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1

A Conserved Mode of Protein Recognition and Binding in a ParD?ParE Toxin?Antitoxin Complex  

SciTech Connect

Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems form a ubiquitous class of prokaryotic proteins with functional roles in plasmid inheritance, environmental stress response, and cell development. ParDE family TA systems are broadly conserved on plasmids and bacterial chromosomes and have been well characterized as genetic elements that promote stable plasmid inheritance. We present a crystal structure of a chromosomally encoded ParD-ParE complex from Caulobacter crescentus at 2.6 {angstrom} resolution. This TA system forms an {alpha}{sub 2}{beta}{sub 2} heterotetramer in the crystal and in solution. The toxin-antitoxin binding interface reveals extensive polar and hydrophobic contacts of ParD antitoxin helices with a conserved recognition and binding groove on the ParE toxin. A cross-species comparison of this complex structure with related toxin structures identified an antitoxin recognition and binding subdomain that is conserved between distantly related members of the RelE/ParE toxin superfamily despite a low level of overall primary sequence identity. We further demonstrate that ParD antitoxin is dimeric, stably folded, and largely helical when not bound to ParE toxin. Thus, the paradigmatic model in which antitoxin undergoes a disorder-to-order transition upon toxin binding does not apply to this chromosomal ParD-ParE TA system.

Dalton, Kevin M.; Crosson, Sean (UC)

2010-05-06

2

A conserved mode of protein recognition and binding in a ParD-ParE toxin-antitoxin complex†  

PubMed Central

Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems form a ubiquitous class of prokaryotic proteins with functional roles in plasmid inheritance, environmental stress response, and cell development. ParDE-family TA systems are broadly conserved on plasmids and bacterial chromosomes, and have been well characterized as genetic elements that promote stable plasmid inheritance. We present a crystal structure of a chromosomally-encoded ParD-ParE complex from Caulobacter crescentus at 2.6 Å resolution. This TA system forms an ?2?2 heterotetramer in the crystal and in solution. The toxin-antitoxin binding interface reveals extensive polar and hydrophobic contacts of ParD antitoxin helices with a conserved recognition and binding groove on the ParE toxin. A cross-species comparison of this complex structure with related toxin structures identified an antitoxin recognition and binding sub-domain that is conserved between distantly-related members of the RelE/ParE toxin superfamily despite low overall primary sequence identity. We further demonstrate that ParD antitoxin is dimeric, stably folded, and largely helical when not bound to ParE toxin. Thus, the paradigmatic model in which antitoxin undergoes a disorder-to-order transition upon toxin binding does not apply to this chromosomal ParD-ParE TA system. PMID:20143871

Dalton, Kevin M.; Crosson, Sean

2010-01-01

3

Partial Breast Irradiation after Breast-Conserving Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The standard technique of postoperative radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery is percutaneous irradiation of the entire breast to a total dose of 45–50 Gy which is usually followed by a tumor bed boost. Since the majority of local recurrencesin selected patients occur close to the former tumor bed, the question arises whether a sole tumor bed irradiation might be a

Georg Sauer; Vratislav Strnad; Christian Kurzeder; Rolf Kreienberg; Rolf Sauer

2005-01-01

4

Nutrient Limitation and High Irradiance Acclimation reduce Par and UV-Induced Viability Loss in the Antarctic Diatom Chaetoceros Brevis (Bacillariophyceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of high PAR (400-700 nm), UVA (315- 400 nm), and UVB (280-315 nm) radiation on via- bility and photosynthesis were investigated for Chaetoceros brevis Schutt. This Antarctic marine di- atom was cultivated under low, medium, and high irradiance and nitrate, phosphate, silicate, and iron limitation before exposure to a simulated surface irradiance (SSI) treatment, with and without UVB

Willem H. van der Poll; Maria A. van Leeuwe; Jan Roggeveld; Anita G. J. Buma

2005-01-01

5

Effects of the conserved proteins, Soj (ParA) and SpoOJ (ParB) on chromosome partitioning in Bacillus subtilis  

E-print Network

The Par system contributes to stable inheritance of plasmids and chromosomes in diverse bacterial species. Faithful chromosome partitioning is important to dividing cells because anucleate, or chromosomeless, cells are not ...

Lee, Philina S. (Philina Sharlene), 1976-

2004-01-01

6

Mecanismes de recuit des bilacunes produites dans le silicium par irradiation de protons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subject of the present thesis is the study of divacancy annealing in 8 MeV proton irradiated silicon. Using data from infrared absorption, positron annihilation, scanning differential calorimetry, and electron paramagnetic resonance, divacancy annealing behaviour was studied from room temperature up to complete divacancy disappearance from the samples. The comparison between infrared and positron annihilation data enabled the identification of

Remi Poirier

2005-01-01

7

INTERACTION AVEC UN CHAMP MAGNETIQUE D'UN PLASMA CREE PAR IRRADIATION LASER DE SOLIDE J. Bruneteau, S. Colburn, E. Fabre, A . Poquerusse, C. Stenz  

E-print Network

INTERACTION AVEC UN CHAMP MAGNETIQUE D'UN PLASMA CREE PAR IRRADIATION LASER DE SOLIDE J. Bruneteau'étude expérimentale de l'interaction avec un champ magnétique d'un plasma de laser. L'accord est assez bon avec les present some results of the experimental investigation of the interaction with a magnetic field of a laser

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

8

Irradiation treatment for the protection and conservation of cultural heritage artefacts in Croatia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of irradiation treatment for the protection of cultural heritage artefacts in Croatia was made possible by the development of radiation processing procedures at the Radiation Chemistry and Dosimetry Laboratory of the Ru?er Bo\\vskovi? Institute. After the upgrading of the 60Co gamma irradiation source in the panoramic irradiation facility in 1983 it became possible to perform both research and pilot plant-scale irradiations for sterilization, pasteurization and decontamination of various materials, including medical supplies, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and foods, but also for disinfestation of cultural heritage artefects. The demand for irradiation treatment of cultural heritage objects has particularly increased as the increasing number of these objects, especially polychromic wooden sculptures, were requiring salvation, restauration and conservation as a consequence of direct and indirect damages inflicted to them during the war in Croatia, 1991-1995. The irradiation facility at the Ru?er Bo\\vskovi? Institute is briefly described and an account of its fifteen years' activities in the irradiation treatment of cultural heritage objects is given. Some case studies performed in cooperation with the Croatian Conservation Institute and other interested parties are presented, as well as some cases of protective and curative treatments for disinfestation and decontamination. International cooperations and activities are also mentioned.

Katušin-Ražem, Branka; Ražem, Dušan; Braun, Mario

2009-07-01

9

Low dose ?-irradiation as a suitable solution for chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller) conservation: effects on sugars, fatty acids, and tocopherols.  

PubMed

Along with dehydration, the development of insects and microorganisms is the major drawback in chestnut conservation. Irradiation has been regaining interest as an alternative technology to increase food product shelf life. In the present work, the effects of low dose gamma irradiation on the sugar, fatty acid, and tocopherol composition of chestnuts stored at 4 °C for different storage periods (0, 30, and 60 days) was evaluated. The irradiations were performed in a 60Co experimental equipment, for 1 h (0.27±0.04 kGy) and 2 h (0.54±0.04 kGy). Changes in sugars and tocopherols were determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to refraction index and fluorescence detections, respectively, while changes in fatty acids were analyzed by gas-chromatography coupled to flame ionization detection. Regarding sugar composition, storage time proved to have a higher effect than irradiation treatment. Fructose and glucose increased after storage, with the corresponding decrease of sucrose. Otherwise, the tocopherol content was lower in nonirradiated samples, without a significant influence of storage. Saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were not affected, either by storage or irradiation. Nevertheless, some individual fatty acid concentrations were influenced by one of two factors, such as the increase of palmitic acid in irradiated samples or the decrease of oleic acid after 60 days of storage. Overall, the assayed irradiation doses seem to be a promising alternative treatment to increase chestnut shelf life, without affecting the profile and composition in important nutrients. PMID:21823582

Fernandes, Ângela; Antonio, Amilcar L; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C M; Bento, Albino; Botelho, M Luisa; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2011-09-28

10

Urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator Receptor (uPAR)-mediated Regulation of WNT/?-Catenin Signaling Is Enhanced in Irradiated Medulloblastoma Cells*  

PubMed Central

Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is known to promote invasion, migration, and metastasis in cancer cells. In this report, we showed that ionizing radiation (IR)-induced uPAR has a role in WNT-?-catenin signaling and mediates induction of cancer stem cell (CSC)-like properties in medulloblastoma cell lines UW228 and D283. We observed that IR induced the expression of uPAR and CSC markers, such as Musashi-1 and CD44, and activated WNT-7a-?-catenin signaling molecules. Overexpression of uPAR alone or with IR treatment led to increased WNT-7a-?-catenin-TCF/LEF-mediated transactivation, thereby promoting cancer stemness. In contrast, treatment with shRNA specific for uPAR (pU) suppressed WNT-7a-?-catenin-TCF/LEF-mediated transactivation both in vitro and in vivo. Quercetin, a potent WNT/?-catenin inhibitor, suppressed uPAR and uPAR-mediated WNT/?-catenin activation, and furthermore, addition of recombinant human WNT-7a protein induced uPAR, indicating the existence of a mutual regulatory relationship between uPAR and WNT/?-catenin signaling. We showed that uPAR was physically associated with the WNT effector molecule ?-catenin on the membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus of IR-treated cells and CSC. Most interestingly, we demonstrated for the first time that localization of uPAR in the nucleus was associated with transcription factors (TF) and their specific response elements. We observed from uPAR-ChIP, TF protein, and protein/DNA array analyses that uPAR associates with activating enhancer-binding protein 2? (AP2a) and mediates ?-catenin gene transcription. Moreover, association of uPAR with the ?-catenin·TCF/LEF complex and various other TF involved during embryonic development and cancer indicates that uPAR is a potent activator of stemness, and targeting of uPAR in combination with radiation has significant therapeutic implications. PMID:22511755

Asuthkar, Swapna; Gondi, Christopher S.; Nalla, Arun Kumar; Velpula, Kiran Kumar; Gorantla, Bharathi; Rao, Jasti S.

2012-01-01

11

Influence du niveau initial de sensibilité au conflit sur l'apprentissage de la conservation des quantités par une méthode de conflit cognitif  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to elucidate the problem raised by the usually observed differential efficacy of the induced learning of logical structures by children, the hypothesis was made that the progress observed in preoperational subjects (aged from 4;6 to 6;6), submitted to a training of the conservation of liquids with a technique based upon cognitive conflict, was a function of the subject's

Monique Lefebvre; Adrien Pinard

1974-01-01

12

Molecular characterization of the Salmonella typhimurium parE gene.  

PubMed Central

The DNA sequence of the wild type S. typhimurium parE gene was determined. The predicted protein has 96.7% amino acid identity with the ParE protein of E.coli, but is 29 amino acids longer, due to an additional basepair in the 3' end of the S. typhimurium gene. Subclones of the S. typhimurium parE gene localized the sites of four heat sensitive mutations within parE. The parE206 and parE374 mutations are identical (Val67-Met) and lie in a highly conserved region corresponding to the ATP binding pocket of GyrB. Two additional heat sensitive mutations were sequenced and predict the following amino acid substitutions: parE377 (Gly399-Ser) and parE493 (Thr583-Pro). All of the heat sensitive mutations lie in regions with strong amino acid homology to GyrB. PMID:8388096

Springer, A L; Schmid, M B

1993-01-01

13

Prone Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation After Breast-Conserving Surgery: Compliance to the Dosimetry Requirements of RTOG-0413  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The dosimetric results from our institution's trials of prone accelerated partial breast irradiation are compared with the dosimetric requirements of RTOG-0413. Methods and Materials: Trial 1 and Trial 2 are 2 consecutive trials of prone-accelerated partial breast irradiation. Eligible for both trials were stage I breast cancer patients with negative margins after breast-conserving surgery. The planning target tumor volume (PTV) was created by extending the surgical cavity 2.0 cm for Trial 1 and 1.5 cm for Trial 2, respectively. Contralateral breast, heart, lungs, and thyroid were contoured. Thirty Gray was delivered in five daily fractions of 6 Gy by a three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy technique in Trial 1 and were by image-guided radiation therapy/intensity-modulated radiation therapy in Trial 2. Dosimetric results from the trials are reported and compared with RTOG 0413 requirements. Results: One hundred forty-six consecutive plans were analyzed: 67 left and 79 right breast cancers. The plans from the trials complied with the required >90% of prescribed dose covering 90% of PTV{sub E}VAL (=generated from the PTV by cropping 0.5 cm from the skin edge and excluding the chest wall): V90% was 98.1 {+-} 3.0% (with V100% and V95%, 89.4 {+-} 12.8%, 96.4 {+-} 5.1%, respectively). No significant difference between laterality was found (Student's t test). The dose constraints criteria of the RTOG-0413 protocol for ipsilateral and contralateral lung (V30 <15% and Dmax <3%), heart (V5 <40%), and thyroid (Dmax <3%) were satisfied because the plans showed an average V5% of 0.6% (range, 0-13.4) for heart, an average V30% of 0.6% (range, 0-9.1%) for ipsilateral lung, and <2% maximum dose to the thyroid. However, our partial breast irradiation plans demonstrated a higher dose to contralateral breast than that defined by RTOG constraints, with a median value of maximum doses of 4.1% (1.2 Gy), possibly as a result of contouring differences. Conclusions: Our technique for prone accelerated partial breast irradiation generally satisfied RTOG-0413 requirements.

Wen Bixiu [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Hsu, Howard; Formenti-Ujlaki, George F.; Lymberis, Stella; Magnolfi, Chiara; Zhao Xuan; Chang Jenghwa; DeWyngaert, J. Keith; Jozsef, Gabor [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Formenti, Silvia C., E-mail: silvia.formenti@nyumc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States)

2012-11-15

14

BINDING TO PKC-3, BUT NOT TO PAR-3 OR TO A CONVENTIONAL PDZ DOMAIN LIGAND, IS REQUIRED FOR PAR-6 FUNCTION IN C. ELEGANS  

PubMed Central

PAR-6 is a conserved protein important for establishment and maintenance of cell polarity in a variety of metazoans. PAR-6 proteins function together with PAR-3, aPKC and CDC-42. Mechanistic details of their interactions, however, are not fully understood. We studied the biochemical interactions between C. elegans PAR-6 and its binding partners and tested the requirements of these interactions in living worms. We show that PB1 domain-mediated binding of PAR-6 to PKC-3 is necessary for polarity establishment and PAR-6 cortical localization in C. elegans embryos. We also show that binding of PAR-6 and PAR-3 is mediated in vitro by a novel type of PDZ-PDZ interaction; the ?C strand of PAR-6 PDZ binds the ?D strand of PAR-3 PDZ1. However, this interaction is dispensable in vivo for PAR-6 function throughout the life of C. elegans. Mutations that specifically abolish conventional ligand binding to the PAR-6 PDZ domain also failed to affect PAR-6 function in vivo. We conclude that PAR-6 binding to PKC-3, but not to PAR-3 nor to a conventional PDZ ligand, is required for PAR-6 cortical localization and function in C. elegans. PMID:20122916

Li, Jin; Kim, Heon; Aceto, Donato G.; Hung, Jeffrey; Aono, Shinya; Kemphues, Kenneth J.

2010-01-01

15

Pars Stress Fracture (Lumbar Spondylolysis)  

MedlinePLUS

... Neck and Back) > Pars Stress Fracture Pars Stress Fracture Page Content Pars stress fractures occur in young athletes involved in repetitive bending ... an episode of low back pain Pars stress fracture, also called lumbar spondylolysis, is one of the ...

16

The tail of the ParG DNA segregation protein remodels ParF polymers and enhances ATP hydrolysis via an arginine finger-like motif  

PubMed Central

The ParF protein of plasmid TP228 belongs to the ubiquitous superfamily of ParA ATPases that drive DNA segregation in bacteria. ATP-bound ParF polymerizes into multistranded filaments. The partner protein ParG is dimeric, consisting of C-termini that interweave into a ribbon–helix–helix domain contacting the centromeric DNA and unstructured N-termini. ParG stimulates ATP hydrolysis by ParF ?30-fold. Here, we establish that the mobile tails of ParG are crucial for this enhancement and that arginine R19 within the tail is absolutely required for activation of ParF nucleotide hydrolysis. R19 is part of an arginine finger-like loop in ParG that is predicted to intercalate into the ParF nucleotide-binding pocket thereby promoting ATP hydrolysis. Significantly, mutations of R19 abrogated DNA segregation in vivo, proving that intracellular stimulation of ATP hydrolysis by ParG is a key regulatory process for partitioning. Furthermore, ParG bundles ParF-ATP filaments as well as promoting nucleotide-independent polymerization. The N-terminal flexible tail is required for both activities, because N-terminal ?ParG polypeptides are defective in both functions. Strikingly, the critical arginine finger-like residue R19 is dispensable for ParG-mediated remodeling of ParF polymers, revealing that the ParG N-terminal tail possesses two separable activities in the interplay with ParF: a catalytic function during ATP hydrolysis and a mechanical role in modulation of polymerization. We speculate that activation of nucleotide hydrolysis via an arginine finger loop may be a conserved, regulatory mechanism of ParA family members and their partner proteins, including ParA-ParB and Soj-Spo0J that mediate DNA segregation and MinD-MinE that determine septum localization. PMID:17261809

Barilla, Daniela; Carmelo, Emma; Hayes, Finbarr

2007-01-01

17

The tail of the ParG DNA segregation protein remodels ParF polymers and enhances ATP hydrolysis via an arginine finger-like motif.  

PubMed

The ParF protein of plasmid TP228 belongs to the ubiquitous superfamily of ParA ATPases that drive DNA segregation in bacteria. ATP-bound ParF polymerizes into multistranded filaments. The partner protein ParG is dimeric, consisting of C-termini that interweave into a ribbon-helix-helix domain contacting the centromeric DNA and unstructured N-termini. ParG stimulates ATP hydrolysis by ParF approximately 30-fold. Here, we establish that the mobile tails of ParG are crucial for this enhancement and that arginine R19 within the tail is absolutely required for activation of ParF nucleotide hydrolysis. R19 is part of an arginine finger-like loop in ParG that is predicted to intercalate into the ParF nucleotide-binding pocket thereby promoting ATP hydrolysis. Significantly, mutations of R19 abrogated DNA segregation in vivo, proving that intracellular stimulation of ATP hydrolysis by ParG is a key regulatory process for partitioning. Furthermore, ParG bundles ParF-ATP filaments as well as promoting nucleotide-independent polymerization. The N-terminal flexible tail is required for both activities, because N-terminal DeltaParG polypeptides are defective in both functions. Strikingly, the critical arginine finger-like residue R19 is dispensable for ParG-mediated remodeling of ParF polymers, revealing that the ParG N-terminal tail possesses two separable activities in the interplay with ParF: a catalytic function during ATP hydrolysis and a mechanical role in modulation of polymerization. We speculate that activation of nucleotide hydrolysis via an arginine finger loop may be a conserved, regulatory mechanism of ParA family members and their partner proteins, including ParA-ParB and Soj-Spo0J that mediate DNA segregation and MinD-MinE that determine septum localization. PMID:17261809

Barillà, Daniela; Carmelo, Emma; Hayes, Finbarr

2007-02-01

18

Supraclavicular failure after breast-conserving therapy in patients with four or more positive axillary lymph nodes when prophylactic supraclavicular irradiation is omitted  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The incidence of supraclavicular metastasis as the initial failure and the failure patterns in patients with four or more\\u000a positive axillary lymph nodes (PALNs) after breast-conserving therapy (BCT) without prophylactic supraclavicular irradiation\\u000a were investigated.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Between 1991 and 2002, a total of 48 women with four or more PALNs underwent BCT without prophylactic supraclavicular irradiation\\u000a (33 patients with 4–9

Yasushi Hamamoto; Masaaki Kataoka; Takatoshi Semba; Kotaro Uwatsu; Yoshifumi Sugawara; Takeshi Inoue; Shinya Sakai; Shoji Aono; Tadaaki Takahashi; Shogo Oda

2009-01-01

19

Reconstruction 3D du bti partir d'une seule image par naissances et morts multiples  

E-print Network

Reconstruction 3D du bâti à partir d'une seule image par naissances et morts multiples Jean ne conserver que les plus pertinentes par un algorithme de type naissances et morts multiples. Nous plus pertinents. Ce principe est décliné par un algorithme de type naissances et morts mul- tiples

Boyer, Edmond

20

Cloning and Nucleotide Sequences of the Topoisomerase IV parC and parE Genes of Mycoplasma hominis  

PubMed Central

The topoisomerase IV parC and parE genes from the wall-less organism Mycoplasma hominis PG21 were cloned and sequenced. The coupled genes are located far from the DNA gyrase genes gyrA and gyrB. They encode proteins of 639 and 866 amino acids, respectively. As expected, the encoded ParE and ParC proteins exhibit higher homologies with the topoisomerase IV subunits of the gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae than with their Escherichia coli counterparts. The conserved regions include the Tyr residue of the active site and the region involved in quinolone resistance (quinolone resistance-determining region [QRDR]) in ParC and the ATP-binding site and the QRDR in ParE. PMID:9687401

Bebear, Cecile M.; Charron, Alain; Bove, Joseph Marie; Bebear, Christiane; Renaudin, Joel

1998-01-01

21

Calibration of the Odyssey Photosynthetic Irradiance Recorder for Absolute Irradiance Measures  

EPA Science Inventory

Researchers are increasingly interested in measuring hotosynthetically active radiation (PAR) because of its importance in determining the structure and function of lotic ecosystems. The Odyssey Photosynthetic Irradiance Recorder is an affordable PAR meter gaining popularity am...

22

Breast-Conserving Treatment With Partial or Whole Breast Irradiation for Low-Risk Invasive Breast Carcinoma-5-Year Results of a Randomized Trial  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report the 5-year results of a randomized study comparing the survival and cosmetic results of breast-conserving treatment with partial breast irradiation (PBI) or conventional whole breast irradiation (WBI). Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2004, 258 selected patients with T1 N0-1mi, Grade 1-2, nonlobular breast cancer without presence of extensive intraductal component and resected with negative margins were randomized after breast-conserving surgery to receive 50 Gy/25 fractions WBI (n = 130) or PBI (n = 128). The latter consisted of either 7 x 5.2 Gy high-dose-rate (HDR) multicatheter brachytherapy (BT; n = 88) or 50 Gy/25 fractions electron beam (EB) irradiation (n = 40). Results: At a median follow-up of 66 months, the 5-year actuarial rate of local recurrence was 4.7% and 3.4% in the PBI and WBI arms, respectively (p = 0.50). There was no significant difference in the 5-year probability of overall survival (94.6% vs. 91.8%), cancer-specific survival (98.3% vs. 96.0%), and disease-free survival (88.3% vs. 90.3%). The rate of excellent to good cosmetic result was 77.6% in the PBI group (81.2% after HDR BT; 70.0% after EB) and 62.9% in the control group (52.2% after telecobalt; 65.6% after 6-9-MV photons; p{sub WBI/PBI} = 0.009). Conclusions: Partial breast irradiation using interstitial HDR implants or EB to deliver radiation to the tumor bed alone for a selected group of early-stage breast cancer patients produces 5-year results similar to those achieved with conventional WBI. Significantly better cosmetic outcome can be achieved with carefully designed HDR multicatheter implants compared with the outcome after WBI.

Polgar, Csaba [Department of Radiotherapy, National Institute of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary)], E-mail: polgar@oncol.hu; Fodor, Janos; Major, Tibor; Nemeth, Gyoergy; Loevey, Katalin [Department of Radiotherapy, National Institute of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary); Orosz, Zsolt [Department of Human and Experimental Tumor Pathology, National Institute of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary); Sulyok, Zoltan [Department of General and Thoracic Surgery, National Institute of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary); Takacsi-Nagy, Zoltan; Kasler, Miklos [Department of Radiotherapy, National Institute of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary)

2007-11-01

23

A new model for estimating boreal forest fPAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life on Earth is continuously sustained by the extraterrestrial flux of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) from the sun. This flux is converted to biomass by chloroplasts in green vegetation. Thus, the fraction of absorbed PAR (fPAR) is a key parameter used in carbon balance studies, and is listed as one of the Essential Climate Variables (ECV). Temporal courses of fPAR for boreal forests are difficult to measure, because of the complex 3D structures. Thus, they are most often estimated based on models which quantify the dependency of absorbed radiation on canopy structure. In this study, we adapted a physically-based canopy radiation model into a fPAR model, and compared modeled and measured fPAR in structurally different boreal forest stands. The model is based on the spectral invariants theory, and uses leaf area index (LAI), canopy gap fractions and spectra of foliage and understory as input data. The model differs from previously developed more detailed fPAR models in that the complex 3D structure of coniferous forests is described using an aggregated canopy parameter - photon recollision probability p. The strength of the model is that all model inputs are measurable or available through other simple models. First, the model was validated with measurements of instantaneous fPAR obtained with the TRAC instrument in nine Scots pine, Norway spruce and Silver birch stands in a boreal forest in southern Finland. Good agreement was found between modeled and measured fPAR. Next, we applied the model to predict temporal courses of fPAR using data on incoming radiation from a nearby flux tower and sky irradiance models. Application of the model to simulate diurnal and seasonal values of fPAR indicated that the ratio of direct-to-total incident radiation and leaf area index are the key factors behind the magnitude and variation of stand-level fPAR values.

