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1

PAR  

E-print Network

La diffusion de cette thèse se fait dans le respect des droits de son auteur, qui a signé le formulaire Autorisation de reproduire et de diffuser un travail de recherche de cycles supérieurs (SDU-522- Rév.01-2006). Cette autorisation stipule que «conformément à l'article 11 du Règlement no 8 des études de cycles supérieurs, [l'auteur] concède à l'Université du Québec à Montréal une licence non exclusive d'utilisation et de publication de la totalité ou d'une partie importante de [son] travail de recherche pour des fins pédagogiques et non commerciales. Plus précisément, [l'auteur] autorise l'Université du Québec à Montréal à reproduire, diffuser, prêter, distribuer ou vendre des copies de [son] travail de recherche à des fins non commerciales sur quelque support que ce soit, y compris l'Internet. Cette licence et cette autorisation n'entraînent pas une renonciation de [la] part [de l'auteur] à [ses] droits moraux ni à [ses] droits de propriété intellectuelle. Sauf entente contraire, [l'auteur] conserve la liberté de diffuser et de commercialiser ou non ce travail dont [il] possède un exemplaire. » REMERCIEMENTS Je tiens tout d'abord à offrir mes plus sincères remerciements à ma directrice de thèse, Isabelle Rouleau, qui de par son soutien, sa générosité et son style d'encadrement

Université Du Québec À Montréal; Rôle De; La Neuropsychologie; Dans Les; Études Génétiques; Du Doctorat; En Psychologie; Geneviève Sénéchal; Juillet Il; Université Du; Québec À Montréal; Service Des Bibliothèques

2

EFFETS DES FAIBLES IRRADIATIONS SUR L'URANIUM Par Y. QUR,  

E-print Network

489. EFFETS DES FAIBLES IRRADIATIONS SUR L'URANIUM Par Y. QUÉRÉ, Centre d'Études Nucléaires de fragments de fission dans l'uranium, on présente quelques résultats de mesure de longueur et de résistivité modifiés. Abstract. 2014 After recalling Brinkman's model for the action of fission fragments on uranium

Boyer, Edmond

3

Calcul par simulation des paramètres dosimétriques pour le noyau cellulaire après irradiation ? in vitro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determination of absorbed dose in biological targets after high LET ? particules irradiation needs heavy calculations. A softwave has been developed in order to allow everyone to calculate hit probability and absorbed dose. It is particularly adapted to the study of cell cultures irradiated with electrodeposited source or ?-beam accelerator. It is based first, on a random generator of ?-track homogeneously distributed in 4?, second, on the evaluation of energy loss in the different media along the track and then on a statistical analysis of the results. This method is accurate and low time consuming. The target is either modelised by an ellipsoid or represented by its 3D shape recorded using confocal microscopy. Des calculs dosimétriques complexes sont nécessaires pour l'évaluation des doses délivrées dans des cibles biologiques après irradiation par des particules ? de haut TEL. Un logiciel a été développé pour rendre facilement accessible le calcul de la probabilité pour atteindre la cible et de la dose absorbée. il est particulièrement adapté à l'étude des cultures cellulaires irradiées par des sources électrodéposées de radionucléides ou des accélérateurs de particules. Il repose sur un générateur de traces aléatoires, sur une approximation de la perte d'énergie dans les différents milieux traversés et sur une exploitation statistique des résultats obtenus. Cette méthode s'avère précise et rapide. La cible est modélisée par un ellipsoïde ou représentée par son image 3D obtenue en microscopie confocale.

Le Foll, L.; Bailly, I.; Fritsch, P.

1998-04-01

4

PAR  

E-print Network

La diffusion de cette thèse se fait dans le respect des droits de son auteur, qui a signé le formulaire Autorisation de reproduire et de diffuser un travail de recherche de cycles supérieurs (SDU-522- Rév.01-2006). Cette autorisation stipule que «conformément à l'article 11 du Règlement no 8 des études de cycles supérieurs, [l'auteur] concède à l'Université du Québec à Montréal une licence non · exclusive d'utilisation et de publication de la totalité ou d'une partie importante de [son] travail de recherche pour des fins pédagogiques et non commerciales. Plus précisément, [l'auteur] autorise l'Université du Québec à Montréal à reproduire, diffuser, prêter, distribuer ou vendre des copies de [son] travail de recherche à des fins non commerciales sur quelque support que ce soit, y compris l'lnternE?t. Cette licence et cette autorisation n'entraînent pas une renonciation de [la] part [de l'auteur] à [ses] droits moraux ni à [ses] droits de propriété intellectuelle. Sauf entente contraire, [l'auteur] conserve la liberté de diffuser et de commercialiser ou non ce travail dont [il] possède un exemplaire. » REMERCIEMENTS Je tiens tout d'abord à remercier mon directeur de thèse, Jérôme Claverie, qui a toujours été très présent au cours de ces quatre années. Il a su me motiver dans ce

Université Du Québec À Montréal; Base De; Palladium Et; De Ruthénium; Pour La Polymérisation; Du Doctorat; En Chimie; Laurence Piché; Novembre Université; Du Québec; À Montréal; Service Des Bibliothèques

5

PAR  

E-print Network

La diffusion de cette thèse se fait dans le respect des droits de son auteur, qui a signé le formulaire Autorisation de reproduire et de diffuser un travail de recherche de cycles supérieurs (SDU-522- Rév.01-200G). Cette autorisation stipule que «conformément à l'article 11 du Règlement no 8 des études de cycles supérieurs, [l'auteur] concède à l'Université du Québec à Montréal une licence non exclusive d'utilisation et de publication de la totalité ou d'une partie importante de [son] travail de recherche pour des fins pédagogiques et non commerciales. Plus précisément, [l'auteur] autorise l'Université du Québec à Montréal à reproduire, diffuser, prêter, distribuer ou vendre des copies de [son] travail de recherche à des fins non commerciales sur quelque support que ce soit, y compris l'Internet. Cette licence et cette autorisation n'entraînent pas une renonciation de [la] part [de l'auteur] à [ses] droits moraux ni à [ses] droits de propriété intellectuelle. Sauf entente contraire, [l'auteur] conserve la liberté de diffuser et de commercialiser ou non ce travail dont [il] possède un exemplaire. » REMERCIEMENTS La réalisation d'une thèse de doctorat est certes un long chemin, très difficile à parcourir sans le support et l'appui de riches collaborateurs. Merci au professeur

Des Difficultés; Du Doctorat; En Psychologie; Véronique Parent; Mars Université; Du Québec; À Montréal; Service Des Bibliothèques

6

PAR  

E-print Network

La diffusion de cette thèse se fait dans le respect des droits de son auteur, qui a signé le formulaire Autorisation de reproduire et de diffuser un travail de recherche de cycles supérieurs (SDU-522- Rév.01-2006). Cette autorisation stipule que «conformément à l'article 11 du Règlement no 8 des études de cycles supérieurs, [l'auteur] concède à l'Université du Québec à Montréal une licence non exclusive d'utilisation et de publication de la totalité ou d'une partie importante de [son] travail de recherche pour des fins pédagogiques et non commerciales. Plus précisément, [l'auteur] autorise l'Université du Québec à Montréal à reproduire, diffuser, prêter, distribuer ou vendre des copies de [son] travail de recherche à des fins non commerciales sur quelque support que ce soit, y compris l'lntern~t. Cette licence et cette autorisation n'entraînent pas une renonciation de [la] part [de l'auteur] à [ses] droits moraux ni à [ses] droits de propriété intellectuelle. Sauf entente contraire, [l'auteur] conserve la liberté de diffuser et de commercialiser ou non ce travail dont [il] possède un exemplaire.)) · REMERCIEMENTS Merci à ma directrice de thèse, Marie-Claude Guay, d'avoir cru en moi bien avant mon admission au doctorat. Merci pour la latitude personnelle et professionnelle que

Du Traitement; Des Troubles; Anxieux Sur; Les Comportements; Et Les; Déficits Cognitifs; Associés Au; Trouble Déficitaire De; Du Doctorat; En Psychologie; Isabelle Denis; Juin Université; Du Québec; À Montréal; Service Des Bibliothèques

7

Row orientation effect on UV-B, UV-A and PAR solar irradiation components in vineyards at Tuscany, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Besides playing an essential role in plant photosynthesis, solar radiation is also involved in many other important biological processes. In particular, it has been demonstrated that ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation plays a relevant role in grapevines ( Vitis vinifera) in the production of certain important chemical compounds directly responsible for yield and wine quality. Moreover, the exposure to UV-B radiation (280-320 nm) can affect plant-disease interaction by influencing the behaviour of both pathogen and host. The main objective of this research was to characterise the solar radiative regime of a vineyard, in terms of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and UV components. In this analysis, solar spectral UV irradiance components, broadband UV (280-400 nm), spectral UV-B and UV-A (320-400 nm), the biological effective UVBE, as well as the PAR (400-700 nm) component, were all considered. The diurnal patterns of these quantities and the UV-B/PAR and UV-B/UV-A ratios were analysed to investigate the effect of row orientation of the vineyard in combination with solar azimuth and elevation angles. The distribution of PAR and UV irradiance at various heights of the vertical sides of the rows was also studied. The results showed that the highest portion of plants received higher levels of daily radiation, especially the UV-B component. Row orientation of the vines had a pronounced effect on the global PAR received by the two sides of the rows and, to a lesser extent, UV-A and UV-B. When only the diffused component was considered, this geometrical effect was greatly attenuated. UV-B/PAR and UV-A/PAR ratios were also affected, with potential consequences on physiological processes. Because of the high diffusive capacity of the UV-B radiation, the UV-B/PAR ratio was significantly lower on the plant portions exposed to full sunlight than on those in the shade.

Grifoni, D.; Carreras, G.; Zipoli, G.; Sabatini, F.; Dalla Marta, A.; Orlandini, S.

2008-11-01

8

Irradiation treatment for the protection and conservation of cultural heritage artefacts in Croatia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of irradiation treatment for the protection of cultural heritage artefacts in Croatia was made possible by the development of radiation processing procedures at the Radiation Chemistry and Dosimetry Laboratory of the Ru?er Bo\\vskovi? Institute. After the upgrading of the 60Co gamma irradiation source in the panoramic irradiation facility in 1983 it became possible to perform both research and pilot plant-scale irradiations for sterilization, pasteurization and decontamination of various materials, including medical supplies, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and foods, but also for disinfestation of cultural heritage artefects. The demand for irradiation treatment of cultural heritage objects has particularly increased as the increasing number of these objects, especially polychromic wooden sculptures, were requiring salvation, restauration and conservation as a consequence of direct and indirect damages inflicted to them during the war in Croatia, 1991-1995. The irradiation facility at the Ru?er Bo\\vskovi? Institute is briefly described and an account of its fifteen years' activities in the irradiation treatment of cultural heritage objects is given. Some case studies performed in cooperation with the Croatian Conservation Institute and other interested parties are presented, as well as some cases of protective and curative treatments for disinfestation and decontamination. International cooperations and activities are also mentioned.

Katušin-Ražem, Branka; Ražem, Dušan; Braun, Mario

2009-07-01

9

Excised and irradiated volumes in relation to the tumor size in breast-conserving therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In early-stage breast cancer and DCIS patients, breast-conserving therapy is today’s standard of care. The purpose of this\\u000a study was to evaluate the relation between the microscopic tumor diameter (mTD), the excised specimen (ES) volume, and the\\u000a irradiated postoperative complex (POC) volume, in patients treated with breast-conserving therapy. In 186 patients with pTis-2N0\\u000a breast cancer, the mTDs, ES, and POC

M. D. den Hartogh; B. van Asselen; E. M. Monninkhof; M. A. A. J. van den Bosch; M. van Vulpen; P. J. van Diest; K. G. A. Gilhuijs; A. J. Witkamp; L. van de Bunt; W. P. T. M. Mali; H. J. G. D. van den Bongard

10

Mecanismes de deformation de nanoparticules d'Au par irradiation ionique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present thesis, we study the anisotropic deformation of gold nanoparticles embedded in amorphous silica or crystalline aluminum arsenide, under ion bombardment. We try to comprehend the mechanism responsible for this deformation and to remove any ambiguity related to the explanation of this phenomenon. A hybrid process combining sputtering and plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition was used to fabricate Au/SiO2 layers on fused silica substrates. Structures with single and multilayer were obtained. Heating during or after deposition activates the Au atom agglomeration and favours the growth of the nanoparticles. Also, a Au/AlAs nanocomposite was obtained by ion implantation of AlAs films, followed by rapid thermal annealing. The samples of the two nanocomposites, cooled with liquid nitrogen, were irradiated with 2 to 40 MeV Cu, Si, Au or In ion beams, at fluences ranging from 1x10 13 to 4x1015 ions/cm2, using a Tandem or Tandetron accelerator. The structural and morphological properties of the Au/SiO2 nanocomposite were extracted by optical means; the frequency and the width of surface plasmon resonance band depend on the nanoparticle shape and size, their concentration, the inter-particle distance and the dielectric properties of material in which the particles are embedded. The aluminum arsenide crystallinity was studied by two techniques: Raman spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in channelling configuration (RBS/ channelling). The Au concentration in the nanocomposite layers was deducted from RBS results. The size distribution and metallic nanoparticles shape transformation in both nanocomposites were observed by electronic transmission microscopy. The results obtained within the framework of this work are the subject of three journal papers. The first publication shows the possibility of manipulating the width and spectral position of the gold nanoparticle absorption band in Au/SiO2 nanocomposites by modifying their structure (form, size and inter-particle distance). The obtained Au nanoparticles are nearly spherical. The surface plasmon (PS) absorption band corresponding to the distant particles is located at 520 nm. After ion irradiation, the spherical nanoparticles transform into ellipsoids aligned along the ion beam. The absorption band splits into two bands: transversal and longitudinal. The band corresponding to the ellipsoids small axis (transversal) is blue-shifted and that corresponding to the long axis (longitudinal) is red-shifted indicating the elongation of particles in the beam direction. The second paper is consecrated to the crucial role of the plastic deformation of the matrix and to the importance of the metal atomic mobility in the anisotropic nanoparticles deformation in Au/SiO 2 nanocomposites. Our measurements show that a threshold value of 2 keV/nm (electronic stopping power) is necessary for the deformation of Au nanoparticles. This value is close to that required for silica deformation. Mobility of the Au atoms at the time of the ion passage is confirmed by temperature calculation within the ionic track. The third paper treats the attempt of formation and deformation of Au nanoparticles in crystalline aluminum arsenide matrix known by its high resistance to amorphisation and deformation under ionic bombardment. The principal result of the last article confirms the essential role of the matrix. It proves that the anisotropic deformation of surrounding material is indispensable for gold nanoparticles deformation. The experimental results mentioned above and temperature calculations within ionic tracks allowed us to propose the following anisotropic deformation scenario of Au nanoparticles embedded in Au/SiO2 nanocomposite: (1) Each ion crossing the silica melts (very briefly) a narrow cylinder around its trajectory forming thus a latent track. This is consistent with the observed threshold value in the electronic stopping power. (2) The cumulative effect of many separate ion impacts leads to the anisotropic growth of the silica matrix which contracts in the direct

Harkati Kerbouah, Chahineze

2011-12-01

11

Outcome After Conservative Surgery and Breast Irradiation in 5,717 Patients With Breast Cancer: Implications for Supraclavicular Nodal Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the outcome and predictive factors of patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy to the whole breast only, without supraclavicular nodal irradiation. Methods and Materials: A total of 5,717 patients with pT1-T4 breast cancer were treated at the University of Florence. The median age of the patient population was 55 years (range, 30-80 years). All patients were followed for a median of 6.8 years (range, 1-27 years). Adjuvant chemotherapy was recommended in 1,535 patients (26.9%). Tamoxifen was prescribed in 2,951 patients (51.6%). The patients were split into three groups according to number of positive axillary nodes (PAN): P1, negative axillary lymph nodes; P2, one to three PAN; P3, more than three PAN. Results: The P3 patients had a higher incidence of supraclavicular fossa recurrence (SFR) compared with P2 and P1 patients. However, the incidence of SFR in P3 patients was low (only 5.5%), whereas the incidence of distant metastases (DM) was 27.2%. Distant metastasis was the only independent prognostic factor for breast cancer survival. Additionally, in the subgroup of patients who developed local recurrence, DM was the most important death predictor. Conclusion: Our series suggests that isolated SFR in patients who did not receive supraclavicular radiotherapy is infrequent, as well as in those patients who have more than three PAN, and SFR seems not to influence the outcome, which depends on DM occurrence.

Livi, Lorenzo, E-mail: l.livi@dfc.unifi.i [Radiotherapy Unit, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Scotti, Vieri [Radiotherapy Unit, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Saieva, Calogero [Molecular and Nutritional Epidemiology Unit, Cancer Research and Prevention Center, Scientific Institute of Tuscany, Florence (Italy); Meattini, Icro; Detti, Beatrice; Simontacchi, Gabriele; Cardillo, Carla Deluca; Paiar, Fabiola; Mangoni, Monica [Radiotherapy Unit, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Marrazzo, Livia [Department of Medical Physics, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Agresti, Benedetta [Radiotherapy Unit, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Cataliotti, Luigi [Department of Surgery, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Bianchi, Simonetta [Department of Pathology, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Biti, Giampaolo [Radiotherapy Unit, University of Florence, Florence (Italy)

2010-03-15

12

Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

13

Par Pond water balance  

SciTech Connect

A water budget for the Par Pond hydrologic system was established in order to estimate the rate of groundwater influx to Par Pond. This estimate will be used in modeling exercises to predict Par Pond reservoir elevation and spillway discharge in the scenario where Savannah River water is no longer pumped and discharged into Par Pond. The principal of conservation of mass was used to develop the water budget, where water inflow was set equal to water outflow. Components of the water budget were identified, and the flux associated with each was determined. The water budget was considered balanced when inflow and outflow summed to zero. The results of this study suggest that Par Pond gains water from the groundwater system in the upper reaches of the reservoir, but looses water to the groundwater system near the dam. The rate of flux of groundwater from the water table aquifer into Par Pond was determined to be 13 cfs. The rate of flux from Par Pond to the water table aquifer near the dam was determined to be 7 cfs.

Hiergesell, R.A.; Dixon, K.L.

1996-06-01

14

Examining the mean vertical attenuation of scalar quantum irradiance (PAR) over the Louisiana-Texas shelf (northern Gulf of Mexico)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examined freshwater and ocean circulation effects on the distribution of vertical quantum diffuse attenuation coefficients (Kq0) of photosyntheticaly available radiation (PAR) in waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico's Louisiana-Texas shelf. Mean Kq0 coefficients were estimated from 509 vertical profiles of PAR collected during 10 cruises spanning 30 months (1992-1994). Vertical profiles of density revealed that the shelf waters are divided into two periods: a stratified period with an upper layer 10 m thick of turbid waters (0.06?Kq0?1.18 m-1) and a lower layer of more transparent waters (0.01?Kq0?0.49 m-1). The second or non-stratified period consists of a homogenous layer ˜55 m thick and less turbid waters (0.03?Kq0?1.00 m-1). Horizontally, the distribution of Kq0 reveals nearshore coastal or case 2 waters followed by offshore oceanic or case 1 waters that separate near the 70-m isobath regardless of time and place. The Kq0 distribution reflects the freshwater influx from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers which causes a turbid surface trapped river plume, the shelf wind-driven circulation, and ensuing mixing. To investigate Kq0 we used two regression models involving salinity, suspended particulate matter (SPM), chlorophyll-a (Chl), and water depth. The best statistical model explained 57% to 85% of the observed Kq0 variability and involved the reciprocal of water depth, salinity, and SPM. However, a more bio-optically relevant model involving salinity, SPM, and Chl, explained only 32% to 64% of the observed Kq0 variability. Estimates of Kq0 for the upper layer indicate compensation depths of 30-92 m in waters deeper than 70 m which help account for the presence of coral communities on submerged banks near the shelf edge. The observed temporal and spatial distribution of Kq0 agrees qualitatively with that of satellite-derived values of the diffuse attenuation coefficient, Kd(4 9 0) over this shelf.

Lugo-Fernández, A.; Gravois, M.; Green, R. E.; Montgomery, T.

2012-04-01

15

Étude des dommages induits dans l'ADN par irradiation laser X-UV à 21.2 nm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the preliminary result of the application of the collisional Ne-like soft x-ray laser as radiation source to induce DNA damage. The goal of this experiment was a test bed study of the damage yields induced by soft x-ray radiation in dried plasmid DNA sample. The saturated Ne-like soft x-ray laser available at the PALS facility, delivering several millijoules in a single 100 ps pulse at 21.2 nm was used to irradiate two different plasmids: pSP189 and pBS. The study is centered on the dose effect leading to single and double strand break in DNA.

Cassou, K.; Ros, D.; Kazamias, S.; Klisnick, A.; Jamelot, G.; Guilbaud, O.; Rus, B.; Kozlová, M.; Polan, J.; Präg, A. R.; Stupka, M.; Eot-Houllier, G.; Sage, E.; Begusová, M.; Stísová, V.; Du Penhoat, M.-A. H.; Touati, A.; Chétioui, A.

2005-06-01

16

BREAST-CONSERVING TREATMENT WITH PARTIAL OR WHOLE BREAST IRRADIATION FOR LOW-RISK INVASIVE BREAST CARCINOMA—5YEAR RESULTS OF A RANDOMIZED TRIAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To report the 5-year results of a randomized study comparing the survival and cosmetic results of breast- conserving treatment with partial breast irradiation (PBI) or conventional whole breast irradiation (WBI). Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2004, 258 selected patients with T1 N0-1mi, Grade 1-2, nonlobular breast cancer without presence of extensive intraductal component and resected with negative margins

CSABA POLGAR; JANOS FODOR; D. SC; TIBOR MAJOR; GYORGY NEMETH; K ATALIN LOVEY; ZSOLT OROSZ; ZOLTAN SULYOK; ZOLTAN TAKACSI-NAGY; MIKLOS KASLER

17

Internal mammary nodal irradiation in conservatively-managed breast cancer patients: is there a benefit?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Recent randomized trials have demonstrated a significant benefit to postmastectomy radiation in node-positive breast cancer patients. The contribution of internal mammary nodal radiation (IMNR) to this benefit remains controversial, and in conservatively-treated patients (CS + RT), may compromise cosmesis and contribute to morbidity. The purpose of this retrospective analysis is to evaluate outcome as a function of IMNR in

Edward Obedian; Bruce G Haffty

1999-01-01

18

Five year outcomes of hypofractionated simultaneous integrated boost irradiation in breast conserving therapy; patterns of recurrence.  

PubMed

In 2005, we introduced hypofractionated 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy with a simultaneous integrated boost (3D-CRT-SIB) technique after breast conserving surgery. In a consecutive series of 752 consecutive female invasive breast cancer patients (stages I-III) the 5-year actuarial rate for local control was 98.9%. This new technique gives excellent 5-year local control. PMID:24055289

Bantema-Joppe, Enja J; Vredeveld, Eline J; de Bock, Geertruida H; Busz, Dianne M; Woltman-van Iersel, Marleen; Dolsma, Wil V; van der Laan, Hans Paul; Langendijk, Johannes A; Maduro, John H

2013-08-01

19

Lymphedema of the operated and irradiated breast in breast cancer patients following breast conserving surgery and radiotherapy.  

PubMed

The National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference on Treatment of Early Stage Breast Cancer in 1990 indicated that breast conserving surgery with radiotherapy is the primary therapy for the majority of women with early stage breast cancer. Despite good aesthetic results, a remarkable number of patients suffer from lymphedema of the operated and irradiated breast. 131 study participants scored 8 subjective symptoms of breast edema on a scale from 0 to 10 and completed the EORTC QLQ-BR23 questionnaire to assess the health related quality of life among breast cancer patients. Incidence of breast edema, up to 5 years following surgery, was 75.5%. There was a significant positive correlation between breast edema and body mass index. Breast edema also correlated significantly with chemotherapy treatment, anti-hormone therapy, age, and all aspects of quality of life, except sexual functioning, sexual enjoyment, and upset by hair loss. There were no significant differences in breast edema related to the post- operative period, the level of nodal dissection, preoperative bra cup size, tumor location and whether the surgery was performed on the dominant side. Despite the benefits of breast conserving surgery and radiotherapy, breast edema is a common complication that lowers quality of life significantly. PMID:23700762

Adriaenssens, N; Verbelen, H; Lievens, P; Lamote, J

2012-12-01

20

Prone Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation After Breast-Conserving Surgery: Compliance to the Dosimetry Requirements of RTOG-0413  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The dosimetric results from our institution's trials of prone accelerated partial breast irradiation are compared with the dosimetric requirements of RTOG-0413. Methods and Materials: Trial 1 and Trial 2 are 2 consecutive trials of prone-accelerated partial breast irradiation. Eligible for both trials were stage I breast cancer patients with negative margins after breast-conserving surgery. The planning target tumor volume (PTV) was created by extending the surgical cavity 2.0 cm for Trial 1 and 1.5 cm for Trial 2, respectively. Contralateral breast, heart, lungs, and thyroid were contoured. Thirty Gray was delivered in five daily fractions of 6 Gy by a three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy technique in Trial 1 and were by image-guided radiation therapy/intensity-modulated radiation therapy in Trial 2. Dosimetric results from the trials are reported and compared with RTOG 0413 requirements. Results: One hundred forty-six consecutive plans were analyzed: 67 left and 79 right breast cancers. The plans from the trials complied with the required >90% of prescribed dose covering 90% of PTV{sub E}VAL (=generated from the PTV by cropping 0.5 cm from the skin edge and excluding the chest wall): V90% was 98.1 {+-} 3.0% (with V100% and V95%, 89.4 {+-} 12.8%, 96.4 {+-} 5.1%, respectively). No significant difference between laterality was found (Student's t test). The dose constraints criteria of the RTOG-0413 protocol for ipsilateral and contralateral lung (V30 <15% and Dmax <3%), heart (V5 <40%), and thyroid (Dmax <3%) were satisfied because the plans showed an average V5% of 0.6% (range, 0-13.4) for heart, an average V30% of 0.6% (range, 0-9.1%) for ipsilateral lung, and <2% maximum dose to the thyroid. However, our partial breast irradiation plans demonstrated a higher dose to contralateral breast than that defined by RTOG constraints, with a median value of maximum doses of 4.1% (1.2 Gy), possibly as a result of contouring differences. Conclusions: Our technique for prone accelerated partial breast irradiation generally satisfied RTOG-0413 requirements.

Wen Bixiu [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Hsu, Howard; Formenti-Ujlaki, George F.; Lymberis, Stella; Magnolfi, Chiara; Zhao Xuan; Chang Jenghwa; DeWyngaert, J. Keith; Jozsef, Gabor [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Formenti, Silvia C., E-mail: silvia.formenti@nyumc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States)

2012-11-15

21

Treatment Techniques to Reduce Cardiac Irradiation for Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Breast-Conserving Surgery and Radiation Therapy: A Review  

PubMed Central

Thousands of women diagnosed with breast cancer each year receive breast-conserving surgery followed by adjuvant radiation therapy. For women with left-sided breast cancer, there is risk of potential cardiotoxicity from the radiation therapy. As data have become available to quantify the risk of cardiotoxicity from radiation, strategies have also developed to reduce the dose of radiation to the heart without compromising radiation dose to the breast. Several broad categories of techniques to reduce cardiac radiation doses include breath hold techniques, prone positioning, intensity-modulated radiation therapy, and accelerated partial breast irradiation, as well as many small techniques to improve traditional three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy. This review summarizes the published scientific literature on the various techniques to decrease cardiac irradiation in women treated to the left breast for breast cancer after breast-conserving surgery. PMID:25452938

Beck, Robert E.; Kim, Leonard; Yue, Ning J.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Khan, Atif J.; Goyal, Sharad

2014-01-01

22

Elaborating polarity: PAR proteins and the cytoskeleton  

PubMed Central

Cell polarity is essential for cells to divide asymmetrically, form spatially restricted subcellular structures and participate in three-dimensional multicellular organization. PAR proteins are conserved polarity regulators that function by generating cortical landmarks that establish dynamic asymmetries in the distribution of effector proteins. Here, we review recent findings on the role of PAR proteins in cell polarity in C. elegans and Drosophila, and emphasize the links that exist between PAR networks and cytoskeletal proteins that both regulate PAR protein localization and act as downstream effectors to elaborate polarity within the cell. PMID:21303844

Nance, Jeremy; Zallen, Jennifer A.

2011-01-01

23

Elaborating polarity: PAR proteins and the cytoskeleton.  

PubMed

Cell polarity is essential for cells to divide asymmetrically, form spatially restricted subcellular structures and participate in three-dimensional multicellular organization. PAR proteins are conserved polarity regulators that function by generating cortical landmarks that establish dynamic asymmetries in the distribution of effector proteins. Here, we review recent findings on the role of PAR proteins in cell polarity in C. elegans and Drosophila, and emphasize the links that exist between PAR networks and cytoskeletal proteins that both regulate PAR protein localization and act as downstream effectors to elaborate polarity within the cell. PMID:21303844

Nance, Jeremy; Zallen, Jennifer A

2011-03-01

24

ParB spreading requires DNA bridging  

PubMed Central

The parABS system is a widely employed mechanism for plasmid partitioning and chromosome segregation in bacteria. ParB binds to parS sites on plasmids and chromosomes and associates with broad regions of adjacent DNA, a phenomenon known as spreading. Although essential for ParB function, the mechanism of spreading remains poorly understood. Using single-molecule approaches, we discovered that Bacillus subtilis ParB (Spo0J) is able to trap DNA loops. Point mutants in Spo0J that disrupt DNA bridging are defective in spreading and recruitment of structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) condensin complexes in vivo. DNA bridging helps to explain how a limited number of Spo0J molecules per parS site (?20) can spread over many kilobases and suggests a mechanism by which ParB proteins could facilitate the loading of SMC complexes. We show that DNA bridging is a property of diverse ParB homologs, suggesting broad evolutionary conservation. PMID:24829297

Graham, Thomas G.W.; Wang, Xindan; Song, Dan; Etson, Candice M.; van Oijen, Antoine M.; Rudner, David Z.; Loparo, Joseph J.

2014-01-01

25

A Single parS Sequence from the Cluster of Four Sites Closest to oriC Is Necessary and Sufficient for Proper Chromosome Segregation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Among the mechanisms that control chromosome segregation in bacteria are highly-conserved partitioning systems comprising three components: ParA protein (a deviant Walker-type ATPase), ParB protein (a DNA-binding element) and multiple cis-acting palindromic centromere-like sequences, designated parS. Ten putative parS sites have been identified in the P. aeruginosa PAO1 genome, four localized in close proximity of oriC and six, diverged by more than one nucleotide from a perfect palindromic sequence, dispersed along the chromosome. Here, we constructed and analyzed P. aeruginosa mutants deprived of each single parS sequence and their different combinations. The analysis included evaluation of a set of phenotypic features, chromosome segregation, and ParB localization in the cells. It was found that ParB binds specifically to all ten parS sites, although with different affinities. The P. aeruginosa parS mutant with all ten parS sites modified (parSnull) is viable however it demonstrates the phenotype characteristic for parAnull or parBnull mutants: slightly slower growth rate, high frequency of anucleate cells, and defects in motility. The genomic position and sequence of parS determine its role in P. aeruginosa biology. It transpired that any one of the four parS sites proximal to oriC (parS1 to parS4), which are bound by ParB with the highest affinity, is necessary and sufficient for the parABS role in chromosome partitioning. When all these four sites are mutated simultaneously, the strain shows the parSnull phenotype, which indicates that none of the remaining six parS sites can substitute for these four oriC-proximal sites in this function. A single ectopic parS2 (inserted opposite oriC in the parSnull mutant) facilitates ParB organization into regularly spaced condensed foci and reverses some of the mutant phenotypes but is not sufficient for accurate chromosome segregation. PMID:25794281

Jecz, Paulina; Bartosik, Aneta A.; Glabski, Krzysztof; Jagura-Burdzy, Grazyna

2015-01-01

26

Transitions de phases et modes d'pitaxie complexes dans les couches minces d'oxydes de terres rares irradies par un faisceau d'lectrons  

E-print Network

matériaux très particuliers. La série des oxydes intermédiaires de cérium, praséodyme et terbium en est une of the intermediate oxide series for cerium, praseodymium and terbium. Treatment by water-vapor and irradiation'électrons (3). 3. Transitions de phases des oxides de cérium, pra- séodyme et terbium. Dans la série des terres

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

27

Breast-Conserving Treatment With Partial or Whole Breast Irradiation for Low-Risk Invasive Breast Carcinoma-5-Year Results of a Randomized Trial  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report the 5-year results of a randomized study comparing the survival and cosmetic results of breast-conserving treatment with partial breast irradiation (PBI) or conventional whole breast irradiation (WBI). Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2004, 258 selected patients with T1 N0-1mi, Grade 1-2, nonlobular breast cancer without presence of extensive intraductal component and resected with negative margins were randomized after breast-conserving surgery to receive 50 Gy/25 fractions WBI (n = 130) or PBI (n = 128). The latter consisted of either 7 x 5.2 Gy high-dose-rate (HDR) multicatheter brachytherapy (BT; n = 88) or 50 Gy/25 fractions electron beam (EB) irradiation (n = 40). Results: At a median follow-up of 66 months, the 5-year actuarial rate of local recurrence was 4.7% and 3.4% in the PBI and WBI arms, respectively (p = 0.50). There was no significant difference in the 5-year probability of overall survival (94.6% vs. 91.8%), cancer-specific survival (98.3% vs. 96.0%), and disease-free survival (88.3% vs. 90.3%). The rate of excellent to good cosmetic result was 77.6% in the PBI group (81.2% after HDR BT; 70.0% after EB) and 62.9% in the control group (52.2% after telecobalt; 65.6% after 6-9-MV photons; p{sub WBI/PBI} = 0.009). Conclusions: Partial breast irradiation using interstitial HDR implants or EB to deliver radiation to the tumor bed alone for a selected group of early-stage breast cancer patients produces 5-year results similar to those achieved with conventional WBI. Significantly better cosmetic outcome can be achieved with carefully designed HDR multicatheter implants compared with the outcome after WBI.

Polgar, Csaba [Department of Radiotherapy, National Institute of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary)], E-mail: polgar@oncol.hu; Fodor, Janos; Major, Tibor; Nemeth, Gyoergy; Loevey, Katalin [Department of Radiotherapy, National Institute of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary); Orosz, Zsolt [Department of Human and Experimental Tumor Pathology, National Institute of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary); Sulyok, Zoltan [Department of General and Thoracic Surgery, National Institute of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary); Takacsi-Nagy, Zoltan; Kasler, Miklos [Department of Radiotherapy, National Institute of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary)

2007-11-01

28

Calibration of the Odyssey Photosynthetic Irradiance Recorder for Absolute Irradiance Measures  

EPA Science Inventory

Researchers are increasingly interested in measuring hotosynthetically active radiation (PAR) because of its importance in determining the structure and function of lotic ecosystems. The Odyssey Photosynthetic Irradiance Recorder is an affordable PAR meter gaining popularity am...

29

Review of PAR parameterizations in ocean ecosystem models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commonly-used empirical equations for calculating downward 'photosynthetically available radiation' or PAR were reviewed in order to identify a more theoretically-sound parameterization for application to ocean biogeochemical models. Three different forms of broadband PAR parameterization are currently employed in biogeochemical models, each of them originating from the downward irradiance formulations normally applied to ocean circulation models, which produce poor attenuation estimates for PAR. Two of the PAR formulations, a single-exponential function and a double-exponential function, are parameterized by multiplying surface irradiance by a coefficient determining the portion of underwater PAR. The third formulation uses the second term of the double-exponential function. After elucidating the theoretical problems of modeling PAR using these parameterizations, we suggest an improved, R-modified double-exponential PAR formulation, including Paulson and Simpson's (1977) parameter values. We also newly estimate PAR penetration via least-squares fitting of values digitized from Jerlov's (1976) observations in different oceanic water types, and compare this PAR-observation derived parameterization with our new, theoretical, R-modified parameterization. Finally, we discuss a universal limitation inherent in current theoretical approaches to PAR parameterization.

Byun, Do-Seong; Wang, Xiao Hua; Hart, Deirdre E.; Zavatarelli, Marco

2014-12-01

30

Phosphorylation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ParB Participates in Regulating the ParABS Chromosome Segregation System  

PubMed Central

Here, we present for the first time that Mycobacterium tuberculosis ParB is phosphorylated by several mycobacterial Ser/Thr protein kinases in vitro. ParB and ParA are the key components of bacterial chromosome segregation apparatus. ParB is a cytosolic conserved protein that binds specifically to centromere-like DNA parS sequences and interacts with ParA, a weak ATPase required for its proper localization. Mass spectrometry identified the presence of ten phosphate groups, thus indicating that ParB is phosphorylated on eight threonines, Thr32, Thr41, Thr53, Thr110, Thr195, and Thr254, Thr300, Thr303 as well as on two serines, Ser5 and Ser239. The phosphorylation sites were further substituted either by alanine to prevent phosphorylation or aspartate to mimic constitutive phosphorylation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed a drastic inhibition of DNA-binding by ParB phosphomimetic mutant compared to wild type. In addition, bacterial two-hybrid experiments showed a loss of ParA-ParB interaction with the phosphomimetic mutant, indicating that phosphorylation is regulating the recruitment of the partitioning complex. Moreover, fluorescence microscopy experiments performed in the surrogate Mycobacterium smegmatis ?parB strain revealed that in contrast to wild type Mtb ParB, which formed subpolar foci similar to M. smegmatis ParB, phoshomimetic Mtb ParB was delocalized. Thus, our findings highlight a novel regulatory role of the different isoforms of ParB representing a molecular switch in localization and functioning of partitioning protein in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:25807382

Baronian, Grégory; Ginda, Katarzyna; Berry, Laurence; Cohen-Gonsaud, Martin; Zakrzewska-Czerwi?ska, Jolanta; Jakimowicz, Dagmara; Molle, Virginie

2015-01-01

31

Pars Stress Fracture (Lumbar Spondylolysis)  

MedlinePLUS

... Neck and Back) > Pars Stress Fracture Pars Stress Fracture Page Content Pars stress fractures occur in young athletes involved in repetitive bending ... an episode of low back pain Pars stress fracture, also called lumbar spondylolysis, is one of the ...

32

Excimer laser irradiation at 248 nm of wooden archaeological objects and polymeric consolidants used in conservation: a study of cone formation and optimum cleaning parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Samples of a prehistoric consolidated vegetable basketry, coming from an important pile building in the North-East of Italy (Fiavé Carrera, Trento), had been irradiated with excimer laser pulses to remove the consolidant layer and restore the artifact. Some problems, related to the nature of the consolidant resin, were found in the preliminary laser cleaning process. The two main obstacles were related to the unknown composition of the polymeric resin and to the irregular surface morphology of the archaeological find. We observed that large numbers of laser pulses, for selected laser parameters, strongly modify the resin surface morphology with formation of a large number of cones. After cone formation, the surface was so irregular that it was almost impossible to complete the laser cleaning procedure. To find a solution to the problem, we here try to understand the mechanisms of cone formation in the present polymeric material. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) have been used to study surface morphology and chemical modification after selected irradiation processes. To understand the influence of laser irradiation on surface modifications and to establish a cleaning procedure for this specific application, investigations have been carried out separately on models of resin consolidants and wood (both dried and buried wood sample). The consolidants were commercial resins, typically used in archaeological conservation (Plexisol and Paraloid), deposited on a silicon substrate. Silicon was used because it is an appropriate substrate in FT-IR analysis. Finally, we chose wood because of its wide use in prehistoric artefact (Viburnum lantana).

Belli, R.; Toniutti, L.; Miotello, A.; Mosaner, P.; Avi, D.

2008-07-01

33

Both PHYTOCHROME RAPIDLY REGULATED1 (PAR1) and PAR2 promote seedling photomorphogenesis in multiple light signaling pathways.  

PubMed

Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings undergo photomorphogenesis in the light and etiolation in the dark. Light-activated photoreceptors transduce the light signals through a series of photomorphogenesis promoting or repressing factors to modulate many developmental processes in plants, such as photomorphogenesis and shade avoidance. CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1) is a conserved RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligase, which mediates degradation of several photomorphogenesis promoting factors, including ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5) and LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FAR-RED1 (HFR1), through a 26S proteasome-dependent pathway. PHYTOCHROME RAPIDLY REGULATED1 (PAR1) was first detected as an early repressed gene in both phytochrome A (phyA)-mediated far-red and phyB-mediated red signaling pathways, and subsequent studies showed that both PAR1 and PAR2 are negative factors of shade avoidance in Arabidopsis. However, the role of PAR1 and PAR2 in seedling deetiolation, and their relationships with other photomorphogenesis promoting and repressing factors are largely unknown. Here, we confirmed that both PAR1 and PAR2 redundantly enhance seedling deetiolation in multiple photoreceptor signaling pathways. Their transcript abundances are repressed by phyA, phyB, and cryptochrome1 under far-red, red, and blue light conditions, respectively. Both PAR1 and PAR2 act downstream of COP1, and COP1 mediates the degradation of PAR1 and PAR2 through the 26S proteasome pathway. Both PAR1 and PAR2 act in a separate pathway from HY5 and HFR1 under different light conditions, except for sharing in the same pathway with HFR1 under far-red light. Together, our results substantiate that PAR1 and PAR2 are positive factors functioning in multiple photoreceptor signaling pathways during seedling deetiolation. PMID:24335334

Zhou, Peng; Song, Meifang; Yang, Qinghua; Su, Liang; Hou, Pei; Guo, Lin; Zheng, Xu; Xi, Yulin; Meng, Fanhua; Xiao, Yang; Yang, Li; Yang, Jianping

2014-02-01

34

Prone Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation After Breast-Conserving Surgery: Five-year Results of 100 Patients  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report the 5-year results of a prospective trial of three-dimensional conformal external beam radiotherapy (3D-CRT) to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation in the prone position. Methods and Materials: Postmenopausal patients with Stage I breast cancer with nonpalpable tumors <2 cm, negative margins and negative nodes, positive hormone receptors, and no extensive intraductal component were eligible. The trial was offered only after eligible patients had refused to undergo standard whole-breast radiotherapy. Patients were simulated and treated on a dedicated table for prone setup. 3D-CRT was delivered at a dose of 30 Gy in five 6-Gy/day fractions over 10 days with port film verification at each treatment. Rates of ipsilateral breast failure, ipsilateral nodal failure, contralateral breast failure, and distant failure were estimated using the cumulative incidence method. Rates of disease-free, overall, and cancer-specific survival were recorded. Results: One hundred patients were enrolled in this institutional review board-approved prospective trial, one with bilateral breast cancer. One patient withdrew consent after simulation, and another patient elected to interrupt radiotherapy after receiving two treatments. Ninety-eight patients were evaluable for toxicity, and, in 1 case, both breasts were treated with partial breast irradiation. Median patient age was 68 years (range, 53-88 years); in 55% of patients the tumor size was <1 cm. All patients had hormone receptor-positive cancers: 87% of patients underwent adjuvant antihormone therapy. At a median follow-up of 64 months (range, 2-125 months), there was one local recurrence (1% ipsilateral breast failure) and one contralateral breast cancer (1% contralateral breast failure). There were no deaths due to breast cancer by 5 years. Grade 3 late toxicities occurred in 2 patients (one breast edema, one transient breast pain). Cosmesis was rated good/excellent in 89% of patients with at least 36 months follow-up. Conclusions: Five-year efficacy and toxicity of 3D-CRT delivered in prone partial breast irradiation are comparable to other experiences with similar follow-up.

