pablo A.; Hijmans, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is expected to impact ecosystems directly, such as through shifting climatic controls on species ranges, and indirectly, for example through changes in human land use that may result in habitat loss. Shifting patterns of agricultural production in response to climate change have received little attention as a potential impact pathway for ecosystems. Wine grape production provides a good test case for measuring indirect impacts mediated by changes in agriculture, because viticulture is sensitive to climate and is concentrated in Mediterranean climate regions that are global biodiversity hotspots. Here we demonstrate that, on a global scale, the impacts of climate change on viticultural suitability are substantial, leading to possible conservation conflicts in land use and freshwater ecosystems. Area suitable for viticulture decreases 25% to 73% in major wine producing regions by 2050 in the higher RCP 8.5 concentration pathway and 19% to 62% in the lower RCP 4.5. Climate change may cause establishment of vineyards at higher elevations that will increase impacts on upland ecosystems and may lead to conversion of natural vegetation as production shifts to higher latitudes in areas such as western North America. Attempts to maintain wine grape productivity and quality in the face of warming may be associated with increased water use for irrigation and to cool grapes through misting or sprinkling, creating potential for freshwater conservation impacts. Agricultural adaptation and conservation efforts are needed that anticipate these multiple possible indirect effects. PMID:23569231

  19. Climate change, wine, and conservation.

    PubMed

    Hannah, Lee; Roehrdanz, Patrick R; Ikegami, Makihiko; Shepard, Anderson V; Shaw, M Rebecca; Tabor, Gary; Zhi, Lu; Marquet, Pablo A; Hijmans, Robert J

    2013-04-23

    Climate change is expected to impact ecosystems directly, such as through shifting climatic controls on species ranges, and indirectly, for example through changes in human land use that may result in habitat loss. Shifting patterns of agricultural production in response to climate change have received little attention as a potential impact pathway for ecosystems. Wine grape production provides a good test case for measuring indirect impacts mediated by changes in agriculture, because viticulture is sensitive to climate and is concentrated in Mediterranean climate regions that are global biodiversity hotspots. Here we demonstrate that, on a global scale, the impacts of climate change on viticultural suitability are substantial, leading to possible conservation conflicts in land use and freshwater ecosystems. Area suitable for viticulture decreases 25% to 73% in major wine producing regions by 2050 in the higher RCP 8.5 concentration pathway and 19% to 62% in the lower RCP 4.5. Climate change may cause establishment of vineyards at higher elevations that will increase impacts on upland ecosystems and may lead to conversion of natural vegetation as production shifts to higher latitudes in areas such as western North America. Attempts to maintain wine grape productivity and quality in the face of warming may be associated with increased water use for irrigation and to cool grapes through misting or sprinkling, creating potential for freshwater conservation impacts. Agricultural adaptation and conservation efforts are needed that anticipate these multiple possible indirect effects. PMID:23569231

  20. Synthesis and review: delivering on conservation promises: the challenges of managing and measuring conservation outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Vanessa M.; Game, Edward T.; Bode, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Growing threats and limited resources have always been the financial realities of biodiversity conservation. As the conservation sector has matured, however, the accountability of conservation investments has become an increasingly debated topic, with two key topics being driven to the forefront of the discourse: understanding how to manage the risks associated with our conservation investments and demonstrating that our investments are making a difference through evidence-based analyses. A better understanding of the uncertainties associated with conservation decisions is a central component of managing risks to investments that is often neglected. This focus issue presents both theoretical and applied approaches to quantifying and managing risks. Furthermore, transparent and replicable approaches to measuring impacts of conservation investments are noticeably absent in many conservation programs globally. This focus issue contains state of the art conservation program impact evaluations that both demonstrate how these methods can be used to measure outcomes as well as directing future investments. This focus issue thus brings together current thinking and case studies that can provide a valuable resource for directing future conservation investments.

  1. Potential conservation laws

    SciTech Connect

    Kunzinger, Michael; Popovych, Roman O.

    2008-10-15

    We prove that potential conservation laws have characteristics depending only on local variables if and only if they are induced by local conservation laws. Therefore, characteristics of pure potential conservation laws have to essentially depend on potential variables. This statement provides a significant generalization of results of the recent paper by Bluman et al. [J. Math. Phys. 47, 113505 (2006)]. Moreover, we present extensions to gauged potential systems, Abelian and general coverings, and general foliated systems of differential equations. An example illustrating possible applications of these results is given. A special version of the Hadamard lemma for fiber bundles and the notions of weighted jet spaces are proposed as new tools for the investigation of potential conservation laws.

  2. Conservation among Elderly Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughston, George A.; Protinsky, Howard O.

    1979-01-01

    The majority of 63 elderly women were able to pass tests in the conservation of mass (98 percent), volume (100 percent), and surface area (65 percent). These results conflict with previous research about Piagetian abilities of elderly people. (RL)

  3. Reasons to Conserve Nature.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Richard G

    2016-05-01

    Is it sufficient to base arguments for conservation on the intrinsic value of nature, regardless of the services and economic benefits that biodiversity provides for humans? This question underlies much recent debate that has been at times acrimonious and has led to calls for a more inclusive approach to conservation. Yet melding different ideologies within a unified conceptual framework has proven difficult. Here I describe an approach that recognizes the importance of the level of biological organization and spatial extent in determining the strength of alternative arguments for why we should conserve nature. I argue that the framework helps reconcile contrasting viewpoints and brings clarity to when different conservation management approaches (for instance, regulation versus monetary valuation) are most appropriate. PMID:26936225

  4. Conservation of wading birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kushlan, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The conservation and management of wading birds has received considerable attention over the past twenty years, through research, population monitoring, habitat protection, and through activities of specialist groups devoted to all three groups, the herons, ibises and allies, and flamingos. While populations are best known in North America, greatest advances in knowledge may have come in Australasia. The status of most species and many populations is now sufficiently known to allow assessment of risk. Conservation and management techniques allow creation of global and regional action plans for conservation of many species. Global action plans are being developed, but few regional plans have been undertaken. Management of nesting sites is now particularly well appreciated. Although known in broad stroke, much remains to be learned about managing feeding habitat. Problems related to disturbance, conflict with humans, habitat loss, contaminants and other environmental stresses remain for some species and many populations. New challenges lie in creating conservation action that account for genetic stocks.

  5. Energy: Conservation, Energy Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation's Schools and Colleges, 1975

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive energy conservation program at College of the Holy Cross has saved nearly one-third of the fuel oil and one-fifth of the electricity used at the college; briefs on boilers, lights, design. (Author/MLF)

  6. Conservation Kickstart- Catalyzing Conservation Initiatives Worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treinish, G.

    2014-12-01

    Adventurers and Scientists for Conservation (ASC) is a nonprofit organization that collects environmental data to catalyze conservation initiatives worldwide. Adventure athletes have the skills and motivation to reach the most remote corners of the world. ASC utilizes those skills to provide the scientific community with data while providing the outdoor community with purpose beyond the personal high of reaching a summit or rowing across an ocean. We carefully select projects, choosing partnerships that will maximize the impact of ASC volunteers. Each project must have a clear path to a tangible conservation outcome and demonstrate a clear need for our brand of volunteers. We partner with government agencies, universities, and independant reseachers to kickstart data collection efforts around the world. Last year, through a partnership with the Olympic National Forest, 20 volunteers from the Seattle area set up and monitored camera traps in an effort to survey for costal Pacific marten. Our work led to the species' listing as "critically imperiled" with NatureServe. A partnership with the inaugural Great Pacific Race, engaging trans-Pacific rowing teams, searched for microplastics in the Pacific Ocean as part of our ongoing microplastics campaign. In a multi-year partnership with the American Prairie Reserve (APR), ASC volunteer crews live and work on the Reserve collecting wildlife data year round. The data we obtain directly informs the Reserve's wildlife management decisions. On this project, our crews have safely and effectively navigated temperature extremes from -30 degrees to 100+ degrees while traveling in a remote location. We are currently scouting projects in the Okavango Delta of Botswana and the rainforest of Suriname where we will be able to cover large amounts of area in a short periord of time. ASC is at the crossroads of the adventure and coservation science communities. Our approach of answering specific questions by using highly skilled and

  7. [Extensive conservative treatment of obesity].

    PubMed

    Buri, Caroline; Laederach, Kurt

    2013-02-01

    The treatment of obesity is complex due to the multifactorial etiology. A modern therapy concept must therefore be tailored to the individual needs and problems and depends on various factors such as degree of obesity, the presence of physical complications, psychological co-morbidities, any treatment measures the patient underwent up to now as well as on motivational factors. Before deciding on a therapeutic measure a structured multidisciplinary cooperation is essential including psychosomatic medicine/psychiatry/psychotherapy, endocrinology, sports medicine, nutritional medicine and surgery as well. The treatment must be carried out in a multidisciplinary team and includes an adequate therapy of comorbidities and sometimes a psychopharmacological support. The success of a conservative treatment of obesity is remarkable and long-lasting and can be straightforwardly compared to bariatric surgery in financial as well as ethical terms, although for patients and their physicians the latter often carries the allure of quick success. PMID:23385187

  8. [Conservative therapy of erectile dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Trottmann, M; Marcon, J; Pompe, S; Strobach, D; Becker, A J; Stief, C G

    2015-05-01

    The erectile dysfunction (ED) with a prevalence of 19.2% and a steep age-related increase up to 53.4% in men over 70 years is a common sexual disorder. Especially after market launch of the phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors the possibility of an easy-to-use and well-tolerated therapy is available. In case of nonresponse, vasoactive substances can be applied in different forms. In case of an additional hypogonadism, testosterone substitution is indicated. Simultaneously the causes of ED should always be treated, including a change of lifestyle with elimination of exogenous noxa. The use of mechanic tools as single or combination therapy can lead to improved erection. This article provides a critical overview of the latest conservative therapy options, it explains previous unsuccessful therapeutic trials and gives an outlook into potential ED therapy concepts of the future. PMID:25987332

  9. Conservative management of anal leiomyosarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Minsky, B.D.; Cohen, A.M.; Hajdu, S.I. )

    1991-10-01

    Leiomyosarcomas of the large intestine are unusual neoplasms, comprising less than 0.1% of all malignancies of the colon and rectum. Six cases of leiomyosarcoma of the anus have been reported. The optimal treatment for this neoplasm is not known. The standard surgical approach is abdominoperineal resection. The authors report the seventh case of this rare neoplasm and outline its treatment using local excision and iridium 192 brachytherapy in an attempt to preserve the anal sphincter. In selected patients, conservative surgery followed by radiation therapy may be an alternative to radical surgery, with the goals of local control of the disease and anal sphincter preservation. However, more experience is needed before this approach could be recommended routinely.

  10. Physiology in conservation translocations

    PubMed Central

    Tarszisz, Esther; Dickman, Christopher R.; Munn, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Conservation translocations aim to restore species to their indigenous ranges, protect populations from threats and/or reinstate ecosystem functions. They are particularly important for the conservation and management of rare and threatened species. Despite tremendous efforts and advancement in recent years, animal conservation translocations generally have variable success, and the reasons for this are often uncertain. We suggest that when little is known about the physiology and wellbeing of individuals either before or after release, it will be difficult to determine their likelihood of survival, and this could limit advancements in the science of translocations for conservation. In this regard, we argue that physiology offers novel approaches that could substantially improve translocations and associated practices. As a discipline, it is apparent that physiology may be undervalued, perhaps because of the invasive nature of some physiological measurement techniques (e.g. sampling body fluids, surgical implantation). We examined 232 publications that dealt with translocations of terrestrial vertebrates and aquatic mammals and, defining ‘success’ as high or low, determined how many of these studies explicitly incorporated physiological aspects into their protocols and monitoring. From this review, it is apparent that physiological evaluation before and after animal releases could progress and improve translocation/reintroduction successes. We propose a suite of physiological measures, in addition to animal health indices, for assisting conservation translocations over the short term and also for longer term post-release monitoring. Perhaps most importantly, we argue that the incorporation of physiological assessments of animals at all stages of translocation can have important welfare implications by helping to reduce the total number of animals used. Physiological indicators can also help to refine conservation translocation methods. These approaches fall

  11. Using perceptions as evidence to improve conservation and environmental management.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Nathan James

    2016-06-01

    The conservation community is increasingly focusing on the monitoring and evaluation of management, governance, ecological, and social considerations as part of a broader move toward adaptive management and evidence-based conservation. Evidence is any information that can be used to come to a conclusion and support a judgment or, in this case, to make decisions that will improve conservation policies, actions, and outcomes. Perceptions are one type of information that is often dismissed as anecdotal by those arguing for evidence-based conservation. In this paper, I clarify the contributions of research on perceptions of conservation to improving adaptive and evidence-based conservation. Studies of the perceptions of local people can provide important insights into observations, understandings and interpretations of the social impacts, and ecological outcomes of conservation; the legitimacy of conservation governance; and the social acceptability of environmental management. Perceptions of these factors contribute to positive or negative local evaluations of conservation initiatives. It is positive perceptions, not just objective scientific evidence of effectiveness, that ultimately ensure the support of local constituents thus enabling the long-term success of conservation. Research on perceptions can inform courses of action to improve conservation and governance at scales ranging from individual initiatives to national and international policies. Better incorporation of evidence from across the social and natural sciences and integration of a plurality of methods into monitoring and evaluation will provide a more complete picture on which to base conservation decisions and environmental management. PMID:26801337

  12. Interstitial Ectopic Pregnancy: Conservative Surgical Management

    PubMed Central

    Warda, Hussein; Mamik, Mamta M.; Ashraf, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Interstitial pregnancy is a rare and life-threatening condition. Diagnosis and appropriate management are critical in preventing morbidity and death. Case Description: Four cases of interstitial pregnancy are presented. Diagnostic laparoscopy followed by laparotomy and cornuostomy with removal of products of conception was performed in 1 case. Laparoscopic cornuostomy and removal of products of conception were performed in the subsequent 3 cases with some modifications of the technique. Subsequent successful reproductive outcomes are also presented. Discussion: Progressively conservative surgical measures are being used to treat interstitial pregnancy successfully, with no negative impact on subsequent pregnancies. PMID:24960482

  13. Thermodynamics of quantum systems with multiple conserved quantities

    PubMed Central

    Guryanova, Yelena; Popescu, Sandu; Short, Anthony J.; Silva, Ralph; Skrzypczyk, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been much progress in understanding the thermodynamics of quantum systems, even for small individual systems. Most of this work has focused on the standard case where energy is the only conserved quantity. Here we consider a generalization of this work to deal with multiple conserved quantities. Each conserved quantity, which, importantly, need not commute with the rest, can be extracted and stored in its own battery. Unlike the standard case, in which the amount of extractable energy is constrained, here there is no limit on how much of any individual conserved quantity can be extracted. However, other conserved quantities must be supplied, and the second law constrains the combination of extractable quantities and the trade-offs between them. We present explicit protocols that allow us to perform arbitrarily good trade-offs and extract arbitrarily good combinations of conserved quantities from individual quantum systems. PMID:27384384

  14. Thermodynamics of quantum systems with multiple conserved quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guryanova, Yelena; Popescu, Sandu; Short, Anthony J.; Silva, Ralph; Skrzypczyk, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Recently, there has been much progress in understanding the thermodynamics of quantum systems, even for small individual systems. Most of this work has focused on the standard case where energy is the only conserved quantity. Here we consider a generalization of this work to deal with multiple conserved quantities. Each conserved quantity, which, importantly, need not commute with the rest, can be extracted and stored in its own battery. Unlike the standard case, in which the amount of extractable energy is constrained, here there is no limit on how much of any individual conserved quantity can be extracted. However, other conserved quantities must be supplied, and the second law constrains the combination of extractable quantities and the trade-offs between them. We present explicit protocols that allow us to perform arbitrarily good trade-offs and extract arbitrarily good combinations of conserved quantities from individual quantum systems.