Majasalmi, Titta; Rautiainen, Miina; Stenberg, Pauline

2014-05-01

24

Efficacy and safety of accelerated partial breast irradiation after breast-conserving surgery: a meta-analysis of published comparative studies.  

PubMed

To compare the treatment outcomes between accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) and conventional whole-breast irradiation (WBI) and to explore the efficacy and safety of APBI as an adjuvant treatment for early-stage breast cancer who received breast-conserving therapy. Eligible studies were identified on Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library updated to July 10, 2012. Comparative studies were considered for inclusion. Analyses were carried out using Stata software. Eleven comparative studies with a total of 7,097 patients were included. The meta-analysis showed that there were no statistically significant differences between group APBI and group WBI associated with the supraclavicular failure, distant metastasis, overall survival, and disease-free survival, while local recurrence (LR) and axillary failure (AF) increased in group APBI. The sensitivity analysis indicated that both the LR and AF were not statistically significant difference between the two groups. In the subgroup analysis, LR was statistically significantly higher in group APBI for patients with the age <60, large tumor size, and unknown margin status. APBI is a safe treatment modality and could become a potential option for the delivery of adjuvant radiation therapy in patients receiving breast-conserving therapy, especially for the suitable group that was classified by the American Society of Radiation Oncology Consensus Panel. PMID:24372818

Kong, Lingling; Cheng, Jian; Ding, Xiuping; Li, Baosheng; Zhang, Jian; Li, Hongsheng; Huang, Wei; Zhou, Tao; Sun, Hongfu

2014-01-01

25

Both PHYTOCHROME RAPIDLY REGULATED1 (PAR1) and PAR2 Promote Seedling Photomorphogenesis in Multiple Light Signaling Pathways1[C][W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings undergo photomorphogenesis in the light and etiolation in the dark. Light-activated photoreceptors transduce the light signals through a series of photomorphogenesis promoting or repressing factors to modulate many developmental processes in plants, such as photomorphogenesis and shade avoidance. CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1) is a conserved RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligase, which mediates degradation of several photomorphogenesis promoting factors, including ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5) and LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FAR-RED1 (HFR1), through a 26S proteasome-dependent pathway. PHYTOCHROME RAPIDLY REGULATED1 (PAR1) was first detected as an early repressed gene in both phytochrome A (phyA)-mediated far-red and phyB-mediated red signaling pathways, and subsequent studies showed that both PAR1 and PAR2 are negative factors of shade avoidance in Arabidopsis. However, the role of PAR1 and PAR2 in seedling deetiolation, and their relationships with other photomorphogenesis promoting and repressing factors are largely unknown. Here, we confirmed that both PAR1 and PAR2 redundantly enhance seedling deetiolation in multiple photoreceptor signaling pathways. Their transcript abundances are repressed by phyA, phyB, and cryptochrome1 under far-red, red, and blue light conditions, respectively. Both PAR1 and PAR2 act downstream of COP1, and COP1 mediates the degradation of PAR1 and PAR2 through the 26S proteasome pathway. Both PAR1 and PAR2 act in a separate pathway from HY5 and HFR1 under different light conditions, except for sharing in the same pathway with HFR1 under far-red light. Together, our results substantiate that PAR1 and PAR2 are positive factors functioning in multiple photoreceptor signaling pathways during seedling deetiolation. PMID:24335334

Zhou, Peng; Song, Meifang; Yang, Qinghua; Su, Liang; Hou, Pei; Guo, Lin; Zheng, Xu; Xi, Yulin; Meng, Fanhua; Xiao, Yang; Yang, Li; Yang, Jianping

2014-01-01

26

Relationships of photosynthetically active radiation and shortwave irradiance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hourly measurements of solar irradiance in the wave band excluding photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and solar irradiance (SI) were made over a 12-month period at the National Observatory of Athens, for obtaining the ratios of PAR to SI. These irradiance ratios exhibit dependence on sky conditions, with slightly larger values being observed under “cloudy” skies and seasonal variations, attributable to

G. Papaioannou; N. Papanikolaou; D. Retalis

1993-01-01

27

Excimer laser irradiation at 248 nm of wooden archaeological objects and polymeric consolidants used in conservation: a study of cone formation and optimum cleaning parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Samples of a prehistoric consolidated vegetable basketry, coming from an important pile building in the North-East of Italy (Fiavé Carrera, Trento), had been irradiated with excimer laser pulses to remove the consolidant layer and restore the artifact. Some problems, related to the nature of the consolidant resin, were found in the preliminary laser cleaning process. The two main obstacles were related to the unknown composition of the polymeric resin and to the irregular surface morphology of the archaeological find. We observed that large numbers of laser pulses, for selected laser parameters, strongly modify the resin surface morphology with formation of a large number of cones. After cone formation, the surface was so irregular that it was almost impossible to complete the laser cleaning procedure. To find a solution to the problem, we here try to understand the mechanisms of cone formation in the present polymeric material. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) have been used to study surface morphology and chemical modification after selected irradiation processes. To understand the influence of laser irradiation on surface modifications and to establish a cleaning procedure for this specific application, investigations have been carried out separately on models of resin consolidants and wood (both dried and buried wood sample). The consolidants were commercial resins, typically used in archaeological conservation (Plexisol and Paraloid), deposited on a silicon substrate. Silicon was used because it is an appropriate substrate in FT-IR analysis. Finally, we chose wood because of its wide use in prehistoric artefact (Viburnum lantana).

Belli, R.; Toniutti, L.; Miotello, A.; Mosaner, P.; Avi, D.

2008-07-01

28

Prone Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation After Breast-Conserving Surgery: Five-year Results of 100 Patients  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report the 5-year results of a prospective trial of three-dimensional conformal external beam radiotherapy (3D-CRT) to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation in the prone position. Methods and Materials: Postmenopausal patients with Stage I breast cancer with nonpalpable tumors <2 cm, negative margins and negative nodes, positive hormone receptors, and no extensive intraductal component were eligible. The trial was offered only after eligible patients had refused to undergo standard whole-breast radiotherapy. Patients were simulated and treated on a dedicated table for prone setup. 3D-CRT was delivered at a dose of 30 Gy in five 6-Gy/day fractions over 10 days with port film verification at each treatment. Rates of ipsilateral breast failure, ipsilateral nodal failure, contralateral breast failure, and distant failure were estimated using the cumulative incidence method. Rates of disease-free, overall, and cancer-specific survival were recorded. Results: One hundred patients were enrolled in this institutional review board-approved prospective trial, one with bilateral breast cancer. One patient withdrew consent after simulation, and another patient elected to interrupt radiotherapy after receiving two treatments. Ninety-eight patients were evaluable for toxicity, and, in 1 case, both breasts were treated with partial breast irradiation. Median patient age was 68 years (range, 53-88 years); in 55% of patients the tumor size was <1 cm. All patients had hormone receptor-positive cancers: 87% of patients underwent adjuvant antihormone therapy. At a median follow-up of 64 months (range, 2-125 months), there was one local recurrence (1% ipsilateral breast failure) and one contralateral breast cancer (1% contralateral breast failure). There were no deaths due to breast cancer by 5 years. Grade 3 late toxicities occurred in 2 patients (one breast edema, one transient breast pain). Cosmesis was rated good/excellent in 89% of patients with at least 36 months follow-up. Conclusions: Five-year efficacy and toxicity of 3D-CRT delivered in prone partial breast irradiation are comparable to other experiences with similar follow-up.

Formenti, Silvia C., E-mail: silvia.formenti@nyumc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Hsu, Howard; Fenton-Kerimian, Maria [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Roses, Daniel; Guth, Amber [Department of Surgery, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Surgery, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Jozsef, Gabor [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Goldberg, Judith D. [Division of Biostastistics, Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Division of Biostastistics, Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); DeWyngaert, J. Keith [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States)

2012-11-01

29

Model parameterization to simulate and compare the PAR absorption potential of two competing plant species  

PubMed Central

Mountain pastures dominated by the pasture grass Setaria sphacelata in the Andes of southern Ecuador are heavily infested by southern bracken (Pteridium arachnoideum), a major problem for pasture management. Field observations suggest that bracken might outcompete the grass due to its competitive strength with regard to the absorption of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). To understand the PAR absorption potential of both species, the aims of the current paper are to (1) parameterize a radiation scheme of a two-big-leaf model by deriving structural (LAI, leaf angle parameter) and optical (leaf albedo, transmittance) plant traits for average individuals from field surveys, (2) to initialize the properly parameterized radiation scheme with realistic global irradiation conditions of the Rio San Francisco Valley in the Andes of southern Ecuador, and (3) to compare the PAR absorption capabilities of both species under typical local weather conditions. Field data show that bracken reveals a slightly higher average leaf area index (LAI) and more horizontally oriented leaves in comparison to Setaria. Spectrometer measurements reveal that bracken and Setaria are characterized by a similar average leaf absorptance. Simulations with the average diurnal course of incoming solar radiation (1998–2005) and the mean leaf–sun geometry reveal that PAR absorption is fairly equal for both species. However, the comparison of typical clear and overcast days show that two parameters, (1) the relation of incoming diffuse and direct irradiance, and (2) the leaf–sun geometry play a major role for PAR absorption in the two-big-leaf approach: Under cloudy sky conditions (mainly diffuse irradiance), PAR absorption is slightly higher for Setaria while under clear sky conditions (mainly direct irradiance), the average bracken individual is characterized by a higher PAR absorption potential. (?74 MJ m?2 year?1). The latter situation which occurs if the maximum daily irradiance exceeds 615 W m?2 is mainly due to the nearly orthogonal incidence of the direct solar beam onto the horizontally oriented frond area which implies a high amount of direct PAR absorption during the noon maximum of direct irradiance. Such situations of solar irradiance favoring a higher PAR absorptance of bracken occur in ?36% of the observation period (1998–2005). By considering the annual course of PAR irradiance in the San Francisco Valley, the clear advantage of bracken on clear days (36% of all days) is completely compensated by the slight but more frequent advantage of Setaria under overcast conditions (64% of all days). This means that neither bracken nor Setaria show a distinct advantage in PAR absorption capability under the current climatic conditions of the study area. PMID:19937454

Silva, Brenner; Roos, Kristin; Gottlicher, Dietrich Otto; Rollenbeck, Rutger; Nauss, Thomas; Beck, Erwin

2009-01-01

30

Brulures par Diluant  

PubMed Central

Summary La flamme de diluant est une cause non rare de brûlure dans le contexte marocain. Nous avons jugé intéressant de faire une étude épidémiologique sur la brûlure par flamme de diluant (BFD) au centre national des brûlés (CNB) du CHU Ibn-Rochd de Casablanca. Ce travail a été réalisé sur une période de 10 mois (septembre 2007/juin 2008). Le but du travail est de montrer les caractéristiques de ce type de brûlures pour les prévenir et ce par l'information sur le diluant, produit causant ces brûlures, et ses différents dangers, la brûlure notamment. Durant cette période, nous avons colligé 17 cas de BFD sur un total de 356 patients admis au CNB pour brûlures aiguës toute étiologie confondue. La moyenne d'age des patients concernés est de 32 ans. Ils sont presque tous de sexe masculin (16 hommes/1 femme) et ont des antécédents de toxicomanie et/ou de délinquance. Tous nos patients sont de bas niveau socio-économique et habitent dans des bidonvilles pour la plupart. La brûlure est souvent secondaire à une agression dans la rue (92% des cas). Concernant les caractéristiques de la brûlure, la surface cutanée brûlée moyenne est de 23%; elle est souvent profonde et siège surtout au niveau des membres supérieurs et du tronc. PMID:21991179

Benbrahim, A.; Jerrah, H.; Diouri, M.; Bahechar, N.; Boukind, E.H.

2009-01-01

31

PAR proteins and the establishment of cell polarity during C. elegans development.  

PubMed

Cells become polarized to develop functional specializations and to distribute developmental determinants unequally during division. Studies that began in the nematode C. elegans have identified a group of largely conserved proteins, called PAR proteins, that play key roles in the polarization of many different cell types. During initial stages of cell polarization, certain PAR proteins become distributed asymmetrically along the cell cortex and subsequently direct the localization and/or activity of other proteins. Here I discuss recent findings on how PAR proteins become and remain asymmetric in three different contexts during C. elegans development: anterior-posterior polarization of the one-cell embryo, apicobasal polarization of non-epithelial early embryonic cells, and apicobasal polarization of epithelial cells. Although polarity within each of these cell types requires PAR proteins, the cues and regulators of PAR asymmetry can differ. PMID:15666355

Nance, Jeremy

2005-02-01

32

Par Pond vegetation status 1996  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995, and into the early spring and late summer of 1996. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities continue to become re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, watershield, and Pontederia are extensive and well developed. Measures of percent cover, width of beds, and estimates of area of coverage with satellite data indicate regrowth within two years of from 40 to 60% of levels prior to the draw down. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer of 1996, especially in the former warm arm of Par Pond, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the draw down still have not formed. Lotus has invaded and occupies many of the areas formerly dominated by cattail beds. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys through the summer and early fall of 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1996-12-01

33

Evidence for a DNA-relay mechanism in ParABS-mediated chromosome segregation  

PubMed Central

The widely conserved ParABS system plays a major role in bacterial chromosome segregation. How the components of this system work together to generate translocation force and directional motion remains uncertain. Here, we combine biochemical approaches, quantitative imaging and mathematical modeling to examine the mechanism by which ParA drives the translocation of the ParB/parS partition complex in Caulobacter crescentus. Our experiments, together with simulations grounded on experimentally-determined biochemical and cellular parameters, suggest a novel 'DNA-relay' mechanism in which the chromosome plays a mechanical function. In this model, DNA-bound ParA-ATP dimers serve as transient tethers that harness the elastic dynamics of the chromosome to relay the partition complex from one DNA region to another across a ParA-ATP dimer gradient. Since ParA-like proteins are implicated in the partitioning of various cytoplasmic cargos, the conservation of their DNA-binding activity suggests that the DNA-relay mechanism may be a general form of intracellular transport in bacteria. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02758.001 PMID:24859756

Lim, Hoong Chuin; Surovtsev, Ivan Vladimirovich; Beltran, Bruno Gabriel; Huang, Fang; Bewersdorf, Jorg; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine

2014-01-01

34

The polarity protein Par6 is coupled to the microtubule network during molluscan early embryogenesis  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} The cDNAs encoding Par6 and aPKC homologues were cloned from the snail Lymnaea stagnalis. {yields} L. stagnalis Par6 directly interacts with tubulin and microtubules and localizes to the microtubule cytoskeleton during the early embryogenesis. {yields} Identical sequence and localization of LsPar6 for the dextral and the sinistral snails exclude the possibility of the gene being the primary determinant of body handedness. -- Abstract: Cell polarity, which directs the orientation of asymmetric cell division and segregation of fate determinants, is a fundamental feature of development and differentiation. Regulators of polarity have been extensively studied, and the critical importance of the Par (partitioning-defective) complex as the polarity machinery is now recognized in a wide range of eukaryotic systems. The Par polarity module is evolutionarily conserved, but its mechanism and cooperating factors vary among different systems. Here we describe the cloning and characterization of a pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis homologue of partitioning-defective 6 (Lspar6). The protein product LsPar6 shows high affinity for microtubules and localizes to the mitotic apparatus during embryonic cell division. In vitro assays revealed direct binding of LsPar6 to tubulin and microtubules, which is the first evidence of the direct interaction between the two proteins. The interaction is mediated by two distinct regions of LsPar6 both located in the N-terminal half. Atypical PKC, a functional partner of Par6, was also found to localize to the mitotic spindle. These results suggest that the L. stagnalis Par complex employs the microtubule network in cell polarity processes during the early embryogenesis. Identical sequence and localization of LsPar6 for the dextral and the sinistral snails exclude the possibility of the gene being the primary determinant of handedness.

Homma, Taihei [Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)] [Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Shimizu, Miho [Kuroda Chiromorphology Team, ERATO-SORST, JST, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan)] [Kuroda Chiromorphology Team, ERATO-SORST, JST, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Kuroda, Reiko, E-mail: ckuroda@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan) [Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kuroda Chiromorphology Team, ERATO-SORST, JST, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan)

2011-01-07

35

Bacterial DNA segregation dynamics mediated by the polymerizing protein ParF.  

PubMed

Prokaryotic DNA segregation most commonly involves members of the Walker-type ParA superfamily. Here we show that the ParF partition protein specified by the TP228 plasmid is a ParA ATPase that assembles into extensive filaments in vitro. Polymerization is potentiated by ATP binding and does not require nucleotide hydrolysis. Analysis of mutations in conserved residues of the Walker A motif established a functional coupling between filament dynamics and DNA partitioning. The partner partition protein ParG plays two separable roles in the ParF polymerization process. ParF is unrelated to prokaryotic polymerizing proteins of the actin or tubulin families, but is a homologue of the MinD cell division protein, which also assembles into filaments. The ultrastructures of the ParF and MinD polymers are remarkably similar. This points to an evolutionary parallel between DNA segregation and cytokinesis in prokaryotic cells, and reveals a potential molecular mechanism for plasmid and chromosome segregation mediated by the ubiquitous ParA-type proteins. PMID:15775965

Barillà, Daniela; Rosenberg, Mark F; Nobbmann, Ulf; Hayes, Finbarr

2005-04-01

36

Bacterial DNA segregation dynamics mediated by the polymerizing protein ParF  

PubMed Central

Prokaryotic DNA segregation most commonly involves members of the Walker-type ParA superfamily. Here we show that the ParF partition protein specified by the TP228 plasmid is a ParA ATPase that assembles into extensive filaments in vitro. Polymerization is potentiated by ATP binding and does not require nucleotide hydrolysis. Analysis of mutations in conserved residues of the Walker A motif established a functional coupling between filament dynamics and DNA partitioning. The partner partition protein ParG plays two separable roles in the ParF polymerization process. ParF is unrelated to prokaryotic polymerizing proteins of the actin or tubulin families, but is a homologue of the MinD cell division protein, which also assembles into filaments. The ultrastructures of the ParF and MinD polymers are remarkably similar. This points to an evolutionary parallel between DNA segregation and cytokinesis in prokaryotic cells, and reveals a potential molecular mechanism for plasmid and chromosome segregation mediated by the ubiquitous ParA-type proteins. PMID:15775965

Barilla, Daniela; Rosenberg, Mark F; Nobbmann, Ulf; Hayes, Finbarr

2005-01-01

37

Uncoupling of Nucleotide Hydrolysis and Polymerization in the ParA Protein Superfamily Disrupts DNA Segregation Dynamics*  

PubMed Central

DNA segregation in bacteria is mediated most frequently by proteins of the ParA superfamily that transport DNA molecules attached via the segrosome nucleoprotein complex. Segregation is governed by a cycle of ATP-induced polymerization and subsequent depolymerization of the ParA factor. Here, we establish that hyperactive ATPase variants of the ParA homolog ParF display altered segrosome dynamics that block accurate DNA segregation. An arginine finger-like motif in the ParG centromere-binding factor augments ParF ATPase activity but is ineffective in stimulating nucleotide hydrolysis by the hyperactive proteins. Moreover, whereas polymerization of wild-type ParF is accelerated by ATP and inhibited by ADP, filamentation of the mutated proteins is blocked indiscriminately by nucleotides. The mutations affect a triplet of conserved residues that are situated neither in canonical nucleotide binding and hydrolysis motifs in the ParF tertiary structure nor at interfaces implicated in ParF polymerization. Instead the residues are involved in shaping the contours of the binding pocket so that nucleotide binding locks the mutant proteins into a configuration that is refractory to polymerization. Thus, the architecture of the pocket not only is crucial for optimal ATPase kinetics but also plays a key role in the polymerization dynamics of ParA proteins that drive DNA segregation ubiquitously in procaryotes. PMID:23093445

Dobruk-Serkowska, Aneta; Caccamo, Marisa; Rodriguez-Castaneda, Fernando; Wu, Meiyi; Bryce, Kerstyn; Ng, Irene; Schumacher, Maria A.; Barilla, Daniela; Hayes, Finbarr

2012-01-01

38

Uncoupling of nucleotide hydrolysis and polymerization in the ParA protein superfamily disrupts DNA segregation dynamics.  

PubMed

DNA segregation in bacteria is mediated most frequently by proteins of the ParA superfamily that transport DNA molecules attached via the segrosome nucleoprotein complex. Segregation is governed by a cycle of ATP-induced polymerization and subsequent depolymerization of the ParA factor. Here, we establish that hyperactive ATPase variants of the ParA homolog ParF display altered segrosome dynamics that block accurate DNA segregation. An arginine finger-like motif in the ParG centromere-binding factor augments ParF ATPase activity but is ineffective in stimulating nucleotide hydrolysis by the hyperactive proteins. Moreover, whereas polymerization of wild-type ParF is accelerated by ATP and inhibited by ADP, filamentation of the mutated proteins is blocked indiscriminately by nucleotides. The mutations affect a triplet of conserved residues that are situated neither in canonical nucleotide binding and hydrolysis motifs in the ParF tertiary structure nor at interfaces implicated in ParF polymerization. Instead the residues are involved in shaping the contours of the binding pocket so that nucleotide binding locks the mutant proteins into a configuration that is refractory to polymerization. Thus, the architecture of the pocket not only is crucial for optimal ATPase kinetics but also plays a key role in the polymerization dynamics of ParA proteins that drive DNA segregation ubiquitously in procaryotes. PMID:23093445

Dobruk-Serkowska, Aneta; Caccamo, Marisa; Rodríguez-Castañeda, Fernando; Wu, Meiyi; Bryce, Kerstyn; Ng, Irene; Schumacher, Maria A; Barillà, Daniela; Hayes, Finbarr

2012-12-14

39

Partial breast irradiation for locally recurrent breast cancer within a second breast conserving treatment: Alternative to mastectomy? Results from a prospective trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo assess the outcome of multi-catheter pulse dose rate (PDR) brachytherapy of re-irradiation for local ipsilateral breast tumour recurrence (IBTR) in regard to local control, survival, morbidity and quality of life (QoL).

Daniela Kauer-Dorner; Richard Pötter; Alexandra Resch; Leonore Handl-Zeller; Kathrin Kirchheiner Mag; Katja Meyer-Schell; Wolfgang Dörr

40

Cell Polarity Factor Par3 Binds SPTLC1 and Modulates Monocyte Serine Palmitoyltransferase Activity and Chemotaxis*  

PubMed Central

Elevated sphingolipids have been associated with increased cardiovascular disease. Conversely, atherosclerosis is reduced in mice by blocking de novo synthesis of sphingolipids catalyzed by serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT). The SPT enzyme is composed of the SPTLC1 and -2 subunits, and here we describe a novel protein-protein interaction between SPTLC1 and the PDZ protein Par3 (partitioning defective protein 3). Mammalian SPTLC1 orthologs have a highly conserved C terminus that conforms to a type II PDZ protein interaction motif, and by screening PDZ domain protein arrays with an SPTLC1 C-terminal peptide, we found it bound the third PDZ domain of Par3. Overlay and immunoprecipitation assays confirmed this interaction and indicate Par3 is able to associate with the SPTLC1/2 holoenzyme by binding the C-terminal SPTLC1 PDZ motif. The physiologic existence of the SPTLC1/2-Par3 complex was detected in mouse liver and macrophages, and short interfering RNA inhibition of Par3 in human THP-1 monocytes significantly reduced SPT activity and de novo ceramide synthesis by nearly 40%. Given monocyte recruitment into inflamed vessels is thought to promote atherosclerosis, and because Par3 and sphingolipids have been associated with polarized cell migration, we tested whether the ability of THP-1 monocytes to migrate toward MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein 1) depended upon Par3 and SPTLC1 expression. Knockdown of Par3 significantly reduced MCP1-induced chemotaxis of THP-1 monocytes, as did knockdown of SPTLC1, and this Par3 effect depended upon SPT activity and was blunted by ceramide treatment. In conclusion, protein arrays were used to identify a novel SPTLC1-Par3 interaction that associates with increased monocyte serine palmitoyltransferase activity and chemotaxis toward inflammatory signals. PMID:19592499

Tamehiro, Norimasa; Mujawar, Zahedi; Zhou, Suiping; Zhuang, Debbie Z.; Hornemann, Thorsten; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Fitzgerald, Michael L.

2009-01-01

41

RENFORCEMENT DE LA LUMINESCENCE DES SCINTILLATIONS 03B1 PAR LES CHAMPS LECTRIQUES Par JOSEPH MATTLER,  

E-print Network

758 RENFORCEMENT DE LA LUMINESCENCE DES SCINTILLATIONS 03B1 PAR LES CHAMPS �LECTRIQUES Par JOSEPH MATTLER, Laboratoire de Luminescence, Faculté des Sciences, Paris. LE JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE ET LE RADIUM de luminescence lorsqu'on les excite par des rayons X et à une extinction lorsqu'on les excite par la

Boyer, Edmond

42

Microtexture de fibres de carbure de silicium. Etude par microscopie lectronique par transmission  

E-print Network

229 Microtexture de fibres de carbure de silicium. Etude par microscopie électronique par fibres de carbure de silicium (Nicalon) par des techniques de microscopie électronique par transmission. Nous avons montré que toutes les fibres présentent une phase de carbure de silicium microcristallisée

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

43

Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond.

Paller, M.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Wike, L.D.