Formenti, Silvia C., E-mail: silvia.formenti@nyumc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Hsu, Howard; Fenton-Kerimian, Maria [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Roses, Daniel; Guth, Amber [Department of Surgery, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Surgery, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Jozsef, Gabor [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Goldberg, Judith D. [Division of Biostastistics, Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Division of Biostastistics, Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); DeWyngaert, J. Keith [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States)

2012-11-01

35

Utilisation de l'essai comete et du biomarqueur gamma-H2AX pour detecter les dommages induits a l'ADN cellulaire par le 5-bromodeoxyuridine post-irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ce memoire est presente a la Faculte de medecine et des sciences de la sante de l'Universite de Sherbrooke en vue de l'obtention du grade de maitre es sciences (M.Sc.) en radiobiologie (2009). Un jury a revise les informations contenues dans ce memoire. Il etait compose de professeurs de la Faculte de medecine et des sciences de la sante soit : Darel Hunting PhD, directeur de recherche (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie), Leon Sanche PhD, directeur de recherche (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie), Richard Wagner PhD, membre du programme (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie) et Guylain Boissonneault PhD, membre exterieur au programme (departement de biochimie). Le 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), un analogue halogene de la thymidine reconnu depuis les annees 60 comme etant un excellent radiosensibilisateur. L'hypothese la plus repandue au sujet de l'effet radio sensibilisant du BrdU est qu'il augmente le nombre de cassures simple et double brin lorsqu'il est incorpore dans l'ADN de la cellule et expose aux radiations ionisantes. Toutefois, de nouvelles recherches semblent remettre en question les observations precedentes. Ces dernieres etudes ont confirme que le BrdU est un bon radiosensibilisateur, car il augmente les dommages radio-induits dans l'ADN. Mais, c'est en etant incorpore dans une region simple brin que le BrdU radiosensibilise l'ADN. Ces recherches ont egalement revele pour la premiere fois un nouveau type de dommages produits lors de l'irradiation de l'ADN contenant du BrdU : les dimeres interbrins. Le but de ces travaux de recherche est de determiner si la presence de bromodeoxyuridine dans l'ADN augmente l'induction de bris simple et / ou double brin chez les cellules irradiees en utilisant de nouvelles techniques plus sensibles et specifiques que celles utilisees auparavant. Pour ce faire, les essais cometes et la detection des foci H2AX phosphorylee pourraient permettre d'etablir les effets engendres par le BrdU au niveau cellulaire. Notre hypothese (basee sur des resultats preliminaires effectues dans notre laboratoire) est que l'irradiation de l'ADN cellulaire en presence de BrdU augmentera le nombre de bris simple brin sans toutefois augmenter le nombre de bris double brin. Les resultats presentes dans ce memoire semblent corroborer cette hypothese. Les nouvelles methodes d'analyse, soient l'essai comete et la detection des foci gamma-H2AX remettent en question ce qui a ete dit sur le BrdU au sujet de l'induction des cassures double brin depuis plusieurs annees. L'ensemble de ces nouveaux resultats effectue a l'aide de cellules ayant incorporees du BrdU sont en correlation avec de precedents resultats obtenus dans notre laboratoire sur des oligonucleotides bromes. Ils reaffirment que l'irradiation combinee au BrdU augmente l'induction de bris simple brin mais pas de bris double brin. L'investigation approfondie des mecanismes d'action non elucides du BrdU au niveau cellulaire et son utilisation a des moments strategiques pendant le traitement de radiotherapie pourraient accroitre son efficacite a des fins d'utilisation clinique. Mots cles : 5-bromodeoxyuridine, dimeres interbrins, dommage a l'ADN, essai comete, H2AX, radiosensibilisateur, radiotherapie

La Madeleine, Carole

36

Dosimetric Comparison of the Simultaneous Integrated Boost in Whole-Breast Irradiation after Breast-Conserving Surgery: IMRT, IMRT plus an Electron Boost and VMAT  

PubMed Central

Objectives To compare the target volume coverage and doses to organs at risks (OARs) using three techniques that simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) in whole-breast irradiation (WBI) after breast-conserving surgery, including intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), IMRT plus an electron boost (IMRT-EB), and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Methods A total of 10 patients with early-stage left-sided breast cancer after breast-conserving surgery were included in this study. IMRT, IMRT-EB and VMAT plans were generated for each patient. Results The conformity index (CI) of the planning target volumes evaluation (PTV-Eval) of VMAT was significantly superior to those of IMRT and IMRT-EB (P < 0.05). The CI of the PTV Eval-boost of VMAT was better than that of IMRT (P = 0.018) and IMRT-EB (P < 0.001), while the CI of the PTV Eval-boost of IMRT was better than that of IMRT-EB (P = 0.002). The V5, V10 and Dmean in ipsilateral lung with VMAT were significantly higher than IMRT (P < 0.05) and IMRT-EB (P < 0.05). The Dmean, V5 and V10 in heart with VMAT were significantly greater than those of IMRT and IMRT-EB (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the OARs between IMRT and IMRT-EB (P > 0.05). Conclusions Considered the target volume coverage and radiation dose delivered to the OARs (especially the heart and lung), IMRT may be more suitable for the SIB in WBI than IMRT-EB and VMAT. Additional clinical studies with a larger sample size will be needed to assess the long-term feasibility and efficacy of SIB using different radiotherapy techniques. PMID:25781183

Zhou, Yuan; Chen, Shanyu; Dai, Mingming; Zhou, Juan; Lin, Qin; Chi, Feng

2015-01-01

37

A new model for estimating boreal forest fPAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life on Earth is continuously sustained by the extraterrestrial flux of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) from the sun. This flux is converted to biomass by chloroplasts in green vegetation. Thus, the fraction of absorbed PAR (fPAR) is a key parameter used in carbon balance studies, and is listed as one of the Essential Climate Variables (ECV). Temporal courses of fPAR for boreal forests are difficult to measure, because of the complex 3D structures. Thus, they are most often estimated based on models which quantify the dependency of absorbed radiation on canopy structure. In this study, we adapted a physically-based canopy radiation model into a fPAR model, and compared modeled and measured fPAR in structurally different boreal forest stands. The model is based on the spectral invariants theory, and uses leaf area index (LAI), canopy gap fractions and spectra of foliage and understory as input data. The model differs from previously developed more detailed fPAR models in that the complex 3D structure of coniferous forests is described using an aggregated canopy parameter - photon recollision probability p. The strength of the model is that all model inputs are measurable or available through other simple models. First, the model was validated with measurements of instantaneous fPAR obtained with the TRAC instrument in nine Scots pine, Norway spruce and Silver birch stands in a boreal forest in southern Finland. Good agreement was found between modeled and measured fPAR. Next, we applied the model to predict temporal courses of fPAR using data on incoming radiation from a nearby flux tower and sky irradiance models. Application of the model to simulate diurnal and seasonal values of fPAR indicated that the ratio of direct-to-total incident radiation and leaf area index are the key factors behind the magnitude and variation of stand-level fPAR values.

Majasalmi, Titta; Rautiainen, Miina; Stenberg, Pauline

2014-05-01

38

EFFETS DES DGNRESCENCES ZEEMAN SUR LA FLUORESCENCE DE RSONANCE INDUITE PAR UN LASER INTENSE  

E-print Network

irradie a angle droit par un faisceau laser intense. Jusqu'a present, les etudes aussi bien theoriques [1 fluorescence, monochromatique comme le faisceau laser incident aux faibles intensites (diffusion elastique), seL-173 EFFETS DES DÉGÉNÉRESCENCES ZEEMAN SUR LA FLUORESCENCE DE RÉSONANCE INDUITE PAR UN LASER

Boyer, Edmond

39

Uptake and Costs of Hypofractionated vs Conventional Whole Breast Irradiation After Breast Conserving Surgery in the United States, 2008–2013  

PubMed Central

IMPORTANCE Based on randomized evidence, expert guidelines in 2011 endorsed shorter, hypofractionated whole breast irradiation (WBI) for selected patients with early-stage breast cancer and permitted hypofractionated WBI for other patients. OBJECTIVES To examine the uptake and costs of hypofractionated WBI among commercially insured patients in the United States. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective, observational cohort study, using administrative claims data from 14 commercial health care plans covering 7.4%of US adult women in 2013, we classified patients with incident early-stage breast cancer treated with lumpectomy and WBI from 2008 and 2013 into 2 cohorts: (1) the hypofractionation-endorsed cohort (n = 8924) included patients aged 50 years or older without prior chemotherapy or axillary lymph node involvement and (2) the hypofractionation-permitted cohort (n = 6719) included patients younger than 50 years or those with prior chemotherapy or axillary lymph node involvement. EXPOSURES Hypofractionated WBI (3–5 weeks of treatment) vs conventional WBI (5–7 weeks of treatment). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Use of hypofractionated and conventional WBI, total and radiotherapy-related health care expenditures, and patient out-of-pocket expenses. Patient and clinical characteristics included year of treatment, age, comorbid disease, prior chemotherapy, axillary lymph node involvement, intensity-modulated radiotherapy, practice setting, and other contextual variables. RESULTS Hypofractionated WBI increased from 10.6%(95%CI, 8.8%–12.5%) in 2008 to 34.5%(95%CI, 32.2%–36.8%) in 2013 in the hypofractionation-endorsed cohort and from 8.1% (95%CI, 6.0%–10.2%) in 2008 to 21.2%(95%CI, 18.9%–23.6%) in 2013 in the hypofractionation-permitted cohort. Adjusted mean total health care expenditures in the 1 year after diagnosis were $28 747 for hypofractionated and $31 641 for conventional WBI in the hypofractionation-endorsed cohort (difference, $2894; 95%CI, $1610–$4234; P < .001) and $64 273 for hypofractionated and $72 860 for conventional WBI in the hypofractionation-permitted cohort (difference, $8587; 95%CI, $5316–$12 017; P < .001). Adjusted mean total 1-year patient out-of-pocket expenses were not significantly different between hypofractionated vs conventional WBI in either cohort. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Hypofractionated WBI after breast conserving surgery increased among women with early-stage breast cancer in 14 US commercial health care plans between 2008 and 2013. However, only 34.5%of patients with hypofractionation-endorsed and 21.2%with hypofractionation-permitted early-stage breast cancer received hypofractionated WBI in 2013. PMID:25494006

Bekelman, Justin E.; Sylwestrzak, Gosia; Barron, John; Liu, Jinan; Epstein, Andrew J.; Freedman, Gary; Malin, Jennifer; Emanuel, Ezekiel J.

2014-01-01

40

PAR3D: a server to predict protein active site residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

PAR-3D (http:\\/\\/sunserver.cdfd.org.in:8080\\/protease \\/PAR_3D\\/index.html) is a web-based tool that exploits the fact that relative juxtaposition of active site residues is a conserved feature in functionally related protein families. The server uses previously calculated and stored values of geometrical parameters of a set of known proteins (training set) for prediction of active site residues in a query protein structure. PAR-3D stores motifs

Kshama Goyal; Debasisa Mohanty; Shekhar C. Mande

2007-01-01

41

Protease-activated Receptor 1 (PAR1) and PAR4 Heterodimers Are Required for PAR1-enhanced Cleavage of PAR4 by ?-Thrombin*  

PubMed Central

Thrombin is a potent platelet agonist that activates platelets and other cells of the cardiovascular system by cleaving its G-protein-coupled receptors, protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1), PAR4, or both. We now show that cleaving PAR1 and PAR4 with ?-thrombin induces heterodimer formation. PAR1-PAR4 heterodimers were not detected when unstimulated; however, when the cells were stimulated with 10 nm ?-thrombin, we were able to detect a strong interaction between PAR1 and PAR4 by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer. In contrast, activating the receptors without cleavage using PAR1 and PAR4 agonist peptides (TFLLRN and AYPGKF, respectively) did not enhance heterodimer formation. Preventing PAR1 or PAR4 cleavage with point mutations or hirugen also prevented the induction of heterodimers. To further characterize the PAR1-PAR4 interactions, we mapped the heterodimer interface by introducing point mutations in transmembrane helix 4 of PAR1 or PAR4 that prevented heterodimer formation. Finally, we show that mutations in PAR1 or PAR4 at the heterodimer interface prevented PAR1-assisted cleavage of PAR4. These data demonstrate that PAR1 and PAR4 require allosteric changes induced via receptor cleavage by ?-thrombin to mediate heterodimer formation, and we have determined the PAR1-PAR4 heterodimer interface. Our findings show that PAR1 and PAR4 have dynamic interactions on the cell surface that should be taken into account when developing and characterizing PAR antagonists. PMID:24097976

Arachiche, Amal; Mumaw, Michele M.; de la Fuente, María; Nieman, Marvin T.

2013-01-01

42

Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) and PAR4 heterodimers are required for PAR1-enhanced cleavage of PAR4 by ?-thrombin.  

PubMed

Thrombin is a potent platelet agonist that activates platelets and other cells of the cardiovascular system by cleaving its G-protein-coupled receptors, protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1), PAR4, or both. We now show that cleaving PAR1 and PAR4 with ?-thrombin induces heterodimer formation. PAR1-PAR4 heterodimers were not detected when unstimulated; however, when the cells were stimulated with 10 nm ?-thrombin, we were able to detect a strong interaction between PAR1 and PAR4 by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer. In contrast, activating the receptors without cleavage using PAR1 and PAR4 agonist peptides (TFLLRN and AYPGKF, respectively) did not enhance heterodimer formation. Preventing PAR1 or PAR4 cleavage with point mutations or hirugen also prevented the induction of heterodimers. To further characterize the PAR1-PAR4 interactions, we mapped the heterodimer interface by introducing point mutations in transmembrane helix 4 of PAR1 or PAR4 that prevented heterodimer formation. Finally, we show that mutations in PAR1 or PAR4 at the heterodimer interface prevented PAR1-assisted cleavage of PAR4. These data demonstrate that PAR1 and PAR4 require allosteric changes induced via receptor cleavage by ?-thrombin to mediate heterodimer formation, and we have determined the PAR1-PAR4 heterodimer interface. Our findings show that PAR1 and PAR4 have dynamic interactions on the cell surface that should be taken into account when developing and characterizing PAR antagonists. PMID:24097976

Arachiche, Amal; Mumaw, Michele M; de la Fuente, María; Nieman, Marvin T

2013-11-01

43

MODIS-derived daily PAR simulation from cloud-free images and its validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a MODIS-derived daily PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) simulation model from cloud-free image over land surface has been developed based on Bird and Riordan’s model. In this model, the total downwelling spectral surface irradiance is divided into two parts: one is beam irradiance, and another is diffuse irradiance. The attenuation of solar beam irradiance comprises scattering by the

Liangfu Chen; Yanhua Gao; Lei Yang; Qinhuo Liu; Xingfa Gu; Guoliang Tian

2008-01-01

44

Conservation Conservation ResourcesConservation Resources  

E-print Network

Northwest Power and Conservation Council Conservation ResourcesConservation Resources in thein the Draft 5Draft 5thth Northwest Power PlanNorthwest Power Plan Tom EckmanTom Eckman Manager, Conservation ResourcesManager, Conservation Resources Northwest Power and Conservation CouncilNorthwest Power

45

Spondylolisthésis par lyse isthmique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spondylolisthesis refers to a permanent forward slippage of the vertebral body, in most cases L5, more rarely L4 or higher lumbar vertebrae. Spondylolisthesis by isthmic spondylolysis or fractures of the pars interarticularis - acquired most of the time by repeated microtrauma during childhood – differ from congenital spondylolisthesis in which developmental abnormalities of the posterior arch are often associated to

J.-M. Vital; M. Pedram

2005-01-01

46

Activation of Protease Activated Receptor 2 (PAR2) by an Exogenous Agonist Exacerbates Early Radiation Injury in Rat Intestine  

PubMed Central

Purpose Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) is highly expressed throughout the gut and regulates inflammatory, mitogenic, fibroproliferative, and nociceptive responses to injury. PAR2 is strikingly upregulated and exhibits increased activation in response to intestinal irradiation. We examined the mechanistic significance of in radiation enteropathy development by assessing the effect of exogenous PAR2 activation. Methods and Materials Rat small bowel was exposed to localized single-dose radiation (16.5 Gy). The PAR2 agonist (2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2) or vehicle was injected intraperitoneally daily for 3 days before irradiation (“before”), for 7 days after irradiation (“after”), or both 3 days before and 7 days after irradiation (“before-after”). Early and delayed radiation enteropathy was assessed 2 and 26 weeks after irradiation by quantitative histology, morphometry, and immuno-histochemical analysis. Results The PAR2 agonist did not elicit changes in unirradiated (shielded) intestine. In contrast, in irradiated intestine procured 2 weeks after irradiation, administration of PAR2 agonist was associated with more sever mucosal injury and increased intestinal wall thickness in all 3 treatment groups (p < 0.05) compared to vehicle-treated controls. The PAR2 agonist also exacerbated radiation injury score, serosal thickening, and mucosal inflammation (p < 0.05) in the before and the before-after groups. Short term exogenous activation of PAR2 did not impact radiation-induced intestinal injury at 26 weeks. Conclusions This study supports a role for PAR2 activation in the pathogenesis of early radiation-induced intestinal injury. Pharmacological PAR2 antagonists may have the potential to reduce intestinal side effects of radiation therapy and/or as countermeasures in radiological accidents or terrorism scenarios. PMID:20610041

Wang, Junru; Boerma, Marjan; Kulkarni, Ashwini; Hollenberg, Morley D.; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

2010-01-01

47

Model parameterization to simulate and compare the PAR absorption potential of two competing plant species  

PubMed Central

Mountain pastures dominated by the pasture grass Setaria sphacelata in the Andes of southern Ecuador are heavily infested by southern bracken (Pteridium arachnoideum), a major problem for pasture management. Field observations suggest that bracken might outcompete the grass due to its competitive strength with regard to the absorption of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). To understand the PAR absorption potential of both species, the aims of the current paper are to (1) parameterize a radiation scheme of a two-big-leaf model by deriving structural (LAI, leaf angle parameter) and optical (leaf albedo, transmittance) plant traits for average individuals from field surveys, (2) to initialize the properly parameterized radiation scheme with realistic global irradiation conditions of the Rio San Francisco Valley in the Andes of southern Ecuador, and (3) to compare the PAR absorption capabilities of both species under typical local weather conditions. Field data show that bracken reveals a slightly higher average leaf area index (LAI) and more horizontally oriented leaves in comparison to Setaria. Spectrometer measurements reveal that bracken and Setaria are characterized by a similar average leaf absorptance. Simulations with the average diurnal course of incoming solar radiation (1998–2005) and the mean leaf–sun geometry reveal that PAR absorption is fairly equal for both species. However, the comparison of typical clear and overcast days show that two parameters, (1) the relation of incoming diffuse and direct irradiance, and (2) the leaf–sun geometry play a major role for PAR absorption in the two-big-leaf approach: Under cloudy sky conditions (mainly diffuse irradiance), PAR absorption is slightly higher for Setaria while under clear sky conditions (mainly direct irradiance), the average bracken individual is characterized by a higher PAR absorption potential. (?74 MJ m?2 year?1). The latter situation which occurs if the maximum daily irradiance exceeds 615 W m?2 is mainly due to the nearly orthogonal incidence of the direct solar beam onto the horizontally oriented frond area which implies a high amount of direct PAR absorption during the noon maximum of direct irradiance. Such situations of solar irradiance favoring a higher PAR absorptance of bracken occur in ?36% of the observation period (1998–2005). By considering the annual course of PAR irradiance in the San Francisco Valley, the clear advantage of bracken on clear days (36% of all days) is completely compensated by the slight but more frequent advantage of Setaria under overcast conditions (64% of all days). This means that neither bracken nor Setaria show a distinct advantage in PAR absorption capability under the current climatic conditions of the study area. PMID:19937454

Silva, Brenner; Roos, Kristin; Göttlicher, Dietrich Otto; Rollenbeck, Rütger; Nauß, Thomas; Beck, Erwin

2009-01-01

48

presentee par Arthur GOETSCHY  

E-print Network

TH`ESE pr´esent´ee par Arthur GOETSCHY pour obtenir le grade de Docteur de l'Universit´e Joseph les trois ann´ees o`u j'ai pu y travailler. Qu'on me pardonne ici un brin de grandiloquence. Le LPMMC souhaite ici remercier les personnes que j'ai pu c^otoy´ees au LPMMC pour avoir su faire vivre ces deux

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

49

Conservation physiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation biologists increasingly face the need to provide legislators, courts and conservation managers with data on causal mechanisms underlying conservation problems such as species decline. To develop and monitor solutions, conservation biologists are progressively using more techniques that are physiological. Here, we review the emerging discipline of conservation physiology and suggest that, for conservation strategies to be successful, it is

Martin Wikelski; Steven J. Cooke

2006-01-01

50

nergie rayonne par le radium1 Par J. PRECHT,  

E-print Network

359 �nergie rayonnée par le radium1 Par J. PRECHT, Professeurà l'�cole technique de Hanovre. 'AI jusqu'ici irrésolue de savoir si l'éner- gie des particules chargée émises par le radium repré- sente inilli- grammes de bromure de radium débarrassé d'eau de cristallisation et abandonné à lui-même depuis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

51

Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation: 5-Year Results of the German-Austrian Multicenter Phase II Trial Using Interstitial Multicatheter Brachytherapy Alone After Breast-Conserving Surgery  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the impact of accelerated partial breast irradiation on local control, side effects, and cosmesis using multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy as the sole method for the adjuvant local treatment of patients with low-risk breast cancer. Methods and Materials: 274 patients with low-risk breast cancer were treated on protocol. Patients were eligible for the study if the tumor size was < 3 cm, resection margins were clear by at least 2 mm, no lymph node metastases existed, age was >35 years, hormone receptors were positive, and histologic grades were 1 or 2. Of the 274 patients, 175 (64%) received pulse-dose-rate brachytherapy (D{sub ref} = 50 Gy). and 99 (36%) received high-dose-rate brachytherapy (D{sub ref} = 32.0 Gy). Results: Median follow-up was 63 months (range, 9-103). Only 8 of 274 (2.9%) patients developed an ipsilateral in-breast tumor recurrence at the time of analysis. The 5-year actuarial local recurrence-free survival probability was 98%. The 5- year overall and disease-free survival probabilities of all patients were 97% and 96%, respectively. Contralateral in-breast malignancies were detected in 2 of 274 (0.7%) patients, and distant metastases occurred in 6 of 274 (2.2%). Late side effects {>=}Grade 3 (i.e., breast tissue fibrosis and telangiectasia) occurred in 1 patient (0.4%, 95%CI:0.0-2.0%) and 6 patients (2.2%, 95%CI:0.8-4.7%), respectively. Cosmetic results were good to excellent in 245 of 274 patients (90%). Conclusions: The long-term results of this prospective Phase II trial confirm that the efficacy of accelerated partial breast irradiation using multicatheter brachytherapy is comparable with that of whole breast irradiation and that late side effects are negligible.

Strnad, Vratislav, E-mail: vratislav.strnad@uk-erlangen.d [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Hildebrandt, Guido [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Rostock, Rostock (Germany); Poetter, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology and Radiobiology, University Hospital AKH Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Hammer, Josef [Department of Radiation Oncology, Barmherzige Schwestern Hospital, Linz (Austria); Hindemith, Marion [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Resch, Alexandra [Department of Radiation Oncology and Radiobiology, University Hospital AKH Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Spiegl, Kurt [Department of Radiation Oncology, Barmherzige Schwestern Hospital, Linz (Austria); Lotter, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Uter, Wolfgang [Department for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); Bani, Mayada [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Beckmann, Matthias W. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Fietkau, Rainer; Ott, Oliver J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany)

2011-05-01

52

PAR-1 phosphorylates Mind bomb to promote vertebrate neurogenesis  

PubMed Central

Summary Generation of neurons in the vertebrate central nervous system requires complex transcriptional regulatory network and signaling processes in polarized neuroepithelial progenitor cells. Here we demonstrate that neurogenesis in the Xenopus neural plate in vivo and mammalian neural progenitors in vitro involves intrinsic antagonistic activities of the polarity proteins PAR-1 and aPKC. Furthermore, we show that Mind bomb (Mib), a ubiquitin ligase that promotes Notch ligand trafficking and activity, is a crucial molecular substrate for PAR-1. The phosphorylation of Mib by PAR-1 results in Mib degradation, repression of Notch signaling and stimulation of neuronal differentiation. These observations suggest a conserved mechanism for neuronal fate determination that might operate during asymmetric divisions of polarized neural progenitor cells. PMID:19686683

Ossipova, Olga; Ezan, Jerome; Sokol, Sergei Y.

2010-01-01

53

UNIVERSITE OUVERTE Voyage accompagn par  

E-print Network

l'empereur Auguste. Fin de la visite par les remparts (pas de promenade sur les remparts cela est'architecture religieuse de Catalogne. Il fut fondé par Raimond Bérenger IV, comte de Barcelone, qui le céda à l'ordre de

Jeanjean, Louis

54

A Conservation Practices for Conserving  

E-print Network

A Conservation Catalog Practices for Conserving Pennsylvania's Natural Resources #12;#12;A Conservation Catalog 1 Introduction P ennsylvania is a land of great natural resources and Pennsylvania. The Pennsylvania Conservation Catalog is a cooperative effort of the Pennsylvania Conservation Partnership which

Kaye, Jason P.

55

The interaction of mPar3 with the ubiquitin ligase Smurf2 is required for the establishment of neuronal polarity.  

PubMed

The Par polarity complex consisting of the evolutionarily conserved proteins mPar3, mPar6, and aPKC regulates cell polarity in many cell types including neurons. Here we show that mPar3 is required for the establishment of neuronal polarity and links the Smurf2 to Kinesin-2. The HECT domain E3 ubiquitin ligase Smurf2 ensures that neurons extend only a single axon by initiating the degradation of inactive Rap1B through the ubiquitin/proteasome system. Its interaction with mPar3 is required to localize Smurf2 to growth cones and restrict Rap1B to the axon. Interfering with the binding of mPar3 to Kinesin-2 or Smurf2 to mPar3 and knockdown of mPar3 by RNAi disrupt the establishment of neuronal polarity through the failure to restrict Rap1B to a single neurite. PMID:17906294

Schwamborn, Jens C; Khazaei, Mohammad R; Püschel, Andreas W

2007-11-30

56

Evidence for a DNA-relay mechanism in ParABS-mediated chromosome segregation  

PubMed Central

The widely conserved ParABS system plays a major role in bacterial chromosome segregation. How the components of this system work together to generate translocation force and directional motion remains uncertain. Here, we combine biochemical approaches, quantitative imaging and mathematical modeling to examine the mechanism by which ParA drives the translocation of the ParB/parS partition complex in Caulobacter crescentus. Our experiments, together with simulations grounded on experimentally-determined biochemical and cellular parameters, suggest a novel 'DNA-relay' mechanism in which the chromosome plays a mechanical function. In this model, DNA-bound ParA-ATP dimers serve as transient tethers that harness the elastic dynamics of the chromosome to relay the partition complex from one DNA region to another across a ParA-ATP dimer gradient. Since ParA-like proteins are implicated in the partitioning of various cytoplasmic cargos, the conservation of their DNA-binding activity suggests that the DNA-relay mechanism may be a general form of intracellular transport in bacteria. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02758.001 PMID:24859756

Lim, Hoong Chuin; Surovtsev, Ivan Vladimirovich; Beltran, Bruno Gabriel; Huang, Fang; Bewersdorf, Jörg; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine

2014-01-01

57

Conserving Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will learn what energy is, how energy is used , and how to conserve it What are new ways of protecting the environment to conserve energy? Use your 4- column chart to record information about the questions i ask and you learn about. Begin by seeing what energy isEnergy Quest Tells different ways of conserving energy. List what you learn. What are simple ways to conserve energy everyday? How are vehicle manufactures inventing ways to conserve ...

Mr. Y

2009-10-21

58

The ParPar System: A Software MPP  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionTo place ParPar1. in context, we must first review the different modes of operationcommon on clusters. Probably the most common approach is to view the clusteras a Network Of Workstations (NOW). With this approach, each node is owned bya certain individual, and is usually also physically located in his work area. Theowner uses his workstation for administrative work, such as

Anat Batat; Avi Kavas; David Er-el; Dror G. Feitelson; Gabriel Benhanokh; Marc A. Volovic; Tomer Klainer; Yoav Etsion

1999-01-01

59

Transactivation of the PAR1-PAR2 Heterodimer by Thrombin Elicits ?-Arrestin-mediated Endosomal Signaling*  

PubMed Central

Thrombin cleaves the N terminus of PAR1, generating a new N-terminal domain that functions as a tethered ligand that binds intermolecularly to activate PAR2 in trans. The mechanisms that regulate PAR1-PAR2 heterodimer signaling and trafficking are not known. We now report that PAR1 and PAR2 form a heterodimer that exhibits unique trafficking and signaling behaviors compared with receptor protomers. Using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, immunofluorescence microscopy, co-immunoprecipitation, and cells expressing receptors exogenously and endogenously, we show that PAR1 and PAR2 specifically interact and form stable dimers. Intriguingly, the PAR1-PAR2 heterodimer displays constitutive internalization that is driven by PAR1 C-terminal tail sorting motifs and is a process that enhances dimer formation. Upon thrombin activation, PAR1-PAR2 dimers co-internalize and recruit ?-arrestins to endosomes. Remarkably, PAR1-PAR2 heterodimers appear to utilize a distinct interface for ?-arrestin interaction compared with receptor protomers. Moreover, thrombin-activated PAR1-PAR2 heterodimers enhance ?-arrestin-mediated ERK1/2 activation in the cytoplasm, whereas activated ERK1/2 induced by the thrombin-activated PAR1 protomer redistributes to the nucleus. Thus, the formation of PAR1-PAR2 heterodimers provides additional modes of thrombin-stimulated signaling responses that appear to be distinctly regulated compared with the receptor protomer. PMID:23476015

Lin, Huilan; Trejo, JoAnn

2013-01-01

60

Par Pond vegetation status 1996  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995, and into the early spring and late summer of 1996. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities continue to become re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, watershield, and Pontederia are extensive and well developed. Measures of percent cover, width of beds, and estimates of area of coverage with satellite data indicate regrowth within two years of from 40 to 60% of levels prior to the draw down. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer of 1996, especially in the former warm arm of Par Pond, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the draw down still have not formed. Lotus has invaded and occupies many of the areas formerly dominated by cattail beds. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys through the summer and early fall of 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1996-12-01

61

par Section PR / MCF HDR  

E-print Network

Nom Prénom Discipline par Section CNU Qualité PR / MCF HDR DR / CR HDR Unité de Recherche BARABE IODE DESGORCES Richard 36 PU2 IODE Listes des HDR #12;Nom Prénom Discipline par Section CNU Qualité PR / MCF HDR DR / CR HDR Unité de Recherche DHOMMEAUX Jean 36 PEM IODE FEUILLET LIGER Brigitte 36 PUEX IODE

Rennes, Université de

62

Isolation and characterization of par1(+) and par2(+): two Schizosaccharomyces pombe genes encoding B' subunits of protein phosphatase 2A.  

PubMed Central

Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is one of the major serine/threonine phosphatases found in eukaryotic cells. We cloned two genes, par1(+) and par2(+), encoding distinct B' subunits of PP2A in fission yeast. They share 52% identity at the amino acid sequence level. Neither gene is essential but together they are required for normal septum positioning and cytokinesis, for growth at both high and low temperature, and for growth under a number of stressful conditions. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that Par2p has a cell-cycle-related localization pattern, being localized at cell ends during interphase and forming a medial ring in cells that are undergoing septation and cytokinesis. Our analyses also indicate that Par1p is more abundant than Par2p in the cell. Cross-organism studies showed that both par1(+) and par2(+) could complement the rts1Delta allele in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, albeit to different extents, in spite of the fact that neither contains a serine/threonine-rich N-terminal domain like that found in the S. cerevisiae homolog Rts1p. Thus, while Schizosaccharomyces pombe is more similar to higher eukaryotes with respect to its complement of B'-encoding genes, the function of those proteins is conserved relative to that of Rts1p. PMID:10757751

Jiang, W; Hallberg, R L

2000-01-01

63

Mail Irradiation  

MedlinePLUS

Tobacco Smoke Mail Irradiation Food Irradiation Smoke Detectors Becoming Aware of Radiation Sources: Mail Irradiation In October, the deadly bacterium anthrax was found in mail sent to various news agencies, and to offices of the ...

64

Simultaneous Integrated Boost Irradiation After Breast-Conserving Surgery: Physician-Rated Toxicity and Cosmetic Outcome at 30 Months' Follow-Up  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate toxicity and cosmetic outcome (CO) in breast cancer survivors treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy with a hypofractionated, simultaneous integrated boost (3D-CRT-SIB) and to identify risk factors for toxicity, with special focus on the impact of age. Methods and Materials: Included were 940 consecutive disease-free patients treated for breast cancer (Stage 0-III) with 3D-CRT-SIB, after breast-conserving surgery, from 2005 to 2010. Physician-rated toxicity (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0) and CO were prospectively assessed during yearly follow-up, up to 5 years after radiotherapy. Multivariate logistic regression analyses using a bootstrapping method were performed. Results: At 3 years, toxicity scores of 436 patients were available. Grade {>=}2 fibrosis in the boost area was observed in 8.5%, non-boost fibrosis in 49.4%, pain to the chest wall in 6.7%, and fair/poor CO in 39.7% of cases. Radiotherapy before chemotherapy was significantly associated with grade {>=}2 boost fibrosis at 3 years (odds ratio [OR] 2.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-6.0). Non-boost fibrosis was associated with re-resection (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.0) and larger tumors (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.1). At 1 year, chest wall pain was significantly associated with high boost dosage (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.7) and younger age (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.7). A fair/poor CO was observed more often after re-resection (OR 4.5, 95% CI 2.4-8.5), after regional radiotherapy (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.2-7.1), and in larger tumors (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.1). Conclusions: Toxicity and CO are not impaired after 3D-CRT-SIB. Fibrosis was not significantly associated with radiotherapy parameters. Independent risk factors for fibrosis were chemotherapy after radiotherapy, re-resection, and larger tumor size. Re-resection was most predictive for worse CO. Age had an impact on chest wall pain occurrence.

Bantema-Joppe, Enja J.; Schilstra, Cornelis [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Bock, Geertruida H. de [Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Dolsma, Wil V.; Busz, Dianne M.; Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Maduro, John H., E-mail: j.h.maduro@umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

2012-07-15

65

Collections Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collections conservation is an approach to the preservation treatment of books and book-like materials that is conceptualized and organized in terms of large groups of materials. This guide is intended to enable a library to evaluate its current collections conservation activities. The introduction describes collections conservation and gives…

DeCandido, Robert

66

Conservative logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservative logic is a comprehensive model of computation which explicitly reflects a number of fundamental principles of physics, such as the reversibility of the dynamical laws and the conservation of certainadditive quantities (among which energy plays a distinguished role). Because it more closely mirrors physics than traditional models of computation, conservative logic is in a better position to provide indications

Edward Fredkin; Tommaso Toffoli

1982-01-01

67

Evaluation of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the p53 Binding Protein 1 (TP53BP1) Gene in Breast Cancer Patients Treated With Breast-Conserving Surgery and Whole-Breast Irradiation (BCS + RT)  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: TP53BP1 is a key component of radiation-induced deoxyribonucleic acid damage repair. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the significance of a known common single nucleotide polymorphism in this gene (rs560191) in patients treated with breast-conserving surgery and whole-breast irradiation (BCS + RT). Methods and Materials: The population consisted of 176 premenopausal women treated with BCS + RT (median follow-up, 12 years). Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid was processed by use of TaqMan assays. Each allele for rs560191 was either C or G, so each patient was therefore classified as CC, CG, or GG. Patients were grouped as GG if they were homozygous for the variant G allele or CC-CG if they carried at least one copy of the common C allele (CC or CG). Results: Of the 176 women, 124 (71%) were CC-CG and 52 (29%) were GG. The mean age was 44 years for GG vs. 38 years for CC-CG (p < 0.001). GG was more common in African-American women than white women (69% vs. 13%, p < 0.001) and more commonly estrogen receptor negative (70% vs. 49%, p = 0.02). There were no significant correlations of rs560191 with other critical variables. Despite the fact that GG patients were older, the 10-year rate of local relapses was higher (22% for GG vs. 12% for CC-CG, p = 0.04). Conclusions: This novel avenue of investigation of polymorphisms in radiation repair/response genes in patients treated with BCS + RT suggests a correlation to local relapse. Additional evaluation is needed to assess the biological and functional significance of these single nucleotide polymorphisms, and larger confirmatory validation studies will be required to determine the clinical implications.

Haffty, Bruce G., E-mail: hafftybg@umdnj.ed [Robert Wood Johnson Medical School-Cancer Institute of New Jersey, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Goyal, Sharad; Kulkarni, Diptee; Green, Camille; Vazquez, Alexi; Schiff, Devora [Robert Wood Johnson Medical School-Cancer Institute of New Jersey, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Moran, Meena S. [Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Yang Qifeng [Department of Breast Surgery, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan (China); Ganesan, Shridar; Hirsfield, Kim M. [Robert Wood Johnson Medical School-Cancer Institute of New Jersey, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

2011-06-01

68

Objective and Longitudinal Assessment of Dermatitis After Postoperative Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using High-Dose-Rate Interstitial Brachytherapy in Patients With Breast Cancer Treated With Breast Conserving Therapy: Reduction of Moisture Deterioration by APBI  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To objectively evaluate the radiation dermatitis caused by accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy. Patients and Methods: The skin color and moisture changes were examined using a newly installed spectrophotometer and corneometer in 22 patients who had undergone APBI using open cavity implant high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (36 Gy in six fractions) and compared with the corresponding values for 44 patients in an external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) control group (50-60 Gy in 25-30 fractions within 5-6 weeks) after breast conserving surgery. Results: All values changed significantly as a result of APBI. The extent of elevation in a Asterisk-Operator (reddish) and reduction in L Asterisk-Operator (black) values caused by APBI were similar to those for EBRT, with slightly delayed recovery for 6-12 months after treatment owing to the surgical procedure. In contrast, only APBI caused a change in the b Asterisk-Operator values, and EBRT did not, demonstrating that the reduction in b Asterisk-Operator values (yellowish) depends largely on the surgical procedure. The changes in moisture were less severe after APBI than after EBRT, and the recovery was more rapid. The toxicity assessment using the Common Toxicity Criteria, version 3, showed that all dermatitis caused by APBI was Grade 2 or less. Conclusion: An objective analysis can quantify the effects of APBI procedures on color and moisture cosmesis. The radiation dermatitis caused by APBI using the present schedule showed an equivalent effect on skin color and a less severe effect on moisture than the effects caused by standard EBRT.

Tanaka, Eiichi [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Hospital Organization, Osaka National Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Yamazaki, Hideya, E-mail: hideya10@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Yoshida, Ken; Takenaka, Tadashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Hospital Organization, Osaka National Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Masuda, Norikazu [Department of Surgery and Breast Oncology, National Hospital Organization, Osaka National Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Kotsuma, Tadayuki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Inoue, Takehiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita (Japan)

2011-11-15

69

Interim Cosmetic Results and Toxicity Using 3D Conformal External Beam Radiotherapy to Deliver Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation in Patients With Early-Stage Breast Cancer Treated With Breast-Conserving Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We present our ongoing clinical experience utilizing three-dimensional (3D)-conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) in patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy. Methods and Materials: Ninety-one consecutive patients were treated with APBI using our previously reported 3D-CRT technique. The clinical target volume consisted of the lumpectomy cavity plus a 10- to 15 -mm margin. The prescribed dose was 34 or 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions given over 5 consecutive days. The median follow-up was 24 months. Twelve patients have been followed for {>=}4 years, 20 for {>=}3.5 years, 29 for >3.0 years, 33 for {>=}2.5 years, and 46 for {>=}2.0 years. Results: No local recurrences developed. Cosmetic results were rated as good/excellent in 100% of evaluable patients at {>=} 6 months (n = 47), 93% at 1 year (n = 43), 91% at 2 years (n = 21), and in 90% at {>=}3 years (n = 10). Erythema, hyperpigmentation, breast edema, breast pain, telangiectasias, fibrosis, and fat necrosis were evaluated at 6, 24, and 36 months after treatment. All factors stabilized by 3 years posttreatment with grade I or II rates of 0%, 0%, 0%, 0%, 9%, 18%, and 9%, respectively. Only 2 patients (3%) developed grade III toxicity (breast pain), which resolved with time. Conclusions: Delivery of APBI with 3D-CRT resulted in minimal chronic ({>=}6 months) toxicity to date with good/excellent cosmetic results. Additional follow-up is needed to assess the long-term efficacy of this form of APBI.

Vicini, Frank A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)], E-mail: fvicini@beaumont.edu; Chen, Peter; Wallace, Michelle; Mitchell, Christina; Hasan, Yasmin; Grills, Inga; Kestin, Larry [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Schell, Scott [Department of Surgery, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Goldstein, Neal S. [Department of Anatomic Pathology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Kunzman, Jonathan [Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI (United States); Gilbert, Sam [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Martinez, Alvaro [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

2007-11-15

70

Conservation Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started as a germ of an idea back in 1987 (on a real, live bulletin board, as opposed to an electronic one), Conservation Online (CoOL) has been providing online resources for conservation professionals since 1993. As its website announces, it is a "full text library of conservation information," covering a wide array of topics ranging from digital imaging to reprographics, and quite a bit of material in between. By clicking on any given topic, visitors will receive a brief overview of the subject, its terminology, and then a list of general online resources for consideration. Another nice feature of the site is the mailing list archive, which contain the archives of various queries submitted to different professional conservation groups, such as the Association of Moving Image Archivists, the Textiles Conservation Discussion List, and the Conservation Framer's Mailing List. The site is rounded out by a timeline that traces the CoOL's history from the summer of 1987 to July 2003.

71

Universite Pierre et Marie CURIE Presentee par  

E-print Network

´electronique et de dynamique de r´eseau par ondes planes, principalement ´ecrits par Stefano BARONIcd , Paolo GIANNOZZIe et Stefano de GIRONCOLIc . Les effets n´ecessaires `a l'´etude infrarouge y ont ´et´e inclus en

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

72

Reconnaissance de formules mathmatiques Arabes par un systme dirig par la syntaxe  

E-print Network

Reconnaissance de formules mathématiques Arabes par un système dirigé par la syntaxe Afef Kacem'objet de cette contribution est de présenter un système dirigé par la syntaxe qui reconnaît des formules ambigus ou en confusion. Ce système de reconnaissance, dirigé par la syntaxe, a été démontré avec succès

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

73

DSEXCITATION DE NOYAUX DE DYSPROSIUM OBTENUS PAR BOMBARDEMENT DE TERBIUM PAR DES PROTONS  

E-print Network

833 D�SEXCITATION DE NOYAUX DE DYSPROSIUM OBTENUS PAR BOMBARDEMENT DE TERBIUM PAR DES PROTONS Par M (p, 9n) (p, 10n) induites sur le terbium-159. La comparaison avec un calcul fondé sur les Simonoff [6] ont récemment exa- miné la désexcitation de noyaux de terbium et de dysprosium obtenus par

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

74

MESURES COMPARATIVES D'INDICES PAR LE PRISME ET LA RFLEXION PAR M. H. DUFET.  

E-print Network

I63 MESURES COMPARATIVES D'INDICES PAR LE PRISME ET LA RÉFLEXION TOTALE; PAR M. H. DUFET corps biréfringents, de tels avan tages, qu'elle tend à se substituer à la méthode du prisme. Elle mesures les plus soignées par le prisme. Une objection cependant persiste, formulée par divers physi

Boyer, Edmond

75

RENFORCEMENT DE LA LUMINESCENCE DES SCINTILLATIONS 03B1 PAR LES CHAMPS LECTRIQUES Par JOSEPH MATTLER,  

E-print Network

758 RENFORCEMENT DE LA LUMINESCENCE DES SCINTILLATIONS 03B1 PAR LES CHAMPS ÉLECTRIQUES Par JOSEPH MATTLER, Laboratoire de Luminescence, Faculté des Sciences, Paris. LE JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE ET LE RADIUM de luminescence lorsqu'on les excite par des rayons X et à une extinction lorsqu'on les excite par la

Boyer, Edmond

76

MPhil Textile Conservation MPhil Textile Conservation  

E-print Network

MPhil Textile Conservation #12;MPhil Textile Conservation Textile conservation is a multi skills necessary to carry out conservation treatments. The two-year programme provides a comprehensive to its preservation and interpretation. The programme is housed in new conservation laboratories

Guo, Zaoyang

77

par Section PR / MCF HDR  

E-print Network

Nom Prénom Discipline par Section CNU Qualité PR / MCF HDR DR / CR HDR Unité de Recherche Equipe Mobilisations, citoyennetés, vie politique Sciences Po Rennes LONCLE Patricia 4 EC/HDR UMR 6051 Mobilisations UMR 6051 Journalisme, espace public, mouvements sociaux Sciences Po Rennes Listes des HDR #12;Nom

Rennes, Université de

78

Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond.

Paller, M.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Wike, L.D.

1996-06-01

79

A Casein Kinase 1 and PAR Proteins Regulate Asymmetry of a PIP 2 Synthesis Enzyme for Asymmetric Spindle Positioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Spindle positioning is an essential feature of asym- metric cell division. The conserved PAR proteins to- gether with heterotrimeric G proteins control spindle positioning inanimalcells,buthowthesearelinked is not known. In C. elegans, PAR protein activity leads to asymmetric spindle placement through cortical asymmetry of Ga regulators GPR-1\\/2. Here, we es- tablish that the casein kinase 1 gamma CSNK-1 and a

Costanza Panbianco; David Weinkove; Esther Zanin; David Jones; Nullin Divecha; Monica Gotta; Julie Ahringer

2008-01-01

80

Water Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity was developed to get students thinking about the many ways that people use freshwater and how we can conserve this precious and fundamental natural resource. Students will watch a short documentary describing issues related to clean water availability, analyze water-use data and start to think about how they consume and can conserve water. This background knowledge will lead to students collecting data about their own water use and finding areas in their lives to conserve water. This activity uses the 5E instructional model and is part of the "Survivor Earth" series of one-hour lessons.

81

Rassf5 and Ndr kinases regulate neuronal polarity through Par3 phosphorylation in a novel pathway  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The morphology and polarized growth of cells depend on pathways that control the asymmetric distribution of regulatory factors. The evolutionarily conserved Ndr kinases play important roles in cell polarity and morphogenesis in yeast and invertebrates but it is unclear whether they perform a similar function in mammalian cells. Here, we analyze the function of mammalian Ndr1 and Ndr2 (also known as STK38 or STK38L, respectively) in the establishment of polarity in neurons. We show that they act downstream of the tumor suppressor Rassf5 and upstream of the polarity protein Par3 (also known as PARD3). Rassf5 and Ndr1 or Ndr2 are required during the polarization of hippocampal neurons to prevent the formation of supernumerary axons. Mechanistically, the Ndr kinases act by phosphorylating Par3 at Ser383 to inhibit its interaction with dynein, thereby polarizing the distribution of Par3 and reinforcing axon specification. Our results identify a novel Rassf5–Ndr–Par3 signaling cascade that regulates the transport of Par3 during the establishment of neuronal polarity. Their role in neuronal polarity suggests that Ndr kinases perform a conserved function as regulators of cell polarity. PMID:24928906

Yang, Rui; Kong, Eryan; Jin, Jing; Hergovich, Alexander; Püschel, Andreas W.

2014-01-01

82

Conservation Regional Conservation SavingsRegional Conservation Savings  

E-print Network

1 Northwest Power and Conservation Council Regional Conservation SavingsRegional Conservation the Plan''s Targets?s Targets? March 14, 2008 slide 2 Northwest Power and Conservation Council 55thth Plan Conservation ResourcePlan Conservation Resource Acquisition TargetsAcquisition Targets 20052005 ­­ 2009 = 700 a

83

Energy Conservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comments on The Potential for Energy Conservation,'' a study by the Office of Emergency Preparedness, emphasizing the coming dependence on foreign oil, and presses for government influence to encourage development of more efficient cars. (AL)

Abelson, Philip H.

1972-01-01

84

Conservation Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Conservation Ecology is a new, exclusively electronic, peer-reviewed scientific journal of the Resilience Alliance, with content ranging from the applied to the theoretical. Topics covered by the journal include: "the conservation of ecosystems, landscapes, species, populations, and genetic diversity; the restoration of ecosystems and habitats; and the management of resources." This site includes the full text version of the articles (including past issues), as well as instructions on how to submit papers and how to subscribe. Subscriptions to Conservation Ecology are free of charge and all materials are available for browsing without cost. Edited by ecosystem ecology expert, Dr. C. S. Holling, Conservation Ecology breaks new ground in an important, emerging science.