  15. Thermodynamics of quantum systems with multiple conserved quantities.

    PubMed

    Guryanova, Yelena; Popescu, Sandu; Short, Anthony J; Silva, Ralph; Skrzypczyk, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been much progress in understanding the thermodynamics of quantum systems, even for small individual systems. Most of this work has focused on the standard case where energy is the only conserved quantity. Here we consider a generalization of this work to deal with multiple conserved quantities. Each conserved quantity, which, importantly, need not commute with the rest, can be extracted and stored in its own battery. Unlike the standard case, in which the amount of extractable energy is constrained, here there is no limit on how much of any individual conserved quantity can be extracted. However, other conserved quantities must be supplied, and the second law constrains the combination of extractable quantities and the trade-offs between them. We present explicit protocols that allow us to perform arbitrarily good trade-offs and extract arbitrarily good combinations of conserved quantities from individual quantum systems. PMID:27384384

  16. Conserved charges in 3D gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Blagojevic, M.; Cvetkovic, B.

    2010-06-15

    The covariant canonical expression for the conserved charges, proposed by Nester, is tested on several solutions in three-dimensional gravity with or without torsion and topologically massive gravity. In each of these cases, the calculated values of energy momentum and angular momentum are found to satisfy the first law of black hole thermodynamics.

  17. Conservative surgical treatment of tongue hemangiopericytoma.

    PubMed

    Borello, Giovanni; Arcuri, Francesco; Nicolotti, Matteo; Brucoli, Matteo; Farri, Filippo; Valletti, Paolo Aluffi

    2012-07-01

    Hemangiopericytoma is a vascular tumor that is believed to arise from the Zimmermann's pericytes, smooth muscles cells localized around the blood vessels. This tumor presents as a slowly enlarging painless mass with a clear predilection for the musculoskeletal system. The aim of this work was to introduce a peculiar case of a tongue hemangiopericytoma managed by conservative surgical treatment. PMID:22801154

  18. Wilderness and biodiversity conservation

    PubMed Central

    Mittermeier, R. A.; Mittermeier, C. G.; Brooks, T. M.; Pilgrim, J. D.; Konstant, W. R.; da Fonseca, G. A. B.; Kormos, C.

    2003-01-01

    Human pressure threatens many species and ecosystems, so conservation efforts necessarily prioritize saving them. However, conservation should clearly be proactive wherever possible. In this article, we assess the biodiversity conservation value, and specifically the irreplaceability in terms of species endemism, of those of the planet's ecosystems that remain intact. We find that 24 wilderness areas, all > 1 million hectares, are > 70% intact and have human densities of less than or equal to five people per km2. This wilderness covers 44% of all land but is inhabited by only 3% of people. Given this sparse population, wilderness conservation is cost-effective, especially if ecosystem service value is incorporated. Soberingly, however, most wilderness is not speciose: only 18% of plants and 10% of terrestrial vertebrates are endemic to individual wildernesses, the majority restricted to Amazonia, Congo, New Guinea, the Miombo-Mopane woodlands, and the North American deserts. Global conservation strategy must target these five wildernesses while continuing to prioritize threatened biodiversity hotspots. PMID:12930898

  19. The Data Conservancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, S.; Duerr, R. E.

    2009-12-01

    NSF's Sustainable Digital Data Preservation and Access Network Partners program is an ambitious attempt to integrate a wide variety of expertise and infrastructure into a network for providing "reliable digital preservation, access, integration, and analysis capabilities for science." One of the first two DataNet award recipients, the Data Conservancy, is itself a network of widely diverse partners led by the libraries at the Johns Hopkins University. The Data Conservancy is built on existing exemplar scientific projects, communities, and virtual organizations that have deep engagement with their user communities, and extensive experience with large-scale distributed system development. Data Conservancy members embrace a shared vision that data curation is not an end, but rather a means to collect, organize, validate, and preserve data needed to address the grand research challenges that face society. Data Conservancy members holdings encompass the entire range of earth, life, and space science data. New to the Data Conservancy is the concept that University libraries will be part of the distributed network of data centers and that data science will become a path in the library and information science curricula. As noted by Winston Tabb (JHU Dean of Libraries) "Data Centers are the new library stacks."

  20. Curved manifolds with conserved Runge-Lenz vectors

    SciTech Connect

    Ngome, J.-P.

    2009-12-15

    van Holten's algorithm is used to construct Runge-Lenz-type conserved quantities, induced by Killing tensors, on curved manifolds. For the generalized Taub-Newman-Unti-Tamburino metric, the most general external potential such that the combined system admits a conserved Runge-Lenz-type vector is found. In the multicenter case, the subclass of two-center metric exhibits a conserved Runge-Lenz-type scalar.

  1. Energy Conservation Simplified

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2008-02-01

    The standard formulation of energy conservation involves the subsidiary ideas of kinetic energy (KE), work (W), thermal energy, internal energy, and a half-dozen different kinds of potential energy (PE): elastic, chemical, nuclear, gravitational, and so forth. These quantities came to be recognized during the centuries over which the principle developed. The final conservation law, although rich in specificity, is fairly involved. More significantly, it obscures a fundamental underlying simplicity, which could only be appreciated post-relativity (1905). Energy is the scalar measure of physical change. Using the special theory it will be shown that there are only two all-encompassing classifications of energy—energy of rest and energy of motion—and that we can apply the idea of conservation of energy to all physical processes using only these two energy types as quantified by mass and KE.

  2. Conservation reaches new heights.

    PubMed

    Pepall, J; Khanal, P

    1992-10-01

    The conservation program with the management assistance of the Woodlands Mountain Institute in 2 contiguous parks, the Mount Everest National Park in Nepal and the Qomolangma Nature Reserve in China, in 2 countries is described. The focus is on conservation of the complex ecosystem with sustainable development by showing local people how to benefit from the park without environmental damage. Cultural diversity is as important as biological diversity. The area has been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site with the "last pure ecological seed" of the Himalayas. The regional geography and culture are presented. Population growth has impacted natural resources through overgrazing, cultivation of marginal land, and deforestation; future plans to build a dam and road bordering the nature reserve pose other threats. Proposed management plans for the Makalu-Barun Nature Park (established in November 1991) and Conservation Area include a division of the park into nature reserve areas free of human activity, protected areas which permit traditional land use, and special sites and trail for tourists and religious pilgrims. The conservation area will act as a buffer for the park and provide economic opportunities; further subdivisions include land use for biodiversity protection, community forest and pasture, agroforestry, and agriculture and settlement. Efforts will be made to increase the welfare of women and local people; proposed projects include the introduction of higher milk-producing animals for stall feeding. Also proposed is a cultural and natural history museum. 70% of the project's resources will be directed to local community participation in consultation and park maintenance. The project is a model of how conservation and protection of natural resources can coexist with local economic development and participation; an integration of preservation of biological diversity, mountain wisdom, and the value of local people as resources for conservation. PMID

  3. Conservation of tidal marshes

    SciTech Connect

    Daiber, F.C.

    1986-01-01

    This book is the first attempt to examine collectively the various uses and the consequences of marsh conservation efforts. Author Franklin Daiber emphasizes tidal marsh conservation from a holistic perspective rather than from the perspective of a single purpose or special economic interest. He addresses a topic receiving increasing attention, namely the concept of open marsh management as a means of controlling mosquito production without harmful effects on other marsh organisms. Topics considered include: water management; dikes, impoundments, ponds and ditches; reclaimed land and impoundments; ditching and ponding for mosquito control; sewage disposal and waste treatment; dredge material for wetland restoration; insecticides; oil pollution; and petroleum hydrocarbon interactions.

  4. Two Centuries of Soil Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Douglas

    1991-01-01

    Narrates U.S. soil conservation history since the late eighteenth century. Discusses early practices such as contour plowing. Profiles individuals who promoted soil conservation and were largely responsible for the creation of the Soil Conservation Service. Explains the causes of erosion and how soil conservation districts help farmers prevent…

  5. LAKE PONTCHARTRAIN ESTUARY CONSERVATION PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Nature Conservancy will conduct a series of a least four science expert workshops to develop a Site Conservation Plan for the Lake Pontchartrain Estuary and adjacent wetlands. The objective of the Site Conservation Plan is to identify conservation targets, threats or stresse...

  6. Botanic garden genetics: comparison of two cyacad conservation collections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic data can guide the management of plant conservation collections. Direct assay of an ex situ collection’s genetic diversity, measured against wild plant populations, offers insight for conservation efforts. Here we present a carefully chosen case study, Zamia lucayana, selected for its contra...

  7. Conservative Management of Cardiac Hemangioma for 11 Years.

    PubMed

    Gribaa, Rym; Slim, Mehdi; Neffati, Elyes; Boughzela, Essia

    2015-10-01

    Cardiac hemangiomas are benign tumors with an unpredictable natural history. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice; however, conservative management can be an alternative in some patients. We report a case of a left-sided cardiac hemangioma that we managed conservatively for 11 years without obvious major complications in the patient, an adult woman. PMID:26504439

  8. Conservative Management of Cardiac Hemangioma for 11 Years

    PubMed Central

    Slim, Mehdi; Neffati, Elyes; Boughzela, Essia

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac hemangiomas are benign tumors with an unpredictable natural history. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice; however, conservative management can be an alternative in some patients. We report a case of a left-sided cardiac hemangioma that we managed conservatively for 11 years without obvious major complications in the patient, an adult woman. PMID:26504439

  9. Conservation Commissions in Massachusetts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheffey, Andrew J. W.

    The Conservation Foundation reported on the experience of a resource development specialist in the state of Massachusetts on the public's growing concern for environmental quality. After tracing the origins of the Massachusetts movement, the report draws upon a variety of specific state experiences to illustrate the commission's growing pains and…

  10. Conservation Awareness Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Rosa County Board of Public Instruction, Milton, FL.

    Recommendations for incorporating conservation education into the K-5 curriculum comprise this teacher's guide. Examined are eight natural resources: air, energy, forests and plant life, human resources, minerals, soil, water, and wildlife. Each of these topics is considered in two ways: (1) a chart depicts concepts basic to understanding the…

  11. Conservation and gene banking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant conservation has several objectives the main ones include safeguarding our food supply, preserving crop wild relatives for breeding and selection of new cultivars, providing material for industrial and pharmaceutical uses and preserving the beauty and diversity of our flora for generations to ...

  12. Foundry energy conservation workbook

    SciTech Connect

    1990-10-01

    This report discusses methods for promoting energy conservation in foundries. Use of electric power, natural gas, and coke are evaluated. Waste heat recovery systems are considered. Energy consumption in the specific processes of electric melting, natural gas melting, heat treatments, ladle melting, and coke fuel melting is described. An example energy analysis is included. (GHH)

  13. Foundry energy conservation workbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    This report discusses methods for promoting energy conservation in foundries. Use of electric power, natural gas, and coke are evaluated. Waste heat recovery systems are considered. Energy consumption in the specific processes of electric melting, natural gas melting, heat treatments, ladle melting, and coke fuel melting is described. An example energy analysis is included. (GHH)

  14. Introduction to conservative mastectomies

    PubMed Central

    Gercovich, F. Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Conservative mastectomy (CM) has become an established alternative in the treatment of breast cancer, offering by different techniques a good cosmetic outcome, as well as oncologic control. The different options to achieve these goals are presented. Oncoplastic treatment of breast cancer needs planning and knowledge of well-established plastic surgery techniques. PMID:26644998

  15. Scale in conservation planning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation planning has been widely embraced as a method to efficiently allocate limited resources to those aspects of biodiversity most in need of protection or management. However, in order to create successful strategies for long-term biodiversity protection and sustainability, explicit conside...

  16. Conservation Is Job One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatzai, Glen

    1998-01-01

    The University of Michigan, winner of a federal award for its campus energy conservation, has developed a building automation system that uses direct-digital-control technology to manage energy use. The project, undertaken in partnership with an energy management company, has saved over $10 million since its inception, and includes a revolving…

  17. Soil: Conservation practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary source to meet global food and fiber demands is production agriculture, but accelerated soil erosion threatens its sustainability. Soil erosion is an important contributor to the normal soil formation process, but erosion becomes problematic when it is accelerated. Soil conservation prac...

  18. Energy Conservation Simplified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    The standard formulation of energy conservation involves the subsidiary ideas of kinetic energy ("KE"), work ("W"), thermal energy, internal energy, and a half-dozen different kinds of potential energy ("PE"): elastic, chemical, nuclear, gravitational, and so forth. These quantities came to be recognized during the centuries over which the…

  19. WATER CONSERVATION IN SOIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water conservation is important for agricultural, residential, industrial, and recreational users in all climatic regions, but becomes increasingly important when going from humid to semiarid and arid regions. This report briefly describes techniques that can be used to increase the storage of water...

  20. Energy Conservation for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Dept. of Education, Toronto.

    Information intended for those concerned with the administration, planning, financing, operation, and maintenance of school facilities applies to both new and existing building. An examination of motivation and policies relating to energy conservation is followed by the methods used for quantitative assessment of energy savings relative to extra…

  1. Communities, Cameras, and Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Communities, Cameras, and Conservation (CCC) is the most exciting and valuable program the author has seen in her 30 years of teaching field science courses. In this citizen science project, students and community volunteers collect data on mountain lions ("Puma concolor") at four natural areas and public parks along the Front Range of Colorado.…

  2. Conservative Public Interest Litigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pell, Terence J.

    2007-01-01

    The idea that lawsuits can move a public as well as a legal agenda is not new. In recent years, conservatives have brought high profile lawsuits designed both to vindicate the rights of an individual plaintiff and to educate the public about an important issue. For example, lawsuits filed nearly 10 years ago against the University of Michigan's…

  3. Counting and Number Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tollefsrud-Anderson, Linda

    This study assessed estimation skills on both static and transformation (conservation) tasks on numerosities ranging from 3 to 16, and included addition and subtraction trials to control for response bias. A total of 148 four- and five-year-old children estimated the number of balls of yarn sewn on elastic straps, and participated in 1 addition, 1…

  4. Conservation of fern spores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ferns are a diverse and important group of plants, but diversity of species and populations are at risk from increasing social pressures, loss of habitat and climate change. Ex situ conservation is a useful strategy to limit decline in genetic diversity and requires technologies to preserve fern ger...

