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1

A Conserved Mode of Protein Recognition and Binding in a ParD?ParE Toxin?Antitoxin Complex  

SciTech Connect

Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems form a ubiquitous class of prokaryotic proteins with functional roles in plasmid inheritance, environmental stress response, and cell development. ParDE family TA systems are broadly conserved on plasmids and bacterial chromosomes and have been well characterized as genetic elements that promote stable plasmid inheritance. We present a crystal structure of a chromosomally encoded ParD-ParE complex from Caulobacter crescentus at 2.6 {angstrom} resolution. This TA system forms an {alpha}{sub 2}{beta}{sub 2} heterotetramer in the crystal and in solution. The toxin-antitoxin binding interface reveals extensive polar and hydrophobic contacts of ParD antitoxin helices with a conserved recognition and binding groove on the ParE toxin. A cross-species comparison of this complex structure with related toxin structures identified an antitoxin recognition and binding subdomain that is conserved between distantly related members of the RelE/ParE toxin superfamily despite a low level of overall primary sequence identity. We further demonstrate that ParD antitoxin is dimeric, stably folded, and largely helical when not bound to ParE toxin. Thus, the paradigmatic model in which antitoxin undergoes a disorder-to-order transition upon toxin binding does not apply to this chromosomal ParD-ParE TA system.

Dalton, Kevin M.; Crosson, Sean (UC)

2010-05-06

2

Enhanced PAR Irradiance Under Broken Cloud Fields and its Significance for Tropical Forest Photosynthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field measurements of total and diffuse photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) were combined with modeling to investigate the effects of atmospheric scattering by clouds on the surface PAR regime, forest canopy PAR absorption, and simulated photosynthetic rates for a moist tropical site at Putussibau, West Kalimantan Province, Indonesia (0.84N, 112.93E). Time-series PAR data collected in 2007 are characterized by large diffuse PAR fractions and frequent occurrence of enhanced global PAR irradiance (often exceeding the extraterrestrial flux) associated with reflectance and scattering by broken cloud fields. Simulations of canopy-absorbed PAR and gross photosynthesis with the Forest Light Environmental Simulator (FLiES) demonstrate the role of clouds in controlling forest canopy light-use efficiency and rates of photosynthesis and vegetation-atmosphere carbon exchange in this moist tropical environment. Application of a high dynamic range sky imaging system (HDR-SIS) to analysis of the sky radiance distribution of PAR under various atmospheric conditions is described.

Dye, D. G.; Kobayashi, H.; Wu, P.; Sulistyowati, R.; Sarodja, D.; Syamsudin, F.

2008-12-01

3

Tight junction protein Par6 interacts with an evolutionarily conserved region in the amino terminus of PALS1/stardust.  

PubMed

Tight junctions are the structures in mammalian epithelial cells that separate the apical and basolateral membranes and may also be important in the establishment of cell polarity. Two evolutionarily conserved multiprotein complexes, Crumbs-PALS1 (Stardust)-PATJ and Cdc42-Par6-Par3-atypical protein kinase C, have been implicated in the assembly of tight junctions and in polarization of Drosophila melanogaster epithelia. These two complexes have been linked physically and functionally by an interaction between PALS1 and Par6. Here we identify an evolutionarily conserved region in the amino terminus of PALS1 as the Par6 binding site and identify valine and aspartic acid residues in this region as essential for interacting with the PDZ domain of Par6. We have also characterized, in more detail, the amino terminus of Drosophila Stardust and demonstrate that the interaction mechanism between Stardust and Drosophila Par6 is evolutionarily conserved. Par6 interferes with PATJ in binding PALS1, and these two interactions do not appear to function synergistically. Taken together, these results define the molecular mechanisms linking two conserved polarity complexes. PMID:15140881

Wang, Qian; Hurd, Toby W; Margolis, Ben

2004-05-11

4

Partial Breast Irradiation after Breast-Conserving Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The standard technique of postoperative radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery is percutaneous irradiation of the entire breast to a total dose of 45–50 Gy which is usually followed by a tumor bed boost. Since the majority of local recurrencesin selected patients occur close to the former tumor bed, the question arises whether a sole tumor bed irradiation might be a

Georg Sauer; Vratislav Strnad; Christian Kurzeder; Rolf Kreienberg; Rolf Sauer

2005-01-01

5

Characterization of a Conserved Interaction between DNA Glycosylase and ParA in Mycobacterium smegmatis and M. tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

The chromosome partitioning proteins, ParAB, ensure accurate segregation of genetic materials into daughter cells and most bacterial species contain their homologs. However, little is known about the regulation of ParAB proteins. In this study, we found that 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase I MsTAG(Ms5082) regulates bacterial growth and cell morphology by directly interacting with MsParA (Ms6939) and inhibiting its ATPase activity in Mycobacterium smegmatis. Using bacterial two-hybrid and pull-down techniques in combination with co-immunoprecipitation assays, we show that MsTAG physically interacts with MsParA both in vitro and in vivo. Expression of MsTAG under conditions of DNA damage induction exhibited similar inhibition of growth as the deletion of the parA gene in M. smegmatis. Further, the effect of MsTAG on mycobacterial growth was found to be independent of its DNA glycosylase activity, and to result instead from direct inhibition of the ATPase activity of MsParA. Co-expression of these two proteins could counteract the growth defect phenotypes observed in strains overexpressing MsTAG alone in response to DNA damage induction. Based on protein co-expression and fluorescent co-localization assays, MsParA and MsTAG were further found to co-localize in mycobacterial cells. In addition, the interaction between the DNA glycosylase and ParA, and the regulation of ParA by the glycosylase were conserved in M. tuberculosis and M. smegmatis. Our findings provide important new insights into the regulatory mechanism of cell growth and division in mycobacteria.

Huang, Feng; He, Zheng-Guo

2012-01-01

6

Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation After Conservative Surgery for Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Objective: To critically review the theoretical and actual risks and benefits of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) after breast-conserving surgery. Summary Background Data: Because of rapid evolution of radiation therapy techniques related to brachytherapy and three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, APBI has very recently come to the forefront as a potential local treatment option for women with breast cancer. This review aims to give an overview of the biologic rationale for APBI techniques, and benefits and limitations of APBI techniques. Methods: The authors reviewed the currently available published world medical literature on breast-conserving surgery with and without postoperative irradiation; all studies involving partial breast irradiation, including brachytherapy, for breast cancer; and currently accruing and planned APBI trials. The focus of this review was the early results of treatment in terms of toxicity, complications, cosmesis, and local control. Results: On average, approximately 3% of patients treated with breast-conserving surgery will have an in-breast local recurrence away from the original lumpectomy site with or without postoperative standard whole-breast irradiation. The results of phase I-II studies involving approximately 500 patients treated with APBI after breast-conserving surgery have been published. Although many of the studies have limited long-term follow-up and potential selection bias, early results suggest that toxicity, cosmesis, and local control are comparable to outcomes seen after breast-conserving surgery followed by standard whole-breast irradiation. Conclusions: Recent advances in radiation delivery and published series of partial breast irradiation support large randomized trials comparing APBI with standard whole-breast irradiation after breast-conserving surgery.

Kuerer, Henry M.; Julian, Thomas B.; Strom, Eric A.; Lyerly, H Kim; Giuliano, Armando E.; Mamounas, Eleftherios P.; Vicini, Frank A.

2004-01-01

7

Row orientation effect on UV-B, UV-A and PAR solar irradiation components in vineyards at Tuscany, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Besides playing an essential role in plant photosynthesis, solar radiation is also involved in many other important biological processes. In particular, it has been demonstrated that ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation plays a relevant role in grapevines ( Vitis vinifera) in the production of certain important chemical compounds directly responsible for yield and wine quality. Moreover, the exposure to UV-B radiation (280-320 nm) can affect plant-disease interaction by influencing the behaviour of both pathogen and host. The main objective of this research was to characterise the solar radiative regime of a vineyard, in terms of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and UV components. In this analysis, solar spectral UV irradiance components, broadband UV (280-400 nm), spectral UV-B and UV-A (320-400 nm), the biological effective UVBE, as well as the PAR (400-700 nm) component, were all considered. The diurnal patterns of these quantities and the UV-B/PAR and UV-B/UV-A ratios were analysed to investigate the effect of row orientation of the vineyard in combination with solar azimuth and elevation angles. The distribution of PAR and UV irradiance at various heights of the vertical sides of the rows was also studied. The results showed that the highest portion of plants received higher levels of daily radiation, especially the UV-B component. Row orientation of the vines had a pronounced effect on the global PAR received by the two sides of the rows and, to a lesser extent, UV-A and UV-B. When only the diffused component was considered, this geometrical effect was greatly attenuated. UV-B/PAR and UV-A/PAR ratios were also affected, with potential consequences on physiological processes. Because of the high diffusive capacity of the UV-B radiation, the UV-B/PAR ratio was significantly lower on the plant portions exposed to full sunlight than on those in the shade.

Grifoni, D.; Carreras, G.; Zipoli, G.; Sabatini, F.; Dalla Marta, A.; Orlandini, S.

2008-11-01

8

Row orientation effect on UV-B, UV-A and PAR solar irradiation components in vineyards at Tuscany, Italy.  

PubMed

Besides playing an essential role in plant photosynthesis, solar radiation is also involved in many other important biological processes. In particular, it has been demonstrated that ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation plays a relevant role in grapevines (Vitis vinifera) in the production of certain important chemical compounds directly responsible for yield and wine quality. Moreover, the exposure to UV-B radiation (280-320 nm) can affect plant-disease interaction by influencing the behaviour of both pathogen and host. The main objective of this research was to characterise the solar radiative regime of a vineyard, in terms of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and UV components. In this analysis, solar spectral UV irradiance components, broadband UV (280-400 nm), spectral UV-B and UV-A (320-400 nm), the biological effective UVBE, as well as the PAR (400-700 nm) component, were all considered. The diurnal patterns of these quantities and the UV-B/PAR and UV-B/UV-A ratios were analysed to investigate the effect of row orientation of the vineyard in combination with solar azimuth and elevation angles. The distribution of PAR and UV irradiance at various heights of the vertical sides of the rows was also studied. The results showed that the highest portion of plants received higher levels of daily radiation, especially the UV-B component. Row orientation of the vines had a pronounced effect on the global PAR received by the two sides of the rows and, to a lesser extent, UV-A and UV-B. When only the diffused component was considered, this geometrical effect was greatly attenuated. UV-B/PAR and UV-A/PAR ratios were also affected, with potential consequences on physiological processes. Because of the high diffusive capacity of the UV-B radiation, the UV-B/PAR ratio was significantly lower on the plant portions exposed to full sunlight than on those in the shade. PMID:18594874

Grifoni, D; Carreras, G; Zipoli, G; Sabatini, F; Dalla Marta, A; Orlandini, S

2008-07-02

9

Conservation of Garlic Bulbs (Allium Sativum L.) by gamma Irradiation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of different doses of gamma radiation (from 5 to 30 krad) on the conservation of garlic bulbs during a 12 months period is studied. Irradiations were made at three different times and the best results were obtained with the treatment given duri...

J. Fernandez T. Arranz

1979-01-01

10

Breast conservation treatment with perioperative interstitial irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Limited resection of the breast combined with radiation has proved to be as effective as more radical surgery in treating early breast cancer. At the University of Kansas Medical Center, the radiotherapy consists of an interstitial implant at the time of lumpectomy to deliver an interstitial boost dose to the tumor bed with iridium-192 immediately following the surgical procedure. An axillary node dissection is also performed at the time of lumpectomy. A dose of 2000 cGy is delivered to the tumor bed between 40 and 60 h. Two to three weeks later, 4500-5000 cGy is delivered to the entire breast with external beam radiation over 5-5.5 weeks. One hundred breasts in 98 patients were so treated between June 1982 and February 1986, with 2 carcinomas in situ, 40 stage I, 51 stage II, and 7 stage III cancers, consisting of 2 TIS, 54 T1, 39 T2, and 5 T3 lesions. Locoregional control with a median follow-up of 31 months was 98%. One recurrence was in a different quadrant, and the other revealed predominantly the in situ component. Immediate implant did not compromise wound healing or cosmesis. The cosmetic result was graded as good to excellent in 88% of the breasts. Our preliminary results appear to suggest a better local control with immediate interstitial irradiation.

Krishnan, L.; Mansfield, C.M.; Jewell, W.R.; Reddy, E.K.; Thomas, J.H.; Krishnan, E.C.

1987-10-01

11

Regional nodal irradiation in the conservative treatment of breast cancer  

SciTech Connect

At this institution conservative treatment of breast cancer was begun in the 1960's. The following analysis represents our experience through 1984 with specific reference to the management of the regional lymph nodes. A total of 432 patients with clinical stage I and II breast cancer were treated between 1962 and 1984 with lumpectomy and radiation therapy. The breast was treated with tangential fields to a median dose of 4800 cGy and electron conedown to a total tumor bed dose of 6400 cGy. Axillary dissection was not routinely performed, particularly in the earlier years. More recently, axillary dissection has been used with increasing frequency if it was felt that the results of the dissection would influence systemic treatment. One hundred eighty-seven patients (43%) underwent axillary dissection and routinely received regional nodal irradiation to the internal mammary and supraclavicular lymph nodes. Two hundred forty-five patients (57%) did not undergo axillary dissection and routinely received regional nodal irradiation to the internal mammary, supraclavicular, and entire axillary regions to a total median dose of 4600 cGy. As of May 1989 with a median follow-up of 7.5 years, there have been a total of 12 nodal failures for an actuarial nodal control rate of 97% at 5 years and 96% at 10 years. The actuarial 5-year regional nodal control rate was the same for both the group of patients receiving regional RT alone without axillary dissection and the group of patients receiving axillary dissection and supraclavicular/internal mammary radiation. There has been minimal morbidity associated with this treatment policy. We conclude that regional nodal irradiation, with or without axillary dissection, results in a high rate of regional nodal control and minimal treatment morbidity in patients undergoing conservative treatment of early stage breast cancer.

Haffty, B.G.; Fischer, D.; Fischer, J.J. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (USA))

1990-10-01

12

Benefits versus risks in conservation surgery with irradiation for breast cancer  

SciTech Connect

This report analyzes the survival and complications inherent in the conventional treatment of breast cancer, radical mastectomy, and the more conservative procedure, conservation surgery with irradiation. Both procedures have benefits and risks. The benefits as measured by survivorship appear to be approximately the same. The major benefit of conservation surgery with irradiation is that the breast is left intact. The possible complication of irradiation carcinogenesis is addressed, and the literature analyzed. This review indicates that the absolute risk of breast cancer developing in the second breast is not nearly as great as originally thought. It is concluded that if a woman with breast cancer is a candidate for either mastectomy or the conservative procedure, it is the clinician's obligation to objectively present the evidence regarding the benefits and risks of these procedures.

Levitt, S.H.; Mandel, J.

1984-07-01

13

The Effect of Anthracene and Phenanthrene on the Growth, Photosynthesis, and SOD Activity of the Green Alga Scenedesmus armatus Depends on the PAR Irradiance and CO 2 Level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-term (24-h) experiments were performed to examine the effect of phenanthrene (PHE) and anthracene (ANT) on algae grown in a batch culture system at irradiances of 12, 33, 48, and 64 W m –2 of the PAR range. Cultures were aerated (0.1 or 2% CO 2) or nonaerated. As a result of aeration the concentration of ANT dropped from 0.45

A. Aksmann; Z. Tukaj

2004-01-01

14

Late Effects and Cosmetic Results of Conventional Versus Hypofractionated Irradiation in Breast-Conserving Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Background and Purpose:  Breast irradiation after lumpectomy is an integral component of breast-conserving therapy (BCT). As the prognosis is general\\u000a good following BCT, late morbidity and cosmesis are important. The present study compares two different radiation schedules\\u000a with respect to these two endpoints.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and Methods:  129 breast cancer patients (pT1–2 pN0–1 cM0) were irradiated between 09\\/1992 and 08\\/1994 with either a

Fabian Fehlauer; Silke Tribius; Winfried Alberti; Dirk Rades

2005-01-01

15

Excised and irradiated volumes in relation to the tumor size in breast-conserving therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In early-stage breast cancer and DCIS patients, breast-conserving therapy is today’s standard of care. The purpose of this\\u000a study was to evaluate the relation between the microscopic tumor diameter (mTD), the excised specimen (ES) volume, and the\\u000a irradiated postoperative complex (POC) volume, in patients treated with breast-conserving therapy. In 186 patients with pTis-2N0\\u000a breast cancer, the mTDs, ES, and POC

M. D. den Hartogh; B. van Asselen; E. M. Monninkhof; M. A. A. J. van den Bosch; M. van Vulpen; P. J. van Diest; K. G. A. Gilhuijs; A. J. Witkamp; L. van de Bunt; W. P. T. M. Mali; H. J. G. D. van den Bongard

16

Par Pond water balance  

SciTech Connect

A water budget for the Par Pond hydrologic system was established in order to estimate the rate of groundwater influx to Par Pond. This estimate will be used in modeling exercises to predict Par Pond reservoir elevation and spillway discharge in the scenario where Savannah River water is no longer pumped and discharged into Par Pond. The principal of conservation of mass was used to develop the water budget, where water inflow was set equal to water outflow. Components of the water budget were identified, and the flux associated with each was determined. The water budget was considered balanced when inflow and outflow summed to zero. The results of this study suggest that Par Pond gains water from the groundwater system in the upper reaches of the reservoir, but looses water to the groundwater system near the dam. The rate of flux of groundwater from the water table aquifer into Par Pond was determined to be 13 cfs. The rate of flux from Par Pond to the water table aquifer near the dam was determined to be 7 cfs.

Hiergesell, R.A.; Dixon, K.L.

1996-06-01

17

Par4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) is a 38-kDa protein initially identified as the product of a gene upregulated in prostate\\u000a tumor cells undergoing apoptosis. Par-4 contains both a death domain and a leucine zipper domain, and has been shown to interact\\u000a with several proteins known to modulate apoptosis, including protein kinase C?, Bcl-2, and caspase-8. A rapid increase in\\u000a Par-4 levels

Mark P. Mattson; Wenzhen Duan; Sic L. Chan; Simonetta Camandola

1999-01-01

18

Perioperative interstitial irradiation in the conservative management of early breast cancer  

SciTech Connect

Conservation of the breast in early breast cancer with limited resection and radiation is proving to be as effective as modified radical mastectomy in survival and in loco-regional control. Management at the University of Kansas Medical Center consists of an interstitial implant at the time of lumpectomy to facilitate perioperative irradiation with Iridium-192 to the tumor bed. An axillary node dissection is also performed at that time. Two to 3 weeks later external beam irradiation is delivered to the entire breast. One hundred and twenty-three breasts in 120 patients have been treated between June 1982 and June 1986. There were 49 pathological Stage I, 63 Stage II, 8 Stage III carcinomas, and 3 carcinomas in situ, consisting of 72 T1, 43 T2, 5 T3, and 3 TIS lesions. Patients have been followed for a median of 30 months. One patient had a ''true'' recurrence in the breast. Another patient developed recurrence in a different quadrant. Ninety percent of the patients had good to excellent cosmetic results, 7% were considered fair, and 3% had poor results. Seven patients developed mild arm edema, 4 were found to have moderate edema, and 1 had severe arm edema. Our preliminary results indicate that interstitial irradiation immediately after excision results in excellent local control, with very satisfactory cosmesis and no morbidity due to the simultaneous excision and irradiation.

Krishnan, L.; Jewell, W.R.; Mansfield, C.M.; Reddy, E.K.; Thomas, J.H.; Krishnan, E.C.

1987-11-01

19

The role of boost irradiation in the conservative treatment of stage I-II breast cancer.  

PubMed

In this article, we review the current status, indication, technical aspects, controversies, and future prospects of boost irradiation after breast conserving surgery (BCS). BCS and radiotherapy (RT) of the conserved breast became widely accepted in the last decades for the treatment of early invasive breast cancer. The standard technique of RT after breast conservation is to treat the whole breast up to a total dose of 45 to 50 Gy. However, there is no consensus among radiation oncologists about the necessity of boost dose to the tumor bed. Generally accepted criteria for identification of high risk subgroups, in which boost is recommended, have not been established yet. Further controversy exists regarding the optimal boost technique (electron vs. brachytherapy), and their impact on local tumor control and cosmesis. Based on the results of numerous retrospective and recently published prospective trials, the European brachytherapy society (GEC-ESTRO), as well as the American Brachytherapy Society has issued their guidelines in these topics. These guidelines will help clinicians in their medical decisions. Some aspects of boost irradiation still remain somewhat controversial. The final results of prospective boost trials with longer follow-up, involving analyses based on pathologically defined subgroups, will clarify these controversies. Preliminary results with recently developed boost techniques (intraoperative RT, CT-image based 3D conformal brachytherapy, and 3D virtual brachytherapy) are promising. However, more experience and longer follow-up are required to define whether these methods might improve local tumor control for breast cancer patients treated with conservative surgery and RT. PMID:11882903

Polgár, C; Fodor, J; Major, T; Orosz, Z; Németh, G

2001-01-01

20

Outcome After Conservative Surgery and Breast Irradiation in 5,717 Patients With Breast Cancer: Implications for Supraclavicular Nodal Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the outcome and predictive factors of patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy to the whole breast only, without supraclavicular nodal irradiation. Methods and Materials: A total of 5,717 patients with pT1-T4 breast cancer were treated at the University of Florence. The median age of the patient population was 55 years (range, 30-80 years). All patients were followed for a median of 6.8 years (range, 1-27 years). Adjuvant chemotherapy was recommended in 1,535 patients (26.9%). Tamoxifen was prescribed in 2,951 patients (51.6%). The patients were split into three groups according to number of positive axillary nodes (PAN): P1, negative axillary lymph nodes; P2, one to three PAN; P3, more than three PAN. Results: The P3 patients had a higher incidence of supraclavicular fossa recurrence (SFR) compared with P2 and P1 patients. However, the incidence of SFR in P3 patients was low (only 5.5%), whereas the incidence of distant metastases (DM) was 27.2%. Distant metastasis was the only independent prognostic factor for breast cancer survival. Additionally, in the subgroup of patients who developed local recurrence, DM was the most important death predictor. Conclusion: Our series suggests that isolated SFR in patients who did not receive supraclavicular radiotherapy is infrequent, as well as in those patients who have more than three PAN, and SFR seems not to influence the outcome, which depends on DM occurrence.

Livi, Lorenzo, E-mail: l.livi@dfc.unifi.i [Radiotherapy Unit, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Scotti, Vieri [Radiotherapy Unit, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Saieva, Calogero [Molecular and Nutritional Epidemiology Unit, Cancer Research and Prevention Center, Scientific Institute of Tuscany, Florence (Italy); Meattini, Icro; Detti, Beatrice; Simontacchi, Gabriele; Cardillo, Carla Deluca; Paiar, Fabiola; Mangoni, Monica [Radiotherapy Unit, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Marrazzo, Livia [Department of Medical Physics, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Agresti, Benedetta [Radiotherapy Unit, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Cataliotti, Luigi [Department of Surgery, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Bianchi, Simonetta [Department of Pathology, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Biti, Giampaolo [Radiotherapy Unit, University of Florence, Florence (Italy)

2010-03-15

21

Low dose ?-irradiation as a suitable solution for chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller) conservation: effects on sugars, fatty acids, and tocopherols.  

PubMed

Along with dehydration, the development of insects and microorganisms is the major drawback in chestnut conservation. Irradiation has been regaining interest as an alternative technology to increase food product shelf life. In the present work, the effects of low dose gamma irradiation on the sugar, fatty acid, and tocopherol composition of chestnuts stored at 4 °C for different storage periods (0, 30, and 60 days) was evaluated. The irradiations were performed in a 60Co experimental equipment, for 1 h (0.27±0.04 kGy) and 2 h (0.54±0.04 kGy). Changes in sugars and tocopherols were determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to refraction index and fluorescence detections, respectively, while changes in fatty acids were analyzed by gas-chromatography coupled to flame ionization detection. Regarding sugar composition, storage time proved to have a higher effect than irradiation treatment. Fructose and glucose increased after storage, with the corresponding decrease of sucrose. Otherwise, the tocopherol content was lower in nonirradiated samples, without a significant influence of storage. Saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were not affected, either by storage or irradiation. Nevertheless, some individual fatty acid concentrations were influenced by one of two factors, such as the increase of palmitic acid in irradiated samples or the decrease of oleic acid after 60 days of storage. Overall, the assayed irradiation doses seem to be a promising alternative treatment to increase chestnut shelf life, without affecting the profile and composition in important nutrients. PMID:21823582

Fernandes, Ângela; Antonio, Amilcar L; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C M; Bento, Albino; Botelho, M Luisa; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2011-08-23

22

Comparison of Electron and X-Ray Beams for Tumor Bed Boost Irradiation in Breast-Conserving Treatment  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study aimed to compare the dosimetric profiles of electron beams (EB) and X-ray beams (XB) for boosting irradiation in breast cancer patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery and postoperative radiotherapy. Methods For 131 breast cancer patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery, we compared plans for EB and XB boost irradiation after whole-breast irradiation. The organs at risk (OAR) included the cardiac chambers, coronary arteries, ipsilateral lung, and skin. The conformity index (CI), inhomogeneity index (IHI), and dose-volume parameters for the planning target volume (PTV), and OAR were calculated. Postradiotherapy chest computed tomography scans were performed to detect radiation pneumonitis. Results XB plans showed a significantly better CI and IHI for the PTVs, compared to the EB plans. Regarding OAR sparing, the XB reduced the high-dose volume at the expense of an increased low-dose volume. In 33 patients whose radiation fields included nipples, IHI was higher in the EB plans, whereas the presence of a nipple in the radiation field did not interfere with the XB. EB-treated patients developed more subclinical radiation pneumonitis. Conclusion XB plans were superior to EB plans in terms of PTV coverage (homogeneity and conformity) and high-dose volume sparing in OAR when used as boost irradiation after breast-conserving surgery. A disadvantage of the XB plan was an increased low-dose volume in the OAR, but this was offset by the increased electron energy. Consequently, tailored plans with either XB or EB are necessary to adapt to patient anatomic variance and tumor bed geometric properties.

Park, Shin-Hyung

2013-01-01

23

BINDING TO PKC-3, BUT NOT TO PAR-3 OR TO A CONVENTIONAL PDZ DOMAIN LIGAND, IS REQUIRED FOR PAR-6 FUNCTION IN C. ELEGANS  

PubMed Central

PAR-6 is a conserved protein important for establishment and maintenance of cell polarity in a variety of metazoans. PAR-6 proteins function together with PAR-3, aPKC and CDC-42. Mechanistic details of their interactions, however, are not fully understood. We studied the biochemical interactions between C. elegans PAR-6 and its binding partners and tested the requirements of these interactions in living worms. We show that PB1 domain-mediated binding of PAR-6 to PKC-3 is necessary for polarity establishment and PAR-6 cortical localization in C. elegans embryos. We also show that binding of PAR-6 and PAR-3 is mediated in vitro by a novel type of PDZ-PDZ interaction; the ?C strand of PAR-6 PDZ binds the ?D strand of PAR-3 PDZ1. However, this interaction is dispensable in vivo for PAR-6 function throughout the life of C. elegans. Mutations that specifically abolish conventional ligand binding to the PAR-6 PDZ domain also failed to affect PAR-6 function in vivo. We conclude that PAR-6 binding to PKC-3, but not to PAR-3 nor to a conventional PDZ ligand, is required for PAR-6 cortical localization and function in C. elegans.

Li, Jin; Kim, Heon; Aceto, Donato G.; Hung, Jeffrey; Aono, Shinya; Kemphues, Kenneth J.

2010-01-01

24

Lymphedema of the operated and irradiated breast in breast cancer patients following breast conserving surgery and radiotherapy.  

PubMed

The National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference on Treatment of Early Stage Breast Cancer in 1990 indicated that breast conserving surgery with radiotherapy is the primary therapy for the majority of women with early stage breast cancer. Despite good aesthetic results, a remarkable number of patients suffer from lymphedema of the operated and irradiated breast. 131 study participants scored 8 subjective symptoms of breast edema on a scale from 0 to 10 and completed the EORTC QLQ-BR23 questionnaire to assess the health related quality of life among breast cancer patients. Incidence of breast edema, up to 5 years following surgery, was 75.5%. There was a significant positive correlation between breast edema and body mass index. Breast edema also correlated significantly with chemotherapy treatment, anti-hormone therapy, age, and all aspects of quality of life, except sexual functioning, sexual enjoyment, and upset by hair loss. There were no significant differences in breast edema related to the post- operative period, the level of nodal dissection, preoperative bra cup size, tumor location and whether the surgery was performed on the dominant side. Despite the benefits of breast conserving surgery and radiotherapy, breast edema is a common complication that lowers quality of life significantly. PMID:23700762

Adriaenssens, N; Verbelen, H; Lievens, P; Lamote, J

2012-12-01

25

Par proteins and neuronal polarity  

PubMed Central

A hallmark of neurons is their ability to polarize with dendrite and axon specification to allow the proper flow of information through the nervous system. Over the past decade, extensive research has been performed in an attempt to understand the molecular and cellular machinery mediating this neuronal polarization process. It has become evident that many of the critical regulators involved in establishing neuronal polarity are evolutionarily conserved proteins that had previously been implicated in controlling the polarization of other cell types. At the forefront of this research are the partition defective (Par) proteins. In this review, we will provide a commentary on the progress of work regarding the central importance of Par proteins in the establishment of neuronal polarity.

Insolera, Ryan; Chen, She; Shi, Song-Hai

2011-01-01

26

Drosophila PAR1 and 14-3-3 Inhibit Bazooka\\/PAR3 to Establish Complementary Cortical Domains in Polarized Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

PAR-1 kinases are required for polarity in diverse cell types, such as epithelial cells, where they localize laterally. PAR-1 activity is believed to be transduced by binding of 14-3-3 proteins to its phosphorylated substrates, but the relevant targets are unknown. We show that PAR-1 phosphorylates Bazooka\\/PAR-3 on two conserved serines to generate 14-3-3 binding sites. This inhibits formation of the

Richard Benton; Daniel St Johnston

2003-01-01

27

Volumetric changes in the lumpectomy cavity during whole breast irradiation after breast conserving surgery  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study was performed to evaluate the change in the lumpectomy cavity volumes before and after whole breast radiation therapy (WBRT) and to identify factors associated with the change of volume. Materials and Methods From September 2009 to April 2010, the computed tomography (CT) simulation data from 70 patients obtained before and after WBRT was evaluated. The lumpectomy cavity volumes were contoured based on surgical clips, seroma, and postoperative changes. Significant differences in the data from pre-WBRT CT and post-WBRT CT were assessed. Multiple variables were examined for correlation with volume reduction in the lumpectomy cavity. Results The mean and median volume reduction in the lumpectomy cavity after WBRT were 17.6 cm3 and 16.1 cm3, respectively with the statistical significance (p < 0.001). The volume reduction in the lumpectomy cavity was inversely correlated with time from surgery to radiation therapy (R = 0.390). The presence of seroma was significantly associated with a volumetric change in the lumpectomy cavity after WBRT (p = 0.011). Conclusion The volume of lumpectomy cavity reduced significantly after WBRT. As the time from surgery to the start of WBRT increased, the volume reduction in the lumpectomy cavity during WBRT decreased. A strong correlation was observed between the presence of seroma and the reduced volume. To ensure appropriate coverage and to limit normal tissue exposure during boost irradiation in patients who has seroma at the time of starting WBRT, repeating CT simulation at boost planning is suggested.

Kim, Cheoljin

2011-01-01

28

PAR2 modulates PAR1-driven neointimal hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Objective Emerging evidence suggests that protease-activated receptors-1 and 2 (PAR1 and PAR2) can signal together in response to proteases found in the rapidly changing microenvironment of damaged blood vessels. However, it is unknown whether PAR1 and PAR2 promote or mitigate the hyperplastic response to arterial injury. Using cell-penetrating PAR1 pepducins and mice-deficient in PAR1 or PAR2, we set out to determine the respective contributions of the receptors to hyperplasia and phenotypic modulation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in response to arterial injury. Methods and Results SMCs were strongly activated by PAR1 stimulation as evidenced by increased mitogenesis, mitochondrial activity, and calcium mobilization. The effects of chronic PAR1 stimulation following vascular injury were studied by performing carotid artery ligations in mice treated with PAR1 agonist pepducin, P1pal-13. Histological analysis revealed that PAR1 stimulation caused striking hyperplasia which was ablated in PAR1-/-, and surprisingly in PAR2-/- mice. P1pal-13 treatment yielded an expression pattern consistent with a de-differentiated phenotype in carotid artery SMCs. Detection of PAR1-PAR2 complexes provided an explanation for the hyperplastic effects of the PAR1 agonist requiring the presence of both receptors. Conclusions We conclude that PAR2 regulates the PAR1 hyperplastic response to arterial injury leading to stenosis.

Sevigny, Leila M.; Austin, Karyn M.; Zhang, Ping; Kasuda, Shogo; Koukos, Georgios; Sharifi, Sheida; Covic, Lidija; Kuliopulos, Athan

2011-01-01

29

Does Delay in Breast Irradiation Following Conservative Breast Surgery in Node-Negative Breast Cancer Patients Have an Impact on Risk of Recurrence?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This retrospective review was conducted to determine if delay in the start of radiotherapy after definitive breast surgery had any detrimental effect on local recurrence or disease-free survival in node-negative breast cancer patients.Methods and Materials: A total of 568 patients with T1-T2, N0 breast cancer were treated with breast-conserving surgery and breast irradiation, without adjuvant systemic therapy between January

Olga Vujovic; Francisco Perera; A. Rashid Dar; Larry Stitt; Edward Yu; Sachi M Voruganti; Pauline T Truong

1998-01-01

30

Bazooka and PAR-6 are required with PAR-1 for the maintenance of oocyte fate in Drosophila.  

PubMed

The anterior-posterior axis of C. elegans is defined by the asymmetric division of the one-cell zygote, and this is controlled by the PAR proteins, including PAR-3 and PAR-6, which form a complex at the anterior of the cell, and PAR-1, which localizes at the posterior [1-4]. PAR-1 plays a similar role in axis formation in Drosophila: the protein localizes to the posterior of the oocyte and is necessary for the localization of the posterior and germline determinants [5, 6]. PAR-1 has recently been shown to have an earlier function in oogenesis, where it is required for the maintenance of oocyte fate and the posterior localization of oocyte-specific markers [7, 8]. Here, we show that the homologs of PAR-3 (Bazooka) and PAR-6 are also required to maintain oocyte fate. Germline clones of mutants in either gene give rise to egg chambers that develop 16 nurse cells and no oocyte. Furthermore, oocyte-specific factors, such as Orb protein and the centrosomes, still localize to one cell but fail to move from the anterior to the posterior cortex. Thus, PAR-1, Bazooka, and PAR-6 are required for the earliest polarity in the oocyte, providing the first example in Drosophila where the three homologs function in the same process. Although these PAR proteins therefore seem to play a conserved role in early anterior-posterior polarity in C. elegans and Drosophila, the relationships between them are different, as the localization of PAR-1 does not require Bazooka or PAR-6 in Drosophila, as it does in the worm. PMID:11516655

Huynh, J R; Petronczki, M; Knoblich, J A; St Johnston, D

2001-06-01

31

Microtubules induce self-organization of polarized PAR domains in C. elegans zygotes  

PubMed Central

A hallmark of polarized cells is the segregation of the PAR polarity regulators into asymmetric domains at the cell cortex1, 2. Antagonistic interactions involving two conserved kinases, atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) and PAR-1, have been implicated in polarity maintenance1, 2, but the mechanisms that initiate the formation of asymmetric PAR domains are not understood. Here, we describe one pathway used by the sperm-donated centrosome to polarize the PAR proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans zygotes. Before polarization, cortical aPKC excludes PAR-1 kinase and its binding partner PAR-2 by phosphorylation. During symmetry breaking, microtubules nucleated by the centrosome locally protect PAR-2 from phosphorylation by aPKC, allowing PAR-2 and PAR-1 to access the cortex nearest the centrosome. Cortical PAR-1 phosphorylates PAR-3, causing the PAR-3/aPKC complex to leave the cortex. Our findings illustrate how microtubules, independent of actin dynamics, stimulate the self-organization of PAR proteins by providing local protection against a global barrier imposed by aPKC.

Motegi, Fumio; Zonies, Seth; Hao, Yingsong; Cuenca, Adrian A.; Griffin, Erik; Seydoux, Geraldine

2011-01-01

32

Breast-Conserving Treatment With Partial or Whole Breast Irradiation for Low-Risk Invasive Breast Carcinoma-5-Year Results of a Randomized Trial  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report the 5-year results of a randomized study comparing the survival and cosmetic results of breast-conserving treatment with partial breast irradiation (PBI) or conventional whole breast irradiation (WBI). Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2004, 258 selected patients with T1 N0-1mi, Grade 1-2, nonlobular breast cancer without presence of extensive intraductal component and resected with negative margins were randomized after breast-conserving surgery to receive 50 Gy/25 fractions WBI (n = 130) or PBI (n = 128). The latter consisted of either 7 x 5.2 Gy high-dose-rate (HDR) multicatheter brachytherapy (BT; n = 88) or 50 Gy/25 fractions electron beam (EB) irradiation (n = 40). Results: At a median follow-up of 66 months, the 5-year actuarial rate of local recurrence was 4.7% and 3.4% in the PBI and WBI arms, respectively (p = 0.50). There was no significant difference in the 5-year probability of overall survival (94.6% vs. 91.8%), cancer-specific survival (98.3% vs. 96.0%), and disease-free survival (88.3% vs. 90.3%). The rate of excellent to good cosmetic result was 77.6% in the PBI group (81.2% after HDR BT; 70.0% after EB) and 62.9% in the control group (52.2% after telecobalt; 65.6% after 6-9-MV photons; p{sub WBI/PBI} = 0.009). Conclusions: Partial breast irradiation using interstitial HDR implants or EB to deliver radiation to the tumor bed alone for a selected group of early-stage breast cancer patients produces 5-year results similar to those achieved with conventional WBI. Significantly better cosmetic outcome can be achieved with carefully designed HDR multicatheter implants compared with the outcome after WBI.

Polgar, Csaba [Department of Radiotherapy, National Institute of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary)], E-mail: polgar@oncol.hu; Fodor, Janos; Major, Tibor; Nemeth, Gyoergy; Loevey, Katalin [Department of Radiotherapy, National Institute of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary); Orosz, Zsolt [Department of Human and Experimental Tumor Pathology, National Institute of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary); Sulyok, Zoltan [Department of General and Thoracic Surgery, National Institute of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary); Takacsi-Nagy, Zoltan; Kasler, Miklos [Department of Radiotherapy, National Institute of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary)

2007-11-01

33

A polarity complex of mPar-6 and atypical PKC binds, phosphorylates and regulates mammalian Lgl  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolutionarily conserved proteins Par-6, atypical protein kinase C (aPKC), Cdc42 and Par-3 associate to regulate cell polarity and asymmetric cell division, but the downstream targets of this complex are largely unknown. Here we identify direct physiological interactions between mammalian aPKC, murine Par-6C (mPar-6C) and Mlgl, the mammalian orthologue of the Drosophila melanogaster tumour suppressor Lethal (2) giant larvae. In

Pamela J. Plant; James P. Fawcett; Dan C. C. Lin; Amy D. Holdorf; Kathleen Binns; Sarang Kulkarni; Tony Pawson

2003-01-01

34

Eleven-year follow-up results in the delay of breast irradiation after conservative breast surgery in node-negative breast cancer patients  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This retrospective review was conducted to determine if delay in the start of radiotherapy after conservative breast surgery had any detrimental effect on local recurrence or disease-free survival in node-negative breast cancer patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 568 patients with T1 and T2, N0 breast cancer were treated with breast-conserving surgery and breast irradiation, without adjuvant systemic therapy, between January 1, 1985 and December 31, 1992 at the London Regional Cancer Centre. The time intervals from definitive breast surgery to breast irradiation used for analysis were 0 to 8 weeks (201 patients), greater than 8 to 12 weeks (235 patients), greater than 12 to 16 weeks (91 patients), and greater than 16 weeks (41 patients). Kaplan-Meier estimates of time to local-recurrence and disease-free survival rates were calculated. Results: Median follow-up was 11.2 years. Patients in all 4 time intervals were similar in terms of age and pathologic features. No statistically significant difference was seen between the 4 groups in local recurrence or disease-free survival with surgery radiotherapy interval (p = 0.521 and p = 0.222, respectively). The overall local-recurrence rate at 5 and 10 years was 4.6% and 11.3%, respectively. The overall disease-free survival at 5 and 10 years was 79.6% and 67.0%, respectively. Conclusion: This retrospective study suggests that delay in the start of breast irradiation of up to 16 weeks from definitive surgery does not increase the risk of recurrence in node-negative breast cancer patients. The certainty of these results is limited by the retrospective nature of this analysis.

Vujovic, Olga [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Centre, London, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: olga.vujovic@lhsc.on.ca; Yu, Edward [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Centre, London, Ontario (Canada); Cherian, Anil [Department of Medical Oncology, London Regional Cancer Centre, London, Ontario (Canada); Dar, A. Rashid [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Centre, London, Ontario (Canada); Stitt, Larry [Clinical Research Unit, London Regional Cancer Centre, London, Ontario (Canada); Perera, Francisco [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Centre, London, Ontario (Canada)

2006-03-01

35

Acclimation to a dynamic irradiance regime changes excessive irradiance sensitivity of Emiliania huxleyi and Thalassiosira weissflogii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of fluctuating irradiance regimes on excessive photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and ultraviolet (UV) radiation sensitivity were assessed for Emiliania huxleyi (Lohman) and Thalassiosira weissflogii (Grunow) Fryxell and Hasle. Cultures acclimated to low irradiance were subjected to two irradiance regimes of equal daily dose: dynamic irradiance simulating vertical mixing within the water column and constant irradiance. For each regime two

R. J. W. Visser; W. H. van de Poll; Anita G. J. Buma

2007-01-01

36

MAP Kinase Signaling Antagonizes PAR-1 Function During Polarization of the Early Caenorhabditis elegans Embryo  

PubMed Central

PAR proteins (partitioning defective) are major regulators of cell polarity and asymmetric cell division. One of the par genes, par-1, encodes a Ser/Thr kinase that is conserved from yeast to mammals. In Caenorhabditis elegans, par-1 governs asymmetric cell division by ensuring the polar distribution of cell fate determinants. However the precise mechanisms by which PAR-1 regulates asymmetric cell division in C. elegans remain to be elucidated. We performed a genomewide RNAi screen and identified six genes that specifically suppress the embryonic lethal phenotype associated with mutations in par-1. One of these suppressors is mpk-1, the C. elegans homolog of the conserved mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase ERK. Loss of function of mpk-1 restored embryonic viability, asynchronous cell divisions, the asymmetric distribution of cell fate specification markers, and the distribution of PAR-1 protein in par-1 mutant embryos, indicating that this genetic interaction is functionally relevant for embryonic development. Furthermore, disrupting the function of other components of the MAPK signaling pathway resulted in suppression of par-1 embryonic lethality. Our data therefore indicates that MAP kinase signaling antagonizes PAR-1 signaling during early C. elegans embryonic polarization.

Spilker, Annina C.; Rabilotta, Alexia; Zbinden, Caroline; Labbe, Jean-Claude; Gotta, Monica

2009-01-01

37

Drosophila PAR-1 and 14-3-3 inhibit Bazooka/PAR-3 to establish complementary cortical domains in polarized cells.  

PubMed

PAR-1 kinases are required for polarity in diverse cell types, such as epithelial cells, where they localize laterally. PAR-1 activity is believed to be transduced by binding of 14-3-3 proteins to its phosphorylated substrates, but the relevant targets are unknown. We show that PAR-1 phosphorylates Bazooka/PAR-3 on two conserved serines to generate 14-3-3 binding sites. This inhibits formation of the Bazooka/PAR-6/aPKC complex by blocking Bazooka oligomerization and binding to aPKC. In epithelia, this complex localizes apically and defines the apical membrane, whereas Bazooka lacking PAR-1 phosphorylation/14-3-3 binding sites forms ectopic lateral complexes. Lateral exclusion by PAR-1/14-3-3 cooperates with apical anchoring by Crumbs/Stardust to restrict Bazooka localization, and loss of both pathways disrupts epithelial polarity. PAR-1 also excludes Bazooka from the posterior of the oocyte, and disruption of this regulation causes anterior-posterior polarity defects. Thus, antagonism of Bazooka by PAR-1/14-3-3 may represent a general mechanism for establishing complementary cortical domains in polarized cells. PMID:14675534

Benton, Richard; St Johnston, Daniel

2003-12-12

38

Model parameterization to simulate and compare the PAR absorption potential of two competing plant species.  

PubMed

Mountain pastures dominated by the pasture grass Setaria sphacelata in the Andes of southern Ecuador are heavily infested by southern bracken (Pteridium arachnoideum), a major problem for pasture management. Field observations suggest that bracken might outcompete the grass due to its competitive strength with regard to the absorption of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). To understand the PAR absorption potential of both species, the aims of the current paper are to (1) parameterize a radiation scheme of a two-big-leaf model by deriving structural (LAI, leaf angle parameter) and optical (leaf albedo, transmittance) plant traits for average individuals from field surveys, (2) to initialize the properly parameterized radiation scheme with realistic global irradiation conditions of the Rio San Francisco Valley in the Andes of southern Ecuador, and (3) to compare the PAR absorption capabilities of both species under typical local weather conditions. Field data show that bracken reveals a slightly higher average leaf area index (LAI) and more horizontally oriented leaves in comparison to Setaria. Spectrometer measurements reveal that bracken and Setaria are characterized by a similar average leaf absorptance. Simulations with the average diurnal course of incoming solar radiation (1998-2005) and the mean leaf-sun geometry reveal that PAR absorption is fairly equal for both species. However, the comparison of typical clear and overcast days show that two parameters, (1) the relation of incoming diffuse and direct irradiance, and (2) the leaf-sun geometry play a major role for PAR absorption in the two-big-leaf approach: Under cloudy sky conditions (mainly diffuse irradiance), PAR absorption is slightly higher for Setaria while under clear sky conditions (mainly direct irradiance), the average bracken individual is characterized by a higher PAR absorption potential. (approximately 74 MJ m(-2) year(-1)). The latter situation which occurs if the maximum daily irradiance exceeds 615 W m(-2) is mainly due to the nearly orthogonal incidence of the direct solar beam onto the horizontally oriented frond area which implies a high amount of direct PAR absorption during the noon maximum of direct irradiance. Such situations of solar irradiance favoring a higher PAR absorptance of bracken occur in approximately 36% of the observation period (1998-2005). By considering the annual course of PAR irradiance in the San Francisco Valley, the clear advantage of bracken on clear days (36% of all days) is completely compensated by the slight but more frequent advantage of Setaria under overcast conditions (64% of all days). This means that neither bracken nor Setaria show a distinct advantage in PAR absorption capability under the current climatic conditions of the study area. PMID:19937454

Bendix, Jörg; Silva, Brenner; Roos, Kristin; Göttlicher, Dietrich Otto; Rollenbeck, Rütger; Nauss, Thomas; Beck, Erwin

2009-11-25

39

The Par3/Par6/aPKC complex and epithelial cell polarity.  