1997-01-01

85

Conservation Presentation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces a project in which students teach about the importance of recycling and conservation by presenting demonstrations. Includes demonstrations on water, plastic, and other recycling products such as steel. (YDS)

Friday, Gerald

2001-01-01

86

Energy Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the idea that energy use impacts the environment and our wallets. They discuss different types of renewable and nonrenewable energy sources, as well as the impacts of energy consumption. Through a series of activities, students understand how they use energy and how it is transformed from one type to another. They learn innovative ways engineers conserve energy and how energy can be conserved in their homes.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

87

Breaking the epithelial polarity barrier in cancer: the strange case of LKB1/PAR-4  

PubMed Central

The PAR clan of polarity regulating genes was initially discovered in a genetic screen searching for genes involved in asymmetric cell divisions in the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo. Today, investigations in worms, flies and mammals have established PAR proteins as conserved and fundamental regulators of animal cell polarization in a broad range of biological phenomena requiring cellular asymmetries. The human homologue of invertebrate PAR-4, a serine–threonine kinase LKB1/STK11, has caught attention as a gene behind Peutz–Jeghers polyposis syndrome and as a bona fide tumour suppressor gene commonly mutated in sporadic cancer. LKB1 functions as a master regulator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and 12 other kinases referred to as the AMPK-related kinases, including four human homologues of PAR-1. The role of LKB1 as part of the energy sensing LKB1-AMPK module has been intensively studied, whereas the polarity function of LKB1, in the context of homoeostasis or cancer, has gained less attention. Here, we focus on the PAR-4 identity of LKB1, discussing the weight of evidence indicating a role for LKB1 in regulation of cell polarity and epithelial integrity across species and highlight recent investigations providing new insight into the old question: does the PAR-4 identity of LKB1 matter in cancer? PMID:24062587

Partanen, Johanna I.; Tervonen, Topi A.; Klefström, Juha

2013-01-01

88

Amorphization of ?-Quartz under Irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The course of radiation induced damage produced in ?-quartz by neutrons, ions, electrons or photons — commonly known as metamictization — has been re-analyzed by careful comparison of available experimental data. Specific interest was devoted to confront experimental metamict state features with current structural models. It comes out that the metamict state of irradiated quartz should exhibit some structural characteristics of the modulated structure proposed for vitreous silica. The metamictization process is consistent with a structural relaxation process of a highly defective quartz matrix. According to this new point defect analysis, structural relaxation should be triggered by a critical concentration of oxygen vacancy point defects likely to significantly lower the connectivity of the SiO{2} network. Various experimental results are interpreted by incorporating the influence of the SiO{2} crystalline polymorph and the influence of the nature of the irradiating particle to the point defect model. Nous avons étudié les modifications de propriétés et de structures de monocristaux de quartz ?, consécutives à une irradiation sévère par des neutrons, des ions, des électrons ou des photons. Ce phénomène d'altération du quartz sous irradiation porte le nom de métamictisation. Notre travail exploite les recoupements de travaux antérieurs. Une attention particulière a été portée à la confrontation entre les données structurales expérimentales disponibles sur l'état métamicte du quartz et les modèles structuraux proposés. L'état métamicte du quartz présente ainsi les caractéristiques structurales du modèle de structure modulée, avancé pour décrire la structure de la silice thermique. Le mécanisme de métamictisation procéderait par relaxation de la matrice cristalline fortement endommagée. Ce phénomène de relaxation serait initié par l'apparition de concentration critique de défauts ponctuels de type lacunes d'oxygène responsables d'une forte augmentation des degrés de liberté des tétraèdres élémentaires SiO{4} au sein du crystal. Ce modèle de défaut ponctuel permet, par la prise en compte de la nature de la forme cristalline du dioxyde de silicium et la nature du projectile utilisé, de rendre compte de l'essentiel des donnés expérimentales.

Douillard, L.; Duraud, J. P.

1996-12-01

89

POMPE A MERCURE AUTOMATIQUE : Par M. KLEIN.  

E-print Network

293 POMPE A MERCURE AUTOMATIQUE : Par M. KLEIN. Cette pompe à mercure est actionnéepar une trompe à reliée à une trompe à eau et, au lieu que les déplacements du mercure soient produits par les alternativement et automatiquement avec l'atmosphère et avec la trompe à eau par le jeu d'un dispositif convenable

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

90

PAR-1 antagonists: current state of evidence.  

PubMed

Vorapaxar (SCH 530348) and atopaxar (E5555) are oral protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) antagonists with high bioavailability. They inhibits thrombin induced platelet aggregation by competitively inhibiting PAR-1. We systematically evaluated the evidence for the efficacy and safety of all PAR-1 antagonists as well as for the individual drugs vorapaxar and atopaxar in different databases-PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, and Cochrane register of Controlled Clinical Trials (CENTRAL).We selected randomized controlled trials of PAR-1 antagonists that reported on cardiovascular mortality as a clinical outcome. The random-effects Mantel-Haenszel model was used to evaluate the effect of PAR-1 antagonists on cardiovascular mortality. Seven trials were selected (N = 42,355) for analysis. PAR-1 antagonists as a class, as well as individually, were associated with a non-significant numerically lower risk of cardiovascular mortality than that seen with agents used in the control group; RR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.83-1.04; P = 0.20). No heterogeneity was noted. However, PAR-1 antagonists also appeared to increase the risk of bleeding significantly. PAR-1 antagonists appear to be associated with some reduction in the risk of cardiovascular mortality; however the significantly higher bleeding risk noted with PAR-1 antagonists appear to mandate a very careful selection of patients that may benefit without a substantially increased risk of bleeds. PMID:22644721

Chatterjee, Saurav; Sharma, Abhishek; Mukherjee, Debabrata

2013-01-01

91

Massachusetts Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Massachusetts has long been a leader in the conservation and preservation movements. From early attempts to create an Emerald Necklace around Boston to the battle to save the Old State House, the commonwealth has rich, fascinating tales and experiences. This wonderful travel itinerary was created by the National Park Service's Heritage Education Services in partnership with the Massachusetts Historical Commission and the National Conference of State Historic Preservation Officers. On the site, visitors can look over essays, a list of sites, maps, and external websites. The powerful essays include "Conservation and Landscape Planning in Massachusetts" and "American Conservation in the Twentieth Century." Checking out the List of Sites area, visitors can read a complete list of all the places mentioned in the itinerary (complete with details and photos) such as the Boston Public Garden, the Lynn Woods Historic District, and the Fruitlands Museums Historic District.

92

Water Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students study the availability of water on Earth and discuss methods that can be used to purify and conserve this critical resource. Using multimedia interactives, video, and classroom activities, they will identify sources of fresh water available for consumption, understand the need for water conservation, and compare the benefits and drawbacks of different water management techniques. They will also assess how much water they and their families typically use, and think about ways to reduce their water usage. Finally, students explore different techniques being employed for water management around the world, including the use of dams to create reservoirs.

2005-01-01

93

PHOTOLUMINESCENCE DU MTAANTIMONIATE DE CALCIUM ACTIV PAR LE BISMUTH Par ROGER BERNARD et JOSEPH JANIN,  

E-print Network

616. PHOTOLUMINESCENCE DU M�TAANTIMONIATE DE CALCIUM ACTIV� PAR LE BISMUTH Par ROGER BERNARD et différentes concentrations en bismuth ; les courbes corres- pondantes sont reproduites sur la figure 1. FiG. 1 concentrations en activateur. présentent pas de modification par addition de bismuth. Il semble plus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

94

Irradiance Variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the solar interior emerges magnetic flux that alters the Sun's electromagnetic radiation, producing irradiance variability on a wide range of time scales. The organization, outward extension and expansion of magnetic fields structure the solar atmosphere and cause the entire electromagnetic spectrum to vary in different ways, depending on wavelength. Surface magnetic fields produce variations in near UV, visible and near IR spectra which emerge from the photosphere, and comprise the bulk of total irradiance. Yet the correlation of daily total irradiance and total magnetic field strength is poor; rather, the net effect of two different magnetic features - dark sunspots and bright faculae - better account for the variations observed in total irradiance during the solar cycle. The relationship of UV irradiance with magnetic flux is more direct since bright active regions control the global variations in both these quantities. Connecting X-ray and short wavelength EUV irradiance variations to the solar interior requires the extrapolation of emerging surface magnetic fields to the corona and assumptions about the relationship of their strengths and topologies with coronal pressure. Knowledge of the emergence, evolution, transport and decay of magnetic flux is thus a key to understanding and forecasting solar irradiance variability at all wavelengths. Identification of sizeable magnetic regions on the side of the Sun far from Earth may enable EUV and X-ray irradiance forecasts and subsequent space weather effects on time scales of days to weeks. On multi-decadal time scales improved knowledge of the sub surface dynamo and surface transport processes may help constrain secular solar irradiance evolution, needed for climate change attribution. Also needed is quantification of the association between the closed flux that controls irradiance variability and the open flux that extends into the heliosphere. Although utilized frequently to infer irradiance variability, proxies of long-term solar activity in tree-rings and ice-cores actually reflect heliospheric modulation of galactic cosmic rays. Funded by NASA and ONR.

Lean, J. L.

2003-05-01

95

conservation perspective  

E-print Network

sharks can be sus- tainably harvested. In two recent papers, Baum et al. (2003) and Baum and Myers (2004conservation perspective Introduction Sharks are generally regarded to exhibit slow growth, late. 2000a). Although our knowledge of the demography and population dynamics of sharks has been slow

Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

96

Marketing Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1986, Northeast Utilities began helping shool administrators combat school building energy wastage through a program called Energy Alliance. The typical school can reduce its energy bill by 30 percent by adopting a wide range of conservation measures, including cogeneration, relamping, and energy audits. (MLH)

Ellis, William B.

1987-01-01

97

Wildlife Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecotourism has been proposed as a viable economic activity that can minimiz e negative human impacts on wildlife habitat and provide an incentive to preserv e natural areas. The potential of ecotourism as a wildlife conservation strategy is lim - ited by its inability to insure the long-term protection of environmental assets and by its tendency to contribute directly to

Jack Coburn

1969-01-01

98

Colorful Conservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some people only think about conservation on Earth Day. Being in the "art business" however, this author is always conscious of the many products she thinks get wasted when they could be reused, recycled, and restored--especially in a school building and art room. In this article, she describes an art lesson that allows students to paint…

Skophammer, Karen

2011-01-01

99

Optical engineering application of modeled photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) for high-speed digital camera dynamic range optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As efforts to create accurate yet computationally efficient estimation models for clear-sky photosynthetically active solar radiation (PAR) have succeeded, the range of practical engineering applications where these models can be successfully applied has increased. This paper describes a novel application of the REST2 radiative model (developed by the second author) in optical engineering. The PAR predictions in this application are used to predict the possible range of instantaneous irradiances that could impinge on the image plane of a stationary video camera designed to image license plates on moving vehicles. The overall spectral response of the camera (including lens and optical filters) is similar to the 400-700 nm PAR range, thereby making PAR irradiance (rather than luminance) predictions most suitable for this application. The accuracy of the REST2 irradiance predictions for horizontal surfaces, coupled with another radiative model to obtain irradiances on vertical surfaces, and to standard optical image formation models, enable setting the dynamic range controls of the camera to ensure that the license plate images are legible (unsaturated with adequate contrast) regardless of the time of day, sky condition, or vehicle speed. A brief description of how these radiative models are utilized as part of the camera control algorithm is provided. Several comparisons of the irradiance predictions derived from the radiative model versus actual PAR measurements under varying sky conditions with three Licor sensors (one horizontal and two vertical) have been made and showed good agreement. Various camera-to-plate geometries and compass headings have been considered in these comparisons. Time-lapse sequences of license plate images taken with the camera under various sky conditions over a 30-day period are also analyzed. They demonstrate the success of the approach at creating legible plate images under highly variable lighting, which is the main goal of this application. Graphs of plate contrast over various sky conditions and camera aiming geometries are also presented to quantify the performance of the plate's legibility.

Alves, James; Gueymard, Christian A.

2009-08-01

100

Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- Summary  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are extensive and well developed. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Estimates from SPOT HRV, remote sensing satellite data indicated that as much as 120 hectares of emergent wetlands vegetation may have been present along the Par Pond shoreline by early October, 1995. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1996-01-01

101

Ablation de matériaux par laser femtoseconde  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L'ablation de métaux par laser impulsionnel ultrabref (femtoseconde) est étudiée en analysant les cratères par microscopie optique. La profondeur du cratère a été mesurée en fonction du nombre d'impulsions et de la fluence. Les résultats sont comparés à un modèle analytique décrivant l'interaction laser-matière en régime femtoseconde.

Bruneau, S.; Hermann, J.; Itina, T.; Sentis, M.; Semerok, A.; Marine, W.

2003-06-01

102

Segrosome assembly at the pliable parH centromere  

PubMed Central

The segrosome of multiresistance plasmid TP228 comprises ParF, which is a member of the ParA ATPase superfamily, and the ParG ribbon–helix–helix factor that assemble jointly on the parH centromere. Here we demonstrate that the distinctive parH site (?100-bp) consists of an array of degenerate tetramer boxes interspersed by AT-rich spacers. Although numerous consecutive AT-steps are suggestive of inherent curvature, parH lacks an intrinsic bend. Sequential deletion of parH tetramers progressively reduced centromere function. Nevertheless, the variant subsites could be rearranged in different geometries that accommodated centromere activity effectively revealing that the site is highly elastic in vivo. ParG cooperatively coated parH: proper centromere binding necessitated the protein's N-terminal flexible tails which modulate the centromere binding affinity of ParG. Interaction of the ParG ribbon–helix–helix domain with major groove bases in the tetramer boxes likely provides direct readout of the centromere. In contrast, the AT-rich spacers may be implicated in indirect readout that mediates cooperativity between ParG dimers assembled on adjacent boxes. ParF alone does not bind parH but instead loads into the segrosome interactively with ParG, thereby subtly altering centromere conformation. Assembly of ParF into the complex requires the N-terminal flexible tails in ParG that are contacted by ParF. PMID:21378121

Wu, Meiyi; Zampini, Massimiliano; Bussiek, Malte; Hoischen, Christian; Diekmann, Stephan; Hayes, Finbarr

2011-01-01

103

Conservation Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, learners will understand the concepts behind endangered and extinct animals and develop their own conservation plan to save three endangered species. Each group or pair of learners will receive an animal profile and sketch it from the description that is given. Then, they will consider the animal’s habitat, behavior, diet, and threats as well as the people’s need for cities, agricultural areas, and tribal lands and share this information with other groups. After learners become familiar with their animal (considering both animal and human needs), they must choose what sections of land to conserve and give a short presentation. This lesson plan includes wrap-up suggestions, educator resources, extension ideas, and is standards-based.

California Academy of Sciences

2008-01-01

104

Healing in the irradiated wound  

SciTech Connect

Poor or nonhealing of irradiated wounds has been attributed to progressive obliterative endarteritis. Permanently damaged fibroblasts may also play an important part in poor healing. Regardless of the cause, the key to management of irradiated skin is careful attention to prevent its breakdown and conservative, but adequate, treatment when wounds are minor. When wounds become larger and are painful, complete excision of the wound or ulcer is called for and coverage should be provided by a well-vascularized nonparasitic distant flap.16 references.

Miller, S.H.; Rudolph, R. (Univ. of California, San Diego (USA))

1990-07-01

105

Tonsil Irradiation  

Cancer.gov

A cohort of about 3,000 individuals who were irradiated during childhood for benign head and neck conditions at Michael Reese Hospital was assembled and monitored for the risk of thyroid and other cancers.

106

Estimates and Measurements of Photosynthetically Active Radiation and Global Solar Irradiance in Rondonia  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and global solar irradiance (R{sub s}) were made at a LBA (The Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia) experimental site, at Fazenda Nossa Senhora (10 deg. 45' S; 62 deg. 21' W), in Rondonia, in the years of 2004 and 2005, with the objective of estimating the seasonal variation of the ratio between the photosynthetically active radiation and the global solar irradiance. The relationship between PAR and R{sub s} were made by using linear regressions equations with data from year 2004 and tested with data from the year 2005. The seasonal variation of the ratio PAR/R{sub s} ranged from 0.43 (September) to 0.48 (January). The linear regression equations between PAR and R{sub s} obtained were: a) On an hourly basis: PAR 0.747+0.478*R{sub s},(R{sup 2} = 0.99; wet season) and PAR = -4.578+0.452*R{sub s}(R{sup 2} 0.99; dry season); b) On a daily basis: PAR = 4.956+0.466*R{sub s}(R{sup 2} = 0.99; wet season) and PAR = -6.762+0.457*R{sub s}(R{sup 2} = 0.96; dry season)

Aguiar, Leonardo J. G.; Costa, Jose M. N. da; Fischer, Graciela R. [Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Vicosa, CEP 36570000, Vicosa-MG (Brazil); Aguiar, Renata G. [Department of Ambiental Engineering, Federal University of Rondonia, CEP 78960000, Ji-Parana-RO (Brazil)

2009-03-11

107

Matrix metalloproteases and PAR1 activation  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular diseases, including atherothrombosis, are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, Europe, and the developed world. Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) have recently emerged as important mediators of platelet and endothelial function, and atherothrombotic disease. Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) is a G protein-coupled receptor that is classically activated through cleavage of the N-terminal exodomain by the serine protease thrombin. Most recently, 2 MMPs have been discovered to have agonist activity for PAR1. Unexpectedly, MMP-1 and MMP-13 cleave the N-terminal exodomain of PAR1 at noncanonical sites, which result in distinct tethered ligands that activate G-protein signaling pathways. PAR1 exhibits metalloprotease-specific signaling patterns, known as biased agonism, that produce distinct functional outputs by the cell. Here we contrast the mechanisms of canonical (thrombin) and noncanonical (MMP) PAR1 activation, the contribution of MMP-PAR1 signaling to diseases of the vasculature, and the therapeutic potential of inhibiting MMP-PAR1 signaling with MMP inhibitors, including atherothrombotic disease, in-stent restenosis, heart failure, and sepsis. PMID:23086754

Austin, Karyn M.; Covic, Lidija

2013-01-01

108

December 18, 2008 Conservation  

E-print Network

1 December 18, 2008 Northwest Power and Conservation Council Northwest Power and Conservation Council Sixth Northwest Conservation & Electric Power Plan Wind Resource Assessment Jeff King Northwest Power and Conservation Council Generating Resources Advisory Committee Portland, OR December 18, 2008

109

December 18, 2008 Conservation  

E-print Network

1 December 18, 2008 Northwest Power and Conservation Council Northwest Power and Conservation Council Sixth Northwest Conservation & Electric Power Plan Resource Assessment Status and Remaining Work Jeff King Northwest Power and Conservation Council Generating Resources Advisory Committee Portland

110

Conservation and drought management  

E-print Network

Fall 2012 tx H2O 5 Column by Dr. Calvin Finch, Water Conservation and Technology Center director Conservation and Drought Management WAT E R CONSERVATION & TECHNOLOGY CENTER Securing Our Water Future Water conservation and drought...

Finch, Calvin

2012-01-01

111

[Pars plana lensectomy in pediatric cataract].  

PubMed

The pars plana approach to cataract extraction in the pediatric age has several advantages. We report of 9 eyes with congenital cataract and discuss the advantages of the pars plana technic. In all cases a single surgical approach was sufficient. There were no complications postoperatively which made either surgical or medical treatment necessary. Postoperatively aphakia was corrected with contact lenses. During pars plana-lensectomie the central part of the anterior and posterior capsule is removed and an anterior vitrectomie is performed. With this procedure secondary cataract formation could always be prevented. PMID:1614122

Kain, H L; Osusky, R

1992-05-01

112

Proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) and PAR2 mediate relaxation of guinea pig internal anal sphincter.  

PubMed

Activation of proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) and PAR2 stimulates contraction of the rat but relaxation of the guinea pig colon. The aim of the present study was to investigate PAR effects on internal anal sphincter (IAS) motility. We measured relaxation of isolated muscle strips from the guinea pig IAS caused by PAR agonists using isometric transducers. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to determine the existence of PAR. In the IAS, thrombin and PAR1 peptide agonists TFLLR-NH2 and SFLLRN-NH2 evoked moderate to marked relaxation in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, trypsin and PAR2 peptide agonists 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2, SLIGRL-NH2 and SLIGKV-NH2 produced relaxation. In contrast, both PAR1 and PAR2 inactive control peptides did not elicit relaxation. Furthermore, the selective PAR1 antagonist vorapaxar and PAR2 antagonist GB 83 specifically inhibited thrombin and trypsin-induced relaxations, respectively. RT-PCR revealed the presence of PAR1 and PAR2 in the IAS. This indicates that PAR1 and PAR2 mediate the IAS relaxation. The relaxant responses of TFLLR-NH2 and trypsin were attenuated by N(omega)-Nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), indicating involvement of NO. These responses were not affected by tetrodotoxin, implying that the PAR effects are not neurally mediated. On the other hand, PAR4 agonists GYPGKF-NH2, GYPGQV-NH2 and AYPGKF-NH2 did not cause relaxation or contraction, suggesting that PAR4 is not involved in the sphincter motility. Taken together, these results demonstrate that both PAR1 and PAR2 mediate relaxation of the guinea pig IAS through the NO pathway. PAR1 and PAR2 may regulate IAS tone and might be potential therapeutic targets for anal motility disorders. PMID:24631471

Huang, Shih-Che

2014-02-10

113

RECHERCHES SUR LES RAYONS n (1) ; Par M. R. BLONDLOT.  

E-print Network

121 RECHERCHES SUR LES RAYONS n (1) ; (Suite) Par M. R. BLONDLOT. 1 . Ren forcement de.s impressions lumineuses, par les rayons n (2). - En étudiant l'emmagasinement des rayons n par différents corps yeux les rayons émis par une brique ou un caillou préalablement isolés, il voit le cadran blanchir

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

114

COLLIMATION DU RAYONNEMENT GAMMA PAR UN CANAL CYLINDRIQUE CIRCULAIRE Par C. KELLERSHOHN et P. PELLERIN,  

E-print Network

81 A COLLIMATION DU RAYONNEMENT GAMMA PAR UN CANAL CYLINDRIQUE CIRCULAIRE Par C. KELLERSHOHN et P'apprécier le degré de collimation d'un rayonnement gamma par un canal cylindrique dans un matériau absorbant. Application au cas de la raie 364 KeV de 131I et d'un canal à parois de plomb. LE JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE ET LE

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

115

Comparative cactus architecture and par interception  

SciTech Connect

Because CO{sup 2} uptake by cacti can be limited by low levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and because plant form affects PAR interception, various cactus forms were studied using a computer model, field measurements, and laboratory phototropic studies. Model predictions indicated that CO{sub 2} uptake by individual stems at an equinox was greatest when the stem were vertical, but at the summer and the winter solstice CO{sub 2} uptake was greatest for stems titled 30{degree} away from the equator. Stem tilting depended on form and taxonomic group. Not only can the shape of cacti be affected by PAR, but also shape influences PAR interception and hence CO{sub 2} uptake.

Geller, G.N.; Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))

1987-07-01

116

Structural analysis of the ParR/parC plasmid partition complex  

PubMed Central

Accurate DNA partition at cell division is vital to all living organisms. In bacteria, this process can involve partition loci, which are found on both chromosomes and plasmids. The initial step in Escherichia coli plasmid R1 partition involves the formation of a partition complex between the DNA-binding protein ParR and its cognate centromere site parC on the DNA. The partition complex is recognized by a second partition protein, the actin-like ATPase ParM, which forms filaments required for the active bidirectional movement of DNA replicates. Here, we present the 2.8 Å crystal structure of ParR from E. coli plasmid pB171. ParR forms a tight dimer resembling a large family of dimeric ribbon–helix–helix (RHH)2 site-specific DNA-binding proteins. Crystallographic and electron microscopic data further indicate that ParR dimers assemble into a helix structure with DNA-binding sites facing outward. Genetic and biochemical experiments support a structural arrangement in which the centromere-like parC DNA is wrapped around a ParR protein scaffold. This structure holds implications for how ParM polymerization drives active DNA transport during plasmid partition. PMID:17898804

Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Ringgaard, Simon; Mercogliano, Christopher P; Gerdes, Kenn; Löwe, Jan

2007-01-01

117

Techniques for measuring intercepted and absorbed PAR in corn canopies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The quantity of radiation potentially available for photosynthesis that is captured by the crop is best described as absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Absorbed PAR (APAR) is the difference between descending and ascending fluxes. The four components of APAR were measured above and within two planting densities of corn (Zea mays L.) and several methods of measuring and estimating APAR were examined. A line quantum sensor that spatially averages the photosynthetic photon flux density provided a rapid and portable method of measuring APAR. PAR reflectance from the soil (Typic Argiaquoll) surface decreased from 10% to less than 1% of the incoming PAR as the canopy cover increased. PAR reflectance from the canopy decreased to less than 3% at maximum vegetative cover. Intercepted PAR (1 - transmitted PAR) generally overestimated absorbed PAR by less than 4% throughout most of the growing season. Thus intercepted PAR appears to be a reasonable estimate of absorbed PAR.

Gallo, K. P.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

1984-01-01

118

par Elias Sanbar Ambassadeur de Palestine  

E-print Network

par Elias Sanbar Ambassadeur de Palestine auprès de l'UNESCO l'église de la Nativité au PatrimoiNe moNdial Portée et enjeux Eglise de la Nativité, Palestine. Photo: DR Le patrimoine culturel de l PatrimoiNe moNdial Portée et enjeux par Elias Sanbar Ambassadeur de Palestine auprès de l'UNESCO Considérée

Citi, Sandra

119

Radioecological implications of the Par Pond drawdown  

SciTech Connect

The drawdown of the Par Pond reservoir created dramatic alterations in this formerly stable lentic ecosystem. In addition, the radiation environment at Par Pond has changed significantly because of the exposure of Cesium 137-contaminated sediments and the appearance of new transport pathways to the terrestrial environment. In response to this situation, SREL was asked to study the radioecological implications of the reservoir drawdown. This report contains the objectives, methods, and results of the SREL study.

Hickey, H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Whicker, F.W. [Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States)

1991-12-05

120

Par reduction in OFDM through convex programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high peak-to-average power ratio (PAR) encountered in OFDM system has been a major obstacle in the implementation of power efficient transmitter. In this paper, we present a new active constellation extension (ACE) based convex optimization algorithm which reduces PAR through convex programming. In comparison with previous convex programming method, our method greatly reduces the complexity and keeps the bit-error-rate

Chao Wang; Shu Hung Leung

2008-01-01

121

Protease-Activated Receptor (PAR) 1 and PAR4 Differentially Regulate Factor V Expression from Human Platelets  

PubMed Central

With the recent interest of protease-activated receptors (PAR) 1 and PAR4 as possible targets for the treatment of thrombotic disorders, we compared the efficacy of protease-activated receptor (PAR)1 and PAR4 in the generation of procoagulant phenotypes on platelet membranes. PAR4-activating peptide (AP)–stimulated platelets promoted thrombin generation in plasma up to 5 minutes earlier than PAR1-AP–stimulated platelets. PAR4-AP–mediated factor V (FV) association with the platelet surface was 1.6-fold greater than for PAR1-AP. Moreover, PAR4 stimulation resulted in a 3-fold greater release of microparticles, compared with PAR1 stimulation. More robust FV secretion and microparticle generation with PAR4-AP was attributable to stronger and more sustained phosphorylation of myosin light chain at serine 19 and threonine 18. Inhibition of Rho-kinase reduced PAR4-AP–mediated FV secretion and microparticle generation to PAR1-AP–mediated levels. Thrombin generation assays measuring prothrombinase complex activity demonstrated 1.5-fold higher peak thrombin levels on PAR4-AP–stimulated platelets, compared with PAR1-AP–stimulated platelets. Rho-kinase inhibition reduced PAR4-AP–mediated peak thrombin generation by 25% but had no significant effect on PAR1-AP–mediated thrombin generation. In conclusion, stimulation of PAR4 on platelets leads to faster and more robust thrombin generation, compared with PAR1 stimulation. The greater procoagulant potential is related to more efficient FV release from intracellular stores and microparticle production driven by stronger and more sustained myosin light chain phosphorylation. These data have implications about the role of PAR4 during hemostasis and are clinically relevant in light of recent efforts to develop PAR antagonists to treat thrombotic disorders. PMID:23307185

Duvernay, Matthew; Young, Summer; Gailani, David; Schoenecker, Jonathan

2013-01-01

122

Simulink/PARS Integration Support  

SciTech Connect

The state of the art for signal processor hardware has far out-paced the development tools for placing applications on that hardware. In addition, signal processors are available in a variety of architectures, each uniquely capable of handling specific types of signal processing efficiently. With these processors becoming smaller and demanding less power, it has become possible to group multiple processors, a heterogeneous set of processors, into single systems. Different portions of the desired problem set can be assigned to different processor types as appropriate. As software development tools do not keep pace with these processors, especially when multiple processors of different types are used, a method is needed to enable software code portability among multiple processors and multiple types of processors along with their respective software environments. Sundance DSP, Inc. has developed a software toolkit called “PARS”, whose objective is to provide a framework that uses suites of tools provided by different vendors, along with modeling tools and a real time operating system, to build an application that spans different processor types. The software language used to express the behavior of the system is a very high level modeling language, “Simulink”, a MathWorks product. ORNL has used this toolkit to effectively implement several deliverables. This CRADA describes this collaboration between ORNL and Sundance DSP, Inc.

Vacaliuc, B. [ORNL] [ORNL; Nakhaee, N. [Sundance DSP, Inc.] [Sundance DSP, Inc.

2013-12-18

123

The PAR complex controls the spatiotemporal dynamics of F-actin and the MTOC in directionally migrating leukocytes  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Inflammatory cells acquire a polarized phenotype to migrate towards sites of infection or injury. A conserved polarity complex comprising PAR-3, PAR-6 and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) relays extracellular polarizing cues to control cytoskeletal and signaling networks affecting morphological and functional polarization. However, there is no evidence that myeloid cells use PAR signaling to migrate vectorially in three-dimensional (3D) environments in vivo. Using genetically encoded bioprobes and high-resolution live imaging, we reveal the existence of F-actin oscillations in the trailing edge and constant repositioning of the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) to direct leukocyte migration in wounded medaka fish larvae (Oryzias latipes). Genetic manipulation in live myeloid cells demonstrates that the catalytic activity of aPKC and the regulated interaction with PAR-3 and PAR-6 are required for consistent F-actin oscillations, MTOC perinuclear mobility, aPKC repositioning and wound-directed migration upstream of Rho kinase (also known as ROCK or ROK) activation. We propose that the PAR complex coordinately controls cytoskeletal changes affecting both the generation of traction force and the directionality of leukocyte migration to sites of injury. PMID:25179599

Crespo, Carolina Lage; Vernieri, Claudio; Keller, Philipp J.; Garrè, Massimiliano; Bender, Jeffrey R.; Wittbrodt, Joachim; Pardi, Ruggero

2014-01-01

124

Irradiance gradients  

SciTech Connect

A new method for improving the accuracy of a diffuse interreflection calculation is introduced in a ray tracing context. The information from a hemispherical sampling of the luminous environment is interpreted in a new way to predict the change in irradiance as a function of position and surface orientation. The additional computation involved is modest and the benefit is substantial. An improved interpolation of irradiance resulting from the gradient calculation produces smoother, more accurate renderings. This result is achieved through better utilization of ray samples rather than additional samples or alternate sampling strategies. Thus, the technique is applicable to a variety of global illumination algorithms that use hemicubes or Monte Carlo sampling techniques.

Ward, G.J. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States) Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland)); Heckbert, P.S. (Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). School of Computer Science Technische Hogeschool Delft (Netherlands). Dept. of Technical Mathematics and Informatics)

1992-04-01

125

Irradiated foods  

MedlinePLUS

... and reduces the risk of food poisoning . Food irradiation is used in many countries. It was first approved in the U.S. to prevent sprouts on white potatoes and for the control of insects on wheat and in certain spices and seasonings.

126

Peroxynitrite-induced thymocyte apoptosis: the role of caspases and poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase (PARS) activation.  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms by which immature thymocyte apoptosis is induced during negative selection are poorly defined. Reports demonstrated that cross-linking of T-cell receptor leads to stromal cell activation, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and, subsequently, to thymocyte apoptosis. Therefore we examined, whether NO directly or indirectly, through peroxynitrite formation, causes thymocyte apoptosis. Immuno-histochemical detection of nitrotyrosine revealed in vivo peroxynitrite formation in the thymi of naive mice. Nitrotyrosine, the footprint of peroxynitrite, was predominantly found in the corticomedullary junction and the medulla of naive mice. In the thymi of mice deficient in the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase, considerably less nitrotyrosine was found. Exposure of thymocytes in vitro to low concentrations (10 microM) of peroxynitrite led to apoptosis, whereas higher concentrations (50 microM) resulted in intense cell death with the characteristics of necrosis. We also investigated the effect of poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase (PARS) inhibition on thymocyte apoptosis. Using the PARS inhibitor 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB), or thymocytes from PARS-deficient animals, we established that PARS determines the fate of thymocyte death. Suppression of cellular ATP levels, and the cellular necrosis in response to peroxynitrite were prevented by PARS inhibition. Therefore, in the absence of PARS, cells are diverted towards the pathway of apoptotic cell death. Similar results were obtained with H2O2 treatment, while apoptosis induced by non-oxidative stimuli such as dexamethasone or anti-FAS antibody was unaffected by PARS inhibition. In conclusion, we propose that peroxynitrite-induced apoptosis may play a role in the process of thymocyte negative selection. Furthermore, we propose that the physiological role of PARS cleavage by apopain during apoptosis may serve as an energy-conserving step, enabling the cell to complete the process of apoptosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9767416

Virág, L; Scott, G S; Cuzzocrea, S; Marmer, D; Salzman, A L; Szabó, C

1998-01-01

127

SUR LES BASES PHYSIQUES DE L'ANALYSE PONCTUELLE PAR SPECTROGRAPHIE X Par RAYMOND CASTAING,  

E-print Network

304 SUR LES BASES PHYSIQUES DE L'ANALYSE PONCTUELLE PAR SPECTROGRAPHIE X Par RAYMOND CASTAING ralentissement de l'électron la loi de Williams [2] {3 = v/c n'étant fonction que de l'énergie ,E de l'élec- tron

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

128

LE FILTRAGE MATHMATIQUE DANS LA SPECTROSCOPIE PAR TRANSFORMATION DE FOURIER Par J. CONNES (*) et V. NOZAL,  

E-print Network

359. LE FILTRAGE MATHÉMATIQUE DANS LA SPECTROSCOPIE PAR TRANSFORMATION DE FOURIER Par J. CONNES (*) et V. NOZAL, Laboratoire Aimé-Cotton, Bellevue. Résumé. 2014 On est conduit pour obtenir le rapport the Fourier transform of the new interferogram with a smaller number of points ; the computing time is thus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

129

Ozonisation de l'oxygne par les rayons 03B1 Par S. C. LIND  

E-print Network

104 Ozonisation de l'oxygène par les rayons 03B1 Par S. C. LIND [Institut du Radium de Vienne'ozone lorsclu'une quantité notable de rayons (J. pénè- trent dans l'air à trayeurs une lame mince de verrue ou de niica. Quand la paroi est assez épaisse pour arrè- ter tous les rayons a, le phénomène ne se

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

130

TUDE DES RAYONS DE RECUL RADIOACTIFS PAR LA MTHODE DES DTENTES DE WILSON Par F. JOLIOT.  

E-print Network

ÉTUDE DES RAYONS DE RECUL RADIOACTIFS PAR LA MÉTHODE DES DÉTENTES DE WILSON Par F. JOLIOT. Institut'atomes radioactifs et les trajectoires des rayons de recul. Le parcours des rayons de recul de An et AeA a été mesuré diminue tandis que son pouvoir ionisant augmente. Le rayon de recul lors d'un choc subit une déviation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

131

TRANSFORMATIONS DES RAYONS X PAR LA MATIRE; Par M. G. SAGNAC.  

E-print Network

65 TRANSFORMATIONS DES RAYONS X PAR LA MATIÈRE; Par M. G. SAGNAC. Un faisceau de rayons X traverse faisceau émet en tous sens ce que j'ai appelé des rayons secon- daires 8; les rayons secondaiz°es se disséminent à leur tour sur la matière en donnant naissance à des rayons tertiaires T. Les dénomi- nations

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

132

Pars plana vitrectomy with pars plana tube implantation in eyes with intractable glaucoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMSIntractable glaucoma is glaucoma resistant to medical therapy and conventional surgical procedures. In this study, a planned surgical technique is discussed for controlling the increased intraocular pressure in selected cases with intractable glaucoma.METHODSTotal pars plana vitrectomy with pars plana tube implantation was performed in 17 eyes of 17 cases with intractable glaucoma. Patients with neovascular glaucoma were not included in

Suleyman Kaynak; Nalan Fatma Tekin; Ismet Durak; Ayse Tulin Berk; Ali Osman Saatci; Meltem Fatma Soylev

1998-01-01

133

Elevated CO2 alleviates high PAR and UV stress in the unicellular chlorophyte Dunaliella tertiolecta.  

PubMed

The effects of increased CO2 and irradiance on the physiological performance of the chlorophyte Dunaliella tertiolecta were studied at different PAR and UVR (UVA + UVB) irradiances, simulating the solar radiation at different depths, at present (390 ppmv, LC) and predicted CO2 levels for the year 2100 (1000 ppmv, HC). Elevated CO2 resulted in higher optimum and effective quantum yields (F(v)/F(m) and ?PSII, respectively), electron transport rates (ETR) and specific growth rates (?). Cell stress was alleviated in HC with respect to LC as evidenced by a decrease in reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. DNA damage showed a 42-fold increase in cyclobutane-pyrimidine dimer (CPD) formation under the highest irradiance (1100 ?mol quanta m(-2) s(-1)) in LC with respect to the lowest irradiance (200 ?mol quanta m(-2) s(-1)). Photolyase (CII-PCD-PL) gene expression was upregulated under HC resulting in a drastic decrease in CPD accumulation to only 25% with respect to LC. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) accumulation was always higher in HC and the accumulation pattern indicated its involvement in repair or growth depending on the irradiance dose. The repressor of silencing (ROS1) was only marginally involved in the response, suggesting that photoreactivation was the most relevant mechanism to overcome UVR damage. Our results demonstrate that future scenarios of global change result in alleviation of irradiance stress by CO2-induced photoprotection in D. tertiolecta. PMID:25043601

García-Gómez, Candela; Gordillo, Francisco J L; Palma, Armando; Lorenzo, M Rosario; Segovia, María

2014-09-01

134

Caractérisation par ellipsométrie spectroscopique de films minces de tellurure de bismuth obtenus par voie électrochimique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Des films de tellurure de bismuth (Bi2Te3) d’épaisseur proche de 1 mm ont été développés par voie électrochimique. Leurs indices optiques ont été déterminés par ellipsométrie spectroscopique (SE). Le domaine spectral des indices optiques s’étend de 400 nm à 1300 nm. L’ellipsométrie spectroscopique à angle d’incidence variable (VASE) a été utilisée pour corréler les données SE. Cette partie a été complétée par des analyses par microscopie à force atomique (AFM) qui ont permis de déterminer la rugosité des films. A partir de ces résultats et en associant l’absorption fondamentale des films de Bi2Te3 à une transition indirecte, l’énergie de bande interdite a été évaluée à 0,3 eV. Par ailleurs des mesures associant ellipsométrie spectroscopique à temps réel et électrochimie ont pu être réalisées. Ainsi les premiers instants de croissance ont été observés.

Zimmer, A.; Stein, N.; Boulanger, C.; Johann, L.

2004-12-01

135

ERK2-mediated phosphorylation of Par3 regulates neuronal polarization.  

PubMed

Axon formation is one of the most important events in neuronal polarization and is regulated by signaling molecules involved in cytoskeletal rearrangement and protein transport. We previously found that Partition-defective 3 (Par3) is associated with KIF3A (kinesin-2) and is transported into the nascent axon in a KIF3A-dependent fashion. Par3 interacts with the Rac-specific guanine nucleotide-exchange factors (GEFs) Tiam1/2, which activate Rac1, and participates in axon formation in cultured hippocampal neurons. However, the regulatory mechanism of the Par3-KIF3A interaction is poorly understood, and the role of Par3 in neuronal polarization in vivo remains elusive. Here, we found that extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) directly interacts with Par3, that ERK2 phosphorylates Par3 at Ser-1116, and that the phosphorylated Par3 accumulates at the axonal tips in a manner dependent upon ERK2 activity. The phosphorylation of Par3 by ERK2 inhibited the interaction of Par3 with KIF3A but not with the other Par3 partners, including Par6 and aPKC. The phosphomimic mutant of Par3 (Par3-S1116D) showed less binding activity with the KIF3s and slower transport in the axons. The knockdown of Par3 by RNA interference impaired neuronal polarization, which was rescued with RNAi-resistant Par3, but not with the phosphomimic Par3 mutant, in cultured rat hippocampal neurons and mouse cortical projection neurons in vivo. These results suggest that ERK2 phosphorylates Par3 and inhibits its binding with KIF3A, thereby controlling Par3 transport and neuronal polarity. PMID:23946386

Funahashi, Yasuhiro; Namba, Takashi; Fujisue, Shin; Itoh, Norimichi; Nakamuta, Shinichi; Kato, Katsuhiro; Shimada, Akiko; Xu, Chundi; Shan, Wei; Nishioka, Tomoki; Kaibuchi, Kozo

2013-08-14

136

MODEL CONSERVATION STANDARD INTRODUCTION  

E-print Network

MODEL CONSERVATION STANDARD INTRODUCTION As directed by the Northwest Power Act, the Council has designed model conservation standards to produce all electricity savings that are cost believes the measures used to achieve the model conservation standards should provide reliable savings

137

Irradiation Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Food Safety Consortium (FSC) is a federally created consortium consisting of researchers from the University of Arkansas, Iowa State University and Kansas State University. The FSC conducts research in poultry, beef, and pork production. This site contains summary articles from the FDA, the Washington Times, the Los Angeles Times, the Chicago Tribune, and newsletter articles from the FSC. Previously approved for use on poultry and fruits and vegetables in the US, irradiation can kill disease-causing bacteria like Salmonella and Escherichia coli 0157:H7 (discussed in the Scout Report for Science and Engineering's In the News section, September 17, 1997), and molds and funguses that cause rot. With recent US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval, irradiation can now be used to process red meat (e.g., beef, pork, lamb, and byproducts). The process involves exposing food to a source of radiation such as gamma rays from radioactive cobalt 60, cesium 137, or x-rays. No radioactive material is added to the product, and the technique is routinely used on grains and spices, as well as for sterilizing disposable medical devices. In spite of a number of tests conducted over the last 30 years substantiating its safety, irradiation has not gained widespread public acceptance in the US. This is largely due to the public's general fear of processes utilizing radiation. Supporters of the technology claim that it will virtually eliminate food-borne illness in the US, while skeptics feel that technology such as steam treatment can accomplish adequate sterilization without the purported risks and public concern associated with irradiation.

138

Water conservation programs  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses three water conservation programs: statewide water conservation efforts, a 5-point program of the City of Albuquerque, and the program for recycling wastewater by the Intel Corporation. Water conservation programs depend largely on public education programs. Albuquerque`s program, for example, includes development of a K-12th grade curriculum on water conservation, live theater performances promoting conservation for elementary school children, and collaboration with existing community organizations to promote water conservation.

Darilek, A. [New Mexico State Engineer Office, Santa Fe, NM (United States). Water Conservation Program; Witherspoon, J. [City of Albuquerque, NM (United States). Public Works Dept.; Hutchinson, D.L. [Intel Corp., Rio Rancho, NM (United States)

1995-12-31

139

Par-4: A New Activator of Myosin Phosphatase  

PubMed Central

Myosin phosphatase (MP) is a key regulator of myosin light chain (LC20) phosphorylation, a process essential for motility, apoptosis, and smooth muscle contractility. Although MP inhibition is well studied, little is known about MP activation. We have recently demonstrated that prostate apoptosis response (Par)-4 modulates vascular smooth muscle contractility. Here, we test the hypothesis that Par-4 regulates MP activity directly. We show, by proximity ligation assays, surface plasmon resonance and coimmunoprecipitation, that Par-4 interacts with the targeting subunit of MP, MYPT1. Binding is mediated by the leucine zippers of MYPT1 and Par-4 and reduced by Par-4 phosphorylation. Overexpression of Par-4 leads to increased phosphatase activity of immunoprecipitated MP, whereas small interfering RNA knockdown of endogenous Par-4 significantly decreases MP activity and increases MYPT1 phosphorylation. LC20 phosphorylation assays demonstrate that overexpression of Par-4 reduces LC20 phosphorylation. In contrast, a phosphorylation site mutant, but not wild-type Par-4, interferes with zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK)-mediated MP inhibition. We conclude from our results Par-4 operates through a “padlock” model in which binding of Par-4 to MYPT1 activates MP by blocking access to the inhibitory phosphorylation sites, and inhibitory phosphorylation of MYPT1 by ZIPK requires “unlocking” of Par-4 by phosphorylation and displacement of Par-4 from the MP complex. PMID:20130087

Vetterkind, Susanne; Lee, Eunhee; Sundberg, Eric; Poythress, Ransom H.; Tao, Terence C.; Preuss, Ute

2010-01-01

140

Par-4: a new activator of myosin phosphatase.  

PubMed

Myosin phosphatase (MP) is a key regulator of myosin light chain (LC20) phosphorylation, a process essential for motility, apoptosis, and smooth muscle contractility. Although MP inhibition is well studied, little is known about MP activation. We have recently demonstrated that prostate apoptosis response (Par)-4 modulates vascular smooth muscle contractility. Here, we test the hypothesis that Par-4 regulates MP activity directly. We show, by proximity ligation assays, surface plasmon resonance and coimmunoprecipitation, that Par-4 interacts with the targeting subunit of MP, MYPT1. Binding is mediated by the leucine zippers of MYPT1 and Par-4 and reduced by Par-4 phosphorylation. Overexpression of Par-4 leads to increased phosphatase activity of immunoprecipitated MP, whereas small interfering RNA knockdown of endogenous Par-4 significantly decreases MP activity and increases MYPT1 phosphorylation. LC20 phosphorylation assays demonstrate that overexpression of Par-4 reduces LC20 phosphorylation. In contrast, a phosphorylation site mutant, but not wild-type Par-4, interferes with zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK)-mediated MP inhibition. We conclude from our results Par-4 operates through a "padlock" model in which binding of Par-4 to MYPT1 activates MP by blocking access to the inhibitory phosphorylation sites, and inhibitory phosphorylation of MYPT1 by ZIPK requires "unlocking" of Par-4 by phosphorylation and displacement of Par-4 from the MP complex. PMID:20130087

Vetterkind, Susanne; Lee, Eunhee; Sundberg, Eric; Poythress, Ransom H; Tao, Terence C; Preuss, Ute; Morgan, Kathleen G

2010-04-01

141

Les Brulures Chimiques Par Le Laurier Rose  

PubMed Central

Summary Le laurier rose ou Nerium oleander est un arbuste qui pousse naturellement dans les régions méditerranéennes. Au Maroc on le trouve dans les lieux humides. Il est réputé par ses risques de toxicité systémique en cas d'empoisonnement à cause de la présence de deux alcaloïdes, surtout l'oléandrine. La littérature illustre des cas d'utilisation locale des feuilles de cette plante contre la gale, les hémorroïdes et les furoncles. Nous rapportons deux cas de brûlures chimiques par le laurier rose de gravité différente. Cela doit aboutir à une information élargie de la population, ainsi qu'une réglementation stricte de sa commercialisation. PMID:21991211

Bakkali, H.; Ababou, M.; Nassim Sabah, T.; Moussaoui, A.; Ennouhi, A.; Fouadi, F.Z.; Siah, S.; Ihrai, H.