  5. Conservation of Library Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Libraries, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Twelve articles cover books as artifacts; workstations for conservation of library materials; care of scrapbooks, albums, and photographs; map preservation; library environment; flood recovery; disaster prevention and preparedness; incorporating preservation into library organization; and bibliography of Chester Public Library (Illinois) First…

  6. Hearing Conservation Medical Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on hearing impairment is presented including causes and criteria for safe noise levels. The purpose of the Hearing Conservation Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Hearing Impairment at LeRC are discussed.

  7. Energy Conservation Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilman, John G., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Seven papers suggest ways in which theory informs evaluation research in the area of energy conservation. Perspectives of epistemology and methodology and political and bureaucratic issues are addressed. Examples show how theoretically informed concepts and propositions about personal choice and organizational process contribute to knowledge about…

  8. Impending Medicare limits seen spurring conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Warrock, A.M.

    1983-08-01

    Hospitals and health-care facilities will have more incentive to control costs after the ceiling on Medicare payments takes effect in September. The Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act limits reimbursements rather than matching charges for the 34% of national medical payments made by Medicare. The ceilings, which will be determined on a regional basis, have encouraged private health insurance organizations to introduce incentives, but hospitals may use interest-free loans to expand service and attract more clients rather than to conserve energy costs. A summary of three hospital case histories of completed conservation projects accompanies the article. (DCK)

  9. Cranes, Crops and Conservation: Understanding Human Perceptions of Biodiversity Conservation in South Korea's Civilian Control Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Oh; Steiner, Frederick; Mueller, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    South Korea's Civilian Control Zone (CCZ), a relatively untouched area due to tight military oversight since the end of Korean War, has received considerable attention nationally and internationally for its rich biodiversity. However, the exclusion of local communities from the process of defining problems and goals and of setting priorities for biodiversity conservation has halted a series of biodiversity conservation efforts. Through qualitative research, we explored CCZ farmers' views of key problems and issues and also the sources of their opposition to the government-initiated conservation approaches. Key findings include the farmers' concerns about the impact of conservation restrictions on their access to necessary resources needed to farm, wildlife impacts on the value of rice and other agricultural goods they produce, and farmers' strong distrust of government, the military, and planners, based on their experiences with past conservation processes. The findings regarding farmers' perceptions should prove useful for the design of future participatory planning processes for biodiversity conservation in the CCZ. This case highlights how conservative measures, perceived to be imposed from above—however scientifically valuable—can be undermined and suggests the value that must be placed on communication among planners and stakeholders.

  10. Cranes, crops and conservation: understanding human perceptions of biodiversity conservation in South Korea's Civilian Control Zone.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Oh; Steiner, Frederick; Mueller, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    South Korea's Civilian Control Zone (CCZ), a relatively untouched area due to tight military oversight since the end of Korean War, has received considerable attention nationally and internationally for its rich biodiversity. However, the exclusion of local communities from the process of defining problems and goals and of setting priorities for biodiversity conservation has halted a series of biodiversity conservation efforts. Through qualitative research, we explored CCZ farmers' views of key problems and issues and also the sources of their opposition to the government-initiated conservation approaches. Key findings include the farmers' concerns about the impact of conservation restrictions on their access to necessary resources needed to farm, wildlife impacts on the value of rice and other agricultural goods they produce, and farmers' strong distrust of government, the military, and planners, based on their experiences with past conservation processes. The findings regarding farmers' perceptions should prove useful for the design of future participatory planning processes for biodiversity conservation in the CCZ. This case highlights how conservative measures, perceived to be imposed from above--however scientifically valuable--can be undermined and suggests the value that must be placed on communication among planners and stakeholders. PMID:20924581

  11. Unitary dynamics and finite-time measurements: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prinz-Zwick, Andreas; Ingold, Gert-Ludwig; Talkner, Peter

    2015-10-01

    The inhibition of the decay of a quantum system by frequent measurements is known as quantum Zeno effect. Beyond the limit of projective measurements, the interplay between the unitary dynamics of the system and the coupling to a measurement apparatus becomes relevant. We explore this interplay by considering a quantum particle moving on a one-dimensional chain. A local measurement by coupling to an apparatus with a two-dimensional Hilbert space detects the presence of the particle on a specific chain site. The decay of the population is studied analytically for a two-site chain and numerically for a larger system as a function of the measurement time and the time between subsequent measurements. Particular attention is given to the shift of the energy of the measured site due to the coupling to the apparatus. The decay of the initial population can be hindered or accelerated, depending on the chosen system and the coupling parameters.

  12. The investigation of supply chain's reliability measure: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghizadeh, Houshang; Hafezi, Ehsan

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, using supply chain operational reference, the reliability evaluation of available relationships in supply chain is investigated. For this purpose, in the first step, the chain under investigation is divided into several stages including first and second suppliers, initial and final customers, and the producing company. Based on the formed relationships between these stages, the supply chain system is then broken down into different subsystem parts. The formed relationships between the stages are based on the transportation of the orders between stages. Paying attention to the system elements' location, which can be in one of the five forms of series namely parallel, series/parallel, parallel/series, or their combinations, we determine the structure of relationships in the divided subsystems. According to reliability evaluation scales on the three levels of supply chain, the reliability of each chain is then calculated. Finally, using the formulas of calculating the reliability in combined systems, the reliability of each system and ultimately the whole system is investigated.

  13. Breast cellulitis after conservative surgery and radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Rescigno, J.; McCormick, B.; Brown, A.E.; Myskowski, P.L. )

    1994-04-30

    Cellulitis is a previously unreported complication of conservative surgery and radiation therapy for early stage breast cancer. Patients who presented with breast cellulitis after conservative therapy are described. Eleven patients that developed cellulitis of the breast over a 38-month period of observation are the subject of this report. Clinical characteristics of patients with cellulitis and their treatment and outcome are reported. Potential patient and treatment-related correlates for the development of cellulitis are analyzed. The risk of cellulitis persists years after initial breast cancer therapy. The clinical course of the patients was variable: some patients required aggressive, long-duration antibiotic therapy, while others had rapid resolution with antibiotics. Three patients suffered from multiple episodes of cellulitis. Patients with breast cancer treated with conservative surgery and radiotherapy are at risk for breast cellulitis. Systematic characterization of cases of cellulitis may provide insight into diagnosis, prevention, and more effective therapy for this uncommon complication. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  14. Dynamic resource allocation in conservation planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Golovin, D.; Krause, A.; Gardner, B.; Converse, S.J.; Morey, S.

    2011-01-01

    Consider the problem of protecting endangered species by selecting patches of land to be used for conservation purposes. Typically, the availability of patches changes over time, and recommendations must be made dynamically. This is a challenging prototypical example of a sequential optimization problem under uncertainty in computational sustainability. Existing techniques do not scale to problems of realistic size. In this paper, we develop an efficient algorithm for adaptively making recommendations for dynamic conservation planning, and prove that it obtains near-optimal performance. We further evaluate our approach on a detailed reserve design case study of conservation planning for three rare species in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Copyright ?? 2011, Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence. All rights reserved.

  15. Three strategies for conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The three strategies considered as energy conservation oriented were given: national energy conservation, electrification, and diversification. The first one applies to the near term period (now-1985), the second one to the mid term (1985-2000), and the third one to the far term (2000- ). The rest of this section was focussed on the near term period. The following proposed actions were considered: (1) roll back the price of newly discovered oil, (2) force conversion of many power plants from gas and oil to coal, (3) freeze gasoline production for three years at 1972 levels, (4) mandate automobile mileage requirements, (5) require industry to improve energy efficiency, and (6) require manufacture of household appliances with greater efficiency. Each of these six actions was described and discussed in more detail.

  16. Conservative entropic forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, Matt

    2011-10-01

    Entropic forces have recently attracted considerable attention as ways to reformulate, retrodict, and perhaps even "explain" classical Newtonian gravity from a rather specific thermodynamic perspective. In this article I point out that if one wishes to reformulate classical Newtonian gravity in terms of an entropic force, then the fact that Newtonian gravity is described by a conservative force places significant constraints on the form of the entropy and temperature functions. (These constraints also apply to entropic reinterpretations of electromagnetism, and indeed to any conservative force derivable from a potential.) The constraints I will establish are sufficient to present real and significant problems for any reasonable variant of Verlinde's entropic gravity proposal, though for technical reasons the constraints established herein do not directly impact on either Jacobson'sor Padmanabhan's versions of entropic gravity. In an attempt to resolve these issues, I will extend the usual notion of entropic force to multiple heat baths with multiple "temperatures" and multiple "entropies".

  17. Motor Energy Conservation Measures

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple motor inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: High Efficiency Motor retrofit and Cogged V-belts retrofit. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  18. Uncertainty quantification for systems of conservation laws

    SciTech Connect

    Poette, Gael Despres, Bruno Lucor, Didier

    2009-04-20

    Uncertainty quantification through stochastic spectral methods has been recently applied to several kinds of non-linear stochastic PDEs. In this paper, we introduce a formalism based on kinetic theory to tackle uncertain hyperbolic systems of conservation laws with Polynomial Chaos (PC) methods. The idea is to introduce a new variable, the entropic variable, in bijection with our vector of unknowns, which we develop on the polynomial basis: by performing a Galerkin projection, we obtain a deterministic system of conservation laws. We state several properties of this deterministic system in the case of a general uncertain system of conservation laws. We then apply the method to the case of the inviscid Burgers' equation with random initial conditions and we present some preliminary results for the Euler system. We systematically compare results from our new approach to results from the stochastic Galerkin method. In the vicinity of discontinuities, the new method bounds the oscillations due to Gibbs phenomenon to a certain range through the entropy of the system without the use of any adaptative random space discretizations. It is found to be more precise than the stochastic Galerkin method for smooth cases but above all for discontinuous cases.

  19. Community motivations to engage in conservation behavior to conserve the Sumatran orangutan.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Danielle; Gramotnev, Galina; Baxter, Greg; Butler, James R A; Wich, Serge A; McAlpine, Clive A

    2016-08-01

    Community-based conservation programs in developing countries are often based on the assumption that heteronomous motivation (e.g., extrinsic incentives such as economic rewards and pressure or coercion to act) will incite local communities to adopt conservation behaviors. However, this may not be as effective or sustainable as autonomous motivations (e.g., an intrinsic desire to act due to inherent enjoyment or self-identification with a behavior and through freedom of choice). We analyzed the comparative effectiveness of heteronomous versus autonomous approaches to community-based conservation programs through a case study of Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii) conservation in 3 villages in Indonesia. Each village had a different conservation program design. We surveyed people (n = 240) to determine their motivations for and behavior changes relative to orangutan and orangutan habitat (forest) protection. Heteronomous motivations (e.g., income from tourism) led to greater self-reporting of behavior change toward orangutan protection. However, they did not change self-reported behavior toward forest (i.e., orangutan habitat) protection. The most effective approach to creating self-reported behavior change throughout the community was a combination of autonomous and heteronomous motivations. Individuals who were heteronomously motivated to protect the orangutan were more likely to have changed attitudes than to have changed their self-reported behavior. These findings demonstrate that the current paradigm of motivating communities in developing countries to adopt conservation behaviors primarily through monetary incentives and rewards should consider integrating autonomous motivational techniques that promote the intrinsic values of conservation. Such a combination has a greater potential to achieve sustainable and cost-effective conservation outcomes. Our results highlight the importance of using in-depth sociopsychological analyses to inform the design and

  20. Prioritizing Populations for Conservation Using Phylogenetic Networks

    PubMed Central

    Volkmann, Logan; Martyn, Iain; Moulton, Vincent; Spillner, Andreas; Mooers, Arne O.

    2014-01-01

    In the face of inevitable future losses to biodiversity, ranking species by conservation priority seems more than prudent. Setting conservation priorities within species (i.e., at the population level) may be critical as species ranges become fragmented and connectivity declines. However, existing approaches to prioritization (e.g., scoring organisms by their expected genetic contribution) are based on phylogenetic trees, which may be poor representations of differentiation below the species level. In this paper we extend evolutionary isolation indices used in conservation planning from phylogenetic trees to phylogenetic networks. Such networks better represent population differentiation, and our extension allows populations to be ranked in order of their expected contribution to the set. We illustrate the approach using data from two imperiled species: the spotted owl Strix occidentalis in North America and the mountain pygmy-possum Burramys parvus in Australia. Using previously published mitochondrial and microsatellite data, we construct phylogenetic networks and score each population by its relative genetic distinctiveness. In both cases, our phylogenetic networks capture the geographic structure of each species: geographically peripheral populations harbor less-redundant genetic information, increasing their conservation rankings. We note that our approach can be used with all conservation-relevant distances (e.g., those based on whole-genome, ecological, or adaptive variation) and suggest it be added to the assortment of tools available to wildlife managers for allocating effort among threatened populations. PMID:24586451

  1. Predicting species distributions for conservation decisions

    PubMed Central

    Guisan, Antoine; Tingley, Reid; Baumgartner, John B; Naujokaitis-Lewis, Ilona; Sutcliffe, Patricia R; Tulloch, Ayesha I T; Regan, Tracey J; Brotons, Lluis; McDonald-Madden, Eve; Mantyka-Pringle, Chrystal; Martin, Tara G; Rhodes, Jonathan R; Maggini, Ramona; Setterfield, Samantha A; Elith, Jane; Schwartz, Mark W; Wintle, Brendan A; Broennimann, Olivier; Austin, Mike; Ferrier, Simon; Kearney, Michael R; Possingham, Hugh P; Buckley, Yvonne M

    2013-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) are increasingly proposed to support conservation decision making. However, evidence of SDMs supporting solutions for on-ground conservation problems is still scarce in the scientific literature. Here, we show that successful examples exist but are still largely hidden in the grey literature, and thus less accessible for analysis and learning. Furthermore, the decision framework within which SDMs are used is rarely made explicit. Using case studies from biological invasions, identification of critical habitats, reserve selection and translocation of endangered species, we propose that SDMs may be tailored to suit a range of decision-making contexts when used within a structured and transparent decision-making process. To construct appropriate SDMs to more effectively guide conservation actions, modellers need to better understand the decision process, and decision makers need to provide feedback to modellers regarding the actual use of SDMs to support conservation decisions. This could be facilitated by individuals or institutions playing the role of ‘translators’ between modellers and decision makers. We encourage species distribution modellers to get involved in real decision-making processes that will benefit from their technical input; this strategy has the potential to better bridge theory and practice, and contribute to improve both scientific knowledge and conservation outcomes. PMID:24134332

  2. Conservation and Education in Murchison Falls Conservation Area, Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordahl, Mark D.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis forms the foundation for a conservation education training manual to help guides in Murchison Falls National Park, Uganda, communicate to foreign visitors about conservation issues. For background information I used a combination of text-based research and interviews to examine the application of community conservation and…

  3. Conservation businesses and conservation planning in a biological diversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    Di Minin, Enrico; Macmillan, Douglas Craig; Goodman, Peter Styan; Escott, Boyd; Slotow, Rob; Moilanen, Atte

    2013-08-01

    The allocation of land to biological diversity conservation competes with other land uses and the needs of society for development, food, and extraction of natural resources. Trade-offs between biological diversity conservation and alternative land uses are unavoidable, given the realities of limited conservation resources and the competing demands of society. We developed a conservation-planning assessment for the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal, which forms the central component of the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany biological diversity hotspot. Our objective was to enhance biological diversity protection while promoting sustainable development and providing spatial guidance in the resolution of potential policy conflicts over priority areas for conservation at risk of transformation. The conservation-planning assessment combined spatial-distribution models for 646 conservation features, spatial economic-return models for 28 alternative land uses, and spatial maps for 4 threats. Nature-based tourism businesses were competitive with other land uses and could provide revenues of >US$60 million/year to local stakeholders and simultaneously help meeting conservation goals for almost half the conservation features in the planning region. Accounting for opportunity costs substantially decreased conflicts between biological diversity, agricultural use, commercial forestry, and mining. Accounting for economic benefits arising from conservation and reducing potential policy conflicts with alternative plans for development can provide opportunities for successful strategies that combine conservation and sustainable development and facilitate conservation action. PMID:23565917

  4. Reversibility and Discrimination in Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Jeffrey P.

    1974-01-01

    Five-year-old children who failed pretests of conservation of Number, Length, Mass, and Liquid Amount, but who possessed counting ability and knowledge of the terms "same" and "different" underwent Training and Conservation Posttests. (Author/CS)

  5. Conservation Level and Category Clustering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, C. Rayfield; Kulhavy, Raymond W.