PubMed

Apical-basal polarity is the basic organizing principle of epithelial cells, and endows epithelial cells to function as defensive barriers and as mediators of vectorial transport of nutrients in and out of organisms. Apical-basal polarity is controlled by a number of conserved polarity factors that regulate cytoskeletal organizations, asymmetric distributions of cellular components, and directional transports across cells. Polarity factors often occupy specific membrane regions in response to the adhesion forces generated by cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Both internal polarity factors and the external extracellular matrices play fundamental roles in epithelial cell polarity establishment and maintenance. This review focuses on recent developments of the Par3/Par6/aPKC complex and its interacting proteins in epithelial cell polarity. PMID:23535009

Chen, Jia; Zhang, Mingjie

2013-03-25

40

Cloud-Induced Variability of Photosynthetically Active Radiation, Tropical Forest PAR Absorption and Photosynthesis in Central Borneo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground-based measurements of total and diffuse photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) were combined with process modeling to investigate the effects of atmospheric scattering by clouds on the surface PAR regime, simulated forest canopy PAR absorption and photosynthetic rates for a moist tropical site at Putussibau, West Kalimantan Province, Indonesia (0.84N, 112.93E). Time-series PAR data collected in 2007 are characterized by large diffuse PAR fractions and frequent occurrence of enhanced global PAR irradiance (relative to cloudless sky conditions) associated with 3-D scattering by the broken cloud fields that typify this region. Model estimates of canopy-absorbed PAR and gross photosynthesis from the Forest Light Environmental Simulator (FLiES) demonstrate the role of clouds in controlling forest canopy light-use efficiency and rates of photosynthesis and vegetation-atmosphere carbon exchange in this moist tropical environment.

Dye, D. G.; Kobayashi, H.; Wu, P.; Syamsudin, F.; Sulistyowati, R.; Sarodja, D.

2008-05-01

41

[Accelerated partial breast irradiation with three-dimensional conformal external beam radiotherapy following breast-conserving surgery -- preliminary results of a phase II clinical study].  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to implement accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) by means of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) following breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for early-stage breast cancer. Between December 2006 and February 2011, in 45 cases of low-risk, stage I-II breast cancer the tumour bed was marked with titanium clips during BCS. Postoperative APBI was given by means of 3D-CRT using 3 to 5 non-coplanar fields. The total dose of APBI was 36.9 Gy (9 x 4.1 Gy) using a twice-a-day fractionation over 5 consecutive days. Early and late radiation side effects and cosmetic results were analysed for the first 30 patients with a minimum follow-up of 1 year. At a mean follow-up of 25.2 months neither loco-regional nor distant failure was observed. Excellent, good, fair, and poor cosmetic outcome was detected in 10 (33.3%), 16 (53.4%), 4 (13.3%), and 0 (0%) patients, respectively. Grade 2 or worse acute side effect was not observed. Grade 1 fibrosis, grade 2 teleangiectasia and asymptomatic fat necrosis occurred in 4 (13.3%), 1 (3.3%) and 5 (16.7%) patients, respectively. No grade 3-4 late side effects were detected. 3D-CRT is a reproducible and feasible technique for the delivery of APBI following conservative surgery for the treatment of low-risk, early-stage invasive breast carcinoma. The preliminary results are promising, early- and mid-term radiation side effects are rare, and cosmetic results are excellent. PMID:23236593

Mózsa, Em?ke; Polgár, Csaba; Fröhlich, Georgina; Major, Tibor; Jánváry, Levente; Lövey, Katalin; Sulyok, Zoltán; Takácsi Nagy, László; Fodor, János; Kásler, Miklós

2012-01-11

42

Par-1 regulates tissue growth by influencing hippo phosphorylation status and hippo-salvador association.  

PubMed

The evolutionarily conserved Hippo (Hpo) signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in organ size control by balancing cell proliferation and cell death. Here, we reported the identification of Par-1 as a regulator of the Hpo signaling pathway using a gain-of-function EP screen in Drosophila melanogaster. Overexpression of Par-1 elevated Yorkie activity, resulting in increased Hpo target gene expression and tissue overgrowth, while loss of Par-1 diminished Hpo target gene expression and reduced organ size. We demonstrated that par-1 functioned downstream of fat and expanded and upstream of hpo and salvador (sav). In addition, we also found that Par-1 physically interacted with Hpo and Sav and regulated the phosphorylation of Hpo at Ser30 to restrict its activity. Par-1 also inhibited the association of Hpo and Sav, resulting in Sav dephosphorylation and destabilization. Furthermore, we provided evidence that Par-1-induced Hpo regulation is conserved in mammalian cells. Taken together, our findings identified Par-1 as a novel component of the Hpo signaling network. PMID:23940457

Huang, Hong-Ling; Wang, Shimin; Yin, Meng-Xin; Dong, Liang; Wang, Chao; Wu, Wei; Lu, Yi; Feng, Miao; Dai, Chuanyang; Guo, Xiaocan; Li, Li; Zhao, Bin; Zhou, Zhaocai; Ji, Hongbin; Jiang, Jin; Zhao, Yun; Liu, Xin-Yuan; Zhang, Lei

2013-08-06

43

Par-1 Regulates Tissue Growth by Influencing Hippo Phosphorylation Status and Hippo-Salvador Association  

PubMed Central

The evolutionarily conserved Hippo (Hpo) signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in organ size control by balancing cell proliferation and cell death. Here, we reported the identification of Par-1 as a regulator of the Hpo signaling pathway using a gain-of-function EP screen in Drosophila melanogaster. Overexpression of Par-1 elevated Yorkie activity, resulting in increased Hpo target gene expression and tissue overgrowth, while loss of Par-1 diminished Hpo target gene expression and reduced organ size. We demonstrated that par-1 functioned downstream of fat and expanded and upstream of hpo and salvador (sav). In addition, we also found that Par-1 physically interacted with Hpo and Sav and regulated the phosphorylation of Hpo at Ser30 to restrict its activity. Par-1 also inhibited the association of Hpo and Sav, resulting in Sav dephosphorylation and destabilization. Furthermore, we provided evidence that Par-1-induced Hpo regulation is conserved in mammalian cells. Taken together, our findings identified Par-1 as a novel component of the Hpo signaling network.

Yin, Meng-Xin; Dong, Liang; Wang, Chao; Wu, Wei; Lu, Yi; Feng, Miao; Dai, Chuanyang; Guo, Xiaocan; Li, Li; Zhao, Bin; Zhou, Zhaocai; Ji, Hongbin; Jiang, Jin; Zhao, Yun; Liu, Xin-Yuan; Zhang, Lei

2013-01-01

44

The ParPar System: A Software MPP  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionTo place ParPar1. in context, we must first review the different modes of operationcommon on clusters. Probably the most common approach is to view the clusteras a Network Of Workstations (NOW). With this approach, each node is owned bya certain individual, and is usually also physically located in his work area. Theowner uses his workstation for administrative work, such as

Anat Batat; Avi Kavas; David Er-el; Dror G. Feitelson; Gabriel Benhanokh; Marc A. Volovic; Tomer Klainer; Yoav Etsion

1999-01-01

45

PAR-3 defines a central subdomain of the cortical actin cap in mouse eggs.  

PubMed

The evolutionarily conserved partitioning defective (PAR) protein PAR-3 is pivotal for establishing and maintaining cell polarity. During mammalian oocyte maturation, the radially symmetric oocyte is transformed into a highly polarized metaphase II (MII)-arrested egg. We therefore examined several aspects of PAR-3 expression during oocyte maturation. We cloned two novel PAR-3 transcripts from an oocyte library that likely encode proteins of Mr = 73 K and 133 K that are phosphorylated during maturation. PAR-3, which is found throughout the GV-intact oocyte, becomes asymmetrically localized during meiosis. Following germinal vesicle breakdown, PAR-3 surrounds the condensing chromosomes and associates with the meiotic spindles. Prior to emission of the first and second polar bodies, PAR-3 is located within a central subdomain of the polarized actin cap, which overlies the spindle. This cortical PAR-3 localization depends on intact microfilaments. These results suggest a role for PAR-3 in establishing asymmetry in the egg and in defining the future site of polar body emission. PMID:15766746

Duncan, Francesca E; Moss, Stuart B; Schultz, Richard M; Williams, Carmen J

2005-04-01

46

Par Pond vegetation status 1996  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995, and into the early spring and late summer of 1996. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities continue to become re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, watershield, and Pontederia are extensive and well developed. Measures of percent cover, width of beds, and estimates of area of coverage with satellite data indicate regrowth within two years of from 40 to 60% of levels prior to the draw down. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer of 1996, especially in the former warm arm of Par Pond, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the draw down still have not formed. Lotus has invaded and occupies many of the areas formerly dominated by cattail beds. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys through the summer and early fall of 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1996-12-01

47

Mammographically detected ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast treated with breast-conserving surgery and definitive breast irradiation: long-term outcome and prognostic significance of patient age and margin status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This study was performed to determine the long-term outcome for women with mammographically detected ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS; intraductal carcinoma) of the breast treated with breast-conserving surgery followed by definitive breast irradiation.Methods and Materials: An analysis was performed of 422 mammographically detected intraductal breast carcinomas in 418 women from 11 institutions in North America and Europe. All patients

Lawrence J Solin; Alain Fourquet; Frank A Vicini; Bruce Haffty; Marie Taylor; Beryl McCormick; Marsha McNeese; Lori J Pierce; Christine Landmann; Ivo A Olivotto; Jacques Borger; Jung-Soo Kim; Anne de la Rochefordiere; Delray J Schultz

2001-01-01

48

Pars plana Baerveldt tube insertion with pars plana vitrectomy for refractory glaucoma  

PubMed Central

Background: Glaucoma drainage implants (GDIs) are used for managing recalcitrant glaucoma and are usually placed in the anterior chamber. This approach may lead to complications such as corneal decompensation, and so a pars plana approach is used in at risk eyes. Aims: To compare functional outcomes and complications of 250 mm2 and 350 mm2 pars plana Baerveldt tube insertion with pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) (both 20- and 23-gauge) for managing refractory glaucoma. Settings and Design: A retrospective chart review of 38 patients (39 eyes) undergoing combined PPV-Baerveldt procedure for glaucoma recalcitrant to maximal medical treatment or previous filtering procedures with >6 weeks of follow-up. Materials and Methods: Main outcome measures were visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), number of glaucoma medications, and postoperative complications. Statistical Analysis Used: A paired ‘t’ test was used to evaluate changes in IOP and glaucoma medications, Fisher's exact test was used to compare complication rates, and Kaplan-Meier survival curves were constructed for comparison of overall outcomes. Results: Mean patient age was 62.2 years. Mean follow-up period was 33.7 months, with 36 (92%) eyes followed for ?6 months. Mean±SD preoperative IOP and number of glaucoma medications were significantly reduced by the combined procedure (P<0.05). Thirty-five (90%) eyes maintained final IOP between 6 and 21 mmHg. Vision improved by ?2 lines in 10 (26%) eyes, remained stable in 15 (38%) eyes, and decreased in 14 (36%) eyes. Two (5.1%) eyes developed no light perception vision, with one (2.6%) eye becoming phthisical. Twenty-four (62%) eyes developed complications managed with conservative measures. Five (13%) eyes required ?1 surgeries within a year of the combined procedure. Conclusions: Pars plana Baerveldt tube implantation with PPV can preserve vision, reduce IOP, and decrease the number of glaucoma medications necessary to achieve target IOP in patients with recalcitrant glaucoma.

Kolomeyer, Anton M.; Kim, H. Jane; Khouri, Albert S.; Lama, Paul J.; Fechtner, Robert D.; Zarbin, Marco A.; Bhagat, Neelakshi

2012-01-01

49

Streptococcus pyogenes pSM19035 requires dynamic assembly of ATP-bound ParA and ParB on parS DNA during plasmid segregation  

PubMed Central

The accurate partitioning of Firmicute plasmid pSM19035 at cell division depends on ATP binding and hydrolysis by homodimeric ATPase ?2 (ParA) and binding of ?2 (ParB) to its cognate parS DNA. The 1.83 Å resolution crystal structure of ?2 in a complex with non-hydrolyzable ATP?S reveals a unique ParA dimer assembly that permits nucleotide exchange without requiring dissociation into monomers. In vitro, ?2 had minimal ATPase activity in the absence of ?2 and parS DNA. However, stoichiometric amounts of ?2 and parS DNA stimulated the ?2 ATPase activity and mediated plasmid pairing, whereas at high (4:1) ?2 : ?2 ratios, stimulation of the ATPase activity was reduced and ?2 polymerized onto DNA. Stimulation of the ?2 ATPase activity and its polymerization on DNA required ability of ?2 to bind parS DNA and its N-terminus. In vivo experiments showed that ?2 alone associated with the nucleoid, and in the presence of ?2 and parS DNA, ?2 oscillated between the nucleoid and the cell poles and formed spiral-like structures. Our studies indicate that the molar ?2 : ?2 ratio regulates the polymerization properties of (?•ATP•Mg2+)2 on and depolymerization from parS DNA, thereby controlling the temporal and spatial segregation of pSM19035 before cell division.

Pratto, Florencia; Cicek, Aslan; Weihofen, Wilhelm A.; Lurz, Rudi; Saenger, Wolfram; Alonso, Juan C.

2008-01-01

50

Conservation property of symmetric jump processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by the recent development in the theory of jump processes, we investigate its conservation property. We will show that a jump process is conservative under certain conditions for the volume-growth of the underlying space and the jump rate of the process. We will also present examples of jump processes which satisfy these conditions. Abstract. Motive par les developpements recents

Jun Masamune; Toshihiro Uemura

2009-01-01

51

Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond.

Paller, M.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Wike, L.D.

1996-06-01

52

Breast Conservation Surgery: Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast conservation therapy (BCT) has become the preferred treatment for early stage breast cancer in most women. Breast conserving\\u000a therapy is defined as the complete removal of a breast tumor (invasive breast cancer or duct carcinoma in situ) with a surrounding\\u000a margin of normal tissue performed in a cosmetically acceptable manner followed by irradiation therapy (Schwartz et al., 2006). Well-designed

Lloyd A. Mack; Robert L. Lindsay; Walley J. Temple

53

Small Family with Key Contacts: Par14 and Par17 Parvulin Proteins, Relatives of Pin1, Now Emerge in Biomedical Research  

PubMed Central

The parvulin-type peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase Pin1 is subject of intense biochemical and clinical research as it seems to be involved in the pathogenesis of certain cancers and protein folding illnesses like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. In addition to Pin1, the human genome only contains a single other parvulin locus encoding two protein species—Par14 and Par17. Much less is known about these enzymes although their sequences are highly conserved in all metazoans. Parvulin has been proposed to function as Pin1 complementing enzyme in cell cycle regulation and in chromatin remodelling. Pharmaceutical modulation of Par14 might therefore have benefits for certain types of cancer. Moreover, the Par17 protein that has been shown to be confined to anthropoid primate species only might provide a deeper understanding for human-specific brain development. This review aims at stimulating further research on Par14 and Par17 that are overlooked drug targets in the shadow of an overwhelming plethora of Pin1 literature by summarising all current knowledge on these parvulin proteins.

Mueller, Jonathan W; Bayer, Peter

2008-01-01

54

A Casein Kinase 1 and PAR Proteins Regulate Asymmetry of a PIP 2 Synthesis Enzyme for Asymmetric Spindle Positioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Spindle positioning is an essential feature of asym- metric cell division. The conserved PAR proteins to- gether with heterotrimeric G proteins control spindle positioning inanimalcells,buthowthesearelinked is not known. In C. elegans, PAR protein activity leads to asymmetric spindle placement through cortical asymmetry of Ga regulators GPR-1\\/2. Here, we es- tablish that the casein kinase 1 gamma CSNK-1 and a

Costanza Panbianco; David Weinkove; Esther Zanin; David Jones; Nullin Divecha; Monica Gotta; Julie Ahringer

2008-01-01

55

Breaking the epithelial polarity barrier in cancer: the strange case of LKB1/PAR-4.  

PubMed

The PAR clan of polarity regulating genes was initially discovered in a genetic screen searching for genes involved in asymmetric cell divisions in the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo. Today, investigations in worms, flies and mammals have established PAR proteins as conserved and fundamental regulators of animal cell polarization in a broad range of biological phenomena requiring cellular asymmetries. The human homologue of invertebrate PAR-4, a serine-threonine kinase LKB1/STK11, has caught attention as a gene behind Peutz-Jeghers polyposis syndrome and as a bona fide tumour suppressor gene commonly mutated in sporadic cancer. LKB1 functions as a master regulator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and 12 other kinases referred to as the AMPK-related kinases, including four human homologues of PAR-1. The role of LKB1 as part of the energy sensing LKB1-AMPK module has been intensively studied, whereas the polarity function of LKB1, in the context of homoeostasis or cancer, has gained less attention. Here, we focus on the PAR-4 identity of LKB1, discussing the weight of evidence indicating a role for LKB1 in regulation of cell polarity and epithelial integrity across species and highlight recent investigations providing new insight into the old question: does the PAR-4 identity of LKB1 matter in cancer? PMID:24062587

Partanen, Johanna I; Tervonen, Topi A; Klefström, Juha

2013-09-23

56

The Polarity Protein Partitioning-defective 1 (PAR-1) Regulates Dendritic Spine Morphogenesis through Phosphorylating Postsynaptic Density Protein 95 (PSD-95)*  

PubMed Central

The polarity protein PAR-1 plays an essential role in many cellular contexts, including embryogenesis, asymmetric cell division, directional migration, and epithelial morphogenesis. Despite its known importance in different cellular processes, the role of PAR-1 in neuronal morphogenesis is less well understood. In particular, its role in the morphogenesis of dendritic spines, which are sites of excitatory synaptic inputs, has been unclear. Here, we show that PAR-1 is required for normal spine morphogenesis in hippocampal neurons. We further show that PAR-1 functions through phosphorylating the synaptic scaffolding protein PSD-95 in this process. Phosphorylation at a conserved serine residue in the KXGS motif in PSD-95 regulates spine morphogenesis, and a phosphomimetic mutant of this site can rescue the defects of kinase-dead PAR-1. Together, our findings uncover a role of PAR-1 in spine morphogenesis in hippocampal neurons through phosphorylating PSD-95.

Wu, Qian; DiBona, Victoria L.; Bernard, Laura P.; Zhang, Huaye

2012-01-01

57

Planning the breast tumor bed boost: Changes in the excision cavity volume and surgical scar location after breast-conserving surgery and whole-breast irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aims of this study were to determine the changes in breast and excision cavity volumes after whole-breast irradiation and the adequacy of using the surgical scar to guide boost planning. Methods and Materials: A total of 30 women consecutively treated for 31 breast cancers were included in this study. Simulation CT scans were performed before and after whole-breast irradiation. CT breast volumes were delineated using clinically defined borders. Excision cavity volumes were contoured based on surgical clips, the presence of a hematoma, and/or other surgical changes. Hypothetical electron boost plans were generated using the surgical scar with a 3-cm margin and analyzed for coverage. Results: The mean CT breast volumes were 774 and 761 cc (p = 0.22), and the excision cavity volumes were 32.1 and 25.1 cc (p < 0.0001), before and after 40 Gy (39-42 Gy) of whole-breast irradiation, respectively. The volume reduction in the excision cavity was inversely correlated with time elapsed since surgery (R = 0.46, p < 0.01) and body weight (R = 0.50, p < 0.01). The scar-guided hypothetical plans failed to cover the excision cavity adequately in 62% and 53.8% of cases using the pretreatment and postradiation CTs, respectively. Per the hypothetical plans, the minimum dose to the excision cavity was significantly lower for tumors located in the inner vs. outer quadrants (p = 0.02) and for cavities >20 cc vs. <20 cc (p = 0.01). Conclusions: This study demonstrates a significant reduction in the volume of the excision cavity during whole-breast irradiation. Scar-guided boost plans provide inadequate coverage of the excision cavity in the majority of cases.

Oh, Kevin S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kong, F.-M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Griffith, Kent A. [Biostatistics Unit of University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Yanke, Beth C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Pierce, Lori J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)]. E-mail: ljpierce@umich.edu

2006-11-01

58

Excimer laser irradiation at 248 nm of wooden archaeological objects and polymeric consolidants used in conservation: a study of cone formation and optimum cleaning parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of a prehistoric consolidated vegetable basketry, coming from an important pile building in the North-East of Italy\\u000a (Fiavé Carrera, Trento), had been irradiated with excimer laser pulses to remove the consolidant layer and restore the artifact.\\u000a Some problems, related to the nature of the consolidant resin, were found in the preliminary laser cleaning process. The two\\u000a main obstacles were

R. Belli; L. Toniutti; A. Miotello; P. Mosaner; D. Avi

2008-01-01

59

Conservative gyrokinetic Vlasov simulation using Morinishi scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long time micro-turbulence simulations with non-conservative effects such as heat and par- ticle sources and particle collisions are desirable to address future issues, for example, the for- mation of transport barriers in advanced tokamaks. Compared with ? f particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, Vlasov simulations based on mesh approaches are more flexible in treating these non-conservative effects. In our previous work (1),

Y. Idomura; M. Id; S. Tokuda; L. Villar

60

Pars plana vitrectomy in ocular Behçet's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To evaluate the results of pars plana vitrectomy in Behçet patients with dense vitreous opacities, and its effect on intraocular inflammatory episodes and visual prognosis. Methods: The study group consisted of nine patients (one eye in eight patients, both eyes in one) with Behçet's disease who underwent pars plana vitrectomy because of dense vitreous opacification. The indications for vitrectomy,

Merih Soylu; Nihal Demircan; Aysel Pelit

2001-01-01

61

Pars Plana Vitrectomy in Advanced Coats’ Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To report 5 cases of advanced Coats’ disease managed with pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil tamponade. Methods: Five patients with advanced Coats’ disease and serous or tractional retinal detachment underwent pars plana vitrectomy with internal drainage, endolaser photocoagulation and silicone oil tamponade. One patient had combined phacoemulsification-vitrectomy surgery. Of the 5 patients, 1 had intravitreal hemorrhage and a

Gulipek Muftuoglu; Gokhan Gulkilik

2011-01-01

62

Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- Summary  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are extensive and well developed. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Estimates from SPOT HRV, remote sensing satellite data indicated that as much as 120 hectares of emergent wetlands vegetation may have been present along the Par Pond shoreline by early October, 1995. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1996-01-01

63

Validation Studies of the Seven Day Physical Activity Recall (PAR)  

Cancer.gov

Validation Studies of the Seven Day Physical Activity Recall (PAR) Wilkinson et al. 2004 See reference #111 Methods 7-day physical activity recall (PAR), including alternative PAR scoring algorithms compared to pedometer readings (3 days step counts).

64

Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation: 5-Year Results of the German-Austrian Multicenter Phase II Trial Using Interstitial Multicatheter Brachytherapy Alone After Breast-Conserving Surgery  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the impact of accelerated partial breast irradiation on local control, side effects, and cosmesis using multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy as the sole method for the adjuvant local treatment of patients with low-risk breast cancer. Methods and Materials: 274 patients with low-risk breast cancer were treated on protocol. Patients were eligible for the study if the tumor size was < 3 cm, resection margins were clear by at least 2 mm, no lymph node metastases existed, age was >35 years, hormone receptors were positive, and histologic grades were 1 or 2. Of the 274 patients, 175 (64%) received pulse-dose-rate brachytherapy (D{sub ref} = 50 Gy). and 99 (36%) received high-dose-rate brachytherapy (D{sub ref} = 32.0 Gy). Results: Median follow-up was 63 months (range, 9-103). Only 8 of 274 (2.9%) patients developed an ipsilateral in-breast tumor recurrence at the time of analysis. The 5-year actuarial local recurrence-free survival probability was 98%. The 5- year overall and disease-free survival probabilities of all patients were 97% and 96%, respectively. Contralateral in-breast malignancies were detected in 2 of 274 (0.7%) patients, and distant metastases occurred in 6 of 274 (2.2%). Late side effects {>=}Grade 3 (i.e., breast tissue fibrosis and telangiectasia) occurred in 1 patient (0.4%, 95%CI:0.0-2.0%) and 6 patients (2.2%, 95%CI:0.8-4.7%), respectively. Cosmetic results were good to excellent in 245 of 274 patients (90%). Conclusions: The long-term results of this prospective Phase II trial confirm that the efficacy of accelerated partial breast irradiation using multicatheter brachytherapy is comparable with that of whole breast irradiation and that late side effects are negligible.

Strnad, Vratislav, E-mail: vratislav.strnad@uk-erlangen.d [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Hildebrandt, Guido [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Rostock, Rostock (Germany); Poetter, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology and Radiobiology, University Hospital AKH Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Hammer, Josef [Department of Radiation Oncology, Barmherzige Schwestern Hospital, Linz (Austria); Hindemith, Marion [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Resch, Alexandra [Department of Radiation Oncology and Radiobiology, University Hospital AKH Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Spiegl, Kurt [Department of Radiation Oncology, Barmherzige Schwestern Hospital, Linz (Austria); Lotter, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Uter, Wolfgang [Department for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); Bani, Mayada [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Beckmann, Matthias W. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Fietkau, Rainer; Ott, Oliver J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany)

2011-05-01

65

Results of a conservative treatment combining induction (neoadjuvant) and consolidation chemotherapy, hormonotherapy, and external and interstitial irradiation in 98 patients with locally advanced breast cancer (IIIA-IIIB)  

SciTech Connect

Ninety-eight patients with locally advanced breast cancer (Stage IIIA-IIIB) were entered into a pilot study combining intensive induction (neoadjuvant) chemotherapy (VTMFAP) with or without hormonochemotherapy, external and interstitial radiotherapy, and consolidation chemotherapy with or without hormonochemotherapy. Tumor regression over 50% was observed in 91% patients after chemotherapy, and complete clinical remission occurred in 100% patients after irradiation. The rate of local relapse is 13%. The 3-year disease-free survival is 62% and 3-year global survival is 77%. Initial chemotherapeutic tumor regression greater than 75% is the main predictive factor for disease-free survival.

Jacquillat, C.; Baillet, F.; Weil, M.; Auclerc, G.; Housset, M.; Auclerc, M.; Sellami, M.; Jindani, A.; Thill, L.; Soubrane, C.

1988-05-15

66

Conserving Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will learn what energy is, how energy is used , and how to conserve it What are new ways of protecting the environment to conserve energy? Use your 4- column chart to record information about the questions i ask and you learn about. Begin by seeing what energy isEnergy Quest Tells different ways of conserving energy. List what you learn. What are simple ways to conserve energy everyday? How are vehicle manufactures inventing ways to conserve ...

Y, Mr.

2009-10-21

67

Conserving biodiversity by conserving land  

Microsoft Academic Search

Society faces difficult choices over whether to allow habitat conversion for economic gain versus conserving habitat to protect biodiversity. Because the conservation of biodiversity and the material well being of the human population are both important goals, it is important to set conservation priorities intelligently and minimize the reduction in other goals from pursuing conservation. In this paper, our objective

Stephen Polasky; Christian A. Vossler

2002-01-01

68

Matrix metalloproteases and PAR1 activation.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular diseases, including atherothrombosis, are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, Europe, and the developed world. Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) have recently emerged as important mediators of platelet and endothelial function, and atherothrombotic disease. Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) is a G protein-coupled receptor that is classically activated through cleavage of the N-terminal exodomain by the serine protease thrombin. Most recently, 2 MMPs have been discovered to have agonist activity for PAR1. Unexpectedly, MMP-1 and MMP-13 cleave the N-terminal exodomain of PAR1 at noncanonical sites, which result in distinct tethered ligands that activate G-protein signaling pathways. PAR1 exhibits metalloprotease-specific signaling patterns, known as biased agonism, that produce distinct functional outputs by the cell. Here we contrast the mechanisms of canonical (thrombin) and noncanonical (MMP) PAR1 activation, the contribution of MMP-PAR1 signaling to diseases of the vasculature, and the therapeutic potential of inhibiting MMP-PAR1 signaling with MMP inhibitors, including atherothrombotic disease, in-stent restenosis, heart failure, and sepsis. PMID:23086754

Austin, Karyn M; Covic, Lidija; Kuliopulos, Athan

2012-10-18

69

Phospho-dependent ubiquitination and degradation of PAR-1 regulates synaptic morphology and tau-mediated A? toxicity in Drosophila.  

PubMed

The conserved kinases PAR-1/MARK are critically involved in processes such as asymmetric cell division, cell polarity and neuronal differentiation. Their deregulation has been implicated in diseases including Alzheimer's disease and cancer. Given the importance of PAR-1/MARK in health and disease, their activities need to be tightly controlled. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying their regulation in vivo. Here we show that in Drosophila, a phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination mechanism restrains PAR-1 activation. Active PAR-1 generated by LKB1-controlled phosphorylation is targeted for ubiquitination and degradation by SCF (Skp, Cullin, F-box containing complex) (Slimb), whose action is antagonized by the deubiquitinating enzyme fat facets. This newly identified PAR-1-modifying module critically regulates synaptic morphology and tau-mediated postsynaptic toxicity of amyloid precursor protein (APP)/A?-42, the causative agents of Alzheimer's disease, at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. Our results provide new insights into the regulation of PAR-1 in various physiological processes and offer new therapeutic strategies for diseases involving PAR-1/MARK deregulation. PMID:23271647

Lee, Seongsoo; Wang, Ji-Wu; Yu, Wendou; Lu, Bingwei

2012-01-01

70

RAB-5 Controls the Cortical Organization and Dynamics of PAR Proteins to Maintain C. elegans Early Embryonic Polarity  

PubMed Central

In all organisms, cell polarity is fundamental for most aspects of cell physiology. In many species and cell types, it is controlled by the evolutionarily conserved PAR-3, PAR-6 and aPKC proteins, which are asymmetrically localized at the cell cortex where they define specific domains. While PAR proteins define the antero-posterior axis of the early C. elegans embryo, the mechanism controlling their asymmetric localization is not fully understood. Here we studied the role of endocytic regulators in embryonic polarization and asymmetric division. We found that depleting the early endosome regulator RAB-5 results in polarity-related phenotypes in the early embryo. Using Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, we observed that PAR-6 is localized at the cell cortex in highly dynamic puncta and depleting RAB-5 decreased PAR-6 cortical dynamics during the polarity maintenance phase. Depletion of RAB-5 also increased PAR-6 association with clathrin heavy chain (CHC-1) and this increase depended on the presence of the GTPase dynamin, an upstream regulator of endocytosis. Interestingly, further analysis indicated that loss of RAB-5 leads to a disorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and that this occurs independently of dynamin activity. Our results indicate that RAB-5 promotes C. elegans embryonic polarity in both dynamin-dependent and -independent manners, by controlling PAR-6 localization and cortical dynamics through the regulation of its association with the cell cortex and the organization of the actin cytoskeleton.

Hyenne, Vincent; Tremblay-Boudreault, Thierry; Velmurugan, Ramraj; Grant, Barth D.; Loerke, Dinah; Labbe, Jean-Claude

2012-01-01

71

Architecture and Assembly of a Divergent Member of the ParM Family of Bacterial Actin-like Proteins  

PubMed Central

Eubacteria and archaea contain a variety of actin-like proteins (ALPs) that form filaments with surprisingly diverse architectures, assembly dynamics, and cellular functions. Although there is much data supporting differences between ALP families, there is little data regarding conservation of structure and function within these families. We asked whether the filament architecture and biochemical properties of the best-understood prokaryotic actin, ParM from plasmid R1, are conserved in a divergent member of the ParM family from plasmid pB171. Previous work demonstrated that R1 ParM assembles into filaments that are structurally distinct from actin and the other characterized ALPs. They also display three biophysical properties thought to be essential for DNA segregation: 1) rapid spontaneous nucleation, 2) symmetrical elongation, and 3) dynamic instability. We used microscopic and biophysical techniques to compare and contrast the architecture and assembly of these related proteins. Despite being only 41% identical, R1 and pB171 ParMs polymerize into nearly identical filaments with similar assembly dynamics. Conservation of the core assembly properties argues for their importance in ParM-mediated DNA segregation and suggests that divergent DNA-segregating ALPs with different assembly properties operate via different mechanisms.

Rivera, Christopher R.; Kollman, Justin M.; Polka, Jessica K.; Agard, David A.; Mullins, R. Dyche

2011-01-01

72

Collections Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collections conservation is an approach to the preservation treatment of books and book-like materials that is conceptualized and organized in terms of large groups of materials. This guide is intended to enable a library to evaluate its current collections conservation activities. The introduction describes collections conservation and gives…

DeCandido, Robert

73

Collections Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Collections conservation is an approach to the preservation treatment of books and book-like materials that is conceptualized and organized in terms of large groups of materials. This guide is intended to enable a library to evaluate its current collections conservation activities. The introduction describes collections conservation and gives…

DeCandido, Robert

74

Comparative cactus architecture and par interception  

SciTech Connect

Because CO{sup 2} uptake by cacti can be limited by low levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and because plant form affects PAR interception, various cactus forms were studied using a computer model, field measurements, and laboratory phototropic studies. Model predictions indicated that CO{sub 2} uptake by individual stems at an equinox was greatest when the stem were vertical, but at the summer and the winter solstice CO{sub 2} uptake was greatest for stems titled 30{degree} away from the equator. Stem tilting depended on form and taxonomic group. Not only can the shape of cacti be affected by PAR, but also shape influences PAR interception and hence CO{sub 2} uptake.

Geller, G.N.; Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))

1987-07-01

75

Céphalées par abus médicamenteux et addiction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé  \\u000a Objectifs: étude de la comorbidité pour les troubles liés à l’utilisation de substances psychoactives chez les patients souffrant de\\u000a céphalées par abus médicamenteux.Méthode: étude comparative de quarante et un migraineux (MIG) et quarante et un patients souffrant de céphalées par abus médicamenteux\\u000a issus de migraines (CAM).Résultats: les CAM ulilisant des médicaments contenant des substances psychoactives (caféine et codéine) remplissent

F. Radat; C. Creac'h; M. Lafitau; S. Irachabal; V. Dousset; P. Henry

2005-01-01

76

Modified sutureless sclerotomies in pars plana vitrectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To study the effectiveness and safety of a modified sutureless sclerotomy technique in pars plana vitrectomy.METHODS: We rotated the scleral tunnels of the original sutureless sclerotomy technique through 90 degrees, thus rendering them parallel to the corneoscleral limbus. This modified technique was applied to 25 consecutive eyes (25 patients) that had pars plana vitrectomy during a 2-month period.RESULTS: Twenty

Alvin K. H Kwok; Clement C. Y Tham; Dennis S. C Lam; M Li; John C Chen

1999-01-01

77

Maladies émergentes transmises par les tiques  

Microsoft Academic Search

RésuméLes infections transmises par les tiques surviennent dans le monde entier et sont bien connues depuis plus d’un siècle. Certaines d’entre elles sont très courantes alors que d’autres sont extrêmement rares. Les techniques modernes de génétique moléculaire (dont une plus grande disponibilité de la réaction en chaîne par polymérase (PCR) (de l’anglais polymerase chain reaction) ont permis la découverte et

Ingomar Mutz

2009-01-01

78

Radioecological implications of the Par Pond drawdown  

SciTech Connect

The drawdown of the Par Pond reservoir created dramatic alterations in this formerly stable lentic ecosystem. In addition, the radiation environment at Par Pond has changed significantly because of the exposure of Cesium 137-contaminated sediments and the appearance of new transport pathways to the terrestrial environment. In response to this situation, SREL was asked to study the radioecological implications of the reservoir drawdown. This report contains the objectives, methods, and results of the SREL study.

Hickey, H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Whicker, F.W. [Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States)

1991-12-05

79

Activity of recombinant trypsin isoforms on human proteinase-activated receptors (PAR): mesotrypsin cannot activate epithelial PAR-1, -2, but weakly activates brain PAR-1.  

PubMed

Trypsin-like serine proteinases trigger signal transduction pathways through proteolytic cleavage of proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) in many tissues. Three members, PAR-1, PAR-2 and PAR-4, are trypsin substrates, as trypsinolytic cleavage of the extracellular N terminus produces receptor activation. Here, the ability of the three human pancreatic trypsin isoforms (cationic trypsin, anionic trypsin and mesotrypsin (trypsin IV)) as recombinant proteins was tested on PARs. Using fura 2 [Ca(2+)](i) measurements, we analyzed three human epithelial cell lines, HBE (human bronchial epithelial), A549 (human pulmonary epithelial) and HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293 cells, which express functional PAR-1 and PAR-2. Human mesotrypsin failed to induce a PAR-mediated Ca(2+) response in human epithelial cells even at high concentrations. In addition, mesotrypsin did not affect the magnitude of PAR activation by subsequently added bovine trypsin. In HBE cells, which like A549 cells express high PAR-2 levels with negligible PAR-1 levels (<11%), half-maximal responses were seen for both cationic and anionic trypsins at about 5 nM. In the epithelial cells, mesotrypsin did not activate PAR-2 or PAR-1, whereas both anionic and cationic trypsins were comparable activators. We also investigated human astrocytoma 1321N1cells, which express PAR-1 and some PAR-3, but no PAR-2. High concentrations (>100 nM) of mesotrypsin produced a relatively weak Ca(2+) signal, apparently through PAR-1 activation. Half-maximal responses were observed at 60 nM mesotrypsin, and at 10-20 nM cationic and anionic trypsins. Using a desensitization assay with PAR-2-AP, we confirmed that both cationic and anionic trypsin isoforms cause [Ca(2+)](i) elevation in HBE cells mainly through PAR-2 activation. Desensitization of PAR-1 with thrombin receptor agonist peptide in 1321N1 cells demonstrated that all three recombinant trypsin isoforms act through PAR-1.Thus, the activity of human cationic and anionic trypsins on PARs was comparable to that of bovine pancreatic trypsin. Mesotrypsin (trypsin IV), in contrast to cationic and anionic trypsin, cannot activate or disable PARs in human epithelial cells, demonstrating that the receptors are no substrates for this isoenzyme. On the other hand, mesotrypsin activates PAR-1 in human astrocytoma cells. This might play a role in protection/degeneration or plasticity processes in the human brain. PMID:16231009

Grishina, Zoryana; Ostrowska, Ewa; Halangk, Walter; Sahin-Tóth, Miklós; Reiser, Georg

2005-12-01

80

Activity of recombinant trypsin isoforms on human proteinase-activated receptors (PAR): mesotrypsin cannot activate epithelial PAR-1, -2, but weakly activates brain PAR-1  

PubMed Central

Trypsin-like serine proteinases trigger signal transduction pathways through proteolytic cleavage of proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) in many tissues. Three members, PAR-1, PAR-2 and PAR-4, are trypsin substrates, as trypsinolytic cleavage of the extracellular N terminus produces receptor activation. Here, the ability of the three human pancreatic trypsin isoforms (cationic trypsin, anionic trypsin and mesotrypsin (trypsin IV)) as recombinant proteins was tested on PARs. Using fura 2 [Ca2+]i measurements, we analyzed three human epithelial cell lines, HBE (human bronchial epithelial), A549 (human pulmonary epithelial) and HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293 cells, which express functional PAR-1 and PAR-2. Human mesotrypsin failed to induce a PAR-mediated Ca2+ response in human epithelial cells even at high concentrations. In addition, mesotrypsin did not affect the magnitude of PAR activation by subsequently added bovine trypsin. In HBE cells, which like A549 cells express high PAR-2 levels with negligible PAR-1 levels (<11%), half-maximal responses were seen for both cationic and anionic trypsins at about 5?nM. In the epithelial cells, mesotrypsin did not activate PAR-2 or PAR-1, whereas both anionic and cationic trypsins were comparable activators. We also investigated human astrocytoma 1321N1cells, which express PAR-1 and some PAR-3, but no PAR-2. High concentrations (>100?nM) of mesotrypsin produced a relatively weak Ca2+ signal, apparently through PAR-1 activation. Half-maximal responses were observed at 60?nM mesotrypsin, and at 10–20?nM cationic and anionic trypsins. Using a desensitization assay with PAR-2-AP, we confirmed that both cationic and anionic trypsin isoforms cause [Ca2+]i elevation in HBE cells mainly through PAR-2 activation. Desensitization of PAR-1 with thrombin receptor agonist peptide in 1321N1 cells demonstrated that all three recombinant trypsin isoforms act through PAR-1. Thus, the activity of human cationic and anionic trypsins on PARs was comparable to that of bovine pancreatic trypsin. Mesotrypsin (trypsin IV), in contrast to cationic and anionic trypsin, cannot activate or disable PARs in human epithelial cells, demonstrating that the receptors are no substrates for this isoenzyme. On the other hand, mesotrypsin activates PAR-1 in human astrocytoma cells. This might play a role in protection/degeneration or plasticity processes in the human brain.

Grishina, Zoryana; Ostrowska, Ewa; Halangk, Walter; Sahin-Toth, Miklos; Reiser, Georg

2005-01-01

81

Comparative analysis of a plant pseudoautosomal region (PAR) in Silene latifolia with the corresponding S. vulgaris autosome  

PubMed Central

Background The sex chromosomes of Silene latifolia are heteromorphic as in mammals, with females being homogametic (XX) and males heterogametic (XY). While recombination occurs along the entire X chromosome in females, recombination between the X and Y chromosomes in males is restricted to the pseudoautosomal region (PAR). In the few mammals so far studied, PARs are often characterized by elevated recombination and mutation rates and high GC content compared with the rest of the genome. However, PARs have not been studied in plants until now. In this paper we report the construction of a BAC library for S. latifolia and the first analysis of a?>?100?kb fragment of a S. latifolia PAR that we compare to the homologous autosomal region in the closely related gynodioecious species S. vulgaris. Results Six new sex-linked genes were identified in the S. latifolia PAR, together with numerous transposable elements. The same genes were found on the S. vulgaris autosomal segment, with no enlargement of the predicted coding sequences in S. latifolia. Intergenic regions were on average 1.6 times longer in S. latifolia than in S. vulgaris, mainly as a consequence of the insertion of transposable elements. The GC content did not differ significantly between the PAR region in S. latifolia and the corresponding autosomal region in S. vulgaris. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the usefulness of the BAC library developed here for the analysis of plant sex chromosomes and indicate that the PAR in the evolutionarily young S. latifolia sex chromosomes has diverged from the corresponding autosomal region in the gynodioecious S. vulgaris mainly with respect to the insertion of transposable elements. Gene order between the PAR and autosomal region investigated is conserved, and the PAR does not have the high GC content observed in evolutionarily much older mammalian sex chromosomes.

2012-01-01

82

Optical engineering application of modeled photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) for high-speed digital camera dynamic range optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As efforts to create accurate yet computationally efficient estimation models for clear-sky photosynthetically active solar radiation (PAR) have succeeded, the range of practical engineering applications where these models can be successfully applied has increased. This paper describes a novel application of the REST2 radiative model (developed by the second author) in optical engineering. The PAR predictions in this application are used to predict the possible range of instantaneous irradiances that could impinge on the image plane of a stationary video camera designed to image license plates on moving vehicles. The overall spectral response of the camera (including lens and optical filters) is similar to the 400-700 nm PAR range, thereby making PAR irradiance (rather than luminance) predictions most suitable for this application. The accuracy of the REST2 irradiance predictions for horizontal surfaces, coupled with another radiative model to obtain irradiances on vertical surfaces, and to standard optical image formation models, enable setting the dynamic range controls of the camera to ensure that the license plate images are legible (unsaturated with adequate contrast) regardless of the time of day, sky condition, or vehicle speed. A brief description of how these radiative models are utilized as part of the camera control algorithm is provided. Several comparisons of the irradiance predictions derived from the radiative model versus actual PAR measurements under varying sky conditions with three Licor sensors (one horizontal and two vertical) have been made and showed good agreement. Various camera-to-plate geometries and compass headings have been considered in these comparisons. Time-lapse sequences of license plate images taken with the camera under various sky conditions over a 30-day period are also analyzed. They demonstrate the success of the approach at creating legible plate images under highly variable lighting, which is the main goal of this application. Graphs of plate contrast over various sky conditions and camera aiming geometries are also presented to quantify the performance of the plate's legibility.

Alves, James; Gueymard, Christian A.