1996-06-01

44

Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation: 5Year Results of the German-Austrian Multicenter Phase II Trial Using Interstitial Multicatheter Brachytherapy Alone After Breast-Conserving Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To evaluate the impact of accelerated partial breast irradiation on local control, side effects, and cosmesis using multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy as the sole method for the adjuvant local treatment of patients with low-risk breast cancer. Methods and Materials: 274 patients with low-risk breast cancer were treated on protocol. Patients were eligible for the study if the tumor size was

Vratislav Strnad; Guido Hildebrandt; Richard Poetter; Josef Hammer; Marion Hindemith; Alexandra Resch; Kurt Spiegl; Michael Lotter; Wolfgang Uter; Mayada Bani; Rolf-Dieter Kortmann; Matthias W. Beckmann; Rainer Fietkau; Oliver J. Ott

2011-01-01

45

Excimer laser irradiation at 248 nm of wooden archaeological objects and polymeric consolidants used in conservation: a study of cone formation and optimum cleaning parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of a prehistoric consolidated vegetable basketry, coming from an important pile building in the North-East of Italy\\u000a (Fiavé Carrera, Trento), had been irradiated with excimer laser pulses to remove the consolidant layer and restore the artifact.\\u000a Some problems, related to the nature of the consolidant resin, were found in the preliminary laser cleaning process. The two\\u000a main obstacles were

R. Belli; L. Toniutti; A. Miotello; P. Mosaner; D. Avi

2008-01-01

46

Differences in clinical characteristics of fallopian canal dehiscence associated with pars flaccida and pars tensa cholesteatomas.  

PubMed

This study investigated the difference in clinical characteristics of fallopian canal dehiscence associated with pars flaccida and pars tensa cholesteatomas for the purpose of increasing the preoperative detectability of dehiscence. A total of 189 ears of patients 7-80 years of age (mean 42 years) with pars flaccida cholesteatoma and 63 ears of patients 9-84 years of age (mean 50 years) with pars tensa cholesteatoma were studied. All patients had undergone prior surgical management at our institution from January 2006 to April 2012. The incidence of fallopian canal dehiscence and its location were compared between pars flaccida and pars tensa cholesteatomas. Intraoperative findings of coexistent pathologies, including destruction of the stapes superstructure, labyrinthine fistula, and dural exposure, were compared between the dehiscence and no-dehiscence groups for the two types of cholesteatomas. The incidence of dehiscence was significantly higher in patients with pars tensa cholesteatoma (55.6 %) than in patients with pars flaccida cholesteatoma (26.5 %). Dehiscence located posterior to the cochleariform process occurred slightly more frequently in patients with pars tensa cholesteatoma than in those with pars flaccida cholesteatoma. In patients with pars flaccida cholesteatoma, labyrinthine fistulas and dural exposure were significantly more frequent in the dehiscence group than in the no-dehiscence group. Fallopian canal dehiscence is more frequent in patients with pars tensa cholesteatoma than in those with pars flaccida cholesteatoma. Especially in patients with pars flaccida cholesteatoma, paying special attention to these coexisting pathologies is important to increase preoperative detectability of dehiscence. PMID:24071859

Shinnabe, Akihiro; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Hara, Mariko; Hasegawa, Masayo; Matsuzawa, Shingo; Kanazawa, Hiromi; Yoshida, Naohiro; Iino, Yukiko

2014-08-01

47

EXPRIENCES LECTROCAPILLAIRES; PAR G. LIPPMANN,  

E-print Network

vase plus large A contenant du mercure. La colonne de mercure se ter- mine en M par un ménisque convexe ioud de ce verre se trouve une couche de mercure. Deux fils de platine a, (3, isolés 1 un de Article'autre, sont en contact avec les deux masses de mercure en A et B, et permettent de les inettre en

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

48

A Conservation Practices for Conserving  

E-print Network

to water resources. The Catalog also describes conservation practices that provide other benefits to soilA Conservation Catalog Practices for Conserving Pennsylvania's Natural Resources #12;#12;A Conservation Catalog 1 Introduction P ennsylvania is a land of great natural resources and Pennsylvania

Kaye, Jason P.

49

Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation: 5-Year Results of the German-Austrian Multicenter Phase II Trial Using Interstitial Multicatheter Brachytherapy Alone After Breast-Conserving Surgery  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the impact of accelerated partial breast irradiation on local control, side effects, and cosmesis using multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy as the sole method for the adjuvant local treatment of patients with low-risk breast cancer. Methods and Materials: 274 patients with low-risk breast cancer were treated on protocol. Patients were eligible for the study if the tumor size was < 3 cm, resection margins were clear by at least 2 mm, no lymph node metastases existed, age was >35 years, hormone receptors were positive, and histologic grades were 1 or 2. Of the 274 patients, 175 (64%) received pulse-dose-rate brachytherapy (D{sub ref} = 50 Gy). and 99 (36%) received high-dose-rate brachytherapy (D{sub ref} = 32.0 Gy). Results: Median follow-up was 63 months (range, 9-103). Only 8 of 274 (2.9%) patients developed an ipsilateral in-breast tumor recurrence at the time of analysis. The 5-year actuarial local recurrence-free survival probability was 98%. The 5- year overall and disease-free survival probabilities of all patients were 97% and 96%, respectively. Contralateral in-breast malignancies were detected in 2 of 274 (0.7%) patients, and distant metastases occurred in 6 of 274 (2.2%). Late side effects {>=}Grade 3 (i.e., breast tissue fibrosis and telangiectasia) occurred in 1 patient (0.4%, 95%CI:0.0-2.0%) and 6 patients (2.2%, 95%CI:0.8-4.7%), respectively. Cosmetic results were good to excellent in 245 of 274 patients (90%). Conclusions: The long-term results of this prospective Phase II trial confirm that the efficacy of accelerated partial breast irradiation using multicatheter brachytherapy is comparable with that of whole breast irradiation and that late side effects are negligible.

Strnad, Vratislav, E-mail: vratislav.strnad@uk-erlangen.d [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Hildebrandt, Guido [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Rostock, Rostock (Germany); Poetter, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology and Radiobiology, University Hospital AKH Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Hammer, Josef [Department of Radiation Oncology, Barmherzige Schwestern Hospital, Linz (Austria); Hindemith, Marion [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Resch, Alexandra [Department of Radiation Oncology and Radiobiology, University Hospital AKH Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Spiegl, Kurt [Department of Radiation Oncology, Barmherzige Schwestern Hospital, Linz (Austria); Lotter, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Uter, Wolfgang [Department for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); Bani, Mayada [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Beckmann, Matthias W. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Fietkau, Rainer; Ott, Oliver J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany)

2011-05-01

50

Results of a conservative treatment combining induction (neoadjuvant) and consolidation chemotherapy, hormonotherapy, and external and interstitial irradiation in 98 patients with locally advanced breast cancer (IIIA-IIIB)  

SciTech Connect

Ninety-eight patients with locally advanced breast cancer (Stage IIIA-IIIB) were entered into a pilot study combining intensive induction (neoadjuvant) chemotherapy (VTMFAP) with or without hormonochemotherapy, external and interstitial radiotherapy, and consolidation chemotherapy with or without hormonochemotherapy. Tumor regression over 50% was observed in 91% patients after chemotherapy, and complete clinical remission occurred in 100% patients after irradiation. The rate of local relapse is 13%. The 3-year disease-free survival is 62% and 3-year global survival is 77%. Initial chemotherapeutic tumor regression greater than 75% is the main predictive factor for disease-free survival.

Jacquillat, C.; Baillet, F.; Weil, M.; Auclerc, G.; Housset, M.; Auclerc, M.; Sellami, M.; Jindani, A.; Thill, L.; Soubrane, C.

1988-05-15

51

Collections Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collections conservation is an approach to the preservation treatment of books and book-like materials that is conceptualized and organized in terms of large groups of materials. This guide is intended to enable a library to evaluate its current collections conservation activities. The introduction describes collections conservation and gives…

DeCandido, Robert

52

Equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction.  

PubMed

Equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID), also known as equine Cushing's syndrome, is a widely recognized disease of aged horses. Over the past two decades, the aged horse population has expanded significantly and in addition, client awareness of PPID has increased. As a result, there has been an increase in both diagnostic testing and treatment of the disease. This review focuses on the pathophysiology and clinical syndrome, as well as advances in diagnostic testing and treatment of PPID, with an emphasis on those findings that are new since the excellent comprehensive review by Schott in 2002. PMID:21392656

McFarlane, Dianne

2011-04-01

53

Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- Summary  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are extensive and well developed. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Estimates from SPOT HRV, remote sensing satellite data indicated that as much as 120 hectares of emergent wetlands vegetation may have been present along the Par Pond shoreline by early October, 1995. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1996-01-01

54

Article original Infection par la chlamydiose aviaire  

E-print Network

plus infectés (17,8%) que les pigeons des autres races (2,5%) en Nouvelle-Calédonie (PArticle original Infection par la chlamydiose aviaire chez les pigeons d'élevage en Nouvelle chlamydiose aviaire, par sondage sérologique chez 8 éleveurs de pigeons représentatifs du cheptel néo

Boyer, Edmond

55

Segrosome assembly at the pliable parH centromere  

PubMed Central

The segrosome of multiresistance plasmid TP228 comprises ParF, which is a member of the ParA ATPase superfamily, and the ParG ribbon–helix–helix factor that assemble jointly on the parH centromere. Here we demonstrate that the distinctive parH site (?100-bp) consists of an array of degenerate tetramer boxes interspersed by AT-rich spacers. Although numerous consecutive AT-steps are suggestive of inherent curvature, parH lacks an intrinsic bend. Sequential deletion of parH tetramers progressively reduced centromere function. Nevertheless, the variant subsites could be rearranged in different geometries that accommodated centromere activity effectively revealing that the site is highly elastic in vivo. ParG cooperatively coated parH: proper centromere binding necessitated the protein's N-terminal flexible tails which modulate the centromere binding affinity of ParG. Interaction of the ParG ribbon–helix–helix domain with major groove bases in the tetramer boxes likely provides direct readout of the centromere. In contrast, the AT-rich spacers may be implicated in indirect readout that mediates cooperativity between ParG dimers assembled on adjacent boxes. ParF alone does not bind parH but instead loads into the segrosome interactively with ParG, thereby subtly altering centromere conformation. Assembly of ParF into the complex requires the N-terminal flexible tails in ParG that are contacted by ParF. PMID:21378121

Wu, Meiyi; Zampini, Massimiliano; Bussiek, Malte; Hoischen, Christian; Diekmann, Stephan; Hayes, Finbarr

2011-01-01

56

Conservation Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started as a germ of an idea back in 1987 (on a real, live bulletin board, as opposed to an electronic one), Conservation Online (CoOL) has been providing online resources for conservation professionals since 1993. As its website announces, it is a "full text library of conservation information," covering a wide array of topics ranging from digital imaging to reprographics, and quite a bit of material in between. By clicking on any given topic, visitors will receive a brief overview of the subject, its terminology, and then a list of general online resources for consideration. Another nice feature of the site is the mailing list archive, which contain the archives of various queries submitted to different professional conservation groups, such as the Association of Moving Image Archivists, the Textiles Conservation Discussion List, and the Conservation Framer's Mailing List. The site is rounded out by a timeline that traces the CoOL's history from the summer of 1987 to July 2003.

57

E{Java, CaesarJ, Scala} : un exercice d'integration de la programmation par objets, par aspects et par ev`enements  

E-print Network

E{Java, CaesarJ, Scala} : un exercice d'int´egration de la programmation par objets, par aspects et.Noye@mines-nantes.fr R´esum´e La programmation par ´ev`enements et la programmation par aspects sont des paradigmes de programmation qui s'av`erent compl´eter utilement la programmation par objets dans une tr`es large gamme d

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

58

Simultaneous Integrated Boost Irradiation After Breast-Conserving Surgery: Physician-Rated Toxicity and Cosmetic Outcome at 30 Months' Follow-Up  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate toxicity and cosmetic outcome (CO) in breast cancer survivors treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy with a hypofractionated, simultaneous integrated boost (3D-CRT-SIB) and to identify risk factors for toxicity, with special focus on the impact of age. Methods and Materials: Included were 940 consecutive disease-free patients treated for breast cancer (Stage 0-III) with 3D-CRT-SIB, after breast-conserving surgery, from 2005 to 2010. Physician-rated toxicity (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0) and CO were prospectively assessed during yearly follow-up, up to 5 years after radiotherapy. Multivariate logistic regression analyses using a bootstrapping method were performed. Results: At 3 years, toxicity scores of 436 patients were available. Grade {>=}2 fibrosis in the boost area was observed in 8.5%, non-boost fibrosis in 49.4%, pain to the chest wall in 6.7%, and fair/poor CO in 39.7% of cases. Radiotherapy before chemotherapy was significantly associated with grade {>=}2 boost fibrosis at 3 years (odds ratio [OR] 2.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-6.0). Non-boost fibrosis was associated with re-resection (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.0) and larger tumors (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.1). At 1 year, chest wall pain was significantly associated with high boost dosage (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.7) and younger age (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.7). A fair/poor CO was observed more often after re-resection (OR 4.5, 95% CI 2.4-8.5), after regional radiotherapy (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.2-7.1), and in larger tumors (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.1). Conclusions: Toxicity and CO are not impaired after 3D-CRT-SIB. Fibrosis was not significantly associated with radiotherapy parameters. Independent risk factors for fibrosis were chemotherapy after radiotherapy, re-resection, and larger tumor size. Re-resection was most predictive for worse CO. Age had an impact on chest wall pain occurrence.

Bantema-Joppe, Enja J.; Schilstra, Cornelis [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Bock, Geertruida H. de [Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Dolsma, Wil V.; Busz, Dianne M.; Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Maduro, John H., E-mail: j.h.maduro@umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

2012-07-15

59

The impact of the number of excised axillary nodes and of the percentage of involved nodes on regional nodal failure in patients treated by breast-conserving surgery with or without regional irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: After breast-conserving surgery, recommendations for regional nodal radiotherapy are usually based on the number of positive nodes. This number is dependent on the number of nodes removed during the axillary dissection. This study examines whether the percentage of positive nodes may help to select patients for regional radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A retrospective study was conducted on 1,372 T1-T2 node-positive breast cancer patients treated at L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec Hospital between 1972 and 1997. Results: Among the patients who did not receive regional radiotherapy, the percentage of involved nodes was significantly associated with axillary failure. Ten-year axillary control rates were 97% and 91% when the percentage of involved nodes was <50% and {>=}50%, respectively (p = 0.007). In addition, regional radiotherapy is always significantly associated with a decrease in overall regional failure (axillary and/or supraclavicular), regardless of the percentage of involved nodes. However, regional radiotherapy reduced the axillary failure rate (2% vs. 9%, p = 0.007) only when more than a specific percentage of nodes was involved ({>=}40% if N1-3 and {>=}50% if N>3 nodes). Conclusions: The percentage of involved nodes should be taken into consideration in selecting patients for regional radiotherapy. Irradiation of the axilla should be reserved for patients with a specific ratio: >40% involved nodes if N1-3 and {>=}50% involved nodes if N>3 nodes.

Fortin, Andre [Department of Radiation Oncology, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail: afortin@videotron.ca; Dagnault, Anne [Department of Radiation Oncology, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Blondeau, Lucie [Department of Radiation Oncology, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Thi Trinh Thuc Vu [Department of Radiation Oncology, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Larochelle, Marie [Department of Radiation Oncology, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada)

2006-05-01

60

Proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) and PAR2 mediate relaxation of guinea pig internal anal sphincter.  

PubMed

Activation of proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) and PAR2 stimulates contraction of the rat but relaxation of the guinea pig colon. The aim of the present study was to investigate PAR effects on internal anal sphincter (IAS) motility. We measured relaxation of isolated muscle strips from the guinea pig IAS caused by PAR agonists using isometric transducers. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to determine the existence of PAR. In the IAS, thrombin and PAR1 peptide agonists TFLLR-NH2 and SFLLRN-NH2 evoked moderate to marked relaxation in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, trypsin and PAR2 peptide agonists 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2, SLIGRL-NH2 and SLIGKV-NH2 produced relaxation. In contrast, both PAR1 and PAR2 inactive control peptides did not elicit relaxation. Furthermore, the selective PAR1 antagonist vorapaxar and PAR2 antagonist GB 83 specifically inhibited thrombin and trypsin-induced relaxations, respectively. RT-PCR revealed the presence of PAR1 and PAR2 in the IAS. This indicates that PAR1 and PAR2 mediate the IAS relaxation. The relaxant responses of TFLLR-NH2 and trypsin were attenuated by N(omega)-Nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), indicating involvement of NO. These responses were not affected by tetrodotoxin, implying that the PAR effects are not neurally mediated. On the other hand, PAR4 agonists GYPGKF-NH2, GYPGQV-NH2 and AYPGKF-NH2 did not cause relaxation or contraction, suggesting that PAR4 is not involved in the sphincter motility. Taken together, these results demonstrate that both PAR1 and PAR2 mediate relaxation of the guinea pig IAS through the NO pathway. PAR1 and PAR2 may regulate IAS tone and might be potential therapeutic targets for anal motility disorders. PMID:24631471

Huang, Shih-Che

2014-02-10

61

Oxydation du silicium par bombardement lectronique. Influence de la pollution par le carbone (+)  

E-print Network

151 Oxydation du silicium par bombardement électronique. Influence de la pollution par le carbone, accepté le 26 novembre 1984) Résumé. 2014 L'oxydation du silicium monocristallin a été effectuée par'oxygène sec, 3) en présence d'un flux constant d'oxygène sec dans l'enceinte à vide. Les oxydes sont analysés

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

62

Comparative analysis of a plant pseudoautosomal region (PAR) in Silene latifolia with the corresponding S. vulgaris autosome  

PubMed Central

Background The sex chromosomes of Silene latifolia are heteromorphic as in mammals, with females being homogametic (XX) and males heterogametic (XY). While recombination occurs along the entire X chromosome in females, recombination between the X and Y chromosomes in males is restricted to the pseudoautosomal region (PAR). In the few mammals so far studied, PARs are often characterized by elevated recombination and mutation rates and high GC content compared with the rest of the genome. However, PARs have not been studied in plants until now. In this paper we report the construction of a BAC library for S. latifolia and the first analysis of a?>?100?kb fragment of a S. latifolia PAR that we compare to the homologous autosomal region in the closely related gynodioecious species S. vulgaris. Results Six new sex-linked genes were identified in the S. latifolia PAR, together with numerous transposable elements. The same genes were found on the S. vulgaris autosomal segment, with no enlargement of the predicted coding sequences in S. latifolia. Intergenic regions were on average 1.6 times longer in S. latifolia than in S. vulgaris, mainly as a consequence of the insertion of transposable elements. The GC content did not differ significantly between the PAR region in S. latifolia and the corresponding autosomal region in S. vulgaris. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the usefulness of the BAC library developed here for the analysis of plant sex chromosomes and indicate that the PAR in the evolutionarily young S. latifolia sex chromosomes has diverged from the corresponding autosomal region in the gynodioecious S. vulgaris mainly with respect to the insertion of transposable elements. Gene order between the PAR and autosomal region investigated is conserved, and the PAR does not have the high GC content observed in evolutionarily much older mammalian sex chromosomes. PMID:22681719

2012-01-01

63

Water Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity was developed to get students thinking about the many ways that people use freshwater and how we can conserve this precious and fundamental natural resource. Students will watch a short documentary describing issues related to clean water availability, analyze water-use data and start to think about how they consume and can conserve water. This background knowledge will lead to students collecting data about their own water use and finding areas in their lives to conserve water. This activity uses the 5E instructional model and is part of the "Survivor Earth" series of one-hour lessons.

64

PAR -- Interface to the ADAM Parameter System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PAR is a library of Fortran subroutines that provides convenient mechanisms for applications to exchange information with the outside world, through input-output channels called parameters. Parameters enable a user to control an application's behaviour. PAR supports numeric, character, and logical parameters, and is currently implemented only on top of the ADAM parameter system. The PAR library permits parameter values to be obtained, without or with a variety of constraints. Results may be put into parameters to be passed onto other applications. Other facilities include setting a prompt string, and suggested defaults. This document also introduces a preliminary C interface for the PAR library -- this may be subject to change in the light of experience.

Currie, Malcolm J.; Chipperfield, Alan J.

65

Radioecological implications of the Par Pond drawdown  

SciTech Connect

The drawdown of the Par Pond reservoir created dramatic alterations in this formerly stable lentic ecosystem. In addition, the radiation environment at Par Pond has changed significantly because of the exposure of Cesium 137-contaminated sediments and the appearance of new transport pathways to the terrestrial environment. In response to this situation, SREL was asked to study the radioecological implications of the reservoir drawdown. This report contains the objectives, methods, and results of the SREL study.

Hickey, H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Whicker, F.W. [Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States)

1991-12-05

66

Maladies émergentes transmises par les tiques  

Microsoft Academic Search

RésuméLes infections transmises par les tiques surviennent dans le monde entier et sont bien connues depuis plus d’un siècle. Certaines d’entre elles sont très courantes alors que d’autres sont extrêmement rares. Les techniques modernes de génétique moléculaire (dont une plus grande disponibilité de la réaction en chaîne par polymérase (PCR) (de l’anglais polymerase chain reaction) ont permis la découverte et

Ingomar Mutz

2009-01-01

67

POMPE A MERCURE AUTOMATIQUE : Par M. KLEIN.  

E-print Network

293 POMPE A MERCURE AUTOMATIQUE : Par M. KLEIN. Cette pompe à mercure est actionnéepar une trompe à, comme les an- ciennes pompes à remontage à la main, une boule-pompe etun réci- pient à mercure. Mais, au reliée à une trompe à eau et, au lieu que les déplacements du mercure soient produits par les

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

68

Le journal, objet de collections D.1 Prix payes par les collectionneurs  

E-print Network

Annexe D Le journal, objet de collections D.1 Prix pay´es par les collectionneurs En 1798 - Selon une annonce du journal, la r´e´edition des 40 premi`eres planches (conserv´ee `a la Bibl. de l journal le 14 janvier 1799, la collection compl`ete des cahiers du journal paru jusqu'`a la fin de l'an VI

Kleinert, Hagen Michael

69

Conservation Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Conservation Ecology is a new, exclusively electronic, peer-reviewed scientific journal of the Resilience Alliance, with content ranging from the applied to the theoretical. Topics covered by the journal include: "the conservation of ecosystems, landscapes, species, populations, and genetic diversity; the restoration of ecosystems and habitats; and the management of resources." This site includes the full text version of the articles (including past issues), as well as instructions on how to submit papers and how to subscribe. Subscriptions to Conservation Ecology are free of charge and all materials are available for browsing without cost. Edited by ecosystem ecology expert, Dr. C. S. Holling, Conservation Ecology breaks new ground in an important, emerging science.

1997-01-01

70

ATP-regulated interactions between P1 ParA, ParB and non-specific DNA that are stabilized by the plasmid partition site, parS  

PubMed Central

Localization of the P1 plasmid requires two proteins, ParA and ParB, which act on the plasmid partition site, parS. ParB is a site-specific DNA-binding protein and ParA is a Walker-type ATPase with non-specific DNA-binding activity. In vivo ParA binds the bacterial nucleoid and forms dynamic patterns that are governed by the ParB–parS partition complex on the plasmid. How these interactions drive plasmid movement and localization is not well understood. Here we have identified a large protein–DNA complex in vitro that requires ParA, ParB and ATP, and have characterized its assembly by sucrose gradient sedimentation and light scattering assays. ATP binding and hydrolysis mediated the assembly and disassembly of this complex, while ADP antagonized complex formation. The complex was not dependent on, but was stabilized by, parS. The properties indicate that ParA and ParB are binding and bridging multiple DNA molecules to create a large meshwork of protein–DNA molecules that involves both specific and non-specific DNA. We propose that this complex represents a dynamic adaptor complex between the plasmid and nucleoid, and further, that this interaction drives the redistribution of partition proteins and the plasmid over the nucleoid during partition. PMID:21965538

Havey, James C.; Vecchiarelli, Anthony G.; Funnell, Barbara E.

2012-01-01

71

Interim Cosmetic Results and Toxicity Using 3D Conformal External Beam Radiotherapy to Deliver Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation in Patients With Early-Stage Breast Cancer Treated With Breast-Conserving Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We present our ongoing clinical experience utilizing three-dimensional (3D)-conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) in patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy. Methods and Materials: Ninety-one consecutive patients were treated with APBI using our previously reported 3D-CRT technique. The clinical target volume consisted of the lumpectomy cavity plus a 10- to 15 -mm margin. The prescribed dose was 34 or 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions given over 5 consecutive days. The median follow-up was 24 months. Twelve patients have been followed for {>=}4 years, 20 for {>=}3.5 years, 29 for >3.0 years, 33 for {>=}2.5 years, and 46 for {>=}2.0 years. Results: No local recurrences developed. Cosmetic results were rated as good/excellent in 100% of evaluable patients at {>=} 6 months (n = 47), 93% at 1 year (n = 43), 91% at 2 years (n = 21), and in 90% at {>=}3 years (n = 10). Erythema, hyperpigmentation, breast edema, breast pain, telangiectasias, fibrosis, and fat necrosis were evaluated at 6, 24, and 36 months after treatment. All factors stabilized by 3 years posttreatment with grade I or II rates of 0%, 0%, 0%, 0%, 9%, 18%, and 9%, respectively. Only 2 patients (3%) developed grade III toxicity (breast pain), which resolved with time. Conclusions: Delivery of APBI with 3D-CRT resulted in minimal chronic ({>=}6 months) toxicity to date with good/excellent cosmetic results. Additional follow-up is needed to assess the long-term efficacy of this form of APBI.