    1976-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that category recall is related to the quantity conservation of mass, weight, and volume. The predicted association between conservation level and category recall was observed. (JMB)

  6. Adaptation: Conservation for any budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, Joshua J.

    2011-10-01

    Deciding where and how to allocate scarce funding to conserve plants and animals in a changing and uncertain climate is a thorny issue. Numerical modelling identifies the most effective mix of conservation measures based on the level of expenditure available.

  7. The New Left at California State College, Fullerton: A Case Study of the Radical New Left in a Conservative, State College Community during the 1960s & Early 1970s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornburg, Barry S.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines the impact and significance of the New Left on the conservative campus and community of California State College, Fullerton (CSF) during the 1960s and early 1970s. Built to meet the demands of the Baby Boom after World War II, CSF became the latest in a series of California State campus expansions in 1959-1960.…

  8. Water Savings Through Conservation Tillage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Through a partnership with the University of Georgia – College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, USDA-Agricultural Research Service, USDA-Natural Resource Conservation Service, Soil and Water Conservation Society and Resource Conservation and Development Councils to name a few, research and...

  9. Approved Practices in Soil Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Albert B.

    This book is written for individuals who wish to apply conservation practices, especially those of soil and water conservation, without technical assistance, to meet one's own conditions, and within his own capability to apply them. To meet these needs, the book includes a discussion and description of soil and water conservation methods for the…

  10. Estimating Conservation Thresholds on Rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) is a multi-agency effort designed to quantify the environmental and economic impacts of land conservation practices. One of USDA’s goals is to identify Conservation Thresholds, the point at which accelerated erosion occurs, and to examine the usefu...

  11. Teaching Conservation in Developing Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brace, Judith; And Others

    This manual is designed to provide Peace Corps volunteers and other field workers with ideas, activities, and resources for incorporating conservation education into their day-to-day community activities. It begins with a chapter dealing with a self-contained conservation center. Other chapters tell of ways in which a conservation education…

  12. Saving Money Through Energy Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presley, Michael H.; And Others

    This publication is an introduction to personal energy conservation. The first chapter presents a rationale for conserving energy and points out that private citizens control about one third of this country's energy consumption. Chapters two and three show how to save money by saving energy. Chapter two discusses energy conservation methods in the…

  13. Conservation of tropical plant species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book is designed to provide a review of the methods and current status of conservation of many tropical plant species. Future perspectives of conservation of tropical species will also be discussed. The section on methods covers the range of conservation techniques, in situ, seed banking, in vi...

  14. Conservation systems in the Southeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation describes how conservation systems that include non-inversion tillage and cover crops, a key component of conservation systems, are managed in the Southeast to maximize benefits. Benefits include weed suppression, moisture conservation, and increased organic matter contents. Mana...

  15. Conservation Education: A Position Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    The Soil Conservation Society of America's (SCSA) aim is to advance the science and art of good land and water use. Conservation education has a significant role in achieving the wise use of these resources. In this report, perspectives are offered on: (1) the requirements for effective conservation education programs; (2) rationale for…

  16. Case 3058. Arctocephalus F. Cuvier, 1826 and Callorhinus Gray, 1859 (Mammalia, Pinnipedia): proposed conservation by the designation of Phoca pusilla Schreber, [1775] as the type species of Arctocephalus; and Otaria Peron, 1816 and Eumetopias Gill, 1866: proposed conservation by the designation of Phoca leonina Molina, 1782 as the type species of Otaria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, A.L.; Robbins, C.B.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this application is to conserve the accustomed understanding and usage of the fur seal name Arctocephalus F. Cuvier, 1826 by the designation of Phoca pusilia Schreber, [1775] as the type species, thus conserving also the name Callorhinus Gray, 1859. At present Phoca ursina Linnaeus, 1758 is the valid type species of both Arctocephalus and Callorhinus. The name Arctocephalus relates to a genus of some seven fur seals from the southern hemisphere, while Callorhinus is used for the single species C. ursinus (Linnaeus) from the northern hemisphere. It is also proposed that the universal understanding of the names Otaria Peron, 1816 and Eumetopias Gill, 1866 should be conserved for the southern and northern sea lions respectively by designating Phoca leonina Molina, 1782 (for which the valid specific name is P. byronia de Blainville, 1820) as the type species of Otaria. At present Phoca jubata Schreber, [1776] is the type species of Otaria and the name Otaria is a senior subjective synonym of Eumetopias. The four genera Arctocephalus, Callorhinus, Otaria and Eumetopias are all placed in the family OTARIIDAE Gray, 1825.

  17. Plug Loads Conservation Measures

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple plug loads inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: Vending Machine Misers, Delamp Vending Machine, Desktop to Laptop retrofit, CRT to LCD monitors retrofit, Computer Power Management Settings, and Energy Star Refrigerator retrofit. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings tomore » investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.« less

  18. Energy conservation technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Courtright, H.A.

    1993-12-31

    The conservation of energy through the efficiency improvement of existing end-uses and the development of new technologies to replace less efficient systems is an important component of the overall effort to reduce greenhouse gases which may contribute to global climate change. Even though uncertainties exist on the degree and causes of global warming, efficiency improvements in end-use applications remain in the best interest of utilities, their customers and society because efficiency improvements not only reduce environmental exposures but also contribute to industrial productivity, business cost reductions and consumer savings in energy costs.

  19. On integrable conservation laws

    PubMed Central

    Arsie, Alessandro; Lorenzoni, Paolo; Moro, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    We study normal forms of scalar integrable dispersive (not necessarily Hamiltonian) conservation laws, via the Dubrovin–Zhang perturbative scheme. Our computations support the conjecture that such normal forms are parametrized by infinitely many arbitrary functions that can be identified with the coefficients of the quasi-linear part of the equation. Moreover, in general, we conjecture that two scalar integrable evolutionary partial differential equations having the same quasi-linear part are Miura equivalent. This conjecture is also consistent with the tensorial behaviour of these coefficients under general Miura transformations. PMID:25568614

  20. Water Conservation Measures

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple water fixture inventory information and calculates the water/energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes water conservation measures for: Low-flow Toilets, Low-flow Urinals, Low-flow Faucets, and Low-flow Showheads. This tool calculates water savings, energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits ofmore » a project.« less

  1. Integrating Agriculture and Conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandever, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    The USGS produces the needed science-based information to guide management actions and policy decisions that support wildlife habitat and other environmental services compatible with USDA conservation goals and farm operations. The Policy Analysis and Science Assistance Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) has conducted research involving a national landowner survey and numerous short- and long-term evaluations regarding vegetation responses to land management practices. This research helps land and resource managers to make informed decisions and resolve resource management conflicts.

  2. Water Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Metzger, Jesse Dean

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple water fixture inventory information and calculates the water/energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes water conservation measures for: Low-flow Toilets, Low-flow Urinals, Low-flow Faucets, and Low-flow Showheads. This tool calculates water savings, energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  3. Plug Loads Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Metzger, Jesse Dean

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple plug loads inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: Vending Machine Misers, Delamp Vending Machine, Desktop to Laptop retrofit, CRT to LCD monitors retrofit, Computer Power Management Settings, and Energy Star Refrigerator retrofit. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  4. Conservative management of dentigerous cysts in children

    PubMed Central

    Arjona-Amo, Manuel; Serrera-Figallo, María-Angeles; Hernández-Guisado, José-María; Gutiérrez-Pérez, José-Luis

    2015-01-01

    Purpose and Introduction Dentigerous cysts are epithelial in origin and are the most commonly found cyst in children. The majority of these lesions are usually a radiological finding and are capable of quite large before being diagnosed. The standard treatment for these cysts is the enucleation and the extraction of the affected tooth. However, if the patient is a child and the affected tooth is not developed, a more conservative attitude should be considered. Material and Methods (Clinical case): A 7-year-old patient is presented with an eruptive backlog of the lower permanent first molars. Radiological examination reveals two radiolucid lesions in relation to them, which are compatible with a dentigerous cyst, and in relation to the inferior aveolar nerve and various germs. A partial enucleation is carried out, maintaining all the dental germs related to the cyst in mouth and monitoring the patient until the case study is over. Results and Discussion Diagnosis and early treatment of these lesions in children is of great importance, especially in cases where the lesions enclose permanent teeth. Conclusions Whenever possible, a conservative attitude should be taken, one that allows for the maintenance of the dentition and treatment of the associated cyst in order to not compromise either the occlusion or the mental state of these patients. Key words:Dentigerous cyst, conservative treatment, dental impaction, child. PMID:26644847

  5. Defining biocultural approaches to conservation.

    PubMed

    Gavin, Michael C; McCarter, Joe; Mead, Aroha; Berkes, Fikret; Stepp, John Richard; Peterson, Debora; Tang, Ruifei

    2015-03-01

    We contend that biocultural approaches to conservation can achieve effective and just conservation outcomes while addressing erosion of both cultural and biological diversity. Here, we propose a set of guidelines for the adoption of biocultural approaches to conservation. First, we draw lessons from work on biocultural diversity and heritage, social-ecological systems theory, integrated conservation and development, co-management, and community-based conservation to define biocultural approaches to conservation. Second, we describe eight principles that characterize such approaches. Third, we discuss reasons for adopting biocultural approaches and challenges. If used well, biocultural approaches to conservation can be a powerful tool for reducing the global loss of both biological and cultural diversity. PMID:25622889

  6. Beyond conservation agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Giller, Ken E.; Andersson, Jens A.; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture. PMID:26579139

  7. Beyond conservation agriculture.

    PubMed

    Giller, Ken E; Andersson, Jens A; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture. PMID:26579139

  8. Selling energy conservation.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, D

    1995-01-01

    This article concerns the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) crisis and its impact on energy efficiency measures in the US. In 1985, when the OPEC collapsed, the US government had avoided the need to construct 350 gigawatts of new electric capacity. The most successful efficiency improvements, especially in household appliances and equipment, lighting and tightened energy efficiency standards in new buildings, resulted from the OPEC event. The real innovation of that time was the change in profit rules for utilities. This revolution and the way some US utilities view energy have not caught on elsewhere. Despite the initiative toward improving energy efficiency in homes, offices and industries, the change has been slow. Partly to blame are the big development banks, which pointed out that short-term conservation and efficiency measures could save at least 15% of the total energy demand without the need for major investment. The benefits of energy conservation was shown during the oil shock when per capita energy consumption fell by 5% in the member states of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, while the per capita gross domestic product grew by a third. There has been a decrease in energy expenditure worldwide, and the scope for further energy savings is enormous, but governments need to recognize and seize the opportunity. PMID:12295818

  9. Energy conservation in museums

    SciTech Connect

    Ucar, M.; Doering, G.C.

    1980-07-01

    An overall assessment of energy conservation in museums in New York is made in view of the special environmental considerations involved. The special relative humidity, temperature, and lighting requirements of museums were studied extensively. An energy consumption data base was formed with actual energy use data obtained from over fifty institutions across the state. The computerized energy consumption data base compiled covers an extremely wide range of energy usage levels. On-site energy consumption ranged from approximately 20,000 to 400,000 Btu/ft/sup 2/ year. The data base includes small rural institutions and large metropolitan museums, historic and modern structures, seasonal and year-round museums, single buildings and collections of buildings, single-story buildings and multiple-story buildings, an aquarium, and a zoo. Thus, it is difficult to identify trends in the energy consumption data and to make correlations with such parameters as age, type, size, etc. Walk-through or mini energy audits were performed on ten museums located in various parts of New York State. This project also included a thorough study of all potential funding sources to which museums can apply for financing energy conservation measures. Sources of technical assistance and information were also identified. (MCW)

  10. 10 CFR 430.32 - Energy and water conservation standards and their effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... affecting § 430.32, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... effective dates. 430.32 Section 430.32 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION... conservation standards and their effective dates. The energy and water (in the case of faucets,...

  11. Wealth redistribution in conservative linear kinetic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toscani, G.

    2009-10-01

    We introduce and discuss kinetic models for wealth distribution which include both taxation and uniform redistribution. The evolution of the continuous density of wealth obeys a linear Boltzmann equation where the background density represents the action of an external subject on the taxation mechanism. The case in which the mean wealth is conserved is analyzed in full details, by recovering the analytical form of the steady states. These states are probability distributions of convergent random series of a special structure, called perpetuities. Among others, Gibbs distribution appears as steady state in case of total taxation and uniform redistribution.

  12. Supply Curves of Conserved Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan Kevin

    1982-05-01

    Supply curves of conserved energy provide an accounting framework that expresses the potential for energy conservation. The economic worthiness of a conservation measure is expressed in terms of the cost of conserved energy, and a measure is considered economical when the cost of conserved energy is less than the price of the energy it replaces. A supply curve of conserved energy is independent of energy prices; however, the economical reserves of conserved energy will depend on energy prices. Double-counting of energy savings and error propagation are common problems when estimating conservation potentials, but supply curves minimize these difficulties and make their consequences predictable. The sensitivity of the cost of conserved energy is examined, as are variations in the optimal investment strategy in response to changes in inputs. Guidelines are presented for predicting the consequences of such changes. The conservation supply curve concept can be applied to peak power, water, pollution, and other markets where consumers demand a service rather than a particular good.