2009-08-01

83

Asymmetric distribution of PAR proteins in the mouse embryo begins at the 8-cell stage during compaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many organisms, like Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, establishment of spatial patterns and definition of cell fate are driven by the segregation of determinants in response to spatial cues, as early as oogenesis or fertilization. In these organisms, a family of conserved proteins, the PAR proteins, is involved in the asymmetric distribution of cytoplasmic determinants and in the control

Stéphanie Vinot; Tran Le; Shigeo Ohno; Tony Pawson; Bernard Maro; Sophie Louvet-Vallée

2005-01-01

84

A cost comparison analysis of partial versus whole-breast irradiation after breast-conserving surgery for early-stage breast cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess, if and for whom, there are cost savings associated with alternate breast radiotherapy (RT) techniques when compared with the conventional external beam-based whole-breast RT with a boost (WBRT-B). Methods and Materials: Treatment planning and delivery utilization data were modeled for eight different breast RT techniques: (1) WBRT-B: 60 Gy in 30 fractions; (2) WBRT: 50 Gy in 25 fractions; (3) WBRT-accelerated (AC): 42.5 Gy in 16 fractions; (4) WBRT-intensity-modulated RT (IMRT): 60 Gy in 30 fractions; (5) accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI)-IC, MammoSite: 34 Gy in 10 twice-daily fractions; (6) APBI-IT, HDR interstitial: 34 Gy in 10 twice-daily fractions; (7) APBI three-dimensional conformal RT (3D-CRT): 38.5 Gy in 10 twice-daily fractions; or (8) APBI-IMRT: 38.5 Gy in 10 twice-daily fractions. Costs incurred by payer (i.e., direct medical costs; 2003 Medicare Fee Schedule) and patient (i.e., direct nonmedical costs; time and travel) were estimated. Total societal costs were then calculated for each treatment approach. Results: Not all efforts to reduce overall treatment time result in total cost savings. The least expensive partial breast-based RT approaches were the external beam techniques (APBI-3D-CRT, APBI-IMRT). Any reduced cost to patients for the HDR brachytherapy-based APBI regimens were overshadowed by substantial increases in cost to payers, resulting in higher total societal costs; the cost of HDR treatment delivery was primarily responsible for the increased direct medical cost. For the whole breast-based RT approaches, treating without a boost (WBRT) or with WBRT-AC reduced total costs. Overall, WBRT-AC was the least costly of all the regimens, in terms of costs to society; APBI approaches, in general, were favored over whole-breast techniques when only considering costs to patients. Conclusions: Based on societal cost considerations, WBRT-AC appears to be the preferred approach. If one were to pursue a partial-breast RT regimen to minimize patient costs, it would be more advantageous from a societal perspective to pursue external beam-based approaches such as APBI-3D-CRT or APBI-IMRT in lieu of the brachytherapy-based regimens.

Suh, W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)]. E-mail: wsuh@lroc.harvard.edu; Pierce, Lori J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Vicini, Frank A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Hayman, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

2005-07-01

85

Simultaneous Integrated Boost Irradiation After Breast-Conserving Surgery: Physician-Rated Toxicity and Cosmetic Outcome at 30 Months' Follow-Up  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate toxicity and cosmetic outcome (CO) in breast cancer survivors treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy with a hypofractionated, simultaneous integrated boost (3D-CRT-SIB) and to identify risk factors for toxicity, with special focus on the impact of age. Methods and Materials: Included were 940 consecutive disease-free patients treated for breast cancer (Stage 0-III) with 3D-CRT-SIB, after breast-conserving surgery, from 2005 to 2010. Physician-rated toxicity (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0) and CO were prospectively assessed during yearly follow-up, up to 5 years after radiotherapy. Multivariate logistic regression analyses using a bootstrapping method were performed. Results: At 3 years, toxicity scores of 436 patients were available. Grade {>=}2 fibrosis in the boost area was observed in 8.5%, non-boost fibrosis in 49.4%, pain to the chest wall in 6.7%, and fair/poor CO in 39.7% of cases. Radiotherapy before chemotherapy was significantly associated with grade {>=}2 boost fibrosis at 3 years (odds ratio [OR] 2.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-6.0). Non-boost fibrosis was associated with re-resection (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.0) and larger tumors (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.1). At 1 year, chest wall pain was significantly associated with high boost dosage (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.7) and younger age (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.7). A fair/poor CO was observed more often after re-resection (OR 4.5, 95% CI 2.4-8.5), after regional radiotherapy (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.2-7.1), and in larger tumors (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.1). Conclusions: Toxicity and CO are not impaired after 3D-CRT-SIB. Fibrosis was not significantly associated with radiotherapy parameters. Independent risk factors for fibrosis were chemotherapy after radiotherapy, re-resection, and larger tumor size. Re-resection was most predictive for worse CO. Age had an impact on chest wall pain occurrence.

Bantema-Joppe, Enja J.; Schilstra, Cornelis [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Bock, Geertruida H. de [Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Dolsma, Wil V.; Busz, Dianne M.; Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Maduro, John H., E-mail: j.h.maduro@umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

2012-07-15

86

MRI Asymmetries of Broca's Area: The Pars Triangularis and Pars Opercularis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Broca's area, which includes the pars triangularis (PTR) and pars opercularis (POP), is a neuroanatomic region important in speech-language production. Previous data demonstrated that PTR asymmetries are highly correlated with language dominance determined by selective hemispheric anesthesia or Wada testing, suggesting that asymmetries of the PTR may, in part, predict language dominance. The POP, however, has not been measured on

Anne L. Foundas; Kathy F. Eure; Laura F. Luevano; Daniel R. Weinberger

1998-01-01

87

The horse pseudoautosomal region (PAR): characterization and comparison with the human, chimp and mouse PARs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) is a genomic segment on mammalian sex chromosomes where sequence homology mimics that seen between autosomal homologues. The region is essential for pairing and proper segregation of sex chromosomes during male meiosis. As yet, only human\\/chimp and mouse PARs have been characterized. The two groups of species differ dramatically in gene content and size of the

T Raudsepp; B. P. Chowdhary

2008-01-01

88

The impact of the number of excised axillary nodes and of the percentage of involved nodes on regional nodal failure in patients treated by breast-conserving surgery with or without regional irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: After breast-conserving surgery, recommendations for regional nodal radiotherapy are usually based on the number of positive nodes. This number is dependent on the number of nodes removed during the axillary dissection. This study examines whether the percentage of positive nodes may help to select patients for regional radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A retrospective study was conducted on 1,372 T1-T2 node-positive breast cancer patients treated at L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec Hospital between 1972 and 1997. Results: Among the patients who did not receive regional radiotherapy, the percentage of involved nodes was significantly associated with axillary failure. Ten-year axillary control rates were 97% and 91% when the percentage of involved nodes was <50% and {>=}50%, respectively (p = 0.007). In addition, regional radiotherapy is always significantly associated with a decrease in overall regional failure (axillary and/or supraclavicular), regardless of the percentage of involved nodes. However, regional radiotherapy reduced the axillary failure rate (2% vs. 9%, p = 0.007) only when more than a specific percentage of nodes was involved ({>=}40% if N1-3 and {>=}50% if N>3 nodes). Conclusions: The percentage of involved nodes should be taken into consideration in selecting patients for regional radiotherapy. Irradiation of the axilla should be reserved for patients with a specific ratio: >40% involved nodes if N1-3 and {>=}50% involved nodes if N>3 nodes.

Fortin, Andre [Department of Radiation Oncology, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail: afortin@videotron.ca; Dagnault, Anne [Department of Radiation Oncology, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Blondeau, Lucie [Department of Radiation Oncology, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Thi Trinh Thuc Vu [Department of Radiation Oncology, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Larochelle, Marie [Department of Radiation Oncology, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada)

2006-05-01

89

A conformational switch in the CRIB-PDZ module of Par-6.  

PubMed

Here, we report a novel mechanism of PDZ (PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1) domain regulation that distorts a conserved element of PDZ ligand recognition. The polarity regulator Par-6 assembles a conserved multiprotein complex and is directly modulated by the Rho GTPase Cdc42. Cdc42 binds the adjacent Cdc42/Rac interactive binding (CRIB) and PDZ domains of Par-6, increasing C-terminal ligand binding affinity by 10-fold. By solving structures of the isolated PDZ domain and a disulfide-stabilized CRIB-PDZ, we detected a conformational switch that controls affinity by altering the configuration of the conserved "GLGF" loop. As a result, lysine 165 is displaced from the PDZ core by an adjacent hydrophobic residue, disrupting coordination of the PDZ ligand-binding cleft. Stabilization of the CRIB:PDZ interface restores K165 to its canonical location in the binding pocket. We conclude that a unique "dipeptide switch" in the Par-6 PDZ transmits a signal for allosteric activation to the ligand-binding pocket. PMID:22078569

Whitney, Dustin S; Peterson, Francis C; Volkman, Brian F

2011-11-01

90

A novel conformational switch in the CRIB-PDZ module of Par-6  

PubMed Central

Summary Here we report a novel mechanism of PDZ (PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1) domain regulation that distorts a conserved element of PDZ ligand recognition. The polarity regulator Par-6 assembles a conserved multi-protein complex and is directly modulated by the Rho GTPase Cdc42. Cdc42 binds the adjacent Cdc42/Rac interactive binding (CRIB) and PDZ domains of Par-6, increasing C-terminal ligand binding affinity 10-fold. By solving structures of the isolated PDZ domain and a disulfide-stabilized CRIB-PDZ, we detected a conformational switch that controls affinity by altering the configuration of the conserved ‘GLGF’ loop. As a result, lysine 165 is displaced from the PDZ core by an adjacent hydrophobic residue, disrupting coordination of the PDZ ligand binding cleft. Stabilization of the CRIB:PDZ interface restores K165 to its canonical location in the binding pocket. We conclude that a unique ‘dipeptide switch’ in the Par-6 PDZ transmits a signal for allosteric activation to the ligand binding pocket.

Whitney, Dustin S.; Peterson, Francis C.; Volkman, Brian F.

2011-01-01

91

Conservation Laws  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the case of the free particle, we interpreted various components of the energy-momentum-stress density as fluxes of energy and momentum. This interpretation can obviously be extended also to particle ensembles and gases. When we speak of fluxes we usually think of quantities that are conserved. In special relativity, energy and momentum are conserved. In general relativity, they are no longer generally conserved, at least if we do not include the energy and momentum of the gravitational field itself. Nevertheless, their densities and fluxes satisfy a covariant generalization of a true conservation law, which is quite easy to obtain.

Dewitt, Bryce; Christensen, Steven M.

92

ParCAT: Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit  

SciTech Connect

Climate science is employing increasingly complex models and simulations to analyze the past and predict the future of Earth s climate. This growth in complexity is creating a widening gap between the data being produced and the ability to analyze the datasets. Parallel computing tools are necessary to analyze, compare, and interpret the simulation data. The Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit (ParCAT) provides basic tools to efficiently use parallel computing techniques to make analysis of these datasets manageable. The toolkit provides the ability to compute spatio-temporal means, differences between runs or differences between averages of runs, and histograms of the values in a data set. ParCAT is implemented as a command-line utility written in C. This allows for easy integration in other tools and allows for use in scripts. This also makes it possible to run ParCAT on many platforms from laptops to supercomputers. ParCAT outputs NetCDF files so it is compatible with existing utilities such as Panoply and UV-CDAT. This paper describes ParCAT and presents results from some example runs on the Titan system at ORNL.

Smith, Brian E [ORNL; Steed, Chad A [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Ricciuto, Daniel M [ORNL; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Wehner, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

2013-01-01

93

Par6B and Atypical PKC Regulate Mitotic Spindle Orientation during Epithelial Morphogenesis*  

PubMed Central

Cdc42 plays an evolutionarily conserved role in promoting cell polarity and is indispensable during epithelial morphogenesis. To further investigate the role of Cdc42, we have used a three-dimensional matrigel model, in which single Caco-2 cells develop to form polarized cysts. Using this system, we previously reported that Cdc42 controls mitotic spindle orientation during cell division to correctly position the apical surface in a growing epithelial structure. In the present study, we have investigated the specific downstream effectors through which Cdc42 controls this process. Here, we report that Par6B and its binding partner, atypical protein kinase C (aPKC), are required to regulate Caco-2 morphogenesis. Depletion or inhibition of Par6B or aPKC phenocopies the loss of Cdc42, inducing misorientation of the mitotic spindle, mispositioning of the nascent apical surface, and ultimately, the formation of aberrant cysts with multiple lumens. Mechanistically, Par6B and aPKC function interdependently in this context. Par6B localizes to the apical surface of Caco-2 cysts and is required to recruit aPKC to this compartment. Conversely, aPKC protects Par6B from proteasomal degradation, in a kinase-independent manner. In addition, we report that depletion or inhibition of aPKC induces robust apoptotic cell death in Caco-2 cells, significantly reducing both cyst size and number. Cell survival and apical positioning depend upon different thresholds of aPKC expression, suggesting that they are controlled by distinct downstream pathways. We conclude that Par6B and aPKC control mitotic spindle orientation in polarized epithelia and, furthermore, that aPKC coordinately regulates multiple processes to promote morphogenesis.

Durgan, Joanne; Kaji, Noriko; Jin, Dan; Hall, Alan

2011-01-01

94

A 66-kDa protein of bovine hypophyseal Pars tuberalis induces luteinizing hormone release from rat Pars distalis.  

PubMed

In this study, evidence for a factor secreted by bovine hypophyseal pars tuberalis that stimulates luteinizing hormone (LH) release from rat pars distalis cells is shown. The secretion products of bovine pars tuberalis cells into the culture medium were assayed on dispersed rat pars distalis cells in 30 min incubations and superfusion experiments. The culture medium from pars tuberalis total cell populations, added at a dose of 6 microg per tube, induced the greater LH release from pars distalis cells, without effect on follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) release. After pars tuberalis cells separation on a discontinuos Percoll gradient, only the culture medium of cells from 50 and 60% strength Percoll were able to release LH from rat pars distalis cells. Therefore, cell fractions from 50 and 60% strenght Percoll were cultured together. To elicit maximal LH release (6 times the basal output), with the addition of 2 microg of pars tuberalis protein was required, suggesting that these cells produce the factor or factors which affect pars distalis gonadotrope cells. After applying the pars tuberalis culture medium on 12% SDS-PAGE, the band with biological activity was that of 66-kDal. Fifty ng protein of its eluate released almost 9 times the basal output of LH from pars distalis cells. Results suggest a modulating effect of a protein from the bovine pars tuberalis on rat cultured gonadotrope cells from the pars distalis. PMID:19181183

Lafarque, Martha; Oliveros, Liliana

2008-12-01

95

Neuroparsins, a family of conserved arthropod neuropeptides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different neuroparsin variants were initially identified as anti-gonadotropic peptides from the pars intercerebralis–corpora cardiaca complex of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, and further studies revealed the pleiotropic activities of these peptides. Subsequently, additional neuroparsin-like peptides were discovered from other arthropod species. Studies in mosquitoes and locusts suggest that members of this conserved peptide family are involved in the regulation of

Liesbeth Badisco; Ilse Claeys; Tom Van Loy; Matthias Van Hiel; Vanessa Franssens; Gert Simonet; Jozef Vanden Broeck

2007-01-01

96

[Attenuation of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) in Meiliang Bay under different winds and waves].  

PubMed

Based on the successive underwater irradiance measurement in situ from Jul. 12 to 17 in 2003, the attenuation of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) and euphotic depth in Meiliang Bay were analyzed under different winds and waves. The results showed that the downward PAR attenuation coefficients ranged from 2.63 to 4.7 m(-1), with an average of 3.63 +/- 0.47 x m(-1), and the corresponding euphotic depth ranged from 0.98 to 1.75 m, with an average of 1.29 +/- 0.18 m, which demonstrated that phytoplankton and macrophyte could not grow below 1.5 m due to the lack of adequate solar radiation. The total suspended solids resulted from wind and wave increased the attenuation of light, with the downward attenuation coefficients of PAR being 2.63, 3.72 and 4.37 x m(-1) under small, medium and large wind and wave, respectively. Significant linear correlations were found between transparence, PAR attenuation coefficient, euphotic depth and total suspended solid, especially inorganic suspended solid, while chlorophyll a was the most nonsignificant light attenuator. Multiple stepwise linear regressions showed that inorganic suspended solid was the most important light attenuator dominating the light attenuation in wind-exposed Meiliang Bay. PMID:16180769

Zhang, Yunlin; Qin, Boqiang; Chen, Weimin; Hu, Weiping; Gao, Guang; Zhu, Guangwei; Luo, Liancong

2005-06-01

97

Les Brulures Chimiques Par Le Laurier Rose  

PubMed Central

Summary Le laurier rose ou Nerium oleander est un arbuste qui pousse naturellement dans les régions méditerranéennes. Au Maroc on le trouve dans les lieux humides. Il est réputé par ses risques de toxicité systémique en cas d'empoisonnement à cause de la présence de deux alcaloïdes, surtout l'oléandrine. La littérature illustre des cas d'utilisation locale des feuilles de cette plante contre la gale, les hémorroïdes et les furoncles. Nous rapportons deux cas de brûlures chimiques par le laurier rose de gravité différente. Cela doit aboutir à une information élargie de la population, ainsi qu'une réglementation stricte de sa commercialisation.

Bakkali, H.; Ababou, M.; Nassim Sabah, T.; Moussaoui, A.; Ennouhi, A.; Fouadi, F.Z.; Siah, S.; Ihrai, H.

2010-01-01

98

Peroxynitrite-induced thymocyte apoptosis: the role of caspases and poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase (PARS) activation.  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms by which immature thymocyte apoptosis is induced during negative selection are poorly defined. Reports demonstrated that cross-linking of T-cell receptor leads to stromal cell activation, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and, subsequently, to thymocyte apoptosis. Therefore we examined, whether NO directly or indirectly, through peroxynitrite formation, causes thymocyte apoptosis. Immuno-histochemical detection of nitrotyrosine revealed in vivo peroxynitrite formation in the thymi of naive mice. Nitrotyrosine, the footprint of peroxynitrite, was predominantly found in the corticomedullary junction and the medulla of naive mice. In the thymi of mice deficient in the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase, considerably less nitrotyrosine was found. Exposure of thymocytes in vitro to low concentrations (10 microM) of peroxynitrite led to apoptosis, whereas higher concentrations (50 microM) resulted in intense cell death with the characteristics of necrosis. We also investigated the effect of poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase (PARS) inhibition on thymocyte apoptosis. Using the PARS inhibitor 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB), or thymocytes from PARS-deficient animals, we established that PARS determines the fate of thymocyte death. Suppression of cellular ATP levels, and the cellular necrosis in response to peroxynitrite were prevented by PARS inhibition. Therefore, in the absence of PARS, cells are diverted towards the pathway of apoptotic cell death. Similar results were obtained with H2O2 treatment, while apoptosis induced by non-oxidative stimuli such as dexamethasone or anti-FAS antibody was unaffected by PARS inhibition. In conclusion, we propose that peroxynitrite-induced apoptosis may play a role in the process of thymocyte negative selection. Furthermore, we propose that the physiological role of PARS cleavage by apopain during apoptosis may serve as an energy-conserving step, enabling the cell to complete the process of apoptosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6

Virag, L; Scott, G S; Cuzzocrea, S; Marmer, D; Salzman, A L; Szabo, C

1998-01-01

99

Interim Cosmetic Results and Toxicity Using 3D Conformal External Beam Radiotherapy to Deliver Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation in Patients With Early-Stage Breast Cancer Treated With Breast-Conserving Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We present our ongoing clinical experience utilizing three-dimensional (3D)-conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) in patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy. Methods and Materials: Ninety-one consecutive patients were treated with APBI using our previously reported 3D-CRT technique. The clinical target volume consisted of the lumpectomy cavity plus a 10- to 15 -mm margin. The prescribed dose was 34 or 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions given over 5 consecutive days. The median follow-up was 24 months. Twelve patients have been followed for {>=}4 years, 20 for {>=}3.5 years, 29 for >3.0 years, 33 for {>=}2.5 years, and 46 for {>=}2.0 years. Results: No local recurrences developed. Cosmetic results were rated as good/excellent in 100% of evaluable patients at {>=} 6 months (n = 47), 93% at 1 year (n = 43), 91% at 2 years (n = 21), and in 90% at {>=}3 years (n = 10). Erythema, hyperpigmentation, breast edema, breast pain, telangiectasias, fibrosis, and fat necrosis were evaluated at 6, 24, and 36 months after treatment. All factors stabilized by 3 years posttreatment with grade I or II rates of 0%, 0%, 0%, 0%, 9%, 18%, and 9%, respectively. Only 2 patients (3%) developed grade III toxicity (breast pain), which resolved with time. Conclusions: Delivery of APBI with 3D-CRT resulted in minimal chronic ({>=}6 months) toxicity to date with good/excellent cosmetic results. Additional follow-up is needed to assess the long-term efficacy of this form of APBI.

Vicini, Frank A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)], E-mail: fvicini@beaumont.edu; Chen, Peter; Wallace, Michelle; Mitchell, Christina; Hasan, Yasmin; Grills, Inga; Kestin, Larry [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Schell, Scott [Department of Surgery, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Goldstein, Neal S. [Department of Anatomic Pathology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Kunzman, Jonathan [Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI (United States); Gilbert, Sam [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Martinez, Alvaro [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

2007-11-15

100

Evaluation of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the p53 Binding Protein 1 (TP53BP1) Gene in Breast Cancer Patients Treated With Breast-Conserving Surgery and Whole-Breast Irradiation (BCS + RT)  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: TP53BP1 is a key component of radiation-induced deoxyribonucleic acid damage repair. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the significance of a known common single nucleotide polymorphism in this gene (rs560191) in patients treated with breast-conserving surgery and whole-breast irradiation (BCS + RT). Methods and Materials: The population consisted of 176 premenopausal women treated with BCS + RT (median follow-up, 12 years). Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid was processed by use of TaqMan assays. Each allele for rs560191 was either C or G, so each patient was therefore classified as CC, CG, or GG. Patients were grouped as GG if they were homozygous for the variant G allele or CC-CG if they carried at least one copy of the common C allele (CC or CG). Results: Of the 176 women, 124 (71%) were CC-CG and 52 (29%) were GG. The mean age was 44 years for GG vs. 38 years for CC-CG (p < 0.001). GG was more common in African-American women than white women (69% vs. 13%, p < 0.001) and more commonly estrogen receptor negative (70% vs. 49%, p = 0.02). There were no significant correlations of rs560191 with other critical variables. Despite the fact that GG patients were older, the 10-year rate of local relapses was higher (22% for GG vs. 12% for CC-CG, p = 0.04). Conclusions: This novel avenue of investigation of polymorphisms in radiation repair/response genes in patients treated with BCS + RT suggests a correlation to local relapse. Additional evaluation is needed to assess the biological and functional significance of these single nucleotide polymorphisms, and larger confirmatory validation studies will be required to determine the clinical implications.

Haffty, Bruce G., E-mail: hafftybg@umdnj.ed [Robert Wood Johnson Medical School-Cancer Institute of New Jersey, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Goyal, Sharad; Kulkarni, Diptee; Green, Camille; Vazquez, Alexi; Schiff, Devora [Robert Wood Johnson Medical School-Cancer Institute of New Jersey, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Moran, Meena S. [Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Yang Qifeng [Department of Breast Surgery, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan (China); Ganesan, Shridar; Hirsfield, Kim M. [Robert Wood Johnson Medical School-Cancer Institute of New Jersey, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

2011-06-01

101

Objective and Longitudinal Assessment of Dermatitis After Postoperative Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using High-Dose-Rate Interstitial Brachytherapy in Patients With Breast Cancer Treated With Breast Conserving Therapy: Reduction of Moisture Deterioration by APBI  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To objectively evaluate the radiation dermatitis caused by accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy. Patients and Methods: The skin color and moisture changes were examined using a newly installed spectrophotometer and corneometer in 22 patients who had undergone APBI using open cavity implant high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (36 Gy in six fractions) and compared with the corresponding values for 44 patients in an external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) control group (50-60 Gy in 25-30 fractions within 5-6 weeks) after breast conserving surgery. Results: All values changed significantly as a result of APBI. The extent of elevation in a Asterisk-Operator (reddish) and reduction in L Asterisk-Operator (black) values caused by APBI were similar to those for EBRT, with slightly delayed recovery for 6-12 months after treatment owing to the surgical procedure. In contrast, only APBI caused a change in the b Asterisk-Operator values, and EBRT did not, demonstrating that the reduction in b Asterisk-Operator values (yellowish) depends largely on the surgical procedure. The changes in moisture were less severe after APBI than after EBRT, and the recovery was more rapid. The toxicity assessment using the Common Toxicity Criteria, version 3, showed that all dermatitis caused by APBI was Grade 2 or less. Conclusion: An objective analysis can quantify the effects of APBI procedures on color and moisture cosmesis. The radiation dermatitis caused by APBI using the present schedule showed an equivalent effect on skin color and a less severe effect on moisture than the effects caused by standard EBRT.

Tanaka, Eiichi [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Hospital Organization, Osaka National Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Yamazaki, Hideya, E-mail: hideya10@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Yoshida, Ken; Takenaka, Tadashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Hospital Organization, Osaka National Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Masuda, Norikazu [Department of Surgery and Breast Oncology, National Hospital Organization, Osaka National Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Kotsuma, Tadayuki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Inoue, Takehiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita (Japan)

2011-11-15

102

A Combined Global and Local Approach to Elucidate Spatial Organization of the Mycobacterial ParB-parS Partition  

SciTech Connect

Combining diverse sets of data at global (size, shape) and local (residue) scales is an emerging trend for elucidating the organization and function of the cellular assemblies. We used such a strategy, combining data from X-ray and neutron scattering with H/D-contrast variation and X-ray footprinting with mass spectrometry, to elucidate the spatial organization of the ParB-parS assembly from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The ParB-parS participates in plasmid and chromosome segregation and condensation in predivisional bacterial cells. ParB polymerizes around the parS centromere(s) to form a higher-order assembly that serves to recruit cyto-skeletal ParA ATPases and SMC proteins for chromosome segregation. A hybrid model of the ParB-parS was built by combining and correlating computational models with experiment-derived information about size, shape, position of the symmetry axis within the shape, internal topology, DNA-protein interface, exposed surface patches, and prior knowledge. This first view of the ParB-parS leads us to propose how ParB spread on the chromosome to form a larger assembly.

Chaudhuri, Barnali [University of Buffalo, The State University of New York; Gupta, Sayan [Case Western Reserve University; Urban, Volker S [ORNL; Chance, Mark [Case Western Reserve University; D'Mello, Rhijuta [Case Western Reserve University; Smith, Lauren [University of Buffalo, The State University of New York; Lyons, Kelly [University of Buffalo, The State University of New York; Gee, Jessica [University of Buffalo, The State University of New York

2010-01-01

103

A Combined Global and Local Approach to Elucidate Spatial Organization of the Mycobacterial ParB-parS Partition Assembly  

SciTech Connect

Combining diverse sets of data at global (size, shape) and local (residue) scales is an emerging trend for elucidating the organization and function of the cellular assemblies. We used such a strategy, combining data from X-ray and neutron scattering with H/D-contrast variation and X-ray footprinting with mass spectrometry, to elucidate the spatial organization of the ParB-parS assembly from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The ParB-parS participates in plasmid and chromosome segregation and condensation in predivisional bacterial cells. ParB polymerizes around the parS centromere(s) to form a higher-order assembly that serves to recruit cyto-skeletal ParA ATPases and SMC proteins for chromosome segregation. A hybrid model of the ParB-parS was built by combining and correlating computational models with experiment-derived information about size, shape, position of the symmetry axis within the shape, internal topology, DNA-protein interface, exposed surface patches, and prior knowledge. This first view of the ParB-parS leads us to propose how ParB spread on the chromosome to form a larger assembly.

B Chaudhuri; S Gupta; V Urban; M Chance; R DMello; L Smith; K Lyons; J Gee

2011-12-31

104

Suprachoroidal hemorrhage during pars plana vitrectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveSuprachoroidal hemorrhage (SCH) is an uncommon but serious complication of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) that can be associated with a guarded visual prognosis. The purpose of this study is to document the risk factors and outcomes of this complication.

Homayoun Tabandeh; Paul M Sullivan; Peter Smahliuk; Harry W Flynn; Joyce Schiffman

1999-01-01

105

Giant retinal tears after pars plana vitrectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitreous surgery is used to treat complicated vitreo-retinal pathology. Retinal tears are a serious complication of vitreous surgery. In this report, the development of giant retinal tears in four eyes after pars plana vitrectomy for posterior segment pathology is described. The pathogenesis and implications of this serious and infrequent complication are discussed.

Ahmed M Abu El-Asrar

1997-01-01

106

Transmission par bistabilit e nonlin eaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

R esum e. La nonlin earit e, induite par la d ependance de l'indice de r efraction a l'intensit e, peut ^ etre un moyen de concevoir des d etecteurs de lumi ere sensibles a une tr es faible excitation. Cela provient des propri et es de bistabilit e de l' equation de Schrodinger nonlin eaire soumise a des conditions

D. Chevriaux

107

Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) power supply.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) consists of 8 dipole magnets connected in series. These magnets are energized via one 12-pulse dc power supply. The power supply consists of four phase controlled half-wave wye group converters. Each of the two half-wav...

M. Fathizadeh

1995-01-01

108

Sources of errors in measurements of PAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to optical processes in the atmosphere the spectral distribution of global, direct solar and diffuse radiation is different and depends on solar elevation, atmosphere transparency etc. Because of various optical properties of phytoelements, the spectral distribution of penetrated and reflected radiation differs from that of incoming radiation. Owing to radiative transfer processes, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and its proportion

J. Ross; M. Sulev

2000-01-01

109

PRECISION CONSERVATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Precision conservation utilizes a set of technologies and procedures that link mapped variables with analytical capabilities to appropriate management actions. It requires the integration of spatial technologies of global positioning systems, remote sensing and geographic information systems with t...

110

Conservation Presentation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introduces a project in which students teach about the importance of recycling and conservation by presenting demonstrations. Includes demonstrations on water, plastic, and other recycling products such as steel. (YDS)|

Friday, Gerald

2001-01-01

111

Conservation Presentation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces a project in which students teach about the importance of recycling and conservation by presenting demonstrations. Includes demonstrations on water, plastic, and other recycling products such as steel. (YDS)

Friday, Gerald

2001-01-01

112

Energy Conservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comments on The Potential for Energy Conservation,'' a study by the Office of Emergency Preparedness, emphasizing the coming dependence on foreign oil, and presses for government influence to encourage development of more efficient cars. (AL)

Abelson, Philip H.

1972-01-01

113

Using multicast to pre-load jobs on the ParPar cluster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ParPar system is a high-performance cluster environment supporting a multiuser parallel workload. Its design follows a master-nodes structure, where the master controls all aspects of system activity using a dedicated control network. As nearly all control messages are multicast to a set of nodes, we implemented a reliable multicast protocol for this network based on UDP. This was then

Avi Kavas; David Er-el; Dror G. Feitelson

2001-01-01

114

Glaucoma secondary to pars plana lensectomy for congenital cataract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To identify risk factors related to the onset of secondary glaucoma in eyes that have undergone pars plana lensectomy for congenital cataract. Methods: We investigated intraocular pressure levels after pars plana lensectomy for congenital cataract in 80 eyes of 44 patients who were followed up for at least 36 months. Mean age at the time of pars plana lensectomy

Shinsuke Miyahara; Kentaro Amino; Hidenobu Tanihara

2002-01-01

115

The Human Pseudoautosomal Region (PAR): Origin, Function and Future.  

PubMed

The pseudoautosomal regions (PAR1 and PAR2) of the human X and Y chromosomes pair and recombine during meiosis. Thus genes in this region are not inherited in a strictly sex-linked fashion. PAR1 is located at the terminal region of the short arms and PAR2 at the tips of the long arms of these chromosomes. To date, 24 genes have been assigned to the PAR1 region. Half of these have a known function. In contrast, so far only 4 genes have been discovered in the PAR2 region. Deletion of the PAR1 region results in failure of pairing and male sterility. The gene SHOX (short stature homeobox-containing) resides in PAR1. SHOX haploinsufficiency contributes to certain features in Turner syndrome as well as the characteristics of Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis. Only two of the human PAR1 genes have mouse homologues. These do not, however, reside in the mouse PAR1 region but are autosomal. The PAR regions seem to be relics of differential additions, losses, rearrangements and degradation of the X and Y chromosome in different mammalian lineages. Marsupials have three homologues of human PAR1 genes in their autosomes, although, in contrast to mouse, do not have a PAR region at all. The disappearance of PAR from other species seems likely and this region will only be rescued by the addition of genes to both X and Y, as has occurred already in lemmings. The present review summarizes the current understanding of the evolution of PAR and provides up-to-date information about individual genes residing in this region. PMID:18660847

Helena Mangs, A; Morris, Brian J

2007-04-01

116

The Human Pseudoautosomal Region (PAR): Origin, Function and Future  

PubMed Central

The pseudoautosomal regions (PAR1 and PAR2) of the human X and Y chromosomes pair and recombine during meiosis. Thus genes in this region are not inherited in a strictly sex-linked fashion. PAR1 is located at the terminal region of the short arms and PAR2 at the tips of the long arms of these chromosomes. To date, 24 genes have been assigned to the PAR1 region. Half of these have a known function. In contrast, so far only 4 genes have been discovered in the PAR2 region. Deletion of the PAR1 region results in failure of pairing and male sterility. The gene SHOX (short stature homeobox-containing) resides in PAR1. SHOX haploinsufficiency contributes to certain features in Turner syndrome as well as the characteristics of Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis. Only two of the human PAR1 genes have mouse homologues. These do not, however, reside in the mouse PAR1 region but are autosomal. The PAR regions seem to be relics of differential additions, losses, rearrangements and degradation of the X and Y chromosome in different mammalian lineages. Marsupials have three homologues of human PAR1 genes in their autosomes, although, in contrast to mouse, do not have a PAR region at all. The disappearance of PAR from other species seems likely and this region will only be rescued by the addition of genes to both X and Y, as has occurred already in lemmings. The present review summarizes the current understanding of the evolution of PAR and provides up-to-date information about individual genes residing in this region.

Helena Mangs, A; Morris, Brian J

2007-01-01

117

Project Plan 7930 Cell G PaR Remote Handling System Replacement  

SciTech Connect

For over 40 years the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have made Californium-252 ({sup 252}Cf) available for a wide range of industries including medical, nuclear fuels, mining, military and national security. The Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) located within the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) processes irradiated production targets from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Operations in Building 7930, Cell G provide over 70% of the world's demand for {sup 252}Cf. Building 7930 was constructed and equipped in the mid-1960s. Current operations for {sup 252}Cf processing in Building 7930, Cell G require use of through-the-wall manipulators and the PaR Remote Handling System. Maintenance and repairs for the manipulators is readily accomplished by removal of the manipulator and relocation to a repair shop where hands-on work can be performed in glove boxes. Contamination inside cell G does not currently allow manned entry and no provisions were created for a maintenance area inside the cell. There has been no maintenance of the PaR system or upgrades, leaving operations vulnerable should the system have a catastrophic failure. The Cell G PaR system is currently being operated in a run to failure mode. As the manipulator is now 40+ years old there is significant risk in this method of operation. In 2006 an assessment was completed that resulted in recommendations for replacing the manipulator operator control and power centers which are used to control and power the PaR manipulator in Cell G. In mid-2008 the chain for the bridge drive failed and subsequent examinations indicated several damaged links (see Figure 1). To continue operations the PaR manipulator arm is being used to push and pull the bridge as a workaround. A retrieval tool was fabricated, tested and staged inside Cell G that will allow positioning of the bridge and manipulator arm for removal from the cell should the PaR system completely fail. A fully functioning and reliable Par manipulator arm is necessary for uninterrupted {sup 252}Cf operations; a fully-functioning bridge is needed for the system to function as intended.

Kinney, Kathryn A [ORNL

2009-10-01

118

Water Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students study the availability of water on Earth and discuss methods that can be used to purify and conserve this critical resource. Using multimedia interactives, video, and classroom activities, they will identify sources of fresh water available for consumption, understand the need for water conservation, and compare the benefits and drawbacks of different water management techniques. They will also assess how much water they and their families typically use, and think about ways to reduce their water usage. Finally, students explore different techniques being employed for water management around the world, including the use of dams to create reservoirs.

2005-01-01

119

The MasPar MP1 architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MasPar MP-1 architecture is described. It is a massively parallel SIMD machine with the following key characteristics: scalable architecture in terms of the number of processing elements, system memory, and system communication bandwidth; reduced-instruction-set-computer-like instruction set design which leverages optimizing compiler technology; adherence to industry-standard floating point formats, specifically VAX and IEEE floating point; and an architectural design amenable

Tom Blank

1990-01-01

120

Par Pond refill water quality sampling  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to document anoxia and its cause in the event that the anoxia caused a fish kill. However, no fish kill was observed during this study, and dissolved oxygen and nutrient concentrations generally remained within the range expected for southeastern reservoirs. Par Pond water quality monitoring will continue during the second summer after refill as the aquatic macrophytes become reestablished and nutrients in the sediments are released to the water column.

Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Westbury, H.M.

1996-08-01

121

Pars Plana Vitrectomy in Advanced Coats' Disease  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report 5 cases of advanced Coats’ disease managed with pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil tamponade. Methods Five patients with advanced Coats’ disease and serous or tractional retinal detachment underwent pars plana vitrectomy with internal drainage, endolaser photocoagulation and silicone oil tamponade. One patient had combined phacoemulsification-vitrectomy surgery. Of the 5 patients, 1 had intravitreal hemorrhage and a retinal macrocyst and 1 had a retinal cyst. Follow-up period was 1–6 years. Results All patients had improved visual acuity after surgery. No intraoperative or postoperative complications were observed in any of the patients. The retina was attached and the disease was stable in all patients during follow-up. Two patients had cataract formation, and in one of them the cataract was successfully managed with phacoemulsification surgery. Conclusion Pars plana vitrectomy, subretinal fluid drainage, and long-term silicone oil tamponade are effective methods in the management of advanced Coats’ disease. Early and prompt management can prevent visual loss and secondary complications.

Muftuoglu, Gulipek; Gulkilik, Gokhan

2011-01-01

122

[Conservation Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Instructional units deal with each aspect of conservation: forests, wildlife, rangelands, water, minerals, and soil. The area of the secondary school curriculum with which each is correlated is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the topic, questions to…

Texas Education Agency, Austin.

123

[Conservation Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

Texas Education Agency, Austin.

124

Lighting Conservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the energy crisis has come an awareness of wasteful consumption practices. One area where research is being done is in lighting conservation. Information in this article is concerned with finding more effective and efficient lighting designs which include daylight utilization, task-oriented lighting, and lighting controls. (MA)

Arnold, Frank D.

1975-01-01

125

Conserving Soil.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed as enrichment materials for grades six through nine, this program is an interdisciplinary study of soils. As part of the program students: (1) examine soil organisms; (2) research history of local Native Americans to see how they and others have used the land and its soils; (3) investigate how soils are degraded and how they are conserved

Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

126

Estimates and Measurements of Photosynthetically Active Radiation and Global Solar Irradiance in Rondonia  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and global solar irradiance (R{sub s}) were made at a LBA (The Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia) experimental site, at Fazenda Nossa Senhora (10 deg. 45' S; 62 deg. 21' W), in Rondonia, in the years of 2004 and 2005, with the objective of estimating the seasonal variation of the ratio between the photosynthetically active radiation and the global solar irradiance. The relationship between PAR and R{sub s} were made by using linear regressions equations with data from year 2004 and tested with data from the year 2005. The seasonal variation of the ratio PAR/R{sub s} ranged from 0.43 (September) to 0.48 (January). The linear regression equations between PAR and R{sub s} obtained were: a) On an hourly basis: PAR 0.747+0.478*R{sub s},(R{sup 2} = 0.99; wet season) and PAR = -4.578+0.452*R{sub s}(R{sup 2} 0.99; dry season); b) On a daily basis: PAR = 4.956+0.466*R{sub s}(R{sup 2} = 0.99; wet season) and PAR = -6.762+0.457*R{sub s}(R{sup 2} = 0.96; dry season)

Aguiar, Leonardo J. G.; Costa, Jose M. N. da; Fischer, Graciela R. [Department of Agricultural Engineering, Federal University of Vicosa, CEP 36570000, Vicosa-MG (Brazil); Aguiar, Renata G. [Department of Ambiental Engineering, Federal University of Rondonia, CEP 78960000, Ji-Parana-RO (Brazil)

2009-03-11

127

PAR1- and PAR2-induced innate immune markers are negatively regulated by PI3K\\/Akt signaling pathway in oral keratinocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Protease-Activated Receptors (PARs), members of G-protein-coupled receptors, are activated by proteolytic activity of various proteases. Activation of PAR1 and PAR2 triggers innate immune responses in human oral keratinocytes (HOKs), but the signaling pathways downstream of PAR activation in HOKs have not been clearly defined. In this study, we aimed to determine if PAR1- and PAR2-mediated signaling differs in the

Maryam G Rohani; Dennis H DiJulio; Jonathan Y An; Beth M Hacker; Beverly A Dale; Whasun O Chung

2010-01-01

128

Carcinome épidermoïde de l'urètre masculin révélé par une rupture spontanée de l'urètre.  

PubMed

RéSUMé: Le carcinome épidermoïde de l'urètre masculin est une tumeur rare, les tumeurs de l'urètre tous types confondus représentant moins de 1 % des tumeurs de l'appareil urinaire. Le pronostic reste défavorable malgré un traitement chirurgical énergique. La radiochimiothérapie semble être un traitement prometteur, mais son rôle doit être défini par d'autres études.Nous rapportons un cas rare de carcinome épidermoïde de l'urètre bulbo-membraneux découvert à un stade localement avancé après observation d'une rupture urétrale transtumorale chez un homme âgé de 70 ans. Le patient a été traité, après drainage vésical, par une irradiation externe associée à une chimiothérapie par cisplatine, et est décédé après progression de la maladie sur un an.La rupture spontanée de l'urètre transtumorale est un mode de découverte exceptionnel témoignant d'une évolution locale défavorable, ce qui rend ces tumeurs difficilement opérables. Cependant, l'espoir actuel réside dans des protocoles thérapeutiques associant radiothérapie et chimiothérapie. PMID:21672490

Ghorbel, Jilani; Hafsia, Ghassen; Derouiche, Amine; Jrad, Anis; Chebil, Mohamed

2011-06-01

129

Helicobacter pylori CagA Inhibits PAR1-MARK Family Kinases by Mimicking Host Substrates  

SciTech Connect

The CagA protein of Helicobacter pylori interacts with numerous cellular factors and is associated with increased virulence and risk of gastric carcinoma. We present here the cocrystal structure of a subdomain of CagA with the human kinase PAR1b/MARK2, revealing that a CagA peptide mimics substrates of this kinase family, resembling eukaryotic protein kinase inhibitors. Mutagenesis of conserved residues central to this interaction renders CagA inactive as an inhibitor of MARK2.

Nesic, D.; Miller, M; Quinkert, Z; Stein, M; Chait, B; Stebbins, C

2010-01-01

130

Gamma Irradiator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fiability of devices set around reactors depends on material resistance under irradiation noticeably joints, insulators, which belongs to composition of technical, safety or physical incasurement devices. The irradiated fuel elements, during their desacti...

G. Simonet

1986-01-01

131

Protease-activated Receptor2 (PAR2) in Human Periodontitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

No evidence for the role of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) in human periodontal disease has been demonstrated so far. Thus, we sought to investigate the expression of PAR2 mRNA in chronic periodontitis, and to examine whether its expression is related to the presence of PAR2 potential activators. Microbiological and gingival crevicular fluid samples were collected from individuals with chronic periodontitis and

M. Holzhausen; J. R. Cortelli; V. Araújo da Silva; G. C. Nobre Franco; S. Cavalca Cortelli; N. Vergnolle

2010-01-01

132

An Explanation for Increasing PAR Reflectance When Plants Are Water Stressed: Implication for Remote/Nondestructive Measurement of Plant Photoprotective Response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical reflectance from leaf surfaces has been known for decades to increase with decreasing leaf water content. Experimental results show this increase consistently in maize in the visible (photosynthetically active radiation - PAR) and middle infrared (MIR) spectral regions and with weaker correlation in the near infrared (NIR) region. Changes in chlorophyll concentration have been shown to be too small to substantially contribute to increasing reflectance during the duration of these experiments. Therefore, the reflectance responses to water deficit are perplexing since reflectance in the PAR region is dominated by pigment absorption while reflectance in the MIR region is dominated by water molecule absorption. We report on recent experiments with maize which indicate that the reflectance changes during water stress in the PAR and MIR regions are due to changing optical absorption whilst those in the NIR region are due to changing optical scatter and, moreover, that reflectance in PAR and MIR is influenced by down-welling irradiance. The implication is that reflectance in PAR is influenced by both pigment absorption and plant stress level. These findings, with confirmation by microscopy, establish that increasing PAR reflectance induced by water stress results, primarily, from chloroplast avoidance movement, a plant photoprotective response, which decreases light absorption by pigments. We discuss the potential for using this phenomenon to detect and measure the level of plant stress.

Zygielbaum, A. I.; Arkebauer, T. J.; Walter-Shea, E. A.; Scoby, D. L.; Gitelson, A. A.

2011-12-01

133

The Par complex directs asymmetric cell division by phosphorylating the cytoskeletal protein Lgl.  

PubMed

To generate different cell types, some cells can segregate protein determinants into one of their two daughter cells during mitosis. In Drosophila neuroblasts, the Par protein complex localizes apically and directs localization of the cell fate determinants Prospero and Numb and the adaptor proteins Miranda and Pon to the basal cell cortex, to ensure their segregation into the basal daughter cell. The Par protein complex has a conserved function in establishing cell polarity but how it directs proteins to the opposite side is unknown. We show here that a principal function of this complex is to phosphorylate the cytoskeletal protein Lethal (2) giant larvae (Lgl; also known as L(2)gl). Phosphorylation by Drosophila atypical protein kinase C (aPKC), a member of the Par protein complex, releases Lgl from its association with membranes and the actin cytoskeleton. Genetic and biochemical experiments show that Lgl phosphorylation prevents the localization of cell fate determinants to the apical cell cortex. Lgl promotes cortical localization of Miranda, and we propose that phosphorylation of Lgl by aPKC at the apical neuroblast cortex restricts Lgl activity and Miranda localization to the opposite, basal side of the cell. PMID:12629552

Betschinger, Jörg; Mechtler, Karl; Knoblich, Juergen A

2003-03-09

134

Repair of pars interarticularis defect with a modified cable-screw construct.  