Vicini, Frank A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)], E-mail: fvicini@beaumont.edu; Chen, Peter; Wallace, Michelle; Mitchell, Christina; Hasan, Yasmin; Grills, Inga; Kestin, Larry [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Schell, Scott [Department of Surgery, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Goldstein, Neal S. [Department of Anatomic Pathology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Kunzman, Jonathan [Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI (United States); Gilbert, Sam [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Martinez, Alvaro [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

2007-11-15

72

Excessive irradiance and antioxidant responses of an Antarctic marine diatom exposed to iron limitation and to dynamic irradiance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synergistic effects of iron limitation and irradiance dynamics on growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant activity and excessive PAR (400–700nm) and UV (280–400nm) sensitivity were investigated for the Antarctic marine diatom Chaetoceros brevis. Iron-limited and iron-replete cultures were exposed to identical daily irradiance levels, supplied as dynamic (20–1350?molm?2s?1) and constant (260?molm?2s?1) irradiance. After acclimation, growth, maximal quantum yield of PSII (Fv\\/Fm), pigment

Willem H. van de Poll; P. J. Janknegt; M. A. van Leeuwe; R. J. W. Visser; A. G. J. Buma

2009-01-01

73

The PAR complex controls the spatiotemporal dynamics of F-actin and the MTOC in directionally migrating leukocytes  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Inflammatory cells acquire a polarized phenotype to migrate towards sites of infection or injury. A conserved polarity complex comprising PAR-3, PAR-6 and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) relays extracellular polarizing cues to control cytoskeletal and signaling networks affecting morphological and functional polarization. However, there is no evidence that myeloid cells use PAR signaling to migrate vectorially in three-dimensional (3D) environments in vivo. Using genetically encoded bioprobes and high-resolution live imaging, we reveal the existence of F-actin oscillations in the trailing edge and constant repositioning of the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) to direct leukocyte migration in wounded medaka fish larvae (Oryzias latipes). Genetic manipulation in live myeloid cells demonstrates that the catalytic activity of aPKC and the regulated interaction with PAR-3 and PAR-6 are required for consistent F-actin oscillations, MTOC perinuclear mobility, aPKC repositioning and wound-directed migration upstream of Rho kinase (also known as ROCK or ROK) activation. We propose that the PAR complex coordinately controls cytoskeletal changes affecting both the generation of traction force and the directionality of leukocyte migration to sites of injury. PMID:25179599

Crespo, Carolina Lage; Vernieri, Claudio; Keller, Philipp J.; Garre, Massimiliano; Bender, Jeffrey R.; Wittbrodt, Joachim; Pardi, Ruggero

2014-01-01

74

The PAR complex controls the spatiotemporal dynamics of F-actin and the MTOC in directionally migrating leukocytes.  

PubMed

Inflammatory cells acquire a polarized phenotype to migrate towards sites of infection or injury. A conserved polarity complex comprising PAR-3, PAR-6 and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) relays extracellular polarizing cues to control cytoskeletal and signaling networks affecting morphological and functional polarization. However, there is no evidence that myeloid cells use PAR signaling to migrate vectorially in three-dimensional (3D) environments in vivo. Using genetically encoded bioprobes and high-resolution live imaging, we reveal the existence of F-actin oscillations in the trailing edge and constant repositioning of the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) to direct leukocyte migration in wounded medaka fish larvae (Oryzias latipes). Genetic manipulation in live myeloid cells demonstrates that the catalytic activity of aPKC and the regulated interaction with PAR-3 and PAR-6 are required for consistent F-actin oscillations, MTOC perinuclear mobility, aPKC repositioning and wound-directed migration upstream of Rho kinase (also known as ROCK or ROK) activation. We propose that the PAR complex coordinately controls cytoskeletal changes affecting both the generation of traction force and the directionality of leukocyte migration to sites of injury. PMID:25179599

Crespo, Carolina Lage; Vernieri, Claudio; Keller, Philipp J; Garrè, Massimiliano; Bender, Jeffrey R; Wittbrodt, Joachim; Pardi, Ruggero

2014-10-15

75

Peroxynitrite-induced thymocyte apoptosis: the role of caspases and poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase (PARS) activation.  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms by which immature thymocyte apoptosis is induced during negative selection are poorly defined. Reports demonstrated that cross-linking of T-cell receptor leads to stromal cell activation, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and, subsequently, to thymocyte apoptosis. Therefore we examined, whether NO directly or indirectly, through peroxynitrite formation, causes thymocyte apoptosis. Immuno-histochemical detection of nitrotyrosine revealed in vivo peroxynitrite formation in the thymi of naive mice. Nitrotyrosine, the footprint of peroxynitrite, was predominantly found in the corticomedullary junction and the medulla of naive mice. In the thymi of mice deficient in the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase, considerably less nitrotyrosine was found. Exposure of thymocytes in vitro to low concentrations (10 microM) of peroxynitrite led to apoptosis, whereas higher concentrations (50 microM) resulted in intense cell death with the characteristics of necrosis. We also investigated the effect of poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase (PARS) inhibition on thymocyte apoptosis. Using the PARS inhibitor 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB), or thymocytes from PARS-deficient animals, we established that PARS determines the fate of thymocyte death. Suppression of cellular ATP levels, and the cellular necrosis in response to peroxynitrite were prevented by PARS inhibition. Therefore, in the absence of PARS, cells are diverted towards the pathway of apoptotic cell death. Similar results were obtained with H2O2 treatment, while apoptosis induced by non-oxidative stimuli such as dexamethasone or anti-FAS antibody was unaffected by PARS inhibition. In conclusion, we propose that peroxynitrite-induced apoptosis may play a role in the process of thymocyte negative selection. Furthermore, we propose that the physiological role of PARS cleavage by apopain during apoptosis may serve as an energy-conserving step, enabling the cell to complete the process of apoptosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9767416

Virág, L; Scott, G S; Cuzzocrea, S; Marmer, D; Salzman, A L; Szabó, C

1998-01-01

76

WATER CONSERVATION  

E-print Network

distribution is unlimited. MIL-HDBK-1165 Water conservation, maximizing the efficient use of water resources, is rapidly becoming a critical part of many military operations as more and more demands are placed upon existing water supplies. In order to remain a good neighbor and preserve the environment in which we live, engineers throughout the Department of Defense are frequently called upon to review the beneficial use of their water resources. This military handbook provides numerous methods to increase water efficiency and details the requirements of Executive Order 12902 as it relates to water conservation within the Department of Defense. In addition, this handbook also includes, in its appendices, procedures for submitting water conservation projects for central funding programs. ii MIL-HDBK-1165 FOREWORD This handbook is designed to provide guidance to the installation energy or facilities manager and project designers in the area of water conservation. This handbook is intended to assist installations in reducing their water consumption and thereby assist in complying with the provisions of Executive Order 12902. Recommendations for improvement are encouraged from within the Navy, other government agencies, and the private sector and should be furnished on the DD Form 1426 provided inside the back

Distribution Statement

1997-01-01

77

[Conservation Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

Texas Education Agency, Austin.

78

Lighting Conservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the energy crisis has come an awareness of wasteful consumption practices. One area where research is being done is in lighting conservation. Information in this article is concerned with finding more effective and efficient lighting designs which include daylight utilization, task-oriented lighting, and lighting controls. (MA)

Arnold, Frank D.

1975-01-01

79

Les Brulures Chimiques Par Le Laurier Rose  

PubMed Central

Summary Le laurier rose ou Nerium oleander est un arbuste qui pousse naturellement dans les régions méditerranéennes. Au Maroc on le trouve dans les lieux humides. Il est réputé par ses risques de toxicité systémique en cas d'empoisonnement à cause de la présence de deux alcaloïdes, surtout l'oléandrine. La littérature illustre des cas d'utilisation locale des feuilles de cette plante contre la gale, les hémorroïdes et les furoncles. Nous rapportons deux cas de brûlures chimiques par le laurier rose de gravité différente. Cela doit aboutir à une information élargie de la population, ainsi qu'une réglementation stricte de sa commercialisation. PMID:21991211

Bakkali, H.; Ababou, M.; Nassim Sabah, T.; Moussaoui, A.; Ennouhi, A.; Fouadi, F.Z.; Siah, S.; Ihrai, H.

2010-01-01

80

A Combined Global and Local Approach to Elucidate Spatial Organization of the Mycobacterial ParB-parS Partition Assembly  

SciTech Connect

Combining diverse sets of data at global (size, shape) and local (residue) scales is an emerging trend for elucidating the organization and function of the cellular assemblies. We used such a strategy, combining data from X-ray and neutron scattering with H/D-contrast variation and X-ray footprinting with mass spectrometry, to elucidate the spatial organization of the ParB-parS assembly from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The ParB-parS participates in plasmid and chromosome segregation and condensation in predivisional bacterial cells. ParB polymerizes around the parS centromere(s) to form a higher-order assembly that serves to recruit cyto-skeletal ParA ATPases and SMC proteins for chromosome segregation. A hybrid model of the ParB-parS was built by combining and correlating computational models with experiment-derived information about size, shape, position of the symmetry axis within the shape, internal topology, DNA-protein interface, exposed surface patches, and prior knowledge. This first view of the ParB-parS leads us to propose how ParB spread on the chromosome to form a larger assembly.

B Chaudhuri; S Gupta; V Urban; M Chance; R DMello; L Smith; K Lyons; J Gee

2011-12-31

81

Kallikrein 6 Signals through PAR1 and PAR2 to Promote Neuron Injury and Exacerbate Glutamate Neurotoxicity  

PubMed Central

CNS trauma generates a proteolytic imbalance contributing to secondary injury, including axonopathy and neuron degeneration. Kallikrein 6 (Klk6) is a serine protease implicated in neurodegeneration and here we investigate the role of protease activated receptors 1 (PAR1) and PAR2 in mediating these effects. First we demonstrate Klk6 and the prototypical activator of PAR1, thrombin, as well as PAR1 and PAR2, are each elevated in murine experimental traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) at acute or subacute time points. Recombinant Klk6 triggered ERK1/2 signaling in cerebellar granule neurons and in the NSC34 spinal cord motoneuron cell line, in a PI3K and MEK-dependent fashion. Importantly, lipopeptide inhibitors of PAR1 or PAR2, and PAR1 genetic deletion, each reduced Klk6-ERK1/2 activation. In addition, Klk6 and thrombin promoted degeneration of cerebellar neurons and exacerbated glutamate neurotoxicity. Moreover, genetic deletion of PAR1 blocked thrombin-mediated cerebellar neurotoxicity and reduced the neurotoxic effects of Klk6. Klk6 also increased glutamate-mediated Bim signaling, PARP cleavage and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release in NSC34 motoneurons and these effects were blocked by PAR1 and PAR2 lipopeptide inhibitors. Taken together these data point to a novel Klk6-signaling axis in CNS neurons that is mediated by PAR1 and PAR2 and is positioned to contribute to neurodegeneration. PMID:23647384

Yoon, Hyesook; Radulovic, Maja; Wu, Jianmin; Blaber, Sachiko I.; Blaber, Michael; Fehlings, Michael G.; Scarisbrick, Isobel A.

2014-01-01

82

A Combined Global and Local Approach to Elucidate Spatial Organization of the Mycobacterial ParB-parS Partition  

SciTech Connect

Combining diverse sets of data at global (size, shape) and local (residue) scales is an emerging trend for elucidating the organization and function of the cellular assemblies. We used such a strategy, combining data from X-ray and neutron scattering with H/D-contrast variation and X-ray footprinting with mass spectrometry, to elucidate the spatial organization of the ParB-parS assembly from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The ParB-parS participates in plasmid and chromosome segregation and condensation in predivisional bacterial cells. ParB polymerizes around the parS centromere(s) to form a higher-order assembly that serves to recruit cyto-skeletal ParA ATPases and SMC proteins for chromosome segregation. A hybrid model of the ParB-parS was built by combining and correlating computational models with experiment-derived information about size, shape, position of the symmetry axis within the shape, internal topology, DNA-protein interface, exposed surface patches, and prior knowledge. This first view of the ParB-parS leads us to propose how ParB spread on the chromosome to form a larger assembly.

Chaudhuri, Barnali [University of Buffalo, The State University of New York; Gupta, Sayan [Case Western Reserve University; Urban, Volker S [ORNL; Chance, Mark [Case Western Reserve University; D'Mello, Rhijuta [Case Western Reserve University; Smith, Lauren [University of Buffalo, The State University of New York; Lyons, Kelly [University of Buffalo, The State University of New York; Gee, Jessica [University of Buffalo, The State University of New York

2010-01-01

83

DTERMINATION DE LA DILATATION DU MERCURE; Par M. P. CHAPPUIS.  

E-print Network

12 D�TERMINATION DE LA DILATATION DU MERCURE; Par M. P. CHAPPUIS. Les déterminations l'aites par Regnault (1) de la dilatation du mercure par la méthode absolue présentent, comme l'a remarqué Broch (2 dilatation du mercure par la méthode relative du thermomètre à poids, qui exige, il est vrai, une connais

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

84

suPAR and Team Nephrology  

PubMed Central

Primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) accounts for nearly 10 % of patients who require renal replacement therapy. Elevated circulating levels of soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) have been identified as a biomarker to discriminate primary FSGS from other glomerulopathies. Subsequent reports have questioned the diagnostic utility of this test. In a study in BMC Medicine, Huang et al. demonstrate that urinary soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) excretion assists in distinguishing primary FSGS from other glomerular diseases, and that high plasma suPAR concentrations are not directly linked to a decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). This observation suggests that further investigation of suPAR is warranted in patients with FSGS. It should be interpreted in light of a recent report that B7-1 is expressed in the podocytes of a subset of patients with FSGS, and that blocking this molecule may represent the first successful targeted intervention for this disease. These advances highlight the rapid pace of scientific progress in the field of nephrology. Nephrologists should work together, share resources, and expedite the design of protocols to evaluate these novel biomarkers in a comprehensive and scientifically valid manner. Please see related article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/12/81. PMID:24885021

2014-01-01

85

REGISTRARIAT PAIEMENT PAR CARTE DE CRDIT  

E-print Network

disponible Date de naissance jj/mm/aaaa Prénom Nom de famille Adresse de courrier électronique ( ) Téléphone) Date Signature de l'étudiant(e) Date Faire parvenir au Registrariat : Par courrier électronique à

Skorobogatiy, Maksim

86

Intramural Sports Par 3 Golf League  

E-print Network

between June 16th and June 26th or online at http://oregonstate.edu/recsports/ Manager's Meeting of risks inherent in intramural participation. Rules Intramural Sports Par 3 Golf Rules will be used must be ready to tee off by 6pm. Office Use Only: _________DATE OF ENTRY _________STAFF INITIALS #12;

Escher, Christine

87

uPAR: a versatile signalling orchestrator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plasminogen system has been implicated in clot lysis, wound healing, tissue regeneration, cancer and many other processes that affect health and disease. The urokinase receptor uPAR was originally thought to assist the directional invasion of migrating cells, but it is now becoming increasingly evident that this proteinase receptor elicits a plethora of cellular responses that include cellular adhesion, differentiation,

Francesco Blasi; Peter Carmeliet

2002-01-01

88

Par(-4)oxysm in Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Summary Women suffering from breast cancer often succumb to incurable recurrent disease resulting from therapy-resistant cancer cells. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Alvarez and colleagues identify downregulation of the tumor suppressor Par-4 as the key determinant in apoptosis evasion that leads to tumor recurrence in breast cancer. PMID:23845436

Shrestha-Bhattarai, Tripti; Hebbar, Nikhil; Rangnekar, Vivek M.

2013-01-01

89

Historic macrophyte development in Par Pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerial photographs from 1975, 1980, and 1983 were examined to evaluate the changes that have occurred in the wetland vegetation of Par Pond, a reactor-cooling reservoir. Evaluation of the aerial photographs was based on comparisons with ground-level vegetation maps made during July 1984. Comparisons of photographs from August and December of 1983 revealed the main seasonal change in the aerial

1985-01-01

90

MESURE CINTIQUE DES TEMPRATURES par M. FOURNET,  

E-print Network

chaud par une membrane dont la rupture brusque libère un jet de particules, d'une part, et permet de. Abstract. 2014 The proposed method allows the measurement of high gas temperature in fast transient phenomena, such as those encountered in shock tubes used in aerodynamics, plasma stu- dies, etc

Boyer, Edmond

91

UNIVERSITE DE GRENOBLE attribu par la bibliothque  

E-print Network

as "Simultaneous Localization And Mapping" (SLAM) and finally (3) Detect And Track Moving Objects (DATMO of the environment to build a map of the environment and localize the vehicle inside this map : this task is know et Technologies de l'Information, Informatique" présentée et soutenue publiquement par Olivier AYCARD

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

92

Contrle de drones et robots par reconnaissance de mouvements complexes  

E-print Network

Contrôle de drones et robots par reconnaissance de mouvements complexes Anaïs Finzi, Bastien Tauran contexte du pilotage de drones et de robots par des mouvements de l'opérateur détectés par des applied to complex gesture recognition in the context of drones and robots control, when the human

Boyer, Edmond

93

INSTITUT NATIONAL POLYTECHNIQUE DE GRENOBLE N attribu par la bibliothque  

E-print Network

ou friction stir welding (FSW) 4 A-1 Principe du soudage par friction malaxage (friction stir welding septembre 2004 Titre : Genèse des microstructures lors du soudage par friction malaxage d'alliages d'aluminium MATIERES i INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPITRE I. Etude bibliographique 4 A. Procédé de soudage par friction malaxage

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

94

Ultrastructure of the pars intermedia of the adult sheep hypophysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light microscopy of coronal sections of the sheep pars intermedia revealed a compact, incompletely lobulated V-shaped region about 15–20 cells thick, situated between the pars distalis and the pars nervosa. A prominent hypophysial cleft and follicles containing a colloid-like substance were seen.

R. A. Perry; P. M. Robinson; G. B. Ryan

1981-01-01

95

Proposition de thse Contribution la modlisation physique du dosage par  

E-print Network

Proposition de thèse Contribution à la modélisation physique du dosage par microanalyse performante pour le dosage des matériaux comportant des actinides par microsonde électronique. Cette technique de références virtuels » obtenus par des calculs théoriques et des simulations de type Monte Carlo

Demouchy, Sylvie

96

INFLUENCE DE L'IMMUNIT PASSIVE TRANSMISE PAR LE COLOSTRUM  

E-print Network

INFLUENCE DE L'IMMUNIT� PASSIVE TRANSMISE PAR LE COLOSTRUM SUR L'�VOLUTION DE LA PESTE PORCINE transmise par le colostrum a permis de mettre en évidence chez r8 porcelets, de 20 à 25 kg, issus de truies transmise par le colostrum. Les applications qu'entraînent ces observations font l'objet de la discussion

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

97

TUDE DE UAs2 PAR DIFFRACTION DE NEUTRONS Par A. OLS,  

E-print Network

561. �TUDE DE UAs2 PAR DIFFRACTION DE NEUTRONS Par A. OL�S, Service de Physique du Solide et de neutrons du composé quadratique UAs2 a permis de préciser la structure cristalline et d'établir la UAs2 gives an improved crystal structure and establishes the magnetic structure below the Néel point

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

98

Localization of an endocannabinoid system in the hypophysial pars tuberalis and pars distalis of man  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypophysial pars tuberalis (PT) acts as an important interface between neuroendocrine brain centers (hypothalamus, pineal\\u000a organ) and the pars distalis (PD) of the hypophysis. Recently, we have identified an endocannabinoid system in the PT of hamsters\\u000a and provided evidence that 2-arachidonoylglycerol is a messenger molecule that appears to play an essential role in seasonal\\u000a reproduction and prolactin release by

Shinobu Yasuo; Claudia Unfried; Mattias Kettner; Gerd Geisslinger; Horst-Werner Korf

2010-01-01

99

« Fictions medicales » au XVIII siècle: l'efficace de la forme dans Abdeker, ou l'Art de conserver la beauté  

Microsoft Academic Search

Un jour, César Birotteau flanait sur les boulevards parisiens. « Parmi quelques livres à six sous étalés dans une manne à terre, ses yeux furent saisis par ce titre jaune de poussière: Abdeker, au l'art de conserver la beauté. II prit ce prétendu livre arabe, espece de roman fait par un médecin du siècle précédent, et tomba sur une page

Alexandre Wenger

2004-01-01

100

Conservation Regional Conservation SavingsRegional Conservation Savings  

E-print Network

the Plan''s Targets?s Targets? March 14, 2008 slide 2 Northwest Power and Conservation Council 55thth Plan Conservation ResourcePlan Conservation Resource Acquisition TargetsAcquisition Targets 20052005 ­­ 2009 = 700 aSavings(MWa) 5th Plan Target Non-Programatic Market Effects Bonneville Funded Conservation (Carry Over) Alliance

101

The Cdc42/Par6/aPKC polarity complex regulates apoptosis-induced compensatory proliferation in epithelia  

PubMed Central

Summary Background In response to stress- or tissue damage-induced apoptosis, unaffected epithelial cells undergo compensatory proliferation to maintain the integrity of the epithelium. Proximal signals regulating this response are not fully appreciated, but JNK activity appears to be critical for both apoptosis and compensatory proliferation. Since disruption of epithelial cell apical-basal polarity, as can occur in early cancer development and is correlated with increased proliferation by means not fully characterized, we considered whether disruption of the various polarity complexes could provide signals identifying damaged epithelial cells, and thus lead to apoptosis-induced compensatory proliferation. Results We identify the Cdc42/Par6/aPKC Par polarity complex as uniquely and specifically regulating apoptosis-induced compensatory proliferation in Drosophila epithelia. Genetic depletion of individual components or disruption of complex formation and localization, but not other polarity complexes, induces JNK-dependent apoptosis and JNK-dependent compensatory proliferation following radiation injury. When apoptosis execution is blocked, by P35 expression, Cdc42/Par6/aPKC depleted tissues uniquely hyperproliferate leading to tissue/organ overgrowth. Disruption of Cdc42/Par6/aPKC leads to activation of JNK through increased Rho1-Rok activity, and Rok’s capacity to activate Myosin, but not F-actin. Conclusions We show that the Cdc42/Par6/aPKC polarity complex influences both a physiologic compensatory proliferation response after irradiation injury as well as a contrived compensatory non-cell autonomous hyperproliferation response when cell autonomous apoptosis, resulting from Cdc42/Par6/aPKC disruption, is inhibited. These results suggest the possibility that in cancer where apoptotic regulation is disrupted, loss of the Cdc42/Par6/aPKC polarity complex organization or localization could contribute to tumor hyperproliferation and explain how polarity disruption contributes to tumor development. PMID:20381350

Warner, Stephen J.; Yashiro, Hanako; Longmore, Gregory D.

2010-01-01

102

Similar requirements for CDC-42 and the PAR-3/PAR-6/PKC-3 complex in diverse cell types  

E-print Network

Similar requirements for CDC-42 and the PAR-3/PAR-6/PKC-3 complex in diverse cell types David P kinase C (aPKC) plays a central role in cell polarisation. The small G protein Cdc42 also functions, it is not yet known whether Cdc42 and the Par3 complex widely function together in development or whether

Ahringe, Julie

103

The Human Pseudoautosomal Region (PAR): Origin, Function and Future  

PubMed Central

The pseudoautosomal regions (PAR1 and PAR2) of the human X and Y chromosomes pair and recombine during meiosis. Thus genes in this region are not inherited in a strictly sex-linked fashion. PAR1 is located at the terminal region of the short arms and PAR2 at the tips of the long arms of these chromosomes. To date, 24 genes have been assigned to the PAR1 region. Half of these have a known function. In contrast, so far only 4 genes have been discovered in the PAR2 region. Deletion of the PAR1 region results in failure of pairing and male sterility. The gene SHOX (short stature homeobox-containing) resides in PAR1. SHOX haploinsufficiency contributes to certain features in Turner syndrome as well as the characteristics of Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis. Only two of the human PAR1 genes have mouse homologues. These do not, however, reside in the mouse PAR1 region but are autosomal. The PAR regions seem to be relics of differential additions, losses, rearrangements and degradation of the X and Y chromosome in different mammalian lineages. Marsupials have three homologues of human PAR1 genes in their autosomes, although, in contrast to mouse, do not have a PAR region at all. The disappearance of PAR from other species seems likely and this region will only be rescued by the addition of genes to both X and Y, as has occurred already in lemmings. The present review summarizes the current understanding of the evolution of PAR and provides up-to-date information about individual genes residing in this region. PMID:18660847

Helena Mangs, A; Morris, Brian J

2007-01-01

104

Project Plan 7930 Cell G PaR Remote Handling System Replacement  

SciTech Connect

For over 40 years the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have made Californium-252 ({sup 252}Cf) available for a wide range of industries including medical, nuclear fuels, mining, military and national security. The Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) located within the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) processes irradiated production targets from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Operations in Building 7930, Cell G provide over 70% of the world's demand for {sup 252}Cf. Building 7930 was constructed and equipped in the mid-1960s. Current operations for {sup 252}Cf processing in Building 7930, Cell G require use of through-the-wall manipulators and the PaR Remote Handling System. Maintenance and repairs for the manipulators is readily accomplished by removal of the manipulator and relocation to a repair shop where hands-on work can be performed in glove boxes. Contamination inside cell G does not currently allow manned entry and no provisions were created for a maintenance area inside the cell. There has been no maintenance of the PaR system or upgrades, leaving operations vulnerable should the system have a catastrophic failure. The Cell G PaR system is currently being operated in a run to failure mode. As the manipulator is now 40+ years old there is significant risk in this method of operation. In 2006 an assessment was completed that resulted in recommendations for replacing the manipulator operator control and power centers which are used to control and power the PaR manipulator in Cell G. In mid-2008 the chain for the bridge drive failed and subsequent examinations indicated several damaged links (see Figure 1). To continue operations the PaR manipulator arm is being used to push and pull the bridge as a workaround. A retrieval tool was fabricated, tested and staged inside Cell G that will allow positioning of the bridge and manipulator arm for removal from the cell should the PaR system completely fail. A fully functioning and reliable Par manipulator arm is necessary for uninterrupted {sup 252}Cf operations; a fully-functioning bridge is needed for the system to function as intended.