2010-01-01

142

Minimally Invasive Direct Repair of Bilateral Lumbar Spine Pars Defects in Athletes  

PubMed Central

Spondylolysis of the lumbar spine has traditionally been treated using a variety of techniques ranging from conservative care to fusion. Direct repair of the defect may be utilized in young adult patients without significant disc degeneration and lumbar instability. We used minimally invasive techniques to place pars interarticularis screws with the use of an intraoperative CT scanner in three young adults, including two athletes. This technique is a modification of the original procedure in 1970 by Buck, and it offers the advantage of minimal muscle dissection and optimal screw trajectory. There were no intra- or postoperative complications. The detailed operative procedure and the postoperative course along with a brief review of pars interarticularis defect treatment are discussed. PMID:23737800

Widi, Gabriel A.; Williams, Seth K.; Levi, Allan D.

2013-01-01

143

View from west to east of PAR site resident engineer's ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View from west to east of PAR site resident engineer's office building (REOB) - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Resident Engineers Office Building, Southeast of intersection of PAR Access Road & Fourth Avenue, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

144

Kallikrein 6 signals through PAR1 and PAR2 to promote neuron injury and exacerbate glutamate neurotoxicity.  

PubMed

CNS trauma generates a proteolytic imbalance contributing to secondary injury, including axonopathy and neuron degeneration. Kallikrein 6 (Klk6) is a serine protease implicated in neurodegeneration, and here we investigate the role of protease-activated receptors 1 (PAR1) and PAR2 in mediating these effects. First, we demonstrate Klk6 and the prototypical activator of PAR1, thrombin, as well as PAR1 and PAR2, are each elevated in murine experimental traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) at acute or subacute time points. Recombinant Klk6 triggered extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) signaling in cerebellar granule neurons and in the NSC34 spinal cord motoneuron cell line, in a phosphoinositide 3-kinae and MEK-dependent fashion. Importantly, lipopeptide inhibitors of PAR1 or PAR2, and PAR1 genetic deletion, each reduced Klk6-ERK1/2 activation. In addition, Klk6 and thrombin promoted degeneration of cerebellar neurons and exacerbated glutamate neurotoxicity. Moreover, genetic deletion of PAR1 blocked thrombin-mediated cerebellar neurotoxicity and reduced the neurotoxic effects of Klk6. Klk6 also increased glutamate-mediated Bim signaling, poly-ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage and lactate dehydrogenase release in NSC34 motoneurons and these effects were blocked by PAR1 and PAR2 lipopeptide inhibitors. Taken together, these data point to a novel Klk6-signaling axis in CNS neurons that is mediated by PAR1 and PAR2 and is positioned to contribute to neurodegeneration. PMID:23647384

Yoon, Hyesook; Radulovic, Maja; Wu, Jianmin; Blaber, Sachiko I; Blaber, Michael; Fehlings, Michael G; Scarisbrick, Isobel A

2013-10-01

145

Kallikrein 6 Signals through PAR1 and PAR2 to Promote Neuron Injury and Exacerbate Glutamate Neurotoxicity  

PubMed Central

CNS trauma generates a proteolytic imbalance contributing to secondary injury, including axonopathy and neuron degeneration. Kallikrein 6 (Klk6) is a serine protease implicated in neurodegeneration and here we investigate the role of protease activated receptors 1 (PAR1) and PAR2 in mediating these effects. First we demonstrate Klk6 and the prototypical activator of PAR1, thrombin, as well as PAR1 and PAR2, are each elevated in murine experimental traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) at acute or subacute time points. Recombinant Klk6 triggered ERK1/2 signaling in cerebellar granule neurons and in the NSC34 spinal cord motoneuron cell line, in a PI3K and MEK-dependent fashion. Importantly, lipopeptide inhibitors of PAR1 or PAR2, and PAR1 genetic deletion, each reduced Klk6-ERK1/2 activation. In addition, Klk6 and thrombin promoted degeneration of cerebellar neurons and exacerbated glutamate neurotoxicity. Moreover, genetic deletion of PAR1 blocked thrombin-mediated cerebellar neurotoxicity and reduced the neurotoxic effects of Klk6. Klk6 also increased glutamate-mediated Bim signaling, PARP cleavage and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release in NSC34 motoneurons and these effects were blocked by PAR1 and PAR2 lipopeptide inhibitors. Taken together these data point to a novel Klk6-signaling axis in CNS neurons that is mediated by PAR1 and PAR2 and is positioned to contribute to neurodegeneration. PMID:23647384

Yoon, Hyesook; Radulovic, Maja; Wu, Jianmin; Blaber, Sachiko I.; Blaber, Michael; Fehlings, Michael G.; Scarisbrick, Isobel A.

2014-01-01

146

A Combined Global and Local Approach to Elucidate Spatial Organization of the Mycobacterial ParB-parS Partition Assembly  

SciTech Connect

Combining diverse sets of data at global (size, shape) and local (residue) scales is an emerging trend for elucidating the organization and function of the cellular assemblies. We used such a strategy, combining data from X-ray and neutron scattering with H/D-contrast variation and X-ray footprinting with mass spectrometry, to elucidate the spatial organization of the ParB-parS assembly from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The ParB-parS participates in plasmid and chromosome segregation and condensation in predivisional bacterial cells. ParB polymerizes around the parS centromere(s) to form a higher-order assembly that serves to recruit cyto-skeletal ParA ATPases and SMC proteins for chromosome segregation. A hybrid model of the ParB-parS was built by combining and correlating computational models with experiment-derived information about size, shape, position of the symmetry axis within the shape, internal topology, DNA-protein interface, exposed surface patches, and prior knowledge. This first view of the ParB-parS leads us to propose how ParB spread on the chromosome to form a larger assembly.

B Chaudhuri; S Gupta; V Urban; M Chance; R DMello; L Smith; K Lyons; J Gee

2011-12-31

147

A Combined Global and Local Approach to Elucidate Spatial Organization of the Mycobacterial ParB-parS Partition  

SciTech Connect

Combining diverse sets of data at global (size, shape) and local (residue) scales is an emerging trend for elucidating the organization and function of the cellular assemblies. We used such a strategy, combining data from X-ray and neutron scattering with H/D-contrast variation and X-ray footprinting with mass spectrometry, to elucidate the spatial organization of the ParB-parS assembly from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The ParB-parS participates in plasmid and chromosome segregation and condensation in predivisional bacterial cells. ParB polymerizes around the parS centromere(s) to form a higher-order assembly that serves to recruit cyto-skeletal ParA ATPases and SMC proteins for chromosome segregation. A hybrid model of the ParB-parS was built by combining and correlating computational models with experiment-derived information about size, shape, position of the symmetry axis within the shape, internal topology, DNA-protein interface, exposed surface patches, and prior knowledge. This first view of the ParB-parS leads us to propose how ParB spread on the chromosome to form a larger assembly.

Chaudhuri, Barnali [University of Buffalo, The State University of New York; Gupta, Sayan [Case Western Reserve University; Urban, Volker S [ORNL; Chance, Mark [Case Western Reserve University; D'Mello, Rhijuta [Case Western Reserve University; Smith, Lauren [University of Buffalo, The State University of New York; Lyons, Kelly [University of Buffalo, The State University of New York; Gee, Jessica [University of Buffalo, The State University of New York

2010-01-01

148

La répartition des emplois par sexe : capital humain ou discrimination  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] La répartition des emplois par sexe: capital humain ou discrimination? . par Catherine Sofer.. . Cet article étudie l'impact de la répartition des emplois par sexe sur le différentiel moyen de salaire hommes\\/femmes. Les principales explications théoriques de cette situation sont, pour l'essentiel, de deux ordres: la théorie du capital humain, complétée par l'hypothèse d'atrophie, selon laquelle les emplois

Catherine Sofer

1990-01-01

149

Project Plan 7930 Cell G PaR Remote Handling System Replacement  

SciTech Connect

For over 40 years the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have made Californium-252 ({sup 252}Cf) available for a wide range of industries including medical, nuclear fuels, mining, military and national security. The Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) located within the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) processes irradiated production targets from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Operations in Building 7930, Cell G provide over 70% of the world's demand for {sup 252}Cf. Building 7930 was constructed and equipped in the mid-1960s. Current operations for {sup 252}Cf processing in Building 7930, Cell G require use of through-the-wall manipulators and the PaR Remote Handling System. Maintenance and repairs for the manipulators is readily accomplished by removal of the manipulator and relocation to a repair shop where hands-on work can be performed in glove boxes. Contamination inside cell G does not currently allow manned entry and no provisions were created for a maintenance area inside the cell. There has been no maintenance of the PaR system or upgrades, leaving operations vulnerable should the system have a catastrophic failure. The Cell G PaR system is currently being operated in a run to failure mode. As the manipulator is now 40+ years old there is significant risk in this method of operation. In 2006 an assessment was completed that resulted in recommendations for replacing the manipulator operator control and power centers which are used to control and power the PaR manipulator in Cell G. In mid-2008 the chain for the bridge drive failed and subsequent examinations indicated several damaged links (see Figure 1). To continue operations the PaR manipulator arm is being used to push and pull the bridge as a workaround. A retrieval tool was fabricated, tested and staged inside Cell G that will allow positioning of the bridge and manipulator arm for removal from the cell should the PaR system completely fail. A fully functioning and reliable Par manipulator arm is necessary for uninterrupted {sup 252}Cf operations; a fully-functioning bridge is needed for the system to function as intended.

Kinney, Kathryn A [ORNL

2009-10-01

150

CDK-1 and Two B-Type Cyclins Promote PAR-6 Stabilization during Polarization of the Early C. elegans Embryo  

PubMed Central

In the C. elegans embryo, formation of an antero-posterior axis of polarity relies on signaling by the conserved PAR proteins, which localize asymmetrically in two mutually exclusive groups at the embryonic cortex. Depletion of any PAR protein causes a loss of polarity and embryonic lethality. A genome-wide RNAi screen previously identified two B-type cyclins, cyb-2.1 and cyb-2.2, as suppressors of par-2(it5ts) lethality. We found that the loss of cyb-2.1 or cyb-2.2 suppressed the lethality and polarity defects of par-2(it5ts) mutants and that these cyclins act in cell polarity with their cyclin-dependent kinase partner, CDK-1. Interestingly, cyb-2.1; cyb-2.2 double mutants did not show defects in cell cycle progression or timing of polarity establishment, suggesting that they regulate polarity independently of their typical role in cell cycle progression. Loss of both cyclin genes or of cdk-1 resulted in a decrease in PAR-6 levels in the embryo. Furthermore, the activity of the cullin CUL-2 was required to achieve suppression of par-2 lethality when both cyclins were absent. Our results support a model in which CYB-2.1/2/CDK-1 antagonize CUL-2 activity to promote stabilization of PAR-6 levels during polarization of the early C. elegans embryo. They also suggest that CYB-2.1 and CYB-2.2 contribute to the coupling of cell cycle progression and asymmetric segregation of cell fate determinants. PMID:25658117

Rabilotta, Alexia; Desrosiers, Marianne; Labbé, Jean-Claude

2015-01-01

151

December 9, 2008 Conservation  

E-print Network

1 December 9, 2008 Northwest Power and Conservation Council Northwest Power and Conservation Council Sixth Northwest Conservation & Electric Power Plan Rankine-cycle Coal-fired Power Plant Resource Assessment Jeff King Northwest Power and Conservation Council Generating Resources Advisory Committee

152

Par(-4)oxysm in Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Summary Women suffering from breast cancer often succumb to incurable recurrent disease resulting from therapy-resistant cancer cells. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Alvarez and colleagues identify downregulation of the tumor suppressor Par-4 as the key determinant in apoptosis evasion that leads to tumor recurrence in breast cancer. PMID:23845436

Shrestha-Bhattarai, Tripti; Hebbar, Nikhil; Rangnekar, Vivek M.

2013-01-01

153

LE CONTRLE EXTERNE DES ASSOCIATIONS PAR LES  

E-print Network

LE CONTR�LE EXTERNE DES ASSOCIATIONS PAR LES ORGANISMES DE FINANCEMENT Evelyne LANDE Professeur IAE bailleur de fonds publics peut mettre en place un contrôle externe qui lui permette de s'assurer de la contrôle externe via la constitution de TBG qui serviront également de base à l'évaluation de la politique

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

154

Intramural Sports Par 3 Golf League  

E-print Network

Intramural Sports Par 3 Golf League Summer 2014 Intramural Sports Calendar of Events Summer 2014 Sports and Special Programs Office 111 Dixon Recreation Center (541)737-4083 Summer Office Hours: 1:00pm to 4:00pm M-F http://oregonstate.edu/recsports/intramural-sports Oregon State University

Escher, Christine

155

Prsente par HO, Chia-Chun  

E-print Network

THESIS Présentée par HO, Chia-Chun Pour obtenir le titre de Docteur de L'UNIVERSITE JOSEPH FOURIER,version1-21Nov2008 #12;II graduate years. I have to express my utmost gratitude to my wonderful wife, Chun

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

156

NOUVEAU SYSTME TLGRAPHIQUE; PAR M. ESTIENNE.  

E-print Network

conformément au code Morse. Le trait peut occuper, en hauteur, la largeur du ruban de papier, quelle que soit volume du Morse. L'avan- cement du papier se produit par un mécanisme analogue à celui de ce dernier

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

157

suPAR and Team Nephrology  

PubMed Central

Primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) accounts for nearly 10 % of patients who require renal replacement therapy. Elevated circulating levels of soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) have been identified as a biomarker to discriminate primary FSGS from other glomerulopathies. Subsequent reports have questioned the diagnostic utility of this test. In a study in BMC Medicine, Huang et al. demonstrate that urinary soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) excretion assists in distinguishing primary FSGS from other glomerular diseases, and that high plasma suPAR concentrations are not directly linked to a decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). This observation suggests that further investigation of suPAR is warranted in patients with FSGS. It should be interpreted in light of a recent report that B7-1 is expressed in the podocytes of a subset of patients with FSGS, and that blocking this molecule may represent the first successful targeted intervention for this disease. These advances highlight the rapid pace of scientific progress in the field of nephrology. Nephrologists should work together, share resources, and expedite the design of protocols to evaluate these novel biomarkers in a comprehensive and scientifically valid manner. Please see related article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/12/81. PMID:24885021

2014-01-01

158

suPAR and Team Nephrology.  

PubMed

Primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) accounts for nearly 10 % of patients who require renal replacement therapy. Elevated circulating levels of soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) have been identified as a biomarker to discriminate primary FSGS from other glomerulopathies. Subsequent reports have questioned the diagnostic utility of this test. In a study in BMC Medicine, Huang et al. demonstrate that urinary soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) excretion assists in distinguishing primary FSGS from other glomerular diseases, and that high plasma suPAR concentrations are not directly linked to a decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). This observation suggests that further investigation of suPAR is warranted in patients with FSGS. It should be interpreted in light of a recent report that B7-1 is expressed in the podocytes of a subset of patients with FSGS, and that blocking this molecule may represent the first successful targeted intervention for this disease. These advances highlight the rapid pace of scientific progress in the field of nephrology. Nephrologists should work together, share resources, and expedite the design of protocols to evaluate these novel biomarkers in a comprehensive and scientifically valid manner. PMID:24885021

Trachtman, Howard

2014-01-01

159

DU CONTROLE SOCIAL AU CONTROLE PAR LE MARCHE  

E-print Network

remplacé par le contrôle par le marché. Dicté par la rationalisation des coûts des clients, ce changement il n'apporte pas la preuve de sa performance. Mots clés : contrôle inter-organisationnel ­ modes de changement a certes conduit à la diminution des prix, mais la performance globale de l'achat pour les clients

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

160

A novel PAR reduction approach for OFDM system  

Microsoft Academic Search

OFDM (orthogonal frequency multiplexing) is one of the key techniques of next generation high rate communications system. High PAR (peak-to-average power ratio) of the transmitted signal is a principle drawback of the OFDM systems. This letter presents a novel PAR reduction method, called IPR (interleaving and phase rotation) that achieves significant PAR reduction. The IPR approach uses V-1 interleavers to

Liu Sheng-mei; Zhao Chun-ming; Li Can-wei

2004-01-01

161

RAYONS ATOMIQUES ET MOLCULAIRES Par M. V. POSEJPAL.  

E-print Network

RAYONS ATOMIQUES ET MOLÉCULAIRES Par M. V. POSEJPAL. Université Charles IV, Praha-II, u Karlova 5 atomes (et aux molécules) qu'on peut représenter par le rayon atomique (moléculaire) dont la valeur atomes et entraîné par eux sert à l'auteur à la définition de ce rayon. Il a déduit dans ses travaux

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

162

Contrle de drones et robots par reconnaissance de mouvements complexes  

E-print Network

Contrôle de drones et robots par reconnaissance de mouvements complexes Anaïs Finzi, Bastien Tauran contexte du pilotage de drones et de robots par des mouvements de l'opérateur détectés par des applied to complex gesture recognition in the context of drones and robots control, when the human

Boyer, Edmond

163

INFLUENCE DE L'IMMUNIT PASSIVE TRANSMISE PAR LE COLOSTRUM  

E-print Network

INFLUENCE DE L'IMMUNITÉ PASSIVE TRANSMISE PAR LE COLOSTRUM SUR L'ÉVOLUTION DE LA PESTE PORCINE transmise par le colostrum a permis de mettre en évidence chez r8 porcelets, de 20 à 25 kg, issus de truies transmise par le colostrum. Les applications qu'entraînent ces observations font l'objet de la discussion

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

164

PAR Corneal Topography System (PAR CTS): the clinical application of close-range photogrammetry.  

PubMed

The PAR Corneal Topography System (CTS) is a computer-driven corneal imaging system which uses close-range photogrammetry (rasterphotogrammetry) to measure and produce a topographic map of the corneal surface. The PAR CTS makes direct point-by-point measurements of surface elevation using a stereo-triangulation technique. The CTS uses a grid pattern composed of horizontal and vertical lines spaced about 0.2 mm (200 microns) apart. Each grid intersection comprises a surface feature which can be located in multiple images and used to generate an (x,y,z) coordinate. Unlike placido disc-based videokeratoscopes, the PAR CTS requires neither a smooth reflective surface nor precise spatial alignment for accurate imaging. In addition to surface elevation, the PAR CTS computes axial and tangential curvatures and refractive power. Difference maps are available in all curvatures, refractive power, and in absolute elevation. PMID:8587772

Belin, M W; Cambier, J L; Nabors, J R; Ratliff, C D

1995-11-01

165

Amlioration de l'utilisation par les bovins des chaumes de Sorghum bicolor par le hachage et la complmentation  

E-print Network

Amélioration de l'utilisation par les bovins des chaumes de Sorghum bicolor par le hachage et la and Leng, 1986 ILCA/Addis Ababa). Un essai d'amélioration de pailles de Sorghum bicolor complémenté à l

Boyer, Edmond

166

PREVENTIVE CONSERVATION: A CONCEPT SUITED TO THE CONSERVATION OF EARTHEN  

E-print Network

PREVENTIVE CONSERVATION: A CONCEPT SUITED TO THE CONSERVATION OF EARTHEN ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE and Construction Key words: Preventive conservation, traditional conservation practices, risk reduction, heritage management Abstract The concept of "preventive conservation" is relatively old as it has already been

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

167

L'ABSORPTION DES ULTRASONS PAR CERTAINES CTONES Par S. PARTHASARATHY et V. NARASIMHAN,  

E-print Network

957. L'ABSORPTION DES ULTRASONS PAR CERTAINES C�TONES Par S. PARTHASARATHY et V. NARASIMHAN coefficient d'absorption ont été mesurés dans plusieurs cétones à différentes températures et les résultats variation de l'absorption avec la température était positif dans l'intervalle considéré dans ce travail

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

168

Prsente par le Mouvement des Prsente par la Confdration tudiants (MET) tudiantes  

E-print Network

�tudiants Soutenue par BDE Polytech' Clermont - Soutenue par la Confédération �tudiante (EDS), Collectif pour la liberté d'étudier 42, en Sciences (AFNEUS), la Fédération des Sénégalais, le BDE Histoire-Géographie, Ferrand, BDE APSYS, Biohazar, PDE (la Cé), le FEDER, l'Union des �tudiants Fédération des �tudiants

Sart, Remi

169

Using multicast to pre-load jobs on the ParPar cluster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ParPar system is a high-performance cluster environment supporting a multiuser parallel workload. Its design follows a master-nodes structure, where the master controls all aspects of system activity using a dedicated control network. As nearly all control messages are multicast to a set of nodes, we implemented a reliable multicast protocol for this network based on UDP. This was then

Avi Kavas; David Er-el; Dror G. Feitelson

2001-01-01

170

The PAR Proteins: Fundamental Players in Animal Cell Polarization  

PubMed Central

The par genes were discovered in genetic screens for regulators of cytoplasmic partitioning in the early embryo of C. elegans, and encode six different proteins required for asymmetric cell division by the worm zygote. Some of the PAR proteins are localized asymmetrically and form physical complexes with one another. Strikingly, the PAR proteins have been found to regulate cell polarization in many different contexts in diverse animals, suggesting they form part of an ancient and fundamental mechanism for cell polarization. Although the picture of how the PAR proteins function remains incomplete, cell biology and biochemistry are beginning to explain how PAR proteins polarize cells. PMID:17981131

Goldstein, Bob; Macara, Ian G.

2010-01-01

171

Prone Whole-Breast Irradiation Using Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy in Women Undergoing Breast Conservation for Early Disease Yields High Rates of Excellent to Good Cosmetic Outcomes in Patients With Large and/or Pendulous Breasts  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report our institution's experience using prone positioning for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) to deliver post-lumpectomy whole breast irradiation (WBI) in a cohort of women with large and/or pendulous breasts, to determine the rate of acute and late toxicities and, more specifically, cosmetic outcomes. We hypothesized that using 3D-CRT for WBI in the prone position would reduce or eliminate patient and breast size as negative prognostic indicators for toxicities associated with WBI. Methods and Materials: From 1998 to 2006, 110 cases were treated with prone WBI using 3D-CRT. The lumpectomy, breast target volumes, heart, and lung were contoured on all computed tomography scans. A dose of 45-50 Gy was prescribed to the breast volume using standard fractionation schemes. The planning goals were {>=}95% of prescription to 95% of the breast volume, and 100% of boost dose to 95% of lumpectomy planning target volume. Toxicities and cosmesis were prospectively scored using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Effects Version 3.0 and the Harvard Scale. The median follow-up was 40 months. Results: The median body mass index (BMI) was 33.6 kg/m{sup 2}, and median breast volume was 1396 cm{sup 3}. The worst toxicity encountered during radiation was Grade 3 dermatitis in 5% of our patient population. Moist desquamation occurred in 16% of patients, with only 2% of patients with moist desquamation outside the inframammary/axillary folds. Eleven percent of patients had Grade {>=}2 late toxicities, including Grade 3 induration/fibrosis in 2%. Excellent to good cosmesis was achieved in 89%. Higher BMI was associated with moist desquamation and breast pain, but BMI and breast volume did not impact fibrosis or excellent to good cosmesis. Conclusion: In patients with higher BMI and/or large-pendulous breasts, delivering prone WBI using 3D-CRT results in favorable toxicity profiles and high excellent to good cosmesis rates. Higher BMI was associated with moist desquamation, but prone positioning removed BMI and breast size as factors for poorer cosmetic outcomes. This series adds to the growing literature demonstrating that prone WBI may be advantageous in select patients.

Bergom, Carmen; Kelly, Tracy; Morrow, Natalya; Wilson, J. Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Walker, Alonzo [Department of Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Xiang Qun; Ahn, Kwang Woo [Division of Biostatistics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); White, Julia, E-mail: jwhite@mcw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

2012-07-01

172

PAR1 antagonists inhibit thrombin-induced platelet activation whilst leaving the PAR4-mediated response intact.  

PubMed

Thrombin-induced platelet activation is initiated by PAR1 and PAR4 receptors. Vorapaxar, a PAR1 antagonist, has been assessed in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and stable atherosclerotic disease in addition to standard-of-care treatment. In clinical trials, vorapaxar has been observed to reduce the frequency of ischaemic events in some subgroups though in others has increased the frequency of bleeding events. Among patients undergoing CABG surgery, which is associated with excess thrombin generation, bleeding was not increased. The aim of these studies was to investigate the effects of selective PAR1 antagonism on thrombin-induced platelet activation in patients receiving vorapaxar or placebo in the TRACER trial and to explore the roles of PAR1 and PAR4 in thrombin-induced platelet activation in healthy volunteers. ACS patients receiving vorapaxar or placebo in the TRACER trial were studied at baseline and 4 hours, 1 and 4 months during drug administration. Thrombin-induced calcium mobilisation in platelet-rich plasma was assessed by flow cytometry. In vitro studies were performed in healthy volunteers using the PAR1 antagonist SCH79797 or PAR4 receptor desensitisation. Vorapaxar treatment significantly inhibited thrombin-induced calcium mobilisation, leaving a residual, delayed response. These findings were consistent with calcium mobilisation mediated via the PAR4 receptor and were reproduced in vitro using SCH79797. PAR4 receptor desensitization, in combination with SCH79797, completely inhibited thrombin-induced calcium mobilisation confirming that the residual calcium mobilisation was mediated via PAR4. In conclusion vorapaxar selectively antagonises the PAR1-mediated component of thrombin-induced platelet activation, leaving the PAR4-mediated response intact, which may explain why vorapaxar is well tolerated in patients undergoing CABG surgery since higher thrombin levels in this setting may override the effects of PAR1 antagonism through PAR4 activation, thus preserving haemostasis. Further assessment may be warranted. PMID:24750101

Judge, Heather M; Jennings, Lisa K; Moliterno, David J; Hord, Edward; Ecob, Rosemary; Tricoci, Pierluigi; Rorick, Tyrus; Kotha, Jayaprakash; Storey, Robert F

2015-01-01

173

Are plants grown under low visible irradiance sensitive to low levels of ultraviolet-B radiation?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A critical question in ultraviolet-B radiation research is how different portions of the solar spectrum influence plant UV B sensitivity. Field-grown plants show only subtle responses to supplemental UV-B radiation in many aspects of growth, yet plants grown under low visible light (as in most growth chambers and greenhouses) show much more discernible changes. Here we assess a specific aspect of UV-B sensitivity in plants grown under lower PAR: when one maintains a constant proportion of UV-B to PAR, but different absolute irradiance levels, does plant sensitivity to UV-B change? We conducted field experiments at near-ambient PAR and enhanced UV-B, and also with reduced irradiance in both wavebands, on three species. Each of these species occurs in both open and shaded habitats. We found the grass Setaria viridis sensitive to UV-B radiation only when grown at lower irradiances, while the forb Geranium viscosissimum was only sensitive to UV-B at the higher irradiances. In the grass Elymus glaucus, UV-B sensitivity did not appear to be influenced by the irradiance levels. Species appear to respond differently to these changes in irradiance levels, and an array of physiological and anatomical mechanisms are likely involved.

Flint, Stephan D.; Caldwell, Martyn M.; Ryel, Ron J.

2005-08-01

174

The African Conservation Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal provides in-depth information about conservation issues and initiatives in Africa. The online searchable databases and forums showcase, promote and provide background information on almost 300 conservation organisations and protected area institutions across the continent. The African Conservation Foundation (ACF) is primarily concerned with education and capacity building in Africa in the areas of environment and conservation. Its mission is to support and link African conservation initiatives, groups and NGOs, with the aim of strengthening their capacity, building partnerships and promoting effective communication and co-ordination of conservation efforts.

Terry Harnwell

2001-08-15

175

Natural Resources Conservation Service: Backyard Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Natural Resources Conservation Service, a division of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, has a feature on their website on backyard conservation. Conservation practices used on agricultural land throughout the country have been adapted for the smaller scale of backyards. Not only can visitors download and print out a 28-page booklet in English or Spanish, but they can also download and print out eight tip sheets on backyard conservation. Information on how to order the free above-mentioned material, through the mail, is also provided. Using the link in the middle of the page, "See More Tips and Topics on Backyard Conservation", visitors can read over 30 archived tips and topics, including "Invite a Toad to Dinner", "Selecting the Right Tree", and "Dream Yard". For teachers, the link "Backyard Conservation Lesson Plans" in the middle of the page provides a variety of lesson plans. Some of the lessons included are "Team Flight", which is about birds; "Growing Native", which is about native plant communities; and "Backyard Conservation and Local Laws", which is about how community laws may help or hinder backyard conservation efforts. A mock city council hearing is the final activity of the lesson.

176

Discovery of Octahydroindenes as PAR1 Antagonists.  

PubMed

Octahydroindene was identified as a novel scaffold for protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1) antagonists. Herein, the 2-position (C2) was explored for structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies. Compounds 14, 19, and 23b showed IC50 values of 1.3, 8.6, and 2.7 nM in a PAR1 radioligand binding assay, respectively, and their inhibitory activities on platelet activation were comparable to that of vorapaxar in a platelet rich plasma (PRP) aggregation assay. This series of compounds showed high potency and no significant cytotoxicity; however, the compounds were metabolically unstable in both human and rat liver microsomes. Current research efforts are focused on optimizing the compounds to improve metabolic stability and physicochemical properties as well as potency. PMID:24900604

Lee, Sunkyung; Song, Jong-Hwan; Park, Chul Min; Kim, Jin-Seok; Jeong, Ji-Hye; Cho, Woo-Young; Lim, Dong-Chul

2013-11-14

177

Discovery of Octahydroindenes as PAR1 Antagonists  

PubMed Central

Octahydroindene was identified as a novel scaffold for protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1) antagonists. Herein, the 2-position (C2) was explored for structure–activity relationship (SAR) studies. Compounds 14, 19, and 23b showed IC50 values of 1.3, 8.6, and 2.7 nM in a PAR1 radioligand binding assay, respectively, and their inhibitory activities on platelet activation were comparable to that of vorapaxar in a platelet rich plasma (PRP) aggregation assay. This series of compounds showed high potency and no significant cytotoxicity; however, the compounds were metabolically unstable in both human and rat liver microsomes. Current research efforts are focused on optimizing the compounds to improve metabolic stability and physicochemical properties as well as potency. PMID:24900604

2013-01-01

178

Par-4 prevents breast cancer recurrence  

PubMed Central

Therapy resistance and disease recurrence are two of the most challenging aspects in breast cancer treatment. A recent article in Cancer Cell makes a significant contribution toward a better understanding of this therapeutic problem by establishing downregulation of the tumor suppressor Par-4 as the primary determinant of breast cancer recurrence. This viewpoint brings forth the importance of their findings and its implications on future research and therapy. PMID:24164776

2013-01-01

179

Multiple enzymatic activities of ParB/Srx superfamily mediate sexual conflict among conjugative plasmids.  

PubMed

Conjugative plasmids are typically locked in intergenomic and sexual conflicts with co-resident rivals, whose translocation they block using fertility inhibition factors (FINs). We describe here the first crystal structure of an enigmatic FIN Osa deployed by the proteobacterial plasmid pSa. Osa contains a catalytically active version of the ParB/Sulfiredoxin fold with both ATPase and DNase activity, the latter being regulated by an ATP-dependent switch. Using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirB/D4 type IV secretion system (T4SS), a relative of the conjugative T4SS, we demonstrate that catalytically active Osa blocks T-DNA transfer into plants. With a partially reconstituted T4SS in vitro, we show that Osa degrades T-DNA in the T-DNA-VirD2 complex before its translocation. Further, we present evidence for conservation and interplay between ATPase and DNase activities throughout the ParB/Sulfiredoxin fold, using other members of the family, namely P1 ParB and RK2 KorB, which have general functional implications across diverse biological contexts. PMID:25358815

Maindola, Priyank; Raina, Rahul; Goyal, Parveen; Atmakuri, Krishnamohan; Ojha, Abhishek; Gupta, Sourabh; Christie, Peter J; Iyer, Lakshminarayan M; Aravind, L; Arockiasamy, Arulandu

2014-01-01

180

The Conservator's Studio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the Seattle Art Museum, this online resource explores the Art Conservator's profession, showing you 4 paintings through a conservator's eyes. The exhibit begins with an overview of the profession.

Seattle Art Museum

181

Anthropological Objects Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article introduces students to the Objects Conservation Laboratory run by the museum's Anthropology Division. It discusses the main activities of the lab's conservators what that process involves.

182

2006, 74 Raptors Conservation  

E-print Network

Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico), Richard E. Harness (EDM International, Inc., Fort Collins, USA), Patricia touches 1 energized wire (phase- #12;Raptors Conservation Raptors Conservation 2006, 7 5 îíà êîñíåòñÿ

Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad

183

The Ocean Conservancy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn about the Ocean Conservancy's conservation projects, the latest news in marine conservation, how to get involved, and more. Read over the current issues the Ocean Conservancy is working on, such as by catch, invasive species, and overfishing. Explore the "Fish and Wildlife" link for pictures and information on threatened and endangered animals; and read past and current issues of Blue Planet Magazine, OC's quarterly publication.

184

Natural Resources Conservation Service: Backyard Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Natural Resources Conservation Service, a division of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, has a feature on their website on backyard conservation. Conservation practices used on agricultural land throughout the country have been adapted for the smaller scale of backyards. Not only can visitors download and print out a 28-page booklet in English or Spanish, but they can also download and print out eight tip sheets on backyard conversation. Information on how to order the free above-mentioned material, through the mail, is also provided. Using the link in the middle of the page, "See More Tips and Topics on Backyard Conservation", visitors can read over 30 archived tips and topics, including "Invite a Toad to Dinner", "Selecting the Right Tree", and "Dream Yard". For teachers, the link "Backyard Conservation Lesson Plans" in the middle of the page provides a variety of lesson plans. Some of the lessons included are "Team Flight", which is about birds; "Growing Native", which is about native plant communities; and "Backyard Conservation and Local Laws", which is about how community laws may help or hinder backyard conservation efforts. A mock city council hearing is the final activity of the lesson.

185

PAR1 contributes to influenza A virus pathogenicity in mice  

PubMed Central

Influenza causes substantial morbidity and mortality, and highly pathogenic and drug-resistant strains are likely to emerge in the future. Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is a thrombin-activated receptor that contributes to inflammatory responses at mucosal surfaces. The role of PAR1 in pathogenesis of virus infections is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that PAR1 contributed to the deleterious inflammatory response after influenza virus infection in mice. Activating PAR1 by administering the agonist TFLLR-NH2 decreased survival and increased lung inflammation after influenza infection. Importantly, both administration of a PAR1 antagonist and PAR1 deficiency protected mice from infection with influenza A viruses (IAVs). Treatment with the PAR1 agonist did not alter survival of mice deficient in plasminogen (PLG), which suggests that PLG permits and/or interacts with a PAR1 function in this model. PAR1 antagonists are in human trials for other indications. Our findings suggest that PAR1 antagonism might be explored as a treatment for influenza, including that caused by highly pathogenic H5N1 and oseltamivir-resistant H1N1 viruses. PMID:23202729

Khoufache, Khaled; Berri, Fatma; Nacken, Wolfgang; Vogel, Annette B.; Delenne, Marie; Camerer, Eric; Coughlin, Shaun R.; Carmeliet, Peter; Lina, Bruno; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.; Planz, Oliver; Ludwig, Stephan; Riteau, Béatrice

2012-01-01

186

Conservation des Textiles  

E-print Network

Conservation des Textiles Les 22 et 23 mai 2013 Soit 2 jours - 14 heures OBJECTIFS DE LA FORMATION essentielles dans la gestion de collections textiles, depuis leur identification jusqu'à leur conservation conservation d'éléments et de collections textiles, et toutes personnes travaillant dans le domaine du

Brest, Université de

187

Energy Conservation Renewable Energy  

E-print Network

Energy Conservation Renewable Energy The Future at Rutgers University Facilities & Capital Planning Operations & Services Utilities Operations 6 Berrue Circle Piscataway, NJ 08854 #12;Energy Conservation Wh C ti ? R bl EWhy Conservation? Renewable Energy · Climate control reduces green house gases · Reduces

Delgado, Mauricio

188

Preservation vs Conservation...  

E-print Network

Preservation vs Conservation... ...in real life #12;As a result of Muir, Pinchot, and later Leopold Materials Transportation Act · 1976 - Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) · 1976 - Toxic · 1978 - National Energy Conservation Policy Act Between 1970-1977, Congress adopts 14 major new statutes

Callender, Craig

189

Introduction to Conservation Genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction to Conservation Genetics written by R. Frankham, J.D. Ballou, and D.A. Briscoe, is a comprehensive introductory text that provides an enlightening synthesis of data and theory from ecology, population genetics, evolution, and conservation biology. The book focuses on the science of conservation genetics and is appealing in its general lack of overt advocacy, while the final section provides meaningful

R. Frankham; J. D. Ballou; D. A. Briscoe; Alec R. Lindsay

2002-01-01

190

Building robust conservation plans.  

PubMed

Systematic conservation planning optimizes trade-offs between biodiversity conservation and human activities by accounting for socioeconomic costs while aiming to achieve prescribed conservation objectives. However, the most cost-efficient conservation plan can be very dissimilar to any other plan achieving the set of conservation objectives. This is problematic under conditions of implementation uncertainty (e.g., if all or part of the plan becomes unattainable). We determined through simulations of parallel implementation of conservation plans and habitat loss the conditions under which optimal plans have limited chances of implementation and where implementation attempts would fail to meet objectives. We then devised a new, flexible method for identifying conservation priorities and scheduling conservation actions. This method entails generating a number of alternative plans, calculating the similarity in site composition among all plans, and selecting the plan with the highest density of neighboring plans in similarity space. We compared our method with the classic method that maximizes cost efficiency with synthetic and real data sets. When implementation was uncertain-a common reality-our method provided higher likelihood of achieving conservation targets. We found that ?, a measure of the shortfall in objectives achieved by a conservation plan if the plan could not be implemented entirely, was the main factor determining the relative performance of a flexibility enhanced approach to conservation prioritization. Our findings should help planning authorities prioritize conservation efforts in the face of uncertainty about future condition and availability of sites. PMID:25362995

Visconti, Piero; Joppa, Lucas

2015-04-01

191

Biodiversity and Conservation Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for Biodiversity and Conservation (CBC) at the American Museum of Natural History aims to "integrate scientific research, education, and outreach so that people, themselves major catalysts in the rapid loss of biodiversity, will become participants in its conservation." The CBC currently conducts biodiversity conservation research in the Bahamas, Bolivia, Madagascar, Vietnam, and in metropolitan New York.

192

Conservation in Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed is the physical concept of conservation as it is framed within the laws of conservation of mass, of momentum, and of energy. The derivation of Ohm's Law as a generalization of the relationship between the observed measurements of voltage and current serves as the exemplar of how conservation theories are formed. (JJK)

Finkel, Edward

1991-01-01

193

Electric utility conservation programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unprecedented financial pressures facing today's electric utilities have encouraged the evolution of conservation as a planning strategy. Electric Utility Conservation Programs is a book to isolate the problems electric utilities encounter and document the solutions they are finding throughout the design, operation, marketing, and evaluation stages of their conservation programs. Including coverage of customer acceptance of their programs and

C. W. Gellings; D. R. Limaye

1986-01-01

194

7 CFR 12.23 - Conservation plans and conservation systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conservation plans and conservation systems. 12.23 Section 12.23 Agriculture...Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION Highly Erodible Land Conservation §...

2014-01-01

195

7 CFR 12.23 - Conservation plans and conservation systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conservation plans and conservation systems. 12.23 Section 12.23 Agriculture...Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION Highly Erodible Land Conservation §...

2013-01-01

196

7 CFR 12.23 - Conservation plans and conservation systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conservation plans and conservation systems. 12.23 Section 12.23 Agriculture...Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION Highly Erodible Land Conservation §...

2012-01-01

197

Mapping photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) using multiple remote sensing data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Incident Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) is an important parameter for terrestrial ecosystem models. Presently, deriving PAR using remotely sensed data is the only practical approach to meet the needs for large scale ecosystem modeling. The usefulness of the currently available PAR products is constricted by their limited spatial and temporal resolution. In addition, the applicability of the existing algorithms for deriving PAR using remotely sensed data are limited by their requirements for external atmospheric information. This study develops new algorithms to estimate incident PAR using remotely sensed data from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite), and AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer). The new PAR algorithms differ from existing algorithms in that the new algorithms derive surface properties and atmospheric optical properties using time-series of at-sensor radiance without external atmospheric information. First, a new PAR algorithm is developed for MODIS visible band data. The validity of the algorithm's underpinning theoretical basis is examined and associated errors are analyzed in light of their impact on PAR estimation accuracy. Second, the MODIS PAR algorithm is adapted to AVHRR in order to take advantage of the long data acquisition record of AVHRR. In addition, the scaling of remote sensing derived instantaneous PAR to daily PAR is addressed. Last, the new algorithm is extended to GOES visible band data. Two major improvements of GOES PAR algorithm over that of MODIS and AVHRR are the inclusion of the bi-directional reflectance distribution function for deriving surface reflectance, and the procedure for excluding cloud-shadowed pixels in searching for observations made under clear skies. Furthermore, the topographic impact on PAR is accessed and corrected. To assess the effectiveness of the newly developed PAR algorithms, validation efforts have been made using ground measurements made at FLUXNET sites. The validations indicate that the new PAR algorithms for MODIS, GOES, and AVHRR are capable of reaching reasonably high accuracy with no need for external atmospheric information. This work is the first attempt to develop a unified PAR estimation algorithm for both polar-orbiting and geostationary satellite data. The new algorithms developed in this study have been used to produce incident PAR over North America routinely to support the North America Carbon Program.

Zheng, Tao

198

Exactly conservative integrators  

SciTech Connect

Traditional numerical discretizations of conservative systems generically yield an artificial secular drift of any nonlinear invariants. In this work we present an explicit nontraditional algorithm that exactly conserves invariants. We illustrate the general method by applying it to the Three-Wave truncation of the Euler equations, the Volterra-Lotka predator-prey model, and the Kepler problem. We discuss our method in the context of symplectic (phase space conserving) integration methods as well as nonsymplectic conservative methods. We comment on the application of our method to general conservative systems.

Shadwick, B.A.; Bowman, J.C.; Morrison, P.J.

1995-07-19

199

Conservation: Toward firmer ground  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following aspects of energy conservation were reviewed in order to place the problems in proper perspective: history and goals, conservation accounting-criteria, and a method to overcome obstacles. The effect of changing prices and available supplies of energy sources and their causes on consumption levels during the last few decades were described. Some examples of attainable conservation goals were listed and justified. A number of specific criteria applicable to conservation accounting were given. Finally, a discussion was presented to relate together the following aspects of energy conservation: widespread impact, involvement of government, industry, politics, moral and ethical aspects, urgency and time element.

1975-01-01

200

Natural Resources Conservation Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Natural Resources Conservation Service(NRCS)provides leadership in a partnership effort to help people conserve, maintain, and improve our natural resources and environment. This site offers an overview of the agency's goals, history, and organization as well as information on the latest news involving or affecting natural resources and/or NRCS. Topics found on this site may include a plants database, farming and ranching information, widespread conservation information, and practical backyard conservation. More specific topics are covered in greater detail through government reports, conservation tips & techniques, and reports from NRCS research projects.

201

Radiation technology for environmental conservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of radiation technology for environmental conservation is becoming increasingly important. Commercial plants for the radiation treatment of sewage sludge to reduce pathogenic micro-organisms have been operating in the Federal Republic of Germany for the past ten years and their technical and economical feasibility has been demonstrated. Irradiation of dried sludge has been developed at the Sandia National Laboratory (USA) using Cs-137, and the construction of a commercial plant is planned in Albuquerque. At the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), efforts are under way to increase the rate of composting of sludge by radiation. Regarding waste water treatment, a significant synergistic effect of radiation and ozone was found in the reduction of TOC. The construction of a gamma irradiation plant is in the planning stage in Canada, for the disinfection of virus-contaminated waste effluents from the Canadian Animal Disease Research Institute. The treatment of exhaust gases by electron beam has been studied in Japan using a large pilot plant which demonstrated that 90% of SO 2 and 80% of NO x can be removed from the flue gas of iron ore sintering furnaces. The US Department of Energy is assisting in projects for the further development of this technology for combined removal of SO 2 and NO x in flue gas from coal burning power stations.

Machi, S.

202

American Bird Conservancy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Bird Conservancy (ABC) is a nonprofit organization working to "conserve wild birds and their habitats throughout the Americas." The ABC website provides informative and useful features such as the Bird Conservation Directory, a searchable directory of contact information for professionals engaged in bird conservation throughout the Americas, and the downloadable Birdwatcher's Guide to Global Warming (last mentioned in the June 28, 2002 NSDL Scout Report for the Life Sciences). The site also provides information about ABC membership and a variety of conservation programs such as Partners in Flight, Cats Indoors, The North American Bird Conservation Initiative, and the Pesticides and Birds Campaign. Site visitors may also view past copies of the ABC newsletter; and sign up for free email bulletins containing conservation action alerts, information, and news.