PubMed

Operative treatment of symptomatic spondylolysis is not common. Multiple surgical techniques have been described for direct repairs of the pars defects. Reported success rates are high, although few reports describe successful return to sports in athletes. The purpose of the study was to assess the outcome after bone grafting and fixation of pars interarticularis defects utilizing a modification of the previously described techniques of Scott and of Songer. A retrospective single-arm cohort study was performed at a single center. This article reports on three athletes with symptomatic spondylolysis or grade I spondylolisthesis unresponsive to conservative management who were treated with bone grafting and a screw-cable repair. The outcome measure was the return to sports activities. A retrospective chart and radiographic analysis was conducted on three athletes. Patients were assessed for return to sports, clinical evidence of return to functional activities, and radiographic evidence of healing of the pars defects. All three patients proceeded to radiographic and clinical success. All patients reported resolution of their preoperative pain and return to sports. One patient did require occasional anti-inflammatory drugs for episodic low back pain. The use of this modified cable-screw technique for symptomatic spondylolysis provided excellent clinical, radiographic, and functional results in this small cohort. PMID:17592715

Bozarth, Gordon R; Fogel, Guy R; Toohey, John S; Neidre, Arvo

2007-01-01

135

Evaluation of the PAR corneal topography system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the raster photogrammetry based Corneal Topography System by determining: inter-operator variability, reproducibility of images, effects of defocused and decentered images, and the precision of data at different optical zones. 4 human cadaver eyes were used to study the inter-operator variability. To study the reproducibility of images, 3 human cadaver eyes and a test surface doped with flourescine (provided by PAR Vision Systems Corporation) were focused and their images taken four successive times. Defocused and decentered images were taken of 4 human cadaver eyes and four times of the test surface mentioned above. The precision of defocused/decentered cadaver eyes was evaluated at the following optical zones: 3 mm, 4 mm, 5 mm, and 6 mm. All human cadaver eyes used in the above experiments had their epithelial layer removed before imaging. Average inter-operator variability was 0.06 D. In reproducibility attempts, there was an average deviation of 0.28 D for the human cadaver eyes and 0.04 D for the test surface. The defocused and decentered test surface gave an average deviation of 0.09 D. Defocused and decentered cadaver eyes resulted in an average deviation of 0.52 D, 0.37 D, 0.24 D, and 0.22 D at optical zones of 3 mm, 4 mm, 5 mm, and 6 mm, respectively. The imaging method employed by PAR Vision Systems Corporation virtually eliminates inter-operator variability. The PAR Corneal Topography System's clinical usefulness, however, could be improved by improving the reproducibility of images, decreasing the sensitivity to spatial alignment, and increasing accuracy over smaller optical zones.

Jindal, Prateek; Cheung, Susan; Pirouzian, Amir; Keates, Richard H.; Ren, Qiushi

1995-05-01

136

Pars plana vitrectomy revealed Toxocara canis organism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The Toxocara organism may cause direct injury to the eye, but most commonly, host inflammatory reactions are responsible for the resulting\\u000a compromise. The inflammatory response created by the ocular involvement may result in epiretinal membrane formation, tractional\\u000a or combined tractional-rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. The treatment of choice is pars plana vitrectomy (PPV), which also\\u000a has diagnostic significance.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We report a pediatric

Nur Acar; Ziya Kapran; Canan Asl? Utine; Nesimi Büyükbabani

2007-01-01

137

Integrating conservation genetic considerations into conservation ...  

Treesearch

Title: Integrating conservation genetic considerations into conservation planning: a case study of bull trout ... More specifically, we were asked to assess the risks to bull trout from alternative conservation strategies ... Last Modified: July 21, 2013.

138

2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) BARRACKS WITH RADAR ATTACHED. - Nike Hercules Missile Battery Summit Site, Battery Control Administration & Barracks Building, Anchorage, Anchorage, AK

139

Mechanism of DNA Segregation in Prokaryotes: Replicon Pairing by parC of Plasmid R1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prokaryotic chromosomes and plasmids encode partitioning systems that are required for DNA segregation at cell division. The systems are thought to be functionally analogous to eukaryotic centromeres and to play a general role in DNA segregation. The parA system of plasmid R1 encodes two proteins ParM and ParR, and a cis-acting centromere-like site denoted parC. The ParR protein binds to parC in vivo and in vitro. The ParM protein is an ATPase that interacts with ParR specifically bound to parC. Using electron microscopy, we show here that parC mediates efficient pairing of plasmid molecules. The pairing requires binding of ParR to parC and is stimulated by the ParM ATPase. The ParM mediated stimulation of plasmid pairing is dependent on ATP hydrolysis by ParM. Using a ligation kinetics assay, we find that ParR stimulates ligation of parC-containing DNA fragments. The rate-of-ligation was increased by wild type ParM protein but not by mutant ParM protein deficient in the ATPase activity. Thus, two independent assays show that parC mediates pairing of plasmid molecules in vitro. These results are consistent with the proposal that replicon pairing is part of the mechanism of DNA segregation in prokaryotes.

Jensen, Rasmus Bugge; Lurz, Rudi; Gerdes, Kenn

1998-07-01

140

Low cycle fatigue of irradiated LMFBR materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of low cycle fatigue data on irradiated LMFBR materials was conducted and extensive graphical representations of available data are presented. Representative postirradiation tensile properties of annealed 304 and 316 SS are selected and employed in several predictive methods to estimate irradiated material fatigue curves. Experimental fatigue data confirm the use of predictive methods for establishing conservative design curves

1976-01-01

141

Structural Basis for Par-4 Recognition by the SPRY Domain- and SOCS Box-Containing Proteins SPSB1, SPSB2, and SPSB4  

PubMed Central

The mammalian SPRY domain- and SOCS box-containing proteins, SPSB1 to SPSB4, belong to the SOCS box family of E3 ubiquitin ligases. Substrate recognition sites for the SPRY domain are identified only for human Par-4 (ELNNNL) and for the Drosophila orthologue GUSTAVUS binding to the DEAD-box RNA helicase VASA (DINNNN). To further investigate this consensus motif, we determined the crystal structures of SPSB1, SPSB2, and SPSB4, as well as their binding modes and affinities for both Par-4 and VASA. Mutation of each of the three Asn residues in Par-4 abrogated binding to all three SPSB proteins, while changing EL to DI enhanced binding. By comparison to SPSB1 and SPSB4, the more divergent protein SPSB2 showed only weak binding to Par-4 and was hypersensitive to DI substitution. Par-4(59–77) binding perturbed NMR resonances from a number of SPSB2 residues flanking the ELNNN binding site, including loop D, which binds the EL/DI sequence. Although interactions with the consensus peptide motif were conserved in all structures, flanking sites in SPSB2 were identified as sites of structural change. These structural changes limit high-affinity interactions for SPSB2 to aspartate-containing sequences, whereas SPSB1 and SPSB4 bind strongly to both Par-4 and VASA peptides.

Filippakopoulos, Panagis; Low, Andrew; Sharpe, Timothy D.; Uppenberg, Jonas; Yao, Shenggen; Kuang, Zhihe; Savitsky, Pavel; Lewis, Rowena S.; Nicholson, Sandra E.; Norton, Raymond S.; Bullock, Alex N.

2010-01-01

142

Historic macrophyte development in Par Pond  

SciTech Connect

Aerial photographs from 1975, 1980, and 1983 were examined to evaluate the changes that have occurred in the wetland vegetation of Par Pond, a reactor-cooling reservoir. Evaluation of the aerial photographs was based on comparisons with ground-level vegetation maps made during July 1984. Comparisons of photographs from August and December of 1983 revealed the main seasonal change in the aerial coverage of wetland vegetation to be the wintertime loss of non-persistent emergent species such as Nelumbo lutea and Nymphaea odorata. Comparisons between September 1980 and August 1983 revealed that the lakeward extent of non-persistent macrophytes has increased by an average of 8.2 m, though not all sites have changed equally. For persistent macrophytes (principally Typha), the average increase in lakeward extent between December 1975 and August 1983 was 3.48 m. The extensive development of wetland vegetation in Par Pond as well as the substantial spread of vegetation over only a few years time indicates the high suitability of this habitat for the growth of wetland plants.

Grace, J.B.

1985-08-01

143

Response of Creeping Bentgrass Carotenoid Composition to High and Low Irradiance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carotenoids are important photoprotectant and light-harvesting pigmentswithinthephotosyntheticapparatus.Littleinformationisavail- able regarding carotenoid physiology in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.). Research was conducted to investigate relative high and low irradiance adaptation of creeping bentgrass with respect to b- carotene and xanthophyll composition. 'Crenshaw' creeping bentgrass plants were acclimated for 7 d to relative high (47.9 mol m22 d21 photosyntheticallyactiveradation(PAR))orlowirradiance(4.7molm22 d21 PAR). After the

J. S. McElroy; D. A. Kopsell; J. C. Sorochan; C. E. Sams

2006-01-01

144

Pars plana vitrectomy for retinal detachment with unseen retinal holes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was made of a consecutive series of 47 cases of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment treated by pars plana vitrectomy in which no holes were identified preoperatively. The view of the fundus during preoperative examination varied from being totally clear to completely obscured by media opacities. The role of pars plana vitrectomy in finding retinal holes peroperatively is considered. The

D. Wong; B. M. Billington; A. H. Chignell

1987-01-01

145

Acrylic intraocular lens placement in conjunction with pars plana vitrectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To report the results of placing a foldable acrylic intraocular lens through a clear cornea incision in eyes undergoing pars plana vitrectomy.METHODS: This interventional case series is a retrospective report of 15 eyes of 15 consecutive patients undergoing foldable (acrylic) intraocular lens insertion in conjunction with pars plana vitrectomy in a single academic institution. Outcome measures included visual acuity

William E Smiddy; Medhat Mady; Scott Anagnoste

2001-01-01

146

Complicated retinal detachment and its management with pars plana vitrectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty patients with retinal detachment accompanied by vitreous haemorrhage, perforating eye injuries, intraocular foreign bodies, massive preretinal retraction,.giant tears greater than 180 degrees, and proliferative retinopathies underwent pars plana vitrectomy, cryocoagulation, scleral buckling, and intravitreal gas injection. Intraoperative complications included minimal to moderate bleeding and iatrogenic retinal tears, but no retinal dialysis was produced at the pars plana sclerotomy site.

F U Huamont; G A Peyman; M F Goldberg

1977-01-01

147

TMS suppression of right pars triangularis, but not pars opercularis, improves naming in aphasia  

PubMed Central

This study sought to discover if an optimum 1 cm2 area in the non-damaged right hemisphere (RH) was present, which could temporarily improve naming in chronic, nonfluent aphasia patients when suppressed with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Ten minutes of slow, 1 Hz rTMS was applied to suppress different RH ROIs in eight aphasia cases. Picture naming and response time (RT) were examined before, and immediately after rTMS. In aphasia patients, suppression of right pars triangularis (PTr) led to significant increase in pictures named, and significant decrease in RT. Suppression of right pars opercularis (POp), however, led to significant increase in RT, but no change in number of pictures named. Eight normals named all pictures correctly; similar to aphasia patients, RT significantly decreased following rTMS to suppress right PTr, versus right POp. Differential effects following suppression of right PTr versus right POp suggest different functional roles for these regions.

Naeser, Margaret A.; Martin, Paula I.; Theoret, Hugo; Kobayashi, Masahito; Fregni, Felipe; Nicholas, Marjorie; Tormos, Jose M.; Steven, Megan S.; Baker, Errol H.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

2011-01-01

148

Pars plana vitrectomy for asteroid hyalosis.  

PubMed

Asteroid hyalosis is a common, usually asymptomatic, benign vitreous disease affecting older individuals. A case report of an aphakic patient who developed anterior segment complications with no visualization of the fundus is presented. A pars plana anterior and posterior vitrectomy was performed using the Ocutome system. An excellent technical result with moderate restoration of vision was achieved. Preoperative evaluation with ultrasound was helpful. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of calcium-containing lipids. Other indications for vitrectomy for asteroid hyalosis include retinal detachments in which the tear cannot be seen and diabetic retinopathy in which laser cannot be performed. Differential diagnosis includes synchysis scintillans, which is usually bilateral and seen in younger individuals after severe ocular inflammation, trauma, or hemorrhage. PMID:7348845

Renaldo, D P

1981-01-01

149

Modélisation par éléments finis des phénomènes couples électromagnéto-thermiques caractérisant le frittage par induction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An electromagnetic and thermal phenomena coupling model is presented and discussed. Called Direct Coupling Model: MCD, the proposed method is based on a finite element solution of the set of the magnetic vector potential and temperature equations. The MCD is applied to the case of the induction sintering technique, used for the design of the tantalum condenser. The model validity is obtained when comparing the computed and measured data. Un modèle de représentation du couplage réel des phénomènes électromagnétique et thermique est proposé et discuté. Appelé Modèle de Couplage Direct de phénomènes Electro-Mangéto-Thermiques (MCDEMT), ce modèle est basé sur une résolution par éléments finis du système des équations du potentiel vecteur magnétique et de la température. Le MCDEMT est appliqué à la modélisation d'un dispositif axisymétrique utilisé dans le frittage par induction pour l'élaboration de condensateurs au tantale. La validation de la méthode proposée est réalisée par comparaison des profils de température calculé et mesuré sur la surface de l'anode.

Féliachi, M.; Perronnet, A.; Develey, G.

1992-11-01

150

Control of Cleavage Spindle Orientation in Caenorhabditis Elegans: The Role of the Genes Par-2 and Par-3  

PubMed Central

Polarized asymmetric divisions play important roles in the development of plants and animals. The first two embryonic cleavages of Caenorhabditis elegans provide an opportunity to study the mechanisms controlling polarized asymmetric divisions. The first cleavage is unequal, producing daughters with different sizes and fates. The daughter blastomeres divide with different orientations at the second cleavage; the anterior blastomere divides equally across the long axis of the egg, whereas the posterior blastomere divides unequally along the long axis. We report here the results of our analysis of the genes par-2 and par-3 with respect to their contribution to the polarity of these division. Strong loss-of-function mutations in both genes lead to an equal first cleavage and an altered second cleavage. Interestingly, the mutations exhibit striking gene-specific differences at the second cleavage. The par-2 mutations lead to transverse spindle orientations in both blastomeres, whereas par-3 mutations lead to longitudinal spindle orientations in both blastomeres. The spindle orientation defects correlate with defects in centrosome movements during both the first and the second cell cycle. Temperature shift experiments with par-2(it5ts) indicate that the par-2(+) activity is not required after the two-cell stage. Analysis of double mutants shows that par-3 is epistatic to par-2. We propose a model wherein par-2(+) and par-3(+) act in concert during the first cell cycle to affect asymmetric modification of the cytoskeleton. This polar modification leads to different behaviors of centrosomes in the anterior and posterior and leads ultimately to blastomere-specific spindle orientations at the second cleavage.

Cheng, N. N.; Kirby, C. M.; Kemphues, K. J.

1995-01-01

151

Novel Role for Proteinase-activated Receptor 2 (PAR2) in Membrane Trafficking of Proteinase-activated Receptor 4 (PAR4)*  

PubMed Central

Proteinase-activated receptors 4 (PAR4) is a class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) recognized through the ability of serine proteases such as thrombin and trypsin to mediate receptor activation. Due to the irreversible nature of activation, a fresh supply of receptor is required to be mobilized to the cell surface for responsiveness to agonist to be sustained. Unlike other PAR subtypes, the mechanisms regulating receptor trafficking of PAR4 remain unknown. Here, we report novel features of the intracellular trafficking of PAR4 to the plasma membrane. PAR4 was poorly expressed at the plasma membrane and largely retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in a complex with the COPI protein subunit ?-COP1. Analysis of the PAR4 protein sequence identified an arginine-based (RXR) ER retention sequence located within intracellular loop-2 (R183AR ? A183AA), mutation of which allowed efficient membrane delivery of PAR4. Interestingly, co-expression with PAR2 facilitated plasma membrane delivery of PAR4, an effect produced through disruption of ?-COP1 binding and facilitation of interaction with the chaperone protein 14-3-3?. Intermolecular FRET studies confirmed heterodimerization between PAR2 and PAR4. PAR2 also enhanced glycosylation of PAR4 and activation of PAR4 signaling. Our results identify a novel regulatory role for PAR2 in the anterograde traffic of PAR4. PAR2 was shown to both facilitate and abrogate protein interactions with PAR4, impacting upon receptor localization and cell signal transduction. This work is likely to impact markedly upon the understanding of the receptor pharmacology of PAR4 in normal physiology and disease.

Cunningham, Margaret R.; McIntosh, Kathryn A.; Pediani, John D.; Robben, Joris; Cooke, Alexandra E.; Nilsson, Mary; Gould, Gwyn W.; Mundell, Stuart; Milligan, Graeme; Plevin, Robin

2012-01-01

152

Simulation de l'accretion de glace sur un obstacle bidimensionnel par la methode des bissectrices et par la modelisation des ruisselets et des gouttes de surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Le LIMA (Laboratoire International des Materiaux Antigivre) en collaboration avec le CIRA (Italian Aerospace Research Centre) a developpe un logiciel simulant l'accretion de la glace en regimes sec et humide sur un objet bidimensionnel fixe. L'approche utilisee s'appuie sur les travaux de Lozowski pour les bilans energetiques, sur une etude du comportement du film d'eau, des ruisselets et des gouttes de surface pour le calcul des rugosites et des masses d'eau residuelle, ainsi que sur une methode de bissectrice pour l'evolution de la surface de glace. La contribution du CIRA a ete de fournir le logiciel pour le calcul des ecoulements et de la captation. Le bilan energetique base sur la conservation de l'energie est la sommation de la chaleur latente de fusion, d'evaporation et de sublimation, du rechauffement adiabatique et cinetique, et des pertes de chaleur par convection et conduction, ainsi que de l'evolution thermodynamique de l'eau de son etat initial a son etat final. La densite de la glace, qui a un impact important sur la simulation, est calculee a partir d'une correlation empirique developpee avec les cylindres tournants. En se basant sur les travaux de Al-Khalil et Hansman, le comportement des gouttes en regimes sec et humide a ete decrit analytiquement, ce qui a mene a determiner la hauteur maximale que peuvent atteindre les gouttes avant mouvement. Cette hauteur, appelee hauteur de mouvement, permet de determiner l'etat de l'eau sur la surface (film, ruisselets ou gouttes), ainsi que la hauteur des rugosites lorsque l'eau existe sous forme de gouttes ou de ruisselets. La hauteur de mouvement est determinee par l'equilibre entre les forces de cisaillement, induites par les effets aerodynamiques et gravitationnels evalues pour une goutte non deformee, et la force de cisaillement, induite par la tension de surface et la deformation de la goutte. Elle a ete validee en laboratoire et la precision obtenue pour la partie aerodynamique et gravitationnelle est de 80%. L'etude de la vague qui se forme sur le film a permis de determiner la hauteur des rugosites lorsque l'eau existe sous forme de film. La masse d'eau residuelle est calculee a partir des modeles analytiques elabores selon l'etat de surface et la hauteur de mouvement. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Fortin, Guy

153

Photographic Irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

I SHALL be obliged if you will allow me space to state more specifically why I am not able to concur in the irradiation theory of Mr. Aitken (vol. x. p. 439). I understand from his last letter that he fully agrees with Lord Lindsay and myself as to the cause of the outer irradiation, and our only difference of

A. Cowper Ranyard

1874-01-01

154

Radiation-inducible silencing of uPA and uPAR in vitro and in vivo in meningioma.  

PubMed

Stereospecific radiation treatment offers a distinct opportunity for temporal and spatial regulation of gene expression at tumor sites by means of inducible promoters. To this end, a plasmid, pCArG-U2, was constructed by incorporating nine CArG elements (in tandem) of EGR1 gene upstream to uPA and uPAR siRNA oligonucleotides in a pCi-neo vector. Radiation-induced siRNA expression was detected in a meningioma cell line (IOMM-Lee). Immunoblotting and RT-PCR analyses confirmed downregulation of uPA and uPAR. A similar effect was observed in transfected cells followed by H2O2 treatment. Moreover, pre-treatment of transfected cells with N-acetyl L-cysteine blocked the silencing of uPA and uPAR, which further confirmed the oxidative damage-mediated downregulation. Cell proliferation assays and Western blot analysis for apoptotic molecules confirmed cell death in a radiation-inducible fashion. Migration and matrigel invasion assays also revealed a marked decrease in migration and invasion. Immunocytochemistry showed a marked decrease in uPA and uPAR levels in transfected and irradiated cells. H&E staining revealed a decrease in the pre-established tumor volume among the animals treated with pCArG-U2 and radiation. Immunohistochemistry of the brain sections established with intracranial tumors also revealed a marked decrease in uPA and uPAR in a radiation-inducible fashion. Taken together, our data suggest pCArG-U2 as a suitable candidate for radiation-inducible gene therapy. PMID:20198323

Rao Gogineni, Venkateswara; Kumar Nalla, Arun; Gupta, Reshu; Gorantla, Bharathi; Gujrati, Meena; Dinh, Dzung H; Rao, Jasti S

2010-04-01

155

Ecologically relevant UV-B dose combined with high PAR intensity distinctly affect plant growth and accumulation of secondary metabolites in leaves of Centella asiatica L. Urban.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of environmentally relevant dose of ultraviolet (UV)-B and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) on saponin accumulation in leaves on the example of Centella asiatica L. Urban. For this purpose, plants were exposed to one of four light regimes i.e., two PAR intensities with or without UV-B radiation. The experiment was conducted in technically complex sun simulators under almost natural irradiance and climatic conditions. As observed, UV-B radiation increased herb and leaf production as well as the content of epidermal flavonols, which was monitored by non-destructive fluorescence measurements. Specific fluorescence indices also indicate an increase in the content of anthocyanins under high PAR; this increase was likewise observed for the saponin concentrations. In contrast, UV-B radiation had no distinct effects on saponin and sapogenin concentrations. Our findings suggest that besides flavonoids, also saponins were accumulated under high PAR protecting the plant from oxidative damage. Furthermore, glycosylation of sapogenins seems to be important either for the protective function and/or for compartmentalization of the compounds. Moreover, our study revealed that younger leaves contain higher amounts of saponins, while in older leaves the sapogenins were the most abundant constituents. Concluding, our results proof that ambient dose of UV-B and high PAR intensity distinctly affect the accumulation of flavonoids and saponins, enabling the plant tissue to adapt to the light conditions. PMID:24044900

Müller, Viola; Albert, Andreas; Barbro Winkler, J; Lankes, Christa; Noga, Georg; Hunsche, Mauricio

2013-08-29

156

Insight into centromere-binding properties of ParB proteins: a secondary binding motif is essential for bacterial genome maintenance  

PubMed Central

ParB proteins are one of the three essential components of partition systems that actively segregate bacterial chromosomes and plasmids. In binding to centromere sequences, ParB assembles as nucleoprotein structures called partition complexes. These assemblies are the substrates for the partitioning process that ensures DNA molecules are segregated to both sides of the cell. We recently identified the sopC centromere nucleotides required for binding to the ParB homologue of plasmid F, SopB. This analysis also suggested a role in sopC binding for an arginine residue, R219, located outside the helix-turn-helix (HTH) DNA-binding motif previously shown to be the only determinant for sopC-specific binding. Here, we demonstrated that the R219 residue is critical for SopB binding to sopC during partition. Mutating R219 to alanine or lysine abolished partition by preventing partition complex assembly. Thus, specificity of SopB binding relies on two distinct motifs, an HTH and an arginine residue, which define a split DNA-binding domain larger than previously thought. Bioinformatic analysis over a broad range of chromosomal ParBs generalized our findings with the identification of a non-HTH positively charged residue essential for partition and centromere binding, present in a newly identified highly conserved motif. We propose that ParB proteins possess two DNA-binding motifs that form an extended centromere-binding domain, providing high specificity.

Sanchez, Aurore; Rech, Jerome; Gasc, Cyrielle; Bouet, Jean-Yves

2013-01-01

157

Breast-conserving surgery in breast cancer.  

PubMed

The breast cancer treatment is based nowadays on new surgical options: breast-conserving surgery, which applies at least for the first and second stage cancer, with radical intention. We have been practicing breast-conserving surgery for the last 16 years and we have performed 303 breast conserving operations from a total of 673. We recorded 12 local recurrences (3,96%) and 2 deaths due to cancer progression. Our protocol includes removal of the primary tumor with enough surrounding tissue to ensure negative margins of the resectable specimen, associated with axillary lymph-node dissection and postoperative breast irradiation. Our oncologist indicated chemotherapy on different postoperative conditions: tumor size, axillary lymph node involvement, patient's age, etc. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize our modest experience, nevertheless to draw the attention on important results, obtained by long-term monitoring of the patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery, in a two prospective protocols, and demonstrate the importance and applicability of breast conserving therapy. The conclusion of this study is that breast-conserving surgery followed by breast irradiation is reliable, as the results are similar with radical mastectomies; the main objective is to obtain a good cosmetic result, which depends on tumor size / breast size. PMID:23116836

Tenea Cojan, T S; Vidrighin, C D; Ciobanu, M; Paun, I; Teodorescu, M; Mogos, G; Tenovici, M; Florescu, M; Mogos, D

158

Clinical outcomes following repair of the pars interarticularis.  

PubMed

Spondylolysis is a source of back pain in adolescents and young adults. The purpose of this study was to report clinical outcomes in 49 patients treated with isolated motion-sparing repair of the pars interarticularis. Patients who underwent direct repair of the pars interarticularis between 2002 and 2009 were identified. Standard demographic and radiographic data, needed for further surgeries, and radiographic evidence of healing were collected. Of 49 patients with 90 total pars defects (41 bilateral, 8 unilateral), 7 required reoperation. No serious complications were seen. None of the risk factors analyzed in our study were predictive of reoperation. The strongest preoperative predictor of Oswestry Disability Index score was Fujii chronicity (P = .041). Motion segment sparing repair of the pars is a safe and effective procedure for refractory cases of spondylolysis. PMID:23431550

Clegg, Travis; Carreon, Leah; Mutchnick, Ian; Puno, Rolando

2013-02-01

159

Healing in the irradiated wound  

SciTech Connect

Poor or nonhealing of irradiated wounds has been attributed to progressive obliterative endarteritis. Permanently damaged fibroblasts may also play an important part in poor healing. Regardless of the cause, the key to management of irradiated skin is careful attention to prevent its breakdown and conservative, but adequate, treatment when wounds are minor. When wounds become larger and are painful, complete excision of the wound or ulcer is called for and coverage should be provided by a well-vascularized nonparasitic distant flap.16 references.

Miller, S.H.; Rudolph, R. (Univ. of California, San Diego (USA))

1990-07-01

160

Résolution par Analogie de Problèmes Géométriques dans une Perspective Tutorielle  

Microsoft Academic Search

L'apprentissage humain est basé sur des expériences progressives. Dans ce but nous proposons un modèle de Raisonnement par Analogie qui retient l'expérience passée pour l'utiliser dans la résolution des nouveaux problèmes qui sont analogues à ceux déjà mémorisés. Nous définissons ce qu'on appelle deux problèmes analogues et comment évolue par Apprentissage Symbolique la Mémoire à Long Terme. Cette approche confère

Eugène Chouraqui; C. Inghilterra

1992-01-01

161

A New Family of the PARS Translation Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a description of the well-known family of machine translation systems, PARS. PARS was developed in the\\u000a USSR as long ago as in 1989, and, since then, it has passed a difficult way from a mainframe-based, somewhat bulky system\\u000a to a modern PC-oriented product. At the same time, we understand but well that, as any machine translation software,

Michael Blekhman; Andrei Kursin; Alla Rakova

2002-01-01

162

Par reduction in ofdm via active constellation extension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high peak-to-average power ratio (PAR) in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation systems can significantly reduce power efficiency and performance. Methods exist which alter or introduce new signal constellations to combat large signal peaks. We present a new PAR-reduction method that dynamically extends outer constellation points in active (data-carrying) channels, within margin-preserving constraints, in order to minimize the peak

Brian Scott Krongold; Douglas L. Jones

2003-01-01

163

StePar: an automatic code for stellar parameter determination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a new automatic code (StePar) for determinig stellar atmospheric parameters (T_{eff}, log{g}, ? and [Fe/H]) in an automated way. StePar employs the 2002 version of the MOOG code (Sneden 1973) and a grid of Kurucz ATLAS9 plane-paralell model atmospheres (Kurucz 1993). The atmospheric parameters are obtained from the EWs of 263 Fe I and 36 Fe II lines (obtained from Sousa et al. 2008, A&A, 487, 373) iterating until the excitation and ionization equilibrium are fullfilled. StePar uses a Downhill Simplex method that minimizes a quadratic form composed by the excitation and ionization equilibrium conditions. Atmospheric parameters determined by StePar are independent of the stellar parameters initial-guess for the problem star, therefore we employ the canonical solar values as initial input. StePar can only deal with FGK stars from F6 to K4, also it can not work with fast rotators, veiled spectra, very metal poor stars or Signal to noise ratio below 30. Optionally StePar can operate with MARCS models (Gustafson et al. 2008, A&A, 486, 951) instead of Kurucz ATLAS9 models, additionally Turbospectrum (Alvarez & Plez 1998, A&A, 330, 1109) can replace the MOOG code and play its role during the parameter determination. StePar has been used to determine stellar parameters for some studies (Tabernero et al. 2012, A&A, 547, A13; Wisniewski et al. 2012, AJ, 143, 107). In addition StePar is being used to obtain parameters for FGK stars from the GAIA-ESO Survey.

Tabernero, H. M.; González Hernández, J. I.; Montes, D.

2013-05-01

164

Quality and storage life of par-baked frozen breads  

Microsoft Academic Search

During storage of frozen par-baked breads for a prolonged period of time, bread quality may undergo changes such as increased firmness, moisture and flavour losses resulting in product deterioration. Four categories of par-baked breads namely—variety, white, multi-grain and rye were stored at ?18°C for 9 months to evaluate the effects of storage period on product quality, and to develop prediction

I. R Vulicevic; E. S. M Abdel-Aal; G. S Mittal; X Lu

2004-01-01

165

Le financement de la croissance par endettement extérieur  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Le financement de la croissance par endettement extérieur. . Nous illustrons, à l'aide d'un modèle théorique simple avec générations imbriquées, les risques que peut présenter le financement de l'accumulation de capital par recours à l'investissement étranger ou à l'endettement extérieur. Nous examinons les effets du risque, des possibilités de retrait des investisseurs étrangers, de variations des taux d'intérêt, sur

Patrick Artus

1998-01-01

166

Food Irradiation  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... longevity. • Sterilization – irradiation can be used to sterilize foods, which can then be stored for years without refrigeration. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/resourcesforyou

167

Tonsil Irradiation  

Cancer.gov

A cohort of about 3,000 individuals who were irradiated during childhood for benign head and neck conditions at Michael Reese Hospital was assembled and monitored for the risk of thyroid and other cancers.

168

Randomized Clinical Trial of Breast Irradiation Following Lumpectomy and Axillary Dissection for Node-Negative Breast Cancer: an Update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Breast-conservation surgery is now commonly used to treat breast cancer. Postoperative breast irradiation reduces cancer recurrence in the breast. There is still con- troversy concerning the necessity of irradiation of the breast in all patients. Purpose: We present an update of results from a randomized clinical trial designed to examine the ef- ficacy of breast irradiation following conservation surgery

R. M. Clark; T. Whelan; M. Levine; R. Roberts; A. Willan; P. McCulloch; M. Lipa; R. H. Wilkinson; L. J. Mahoney

169

Deficiency of Microvascular Thrombomodulin and Up-Regulation of Protease-Activated Receptor-1 in Irradiated Rat Intestine  

PubMed Central

Microvascular injury is believed to be mechanistically involved in radiation fibrosis, but direct molecular links between endothelial dysfunction and radiation fibrosis have not been established in vivo. We examined radiation-induced changes in endothelial thrombomodulin (TM) and protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) in irradiated intestine, and their relationship to structural, cellular, and molecular aspects of radiation injury. Rat small intestine was locally exposed to fractionated X-radiation. Structural injury was assessed 24 hours and 2, 6, and 26 weeks after the last radiation fraction using quantitative histology and morphometry. TM, neutrophils, transforming growth factor-?, and collagens I and III were assessed by quantitative immunohistochemistry. PAR-1 protein was localized immunohistochemically, and cells expressing TM or PAR-1 transcript were identified by in situ hybridization. Steady-state PAR-1 mRNA levels in intestinal smooth muscle were determined using laser capture microdissection and competitive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Radiation caused a sustained, dose-dependent decrease in microvascular TM. The number of TM-positive vessels correlated with all parameters of radiation enteropathy and, after adjusting for radiation dose and observation time in a statistical model, remained independently associated with neutrophil infiltration, intestinal wall thickening, and collagen I accumulation. PAR-1 immunoreactivity and transcript increased in vascular and intestinal smooth muscle cells in irradiated intestine. PAR-1 mRNA increased twofold in irradiated intestinal smooth muscle. Intestinal irradiation up-regulates PAR-1 and causes a dose-dependent, sustained deficiency of microvascular TM that is independently associated with the severity of radiation toxicity. Interventions aimed at preserving or restoring endothelial TM or blocking PAR-1 should be explored as strategies to increase the therapeutic ratio in clinical radiation therapy.

Wang, Junru; Zheng, Huaien; Ou, Xuemei; Fink, Louis M.; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

2002-01-01

170

Secondary pupillary membranes treated by the pars plana\\/pars plicata approach: long-term results of 108 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and eight pupillary membranes treated with the vitrophage through a pars plicata or pars plana approach were evaluated for long-term results. The average follow-up was 3.86 years, with a range of 1 to 7 years. No major operative complications were encountered. Anatomical success was achieved in all cases. Vision improved in 67.5% of eyes. In 4 cases (3.7%)

C P Juarez; G A Peyman; M Raichand; M F Goldberg

1981-01-01

171

The Role of Neurosecretory Neurons in the Pars Intercerebralis and Pars Lateralis in Reproductive Diapause of the Blowfly, Protophormia terraenovae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microlesions of the brain were made to examine the role of neurosecretory neurons in the pars intercerebralis (PI) and pars\\u000a lateralis (PL) in the induction of reproductive diapause of the female blowfly Protophormia terraenovae. Under both diapause-inducing (LD 12?:?12, 20???C) and diapause-averting conditions (LD 18?:?6, 25???C), the ovaries invariably\\u000a failed to develop when the PI was removed. When the PL

S. Shiga; H. Numata

2000-01-01

172

PAR1 and PAR2 Couple to Overlapping and Distinct Sets of G Proteins and Linked Signaling Pathways to Differentially Regulate Cell PhysiologyS?  

PubMed Central

The protease-activated receptors (PAR1 and PAR2) are unusual G protein-coupled receptors that are activated by distinct serine proteases and are coexpressed in many different cell types. Limited recent evidence suggests these closely related receptors regulate different physiological outputs in the same cell, although little is known about the comparative signaling pathways used by these receptors. Here we report that PAR1 and PAR2 couple to overlapping and distinct sets of G proteins to regulate receptor-specific signaling pathways involved in cell migration. In functionally PAR-null COS-7 cells, ectopically expressed PAR1 and PAR2 both form stable complexes with G?q, G?11, G?14, G?12, and G?13. It is surprising that PAR1 but not PAR2 coupled to G?o, G?i1, and G?i2. Consistent with these observations, PAR1 and PAR2 stimulation of inositol phosphate production and RhoA activation was blocked by specific inhibitors of Gq/11 and G12/13 signaling, respectively. Both receptors stimulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 phosphorylation, but only PAR1 inhibited adenylyl cyclase activity, and pertussis toxin blocked PAR1 effects on both adenylyl cyclase and ERK1/2 signaling. Neu7 astrocytes express native PAR1 and PAR2 receptors that activate inositol phosphate, RhoA, and ERK1/2 signaling. However, only PAR1 inhibited adenylyl cyclase activity. PAR1 and PAR2 also stimulate Neu7 cell migration. PAR1 effects on ERK1/2 phosphorylation and cell migration were blocked both by pertussis toxin and by the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/ERK inhibitor [1,4-diamino-2,3-dicyano-1,4-bis(methylthio)butadiene (U0126)], whereas PAR2 effects were only blocked by U0126. These studies demonstrate that PAR1 and PAR2 physically and functionally link to overlapping and distinct profiles of G proteins to differentially regulate downstream signaling pathways and cell physiology.

McCoy, Kelly L.; Traynelis, Stephen F.

2010-01-01

173

Platelet protease-activated receptor (PAR)4, but not PAR1, associated with neutral sphingomyelinase responsible for thrombin-stimulated ceramide-NF-?B signaling in human platelets  

PubMed Central

Thrombin activates platelets mainly through protease-activated receptor (PAR)1 and PAR4. However, downstream platelet signaling between PAR1 and PAR4 is not yet well understood. This study investigated the relationship between nSMase/ceramide and the NF-?B signaling pathway in PARs-mediated human platelet activation. The LC-MS/MS, aggregometry, flow cytometry, immunoprecipitation, and mesenteric microvessels of mice were used in this study. Human platelets stimulated by thrombin, 3-OMS (a neutral sphingomyelinase [nSMase] inhibitor) and Bay11-7082 (an NF-?B inhibitor) significantly inhibited platelet activation such as P-selectin expression. Thrombin also activated I?B kinase (IKK)? and I?B? phosphorylation; such phosphorylation was inhibited by 3-OMS and SB203580 (a p38 MAPK inhibitor). Moreover, 3-OMS abolished platelet aggregation, IKK?, and p38 MAPK phosphorylation stimulated by PAR4-AP (a PAR4 agonist) but not by PAR1-AP (a PAR1 agonist). Immunoprecipitation revealed that nSMase was directly associated with PAR4 but not PAR1 in resting platelets. In human platelets, C24:0-ceramide is the predominant form of ceramides in the LC/MS-MS assay; C24:0-ceramide increases after stimulation by thrombin or PAR4-AP, but not after stimulation by PAR1-AP. We also found that C2-ceramide (a cell-permeable ceramide analog) activated p38 MAPK and IKK? phosphorylation in platelets and markedly shortened the occlusion time of platelet plug formation in vivo. This study demonstrated that thrombin activated nSMase by binding to PAR4, but not to PAR1, to increase the C24:0-ceramide level, followed by the activation of p38 MAPK-NF-?B signaling. Our results showed a novel physiological significance of PAR4-nSMase/ceramide-p38 MAPK-NF-?B cascade in platelet activation.

Chen, Wei-Fan; Lee, Jie-Jen; Chang, Chao-Chien; Lin, Kuan-Hong; Wang, Shwu-Huey; Sheu, Joen-Rong

2013-01-01

174

Platelet protease-activated receptor (PAR)4, but not PAR1, associated with neutral sphingomyelinase responsible for thrombin-stimulated ceramide-NF-?B signaling in human platelets.  

PubMed

Thrombin activates platelets mainly through protease-activated receptor (PAR)1 and PAR4. However, downstream platelet signaling between PAR1 and PAR4 is not yet well understood. This study investigated the relationship between nSMase/ceramide and the NF-?B signaling pathway in PARs-mediated human platelet activation. The LC-MS/MS, aggregometry, flow cytometry, immunoprecipitation, and mesenteric microvessels of mice were used in this study. Human platelets stimulated by thrombin, 3-OMS (a neutral sphingomyelinase [nSMase] inhibitor) and Bay11-7082 (an NF-?B inhibitor) significantly inhibited platelet activation such as P-selectin expression. Thrombin also activated I?B kinase (IKK)? and I?B? phosphorylation; such phosphorylation was inhibited by 3-OMS and SB203580 (a p38 MAPK inhibitor). Moreover, 3-OMS abolished platelet aggregation, IKK?, and p38 MAPK phosphorylation stimulated by PAR4-AP (a PAR4 agonist) but not by PAR1-AP (a PAR1 agonist). Immunoprecipitation revealed that nSMase was directly associated with PAR4 but not PAR1 in resting platelets. In human platelets, C24:0-ceramide is the predominant form of ceramides in the LC/MS-MS assay; C24:0-ceramide increases after stimulation by thrombin or PAR4-AP, but not after stimulation by PAR1-AP. We also found that C2-ceramide (a cell-permeable ceramide analog) activated p38 MAPK and IKK? phosphorylation in platelets and markedly shortened the occlusion time of platelet plug formation in vivo. This study demonstrated that thrombin activated nSMase by binding to PAR4, but not to PAR1, to increase the C24:0-ceramide level, followed by the activation of p38 MAPK-NF-?B signaling. Our results showed a novel physiological significance of PAR4-nSMase/ceramide-p38 MAPK-NF-?B cascade in platelet activation. PMID:23065519

Chen, Wei-Fan; Lee, Jie-Jen; Chang, Chao-Chien; Lin, Kuan-Hong; Wang, Shwu-Huey; Sheu, Joen-Rong

2012-10-12

175

Conserved herpesvirus protein kinases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conserved herpesviral protein kinases (CHPKs) are a group of enzymes conserved throughout all subfamilies of Herpesviridae. Members of this group are serine\\/threonine protein kinases that are likely to play a conserved role in viral infection by interacting with common host cellular and viral factors; however, along with a conserved role, individual kinases may have unique functions in the context of

Edward Gershburg; Joseph S. Pagano

2008-01-01

176

Industrial energy conservation technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book presents the papers given at a conference which examined energy conservation in industrial plants. Topics considered at the conference included the economics of cogeneration, energy conservation techniques, heat recovery systems, energy retrofits, energy management systems in buildings, energy conservation in the textile industry, energy conservation in the telecommunications industry, alternative energy sources, efficient techniques for heating and cooling

1983-01-01

177

Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- June survey descriptive summary  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the shoreline aquatic plant communities in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level, indicated that much of the original plant communities and the intermediate shoreline communities present on the exposed sediments have been lost. The extensive old-field and emergent marsh communities that were present on the exposed shoreline during the drawdown have been flooded and much of the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities have not had sufficient time for re-establishment. The shoreline does, however, have extensive beds of maidencane which extend from the shoreline margin to areas as deep as 2 and perhaps 3 meters. Scattered individual plants of lotus and watershield are common and may indicate likely directions of future wetland development in Par Pond. In addition, within isolated coves, which apparently received ground water seepage and/or stream surface flows during the period of the Par Pond draw down, extensive beds of waterlilies and spike rush are common. Invasion of willow and red maple occurred along the lake shoreline as well. Although not absent from this survey, evidence of the extensive redevelopment of the large cattail and eel grass beds was not observed in this first survey of Par Pond. Future surveys during the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997 along with the evaluation of satellite date to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond are planned.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1995-06-01

178

Irradiance gradients  

SciTech Connect

A new method for improving the accuracy of a diffuse interreflection calculation is introduced in a ray tracing context. The information from a hemispherical sampling of the luminous environment is interpreted in a new way to predict the change in irradiance as a function of position and surface orientation. The additional computation involved is modest and the benefit is substantial. An improved interpolation of irradiance resulting from the gradient calculation produces smoother, more accurate renderings. This result is achieved through better utilization of ray samples rather than additional samples or alternate sampling strategies. Thus, the technique is applicable to a variety of global illumination algorithms that use hemicubes or Monte Carlo sampling techniques.

Ward, G.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland); Heckbert, P.S. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). School of Computer Science]|[Technische Hogeschool Delft (Netherlands). Dept. of Technical Mathematics and Informatics

1992-04-01

179

Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- October survey descriptive summary  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this late October survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maiden cane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1995-11-01

180

Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- September survey descriptive summary  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this mid-September survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys during the late growing seasons of 1995, and throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1995-09-01

181

Conservation potential of agricultural water conservation subsidies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A current policy subsidizes farmers to invest in improved on-farm irrigation efficiency, expecting water to be conserved off farm. Contrary to expectation, water has been increasingly depleted in some regions after such improvements. This paper investigates the policy's failure to conserve water consistently by (1) formulating an economic model of irrigated crop production to determine a profit-maximizing irrigator's range of

Ray Huffaker

2008-01-01

182

Gamma irradiators  

SciTech Connect

The commercial use of gamma radiation to sterilize medical equipment and supplies began in the late 1950s. This article describes the basic technology and design aspects of commercial irradiation facilities. It explains the safety features and interlocks which protect workers, the public, and the environment from radiation and radioactive material.

Cuda, J.; McKinnon, R.G. (Nordion International Inc. (US)); Baker, P.G. (Baxter/Convertors (US))

1989-02-01

183

Photographic Irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

FOR the purpose of determining whether any sensible amount of the photographic irradiation surrounding the image of a bright object could be traced to an action taking place within the thickness of the collodion film, I some time ago tried an experiment in many respects similar to that detailed by Mr. Aitken in your last number (vol. x. p. 185).

A. Cowper Ranyard

1874-01-01

184

Factor X/Xa elicits protective signaling responses in endothelial cells directly via PAR-2 and indirectly via endothelial protein C receptor-dependent recruitment of PAR-1.  

PubMed

We recently demonstrated that the Gla domain-dependent interaction of protein C with endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) leads to dissociation of the receptor from caveolin-1 and recruitment of PAR-1 to a protective signaling pathway. Thus, the activation of PAR-1 by either thrombin or PAR-1 agonist peptide elicited a barrier-protective response if endothelial cells were preincubated with protein C. In this study, we examined whether other vitamin K-dependent coagulation protease zymogens can modulate PAR-dependent signaling responses in endothelial cells. We discovered that the activation of both PAR-1 and PAR-2 in endothelial cells pretreated with factor FX (FX)-S195A, but not other procoagulant protease zymogens, also results in initiation of protective intracellular responses. Interestingly, similar to protein C, FX interaction with endothelial cells leads to dissociation of EPCR from caveolin-1 and recruitment of PAR-1 to a protective pathway. Further studies revealed that, FX activated by factor VIIa on tissue factor bearing endothelial cells also initiates protective signaling responses through the activation of PAR-2 independent of EPCR mobilization. All results could be recapitulated by the receptor agonist peptides to both PAR-1 and PAR-2. These results suggest that a cross-talk between EPCR and an unknown FX/FXa receptor, which does not require interaction with the Gla domain of FX, recruits PAR-1 to protective signaling pathways in endothelial cells. PMID:20826780

Bae, Jong-Sup; Yang, Likui; Rezaie, Alireza R

2010-09-08

185

suPAR as a prognostic biomarker in sepsis  

PubMed Central

Sepsis is the clinical syndrome derived from the host response to an infection and severe sepsis is the leading cause of death in critically ill patients. Several biomarkers have been tested for use in diagnosis and prognostication in patients with sepsis. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) levels are increased in various infectious diseases, in the blood and also in other tissues. However, the diagnostic value of suPAR in sepsis has not been well defined, especially compared to other more established biomarkers, such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT). On the other hand, suPAR levels have been shown to predict outcome in various kinds of bacteremia and recent data suggest they may have predictive value, similar to that of severity scores, in critically ill patients. This narrative review provides a descriptive overview of the clinical value of this biomarker in the diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic guidance of sepsis.

2012-01-01

186

Pars plana incisions of four patients: histopathology and electron microscopy.  