  13. Group Decisions in Biodiversity Conservation: Implications from Game Theory

    PubMed Central

    Frank, David M.; Sarkar, Sahotra

    2010-01-01

    Background Decision analysis and game theory [1], [2] have proved useful tools in various biodiversity conservation planning and modeling contexts [3]–[5]. This paper shows how game theory may be used to inform group decisions in biodiversity conservation scenarios by modeling conflicts between stakeholders to identify Pareto–inefficient Nash equilibria. These are cases in which each agent pursuing individual self–interest leads to a worse outcome for all, relative to other feasible outcomes. Three case studies from biodiversity conservation contexts showing this feature are modeled to demonstrate how game–theoretical representation can inform group decision-making. Methodology and Principal Findings The mathematical theory of games is used to model three biodiversity conservation scenarios with Pareto–inefficient Nash equilibria: (i) a two–agent case involving wild dogs in South Africa; (ii) a three–agent raptor and grouse conservation scenario from the United Kingdom; and (iii) an n–agent fish and coral conservation scenario from the Philippines. In each case there is reason to believe that traditional mechanism–design solutions that appeal to material incentives may be inadequate, and the game–theoretical analysis recommends a resumption of further deliberation between agents and the initiation of trust—and confidence—building measures. Conclusions and Significance Game theory can and should be used as a normative tool in biodiversity conservation contexts: identifying scenarios with Pareto–inefficient Nash equilibria enables constructive action in order to achieve (closer to) optimal conservation outcomes, whether by policy solutions based on mechanism design or otherwise. However, there is mounting evidence [6] that formal mechanism–design solutions may backfire in certain cases. Such scenarios demand a return to group deliberation and the creation of reciprocal relationships of trust. PMID:20523732

  14. Superradiance and flux conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boonserm, Petarpa; Ngampitipan, Tritos; Visser, Matt

    2014-09-01

    The theoretical foundations of the phenomenon known as superradiance still continue to attract considerable attention. Despite many valiant attempts at pedagogically clear presentations, the effect nevertheless still continues to generate some significant confusion. Part of the confusion arises from the fact that superradiance in a quantum field theory context is not the same as superradiance (superfluorescence) in some condensed matter contexts; part of the confusion arises from traditional but sometimes awkward normalization conventions, and part is due to sometimes unnecessary confusion between fluxes and probabilities. We shall argue that the key point underlying the effect is flux conservation (and, in the presence of dissipation, a controlled amount of flux nonconservation), and that attempting to phrase things in terms of reflection and transmission probabilities only works in the absence of superradiance. To help clarify the situation we present a simple exactly solvable toy model exhibiting both superradiance and damping.

  15. National energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A set of energy conservation actions that cut across all sectors of the economy were analyzed so that all actions under consideration be analyzed systematically and as a whole. The actions considered were as follows: (1) roll back the price of newly discovered oil, (2) freeze gasoline production for 3 years at 1972 levels, (3) mandate automobile mileage improvements, (4) require industry to improve energy efficiency, (5) require manufacture of household appliances with greater efficiency, (6) force conversion of many power plants from gas and oil to coal. The results showed that considerable gas and oil would be saved by forcing switches to coal. However, the large scale switch to coal was shown to require greatly increased outputs from many other industries that in turn require more energy. It was estimated that nearly 2.5 quads of additional coal were needed to produce these additional requirements. Also, the indirect requirements would create more jobs.

  16. Conserved synteny and the zebrafish genome.

    PubMed

    Catchen, Julian M; Braasch, Ingo; Postlethwait, John H

    2011-01-01

    Zebrafish offers significant opportunities for the investigation of vertebrate development, evolution, physiology, and behavior and provides numerous models of human disease. Connecting zebrafish phenogenetic biology to that of humans and other vertebrates, however, requires the proper assignment of gene orthologies. Orthology assignments by phylogenetic analysis or by reciprocal best sequence similarity searches can lead to errors, especially in cases of gene duplication followed by gene loss or rapid lineage-specific gene evolution. Conserved synteny analysis provides a method that helps overcome such problems. Here we describe conserved synteny analysis for zebrafish genes and discuss the Synteny Database, a website specifically designed to identify conserved syntenies for zebrafish that takes into account the teleost genome duplication (TGD). We utilize the Synteny Database to demonstrate its power to resolve our understanding of the evolution of nerve growth factor receptor related genes, including Ngfr and the enigmatic Nradd. Finally, we compare conserved syntenies between zebrafish, stickleback, spotted gar, and human to understand the timing of chromosome rearrangements in teleost genome evolution. An improved understanding of gene histories that comes from the application of tools provided by the Synteny Database can facilitate the connectivity of zebrafish and human genomes. PMID:21924168

  17. Why not energy conservation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    Energy conservation is a deep principle that is obeyed by all of the fundamental forces of nature. It puts stringent constraints on all systems, particularly systems that are ‘isolated,’ meaning that no energy can enter or escape. Notwithstanding the success of the principle of stationary action, it is fair to wonder to what extent physics can be formulated from the principle of stationary energy. We show that if one interprets mechanical energy as a state function, then its stationarity leads to a novel formulation of classical mechanics. However, unlike Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics, which deliver their state functions via algebraic proscriptions (i.e., the Lagrangian is always the difference between a system’s kinetic and potential energies), this new formalism identifies its state functions as the solutions to a differential equation. This is an important difference because differential equations can generate more general solutions than algebraic recipes. When applied to Newtonian systems for which the energy function is separable, these state functions are always the mechanical energy. However, while the stationary state function for a charged particle moving in an electromagnetic field proves not to be energy, the function nevertheless correctly encodes the dynamics of the system. Moreover, the stationary state function for a free relativistic particle proves not to be the energy either. Rather, our differential equation yields the relativistic free-particle Lagrangian (plus a non-dynamical constant) in its correct dynamical context. To explain how this new formalism can consistently deliver stationary state functions that give the correct dynamics but that are not always the mechanical energy, we propose that energy conservation is a specific realization of a deeper principle of stationarity that governs both relativistic and non-relativistic mechanics.

  18. Conservative multidisciplinary management of placenta percreta following in vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seong Yun; Won, Hye-Sung; Lee, Pil Ryang; Kim, Ahm

    2013-01-01

    Placenta percreta is an extremely rare and the most severe form of placental invasion, that is associated with severe maternal morbidity and mortality. We report a case of nulliparous woman who underwent 10 cycles of in vitro fertilization (IVF) without any known risk factors. We conserved her uterus by spontaneous vaginal delivery, leaving the placenta in situ, pelvic arterial embolization, and primary resection of the remaining placental tissues. This case demonstrates that repetitive IVF is a possible risk factor for placental invasion, and that conservation of the uterus can be achieved in such cases using a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:24328001

  19. Keeping Hawai’i’s forest birds one step ahead of avian diseases in a warming world: a focus on Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge. A case study from the National Conservation and Training Center Structured Decision Making Workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paxton, Eben; Burgett, Jeff; McDonald-Fadden, Eve; Bean, Ellen; Atkinson, Carter T.; Ball, Donna; Cole, Colleen; Crampton, Lisa H.; Kraus, Jim; LaPointe, Dennis A.; Mehrhoff, Loyal; Samuel, Michael D.; Brewer, Donna; Converse, Sarah J.; Morey, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This report is a product of a one-week workshop on using Structured Decision Making to identify and prioritize conservation actions to address the threat of climate change on Hawaii‟s native forest bird community. Specifically, t his report addresses the issue of global warming ‟s likely role in increasing disease prevalence in upper elevation forests of Hawaii, negatively impacting native bird populations susceptible to the disease but currently disease - free because of the cooler temperatures at high elevations. 

  20. Conservation laws in the quantum mechanics of closed systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hartle, J.B. ||; Laflamme, R. |; Marolf, D.

    1995-06-15

    We investigate conservation laws in the quantum mechanics of closed systems and begin by reviewing an argument that exact decoherence implies the exact conservation of quantities that commute with the Hamiltonian. However, we also show that decoherence limits the alternatives that can be included in sets of histories that assess the conservation of these quantities. In the case of charge and energy, these limitations would be severe were these quantities not coupled to a gauge field. However, for the realistic cases of electric charge coupled to the electromagnetic field and mass coupled to spacetime curvature, we show that when alternative values of charge and mass decohere they always decohere exactly and are exactly conserved. Further, while decohering histories that describe possible changes in time of the total charge and mass are also subject to the limitations mentioned above, we show that these do not, in fact, restrict {ital physical} alternatives and are therefore not really limitations at all.

  1. The conservation of Britain's limestone cave resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardwick, P.; Gunn, J.

    1996-10-01

    Limestone caves are an important scientific and recreational resource in Britain. During the mid- to late 1970s, cavers and statutory conservation bodies cooperated in a review of cave resources which resulted in the designation of 48 caves or cave areas as Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI). During the same period, the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 was introduced to provide more effective planning controls on activities such as agriculture carried out within SSSI boundaries. In one case, at Priddy in the Mendip Hills of Somerset, landowners prevented access to a number of caves in protest over the new, tougher restrictions on agriculture. Faced with the closure, and perceiving that their recreational use of caves might also be controlled, local cavers joined the landowners in opposing the proposals for SSSI designation. As a result the proposals were reviewed, three caves were excluded from the site and controls on the remaining area were relaxed. The case emphasized a need for an effective system to take account of all factors affecting cave conservation, a need which has led to a more constructive dialogue between nature conservation bodies, caver organizations and other interested parties.

  2. Priorities for global felid conservation.

    PubMed

    Dickman, Amy J; Hinks, Amy E; Macdonald, Ewan A; Burnham, Dawn; Macdonald, David W

    2015-06-01

    Conservation resources are limited, necessitating prioritization of species and locations for action. Most prioritization approaches are based solely on biologically relevant characteristics of taxa or areas and ignore geopolitical realities. Doing so risks a poor return on conservation investment due to nonbiological factors, such as economic or political instability. We considered felids, a taxon which attracts intense conservation attention, to demonstrate a new approach that incorporates both intrinsic species traits and geopolitical characteristics of countries. We developed conservation priority scores for wild felids based on their International Union for Conservation of Nature status, body mass, habitat, range within protected area, evolutionary distinctiveness, and conservation umbrella potential. We used published data on governance, economics and welfare, human population pressures, and conservation policy to assign conservation-likelihood scores to 142 felid-hosting countries. We identified 71 countries as high priorities (above median) for felid conservation. These countries collectively encompassed all 36 felid species and supported an average of 96% of each species' range. Of these countries, 60.6% had below-average conservation-likelihood scores, which indicated these countries are relatively risky conservation investments. Governance was the most common factor limiting conservation likelihood. It was the major contributor to below-median likelihood scores for 62.5% of the 32 felid species occurring in lower-likelihood countries. Governance was followed by economics for which scores were below median for 25% of these species. An average of 58% of species' ranges occurred in 43 higher-priority lower-likelihood countries. Human population pressure was second to governance as a limiting factor when accounting for percentage of species' ranges in each country. As conservation likelihood decreases, it will be increasingly important to identify relevant

  3. Landscape Conservation Cooperatives: Creating a Collaborative Conservation Vision in the Face of Climate Change Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athearn, N.; Schlafmann, D.

    2015-12-01

    The 22 Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) form a "network of networks," each defined by the characteristics of its ecoregion and its unique community of conservation managers, practitioners, and scientists. As self-directed partnerships, LCCs are strongly influenced not only by the landscape but by the evolving cultures and values that define the multi-faceted relationships between people and place. LCCs maintain an ecologically connected network across these diverse landscapes by transcending borders and leveraging resources. Natural resource managers are challenged to make decisions in the face of multiple uncertainties, and several partners across the network have recognized that climate change is one important uncertainty that spans boundaries - both across the conservation community and beyond. The impacts of climate change across the LCC Network are likely to be as diverse as the network itself - manifesting as, for example, sea level rise, ocean acidification, loss of sea ice, and shifts in climate patterns and timing - but synergies are being leveraged within and between LCCs and national climate-focused programs to systematically address the needs of the network to support a collaborative conservation vision that addresses multiple landscape-scale stressors in the face of climate uncertainties. This vision is being achieved by leveraging the convening power of the LCCs and collaborating with DOI Climate Science Centers and others. Selected case studies will demonstrate how the network finds strength in its differences, but also reveals powerful collaborative opportunities through integrated science, shared conservation strategies, and strategic approaches for translating targeted science to conservation action. These examples exemplify past successes as well as ongoing efforts as the network continues to bring about effective application of climate science to achieve conservation outcomes across the LCC Network in an uncertain future climate.

  4. A kinematic conservation law in free surface flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilyuk, Sergey; Kalisch, Henrik; Khorsand, Zahra

    2015-06-01

    The Green-Naghdi system is used to model highly nonlinear weakly dispersive waves propagating at the surface of a shallow layer of a perfect fluid. The system has three associated conservation laws which describe the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy due to the surface wave motion. In addition, the system features a fourth conservation law which is the main focus of this note. It will be shown how this fourth conservation law can be interpreted in terms of a concrete kinematic quantity connected to the evolution of the tangent velocity at the free surface. The equation for the tangent velocity is first derived for the full Euler equations in both two and three dimensional flows, and in both cases, it gives rise to an approximate balance law in the Green-Naghdi theory which turns out to be identical to the fourth conservation law for this system. It is also shown that the conservation equation for the tangent velocity at the free surface appears as an endpoint case of a more general conservation equation for tangent velocities along material surfaces in the body of the fluid.

  5. Translocation of threatened plants as a conservation measure in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Ren, Hai; Liu, Qiang; Wen, XiangYing; Maunder, Michael; Gao, JiangYun

    2015-12-01

    We assessed the current status of plant conservation translocation efforts in China, a topic poorly reported in recent scientific literature. We identified 222 conservation translocation cases involving 154 species, of these 87 were Chinese endemic species and 101 (78%) were listed as threatened on the Chinese Species Red List. We categorized the life form of each species and, when possible, determined for each case the translocation type, propagule source, propagule type, and survival and reproductive parameters. A surprisingly large proportion (26%) of the conservation translocations in China were conservation introductions, largely implemented in response to large-scale habitat destruction caused by the Three-Gorge Dam and another hydropower project. Documentation and management of the translocations varied greatly. Less than half the cases had plant survival records. Statistical analyses showed that survival percentages were significantly correlated with plant life form and the type of planting materials. Thirty percent of the cases had records on whether or not individuals flowered or fruited. Results of information theoretic model selection indicated that plant life form, translocation type, propagule type, propagule source, and time since planting significantly influenced the likelihood of flowering and fruiting on the project level. We suggest that the scientific-based application of species conservation translocations should be promoted as part of a commitment to species recovery management. In addition, we recommend that the common practice of within and out of range introductions in nature reserves to be regulated more carefully due to its potential ecological risks. We recommend the establishment of a national office and database to coordinate conservation translocations in China. Our review effort is timely considering the need for a comprehensive national guideline for the newly announced nation-wide conservation program on species with extremely

  6. Energy conservation indicators. 1982 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, D.B.

    1982-09-01

    A series of Energy Conservation Indicators were developed for the Department of Energy to assist in the evaluation of current and proposed conservation strategies. As descriptive statistics that signify current conditions and trends related to efficiency of energy use, indicators provide a way of measuring, monitoring, or inferring actual responses by consumers in markets for energy services. Related sets of indicators are presented in some 40 one-page indicator summaries. Indicators are shown graphically, followed by several paragraphs that explain their derivation and highlight key findings. Indicators are classified according to broad end-use sectors: Aggregate (economy), Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Transportation and Electric Utilities. In most cases annual time series information is presented covering the period 1960 through 1981.

  7. Conservation of Human Microsatellites across 450 Million Years of Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Buschiazzo, Emmanuel; Gemmell, Neil J.