Kinney, Kathryn A [ORNL

2009-10-01

105

Elevated CO2 alleviates high PAR and UV stress in the unicellular chlorophyte Dunaliella tertiolecta.  

PubMed

The effects of increased CO2 and irradiance on the physiological performance of the chlorophyte Dunaliella tertiolecta were studied at different PAR and UVR (UVA + UVB) irradiances, simulating the solar radiation at different depths, at present (390 ppmv, LC) and predicted CO2 levels for the year 2100 (1000 ppmv, HC). Elevated CO2 resulted in higher optimum and effective quantum yields (F(v)/F(m) and ?PSII, respectively), electron transport rates (ETR) and specific growth rates (?). Cell stress was alleviated in HC with respect to LC as evidenced by a decrease in reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. DNA damage showed a 42-fold increase in cyclobutane-pyrimidine dimer (CPD) formation under the highest irradiance (1100 ?mol quanta m(-2) s(-1)) in LC with respect to the lowest irradiance (200 ?mol quanta m(-2) s(-1)). Photolyase (CII-PCD-PL) gene expression was upregulated under HC resulting in a drastic decrease in CPD accumulation to only 25% with respect to LC. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) accumulation was always higher in HC and the accumulation pattern indicated its involvement in repair or growth depending on the irradiance dose. The repressor of silencing (ROS1) was only marginally involved in the response, suggesting that photoreactivation was the most relevant mechanism to overcome UVR damage. Our results demonstrate that future scenarios of global change result in alleviation of irradiance stress by CO2-induced photoprotection in D. tertiolecta. PMID:25043601

García-Gómez, Candela; Gordillo, Francisco J L; Palma, Armando; Lorenzo, M Rosario; Segovia, María

2014-09-01

106

Stress fractures of the lumbar pars interarticularis in athletes: a review based on long-term results of 18 professional cricketers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical demand of the modern game of cricket on the fast bowler is known to cause stress fractures of the lumbar spine. Between 1983 and 2001, we diagnosed pars interarticularis defects in 18 professional cricketers contracted to a single English County Cricket Club. Eight of these players were treated conservatively, with rest, supervised rehabilitation, bowling action analysis and re-education

V. S Ranawat; J. K Dowell; M. B Heywood-Waddington

2003-01-01

107

Par Pond refill water quality sampling  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to document anoxia and its cause in the event that the anoxia caused a fish kill. However, no fish kill was observed during this study, and dissolved oxygen and nutrient concentrations generally remained within the range expected for southeastern reservoirs. Par Pond water quality monitoring will continue during the second summer after refill as the aquatic macrophytes become reestablished and nutrients in the sediments are released to the water column.

Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Westbury, H.M.

1996-08-01

108

Par-4 prevents breast cancer recurrence  

PubMed Central

Therapy resistance and disease recurrence are two of the most challenging aspects in breast cancer treatment. A recent article in Cancer Cell makes a significant contribution toward a better understanding of this therapeutic problem by establishing downregulation of the tumor suppressor Par-4 as the primary determinant of breast cancer recurrence. This viewpoint brings forth the importance of their findings and its implications on future research and therapy. PMID:24164776

2013-01-01

109

Multiple enzymatic activities of ParB/Srx superfamily mediate sexual conflict among conjugative plasmids.  

PubMed

Conjugative plasmids are typically locked in intergenomic and sexual conflicts with co-resident rivals, whose translocation they block using fertility inhibition factors (FINs). We describe here the first crystal structure of an enigmatic FIN Osa deployed by the proteobacterial plasmid pSa. Osa contains a catalytically active version of the ParB/Sulfiredoxin fold with both ATPase and DNase activity, the latter being regulated by an ATP-dependent switch. Using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirB/D4 type IV secretion system (T4SS), a relative of the conjugative T4SS, we demonstrate that catalytically active Osa blocks T-DNA transfer into plants. With a partially reconstituted T4SS in vitro, we show that Osa degrades T-DNA in the T-DNA-VirD2 complex before its translocation. Further, we present evidence for conservation and interplay between ATPase and DNase activities throughout the ParB/Sulfiredoxin fold, using other members of the family, namely P1 ParB and RK2 KorB, which have general functional implications across diverse biological contexts. PMID:25358815

Maindola, Priyank; Raina, Rahul; Goyal, Parveen; Atmakuri, Krishnamohan; Ojha, Abhishek; Gupta, Sourabh; Christie, Peter J; Iyer, Lakshminarayan M; Aravind, L; Arockiasamy, Arulandu

2014-01-01

110

Allosteric activation of the Par-6 PDZ via a partial unfolding transition  

PubMed Central

Proteins exist in a delicate balance between the native and unfolded states, where thermodynamic stability may be sacrificed to attain the flexibility required for efficient catalysis, binding or allosteric control. Par-6 regulates the Par polarity complex by transmitting a GTPase signal through the CRIB-PDZ module that alters PDZ lig-and binding. Allosteric activation of the PDZ is achieved by local rearrangement of the L164 and K165 side chains to stabilize the interdomain CRIB-PDZ interface and reposition a conserved element of the ligand binding pocket. However, microsecond to millisecond dynamics measurements revealed that L164/K165 exchange requires a larger rearrangement than expected. The margin of thermodynamic stability for the PDZ domain is modest (~3 kcal/mol) and further reduced by transient interactions with the disordered CRIB domain. Measurements of local structural stability revealed that tertiary contacts within the PDZ are disrupted by a partial unfolding transition that enables interconversion of the L/K switch. The unexpected participation of partial PDZ unfolding in the allosteric mechanism of Par-6 suggests that native-state unfolding may be essential for the function of other marginally stable proteins. PMID:23705660

Whitney, Dustin S.; Peterson, Francis C.; Kovrigin, Evgenii L.; Volkman, Brian F.

2013-01-01

111

Allosteric activation of the Par-6 PDZ via a partial unfolding transition.  

PubMed

Proteins exist in a delicate balance between the native and unfolded states, where thermodynamic stability may be sacrificed to attain the flexibility required for efficient catalysis, binding, or allosteric control. Partition-defective 6 (Par-6) regulates the Par polarity complex by transmitting a GTPase signal through the Cdc42/Rac interaction binding PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1 (CRIB-PDZ) module that alters PDZ ligand binding. Allosteric activation of the PDZ is achieved by local rearrangement of the L164 and K165 side chains to stabilize the interdomain CRIB:PDZ interface and reposition a conserved element of the ligand binding pocket. However, microsecond to millisecond dynamics measurements revealed that L164/K165 exchange requires a larger rearrangement than expected. The margin of thermodynamic stability for the PDZ domain is modest (?3 kcal/mol) and further reduced by transient interactions with the disordered CRIB domain. Measurements of local structural stability revealed that tertiary contacts within the PDZ are disrupted by a partial unfolding transition that enables interconversion of the L/K switch. The unexpected participation of partial PDZ unfolding in the allosteric mechanism of Par-6 suggests that native-state unfolding may be essential for the function of other marginally stable proteins. PMID:23705660

Whitney, Dustin S; Peterson, Francis C; Kovrigin, Evgenii L; Volkman, Brian F

2013-06-26

112

An Explanation for Increasing PAR Reflectance When Plants Are Water Stressed: Implication for Remote/Nondestructive Measurement of Plant Photoprotective Response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical reflectance from leaf surfaces has been known for decades to increase with decreasing leaf water content. Experimental results show this increase consistently in maize in the visible (photosynthetically active radiation - PAR) and middle infrared (MIR) spectral regions and with weaker correlation in the near infrared (NIR) region. Changes in chlorophyll concentration have been shown to be too small to substantially contribute to increasing reflectance during the duration of these experiments. Therefore, the reflectance responses to water deficit are perplexing since reflectance in the PAR region is dominated by pigment absorption while reflectance in the MIR region is dominated by water molecule absorption. We report on recent experiments with maize which indicate that the reflectance changes during water stress in the PAR and MIR regions are due to changing optical absorption whilst those in the NIR region are due to changing optical scatter and, moreover, that reflectance in PAR and MIR is influenced by down-welling irradiance. The implication is that reflectance in PAR is influenced by both pigment absorption and plant stress level. These findings, with confirmation by microscopy, establish that increasing PAR reflectance induced by water stress results, primarily, from chloroplast avoidance movement, a plant photoprotective response, which decreases light absorption by pigments. We discuss the potential for using this phenomenon to detect and measure the level of plant stress.

Zygielbaum, A. I.; Arkebauer, T. J.; Walter-Shea, E. A.; Scoby, D. L.; Gitelson, A. A.

2011-12-01

113

Apoptosis and Tumor Resistance Conferred by Par-4  

PubMed Central

Par-4 is a tumor suppressor protein with a pro-apoptotic function. Epigenetic silencing of Par-4 is seen in diverse tumors, and Par-4 knockout mice develop spontaneous tumors in various tissues. Endogenous Par-4 is essential for sensitization of cells to diverse apoptotic stimuli, whereas ectopic expression of Par-4 can selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells. The cancer-specific pro-apoptotic action of Par-4 resides in its centrally located SAC domain. This chapter reviews a novel mouse model with ubiquitous expression of the SAC domain. These SAC transgenic mice display normal development and life span, and, most importantly, are resistant to spontaneous, as well as oncogene-induced, autochthonous tumors. The tumor resistant phenotype and undetectable toxicity of SAC in vivo suggests the SAC domain possesses tremendous therapeutic potential. PMID:18836307

Zhao, Yanming; Rangnekar, Vivek M.

2009-01-01

114

PAR2 Regulates Dental Pulp Inflammation Associated with Caries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are G-protein-coupled receptors that are activated enzymatically by proteolysis of an N-terminal domain. The cleavage and activation of PARs by serine proteases represent a novel mechanism by which such enzymes could influence the host inflammatory response. The aim of this study was to determine whether PAR-2 expression and activation were increased in dental caries. Using immunohistochemistry, we

F. T. Lundy; T. M. Curtis; M. K. McGahon; G. J. Linden; C. R. Irwin; I. A. El Karim

2010-01-01

115

A new method for PAR reduction in baseband DMT systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high peak-to-average power ratio (PAR) in real-baseband discrete multitone modulation (DMT) systems can significantly limit performance. Tone reservation techniques use unavailable or reserved tones to design a peak-cancelling signal that lowers the PAR of a transmit data block. Previous methods converge very slowly to a good solution. Our new active-set method converges much faster toward a minimum-PAR solution at

Brian S. Krongold; Douglas L. Jones

2001-01-01

116

2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) BARRACKS WITH RADAR ATTACHED. - Nike Hercules Missile Battery Summit Site, Battery Control Administration & Barracks Building, Anchorage, Anchorage, AK

117

Programmation Concurrent par Contraintes pour Vérifier un Protocole de Sécurité.  

E-print Network

??La Programmation Concurrente par Contraintes (CCP) est un modèle mathématique pour la spécification de systèmes concurrents où les agents (processus) ajoutent de l'information ou interrogent… (more)

Olarte, Carlos

2009-01-01

118

Domain 1 of the urokinase receptor (uPAR) is required for uPAR-mediated cell binding to vitronectin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper we have analyzed uPAR-mediated cellular binding to vitronectin using the murine erythroid progenitor cell line 32D. We show that expression of uPAR in 32D cells promotes cellular binding to vitronectin, but fails to support cell spreading. The strength of binding is correlated to the expression level of uPAR and is strongly stimulated by the presence of

Nicolai Sidenius; Francesco Blasi

2000-01-01

119

MPhil Textile Conservation MPhil Textile Conservation  

E-print Network

MPhil Textile Conservation #12;MPhil Textile Conservation Textile conservation is a multi-disciplinary field combining scientific analysis and a knowledge of textile history and techniques with the practical-solving and hands-on work as well as the chance to develop knowledge of our rich textile heritage and to contribute

Guo, Zaoyang

120

LAND & WATER CONSERVATION PROGRAM  

E-print Network

LAND & WATER CONSERVATION PROGRAM ________________________________________________________________________ Preparing a Conservation Plan INTRODUCTION Conservation of land, water and other natural features. Examples of goals might include protecting the water resources of a town, maintaining or improving local

New Hampshire, University of

121

Diet-induced obesity, adipose inflammation, and metabolic dysfunction correlating with PAR2 expression are attenuated by PAR2 antagonism.  

PubMed

Excessive uptake of fatty acids and glucose by adipose tissue triggers adipocyte dysfunction and infiltration of immune cells. Altered metabolic homeostasis in adipose tissue promotes insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Inflammatory and metabolic processes are mediated by certain proteolytic enzymes that share a common cellular target, protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2). This study showed that human and rat obesity correlated in vivo with increased expression of PAR2 in adipose tissue, primarily in stromal vascular cells (SVCs) including macrophages. PAR2 was expressed more than other PARs on human macrophages and was increased by dietary fatty acids (palmitic, stearic, and myristic). A novel PAR2 antagonist, GB88 (5-isoxazoyl-Cha-Ile-spiroindene-1,4-piperidine), given orally at 10 mg/kg/d (wk 8-16) reduced body weight by ?10% in obese rats fed a high-carbohydrate high-fat (HCHF) diet for 16 wk, and strongly attenuated adiposity, adipose tissue inflammation, infiltrated macrophages and mast cells, insulin resistance, and cardiac fibrosis and remodeling; while reversing liver and pancreatic dysfunction and normalizing secretion of PAR2-directed glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in MIN6 ? cells. In summary, PAR2 is a new biomarker for obesity, and its expression is stimulated by dietary fatty acids; PAR2 is a substantial contributor to inflammatory and metabolic dysfunction; and a PAR2 antagonist inhibits diet-induced obesity and inflammatory, metabolic, and cardiovascular dysfunction. PMID:23964081

Lim, Junxian; Iyer, Abishek; Liu, Ligong; Suen, Jacky Y; Lohman, Rink-Jan; Seow, Vernon; Yau, Mei-Kwan; Brown, Lindsay; Fairlie, David P

2013-12-01

122

Water conservation programs  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses three water conservation programs: statewide water conservation efforts, a 5-point program of the City of Albuquerque, and the program for recycling wastewater by the Intel Corporation. Water conservation programs depend largely on public education programs. Albuquerque`s program, for example, includes development of a K-12th grade curriculum on water conservation, live theater performances promoting conservation for elementary school children, and collaboration with existing community organizations to promote water conservation.

Darilek, A. [New Mexico State Engineer Office, Santa Fe, NM (United States). Water Conservation Program; Witherspoon, J. [City of Albuquerque, NM (United States). Public Works Dept.; Hutchinson, D.L. [Intel Corp., Rio Rancho, NM (United States)

1995-12-31

123

Discretization of Conservation Laws  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the basic equations in atmospheric modeling are based on conservation laws. Conservation of mass constitutes the continuity\\u000a equation, and conservation of momentum establishes the momentum equations. When conservation properties are present in the\\u000a continuous equations, the numerical (discrete) counterparts should also have conservative properties. Examples for numerical\\u000a conservation of vorticity or other state variables can be found in

Jörn Behrens

124

Historic macrophyte development in Par Pond  

SciTech Connect

Aerial photographs from 1975, 1980, and 1983 were examined to evaluate the changes that have occurred in the wetland vegetation of Par Pond, a reactor-cooling reservoir. Evaluation of the aerial photographs was based on comparisons with ground-level vegetation maps made during July 1984. Comparisons of photographs from August and December of 1983 revealed the main seasonal change in the aerial coverage of wetland vegetation to be the wintertime loss of non-persistent emergent species such as Nelumbo lutea and Nymphaea odorata. Comparisons between September 1980 and August 1983 revealed that the lakeward extent of non-persistent macrophytes has increased by an average of 8.2 m, though not all sites have changed equally. For persistent macrophytes (principally Typha), the average increase in lakeward extent between December 1975 and August 1983 was 3.48 m. The extensive development of wetland vegetation in Par Pond as well as the substantial spread of vegetation over only a few years time indicates the high suitability of this habitat for the growth of wetland plants.

Grace, J.B.

1985-08-01

125

Concerning the dynamic instability of actin homolog ParM  

SciTech Connect

Using in vitro TIRF- and electron-microscopy, we reinvestigated the dynamics of native ParM, a prokaryotic DNA segregation protein and actin homolog. In contrast to a previous study, which used a cysteine ParM mutant, we find that the polymerization process of wild type ATP-ParM filaments consists of a polymerization phase and a subsequent steady state phase, which is dynamically unstable, like that of microtubules. We find that the apparent bidirectional polymerization of ParM, is not due to the intrinsic nature of this filament, but results from ParM forming randomly oriented bundles in the presence of crowding agents. Our results imply, that in the bacterium, ParM filaments spontaneously form bipolar bundles. Due to their intrinsic dynamic instability, ParM bundles can efficiently 'search' the cytoplasmic lumen for DNA, bind it equally well at the bipolar ends and segregate it approximately symmetrically, by the insertion of ParM subunits at either end.

Popp, David [ERATO 'Actin Filament Dynamics' Project, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, c/o RIKEN Harima Institute at Spring 8, Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)]. E-mail: dpopp@spring8.or.jp; Yamamoto, Akihiro [RIKEN Harima Institute at Spring 8, Laboratory for Structural Biochemistry, Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Iwasa, Mitsusada [ERATO 'Actin Filament Dynamics' Project, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, c/o RIKEN Harima Institute at Spring 8, Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Narita, Akihiro [ERATO 'Actin Filament Dynamics' Project, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, c/o RIKEN Harima Institute at Spring 8, Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Maeda, Kayo [ERATO 'Actin Filament Dynamics' Project, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, c/o RIKEN Harima Institute at Spring 8, Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Maeda, Yuichiro [ERATO 'Actin Filament Dynamics' Project, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, c/o RIKEN Harima Institute at Spring 8, Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); RIKEN Harima Institute at Spring 8, Laboratory for Structural Biochemistry, Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Nagoya University, Graduate School of Science, Division of Biological Science, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

2007-02-02

126

Par Pond vegetation status summer 1995 - July survey descriptive summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant, communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet (61 meters) above mean sea level, and continued with this July survey. Aquatic plant communities, similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond communities, are becoming reestablished. Beds of maidencane (Panicum hemitomon), lotus (Nelumbo lutea), water lily

H. E. Jr. Mackey; R. S. Riley

1995-01-01

127

NOUVELLES MACHINES PNEUMATIQUES A MERCURE (1) ; Par M. FORTUNATO FLORIO.  

E-print Network

38 NOUVELLES MACHINES PNEUMATIQUES A MERCURE (1) ; Par M. FORTUNATO FLORIO. Je viens d'expérimenter de nouvelles machines pneumatiques (2) à mercure, qui m'ont des résultats si satisfaisants que je'un seul sens (on peut les faire marcher par un moteur); en outre, dans mes machines, le mercure, qui sert

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

128

Visualisation 3D de champs de vecteurs par diffusion anisotropique  

E-print Network

Visualisation 3D de champs de vecteurs par diffusion anisotropique Olivier Commowick & Gabriel Peyr avons impl´ement´e la diffusion puis la visualisation 3D par isosurfaces du r´esultat. Enfin, nous euclidiens 2D ou 3D ainsi que sur des surfaces. Cette application est importante en visualisation

Frey, Pascal

129

Promiscuous Stimulation of ParF Protein Polymerization by Heterogeneous Centromere Binding Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The segrosome is the nucleoprotein complex that mediates accurate segregation of bacterial plasmids. The segrosome of plasmid TP228 comprises ParF and ParG proteins that assemble on the parH centromere. ParF, which exemplifies one clade of the ubiquitous ParA superfamily of segregation proteins, polymerizes extensively in response to ATP binding. Polymerization is modulated by the ParG centromere binding factor (CBF). The

Cristina Machón; Timothy J. G. Fothergill; Daniela Barillà; Finbarr Hayes

2007-01-01

130

Dissection of the region of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ParA that is important for dimerization and interactions with its partner ParB  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa ParA belongs to a large subfamily of Walker-type ATPases acting as partitioning proteins in bacteria. ParA has the ability to both self-associate and interact with its partner ParB. Analysis of the deletion mutants defined the part of the protein involved in dimerization and interactions with ParB. Here, a set of ParA alanine substitution mutants in the region between E67 and L85 was created and analysed in vivo and in vitro. All mutants impaired in dimerization (substitutions at positions M74, H79, Y82 and L84) were also defective in interactions with ParB, suggesting that ParA–ParB interactions depend on the ability of ParA to dimerize. Mutants with alanine substitutions at positions E67, C68, L70, E72, F76, Q83 and L85 were not impaired in dimerization, but were defective in interactions with ParB. The dimerization interface partly overlapped the pseudo-hairpin, involved in interactions with ParB. ParA mutant derivatives tested in vitro showed no defects in ATPase activity. Two parA alleles (parA84, whose product can neither self-interact nor interact with ParB, and parA67, whose product is impaired in interactions with ParB, but not in dimerization) were introduced into the P. aeruginosa chromosome by homologous gene exchange. Both mutants showed defective separation of ParB foci, but to different extents. Only PAO1161 parA84 was visibly impaired in terms of chromosome segregation, growth rate and motility, similar to a parA-null mutant. PMID:25139949

Bartosik, Aneta A.; Glabski, Krzysztof; Jecz, Paulina; Lasocki, Krzysztof; Mikosa, Malgorzata; Plochocka, Danuta; Thomas, Christopher M.

2014-01-01

131

Excessive irradiance and antioxidant responses of an Antarctic marine diatom exposed to iron limitation and to dynamic irradiance.  

PubMed

The synergistic effects of iron limitation and irradiance dynamics on growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant activity and excessive PAR (400-700 nm) and UV (280-400 nm) sensitivity were investigated for the Antarctic marine diatom Chaetoceros brevis. Iron-limited and iron-replete cultures were exposed to identical daily irradiance levels, supplied as dynamic (20-1350 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) and constant (260 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) irradiance. After acclimation, growth, maximal quantum yield of PSII (F(v)/F(m)), pigment composition, and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) were determined. Then, excessive irradiance sensitivity was assessed by monitoring pigment composition, F(v)/F(m) and viability loss during a single excessive PAR and UV treatment. Iron limitation reduced growth rates, F(v)/F(m) dynamics, and cellular pigments pools. Cellular pigment concentrations were higher under dynamic irradiance than under constant irradiance but this difference was less pronounced under iron limitation compared to iron-replete conditions. SOD and APX activities increased during dynamic irradiance under iron limitation, suggesting increased radical formation around PSII. Despite these physiological differences, no effects on growth were observed between constant and dynamic irradiance cultivation in iron-limited and iron-replete cells. The applied culturing conditions did not affect glutathione reductase activity in C. brevis. F(v)/F(m) and xanthophyll de-epoxidation dynamics during excessive irradiance were not different for iron-limited and replete cells and viability loss was not found during excessive irradiance. This study revealed photoacclimation differences between iron-limited and iron-replete C. brevis cultures that did not affect growth rates and excessive irradiance sensitivity after acclimation to constant and dynamic irradiance. PMID:18948012

van de Poll, Willem H; Janknegt, P J; van Leeuwe, M A; Visser, R J W; Buma, A G J

2009-01-01

132

Multispecies Conservation Planning  

E-print Network

CHAPTER 3 Multispecies Conservation Planning on U.S. Federal Lands Barry R. Noon, Kevin S. Mc of that propose guidelines for multispe- cies conservation planning ultimately default to surrogate conservation planning. We are encouraged by recent attempts to extend conservation planning from single

133

Compensation and Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the idea that conservation can occur without compensation was rejected by Piaget, direct and indirect evidence from developmental studies and conservation training research indicates that conservation can and does develop without compensation. Nevertheless, adults' conservation concepts include the compensation principle and influence…

Silverman, Irwin W.; Rose, Arthur P.

1982-01-01

134

TMS suppression of right pars triangularis, but not pars opercularis, improves naming in aphasia.  