PubMed Central

The pathology of pars plana incisions of four patients is described: three with light microscopy and one with light and electron microscopy. Two eyes were removed because of choroidal melanoma, immediately and 8 days after vitrectomy and transvitreous retinal biopsy. Considerable disruption of tissues surrounding the pars plana incisions was observed. Vitreous was incarcerated in the wounds, which healed with granulation tissue. One eye was examined 4 months after vitrectomy for diabetic retinopathy and a failed pars plana filtering operation. It contained fibrovascular ingrowth from all the incisions, infiltrating the vitreous base with granulation tissue and causing vitreous haemorrhage and retinal detachment. One eye was removed 1 year after vitrectomy for anterior hyaloidal fibrovascular proliferation and early phthisis. The wound had fibrous ingrowth histologically and evidence of active fibroplasia. Images

Koch, F H; Kreiger, A E; Spitznas, M; Glasgow, B; Foos, R Y; Yoshizumi, M O

1995-01-01

187

Posterior high-frequency capsulotomy via pars plana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a In special forms of complicated secondary cataract, especially after a cataract operation in eyes with proliferative disease\\u000a and after a cataract operation associated with pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil instillation, surgical capsulotomy must\\u000a be performed.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: We developed a new surgical technique for posterior capsulorhexis via pars plana by using the high-frequency capsulotomy\\u000a method developed by Klti. We

Petra Meier; K. Pittasch

1998-01-01

188

Buildings Energy Conservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Buildings Energy Conservation announces on a semimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technology required for economic energy conservation in buildings and communities. Information on the following subjects is included within t...

1985-01-01

189

Anthropological Objects Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article introduces students to the Objects Conservation Laboratory run by the museum's Anthropology Division. It discusses the main activities of the lab's conservators what that process involves.

190

Measuring Energy Conservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After a brief examination of the meaning of energy conservation, this paper provides descriptions of five alternative methods for measuring energy conservation: (1) tracking gross indicators (e.g., per-capita consumption), (2) monitoring the installation ...

1978-01-01

191

Energy-Conservation Indicators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of Energy Conservation Indicators were developed for the Department of Energy to assist in the evaluation of current and proposed conservation strategies. As descriptive statistics that signify current conditions and trends related to efficiency ...

D. B. Belzer

1982-01-01

192

Energy Conservation in Buildings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

These proceedings of the 5th Asian School present various aspects of energy conservation problems: analysis of the energy consumption trends since 1973 and the energy politics evolution, description of several energy conservation systems for residential a...

Anon

1987-01-01

193

Accelerated partial breast irradiation: Initial experience with the Intrabeam System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Failure after breast conserving surgery (BCS) and total breast irradiation usually occurs at the site of the original tumor. This has caused an increased interest in accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI), because if radiation is delivered directly to the tumor bed there should be better local control. Patients greater than age 50 with core biopsy confirmed invasive ductal carcinoma were

R. L. Elliott; M. DeLand; J. F. Head; M. C. Elliott

2011-01-01

194

Subcellular localization and characterization of the ParAB system from Corynebacterium glutamicum.  

PubMed

Faithful segregation of chromosomes and plasmids is a vital prerequisite to produce viable and genetically identical progeny. Bacteria use a specialized segregation system composed of the partitioning proteins ParA and ParB to segregate certain plasmids. Strikingly, homologues of ParA and ParB are found to be encoded in many chromosomes. Although mutations in the chromosomal Par system have effects on segregation efficiency, the exact mechanism by which the chromosomes are segregated into the daughter cells is not fully understood. We describe the polar localization of the ParB origin nucleoprotein complex in the actinomycete Corynebacterium glutamicum. ParB and the origin of replication were found to be stably localized to the cell poles. After replication, the origins move toward the opposite pole. Purified ParB was able to bind to the parS consensus sequence in vitro. C. glutamicum possesses two ParA-like partitioning ATPase proteins. Both proteins interact with ParB but show a slightly different subcellular localization and phenotype. While ParA might be part of a conventional partitioning system, PldP seems to play a role in division site selection. PMID:20435732

Donovan, Catriona; Schwaiger, Astrid; Krämer, Reinhard; Bramkamp, Marc

2010-04-30

195

Subcellular Localization and Characterization of the ParAB System from Corynebacterium glutamicum?  

PubMed Central

Faithful segregation of chromosomes and plasmids is a vital prerequisite to produce viable and genetically identical progeny. Bacteria use a specialized segregation system composed of the partitioning proteins ParA and ParB to segregate certain plasmids. Strikingly, homologues of ParA and ParB are found to be encoded in many chromosomes. Although mutations in the chromosomal Par system have effects on segregation efficiency, the exact mechanism by which the chromosomes are segregated into the daughter cells is not fully understood. We describe the polar localization of the ParB origin nucleoprotein complex in the actinomycete Corynebacterium glutamicum. ParB and the origin of replication were found to be stably localized to the cell poles. After replication, the origins move toward the opposite pole. Purified ParB was able to bind to the parS consensus sequence in vitro. C. glutamicum possesses two ParA-like partitioning ATPase proteins. Both proteins interact with ParB but show a slightly different subcellular localization and phenotype. While ParA might be part of a conventional partitioning system, PldP seems to play a role in division site selection.

Donovan, Catriona; Schwaiger, Astrid; Kramer, Reinhard; Bramkamp, Marc

2010-01-01

196

From conservation genetics to conservation genomics.  

PubMed

Although the application of population and evolutionary genetic theory and methods to address issues of conservation relevance has a long history, the formalization of conservation genetics as a research field is still relatively recent. One of the periodic catalysts for increased research effort in the field has been advances in molecular technologies, leading to an increasingly wider variety of molecular markers for application in conservation genetic studies. To date, genetic methods have been applied in conservation biology primarily as selectively neutral molecular tools for resolving questions of conservation relevance. However, there has been renewed interest in complementing the analysis of neutral markers with the assessment of loci that may be directly involved in responses to processes such as environmental change, with a view to identifying the genes involved in them. These kinds of studies are now possible due to the increase in availability of genomic resources for nonmodel organisms, and there will likely be an even more rapid increase in the near future due to the advent of new ultrahigh throughput-sequencing technologies. This review considers the implications of the most recent developments in genomic technologies and their potential for contributing to the conservation of populations and species. Three "conservation genomics" case studies are presented (Atlantic salmon, Salmo sala; the butterfly, Melitaea cinxia; and the California condor, Gymnogyps californianus) in order to demonstrate the diversity of applications now possible. While it is clear that genomics approaches in conservation will not replace other tried-and-true methods, these recent developments open up an exciting new range of possibilities that will enable further diversification of the application of genomics in conservation biology. PMID:19432656

Primmer, Craig R

2009-04-01

197

Western Cave Conservancy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"The Western Cave Conservancy is dedicated to securing permanent protection for threatened caves in the western United States." The website provides a great summary about the reasons for the need for cave protection. Visitors can learn about the Conservancy's current efforts to save Rippled Cave and Marble Mountain Quarry Cave. Users can view numerous images of these two caves as well as pictures of the Conservancy at work. The website provides downloads to the Conservancy's newsletters and minutes and meeting notes.

198

The Ocean Conservancy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn about the Ocean Conservancy's conservation projects, the latest news in marine conservation, how to get involved, and more. Read over the current issues the Ocean Conservancy is working on, such as by catch, invasive species, and overfishing. Explore the "Fish and Wildlife" link for pictures and information on threatened and endangered animals; and read past and current issues of Blue Planet Magazine, OC's quarterly publication.

2012-05-03

199

Conservation in Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed is the physical concept of conservation as it is framed within the laws of conservation of mass, of momentum, and of energy. The derivation of Ohm's Law as a generalization of the relationship between the observed measurements of voltage and current serves as the exemplar of how conservation theories are formed. (JJK)

Finkel, Edward

1991-01-01

200

The Value of Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of growing public debate on sustainability in New Zealand, the Department of Conservation commissioned studies in 2004-2006 on the regional economic impacts of selected activities and ecosystem services on public conservation land. In particular, claims had been made that public conservation land is a \\

Harry Broad; Geoff Butcher; John Waugh; Bernie Napp

2007-01-01

201

Empathy Conditioned Conservation: \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the destruction and despair caused by the dust bowl of the 1930’s, Americans and their government have taken a keen interest in natural resource conservation policy on agricultural land. The Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act of 1936 was the first farm bill to include provisions that provided payments to farmers willing to employ soil conservation measures (Cain and

Robert Sheeder; Gary D. Lynne

2009-01-01

202

What is energy conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of energy conservation is analyzed by considering methods of measuring energy use and conservation; energy intensity or the ratio of energy consumed to the GNP; the thermodynamic efficiency of energy processes in which energy changes form; economic yardsticks for judging the overall efficiency of energy use; how to evaluate energy waste; role of energy costs in inducing conservation

L. Schipper; J. Darmstadter

1977-01-01

203

Packaging the conservative revolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘Packaging the Conservative Revolution’ assesses the role of conservative think?tanks, particularly the American Enterprise Institute (AEI) and the Heritage Foundation, in engineering conservative prominence in national affairs. While AEI and Heritage have been particularly effective in promoting conservatism to legislators and the public, serious problems emerge from their analyses. The anti?welfare state bias of AEI projects reflects the dominance of

David Stoesz

1988-01-01

204

Biodiversity and Conservation Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for Biodiversity and Conservation (CBC) at the American Museum of Natural History aims to "integrate scientific research, education, and outreach so that people, themselves major catalysts in the rapid loss of biodiversity, will become participants in its conservation." The CBC currently conducts biodiversity conservation research in the Bahamas, Bolivia, Madagascar, Vietnam, and in metropolitan New York.

2001-01-01

205

Conservation in Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discussed is the physical concept of conservation as it is framed within the laws of conservation of mass, of momentum, and of energy. The derivation of Ohm's Law as a generalization of the relationship between the observed measurements of voltage and current serves as the exemplar of how conservation theories are formed. (JJK)|

Finkel, Edward

1991-01-01

206

Secondary pupillary membranes treated by the pars plana/pars plicata approach: long-term results of 108 cases.  

PubMed Central

One hundred and eight pupillary membranes treated with the vitrophage through a pars plicata or pars plana approach were evaluated for long-term results. The average follow-up was 3.86 years, with a range of 1 to 7 years. No major operative complications were encountered. Anatomical success was achieved in all cases. Vision improved in 67.5% of eyes. In 4 cases (3.7%) postoperative visual acuity was worse, because of glaucoma secondary to previous blunt ocular trauma. Six cases showed delay rhegmatogenous retinal detachment postoperatively. These could not be attributed to the surgical procedure per se.

Juarez, C P; Peyman, G A; Raichand, M; Goldberg, M F

1981-01-01

207

Par-4 downregulation promotes breast cancer recurrence by preventing multinucleation following targeted therapy.  

PubMed

Most deaths from breast cancer result from tumor recurrence, but mechanisms underlying tumor relapse are largely unknown. We now report that Par-4 is downregulated during tumor recurrence and that Par-4 downregulation is necessary and sufficient to promote recurrence. Tumor cells with low Par-4 expression survive therapy by evading a program of Par-4-dependent multinucleation and apoptosis that is otherwise engaged following treatment. Low Par-4 expression is associated with poor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and an increased risk of relapse in patients with breast cancer, and Par-4 is downregulated in residual tumor cells that survive neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Our findings identify Par-4-induced multinucleation as a mechanism of cell death in oncogene-addicted cells and establish Par-4 as a negative regulator of breast cancer recurrence. PMID:23770012

Alvarez, James V; Pan, Tien-Chi; Ruth, Jason; Feng, Yi; Zhou, Alice; Pant, Dhruv; Grimley, Joshua S; Wandless, Thomas J; Demichele, Angela; Chodosh, Lewis A

2013-06-13

208

Prone Whole-Breast Irradiation Using Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy in Women Undergoing Breast Conservation for Early Disease Yields High Rates of Excellent to Good Cosmetic Outcomes in Patients With Large and/or Pendulous Breasts  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report our institution's experience using prone positioning for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) to deliver post-lumpectomy whole breast irradiation (WBI) in a cohort of women with large and/or pendulous breasts, to determine the rate of acute and late toxicities and, more specifically, cosmetic outcomes. We hypothesized that using 3D-CRT for WBI in the prone position would reduce or eliminate patient and breast size as negative prognostic indicators for toxicities associated with WBI. Methods and Materials: From 1998 to 2006, 110 cases were treated with prone WBI using 3D-CRT. The lumpectomy, breast target volumes, heart, and lung were contoured on all computed tomography scans. A dose of 45-50 Gy was prescribed to the breast volume using standard fractionation schemes. The planning goals were {>=}95% of prescription to 95% of the breast volume, and 100% of boost dose to 95% of lumpectomy planning target volume. Toxicities and cosmesis were prospectively scored using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Effects Version 3.0 and the Harvard Scale. The median follow-up was 40 months. Results: The median body mass index (BMI) was 33.6 kg/m{sup 2}, and median breast volume was 1396 cm{sup 3}. The worst toxicity encountered during radiation was Grade 3 dermatitis in 5% of our patient population. Moist desquamation occurred in 16% of patients, with only 2% of patients with moist desquamation outside the inframammary/axillary folds. Eleven percent of patients had Grade {>=}2 late toxicities, including Grade 3 induration/fibrosis in 2%. Excellent to good cosmesis was achieved in 89%. Higher BMI was associated with moist desquamation and breast pain, but BMI and breast volume did not impact fibrosis or excellent to good cosmesis. Conclusion: In patients with higher BMI and/or large-pendulous breasts, delivering prone WBI using 3D-CRT results in favorable toxicity profiles and high excellent to good cosmesis rates. Higher BMI was associated with moist desquamation, but prone positioning removed BMI and breast size as factors for poorer cosmetic outcomes. This series adds to the growing literature demonstrating that prone WBI may be advantageous in select patients.

Bergom, Carmen; Kelly, Tracy; Morrow, Natalya; Wilson, J. Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Walker, Alonzo [Department of Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Xiang Qun; Ahn, Kwang Woo [Division of Biostatistics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); White, Julia, E-mail: jwhite@mcw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

2012-07-01

209

Natural Resources Conservation Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Natural Resources Conservation Service(NRCS)provides leadership in a partnership effort to help people conserve, maintain, and improve our natural resources and environment. This site offers an overview of the agency's goals, history, and organization as well as information on the latest news involving or affecting natural resources and/or NRCS. Topics found on this site may include a plants database, farming and ranching information, widespread conservation information, and practical backyard conservation. More specific topics are covered in greater detail through government reports, conservation tips & techniques, and reports from NRCS research projects.

210

RevPAR determinants of individual hotels : Evidences from Milan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to identify revenue per available room (RevPAR) determinants of individual firms located in a destination. Independent variables are to be sought along “what” and “where” dimensions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The sample is composed of 72 individual firms, operating in the 3-5 star range and data have been collected from financial statements and questionnaires. Findings – The

Ruggero Sainaghi

2011-01-01

211

Pars plana vitrectomy in the management of ghost cell glaucoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report we describe, herewith, 5 cases of ghost cell glaucoma that followed spontaneous vitreous hemorrhage complicating branch retinal vein occlusion in a phakic eye (one case), and traumatic vitreous hemorrhage (4 cases). Because intraocular pressure was uncontrolled, pars plana vitrectomy was performed to remove the reservoir of ghost cells. Vitrectomy resulted in successful control of intraocular pressure without

Ahmed M. Abu

1995-01-01

212

Management of persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous by pars plana vitrectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two children with persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV) underwent vitrectomy and lensectomy via the pars plana to remove the fibrovascular stalk. Postoperatively the eyes were quiet, only a slight vitreous haze obscured the fundus view in the immediate postoperative period, and the stumps of the stalks retracted. Early surgical treatment of PHPV may prevent later serious complications.

G A Peyman; D R Sanders; K C Nagpal

1976-01-01

213

The development of pars plana vitrectomy: a personal account  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitreous surgery, after 25 years, has become routine. Many have been involved in its development. The early problems are mostly forgotten, the excitement of having overcome another barrier has become rare. Nevertheless, pars plana vitreous surgery has kept a very special appeal. Surgeons are fascinated by the challenge and variation of each single operation, in contrast to the routine of

Robert Macherner; R. Machemer

1995-01-01

214

Results of pars plana vitrectomy in penetrating ocular trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-four severely injured eyes were operated with pars plana vitrectomy. The nine cases with involvement exclusively of the anterior segment alone were operated with success in all cases. However, the injuries of the posterior segment still reflect significant problems in that only 50 percent obtained successful visual results. This reflects, in great part, the degree of severity of the initial

Stephen J. Ryan

1978-01-01

215

PARS PLANA VITRECTOMY WITHOUT SCLERAL BUCKLE FOR RHEGMATOGENOUS RETINAL DETACHMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose To report the anatomical and visual results of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with- out scleral buckling which repairs rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Methods The authors retrospectively reviewed 41 patients with primary RRD who under- went PPV without scleral buckling repair it between December 1997 and November 2001. Thirty-four patients (34 eyes) followed at least 4 months treatment and were

Direk Patikulsila; Nimitr Ittipunkul; Anchalee Patikulsila

2003-01-01

216

The Pars Triangularis in Dyslexia and ADHD: A Comprehensive Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Limited research has been conducted on the structure of the pars triangularis (PT) in dyslexia despite functional neuroimaging research finding it may play a role in phonological processing. Furthermore, research to date has not examined PT size in ADHD even though the right inferior frontal region has been implicated in the disorder. Hence, one…

Kibby, Michelle Y.; Kroese, Judith M.; Krebbs, Hillery; Hill, Crystal E.; Hynd, George W.

2009-01-01

217

[Prevention of malignant glaucoma: pars-plana vitrectomy? (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Prevention of malignant glaucoma: in first case report lens extraction and trabeculectomy was followed by a malignant glaucoma; in the second case report pars-plana vitrectomy and trabeculectomy was successful. The role of a vitreous posterior blockage is discussed. PMID:153358

Offret, H; Saraux, H; Limon, S; Langlois, J L

1978-10-01

218

Photoémission de Csl induite par une impulsion laser intense femtoseconde  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nous avons mesuré pour la première fois les spectres de photoélectrons émis par un cristal isolant à large bande interdite, Csl, avec une dynamique de 10^6 coups/s, excité par la source laser haute cadence du C.E.L.I.A (800 nm, 40 fs, 1 kHz, 1 TW). L'émission d'électrons jusqu'à des énergies de quelques dizaines d'électrons-volts a été observée pour des impulsions d'éclairement compris entre 0.5 et 3 TW/cm^2, relativement faible donc par comparaison aux éclairements utilisés pour accélérer les électrons d'un atome aux mêmes énergies. Ces spectres contiennent tous, en particulier, deux bandes dans le domaine des basses énergies d'électrons (<5 eV), également observées lors d'études précédentes. Les électrons les plus énergétiques forment un plateau intense légèrement structuré et limité par une coupure exponentielle. Pour des impulsions de 3 TW/cm^2 cette coupure est située à 27 eV. L'insuffisance du mécanisme électron-photon-phonon, considéré jusqu'à présent comme le principal processus d'échauffement des électrons dans les solides en interaction non destructrice avec un champ laser, nous a poussé à proposer un mécanisme alternatif. Ce modèle met en évidence les transitions directes multiphotoniques dans la bande de conduction du solide qui sont incontournables du fait de sa structure électronique multi-branches

Belsky, A.; Vasil'Ev, A.; Yatsenko, B.; Bachau, H.; Martin, P.; Geoffroy, G.; Guizard, S.

2003-06-01

219

Estimating PAR absorbed by vegetation from bidirectional reflectance measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite remote sensing allows estimation, at a global scale, of the photosynthetically active radiation absorbed (APAR) by the vegetation. Current estimates are based on retrieving the fraction (fAPAR) of PAR absorbed by the canopy from spectral vegetation indices (SVI) derived from combinations of spectral reflectance measurements. We show that currently used SVI are strongly affected by the soil reflectance as

Jean-Louis Roujean; François-Marie Breon

1995-01-01

220

Par for the palette : INSECTS AND ARACHNIDS AS ART MEDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Par for the palette : Insects and Arachnids as Art Media The ubiquitous insects have been a cultural inspiration internationally, frequently used as symbols and meta- phors for human existence and experience. Their boundless forms and behaviors make them logical candidates for artistic expression, providing artists with novel media to translate the mood, message and effect of a work. I

Barrett Anthony KLEIN

221

Early pars plana vitrectomy in chronic endophthalmitis of toxocariasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pars plana vitrectomy was performed in 12 eyes affected with chronic endophthalmitis in patients 4–38 years of age. In 3 cases the indication was severe vitreitis and the surgical response was excellent. The other 9 eyes were operated upon during the cicatricial and sequelae stages, and the results were better the earlier surgery was performed. Lensectomy was associated in 5

Alvaro Rodríguez

1986-01-01

222

Tumeur du canal anal révélée par une fistule rectovaginale  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Résumé  La fistule rectovaginale (FRV) est une pathologie rare, une cause néoplasique en est exceptionnellement responsable. Nous\\u000a rapportons un cas de tumeur avancée du canal anal, révélée par une grosse FRV associée à de multiples fistules périnéales\\u000a externes.

M. Tamzaourte; I. Errabih; M. Fadlouallah; S. Tahri; H. Elkoundi; M. Lahmiri; H. Krami; H. Ouazzani

2010-01-01

223

Tissue Factor and PAR2 Signaling in the Tumor Microenvironment  

PubMed Central

Diverse oncogenic transformations result in the constitutive expression of tissue factor (TF) in cancer cells. The local and systemic activation of the coagulation cascade has long been a recognized hallmark for aggressive cancer, but genetic mouse models and new experimental therapeutics have only recently demonstrated crucial roles for TF initiated cell signaling in the pathogenesis of cancer. On tumor cells, the TF-VIIa binary complex mediates activation of protease activated receptor (PAR) 2 and thereby shapes the tumor microenvironment by inducing an array of pro-angiogenic and immune modulating cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. PAR2 also uniquely triggers tumor cell migration by G protein-independent pathways through ?-arrestin scaffolding. Metastatic tumor cells utilize additional signaling networks of the coagulation cascade by activating PAR1 through thrombin and/or the ternary TF-VIIa-Xa signaling complex in the vascular and potentially lymphatic system. Selective antagonists of TF-VIIa-PAR2 signaling may be used as anti-angiogenic therapy without increasing the risk of bleeding, whereas coagulation and associated signaling pathways on platelets and other host cells may be targeted for therapeutic benefit in advanced cancer and metastatic disease.

Schaffner, Florence; Ruf, Wolfram

2009-01-01

224

Cell polarity: ParA-logs gather around the Hub.  

PubMed

The chromosomal origin, chemotaxis arrays and flagellum of Vibrio cholerae congregate at the same pole of the cell. How? A recent study identifies a new pole-organizing protein, HubP, that recruits members of the ParA family of spatial regulators of subcellular structures to the pole. PMID:23257194

Kirkpatrick, Clare L; Viollier, Patrick H

2012-12-18

225

Ultrasound biomicroscopy of conventional and sutureless pars plana sclerotomies: a comparative and longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To report the rate of ultrasonically visible vitreous incarceration and longitudinal changes of incarcerated vitreous in pars plana sclerotomies after conventional suturing or sutureless technique using ultrasound biomicroscopy.METHODS: Twenty-five consecutive eyes (25 patients) undergoing primary three-port pars plana vitrectomy participated. The first 16 pars plana vitrectomies were performed with standard conventional sutured sclerotomies, and the following nine pars plana

Alvin K. H Kwok; Clement C. Y Tham; Angela V. P Loo; Dorothy S. P Fan; Dennis S. C Lam

2001-01-01

226

Par1 regulates stability of the posterior determinant Oskar by phosphorylation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Par-1 kinase is critical for polarization of the Drosophila melanogaster oocyte and the one-cell Caenorhabditis elegans embryo. Although Par-1 localizes specifically to the posterior pole in both cells, neither its targets nor its function at the posterior pole have been elucidated. Here we show that Drosophila Par-1 phosphorylates the posterior determinant Oskar (Osk) and demonstrate genetically that Par-1 is required

Veit Riechmann; Gustavo J. Gutierrez; Paolo Filardo; Angel R. Nebreda; Anne Ephrussi

2002-01-01

227

L'offre d'information volontaire par Internet et le gouvernement des entreprises françaises  

Microsoft Academic Search

(VF)Cette recherche analyse le phénomène de la diffusion d’information par Internet en France. En prolongeant les études antérieures sur l’offre volontaire d’information, nous cherchons à savoir comment les facteurs du gouvernement d’entreprise influent sur la communication par voie électronique. Nous examinons également l’impact des caractéristiques des entreprises sur la publication volontaire par Internet. Les résultats montrent que l’offre d’information par

Li LI

2010-01-01

228

7 CFR 12.23 - Conservation plans and conservation systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Section 12.23 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION Highly Erodible Land Conservation § 12.23 Conservation plans and conservation systems. (a) Use of field office...

2009-01-01

229

7 CFR 12.23 - Conservation plans and conservation systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Section 12.23 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION Highly Erodible Land Conservation § 12.23 Conservation plans and conservation systems. (a) Use of field office...

2010-01-01

230

American Bird Conservancy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Bird Conservancy (ABC) is a nonprofit organization working to "conserve wild birds and their habitats throughout the Americas." The ABC website provides informative and useful features such as the Bird Conservation Directory, a searchable directory of contact information for professionals engaged in bird conservation throughout the Americas, and the downloadable Birdwatcher's Guide to Global Warming (last mentioned in the June 28, 2002 NSDL Scout Report for the Life Sciences). The site also provides information about ABC membership and a variety of conservation programs such as Partners in Flight, Cats Indoors, The North American Bird Conservation Initiative, and the Pesticides and Birds Campaign. Site visitors may also view past copies of the ABC newsletter; and sign up for free email bulletins containing conservation action alerts, information, and news.

231

Cooperation of tissue factor cytoplasmic domain and PAR2 signaling in breast cancer development  

PubMed Central

Constitutive expression of tissue factor (TF) by cancer cells triggers local activation of the coagulation cascade and promotes breast cancer progression through cell signaling involving protease activated receptor (PAR)2. In human breast cancer, TF and PAR2 are up-regulated and TF cytoplasmic domain phosphorylation is correlated with relapse. Here we show that cancer cell PAR2 signaling promotes angiogenesis independent of PAR2 phosphorylation at the recognized ?-arrestin recruitment site. Similar to PAR2?/? mice, TF cytoplasmic domain–deleted (TF?CT) mice have delayed spontaneous breast cancer development in the polyoma middle T model. Simultaneous deletion of PAR2 in TF?CT mice did not further delay tumor appearance, consistent with overlapping roles of TF and PAR2 in promoting the angiogenic switch in early stages of breast cancer. In advanced carcinomas, tumor-associated macrophages were reduced in TF?CT and TF?CT/PAR2?/? mice, and increased tumor vessel diameters of TF?CT mice were partially reversed by PAR2-deficiency, indicating that the TF cytoplasmic domain has additional roles that are interdependent with PAR2 signaling in regulating host angiogenic responses. These experiments demonstrate a crosstalk of tumor cell TF cytoplasmic domain and PAR2 signaling and provide a possible mechanism for the close correlation between TF phosphorylation and cancer recurrence of TF and PAR2-positive clinical breast cancer.

Schaffner, Florence; Versteeg, Henri H.; Schillert, Anja; Yokota, Naho; Petersen, Lars C.; Mueller, Barbara M.

2010-01-01

232

Cooperation of tissue factor cytoplasmic domain and PAR2 signaling in breast cancer development.  

PubMed

Constitutive expression of tissue factor (TF) by cancer cells triggers local activation of the coagulation cascade and promotes breast cancer progression through cell signaling involving protease activated receptor (PAR)2. In human breast cancer, TF and PAR2 are up-regulated and TF cytoplasmic domain phosphorylation is correlated with relapse. Here we show that cancer cell PAR2 signaling promotes angiogenesis independent of PAR2 phosphorylation at the recognized ?-arrestin recruitment site. Similar to PAR2(-/-) mice, TF cytoplasmic domain-deleted (TF(?CT)) mice have delayed spontaneous breast cancer development in the polyoma middle T model. Simultaneous deletion of PAR2 in TF(?CT) mice did not further delay tumor appearance, consistent with overlapping roles of TF and PAR2 in promoting the angiogenic switch in early stages of breast cancer. In advanced carcinomas, tumor-associated macrophages were reduced in TF(?CT) and TF(?CT)/PAR2(-/-) mice, and increased tumor vessel diameters of TF(?CT) mice were partially reversed by PAR2-deficiency, indicating that the TF cytoplasmic domain has additional roles that are interdependent with PAR2 signaling in regulating host angiogenic responses. These experiments demonstrate a crosstalk of tumor cell TF cytoplasmic domain and PAR2 signaling and provide a possible mechanism for the close correlation between TF phosphorylation and cancer recurrence of TF and PAR2-positive clinical breast cancer. PMID:20861457

Schaffner, Florence; Versteeg, Henri H; Schillert, Anja; Yokota, Naho; Petersen, Lars C; Mueller, Barbara M; Ruf, Wolfram

2010-09-22

233

Clinical outcomes of pars plana capsulotomy with anterior vitrectomy in pediatric cataract surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The management of the posterior capsule in pediatric cataract surgery remains challenging. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the role and clinical outcomes of primary pars plana capsulotomy and pars plana anterior vitrectomy during pediatric cataract surgery with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. Methods: Consecutive cases of pars plana capsulotomy and anterior vitrectomy during pediatric cataract surgery were

George Alexandrakis; M. Millicent Peterseim; M. Edward Wilson

2002-01-01

234

par genes in Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium smegmatis are arranged in an operon transcribed from "SigGC" promoters  

PubMed Central

Background The ParA/Soj and ParB/Spo0J proteins, and the cis-acting parS site, participate actively in chromosome segregation and cell cycle progression. Genes homologous to parA and parB, and two putative parS copies, have been identified in the Mycobacterium bovis BCG and Mycobacterium smegmatis chromosomes. As in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the parA and parB genes in these two non-pathogenic mycobacteria are located near the chromosomal origin of replication. The present work focused on the determination of the transcriptional organisation of the ~6 Kb orf60K-parB region of M. bovis BCG and M. smegmatis by primer extension, transcriptional fusions to the green fluorescence protein (GFP) and quantitative RT-PCR. Results The parAB genes were arranged in an operon. However, we also found promoters upstream of each one of these genes. Seven putative promoter sequences were identified in the orf60K-parB region of M. bovis BCG, whilst four were identified in the homologous region of M. smegmatis, one upstream of each open reading frame (ORF). Real-time PCR assays showed that in M. smegmatis, mRNA-parA and mRNA-parB levels decreased between the exponential and stationary phases. In M. bovis BCG, mRNA-parA levels also decreased between the exponential and stationary phases. However, parB expression was higher than parA expression and remained almost unchanged along the growth curve. Conclusion The majority of the proposed promoter regions had features characteristic of Mycobacterium promoters previously denoted as Group D. The -10 hexamer of a strong E. coli ?70-like promoter, located upstream of gidB of M. bovis BCG, overlapped with a putative parS sequence, suggesting that the transcription from this promoter might be regulated by the binding of ParB to parS.

Casart, Yveth; Gamero, Elida; Rivera-Gutierrez, Sandra; Gonzalez-y-Merchand, Jorge A; Salazar, Leiria

2008-01-01

235

Identification and characterization of yeasts causing chalk mould defects on par-baked bread.  

PubMed

Pichia anomala, Hyphopichia burtonii and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera are spoilage yeasts causing chalk mould defects on par-baked breads packaged under modified atmosphere. The first objective of this study was to identify yeasts isolated from spoiled par-baked breads by means of a RAPD protocol and to determine the dominant spoilers amongst identified strains. The second objective was to determine the effects of water activity (a(w)) and pH value on the growth rates and lag phase durations of P. anomala, H. burtonii and S. fibuligera. 95% of the yeasts tested were identified as P. anomala and 5% as S. fibuligera, H. burtonii was not detected. In order to investigate the effect of a(w) and pH the growth of the three yeasts was tested within an a(w) range of 0.88-0.98 and a pH range of 2.8-8.0. P. anomala was able to grow from pH 2.8 to 8 without a clear optimum. S. fibuligera and H. burtonii showed a pH optimum for growth of 5. The optimum water activity for growth was different for the three strains and varied between 0.96 and 0.98. These growth data were further used to develop secondary models that describe the relationship between a(w) and the radial or colony growth rate (g, mm/d) or the lag phase duration (?, d). The identification of the spoilage organisms and a good understanding of the effects of a(w) and pH on the growth behavior is essential for future development of adequate conservation strategies against chalk mould defects. PMID:21569947

Deschuyffeleer, N; Audenaert, K; Samapundo, S; Ameye, S; Eeckhout, M; Devlieghere, F

2011-02-23

236

A mammalian PAR3–PAR6 complex implicated in Cdc42\\/Rac1 and aPKC signalling and cell polarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellular asymmetry is critical for the development of multicellular organisms. Here we show that homologues of proteins necessary for asymmetric cell division in Caenorhabditis elegans associate with each other in mammalian cells and tissues. mPAR-3 and mPAR-6 exhibit similar expression patterns and subcellular distributions in the CNS and associate through their PDZ (PSD-95\\/Dlg\\/ZO-1) domains. mPAR-6 binds to Cdc42\\/Rac1 GTPases, and

Dan Lin; Amelia S. Edwards; James P. Fawcett; Geraldine Mbamalu; John D. Scott; Tony Pawson

2000-01-01

237

Migratory Bird Conservancy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The recently launched Migratory Bird Conservancy represents a unique partnership among birders, birding businesses, and the conservation community. Headed by the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation (NFWF), this original and somewhat unusual initiative was established to facilitate public contributions to the goals and objectives of Partners in Flight. The mission of the Conservancy is to raise a minimum of $500,000 annually "to help conserve bird habitats throughout the Western Hemisphere." This site offers summary information on the Migratory Bird Conservancy (MBC), including how to apply for a MBC grant and how to make donations. For those interested in the future of migratory birds or in learning about conservation funding, this site will be of direct interest.

238

(Symposium on energy conservation)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler attended the International Energy Conservation Symposium and presented a paper on the integrated resource planning project in Costa Rica being conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and RCG/Hagler-Bailly, Inc., in conjunction with US AID. The Symposium was organized primarily to promote awareness of energy conservation opportunities in Pakistan. The Symposium was well attended by over 470 people the vast majority of whom were from Pakistan. The symposium included sessions on policy issues, national experiences in energy conservation, energy conservation in the industrial sector, energy conservation in buildings and agriculture, energy conservation in the power sector, and prospective technologies in energy systems. The symposium had a great deal of political support including a keynote address by the Minister of State for Production, a closing session with the Governor of Sindh, and the majority of sessions being chaired by senior industry or government representatives.

Kuliasha, M.A.

1990-05-25

239

Brulure par Plaque de Bistouri Electrique: a Propos de Quatre Cas  

PubMed Central

Summary La brûlure par plaque de bistouri électrique est un accident rare mais grave par la profondeur de la lésion et par sa localisation, surtout quand qu’elle survient dans un contexte chirurgical dont le vécu reste difficile de la part du malade et du chirurgien. Cette brûlure bien que imprévisible reste grave par la profondeur et la localisation de la brûlure et par sa survenue dans un contexte opératoire, chez des patients malades. La prise en charge de la brûlure doit se faire en milieu spécialisé. La prévention reste le seul moyen d’éviter ce type d’accident.

Khales, A.; Achbouk, A.; Belmir, R.; Cherkab, L.; Ennouhi, M.A.; Ababou, K.; Ihrai, H.

2010-01-01

240

Expression of Partitioning Defective 3 (Par-3) for Predicting Extrahepatic Metastasis and Survival with Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Partitioning defective 3 (Par-3), a crucial component of partitioning-defective complex proteins, controls cell polarity and contributes to cell migration and cancer cell epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. However, the clinical relevance of Par-3 in tumor progression and metastasis has not been well elucidated. In this study, we investigated the impact and association of Par-3 expression and clinical outcomes with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We first confirmed that Par-3 was abundantly expressed in HCC cell lines by Western blot analysis. We used immunohistochemistry to analyze the association of Par-3 expression and clinicopathological characteristics in primary and subsequent metastatic tumors of patients with HCC. Par-3 was overexpressed in 47 of 111 (42.3%) primary tumors. Increased expression of Par-3 in primary tumors predicted an increased five-year cumulative incidence of extrahepatic metastasis. In addition, multivariate analysis revealed that Par-3 overexpression was an independent risk factor of extrahepatic metastasis. Increased Par-3 expression in primary tumors was associated with poor five-year overall survival rates and was an independent prognostic factor on Cox regression analysis. In conclusion, we show for the first time that increased Par-3 expression is associated with distant metastasis and poor survival rates in patients with HCC. Par-3 may be a novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for HCC.

Jan, Yee-Jee; Ko, Bor-Sheng; Liu, Tzu-An; Wu, Yao-Ming; Liang, Shu-Man; Chen, Shyh-Chang; Wang, John; Liou, Jun-Yang

2013-01-01

241

Structure of the ParM filament at 8.5 ? resolution  

PubMed Central

The actin-like protein ParM forms the cytomotive filament of the ParMRC system, a type II plasmid segregation system encoded by Escherichia coli R1 plasmid. We report an 8.5 Å resolution reconstruction of the ParM filament, obtained using cryo-electron microscopy. Fitting of the 3D density reconstruction with monomeric crystal structures of ParM provides insights into dynamic instability of ParM filaments. The structural analysis suggests that a ParM conformation, corresponding to a metastable state, is held within the filament by intrafilament contacts. This filament conformation of ParM can be attained only from the ATP-bound state, and induces a change in conformation of the bound nucleotide. The structural analysis also provides a rationale for the observed stimulation of hydrolysis upon polymerisation into the filament.

Gayathri, Pananghat; Fujii, Takashi; Namba, Keiichi; Lowe, Jan

2013-01-01

242

A Bipolar Spindle Of Antiparallel ParM Filaments Drives Bacterial Plasmid Segregation  

PubMed Central

To ensure their stable inheritance by daughter cells during cell division, bacterial low copy-number plasmids make simple DNA segregating machines that use an elongating protein filament between sister plasmids. In the ParMRC system of Escherichia coli R1 plasmid, ParM, an actin-like protein, forms the spindle between ParRC complexes on sister plasmids. Using a combination of structural work and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we show that ParRC bound and could accelerate growth at only one end of polar ParM filaments, mechanistically resembling eukaryotic formins. The architecture of ParM filaments enabled two ParRC-bound filaments to associate in an antiparallel orientation, forming a bipolar spindle. The spindle elongated as a bundle of at least two antiparallel filaments, thereby pushing two plasmid clusters towards the poles.

Gayathri, P.; Fujii, T.; M?ller-Jensen, J.; van den Ent, F.; Namba, K.; Lowe, J.

2013-01-01

243

A bipolar spindle of antiparallel ParM filaments drives bacterial plasmid segregation.  

PubMed

To ensure their stable inheritance by daughter cells during cell division, bacterial low-copy-number plasmids make simple DNA segregating machines that use an elongating protein filament between sister plasmids. In the ParMRC system of the Escherichia coli R1 plasmid, ParM, an actinlike protein, forms the spindle between ParRC complexes on sister plasmids. By using a combination of structural work and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we show that ParRC bound and could accelerate growth at only one end of polar ParM filaments, mechanistically resembling eukaryotic formins. The architecture of ParM filaments enabled two ParRC-bound filaments to associate in an antiparallel orientation, forming a bipolar spindle. The spindle elongated as a bundle of at least two antiparallel filaments, thereby pushing two plasmid clusters toward the poles. PMID:23112295

Gayathri, P; Fujii, T; Møller-Jensen, J; van den Ent, F; Namba, K; Löwe, J

2012-10-25

244

Investigation of thrombin activity with PAR 1-based fluorogenic peptides.  

PubMed

Thrombin, a highly specific protease of blood coagulation, has two exosites that modulate its specificity. We designed two sets of synthetic substrate FRET peptides with 25- or 11- amino acids (aa) each, based on the PAR 1 sequence, to characterize the effect of exosite 1 engagement on substrate catalysis and preference. The 25-aa set encompassed a sequence binding to exosite 1, and structural modeling showed that binding to thrombin did not differ significantly from that of PAR 1 peptide. Modification at the P3´position of the 25 or 11-aa peptides resulted in small effect on kinetic parameters. Ionic strength higher than physiologic depressed thrombin action on the 25-aa peptides. Addition of ligands of the exosite 1 negatively modulated the catalysis of 25-aa substrates. In conclusion, we succeeded to mimic and study in real time, using these synthetic peptides, the influence of ligand binding to exosite 1 on thrombin activity. PMID:23688151

Vieira, Saulo Martins; dos Reis, Flávia Garcia; Geraldo, Reinaldo; Dutra, Denis Luis da Silva; Juliano, Luiz; Julianod, Maria Aparecida; Mignaco, Julio Alberto; Zingali, Russolina Benedeta

2013-10-01

245

Developmental Control of a parAB Promoter Leads to Formation of Sporulation-Associated ParB Complexes in Streptomyces coelicolor  

PubMed Central

The Streptomyces coelicolor partitioning protein ParB binds to numerous parS sites in the oriC-proximal part of the linear chromosome. ParB binding results in the formation of large complexes, which behave differentially during the complex life cycle (D. Jakimowicz, B. Gust, J. Zakrzewska-Czerwinska, and K. F. Chater, J. Bacteriol. 187:3572-3580, 2005). Here we have analyzed the transcriptional regulation that underpins this developmentally specific behavior. Analysis of promoter mutations showed that the irregularly spaced complexes present in vegetative hyphae are dependent on the constitutive parABp1 promoter, while sporulation-specific induction of the promoter parABp2 is required for the assembly of arrays of ParB complexes in aerial hyphae and thus is necessary for efficient chromosome segregation. Expression from parABp2 depended absolutely on two sporulation regulatory genes, whiA and whiB, and partially on two others, whiH and whiI, all four of which are needed for sporulation septation. Because of this pattern of dependence, we investigated the transcription of these four whi genes in whiA and whiB mutants, revealing significant regulatory interplay between whiA and whiB. A strain in which sporulation septation (but not vegetative septation) was blocked by mutation of a sporulation-specific promoter of ftsZ showed close to wild-type induction of parABp2 and formed fairly regular ParB-enhanced green fluorescent protein foci in aerial hyphae, ruling out strong morphological coupling or checkpoint regulation between septation and DNA partitioning during sporulation. A model for developmental regulation of parABp2 expression is presented.

Jakimowicz, Dagmara; Mouz, Sebastien; Zakrzewska-Czerwinska, Jolanta; Chater, Keith F.

2006-01-01

246

Integrating Conservation Genetic Considerations into Conservation Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) is a species of conservation concern–listed as “threatened” under the Endangered Species Act–throughout its native range in the western United States. The authors were assembled by the Clark Fork River Aquatic Implementation Team, composed of biologists representing Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks (MFWP); Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG); and Avista Corporation, to provide a

John Epifanio; Gordon Haas; Karen Pratt; Bruce Rieman; Paul Spruell; Craig Stockwell; Fred Utter; William Young

2003-01-01

247

Pars plana vitrectomy for epiretinal membrane associated with sarcoidosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To examine retrospectively the visual outcomes in patients undergoing vitrectomy for epiretinal membranes secondary to sarcoid uveitis.Methods: Eleven consecutive patients (11 eyes) with epiretinal membrane and uveitis associated with sarcoidosis underwent pars plana vitrectomy.Results: Nine eyes (82%) gained two or more lines of Snellen visual acuity at 1–12 months after surgery. However, 4 of these 9 eyes lost two

Junichi Kiryu; Mihori Kita; Teruyo Tanabe; Kenji Yamashiro; Yoshiaki Ieki; Shinji Miura; Shinsuke Miyahara; Hiroshi Tamura; Yoshihito Honda

2003-01-01

248

Results of Preliminary Tests of PAR Bunch Cleaning  

Microsoft Academic Search

A particle accumulator ring (PAR) is used at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to collect multiple linac bunches and compress them into a 0.3-ns single bunch for booster injection. A 9.77-MHz fundamental and a 117.3-MHz harmonic rf system (RF12) are employed for initial beam capture and bunch-length compression, respectively. Satellite bunches with very low charge form when the phase or

C. Y. Yao; N. S. Sereno; M. Borland; A. E. Grelick; A. H. Lumpkin

2005-01-01

249

PAR Measurements: Calculating The Solar Constant Using A TI-8  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students measure photosynthetically available radiation (PAR). Students determine the solar input by calculating the amount of heat absorbed by a known mass of water exposed to a known cross-sectional area of sunlight. Students discuss the variables influencing their measurements, the reasons why solar input might vary, measure and calculate solar input at their watershed testing site, and compare and discuss data differences with that of the McMurdo Dry Valleys.

Schulz, Barbara; Wygoda, Linda

250

Tonic pupil following pars plana vitrectomy and endolaser.  

PubMed

Tonic pupil was observed in a 67 year-old patient following a retinal detachment repair with pars plana vitrectomy, endolaser and silicone oil tamponade performed under retrobulbar anesthesia. The probable location of disturbance is the postganglionic parasympathetic fibers in the short ciliary nerves along their course to the pupil in the suprachoroidal space. A likely explanation for this phenomenon is injury to short ciliary nerves by endolaser treatment. PMID:19721706

Ebrahim, Benyamin; Frohman, Larry; Zarbin, Marco; Bhagat, Neelakshi

2009-07-08

251

Tonic Pupil Following Pars Plana Vitrectomy and Endolaser  

PubMed Central

Tonic pupil was observed in a 67 year-old patient following a retinal detachment repair with pars plana vitrectomy, endolaser and silicone oil tamponade performed under retrobulbar anesthesia. The probable location of disturbance is the postganglionic parasympathetic fibers in the short ciliary nerves along their course to the pupil in the suprachoroidal space. A likely explanation for this phenomenon is injury to short ciliary nerves by endolaser treatment.

Ebrahim, Benyamin; Frohman, Larry; Zarbin, Marco; Bhagat, Neelakshi

2009-01-01

252

Can Reconditioning Prevent the after-Cooking Darkening of Irradiated Potatoes (Research Carried out in 1976/1977).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to investigate whether reconditioning of irradiated potatoes at the end of a storage period has any effect on the degree of grey discoloration after cooking and after par-frying french fries, an experiment was carried out in the 1976-1977 season ...