203

DMT PAR-reduction by weighted cancellation waveforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

DMT (discrete multitone) signals have a high peak-to- average power ratio (PAR). In the transmitters, the PAR governs the necessary resolution of the digital- to-analog converter (DAC) and is an important factor for the power consumption of the line-driver. In a recent paper, we presented a low complexity PAR-reduction method for DMT-transmitters. Here we improve a central part of this

Hans G. Feichtinger; Norbert Kaiblinger; Lars-Erik Perssonc

204

DSINTGRATION DU TERBIUM 164 Par E. MONNAND et A. MOUSSA,  

E-print Network

D�SINT�GRATION DU TERBIUM 164 Par E. MONNAND et A. MOUSSA, Laboratoire de Chimie Nucléaire, Centre terbium 164 produit par la réaction nucléaire 164Dy(n, p)164Tb avec des neutrons de 14 MeV. L'isotope 164 du terbium n'a 6t6 signal6 jusqu'ici que par Alstad et Pappas [1] qui l'ont obtenu a partir de

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

205

Mechanism of DNA Segregation in Prokaryotes: Replicon Pairing by parC of Plasmid R1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prokaryotic chromosomes and plasmids encode partitioning systems that are required for DNA segregation at cell division. The systems are thought to be functionally analogous to eukaryotic centromeres and to play a general role in DNA segregation. The parA system of plasmid R1 encodes two proteins ParM and ParR, and a cis-acting centromere-like site denoted parC. The ParR protein binds to parC in vivo and in vitro. The ParM protein is an ATPase that interacts with ParR specifically bound to parC. Using electron microscopy, we show here that parC mediates efficient pairing of plasmid molecules. The pairing requires binding of ParR to parC and is stimulated by the ParM ATPase. The ParM mediated stimulation of plasmid pairing is dependent on ATP hydrolysis by ParM. Using a ligation kinetics assay, we find that ParR stimulates ligation of parC-containing DNA fragments. The rate-of-ligation was increased by wild type ParM protein but not by mutant ParM protein deficient in the ATPase activity. Thus, two independent assays show that parC mediates pairing of plasmid molecules in vitro. These results are consistent with the proposal that replicon pairing is part of the mechanism of DNA segregation in prokaryotes.

Jensen, Rasmus Bugge; Lurz, Rudi; Gerdes, Kenn

1998-07-01

206

2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) BARRACKS WITH RADAR ATTACHED. - Nike Hercules Missile Battery Summit Site, Battery Control Administration & Barracks Building, Anchorage, Anchorage, AK

207

Modlisation de rseaux de rgulation de gnes par processus dterministes par morceaux  

E-print Network

Cook et modèle du phage Lambda). Mots-clés. Réseau de gènes, Processus déterministes par morceaux networks (Cook's model and Lambda-phage model). Keywords. Gene networks, Piecewise deterministic processes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

208

NOMBRE DE RAYONS 03B1 MIS PAR UNE PRPARATION DE DPOT ACTIF DU THORIUM MESURE PAR SON RAYONNEMENT PNTRANT  

E-print Network

NOMBRE DE RAYONS 03B1 �MIS PAR UNE PR�PARATION DE D�POT ACTIF DU THORIUM MESUR�E PAR SON cm de Pb. Résultats. 1. But du travail. - Le Radiothorium, le Thorium X et le dépôt actif du Thorium sont généralement dosés par leur rayonnement y provenant de Thorium (C + Cfl). A cet effet, à l

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

209

A New Sex-Specific Genetic Map of the Human Pseudoautosomal Regions (PAR1 and PAR2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Accurate sex-specific genetic maps are essential for gene mapping projects when using multipoint methods, especially for the pseudoautosomal regions (PARs). This paper describes a new sex-specific genetic map for the human PARs. Methods: We used multipoint linkage analysis, three-generation pedigrees and to date, the largest set of genetic markers to estimate recombination events in the PARs. The new map

Antònia Flaquer; Christine Fischer; Thomas F. Wienker

2009-01-01

210

Similar requirements for CDC-42 and the PAR-3/PAR-6/PKC-3 complex in diverse cell types  

PubMed Central

During animal development, a complex of Par3, Par6 and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) plays a central role in cell polarisation. The small G protein Cdc42 also functions in cell polarity and has been shown in some cases to act by regulating the Par3 complex. However, it is not yet known whether Cdc42 and the Par3 complex widely function together in development or whether they have independent functions. For example, many studies have implicated Cdc42 in cell migrations, but the Par3 complex has only been little studied, with conflicting results. Here we examine the requirements for CDC-42 and the PAR-3/PAR-6/PKC-3 complex in a range of different developmental events. We found similar requirements in all tissues examined, including polarised growth of vulval precursors and seam cells, migrations of neuroblasts and axons, and the development of the somatic gonad. We also propose a novel role for primordial germ cells in mediating coalescence of the C. elegans gonad. These results indicate that CDC-42 and the PAR-3/PAR-6/aPKC complex function together in diverse cell types. PMID:17383625

Welchman, David P; Mathies, Laura; Ahringer, Julie

2012-01-01

211

Breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy: a possible treatment for lobular carcinoma in situ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is generally treated by conservative surgery alone and less often by mastectomy. We report our experience using conservative surgery and whole breast irradiation (WBI) for the treatment of patients with LCIS. From 1980 to 1992, 25 women with a median age of 54 years underwent lumpectomy (20) or quadrantectomy (5) and WBI (median dose: 52

Bruno Cutuli; Brigitte de Lafontan; Philippe Quetin; Eliane Mery

2005-01-01

212

Migratory Bird Conservancy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The recently launched Migratory Bird Conservancy represents a unique partnership among birders, birding businesses, and the conservation community. Headed by the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation (NFWF), this original and somewhat unusual initiative was established to facilitate public contributions to the goals and objectives of Partners in Flight. The mission of the Conservancy is to raise a minimum of $500,000 annually "to help conserve bird habitats throughout the Western Hemisphere." This site offers summary information on the Migratory Bird Conservancy (MBC), including how to apply for a MBC grant and how to make donations. For those interested in the future of migratory birds or in learning about conservation funding, this site will be of direct interest.

213

Conservation: Toward firmer ground  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following aspects of energy conservation were discussed: conservation history and goals, conservation modes, conservation accounting-criteria, and a method to overcome obstacles. The conservation modes tested fall into one of the following categories: reduced energy consumption, increased efficiency of energy utilization, or substitution of one or more forms of energy for another which is in shorter supply or in some sense thought to be of more value. The conservation accounting criteria include net energy reduction, economic, and technical criteria. A method to overcome obstacles includes (approaches such as: direct personal impact (life style, income, security, aspiration), an element of crisis, large scale involvement of environmental, safety, and health issues, connections to big government, big business, big politics, involvement of known and speculative science and technology, appeal to moral and ethical standards, the transient nature of opportunities to correct the system.

1975-01-01

214

Irradiance-mediated dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP) responses of red coralline algae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Red coralline algae produce significant quantities of dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP), whose breakdown products include the important climate gas dimethylsulphide (DMS) but little is known about how environmental factors influence this DMS(P) production. The effect of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on intracellular DMS(P) concentrations in the red coralline algae Lithothamnion glaciale was investigated using short (30 min) and longer-term (up to 507 h) acclimatory responses and control and high-PAR light regimes. Longer-term acclimatory intracellular DMS(P) concentrations were significantly reduced following exposure to high-PAR (220-250 ?mol m -2 s -1). No short-term acclimatory effects were observed. We conclude that while DMS(P) content in L. glaciale does respond to changes in irradiance, the effect takes place over hours - days rather than minutes, suggesting a continued turnover of DMS(P) to combat oxidative stress induced by prolonged high-PAR exposure. Immediate short-term acclimatory responses do not appear to occur.

Rix, L. N.; Burdett, H. L.; Kamenos, N. A.

2012-01-01

215

Condensation and localization of the partitioning protein ParB on the bacterial chromosome  

PubMed Central

The ParABS system mediates chromosome segregation and plasmid partitioning in many bacteria. As part of the partitioning mechanism, ParB proteins form a nucleoprotein complex at parS sites. The biophysical basis underlying ParB–DNA complex formation and localization remains elusive. Specifically, it is unclear whether ParB spreads in 1D along DNA or assembles into a 3D protein–DNA complex. We show that a combination of 1D spreading bonds and a single 3D bridging bond between ParB proteins constitutes a minimal model for a condensed ParB–DNA complex. This model implies a scaling behavior for ParB-mediated silencing of parS-flanking genes, which we confirm to be satisfied by experimental data from P1 plasmids. Furthermore, this model is consistent with experiments on the effects of DNA roadblocks on ParB localization. Finally, we show experimentally that a single parS site is necessary and sufficient for ParB–DNA complex formation in vivo. Together with our model, this suggests that ParB binding to parS triggers a conformational switch in ParB that overcomes a nucleation barrier. Conceptually, the combination of spreading and bridging bonds in our model provides a surface tension ensuring the condensation of the ParB–DNA complex, with analogies to liquid-like compartments such as nucleoli in eukaryotes. PMID:24927534

Broedersz, Chase P.; Wang, Xindan; Meir, Yigal; Loparo, Joseph J.; Rudner, David Z.; Wingreen, Ned S.

2014-01-01

216

Condensation and localization of the partitioning protein ParB on the bacterial chromosome.  

PubMed

The ParABS system mediates chromosome segregation and plasmid partitioning in many bacteria. As part of the partitioning mechanism, ParB proteins form a nucleoprotein complex at parS sites. The biophysical basis underlying ParB-DNA complex formation and localization remains elusive. Specifically, it is unclear whether ParB spreads in 1D along DNA or assembles into a 3D protein-DNA complex. We show that a combination of 1D spreading bonds and a single 3D bridging bond between ParB proteins constitutes a minimal model for a condensed ParB-DNA complex. This model implies a scaling behavior for ParB-mediated silencing of parS-flanking genes, which we confirm to be satisfied by experimental data from P1 plasmids. Furthermore, this model is consistent with experiments on the effects of DNA roadblocks on ParB localization. Finally, we show experimentally that a single parS site is necessary and sufficient for ParB-DNA complex formation in vivo. Together with our model, this suggests that ParB binding to parS triggers a conformational switch in ParB that overcomes a nucleation barrier. Conceptually, the combination of spreading and bridging bonds in our model provides a surface tension ensuring the condensation of the ParB-DNA complex, with analogies to liquid-like compartments such as nucleoli in eukaryotes. PMID:24927534

Broedersz, Chase P; Wang, Xindan; Meir, Yigal; Loparo, Joseph J; Rudner, David Z; Wingreen, Ned S

2014-06-17

217

Technology in water conservation  

E-print Network

rely on sound technology to #24;nd leaks so they can be repaired and the volume of water lost can be reduced. Some of these procedures involve walking over pipelines with simple ampli#24;cation equipment, but the ?hearing detection? can also... levels is a major part of water conservation now, and great opportunities for advances exist that will increase its importance in producing water from conservation activities. TECHNOLOGY IN WATER CONSERVATION UNITED How one computer model makes...

Finch, Dr. Calvin

2013-01-01

218

Springtime size-fractionated primary production across hydrographic and PAR-light gradients in Chilean Patagonia (41-50°S)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We combined on-deck and in situ measurements and satellite-derived data to study the spatial variability of springtime size-fractionated primary production and chlorophyll-a biomass along gradients of hydrographic conditions and surface PAR in central and northern Chilean Patagonia (41-50°S). This extensive and fragmented region encompasses numerous fjords and channels, as well as the northern and southern icefields (46-47°S, 48-52°S). Primary production displayed a latitudinal pattern decreasing southwards (6-fold lower), particularly toward areas influenced by rivers with a nival regime. Micro-phytoplankton (>20 ?m) dominated the primary production (57-93%) and chlorophyll-a (43-91%) of northern sites, where warmer and more saline surface waters exhibit greater PAR irradiance. Small phytoplankton cells (<2 ?m; 2-20 ?m) contributed > 50% of carbon fixation and chlorophyll-a in the southernmost sites, especially those located near glaciers and major rivers, where surface temperature, salinity, and PAR irradiance were lowest. The long-term (2002-2012) average field of springtime PAR derived from satellite imagery showed a southward increase in longitudinal gradients, which indicates that spatial changes in surface light attenuation along this region are largely driven by glacier-derived freshwater inputs. A principal component analysis of surface temperature, salinity, and PAR produced an ordination of sites that was consistent with spatial changes in the balance of oceanic versus riverine influence on surface conditions along this region. Total primary production was significantly correlated (r = 0.61, p = 0.007) with the first principal component, which explained 65% of joint variability in hydrographic conditions and PAR. The same principal component clearly separated sites in northern Patagonia where micro-phytoplankton dominated total primary production - along the Reloncavi fjord and Inner Sea of Chiloe - from those located further south where other size fractions were equally or more important. We stress the need to include spatial variability in nutrient concentrations, which together with the strong light attenuation induced by glacier-derived freshwater may further explain the spatial patterns in primary productivity, phytoplankton biomass, and carbon fluxes along Chilean Patagonia.

Jacob, Bárbara G.; Tapia, Fabián J.; Daneri, Giovanni; Iriarte, Jose L.; Montero, Paulina; Sobarzo, Marcus; Quiñones, Renato A.

2014-12-01

219

Society for Conservation Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1985, the "Society for Conservation Biology (SCB) is an international professional organization dedicated to promoting the scientific study of phenomena that affect the maintenance, loss, and restoration of biological diversity." Online services provided by SCB include a great conservation jobs database; a bulletin board for conservation-related postings; listings for educational resources, and academic programs in the field of Conservation Biology. Site visitors can also peruse SCB annual reports, archived online newsletters, and information about local chapters, committees, membership, and meetings.

220

Physiology, behavior, and conservation.  

PubMed

Many animal populations are in decline as a result of human activity. Conservation practitioners are attempting to prevent further declines and loss of biodiversity as well as to facilitate recovery of endangered species, and they often rely on interdisciplinary approaches to generate conservation solutions. Two recent interfaces in conservation science involve animal behavior (i.e., conservation behavior) and physiology (i.e., conservation physiology). To date, these interfaces have been considered separate entities, but from both pragmatic and biological perspectives, there is merit in better integrating behavior and physiology to address applied conservation problems and to inform resource management. Although there are some institutional, conceptual, methodological, and communication-oriented challenges to integrating behavior and physiology to inform conservation actions, most of these barriers can be overcome. Through outlining several successful examples that integrate these disciplines, we conclude that physiology and behavior can together generate meaningful data to support animal conservation and management actions. Tangentially, applied conservation and management problems can, in turn, also help advance and reinvigorate the fundamental disciplines of animal physiology and behavior by providing advanced natural experiments that challenge traditional frameworks. PMID:24457917

Cooke, Steven J; Blumstein, Daniel T; Buchholz, Richard; Caro, Tim; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban; Franklin, Craig E; Metcalfe, Julian; O'Connor, Constance M; St Clair, Colleen Cassady; Sutherland, William J; Wikelski, Martin

2014-01-01

221

Ecologically relevant UV-B dose combined with high PAR intensity distinctly affect plant growth and accumulation of secondary metabolites in leaves of Centella asiatica L. Urban.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of environmentally relevant dose of ultraviolet (UV)-B and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) on saponin accumulation in leaves on the example of Centella asiatica L. Urban. For this purpose, plants were exposed to one of four light regimes i.e., two PAR intensities with or without UV-B radiation. The experiment was conducted in technically complex sun simulators under almost natural irradiance and climatic conditions. As observed, UV-B radiation increased herb and leaf production as well as the content of epidermal flavonols, which was monitored by non-destructive fluorescence measurements. Specific fluorescence indices also indicate an increase in the content of anthocyanins under high PAR; this increase was likewise observed for the saponin concentrations. In contrast, UV-B radiation had no distinct effects on saponin and sapogenin concentrations. Our findings suggest that besides flavonoids, also saponins were accumulated under high PAR protecting the plant from oxidative damage. Furthermore, glycosylation of sapogenins seems to be important either for the protective function and/or for compartmentalization of the compounds. Moreover, our study revealed that younger leaves contain higher amounts of saponins, while in older leaves the sapogenins were the most abundant constituents. Concluding, our results proof that ambient dose of UV-B and high PAR intensity distinctly affect the accumulation of flavonoids and saponins, enabling the plant tissue to adapt to the light conditions. PMID:24044900

Müller, Viola; Albert, Andreas; Barbro Winkler, J; Lankes, Christa; Noga, Georg; Hunsche, Mauricio

2013-10-01

222

Developmental Cell A Casein Kinase 1 and PAR Proteins  

E-print Network

Developmental Cell Article A Casein Kinase 1 and PAR Proteins Regulate Asymmetry of a PIP2 cortical asymmetry of Ga regulators GPR-1/2. Here, we es- tablish that the casein kinase 1 gamma CSNK-1 and a PIP2 synthesis enzyme (PPK-1) transduce PAR polarity to asymmetric Ga regulation. PPK-1 is posteriorly

Ahringe, Julie

223

Endophthalmitis following pars plana vitrectomy for vitreous floaters  

PubMed Central

A case of Staphylococcus caprae endophthalmitis in a young patient following pars plana vitrectomy for symptomatic vitreous floaters is reported here. Recent literature suggests that there is an increasing trend of performing pars plana vitrectomy for symptomatic floaters. Although rare, the potential risk of endophthalmitis should be explicitly discussed with patients considering surgical intervention for vitreous floaters. PMID:25210434

Henry, Christopher R; Schwartz, Stephen G; Flynn, Harry W

2014-01-01

224

STRUCTURE DES COUCHES DE NIOBIUM PRPARES PAR PULVRISATION TRIODE  

E-print Network

415 STRUCTURE DES COUCHES DE NIOBIUM PR�PAR�ES PAR PULV�RISATION TRIODE EXISTENCE D'UNE PHASE, Bellevue Résumé. 2014 Par pulvérisation cathodique, le niobium, normalement cubique centré (a = 3,29 �. Abstract. 2014 Sputtering of normally b. c. c. Niobium (a = 3.29 �) on Sodium Chloride gives amorphous

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

225

Actes JFPC 2009 Decidabilite de contraintes du premier ordre par  

E-print Network

Introduction La programmation par contraintes (PPC) est une discipline au carrefour de l'intelligence contrainte et intelligence artificielle. L'id´ee est simple : ayant une th´eorie T mod´elis´ee par un. Abstract Satisfiability modulo theories (SMT) is a discipline that comes from formal verification and has

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

226

Dtermination indirecte des limites d'Atterberg par gravimtrie dynamique  

E-print Network

Détermination indirecte des limites d'Atterberg par gravimétrie dynamique Determination of Atterberg limits by dynamic gravimetry. Chantal Prousta, Agnès Jullienb, and Lydie Le Forestiera, a ISTO présente une nouvelle méthode de mesure des limites d'Atterberg par dessiccation dynamique. En effet, pour

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

227

Clinical and immunopathological studies of pars planitis in a family  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined a family in which two brothers with identical HLA typing have pars planitis with snowbanking. Immunopathological studies of one of their eyes showed that in the area of snowbanking over the pars plana there was mild to moderate inflammatory cell infiltration, consisting of mostly Pan T (Leu 4+) lymphocytes. The ratio of T helper\\/inducer to T suppressor\\/cytotoxic cells

R P Wetzig; C C Chan; R B Nussenblatt; A G Palestine; D O Mazur; K K Mittal

1988-01-01

228

MMOIRES ORIGINAUX 37 Dtermination des sucres par chromatographie  

E-print Network

MÉMOIRES ORIGINAUX 37 Détermination des sucres par chromatographie en phase gazeuse. Applications à séparation de la fraction glucidique par voie chromatographique. Une technique de chromatographie semble bien adaptée à ce type de détermination: la chromatographie en phase gazeuse. En premier lieu, il convenait de

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

229

Optimal constellation distortion for PAR reduction in OFDM systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high peak-to-average-power ratio (PAR) of Or- thogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) transmission systems significantly reduces the power efficiency or performance of such systems, and many techniques have been proposed to deal with this problem. Recently, the Active Constellation Extension (ACE) algorithm has received much attention, where the main idea is to reduce the PAR by introducing a perturbation of

Moshe Malkin; Brian S. Krongold; John M. Cioffi

2008-01-01

230

Source Jazz hot internet n614 Sign par Frank STEIGER  

E-print Network

Source Jazz hot internet n°614 Date 2004 Signé par Frank STEIGER Commençons par être reconnaissant quelques musiciens étaient sans le savoir en train de poser les fondations de ce qui allait devenir le jazz

231

Recherches sur les rayons secondaires du radium Par H. STARKE  

E-print Network

35 Recherches sur les rayons secondaires du radium Par H. STARKE [Faculté des Sciences de Paris, laboratoire de Mme Curie.] 1. - Expériences pour rechercher la formation des rayons y par l'action des rayons p sur les corps solides. §1. On a généralement considéré les rayons y qui sont très pénétrants et

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

232

Diffusion des rayons X par un corps de structure  

E-print Network

Diffusion des rayons X par un corps de structure quelconque · Notion de cohérence · Approximation) · Approximation statique · Fréquences des rayons X : 1018 Hz · Fréquences des vibrations atomiques : 1012 Hz (THz système isotrope : mesurable par diffusion des rayons X ou des neutrons ( ) = = 1 + ( - 1) = 1 + - 1 sin

Paris-Sud 11, Université de

233

MMOIRES TRADUITS Sur la vitesse des rayons cathodiques mis par  

E-print Network

83 MÉMOIRES TRADUITS Sur la vitesse des rayons cathodiques émis par les substances exposées aux rayons 03B3 du radium Par R. D. KLEEMAN [Université de Cambridge. 2014 Laboratoire de M. J. J. THOMSON]. 1 La radiation secondaire cathodique d'une substance exposée aux rayons y du radium, comprend en

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

234

Par Pond vegetation status summer 1995 - July survey descriptive summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant, communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet (61 meters) above mean sea level, and continued with this July survey. Aquatic plant communities, similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond communities, are becoming reestablished. Beds of maidencane (Panicum hemitomon), lotus (Nelumbo lutea), water lily

H. E. Jr. Mackey; R. S. Riley

1995-01-01

235

La simulation pour les systmes pilots par le produit  

E-print Network

systèmes (par linitiative de « fabrication flexible », par exemple), mais les processus de prise de, telles les technologies Auto-Id, la biométrie, la vision, etc. Aujourdhui les technologies RFID (Radio logiciels et de technologies infotroniques (telles les RFID) doivent permettre dobtenir plus de réactivité

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

236

Modlisation d'une srie financire par mouvement Brownien  

E-print Network

Brownien frac- tionnaire fBm (fractional Brownian motion) qui est caractérisé par son in- dice de Hurst HModélisation d'une série financière par mouvement Brownien multi-fractionnaire parcimonieux Pierre In this work we introduce sparse modelling for fractal like pro- cesses. We recall the stream which has leaded

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

237

[Plasma suPAR level in patients with multiple myeloma].  

PubMed

To investigate the changes of plasma suPAR level in patients with multiple myeloma, ELISA was used to detect plasma suPAR level, and routine examination was performed for other clinical indexes in 26 multiple myeloma patients. The results showed that plasma suPAR level in patients was 4.31+/-1.67 ng/ml, which was obviously higher than that in control group (1.87+/-0.27 ng/ml) (p<0.01). Plasma suPAR level in IgM subtype patients was 6.18+/-3.61 ng/ml, which was highest among all the subtypes; the plasma suPAR levels in non-secretion subtype, IgG and IgA subtype were 4.43+/-1.55 ng/ml, 4.00+/-0.95 ng/ml and 3.50+/-1.60 ng/ml respectively. The plasma suPAR levels in all subtypes were higher than that in control group, but there was no differences between these subtypes. SuPAR level was correlated with the blood sedimentation rate, creatinine level and hemoglobin level, plasma cell ratio and M protein level. It is concluded that the change of plasma suPAR level in multiple myeloma contributes to predict the development and prognosis of the disease. PMID:18315930

Wang, Wei; Wang, Hong-Yi; Cui, Zhong-Guang; Wang, Jing

2008-02-01

238

Wastewater treatment using gamma irradiation: Tétouan pilot station, Morocco  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing demand on limited water supplies has accelerated the wastewater reuse and reclamation. We investigated gamma irradiation effects on wastewater by measuring differences in the legislated parameters, aiming to reuse the wastewater. Effluents samples were collected at the urban wastewater treatment station of Tetouan and were irradiated at different doses ranging from 0 to 14 kGy using a Co 60 gamma source. The results showed an elimination of bacterial flora, a decrease of biochemical and chemical oxygen demand, and higher conservation of nutritious elements. The results of this study indicated that gamma irradiation might be a good choice for the reuse of wastewater for agricultural activities.

Tahri, Loubna; Elgarrouj, Driss; Zantar, Said; Mouhib, Mohamed; Azmani, Amina; Sayah, Fouad

2010-04-01

239

Dissection of the region of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ParA that is important for dimerization and interactions with its partner ParB  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa ParA belongs to a large subfamily of Walker-type ATPases acting as partitioning proteins in bacteria. ParA has the ability to both self-associate and interact with its partner ParB. Analysis of the deletion mutants defined the part of the protein involved in dimerization and interactions with ParB. Here, a set of ParA alanine substitution mutants in the region between E67 and L85 was created and analysed in vivo and in vitro. All mutants impaired in dimerization (substitutions at positions M74, H79, Y82 and L84) were also defective in interactions with ParB, suggesting that ParA–ParB interactions depend on the ability of ParA to dimerize. Mutants with alanine substitutions at positions E67, C68, L70, E72, F76, Q83 and L85 were not impaired in dimerization, but were defective in interactions with ParB. The dimerization interface partly overlapped the pseudo-hairpin, involved in interactions with ParB. ParA mutant derivatives tested in vitro showed no defects in ATPase activity. Two parA alleles (parA84, whose product can neither self-interact nor interact with ParB, and parA67, whose product is impaired in interactions with ParB, but not in dimerization) were introduced into the P. aeruginosa chromosome by homologous gene exchange. Both mutants showed defective separation of ParB foci, but to different extents. Only PAO1161 parA84 was visibly impaired in terms of chromosome segregation, growth rate and motility, similar to a parA-null mutant. PMID:25139949

Bartosik, Aneta A.; Glabski, Krzysztof; Jecz, Paulina; Lasocki, Krzysztof; Mikosa, Malgorzata; Plochocka, Danuta; Thomas, Christopher M.

2014-01-01

240

Cancer-selective apoptosis by tumor suppressor par-4.  

PubMed

Tumor suppressor genes play an important role in preventing neoplastic transformation and maintaining normal tissue homeostasis. Par-4 is one such tumor suppressor which is unique in its ability to selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells while leaving the normal cells unaffected. The cancer cell specific activity of Par-4 is elicited through intracellular as well as extracellular mechanisms. Intracellularly Par-4 acts through the inhibition of pro-survival pathways and activation of Fas mediated apoptosis whereas extracellular (secreted Par-4) acts by binding to cell surface GRP78 leading to activation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Many studies have highlighted the importance of Par-4 not only in preventing cancer development/recurrence but also as a promising anticancer therapeutic agent. PMID:25001535

Hebbar, Nikhil; Shrestha-Bhattarai, Tripti; Rangnekar, Vivek M

2014-01-01

241

NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION FOREST ECOLOGY & CONSERVATION  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY 100 Intro Biology I (BS) 4 BIOLOGY 101 Intro Biology II 4 MATH 104 Alg/Geom/Trig (R1) 3 ENGLWRIT RES-ECON 211 Intro. Stats (R2) 3 BIOLOGY 287 Intro. Ecology 3 Junior Year NRC 534 Forest Measure Fire Mgt; NRC 597C Case Studies in Conservation; courses in Sociology, Anthropology, Public Policy, GIS

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

242

Biodiversity Conservation and Conservation Biotechnology Tools  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This special issue is dedicated to the in vitro tools and methods used to conserve the genetic diversity of rare and threatened species from around the world. Species that are on the brink of extinction, due to the rapid loss of genetic diversity and habitat, come mainly from resource poor areas the...

243

NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION Fisheries Ecology & Conservation  

E-print Network

-ECON elective (SB) 4e NRC 390E Evolution & Conserv. 3f Physical Science elective 3g Total Credits 16 17 Junior (s) f Evolution option (when NRC390E is not available) - BIOL 280 g Physical Science elective ­ CHEM NAT-SCI 397A CNS Jr. Writing 3 NRC 382 Human Dimensions (IE) 4 Quantitative elective 3/4h

Schweik, Charles M.

244

Protection des ions organiques contre les dommages induits a l'ADN par les electrons de basse energie  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Il a ete demontre que les electrons de basse energie (EBE) peuvent induire des cassures simple brin (CSB) a l'ADN, via la formation d'anions transitoires qui decroissent par attachement dissociatif, ou dans d'autres etats electroniques dissociatifs menant a la fragmentation. Afin d'effectuer une etude complete des effets des electrons de basse energie sur la matiere biologique, il est necessaire de comprendre leur mecanismes d'interaction non seulement avec l'ADN, mais avec les constituants de son environnement. Les histones sont une composante importante de l'environnement moleculaire de l'ADN. Leur charge positive leur permet de s'associer aux groupements phosphate anionique de l'ADN. Le role principal de ces proteines basiques consiste a organiser l'ADN et l'empaqueter afin de former la chromatine. Les cations sont une autre composante importante de la cellule; ils jouent un role dans la stabilisation de la conformation B de l'ADN in vitro par leurs interactions avec les petits et grands sillons de l'ADN, ainsi qu'avec le groupement phosphate charge negativement. Avec les histones, ils participent egalement a la compaction de l'ADN pour former la chromatine. Cette etude a pour but de comprendre comment la presence d'ions organiques (sous forme de Tris et d'EDTA) a proximite de l'ADN modifie le rendement de cassures simple brin induit par les electrons de basse energie. Le Tris et l'EDTA ont-ete choisis comme objet d'etude, puisqu'en solution, ils forment le tampon standard pour solubiliser l'ADN dans les experiences in vitro (10mM Tris, 1mM EDTA). De plus, la molecule Tris possede un groupement amine alors que l'EDTA possede 4 groupements carboxyliques. Ensembles, ils peuvent se comporter comme un modele simple pour les acides amines. Le ratio molaire de 10 :1 de Tris par rapport a l'EDTA a pour but d'imiter le comportement des histones qui sont riches en arginine et lysine, acides amines possedant un groupement amine charge positivement additionnel. Des films d'ADN de differentes epaisseurs, possedant entre 0 et 32 ions organiques/ nucleotide, ont ete irradies avec des electrons de 10eV. Les dommages induits par les electrons, sous forme de cassures, ont ete detectes par electrophorese. Nous avons demontre que le rendement de cassure simple brin diminuait de facon dramatique en fonction du nombre d'ions organiques/ nucleotide. Aussi peu que 2 ions organiques/ nucleotide sont suffisant pour decroitre le rendement de SSB de 70%. Cet effet radioprotecteur est en partie explique par l'augmentation de l'epaisseur des films, mais surtout par la modification du champ electrique a proximite de l'ADN, due a l'ajout de molecules chargees positivement. La modification du champ electrique pres de l'ADN altere les parametres de resonance comme le temps de vie de l'anion transitoire et la limite de dissociation, qui influent directement sur la section efficace d'attachement dissociatif. L'effet protecteur peut egalement etre explique par la restauration des bases anioniques deshydrogenees induites par l'attachement dissociatif de l'electron sur une base (G(-H)-). Ce sont les molecules Tris qui, en transferant un atome d'hydrogene ou un proton, restaurent les bases deshydrogenees et inhibent par le fait meme la formation de cassures simple brin. Ces resultats indiquent que les histones peuvent egalement participer a la reparation de dommages precoces induits a l'ADN avant qu'elles ne menent a des dommages encore plus nocifs et difficiles a reparer, comme les cassures simples brins. Mots cles : Electrons de basse energie, dommage a l'ADN, ions organiques, attachement dissociatif de l'electron.

Dumont, Ariane

245

Recombination in the Human Pseudoautosomal Region PAR1  

PubMed Central

The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) is a short region of homology between the mammalian X and Y chromosomes, which has undergone rapid evolution. A crossover in the PAR is essential for the proper disjunction of X and Y chromosomes in male meiosis, and PAR deletion results in male sterility. This leads the human PAR with the obligatory crossover, PAR1, to having an exceptionally high male crossover rate, which is 17-fold higher than the genome-wide average. However, the mechanism by which this obligatory crossover occurs remains unknown, as does the fine-scale positioning of crossovers across this region. Recent research in mice has suggested that crossovers in PAR may be mediated independently of the protein PRDM9, which localises virtually all crossovers in the autosomes. To investigate recombination in this region, we construct the most fine-scale genetic map containing directly observed crossovers to date using African-American pedigrees. We leverage recombination rates inferred from the breakdown of linkage disequilibrium in human populations and investigate the signatures of DNA evolution due to recombination. Further, we identify direct PRDM9 binding sites using ChIP-seq in human cells. Using these independent lines of evidence, we show that, in contrast with mouse, PRDM9 does localise peaks of recombination in the human PAR1. We find that recombination is a far more rapid and intense driver of sequence evolution in PAR1 than it is on the autosomes. We also show that PAR1 hotspot activities differ significantly among human populations. Finally, we find evidence that PAR1 hotspot positions have changed between human and chimpanzee, with no evidence of sharing among the hottest hotspots. We anticipate that the genetic maps built and validated in this work will aid research on this vital and fascinating region of the genome. PMID:25033397

Hinch, Anjali G.; Altemose, Nicolas; Noor, Nudrat; Donnelly, Peter; Myers, Simon R.

2014-01-01

246

Combinatorics of Conservation Laws  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation laws in physics are numerical invariants of the dynamics of a system. This article concerns conservation laws in a fictitious universe of a cellular automaton. We give an overview of the subject, with particular attention to problems of combinatorial flavor.

Jarkko Kari; Siamak Taati

247

On exactly conservative integrators  

SciTech Connect

Traditional explicit numerical discretizations of conservative systems generically predict artificial secular drifts of nonlinear invariants. These algorithms are based on polynomial functions of the time step. The authors discuss a general approach for developing explicit algorithms that conserve such invariants exactly. They illustrate the method by applying it to the truncated two-dimensional Euler equations.

Bowman, J.C. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Shadwick, B.A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Morrison, P.J. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies

1997-06-01

248

The Ocean Conservancy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ocean Conservancy (formerly Center for Marine Conservation) promotes science-based advocacy, research, and public education for the protection of marine resources and environments. This environmental organization's site includes: news and current issues; wildlife information; advocacy activities and events; an on-line newsletter and membership information.

249

Systematic conservation planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The realization of conservation goals requires strategies for managing whole landscapes including areas allocated to both production and protection. Reserves alone are not adequate for nature conservation but they are the cornerstone on which regional strategies are built. Reserves have two main roles. They should sample or represent the biodiversity of each region and they should separate this biodiversity from

C. R. Margules; R. L. Pressey

2000-01-01

250

Nature Conservation in Bophuthatswana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This presentation to the International Girl Guides Jamboree, July 1991, addressed the issue of nature conservation and the role of the National Parks and Wildlife Management Board of Bophuthatswana in creating parks and conserving wildlife. Describes three national parks and the boards' achievements in preserving wildlife. (MDH)

Motaung, Maria

1992-01-01

251

Youth Conservation Corps Guidance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides guidelines for operating Youth Conservation Corps programs under both the Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Park Service. The guide contains 11 units that cover the following topics: (1) enrollees; (2) enrollee payroll; (3) enrollee problems; (4) Youth Conservation Corps staff; (5) accounting; (6) operations; (7)…

Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

252

Outdoor Water Conservation  

E-print Network

L-438 Outdoor Water Conservation The City of OKLAHOMA CITY UTILITIES DEPARTMENT Oklahoma.JustinQ.Moss 1 #12;2 SEVEN PRINCIPLES FOR CREATING A WATER CONSERVING LANDSCAPE 1. GOOD LANDSCAPE PLANNING University Water Saving Design Ideas for Oklahoma Landscapes #12;About this guide: The

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

253

Principles of Wildlife Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Principles of Wildlife Conservation is a course that was developed to fulfill requirements in the curriculum of Forest Resource Technology students at Chemeketa Community College in Salem, Oregon. It is an introductory course that presents a diversity of issues relating to wildlife conservation and management and is open to the general student population.

Dan Edge

254

Conservation in perspective  

SciTech Connect

This book reflects the changes that have taken place in the nature conservation movement over the last decade. It includes essays on issues of nature conservation itself, rather than on environmental issues. Habitats, elements of the ecosystem, and some of the political and organizational activity currently of interest are covered.

Warren, A.; Goldsmith, F.B.; Goldsmith, B.

1984-01-01

255

Homonym Understanding and Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied 54 kindergarten children to investigate whether a common cognitive capacity underlies both homonym understanding and conservation status. Results indicated conservation status is significantly related to homonym understanding, over and above the rate of the child's general vocabulary level. (Author/CI)

Cramer, Phebe

1983-01-01

256

Water Conservation for Agriculture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water conservation for agriculture has been important for centuries and is becoming increasingly important due to competition among agricultural and other users. Our objectives were to review progress made in our understanding of factors affecting water conservation during the past 100 years and to ...

257

Conservation Focus and Executive  

E-print Network

#12;Northwest Power and Conservation Council Planning Approach · Find a mix of efficiency improvements and Conservation Council Portfolio for Low Risk Plan - D · Large reliance on efficiency improvements ­ 5,800 MWa for Low Cost Plan - A · Large reliance on efficiency improvements ­ 5,500 MWa · Wind development for RPS

258

Resource Conservation Glossary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This glossary is a composite of terms selected from 13 technologies, and is the expanded revision of the original 1952 edition of "The Soil and Water Conservation Glossary." The terms were selected from these areas: agronomy, biology, conservation, ecology, economics, engineering, forestry, geology, hydrology, range, recreation, soils, and…

Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

259

Conservation--Selected Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed by the Australian Conservation Foundation to meet the need for a general conservation bibliography, this booklet offers resources for a wide spectrum of possible users. Material selected is that which is relevant and helpful for conservationists in their various fields of activity and what is likely to be in print and obtainable without…

Australian Conservation Foundation, Parkville, Victoria.

260

Fresh Water Conservation  

E-print Network

, Texas, Nov. 7 ? 9, 2011 Central Texas is a model of conservation. ESL-KT-11-11-06 CATEE 2011, Dallas, Texas, Nov. 7 ? 9, 2011 Water conservation can be incentivized. ESL-KT-11-11-06 CATEE 2011, Dallas, Texas, Nov. 7 ? 9, 2011 Take care...

Huffman, L.

2011-01-01

261

Water Conservation Resource List.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alarmed by the growing water shortage, the New Jersey State Office of Dissemination has prepared this annotated list of free or inexpensive instructional materials for teaching about water conservation, K-l2. A tipsheet for home water conservation is appended. (Editor/SJL)

NJEA Review, 1981

1981-01-01

262

Teaching Teachers Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a two-week summer course for elementary and secondary teachers on soil and water conservation taught in Wisconsin. Discusses the efforts to recruit teachers for the course, the course content, the field trips, and the evaluation procedures. Stresses the cooperation between educators and conservation agencies in developing the course. (TW)

Meyers, N. L.; And Others

1987-01-01

263

Take Action: Water Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this regular column of the free, online magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, the author looks at the importance of conserving water and practicing good conservation habits daily. The column is designed for teachers in K-Grade 5 classrooms and presents concepts of climate literacy that are appropriate for young children. Identified online resources provide data collection activities, lessons, and games.

Jessica Fries-Gaither

264

Conservation in transportation  

SciTech Connect

A nationwide examination was made of grassroots energy conservation programs related to transportation. Information compiled from civic groups, trade associations, and corporations is included on driver awareness/mass transit; travel; and ride sharing. It is concluded that a willingness by the public to cooperate in transportation energy conservation exists and should be exploited. (LCL)

None

1980-05-30

265

Conservation of Momentum 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab introduces students to the idea of recoil and how conservation of momentum can be used to explain it. Many people use action/reaction to explain recoil, but conservation of momentum can be used equally well. Before shooting a gun, there is zero m

Michael Horton

2009-05-30

266

Water & Energy Conservation Plan  

E-print Network

Water & Energy Conservation Plan View of PGI construction and retention pond, Sitapura Industrial of Colleges (PGC) in Rajasthan, India suggests measures to mitigate the impending water and energy crisis that India and the college both face. Within, plans are made for the conservation of water and energy

Illinois at Chicago, University of

267

Creative Soil Conservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Take plant lessons outdoors with this engaging and inquiry-based activity in which third-grade students learn how to apply soil conservation methods to growing plants. They also collect data and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of their method of soil conservation. An added benefit to this activity is that the third-grade students played…

Smith, Martha

2010-01-01

268

Introducing Conservation of Momentum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teaching of the principle of conservation of linear momentum is considered (ages 15 + ). From the principle, the momenta of two masses in an isolated system are considered. Sketch graphs of the momenta make Newton's laws appear obvious. Examples using different collision conditions are considered. Conservation of momentum is considered…

Brunt, Marjorie; Brunt, Geoff

2013-01-01

269

SPECTROGRAPHIE PAR DIFFRACTION DES RAYONS 03B3 DE LA FAMILLE DE L'ACTINIUM Par M. MARCEL FRILLEY,  

E-print Network

SPECTROGRAPHIE PAR DIFFRACTION DES RAYONS 03B3 DE LA FAMILLE DE L'ACTINIUM Par M. MARCEL FRILLEY de raies correspondant à des rayonnements 03B3 nucléaires, ou à des rayons X de fluorescence sont en accord avec les mesures effectuées sur les rayons X caractéristiques des éléments lourds. Le

Boyer, Edmond

270

SPRY1 promotes the degradation of uPAR and inhibits uPAR-mediated cell adhesion and proliferation  

PubMed Central

Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a GPI anchored cell surface protein that is closely associated with invasion, migration, and metastasis of cancer cells. Many functional extracellular proteins and transmembrane receptors interact with uPAR. However, few studies have examined the association of uPAR with cytoplasm proteins. We previously used yeast two-hybrid screening to isolate several novel uPAR-interacting cytoplasmic proteins, including Sprouty1 (SPRY1), an inhibitor of the (Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase) MAPK pathway. In this study, we show that SPRY1 interacts with uPAR and directs it toward lysosomal-mediated degradation. Overexpression of SPRY1 decreased the cell surface and cytoplasmic uPAR protein level. Moreover, SPRY1 overexpression augmented uPAR-induced cell adhesion to vitronectin as well as proliferation of cancer cells. Our results also further support the critical role of SPRY1 contribution to tumor growth. In a subcutaneous tumor model, overexpression of SPRY1 in HCT116 or A549 xenograft in athymic nude mice led to great suppression of tumor growth. These results show that SPRY1 may affect tumor cell function through direct interaction with uPAR and promote its lysosomal degradation. PMID:25520860

Liu, Xiufeng; Lan, Yan; Zhang, Di; Wang, Kai; Wang, Yao; Hua, Zi-Chun

2014-01-01

271

Insight into centromere-binding properties of ParB proteins: a secondary binding motif is essential for bacterial genome maintenance  

PubMed Central

ParB proteins are one of the three essential components of partition systems that actively segregate bacterial chromosomes and plasmids. In binding to centromere sequences, ParB assembles as nucleoprotein structures called partition complexes. These assemblies are the substrates for the partitioning process that ensures DNA molecules are segregated to both sides of the cell. We recently identified the sopC centromere nucleotides required for binding to the ParB homologue of plasmid F, SopB. This analysis also suggested a role in sopC binding for an arginine residue, R219, located outside the helix-turn-helix (HTH) DNA-binding motif previously shown to be the only determinant for sopC-specific binding. Here, we demonstrated that the R219 residue is critical for SopB binding to sopC during partition. Mutating R219 to alanine or lysine abolished partition by preventing partition complex assembly. Thus, specificity of SopB binding relies on two distinct motifs, an HTH and an arginine residue, which define a split DNA-binding domain larger than previously thought. Bioinformatic analysis over a broad range of chromosomal ParBs generalized our findings with the identification of a non-HTH positively charged residue essential for partition and centromere binding, present in a newly identified highly conserved motif. We propose that ParB proteins possess two DNA-binding motifs that form an extended centromere-binding domain, providing high specificity. PMID:23345617

Sanchez, Aurore; Rech, Jérôme; Gasc, Cyrielle; Bouet, Jean-Yves

2013-01-01

272

Wildlife Conservation Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1895 as the New York Zoological Society, the re-named Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) works "to save wildlife and wild lands throughout the world." WCS has five public facilities in New York City, where zoologists, veterinarians, zookeepers, teachers, health technicians, trainers, and others care for over 1,000 species of animals. These facilities promote "conservation education, breeding of endangered species, and understanding wildlife health and science." WCS also maintains an International Conservation program, overseeing (and funding) field conservation projects in 52 countries. Although the site targets the general public, several projects of interest to researchers are listed in the Science section, and conservation programs are outlined in In The Wild.

273

Taare Zameen Par and dyslexic savants  

PubMed Central

The film Taare Zameen Par (Stars upon the Ground) portrays the tormented life at school and at home of a child with dyslexia and his eventual success after his artistic talents are discovered by his art teacher at the boarding school. The film hints at a curious neurocognitive phenomenon of creativity in the midst of language disability, as exemplified in the lives of people like Leonardo da Vinci and Albert Einstein, both of whom demonstrated extraordinary creativity even though they were probably affected with developmental learning disorders. It has been hypothesized that a developmental delay in the dominant hemisphere most likely ‘disinhibits’ the nondominant parietal lobe, unmasking talents—artistic or otherwise—in some such individuals. It has been suggested that, in remedial training, children with learning disorders be encouraged to develop such hidden talents to full capacity, rather than be subjected to the usual overemphasis on the correction of the disturbed coded symbol operations. PMID:20142854

Chakravarty, Ambar

2009-01-01

274

CHALEUR D'ADSORPTION DES GAZ PAR LE CHARBON A BASSE TEMPERATURE (-183) Par REN LEPOINTE.  