    2010-01-01

    The sequencing and comparison of vertebrate genomes have enabled the identification of widely conserved genomic elements. Chief among these are genes and cis-regulatory regions, which are often under selective constraints that promote their retention in related organisms. The conservation of elements that either lack function or whose functions are yet to be ascribed has been relatively little investigated. In particular, microsatellites, a class of highly polymorphic repetitive sequences considered by most to be neutrally evolving junk DNA that is too labile to be maintained in distant species, have not been comprehensively studied in a comparative genomic framework. Here, we used the UCSC alignment of the human genome against those of 11 mammalian and five nonmammalian vertebrates to identify and examine the extent of conservation of human microsatellites in vertebrate genomes. Out of 696,016 microsatellites found in human sequences, 85.39% were conserved in at least one other species, whereas 28.65% and 5.98% were found in at least one and three nonprimate species, respectively. An exponential decline of microsatellite conservation with increasing evolutionary time, a comparable distribution of conserved versus nonconserved microsatellites in the human genome, and a positive correlation between microsatellite conservation and overall sequence conservation, all suggest that most microsatellites are only maintained in genomes by chance, although exceptionally conserved human microsatellites were also found in distant mammals and other vertebrates. Our findings provide the first comprehensive survey of microsatellite conservation across deep evolutionary timescales, in this case 450 Myr of vertebrate evolution, and provide new tools for the identification of functional conserved microsatellites, the development of cross-species microsatellite markers and the study of microsatellite evolution above the species level. PMID:20333231

  8. Feedbacks between conservation and social-ecological systems

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Brian W.; Caplow, Susan C.; Leslie, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    Robust ways to meet objectives of environmental conservation and social and economic development remain elusive. This struggle may in part be related to insufficient understanding of the feedbacks between conservation initiatives and social-ecological systems, specifically, the ways in which conservation initiatives result in social changes that have secondary effects on the environments targeted by conservation. To explore this idea we sampled peer-reviewed articles addressing the social and environmental dimensions of conservation and coded each paper according to its research focus and characterization of these feedbacks. The majority of articles in our sample focused either on the effect of conservation initiatives on people (e.g., relocation, employment) or the effect of people on the environment (e.g., fragmentation, conservation efficacy of traditional management systems). Few studies in our sample empirically addressed both the social dynamics resulting from conservation initiatives and subsequent environmental effects. In many cases, one was measured and the other was discussed anecdotally. Among the studies that describe feedbacks between social and environmental variables, there was more evidence of positive (amplifying) feedbacks between social and environmental outcomes (i.e., undesirable social outcomes yielded undesirable environmental effects, and desirable social outcomes yielded desirable environmental effects). The major themes within the sampled literature include conflict between humans and wild animals, social movements, adaptive comanagement, loss of traditional management systems, traditional ecological knowledge, human displacement and risks to livelihoods, and conservation and development. The narratives associated with each theme can serve as hypotheses for facilitating further discussion about conservation issues and for catalyzing future studies of the feedbacks between conservation and social-ecological systems. PMID:22443128

  9. Linking knowledge to action in collaborative conservation.

    PubMed

    Lauber, T Bruce; Stedman, Richard C; Decker, Daniel J; Knuth, Barbara A

    2011-12-01

    Authors have documented a "research-implementation gap" in conservation. Research intended to inform conservation practice often does not, and practice often is not informed by the best science. We used the literature on policy learning (i.e., literature attributing policy change to learning) to structure a study of how practice is informed by science in collaborative conservation. We studied implementation by U.S. states of state wildlife action plans. On the basis of 60 interviews with government and nongovernmental organization representatives, we identified 144 implementation initiatives for State Wildlife Action Plans that were collaborative. We conducted case studies of 6 of these initiatives, which included interviews of key individuals and analysis of written documents. We coded interview transcripts and written documents to identify factors that influence availability and use of scientific information. We integrated these factors into a model of collaborative conservation. Although tangible factors such as funding and labor directly affected the availability of scientific information, practitioners' ability and willingness to use the information depended on less tangible factors such as the quality of interpersonal relationships and dialogue. Our work demonstrates empirically that relationships and dialogue led to: (1) the sharing of resources, such as funding and labor, that were needed to carry out research and produce information and (2) agreement among researchers and practitioners on conservation objectives, which was necessary for that new information to inform action. Our findings can be understood in the context of broader concepts articulated in the policy-learning literature, which establishes that social learning (improving relationships and dialogue) provides the foundation for conceptual learning (setting objectives) and technical learning (determining how to achieve these objectives). PMID:21967145

  10. Intergenerational equity and conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otoole, R. P.; Walton, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    The issue of integenerational equity in the use of natural resources is discussed in the context of coal mining conversion. An attempt to determine if there is a clear-cut benefit to future generations in setting minimum coal extraction efficiency standards in mining is made. It is demonstrated that preserving fossil fuels beyond the economically efficient level is not necessarily beneficial to future generations even in terms of their own preferences. Setting fossil fuel conservation targets for intermediate products (i.e. energy) may increase the quantities of fossil fuels available to future generations and hence lower the costs, but there may be serious disadvantages to future generations as well. The use of relatively inexpensive fossil fuels in this generation may result in more infrastructure development and more knowledge production available to future generations. The value of fossil fuels versus these other endowments in the future depends on many factors which cannot possibly be evaluated at present. Since there is no idea of whether future generations are being helped or harmed, it is recommended that integenerational equity not be used as a factor in setting coal mine extraction efficiency standards, or in establishing requirements.

  11. The conservation and restoration of wild bees.

    PubMed

    Winfree, Rachael

    2010-05-01

    Bees pollinate most of the world's wild plant species and provide economically valuable pollination services to crops; yet knowledge of bee conservation biology lags far behind other taxa such as vertebrates and plants. There are few long-term data on bee populations, which makes their conservation status difficult to assess. The best-studied groups are the genus Bombus (the bumble bees), and bees in the EU generally; both of these are clearly declining. However, it is not known to what extent these groups represent the approximately 20,000 species of bees globally. As is the case for insects in general, bees are underrepresented in conservation planning and protection efforts. For example, only two bee species are on the global IUCN Red List, and no bee is listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act, even though many bee species are known to be in steep decline or possibly extinct. At present, bee restoration occurs mainly in agricultural contexts, funded by government programs such as agri-environment schemes (EU) and the Farm Bill (USA). This is a promising approach given that many bee species can use human-disturbed habitats, and bees provide valuable pollination services to crops. However, agricultural restorations only benefit species that persist in agricultural landscapes, and they are more expensive than preserving natural habitat elsewhere. Furthermore, such restorations benefit bees in only about half of studied cases. More research is greatly needed in many areas of bee conservation, including basic population biology, bee restoration in nonagricultural contexts, and the identification of disturbance-sensitive bee species. PMID:20536823

  12. Educating Astronauts About Conservation Biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews the training of astronauts in the interdisciplinary work of conservation biology. The primary responsibility of the conservation biologist at NASA is directing and supporting the photography of the Earth and maintaining the complete database of the photographs. In order to perform this work, the astronauts who take the pictures must be educated in ecological issues.

  13. Youth Development and Conservation Corps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, Olympia.

    Created in 1961 by the Washington State Legislature, the Youth Development and Conservation Corps (YDCC) affords youth and young men aged 14-21 employment opportunities in conservation programs that entail developing, improving, and maintaining natural and artificial recreation areas for the general public. It is designed to help young…

  14. Conservation Concepts in Elementary Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, John Ruthven

    1973-01-01

    Studied effectiveness of teaching conservation of chemical identity, composition, and mass to 12 boys and 11 girls of ages ranging from 11.11 to 12.10, using techniques analogous to Piaget's. Indicated the necessity of course re-examination to facilitate attainment of conservation concepts. (CC)

  15. Piagetian Conservation in Navajo Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odell, Sandra J.; Ferraro, Douglas P.

    In order to determine the cognitive development of Navajo children in terms of Piagetian conservation of number, mass, and continuous quantity, 168 Navajo children at seven different age levels from 5 to adult were presented with a series of three conservation tasks. The tasks consisted of a standard object and an equivalent object that could be…

  16. How Academe Shortchanges Conservative Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauerlein, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Notwithstanding the outcome of the recent election, in one respect, the last few decades mark a breakthrough era for conservative intellectuals. Their visibility has soared. Thirty years ago, the only place to find conservatives on television was Firing Line, William F. Buckley's urbane talk show. Today they appear on Meet the Press and 60…

  17. Recology: Material Conservation Program Fieldbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanwood, Bill

    Recology is the combination of teaching and learning through the interaction of conservation (waste management and recycling) and ecology. This fieldbook is designed to provide an overview of the development of a Recology environmental education program. The program facilitates infusion of material conservation education into existing curriculum.…

  18. Orchid conservation: making the links.

    PubMed

    Fay, Michael F; Pailler, Thierry; Dixon, Kingsley W

    2015-09-01

    Orchidaceae, one of the largest families of flowering plants, present particular challenges for conservation, due in great part to their often complex interactions with mycorrhizal fungi, pollinators and host trees. In this Highlight, we present seven papers focusing on orchids and their interactions and other factors relating to their conservation. PMID:26311710

  19. Creative Learning Experiences in Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is a collection of ten short articles originally published in "Soil Conservation" from 1964-1968. The articles are written for the teacher and are concerned with recent innovations in conservation education in various schools in the eastern United States. Innovations include school land laboratories, soil monolith tours for teachers,…

  20. Communication Skills for Conservation Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Susan K.

    This book provides in-depth guidance for students, scientists, managers, and professionals in achieving conservation goals through better communication. It introduces communication approaches--marketing and mass media, citizen participation, public information, environmental interpretation, and conservation education activities--and offers scores…

  1. Energy conservation and air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Air transportation demand and passenger energy demand are discussed, in relation to energy conservation. Alternatives to air travel are reviewed, along with airline advertising and ticket pricing. Cargo energy demand and airline systems efficiency are also examined, as well as fuel conservation techniques. Maximum efficiency of passenger aircraft, from B-747 to V/STOL to British Concorde, is compared.

  2. TECHNIQUES FOR TEACHING CONSERVATION EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROWN, ROBERT E.; MOUSER, G.W.

    CONSERVATION PRINCIPLES, FIELD METHODS AND TECHNIQUES, AND SPECIFIC FIELD LEARNING ACTIVITIES ARE INCLUDED IN THIS REFERENCE VOLUME FOR TEACHERS. CONSERVATION PRINCIPLES INCLUDE STATEMENTS PERTAINING TO (1) SOIL, (2) WATER, (3) FOREST, AND (4) WILDLIFE. FIELD METHODS AND TECHNIQUES INCLUDE (1) PREPARING FOR A FIELD TRIP, (2) GETTING STUDENT…

  3. Early functional, esthetic, and psychological rehabilitation of preschool child with nonsyndromic oligodontia and anodontia in mixed dentition stage through conservative systematic approach: A case report with 5-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Rathee, Manu; Malik, Poonam; Dua, Madhuri; Yadav, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Missing teeth are a common developmental abnormality in humans. It may manifest as absence of varying numbers of primary and/or secondary teeth. Early treatment and follow-up are the key to successful rehabilitation of young patients with congenitally missing teeth. It is critical that oral rehabilitation is started early to maintain and correct the oral functions. Mucosa borne removable prostheses are the commonly selected treatment options for the young patients who present with oligodontia or anodontia. This clinical report describes esthetic, functional, and psychological rehabilitation of a young boy with severe oligodontia in maxillary arch and anodontia in mandibular arch. The individualized conservative graded approach in prosthetic rehabilitation with removable acrylic prosthesis helped to achieve esthetics, functionality, and psychological benefits. PMID:27307674

  4. Optimal Conservation of Migratory Species

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Tara G.; Chadès, Iadine; Arcese, Peter; Marra, Peter P.; Possingham, Hugh P.; Norris, D. Ryan

    2007-01-01

    Background Migratory animals comprise a significant portion of biodiversity worldwide with annual investment for their conservation exceeding several billion dollars. Designing effective conservation plans presents enormous challenges. Migratory species are influenced by multiple events across land and sea–regions that are often separated by thousands of kilometres and span international borders. To date, conservation strategies for migratory species fail to take into account how migratory animals are spatially connected between different periods of the annual cycle (i.e. migratory connectivity) bringing into question the utility and efficiency of current conservation efforts. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we report the first framework for determining an optimal conservation strategy for a migratory species. Employing a decision theoretic approach using dynamic optimization, we address the problem of how to allocate resources for habitat conservation for a Neotropical-Nearctic migratory bird, the American redstart Setophaga ruticilla, whose winter habitat is under threat. Our first conservation strategy used the acquisition of winter habitat based on land cost, relative bird density, and the rate of habitat loss to maximize the abundance of birds on the wintering grounds. Our second strategy maximized bird abundance across the entire range of the species by adding the constraint of maintaining a minimum percentage of birds within each breeding region in North America using information on migratory connectivity as estimated from stable-hydrogen isotopes in feathers. We show that failure to take into account migratory connectivity may doom some regional populations to extinction, whereas including information on migratory connectivity results in the protection of the species across its entire range. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that conservation strategies for migratory animals depend critically upon two factors: knowledge of migratory

  5. Saving money with energy conservation: economic analysis of conservation measures

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, J.E.; Roller, D.A.; Moor, W.C.

    1980-01-01

    The basic tools for performing simple economic analyses of energy-conservation measures are reviewed. Energy accounting establishes energy-utilization patterns and performance goals. Directions for analyzing the utility bill are presented. Part 2 introduces ways to calculate the payback period, return on investment, and present worth of energy-conservation measures. Examples are given for reducing parking lot and indoor lighting, adding storm windows, reducing ventilation-fan running time, recycling boiler condensate, and shifting electrical-demand peak. A discussion of the inflation, depreciation, and income-tax ramifications of energy conservation is offered.

  6. Acid rain and electricity conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, H.; Miller, E.; Ledbetter, M.; Miller, P.

    1987-01-01

    Conservation directly lowers the emissions of SO/sub 2/ and other pollutants by reducing the amount of coal and other fuels that must be burned to meet electricity demand. This book is the first report to provide an integrated analysis of electricity supply, acid raid abatement, and conservation opportunities. The authors use a utility simulation model to examine SO/sub 2/ emissions, electric rates, and overall costs to consumers for different load growth and emissions control scenarios. The study also suggests how acid rain legislation can be designed to encourage electricity conservation.

  7. Conservation genetics in the USGS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobs, Ruth; Haig, Susan; Talbot, Sandy; Winton, James; King, Tim; Kendall, Kate

    2006-01-01

    Conservation genetics is the application of the tools and concepts of genetics to the conservation of biological resources. Once too sophisticated and expensive for routine use, the tools of conservation genetics are now widely used to address many complex management questions. These novel methods of analysis can augment assessments made with traditional methods and can bring new information to light. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is well suited to provide scientific information and expertise using these tools to support the management of biological resources.