H. Sparenberg N. Buitelaar

1977-01-01

253

Anterior PAR Proteins Function During Cytokinesis and Maintain DYN-1 at the Cleavage Furrow in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

PAR proteins are key regulators of cellular polarity and have links to the endocytic machinery and the actin cytoskeleton. Our data suggest a unique role for PAR proteins in cytokinesis. We have found that at the onset of cytokinesis, anterior PAR-6 and posterior PAR-2 proteins are redistributed to the furrow membrane in a temporal and spatial manner. PAR-6 and PAR-2 localize to the furrow membrane during ingression but PAR-2-GFP is distinct in that it is excluded from the extreme tip of the furrow. Once the midbody has formed, PAR-2-GFP becomes restricted to the midbody region (the midbody plus the membrane flanking it). Depletion of both anterior PAR proteins, PAR-3 and PAR-6, led to an increase in multinucleate embryos, suggesting that the anterior PAR proteins are necessary during cytokinesis and that PAR-3 and PAR-6 function in cytokinesis may be partially redundant. Lastly, anterior PAR proteins play a role in the maintenance of DYN-1 in the cleavage furrow. Our data indicate that the PAR proteins are involved in the events that occur during cytokinesis and may play a role in promoting the membrane trafficking and remodeling events that occur during this time.

Pittman, Kelly J.; Skop, Ahna R.

2013-01-01

254

Ultrasound biomicroscopy of hyperpressurized eyes following pars plana vitrectomy  

PubMed Central

Early elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) following pars plana vitrectomy is a common complication of vitreoretinal surgery and severe pressure elevation may result in visual loss. To investigate the mechanism of IOP elevation following pars plana vitrectomy, a retrospective review of 119 patients (132 eyes) who had undergone vitreoretinal surgery was performed. Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) was used to observe the changes in the structure of the anterior segment following vitrectomy and to compare various parameters pre- and postsurgery. The UBM examination revealed inflammation within the anterior chamber and hyphema with increased IOP. In certain patients, the iris had adhered to the trabecular meshwork and the anterior chamber angle was closed. Cyclodialysis involving the pars plicata and iris was also observed. Furthermore, silicone oil emulsification in the anterior chamber angle and posterior chamber presurgery were noted in certain cases. Edema and forward rotation of the ciliary body resulted in the closure of the anterior chamber angle. The measured parameters indicated that the anterior chamber became shallower and that the anterior chamber angle was narrowed in phakic eyes with elevated IOP. Eyes with elevated IOP and intraocular lenses were not observed to be different from phakic eyes with elevated IOP. This may be due to the fact that an eye with an intraocular lens is thinner than a phakic eye. This study suggests that UBM examination is useful for investigating the pathogenesis of elevated IOP following vitrectomy, and provides a theoretical basis.

WU, NA; ZHANG, HONG

2013-01-01

255

Youth Conservation Corps Guidance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides guidelines for operating Youth Conservation Corps programs under both the Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Park Service. The guide contains 11 units that cover the following topics: (1) enrollees; (2) enrollee payroll; (3) enrollee problems; (4) Youth Conservation Corps staff; (5) accounting; (6) operations; (7)…

Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

256

Tiger Conservation in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary focus of the paper is to analyze the Indian Tiger Conservation program – Project Tiger. The circumstances that lead to and the conditions under which the program was launched are discussed. National Parks in India lead to a situation where the natives of the forest are deprived of their homes and livelihoods as an externality of conservation. These

Varun Khandelwal

2010-01-01

257

Conservation--Selected Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Developed by the Australian Conservation Foundation to meet the need for a general conservation bibliography, this booklet offers resources for a wide spectrum of possible users. Material selected is that which is relevant and helpful for conservationists in their various fields of activity and what is likely to be in print and obtainable without…

Australian Conservation Foundation, Parkville, Victoria.

258

Ecosystems emerging: 1. conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This second paper in the series on Ecosystems Emerging treats some properties of ecosystems derivable from the single elementary principle of conservation. These go beyond the mere balancing out of the matter and forces of nature.A brief sketch of a conservationless world is given, followed by an elementary background review of energy, matter and information. The main conservative quantities are

Bernard C. Patten; Milan Straškraba; Sven E. Jørgensen

1997-01-01

259

Water Conservation Resource List.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alarmed by the growing water shortage, the New Jersey State Office of Dissemination has prepared this annotated list of free or inexpensive instructional materials for teaching about water conservation, K-l2. A tipsheet for home water conservation is appended. (Editor/SJL)

NJEA Review, 1981

1981-01-01

260

Teaching Teachers Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a two-week summer course for elementary and secondary teachers on soil and water conservation taught in Wisconsin. Discusses the efforts to recruit teachers for the course, the course content, the field trips, and the evaluation procedures. Stresses the cooperation between educators and conservation agencies in developing the course. (TW)

Meyers, N. L.; And Others

1987-01-01

261

The Ocean Conservancy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ocean Conservancy (formerly Center for Marine Conservation) promotes science-based advocacy, research, and public education for the protection of marine resources and environments. This environmental organization's site includes: news and current issues; wildlife information; advocacy activities and events; an on-line newsletter and membership information.

262

Conservation of tidal marshes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is the first attempt to examine collectively the various uses and the consequences of marsh conservation efforts. Author Franklin Daiber emphasizes tidal marsh conservation from a holistic perspective rather than from the perspective of a single purpose or special economic interest. He addresses a topic receiving increasing attention, namely the concept of open marsh management as a means

Daiber

1986-01-01

263

Introducing conservation of momentum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The teaching of the principle of conservation of linear momentum is considered (ages 15 + ). From the principle, the momenta of two masses in an isolated system are considered. Sketch graphs of the momenta make Newton’s laws appear obvious. Examples using different collision conditions are considered. Conservation of momentum is considered for the case of a car hitting a child.

Brunt, Marjorie; Brunt, Geoff

2013-09-01

264

Communication and Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports on the results of a survey of homeowners in two Wisconsin communities which examined the relationship of media use to a set of cognitive, attitudinal, and behavioral components of energy conservation. Suggests that conservation campaigns take into account communication patterns and energy use of specific groups of consumers. (TW)|

McLeod, Jack M.; And Others

1987-01-01

265

Conservative Network Coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by practical networking scenarios, we in- troduce a notion of restricted communication called conservative networking. Consider a network of lossless links and a number of independent sources. Each node needs to recover a certain subset of the sources. However, each node is conservative in that all information it receives can only be a function of the sources it will

Nicholas J. A. Harvey; Kamal Jain; Lap Chi; Lau Chandra; Nair Yunnan

266

Conservative parameterization schemes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parameterization (closure) schemes in numerical weather and climate prediction models account for the effects of physical processes that cannot be resolved explicitly by these models. Methods for finding physical parameterization schemes that preserve conservation laws of systems of differential equations are introduced. These methods rest on the possibility to regard the problem of finding conservative parameterization schemes as a conservation law classification problem for classes of differential equations. The relevant classification problems can be solved using the direct or inverse classification procedures. In the direct approach, one starts with a general functional form of the parameterization scheme. Specific forms are then found so that corresponding closed equations admit conservation laws. In the inverse approach, one seeks parameterization schemes that preserve one or more pre-selected conservation laws of the initial model. The physical interpretation of both classification approaches is discussed. Special attention is paid to the problem of finding parameterization schemes that preserve both conservation laws and symmetries. All methods are illustrated by finding conservative and invariant conservative parameterization schemes for systems of one-dimensional shallow-water equations.

Bihlo, Alexander; Bluman, George

2013-08-01

267

Water Conservation for Agriculture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water conservation for agriculture has been important for centuries and is becoming increasingly important due to competition among agricultural and other users. Our objectives were to review progress made in our understanding of factors affecting water conservation during the past 100 years and to ...

268

Energy-conservation indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of Energy Conservation Indicators were developed for the Department of Energy to assist in the evaluation of current and proposed conservation strategies. As descriptive statistics that signify current conditions and trends related to efficiency of energy use, indicators provide a way of measuring, monitoring, or inferring actual responses by consumers in markets for energy services. Related sets of

Belzer

1982-01-01

269

Creative Soil Conservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Take plant lessons outdoors with this engaging and inquiry-based activity in which third-grade students learn how to apply soil conservation methods to growing plants. They also collect data and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of their method of soil conservation. An added benefit to this activity is that the third-grade students played…

Smith, Martha

2010-01-01

270

Lepton Conservation Laws  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lepton conservation is an idea which had its origins in questions concerning the neutrino. Pauli, in 1932, had proposed the particle to explain the apparent breakdown of energy conservation in nuclear 6decay, and within a few years the question was raised whether the neutrino has an anti-particle distinct from itself. I The existence of such an antiparticle was expected on

S. P. Rosen

1971-01-01

271

Resource Conservation Glossary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This glossary is a composite of terms selected from 13 technologies, and is the expanded revision of the original 1952 edition of "The Soil and Water Conservation Glossary." The terms were selected from these areas: agronomy, biology, conservation, ecology, economics, engineering, forestry, geology, hydrology, range, recreation, soils, and…

Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

272

Home Energy Conservation Primer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide was prepared to support a program of training for community specialists in contemporary and practical techniques of home energy conservation. It is designed to assist professionals in efficient operation of energy conservation programs and to provide ideas for expanding education operations. Eight major sections are presented: (1)…

DeLuca, V. William; And Others

273

Energy: the conservation revolution  

SciTech Connect

This analysis of the energy conservation ethic and related government policy examines the contrasting approaches of administration policy. The basic thrust of the book is that energy conservation is a fundamentally important approach that is presently being ignored in favor of a more production-oriented philosophy.

Gibbons, J.H.; Chandler, W.U.

1981-01-01

274

Conservation of Momentum 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab introduces students to the idea of recoil and how conservation of momentum can be used to explain it. Many people use action/reaction to explain recoil, but conservation of momentum can be used equally well. Before shooting a gun, there is zero m

Horton, Michael

2009-05-30

275

Homonym Understanding and Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied 54 kindergarten children to investigate whether a common cognitive capacity underlies both homonym understanding and conservation status. Results indicated conservation status is significantly related to homonym understanding, over and above the rate of the child's general vocabulary level. (Author/CI)

Cramer, Phebe

1983-01-01

276

Evaluating Energy Conservation Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores the problems involved in conducting program evaluation in the field of energy conservation. Highlights similarities between evaluation research and basic research. Examines stages of evaluation research within the context of energy conservation programs and argues that experimental evaluations are desirable and feasible. (Author/MK)|

Seligman, Clive; Hutton, R. Bruce

1981-01-01

277

Combinatorics of Conservation Laws  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation laws in physics are numerical invariants of the dynamics of a system. This article concerns conservation laws in a fictitious universe of a cellular automaton. We give an overview of the subject, with particular attention to problems of combinatorial flavor.

Jarkko Kari; Siamak Taati

278

Conservation in transportation  

SciTech Connect

A nationwide examination was made of grassroots energy conservation programs related to transportation. Information compiled from civic groups, trade associations, and corporations is included on driver awareness/mass transit; travel; and ride sharing. It is concluded that a willingness by the public to cooperate in transportation energy conservation exists and should be exploited. (LCL)

None

1980-05-30

279

Selection criteria for breast conservation in breast cancer.  

PubMed

Breast conservation, comprising limited excision of the breast and axillary lymphadenectomy followed by irradiation, yields survival equal to mastectomy with the advantage of preservation of the breast for properly selected patients. When breast conservation therapy is competently done it achieves highly satisfactory cosmetic results and acceptably low rates of local recurrence. However, numerous controversies surround the selection criteria, the relative importance of some of them, and the treatment. Four critical elements in selecting patients for breast conservation therapy are: history and physical examination, careful mammographic evaluation, histological assessment of the resected specimen, and assessment of the patient's needs and expectations. Today, it is estimated that breast conservation can be recommended to 50%-75% of all women with operable breast cancer. However, this treatment is not widely used. In this article we review the generally accepted principles and controversies about the selection of patients for breast conservation. PMID:11097148

Sakorafas, G H; Tsiotou, A G

2000-11-01

280

Tests of conservation laws  

SciTech Connect

For quite a while it has been realized that some discrete quantum numbers are conserved in some interactions but not in others. The most conspicuous cases are parity PP, charge conjugation C, and the product CP which are conserved in strong and electromagnetic interactions but not in weak interactions. The question arises whether for some of the other conserved quantities, which are conserved in strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions, there is an interaction intermediate in strength between weak and gravitational which violates these quantum numbers, e.g., baryon number B and lepton number L. The possibility exists that these conservation laws, if they are broken at all, are only broken by the gravitational force which would make the mass of an intermediate boson which induces the breakdown equal to the Planck mass. 6 refs., 1 tab.

Goldhaber, M.

1987-01-01

281

Residential conservation service  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Residential Conservation Services Program is a result of the 1978 National Energy Conservation Policy Act, Public Law 95-619 passed by congress to address the need for energy conservation in the residential sector. Large utility companies and fuel suppliers will be offering audits of their customers' homes to relay technical and economic data about conservation, solar, and wind measures. The impact on utility companies as a result of this program is to offer low cost audits ($15.00 charge for an audit costing approximately $100.00) and to assist their customers in reducing their consumption of electricity, gas, and oil through the use of conservation and renewables. The impact of RCS on wind turbine manufacturers and dealers is an opportunity to participate in a program which provides potential customers.

Sherman, J. M.

282

Bacterial chromosome segregation: structure and DNA binding of the Soj dimer ? a conserved biological switch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soj and Spo0J of the Gram-negative hyperthermophile Thermus thermophilus belong to the conserved ParAB family of bacterial proteins implicated in plasmid and chromosome partitioning. Spo0J binds to DNA near the replication origin and localises at the poles following initiation of replication. Soj oscillates in the nucleoid region in an ATP- and Spo0J-dependent fashion. Here, we show that Soj undergoes ATP-dependent

Thomas A Leonard; P Jonathan Butler

2005-01-01

283

Net carbon dioxide exchange rates and predicted growth patterns in Alstroemeria Jacqueline' at varying irradiances, carbon dioxide concentrations, and air temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of irradiance, CO[sub 2] concentration, and air temperature on leaf and whole-plant net C exchange rate (NCER) of Alstroemeria Jacqueline' was studied. At ambient CO[sub 2], leaf net photosynthesis was maximum at irradiances above 600 [mu]mol[center dot]m[sup [minus]2][center dot]s[sup [minus]1] photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), while whole-plant NCER required 1,200 [mu]mol[center dot]m[sup [minus]2][center dot]s[sup [minus]1] PAR to be saturated.

E. D. Leonardos; M. J. Tsujita; B. Grodzinski

1994-01-01

284

Crystallization of Soluble Urokinase Receptor (suPAR) in Complex with Urokinase Amino-Terminal Fragment (1-431)  

SciTech Connect

Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (urokinase, uPA) and its receptor, uPAR, have been implicated in cell adhesion, migration, tissue remodeling and tumor-cell invasion. uPAR has three domains and is anchored to membranes by a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. Recombinant uPAR without its GPI anchor, soluble uPAR (suPAR), tends to oligomerize, making it difficult to crystallize. The amino-terminal fragment (ATF) of uPA is the major receptor-binding determinant in suPAR and binds to suPAR with nanomolar affinity, indistinguishable from membrane-bound uPAR. It is shown that uPA is capable of dissociating the oligomerization of suPAR and the crystallization of the suPAR-ATF complex is reported here. The resulting crystals diffract to 3.1 Angstroms using a synchrotron X-ray source.

Huang,M.

2005-01-01

285

The Role of Neurosecretory Neurons in the Pars Intercerebralis and Pars Lateralis in Reproductive Diapause of the Blowfly, Protophormia terraenovae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microlesions of the brain were made to examine the role of neurosecretory neurons in the pars intercerebralis (PI) and pars lateralis (PL) in the induction of reproductive diapause of the female blowfly Protophormia terraenovae. Under both diapause-inducing (LD 12 : 12, 20° C) and diapause-averting conditions (LD 18 : 6, 25° C), the ovaries invariably failed to develop when the PI was removed. When the PL was removed bilaterally, the ovaries developed in most of the females, irrespective of the rearing conditions. Removal of the PL prevented females from entering reproductive diapause. These results show that certain neurosecretory neurons in the PI are necessary for vitellogenesis, and that the PL contains inhibitory neurons which suppress vitellogenesis during reproductive diapause.

Shiga, S.; Numata, H.

286

The role of neurosecretory neurons in the pars intercerebralis and pars lateralis in reproductive diapause of the blowfly, Protophormia terraenovae.  

PubMed

Microlesions of the brain were made to examine the role of neurosecretory neurons in the pars intercerebralis (PI) and pars lateralis (PL) in the induction of reproductive diapause of the female blowfly Protophormia terraenovae. Under both diapause-inducing (LD 12:12, 20 degrees C) and diapause-averting conditions (LD 18:6, 25 degrees C), the ovaries invariably failed to develop when the PI was removed. When the PL was removed bilaterally, the ovaries developed in most of the females, irrespective of the rearing conditions. Removal of the PL prevented females from entering reproductive diapause. These results show that certain neurosecretory neurons in the PI are necessary for vitellogenesis, and that the PL contains inhibitory neurons which suppress vitellogenesis during reproductive diapause. PMID:10798197

Shiga, S; Numata, H

2000-03-01

287

Horizontal portion of arcuate fasciculus fibers track to pars opercularis, not pars triangularis, in right and left hemispheres: A DTI study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The arcuate fasciculus (AF) is a white matter pathway traditionally considered to connect left Broca's area with posterior language zones. We utilized diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in eight healthy subjects (5 M) to track pathways in the horizontal mid-portion of the AF (hAF) to subregions of Broca's area — pars triangularis (PTr) and pars opercularis (POp); and to ventral premotor

Elina Kaplan; Margaret A. Naeser; Paula I. Martin; Michael Ho; Yunyan Wang; Errol Baker; Alvaro Pascual-Leone

2010-01-01

288

Comparison and influence of two newly produced Iranian oil dispersants (Pars1 &Pars2) with the Gamlen OD4000 on rainbow trout  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dispersants are the group of chemicals, designed to be sprayed on to the oil slicks to accelerate the process of natural dispersion. In this study, the acute toxicity of two newly produced Iranian oil dispersants (Pars1 &Pars2) was evaluated and compared to the Gamlen OD 4000 in different concentrations on 28–32 g of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The 50% of

Leila Bordbar; Mozhgan Emtyazjoo; Daroush Farkhani

2008-01-01

289

The PAR complex regulates pulsed actomyosin contractions during amnioserosa apical constriction in Drosophila.  

PubMed

Apical constriction is a major mechanism underlying tissue internalization during development. This cell constriction typically requires actomyosin contractility. Thus, understanding apical constriction requires characterization of the mechanics and regulation of actomyosin assemblies. We have analyzed the relationship between myosin and the polarity regulators Par-6, aPKC and Bazooka (Par-3) (the PAR complex) during amnioserosa apical constriction at Drosophila dorsal closure. The PAR complex and myosin accumulate at the apical surface domain of amnioserosa cells at dorsal closure, the PAR complex forming a patch of puncta and myosin forming an associated network. Genetic interactions indicate that the PAR complex supports myosin activity during dorsal closure, as well as during other steps of embryogenesis. We find that actomyosin contractility in amnioserosa cells is based on the repeated assembly and disassembly of apical actomyosin networks, with each assembly event driving constriction of the apical domain. As the networks assemble they translocate across the apical patch of PAR proteins, which persist at the apical domain. Through loss- and gain-of-function studies, we find that different PAR complex components regulate distinct phases of the actomyosin assembly/disassembly cycle: Bazooka promotes the duration of actomyosin pulses and Par-6/aPKC promotes the lull time between pulses. These results identify the mechanics of actomyosin contractility that drive amnioserosa apical constriction and how specific steps of the contractile mechanism are regulated by the PAR complex. PMID:20392741

David, Daryl J V; Tishkina, Alisa; Harris, Tony J C

2010-04-14

290

A model for the condensation of the bacterial chromosome by the partitioning protein ParB  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The molecular machinery responsible for faithful segregation of the chromosome in bacteria such as Caulobacter crescentus and Bacillus subtilis includes the ParABS a.k.a. Spo0J/Soj partitioning system. In Caulobacter, prior to division, hundreds of ParB proteins bind to the DNA near the origin of replication, and localize to one pole of the cell. Subsequently, the ParB-DNA complex is translocated to the far pole by the binding and retraction of the ParA spindle-like apparatus. Remarkably, the localization of ParB proteins to specific regions of the chromosome appears to be controlled by only a few centromeric parS binding sites. Although lateral interactions between DNA-bound ParB are likely to be important for their localization, the long-range order of ParB domains on the chromosome appears to be inconsistent with a picture in which protein-protein interactions are limited to neighboring DNA-bound proteins. We developed a coarse-grained Brownian dynamics model that allows for lateral and 3D protein-protein interactions among bound ParB proteins. Our model shows how such interactions can condense and organize the DNA spatially, and can control the localization and the long-range order of the DNA-bound proteins.

Broedersz, Chase; Wingreen, Ned

2013-03-01

291

Par-4-mediated recruitment of Amida to the actin cytoskeleton leads to the induction of apoptosis  

SciTech Connect

Par-4 (prostate apoptosis response-4) sensitizes cells to apoptotic stimuli, but the exact mechanisms are still poorly understood. Using Par-4 as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified Amida as a novel interaction partner, a ubiquitously expressed protein which has been suggested to be involved in apoptotic processes. Complex formation of Par-4 and Amida occurs in vitro and in vivo and is mediated via the C-termini of both proteins, involving the leucine zipper of Par-4. Amida resides mainly in the nucleus but displays nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling in heterokaryons. Upon coexpression with Par-4 in REF52.2 cells, Amida translocates to the cytoplasm and is recruited to actin filaments by Par-4, resulting in enhanced induction of apoptosis. The synergistic effect of Amida/Par-4 complexes on the induction of apoptosis is abrogated when either Amida/Par-4 complex formation or association of these complexes with the actin cytoskeleton is impaired, indicating that the Par-4-mediated relocation of Amida to the actin cytoskeleton is crucial for the pro-apoptotic function of Par-4/Amida complexes in REF52.2 cells. The latter results in enhanced phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain of myosin II (MLC) as has previously been shown for Par-4-mediated recruitment of DAP-like kinase (Dlk), suggesting that the recruitment of nuclear proteins involved in the regulation of apoptotic processes to the actin filament system by Par-4 represents a potent mechanism how Par-4 can trigger apoptosis.

Boosen, Meike [Institute of Genetics, University of Bonn, Roemerstr. 164, D-53117 Bonn (Germany); Vetterkind, Susanne [Institute of Genetics, University of Bonn, Roemerstr. 164, D-53117 Bonn (Germany); Koplin, Ansgar [Institute of Genetics, University of Bonn, Roemerstr. 164, D-53117 Bonn (Germany); Illenberger, Susanne [Cell Biology, Zoological Institute, Technical University of Braunschweig, D-38092 Braunschweig (Germany); Preuss, Ute [Institute of Genetics, University of Bonn, Roemerstr. 164, D-53117 Bonn (Germany)]. E-mail: u.preuss@uni-bonn.de

2005-12-10

292

PAR1 is selectively over expressed in high grade breast cancer patients: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background The protease-activated receptor (PAR1) expression is correlated with the degree of invasiveness in cell lines. Nevertheless it has never been directed involved in breast cancer patients progression. The aim of this study was to determine whether PAR1 expression could be used as predictor of metastases and mortality. Methods In a cohort of patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma studied longitudinally since 1996 and until 2007, PAR1 over-expression was assessed by immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, and flow citometry. Chi-square and log rank tests were used to determine whether there was a statistical association between PAR1 overexpression and metastases, mortality, and survival. Multivariate analysis was performed including HER1, stage, ER and nodes status to evaluate PAR1 as an independent prognostic factor. Results Follow up was 95 months (range: 2–130 months). We assayed PAR1 in a cohort of patients composed of 136 patients; we found PAR1 expression assayed by immunoblotting was selectively associated with high grade patients (50 cases of the study cohort; P = 0.001). Twenty-nine of 50 (58%) patients overexpressed PAR1, and 23 of these (46%) developed metastases. HER1, stage, ER and PAR1 overexpression were robustly correlated (Cox regression, P = 0.002, P = 0.024 and P = 0.002 respectively). Twenty-one of the 50 patients (42%) expressed both receptors (PAR1 and HER1 P = 0.0004). We also found a statistically significant correlation between PAR1 overexpression and increased mortality (P = 0.0001) and development of metastases (P = 0.0009). Conclusion Our data suggest PAR1 overexpression may be involved in the development of metastases in breast cancer patient and is associated with undifferentiated cellular progression of the tumor. Further studies are needed to understand PAR1 mechanism of action and in a near future assay its potential use as risk factor for metastasis development in high grade breast cancer patients.

Hernandez, Norma A; Correa, Elma; Avila, Esther P; Vela, Teresa A; Perez, Victor M

2009-01-01

293

Conservation education needs more parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formal training in conservation biology education is an important component of the suite of solutions to current environmental problems. As conservation biology textbooks underpin many conservation education programs at both undergraduate and graduate levels, the portrayal of conservation issues and coverage of specific biotic groups plays a potentially important role in guiding the training of the next generation of conservation

Elizabeth Nichols; Andrés Gómez

2011-01-01

294

Conservation and economic development  

SciTech Connect

This oral presentation is about the Espanola Power Savers Project which involves both the utility and for the community. I'm going to spend much of my time today discussing why this project makes sense for the community, but I would like to start with a brief word about why community-based conservation makes sense for utilities. A number of reasons are listed to show why conservation is today's energy resource of choice. But if, for a moment, we take that as a given and ask why community-based conservation programs are the right way to develop that resource, the answer is simple: They work

Sullivan, M.J.

1992-05-01

295

Conservation and economic development  

SciTech Connect

This oral presentation is about the Espanola Power Savers Project which involves both the utility and for the community. I`m going to spend much of my time today discussing why this project makes sense for the community, but I would like to start with a brief word about why community-based conservation makes sense for utilities. A number of reasons are listed to show why conservation is today`s energy resource of choice. But if, for a moment, we take that as a given and ask why community-based conservation programs are the right way to develop that resource, the answer is simple: They work!

Sullivan, M.J.

1992-05-01

296

Conservative quantum computing.  

PubMed

The Wigner-Araki-Yanase theorem shows that conservation laws limit the accuracy of measurement. Here, we generalize the argument to show that conservation laws limit the accuracy of quantum logic operations. A rigorous lower bound is obtained of the error probability of any physical realization of the controlled-NOT gate under the constraint that the computational basis is represented by a component of spin, and that physical implementations obey the angular momentum conservation law. The lower bound is shown to be inversely proportional to the number of ancilla qubits or the strength of the external control field. PMID:12144465

Ozawa, Masanao

2002-07-16

297

Carcinome ?pidermo?de de l'ur?tre masculin r?v?l? par une rupture spontan?e de l'ur?tre  

PubMed Central

Résumé Le carcinome épidermoïde de l’urètre masculin est une tumeur rare, les tumeurs de l’urètre tous types confondus représentant moins de 1 % des tumeurs de l’appareil urinaire. Le pronostic reste défavorable malgré un traitement chirurgical énergique. La radiochimiothérapie semble être un traitement prometteur, mais son rôle doit être défini par d’autres études. Nous rapportons un cas rare de carcinome épidermoïde de l’urètre bulbo-membraneux découvert à un stade localement avancé après observation d’une rupture urétrale transtumorale chez un homme âgé de 70 ans. Le patient a été traité, après drainage vésical, par une irradiation externe associée à une chimiothérapie par cisplatine, et est décédé après progression de la maladie sur un an. La rupture spontanée de l’urètre transtumorale est un mode de découverte exceptionnel témoignant d’une évolution locale défavorable, ce qui rend ces tumeurs difficilement opérables. Cependant, l’espoir actuel réside dans des protocoles thérapeutiques associant radiothérapie et chimiothérapie.

Ghorbel, Jilani; Hafsia, Ghassen; Derouiche, Amine; Jrad, Anis; Chebil, Mohamed

2011-01-01

298

Mechanisms of induced conductivity in polyvinylidene fluoride irradiated by X-rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prompt and delayed components of conductivity of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) samples induced by continuous irradiation of X-rays were measured under vacuum. The prompt component was composed of two distinct parts, classified as instantaneous radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) and time-dependent evolution of the RIC. With the help of thermally stimulated current measurements carried out with both virgin and irradiated samples, which indicated the existence of deep-trap levels in the material, we developed a model of kinetics of the carriers to explain the time-evolution of the RIC. Hot electrons generated by irradiation ware considered as responsible for the instantaneous part of the RIC. We also showed that the electrodes had a nonblocking behaviour during the electrical current measurements under irradiation, while the external electric field caused the generated carriers to drift out of the sample. Nous avons mesuré sous vide la conductivité induite due à la radiation des rayons X sur des échantillons de poly(fluorure de vinylidène), pendant et après irradiation (composante retardée). Pendant l'irradiation la conductivité induite est formée de deux différentes parties : l'une est la conductivité instantanée, et l'autre est une fonction croissante avec le temps. Grâce à la méthode du courant stimulé par la température, exécutée sur des échantillons vierges d'une part, et irradiés d'autre part, nous avons conclu à l'existence de niveaux de pièges profonds dans le matériau. Nous avons par la suite développé un modèle de cinétique des porteurs qui explique l'évolution avec le temps de la conductivité induite. Les électrons chauds créés par la radiation ont été considérés comme responsables de la conductivité induite instantanée. Nous montrons aussi que les électrodes sont non-bloquées pendant les mesures de courant électrique sous irradiation, alors que le champ électrique appliqué rejette les porteurs hors de l'échantillon.

Faria, R. M.

1992-10-01

299

Online Courses: WCS: Conservation Communication  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While part of conservation is based in science, a large portion of conservation relies on people and their actions. This course will help participants define and create an effective conservation communication strategy on an issue of their choice. Particip

1900-01-01

300

Energy: Conservation, Energy Briefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comprehensive energy conservation program at College of the Holy Cross has saved nearly one-third of the fuel oil and one-fifth of the electricity used at the college; briefs on boilers, lights, design. (Author/MLF)

Nation's Schools and Colleges, 1975

1975-01-01

301

Conservation of Momentum 2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This inquiry activity should be performed after students have learned about momentum, but before they learn about conservation of momentum. Students will discover that when two objects push off each other, the momentum must be equal but in opposite direct

Horton, Michael

2009-05-30

302

Cleaner Water through Conservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document explains the relationship between the quantity of water and its quality and discusses how developing water-use efficiency programs can help states and local communities achieve cleaner water through conserving water.

1995-01-01

303

Library of Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As we try to achieve the National Science Education Standards (National Research Council, 1996) and promote general science literacy for young children, we might begin by discussing conservation or stewardship. Children can readily understand the

Tiedt, Iris M.

1999-11-01

304

Hearing Conservation for Submariners.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report advises the U.S. Navy concerning hearing conservation aboard future submarines. Included are criteria for hazard, as well as suggested techniques for hearing protection, involving personal protection, environmental damping, and noise control at...

W. D. Ward

1971-01-01

305

Natural flavor conservation  

SciTech Connect

It is shown that the fiats of natural flavor conservation for an arbitrary U(1)-unbroken gauge theory require that all quarks of a given charge and helicity transform identically under the gauge group.

Rothman, A.C.; Kang, K.

1981-06-01

306

Natural flavor conservation  

SciTech Connect

It is shown that the fiats of Natural Flavor Conservation for an arbitrary U(1)-unbroken gauge theory require that all quarks of a given charge and helicity transform identically under the gauge group.

Rothman, A.C.; Kang, K.

1980-01-01

307

Chimpanzee Conservation Problem Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Actively learn about chimpanzee conservation. The way it works: you ask your own questions, we give you tools to find credible answers and then you share your results for future users of this website.

John Greenler (BioQUEST Curriculum Consortium;)

2005-12-15

308

Japan energy conservation handbook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This book consists of six chapters. In (1) Recent energy situation, the recent situation of energy consumption and supply in Japan and the world is shown using graphs and tables. In (2) Global environment and energy conservation, the relationship between ...

1992-01-01

309

The drought causes conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interdisciplinary, multi-day lesson students will use their knowledge of the importance of water to learn about the hydrosphere. The drought being experienced will be explored through graphs and a personal plan for water conservation.

Cummer, Linda

2007-12-12

310

Readings in Water Conservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The anthology presents a series of articles and comments designed to acquaint the reader with the great range of issues surrounding the topic of water conservation. It is intended to be introductory rather than exhaustive; readers with particular interest...

R. McGhee M. Reardon A. Shulman

1995-01-01

311

Conservation in Transportation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A nationwide examination was made of grassroots energy conservation programs related to transportation. Information compiled from civic groups, trade associations, and corporations is included on driver awareness/mass transit; travel; and ride sharing. It...

1980-01-01

312

Dissection of the ATPase active site of P1 ParA reveals multiple active forms essential for plasmid partition.  

PubMed

The segregation, or partition, of bacterial plasmids is driven by the action of plasmid-encoded partition ATPases, which work to position plasmids inside the cell. The most common type of partition ATPase, generally called ParA, is represented by the P1 plasmid ParA protein. ParA interacts with P1 ParB (the site-specific DNA binding protein that recognizes the parS partition site), and interacts with the bacterial chromosome via an ATP-dependent nonspecific DNA binding activity. ParA also regulates expression of the par genes by acting as a transcriptional repressor. ParA requires ATP for multiple steps and in different ways during the partition process. Here, we analyze the properties of mutations in P1 ParA that are altered in a key lysine in the Walker A motif of the ATP binding site. Four different residues at this position (Lys, Glu, Gln, Arg) result in four different phenotypes in vivo. We focus particularly on the arginine substitution (K122R) because it results in a worse-than-null and dominant-negative phenotype called ParPD. We show that ParAK122R binds and hydrolyzes ATP, although the latter activity is reduced compared with wild-type. ParAK122R interacts with ParB, but the consequences of the interaction are damaged. The ability of ParB to stimulate the ATPase activity of ParA in vitro and its repressor activity in vivo is defective. The K122R mutation specifically damages the disassembly of ParA-ParB-DNA partition complexes, which we believe explains the ParPD phenotype in vivo. PMID:23632076

Vecchiarelli, Anthony G; Havey, James C; Ing, Lori L; Wong, Erin O Y; Waples, William G; Funnell, Barbara E

2013-04-30

313

uPAR regulates pericellular proteolysis through a mechanism involving integrins and fMLF-receptors.  

PubMed

The expression of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its receptor (uPAR) can be regulated by several hormones, cytokines, and tumour promoters. uPAR is a glycosyl-phosphatidyl inositol (GPI)-linked cell-surface protein; however, it is capable to transduce signals inside the cell by interacting with other cell-surface proteins, such as integrins and G-protein coupled (GPC) receptors. We previously reported that uPAR cell-surface expression can be positively regulated by its ligand, uPA, independently of its proteolytic activity. We now demonstrate that uPAR overexpression induces or increases uPA secretion both in uPAR-negative and in uPAR-expressing cells. Accordingly, uPAR depletion impairs uPA expression in cells which constitutively express both uPA and its receptor. uPAR exerts its regulatory effect through the activation of the ERK mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), whereas the p-38 MAPK is not involved. Overexpression of truncated forms of uPAR, lacking the N-terminal domain (DI) and not able to interact with membrane co-receptors, failed to increase uPA expression. Inhibition of uPAR-integrin interaction by the specific P-25 peptide, as well as Gi-protein inhibition by cholera pertussin toxin or depletion of the GPC receptors for fMLF (fMLF-Rs) also impaired uPAR capability to regulate uPA expression. These findings demonstrate that uPAR, whose expression is regulated by uPA, can, in turn, regulate uPA expression through a mechanism involving its functional interaction with integrins and fMLF-Rs. PMID:23238745

Montuori, Nunzia; Cosimato, Vincenzo; Rinaldi, Loredana; Rea, Vincenza Elena Anna; Alfano, Daniela; Ragno, Pia

2012-12-13

314

Influences of Baking and Thawing Conditions on Quality of Par-Baked French Bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 84(1):38-43 We examined the effects of baking time and temperature for the preparation of par-baked French bread, and of thawing and second baking conditions on the characteristics of bread prepared from par-baked bread. Par-baked French bread with loaf volume and crumb structure com- parable to fully baked bread (control) was obtained with ?6 min baking at 218°C, which

Chul Soo Park; Byung-Kee Baik

2007-01-01

315

Asymptotic Performance Analysis and Successive Selected Mapping for PAR Reduction in OFDM  

Microsoft Academic Search

One major drawback of orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems is the high peak-to-average power ratio (PAR) of the transmit signal. In order to overcome this problem, selected mapping (SLM) is a well known method for PAR reduction. In this paper, asymptotic performance analysis of SLM is carried out and a bound on the maximum tolerable PAR values is derived. Starting

Christian Siegl; Robert F. H. Fischer

2009-01-01

316

Suppression of Par4 Protects Human Renal Proximal Tubule Cells from Apoptosis Induced by Oxidative Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Oxidative stress is an important inducer of cell apoptosis and plays a key role in the development of renal inflammation. The prostate apoptosis response factor-4 (Par-4) gene was originally identified in prostate cells undergoing apoptosis. Subsequently, Par-4 was found to possess potent pro-apoptotic activity in various cellular systems. However, it remains unclear whether Par-4 is involved in oxidant injury

Bin Sun; Chao Lu; Guo-Ping Zhou; Chang-Ying Xing

2011-01-01

317

ScalParC: A New Scalable and Efficient Parallel Classification Algorithm for Mining Large Datasets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present ScalParC ( Scalable Parallel Classifier), a new parallel formulation of a decision tree based classification process. Like other state-of-the-art de- cision tree classifiers such as SPRINT, ScalParC is suited for handling large datasets. We show that existing parallel formulation of SPRINT is unscalable, whereas ScalParC is shown to be scalable in both runtime and memory

Mahesh V. Joshi; George Karypis; Vipin Kumar

1998-01-01

318

Emerging Roles of PAR-1 and PAFR in Melanoma Metastasis  

PubMed Central

Melanoma growth, angiogenesis and metastatic progression are strongly promoted by the inflammatory tumor microenvironment due to high levels of cytokine and chemokine secretion by the recruited inflammatory and stromal cells. In addition, platelets and molecular components of procoagulant pathways have been recently emerging as critical players of tumor growth and metastasis. In particular, thrombin, through the activity of its receptor protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1), regulates tumor cell adhesion to platelets and endothelial cells, stimulates tumor angiogenesis, and promotes tumor growth and metastasis. Notably, in many tumor types including melanoma, PAR-1 expression directly correlates with their metastatic phenotype and is directly responsible for the expression of interleukin-8, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and integrins. Another proinflammatory receptor–ligand pair, platelet-activating factor (PAF) and its receptor (PAFR), have been shown to act as important modulators of tumor cell adhesion to endothelial cells, angiogenesis, tumor growth and metastasis. PAF is a bioactive lipid produced by a variety of cells from membrane glycerophospholipids in the same reaction that releases arachidonic acid, and can be secreted by platelets, inflammatory cells, keratinocytes and endothelial cells. We have demonstrated that in metastatic melanoma cells, PAF stimulates the phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB) and activating transcription factor 1 (ATF-1), which results in overexpression of MMP-2 and membrane type 1-MMP (membrane type 1-MMP). Since only metastatic melanoma cells overexpress CREB/ATF-1, we propose that metastatic melanoma cells are better equipped than their non-metastatic counterparts to respond to PAF within the tumor microenvironment. The evidence supporting the hypothesis that the two G-protein coupled receptors, PAR-1 and PAFR, contribute to the acquisition of the metastatic phenotype of melanoma is presented and discussed.

Melnikova, Vladislava O.; Villares, Gabriel J.

2008-01-01

319

Assessment of underwater irradiance and absorption of solar radiation at water column from satellite data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The volume absorption of solar radiation in water body determines important processes in the upper ocean such as primary bioproduction and heat balance. Assessment of penetration of solar radiation into water body can be performed with satellite data and the previous attempts in this direction were promising. This paper presents a package of the algorithms to compute the components of balance of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) at sea level (incident, reflected from the rough sea surface, and water-leaving PAR) and to calculate the volume absorption of PAR in the upper layer from satellite ocean color data. Data measured by the SeaWiFS ocean color sensor and the ancillary data needed (such as ozone amount and wind speed) are used. Computations of the underwater irradiance are performed for the 0-25 m upper layer. The errors are estimated by direct comparison between the values of underwater irradiance and volume absorption derived by the algorithms developed and by the exact method. Monthly means of the components of PAR balance as well as the potential daily heating have been estimated in different regions.

Kopelevich, Oleg V.; Sheberstov, Sergey V.; Burenkov, Vladimir I.; Vazyulya, Svetlana V.; Likhacheva, Maria V.

2007-04-01

320

Environmental assessment of par pond sluice gate test. Revision 0  

SciTech Connect

FERC mandates that spillway gates be opened to full height once every 5 years to ensure safe operation in emergency. The Savannah River Site is proposing to conduct a test in which the sluice gate near the base of the Par Pond Dam is opened high enough to produce a nominal flow of 200,000 gpm and then reclosed. This report discusses 3 environmental impact concerns: high flows will resuspend sediments containing Cesium-137 and carry them downstream to the Savannah River; water chemistry will be adversely affected resulting in deleterious effects on the biota; high flow velocities and scouring of the stream bed will disturb biota.

Paller, M.H.; Bowers, J.A.

1996-12-31

321

Diffraction d’ondes électromagnétiques impulsionnelles par des obstacles métalliques  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Analyse  \\u000a La diffraction en régime transitoire est traitée directement dans le domaine temporel par une méthode originale utilisant\\u000a la théorie des distributions. Pour les obstacles métalliques parfaitement conducteurs, cette approche généralise les solutions\\u000a existantes dans la littérature, mais permet aussi d’établir de nouvelles équations intégrales donnant la solution des problèmes\\u000a de diffraction à deux dimensions (l’onde et l’obstacle présentent une

Bernard Jecko

1983-01-01

322

Aberrations in Pseudoautosomal Regions (PARs) Found in Infertile Men with Y-Chromosome Microdeletions  

PubMed Central

Context: The pseudoautosomal regions (PARs) of the Y-chromosome undergo meiotic recombination with the X-chromosome. PAR mutations are associated with infertility and mental and stature disorders. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine whether men with Y-chromosome microdeletions have structural defects in PARs. Design and Participants: Eighty-seven infertile men with Y-chromosome microdeletions and 35 controls were evaluated for chromosomal rearrangements using commercial or custom (X- and Y-chromosome) array comparative genomic hybridization or by quantitative PCR of selected PAR genes. Multisoftware-defined chromosomal gains or losses were validated by quantitative PCR and FISH. Results: Array comparative genomic hybridization confirmed the AZF deletions identified by multiplex PCR. All men with Y-chromosome microdeletions and an abnormal karyotype displayed PAR abnormalities, as did 10% of men with Y-chromosome microdeletions and a normal karyotype. None of the control subjects or infertile men without Y-chromosome microdeletions had PAR duplications or deletions. SHOX aberrations occurred in 14 men (nine gains and five losses); four were short in stature (<10th percentile), and one was tall (>95th percentile). In contrast, the height of 23 men with Y-chromosome microdeletions and normal PARs was average at 176.8 cm (50th percentile). Conclusions: Y-chromosome microdeletions can include PAR defects causing genomic disorders such as SHOX, which may be transmitted to offspring. Previously unrecognized PAR gains and losses in men with Y-chromosome microdeletions may have consequences for offspring.

Weedin, John W.; Sahin, Aysegul; Tannour-Louet, Mounia; Han, Shuo; Bournat, Juan C.; Mielnik, Anna; Cheung, Sau Wai; Nangia, Ajay K.; Schlegel, Peter N.; Lipshultz, Larry I.

2011-01-01

323

A role for the centrosome and PAR-3 in the hand-off of microtubule organizing center function during epithelial polarization  

PubMed Central

Summary Background The centrosome is the major microtubule organizing center (MTOC) in dividing cells and in many post-mitotic, differentiated cells. In other cell types, however, MTOC function is reassigned from the centrosome to non-centrosomal sites. Here, we analyze how MTOC function is reassigned to the apical membrane of C. elegans intestinal cells. Results After the terminal intestinal cell division, the centrosomes and nuclei move near the future apical membranes, and the postmitotic centrosomes lose all, or nearly all, of their associated microtubules. We show that microtubule-nucleating proteins such as ?-tubulin and CeGrip-1 that are centrosome components in dividing cells become localized to the apical membrane, which becomes highly enriched in microtubules. Our results suggest that centrosomes are critical to specify the apical membrane as the new MTOC. First, ?-tubulin appears to redistribute directly from the migrating centrosome onto the lateral, then apical membrane. Second, ?-tubulin fails to accumulate apically in wild-type cells following laser ablation of the centrosome. We show that centrosomes localize apically by first moving toward lateral foci of the conserved polarity proteins PAR-3 and PAR-6, and then move together with these foci toward the future apical surface. Embryos lacking PAR-3 fail to localize their centrosomes apically, and have aberrant localization of ?-tubulin and CeGrip-1. Conclusions These data suggest that PAR proteins contribute to apical polarity in part by determining centrosome position and that the reassignment of MTOC function from centrosomes to the apical membrane is associated with a physical hand-off of nucleators of microtubule assembly.

Feldman, Jessica L.; Priess, James R.

2012-01-01

324

A method for estimating the incident PAR on inclined surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new simple model has been developed that incorporates Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products to produce incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) for tilted surface. The method is based on a simplification of the general radiative transfer equation, which considers five major processes of attenuation of solar radiation: 1) Rayleigh scattering, 2) absorption by ozone and water vapor, 3) aerosol scattering, 4) multiple reflectance between surface and atmosphere, and 5) three terrain factors: slope and aspect, isotropic sky view factor, and additional radiation by neighbor reflectance. A comparison of the model results with observational data from the Yucheng and Changbai Mountain sites of the Chinese Ecosystem Research Network (CERN) shows the correlation coefficient as 0.929 and 0.904, respectively. A comparison of the model results with the 2006 filed measured PAR in the Yucheng and Changbai sites shows the correlation coefficient as 0.929 and 0.904, respectively, and the average percent error as 10% and 15%, respectively.