E-print Network

vide pour purger le charbon com- prend : 10 Une trompe à eau T donnant environ 12 mrn de mercure. 20 Uii grand ballon V de 15 il 20 1, dans la trompe fait le vide de [2 mm au début t de la purge. Par la- tiooner la trompe T. ;Jo Une nompe à diffusion P11 fonctionnant sur ce vide primaire de 12 mm et donnant

Boyer, Edmond

275

Conservation education needs more parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formal training in conservation biology education is an important component of the suite of solutions to current environmental problems. As conservation biology textbooks underpin many conservation education programs at both undergraduate and graduate levels, the portrayal of conservation issues and coverage of specific biotic groups plays a potentially important role in guiding the training of the next generation of conservation

Elizabeth Nichols; Andrés Gómez

2011-01-01

276

Novel Role for Proteinase-activated Receptor 2 (PAR2) in Membrane Trafficking of Proteinase-activated Receptor 4 (PAR4)*  

PubMed Central

Proteinase-activated receptors 4 (PAR4) is a class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) recognized through the ability of serine proteases such as thrombin and trypsin to mediate receptor activation. Due to the irreversible nature of activation, a fresh supply of receptor is required to be mobilized to the cell surface for responsiveness to agonist to be sustained. Unlike other PAR subtypes, the mechanisms regulating receptor trafficking of PAR4 remain unknown. Here, we report novel features of the intracellular trafficking of PAR4 to the plasma membrane. PAR4 was poorly expressed at the plasma membrane and largely retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in a complex with the COPI protein subunit ?-COP1. Analysis of the PAR4 protein sequence identified an arginine-based (RXR) ER retention sequence located within intracellular loop-2 (R183AR ? A183AA), mutation of which allowed efficient membrane delivery of PAR4. Interestingly, co-expression with PAR2 facilitated plasma membrane delivery of PAR4, an effect produced through disruption of ?-COP1 binding and facilitation of interaction with the chaperone protein 14-3-3?. Intermolecular FRET studies confirmed heterodimerization between PAR2 and PAR4. PAR2 also enhanced glycosylation of PAR4 and activation of PAR4 signaling. Our results identify a novel regulatory role for PAR2 in the anterograde traffic of PAR4. PAR2 was shown to both facilitate and abrogate protein interactions with PAR4, impacting upon receptor localization and cell signal transduction. This work is likely to impact markedly upon the understanding of the receptor pharmacology of PAR4 in normal physiology and disease. PMID:22411985

Cunningham, Margaret R.; McIntosh, Kathryn A.; Pediani, John D.; Robben, Joris; Cooke, Alexandra E.; Nilsson, Mary; Gould, Gwyn W.; Mundell, Stuart; Milligan, Graeme; Plevin, Robin

2012-01-01

277

Prioritizing global conservation efforts.  

PubMed

One of the most pressing issues facing the global conservation community is how to distribute limited resources between regions identified as priorities for biodiversity conservation. Approaches such as biodiversity hotspots, endemic bird areas and ecoregions are used by international organizations to prioritize conservation efforts globally. Although identifying priority regions is an important first step in solving this problem, it does not indicate how limited resources should be allocated between regions. Here we formulate how to allocate optimally conservation resources between regions identified as priorities for conservation--the 'conservation resource allocation problem'. Stochastic dynamic programming is used to find the optimal schedule of resource allocation for small problems but is intractable for large problems owing to the "curse of dimensionality". We identify two easy-to-use and easy-to-interpret heuristics that closely approximate the optimal solution. We also show the importance of both correctly formulating the problem and using information on how investment returns change through time. Our conservation resource allocation approach can be applied at any spatial scale. We demonstrate the approach with an example of optimal resource allocation among five priority regions in Wallacea and Sundaland, the transition zone between Asia and Australasia. PMID:16541073

Wilson, Kerrie A; McBride, Marissa F; Bode, Michael; Possingham, Hugh P

2006-03-16

278

Étude par microscopie acoustique de couches minces de Ag2S déposées par spray  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver sulfide Ag2S thin films have been prepared on pyrex glass substrates by the spray pyrolysis technique at 250 °C. We have analyzed by acoustic microscopy and particularly by acoustic signature V(z) these films with various thickness (0.4 2 ?m). The acoustic signature, performed at 50, 130 and 570 MHz allow us to reach elastic properties of Ag2S material and specially Young modulus. Its value, of the order of 180 GPa, is consistent with the relative low linkage of Ag^+ in the structure and the character of fast-ion conductor of Ag2S. Besides elastic properties and using MEB and AFM investigations, we have shown that the V(z) signature gives valuable information about the bulk defects in the material. Finally, the experimental results have been discussed related to the dispersion curves of velocity of the first mode of Ag2S/pyrex system. Des couches minces de sulfure d'argent Ag2S sont préparées sur substrat de pyrex, à la température de 250 °C, par la technique de pulvérisation chimique réactive en phase liquide ou “spray". Ces dépôts, d'épaisseur variable (0,4 2 ?m), sont analysés par microscopie acoustique et, plus particulièrement, par la méthode de relevé de la signature acoustique V(z). Cette signature, effectuée à différentes fréquences (50, 130, 570 MHz), a permis de caractériser les propriétés élastiques du matériau Ag2S. La valeur du module d'Young, de l'ordre de 180 GPa, est en accord avec la faible cohésion de la liaison Ag-S et le caractère de conducteur ionique rapide de Ag2S. Les observations par MEB et AFM permettent d'expliquer l'allure des courbes V(z) par les défauts de compacité liés à la méthode de préparation. Les résultats expérimentaux sont discutés en liaison avec la courbe de dispersion de vitesses du premier mode du système Ag2S/pyrex.

Amlouk, M.; Brunet, N.; Cros, B.; Belgacem, S.; Barjon, D.

1997-09-01

279

Land & Water Conservation Fund  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1965, the US Congress created the Land and Water Conservation Fund (LWCF) "to preserve open space, develop recreation opportunities, and assure that all Americans have access to quality outdoor recreation." The Land and Water Conservation Fund receives $900 million annually, mainly from ocean oil drilling revenues. However, as much as 85 percent of each year's Fund is diverted for purposes other than conservation and recreation. The National Park Service provides this site, which gives technical information on the State and Federal components of the LWCF, with some historical information. For those interested in the future of natural places in this country, this site will be of great interest.

280

Wildwatch: African Wildlife & Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Wildwatch is an online publication created by CC Africa (Conservation Corporation Africa), one of Africa's most comprehensive eco-tourism companies." Visitors will find a number of interesting and informative features, such as CC Africa's monthly magazine and details of the company's six-point conservation and sustainable development model. Other items include first-hand accounts of wildlife sightings and an excellent image gallery. Some of the Web site is devoted to CC Africa's commercial ventures, but this does not detract from the overall focus on conservation and public education.

281

Natural Resources Conservation Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A division of the US Department of Agriculture, the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) has a mission to provide leadership and partner with private land owners to "help people conserve, maintain, and improve our natural resources and environment." Their home page is useful in that regard as it currently provides significant information on topics related to the 2002 Farm Bill, water quality and quantity, wildfires, conservation, and more. The site is easy to navigate, with top and side navigation bars that allow users to select information based on either the type of information or the category of user.

1969-12-31

282

Online Courses: WCS: Conservation Communication  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While part of conservation is based in science, a large portion of conservation relies on people and their actions. This course will help participants define and create an effective conservation communication strategy on an issue of their choice. Particip

1900-01-01

283

Bazooka/PAR3 is dispensable for polarity in Drosophila follicular epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Apico-basal polarity is the defining characteristic of epithelial cells. In Drosophila, apical membrane identity is established and regulated through interactions between the highly conserved Par complex (Bazooka/Par3, atypical protein kinase C and Par6), and the Crumbs complex (Crumbs, Stardust and PATJ). It has been proposed that Bazooka operates at the top of a genetic hierarchy in the establishment and maintenance of apico-basal polarity. However, there is still ambiguity over the correct sequence of events and cross-talk with other pathways during this process. In this study, we reassess this issue by comparing the phenotypes of the commonly used baz4 and baz815-8 alleles with those of the so far uncharacterized bazXR11 and bazEH747 null alleles in different Drosophila epithelia. While all these baz alleles display identical phenotypes during embryonic epithelial development, we observe strong discrepancies in the severity and penetrance of polarity defects in the follicular epithelium: polarity is mostly normal in bazEH747 and bazXR11 while baz4 and baz815-8 show loss of polarity, severe multilayering and loss of epithelial integrity throughout the clones. Further analysis reveals that the chromosomes carrying the baz4 and baz815-8 alleles may contain additional mutations that enhance the true baz loss-of-function phenotype in the follicular epithelium. This study clearly shows that Baz is dispensable for the regulation of polarity in the follicular epithelium, and that the requirement for key regulators of cell polarity is highly dependent on developmental context and cell type. PMID:25770183

Shahab, Jaffer; Tiwari, Manu D.; Honemann-Capito, Mona; Krahn, Michael P.; Wodarz, Andreas

2015-01-01

284

Limnological database for Par Pond: 1959 to 1980  

SciTech Connect

A limnological database for Par Pond, a cooling reservoir for hot reactor effluent water at the Savannah River Plant, is described. The data are derived from a combination of research and monitoring efforts on Par Pond since 1959. The approximately 24,000-byte database provides water quality, primary productivity, and flow data from a number of different stations, depths, and times during the 22-year history of the Par Pond impoundment. The data have been organized to permit an interpretation of the effects of twenty years of cooling system operations on the structure and function of an aquatic ecosystem.

Tilly, L.J.

1981-03-01

285

Responses of a rice-field cyanobacterium Anabaena siamensis TISTR-8012 upon exposure to PAR and UV radiation.  

PubMed

The effects of PAR and UV radiation and subsequent responses of certain antioxidant enzymatic and non-enzymatic defense systems were studied in a rice field cyanobacterium Anabaena siamensis TISTR 8012. UV radiation resulted in a decline in growth accompanied by a decrease in chlorophyll a and photosynthetic efficiency. Exposure of cells to UV radiation significantly affected the differentiation of vegetative cells into heterocysts or akinetes. UV-B radiation caused the fragmentation of the cyanobacterial filaments conceivably due to the observed oxidative stress. A significant increase of reactive oxygen species in vivo and DNA strand breaks were observed in UV-B exposed cells followed by those under UV-A and PAR radiation, respectively. The UV-induced oxidative damage was alleviated due to an induction of antioxidant enzymatic/non-enzymatic defense systems. In response to UV irradiation, the studied cyanobacterium exhibited a significant increase in antioxidative enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase. Moreover, the cyanobacterium also synthesized some UV-absorbing/screening substances. HPLC coupled with a PDA detector revealed the presence of three compounds with UV-absorption maxima at 326, 331 and 345 nm. The induction of the biosynthesis of these UV-absorbing compounds was found under both PAR and UV radiation, thus suggesting their possible function as an active photoprotectant. PMID:25128787

Rastogi, Rajesh P; Incharoensakdi, Aran; Madamwar, Datta

2014-10-15

286

Review of Breast Conservation Therapy: Then and Now  

PubMed Central

Breast conservation therapy (BCT), which is the marriage of breast conserving surgery and radiation therapy to the breast, has revolutionized the treatment of breast cancer over the last few decades. Surgical direction had seen a heightened interest in the performance of cosmetically superior partial and segmental resections in breast conservation as well as increased demand by patients for breast preservation. The broadening of approaches to delivery of breast irradiation from whole breast to accelerated partial breast has allowed more patients to opt for breast conservation and allowed for what appears to be comparable measurable outcomes in emerging data. As well, the addition of state-of-the-art chemotherapeutic and hormonal therapies has allowed improved outcomes of patients from both local regional recurrence and overall survival standpoints. This paper will provide an overview of BCT and review some of the newest developments in optimizing this therapy for patients with breast cancer from a surgical-, medical-, and radiation-oncology standpoint. PMID:22229101

Hoover, Susan; Bloom, Elizabeth; Patel, Sunil

2011-01-01

287

Par j 1 and Par j 2, the two major allergens in Parietaria judaica, bind preferentially to monoacylated negative lipids.  

PubMed

Par j 1 and Par j 2 proteins are the two major allergens in Parietaria judaica pollen, one of the main causes of allergic diseases in the Mediterranean area. Each of them contains eight cysteine residues organized in a pattern identical to that found in plant nonspecific lipid transfer proteins. The 139- and 102-residue recombinant allergens, corresponding respectively to Par j 1 and Par j 2, refold properly to fully functional forms, whose immunological properties resemble those of the molecules purified from the natural source. Molecular modeling shows that, despite the lack of extensive primary structure homology with nonspecific lipid transfer proteins, both allergens contain a hydrophobic cavity suited to accommodate a lipid ligand. In the present study, we present novel evidence for the formation of complexes of these natural and recombinant proteins from Parietaria pollen with lipidic molecules. The dissociation constant of oleyl-lyso-phosphatidylcholine is 9.1 +/- 1.2 microm for recombinant Par j 1, whereas pyrenedodecanoic acid shows a much higher affinity, with a dissociation constant of approximately 1 microm for both recombinant proteins, as well as for the natural mixture. Lipid binding does not alter the secondary structure content of the protein but is very efficient in protecting disulfide bonds from reduction by dithiothreitol. We show that Par j 1 and Par j 2 not only bind lipids from micellar dispersions, but also are able to extract and transfer negative phospholipids from bilayers. PMID:19236482

González-Rioja, Roberto; Asturias, Juan A; Martínez, Alberto; Goñi, Félix M; Viguera, Ana Rosa

2009-03-01

288

The Conservation Alternative  

E-print Network

purported solution to the energy problem. And, of course, who can ever forget "Project Independence." Since those days, increasingly more rational views have been published on the impact of conservation on energy demand in our country and the contribution...

Allaire, W. F.

1979-01-01

289

The drought causes conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interdisciplinary, multi-day lesson students will use their knowledge of the importance of water to learn about the hydrosphere. The drought being experienced will be explored through graphs and a personal plan for water conservation.

Linda Cummer

2007-12-12

290

Conservation of wading birds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The conservation and management of wading birds has received considerable attention over the past twenty years, through research, population monitoring, habitat protection, and through activities of specialist groups devoted to all three groups, the herons, ibises and allies, and flamingos. While populations are best known in North America, greatest advances in knowledge may have come in Australasia. The status of most species and many populations is now sufficiently known to allow assessment of risk. Conservation and management techniques allow creation of global and regional action plans for conservation of many species. Global action plans are being developed, but few regional plans have been undertaken. Management of nesting sites is now particularly well appreciated. Although known in broad stroke, much remains to be learned about managing feeding habitat. Problems related to disturbance, conflict with humans, habitat loss, contaminants and other environmental stresses remain for some species and many populations. New challenges lie in creating conservation action that account for genetic stocks.

Kushlan, J.A.

1996-01-01

291

Multispecies Conservation Planning  

E-print Network

experiencing threats to their persistence. A clear expression of the crisis- driven nature of conservation premises. In this chapter, we review past approaches and some noteworthy recent advances in multispecies

292

Conservation of Momentum 2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This inquiry activity should be performed after students have learned about momentum, but before they learn about conservation of momentum. Students will discover that when two objects push off each other, the momentum must be equal but in opposite direct

Michael Horton

2009-05-30

293

Conservation and Environment Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These historic and more recent conservation and environment maps show early exploration and subsequent land use in various areas of the United States; changes in the landscape, including natural and man-made features; recreational and wilderness areas; geology; topography; wetland area; vegetation; and wildlife. Specific conservation projects such as the growth and development of U.S. National Parks are included. The maps can be searched by title, subject, creator, or geographic location.

294

Conservation Biology Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Conservation Biology Institute (CBI), a non-profit organization founded in 1997, is active in three primary areas related to conservation biology - applied research, education, and professional services. Through its research - alone or in collaboration with others - CBI actively seeks to develop new conservation tools, techniques, and analyses that can be used to better address a wide range of ecological concerns from endangered species protection to regional conservation planning. Based on a combination of field-based biology and computer mapping technologies (i.e., remote sensing and geographic information systems), CBIs primary research areas include: forest, aquatic, and watershed assessments, local and regional conservation planning, endangered species research and management, ecosystem monitoring, and carnivore conservation. Their formal education program, still in development, currently consists of five basic subdivisions (or program areas) including internships/ fellowships, education materials, college courses, short courses, and workshops/guest lectures. CBIs professional services are conducted alone or in collaboration with outside organizations and include: biological surveys and consulting, geographical information system (GIS) mapping services, as well as scientific reviews and white papers.

295

SUR LA DIFFRACTION DES RAYONS X PAR DES LIQUIDES (Deuxime communication).  

E-print Network

SUR LA DIFFRACTION DES RAYONS X PAR DES LIQUIDES (Deuxième communication). Par M. W. H. KEESOM et M. J. de SMEDT I. Introduction. - Toutes les expériences sur la diffraction des rayons X, décrites dans'interférence de rayons dispersés par chaque atome dans la molécule, n'a été observé. Dans le cas de l'oxygène, par

Boyer, Edmond

296

Contact : alice.desclaux@ird.fr Financement : Les perceptions des lipodystrophies par les personnes atteintes Dakar  

E-print Network

51 Contact : alice.desclaux@ird.fr Financement : Les perceptions des lipodystrophies par les.desclaux@ird.fr 2. CRCF, Dakar, Sénégal Introduction et objectifs Les lipodystrophies sont définies par la médecine lipodystrophies cliniques (perçues par le médecin ou par elles-mêmes) (Diouf 2011). Les lipodystrophies se

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

297

Aging-like changes in the transcriptome of irradiated microglia.  

PubMed

Whole brain irradiation remains important in the management of brain tumors. Although necessary for improving survival outcomes, cranial irradiation also results in cognitive decline in long-term survivors. A chronic inflammatory state characterized by microglial activation has been implicated in radiation-induced brain injury. We here provide the first comprehensive transcriptional profile of irradiated microglia. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting was used to isolate CD11b+ microglia from the hippocampi of C57BL/6 and Balb/c mice 1 month after 10 Gy cranial irradiation. Affymetrix gene expression profiles were evaluated using linear modeling and rank product analyses. One month after irradiation, a conserved irradiation signature across strains was identified, comprising 448 and 85 differentially up- and downregulated genes, respectively. Gene set enrichment analysis demonstrated enrichment for inflammation, including M1 macrophage-associated genes, but also an unexpected enrichment for extracellular matrix and blood coagulation-related gene sets, in contrast previously described microglial states. Weighted gene coexpression network analysis confirmed these findings and further revealed alterations in mitochondrial function. The RNA-seq transcriptome of microglia 24-h postradiation proved similar to the 1-month transcriptome, but additionally featured alterations in apoptotic and lysosomal gene expression. Reanalysis of published aging mouse microglia transcriptome data demonstrated striking similarity to the 1-month irradiated microglia transcriptome, suggesting that shared mechanisms may underlie aging and chronic irradiation-induced cognitive decline. GLIA 2015;63:754-767. PMID:25690519

Li, Matthew D; Burns, Terry C; Kumar, Sunny; Morgan, Alexander A; Sloan, Steven A; Palmer, Theo D

2015-05-01

298

Safer Food with Irradiation  

E-print Network

material by C.M. Bruhn at the University of California-Davis Center for Consumer Marketing. is reduced when eggs are irradiated. These dif- ferences are so small that there is no effect on the American diet. What are the benefits of food irradiation... of Agriculture (USD A), and health organizations such as the W orld Health Organization, the American MedicalA ssociation, and the American Dietetic A ssociation ha v e endorsed the safety of irradi- ated food . Does irradiation cause cancer orother health...

Thompson, Britta; Vestal, Andy; Van Laanen, Peggy

2003-01-21

299

Hyperbolic Conservation Laws The 1D conservation law  

E-print Network

Hyperbolic Conservation Laws The 1D conservation law wt + f(w)x = 0 (where w and f have m of linearly independent eigenvectors). Then solutions to the conservation law can be viewed in terms to form a complete linearly independent set, and the conservation law is called strictly hyperbolic

Gardner, Carl

300

SPECIAL OFFER Conservation Science Trade-offs in Conservation  

E-print Network

SPECIAL OFFER Conservation Science Trade-offs in Conservation Deciding What to Save NIGEL LEADER that surround making decisions about which species and biogeographic areas to prioritise for conservation of the Conservation Science and Practice book series Also available online. For further information, visit: www

301

APPORTS DE LA COMPTABILITE PAR ACTIVITES A LA  

E-print Network

APPORTS DE LA COMPTABILITE PAR ACTIVITES A LA DIVERSIFICATION DU RISQUE GLOBAL BANCAIRE Christophe défaut aux équipes dirigeantes des banques françaises. The emergence of news risks in bank's firm give

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

302

Un lymphangiome kystique rétropéritonéal révélé par des coliques néphrétiques  

PubMed Central

Résumé Le lymphangiome kystique (LK) est une tumeur rare des voies lymphatiques caractérisée par son évolution bénigne. La fréquence de la localisation rétropéritonéale est controversée. La découverte se fait le plus souvent dès l’enfance. L’évolution de la maladie peut être marquée par des complications graves, notamment compressives. Nous faisons état de l’observation médicale d’une femme de 30 ans chez qui l’on a découvert, à la suite de l’apparition de coliques néphrétiques récidivantes, un LK énorme occupant tout l’espace rétropéritonéal droit. Le diagnostic a été évoqué par l’urotomodensitométrie et confirmé par l’histologie. L’évolution après exérèse chirurgicale de la masse a été favorable, avec la disparition des coliques néphrétiques. PMID:25844099

El anzaoui, Jihad; Ghoundale, Omar; Touiti, Driss; El barni, Rachid; Mejdane, Abdelhadi; Fihri, Jawad Fassi; Lahkim, Mohammed; Achour, Abdsamad

2015-01-01

303

Developing PAR1 antagonists: minding the endothelial gap.  

PubMed

Proteinase Activated Receptors (PARs) are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that were discovered in the early 1990's. They are unusual among GPCRs in being activated through proteolytic cleavage of the receptor N-terminus by serine proteinases such as thrombin. Over the last two decades major advances have been made in our understanding of how these receptors function and the roles they play in (patho)physiology. They have also emerged as drug targets for a number of conditions, most notably thrombosis. Recently two different drugs targeting PAR1 have entered clinical trials as anti-platelet agents. This review provides an overview of the proteinase activated receptor family and focuses on the role of PAR1 in regulating the endothelial barrier integrity and its implication on developing PAR antagonists for anti-platelet therapy. PMID:22742648

Ramachandran, Rithwik

2012-06-01

304

PAUL HALMOS -EXPOSITOR PAR EXCELLENCE V.S. SUNDER  

E-print Network

PAUL HALMOS - EXPOSITOR PAR EXCELLENCE V.S. SUNDER Paul Richard Halmos, one of the best expositors to be a Mathematician are classic books that reflect his clar- ity, conciseness, and color. He edited the American

Sunder, V S

305

INSTITUT POLYTECHNIQUE DE GRENOBLE N attribu par la bibliothque  

E-print Network

) et revêtements TiO2 Directeur de thèse : Michel LANGLET JURY M. Michel PONS Président M. Jean Fonctionnalisation de surface par chimie douce en solution liquide Nanoparticules métalliques (platine, or, argent

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

306

Reconstruction d’une Carbonisation du Pouce par Lambeau Chinois  

PubMed Central

Summary La main en tant qu’organe majeur de la préhension peut être le siège de brûlures graves qui compromettent sa fonction. Bien qu’elle ne représente que 2% de la surface corporelle la brûlure de la main est grave et difficile à traiter, vu la vulnérabilité et la complexité de son appareil locomoteur. Nous rapportons dans ce travail le cas d’un patient victime d’une carbonisation de la main. Huit mois après le parage et la couverture par lambeau inguinal, le patient bénéficie d’une reconstruction du pouce par lambeau chinois associé à une greffe osseuse. Le résultat s’est avéré satisfaisant. Le lambeau chinois prouve par son apport vasculaire et par sa facilité technique qu’il est un moyen très intéressant dans la reconstruction du pouce - ou des doigts en général - surtout dans un contexte de brûlure. PMID:21991226

Khales, A.; Achbouk, J.A.; Moussaoui, A.; Belmir, R.; Tourabi, K.; Oufkir, A.; Ihrai, H.

2010-01-01

307

View from northeast to southwest of PAR site sentry station; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View from northeast to southwest of PAR site sentry station; formerly the bachelor's enlisted men's quarter (BEQ) - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Sentry Station, North of Second Avenue & West of Electrical Switch Station No. 2, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

308

View from southeast to northwest of PAR site bachelor officers' ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View from southeast to northwest of PAR site bachelor officers' quarters - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Bachelor Officers' Quarters, North of Second Avenue; South of Metal & Woodworking Shop No. 706, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

309

RalA promotes a direct exocyst–Par6 interaction to regulate polarity in neuronal development  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Cell polarization is essential for neuronal development in both the embryonic and postnatal brain. Here, using primary cultures, in vivo postnatal electroporation and conditional genetic ablation, we show that the Ras-like small GTPase RalA and its effector, the exocyst, regulate the morphology and polarized migration of neural progenitors derived from the subventricular zone, a major neurogenic niche in the postnatal brain. Active RalA promotes the direct binding between the exocyst subunit Exo84 and the PDZ domain of Par6 through a non-canonical PDZ-binding motif. Blocking the Exo84–Par6 interaction impairs polarization in postnatal neural progenitors and cultured embryonic neurons. Our results provide the first in vivo characterization of RalA function in the mammalian brain and highlight a novel molecular mechanism for cell polarization. Given that the exocyst and the Par complex are conserved in many tissues, the functional significance of their interaction and its regulation by RalA are likely to be important in a wide range of polarization events. PMID:24284074

Das, Amlan; Gajendra, Sangeetha; Falenta, Katarzyna; Oudin, Madeleine J.; Peschard, Pascal; Feng, Shanshan; Wu, Bin; Marshall, Christopher J.; Doherty, Patrick; Guo, Wei; Lalli, Giovanna

2014-01-01

310

Par reduction in ofdm via active constellation extension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high peak-to-average power ratio (PAR) in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation systems can significantly reduce power efficiency and performance. Methods exist which alter or introduce new signal constellations to combat large signal peaks. We present a new PAR-reduction method that dynamically extends outer constellation points in active (data-carrying) channels, within margin-preserving constraints, in order to minimize the peak

Brian Scott Krongold; Douglas L. Jones

2003-01-01

311

Another application for trellis shaping: PAR reduction for DMT (OFDM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bound for the possible reduction of the peak-to-average ratio (PAR) dependent on the rate as well as possible practical procedures are presented. The idea of trellis shaping, originally used to minimize average transmit power in single-carrier systems, is applied to the problem of PAR reduction in multicarrier transmission. Its impact, as a function of code rate, as well as

Werner Henkel; Björn Wagner

2000-01-01

312

Assessment of underwater irradiance and absorption of solar radiation at water column from satellite data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The volume absorption of solar radiation in water body determines important processes in the upper ocean such as primary bioproduction and heat balance. Assessment of penetration of solar radiation into water body can be performed with satellite data and the previous attempts in this direction were promising. This paper presents a package of the algorithms to compute the components of balance of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) at sea level (incident, reflected from the rough sea surface, and water-leaving PAR) and to calculate the volume absorption of PAR in the upper layer from satellite ocean color data. Data measured by the SeaWiFS ocean color sensor and the ancillary data needed (such as ozone amount and wind speed) are used. Computations of the underwater irradiance are performed for the 0-25 m upper layer. The errors are estimated by direct comparison between the values of underwater irradiance and volume absorption derived by the algorithms developed and by the exact method. Monthly means of the components of PAR balance as well as the potential daily heating have been estimated in different regions.

Kopelevich, Oleg V.; Sheberstov, Sergey V.; Burenkov, Vladimir I.; Vazyulya, Svetlana V.; Likhacheva, Maria V.

2007-04-01

313

LABORATORY V CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM  

E-print Network

Lab V - 1 LABORATORY V CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM In this lab you will use conservation of momentum enough information for a complete analysis of collisions in terms of forces. Conservation principles can of the complicated details of the collision process itself, but conservation of energy alone is usually not enough

Minnesota, University of

314

Conservation Issues Raised for the  

E-print Network

Northwest Power and Conservation Council Issues Raised for the Sixth Power Plan Power Committee Web Meeting June 30, 2009 Northwest Power and Conservation Council Conservation Targets · Problem ­ Are 5-Year conservation targets too high? · Issue for Bonneville and the Public Utilities ­ Are targets being driven

315

Conservation Strategy for Sable Island  

E-print Network

Towards a Conservation Strategy for Sable Island Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, Atlantic Region #12;SABLE ISLAND CONSERVATION STRATEGY page - i March, 1998 A CONSERVATION STRATEGY FOR SABLE ISLAND PREPARED BY This Conservation Strategy for Sable Island was prepared for Environment Canada

Jones, Ian L.

316

Hydrology and Conservation Ecology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Responses to change in the behavior of ecological systems are largely governed by interactions at different levels. Research is essential and is to be necessarily designed to gain insights into various interactions at the community level. Sustainable resource management is only possible if conservation of biodiversity can be accomplished by properly using the knowledge discovered. It is well known that the United States Department of Agriculture provides technical information, resources, and data necessary to assist the researchers in addressing their conservation needs. Conservation aims to protect, preserve and conserve the earth's natural resources. These include, but not limited to the conservation of soil, water, minerals, air, plants and all living beings. The United States Department of Agriculture also encourages farmers and ranchers to voluntarily address threats to soil and water. Protection of wetlands and wildlife habitat has been on the radar screen of conservation experts for a very long time. The main objective has always been to help farmers and landowners conform and comply with federal and state environmental laws. During the implementation phase, farmers should be encouraged to make beneficial, cost-effective changes to methods of irrigation systems. In some cases, the hydrologic regime of the project area can be thought of as principally an issue of river flow regimes for floodplain forests. In this presentation, the author tries to focus on the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology on global warming. He also discusses the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology global air concerns such as greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. References: Chow, V. T, D. R. Maidment, and L. W. Mays. 1988. Applied Hydrology. McGraw-Hill, Inc. U.S. Soil Conservation Service. Technical Release 55: Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds. USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture). June 1986. Lehner, B. and P. Döll (2004). Development and validation of a global database of lakes, reservoirs and wetlands. Journal of Hydrology 296/1-4. 1-22. http://www.wcc.nrcs.usda.gov http://www.ceh-nerc.ac.uk http://www.usda.gov

Narayanan, M.

2006-12-01

317

Wilderness and biodiversity conservation  

PubMed Central

Human pressure threatens many species and ecosystems, so conservation efforts necessarily prioritize saving them. However, conservation should clearly be proactive wherever possible. In this article, we assess the biodiversity conservation value, and specifically the irreplaceability in terms of species endemism, of those of the planet's ecosystems that remain intact. We find that 24 wilderness areas, all > 1 million hectares, are > 70% intact and have human densities of less than or equal to five people per km2. This wilderness covers 44% of all land but is inhabited by only 3% of people. Given this sparse population, wilderness conservation is cost-effective, especially if ecosystem service value is incorporated. Soberingly, however, most wilderness is not speciose: only 18% of plants and 10% of terrestrial vertebrates are endemic to individual wildernesses, the majority restricted to Amazonia, Congo, New Guinea, the Miombo-Mopane woodlands, and the North American deserts. Global conservation strategy must target these five wildernesses while continuing to prioritize threatened biodiversity hotspots. PMID:12930898

Mittermeier, R. A.; Mittermeier, C. G.; Brooks, T. M.; Pilgrim, J. D.; Konstant, W. R.; da Fonseca, G. A. B.; Kormos, C.

2003-01-01

318

Regulation of Protease-Activated Receptor (PAR) 1 and PAR4 Signaling in Human Platelets by Compartmentalized Cyclic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thrombin potently regulates human platelets by the G protein- coupled receptors protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1 and PAR4. Platelet activation by thrombin and other agonists is broadly inhibited by prostacyclin and nitric oxide acting through adenylyl and guanylyl cyclases to elevate cAMP and cGMP levels, respectively. Using forskolin and YC-1 (3-(5-hydroxy- methyl-2-furyl)-1-benzylindazole) to selectively activate the adenylyl and guanylyl cyclases, respectively,

Matthew L. Bilodeau; Heidi E. Hamm

319

Problems in food irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the framework of a report on a meeting of the study group Berlin ; of the GDCh task group on Food Chemistry and Forensic Chemistry'', a lecture ; given-by Guenter E. Mueller on Problems in Food Irradiation'' is reviewed. The ; lecture gives a brief survey of the development and present state of food ; irradiation, particularly discussing the

Gerner

1972-01-01

320

Comminuting irradiated ferritic steel  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a method of comminuting irradiated ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other irradiated components.

Bauer, Roger E. (Kennewick, WA); Straalsund, Jerry L. (Kennewick, WA); Chin, Bryan A. (Auburn, AL)

1985-01-01

321

Irradiator apparatus and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

An irradiator of the type using a radioactive material as a source of radiation is combined with a gaseous liquid contact chamber. The irradiator has a casing having an input and output therefrom and a plurality of connected chambers formed in the casing and separated by walls having an opening therethrough. A plurality of gamma radiation sources are located in

Woodbridge

1984-01-01

322

Irradiation Creep in Graphite  

SciTech Connect

An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of irradiation creep in graphite material is required to correctly interpret experimental data, explain micromechanical modeling results, and predict whole-core behavior. This project will focus on experimental microscopic data to demonstrate the mechanism of irradiation creep. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy should be able to image both the dislocations in graphite and the irradiation-induced interstitial clusters that pin those dislocations. The team will first prepare and characterize nanoscale samples of virgin nuclear graphite in a transmission electron microscope. Additional samples will be irradiated to varying degrees at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) facility and similarly characterized. Researchers will record microstructures and crystal defects and suggest a mechanism for irradiation creep based on the results. In addition, the purchase of a tensile holder for a transmission electron microscope will allow, for the first time, in situ observation of creep behavior on the microstructure and crystallographic defects.

Ubic, Rick; Butt, Darryl; Windes, William

2014-03-13

323

Energy Conservation & Behavior Modification Programs  

E-print Network

of District Admin was key to moving our conservation efforts to the next level. 14 Conserve My Planet ? Allen ISD ?First Energy Conservation Week Contest - SUCCESS! ?Winning School received Energy All Star Trophy ?District Wide Savings.... ?Winning school awarded the Megawatt Energy Conservation Award. 16 Conserve My Planet ? Allen ISD Epilogue ?Program successful ? Increased Buy-in from all parties ?Participation exceeded expectations ?Not everything went perfect ?Expanding...

Goodin, E.; Hanner, S.; Mitchel, R.

2012-01-01

324

EPA and Bird Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although wildlife management is not the central focus of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) mission, numerous EPA programs complement and support efforts to conserve birds and their habitats. To that end, the Office of Water at the EPA has launched this new Website to point interested users towards related EPA (and other) programs. From wetlands to water quality, the specific EPA sites highlighted here cover topics that are bird-relevant in subject (e.g., wetlands, coasts) or geographical (e.g., Great Lakes, Gulf of Mexico) context. Four main sections form the heart of the site: Overview, Bird Conservation Initiatives, Related EPA Programs, and What You Can Do. In each section, summary information and a careful selection of related resources are provided. Students of bird conservation will find this site particularly helpful, especially those interested in relevant federal programs.

325

National Conservation Training Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS)'s National Conservation Training Center (NCTC) provides "training and education services to the natural resource management community to better accomplish our common goal of conserving fish, wildlife, and their habitat." The NCTC homepage spans an impressive list of training topics, from Aquatics/Fisheries Resources and Environmental Contaminants through GIS and GPS, to name a few. Each topic area contains a hyperlinked listing of courses (available at the NCTC campus in West Virginia) with course summaries and objectives. Additionally, a particularly useful feature of the NCTC homepage is the Conservation Library (in the National Systems section). Here, users may access FWS publications, search several citation databases, browse a list of new titles, or click on links to other Web libraries. While some parts of the site are restricted to FWS employees, most sections are open to the public, and well worth the visit.

326

Bat Conservation International  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1982, the mission of Bat Conservation International (BCI) is â??to teach people the value of bats, to protect and conserve critical bat habitats, and to advance scientific knowledge through researchâ?. On their website, visitors will be able to learn about their advocacy and outreach efforts, along with learning more about these fascinating and important creatures. The â??All About Batsâ? section is a fine place to start, as it has a number of illustrated essays that include brief overview of the natural history of bats and suggestions on photographing bats as they fly through the air. Equally compelling is the section is the conservation programs area, which details the various programs BCI operates in various bat habitats, including bridges and caves. Finally, visitors can also elect to send one of a number of electronic bat postcards to friends or colleagues.

2005-01-01

327

Energy Conservation Simplified  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The standard formulation of energy conservation involves the subsidiary ideas of kinetic energy (KE), work (W), thermal energy, internal energy, and a half-dozen different kinds of potential energy (PE): elastic, chemical, nuclear, gravitational, and so forth. These quantities came to be recognized during the centuries over which the principle developed. The final conservation law, although rich in specificity, is fairly involved. More significantly, it obscures a fundamental underlying simplicity, which could only be appreciated post-relativity (1905). Energy is the scalar measure of physical change. Using the special theory it will be shown that there are only two all-encompassing classifications of energy—energy of rest and energy of motion—and that we can apply the idea of conservation of energy to all physical processes using only these two energy types as quantified by mass and KE.

Hecht, Eugene

2008-02-01

328

Croissance epitaxiale de GaAs sur substrats de Ge par epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La situation energetique et les enjeux environnementaux auxquels la societe est confrontee entrainent un interet grandissant pour la production d'electricite a partir de l'energie solaire. Parmi les technologies actuellement disponibles, la filiere du photovoltaique a concentrateur solaire (CPV pour concentrator photovoltaics) possede un rendement superieur et mi potentiel interessant a condition que ses couts de production soient competitifs. La methode d'epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques (CBE pour chemical beam epitaxy) possede plusieurs caracteristiques qui la rendent interessante pour la production a grande echelle de cellules photovoltaiques a jonctions multiples a base de semi-conducteurs III-V. Ce type de cellule possede la meilleure efficacite atteinte a ce jour et est utilise sur les satellites et les systemes photovoltaiques a concentrateur solaire (CPV) les plus efficaces. Une des principales forces de la technique CBE se trouve dans son potentiel d'efficacite d'utilisation des materiaux source qui est superieur a celui de la technique d'epitaxie qui est couramment utilisee pour la production a grande echelle de ces cellules. Ce memoire de maitrise presente les travaux effectues dans le but d'evaluer le potentiel de la technique CBE pour realiser la croissance de couches de GaAs sur des substrats de Ge. Cette croissance constitue la premiere etape de fabrication de nombreux modeles de cellules solaires a haute performance decrites plus haut. La realisation de ce projet a necessite le developpement d'un procede de preparation de surface pour les substrats de germanium, la realisation de nombreuses sceances de croissance epitaxiale et la caracterisation des materiaux obtenus par microscopie optique, microscopie a force atomique (AFM), diffraction des rayons-X a haute resolution (HRXRD), microscopie electronique a transmission (TEM), photoluminescence a basse temperature (LTPL) et spectrometrie de masse des ions secondaires (SIMS). Les experiences ont permis de confirmer l'efficacite du procede de preparation de surface et d'identifier les conditions de croissance optimales. Les resultats de caracterisation indiquent que les materiaux obtenus presentent une tres faible rugosite de surface, une bonne qualite cristalline et un dopage residuel relativement important. De plus, l'interface GaAs/Ge possede une faible densite de defauts. Finalement, la diffusion d'arsenic dans le substrat de germanium est comparable aux valeurs trouvees dans la litterature pour la croissance a basse temperature avec les autres procedes d'epitaxie courants. Ces resultats confirment que la technique d'epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques (CBE) permet de produire des couches de GaAs sur Ge de qualite adequate pour la fabrication de cellules solaires a haute performance. L'apport a la communaute scientifique a ete maximise par le biais de la redaction d'un article soumis a la revue Journal of Crystal Growth et la presentation des travaux a la conference Photovoltaics Canada 2010 . Mots-cles : Epitaxie par jets chimiques, Chemical beam epitaxy, CBE, MOMBE, Germanium, GaAs, Ge

Belanger, Simon

329

PAR Reduction in OFDM Through ConvexPAR Reduction in OFDM Through Convex Programming Based On Active Constellation ExtensionProgramming Based On Active Constellation Extension  

E-print Network

On Active Constellation ExtensionProgramming Based On Active Constellation Extension CHAO WANG and S. H the PAR through convex programming while keeping the minimum distance of constellation points, which 2 ( / ) 0 1 ( ) N j k n JN n k k x x n t c e N - = = kc nx PAR Definition The PAR of an OFDM

Zhang, Shuzhong

330

ACCLRATEUR DE 340 KV DESTIN A TUDIER LES RACTIONS INDUITES PAR TRITONS Par Mme D. MAGNAC-VALETTE, MM. M. SUFFERT, M. LIESS et P. CER,  

E-print Network

88. ACC�L�RATEUR DE 340 KV DESTIN� A �TUDIER LES R�ACTIONS INDUITES PAR TRITONS Par Mme D. MAGNAC électrostatique et spécialement construit pour étudier les réactions induites par tritons. Il donne un faisceau working with an electrostatic high tension is described. It is specially designed for triton acceleration

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

331

Reorienting systematic conservation assessment for effective conservation planning.  

PubMed

Systematic conservation assessment (an information-gathering and prioritization process used to select the spatial foci of conservation initiatives) is often considered vital to conservation-planning efforts, yet published assessments have rarely resulted in conservation action. Conservation assessments may lead more directly to effective conservation action if they are reoriented to inform conservation decisions. Toward this goal, we evaluated the relative priority for conservation of 7 sites proposed for the first forest reserves in the Union of the Comoros, an area with high levels of endemism and rapidly changing land uses in the western Indian Ocean. Through the analysis of 30 indicator variables measured at forest sites and nearby villages, we assessed 3 prioritization criteria at each site: conservation value, threat to loss of biological diversity from human activity, and feasibility of reserve establishment. Our results indicated 2 sites, Yiméré and Hassera-Ndrengé, were priorities for conservation action. Our approach also informed the development of an implementation strategy and enabled an evaluation of previously unexplored relations among prioritization criteria. Our experience suggests that steps taken to ensure the closer involvement of practitioners, include a broader range of social data, encourage stakeholder participation, and consider the feasibility of conservation action can improve the relevance of assessments for conservation planning, strengthen the scientific basis for conservation decisions, and result in a more realistic evaluation of conservation alternatives. PMID:21771077

Sewall, Brent J; Freestone, Amy L; Moutui, Mohamed F E; Toilibou, Nassuri; Saïd, Ishaka; Toumani, Saindou M; Attoumane, Daoud; Iboura, Cheikh M

2011-08-01

332

Conservation of Mass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity was designed for blind learners, but all types of learners can participate to learn about conservation of gas. This is one of the classic experiments using baking soda and vinegar. The expansion of a balloon with gas provides a tactile experience as the gas is captured rather than being released into the air. The evidence of conservation of mass is supported by the collection of data, by weighing the masses of the reactants before and after the experiment. Learners with visual impairments and sighted students can also learn that matter is neither created nor destroyed during a chemical change.

Perkins School for the Blind

2012-07-11

333

Oncoplastic breast conserving surgery  

PubMed Central

Oncoplastic breast conserving surgery is a fundamental component of the repertoire for the management of breast cancer. It facilitates removal of large volumes of breast tissue, and can improve cosmetic outcomes and patient satisfaction whilst maintaining good oncological principles, reducing re-excision and mastectomy rates and assisting in adjuvant radiotherapy planning. We review the various techniques for oncoplastic breast conserving surgery that have emerged over recent years and describe their utilisation in excising tumours from various locations within the breast, and the pertinent patient specific factors that must be considered in technique selection. Finally complications and the evidence for the oncological safety specific to this type of surgery are discussed. PMID:25083477

Agrawal, Avi; Cutress, Ramsey I.

2013-01-01

334

Plant Conservation Alliance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Housed at the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), the Plant Conservation Alliance (PCA) is a consortium of ten federal government agencies and 150 non-federal cooperators (including nonprofit organizations, resources management consultants, soil scientists, biologists, botanists, concerned citizens, gardeners, etc.). Together, Plant Conservation Alliance cooperators work "to solve the problems of native plant extinction and native habitat restoration." The homepage describes how the PCA functions, including general information, an events calendar, and online communication links. Also at the site are project descriptions, publications, and grant/ funding opportunities.

335

Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- June survey descriptive summary  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the shoreline aquatic plant communities in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level, indicated that much of the original plant communities and the intermediate shoreline communities present on the exposed sediments have been lost. The extensive old-field and emergent marsh communities that were present on the exposed shoreline during the drawdown have been flooded and much of the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities have not had sufficient time for re-establishment. The shoreline does, however, have extensive beds of maidencane which extend from the shoreline margin to areas as deep as 2 and perhaps 3 meters. Scattered individual plants of lotus and watershield are common and may indicate likely directions of future wetland development in Par Pond. In addition, within isolated coves, which apparently received ground water seepage and/or stream surface flows during the period of the Par Pond draw down, extensive beds of waterlilies and spike rush are common. Invasion of willow and red maple occurred along the lake shoreline as well. Although not absent from this survey, evidence of the extensive redevelopment of the large cattail and eel grass beds was not observed in this first survey of Par Pond. Future surveys during the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997 along with the evaluation of satellite date to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond are planned.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1995-06-01

336

77 FR 74167 - Information Collection Request: Highly Erodible Land Conservation and Wetland Conservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Highly Erodible Land Conservation and Wetland Conservation AGENCIES: Farm Service Agency...Highly Erodible Land Conservation and Wetland Conservation certification requirements...Highly Erodible Land Conservation and Wetland Conservation Certification. OMB...

2012-12-13

337

Irradiation-Induced Nanostructures  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the results of the studies of the irradiation-induced formation of nanostructures, where the injected interstitials from the source of irradiation are not major components of the nanophase. This phenomena has been observed by in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in a number of intermetallic compounds and ceramics during high-energy electron or ion irradiations when the ions completely penetrate through the specimen. Beginning with single crystals, electron or ion irradiation in a certain temperature range may result in nanostructures composed of amorphous domains and nanocrystals with either the original composition and crystal structure or new nanophases formed by decomposition of the target material. The phenomenon has also been observed in natural materials which have suffered irradiation from the decay of constituent radioactive elements and in nuclear reactor fuels which have been irradiated by fission neutrons and other fission products. The mechanisms involved in the process of this nanophase formation are discussed in terms of the evolution of displacement cascades, radiation-induced defect accumulation, radiation-induced segregation and phase decomposition, as well as the competition between irradiation-induced amorphization and recrystallization.

Birtcher, R.C.; Ewing, R.C.; Matzke, Hj.; Meldrum, A.; Newcomer, P.P.; Wang, L.M.; Wang, S.X.; Weber, W.J.

1999-08-09

338

Bacillus subtilis Soj (ParA): The involvement of DNA binding and dynamic localization in plasmid partitioning  

E-print Network

The ParA family of ATPases encompasses proteins with a wide variety of functions. The prototype of this family is the ParA ATPase from the P1 prophage plasmid, which, along with ParB and the parS binding site, is required for the faithful...