PubMed

This study sought to discover if an optimum 1 cm(2) area in the non-damaged right hemisphere (RH) was present, which could temporarily improve naming in chronic, nonfluent aphasia patients when suppressed with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Ten minutes of slow, 1Hz rTMS was applied to suppress different RH ROIs in eight aphasia cases. Picture naming and response time (RT) were examined before, and immediately after rTMS. In aphasia patients, suppression of right pars triangularis (PTr) led to significant increase in pictures named, and significant decrease in RT. Suppression of right pars opercularis (POp), however, led to significant increase in RT, but no change in number of pictures named. Eight normals named all pictures correctly; similar to aphasia patients, RT significantly decreased following rTMS to suppress right PTr, versus right POp. Differential effects following suppression of right PTr versus right POp suggest different functional roles for these regions. PMID:21864891

Naeser, Margaret A; Martin, Paula I; Theoret, Hugo; Kobayashi, Masahito; Fregni, Felipe; Nicholas, Marjorie; Tormos, Jose M; Steven, Megan S; Baker, Errol H; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

2011-12-01

135

Optimisation de procds de BIOdpollution des eaux souterraines contamines par des hydrocarbures par un monitoring  

E-print Network

BIOPHY est de développer une nouvelle filière de traitement in situ de nappe basée sur : le surveillance (géophysiques et d'analyse de gaz) pour optimiser des bio-traitements de sol et de nappe de la dépollution des nappes d'eau souterraine, contaminées par des mélanges de composés organiques d

Demouchy, Sylvie

136

Novel Role for Proteinase-activated Receptor 2 (PAR2) in Membrane Trafficking of Proteinase-activated Receptor 4 (PAR4)*  

PubMed Central

Proteinase-activated receptors 4 (PAR4) is a class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) recognized through the ability of serine proteases such as thrombin and trypsin to mediate receptor activation. Due to the irreversible nature of activation, a fresh supply of receptor is required to be mobilized to the cell surface for responsiveness to agonist to be sustained. Unlike other PAR subtypes, the mechanisms regulating receptor trafficking of PAR4 remain unknown. Here, we report novel features of the intracellular trafficking of PAR4 to the plasma membrane. PAR4 was poorly expressed at the plasma membrane and largely retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in a complex with the COPI protein subunit ?-COP1. Analysis of the PAR4 protein sequence identified an arginine-based (RXR) ER retention sequence located within intracellular loop-2 (R183AR ? A183AA), mutation of which allowed efficient membrane delivery of PAR4. Interestingly, co-expression with PAR2 facilitated plasma membrane delivery of PAR4, an effect produced through disruption of ?-COP1 binding and facilitation of interaction with the chaperone protein 14-3-3?. Intermolecular FRET studies confirmed heterodimerization between PAR2 and PAR4. PAR2 also enhanced glycosylation of PAR4 and activation of PAR4 signaling. Our results identify a novel regulatory role for PAR2 in the anterograde traffic of PAR4. PAR2 was shown to both facilitate and abrogate protein interactions with PAR4, impacting upon receptor localization and cell signal transduction. This work is likely to impact markedly upon the understanding of the receptor pharmacology of PAR4 in normal physiology and disease. PMID:22411985

Cunningham, Margaret R.; McIntosh, Kathryn A.; Pediani, John D.; Robben, Joris; Cooke, Alexandra E.; Nilsson, Mary; Gould, Gwyn W.; Mundell, Stuart; Milligan, Graeme; Plevin, Robin

2012-01-01

137

Healing in the irradiated wound  

SciTech Connect

Poor or nonhealing of irradiated wounds has been attributed to progressive obliterative endarteritis. Permanently damaged fibroblasts may also play an important part in poor healing. Regardless of the cause, the key to management of irradiated skin is careful attention to prevent its breakdown and conservative, but adequate, treatment when wounds are minor. When wounds become larger and are painful, complete excision of the wound or ulcer is called for and coverage should be provided by a well-vascularized nonparasitic distant flap.16 references.

Miller, S.H.; Rudolph, R. (Univ. of California, San Diego (USA))

1990-07-01

138

Ecologically relevant UV-B dose combined with high PAR intensity distinctly affect plant growth and accumulation of secondary metabolites in leaves of Centella asiatica L. Urban.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of environmentally relevant dose of ultraviolet (UV)-B and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) on saponin accumulation in leaves on the example of Centella asiatica L. Urban. For this purpose, plants were exposed to one of four light regimes i.e., two PAR intensities with or without UV-B radiation. The experiment was conducted in technically complex sun simulators under almost natural irradiance and climatic conditions. As observed, UV-B radiation increased herb and leaf production as well as the content of epidermal flavonols, which was monitored by non-destructive fluorescence measurements. Specific fluorescence indices also indicate an increase in the content of anthocyanins under high PAR; this increase was likewise observed for the saponin concentrations. In contrast, UV-B radiation had no distinct effects on saponin and sapogenin concentrations. Our findings suggest that besides flavonoids, also saponins were accumulated under high PAR protecting the plant from oxidative damage. Furthermore, glycosylation of sapogenins seems to be important either for the protective function and/or for compartmentalization of the compounds. Moreover, our study revealed that younger leaves contain higher amounts of saponins, while in older leaves the sapogenins were the most abundant constituents. Concluding, our results proof that ambient dose of UV-B and high PAR intensity distinctly affect the accumulation of flavonoids and saponins, enabling the plant tissue to adapt to the light conditions. PMID:24044900

Müller, Viola; Albert, Andreas; Barbro Winkler, J; Lankes, Christa; Noga, Georg; Hunsche, Mauricio

2013-10-01

139

Étude par microscopie acoustique de couches minces de Ag2S déposées par spray  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver sulfide Ag2S thin films have been prepared on pyrex glass substrates by the spray pyrolysis technique at 250 °C. We have analyzed by acoustic microscopy and particularly by acoustic signature V(z) these films with various thickness (0.4 2 ?m). The acoustic signature, performed at 50, 130 and 570 MHz allow us to reach elastic properties of Ag2S material and specially Young modulus. Its value, of the order of 180 GPa, is consistent with the relative low linkage of Ag^+ in the structure and the character of fast-ion conductor of Ag2S. Besides elastic properties and using MEB and AFM investigations, we have shown that the V(z) signature gives valuable information about the bulk defects in the material. Finally, the experimental results have been discussed related to the dispersion curves of velocity of the first mode of Ag2S/pyrex system. Des couches minces de sulfure d'argent Ag2S sont préparées sur substrat de pyrex, à la température de 250 °C, par la technique de pulvérisation chimique réactive en phase liquide ou “spray". Ces dépôts, d'épaisseur variable (0,4 2 ?m), sont analysés par microscopie acoustique et, plus particulièrement, par la méthode de relevé de la signature acoustique V(z). Cette signature, effectuée à différentes fréquences (50, 130, 570 MHz), a permis de caractériser les propriétés élastiques du matériau Ag2S. La valeur du module d'Young, de l'ordre de 180 GPa, est en accord avec la faible cohésion de la liaison Ag-S et le caractère de conducteur ionique rapide de Ag2S. Les observations par MEB et AFM permettent d'expliquer l'allure des courbes V(z) par les défauts de compacité liés à la méthode de préparation. Les résultats expérimentaux sont discutés en liaison avec la courbe de dispersion de vitesses du premier mode du système Ag2S/pyrex.

Amlouk, M.; Brunet, N.; Cros, B.; Belgacem, S.; Barjon, D.

1997-09-01

140

Insight into centromere-binding properties of ParB proteins: a secondary binding motif is essential for bacterial genome maintenance  

PubMed Central

ParB proteins are one of the three essential components of partition systems that actively segregate bacterial chromosomes and plasmids. In binding to centromere sequences, ParB assembles as nucleoprotein structures called partition complexes. These assemblies are the substrates for the partitioning process that ensures DNA molecules are segregated to both sides of the cell. We recently identified the sopC centromere nucleotides required for binding to the ParB homologue of plasmid F, SopB. This analysis also suggested a role in sopC binding for an arginine residue, R219, located outside the helix-turn-helix (HTH) DNA-binding motif previously shown to be the only determinant for sopC-specific binding. Here, we demonstrated that the R219 residue is critical for SopB binding to sopC during partition. Mutating R219 to alanine or lysine abolished partition by preventing partition complex assembly. Thus, specificity of SopB binding relies on two distinct motifs, an HTH and an arginine residue, which define a split DNA-binding domain larger than previously thought. Bioinformatic analysis over a broad range of chromosomal ParBs generalized our findings with the identification of a non-HTH positively charged residue essential for partition and centromere binding, present in a newly identified highly conserved motif. We propose that ParB proteins possess two DNA-binding motifs that form an extended centromere-binding domain, providing high specificity. PMID:23345617

Sanchez, Aurore; Rech, Jerome; Gasc, Cyrielle; Bouet, Jean-Yves

2013-01-01

141

Natural Resources Conservation Service: Backyard Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Natural Resources Conservation Service, a division of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, has a feature on their website on backyard conservation. Conservation practices used on agricultural land throughout the country have been adapted for the smaller scale of backyards. Not only can visitors download and print out a 28-page booklet in English or Spanish, but they can also download and print out eight tip sheets on backyard conservation. Information on how to order the free above-mentioned material, through the mail, is also provided. Using the link in the middle of the page, "See More Tips and Topics on Backyard Conservation", visitors can read over 30 archived tips and topics, including "Invite a Toad to Dinner", "Selecting the Right Tree", and "Dream Yard". For teachers, the link "Backyard Conservation Lesson Plans" in the middle of the page provides a variety of lesson plans. Some of the lessons included are "Team Flight", which is about birds; "Growing Native", which is about native plant communities; and "Backyard Conservation and Local Laws", which is about how community laws may help or hinder backyard conservation efforts. A mock city council hearing is the final activity of the lesson.

2009-07-15

142

Limnological database for Par Pond: 1959 to 1980  

SciTech Connect

A limnological database for Par Pond, a cooling reservoir for hot reactor effluent water at the Savannah River Plant, is described. The data are derived from a combination of research and monitoring efforts on Par Pond since 1959. The approximately 24,000-byte database provides water quality, primary productivity, and flow data from a number of different stations, depths, and times during the 22-year history of the Par Pond impoundment. The data have been organized to permit an interpretation of the effects of twenty years of cooling system operations on the structure and function of an aquatic ecosystem.

Tilly, L.J.

1981-03-01

143

LETTRES A LA RDACTION REDRESSEMENT PAR CONTACT SUR LE TELLURE  

E-print Network

'extraction et revêtus d'une couche d'oxyde : Mg, Ca, Ba, Sr, Li, Na, K; les métaux Zn, Be, Al sont dans un cas, débitanti mA redressé sous I V maximum; on favorise le redressement par Zif en l'oxydant en surface par NO3H couche d'oxyde recouvrant le métal; ces oxydes, comme BaO, MgO, ZnO, peuvent devenir de type n par excès

Boyer, Edmond

144

Passivation de l'InP par oxydation en plasma RF oxygne et par action de HNO3 vapeur  

E-print Network

745 Passivation de l'InP par oxydation en plasma RF oxygène et par action de HNO3 vapeur C. Michel.S.I.N., 54500 Vandoeuvre, France (Reçu le 25 juillet 1983, accepté le 13 septembre 1983) Résumé. - Des oxydes à des températures allant jusqu'à 200°C. Les propriétés de ces oxydes ont été étudiées par ellipso

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

145

The role of uPAR signaling in lung cancer Background and significance  

E-print Network

The role of uPAR signaling in lung cancer Background and significance Lung cancer is the leading-like properties. Recently, our lab has discovered that the urokinase (uPA) receptor (uPAR) has the ability uPAR (Gutova et al., 2007). These studies led me to hypothesize that uPAR is involved in inducing

Gleeson, Joseph G.

146

The art of conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) turns 50, Henry Nicholls traces how the evolution of conservation practice has been echoed in the various incarnations of WWF's iconic pandas, and other conservation logos.

Henry Nicholls

2011-01-01

147

View from southwest to northeast of PAR site fresh water ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View from southwest to northeast of PAR site fresh water pump house - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Fresh Water Pump House, In Limited Access Area, on Patrol Road next to Open Storage Reservoir No. 736, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

148

PREVENTIVE CONSERVATION: A CONCEPT SUITED TO THE CONSERVATION OF EARTHEN  

E-print Network

and Construction Key words: Preventive conservation, traditional conservation practices, risk reduction, heritage and Archaeology Restorers with University Education (ARAAFU) or the International Institute for the Conservation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

149

Technology in water conservation  

E-print Network

2 tx H2O Summer 2013 Column by Dr. Calvin Finch, Water Conservation and Technology Center director WAT E R CONSERVATION & TECHNOLOGY CENTER Securing Our Water Future It is not unusual for individuals to describe water conservation as a... through water conservation, introduction of new technology does not automati- cally result in water savings. #27;e new evapotrans- piration-based irrigation controllers illustrate the point. A lawn?s need for water is dependent on the weather...

Finch, Dr. Calvin

2013-01-01

150

The Ocean Conservancy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn about the Ocean Conservancy's conservation projects, the latest news in marine conservation, how to get involved, and more. Read over the current issues the Ocean Conservancy is working on, such as by catch, invasive species, and overfishing. Explore the "Fish and Wildlife" link for pictures and information on threatened and endangered animals; and read past and current issues of Blue Planet Magazine, OC's quarterly publication.

2012-05-03

151

The Pars Triangularis in Dyslexia and ADHD  

PubMed Central

Limited research has been conducted on the structure of the pars triangularis (PT) in dyslexia despite functional neuroimaging research finding it may play a role in phonological processing. Furthermore, research to date has not examined PT size in ADHD even though the right inferior frontal region has been implicated in the disorder. Hence, one of the purposes of this study was to examine the structure of the PT in dyslexia and ADHD. The other purposes included examining the PT in relation to overall expressive language ability and in relation to several specific linguistic functions given language functioning often is affected in both dyslexia and ADHD. Participants included 50 children: 10 with dyslexia, 15 with comorbid dyslexia/ADHD, 15 with ADHD, and 10 controls. Using a 2 (dyslexia or not) X 2 (ADHD or not) MANCOVA, findings revealed PT length and shape were comparable between those with and without dyslexia. However, children with ADHD had smaller right PT lengths than those without ADHD, and right anterior ascending ramus length was related to attention problems in the total sample. In terms of linguistic functioning, presence of an extra sulcus in the left PT was related to poor expressive language ability. In those with adequate expressive language functioning, left PT length was related to phonological awareness, phonological short-term memory and rapid automatic naming (RAN). Right PT length was related to RAN and semantic processing. Further work on PT morphology in relation to ADHD and linguistic functioning is warranted. PMID:19356794

Kibby, Michelle Y.; Kroese, Judith M.; Krebbs, Hillery; Hill, Crystal E.; Hynd, George W.

2009-01-01

152

Scheduling on the MasPar SIMD parallel computer  

E-print Network

THE SCHEDULING ALGORITHMS A. Terminology B. Highest Level First Algorithm . C. Coffman/Graham Algorithm D. Clustering Algorithms III THE IVIASPAR. PARALLEL COMPUTER. A. MasPar Hardware B. MPL Programming Language C. Limitations IV PROGRAM DETAILS . A... THE SCHEDULING ALGORITHMS A. Terminology B. Highest Level First Algorithm . C. Coffman/Graham Algorithm D. Clustering Algorithms III THE IVIASPAR. PARALLEL COMPUTER. A. MasPar Hardware B. MPL Programming Language C. Limitations IV PROGRAM DETAILS . A...

Perkins, Keith Douglas

2012-06-07

153

Another application for trellis shaping: PAR reduction for DMT (OFDM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bound for the possible reduction of the peak-to-average ratio (PAR) dependent on the rate as well as possible practical procedures are presented. The idea of trellis shaping, originally used to minimize average transmit power in single-carrier systems, is applied to the problem of PAR reduction in multicarrier transmission. Its impact, as a function of code rate, as well as

Werner Henkel; Björn Wagner

2000-01-01

154

StePar: an automatic code for stellar parameter determination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a new automatic code (StePar) for determinig stellar atmospheric parameters (T_{eff}, log{g}, ? and [Fe/H]) in an automated way. StePar employs the 2002 version of the MOOG code (Sneden 1973) and a grid of Kurucz ATLAS9 plane-paralell model atmospheres (Kurucz 1993). The atmospheric parameters are obtained from the EWs of 263 Fe I and 36 Fe II lines (obtained from Sousa et al. 2008, A&A, 487, 373) iterating until the excitation and ionization equilibrium are fullfilled. StePar uses a Downhill Simplex method that minimizes a quadratic form composed by the excitation and ionization equilibrium conditions. Atmospheric parameters determined by StePar are independent of the stellar parameters initial-guess for the problem star, therefore we employ the canonical solar values as initial input. StePar can only deal with FGK stars from F6 to K4, also it can not work with fast rotators, veiled spectra, very metal poor stars or Signal to noise ratio below 30. Optionally StePar can operate with MARCS models (Gustafson et al. 2008, A&A, 486, 951) instead of Kurucz ATLAS9 models, additionally Turbospectrum (Alvarez & Plez 1998, A&A, 330, 1109) can replace the MOOG code and play its role during the parameter determination. StePar has been used to determine stellar parameters for some studies (Tabernero et al. 2012, A&A, 547, A13; Wisniewski et al. 2012, AJ, 143, 107). In addition StePar is being used to obtain parameters for FGK stars from the GAIA-ESO Survey.

Tabernero, H. M.; González Hernández, J. I.; Montes, D.

2013-05-01

155

Explication de décrues anormales par modèles analogiques de réservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Des modèles analogiques de réservoirs ont été élaborés à partir de l'analyse de débits de décrue de deux sources karstiques. La première source est caractérisée par une linéarité entre le débit et le temps; la seconde l'est par une loi en puissance. Pour les deux sources, il n'y a pas linéarité entre le volume d'eau souterraine stocké et le débit

Erick Carlier; Lahcen Zouhri; Isam Shahrour

2012-01-01

156

Energy Conservation Renewable Energy  

E-print Network

Conservation High Temperature Hot Water Line ReplacementHigh Temperature Hot Water Line ReplacementEnergy Conservation Renewable Energy The Future at Rutgers University Facilities & Capital Planning Operations & Services Utilities Operations 6 Berrue Circle Piscataway, NJ 08854 #12;Energy Conservation Wh C

Delgado, Mauricio

157

Water & Energy Conservation Plan  

E-print Network

Water & Energy Conservation Plan View of PGI construction and retention pond, Sitapura Industrial that India and the college both face. Within, plans are made for the conservation of water and energy of water and energy consumption on PGC's campuses and makes recommendations for increased conservation

Illinois at Chicago, University of

158

Biodiversity and Conservation Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for Biodiversity and Conservation (CBC) at the American Museum of Natural History aims to "integrate scientific research, education, and outreach so that people, themselves major catalysts in the rapid loss of biodiversity, will become participants in its conservation." The CBC currently conducts biodiversity conservation research in the Bahamas, Bolivia, Madagascar, Vietnam, and in metropolitan New York.

2001-01-01

159

Empathy Conditioned Conservation: \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the destruction and despair caused by the dust bowl of the 1930’s, Americans and their government have taken a keen interest in natural resource conservation policy on agricultural land. The Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act of 1936 was the first farm bill to include provisions that provided payments to farmers willing to employ soil conservation measures (Cain and

Robert Sheeder; Gary D. Lynne

2009-01-01

160

Conservation des Textiles  

E-print Network

Conservation des Textiles Les 22 et 23 mai 2013 Soit 2 jours - 14 heures OBJECTIFS DE LA FORMATION essentielles dans la gestion de collections textiles, depuis leur identification jusqu'à leur conservation conservation d'éléments et de collections textiles, et toutes personnes travaillant dans le domaine du

Brest, Université de

161

Conservation Action Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conservation problems are identified, with some suggestions for action. General areas covered are: Wildlife Conservation, Soil Conservation, Clean Water, Air Pollution Action, and Outdoor Recreation Action. Appendices list private organizations or agencies concerned with natural resource use and/or management, congressional committees considering…

National Rifle Association, Washington, DC.

162

Conservation in Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed is the physical concept of conservation as it is framed within the laws of conservation of mass, of momentum, and of energy. The derivation of Ohm's Law as a generalization of the relationship between the observed measurements of voltage and current serves as the exemplar of how conservation theories are formed. (JJK)

Finkel, Edward

1991-01-01

163

232 1\\'1. POLONOVSKI. -L'AMMONIAQUE catalase n'est pas forte et s'exprime volumtrique ment par 0,5-1,0.  

E-print Network

232 1\\'1. POLONOVSKI. - L'AMMONIAQUE catalase n'est pas forte et s'exprime volumétrique ment par 0,5-1,0. 3. La catalase ne peut pas servir à la définition -de la qualité du levainlactique. BIBLIOGRAPHIE : l'absence d'ammoniolactie accentuée devenant un test de conservation aseptique dû lait. TILLMANS

Boyer, Edmond

164

autour du second couteau et, par suite,  

E-print Network

mercure, constitue une soupape ne laissant passer que l'un des courants induits, quel que soit le sens de, Ann. télegraphlques, t,. 111 et Y. #12;252 *conservé va dans le liquide du mercure à l'alulniniuo1. Sa qui atteint facilement 30°, soit au moyen d'anneaux de Nobili qui apparaissent bientôt sur le mercure

Boyer, Edmond

165

Involvement of gibberellins in the stem elongation of sun and shade ecotypes of Stellaria longipes that is induced by low light irradiance.  

PubMed

Plants from two ecotypes of Stellaria longipes, alpine (an open, sunny habitat) and prairie (where adjacent plants provide a shaded habitat), were grown under normal and reduced levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Growth under low PAR is significantly promoted in both ecotypes. When quantified by the stable isotope dilution method, endogenous gibberellins (GAs) (GA1, GA8, GA20, GA19) were significantly elevated under low PAR in both 'sun' and 'shade' ecotypes, as was GA53 in the shade ecotype. Changes in endogenous GA1 levels were significantly correlated with stem growth during a 28 d growth cycle and with relative growth rate (RGR) for height under low PAR for both ecotypes. Interestingly, under low irradiance PAR, changes (both increases and decreases) in GA8, the 2beta-hydroxylated 'inactive' catabolite of GA1, closely parallel bidaily stem growth changes for both ecotypes. Because the significantly greater stem elongation of both ecotypes in response to low irradiance PAR is associated with significant increases in the endogenous levels of five GAs (GA53, GA19, GA1, GA8) in the early 13-hydroxylation GA biosynthesis pathway (measured at days 7,14 and 21), we conclude that the low irradiance PAR has very likely induced an overall increase in GA biosynthesis. PMID:17080953

Kurepin, Leonid V; Pharis, Richard P; Reid, David M; Chinnappa, C C

2006-07-01

166

A comparative study on the volume and localization of the internal gross target volume defined using the seroma and surgical clips based on 4DCT scan for external-beam partial breast irradiation after breast conserving surgery  

PubMed Central

Background To explore the volume and localization of the internal gross target volume defined using the seroma and/or surgical clips based on the four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) during free-breathing. Methods Fifteen breast cancer patients after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) were recruited for EB-PBI. On the ten sets CT images, the gross target volume formed by the clips, the seroma, both the clips and seroma delineated by one radiation oncologist and defined as GTVc, GTVs and GTVc?+?s, respectively. The ten GTVc, GTVs and GTVc?+?s on the ten sets CT images produced the IGTVc, IGTVs, IGTVc?+?s, respectively. The IGTV volume and the distance between the center of IGTVc, IGTVs, IGTVc?+?s were all recorded. Conformity index (CI), degree of inclusion (DI) were calculated for IGTV/IGTV, respectively. Results The volume of IGTVc?+?s were significantly larger than the IGTVc and IGTVs (p?

2014-01-01

167

Conservation: Toward firmer ground  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following aspects of energy conservation were reviewed in order to place the problems in proper perspective: history and goals, conservation accounting-criteria, and a method to overcome obstacles. The effect of changing prices and available supplies of energy sources and their causes on consumption levels during the last few decades were described. Some examples of attainable conservation goals were listed and justified. A number of specific criteria applicable to conservation accounting were given. Finally, a discussion was presented to relate together the following aspects of energy conservation: widespread impact, involvement of government, industry, politics, moral and ethical aspects, urgency and time element.

1975-01-01

168

Sur l'ionisation de l'atmosphre par les substances radioactives1 Par A. S. EVE  

E-print Network

cette quantité d'émanation correspond environ a la 1 1011 partie de I'atlnosphére. D'après Rutherford et seconde ou 1,65 ion par cm3 et par seconde. Rayons u du thorium. Il n'est pas possible actuellement de faire un calcul analogue pour le cas du thorium. Tout ce qu'on sait, c'est que le dépôt actif du thorium

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

169

American Bird Conservancy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Bird Conservancy (ABC) is a nonprofit organization working to "conserve wild birds and their habitats throughout the Americas." The ABC website provides informative and useful features such as the Bird Conservation Directory, a searchable directory of contact information for professionals engaged in bird conservation throughout the Americas, and the downloadable Birdwatcher's Guide to Global Warming (last mentioned in the June 28, 2002 NSDL Scout Report for the Life Sciences). The site also provides information about ABC membership and a variety of conservation programs such as Partners in Flight, Cats Indoors, The North American Bird Conservation Initiative, and the Pesticides and Birds Campaign. Site visitors may also view past copies of the ABC newsletter; and sign up for free email bulletins containing conservation action alerts, information, and news.

170

The double par locus of virulence factor pB171: DNA segregation is correlated with oscillation of ParA.  