  8. Biodiversity, conservation biology, and rational choice.

    PubMed

    Frank, David

    2014-03-01

    This paper critically discusses two areas of Sahotra Sarkar's recent work in environmental philosophy: biodiversity and conservation biology and roles for decision theory in incorporating values explicitly in the environmental policy process. I argue that Sarkar's emphasis on the practices of conservation biologists, and especially the role of social and cultural values in the choice of biodiversity constituents, restricts his conception of biodiversity to particular practical conservation contexts. I argue that life scientists have many reasons to measure many types of diversity, and that biodiversity metrics could be value-free. I argue that Sarkar's emphasis on the limitations of normative decision theory is in tension with his statement that decision theory can "put science and ethics together." I also challenge his claim that multi-criteria decision tools lacking axiomatic foundations in preference and utility theory are "without a rational basis," by presenting a case of a simple "outranking" multi-criteria decision rule that can violate a basic normative requirement of preferences (transitivity) and ask whether there may nevertheless be contexts in which such a procedure might assist decision makers. PMID:24216191

  9. Local Responses to Participatory Conservation in Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadka, Damodar; Nepal, Sanjay K.

    2010-02-01

    Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for participation. In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the barriers encountered in its implementation, a questionnaire survey of 188 households was employed in the communities of the Upper Mustang extension of Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. The study provides a comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers between Non-Tourist (NT) and Tourist (TV) villages. The results revealed important differences between the two groups in terms of their participation in community programs, barriers to participation, and perception of benefits from participation. Owing to their distinct spatial, demographic and attitudinal differences, the two village groups have their own sets of needs, values and motivation factors which cannot be generalized and treated as such. The research clearly identifies the need for the conservation agency to be creative in devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific social groups so as to optimize their input in participatory conservation.

  10. Local responses to participatory conservation in Annapurna conservation area, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Khadka, Damodar; Nepal, Sanjay K

    2010-02-01

    Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for participation. In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the barriers encountered in its implementation, a questionnaire survey of 188 households was employed in the communities of the Upper Mustang extension of Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. The study provides a comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers between Non-Tourist (NT) and Tourist (TV) villages. The results revealed important differences between the two groups in terms of their participation in community programs, barriers to participation, and perception of benefits from participation. Owing to their distinct spatial, demographic and attitudinal differences, the two village groups have their own sets of needs, values and motivation factors which cannot be generalized and treated as such. The research clearly identifies the need for the conservation agency to be creative in devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific social groups so as to optimize their input in participatory conservation. PMID:19967362

  11. Confronting and resolving competing values behind conservation objectives.

    PubMed

    Karp, Daniel S; Mendenhall, Chase D; Callaway, Elizabeth; Frishkoff, Luke O; Kareiva, Peter M; Ehrlich, Paul R; Daily, Gretchen C

    2015-09-01

    Diverse motivations for preserving nature both inspire and hinder its conservation. Optimal conservation strategies may differ radically depending on the objective. For example, creating nature reserves may prevent extinctions through protecting severely threatened species, whereas incentivizing farmland hedgerows may benefit people through bolstering pest-eating or pollinating species. Win-win interventions that satisfy multiple objectives are alluring, but can also be elusive. To achieve better outcomes, we developed and implemented a practical typology of nature conservation framed around seven common conservation objectives. Using an intensively studied bird assemblage in southern Costa Rica as a case study, we applied the typology in the context of biodiversity's most pervasive threat: habitat conversion. We found that rural habitats in a varied tropical landscape, comprising small farms, villages, forest fragments, and forest reserves, provided biodiversity-driven processes that benefit people, such as pollination, seed dispersal, and pest consumption. However, species valued for their rarity, endemism, and evolutionary distinctness declined in farmland. Conserving tropical forest on farmland increased species that international tourists value, but not species discussed in Costa Rican newspapers. Despite these observed trade-offs, our analyses also revealed promising synergies. For example, we found that maintaining forest cover surrounding farms in our study region would likely enhance most conservation objectives at minimal expense to others. Overall, our typology provides a framework for resolving the competing objectives of modern conservation. PMID:26283400

  12. Conservation laws and LETKF with 2D Shallow Water Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yuefei; Janjic, Tijana

    2016-04-01

    Numerous approaches have been proposed to maintain physical conservation laws in the numerical weather prediction models. However, to achieve a reliable prediction, adequate initial conditions are also necessary, which are produced by a data assimilation algorithm. If an ensemble Kalman filters (EnKF) is used for this purpose, it has been shown that it could yield unphysical analysis ensemble that for example violates principles of mass conservation and positivity preservation (e.g. Janjic et al 2014) . In this presentation, we discuss the selection of conservation criteria for the analysis step, and start with testing the conservation of mass, energy and enstrophy. The simple experiments deal with nonlinear shallow water equations and simulated observations that are assimilated with LETKF (Localized Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter, Hunt et al. 2007). The model is discretized in a specific way to conserve mass, angular momentum, energy and enstrophy. The effects of the data assimilation on the conserved quantities (of mass, energy and enstrophy) depend on observation covarage, localization radius, observed variable and observation operator. Having in mind that Arakawa (1966) and Arakawa and Lamb (1977) showed that the conservation of both kinetic energy and enstrophy by momentum advection schemes in the case of nondivergent flow prevents systematic and unrealistic energy cascade towards high wave numbers, a cause of excessive numerical noise and possible eventual nonlinear instability, we test the effects on prediction depending on the type of errors in the initial condition. The performance with respect to nonlinear energy cascade is assessed as well.

  13. Confronting and resolving competing values behind conservation objectives

    PubMed Central

    Karp, Daniel S.; Mendenhall, Chase D.; Callaway, Elizabeth; Frishkoff, Luke O.; Kareiva, Peter M.; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Daily, Gretchen C.

    2015-01-01

    Diverse motivations for preserving nature both inspire and hinder its conservation. Optimal conservation strategies may differ radically depending on the objective. For example, creating nature reserves may prevent extinctions through protecting severely threatened species, whereas incentivizing farmland hedgerows may benefit people through bolstering pest-eating or pollinating species. Win-win interventions that satisfy multiple objectives are alluring, but can also be elusive. To achieve better outcomes, we developed and implemented a practical typology of nature conservation framed around seven common conservation objectives. Using an intensively studied bird assemblage in southern Costa Rica as a case study, we applied the typology in the context of biodiversity’s most pervasive threat: habitat conversion. We found that rural habitats in a varied tropical landscape, comprising small farms, villages, forest fragments, and forest reserves, provided biodiversity-driven processes that benefit people, such as pollination, seed dispersal, and pest consumption. However, species valued for their rarity, endemism, and evolutionary distinctness declined in farmland. Conserving tropical forest on farmland increased species that international tourists value, but not species discussed in Costa Rican newspapers. Despite these observed trade-offs, our analyses also revealed promising synergies. For example, we found that maintaining forest cover surrounding farms in our study region would likely enhance most conservation objectives at minimal expense to others. Overall, our typology provides a framework for resolving the competing objectives of modern conservation. PMID:26283400

  14. Contests In Conservation and Horticulture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Richard D.

    1977-01-01

    Growing interest in conservation and horticulture in New York State has caused the addition of these specialized areas to the annual statewide agricultural education contests. Contest categories in both areas are listed. (MF)

  15. Energy conservation in quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prentis, Jeffrey J.; Fedak, William A.

    2004-05-01

    In the classical mechanics of conservative systems, the position and momentum evolve deterministically such that the sum of the kinetic energy and potential energy remains constant in time. This canonical trademark of energy conservation is absent in the standard presentations of quantum mechanics based on the Schrödinger picture. We present a purely canonical proof of energy conservation that focuses exclusively on the time-dependent position x(t) and momentum p(t) operators. This treatment of energy conservation serves as an introduction to the Heisenberg picture and illuminates the classical-quantum connection. We derive a quantum-mechanical work-energy theorem and show explicitly how the time dependence of x and p and the noncommutivity of x and p conspire to bring about a perfect temporal balance between the evolving kinetic and potential parts of the total energy operator.

  16. Conservative smoothing versus artificial viscosity

    SciTech Connect

    Guenther, C.; Hicks, D.L.; Swegle, J.W.

    1994-08-01

    This report was stimulated by some recent investigations of S.P.H. (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method). Solid dynamics computations with S.P.H. show symptoms of instabilities which are not eliminated by artificial viscosities. Both analysis and experiment indicate that conservative smoothing eliminates the instabilities in S.P.H. computations which artificial viscosities cannot. Questions were raised as to whether conservative smoothing might smear solutions more than artificial viscosity. Conservative smoothing, properly used, can produce more accurate solutions than the von Neumann-Richtmyer-Landshoff artificial viscosity which has been the standard for many years. The authors illustrate this using the vNR scheme on a test problem with known exact solution involving a shock collision in an ideal gas. They show that the norms of the errors with conservative smoothing are significantly smaller than the norms of the errors with artificial viscosity.

  17. 76 FR 22785 - Wetland Conservation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... Water Act (CWA) and Title XII of the Food Security Act of 1985 (FSA). The MOA was developed to... Subjects in 7 CFR Part 12 Administrative practices and procedures, Soil conservation, Wetlands. For...

  18. The NASA Energy Conservation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffney, G. P.

    1977-01-01

    Large energy-intensive research and test equipment at NASA installations is identified, and methods for reducing energy consumption outlined. However, some of the research facilities are involved in developing more efficient, fuel-conserving aircraft, and tradeoffs between immediate and long-term conservation may be necessary. Major programs for conservation include: computer-based systems to automatically monitor and control utility consumption; a steam-producing solid waste incinerator; and a computer-based cost analysis technique to engineer more efficient heating and cooling of buildings. Alternate energy sources in operation or under evaluation include: solar collectors; electric vehicles; and ultrasonically emulsified fuel to attain higher combustion efficiency. Management support, cooperative participation by employees, and effective reporting systems for conservation programs, are also discussed.

  19. Conservation Planning for Ecosystem Services

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kai M. A; Shaw, M. Rebecca; Cameron, David R; Underwood, Emma C; Daily, Gretchen C

    2006-01-01

    Despite increasing attention to the human dimension of conservation projects, a rigorous, systematic methodology for planning for ecosystem services has not been developed. This is in part because flows of ecosystem services remain poorly characterized at local-to-regional scales, and their protection has not generally been made a priority. We used a spatially explicit conservation planning framework to explore the trade-offs and opportunities for aligning conservation goals for biodiversity with six ecosystem services (carbon storage, flood control, forage production, outdoor recreation, crop pollination, and water provision) in the Central Coast ecoregion of California, United States. We found weak positive and some weak negative associations between the priority areas for biodiversity conservation and the flows of the six ecosystem services across the ecoregion. Excluding the two agriculture-focused services—crop pollination and forage production—eliminates all negative correlations. We compared the degree to which four contrasting conservation network designs protect biodiversity and the flow of the six services. We found that biodiversity conservation protects substantial collateral flows of services. Targeting ecosystem services directly can meet the multiple ecosystem services and biodiversity goals more efficiently but cannot substitute for targeted biodiversity protection (biodiversity losses of 44% relative to targeting biodiversity alone). Strategically targeting only biodiversity plus the four positively associated services offers much promise (relative biodiversity losses of 7%). Here we present an initial analytical framework for integrating biodiversity and ecosystem services in conservation planning and illustrate its application. We found that although there are important potential trade-offs between conservation for biodiversity and for ecosystem services, a systematic planning framework offers scope for identifying valuable synergies. PMID

  20. Energy Conservation vs. Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Somasundaram, Sriram

    2010-09-30

    Energy conservation is considered by some as synonymous with energy efficiency, but to others, it has a meaning of getting fewer or lower quality energy services. The degree of confusion between these meanings varies widely by individual, culture, historic period and language spoken. In the context of this document, energy conservation means to keep from being lost or wasted; saved, and energy efficiency means the ability to produce a desired effect or product with a minimum of effort, expense or waste.

  1. [Conservative restoration of pulpectomized teeth].

    PubMed

    Lasfargues, J J

    1990-04-01

    In endodontic treatment of teeth, partial or "conservative" crown reconstructions are clinically acceptable where loss of substance is limited and recourse to radicular pivots is contraindicated. Such reconstructions bring into play a variety of currently available biomaterials, including those inserted in the plastic phase. They make it possible to delay a prosthetic solution (full crown restoration) without impinging on the conservation of the devitalized tooth. PMID:2135781

  2. Conservation of helicity in superfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedia, Hridesh; Kleckner, Dustin; Proment, Davide; Irvine, William T. M.

    2015-03-01

    Helicity arises as a special conserved quantity in ideal fluids, in addition to energy, momentum and angular momentum. As a measure of the knottedness of vortex lines, Helicity provides an important tool for studying a wide variety of physical systems such as plasmas and turbulent fluids. Superfluids flow without resistance just like ideal (Euler) fluids, making it natural to ask whether their knottedness is similarly preserved. We address the conservation of helicity in superfluids theoretically and examine its consequences in numerical simulations.

  3. The political economy of conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A political economic purview of energy conservation in the United States was delineated. The concepts of substitution and elasticity are distinguished, and further distinctions are made between short run price elasticity, cross price elasticity, and available fund elasticity. An assessment of the role which cost factors can play in conservation is given. The structure of the petroleum industry and foreign petroleum resources is discussed. Also discussed is the role of government, industry and the consumer with the economic sphere.