Hester, Christina Marie

2008-05-08

339

Foundry energy conservation workbook  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses methods for promoting energy conservation in foundries. Use of electric power, natural gas, and coke are evaluated. Waste heat recovery systems are considered. Energy consumption in the specific processes of electric melting, natural gas melting, heat treatments, ladle melting, and coke fuel melting is described. An example energy analysis is included. (GHH)

none,

1990-10-01

340

Conservation in Conflict  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What happens when war occurs in areas where there is war? Ecologist Peter Zahler who has worked in Afghanistan since 2002, talks about how conserving biodiversity may bring peace to the war-torn region. You can read more about Zahler's work in the article Nurturing Wildlife in War-Torn Afghanistan that appeared in the New Yorker Times in December, 2011.

Wildlife Conservation Society

341

The vacuum conservation theorem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A version of the vacuum conservation theorem is proved which does not assume the existence of a time function nor demands stronger properties than the dominant energy condition. However, it is shown that a stronger stable version plays a role in the study of compact Cauchy horizons.

Minguzzi, E.

2015-03-01

342

The Getty Conservation Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started in 1985, The Getty Conservation Institute (GCI) "works internationally to advance conservation practice in the visual arts." Their mission is quite broad, as it includes conservation projects that involve architecture, individual objects, and site examinations. First-time visitors may wish to start by looking at the "What's New" area on the right-hand side of the homepage. Here they will find short videos on Asian orange colorants, information about Middle East heritage databases, and a direct link to the latest edition of the GCI's newsletter, "Conservation". Moving on, the "Free PDF Publications" area contains access to full-length books, reports, glossaries, and short papers published by the GCI. The "Videos and Audio" area contains a number of compelling talks, including a conversation with a panel of experts about long-term preservation plans for the bridges that span the Los Angeles River. Finally, the site also contains information for potential visiting scholars, graduate students, and interns within the "Public Programs" area of the site.

2008-01-01

343

Alternative is conservation  

SciTech Connect

The video states that drought and pollution are causing water resources to dwindle to dangerously low levels. The video emphasizes the importance of protecting water, and discusses how water must be conserved and reclaimed, since wasting water is the same thing as polluting it.

NONE

1994-12-31

344

Alternative is conservation  

SciTech Connect

The video states that drought and pollution are causing water resources to dwindle to dangerously low levels. The video emphasizes the importance of protecting water, and discusses how water must be conserved and reclaimed, since wasting water is the same thing as polluting it.

Not Available

1994-01-01

345

CONSERVATION VOICES GRAVITY RULES  

E-print Network

CONSERVATION VOICES GRAVITY RULES By David R. Montgomery When it comes to runoff and erosion of life that we value today in this region, and pass them on to future generations, we need to not only headwater environments from degradation through wilderness and Wild & Scenic Rivers protection is a prudent

Montgomery, David R.

346

Conservation Commissions in Massachusetts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Conservation Foundation reported on the experience of a resource development specialist in the state of Massachusetts on the public's growing concern for environmental quality. After tracing the origins of the Massachusetts movement, the report draws upon a variety of specific state experiences to illustrate the commission's growing pains and…

Scheffey, Andrew J. W.

347

Kiwi Careers - Conservator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mark Stranage fixes photographs. He takes damaged photos and nurses them back to health. Read his profile to learn how he got this job and how he does his work. Check the other links at this site to find out what tasks a conservator generally performs, typical working conditions and pay.

Career Services KiwiCareers - Govt. of New Zeland

348

Genomics and conservation genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In large part, the relevance of genetics to conservation rests on the premise that neutral marker variation in populations reflects levels of detrimental and adaptive genetic variation. Despite its prominence, this tenet has been difficult to evaluate, until now. As we discuss here, genome sequence information and new technological and bioinformatics platforms now enable comprehen- sive surveys of neutral variation

Michael H. Kohn; William J. Murphy; Elaine A. Ostrander; Robert K. Wayne

2006-01-01

349

Coastal Conservation Network (CCN)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Coastal Conservation Network, (CCN), is a non-profit organization founded by Garry Brown, summer 2011, with an objective to facilitate nonprofits to effectively communicate with the public, collaborate on programs and projects, and enhance the voice of the marine environmental community on a global scale through the use of new technology and the social media.

2012-01-01

350

Energy Conservation Simplified  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The standard formulation of energy conservation involves the subsidiary ideas of kinetic energy ("KE"), work ("W"), thermal energy, internal energy, and a half-dozen different kinds of potential energy ("PE"): elastic, chemical, nuclear, gravitational, and so forth. These quantities came to be recognized during the centuries over which the…

Hecht, Eugene

2008-01-01

351

Conservation of Library Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twelve articles cover books as artifacts; workstations for conservation of library materials; care of scrapbooks, albums, and photographs; map preservation; library environment; flood recovery; disaster prevention and preparedness; incorporating preservation into library organization; and bibliography of Chester Public Library (Illinois) First…

Illinois Libraries, 1985

1985-01-01

352

Invasive Species Conservation Biology  

E-print Network

Invasive Species Conservation Biology Dr. Philpott Thanks to Dr. Mayer for many images and text #12 ­ Habitat modification Biological impacts Other impacts Economics Public Health #12;Invasive Species · Bluegrass in Kentucky · Zebra mussels in Lake Erie #12;Invasive Species · Terminology · Routes of Invasion

Gottgens, Hans

353

Conservation of Matter Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The phenomena are three examples that illustrate conservation of matter - dissolving salt in water, adding an effervescent tablet to water, and a change in state from ice to water. The resource describes a laboratory exercise that asks students to compare the mass before substances are combined or changed to the mass after substances are combined or changed.

354

Water Conservation in Oman  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limited resources and growing needs for water have triggered a nationwide campaign for water conservation in the Sultanate of Oman. A land and soil survey study of Oman shows the availability of more arable land than present water resources could support. Groundwater is the main source for agricultural production. Overpumping at rates higher than the natural recharge has resulted in

Hayder A. Abdel-Rahman; Isam Mohammed Abdel-Magid

1993-01-01

355

Water conservation plan guidelines  

SciTech Connect

These Water Conservation Plan Guidelines are addressed to water system planners but use of the Guidelines is not required by federal law or regulation. The first part of the document introduces the Guidelines and provides information to the States about their nature and possible use. The second part of the document, written for water systems, is an overview to the organization, content, and the use of the Guidelines. The next three parts contain the water conservation plan Guidelines: Basic, Intermediate, and Advanced. The Basic Guidelines are designed for use by water systems serving populations of 10,000 or fewer; The Intermediate Guidelines are designed for water systems serving between 10,000 and 100,000 people; The Advanced Guidelines are designed for water systems serving more than 100,000 people. Six appendixes to the Guidelines provide supporting information: detailed descriptions of conservation measures (Appendix A), conservation benchmarks (Appendix B), acronyms and a glossary (Appendix C), information resources (Appendix D), funding sources (Appendix E), and state contacts (Appendix F).

NONE

1998-08-06

356

Energy Conservation for Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information intended for those concerned with the administration, planning, financing, operation, and maintenance of school facilities applies to both new and existing building. An examination of motivation and policies relating to energy conservation is followed by the methods used for quantitative assessment of energy savings relative to extra…

Ontario Dept. of Education, Toronto.

357

Course Syllabus Conservation Techniques  

E-print Network

of you want to know how the knowledge you learn in Ecology or Environmental Science classes can be used is used for regulations, decisions, and conservation actions. Online lecture material will present will begin each topic area by reading an overview which, in addition to providing an introduction

Chen, Kuang-Yu

358

Foundry energy conservation workbook  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses methods for promoting energy conservation in foundries. Use of electric power, natural gas, and coke are evaluated. Waste heat recovery systems are considered. Energy consumption in the specific processes of electric melting, natural gas melting, heat treatments, ladle melting, and coke fuel melting is described. An example energy analysis is included. (GHH)

Not Available

1990-12-31

359

Energy pricing and conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

If interference in the US economy in the form of subsidies for energy production, the treatment of utilties as natural monopolies, and price controls can be blamed for the excessive energy consumption in the US, a rational pricing strategy could lead to conservation. A sudden stop to present policies, however, is neither economically nor socially feasible, but support could be

Holzman

1979-01-01

360

Communities, Cameras, and Conservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Communities, Cameras, and Conservation (CCC) is the most exciting and valuable program the author has seen in her 30 years of teaching field science courses. In this citizen science project, students and community volunteers collect data on mountain lions ("Puma concolor") at four natural areas and public parks along the Front Range of Colorado.…

Patterson, Barbara

2012-01-01

361

Hearing Conservation Medical Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Background on hearing impairment is presented including causes and criteria for safe noise levels. The purpose of the Hearing Conservation Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Hearing Impairment at LeRC are discussed.

1993-01-01

362

Conservation Conflicts Across Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing evidence that areas of outstanding conservation importance may coincide with dense human settlement or impact. We tested the generality of these findings using 1°-resolution data for sub-Saharan Africa. We find that human population density is positively correlated with species richness of birds, mammals, snakes, and amphibians. This association holds for widespread, narrowly endemic, and threatened species and

Andrew Balmford; Joslin L. Moore; Thomas Brooks; Neil Burgess; Louis A. Hansen; Paul Williams; Carsten Rahbek

2001-01-01

363

Conservation, Preservation, and Digitization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Digital technologies should be considered a method of preservation for library materials. Current conservation strategies of restoration, deacidification, and microfilming are expensive, and they limit access. Digitization offers improved access while preserving materials and reflects a change in the library role from depository of printed…

Lynch, Clifford A.; Brownrigg, Edwin B.

1986-01-01

364

Scale in conservation planning  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Conservation planning has been widely embraced as a method to efficiently allocate limited resources to those aspects of biodiversity most in need of protection or management. However, in order to create successful strategies for long-term biodiversity protection and sustainability, explicit conside...

365

Creative Soil Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Take plant lessons outdoors with this engaging and inquiry-based activity in which third-grade students learn how to apply soil conservation methods to growing plants. They also collect data and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of their method of

Martha Smith

2010-02-01

366

Energy Conservation (Bernoulli's Equation)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Chiang Shih's Thermal-Fluids I course at the FAMU-FSU College of Engineering combines "the traditional thermal disciplines in Thermodynamics, heat transfer and fluid mechanics." This PowerPoint presentation, from Shih's lecture notes, illustrates Benoulli's Equation and energy conservation. Along with mathematical equations, there are also a number of illustrations and examples which show the concepts discussed.

Shih, Chiang

367

Conservation of fern spores  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ferns are a diverse and important group of plants, but diversity of species and populations are at risk from increasing social pressures, loss of habitat and climate change. Ex situ conservation is a useful strategy to limit decline in genetic diversity and requires technologies to preserve fern ger...

368

Randomized Trial of Breast Irradiation Schedules After Lumpectomy for Women With Lymph Node-Negative Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Breast irradiation after lumpectomy is an in- tegral component of breast-conserving therapy that reduces the local recurrence of breast cancer. Because an optimal fractionation schedule (radiation dose given in a specified number of fractions or treatment sessions over a defined time) for breast irradiation has not been uniformly accepted, we examined whether a 22-day fractionation schedule was as effective

Timothy Whelan; Robert MacKenzie; Jim Julian; Mark Levine; Wendy Shelley; Laval Grimard; Barbara Lada; Himu Lukka; Francisco Perera; Anthony Fyles; Ethan Laukkanen; Sunil Gulavita; Veronique Benk; Barbara Szechtman

369

Alaskan Commodities Irradiation Project  

SciTech Connect

The ninety-ninth US Congress commissioned a six-state food irradiation research and development program to evaluate the commercial potential of this technology. Hawaii, Washington, Iowa, Oklahoma and Florida as well as Alaska have participated in the national program; various food products including fishery products, red meats, tropical and citrus fruits and vegetables have been studied. The purpose of the Alaskan study was to review and evaluate those factors related to the technical and economic feasibility of an irradiator in Alaska. This options analysis study will serve as a basis for determining the state's further involvement in the development of food irradiation technology. 40 refs., 50 figs., 53 tabs.

Zarling, J.P.; Swanson, R.B.; Logan, R.R.; Das, D.K.; Lewis, C.E.; Workman, W.G.; Tumeo, M.A.; Hok, C.I.; Birklid, C.A.; Bennett, F.L.

1988-12-01

370

Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- October survey descriptive summary  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this late October survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maiden cane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1995-11-01

371

Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- September survey descriptive summary  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this mid-September survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys during the late growing seasons of 1995, and throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1995-09-01

372

Sixth Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan Chapter 4: Conservation Supply Assumptions  

E-print Network

Sixth Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan Chapter 4: Conservation Supply Assumptions.............................................................................................. 4 Estimating the Cost of Conservation............................................................................................................... 13 Estimating the Availability of Conservation Over Time

373

Conservation Focus The Role of Prices in Conserving Critical Natural  

E-print Network

Conservation Focus The Role of Prices in Conserving Critical Natural Capital JOSHUA FARLEY understood ecosystems subject to irreversible change. I then focus on critical natural capital (CNC), which natural capital, ecological thresholds, ecosystem services, marginal value, monetary valua- tion, prices

Vermont, University of

374

Supplementary Table 2 Conservation of helicase motifs. Conservation  

E-print Network

. The truncation is a conserved feature of SWI2/SNF2 proteins (Snf2 hmm of PlSTl), and the Rad54 structure/SNF2 family (Snf2 hmm TSYEl), and is part of the previously defined Snf-A motif. II Conserved in SF1 two residues that are highly conserved in the Snf2 hmm (DEgHrLKN; higher conservation in uppercase

Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.

375

Food irradiation in perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Food irradiation already has a long history of hopes and disappointments. Nowhere in the world it plays the role that it should have, including in the much needed prevention of foodborne diseases. Irradiated food sold well wherever consumers were given a chance to buy them. Differences between national regulations do not allow the international trade of irradiated foods. While in many countries food irradiation is still illegal, in most others it is regulated as a food additive and based on the knowledge of the sixties. Until 1980, wholesomeness was the big issue. Then the "prerequisite" became detection methods. Large amounts of money have been spent to design and validate tests which, in fact, aim at enforcing unjustified restrictions on the use of the process. In spite of all the difficulties, it is believed that the efforts of various UN organizations and a growing legitimate demand for food safety should in the end lead to recognition and acceptance.

Henon, Y. M.

1995-02-01

376

Nasopharyngeal Radium Irradiation (NRI)  

MedlinePLUS

... received this treatment may experience delayed adverse health effects. In September 1995, we convened a workshop on "The Public Health Response to Nasopharyngeal Radium Irradiation." It brought together a diverse group of more ...

377

Stability of ?-Irradiated Carmine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carmine is a dye used mainly for coloring food products and galenicals but also in inks. As food irradiation is becoming a regular treatment for food preservation, it is desirable to have a proper knowledge about the radiation sensitivity of additives that can be included in the food formula. The aim of this work was to establish the radiation stability of carmine against Co-60 gamma radiation. Samples of 50% pure carmine powder as well as 50%, 10% and 5% aqueous solutions were irradiated in a Gammacell 220, dose rate of about 5.2 kGy/h, with doses of 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 kGy. Spectrophotometric readings at 494 nm show a slight decrease of the absorbance as a function of dose: Samples irradiated with 4 and 32 kGy retained 95% and 90% of absorbance of the unirradiated samples respectively. These results indicate a rather good stability of carmine against ?-irradiation.

Cosentino, Hélio M.; Fontenele, Rinaldo S.; DelMastro, Nélida L.

2005-01-01

378

Conservation and Education in Murchison Falls Conservation Area, Uganda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This thesis forms the foundation for a conservation education training manual to help guides in Murchison Falls National Park, Uganda, communicate to foreign visitors about conservation issues. For background information I used a combination of text-based research and interviews to examine the application of community conservation and…

Jordahl, Mark D.

2005-01-01

379

Conservation businesses and conservation planning in a biological diversity hotspot.  

PubMed

The allocation of land to biological diversity conservation competes with other land uses and the needs of society for development, food, and extraction of natural resources. Trade-offs between biological diversity conservation and alternative land uses are unavoidable, given the realities of limited conservation resources and the competing demands of society. We developed a conservation-planning assessment for the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal, which forms the central component of the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany biological diversity hotspot. Our objective was to enhance biological diversity protection while promoting sustainable development and providing spatial guidance in the resolution of potential policy conflicts over priority areas for conservation at risk of transformation. The conservation-planning assessment combined spatial-distribution models for 646 conservation features, spatial economic-return models for 28 alternative land uses, and spatial maps for 4 threats. Nature-based tourism businesses were competitive with other land uses and could provide revenues of >US$60 million/year to local stakeholders and simultaneously help meeting conservation goals for almost half the conservation features in the planning region. Accounting for opportunity costs substantially decreased conflicts between biological diversity, agricultural use, commercial forestry, and mining. Accounting for economic benefits arising from conservation and reducing potential policy conflicts with alternative plans for development can provide opportunities for successful strategies that combine conservation and sustainable development and facilitate conservation action. PMID:23565917

Di Minin, Enrico; Macmillan, Douglas Craig; Goodman, Peter Styan; Escott, Boyd; Slotow, Rob; Moilanen, Atte

2013-08-01

380

suPAR as a prognostic biomarker in sepsis  

PubMed Central

Sepsis is the clinical syndrome derived from the host response to an infection and severe sepsis is the leading cause of death in critically ill patients. Several biomarkers have been tested for use in diagnosis and prognostication in patients with sepsis. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) levels are increased in various infectious diseases, in the blood and also in other tissues. However, the diagnostic value of suPAR in sepsis has not been well defined, especially compared to other more established biomarkers, such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT). On the other hand, suPAR levels have been shown to predict outcome in various kinds of bacteremia and recent data suggest they may have predictive value, similar to that of severity scores, in critically ill patients. This narrative review provides a descriptive overview of the clinical value of this biomarker in the diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic guidance of sepsis. PMID:22221662

2012-01-01

381

Irradiance optimization of outdoor microalgal cultures using solar tracked photobioreactors.  

PubMed

Photosynthetic activity and temperature regulation of microalgal cultures (Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus) under different irradiances controlled by a solar tracker and different cell densities were studied in outdoor flat panel photobioreactors. An automated process control unit regulated light and temperature as well as pH value and nutrient concentration in the culture medium. CO2 was supplied using flue gas from an attached combined block heat and power station. Photosynthetic activity was determined by pulse amplitude modulation fluorometry. Compared to the horizontal irradiance of 55 mol photons m(-2) d(-1) on a clear day, the solar tracked photobioreactors enabled a decrease and increase in the overall light absorption from 19 mol photons m(-2) d(-1) (by rotation out of direct irradiance) to 79 mol photons m(-2) d(-1) (following the position of the sun). At biomass concentrations below 1.1 g cell dry weight (CDW) L(-1), photoinhibition of about 35 % occurred at irradiances of ?1,000 ?mol photons m(-2) s(-1) photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). Using solar tracked photobioreactors, photoinhibition can be reduced and at optimum biomass concentration (?2.3 g CDW L(-1)), the culture was irradiated up to 2,000 ?mol photons m(-2) s(-1) to overcome light limitation with biomass yields of 0.7 g CDW mol photons(-1) and high photosynthetic activities indicated by an effective quantum yield of 0.68 and a maximum quantum yield of 0.80 (F v/F m). Overheating due to high irradiance was avoided by turning the PBR out of the sun or using a cooling system, which maintained the temperature close to the species-specific temperature optima. PMID:22847362

Hindersin, Stefan; Leupold, Marco; Kerner, Martin; Hanelt, Dieter

2013-03-01

382

76 FR 22785 - Wetland Conservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...NRCS-2011-0010] RIN 0578-AA58 Wetland Conservation AGENCY: Office of the Secretary...Paperwork Reduction Act. Background Existing wetland conservation provisions in 7 CFR part 12 require that NRCS' certification of a wetland determination be completed according...

2011-04-25

383

NEWS AND COMMENTARY Conservation genetics...............................................................  

E-print Network

NEWS AND COMMENTARY Conservation genetics............................................................... Genetics at the brink of extinction R De doubt in the minds of conservation geneticists, first raised in the 1980s, that genetic considerations

DeSalle, Rob

384

Competing ParA structures space bacterial plasmids equally over the nucleoid.  

PubMed

Low copy number plasmids in bacteria require segregation for stable inheritance through cell division. This is often achieved by a parABC locus, comprising an ATPase ParA, DNA-binding protein ParB and a parC region, encoding ParB-binding sites. These minimal components space plasmids equally over the nucleoid, yet the underlying mechanism is not understood. Here we investigate a model where ParA-ATP can dynamically associate to the nucleoid and is hydrolyzed by plasmid-associated ParB, thereby creating nucleoid-bound, self-organizing ParA concentration gradients. We show mathematically that differences between competing ParA concentrations on either side of a plasmid can specify regular plasmid positioning. Such positioning can be achieved regardless of the exact mechanism of plasmid movement, including plasmid diffusion with ParA-mediated immobilization or directed plasmid motion induced by ParB/parC-stimulated ParA structure disassembly. However, we find experimentally that parABC from Escherichia coli plasmid pB171 increases plasmid mobility, inconsistent with diffusion/immobilization. Instead our observations favor directed plasmid motion. Our model predicts less oscillatory ParA dynamics than previously believed, a prediction we verify experimentally. We also show that ParA localization and plasmid positioning depend on the underlying nucleoid morphology, indicating that the chromosomal architecture constrains ParA structure formation. Our directed motion model unifies previously contradictory models for plasmid segregation and provides a robust mechanistic basis for self-organized plasmid spacing that may be widely applicable. PMID:25521716

Ietswaart, Robert; Szardenings, Florian; Gerdes, Kenn; Howard, Martin

2014-12-01

385

Tumor-associated soluble uPAR-directed endothelial cell motility and tumor angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

The expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) receptor (uPAR) correlates with the malignant phenotype of various cancers. The soluble form of uPAR (s-uPAR) is present in the circulation of cancer patients, but the role of s-uPAR in endothelial cell migration is poorly understood. Therefore, we examined the role of tumor-associated s-uPAR on endothelial cell motility and angiogenesis. Here, we present evidence that tumor-associated s-uPAR augments the migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). When grown on tumor-conditioned medium, the membrane fraction of HUVECs had increased localization of s-uPAR onto its cell membrane. Colocalization studies for GM1 ganglioside receptor and uPAR further demonstrated s-uPAR recruitment onto lipid rafts of HUVECs. Immunoblot analysis for uPAR in lipid raft fractions confirmed s-uPAR recruiting onto HUVECs' membrane. Further, s-uPAR induced Rac1-mediated cell migration while either function-blocking uPAR antibodies or dominant-negative mutant Rac1 expression in HUVECs-mitigated s-uPAR-enhanced cell migration. In addition, orthotopic implantation of uPAR-overexpressing cells resulted in a significant increase in circulating s-uPAR in blood serum and invasive nature of tumor and tumor vasculature in mice. Collectively, this data provide insight into tumor-associated s-uPAR-directed migration of endothelial cells and its subsequent influence on tumor angiogenesis. PMID:23797476

Rao, J S; Gujrati, M; Chetty, C

2013-01-01

386

Modelling the Establishment of PAR Protein Polarity in the One-Cell C. elegans Embryo  

E-print Network

At the one-cell stage, the C. elegans embryo becomes polarized along the anterior-posterior axis. The PAR proteins form complementary anterior and posterior domains in a dynamic process driven by cytoskeletal rearrangement. Initially, the PAR proteins are uniformly distributed throughout the embryo. Following a cue from fertilization, cortical actomyosin contracts towards the anterior pole. PAR-3/PAR-6/PKC-3 (the anterior PAR proteins) become restricted to the anterior cortex. PAR-1 and PAR-2 (the posterior PAR proteins) become enriched in the posterior cortical region. We present a mathematical model of this polarity establishment process, in which we take a novel approach to combine reaction-diffusion dynamics of the PAR proteins coupled to a simple model of actomyosin contraction. We show that known interactions between the PAR proteins are sufficient to explain many aspects of the observed cortical PAR dynamics in both wild-type and mutant embryos. However, cytoplasmic PAR protein polarity, which is vital for generating daughter cells with distinct molecular components, cannot be properly explained within such a framework. We therefore consider additional mechanisms that can reproduce the proper cytoplasmic polarity. In particular we predict that cytoskeletal asymmetry in the cytoplasm, in addition to the cortical actomyosin asymmetry, is a critical determinant of PAR protein localization.

Filipe Tostevin; Martin Howard

2008-11-20

387

Three-dimensional conformal breast irradiation in the prone position.  

PubMed

The prone position can be used for the planning of adjuvant radiotherapy after conservative breast surgery in order to deliver less irradiation to lung and cardiac tissue. In the present study, we compared the results of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy planning for five patients irradiated in the supine and prone position. Tumor stage was T1N0M0 in four patients and T1N1M0 in one. All patients had been previously submitted to conservative breast surgery. Breast size was large in three patients and moderate in the other two. Irradiation in the prone position was performed using an immobilization foam pad with a hole cut into it to accommodate the breast so that it would hang down away from the chest wall. Dose-volume histograms showed that mean irradiation doses reaching the ipsilateral lung were 8.3+/-3.6 Gy with the patient in the supine position and 1.4+/-1.0 Gy with the patient in the prone position (P = 0.043). The values for the contralateral lung were 1.3+/-0.7 and 0.3+/-0.1 Gy (P = 0.043) and the values for cardiac tissue were 4.6+/-1.6 and 3.0+/-1.7 Gy (P = 0.079), respectively. Thus, the dose-volume histograms demonstrated that lung tissue irradiation was significantly lower with the patient in the prone position than in the supine position. Large-breasted women appeared to benefit most from irradiation in the prone position. Prone position breast irradiation appears to be a simple and effective alternative to the conventional supine position for patients with large breasts, since they are subjected to lower pulmonary doses which may cause less pulmonary side effects in the future. PMID:14502379

Kurtman, C; Nalça Andrieu, M; Hiçsönmez, A; Celebio?lu, B

2003-10-01

388

Blood irradiation: Rationale and technique  

SciTech Connect

Upon request by the local American Red Cross, the Savannah Regional Center for Cancer Care irradiates whole blood or blood components to prevent post-transfusion graft-versus-host reaction in patients who have severely depressed immune systems. The rationale for blood irradiation, the total absorbed dose, the type of patients who require irradiated blood, and the regulations that apply to irradiated blood are presented. A method of irradiating blood using a linear accelerator is described.

Lewis, M.C. (Savannah Regional Center for Cancer Care, Memorial Medical Center, GA (USA))

1990-01-01

389

Herpetological Conservation & Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 2006, the Herpetological Conservation & Biology journal was started to offer a place for manuscripts in the field "that were descriptive or natural history oriented." This journal publishes original peer-reviewed research, reviews, and perspectives on the "ecology, natural history, management, and conservation biology of amphibians and reptiles." Recent articles have included "Population decline in Grassland Earless Lizards" and "Invasive shrub benefits a Sri Lankan lizard." Visitors can click on the Volumes tab to look over all of the past issues and search the entire archive here as well. The Photo Gallery is a real treat, featuring dozens of photos submitted by the editors and other users. Finally, visitors can also learn about how to submit material for possible publication, along with signing up for email updates.

2012-09-21

390

Environmental Conservation Online System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Conservation Online System (ECOS) is a gateway web site that provides access to data systems in the Endangered Species and Fisheries and Habitat Conservation program areas, as well as other FWS and Government data sources. ECOS provides a central point of access to assist FWS personnel in managing data and information as well as provide general public access to information from numerous FWS databases. ECOS allows users to view, query, and, in some cases, edit data. Some of the larger applications are: Threatened and Endangered Species System (TESS), Habitat Tracking Information System (HabITS), Fish Passage Decision Support System (FPDSS), Contaminant Assessment Program (CAP), and Environmental Contaminants Data Management System (ECDMS). Mapping capabilities are also available, utilizing spatially referenced data in these databases. The general mapping utility, Geotract, is an interactive tool that includes data relevant to many service personnel and the public. Other specialized mapping tools are available for specific project and end-user needs.

391

Laser conservation paleontology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Just as lasers have found countless applications in science, industry, medicine, and entertainment, an array of real and potential uses for lasers in art-conservation analytes and practice have been investigated over the past thirty years. These include holographic recording, holographic recording, holographic nondestructive testing, laser-induced ultrasonic imaging, laser-scattering surface characterization, atomic and molecular analyses, photoacoustic spectroscopy, surface modification, as well as surface divestment and cleaning. The initial endeavors in exploring and assessing the utility of these tools for art conservation are recounted for investigations involving ruby, glass, ion, YAG, carbon dioxide, dye, and excimer lasers as well as high-intensity nonlaser light generators such as xenon flashlamps and argon pinchlamps. Initially, laser divestment/cleaning was, by general consensus, the least plausible laser application in art conservation. In the past ten years it has emerged to dominate all the other applications noted above. Today, at least a dozen firms supply user-friendly laser systems optimized for a range of art-conservation divestment applications. The first-generation laser-cleaning tools are essentially a laser, a beam-delivery device, and a debris- collection accessory. Advanced developmental work has turned in large measure to ancillary subsystems for more sophisticated process control. Of particular importance are acoustic, optical, spectral, EMP, and electronic-vision process control. Beam direction may be via manual, translational-scanner, or robotic beam positioning implemented by means of fiber optics, minors, or prisms and computer control. Substrate thermal alteration and debris redeposition may be minimized or avoided through the incorporation of a gas jet, fluid or fluid jet, or dry-ice blast.

Asmus, John F.

2001-10-01

392

Landscapes, tourism, and conservation  

PubMed

One key aspect of global change is a decrease in ecological integrity as more and more landscapes are developed, leaving a mosaic of intact refuges and degraded patches that may not be sufficient for conserving biodiversity. While increases in human population and shifts in the distribution of people affect land use, the temporary movement of people can have major implications for conservation and biodiversity. Three examples are presented where recreation/tourism can enhance the conservation of land on a landscape scale, leading to habitat protection and biodiversity preservation: (1) Shorebirds often require a matrix of different habitat types during migratory stopovers, and ecotourism can serve as a catalyst for landscape scale protection of habitat. (2) Riparian habitats can serve as corridors to link diverse habitat patches, as well as serving as biodiversity hotspots. (3) Remediation and rehabilitation of contaminated lands, such as those of the US Department of Energy, aimed at developing recreational activities on the uncontaminated portions, can be the most economical form of re-development with no increase in human or ecological risk. Since large areas on many DOE sites have been undisturbed since the Second World War, when they were acquired, they contain unique or valuable ecosystems that serve an important role within their regional landscapes. In all three cases the judicious development of recreational/tourist interests can encourage both the conservation of habitats and the wise management of habitats on a landscape scale. While some species or habitats are too fragile for sustained tourism, many can be managed so that species, ecosystems and ecotourists flourish. By contributing to the economic base of regions, ecotourists/recreationists can influence the protection of land and biodiversity on a landscape scale, contributing to ecosystem management. The human dimensions of land preservation and biodiversity protection are key to long-term sustainability, and ecotourists/recreationists can be one management option. PMID:10813445

Burger

2000-04-17

393

Conservation of Fern Spores  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ferns are a diverse and important group of plants, but diversity of ­species and populations are at risk from increasing social\\u000a pressures, loss of habitat, and climate change. Ex situ conservation is a useful strategy to limit decline in genetic diversity and requires technologies to preserve fern germplasm.\\u000a Fern spore storage has received little research attention but, by analogy to

Daniel Ballesteros

394

Jobs in Conservation Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This searchable jobs listing, provided by the Society for Conservation Biology, is the place to start searching for positions at all levels from activitsts to field and laboratory assistants to professors. An excellent feature of this site is the collection of links to related jobs listing services including: The Chronicle of Higher Education,Science magazine, Environmental Careers World, Environmental Career Opportunities, Federal Job Opportunities Board (2), and several other agency jobs listings.

1999-01-01

395

Wildlife Conservation Research Unit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oxford University has a very important website dedicated to its Wildlife Conservation Research Unit (WildCRU), that hopes to solve the "conflict between peoples' futures and wildlife conservation." There are several themes on the website, all of which can be found on the left hand menu. Visitors will find the following topics to explore: "Endangered Species", "Invasives", "Land Use & Biodiversity", "Fundamental Biology", "Wildlife Diseases", and "Wildlife as a Resource". The "Publications" link at the top right side of the page contains "Books", "Papers", "Reports", and "Theses" available to read online or find in a physical library. A multitude of animal issues are discussed in the documents here, including a paper called "The World Can't Have Wild Tigers and Eat Them, Too" and "State of Britain's Mammals 2008". The "Research" link near the top of the page, includes the dozens of research projects WildCRU is involved in, such as "Badger Genetic Research", "Transfrontier Conservation of Andean Cats" and "Towards Reducing the Total Environmental Impacts of Agriculture."

396

Wildlife Conservation Research Unit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oxford University has a very important website dedicated to its Wildlife Conservation Research Unit (WildCRU), that hopes to solve the "conflict between peoples' futures and wildlife conservation." There are several themes on the website, all of which can be found on the left hand menu. Visitors will find the following topics to explore: "Endangered Species", "Invasives", "Land Use & Biodiversity", "Fundamental Biology", "Wildlife Diseases", and "Wildlife as a Resource". The "Publications" link at the top right side of the page contains books, papers, reports, and theses available to read online or find in a physical library. A multitude of animal issues are discussed in the documents here, including a paper called "The World Can't Have Wild Tigers and Eat Them, Too" and a report on the "State of Britain's Mammals 2008". The "Research" link near the top of the page includes the dozens of research projects WildCRU is involved in, such as "Badger Genetic Research", "Transfrontier Conservation of Andean Cats" and "Towards Reducing the Total Environmental Impacts of Agriculture."

397

Approved Practices in Soil Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is written for individuals who wish to apply conservation practices, especially those of soil and water conservation, without technical assistance, to meet one's own conditions, and within his own capability to apply them. To meet these needs, the book includes a discussion and description of soil and water conservation methods for the…

Foster, Albert B.

398

Genetic conservation of native trees  

E-print Network

Genetic conservation of native trees Scott McG. Wilson1 and C. J. A. Samuel Over recent years, the genetic conservation of British native tree populations has become an increasingly important part policy-makers in the genetic basis of forest biodiversity conservation, both at the UK and, more

399

Discovering Conservation Rules Lukasz Golab #  

E-print Network

Discovering Conservation Rules Lukasz Golab # , Howard Karloff , Flip Korn , Barna Saha , Divesh a "conservation law" between related quantities. For example, in traffic monitoring, every incoming event outgoing counterpart. We propose a new class of constraints--Conservation Rules--that express the semantics

Greenberg, Albert

400

Conservation Comparison of Plan, Current  

E-print Network

Northwest Power and Conservation Council Comparison of Plan, Current Policy, and No-Policy Cases Power Committee Web Meeting June 30, 2009 Northwest Power and Conservation Council Definition of Cases, new plant emissions limits, and carbon price risk #12;Northwest Power and Conservation Council

401

Estimating Conservation Thresholds on Rangelands  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) is a multi-agency effort designed to quantify the environmental and economic impacts of land conservation practices. One of USDA’s goals is to identify Conservation Thresholds, the point at which accelerated erosion occurs, and to examine the usefu...

402

Saving Money Through Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is an introduction to personal energy conservation. The first chapter presents a rationale for conserving energy and points out that private citizens control about one third of this country's energy consumption. Chapters two and three show how to save money by saving energy. Chapter two discusses energy conservation methods in the…

Presley, Michael H.; And Others

403

Energy Management and Conservation Plan  

E-print Network

Institute (TTI) has been committed to reducing energy consumption, conserving water and recycling since and Conservation Plan documents various initiatives implemented which have reduced energy, water and fuel. Utility services and related energy management and conservation plans for these facilities would

404

Outcomes in breast cancer patients relative to margin status after treatment with breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy: the University of Pennsylvania experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To evaluate the significance of final microscopic resection margin status on treatment outcomes in women with early breast cancer who are treated with breast-conserving surgery and definitive breast irradiation.Methods and Materials: An analysis was performed of 1021 consecutive women with clinical Stage I or II invasive carcinoma of the breast treated with breast-conserving surgery and definitive breast irradiation. Complete

Michael E Peterson; Delray J Schultz; Carol Reynolds; Lawrence J Solin

1999-01-01

405

Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAR) reduction for acoustic OFDM systems  

E-print Network

A major drawback of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is its large peak-to-average power ratio (PAR). Techniques for PAR reduction have been extensively studied for radio communication systems. While these ...

Rojo Garrave, Guillem

406

Identification and characterization of yeasts causing chalk mould defects on par-baked bread.  

PubMed

Pichia anomala, Hyphopichia burtonii and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera are spoilage yeasts causing chalk mould defects on par-baked breads packaged under modified atmosphere. The first objective of this study was to identify yeasts isolated from spoiled par-baked breads by means of a RAPD protocol and to determine the dominant spoilers amongst identified strains. The second objective was to determine the effects of water activity (a(w)) and pH value on the growth rates and lag phase durations of P. anomala, H. burtonii and S. fibuligera. 95% of the yeasts tested were identified as P. anomala and 5% as S. fibuligera, H. burtonii was not detected. In order to investigate the effect of a(w) and pH the growth of the three yeasts was tested within an a(w) range of 0.88-0.98 and a pH range of 2.8-8.0. P. anomala was able to grow from pH 2.8 to 8 without a clear optimum. S. fibuligera and H. burtonii showed a pH optimum for growth of 5. The optimum water activity for growth was different for the three strains and varied between 0.96 and 0.98. These growth data were further used to develop secondary models that describe the relationship between a(w) and the radial or colony growth rate (g, mm/d) or the lag phase duration (?, d). The identification of the spoilage organisms and a good understanding of the effects of a(w) and pH on the growth behavior is essential for future development of adequate conservation strategies against chalk mould defects. PMID:21569947

Deschuyffeleer, N; Audenaert, K; Samapundo, S; Ameye, S; Eeckhout, M; Devlieghere, F

2011-08-01

407

A doxycycline-inducible urokinase receptor (uPAR) upregulates uPAR activities including resistance to anoikis in human prostate cancer cell lines  

PubMed Central

Background The urokinase receptor (uPAR) mediates a diverse array of cellular processes including several events involved in prostate cancer metastasis. Many of these activities are initiated or enhanced by uPAR binding to its proteolytic ligand, urokinase (uPA). Our objective in this study was to generate and test an inducible lentiviral system capable of expressing uPAR and DsRed fluorescent protein in human prostate cancer cell lines. Results A DsRed-uPAR fusion construct was inserted into a lentiviral vector. Transduction of human prostate cancer cell lines with this virus and with a virus containing a reverse-tetracycline transactivator (rt-TA) resulted in a stable transgene which induced both uPAR and DsRed proteins in a dose-responsive fashion upon stimulation with doxycycline. Immunoblots and immunofluorescence studies indicated no detectable uPAR expression in non-induced prostate cancer cell lines. Cells with induced-uPAR demonstrated increased cellular adhesion to the matrix substrate vitronectin and increased net cell proliferation compared to uninduced cells. Finally, induced uPAR-expressing prostate cancer cells were resistant to anoikis over an extended time period when grown in suspension. Conclusion This doxycycline-inducible lentivirus system produces titerable levels of biologically active uPAR in vitro. This tool can be used to dissect cellular events following induction of uPAR in prostate cancer cells. PMID:17509140

Hasanuzzaman, Mohammad; Kutner, Robert; Agha-Mohammadi, Siamak; Reiser, Jakob; Sehgal, Inder

2007-01-01

408

EXAMEN DES GAZ OCCLUS OU DGAGS PAR LE BROMURE DE RADIUM; Par MM. DEWAR et CURIE (1).  

E-print Network

193 EXAMEN DES GAZ OCCLUS OU D�GAG�S PAR LE BROMURE DE RADIUM; Par MM. DEWAR et CURIE (1). Un échantillon de 09",4 de bromure de radium pur desséché a été laissé pendant trois mois dans une ampoule de-ci a été décomposée peu à peu sous l'influence du radium (Giesel). Le même échantillon de bromure de radium

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

409

Arylquins target vimentin to trigger Par-4 secretion for tumor cell apoptosis.  

PubMed

The tumor suppressor protein prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4), which is secreted by normal cells, selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cells. We identified a 3-arylquinoline derivative, designated Arylquin 1, as a potent Par-4 secretagogue in cell cultures and mice. Mechanistically, Arylquin 1 binds vimentin, displaces Par-4 from vimentin for secretion and triggers the efficient paracrine apoptosis of diverse cancer cells. Thus, targeting vimentin with Par-4 secretagogues efficiently induces paracrine apoptosis of tumor cells. PMID:25218743

Burikhanov, Ravshan; Sviripa, Vitaliy M; Hebbar, Nikhil; Zhang, Wen; Layton, W John; Hamza, Adel; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Watt, David S; Liu, Chunming; Rangnekar, Vivek M

2014-11-01

410

Sur quelques proprits des rayons 03B1 mis par le radium  

E-print Network

Sur quelques propriétés des rayons 03B1 émis par le radium et par les corps activés par l'émanation du radium. Par M. Henri BECQUEREL, Professeur au Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle. L y a quelques mois'anciennes expériences sur les rayons du radium. J'avais fait disposer, en particulier, une expé- rience différentielle

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

411

Discuss the testing problems of ultraviolet irradiance meters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultraviolet irradiance meters are widely used in many areas such as medical treatment, epidemic prevention, energy conservation and environment protection, computers, manufacture, electronics, ageing of material and photo-electric effect, for testing ultraviolet irradiance intensity. So the accuracy of value directly affects the sterile control in hospital, treatment, the prevention level of CDC and the control accuracy of curing and aging in manufacturing industry etc. Because the display of ultraviolet irradiance meters is easy to change, in order to ensure the accuracy, it needs to be recalibrated after being used period of time. By the comparison with the standard ultraviolet irradiance meters, which are traceable to national benchmarks, we can acquire the correction factor to ensure that the instruments working under accurate status and giving the accurate measured data. This leads to an important question: what kind of testing device is more accurate and reliable? This article introduces the testing method and problems of the current testing device for ultraviolet irradiance meters. In order to solve these problems, we have developed a new three-dimensional automatic testing device. We introduce structure and working principle of this system and compare the advantages and disadvantages of two devices. In addition, we analyses the errors in the testing of ultraviolet irradiance meters.

Ye, Jun'an; Lin, Fangsheng

2014-09-01

412

ORNL irradiation creep facility  

SciTech Connect

A machine was developed at ORNL to measure the rates of elongation observed under irradiation in stressed materials. The source of radiation is a beam of 60 MeV alpha particles from the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC). This choice allows experiments to be performed which simulate the effects of fast neutrons. A brief review of irradiation creep and experimental constraints associated with each measurement technique is given. Factors are presented which lead to the experimental choices made for the Irradiation Creep Facility (ICF). The ICF consists of a helium-filled chamber which houses a high-precision mechanical testing device. The specimen to be tested must be thermally stabilized with respect to the temperature fluctuations imposed by the particle beam which passes through the specimen. Electrical resistance of the specimen is the temperature control parameter chosen. Very high precision in length measurement and temperature control are required to detect the small elongation rates relevant to irradiation creep in the test periods available (approx. 1 day). The apparatus components and features required for the above are presented in some detail, along with the experimental procedures. The damage processes associated with light ions are discussed and displacement rates are calculated. Recent irradiation creep results are given, demonstrating the suitability of the apparatus for high resolution experiments. Also discussed is the suitability of the ICF for making high precision thermal creep measurements.

Reiley, T.C.; Auble, R.L.; Beckers, R.M.; Bloom, E.E.; Duncan, M.G.; Saltmarsh, M.J.; Shannon, R.H.

1980-09-01

413

Interstitial irradiation for craniopharyngioma.  

PubMed

The results of interstitial irradiation treatment for craniopharyngioma in two patients with six year follow-ups are presented. Stereotactic interstitial irradiation with Iodine-125 sources as sole therapy was employed in two adult patients who refused surgical resection. The diagnoses were confirmed by stereotactic biopsy. The first tumour which underwent interstitial irradiation was solid and 4 cm in diameter, and the second, 2.7 cm in diameter, had both cystic and solid components. The implanted Iodine-125 seeds delivered 67 Gy and 60 Gy to tumour periphery at the rate of 12 and 14 cGy/h, respectively, were removed at the end of designated radiation periods. Tumour shrinkage and central hypodensity, first observed 3 months after irradiation, continued until one tumour shrank to less than 1 cm at 12 months, and the other disappeared completely at 24 months. In both cases functional integrity was restored, and neither radiation induced toxicity nor recurrence has occurred six years after treatment. The results in these two cases suggest that solid craniopharyngiomas are sensitive to interstitial irradiation. PMID:10883334

Barlas, O; Bayindir, C; Can, M

2000-01-01

414

Defining biocultural approaches to conservation.  

PubMed

We contend that biocultural approaches to conservation can achieve effective and just conservation outcomes while addressing erosion of both cultural and biological diversity. Here, we propose a set of guidelines for the adoption of biocultural approaches to conservation. First, we draw lessons from work on biocultural diversity and heritage, social-ecological systems theory, integrated conservation and development, co-management, and community-based conservation to define biocultural approaches to conservation. Second, we describe eight principles that characterize such approaches. Third, we discuss reasons for adopting biocultural approaches and challenges. If used well, biocultural approaches to conservation can be a powerful tool for reducing the global loss of both biological and cultural diversity. PMID:25622889

Gavin, Michael C; McCarter, Joe; Mead, Aroha; Berkes, Fikret; Stepp, John Richard; Peterson, Debora; Tang, Ruifei

2015-03-01

415

COPRODUCTION DE LA QUALITE Colloque organis par le LERASS Toulouse  

E-print Network

changements organisationnels. Les conceptions de l'organisation, des relations client-fournisseur, des systèmes de régulation qui sous-tendent ces changements sont plurielles voire antagonistes. Dans ce-après constituent les préceptes d'une réflexion sur l'impact organisationnel de la mise en oeuvre du management par

Boyer, Edmond

416

INSTITUT POLYTECHNIQUE DE GRENOBLE attribu par la bibliothque  

E-print Network

#12;5 Abstract We address the problem of safe design of distributed embedded systems. We show, la structure fonctionnelle du système peut entrer en conflit avec la structure de son architecture. L'approche traditionnelle de conception par raffinement de cette architecture compromet alors la modularité fonctionnelle du

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

417

INFECTION EXPRIMENTALE DU BLIER PAR SALMONELLA ABORTUS OVIS  

E-print Network

in antibody titers without detectable genital excretion of salmonella. The conjunctival or preputial challengeINFECTION EXPÉRIMENTALE DU BÉLIER PAR SALMONELLA ABORTUS OVIS R. SANCHIS P. PARDON2 Georgette, France Summary EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION OF RAM WITH SALMONELLA ABORTUS OVIS. - The susceptibility of rams

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

418

BOREAS RSS-10 TOMS Circumpolar One-Degree PAR Images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Remote Sensing Science (RSS)-10 team investigated the magnitude of daily, seasonal, and yearly variations of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) from ground and satellite observations. This data set contains satellite estimates of surface-incident PAR (400-700 nm, MJ/sq m) at one-degree spatial resolution. The spatial coverage is circumpolar from latitudes of 41 to 66 degrees north. The temporal coverage is from May through September for years 1979 through 1989. Eleven-year statistics are also provided: (1) mean, (2) standard deviation, and (3) coefficient of variation for 1979-89. The PAR estimates were derived from the global gridded ultraviolet reflectivity data product (average of 360, 380 nm) from the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). Image mask data are provided for identifying the boreal forest zone, and ocean/land and snow/ice-covered areas. The data are available as binary image format data files. The PAR data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

Dye, Dennis G.; Holben, Brent; Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

419

LE PHONOGRAPHE D'EDISON; PAR M. A. NIAUDET.  