Xie, Xiaoping; Gao, Wei; Gao, Zhiqiang

2008-08-01

325

What do conservation biologists publish?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide an overview of publications from three prominent conservation journals (Biodiversity &Conservation, Biological Conservation and Conservation Biology) published in 2001 (n=547 papers). We found a wide breadth of studies of different topics from different climates and habitats and across a range of spatial scales. Most studies were quantitative (89%) and used inferential statistics (63%). Research was biased towards vertebrates,

I. Fazey; J. Fischer; D. B. Lindenmayer

2005-01-01

326

Two Centuries of Soil Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Narrates U.S. soil conservation history since the late eighteenth century. Discusses early practices such as contour plowing. Profiles individuals who promoted soil conservation and were largely responsible for the creation of the Soil Conservation Service. Explains the causes of erosion and how soil conservation districts help farmers prevent…

Helms, Douglas

1991-01-01

327

Conservative News Service (CNS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the Media Resource Center, the Conservative News Service aims to give users an alternative to what it calls "a liberal bias in the American news media and a frequent, liberal double-standard in editorial decisions on what constitutes 'news'." It does this via a mix of short digest news articles and longer analytical articles in eight areas, including politics, economics, defense, religion, and culture. The X-Pert/Files/Links section contains links to conservative experts and their institutions in 45 subject areas. In addition, the site includes links to information about several conservative talk shows ("Radio Uplink") and several bulletin boards. CNS was created by MRC Chairman L. Brent Bozell III.

1998-01-01

328

Bat Conservation International  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1982, the mission of Bat Conservation International (BCI) is Âto teach people the value of bats, to protect and conserve critical bat habitats, and to advance scientific knowledge through researchÂ. On their website, visitors will be able to learn about their advocacy and outreach efforts, along with learning more about these fascinating and important creatures. The ÂAll About Bats section is a fine place to start, as it has a number of illustrated essays that include brief overview of the natural history of bats and suggestions on photographing bats as they fly through the air. Equally compelling is the section is the conservation programs area, which details the various programs BCI operates in various bat habitats, including bridges and caves. Finally, visitors can also elect to send one of a number of electronic bat postcards to friends or colleagues.

2005-01-01

329

Communication and energy conservation  

SciTech Connect

Surveys of homeowners in two Wisconsin communities examined the relationship of media use to a set of cognitive, attitudinal, and behavioral components of energy conservation. The perceived importance of the energy issue was associated with media use in both communities. In addition, this relationship was stronger the more energy related the communication variable. Communication did not, however, relate consistently to energy behavior. Utility pamphlets had opposite relationships with energy conservation across communities. It is suggested that conservation campaigns must take into account the communication and energy use environment of specific groups of consumers, and that research into the impact of mass media on energy issue salience is particularly important in times of energy ''gluts.''

McLeod, J.M.; Glynn, C.J.; Griffin, R.J.

1987-01-01

330

Solar ultraviolet-B and photosynthetically active irradiance in the urban sub-canopy: A survey of influences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stratospheric ozone loss in mid-latitudes is expected to increase the ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation at the earth's surface. Impacts of this expected increase will depend on many factors, including the distribution of light in other wavelengths. Measurements of the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and UVB irradiance were made under clear skies at an open field and under the canopy of scattered trees in a suburban area in W. Lafayette, Indiana, USA (latitude 40.5°). Results showed that when there was significant sky view, the UVB penetration into sub-canopy spaces differs greatly from that of PAR. The UVB T canopy (transmittance; irradiance below canopy/irradiance in open) was inversely related to sky view. The UVB irradiance did not vary as greatly between shaded and sunlit areas as did PAR. Analysis of measurements made near a brick wall indicated that the leaf area of a canopy and the brick wall primarily acted to block fractions of the sky radiance and contributed little scattered UVB to the horizontal plant. A model was developed to predict the UVB and PAR T canopy based on diffuse fraction, sky view, and porosity of the crown(s) through which the beam is penetrating. The model accounted for the UVB and PAR T canopy to within 0.13 and 0.05 root mean squared error (RMSE), respectively. Analysis of the errors due to model assumptions indicated that care must be taken in describing the sky radiance distribution, the porosity of trees, the penetration of diffuse radiation through porous trees, and the location of sky-obstructing trees and buildings.

Grant, Richard H.; Heisler, Gordon M.

1996-12-01

331

Hoechstintegration in der Mikroelektronik: Entwicklungen von Digitalen Asics fuer PARS3-LR (Highest Integration in Microelectronics: Development of Digital Asics for PARS3-LR).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Essential electronic system components by PARS3-LR, show high requirements in calculation power, power consumption and reliability, by immediately increasing integration thicknesses. These problems are solved by using integrated circuits, developed by LSI...

P. Scholler R. Vonlutz

1989-01-01

332

Conservation of tidal marshes  

SciTech Connect

This book is the first attempt to examine collectively the various uses and the consequences of marsh conservation efforts. Author Franklin Daiber emphasizes tidal marsh conservation from a holistic perspective rather than from the perspective of a single purpose or special economic interest. He addresses a topic receiving increasing attention, namely the concept of open marsh management as a means of controlling mosquito production without harmful effects on other marsh organisms. Topics considered include: water management; dikes, impoundments, ponds and ditches; reclaimed land and impoundments; ditching and ponding for mosquito control; sewage disposal and waste treatment; dredge material for wetland restoration; insecticides; oil pollution; and petroleum hydrocarbon interactions.

Daiber, F.C.

1986-01-01

333

Plant Conservation Alliance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Housed at the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), the Plant Conservation Alliance (PCA) is a consortium of ten federal government agencies and 150 non-federal cooperators (including nonprofit organizations, resources management consultants, soil scientists, biologists, botanists, concerned citizens, gardeners, etc.). Together, Plant Conservation Alliance cooperators work "to solve the problems of native plant extinction and native habitat restoration." The homepage describes how the PCA functions, including general information, an events calendar, and online communication links. Also at the site are project descriptions, publications, and grant/ funding opportunities.

334

Platelet activation via PAR4 is involved in the initiation of thrombin generation and in clot elasticity development.  

PubMed

Thrombin is a pivotal enzyme formed in the coagulation cascade and an important and potent platelet activator. The two protease-activated thrombin receptors on human platelets are denoted PAR1 and PAR4. The physiological relevance of PAR4 is still unclear, as both aggregation and secretion can be accomplished by PAR1 activation alone. In the present study we have investigated the role of PARs in platelet activation, blood coagulation, clot elasticity and fibrinolysis. Flow cytometry, free oscillation rheometry and thrombin generation measurements were used to analyze blood or platelet-rich plasma from healthy individuals. Maximum PAR1 activation with the peptide SFLLRN gave fewer fibrinogen-binding platelets with lower mean fluorescent intensity than maximum PAR4 activation with AYPGKF. Inhibition of any of the receptors prolonged clotting times. However, PAR1 is more important for fibrinolysis; inhibition of this receptor prolonged all the steps in the fibrinolytic process. Clot elasticity decreased significantly when the PAR4 receptor was inhibited. In the thrombin generation measurements, PAR4 inhibition delayed the thrombin generation start and peak, but did not affect the total amount of thrombin generated. PAR1 inhibition had no significant impact on thrombin generation. We found that PAR4 is most likely activated by low concentrations of thrombin during the initial phase of thrombin generation and is of importance to the clotting time. Furthermore, we suggest that the PAR4 receptor may have a physiological role in the stabilisation of the coagulum. PMID:17334509

Vretenbrant, Karin; Ramström, Sofia; Bjerke, Maria; Lindahl, Tomas L

2007-03-01

335

Modulation of expression of innate immunity markers CXCL5/ENA-78 and CCL20/MIP3? by protease-activated receptors (PARs) in human gingival epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are G-protein-coupled receptors with an active role in host defense. The two most highly expressed members of the PAR family in gingival epithelial cells (GECs) are PAR1 and PAR2. The major virulence factors of periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis are its proteases which can activate PAR2. However, little is known about the function of PARs in GECs when they are activated by their endogenous agonist enzymes. The purpose of this study was to characterize how the expression of innate immune markers is modulated when PAR1 and PAR2 are activated by their agonist enzymes, thrombin and trypsin, respectively. Here, we report that activation of PAR1 and PAR2 induces cell proliferation at low concentration. Activation of PAR via proteolytic activity of thrombin and trypsin induces expression of CXCL5/ENA-78 and CCL20/MIP3? in a concentration-dependent manner. Induction of CXCL5 via PAR1 was inhibited in the presence of PAR1 cleavage blocking antibodies and by PAR1 siRNA. The induction of CXCL5 and CCL20 via PAR2 was inhibited by PAR2 siRNA. These findings indicate an active role in innate immune responses by PAR1 and PAR2 in GECs. Modulation of innate immunity by PARs may contribute to co-ordinated and balanced immunosurveillance in GECs.

Rohani, Maryam G.; Beyer, Richard P.; Hacker, Beth M.; Dommisch, Henrik; Dale, Beverly A.; Chung, Whasun O.

2010-01-01

336

Results of Anterior Chamber Clearance via the Pars plana in Pseudophakic Endophthalmitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Patients with endophthalmitis have extensive fibrinous exudates in the anterior chamber. Clearance of these exudates in pseudophakic patients during vitrectomy is difficult. We evaluated the results of the pars plana approach for clearing these exudates. Material and Methods: Eighteen patients with pseudophakic endophthalmitis underwent clearance of anterior chamber exudates through the pars plana approach after initial creation of a

Rajashekhar Patil; Dinesh Talwar; Lalit K. Verma; Yog Raj Sharma; Sanjeev Nainiwal; Raj Vardhan Azad; Hem K. Tewari

2003-01-01

337

Immediate Pars Plana Vitrectomy Improves Outcome in Retained Intravitreal Lens Fragments after Phacoemulsification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To investigate the clinical features, visual acuity outcomes and the most appropriate intervention time in patients with retained lens fragments managed by pars plana vitrectomy. Methods: This was a retrospective review of the records of 78 patients who underwent pars plana vitrectomy for retained lens fragments at the Tri-Service General Hospital from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2006.

Ching-Long Chen; Teng-Yi Wang; Jen-Hao Cheng; Ming-Cheng Tai; Da-Wen Lu; Jiann-Torng Chen

2008-01-01

338

Visual Results and Complications after Trans Pars Plana Vitrectomy and Lensectomy for Lens Dislocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between the cause of lens dislocation and visual outcomes with complications in patients undergo- ing trans pars plana vitrectomy (TPPV) and trans pars plana lensectomy (TPPL) for lens dislocation. Methods: This retrospective study was carried out from July 1995 through November 2003. After excluding patients with previous retinal detachment

Hsiu-Mei Huang; Min-Lun Kao; Shih-Hao Tsai; Yung-Jen Chen; Chi-Chang Liu

339

Diffraction de rayons X sur les plaquettes de fer durcies par cyanuration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Une méthode de cyanuration a été developpée pour les surfaces des plaquettes de fer, basée sur une réaction thermochimique qui conduit à la formation des couches dures sur le métal. Les échantillons ont été analysés, pour de temps différents de traitement, par diffraction de rayons X et par mesures de dureté.

Popescu, M.; Hoyer, W.; Stegarescu, M.; Cornet, A.; Broll, N.

2004-11-01

340

Effect of frozen storage time on the bread crumb and aging of par-baked bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of frozen storage time of par-baked bread on the bread crumb and staling of bread obtained after thawing and full baking is described. The moisture content, hardness and retrogradation enthalpy of the amylopectin were determined in the par-baked bread and in the full baked bread after 7, 14, 28 and 42 days of frozen storage at ?25 °C.

María Eugenia Bárcenas; Cristina M. Rosell

2006-01-01

341

Identification and characterization of yeasts causing chalk mould defects on par-baked bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pichia anomala, Hyphopichia burtonii and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera are spoilage yeasts causing chalk mould defects on par-baked breads packaged under modified atmosphere. The first objective of this study was to identify yeasts isolated from spoiled par-baked breads by means of a RAPD protocol and to determine the dominant spoilers amongst identified strains. The second objective was to determine the effects of

N. Deschuyffeleer; K. Audenaert; S. Samapundo; S. Ameye; M. Eeckhout; F. Devlieghere

2011-01-01

342

Human bronchial epithelial cells express PAR-2 with different sensitivity to thermolysin.  

PubMed

Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) plays a role in inflammatory reactions in airway physiology. Proteases cleaving the extracellular NH(2) terminus of receptors activate or inactivate PAR, thus possessing a therapeutic potential. Using RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry, we show PAR-2 in human airway epithelial cell lines human bronchial epithelial (HBE) and A549. Functional expression of PAR-2 was confirmed by Ca(2+) imaging studies using the receptor agonist protease trypsin. The effect was abolished by soybean trypsin inhibitor and mimicked by the specific PAR-2 peptide agonist SLIGKV. Amplitude and duration of PAR-2-elicited Ca(2+) response in HBE and A549 cells depend on concentration and time of agonist superfusion. The response is partially pertussis toxin (PTX) insensitive, abolished by the phospholipase C inhibitor U-73122, and diminished by the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor antagonist 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate. Cathepsin G altered neither the resting Ca(2+) level nor PAR-2-elicited Ca(2+) response. Thermolysin, a prototypic bacterial metalloprotease, induced a dose-dependent Ca(2+) response in HBE, but not A549, cells. In both cell lines, thermolysin abolished the response to a subsequent trypsin challenge but not to SLIGKV. Thus different epithelial cell types express different PAR-2 with identical responses to physiological stimuli (trypsin, SLIGKV) but different sensitivity to modifying proteases, such as thermolysin. PMID:12003791

Ubl, Joachim J; Grishina, Zoryana V; Sukhomlin, Tatiana K; Welte, Tobias; Sedehizade, Fariba; Reiser, Georg

2002-06-01

343

OFDM transmitter power amplifier and PAR reduction performance: measurement and simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is known to exhibit high peak-to-average power ratio (PAR), which may limit the average transmitted power output from a nonlinear power amplifier (PA). We evaluate spectral regrowth and bit-error-rate (BER) performance characteristics when applying OFDM PAR reduction techniques, while integrated to a fixed output level \\

Steve Gifford; John E. Kleider; Scott Chuprun

2002-01-01

344

Kiwi Careers - Conservator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mark Stranage fixes photographs. He takes damaged photos and nurses them back to health. Read his profile to learn how he got this job and how he does his work. Check the other links at this site to find out what tasks a conservator generally performs, typical working conditions and pay.

Zeland, Career S.

345

Conservation Conflicts Across Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing evidence that areas of outstanding conservation importance may coincide with dense human settlement or impact. We tested the generality of these findings using 1°-resolution data for sub-Saharan Africa. We find that human population density is positively correlated with species richness of birds, mammals, snakes, and amphibians. This association holds for widespread, narrowly endemic, and threatened species and

Andrew Balmford; Joslin L. Moore; Thomas Brooks; Neil Burgess; Louis A. Hansen; Paul Williams; Carsten Rahbek

2001-01-01

346

Energy conservation and sleep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenetic and ontogenetic associations between sleep and endothermy are consistent with the hypothesis that sleep evolved in conjuction with endothermy to offset the high energetic cost of endothermy. The electrophysiological and thermoregulatory continuum of slow wave sleep, circadian torpor and hibernation substantiates a primordial link between sleep and energy conservation. Sleep constitutes a circadian and circannual rhythm of hypometabolic adaptation

Ralph J. Berger; Nathan H. Phillips

1995-01-01

347

CPT Conserving Cosmological Birefringence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate that the cosmological birefringence can arise from CPT conserving effect, originated from the CPT-even dimension-six Chern-Simons-like term. We show that a sizable rotation polarization angle in the data of the cosmic microwave background radiation polarization can be induced.

Geng, C. Q.; Ho, S. H.; Ng, J. N.

348

Marine Conservation Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stay current with the latest marine conservation issues, plus find information on workshops and job and research opportunities. Access information on the latest research, legislation, and MCI's latest publications. Learn about marine protected areas, destructive fishing practices, endangered species, and how MCI is advancing marine science. Features include a photo gallery, links to an abundance of worldwide external resources, and several downloadable videos.

2012-07-06

349

Water Conservation in Oman  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limited resources and growing needs for water have triggered a nationwide campaign for water conservation in the Sultanate of Oman. A land and soil survey study of Oman shows the availability of more arable land than present water resources could support. Groundwater is the main source for agricultural production. Overpumping at rates higher than the natural recharge has resulted in

Hayder A. Abdel-Rahman; Isam Mohammed Abdel-Magid

1993-01-01

350

Energy conservation programs growing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of consumer conservation programs funded by local publicly owned electric utilities shows a dramatic increase in expenditures. The 54 systems covered by the survey reported that their spending has increased from $17 million in 1975 to an expected $35 million in 1978. The annual time invested by company personnel in these programs is expected to reach two million

1978-01-01

351

Many Glitters of Conservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some of the glitter and media-reported hoopla of energy conservation is discussed, and some facts to dull that glitter are described. On a natonal TV program in the US, the glitter of an electric car drive system and an airborne bicycle powered by solar p...

F. F. Hall

1980-01-01

352

Many glitters of conservation  

SciTech Connect

Some of the glitter and media-reported hoopla of energy conservation is discussed, and some facts to dull that glitter are described. On a natonal TV program in the US, the glitter of an electric car drive system and an airborne bicycle powered by solar photovoltaic cells was presented. But, analysis of the energy required to manufacture the electric batteries and wholesale conversion to battery power shows that electric cars will remain out of reach until most power plants are powered by solar energy, swift water currents, and atomic fusion, and we can once again afford the price of excess power generation. A similar analysis of powering aircraft by solar energy shows that solar-powered aircraft will remain out of reach forever. The fallacy of building electrically-heated homes because there would be no more natural gas is examined. An analysis of new transportation-system policies shows that proposed conservation measures in that sector are wrongly represented. Heating swimming pools, installing thermal insulation, and installing certain solar collectors for tax credits are also examined for real conservation. The author concludes that conservation has much merit, but should not be pushed to block progress anywhere, every time. He says America needs selectively intelligent conservationists, but we must not let erroneous mythologies blunt our communal efforts. (MCW)

Hall, F.F.

1980-01-01

353

Communities, Cameras, and Conservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Communities, Cameras, and Conservation (CCC) is the most exciting and valuable program the author has seen in her 30 years of teaching field science courses. In this citizen science project, students and community volunteers collect data on mountain lions ("Puma concolor") at four natural areas and public parks along the Front Range of Colorado.…

Patterson, Barbara

2012-01-01

354

Water Conservation: Residential Impacts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to determine the constraints and mis-understandings associated with residential water conservation and to analyze the actual savings in dollars, water and energy that are achieved by the selection and installation of water co...

D. E. Warner

1977-01-01

355

Hydrology and Conservation Ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responses to change in the behavior of ecological systems are largely governed by interactions at different levels. Research is essential and is to be necessarily designed to gain insights into various interactions at the community level. Sustainable resource management is only possible if conservation of biodiversity can be accomplished by properly using the knowledge discovered. It is well known that

M. Narayanan

2006-01-01

356

Conservation in industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The power of fuel price to promote efficient utilization is illustrated ; by some fuel conservation measures in industrial plants. Fixing broken windows ; and closing doors during loading are simple examples. Some technical measures ; cited are insulating watercooled skid rails used to convey material through a ; heat-treating furnance, recapturing stack gas heat from a radiant fired tube

C. A. Berg

1974-01-01

357

Angular momentum conservation demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A short article describing the fabrication and operation of a simple angular momentum conservation demonstration. The demonstration is based on a Lazy Susan, and cylindrical brass weights tied with a nylon string. The string can be pulled or released changing the radius or rotation of the weights.

Berg, Richard E.; Anders, Robert E.

2010-12-23

358

Conserved herpesvirus protein kinases  

PubMed Central

Conserved herpesviral protein kinases (CHPKs) are a group of enzymes conserved throughout all subfamilies of Herpesviridae. Members of this group are serine/threonine protein kinases that are likely to play a conserved role in viral infection by interacting with common host cellular and viral factors; however along with a conserved role, individual kinases may have unique functions in the context of viral infection in such a way that they are only partially replaceable even by close homologues. Recent studies demonstrated that CHPKs are crucial for viral infection and suggested their involvement in regulation of numerous processes at various infection steps (primary infection, nuclear egress, tegumentation), although the mechanisms of this regulation remain unknown. Notwithstanding, recent advances in discovery of new CHPK targets, and studies of CHPK knockout phenotypes have raised their attractiveness as targets for antiviral therapy. A number of compounds have been shown to inhibit the activity of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-encoded UL97 protein kinase and exhibit a pronounced antiviral effect, although the same compounds are inactive against Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-encoded protein kinase BGLF4, illustrating the fact that low homology between the members of this group complicates development of compounds targeting the whole group, and suggesting that individualized, structure-based inhibitor design will be more effective. Determination of CHPK structures will greatly facilitate this task.

Gershburg, Edward; Pagano, Joseph S.

2008-01-01

359

Many glitters of conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the glitter and media-reported hoopla of energy conservation is discussed, and some facts to dull that glitter are described. On a natonal TV program in the US, the glitter of an electric car drive system and an airborne bicycle powered by solar photovoltaic cells was presented. But, analysis of the energy required to manufacture the electric batteries and

Hall

1980-01-01

360

Foundry energy conservation workbook  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses methods for promoting energy conservation in foundries. Use of electric power, natural gas, and coke are evaluated. Waste heat recovery systems are considered. Energy consumption in the specific processes of electric melting, natural gas melting, heat treatments, ladle melting, and coke fuel melting is described. An example energy analysis is included. (GHH)

Not Available

1990-12-31

361

Promoting household energy conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is commonly assumed that households must change their behaviour to reduce the problems caused by increasing levels of fossil energy use. Strategies for behaviour change will be more effective if they target the most important causes of the behaviour in question. Therefore, this paper first discusses the factors influencing household energy use. Three barriers to fossil fuel energy conservation

Linda Steg

2008-01-01

362

Energy conservation standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this book is to present a framework for understanding energy flows in buildings. This book may be used to trace and measure energy flows in a building, to determine which conservation options are most suitable, and to choose materials, forms, systems, and design features. Other topics covered include the cross-influences of lighting, air conditioning and other internal

F. S. Dubin; C. G. Jr. Long

1982-01-01

363

Energy Conservation in GTR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The topics of gravitational field energy and energy-momentum conservation in General Relativity theory have been unjustly neglected by philosophers. If the gravitational field in space free of ordinary matter, as represented by the metric gab itself, can be said to carry genuine energy and momentum, this is a powerful argument for adopting the substantivalist view of spacetime.This paper explores the

Carl Hoefer

2000-01-01

364

Conservation in Conflict  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What happens when war occurs in areas where there is war? Ecologist Peter Zahler who has worked in Afghanistan since 2002, talks about how conserving biodiversity may bring peace to the war-torn region. You can read more about Zahler's work in the article Nurturing Wildlife in War-Torn Afghanistan that appeared in the New Yorker Times in December, 2011.

Society, Wildlife C.

365

The Getty Conservation Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started in 1985, The Getty Conservation Institute (GCI) "works internationally to advance conservation practice in the visual arts." Their mission is quite broad, as it includes conservation projects that involve architecture, individual objects, and site examinations. First-time visitors may wish to start by looking at the "What's New" area on the right-hand side of the homepage. Here they will find short videos on Asian orange colorants, information about Middle East heritage databases, and a direct link to the latest edition of the GCI's newsletter, "Conservation". Moving on, the "Free PDF Publications" area contains access to full-length books, reports, glossaries, and short papers published by the GCI. The "Videos and Audio" area contains a number of compelling talks, including a conversation with a panel of experts about long-term preservation plans for the bridges that span the Los Angeles River. Finally, the site also contains information for potential visiting scholars, graduate students, and interns within the "Public Programs" area of the site.

2008-01-01

366

Coastal Conservation Network (CCN)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Coastal Conservation Network, (CCN), is a non-profit organization founded by Garry Brown, summer 2011, with an objective to facilitate nonprofits to effectively communicate with the public, collaborate on programs and projects, and enhance the voice of the marine environmental community on a global scale through the use of new technology and the social media.

2012-01-01

367

Genomics and conservation genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In large part, the relevance of genetics to conservation rests on the premise that neutral marker variation in populations reflects levels of detrimental and adaptive genetic variation. Despite its prominence, this tenet has been difficult to evaluate, until now. As we discuss here, genome sequence information and new technological and bioinformatics platforms now enable comprehen- sive surveys of neutral variation

Michael H. Kohn; William J. Murphy; Elaine A. Ostrander; Robert K. Wayne

2006-01-01

368

Species Conservation Guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Species Conservation Guidelines (Guidelines) for the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) provide a tool to determine if a project, i.e., a Federal permit, a Federal construction project, or other such action, may adversely affect the bald eagle. Here we describe what actions might have a detrimental impact on the bald eagle and how these effects can be avoided or minimized.

369

Conservation Is Job One.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The University of Michigan, winner of a federal award for its campus energy conservation, has developed a building automation system that uses direct-digital-control technology to manage energy use. The project, undertaken in partnership with an energy management company, has saved over $10 million since its inception, and includes a revolving…

Hatzai, Glen

1998-01-01

370

Conservation of Matter Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The phenomena are three examples that illustrate conservation of matter - dissolving salt in water, adding an effervescent tablet to water, and a change in state from ice to water. The resource describes a laboratory exercise that asks students to compare the mass before substances are combined or changed to the mass after substances are combined or changed.

371

Open Space. Conservation Element.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report documents discussions of the Santa Rosa Open Space Committee held during this year on the issues of open space and conservation. Types of existing open land are identified and analyzed in terms of: the physical, cultural, and historical factors...

1972-01-01

372

Energy Conservation Simplified  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The standard formulation of energy conservation involves the subsidiary ideas of kinetic energy ("KE"), work ("W"), thermal energy, internal energy, and a half-dozen different kinds of potential energy ("PE"): elastic, chemical, nuclear, gravitational, and so forth. These quantities came to be recognized during the centuries over which the…

Hecht, Eugene

2008-01-01

373

Energy Conservation (Bernoulli's Equation)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Chiang Shih's Thermal-Fluids I course at the FAMU-FSU College of Engineering combines "the traditional thermal disciplines in Thermodynamics, heat transfer and fluid mechanics." This PowerPoint presentation, from Shih's lecture notes, illustrates Benoulli's Equation and energy conservation. Along with mathematical equations, there are also a number of illustrations and examples which show the concepts discussed.

Shih, Chiang

2008-09-24

374

Energy Conservation Simplified  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The standard formulation of energy conservation involves the subsidiary ideas of kinetic energy ("KE"), work ("W"), thermal energy, internal energy, and a half-dozen different kinds of potential energy ("PE"): elastic, chemical, nuclear, gravitational, and so forth. These quantities came to be recognized during the centuries over which the…

Hecht, Eugene

2008-01-01

375

Conservative Pressures on Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Pressure on the public schools is coming from conservative New Right religious-political groups. Their concerns focus on: (1) secular humanism--a Godless form of religion that the public schools are alleged to be teaching; (2) scientific evolution versus creationism--the balanced treatment statute; (3) Bible clubs and prayer in the classroom; and…

Bryson, Joseph E.

376

ParA-like protein uses nonspecific chromosomal DNA binding to partition protein complexes  

PubMed Central

Recent data have shown that plasmid partitioning Par-like systems are used by some bacterial cells to control localization of protein complexes. Here we demonstrate that one of these homologs, PpfA, uses nonspecific chromosome binding to separate cytoplasmic clusters of chemotaxis proteins upon division. Using fluorescent microscopy and point mutations, we show dynamic chromosome binding and Walker-type ATPase activity are essential for cluster segregation. The N-terminal domain of a cytoplasmic chemoreceptor encoded next to ppfA is also required for segregation, probably functioning as a ParB analog to control PpfA ATPase activity. An orphan ParA involved in segregating protein clusters therefore uses a similar mechanism to plasmid-segregating ParA/B systems and requires a partner protein for function. Given the large number of genomes that encode orphan ParAs, this may be a common mechanism regulating segregation of proteins and protein complexes.

Roberts, Mark A. J.; Wadhams, George H.; Hadfield, Katie A.; Tickner, Susan; Armitage, Judith P.

2012-01-01

377

The ParA/MinD family puts things in their place  

PubMed Central

Bacteria must segregate their DNA and position a septum to grow and divide. In many bacteria MinD is involved in spatial regulation of the cytokinetic Z ring and ParAs are involved in chromosome and plasmid segregation. The use of the MinD/ParA family to provide positional information for spatial organization continues to expand with the recognition that orphan ParAs are required for segregating cytoplasmic protein clusters and the polar localization of chemotaxis proteins, conjugative transfer machinery, type IV pili and cellulose synthesis. Also, some bacteria lacking MinD use orphan ParAs to regulate cell division. Positioning of MinD/ParA proteins is either due to self-organization on a surface or reliance on a landmark protein which functions as a molecular beacon.

Lutkenhaus, Joe

2012-01-01

378

Dimerization controls the lipid raft partitioning of uPAR/CD87 and regulates its biological functions  

PubMed Central

The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR/CD87) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane protein with multiple functions in extracellular proteolysis, cell adhesion, cell migration and proliferation. We now report that cell surface uPAR dimerizes and that dimeric uPAR partitions preferentially to detergent-resistant lipid rafts. Dimerization of uPAR did not require raft partitioning as the lowering of membrane cholesterol failed to reduce dimerization and as a transmembrane uPAR chimera, which does not partition to lipid rafts, also dimerized efficiently. While uPA bound to uPAR independently of its membrane localization and dimerization status, uPA-induced uPAR cleavage was strongly accelerated in lipid rafts. In contrast to uPA, the binding of Vn occurred preferentially to raft- associated dimeric uPAR and was completely blocked by cholesterol depletion.

Cunningham, Orla; Andolfo, Annapaola; Santovito, Maria Lisa; Iuzzolino, Lucia; Blasi, Francesco; Sidenius, Nicolai

2003-01-01

379

Accessibility and conservation  

PubMed Central

Bacterial small RNAs (sRNAs) are a class of structural RNAs that often regulate mRNA targets via post-transcriptional base pair interactions. We determined features that discriminate functional from non-functional interactions and assessed the influence of these features on genome-wide target predictions. For this purpose, we compiled a set of 71 experimentally verified sRNA–target pairs from Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. Furthermore, we collected full-length 5? untranslated regions by using genome-wide experimentally verified transcription start sites.   Only interaction sites in sRNAs, but not in targets, show significant sequence conservation. In addition to this observation, we found that the base pairing between sRNAs and their targets is not conserved in general across more distantly related species. A closer inspection of RybB and RyhB sRNAs and their targets revealed that the base pairing complementarity is only conserved in a small subset of the targets. In contrast to conservation, accessibility of functional interaction sites is significantly higher in both sRNAs and targets in comparison to non-functional sites. Based on the above observations, we successfully used the following constraints to improve the specificity of genome-wide target predictions: the region of interaction initiation must be located in (1) highly accessible regions in both interaction partners or (2) unstructured conserved sRNA regions derived from reliability profiles of multiple sRNA alignments. Aligned sequences of homologous sRNAs, functional and non-functional targets, and a sup document with sup tables, figures and references are available at www.bioinf.uni-freiburg.de/Supplements/srna-interact-feat/.

Richter, Andreas S.; Backofen, Rolf

2012-01-01

380

Thrombin enhances the barrier function of rat microvascular endothelium in a PAR-1-dependent manner.  

PubMed

Thrombin is a multifunctional coagulation protease with pro- and anti-inflammatory vascular effects. We questioned whether thrombin may have segmentally differentiated effects on pulmonary endothelium. In cultured rat endothelial cells, rat thrombin (10 U/ml) recapitulated the previously reported decrease in transmonolayer electrical resistance (TER), F-actin stress fiber formation, paracellular gap formation, and increased permeability. In contrast, in rat pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVEC), isolated on the basis of Griffonia simplicifolia lectin recognition, thrombin increased TER, induced fewer stress fibers, and decreased permeability. To assess for differential proteinase-activated receptor (PAR) expression as a basis for the different responses, PAR family expression was analyzed. Both pulmonary artery endothelial cells and PMVEC expressed PAR-1 and PAR-2; however, only PMVEC expressed PAR-3, as shown by both RT-PCR and Western analysis. PAR-1 activating peptides (PAR-APs: SFLLRN-NH(2) and TFLLRN-NH(2)) were used to confirm a role for the PAR-1 receptor. PAR-APs (25-250 muM) also increased TER, formed fewer stress fibers, and did not induce paracellular gaps in PMVEC in contrast to that shown in pulmonary artery endothelial cells. These results were confirmed in isolated perfused rat lung preparations. PAR-APs (100 mug/ml) induced a 60% increase in the filtration coefficient over baseline. However, by transmission electron microscopy, perivascular fluid cuffs were seen only along conduit veins and arteries without evidence of intra-alveolar edema. We conclude that thrombin exerts a segmentally differentiated effect on endothelial barrier function in vitro, which corresponds to a pattern of predominant perivascular fluid cuff formation in situ. This may indicate a distinct role for thrombin in the microcirculation. PMID:18083763

Troyanovsky, B; Alvarez, D F; King, J A; Schaphorst, K L

2007-12-14

381

Supply curves of conserved energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supply curves of conserved energy provide an accounting framework that expresses the potential for energy conservation. The economic worthiness of a conservation measure is expressed in terms of the cost of conserved energy, and a measure is considered economical when the cost of conserved energy is less than the price of the energy it replaces. A supply curve of conserved energy is independent of energy prices; however, the economical reserves of conserved energy will depend on energy prices. Double-counting of energy savings and error propagation are common problems when estimating conservation potentials, but supply curves minimize these difficulties and make their consequences predictable. The sensitivity of the cost of conserved energy is examined, as are variations in the optimal investment strategy in response to changes in inputs. Guidelines are presented for predicting the consequences of such changes.

Meier, A. K.

1982-05-01

382

La structure des verres étudiée par diffraction des neutrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La diffraction des neutrons est une méthode largement utilisée pour déterminer la structure des matériaux amorphes et en particulier des verres. L'utilisation de la méthode de substitution isotopique permet d'extraire les fonctions de distribution de paires partielles centrées autour d'un élément choisi. Nous présentons quelques exemples récents d'études par diffraction des neutrons sur des verres qui ont permis de mieux comprendre à la fois le réseau polymérique de la matrice vitreuse et l'environnement local et à moyenne distance autour des cations. Ces études ont révélées un ordre structural s'étendant au delà des premiers voisins, jusque vers de distances d'environ 10Å. Le couplage avec d'autres méthodes expérimentales (diffraction anormale des rayons X) et des techniques de simulations (dynamique moléculaire, Monte Carlo Inverse ou RMC) sont indispensables pour affiner nos connaissances de la structure des verres.

Cormier, L.

2003-09-01

383

Pars plana vitrectomy and endoresection of a retinal vasoproliferative tumor.  

PubMed

A healthy 31-year-old woman developed decreased vision due to vitreous hemorrhage from 2 retinal vascular lesions. Because of the patient's desire for visual rehabilitation and the concern for von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease-associated retinal hemangioblastomas, pars plana vitrectomy and endoresection of both lesions were performed. Surgical techniques included the use of chandelier illumination to enable bimanual manipulation of tissue, endolaser around the tumor prior to resection, endodiathermy to cauterize the tumor's feeder vessels, and long-acting gas tamponade following the retinectomy. Histopathology showed a vascular anomaly within the retina that consisted of multiple large vessels with multiple lumens and no evidence of VHL-associated retinal hemangioblastoma. Long-term follow-up revealed no evidence of recurrent disease. This surgical technique may be valuable in select patients to differentiate between retinal vasoproliferative tumors and VHL disease-associated retinal hemangioblastomas for diagnostic, therapeutic, and counseling purposes. PMID:20837805

Yeh, Steven; Wilson, David J

2010-09-01

384

Interactions between the PDZ domains of Bazooka (Par-3) and phosphatidic acid: in vitro characterization and role in epithelial development.  

PubMed

Bazooka (Par-3) is a conserved polarity regulator that organizes molecular networks in a wide range of cell types. In epithelia, it functions as a plasma membrane landmark to organize the apical domain. Bazooka is a scaffold protein that interacts with proteins through its three PDZ (postsynaptic density 95, discs large, zonula occludens-1) domains and other regions. In addition, Bazooka has been shown to interact with phosphoinositides. Here we show that the Bazooka PDZ domains interact with the negatively charged phospholipid phosphatidic acid immobilized on solid substrates or in liposomes. The interaction requires multiple PDZ domains, and conserved patches of positively charged amino acid residues appear to mediate the interaction. Increasing or decreasing levels of diacylglycerol kinase or phospholipase D-enzymes that produce phosphatidic acid-reveal a role for phosphatidic acid in Bazooka embryonic epithelial activity but not its localization. Mutating residues implicated in phosphatidic acid binding revealed a possible role in Bazooka localization and function. These data implicate a closer connection between Bazooka and membrane lipids than previously recognized. Bazooka polarity landmarks may be conglomerates of proteins and plasma membrane lipids that modify each other's activities for an integrated effect on cell polarity. PMID:22833561

Yu, Cao Guo; Harris, Tony J C

2012-07-25

385

Interactions between the PDZ domains of Bazooka (Par-3) and phosphatidic acid: in vitro characterization and role in epithelial development  

PubMed Central

Bazooka (Par-3) is a conserved polarity regulator that organizes molecular networks in a wide range of cell types. In epithelia, it functions as a plasma membrane landmark to organize the apical domain. Bazooka is a scaffold protein that interacts with proteins through its three PDZ (postsynaptic density 95, discs large, zonula occludens-1) domains and other regions. In addition, Bazooka has been shown to interact with phosphoinositides. Here we show that the Bazooka PDZ domains interact with the negatively charged phospholipid phosphatidic acid immobilized on solid substrates or in liposomes. The interaction requires multiple PDZ domains, and conserved patches of positively charged amino acid residues appear to mediate the interaction. Increasing or decreasing levels of diacylglycerol kinase or phospholipase D—enzymes that produce phosphatidic acid—reveal a role for phosphatidic acid in Bazooka embryonic epithelial activity but not its localization. Mutating residues implicated in phosphatidic acid binding revealed a possible role in Bazooka localization and function. These data implicate a closer connection between Bazooka and membrane lipids than previously recognized. Bazooka polarity landmarks may be conglomerates of proteins and plasma membrane lipids that modify each other's activities for an integrated effect on cell polarity.

Yu, Cao Guo; Harris, Tony J. C.

2012-01-01

386

77 FR 74167 - Information Collection Request: Highly Erodible Land Conservation and Wetland Conservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Highly Erodible Land Conservation and Wetland Conservation AGENCIES: Farm Service Agency...Highly Erodible Land Conservation and Wetland Conservation certification requirements...Highly Erodible Land Conservation and Wetland Conservation Certification. OMB...

2012-12-13

387

7 CFR 12.23 - Conservation plans and conservation systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...conservation system would impose an undue economic hardship on the person, make...conservation system would impose an undue economic hardship. The State FSA Committee...part, and the person's general economic...

2013-01-01

388

CCD fiber optic spectrometer for the measurement of spectral irradiance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent technological advancements have made CCD spectrometers an increasingly suitable alternative to traditional monochromator-based instrumentation. The authors have developed instrumentation for the near instantaneous measurement of spectral global, direct, diffuse, reflected and southward-tilted irradiances. The system uses an AvaSpec2048TEC-2 - a dual channel thermo-electric-cooled fiber optic spectrometer from Avantes Inc. Each channel has a 2048-pixel linear array detector and the system achieves a spectral resolution of 0.0007 ?m (FWHM) over the range 0.241-1.1 ?m. The system also includes sensor heads, fiber optic cables and a multiplexer. Two types of sensor heads have been developed: a pyrheliometer configuration for direct beam, and a pyranometer configuration for global, diffuse, reflected and tilted measurements. Calibration uses a system of standard light sources. Cosine errors inherent to the spectralon diffusers have been characterized and corrections are applied to data from each sensor head. Accuracy of global irradiance is examined by comparing measurements against global photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) (0.395 - 0.695 ?m) from Eppley red and green dome pyranometers. PAR daily totals (MJ/m2/day) and one minute averages (W/m2) are compared for 35 days in 2009 and daily totals are within +/- 10% from June to October.

Morley, J. U.; McArthur, L. J. B.; Halliwell, D.; Poissant, Y.; Pelland, S.

2010-08-01

389

Étude comparative des techniques d'analyse par fluorescence X à dispersion d'énergie (ED-XRF) et à dispersion de longueur d'onde (WD-XRF), et par spectrométrie d'émission atomique à source plasma couplée par induction (ICP-AES)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dans ce travail, nous présentons une étude comparative des techniques d'analyse par fluorescence X à dispersion d'énergie (ED-XRF) et à dispersion de longueur d'onde (WD-XRF), et par spectrométrie d'émission atomique à source plasma couplée par induction (ICP-AES). Les résultats de la calibration des spectromètres à dispersion d'énergie, à excitation par sources radioactives (55Fe, 109Cd et 241Am) et à excitation secondaire

A. Rahmani; F. Benyaïch; M. Bounakhla; E. Bilal; J. Moutte; J. J. Gruffat; F. Zahry

2004-01-01

390

An activated protein C analog stimulates neuronal production by human neural progenitor cells via a PAR1-PAR3-S1PR1-Akt pathway  

PubMed Central

Activated protein C (APC) is a protease with anticoagulant and cell-signaling activities. In the central nervous system, APC and its analogs with reduced anticoagulant activity but preserved cell signaling activities, such as 3K3A-APC, exert neuroprotective, vasculoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. Murine APC promotes subependymal neurogenesis in rodents in vivo after ischemic and traumatic brain injury. Whether human APC can influence neuronal production from resident progenitor cells in humans is unknown. Here we show that 3K3A-APC, but not S360A-APC (an enzymatically inactive analog of APC), stimulated neuronal mitogenesis and differentiation from fetal human neural stem and progenitor cells (NPCs). 3K3A-APC’s effects on proliferation and differentiation were comparable to those respectively obtained with fibroblast growth factor and brain-derived growth factor. Its promoting effect on neuronal differentiation was accompanied by inhibition of astroglial differentiation. In addition, 3K3A-APC exerted modest anti-apoptotic effects during neuronal production. These effects appeared mediated through specific protease activated (PAR) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1PR) receptors, in that siRNA-mediated inhibition of PARs 1–4 and S1PRs 1–5 revealed that PAR1, PAR3 and S1PR1 are required for the neurogenic effects of 3K3A-APC. 3K3A-APC activated Akt, a downstream target of S1PR1, which was inhibited by S1PR1, PAR1 and PAR3 silencing. Adenoviral transduction of NPCs with a kinase-defective Akt mutant abolished the effects of 3K3A-APC on NPCs, confirming a key role of Akt activation in 3K3A-APC-mediated neurogenesis. Thus, APC and its pharmacological analogues, by influencing PAR and S1PR signals in resident neural progenitor cells, may be potent modulators of both development and repair in the human CNS.

Guo, Huang; Zhao, Zhen; Yang, Qi; Wang, Min; Bell, Robert D.; Wang, Su; Chow, Nienwen; Davis, Thomas P.; Griffin, John H.; Goldman, Steven A.; Zlokovic, Berislav V.

2013-01-01

391

New prospects in the conservative treatment of rectal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservative treatment of rectal cancer is applicable only to limited tumors that are assumed to have no lymphatic spread;\\u000a these are well or moderately well differentiated adenocarcinomas confined to the bowel wall, without palpable pararectal metastatic\\u000a lymph nodes. The experience of intracavitary irradiation (contact x-ray therapy often combined with iridium 192 implant),\\u000a based on 245 patients followed for more than

Jean Papillon

1984-01-01

392

Appropriate Margin Width in Breast-Conserving Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) is an oncologically safe treatment for early-stage breast cancer. BCS refers to the excision\\u000a of the primary tumor plus a margin of surrounding tissue with preservation of adequate breast tissue for acceptable cosmesis.\\u000a Breast irradiation following BCS is considered “standard” therapy for most women, but the ideal or minimal acceptable margin\\u000a has remained a point of controversy.

Tamra McKenzie-Johnson; Amelia Grover; Harry D. Bear

2010-01-01

393

Planning for Biodiversity Conservation: Putting Conservation Science into Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

conservation dollars to address this crisis has had a profound influence on the planning methods and conservation strate-gies of governmental and nongovernmental organizations. For example, World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and Conservation International have pinpointed priority ecoregions and bio-diversity \\

CRAIG R. GROVES; DEBORAH B. JENSEN; LAURA L. VALUTIS; KENT H. REDFORD; MARK L. SHAFFER; J. MICHAEL SCOTT; JEFFREY V. BAUMGARTNER; JONATHAN V. HIGGINS; MICHAEL W. BECK; MARK G. ANDERSON

2002-01-01

394

Northeast Document Conservation Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1973, the Northeast Document Conservation Center (NDCC) was created to address the rapid deterioration of older paper-based documents in a number of institutions across New England. On their website, visitors can learn about their conservation and imaging services, and also examine some of their fine resources intended for members of the preservation community. The "Resources" area is a good place to start, as it contains a number of suggestions for preserving private and family collections and also contains a set of additional web-based resources and links. Beyond those materials, there are a number of digitized leaflets here, such as "Assessing Preservation Needs: A Self-Survey Guide" and "Preservation of Library and Archival Materials". The site is rounded out by an excellent disaster assistance section that includes an online disaster planning tool called "dPlan" and a set of general guidelines for archival institutions that may be coping with such situations.

395

Interactive Distributed Conservation Planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the environmental and agricultural conservation planning process, more efficient and effective tools are needed for planners to assist private landowners with making wiser land use decisions. Current methods are slow, inefficient, and costly. Scientific techniques have not been fully implemented within the planning process, yet such plans are increasingly needed to meet water quality and Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) requirements. The objectives of this study are to (a) utilize the web for accessing an integrated science-based land use decision support system; (b) link decision tools, models, and databases to the user via the web; (c) link distributed models and databases for enhanced planning efficiency; and (d) integrate the above into an easily usable and readily accessible system. The procedures resulting in the initial design involved planning expertise and focus groups' input. The system was developed in partnership with the Natural Resources Conservation Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and several state agencies. A survey of 150 certified conservation planners, the end users, was conducted to identify the data sets and planning tools needed. Data, tools, and models then were selected and integrated into a web accessible system. Specifically, the first generation used a web interactive Geographic Information System (GIS) that overlaid onto digital orthoquads and/or soils polygons field boundaries, transportation, hydrologic features (such as drains, rivers, lakes, etc.), and high pesticide risk runoff or infiltration areas. Conservation planners found they could save time with the system. Clients could access the system quickly to help them prepare for meeting with their planner. Previously acquiring GIS maps in some cases had been a lengthy process that limited use of the information in land use decisions.

Brown, Elaine M.; Ouyang, Da; Jeremiah Asher, A.; Batholic, Jon F.