  4. Comparative genomics for biodiversity conservation

    PubMed Central

    Grueber, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    Genomic approaches are gathering momentum in biology and emerging opportunities lie in the creative use of comparative molecular methods for revealing the processes that influence diversity of wildlife. However, few comparative genomic studies are performed with explicit and specific objectives to aid conservation of wild populations. Here I provide a brief overview of comparative genomic approaches that offer specific benefits to biodiversity conservation. Because conservation examples are few, I draw on research from other areas to demonstrate how comparing genomic data across taxa may be used to inform the characterisation of conservation units and studies of hybridisation, as well as studies that provide conservation outcomes from a better understanding of the drivers of divergence. A comparative approach can also provide valuable insight into the threatening processes that impact rare species, such as emerging diseases and their management in conservation. In addition to these opportunities, I note areas where additional research is warranted. Overall, comparing and contrasting the genomic composition of threatened and other species provide several useful tools for helping to preserve the molecular biodiversity of the global ecosystem. PMID:26106461

  5. Targeted gene flow for conservation.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Ella; Phillips, Ben L

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic threats often impose strong selection on affected populations, causing rapid evolutionary responses. Unfortunately, these adaptive responses are rarely harnessed for conservation. We suggest that conservation managers pay close attention to adaptive processes and geographic variation, with an eye to using them for conservation goals. Translocating pre-adapted individuals into recipient populations is currently considered a potentially important management tool in the face of climate change. Targeted gene flow, which involves moving individuals with favorable traits to areas where these traits would have a conservation benefit, could have a much broader application in conservation. Across a species' range there may be long-standing geographic variation in traits or variation may have rapidly developed in response to a threatening process. Targeted gene flow could be used to promote natural resistance to threats to increase species resilience. We suggest that targeted gene flow is a currently underappreciated strategy in conservation that has applications ranging from the management of invasive species and their impacts to controlling the impact and virulence of pathogens. PMID:26332195

  6. Limb conservation using non vascularised fibular grafts.

    PubMed

    Omololu, B; Ogunlade, S O; Alonge, T O

    2002-01-01

    This paper highlights the use of non-vascularised fibular graft in limb reconstruction from bone loss due to trauma and infection. Bone loss can occur from severe high velocity injuries due to road traffic accidents, severe neglected infections, and osteolytic tumours. In majority of cases, the surgeon is left with the only option of an amputation especially where there is no access to microvascular surgery and microvascular bone grafting devices. This is a major problem in the West African subregion hence the need for this article. We present illustrative cases of limb conservation in an adult involved in a high velocity trauma and a child with a destructive osteolytic infection culminating in bone loss. The patients are still been followed up in our surgical outpatient clinics. PMID:12665286

  7. Indirect laminate veneer: a conservative novel approach.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Paranjay; Sethuraman, Rajesh; Naveen, Y G; Patel, Jayanti R

    2013-01-01

    Various treatment options and materials are available for restoration of an endodontically treated tooth. Laminate veneer is conservative treatment usually employed for aesthetic correction or improvement. The indirect composite is available in a wide range of shades and specific characterisation is easily performed chair side in the operatory area, which makes it a quick procedure and time saving for both the patient and the dentist. The physical properties and optical properties are good enough to use it as indirect restorative material, so in this particular case it was the material of choice for fabrication of laminate veneer on anterior tooth. In this case, the endodontically treated tooth with a fractured incisal edge was restored with indirect composite material. PMID:23975914

  8. IOERT as anticipated tumor bed boost during breast-conserving surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer--results of a case series after 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Fastner, Gerd; Reitsamer, Roland; Ziegler, Ingrid; Zehentmayr, Franz; Fussl, Christoph; Kopp, Peter; Peintinger, Florentia; Greil, Richard; Fischer, Thorsten; Deutschmann, Heinrich; Sedlmayer, Felix

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate retrospectively rates of local (LCR) and locoregional tumor control (LRCR) in patients with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) who were treated with preoperative chemotherapy (primary systemic treatment, PST) followed by breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and either intraoperative radiotherapy with electrons (IOERT) preceding whole-breast irradiation (WBI) (Group 1) or with WBI followed by an external tumor bed boost (electrons or photons) instead of IOERT (Group 2). From 2002 to 2007, 83 patients with clinical Stage II or III breast cancer were enrolled in Group 1 and 26 in Group 2. All patients received PST followed by BCS and axillary lymph node dissection. IOERT boosts were applied by single doses of 9 Gy (90% reference isodose) versus external boosts of 12 Gy (median dose range, 6-16) in 2 Gy/fraction (ICRU). WBI in both groups was performed up to total doses of 51-57 Gy (1.7-1.8 Gy/fraction). The respective median follow-up times for Groups 1 and 2 amount 59 months (range, 3-115) and 67.5 months (range, 13-120). Corresponding 6-year rates for LCR, LRCR, metastasis-free survival, disease-specific survival and overall survival were 98.5, 97.2, 84.7, 89.2 and 86.4% for Group 1 and 88.1, 88.1, 74, 92 and 92% for Group 2, respectively, without any statistical significances. IOERT as boost modality during BCS in LABC after PST shows a trend to be superior in terms of LCR and LRCR in comparison with conventional boosts. PMID:24995409

  9. Interference and the Law of Energy Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drosd, Robert; Minkin, Leonid; Shapovalov, Alexander S.

    2014-10-01

    Introductory physics textbooks consider interference to be a process of redistribution of energy from the wave sources in the surrounding space resulting in constructive and destructive interferences. As one can expect, the total energy flux is conserved. However, one case of apparent non-conservation energy attracts great attention.1,2 Imagine that a pair of coherent, point-like wave sources (located at the same position) radiates sinusoidal waves of amplitude A, spreading in a uniform medium. Assume also that radiation of the two sources is in phase. Since the energy of oscillation, E, is proportional to amplitude squared, one quickly arrives at an apparent paradox. That is, the energy of oscillation in every point due to only one source is E0=CA2 (C is the coefficient of proportionality), while according to the linear superposition principle, the combined amplitude of oscillations from the two sources is 2A and the energy of oscillations is E =C(2A)2=4CA2=4E0, i.e., four (not two) times greater than the energy of oscillation of one isolated source in the absence of the second. In the general case, superposition of two waves with identical amplitudes and wavelengths produces a wave with an intensity somewhere between zero and four times the intensity of a single wave source (depending on relative phase of the two waves). This leads to the obvious question: how can we account for the extra (or missing) energy that necessarily results from in-phase (or anti-phase) wave interference? This apparent violation of the principle of conservation energy, due to the superposition of waves, is the primary topic of this paper.

  10. [Conservative and surgical management of chronic Rhinosinustitis].

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Hergen; Negoias, Simona; Caversaccio, Marco Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis is a common complex medical condition associated with high therapy costs and quality of life impairment. The European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps (EPOS) 2012 delineates the current standard of management of the patient with chronic rhinosinusitis for both defined disease forms: with and without polyps. Medical history and endoscopic or CT findings are needed for the correct diagnosis. Therapy of chronic rhinosinusitis aims at achieving a local disease control and reducing patients' symptoms. The center point of conservative therapy of both forms is the topical application of steroids together with nasal saline irrigations. In case of persistence of symptoms or in severe chronic rhinosinusitis with polyps, different local application methods of steroids or short systemic steroid cures should be considered. In case of insufficient disease control with conservative treatment, functional endoscopic sinus surgery is the accepted as “gold standard”. Purpose of the surgical management is opening of the sinus ostia in order to improve sinus ventilation and mucociliary clearance as well as to facilitate a wide distribution of topical drugs. Due to technical advances, endoscopic sinus has been reported to be a safe and effective procedure. PMID:27132639

  11. The role of vocal individuality in conservation

    PubMed Central

    Terry, Andrew MR; Peake, Tom M; McGregor, Peter K

    2005-01-01

    Identifying the individuals within a population can generate information on life history parameters, generate input data for conservation models, and highlight behavioural traits that may affect management decisions and error or bias within census methods. Individual animals can be discriminated by features of their vocalisations. This vocal individuality can be utilised as an alternative marking technique in situations where the marks are difficult to detect or animals are sensitive to disturbance. Vocal individuality can also be used in cases were the capture and handling of an animal is either logistically or ethically problematic. Many studies have suggested that vocal individuality can be used to count and monitor populations over time; however, few have explicitly tested the method in this role. In this review we discuss methods for extracting individuality information from vocalisations and techniques for using this to count and monitor populations over time. We present case studies in birds where vocal individuality has been applied to conservation and we discuss its role in mammals. PMID:15960848

  12. Evaluating local benefits from conservation in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area.

    PubMed

    Spiteri, Arian; Nepal, Sanjay K

    2008-09-01

    Protected areas are integral to the global effort to conserve biodiversity, and, over the past two decades, protected area managers have begun to recognize that conservation objectives are next to impossible to achieve without considering the needs and concerns of local communities. Incentive-based programs (IBPs) have become a favored approach to protected area management, geared at fostering local stewardship by delivering benefits tied to conservation to local people. Effective IBPs require benefits to accrue to and be recognized by those experiencing the greatest consequences as a result of the protected area, and those likely to continue extractive activities if their livelihood needs are compromised. This research examines dispersal of IBP benefits, as perceived by local residents in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area. Results reported here are based on questionnaire interviews with 188 households conducted between September and December 2004. Results indicate that local residents primarily identify benefits from social development activities, provisions for resource extraction, and economic opportunities. Overall, benefits have been dispersed equally to households in villages on and off the main tourist route, and regardless of a household's participation in tourism. However, benefits are not effectively targeted to poorer residents, those highly dependent on natural resources, and those experiencing the most crop damage and livestock loss from protected wildlife. This article provides several suggestions for improving the delivery of conservation incentives. PMID:18458999

  13. Water Conservation and Water Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2014-12-01

    Water storage can be a viable part of the solution to water conservation. This means that we should include reservoirs. Regardless, one should evaluate all aspects of water conservation principles. Recent drought in California indicates that there is an urgent need to re-visit the techniques used to maintain the water supply-chain mechanism in the entire state. We all recognize the fact that fish and wildlife depend on the streams, rivers and wetlands for survival. It is a well-known fact that there is an immediate need to provide solid protection to all these resources. Laws and regulations should help meet the needs of natural systems. Farmers may be forced to drilling wells deeper than ever. But, they will be eventually depleting groundwater reserves. Needless to say that birds, fish and wildlife cannot access these groundwater table. California is talking a lot about conservation. Unfortunately, the conservation efforts have not established a strong visible hold. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN (Narayanan, 2012). It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The author has previously reported these in detail at the 2012 AGU fall meeting. References: Ziegler, Jay (15 JUNE 2014). The Conversation: Water conservation efforts aren't taking hold, but there are encouraging signs. THE SACRAMENTO BEE. California. Narayanan, Mysore. (2012). The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century. 72nd AGU International Conference. Eos Transactions: American Geophysical Union, Vol. 92, No. 56, Fall Meeting Supplement, 2012. H31I - 1255.http://www.sacbee.com/2014/06/15/6479862/jay-ziegler-water-conservation.html#storylink=cpy

  14. Forest conservation delivers highly variable coral reef conservation outcomes.

    PubMed

    Klein, Carissa J; Jupiter, Stacy D; Selig, Elizabeth R; Watts, Matthew E; Halpern, Benjamin S; Kamal, Muhammad; Roelfsema, Chris; Possingham, Hugh P

    2012-06-01

    Coral reefs are threatened by human activities on both the land (e.g., deforestation) and the sea (e.g., overfishing). Most conservation planning for coral reefs focuses on removing threats in the sea, neglecting management actions on the land. A more integrated approach to coral reef conservation, inclusive of land-sea connections, requires an understanding of how and where terrestrial conservation actions influence reefs. We address this by developing a land-sea planning approach to inform fine-scale spatial management decisions and test it in Fiji. Our aim is to determine where the protection of forest can deliver the greatest return on investment for coral reef ecosystems. To assess the benefits of conservation to coral reefs, we estimate their relative condition as influenced by watershed-based pollution and fishing. We calculate the cost-effectiveness of protecting forest and find that investments deliver rapidly diminishing returns for improvements to relative reef condition. For example, protecting 2% of forest in one area is almost 500 times more beneficial than protecting 2% in another area, making prioritization essential. For the scenarios evaluated, relative coral reef condition could be improved by 8-58% if all remnant forest in Fiji were protected rather than deforested. Finally, we determine the priority of each coral reef for implementing a marine protected area when all remnant forest is protected for conservation. The general results will support decisions made by the Fiji Protected Area Committee as they establish a national protected area network that aims to protect 20% of the land and 30% of the inshore waters by 2020. Although challenges remain, we can inform conservation decisions around the globe by tackling the complex issues relevant to integrated land-sea planning. PMID:22827132

  15. Decentralizing conservation and diversifying livelihoods within Kanchenjunga Conservation Area, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Parker, Pete; Thapa, Brijesh; Jacob, Aerin

    2015-12-01

    To alleviate poverty and enhance conservation in resource dependent communities, managers must identify existing livelihood strategies and the associated factors that impede household access to livelihood assets. Researchers increasingly advocate reallocating management power from exclusionary central institutions to a decentralized system of management based on local and inclusive participation. However, it is yet to be shown if decentralizing conservation leads to diversified livelihoods within a protected area. The purpose of this study was to identify and assess factors affecting household livelihood diversification within Nepal's Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project, the first protected area in Asia to decentralize conservation. We randomly surveyed 25% of Kanchenjunga households to assess household socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and access to livelihood assets. We used a cluster analysis with the ten most common income generating activities (both on- and off-farm) to group the strategies households use to diversify livelihoods, and a multinomial logistic regression to identify predictors of livelihood diversification. We found four distinct groups of household livelihood strategies with a range of diversification that directly corresponded to household income. The predictors of livelihood diversification were more related to pre-existing socioeconomic and demographic factors (e.g., more landholdings and livestock, fewer dependents, receiving remittances) than activities sponsored by decentralizing conservation (e.g., microcredit, training, education, interaction with project staff). Taken together, our findings indicate that without direct policies to target marginalized groups, decentralized conservation in Kanchenjunga will continue to exclude marginalized groups, limiting a household's ability to diversify their livelihood and perpetuating their dependence on natural resources. PMID:26363256

  16. Hydrogeochemistry of a Small Tropical River Basin with Special Reference to Ground Water Recharge Estimation Using Conservative Chloride Mass Balance Method: a Case Study from Southwest Coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurumurthy, P. G.; Balakrishna, K.; Riotte, J.; Audry, S.; Tripti, M.; Braun, J.; Udayashankar, H. N.

    2011-12-01

    accomplished by using a mass balance of the conservative chloride ion. It is found that the mean chloride concentration in ground water is 4.8mg/L and mean chloride concentration in precipitation is 1.3mg/L. The calculated ground water recharge is >15% of the total precipitation. The ground water discharge is estimated by balancing the mass of chloride in surface runoff, precipitation and groundwater.

  17. Conservation Paleobiology: Leveraging Knowledge of the Past to Inform Conservation and Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietl, Gregory P.; Kidwell, Susan M.; Brenner, Mark; Burney, David A.; Flessa, Karl W.; Jackson, Stephen T.; Koch, Paul L.

    2015-05-01

    Humans now play a major role in altering Earth and its biota. Finding ways to ameliorate human impacts on biodiversity and to sustain and restore the ecosystem services on which we depend is a grand scientific and societal challenge. Conservation paleobiology is an emerging discipline that uses geohistorical data to meet these challenges by developing and testing models of how biota respond to environmental stressors. Here we (a) describe how the discipline has already provided insights about biotic responses to key environmental stressors, (b) outline research aimed at disentangling the effects of multiple stressors, (c) provide examples of deliverables for managers and policy makers, and (d) identify methodological advances in geohistorical analysis that will foster the next major breakthroughs in conservation outcomes. We highlight cases for which exclusive reliance on observations of living biota may lead researchers to erroneous conclusions about the nature and magnitude of biotic change, vulnerability, and resilience.

  18. Conservation laws for Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mothibi, Dimpho Millicent

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we study the Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur equation, which has many applications in several physical phenomena. We perform the Noether symmetries analysis for this equation. Thereafter we construct the conservation laws for those cases which admit the Noether operators.

  19. The conservative management of acute pyogenic iliopsoas abscess in children.

    PubMed

    Tong, C W; Griffith, J F; Lam, T P; Cheng, J C

    1998-01-01

    We describe three cases of acute pyogenic abscess of the iliopsoas in children treated conservatively. Two patients had image-guided aspiration and one was managed with antibiotics alone. All made a complete recovery. Acute pyogenic abscess of the iliopsoas in children can be treated effectively and safely with intravenous antibiotics and image-guided aspiration of the abscess. PMID:9460958

  20. Conservation laws and symmetries of the shallow water system above rough bottom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksenov, A. V.; Druzhkov, K. P.

    2016-06-01

    The system of one-dimensional shallow water equations above the rough bottom is considered. All its hydrodynamic conservation laws are found, and a group classification is performed. A new conservation law additional to the two basic conservation laws is found. It is shown that the system of shallow water equations can be linearized by a point change of variables only in cases of constant and linear bottom profiles.