E-print Network

I09 LE PHONOGRAPHE D'EDISON; PAR M. A. NIAUDET. L'enregistrement des sons n'est pas chose nouvelle ; Thomas Young le premier fit écrire sur un cylindre les vibrations d'me verge métallique ; Duhamel (1 des différentes consonnes ou groupes de consonnes. Si donc M. Edison n'avait fait qu'un instrument

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

420

LA SYNTAXE CONNECTIVE EN TCHETCHENE par Franoise GUERIN  

E-print Network

1 LA SYNTAXE CONNECTIVE EN TCHETCHENE par Françoise GUERIN Université Paris Sorbonne Whatever syntactically by the nature of their head. Connective syntax comprises verbal and nonverbal head sentences, which, identify, present an entity or which qualify in the broad sense of the term. Connective syntax

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

421

AIMANTATION SPONTANE DES FERRITES Par REN PAUTHENET et L. BOCHIROL.  

E-print Network

également étudié la variation thermique de l'aimantation spontanée des ferrites de nickel, de cobalt et deAIMANTATION SPONTANÉE DES FERRITES Par RENÉ PAUTHENET et L. BOCHIROL. Sommaire. 2014 Les auteurs ont étudié les variations de l'aimantation à saturation des ferrites de magnésium et de cuivre en

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

422

ANOMALIE DE LONGUEUR DES FERRITES Par LOUIS WEIL.  

E-print Network

ferrites de cuivre, de nickel, de cobalt, de zinc et de magnésium, entre la température ordinaire et 900° CANOMALIE DE LONGUEUR DES FERRITES Par LOUIS WEIL. Sommaire. - L'auteur a étudié la dilatation des étudié au dilatomètre Chevenard divers ferrites. Lorsqu'on fait varier la température assez lentement

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

423

INSTITUT NATIONAL POLYTECHNIQUE DE GRENOBLE N attribu par la bibliothque  

E-print Network

Réacteurs à Sel Fondu Exploration du champ des Paramètres et des Contraintes définissant le "Thorium Molten Salt Reactor" Directeur de thèse : Daniel HEUER JURY : Claude Renault rapporteur Jean-Claude Steckmeyer présentée et soutenue publiquement par Ludovic MATHIEU le 26 Septembre 2005 Titre : Cycle Thorium et

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

424

PAR reduction for OFDM signals based on deep Clipping  

Microsoft Academic Search

One problem of clipping and filtering (CAF) is peak regrowth due to the filtering for the clipped signal. This paper proposes a deep clipping method to suppress the peak regrowth and to reduce the Peak-to-Average power Ratio (PAR) of OFDM signals without iteration. In this paper, the mechanism of peak regrowth is described and the deep clipping method is proposed

Satoshi Kimura; Takashi Nakamura; Masato Saito; Minoru Okada

2008-01-01

425

Optimal Clipping Value for PAR Reduction of OFDM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clipping and filtering (CF) is a simple but effective technique for peak-to-average ratio (PAR) reduction of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals. This paper determines the optimal clipping value for the CF method in order to maximize the power efficiency of the high power amplifier (HPA). A transmission spectral mask is placed on the output of the HPA as a

T. Nechiporenko; Ha H. Nguyen

2007-01-01

426

Par Pond vegetation status summer 1995 - July survey descriptive summary  

SciTech Connect

A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant, communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet (61 meters) above mean sea level, and continued with this July survey. Aquatic plant communities, similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond communities, are becoming reestablished. Beds of maidencane (Panicum hemitomon), lotus (Nelumbo lutea), water lily (Nymphaea odorata), and watershield (Brasenia schreberi) are now extensive and well established. In addition, within isolated coves, extensive beds of water lilies and spike-rush (Eleocharis sp.) are common. Cattail occurrence has increased since refill, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Invasion of willow (Salix sp.) and red maple (Acer rubrum) occurred along the lake shoreline during drawdown. The red maples along the present shoreline are beginning to show evidence of stress and mortality from flooding over the past four months. Some of the willows appear to be stressed as well. The loblolly pines (Pinus taeda), which were flooded in all but the shallow shoreline areas, are now dead. Future surveys are planned for the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data for mapping the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1995-07-01

427

Pars plana vitrectomy in the management of ghost cell glaucoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report we describe, herewith, 5 cases of ghost cell glaucoma that followed spontaneous vitreous hemorrhage complicating branch retinal vein occlusion in a phakic eye (one case), and traumatic vitreous hemorrhage (4 cases). Because intraocular pressure was uncontrolled, pars plana vitrectomy was performed to remove the reservoir of ghost cells. Vitrectomy resulted in successful control of intraocular pressure without

Ahmed M. Abu El-Asrar; Saleh A. Al-Obeidan

1995-01-01

428

The Pars Triangularis in Dyslexia and ADHD: A Comprehensive Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Limited research has been conducted on the structure of the pars triangularis (PT) in dyslexia despite functional neuroimaging research finding it may play a role in phonological processing. Furthermore, research to date has not examined PT size in ADHD even though the right inferior frontal region has been implicated in the disorder. Hence, one…

Kibby, Michelle Y.; Kroese, Judith M.; Krebbs, Hillery; Hill, Crystal E.; Hynd, George W.

2009-01-01

429

Sur l'mission des rayons cathodiques Par J. MALASSEZ  

E-print Network

67 Sur l'émission des rayons cathodiques Par J. MALASSEZ [Faculté des Sciences de Paris l'hypothèse que les rayons cathodiques u'étaient pas émis sous la dilfé- rence de potentiel existant trajectoire, on a la relation II étant l'intensité du champ magnétique et p le rayon de courbure au point de

Boyer, Edmond

430

SUR UNE NOUVELLE ESPCE DE RAYONS (1) Par M. RONTGEN.  

E-print Network

189 SUR UNE NOUVELLE ESPÈCE DE RAYONS (1) (Suite) Par M. RONTGEN. Obligé d'interrompre mes travaux ma première publication, je savais que les rayons X possèdent la propriété de décharger les corps électrisés, et je suppose que c'est aux rayons X et non aux rayons cathodiques, qui, dans les expériences de

Boyer, Edmond

431

L'APIPA, par Mbolatiana Razafimanantsoa Directeur Technique  

E-print Network

DRAINAGE · Canal Andriantany amont (14 km), canal C3 (10 km) et station de pom- page : Le canal Andriantany canaux s'écoulent soit gravitairement, soit par pompage quand les vannes de sécurité du polder sont 18 stations de mesure automatique de pluie et / ou de débit dans le bassin versant de l'Ikopa en

432

ParFlow User's Manual GMWI 2010-01  

E-print Network

. Smith3 , Carol S. Woodward4 , Robert D. Falgout5 , Ian M. Ferguson6 , Chuck Baldwin, William J. Bosl 7.M. Ferguson, C. Baldwin, W.J. Bosl, R. Hornung, S. Ashby, ParFlow User's Manual. International Ground Water. Kollet, Ian M. Ferguson, Steven G. Smith, Carol S. Woodward. Permission is granted to copy, distribute

433

Quelle agentivit par l'thique du sport ?  

E-print Network

tous les domaines du sport : dopage sur le Tour de France, violence dans le football, harcèlement1-17Jan2010 Author manuscript, published in "International Review on Sport & Violence (2010) p. 43Quelle agentivité par l'éthique du sport ? Bernard Andrieu Philosophe Pr Epistemology of body

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

434

cole Centrale des Arts et Manufactures de Paris prsente par  

E-print Network

par Ordinateur Sujet : De la segmentation au moyen de graphes d'images de muscles striés squelettiques in MRI, all related to the popular graph-based Random Walker (RW) segmentation algorithm. The strength. This allows us to employ the latent Support Vector Machine (latent SVM) formulation for parameter esti- mation

435

cole Centrale des Arts et Manufactures de Paris prsente par  

E-print Network

par Ordinateur Sujet : De la segmentation au moyen de graphes d'images de muscles striés squelettiques in MRI, all related to the popular graph-based Random Walker (RW) seg- mentation algorithm. The strength. This allows us to employ the latent Support Vector Machine (latent SVM) formulation for parameter estimation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

436

INSTITUT NATIONAL POLYTECHNIQUE DE GRENOBLE N attribu par la bibliothque  

E-print Network

, Directeur de thèse Pr. Jean-Louis COULOMB , Co-directeur de thèse #12;#12;AA mmeess ppaarreennttss eett mmaa'Electrotechnique de Grenoble, j'ai eu la chance d'être entouré par des personnes formidables. Je veux adresser tous

Boyer, Edmond

437

SUR LES PRISMES A DVIATION CONSTANTE; Par M. EUGNE BLOCH.  

E-print Network

145 SUR LES PRISMES A DÉVIATION CONSTANTE; Par M. EUGÈNE BLOCH. 1. MM. Pellin et Broca (') ont signalé les premiers les intéres- santes propriétés d'un prisme à déviation constante, dans lequel les'angle A du prisme (fig. 1) est de 90°, FIG. 1. l'angle B de -;5°; les angles A' et B' sont respectivement de

Boyer, Edmond

438

CONTAMINATION ALIMENTAIRE PAR LE PENICILLIUM CYCLOPIUM WESTLING1  

E-print Network

CONTAMINATION ALIMENTAIRE PAR LE PENICILLIUM CYCLOPIUM WESTLING1 FREQUENCE DE SOUCHES PRODUCTRICES chemin de Tournefeuille, 31300 Toulouse, France. Summary FEEDSTUFFS CONTAMINATION BY PENICILLIUM CYCLOPl conditions. Le Penicillium cyclopium est une moisissure fréquente des aliments du bétail. Pohland et Mislivec

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

439

Villes et urbanismes du Sahara Par Eric Verdeil  

E-print Network

Villes et urbanismes du Sahara Par Eric Verdeil (paru dans Géocarrefour, revue de géographie de Lyon, 2003/4, pp.322, 336) Note de lecture sur : Olivier Pliez, Villes du Sahara. Urbanisation et Côte Taoufik Souami, Aménageurs de villes et territoires d'habitants. Un siècle dans le Sud du Sahara

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

440

LUMINESCENCE DANS LES SOLIDES LECTRONIQUEMENT ACTIFS Par HUMBOLDT W. LEVERENZ,  

E-print Network

612. LUMINESCENCE DANS LES SOLIDES ÉLECTRONIQUEMENT ACTIFS Par HUMBOLDT W. LEVERENZ, R. C. A of solids and of luminescence. LI JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE ET LE RADIUM TOME 17, AOUT-SEPTEMBRE 1956, PAGE 612 luminescence. 1. L'orientation des spins des atomes voisins,' parallèles ou antiparallèles, provoque le ferro

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

441

Signaling crosstalk between TGF? and Dishevelled/Par1b.  

PubMed

Crosstalk of signaling pathways is critical during metazoan development and adult tissue homeostasis. Even though the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF?) transduction cascade is rather simple, in vivo responsiveness to TGF? ligands is tightly regulated at several steps. As such, TGF? represents a paradigm for how the activity of one signaling system is modulated by others. Here, we report an unsuspected regulatory step involving Dishevelled (Dvl) and Par1b (also known as MARK2). Dvl and Par1b cooperate to enable TGF?/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in Xenopus mesoderm development and TGF? responsiveness in mammalian cells. Mechanistically, the assembly of the Par1b/Dvl3/Smad4 complex is fostered by Wnt5a. The association of Smad4 to Dvl/Par1 prevents its inhibitory ubiquitination by ectodermin (also known as transcriptional intermediary factor 1 gamma or tripartite motif protein 33). We propose that this crosstalk is relevant to coordinate TGF? responses with Wnt-noncanonical and polarity pathways. PMID:22576663

Mamidi, A; Inui, M; Manfrin, A; Soligo, S; Enzo, E; Aragona, M; Cordenonsi, M; Wessely, O; Dupont, S; Piccolo, S

2012-10-01

442

Signaling crosstalk between TGF? and Dishevelled/Par1b  

PubMed Central

Crosstalk of signaling pathways is critical during metazoan development and adult tissue homeostasis. Even though the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF?) transduction cascade is rather simple, in vivo responsiveness to TGF? ligands is tightly regulated at several steps. As such, TGF? represents a paradigm for how the activity of one signaling system is modulated by others. Here, we report an unsuspected regulatory step involving Dishevelled (Dvl) and Par1b (also known as MARK2). Dvl and Par1b cooperate to enable TGF?/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in Xenopus mesoderm development and TGF? responsiveness in mammalian cells. Mechanistically, the assembly of the Par1b/Dvl3/Smad4 complex is fostered by Wnt5a. The association of Smad4 to Dvl/Par1 prevents its inhibitory ubiquitination by ectodermin (also known as transcriptional intermediary factor 1 gamma or tripartite motif protein 33). We propose that this crosstalk is relevant to coordinate TGF? responses with Wnt-noncanonical and polarity pathways. PMID:22576663

Mamidi, A; Inui, M; Manfrin, A; Soligo, S; Enzo, E; Aragona, M; Cordenonsi, M; Wessely, O; Dupont, S; Piccolo, S

2012-01-01

443

L E T T E R S Microtubules induce self-organization of polarized PAR  

E-print Network

L E T T E R S Microtubules induce self-organization of polarized PAR domains in Caenorhabditis and Geraldine Seydoux1,2 A hallmark of polarized cells is the segregation of the PAR polarity regulators, atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) and PAR-1, have been implicated in polarity maintenance1

Seydoux, Geraldine

444

Pars Plana Vitrectomy in Eyes Containing a Treated Posterior Uveal Melanoma  

E-print Network

Pars Plana Vitrectomy in Eyes Containing a Treated Posterior Uveal Melanoma WILLIAM J. FOSTER, MD PURPOSE: To determine the safety of pars plana vitrec- tomy in eyes containing a treated posterior uveal with posterior uveal melanoma who underwent pars plana vitrectomy. Complications, vitreous cytology, local tu

Foster, William

445

TUDE OPTIQUE ET LECTRIQUE SUR LE TELLURURE DE BISMUTH Bi2Te3 Par J. LAGRENAUDIE,  

E-print Network

39 A �TUDE OPTIQUE ET �LECTRIQUE SUR LE TELLURURE DE BISMUTH Bi2Te3 Par J. LAGRENAUDIE, C. N. E. T, PAGE Le tellurure de bismuth Bi2 Te 3 a été préparé par cofusion des éléments, vers 600 °C, et purifié

Boyer, Edmond

446

A New Method for PAR Reduction of OFDM Signal Based on Chaotic Encoder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose using chaotic digital filter to encode the time domain signal xn to reduce peak-to-average power ratio (PAR) in OFDM system. The xn may have high PAR value, which is a main drawback of OFDM system. The time domain signal becomes chaotically distributed by chaotic encoding, so the PAR value can be reduced. Simulations are done

Yong Guo; Liang Huang

2010-01-01

447

Is There an "F" in Your PAR? Understanding, Teaching and Doing Action Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participatory Action Research (PAR) is increasingly recognized within academic research and pedagogy. What are the benefits of including feminism within participatory action research and teaching? In responding to this question, we discuss the similarities and salient differences between PAR and feminist informed PAR (FPAR). There are eight themes…

Lorenzetti, Liza; Walsh, Christine Ann

2014-01-01

448

LE JOURNAL. DE PHYSIQUE RECHERCHES SUR LA LUMINESCENCE PAR LES RAYONS DE RONTGEN  

E-print Network

LE JOURNAL. DE PHYSIQUE BT , LE RADIUM RECHERCHES SUR LA LUMINESCENCE PAR LES RAYONS DE RONTGEN Par sur la luminescence par les rayons de Rüntgcn. Ces expériences étaient en cours au moment de la guerre Brüninghaus (') et j'ai obtenu avec les rayons X des spectres de luminescence composés de raies et de bandes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

449

APPLICATION DE LA TOPOGRAPHIE PAR DIFFRACTION DES RAYONS X A L'TUDE DES MTAUX  

E-print Network

311. APPLICATION DE LA TOPOGRAPHIE PAR DIFFRACTION DES RAYONS X A L'ÉTUDE DES MÉTAUX Par G On rappelle le principe des différentes méthodes de topographie par diffraction des rayons X : méthode de Berg améliorations à apporter dans le cadre de l'appareillage : tubes à rayons X plus puissants, intensificateurs d

Boyer, Edmond

450

ParA resolvase catalyzes site-specific excision of DNA from the Arabidopsis genome  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The small serine resolvase ParA from bacterial plasmids RK2 and RP4 catalyzes the recombination of two identical 133 bp recombination sites known as MRS. Previously, we reported that ParA is active in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In this work, the parA recombinase gene was placed un...

451

Detection of suPAR in the Saliva of Healthy Young Adults: Comparison with Plasma Levels.  

PubMed

The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has been detected in blood, plasma, serum, urine, ovarian cystic fluid, and cerebrospinal fluid. Elevated suPAR levels in plasma have been associated with negative outcomes in various diseases, such as bacteremia, sepsis, SIRS, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and tuberculosis. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether suPAR can be detected in saliva from healthy individuals and thus, if saliva suPAR can be related to plasma suPAR, CRP, BMI, or gender. Blood and unstimulated whole saliva was collected from 20 healthy individuals (10 female and 10 male, median age of 28 years; range 21-41). CRP and suPAR were measured with ELISA in saliva and serum/plasma. suPAR was detected in all saliva samples in the 5.2-28.1 ng/mL range, with a median value of 17.1 ng/mL. Saliva suPAR was significantly higher (P < 0.001) but not correlated to plasma suPAR in healthy young adults with normal plasma suPAR levels. suPAR and CRP levels were correlated in blood but not in saliva. No correlation was found between BMI, age, or gender and suPAR in saliva. PMID:22084570

Gustafsson, Anna; Ajeti, Vjosa; Ljunggren, Lennart

2011-01-01

452

par genes in Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium smegmatis are arranged in an operon transcribed from "SigGC" promoters  

PubMed Central

Background The ParA/Soj and ParB/Spo0J proteins, and the cis-acting parS site, participate actively in chromosome segregation and cell cycle progression. Genes homologous to parA and parB, and two putative parS copies, have been identified in the Mycobacterium bovis BCG and Mycobacterium smegmatis chromosomes. As in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the parA and parB genes in these two non-pathogenic mycobacteria are located near the chromosomal origin of replication. The present work focused on the determination of the transcriptional organisation of the ~6 Kb orf60K-parB region of M. bovis BCG and M. smegmatis by primer extension, transcriptional fusions to the green fluorescence protein (GFP) and quantitative RT-PCR. Results The parAB genes were arranged in an operon. However, we also found promoters upstream of each one of these genes. Seven putative promoter sequences were identified in the orf60K-parB region of M. bovis BCG, whilst four were identified in the homologous region of M. smegmatis, one upstream of each open reading frame (ORF). Real-time PCR assays showed that in M. smegmatis, mRNA-parA and mRNA-parB levels decreased between the exponential and stationary phases. In M. bovis BCG, mRNA-parA levels also decreased between the exponential and stationary phases. However, parB expression was higher than parA expression and remained almost unchanged along the growth curve. Conclusion The majority of the proposed promoter regions had features characteristic of Mycobacterium promoters previously denoted as Group D. The -10 hexamer of a strong E. coli ?70-like promoter, located upstream of gidB of M. bovis BCG, overlapped with a putative parS sequence, suggesting that the transcription from this promoter might be regulated by the binding of ParB to parS. PMID:18371202

Casart, Yveth; Gamero, Elida; Rivera-Gutierrez, Sandra; González-y-Merchand, Jorge A; Salazar, Leiria

2008-01-01

453

Unpaired bases in phage DNA after gamma-irradiation in-situ and in-vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Phage Lambda DNA, gamma-irradiated in-situ and in-vitro, has been analyzed for unpaired bases by melting, reannealing, and cleavage with Sl nuclease which is specific for single-stranded DNA. DNA, irradiated in-situ, i.e., in the phage particle, contained sites being sensitive to Sl nuclease. These single-stranded lesions were passed over and conserved during reannealing, whereas adjacent DNA regions reannealed specifically. Complementary

Heidi Martin-Bertram; Peter Hartl; Claudia Winkler

1984-01-01

454

EVALUATING CONSERVATION EFFECTIVENESS AND ADAPTATION IN  

E-print Network

EVALUATING CONSERVATION EFFECTIVENESS AND ADAPTATION IN DYNAMIC LANDSCAPES ADENA R. RISSMAN* I INTRODUCTION Despite the widespread use of conservation easements, their conservation outcomes are relatively unknown.1 Evaluating conservation easement effectiveness requires interdisciplinary research that reaches

Rissman, Adena

455

43 CFR 418.31 - Conservation measures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2011-10-01 true Conservation measures. 418.31...RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA Water Management and Conservation § 418.31 Conservation...determine the particular conservation measures that meet the needs of its water users. This...

2012-10-01

456

43 CFR 418.31 - Conservation measures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Conservation measures. 418.31...RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA Water Management and Conservation § 418.31 Conservation...determine the particular conservation measures that meet the needs of its water users. This...

2010-10-01

457

43 CFR 418.31 - Conservation measures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Conservation measures. 418.31...RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA Water Management and Conservation § 418.31 Conservation...determine the particular conservation measures that meet the needs of its water users. This...

2011-10-01

458

43 CFR 418.31 - Conservation measures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Conservation measures. 418.31...RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA Water Management and Conservation § 418.31 Conservation...determine the particular conservation measures that meet the needs of its water users. This...

2014-10-01

459

43 CFR 418.31 - Conservation measures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Conservation measures. 418.31...RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA Water Management and Conservation § 418.31 Conservation...determine the particular conservation measures that meet the needs of its water users. This...

2013-10-01

460

Soil and Water Conservation Spring 2014  

E-print Network

SWS 4233 Soil and Water Conservation Spring 2014 Instructor Susan Curry scurry@ufl.edu 352 equations and reduction practices, government conservation programs; water conservation, irrigation students with an understanding of the interconnectedness of soil and water conservation. The course

Ma, Lena

461

La projection par plasma : une revue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quality of a plasma sprayed coating depends on numerous parameters that start to be understood due to the recent progresses in modelling and measurement techniques for plasma jets, momentum, heat and mass transfers between plasma and particles, the way the particules splat and cool down upon impact on the substrate or the previously deposited layers. In this paper, first are recalled the used measurement techniques and their limitations both for plasma jets and particles in flight. Then are underlined the importance of the different phenomena envolved in the transfers between plasma and particles such as steep temperature and chemical species density gradients around the particles, heat propagation phenomenon especially for ceramic particles and the connected evaporation effect, rarefaction effect which occurs even at atmospheric pressure. The problems related to the size and injection velocity distributions which determine the trajectory distributions and the heat treatments undergone by the particles are treated. The study of plasma generation shows on one hand for d.c. arc plasma torches the drastic influence on the plasma jets lengths and diameters of the gas injection chamber design, the gas nature, the design of the arc chamber and nozzle, the surrounding atmosphere (especially air pumping which cools down very fast the plasma) and on the other hand for RF plasmas the importance of the particle injection design to avoid the coupling between the RF discharge and the carrier gas with the particles. All these points are illustrated with examples of coatings of alumina, zirconia carbide and nickel particles. The way the particles splat is then studied with the chemical reactions in flight, the fast quenching of the particles and the resulting cristalline structures, the coating adhesion and also the residual stesses and their control through that of the temperature gradients into the coatings during spraying. At last a few actual and potential applications are presented in the fields of aeronautics and mechanics. La qualité d'un dépôt projete par plasma dépend de nombreux paramètres que l'on commence à mieux appréhender du fait des progrès de la modélisation et de la métrologie tant des écoulements plasmas que des transferts plasma-particules ou que des conditions d'écrasement et de refroidissement des particules lors de leur impact sur le substrat ou les couches déjà déposées. Les techniques de mesure utilisdes et leurs limitations sont d'abord rappelées tant pour les jets de plasma que pour les particules en vol et l'importance des différents phénomènes intervenant dans les transferts plasma-particules est soulignée : gradients de température et de concentration d'espèces chimiques très élevés autour des particules, effets de propagation de la chaleur, notamment pour les particules céramiques, effet d'évaporation, effet de raréfaction sensible dès la pression atmosphérique. Les problèmes de distribution de taille et de vitesse d'injection des particules sont également abordés car ils conditionnent les distributions de trajectoires et donc le traitement des particules dans le jet de plasma. La génération du plasma montre d'une part 1'influence considérable de l'injection du gaz, de sa nature, du dessin de la chambre d'arc et de la tuyère ainsi que du pompage de l'air ambiant sur la longueur des jets de plasma d'arc et d'autre part les problèmes d'injection pour éviter le couplage avec la décharge dans les jets de plasmas R.E Tout ceci est illustré avec des exemples de dépôt d'alumine, de zircone, de cermet carbure et de nickel. L'écrasement des particules est ensuite abordé avec les problèmes de réactions chimiques, de trempe ultra-rapide et donc de structure cristalline des dépôts, d'adhdsion mais aussi de containtes résiduelles et de leur contrôle via les gradients de température dans les dépôts pendant le tir. Enfin quelques applications actuelles sont présentées notamment pour l'aéronautique et la mécanique.

Fauchais, P.; Grimaud, A.; Vardelle, A.; Vardelle, M.

462

CITES: A Conservation Tool  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1973, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) remains one of the most critical documents in the regulation of international trade of wild animals and plants. Amendments to the CITES appendices occur every two years, and "can include the addition to or removal from an Appendix of a species, or transfer of species between Appendices." CITES: A Conservation Tool is the most current "guide to amending the appendices." The eighth edition of the document is only available in pdf version in English, while the seventh edition is still available in French or Spanish at this site.

463

Water Conservation: Denver, CO  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dams are widely distributed throughout the U.S. Their impact is perhaps most apparent in western cities, many of which lack a sufficient local water supply and thus rely on water diverted from far-away sources, particularly man-made lakes. This video segment shows how the city of Denver, Colorado, faced with a growing water crisis, developed and later abandoned a plan for a nearby dam and instead adopted policies consistent with a broader water-conservation strategy. The segment is three minutes forty-nine seconds in length.

464

Water Conservation: Israel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A recent report stated that in the next decade or so, nearly half of the world's population will live in countries whose water supplies are over-stressed. In parts of Africa, northern China, southern Asia, and the Middle East, water is already being pumped from aquifers faster than it is being replenished. In India, the water table is falling 1-3 m (3-10 ft) per year. This video segment, adapted from the television program 'Last Oasis', discusses how Israel has approached its water scarcity problem by developing innovative ways to conserve and reuse its supply.

465

Habitat Conservation Planning Support  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides an overview of the concept of habitat conservation planning (HCP), a program administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The information includes descriptions of the primary aspects of HCP: collection of ecological field data; design of reserves; analysis of the impacts that may result in the extinction of vulnerable species; monitoring to evaluate the progress of a given HCP; and areas of support such as geographic information systems (GIS), remote sensing, and simulation modeling. There are also links to examples of current research being conducted to support each of these aspects.

466

Pneumatic Air Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief interactive activity, by Electromechanical Digital Library and Wisconsin Technical College System faculty members Terry Bartelt and Stephen Schneider, introduces pneumatic air conservation. The lesson begins with an illustration comparing production of air force by electric and pneumatic systems. The lesson then moves on to discuss ways to reduce the cost of supplying pneumatic systems with electrical power, by reducing leakage and selecting the proper air pressure. This is an excellent and practical resource for reducing the monetary and environmental cost of running pneumatic air systems.

Bartelt, Terry L. M.

467

Bat Conservation International, Inc.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Web site for Bat Conservation International, Inc. (last mentioned in the November 12, 1997_Scout Report for Science and Engineering_) has added significant content since our last coverage of the site. Although the site still has information about the organization, bat facts, FAQs, and information on bat biology, in-depth sections on a wide variety of research projects have been added, ranging from bats in Latin American ecosystems to bats in your very own yard. Although there is a large focus on research, the text is still written for a general audience, and most sections include a variety of photos.

468

Integrating Agriculture and Conservation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The USGS produces the needed science-based information to guide management actions and policy decisions that support wildlife habitat and other environmental services compatible with USDA conservation goals and farm operations. The Policy Analysis and Science Assistance Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) has conducted research involving a national landowner survey and numerous short- and long-term evaluations regarding vegetation responses to land management practices. This research helps land and resource managers to make informed decisions and resolve resource management conflicts.

Vandever, Mark W.

2010-01-01

469

DTERMINATION PRCISE DE L'NERGIE DES RAYONS 03B1 EMIS PAR LE THORIUM Par M. GEORGES PHILBERT, Mme JEANNINE GNIN et M. LOPOLD VIGNERON,  

E-print Network

16 D�TERMINATION PR�CISE DE L'�NERGIE DES RAYONS 03B1 EMIS PAR LE THORIUM Par M. GEORGES PHILBERT. Sommaire. 2014 Du thorium, de l'ionium et du polonium ont été introduits ensemble dans une émulsion, les et autres nous ont permis de ne pas être gênés par les dérivés radioactifs du thorium. L

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

470

PRODUCTION DE TRITIUM DANS LE THORIUM PAR DES PROTONS DE 135 MeV Par M. LEFORT, G. SIMONOFF et X. TARRAGO  

E-print Network

959 PRODUCTION DE TRITIUM DANS LE THORIUM PAR DES PROTONS DE 135 MeV Par M. LEFORT, G. SIMONOFF et thorium par des protons de 135 MeV accélérés au synchro-cyclotron d'Orsay. Le tritium était extrait des measured the cross-section of tritium production by bombardement of thorium by 135 MeV protons in the Orsay

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

471

MSc Conservation The leading degree for aspiring  

E-print Network

MSc Conservation The leading degree for aspiring nature conservation professionals www.geog.ucl.ac.uk/conservation LONDON'S GLOBAL UNIVERSITY #12;Student fieldwork, Norfolk (Picture: Jan Axmacher) Conservation at UCL The UCL MSc Conservation is widely recognised as the leading course for aspiring nature conservation

Jones, Peter JS

472

Numerical modelling of vertical suspended solids concentrations and irradiance in a turbid shallow system (Vaccares, Se France)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In shallow ecosystems, the short temporal variability of available underwater irradiance is considered a major process controlling\\u000a submerged macrophytes development. Mechanistic models that estimate photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) in shallow\\u000a ecosystems at very short time scales are needed for use in predicting submerged macrophyte growth and persistence. We coupled\\u000a a 2D horizontal circulation model with, first, a 1D vertical numerical

Bertrand Millet; Christian Robert; Patrick Grillas; Clare Coughlan; Damien Banas

2010-01-01

473

Supply Curves of Conserved Energy  

SciTech Connect

Supply curves of conserved energy provide an accounting framework that expresses the potential for energy conservation. The economic worthiness of a conservation measure is expressed in terms of the cost of conserved energy, and a measure is considered economical when the cost of conserved energy is less than the price of the energy it replaces. A supply curve of conserved energy is independent of energy prices; however, the economical reserves of conserved energy will depend on energy prices. Double-counting of energy savings and error propagation are common problems when estimating conservation potentials, but supply curves minimize these difficulties and make their consequences predictable. The sensitivity of the cost of conserved energy is examined, as are variations in the optimal investment strategy in response to changes in inputs. Guidelines are presented for predicting the consequences of such changes. The conservation supply curve concept can be applied to peak power, water, pollution, and other markets where consumers demand a service rather than a particular good.

Meier, Alan Kevin

1982-05-01

474

Energy conservation in museums  

SciTech Connect

An overall assessment of energy conservation in museums in New York is made in view of the special environmental considerations involved. The special relative humidity, temperature, and lighting requirements of museums were studied extensively. An energy consumption data base was formed with actual energy use data obtained from over fifty institutions across the state. The computerized energy consumption data base compiled covers an extremely wide range of energy usage levels. On-site energy consumption ranged from approximately 20,000 to 400,000 Btu/ft/sup 2/ year. The data base includes small rural institutions and large metropolitan museums, historic and modern structures, seasonal and year-round museums, single buildings and collections of buildings, single-story buildings and multiple-story buildings, an aquarium, and a zoo. Thus, it is difficult to identify trends in the energy consumption data and to make correlations with such parameters as age, type, size, etc. Walk-through or mini energy audits were performed on ten museums located in various parts of New York State. This project also included a thorough study of all potential funding sources to which museums can apply for financing energy conservation measures. Sources of technical assistance and information were also identified. (MCW)

Ucar, M.; Doering, G.C.

1980-07-01

475

Kiwi Conservation Club  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For over 20 years the Kiwi Conservation Club has been teaching New Zealand children about plants, animals, conservation, and respect for nature. Their website is loaded with several fun ways for kids to engage in learning. The "Wildlife and Wild Places" link has four colorful squares, each with a photo on it, and when scrolled over, the topic of the square is revealed. Visitors will find the following topics: "Wild Places", "Wildlife", "Plant Life", and "Threats and Impacts". The Threats and Impacts square informs visitors of the numerous non-native animals that have been introduced to New Zealand and caused harm to native populations since the 1700s. These "Pest Plants" and "Pest Animals" are explained in further detail by clicking on yet another series of squares, or on the left hand menu. Visitors will definitely enjoy the "Games and Quizzes" section of the website, where there are "Spotlight Games", "Quizzes", and "Match Puzzles". The subject of the Match Puzzles include "Who's My Cousin?", "Where Do I Live?", and "What Puts Me in Danger?"

476

Selling energy conservation.  

PubMed

This article concerns the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) crisis and its impact on energy efficiency measures in the US. In 1985, when the OPEC collapsed, the US government had avoided the need to construct 350 gigawatts of new electric capacity. The most successful efficiency improvements, especially in household appliances and equipment, lighting and tightened energy efficiency standards in new buildings, resulted from the OPEC event. The real innovation of that time was the change in profit rules for utilities. This revolution and the way some US utilities view energy have not caught on elsewhere. Despite the initiative toward improving energy efficiency in homes, offices and industries, the change has been slow. Partly to blame are the big development banks, which pointed out that short-term conservation and efficiency measures could save at least 15% of the total energy demand without the need for major investment. The benefits of energy conservation was shown during the oil shock when per capita energy consumption fell by 5% in the member states of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, while the per capita gross domestic product grew by a third. There has been a decrease in energy expenditure worldwide, and the scope for further energy savings is enormous, but governments need to recognize and seize the opportunity. PMID:12295818

Hinrichsen, D

1995-01-01

477

Integrable viscous conservation laws  

E-print Network

We propose an extension of the Dubrovin-Zhang perturbative approach to the study of normal forms for non-Hamiltonian integrable scalar conservation laws. The explicit computation of the first few corrections leads to the conjecture that such normal forms are parameterized by one single functional parameter, named viscous central invariant. A constant valued viscous central invariant corresponds to the well-known Burgers hierarchy. The case of a linear viscous central invariant provides a viscous analog of the Camassa-Holm equation, that formerly appeared as a reduction of a two-component Hamiltonian integrable systems. We write explicitly the negative and positive hierarchy associated with this equation and prove the integrability showing that they can be mapped respectively into the heat hierarchy and its negative counterpart, named the Klein-Gordon hierarchy. A local well-posedness theorem for periodic initial data is also proven. We show how transport equations can be used to effectively construct asymptotic solutions via an extension of the quasi-Miura map that preserves the initial datum. The method is alternative to the method of the string equation for Hamiltonian conservation laws and naturally extends to the viscous case. Using these tools we derive the viscous analog of the Painlev\\'e I2 equation that describes the universal behaviour of the solution at the critical point of gradient catastrophe.

Alessandro Arsie; Paolo Lorenzoni; Antonio Moro

2014-06-25

478

Lyme disease and conservation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness that is wide-spread in North America, especially in the northeastern and northcentral United States. This disease could negatively influence efforts to conserve natural populations in two ways: (1) the disease could directly affect wild animal health; and (2) tick control efforts could adversely affect natural populations and communities. Lyme disease affects several domestic animals, but symptoms have been reported in only a few wild species. Direct effects of Lyme disease on wild animal populations have not been reported, but the disease should be considered as a possible cause in cases of unexplained population declines in endemic areas. Methods available to manage ticks and Lyme disease include human self-protection techniques, manipulation of habitats and hosts species populations, biological control, and pesticide applications. The diversity of available techniques allows selection of approaches to minimize environmental effects by (1) emphasizing personal protection techniques, (2) carefully targeting management efforts to maximize efficiency, and (3) integrating environmentally benign techniques to improve management while avoiding broad-scale environmentally destructive approaches. The environmental effects of Lyme disease depend, to a large extent, on the methods chosen to minimize human exposure to infected ticks. Conservation biologists can help design tick management programs that effectively lower the incidence of human Lyme disease while simultaneously minimizing negative effects on natural populations.

Ginsberg, H.

1994-01-01

479

The physical association of the P2Y12 receptor with PAR4 regulates arrestin-mediated Akt activation.  

PubMed

It is now well accepted that protease activated receptor (PAR) 1 and PAR4 have differential roles in platelet activation. PAR4, a low-affinity thrombin receptor in human platelets, participates in sustained platelet activation in a P2Y12-dependent manner; however, the mechanisms are not defined. Our previous studies demonstrated that thrombin induces the association of PAR4 with P2Y12, together with arrestin recruitment to the complex. Here we show that PAR4 and P2Y12 directly interact to coregulate Akt signaling after PAR4 activation. We observed direct and specific interaction of P2Y12 with PAR4 but not PAR1 by bioluminescent resonance energy transfer when the receptors were coexpressed in human embryonic kidney 293T cells. PAR4-P2Y12 dimerization was promoted by PAR4-AP and inhibited by P2Y12 antagonist. By using sequence comparison of the transmembrane domains of PAR1 and PAR4, we designed a mutant form of PAR4, "PAR4SFT," by replacing LGL194-196 at the base of transmembrane domain 4 with the corresponding aligned PAR1 residues SFT 220-222. PAR4SFT supported only 8.74% of PAR4-P2Y12 interaction, abolishing P2Y12-dependent arrestin recruitment to PAR4 and Akt activation. Nonetheless, PAR4SFT still supported homodimerization with PAR4. PAR4SFT failed to induce a calcium flux when expressed independently; however, coexpression of increasing concentrations of PAR4SFT, together with PAR4 potentiated PAR4-mediated calcium flux, suggested that PAR4 act as homodimers to signal to Gq-coupled calcium responses. In conclusion, PAR4 LGL (194-196) governs agonist-dependent association of PAR4 with P2Y12 and contributes to Gq-coupled calcium responses. PAR4-P2Y12 association supports arrestin-mediated sustained signaling to Akt. Hence, PAR4-P2Y12 dimerization is likely to be important for the PAR4-P2Y12 dependent stabilization of platelet thrombi. PMID:24723492

Khan, Aasma; Li, Dongjun; Ibrahim, Salam; Smyth, Emer; Woulfe, Donna S

2014-07-01

480

Chemometric characterization of gamma irradiated chestnuts from Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller) is a valuable natural resource, with high exportation levels. Due to their water content, chestnuts are susceptible to storage problems like dehydration or development of insects and microorganisms. Irradiation has been revealing interesting features to be considered as an alternative conservation technology, increasing food products shelf-life. Any conservation methodology should have a wide application range. Hence, and after evaluating Portuguese cultivars, the assessment of irradiation effects in foreign cultivars might act as an important indicator of the versatility of this technology. In this work, the effects of gamma irradiation (0.0, 0.5 and 3.0 kGy) on proximate composition, sugars, fatty acids (FA) and tocopherols composition of Turkish chestnuts stored at 4 °C for different periods (0, 15 and 30 days) were evaluated. Regarding proximate composition, the storage time (ST) had higher influence than the irradiation dose (ID), especially on fat, ash, carbohydrates and energetic value. Sucrose exhibited similar behavior in response to the assayed ST and ID. The prevalence of ST influence was also verified for FA, tocopherols and sucrose. Lauric, palmitoleic and linolenic acids were the only FA that underwent some differences with ID. Saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were not affected either by storage or irradiation. ?-Tocopherol was the only vitamer with significant differences among the assayed ST and ID. Overall, Turkish cultivars showed a compositional profile closely related with Portuguese cultivars, and seemed to confirm that gamma irradiation in the applied doses did not change chestnut chemical and nutritional composition.

Barreira, João C. M.; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Günaydi, Tugba; Alkan, Hasan; Bento, Albino; Luisa Botelho, M.; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

2012-09-01

481

Brulure par Plaque de Bistouri Electrique: a Propos de Quatre Cas  

PubMed Central

Summary La brûlure par plaque de bistouri électrique est un accident rare mais grave par la profondeur de la lésion et par sa localisation, surtout quand qu’elle survient dans un contexte chirurgical dont le vécu reste difficile de la part du malade et du chirurgien. Cette brûlure bien que imprévisible reste grave par la profondeur et la localisation de la brûlure et par sa survenue dans un contexte opératoire, chez des patients malades. La prise en charge de la brûlure doit se faire en milieu spécialisé. La prévention reste le seul moyen d’éviter ce type d’accident. PMID:21991216

Khales, A.; Achbouk, A.; Belmir, R.; Cherkab, L.; Ennouhi, M.A.; Ababou, K.; Ihrai, H.

2010-01-01

482

Photocontrol of the Functional Coupling between Photosynthesis and Stomatal Conductance in the Intact Leaf : Blue Light and Par-Dependent Photosystems in Guard Cells.  

PubMed

The photocontrol of the functional coupling between photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in the leaf was investigated in gas exchange experiments using monochromatic light provided by lasers. Net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were measured in attached leaves of Malva parviflora L. as a function of photon irradiance at 457.9 and 640.0 nanometers.Photosynthetic rates and quantum yields of photosynthesis were higher under red light than under blue, on an absorbed or incident basis.Stomatal conductance was higher under blue than under red light at all intensities. Based on a calculated apparent photon efficiency of conductance, blue and red light had similar effects on conductance at intensities higher than 0.02 millimoles per square meter per second, but blue light was several-fold more efficient at very low photon irradiances. Red light had no effect on conductance at photon irradiances below 0.02 millimoles per square meter per second. These observations support the hypothesis that stomatal conductance is modulated by two photosystems: a blue light-dependent one, driving stomatal opening at low light intensities and a photosynthetically active radiation (PAR)-dependent one operating at higher irradiances.When low intensity blue light was used to illuminate a leaf already irradiated with high intensity, 640 nanometers light, the leaf exhibited substantial increases in stomatal conductance. Net photosynthesis changed only slightly. Additional far-red light increased net photosynthesis without affecting stomatal conductance. These observations indicate that under conditions where the PAR-dependent system is driven by high intensity red light, the blue light-dependent system has an additive effect on stomatal conductance.The wavelength dependence of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance demonstrates that these processes are not obligatorily coupled and can be controlled by light, independent of prevailing levels of intercellular CO(2). The blue light-dependent system in the guard cells may function as a specific light sensor while the PAR-dependent system supplies a CO(2)-modulated energy source providing functional coupling between the guard cells and the photosynthesizing mesophyll. PMID:16662498

Zeiger, E; Field, C

1982-08-01

483

Nanoparticle production by UV irradiation of combustion generated soot particles  

SciTech Connect

Laser ablation of surfaces normally produce high temperature plasmas that are difficult to control. By irradiating small particles in the gas phase, we can better control the size and concentration of the resulting particles when different materials are photofragmented. Here, we irradiate soot with 193 nm light from an ArF excimer laser. Irradiating the original agglomerated particles at fluences ranging from 0.07 to 0.26 J/cm{sup 2} with repetition rates of 20 and 100 Hz produces a large number of small, unagglomerated particles, and a smaller number of spherical agglomerated particles. Mean particle diameters from 20 to 50 nm are produced from soot originally having a mean electric mobility diameter of 265nm. We use a non-dimensional parameter, called the photon/atom ratio (PAR), to aid in understanding the photofragmentation process. This parameter is the ratio of the number of photons striking the soot particles to the number of the carbon atoms contained in the soot particles, and is a better metric than the laser fluence for analyzing laser-particle interactions. These results suggest that UV photofragmentation can be effective in controlling particle size and morphology, and can be a useful diagnostic for studying elements of the laser ablation process.

Stipe, Christopher B.; Choi, Jong Hyun; Lucas, Donald; Koshland, Catherine P.; Sawyer, Robert F.

2004-07-01

484

National Association of Conservation Districts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The idea of creating conservation districts through the support of private landowners was one that had gestated for decades before the National Association of Conservation Districts (NACD) was formed in 1946. Currently, there are over 3000 conservation districts throughout the United States, and the NACD effectively acts as a unified voice that represents the interests of these districts and also helps develop national conservation policies and fruitful partnerships with other agencies and organizations. First-time visitors to the site will want to perhaps go to the directory section to learn more about the NACD and look through the site's interactive map to learn about where the various conservation districts are located. Students and practitioners may want to look through the electronic publications area, which includes such helpful materials as the organization's in-house weekly news briefs (called eNotes) and their publications produced through effective joint-partnerships, such as Forestry Notes and Conservation.

485

Neutron irradiation therapy machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a neutron irradiation therapy machine for treating patients with a beam of high energy neutrons, a gantry is provided which supports a non-superconducting cyclotron proton accelerator and target for generating a neutron beam and which permits rotation of the accelerator and neutron beam around an axis of revolution coaxial with a patient treatment zone.