2002-08-01

396

Conservative management of osteoradionecrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective records analysis of 32 patients with mandibular osteoradionecrosis seen between August 1960 and September 1995 was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of nonsurgical\\/nonhyperbaric oxygen conservative management. Two patients died before final analysis. Of those alive, 65.5% of patients were spared resection, having lesions resolve (48.3%), improve (3.4%), or asymptomatically stabilize (13.8%). Sequestrum production allowing “gentle” removal predicted a

J. K Wong; R. E Wood; M McLean

1997-01-01

397

Army facility energy conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Army installation is similar to a small city with a population of 30,000 to 40,000 people. The Army's approach to energy conservation, energy management and control, and the use of alternate energy sources is on an installation wide or city wide basis, i.e., energy master planning. The first step in energy master planning is to perform an energy audit

J. R. Hoffman; H. D. Musselman

1978-01-01

398

CLEANER PRODUCTION THROUGH CONSERVATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Colorado State University Industrial Assessment Center (CSU IAC) promotes cleaner production through conservation of energy and materials. This paper reports results from 75 1996-99 CSU IAC industrial assessments at small and mid-size manufacturing plants. Teams of faculty members and engineering students carry out the industrial assessments. Each assessment includes a full-day plant visit and generates a detailed assessment report

Harry W. Edwards; Michael F. Kostrzewa; Jason M. Jonkman

399

Energy conservation with flywheels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After a summary of flywheel capabilities, the paper reviews energy conservation in vehicular flywheel systems and in stationary flywheel systems. It is shown that the use of flywheels in various transportation applications could significantly reduce fuel consumption and lifetime costs. In addition, the widespread use of flywheels in stationary energy systems could reduce the consumption of fuel in power plants by cutting back on the use of petroleum-consuming equipment that would otherwise be required to accommodate the diurnal peak loads.

Rabenhorst, D. W.

1980-06-01

400

Conservation of Fern Spores  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ferns are a diverse and important group of plants, but diversity of ­species and populations are at risk from increasing social\\u000a pressures, loss of habitat, and climate change. Ex situ conservation is a useful strategy to limit decline in genetic diversity and requires technologies to preserve fern germplasm.\\u000a Fern spore storage has received little research attention but, by analogy to

Daniel Ballesteros

401

Hearing Conservation in Industry  

PubMed Central

Noise-induced hearing loss is a major and entirely preventable public health problem. Effective prevention of this disorder has yet to be achieved in the United States but would improve the overall hearing health of the population more than the treatment of all other otologic disorders combined. Losses that are mild to moderately severe and maximal at 3, 4 or 6 kHz are typical but not pathognomonic. Individual differences in susceptibility are substantial but unpredictable. Hearing conservation programs are now required by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration for almost all employees whose daily exposure to noise exceeds a time-weighted average of 85 dBA (A-weighted sound pressure level). The permitted exposure level is 90 dBA time-weighted average, above which engineering or administrative controls or hearing protectors are required. Workers with lesser exposures (85 to 90 dBA time-weighted average) who have hearing changes must be similarly protected. Many, but not all, elements of required hearing conservation programs have been specified recently by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Medical supervision and otologic referral are important components of hearing conservation programs because otologic problems other than noise-induced hearing loss are common in industrial populations. Compensation for noise-induced hearing loss, which is awarded through state workers' compensation boards, as well as certain federal sources, varies widely.

Dobie, Robert A.

1982-01-01

402

Radiothérapie conformationnelle par modulation d’intensité des tumeurs pédiatriques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 40–50% of children with cancer will be irradiated during their treatment. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) by linear accelerator or helical tomotherapy improves dose distribution in target volumes and normal tissue sparing. This technology could be particularly useful for pediatric patients to achieve an optimal dose distribution in complex volumes close to critical structures. The use of IMRT can increase the

J. Leseur; C. Carrie; E. Le Prisé; V. Bernier; V. Beneyton; M. A. Mahé; S. Supiot

2009-01-01

403

DmPAR-6 directs epithelial polarity and asymmetric cell division of neuroblasts in Drosophila.  

PubMed

The Drosophila protein Bazooka is required for both apical-basal polarity in epithelial cells and directing asymmetric cell division in neuroblasts. Here we show that the PDZ-domain protein DmPAR-6 cooperates with Bazooka for both of these functions. DmPAR-6 colocalizes with Bazooka at the apical cell cortex of epithelial cells and neuroblasts, and binds to Bazooka in vitro. DmPAR-6 localization requires Bazooka, and mislocalization of Bazooka through overexpression redirects DmPAR-6 to ectopic sites of the cell cortex. In the absence of DmPAR-6, Bazooka fails to localize apically in neuroblasts and epithelial cells, and is distributed in the cytoplasm instead. Epithelial cells lose their apical-basal polarity in DmPAR-6 mutants, asymmetric cell divisions in neuroblasts are misorientated, and the proteins Numb and Miranda do not segregate correctly into the basal daughter cell. Bazooka and DmPAR-6 are Drosophila homologues of proteins that direct asymmetric cell division in early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, and our results indicate that homologous protein machineries may direct this process in worms and flies. PMID:11146625

Petronczki, M; Knoblich, J A

2001-01-01

404

Targeting uPAR with antagonistic recombinant human antibodies in aggressive breast cancer.  

PubMed

Components of the plasminogen activation system, which are overexpressed in aggressive breast cancer subtypes, offer appealing targets for development of new diagnostics and therapeutics. By comparing gene expression data in patient populations and cultured cell lines, we identified elevated levels of the urokinase plasminogen activation receptor (uPAR, PLAUR) in highly aggressive breast cancer subtypes and cell lines. Recombinant human anti-uPAR antagonistic antibodies exhibited potent binding in vitro to the surface of cancer cells expressing uPAR. In vivo these antibodies detected uPAR expression in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) tumor xenografts using near infrared imaging and (111)In single-photon emission computed tomography. Antibody-based uPAR imaging probes accurately detected small disseminated lesions in a tumor metastasis model, complementing the current clinical imaging standard (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose at detecting non-glucose-avid metastatic lesions. A monotherapy study using the antagonistic antibodies resulted in a significant decrease in tumor growth in a TNBC xenograft model. In addition, a radioimmunotherapy study, using the anti-uPAR antibodies conjugated to the therapeutic radioisotope (177)Lu, found that they were effective at reducing tumor burden in vivo. Taken together, our results offer a preclinical proof of concept for uPAR targeting as a strategy for breast cancer diagnosis and therapy using this novel human antibody technology. PMID:23400595

LeBeau, Aaron M; Duriseti, Sai; Murphy, Stephanie T; Pepin, Francois; Hann, Byron; Gray, Joe W; VanBrocklin, Henry F; Craik, Charles S

2013-02-11

405

The urokinase receptor (uPAR) facilitates clearance of Borrelia burgdorferi.  

PubMed

The causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, has been shown to induce expression of the urokinase receptor (uPAR); however, the role of uPAR in the immune response against Borrelia has never been investigated. uPAR not only acts as a proteinase receptor, but can also, dependently or independently of ligation to uPA, directly affect leukocyte function. We here demonstrate that uPAR is upregulated on murine and human leukocytes upon exposure to B. burgdorferi both in vitro as well as in vivo. Notably, B. burgdorferi-inoculated C57BL/6 uPAR knock-out mice harbored significantly higher Borrelia numbers compared to WT controls. This was associated with impaired phagocytotic capacity of B. burgdorferi by uPAR knock-out leukocytes in vitro. B. burgdorferi numbers in vivo, and phagocytotic capacity in vitro, were unaltered in uPA, tPA (low fibrinolytic activity) and PAI-1 (high fibrinolytic activity) knock-out mice compared to WT controls. Strikingly, in uPAR knock-out mice partially backcrossed to a B. burgdorferi susceptible C3H/HeN background, higher B. burgdorferi numbers were associated with more severe carditis and increased local TLR2 and IL-1beta mRNA expression. In conclusion, in B. burgdorferi infection, uPAR is required for phagocytosis and adequate eradication of the spirochete from the heart by a mechanism that is independent of binding of uPAR to uPA or its role in the fibrinolytic system. PMID:19461880

Hovius, Joppe W R; Bijlsma, Maarten F; van der Windt, Gerritje J W; Wiersinga, W Joost; Boukens, Bastiaan J D; Coumou, Jeroen; Oei, Anneke; de Beer, Regina; de Vos, Alex F; van 't Veer, Cornelis; van Dam, Alje P; Wang, Penghua; Fikrig, Erol; Levi, Marcel M; Roelofs, Joris J T H; van der Poll, Tom

2009-05-22

406

Saving Money Through Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication is an introduction to personal energy conservation. The first chapter presents a rationale for conserving energy and points out that private citizens control about one third of this country's energy consumption. Chapters two and three show how to save money by saving energy. Chapter two discusses energy conservation methods in…

Presley, Michael H.; And Others

407

Approved Practices in Soil Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book is written for individuals who wish to apply conservation practices, especially those of soil and water conservation, without technical assistance, to meet one's own conditions, and within his own capability to apply them. To meet these needs, the book includes a discussion and description of soil and water conservation methods for the…

Foster, Albert B.

408

Advanced energy conservation technology program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective energy conservation is an essential element in national policy. This Conference was assembled to consider the processes by which advanced energy conservation engineering knowledge and methods are introduced into practical end-product manufacture and use, and to examine the possibilities for accelerating these processes. The specific Conference goals were (a) to identify those energy conservation technical disciplines which offer the

Grey

1976-01-01

409

Conservation Education: A Position Statement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Soil Conservation Society of America's (SCSA) aim is to advance the science and art of good land and water use. Conservation education has a significant role in achieving the wise use of these resources. In this report, perspectives are offered on: (1) the requirements for effective conservation education programs; (2) rationale for…

Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

410

Conservation of tropical plant species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This book is designed to provide a review of the methods and current status of conservation of many tropical plant species. Future perspectives of conservation of tropical species will also be discussed. The section on methods covers the range of conservation techniques, in situ, seed banking, in vi...

411

Thrombin induces rapid PAR1-mediated non-classical FGF1 release  

SciTech Connect

Thrombin induces cell proliferation and migration during vascular injury. We report that thrombin rapidly stimulated expression and release of the pro-angiogenic polypeptide fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1). Thrombin failed to induce FGF1 release from protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) null fibroblasts, indicating that this effect was dependent on PAR1. Similarly to thrombin, FGF1 expression and release were induced by TRAP, a specific oligopeptide agonist of PAR1. These results identify a novel aspect of the crosstalk between FGF and thrombin signaling pathways which both play important roles in tissue repair and angiogenesis.

Duarte, Maria [Maine Medical Center Research Institute, 81 Research Drive, Scarborough, ME 04074 (United States); Kolev, Vihren [Maine Medical Center Research Institute, 81 Research Drive, Scarborough, ME 04074 (United States); Soldi, Raffaella [Maine Medical Center Research Institute, 81 Research Drive, Scarborough, ME 04074 (United States); Kirov, Alexander [Maine Medical Center Research Institute, 81 Research Drive, Scarborough, ME 04074 (United States); Graziani, Irene [Maine Medical Center Research Institute, 81 Research Drive, Scarborough, ME 04074 (United States); Oliveira, Silvia Marta [Maine Medical Center Research Institute, 81 Research Drive, Scarborough, ME 04074 (United States); Kacer, Doreen [Maine Medical Center Research Institute, 81 Research Drive, Scarborough, ME 04074 (United States); Friesel, Robert [Maine Medical Center Research Institute, 81 Research Drive, Scarborough, ME 04074 (United States); Maciag, Thomas [Maine Medical Center Research Institute, 81 Research Drive, Scarborough, ME 04074 (United States); Prudovsky, Igor [Maine Medical Center Research Institute, 81 Research Drive, Scarborough, ME 04074 (United States)]. E-mail: prudoi@mmc.org

2006-11-24

412

[Lumbar spinal stenosis: diagnosis and conservative treatment].  

PubMed

Lumbar Spinal Stenosis is a typical disease of the elderly patient that mainly originates in degenerative multisegmental changes of the lumbar vertebral column. The classical symptom of pain irradiation into the legs whilst walking and relief with standing is similar to peripheral arterial disease presentation but differs in the sense that symptoms can be triggered through lumbar extension and relieved with lumbar flexion whereas arterial disease is correlated with pathological arteriovascular findings. Diagnosis is usually confirmed through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and response to conservative treatment (analgetics, physiotherapy, epidural injections) is usually good in the majority of cases. Only a minority of about 20% of all cases show progressive disease and may necessitate surgical interventions. PMID:23531906

Nydegger, Alexander; Brühlmann, Pius; Steurer, Johann

2013-03-27

413

Water Conservation: Denver, CO  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dams are widely distributed throughout the U.S. Their impact is perhaps most apparent in western cities, many of which lack a sufficient local water supply and thus rely on water diverted from far-away sources, particularly man-made lakes. This video segment shows how the city of Denver, Colorado, faced with a growing water crisis, developed and later abandoned a plan for a nearby dam and instead adopted policies consistent with a broader water-conservation strategy. The segment is three minutes forty-nine seconds in length.

414

Water Conservation: Denver, CO  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dams are widely distributed throughout the U.S. Their impact is perhaps most apparent in western cities, many of which lack a sufficient local water supply and thus rely on water diverted from far-away sources, particularly man-made lakes. This video segment shows how the city of Denver, Colorado, faced with a growing water crisis, developed and later abandoned a plan for a nearby dam and instead adopted policies consistent with a broader water-conservation strategy. The segment is three minutes forty-nine seconds in length.

2012-10-24

415

Bat Conservation International, Inc.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Web site for Bat Conservation International, Inc. (last mentioned in the November 12, 1997_Scout Report for Science and Engineering_) has added significant content since our last coverage of the site. Although the site still has information about the organization, bat facts, FAQs, and information on bat biology, in-depth sections on a wide variety of research projects have been added, ranging from bats in Latin American ecosystems to bats in your very own yard. Although there is a large focus on research, the text is still written for a general audience, and most sections include a variety of photos.

416

Water Conservation: Israel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A recent report stated that in the next decade or so, nearly half of the world's population will live in countries whose water supplies are over-stressed. In parts of Africa, northern China, southern Asia, and the Middle East, water is already being pumped from aquifers faster than it is being replenished. In India, the water table is falling 1-3 m (3-10 ft) per year. This video segment, adapted from the television program 'Last Oasis', discusses how Israel has approached its water scarcity problem by developing innovative ways to conserve and reuse its supply.

417

Energy Conservation: Student Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This teacher's guide contains six student activities on the topic of energy conservation and the impact of energy use on society. These materials are developed for use in middle schools for energy-related studies in many different subject areas. The activities each contain objectives, lesson plans, teaching tips, supplementary resources, and references. The top document on this page contains the Introduction and Table of Contents. The Primary Documents link can be opened to access the individual student activities. This is one of several similar modules and activity books regarding science, technology, and societal issues.

2012-01-27

418

Conservation of Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan, authored and curated by David P. Stern, introduces the concept of energy through the ideas of conservation and the ability to run machines. A series of both qualitative and quantitative examples are used to explore different forms of energy and transformations between them. Starting with and focusing on mechanical energy, examples regarding chemical energy, electrical energy, and heat are included. This is part of the larger site "From Stargazers to Starships", and includes a link to the Energy chapter in this online text.

Stern, David P. (David Peter), 1931-

2009-05-06

419

Habitat Conservation Planning Support  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides an overview of the concept of habitat conservation planning (HCP), a program administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The information includes descriptions of the primary aspects of HCP: collection of ecological field data; design of reserves; analysis of the impacts that may result in the extinction of vulnerable species; monitoring to evaluate the progress of a given HCP; and areas of support such as geographic information systems (GIS), remote sensing, and simulation modeling. There are also links to examples of current research being conducted to support each of these aspects.

420

Energy conserving engine  

SciTech Connect

An energy conserving engine particularly for heavy power requirements in freight movers and power plants, consists of an Otto cycle Diesel engine modified to receive superheated water injection for steam operation. The waste energy resulting from heat due to fossil fuel combustion is utilized in a series of counterflow heat exchangers that are temperature and pressure monitored, and valved for computer control of the heat transfer rates, providing superheated water at the proper temperature and pressure for steam operation of the engine. The computer defaults to fossil fuel operation of the engine when superheated water and steam operation conditions do not exist in the counterflow heat exchangers.

Ptasinski, S.

1992-01-01

421

Focusing ecological research for conservation.  

PubMed

Ecologists are increasingly actively involved in conservation. We identify five key topics from a broad sweep of ecology that merit research attention to meet conservation needs. We examine questions from landscape ecology, behavioral ecology, ecosystem dynamics, community ecology, and nutrient cycling related to key topics. Based on literature review and publication trend assessment, consultation with colleagues, and roundtable discussions at the 24th International Congress for Conservation Biology, focused research on the following topics could benefit conservation while advancing ecological understanding: 1. Carbon sequestration, requiring increased linkages to biodiversity conservation; 2. Ecological invasiveness, challenging our ability to find solutions to ecological aliens; 3. Individual variation, having applications in the conservation of rare species; 4. Movement of organisms, integrating ecological processes across landscapes and scales and addressing habitat fragmentation; and 5. Trophic-level interactions, driving ecological dynamics at the ecosystem-level. Addressing these will require cross-disciplinary research under the overarching framework of conservation ecology. PMID:23609103

Cristescu, Bogdan; Boyce, Mark S

2013-04-23

422

Radiosensibilité comparative des cellules épithéliales de trachée de rats après irradiation alpha in vitro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main risk in nuclear industry is the internal contamination after inhalation of high LET alpha emitters radionuclides. Main targets of pulmonary carcinogenesis are epithelial respiratory tract cells. An in vitro study was performed in order to determine if a difference in the radiosensitivity occured in epithelial cells from the trachea of two rat strains: Sprague Dawley and Wistar Furth-Fischer F344 after alpha exposure. The cells were irradiated after sedimentation in a specific well. The irradiation was performed using 241Am electrodeposited sources. The irradiation dosecloning efficiency relation was evaluated. A kinetic study of the proliferation and the clonal growth has also been investigated. La contamination interne par inhalation de radionucléides émetteurs alpha de haut TEL est le risque majeur de l'industrie nucléaire. Les cibles principales de la cancérogenèse pulmonaire sont les cellules épithéliales de l'appareil respiratoire. Une étude in vitro a été menée pour déterminer s'il existe une différence de radiosensibilité aux rayonnement alpha, des cellules épithéliales trachéales de deux souches de rats : Sprague Dawley et Wistar Furth-Fischer F344. Les cellules sont irradiées sédimentées au fond d'un puit spécifique à l'aide de sources électrodéposées de 241Am. L'évaluation de la survie cellulaire en fonction de la dose d'irradiation est complétée par un suivi cinétique de la formation et de la prolifération des colonies.

Kugel, C.; Bailly-Despiney, I.; Lagroye, I.; Poncy, J. L.

1998-04-01

423

Four cases of endophthalmitis after 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy  

PubMed Central

We report our recent experience with four cases of endophthalmitis (one male, three females) after 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). One was a case of persistent cystoid macular edema caused by branch retinal vein occlusion, whereas the remaining three were cases of epiretinal membrane. Preoperative antibiotics before the first PPV procedure were not administered in three of the four cases. Endophthalmitis occurred 2–4 days after the first procedure in all cases, for which ceftazidime 2.0 mg/0.1 mL and vancomycin 1.0 mg/0.1 mL were injected into the vitreous cavity. This was followed by emergent 20-gauge PPV and intraocular lens removal using an infusion fluid containing ceftazidime and vancomycin. After the second PPV procedure, progress was good in three cases while retinal detachment occurred in the remaining case one month after surgery; this case required a third PPV procedure. Final best-corrected visual acuity ranged from 20/100 to 20/25 for the four cases. Bacterial cultures were negative after the second PPV procedure in all cases. In conclusion, postoperative endophthalmitis occurred in four of 502 cases (0.80%) that underwent 25-gauge PPV at our hospital. It is important to minimize the incidence of endophthalmitis after 25-gauge PPV.

Mutoh, Tetsuya; Kadoya, Koji; Chikuda, Makoto

2012-01-01

424

Photometric monitoring of the young star Par 1724 in Orion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report new photometric observations of the ˜ 200 000 year old naked weak-line run-away T Tauri star Par 1724, located north of the Trapezium cluster in Orion. We observed in the broad band filters B, V, R, and I using the 90 cm Dutch telescope on La Silla, the 80 cm Wendelstein telescope, and a 25 cm telescope of the University Observatory Jena in Großschwabhausen near Jena. The photometric data in V and R are consistent with a ˜ 5.7 day rotation period due to spots, as observed before between 1960ies and 2000. Also, for the first time, we present evidence for a long-term 9 or 17.5 year cycle in photometric data (V band) of such a young star, a cycle similar to that to of the Sun and other active stars. Based on observations obtained with telescopes of the University Observatory Jena, which is operated by the Astrophysical Institute of the Friedrich-Schiller-University; a telescope of the University Observatory Munich on Mount Wendelstein, the 0.9m ESO-Dutch telescope on La Silla, Chile, and with the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) project (www.astrouw.edu.pl/asas).

Neuhäuser, R.; Koeltzsch, A.; Raetz, St.; Schmidt, T. O. B.; Mugrauer, M.; Young, N.; Bertoldi, F.; Roell, T.; Eisenbeiss, T.; Hohle, M. M.; Va?ko, M.; Ginski, C.; Rammo, W.; Moualla, M.; Broeg, C.

2009-05-01

425

Intravitreous granulation tissue and retinal detachment following pars plana injection for cytomegalovirus retinopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the pars plana route of injection has been used to administer drugs for the treatment of severe intraocular infections. We observed a complication of this method in a patient with AIDS and cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinopathy.

Allan E. Kreiger; Robert Y. Foos; Marc O. Yoshizumi

1992-01-01

426

NASA Signs Agreement with PaR Systems for Use of Unique Facility  

NASA Website

NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida has signed a new partnership agreement with PaR Systems Inc. of Shoreview, Minn., for use of the Hangar N facility and its unique nondestructive testing (NDT) equipment.

427

78 FR 42584 - Additional Designation of Aluminat, Pars Amayesh Sanaat Kish, Parviz Khaki, Pishro Systems...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Arak Road, Parcham Street, Arak, Iran PARS Amayesh Sanaat Kish AKA: PASK AKA: Vacuumkaran AKA: Vacuum Karan AKA: Vacuum Karan Co. Address: 3rd Floor, No. 6, East 2nd, North Kheradmand, Karimkhan Street, Tehran, Iran Parviz...

2013-07-16

428

Internal recognition through PDZ domain plasticity in the Par-6-Pals1 complex.  

PubMed

PDZ protein interaction domains are typically selective for C-terminal ligands, but non-C-terminal, 'internal' ligands have also been identified. The PDZ domain from the cell polarity protein Par-6 binds C-terminal ligands and an internal sequence from the protein Pals1/Stardust. The structure of the Pals1-Par-6 PDZ complex reveals that the PDZ ligand-binding site is deformed to allow for internal binding. Whereas binding of the Rho GTPase Cdc42 to a CRIB domain adjacent to the Par-6 PDZ regulates binding of C-terminal ligands, the conformational change that occurs upon binding of Pals1 renders its binding independent of Cdc42. These results suggest a mechanism by which the requirement for a C terminus can be readily bypassed by PDZ ligands and reveal a complex set of cooperative and competitive interactions in Par-6 that are likely to be important for cell polarity regulation. PMID:15475968

Penkert, Rhiannon R; DiVittorio, Heather M; Prehoda, Kenneth E

2004-10-10

429

Kiwi Conservation Club  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For over 20 years the Kiwi Conservation Club has been teaching New Zealand children about plants, animals, conservation, and respect for nature. Their website is loaded with several fun ways for kids to engage in learning. The "Wildlife and Wild Places" link has four colorful squares, each with a photo on it, and when scrolled over, the topic of the square is revealed. Visitors will find the following topics: "Wild Places", "Wildlife", "Plant Life", and "Threats and Impacts". The Threats and Impacts square informs visitors of the numerous non-native animals that have been introduced to New Zealand and caused harm to native populations since the 1700s. These "Pest Plants" and "Pest Animals" are explained in further detail by clicking on yet another series of squares, or on the left hand menu. Visitors will definitely enjoy the "Games and Quizzes" section of the website, where there are "Spotlight Games", "Quizzes", and "Match Puzzles". The subject of the Match Puzzles include "Who's My Cousin?", "Where Do I Live?", and "What Puts Me in Danger?"

430

Molecular contributions to conservation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent advances in molecular technology have opened a new chapter in species conservation efforts, as well as population biology. DNA sequencing, MHC (major histocompatibility complex), minisatellite, microsatellite, and RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) procedures allow for identification of parentage, more distant relatives, founders to new populations, unidentified individuals, population structure, effective population size, population-specific markers, etc. PCR (polymerase chain reaction) amplification of mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA, ribosomal DNA, chloroplast DNA, and other systems provide for more sophisticated analyses of metapopulation structure, hybridization events, and delineation of species, subspecies, and races, all of which aid in setting species recovery priorities. Each technique can be powerful in its own right but is most credible when used in conjunction with other molecular techniques and, most importantly, with ecological and demographic data collected from the field. Surprisingly few taxa of concern have been assayed with any molecular technique. Thus, rather than showcasing exhaustive details from a few well-known examples, this paper attempts to present a broad range of cases in which molecular techniques have been used to provide insight into conservation efforts.

Haig, Susan M.

1998-01-01

431

PAR2-induced inflammatory responses in human kidney tubular epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) is a G protein-coupled receptor abundantly expressed in the kidney. The aim of this study was to profile inflammatory gene and protein expression induced by PAR2 activation in human kidney tubular epithelial cells (HTEC). A novel PAR2 antagonist, GB88, was used to confirm agonist specificity. Intracellular Ca(2+) (iCa(2+)) mobilization, confocal microscopy, gene expression profiling, qRTPCR, and protein expression were used to characterize PAR2 activation. PAR2 induced a pronounced increase in iCa(2+) concentration that was blocked by the PAR2 antagonist. Treatment with SLIGKV-NH2 at the apical or basolateral cell surface for 5 h induced expression of a range of inflammatory genes by greater than fourfold, including IL-1?, TRAF1, IL-6, and MMP-1, as assessed by cDNA microarray and qRTPCR analysis. Using antibody arrays, GM-CSF, ICAM-1, TNF-?, MMP-1, and MMP-10 were among the induced proteins secreted. Cytokine-specific ELISAs identified three- to sixfold increases in GM-CSF, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-?, which were blocked by GB88 and protein kinase C inhibitors. Treatment of cells at the basolateral surface induced more potent inflammatory responses, with release of MCP-1 and fibronectin to the apical and basolateral compartments; apical treatment only increased secretion of these factors to the apical compartment. PAR2 activation at the basolateral surface dramatically reduced transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) whereas apical treatment had no effect. There was very little leakage (<5%) of peptides across the cell monolayer (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry). In summary, SLIGKV-NH2 induced robust proinflammatory responses in HTEC that were antagonized by GB88. These results suggest that PAR2 antagonists could be useful disease-modifying, anti-inflammatory agents in kidney disease. PMID:23283995

Vesey, David A; Suen, Jacky Y; Seow, Vernon; Lohman, Rink-Jan; Liu, Ligong; Gobe, Glenda C; Johnson, David W; Fairlie, David P

2013-01-02

432

Identification of exosite residues of factor Xa involved in recognition of PAR-2 on endothelial cells  

PubMed Central

Recent results have indicated that factor Xa (FXa) cleaves protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) to elicit protective intracellular signaling responses in endothelial cells. In this study, we investigated the molecular determinants of the specificity of FXa interaction with PAR-2 by monitoring the cleavage of PAR-2 by FXa in endothelial cells transiently transfected with a PAR-2 cleavage reporter construct in which the extracellular domain of the receptor was fused to cDNA encoding for alkaline phosphatase. Comparison of the cleavage efficiency of PAR-2 by a series of FXa mutants containing mutations in different surface loops indicated that the acidic residues of 39-loop (Glu-36, Glu-37 and Glu-39) and the basic residues of 60-loop (Lys-62 and Arg-63), 148-loop (Arg-143, Arg-150 and Arg-154) and 162-helix (Arg-165 and Lys-169) contribute to the specificity of receptor recognition by FXa on endothelial cells. This was evidenced by significantly reduced activity of mutants toward PAR-2 expressed on transfected cells. The extent of loss in the PAR-2 cleavage activity of FXa mutants correlated with the extent of loss in their PAR-2-dependent intracellular signaling activity. Further characterization of FXa mutants indicated that, with the exception of basic residues of 162-helix, which play a role in the recognition specificity of the prothrombinase complex, none of the surface loop residues under study makes a significant contribution to the activity of FXa in the prothrombinase complex. These results provide new insight into mechanisms through which FXa specifically interacts with its macromolecular substrates in the clotting and signaling pathways.

Manithody, Chandrashekhara; Yang, Likui; Rezaie, Alireza R.

2012-01-01

433

UV-B and PAR in a grass (Lolium perenne L.) canopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The penetration of natural and artificial UV-BBE (Biologically Effective UV-B, Caldwell 1971) and PAR (400–700 nm) in a grass canopy with increasing LAI was followed during 2 months. Overall, the transmission of UV-BBE sunlight is significantly higher than of PAR sunlight. This is mainly due to the higher proportion of diffuse light in the UV-B. Under cloudy conditions no difference

Gaby Deckmyn; Ivan Impens

1998-01-01

434

Combined pars plana vitrectomy and glaucoma drainage implant placement for refractory glaucoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE:To report visual acuity and intraocular pressure outcomes among patients who have undergone combined pars plana vitrectomy and placement of a glaucoma drainage implant.METHODS:The medical records of all patients who underwent combined pars plana vitrectomy and placement of a glaucoma drainage implant at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute by one of the authors between January 1, 1990, and February 28,

Ingrid U Scott; George Alexandrakis; Harry W Flynn; William E Smiddy; Timothy G Murray; Joyce Schiffman; Steven J Gedde; Donald L Budenz; Francisco Fantes; Richard K Parrish

2000-01-01

435

Nd:YAG vitreolysis and pars plana vitrectomy: surgical treatment for vitreous floaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose of study To determine the efficacy of Nd:YAG vitreolysis and pars plana vitrectomy in the treatment of vitreous floaters.Methods This is a single centre retrospective study of 31 patients (42 eyes) who underwent 54 procedures, Nd:YAG vitreolysis or pars plana vitrectomy, for the treatment of vitreous floaters between January 1992 and December 2000. Main outcome measures were percentage symptomatic

Y M Delaney; A Oyinloye; L Benjamin

2002-01-01

436

‘Mini-Gauge’ Pars Plana Vitrectomy: ‘Inside-Out View’ with the GRIN Solid Rod Endoscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To stimulate the discussion about ‘mini-gauge’ pars plana vitrectomy. Methods: Gradient index high-resolution endoscopy to analyze the 23- or 25-gauge access into the vitreous cavity. A total number of 66 pars plana interventions (almost 200 cannulas) were performed and recorded with the gradient index solid rod endoscope as well as through the microscope. Results: Five main ‘inside-out’ observations were

Frank H. J. Koch; K. Peter Luloh; Pankaj Singh; Stephan Scholtz; Michael Koss

2007-01-01

437

Immediate pars plana vitrectomy for dislocated intravitreal lens fragments during cataract surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo assess the outcome of patients who underwent instantaneous pars plana vitrectomy for dislocated lens fragments during cataract surgery.MethodsThe medical records of 29 patients who underwent immediate pars plana vitrectomy for dislocated lens fragments at the same sitting of phacoemulsification surgery were reviewed. Data including patients' demographics, preoperative and postoperative vision, risk factors for lens fragment dislocation, and intraoperative and

T Y Y Lai; A K H Kwok; Y-S Yeung; K Y W Kwan; D C F Woo; K S C Yuen; A V P Loo; AKH Kwok

2005-01-01

438

Une justification par les comptes de surplus des subventions à l'agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Face à revenus qui agriculteurs revendiquent réajustements en renâclant à passer pour des assistés. L'aide qu'ils sollicitent auprès de l'Etat ne représente en fait qu'une contre-partie d'un trop perçu par les agents implantés aussi bien en amont qu'en aval de la filière agroalimentaire. Les subventions accordées, loin d'être des largesses, ne sont qu'une restitution de gains grandement mérités par

Michel Bourdon

1982-01-01

439

Elements Optiques Holographiques Generes Par Ordinateur a Fonction de Phase Semi-Continue et Distribuee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupant une place grandissante dans la conception optique, les elements optiques holographiques (EOH) peuvent accomplir des taches qui seraient difficilement rendues par un groupe d'elements optiques conventionnels. Dans plusieurs systemes optiques utilisant une source laser, ces elements holographiques permettent d'imaginer des systemes optiques jusqu'ici impossibles a construire. Par consequent, ce type d'hologramme permet aux concepteurs la fabrication d'elements optiques speciaux.

Guylain Lemelin

1995-01-01

440

Étude par simulation numérique de l'annihilation en surface d'une dislocation coin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nous avons étudié par simulation numérique à l'échelle atomique la stabilité d'une dislocation coin, de plan de glissement proche et parallèle à une surface libre. La même étude à été conduite pour le débris idéalisé d'annihilation d'une telle dislocation : une cavité de longueur infinie, de section rectangulaire et de profondeur variable, créée par élimination partielle d'atomes appartenant à deux

P. Geysermans; V. Pontikis

2003-01-01

441

Pars plana vitrectomy for diabetic fibrovascular proliferation with and without internal limiting membrane peeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo evaluate the anatomical and functional results of internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling during pars plana vitrectomy for fibrovascular proliferation (FVP) in diabetic retinopathy.MethodsThe study was a prospective comparative case series in design. Patients undergoing pars plana vitrectomy for mild to moderate diabetic FVP were divided into either Group 1: vitrectomy only, or Group 2: further ILM peeling in the

P-Y Chang; C-M Yang; C-H Yang; M-S Chen; J-Y Wang

2009-01-01

442

Identification of uPAR-positive Chemoresistant Cells in Small Cell Lung Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and its receptor (uPAR\\/CD87) are major regulators of extracellular matrix degradation and are involved in cell migration and invasion under physiological and pathological conditions. The uPA\\/uPAR system has been of great interest in cancer research because it is involved in the development of most invasive cancer phenotypes and is a strong predictor of poor patient

Margarita Gutova; Joseph Najbauer; Anna Gevorgyan; Marianne Z. Metz; Yehua Weng; Chu-Chih Shih; Karen S. Aboody; Christopher Arendt

2007-01-01

443

Recruitment of the ParG Segregation Protein to Different Affinity DNA Sites? §  

PubMed Central

The segrosome is the nucleoprotein complex that mediates accurate plasmid segregation. In addition to its multifunctional role in segrosome assembly, the ParG protein of multiresistance plasmid TP228 is a transcriptional repressor of the parFG partition genes. ParG is a homodimeric DNA binding protein, with C-terminal regions that interlock into a ribbon-helix-helix fold. Antiparallel ?-strands in this fold are presumed to insert into the OF operator major groove to exert transcriptional control as established for other ribbon-helix-helix factors. The OF locus comprises eight degenerate tetramer boxes arranged in a combination of direct and inverted orientation. Each tetramer motif likely recruits one ParG dimer, implying that the fully bound operator is cooperatively coated by up to eight dimers. OF was subdivided experimentally into four overlapping 20-bp sites (A to D), each of which comprises two tetramer boxes separated by AT-rich spacers. Extensive interaction studies demonstrated that sites A to D individually are bound with different affinities by ParG (C > A ? B ? D). Moreover, comprehensive scanning mutagenesis revealed the contribution of each position in the site core and flanking sequences to ParG binding. Natural variations in the tetramer box motifs and in the interbox spacers, as well as in flanking sequences, each influence ParG binding. The OF operator apparently has evolved with sites that bind ParG dissimilarly to produce a nucleoprotein complex fine-tuned for optimal interaction with the transcription machinery. The association of other ribbon-helix-helix proteins with complex recognition sites similarly may be modulated by natural sequence variations between subsites.

Zampini, Massimiliano; Derome, Andrew; Bailey, Simon E. S.; Barilla, Daniela; Hayes, Finbarr

2009-01-01

444

Embryonic development of the pars intercerebralis\\/central complex of the grasshopper  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the embryonic development of the pars intercerebralis\\/central complex in the brain of the grasshopper using\\u000a immunocytochemical and histochemical techniques. Expression of the cell-surface antigen lachesin reveals that the neuroblasts\\u000a of the pars intercerebralis first differentiate from the neuroectoderm at around 26% of embryogenesis. Differentiation of\\u000a medial and lateral neuroblasts occurs first. By the 28% stage a more

G. S. Boyan; J. L. D. Williams

1997-01-01

445

Par3 and dynein associate to regulate local microtubule dynamics and centrosome orientation in migrating cells  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Centrosome orientation toward the leading edge of migrating cells depends on dynein and microtubules (MTs) and as well on a number of signaling factors at the leading edge. However, centrosomes are maintained at the cell center during orientation in fibroblasts suggesting that factors working at sites other than the leading edge may also be involved. Results In a search for factors that function with dynein in centrosome orientation, we found that the polarity protein Par3 associated with dynein and that knockdown of Par3 inhibited centrosome orientation by disrupting the position of the centrosome at the cell center, the same phenotype as that observed with dynein inhibition. Par3 associated with dynein through its N-terminal dimerization and PDZ1 domains, and interacted specifically with dynein light intermediate chain 2 (LIC2). siRNA knockdown of LIC2, but not LIC1, or overexpression of LIC2 or the N-terminal domain of Par3, also inhibited centrosome orientation by disrupting centrosome position. Par3 specifically localized to cell-cell contacts in wound-edge fibroblasts where it overlapped with MT ends and dynein puncta in a LIC2 dependent fashion. Live imaging showed that MTs exhibited increased pausing at cell-cell contacts compared to the leading edge and that this elevated pausing was dependent on Par3 and LIC2. Conclusion Par3 associates with dynein and contributes to the local regulation of MT dynamics at cell-cell contacts and proper positioning of the centrosome at the cell center. We propose that Par3 acts as a cortical factor that tethers MTs through its association with LIC2-dynein.

Schmoranzer, J.; Fawcett, J. P.; Segura, M.; Tan, S.; Vallee, R. B.; Pawson, T.; Gundersen, G. G.

2009-01-01

446

Evolution Des Recherches Sur Les Plants Mycorhizes Par la Truffe et Perspectives de Developpement  

Microsoft Academic Search

La mise au point d'une méthode de production de plants mycorhizés par la truffe, en France, date du début des années 70. Depuis, les grands principes de la méthode utilisée n'ont pas subi d'évolution importante. La majorité des plants sont obtenus par semis et inoculés avec des préparations à base de spores de truffe. Cette pratique entraïne une hétérogénéité du

G. Chevalier

1994-01-01

447

Numerical modelling of vertical suspended solids concentrations and irradiance in a turbid shallow system (Vaccares, Se France)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In shallow ecosystems, the short temporal variability of available underwater irradiance is considered a major process controlling\\u000a submerged macrophytes development. Mechanistic models that estimate photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) in shallow\\u000a ecosystems at very short time scales are needed for use in predicting submerged macrophyte growth and persistence. We coupled\\u000a a 2D horizontal circulation model with, first, a 1D vertical numerical

Bertrand Millet; Christian Robert; Patrick Grillas; Clare Coughlan; Damien Banas

2010-01-01

448

Computer modelling in combination with in vitro studies reveals similar binding affinities of Drosophila Crumbs for the PDZ domains of Stardust and DmPar-6.  

PubMed

Formation of multiprotein complexes is a common theme to pattern a cell, thereby generating spatially and functionally distinct entities at specialised regions. Central components of these complexes are scaffold proteins, which contain several protein-protein interaction domains and provide a platform to recruit a variety of additional components. There is increasing evidence that protein complexes are dynamic structures and that their components can undergo various interactions depending on the cellular context. However, little is known so far about the factors regulating this behaviour. One evolutionarily conserved protein complex, which can be found both in Drosophila and mammalian epithelial cells, is composed of the transmembrane protein Crumbs/Crb3 and the scaffolding proteins Stardust/Pals1 and DPATJ/PATJ, respectively, and localises apically to the zonula adherens. Here we show by in vitro analysis that, similar as in vertebrates, the single PDZ domain of Drosophila DmPar-6 can bind to the four C-terminal amino acids (ERLI) of the transmembrane protein Crumbs. To further evaluate the binding capability of Crumbs to DmPar-6 and the MAGUK protein Stardust, analysis of the PDZ structural database and modelling of the interactions between the C-terminus of Crumbs and the PDZ domains of these two proteins were performed. The results suggest that both PDZ domains bind Crumbs with similar affinities. These data are supported by quantitative yeast two-hybrid interactions. In vivo analysis performed in cell cultures and in the Drosophila embryo show that the cytoplasmic domain of Crumbs can recruit DmPar-6 and DaPKC to the plasma membrane. The data presented here are discussed with respect to possible dynamic interactions between these proteins. PMID:16697075

Kempkens, Ozlem; Médina, Emmanuelle; Fernandez-Ballester, Gregorio; Ozüyaman, Susann; Le Bivic, André; Serrano, Luis; Knust, Elisabeth

2006-05-11

449

Energy conservation program guide for commercial buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following topics are discussed: the definition of the commercial building category, the purpose of the conservation program guide, energy conservation in existing buildings, energy conservation in new buildings, goals of the state energy conservation programs, and reports. (MHR)

de Latour

1975-01-01

450

Irradiance optimization of outdoor microalgal cultures using solar tracked photobioreactors.  

PubMed

Photosynthetic activity and temperature regulation of microalgal cultures (Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus) under different irradiances controlled by a solar tracker and different cell densities were studied in outdoor flat panel photobioreactors. An automated process control unit regulated light and temperature as well as pH value and nutrient concentration in the culture medium. CO2 was supplied using flue gas from an attached combined block heat and power station. Photosynthetic activity was determined by pulse amplitude modulation fluorometry. Compared to the horizontal irradiance of 55 mol photons m(-2) d(-1) on a clear day, the solar tracked photobioreactors enabled a decrease and increase in the overall light absorption from 19 mol photons m(-2) d(-1) (by rotation out of direct irradiance) to 79 mol photons m(-2) d(-1) (following the position of the sun). At biomass concentrations below 1.1 g cell dry weight (CDW) L(-1), photoinhibition of about 35 % occurred at irradiances of ?1,000 ?mol photons m(-2) s(-1) photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). Using solar tracked photobioreactors, photoinhibition can be reduced and at optimum biomass concentration (?2.3 g CDW L(-1)), the culture was irradiated up to 2,000 ?mol photons m(-2) s(-1) to overcome light limitation with biomass yields of 0.7 g CDW mol photons(-1) and high photosynthetic activities indicated by an effective quantum yield of 0.68 and a maximum quantum yield of 0.80 (F v/F m). Overheating due to high irradiance was avoided by turning the PBR out of the sun or using a cooling system, which maintained the temperature close to the species-specific temperature optima. PMID:22847362

Hindersin, Stefan; Leupold, Marco; Kerner, Martin; Hanelt, Dieter

2012-07-31

451

Pseudopodial and ?-arrestin-interacting proteomes from migrating breast cancer cells upon PAR2 activation.  

PubMed

Metastatic cancer cells form pseudopodia (PD) to facilitate their migration. The proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) transduces migratory signals from proteases, and it forms protein complexes with ?-arrestin and other signalling molecules that are enriched in pseudopodia. More generally, however, pseudopodial regulation is poorly understood. Here, we purified the pseudopodial proteomes of breast cancer cells after activation of the endogenous PAR-2 and we combined gel-based approaches with label-free high-resolution mass spectrometry to identify proteins that accumulate at the pseudopodia upon PAR-2-mediated migration. We identified >410 proteins in the cell body and >380 in the pseudopodia upon PAR2 activation, of which 93 were enriched in the pseudopodia. One of the pathways strongly enriched in the PD was the clathrin-mediated endocytosis signalling pathway, highlighting the importance of the scaffolding function of ?-arrestin in PAR-2 signalling via its endocytosis. We therefore immunoprecipitated ?-arrestins, and with mass spectrometry we identified 418 novel putative interactors. These data revealed novel ?-arrestin functions that specifically control PAR-2-regulated signalling in migrating breast cancer cells but also showed that some ?-arrestin functions are universal between GPCRs and cell types. In conclusion, this study reveals novel proteins and signalling pathways potentially important for migration of breast cancer cells. PMID:23313222

Parisis, Nikolaos; Metodieva, Gergana; Metodiev, Metodi V

2013-01-01

452

PAR-4 as a Possible New Target for Pancreatic Cancer Therapy  

PubMed Central

Importance of the field Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a deadly disease that is so far intractable to currently available treatment regimens. Although well described in different tumors types, the importance of apoptosis inducer Par-4 in PC has not been appreciated. PC is a oncogenic kras driven disease which is known to down-regulate Par-4. Therefore, this review highlights its significance and builds a strong case supporting the role of Par-4 as a possible therapeutic target in PC. Areas covered in this review This article covers literature based evidence spanning the last 15 years on Par-4 and its significance in PC. What the reader will gain This review provides comprehensive knowledge of the significance of Par-4 and its association with kras status in PC, along with the crosstalk with crucial resistance and survival molecules NF-kB and Bcl-2 that ultimately are responsible for the overall poor outcome of different therapeutic approaches in this disease. Take home message Par-4 holds promise as a potential therapeutic target that can be induced by chemopreventive agents and small molecule inhibitors either alone or in combination with standard chemotherapeutics leading to selective apoptosis in PC cells. It also acts as a chemosensitizer and therefore warrants further clinical investigations in this deadly disease.

Azmi, Asfar S; Philip, Philip A.; Zafar, Syed F.; Sarkar, Fazlul H.; Mohammad, Ramzi M.

2010-01-01

453

Interaction of Par-6 and Crumbs complexes is essential for photoreceptor morphogenesis in Drosophila.  

PubMed

Apicobasal cell polarity is crucial for morphogenesis of photoreceptor rhabdomeres and adherens junctions (AJs) in the Drosophila eye. Crumbs (Crb) is specifically localized to the apical membrane of photoreceptors, providing a positional cue for the organization of rhabdomeres and AJs. We show that the Crb complex consisting of Crb, Stardust (Sdt) and Discs-lost (Dlt) colocalizes with another protein complex containing Par-6 and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) in the rhabdomere stalk of photoreceptors. Loss of each component of the Crb co