PubMed

Prokaryotic plasmids and chromosomes encode partitioning (par) loci that segregate DNA to daughter cells before cell division. Recent database analyses showed that almost all known par loci encode an ATPase and a DNA-binding protein, and one or more cis-acting regions where the proteins act. All par-encoded ATPases belong to one of two protein superfamilies, Walker-type and actin-like ATPases. This property was recently used to divide par loci into Types I and II loci. We show here that the Escherichia coli virulence factor pB171 encodes a double par locus that consists of one Type I and one Type II locus. Separately, each locus stabilized a test-plasmid efficiently. Together, the two loci mediated even more efficient plasmid stabilization. The par loci have a unique genetic organization in that they share a common central region at which the two different DNA-binding proteins probably act. Interestingly, a fusion protein consisting of the Walker-type ParA ATPase and Gfp was functional and oscillated in nucleoid regions on a time scale of minutes. ParA-green fluorescent protein (Gfp) oscillation depended on both ParB and parC but was independent of minCDE. Point mutations in the Walker A box motif simultaneously abolished plasmid stabilization and ParA-Gfp oscillation. These observations raise the possibility that ParA oscillation is prerequisite for active plasmid segregation. PMID:11752455

Ebersbach, G; Gerdes, K

2001-12-18

171

The double par locus of virulence factor pB171: DNA segregation is correlated with oscillation of ParA  

PubMed Central

Prokaryotic plasmids and chromosomes encode partitioning (par) loci that segregate DNA to daughter cells before cell division. Recent database analyses showed that almost all known par loci encode an ATPase and a DNA-binding protein, and one or more cis-acting regions where the proteins act. All par-encoded ATPases belong to one of two protein superfamilies, Walker-type and actin-like ATPases. This property was recently used to divide par loci into Types I and II loci. We show here that the Escherichia coli virulence factor pB171 encodes a double par locus that consists of one Type I and one Type II locus. Separately, each locus stabilized a test-plasmid efficiently. Together, the two loci mediated even more efficient plasmid stabilization. The par loci have a unique genetic organization in that they share a common central region at which the two different DNA-binding proteins probably act. Interestingly, a fusion protein consisting of the Walker-type ParA ATPase and Gfp was functional and oscillated in nucleoid regions on a time scale of minutes. ParA-green fluorescent protein (Gfp) oscillation depended on both ParB and parC but was independent of minCDE. Point mutations in the Walker A box motif simultaneously abolished plasmid stabilization and ParA-Gfp oscillation. These observations raise the possibility that ParA oscillation is prerequisite for active plasmid segregation. PMID:11752455

Ebersbach, Gitte; Gerdes, Kenn

2001-01-01

172

Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- June survey descriptive summary  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the shoreline aquatic plant communities in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level, indicated that much of the original plant communities and the intermediate shoreline communities present on the exposed sediments have been lost. The extensive old-field and emergent marsh communities that were present on the exposed shoreline during the drawdown have been flooded and much of the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities have not had sufficient time for re-establishment. The shoreline does, however, have extensive beds of maidencane which extend from the shoreline margin to areas as deep as 2 and perhaps 3 meters. Scattered individual plants of lotus and watershield are common and may indicate likely directions of future wetland development in Par Pond. In addition, within isolated coves, which apparently received ground water seepage and/or stream surface flows during the period of the Par Pond draw down, extensive beds of waterlilies and spike rush are common. Invasion of willow and red maple occurred along the lake shoreline as well. Although not absent from this survey, evidence of the extensive redevelopment of the large cattail and eel grass beds was not observed in this first survey of Par Pond. Future surveys during the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997 along with the evaluation of satellite date to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond are planned.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1995-06-01

173

Irradiated foods  

MedlinePLUS

... and reduces the risk of food poisoning . Food irradiation is used in many countries. It was first approved in the U.S. to prevent sprouts on white potatoes and for the control of insects on wheat and in certain spices and seasonings.

174

Prone Whole-Breast Irradiation Using Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy in Women Undergoing Breast Conservation for Early Disease Yields High Rates of Excellent to Good Cosmetic Outcomes in Patients With Large and/or Pendulous Breasts  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report our institution's experience using prone positioning for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) to deliver post-lumpectomy whole breast irradiation (WBI) in a cohort of women with large and/or pendulous breasts, to determine the rate of acute and late toxicities and, more specifically, cosmetic outcomes. We hypothesized that using 3D-CRT for WBI in the prone position would reduce or eliminate patient and breast size as negative prognostic indicators for toxicities associated with WBI. Methods and Materials: From 1998 to 2006, 110 cases were treated with prone WBI using 3D-CRT. The lumpectomy, breast target volumes, heart, and lung were contoured on all computed tomography scans. A dose of 45-50 Gy was prescribed to the breast volume using standard fractionation schemes. The planning goals were {>=}95% of prescription to 95% of the breast volume, and 100% of boost dose to 95% of lumpectomy planning target volume. Toxicities and cosmesis were prospectively scored using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Effects Version 3.0 and the Harvard Scale. The median follow-up was 40 months. Results: The median body mass index (BMI) was 33.6 kg/m{sup 2}, and median breast volume was 1396 cm{sup 3}. The worst toxicity encountered during radiation was Grade 3 dermatitis in 5% of our patient population. Moist desquamation occurred in 16% of patients, with only 2% of patients with moist desquamation outside the inframammary/axillary folds. Eleven percent of patients had Grade {>=}2 late toxicities, including Grade 3 induration/fibrosis in 2%. Excellent to good cosmesis was achieved in 89%. Higher BMI was associated with moist desquamation and breast pain, but BMI and breast volume did not impact fibrosis or excellent to good cosmesis. Conclusion: In patients with higher BMI and/or large-pendulous breasts, delivering prone WBI using 3D-CRT results in favorable toxicity profiles and high excellent to good cosmesis rates. Higher BMI was associated with moist desquamation, but prone positioning removed BMI and breast size as factors for poorer cosmetic outcomes. This series adds to the growing literature demonstrating that prone WBI may be advantageous in select patients.

Bergom, Carmen; Kelly, Tracy; Morrow, Natalya; Wilson, J. Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Walker, Alonzo [Department of Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Xiang Qun; Ahn, Kwang Woo [Division of Biostatistics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); White, Julia, E-mail: jwhite@mcw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

2012-07-01

175

Are plants grown under low visible irradiance sensitive to low levels of ultraviolet-B radiation?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A critical question in ultraviolet-B radiation research is how different portions of the solar spectrum influence plant UV B sensitivity. Field-grown plants show only subtle responses to supplemental UV-B radiation in many aspects of growth, yet plants grown under low visible light (as in most growth chambers and greenhouses) show much more discernible changes. Here we assess a specific aspect of UV-B sensitivity in plants grown under lower PAR: when one maintains a constant proportion of UV-B to PAR, but different absolute irradiance levels, does plant sensitivity to UV-B change? We conducted field experiments at near-ambient PAR and enhanced UV-B, and also with reduced irradiance in both wavebands, on three species. Each of these species occurs in both open and shaded habitats. We found the grass Setaria viridis sensitive to UV-B radiation only when grown at lower irradiances, while the forb Geranium viscosissimum was only sensitive to UV-B at the higher irradiances. In the grass Elymus glaucus, UV-B sensitivity did not appear to be influenced by the irradiance levels. Species appear to respond differently to these changes in irradiance levels, and an array of physiological and anatomical mechanisms are likely involved.

Flint, Stephan D.; Caldwell, Martyn M.; Ryel, Ron J.

2005-08-01

176

Radiation technology for environmental conservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of radiation technology for environmental conservation is becoming increasingly important. Commercial plants for the radiation treatment of sewage sludge to reduce pathogenic micro-organisms have been operating in the Federal Republic of Germany for the past ten years and their technical and economical feasibility has been demonstrated. Irradiation of dried sludge has been developed at the Sandia National Laboratory (USA) using Cs-137, and the construction of a commercial plant is planned in Albuquerque. At the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), efforts are under way to increase the rate of composting of sludge by radiation. Regarding waste water treatment, a significant synergistic effect of radiation and ozone was found in the reduction of TOC. The construction of a gamma irradiation plant is in the planning stage in Canada, for the disinfection of virus-contaminated waste effluents from the Canadian Animal Disease Research Institute. The treatment of exhaust gases by electron beam has been studied in Japan using a large pilot plant which demonstrated that 90% of SO 2 and 80% of NO x can be removed from the flue gas of iron ore sintering furnaces. The US Department of Energy is assisting in projects for the further development of this technology for combined removal of SO 2 and NO x in flue gas from coal burning power stations.

Machi, S.

177

Bacillus subtilis Soj (ParA): The involvement of DNA binding and dynamic localization in plasmid partitioning  

E-print Network

The ParA family of ATPases encompasses proteins with a wide variety of functions. The prototype of this family is the ParA ATPase from the P1 prophage plasmid, which, along with ParB and the parS binding site, is required ...

Hester, Christina Marie

2008-05-08

178

(Symposium on energy conservation)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler attended the International Energy Conservation Symposium and presented a paper on the integrated resource planning project in Costa Rica being conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and RCG/Hagler-Bailly, Inc., in conjunction with US AID. The Symposium was organized primarily to promote awareness of energy conservation opportunities in Pakistan. The Symposium was well attended by over 470 people the vast majority of whom were from Pakistan. The symposium included sessions on policy issues, national experiences in energy conservation, energy conservation in the industrial sector, energy conservation in buildings and agriculture, energy conservation in the power sector, and prospective technologies in energy systems. The symposium had a great deal of political support including a keynote address by the Minister of State for Production, a closing session with the Governor of Sindh, and the majority of sessions being chaired by senior industry or government representatives.

Kuliasha, M.A.

1990-05-25

179

Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- October survey descriptive summary  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this late October survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maiden cane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1995-11-01

180

Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- September survey descriptive summary  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this mid-September survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys during the late growing seasons of 1995, and throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1995-09-01

181

Dual modulation by thrombin of the motility of rat oesophageal muscularis mucosae via two distinct protease-activated receptors (PARs): a novel role for PAR-4 as opposed to PAR-1  

PubMed Central

Since protease-activated receptors (PARs) are distributed throughout the gastrointestinal tract, we investigated the role of PARs in modulation of the motility of the rat oesophageal muscularis mucosae. Thrombin produced contraction of segments of the upper and lower part of the smooth muscle. Trypsin contracted both the muscle preparations only at high concentrations. SFLLR-NH2 and TFLLR-NH2 (PAR-1-activating peptides), but not the PAR-1-inactive peptide FSLLR-NH2, evoked a marked contraction. In contrast, the PAR-2 agonist SLIGRL-NH2 and the PAR-4 agonist GYPGKF-NH2 caused no or only a negligible contraction. In oesophageal preparations precontracted with carbachol, thrombin produced a dual action i.e. relaxation followed by contraction. TFLLR-NH2 further contracted the precontracted preparations with no preceding relaxation. GYPGKF-NH2, but not the inactive peptide GAPGKF-NH2, produced marked relaxation. Trypsin or SLIGRL-NH2 caused no relaxation. The PAR-1-mediated contraction was completely abolished in Ca2+-free medium and considerably attenuated by nifedipine (1??M) and in a low Na+ medium. The PAR-4-mediated relaxation was resistant to tetrodotoxin (10??M), apamin (0.1??M), charybdotoxin (0.1??M), L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (100??M), indomethacin (3??M), propranolol (5??M) or adenosine 3?,5?-cyclic monophosphorothioate, 8-bromo, Rp-isomer (30??M). Thus, thrombin plays a dual role in modulating the motility of the oesophageal muscularis mucosae, producing contraction via PAR-1 and relaxation via PAR-4. The PAR-1-mediated effect appears to occur largely through increased Na+ permeability followed by activation of L-type Ca2+ channels and subsequent influx of extracellular Ca2+. Our data could provide evidence for a novel role of PAR-4 as opposed to PAR-1, although the underlying mechanisms are still open to question. PMID:11015310

Kawabata, Atsufumi; Kuroda, Ryotaro; Kuroki, Naoko; Nishikawa, Hiroyuki; Kawai, Kenzo

2000-01-01

182

ion irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fine Co and Pt nanoparticles are nucleated when a silica sample is implanted with 400 keV Co+ and 1370 keV Pt+ ions. At the implanted range, Co and Pt react to form small Co x Pt(1- x) nanoparticles during Si+ ion irradiation at 300 °C. Thermal annealing of the pre-implanted silica substrate at 1000 °C results in the formation of spherical nanoparticles of various sizes. When irradiated with Si+ ions at 300 °C, particles in the size range of 5-17 nm undergo rod-like shape transformation with an elongation in the direction of the incident ion beam, while those particles in the size range of 17-26 nm turn into elliptical shape. Moreover, it is suspected that very big nanoparticles (size >26 nm) decrease in size, while small nanoparticles (size <5 nm) do not undergo any transformation. During Si+ ion irradiation, the crystalline nature of the nanoparticles is preserved. The results are discussed in the light of the thermal spike model.

Balaji, S.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Saravanan, K.; David, C.; Amirthapandian, S.; Kalavathi, S.; Nair, K. G. M.; Hübner, René

2014-09-01

183

Promiscuous stimulation of ParF protein polymerization by heterogeneous centromere binding factors.  

PubMed

The segrosome is the nucleoprotein complex that mediates accurate segregation of bacterial plasmids. The segrosome of plasmid TP228 comprises ParF and ParG proteins that assemble on the parH centromere. ParF, which exemplifies one clade of the ubiquitous ParA superfamily of segregation proteins, polymerizes extensively in response to ATP binding. Polymerization is modulated by the ParG centromere binding factor (CBF). The segrosomes of plasmids pTAR, pVT745 and pB171 include ParA homologues of the ParF subgroup, as well as diverse homodimeric CBFs with no primary sequence similarity to ParG, or each other. Centromere binding by these analogues is largely specific. Here, we establish that the ParF homologues of pTAR and pB171 filament modestly with ATP, and that nucleotide hydrolysis is not required for this polymerization, which is more prodigious when the cognate CBF is also present. By contrast, the ParF homologue of plasmid pVT745 did not respond appreciably to ATP alone, but polymerized extensively in the presence of both its cognate CBF and ATP. The co-factors also stimulated nucleotide-independent polymerization of cognate ParF proteins. Moreover, apart from the CBF of pTAR, the disparate ParG analogues promoted polymerization of non-cognate ParF proteins suggesting that filamentation of the ParF proteins is enhanced by a common mechanism. Like ParG, the co-factors may be modular, possessing a centromere-specific interaction domain linked to a flexible region containing determinants that promiscuously stimulate ParF polymerization. The CBFs appear to function as bacterial analogues of formins, microtubule-associated proteins or related ancillary factors that regulate eucaryotic cytoskeletal dynamics. PMID:17920627

Machón, Cristina; Fothergill, Timothy J G; Barillà, Daniela; Hayes, Finbarr

2007-11-16

184

Systematic conservation planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The realization of conservation goals requires strategies for managing whole landscapes including areas allocated to both production and protection. Reserves alone are not adequate for nature conservation but they are the cornerstone on which regional strategies are built. Reserves have two main roles. They should sample or represent the biodiversity of each region and they should separate this biodiversity from

C. R. Margules; R. L. Pressey

2000-01-01

185

Creative Soil Conservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Take plant lessons outdoors with this engaging and inquiry-based activity in which third-grade students learn how to apply soil conservation methods to growing plants. They also collect data and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of their method of soil conservation. An added benefit to this activity is that the third-grade students played…

Smith, Martha

2010-01-01

186

Outdoor Water Conservation  

E-print Network

L-438 Outdoor Water Conservation The City of OKLAHOMA CITY UTILITIES DEPARTMENT Oklahoma.JustinQ.Moss 1 #12;2 SEVEN PRINCIPLES FOR CREATING A WATER CONSERVING LANDSCAPE 1. GOOD LANDSCAPE PLANNING University Water Saving Design Ideas for Oklahoma Landscapes #12;About this guide: The

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

187

Setting conservation priorities.  

PubMed

A generic framework for setting conservation priorities based on the principles of classic decision theory is provided. This framework encapsulates the key elements of any problem, including the objective, the constraints, and knowledge of the system. Within the context of this framework the broad array of approaches for setting conservation priorities are reviewed. While some approaches prioritize assets or locations for conservation investment, it is concluded here that prioritization is incomplete without consideration of the conservation actions required to conserve the assets at particular locations. The challenges associated with prioritizing investments through time in the face of threats (and also spatially and temporally heterogeneous costs) can be aided by proper problem definition. Using the authors' general framework for setting conservation priorities, multiple criteria can be rationally integrated and where, how, and when to invest conservation resources can be scheduled. Trade-offs are unavoidable in priority setting when there are multiple considerations, and budgets are almost always finite. The authors discuss how trade-offs, risks, uncertainty, feedbacks, and learning can be explicitly evaluated within their generic framework for setting conservation priorities. Finally, they suggest ways that current priority-setting approaches may be improved. PMID:19432651

Wilson, Kerrie A; Carwardine, Josie; Possingham, Hugh P

2009-04-01

188

Conservation in transportation  

SciTech Connect

A nationwide examination was made of grassroots energy conservation programs related to transportation. Information compiled from civic groups, trade associations, and corporations is included on driver awareness/mass transit; travel; and ride sharing. It is concluded that a willingness by the public to cooperate in transportation energy conservation exists and should be exploited. (LCL)

None

1980-05-30

189

Conservation Science Fair Projects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included are ideas, suggestions, and examples for selecting and designing conservation science projects. Over 70 possible conservation subject areas are presented with suggested projects. References are cited with each of these subject areas, and a separate list of annotated references is included. The references pertain to general subject…

Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

190

Physics and Energy Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opportunities abound to conserve energy. Losses, many of them avoidable or potentially capable of large reduction, occur all the way from energy resource extraction to ultimate use. Other presentations in this conference touch on ways to conserve energy by increased efficiencies in the energy cycle up to the point of use. Some of the greatest scientific challenges lie in this

John H. Gibbons

1974-01-01

191

Conservative parameterization schemes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parameterization (closure) schemes in numerical weather and climate prediction models account for the effects of physical processes that cannot be resolved explicitly by these models. Methods for finding physical parameterization schemes that preserve conservation laws of systems of differential equations are introduced. These methods rest on the possibility to regard the problem of finding conservative parameterization schemes as a conservation law classification problem for classes of differential equations. The relevant classification problems can be solved using the direct or inverse classification procedures. In the direct approach, one starts with a general functional form of the parameterization scheme. Specific forms are then found so that corresponding closed equations admit conservation laws. In the inverse approach, one seeks parameterization schemes that preserve one or more pre-selected conservation laws of the initial model. The physical interpretation of both classification approaches is discussed. Special attention is paid to the problem of finding parameterization schemes that preserve both conservation laws and symmetries. All methods are illustrated by finding conservative and invariant conservative parameterization schemes for systems of one-dimensional shallow-water equations.

Bihlo, Alexander; Bluman, George

2013-08-01

192

Conservation Tools for Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included are suggestions for integrating conservation concepts into the general curriculum, coordinating outdoor work with indoor activities, and for planning and implementing a sequential conservation curriculum. Guidelines given for training of teachers include sample workshop schedules. Minimum requirements for outdoor school sites are listed.…

Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

193

Teaching Teachers Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a two-week summer course for elementary and secondary teachers on soil and water conservation taught in Wisconsin. Discusses the efforts to recruit teachers for the course, the course content, the field trips, and the evaluation procedures. Stresses the cooperation between educators and conservation agencies in developing the course. (TW)

Meyers, N. L.; And Others

1987-01-01

194

Introducing Conservation of Momentum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teaching of the principle of conservation of linear momentum is considered (ages 15 + ). From the principle, the momenta of two masses in an isolated system are considered. Sketch graphs of the momenta make Newton's laws appear obvious. Examples using different collision conditions are considered. Conservation of momentum is considered…

Brunt, Marjorie; Brunt, Geoff

2013-01-01

195

Resource Conservation Glossary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This glossary is a composite of terms selected from 13 technologies, and is the expanded revision of the original 1952 edition of "The Soil and Water Conservation Glossary." The terms were selected from these areas: agronomy, biology, conservation, ecology, economics, engineering, forestry, geology, hydrology, range, recreation, soils, and…

Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

196

TVA and energy conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The historical philosophy of ''plentiful energy at the cheapest possible price...'' has made the Tennessee Valley Authority's energy conservation program passive. Rate schedules offer no incentive to customers to conserve energy except to lower their total bill. TVA, unlike other utilities, can change its rates and rate structure without approval from a public regulatory agency. Years of low energy prices

1976-01-01

197

Montana Forest and Conservation  

E-print Network

Management Keith Bosak Assistant Professor, Recreation and Tourism Perry J. Brown Professor, Forest ResourcesMontana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station 2009/2010 #12;Director's Message Page 2 The Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station (MFCES) continues its proud history of serving

Vonessen, Nikolaus

198

Youth Conservation Corps Guidance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides guidelines for operating Youth Conservation Corps programs under both the Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Park Service. The guide contains 11 units that cover the following topics: (1) enrollees; (2) enrollee payroll; (3) enrollee problems; (4) Youth Conservation Corps staff; (5) accounting; (6) operations; (7)…

Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

199

The Durability of Conservation  

E-print Network

Existence of Conservation Easements, 27 Colum. J. Envtl. L. 257, 259 (2002). Nancy A. McLaughlin, Conservation Easements: Perpetuity and Beyond, 3 Ecology L.Q. 73 (2007). Tapick, supra note , at 272. Id. McLaughlin, supra note 2, at 75. McLaughlin, supra note 2, at 25. a way as to render the original terms

Rosemond, Amy Daum

200

Fractional Conservation of Mass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional conservation of mass equation is derived using a first-order Taylor Series to represent flux change in a control volume, which is valid strictly for cases of linear changes in flux through the control volume. We show that using higher-order Taylor Series approximations for the mass flux results in mass conservation equations that are intractable. We then show that

S. W. Wheatcraft; M. M. Meerachaert

2008-01-01

201

Fractional conservation of mass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional conservation of mass equation is derived using a first-order Taylor series to represent flux change in a control volume, which is valid strictly for cases of linear changes in flux through the control volume. We show that using higher-order Taylor series approximations for the mass flux results in mass conservation equations that are intractable. We then show that

Stephen W. Wheatcraft; Mark M. Meerschaert

2008-01-01

202

Wildlife Conservation Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1895 as the New York Zoological Society, the re-named Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) works "to save wildlife and wild lands throughout the world." WCS has five public facilities in New York City, where zoologists, veterinarians, zookeepers, teachers, health technicians, trainers, and others care for over 1,000 species of animals. These facilities promote "conservation education, breeding of endangered species, and understanding wildlife health and science." WCS also maintains an International Conservation program, overseeing (and funding) field conservation projects in 52 countries. Although the site targets the general public, several projects of interest to researchers are listed in the Science section, and conservation programs are outlined in In The Wild.

203

Solar radiation (PAR and UVA) and water temperature in relation to biochemical performance of Gelidium corneum (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) in subtidal bottoms off the Basque coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gelidium corneum (Hudson) J.V. Lamouroux is a very important primary producer in the Cantabrian coastal ecosystem. Some local declines in their populations have been recently detected in the Basque coast. Occurrences of yellowing and an unusual branch breakdown pattern have also been reported for some G. corneum populations. In order to gain further insight into those environmental stressors operating at a local scale, here we investigate if shallow subtidal populations of G. corneum living under potentially different conditions of irradiance (PAR and UVA) and water temperature exhibit differences in some biochemical indicators of stress, namely C:N, antioxidant activity (radical cation of 2,2?-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate); ABTS+ assay) and mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) (Asterine 330 and Palythine). We hypothesised that G. corneum subjected to higher ambient levels of irradiance and water temperature would show higher C:N ratios, lower antioxidant activity and higher MAA concentrations. Our results partially support this hypothesis. We found that G. corneum exposed to increased levels of irradiance (PAR, UVA) exhibited greater C:N ratios and lower antioxidant activity (higher IC50), whereas no relationship was found regarding MAAs. No differences in biochemical performance in relation to temperature were detected among G. corneum exposed to comparable high light. Similarly, G. corneum growing under lower UVA radiation levels showed no differences in any of the measured biochemical variables with regard to PAR and water temperature. These findings suggest that, among the environmental factors examined, UVA radiation may be an important driver in regulating the along-shore variation in G. corneum biochemical performance. Therefore, the role of irradiance, especially UV radiation, in potential future alterations in Cantabrian G. corneum populations cannot be ruled out as a potential underlying factor.

Quintano, Endika; Ganzedo, Unai; Díez, Isabel; Figueroa, Félix L.; Gorostiaga, José M.

2013-10-01

204

Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (uPAR) Targeted Nuclear Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy  

PubMed Central

Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein. Besides regulating proteolysis, uPAR could also activate many intracellular signaling pathways that promote cell motility, invasion, proliferation, and survival through cooperating with transmembrane receptors. uPAR is overexpressed across a variety of tumors and is associated with cancer invasion and metastasis. In order to meet the demand for a rapid development and potential clinical application of anti-cancer therapy based on uPA/uPAR system, it is desirable to develop non-invasive imaging methods to visualize and quantify uPAR expression in vivo. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in the development of uPAR-targeted nuclear imaging and radionuclide therapy agents. The successful development of molecular imaging probes to visualize uPAR expression in vivo would not only assist preclinical researches on uPAR function, but also eventually impact patient management. PMID:23843898

Li, Dan; Liu, Shuanglong; Shan, Hong; Conti, Peter; Li, Zibo

2013-01-01

205

Irradiance-mediated dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP) responses of red coralline algae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Red coralline algae produce significant quantities of dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP), whose breakdown products include the important climate gas dimethylsulphide (DMS) but little is known about how environmental factors influence this DMS(P) production. The effect of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on intracellular DMS(P) concentrations in the red coralline algae Lithothamnion glaciale was investigated using short (30 min) and longer-term (up to 507 h) acclimatory responses and control and high-PAR light regimes. Longer-term acclimatory intracellular DMS(P) concentrations were significantly reduced following exposure to high-PAR (220-250 ?mol m -2 s -1). No short-term acclimatory effects were observed. We conclude that while DMS(P) content in L. glaciale does respond to changes in irradiance, the effect takes place over hours - days rather than minutes, suggesting a continued turnover of DMS(P) to combat oxidative stress induced by prolonged high-PAR exposure. Immediate short-term acclimatory responses do not appear to occur.

Rix, L. N.; Burdett, H. L.; Kamenos, N. A.

2012-01-01

206

Arylquins target vimentin to trigger Par-4 secretion for tumor cell apoptosis.  

PubMed

The tumor suppressor protein prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4), which is secreted by normal cells, selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cells. We identified a 3-arylquinoline derivative, designated Arylquin 1, as a potent Par-4 secretagogue in cell cultures and mice. Mechanistically, Arylquin 1 binds vimentin, displaces Par-4 from vimentin for secretion and triggers the efficient paracrine apoptosis of diverse cancer cells. Thus, targeting vimentin with Par-4 secretagogues efficiently induces paracrine apoptosis of tumor cells. PMID:25218743

Burikhanov, Ravshan; Sviripa, Vitaliy M; Hebbar, Nikhil; Zhang, Wen; Layton, W John; Hamza, Adel; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Watt, David S; Liu, Chunming; Rangnekar, Vivek M

2014-11-01

207

Contact : alice.desclaux@ird.fr Financement : Les perceptions des lipodystrophies par les personnes atteintes Dakar  

E-print Network

51 Contact : alice.desclaux@ird.fr Financement : Les perceptions des lipodystrophies par les.desclaux@ird.fr 2. CRCF, Dakar, Sénégal Introduction et objectifs Les lipodystrophies sont définies par la médecine lipodystrophies cliniques (perçues par le médecin ou par elles-mêmes) (Diouf 2011). Les lipodystrophies se

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

208

Class 8. Telomeres and PAR October 5, 2009 Boyd, et al., 1996  

E-print Network

Class 8. Telomeres and PAR October 5, 2009 1 Telomeres A model Boyd, et al., 1996 #12;Class 8. Telomeres and PAR October 5, 2009 2 Spatial cue -> polarity Cuenca, A. A. et al. Development 2003://ftp.wormbase.org/pub/wormbase/datasets/seydoux_2003/MOVIE02%20PAR-6.mov #12;Class 8. Telomeres and PAR October 5, 2009 3 Cuenca, A. A. et al

Devoto, Stephen H.

209

Microscopie fluorescence et tomographie par cohrence optique en plein champ  

E-print Network

gating property of light for FF-OCM, and structured illumination for fluorescence microscopy. The dual optically-sectioned fluorescence and optical coherence microscopy with full-field illumination) Full champ et microscopie à fluorescence par illumination structurée. 2.1 Partie du dispositif dédiée à l

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

210

The pars intermedia of the mink, Mustela vison  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pars intermedia of intact and experimental female minks has been studied by light, electron and fluorescence microscopy. The general structure of the mink intermediate lobe is described. Two main cell types are recognized. One, termed glandular cell, predominates in number and is characterized by the presence of electron-dense granules about 200 nm in diameter and numerous large vesicles up

B. Weman; A. Nobin

1973-01-01

211

Radiological impact of Par Pond drawdown from liquid effluent pathways  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond has been lowered over the past several months to reduce the effects in the event of catastrophic dam failure while assessing the condition of the dam and determining if repairs are necessary. In lowering the level of Par Pond, 60 billion liters of water containing low levels of tritium and cesium-137 were discharged to several onsite streams. SRS surface streams flow to the Savannah River. An assessment made to determine the total amount of tritium and Cs-137 discharged and to estimate the consequences to downstream Savannah River users. It is estimated that a total of 160 curies of tritium were displaced from Par Pond to the Savannah River between June 28, 1991 and September 19, 1991. This release could hypothetically result in a maximum individual dose of 3. 2{times}10{sup {minus}4} mrem and a total (80-km and drinking water populations) population dose of 1.4{times}10{sup {minus}2} person-rem. Likewise, a maximum individual dose of 5.0{times}10{sup {minus}2} mrem and a total population dose of 1.7{times}10{sup {minus}1} person- rem are predicted as a result of an estimated 0.21 curies of Cs-137 being discharged from Par Pond to the Savannah River.

Carlton, W.H.; Hamby, D.M.

1991-10-25

212

POLITIQUE SUR COMMUNICATIONS PAR COURRIER ELECTRONIQUE AVEC LES ETUDIANTS Approuve  

E-print Network

POLITIQUE SUR COMMUNICATIONS PAR COURRIER ELECTRONIQUE AVEC LES ETUDIANTS Approuvée : Sénat Le 17'Université McGill doit instaurer une politique officialisant l'usage du courrier électronique comme moyen de communication avec les étudiants. L'adoption du courrier électronique comme moyen de communication officiel

Barthelat, Francois

213

N d'ordre 197 -2011 Anne 2011 Dlivre par  

E-print Network

Sylvette BRUNET Rapporteur M. Franck DUMEIGNIL Rapporteur Mme Catherine PINEL Examinateur M. Arnaud TRAVERT Philippe Lecour pour les résultats de caractérisations par XPS et à Isabelle Clémençon pour les analyses

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

214

Magnétométrie à hélium par pompage laser: le bilan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Depuis 1986, l'équipe Physique Atomique et Capteurs du CIRIL-ISMRA de Caen étudie les magnétomètres à hélium par pompage laser. On présente ici le bilan de ces travaux de recherche et les performances des deux prototypes (hélium4 et hélium3) réalisés au Laboratoire.

Gilles, H.; Hamel, J.; Monfort, Y.

2002-06-01

215

Par Pond vegetation status summer 1995 - July survey descriptive summary  

SciTech Connect

A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant, communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet (61 meters) above mean sea level, and continued with this July survey. Aquatic plant communities, similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond communities, are becoming reestablished. Beds of maidencane (Panicum hemitomon), lotus (Nelumbo lutea), water lily (Nymphaea odorata), and watershield (Brasenia schreberi) are now extensive and well established. In addition, within isolated coves, extensive beds of water lilies and spike-rush (Eleocharis sp.) are common. Cattail occurrence has increased since refill, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Invasion of willow (Salix sp.) and red maple (Acer rubrum) occurred along the lake shoreline during drawdown. The red maples along the present shoreline are beginning to show evidence of stress and mortality from flooding over the past four months. Some of the willows appear to be stressed as well. The loblolly pines (Pinus taeda), which were flooded in all but the shallow shoreline areas, are now dead. Future surveys are planned for the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data for mapping the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1995-07-01

216

INSTITUT NATIONAL POLYTECHNIQUE DE GRENOBLE N attribu par la bibliothque  

E-print Network

Découverte de Topologie 23 2 Découverte de Topologie 25 2.1 Caractéristiques recherchées . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 2.2 Découverte de topologie et la structure du réseau . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 2.2.1 Topologie fournie par l'utilisateur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 2.2.2 Protocoles de

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

217

Universit Paris 1 PanthonSorbonne prsent par  

E-print Network

Bordeaux 1 Examinateur Habilitation préparée au sein du laboratoire SAMM, Université Paris 1 Panthéon les membres du SAMM (et son annexe d'historiens du Pireh) pour ces (déjà) 6 années très agréables et

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

218

INSTITUT NATIONAL POLYTECHNIQUE DE GRENOBLE N attribu par la bibliothque  

E-print Network

présentée et soutenue publiquement par Ludovic MATHIEU le 26 Septembre 2005 Titre : Cycle Thorium et Réacteurs à Sel Fondu Exploration du champ des Paramètres et des Contraintes définissant le "Thorium Molten Salt Reactor" Directeur de thèse : Daniel HEUER JURY : Claude Renault rapporteur Jean-Claude Steckmeyer

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

219

Acetylcholinesterase in der Pars distalis von Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii (Aves)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photoperiodic stimulation of photosensitive male white-crowned sparrows, Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii, causes the appearance of acetylcholinesterase activity in the cephalic and caudal lobes of the pars distalis. In photosensitive birds held on short daily photoperiods little or no activity can he demonstrated histochemically. The enzyme is restricted to PAS-positive cells. After attaining a maximum between 31 and 52 days after the

Eberhard Haase; Donald S. Farner

1969-01-01

220

Universit du Sud Toulon Var N attribu par la bibliothque  

E-print Network

» - Philip K. Dirk « Il s'agit plus de penser et d'agir autrement que davantage » ­ Patrick ZIMBARDO ... à publiquement le 8 décembre 2008 par Patrick ZIMBARDO sous la direction du Professeur Luc QUONIAM Composition du

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

221

Cheminement par trimestre --Baccalaurat en informatique La passerelle DEC informatique  

E-print Network

'adresse : http://admission.umontreal.ca/programmes/majeure-en-informatique/ structure-du-programme/. En plus desCheminement par trimestre -- Baccalauréat en informatique La passerelle DEC informatique Le baccalauréat en informatique Le baccalauréat en informatique mise sur les aspects fondamentaux de l'informatique

Montréal, Université de

222

Actes JFPC 2008 Hybridation de la programmation par contraintes  

E-print Network

Actes JFPC 2008 Hybridation de la programmation par contraintes et d'un voisinage à très grande taille pour Eternity II. Pierre Schaus Yves Deville Département d'ingénierie informatique, Université de

Deville, Yves

223

Cheminement par trimestre --Majeure en informatique La majeure en informatique  

E-print Network

systèmes ; - mathématiques appliquées à l'informatique et à l'optimisation. Ce programme aborde les disponible sur le site des admissions à l'adresse : http://admission.umontreal.ca/programmes/majeure-en-informatiqueCheminement par trimestre -- Majeure en informatique La majeure en informatique La majeure est

Montréal, Université de

224

Cheminement par trimestre --Mineure en informatique La mineure en informatique  

E-print Network

informatique. Ce programme est conçu pour être suivi concurremment avec une majeure ou d'autres mineures, et il du programme disponible sur le site des admissions à l'adresse : http://admission.umontreal.ca/programmes/majeure-en-informatiqueCheminement par trimestre -- Mineure en informatique La mineure en informatique La mineure est

Montréal, Université de

225

LUMINESCENCE DANS LES SOLIDES LECTRONIQUEMENT ACTIFS Par HUMBOLDT W. LEVERENZ,  

E-print Network

612. LUMINESCENCE DANS LES SOLIDES �LECTRONIQUEMENT ACTIFS Par HUMBOLDT W. LEVERENZ, R. C. A of solids and of luminescence. LI JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE ET LE RADIUM TOME 17, AOUT-SEPTEMBRE 1956, PAGE 612 luminescence. 1. L'orientation des spins des atomes voisins,' parallèles ou antiparallèles, provoque le ferro

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

226

INFECTION EXPRIMENTALE DU BLIER PAR SALMONELLA ABORTUS OVIS  

E-print Network

INFECTION EXPÃ?RIMENTALE DU BÃ?LIER PAR SALMONELLA ABORTUS OVIS R. SANCHIS P. PARDON2 Georgette, France Summary EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION OF RAM WITH SALMONELLA ABORTUS OVIS. - The susceptibility of rams to experimental challenge with Salmonella abortus ovis was investigated by subcutaneous, conjunctival or preputial

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

227

Les grands sismes mesurs par satellites Christophe Vigny*  

E-print Network

of France d1 d2 d1 Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) High energy laser firing at satellites enableLes grands séismes mesurés par satellites Christophe Vigny* *département des Geosciences de l to determine the position of the satellite and then the Geoid, assuming the station position is know

Vigny, Christophe

228

BOREAS RSS-10 TOMS Circumpolar One-Degree PAR Images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Remote Sensing Science (RSS)-10 team investigated the magnitude of daily, seasonal, and yearly variations of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) from ground and satellite observations. This data set contains satellite estimates of surface-incident PAR (400-700 nm, MJ/sq m) at one-degree spatial resolution. The spatial coverage is circumpolar from latitudes of 41 to 66 degrees north. The temporal coverage is from May through September for years 1979 through 1989. Eleven-year statistics are also provided: (1) mean, (2) standard deviation, and (3) coefficient of variation for 1979-89. The PAR estimates were derived from the global gridded ultraviolet reflectivity data product (average of 360, 380 nm) from the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). Image mask data are provided for identifying the boreal forest zone, and ocean/land and snow/ice-covered areas. The data are available as binary image format data files. The PAR data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

Dye, Dennis G.; Holben, Brent; Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

229

The Pars Triangularis in Dyslexia and ADHD: A Comprehensive Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Limited research has been conducted on the structure of the pars triangularis (PT) in dyslexia despite functional neuroimaging research finding it may play a role in phonological processing. Furthermore, research to date has not examined PT size in ADHD even though the right inferior frontal region has been implicated in the disorder. Hence, one…

Kibby, Michelle Y.; Kroese, Judith M.; Krebbs, Hillery; Hill, Crystal E.; Hynd, George W.

2009-01-01

230

The pars triangularis in dyslexia and ADHD: A comprehensive approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limited research has been conducted on the structure of the pars triangularis (PT) in dyslexia despite functional neuroimaging research finding it may play a role in phonological processing. Furthermore, research to date has not examined PT size in ADHD even though the right inferior frontal region has been implicated in the disorder. Hence, one of the purposes of this study

Michelle Y. Kibby; Judith M. Kroese; Hillery Krebbs; Crystal E. Hill; George W. Hynd

2009-01-01

231

PAR-5 is a PARty hub in the germline  

PubMed Central

As our understanding of how molecular machineries work expands, an increasing number of proteins that appear as regulators of different processes have been identified. These proteins are hubs within and among functional networks. The 14-3-3 protein family is involved in multiple cellular pathways and, therefore, influences signaling in several disease processes, from neurobiological disorders to cancer. As a consequence, 14-3-3 proteins are currently being investigated as therapeutic targets. Moreover, 14-3-3 protein levels have been associated with resistance to chemotherapies. There are seven 14-3-3 genes in humans, while Caenorhabditis elegans only possesses two, namely par-5 and ftt-2. Among the C. elegans scientific community, par-5 is mainly recognized as one of the par genes that is essential for the asymmetric first cell division in the embryo. However, a recent study from our laboratory describes roles of par-5 in germ cell proliferation and in the cellular response to DNA damage induced by genotoxic agents. In this review, we explore the broad functionality of 14-3-3 proteins in C. elegans and comment on the potential use of worms for launching a drugs/modifiers discovery platform for the therapeutic regulation of 14-3-3 function in cancer. PMID:24058859

Aristizabal-Corrales, David; Schwartz Jr, Simo; Ceron, Julian

2013-01-01

232

UN SPECTROPHOTOMTRE A DOUBLE MODULATION Par J. Y. GAY,  

E-print Network

32. UN SPECTROPHOTOM�TRE A DOUBLE MODULATION Par J. Y. GAY, Laboratoire de l'�cole Supérieure de de largeur de fente). Ces deux conditions nous ont conduit à adopter le principe de mesure décrit ci

Boyer, Edmond

233

TO ACADEMIC The PAR program provides conditional admission for  

E-print Network

-focused academic programs. The university's main campus is located in Boca Raton, conveniently located within 30PATHWAY TO ACADEMIC READINESS The PAR program provides conditional admission for academically qualified international students who need access to English language and other academic and social

Fernandez, Eduardo

234

Conception synchrone d'applications avioniques par raffinement de modles  

E-print Network

projet européen IST SAFEAIR (Advanced Design Tools for Aircraft Systems and Airborne Software - http-TIME SYSTEMS, Paris : France (2005)" #12;1 Introduction L'avionique occupe une place non négligeable dans le les fonctions sont très faiblement cou- plées (par exemple, le pilotage automatique et la navigation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

235

Wildwatch: African Wildlife & Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Wildwatch is an online publication created by CC Africa (Conservation Corporation Africa), one of Africa's most comprehensive eco-tourism companies." Visitors will find a number of interesting and informative features, such as CC Africa's monthly magazine and details of the company's six-point conservation and sustainable development model. Other items include first-hand accounts of wildlife sightings and an excellent image gallery. Some of the Web site is devoted to CC Africa's commercial ventures, but this does not detract from the overall focus on conservation and public education.

236

Natural Resources Conservation Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A division of the US Department of Agriculture, the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) has a mission to provide leadership and partner with private land owners to "help people conserve, maintain, and improve our natural resources and environment." Their home page is useful in that regard as it currently provides significant information on topics related to the 2002 Farm Bill, water quality and quantity, wildfires, conservation, and more. The site is easy to navigate, with top and side navigation bars that allow users to select information based on either the type of information or the category of user.

1969-12-31

237

Conservation and economic development  

SciTech Connect

This oral presentation is about the Espanola Power Savers Project which involves both the utility and for the community. I`m going to spend much of my time today discussing why this project makes sense for the community, but I would like to start with a brief word about why community-based conservation makes sense for utilities. A number of reasons are listed to show why conservation is today`s energy resource of choice. But if, for a moment, we take that as a given and ask why community-based conservation programs are the right way to develop that resource, the answer is simple: They work!

Sullivan, M.J.

1992-05-01

238

Conservation and economic development  

SciTech Connect

This oral presentation is about the Espanola Power Savers Project which involves both the utility and for the community. I'm going to spend much of my time today discussing why this project makes sense for the community, but I would like to start with a brief word about why community-based conservation makes sense for utilities. A number of reasons are listed to show why conservation is today's energy resource of choice. But if, for a moment, we take that as a given and ask why community-based conservation programs are the right way to develop that resource, the answer is simple: They work

Sullivan, M.J.

1992-05-01

239

Coherence and conservation.  

PubMed

A principal aim of current conservation policy is to reduce the impact of habitat fragmentation. Conservation corridors may achieve this goal by facilitating movement among isolated patches, but there is a risk that increased connectivity could synchronize local population fluctuations (causing coherent oscillations) and thereby increase the danger of global extinction. We identify general conditions under which populations can or cannot undergo coherent oscillations, and we relate these conditions to local and global extinction probabilities. We suggest a simple method to explore the potential success of conservation corridors and, more generally, any manipulations of dispersal patterns that aim to protect threatened species or control pests. PMID:11082064

Earn, D J; Levin, S A; Rohani, P

2000-11-17

240

L E T T E R S Microtubules induce self-organization of polarized PAR  

E-print Network

L E T T E R S Microtubules induce self-organization of polarized PAR domains in Caenorhabditis and Geraldine Seydoux1,2 A hallmark of polarized cells is the segregation of the PAR polarity regulators, atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) and PAR-1, have been implicated in polarity maintenance1

Seydoux, Geraldine

241

SUR UN SILICATE DE CADMIUM LUMINESCENT Par A. LEVIALDI et V. LUZZATI.  

E-print Network

SUR UN SILICATE DE CADMIUM LUMINESCENT Par A. LEVIALDI et V. LUZZATI. Sommaire. - �tude de quelques propriétés d'un silicate de cadmium (1) luminescent. Leur interpré- tation par la théorie des trappes de silicate de cadmium par des radiations ultra- violettes de longueur d'onde voisine de ), = 2537 A

Boyer, Edmond

242

MESURE DU PARCOURS MOYEN DES RAYONS 03B1 DU THORIUM PAR LA MTHODE PHOTOGRAPHIQUE  

E-print Network

droite; il y a environ 26 grains par trace de thorium. Ces Trajectoires ontMESURE DU PARCOURS MOYEN DES RAYONS 03B1 DU THORIUM PAR LA M�THODE PHOTOGRAPHIQUE Par Mme HENRIETTE thorium dans l'émulsion des plaques photo- graphiques, on déduit leur parcours moyen dans l'air à150

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

243

Nanoparticules d'or: De l'imagerie par resonance magnetique a la radiosensibilisation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cette thèse approfondit l'étude de nanoparticules d'or de 5 nm de diamètre recouvertes de diamideéthanethioldiethylènetriaminepentacétate de gadolinium (DTDTPA:Gd), un agent de contraste pour l'imagerie par résonance magnétique (IRM). En guise de ciblage passif, la taille des nanoparticules a été contrôlée afin d'utiliser le réseau de néovaisseaux poreux et perméable des tumeurs. De plus les tumeurs ont un drainage lymphatique déficient qui permet aux nanoparticules de demeurer plus longtemps dans le milieu interstitiel de la tumeur. Les expériences ont été effectuées sur des souris Balb/c femelles portant des tumeurs MC7-L1. La concentration de nanoparticules a pu être mesurée à l'IRM in vivo. La concentration maximale se retrouvait à la fin de l'infusion de 10 min. La concentration s'élevait à 0.3 mM dans la tumeur et de 0.12 mM dans le muscle environnant. Les nanoparticules étaient éliminées avec une demi-vie de 22 min pour les tumeurs et de 20 min pour le muscle environnant. Les nanoparticules ont été fonctionnalisées avec le peptide Tat afin de leur conférer des propriétés de ciblage actif La rétention de ces nanoparticules a ainsi été augmentée de 1600 %, passant d'une demi-vie d'élimination de 22 min à 350 min. La survie des souris a été mesurée à l'aide de courbes Kaplan-Meier et d'un modèle mathématique évalue l'efficacité de traitements. Le modèle nous permet, à l'aide de la vitesse de croissance des tumeurs et de l'efficacité des traitements, de calculer la courbe de survie des spécimens. Un effet antagoniste a été observé au lieu de l'effet synergétique attendu entre une infusion de Au@DTDTPA:Gd et l'irradiation aux rayons X. L'absence d'effet synergétique a été attribuée à l'épaisseur du recouvrement de DTDTPA:Gd qui fait écran aux électrons produits par l'or. De plus, le moyen d'ancrage du recouvrement utilise des thiols qui peuvent s'avérer être des capteurs de radicaux. De plus, contrairement a ce qui était escompté, un effet chimiothérapeutique de ces nanoparticules a été observé in vitro et in vivo. Par contre, le mécanisme précis de cet effet est encore à être expliquer, mais on sait déjà que les nanoparticules d'or affectent les fonctions des macrophages ainsi que l'angiogenèse. MOTS-CLÉS : Radiosensibilisateur, Nanoparticules d'or, Agent de contraste pour l'IRM, Électrons de basses énergies, Kaplan-Meier, Effet chimiothérapeutique.

Hebert, Etienne M.

244

Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation  

E-print Network

Resources & 1 credit Conservation Spring FNR4343C Forest Water ResourcesMajoring in Forest Resources & Conservation Specialization: Forest Resource Management Forest. Summer FOR3200C Foundations in Forest Resources and Conservation 3 credits FOR3434C

Watson, Craig A.

245

Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation  

E-print Network

Resources & 1 credit Conservation Spring FNR4343C Forest Water ResourcesMajoring in Forest Resources & Conservation Specialization: Protected Areas Management Protected Areas Management is for students interested in managing lands for conservation and restoration

Watson, Craig A.

246

Online Courses: WCS: Conservation Communication  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While part of conservation is based in science, a large portion of conservation relies on people and their actions. This course will help participants define and create an effective conservation communication strategy on an issue of their choice. Particip

1900-01-01

247

Energy: Conservation, Energy Briefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comprehensive energy conservation program at College of the Holy Cross has saved nearly one-third of the fuel oil and one-fifth of the electricity used at the college; briefs on boilers, lights, design. (Author/MLF)

Nation's Schools and Colleges, 1975

1975-01-01

248

Conservation of wading birds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The conservation and management of wading birds has received considerable attention over the past twenty years, through research, population monitoring, habitat protection, and through activities of specialist groups devoted to all three groups, the herons, ibises and allies, and flamingos. While populations are best known in North America, greatest advances in knowledge may have come in Australasia. The status of most species and many populations is now sufficiently known to allow assessment of risk. Conservation and management techniques allow creation of global and regional action plans for conservation of many species. Global action plans are being developed, but few regional plans have been undertaken. Management of nesting sites is now particularly well appreciated. Although known in broad stroke, much remains to be learned about managing feeding habitat. Problems related to disturbance, conflict with humans, habitat loss, contaminants and other environmental stresses remain for some species and many populations. New challenges lie in creating conservation action that account for genetic stocks.

Kushlan, J.A.

1996-01-01

249

The drought causes conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interdisciplinary, multi-day lesson students will use their knowledge of the importance of water to learn about the hydrosphere. The drought being experienced will be explored through graphs and a personal plan for water conservation.

Cummer, Linda

2007-12-12

250

Natural flavor conservation  

SciTech Connect

It is shown that the fiats of Natural Flavor Conservation for an arbitrary U(1)-unbroken gauge theory require that all quarks of a given charge and helicity transform identically under the gauge group.

Rothman, A.C.; Kang, K.

1980-01-01

251

AVIAN ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION  

E-print Network

of Forest Resources University of Washington KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS Norwell, Massachusetts #12;v TABLE...............................................................................49 4. Human perception and appreciation of birds: A motivation for wildlife conservation in urban. Wiens .............................................................117 7. The importance of multi-scale

Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

252

Conservation of Momentum 2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This inquiry activity should be performed after students have learned about momentum, but before they learn about conservation of momentum. Students will discover that when two objects push off each other, the momentum must be equal but in opposite direct

Horton, Michael

2009-05-30

253

River conservation and management  

SciTech Connect

River Conservation and Management' is a book based on a symposium sponsored by the Nature Conservancy Council of Great Britain. The symposium was held at the University of York in September of 1990 and which was. The book consists of 29 contributed papers which are organized into an introduction, four subject sections, and a conclusion. The subjects covered include (1) The Case for Conservation; (2) River Classification and the Assessment of Conservation Potential; (3) Recovery and Rehabilitation; and (4) Protecting Rivers--Legislation and Public Participation. The common themes which characterize the book include whole catchment planning, the division of water resource responsibilities among political entities and the concomitant decrease in accountability for the well-being of the resource. This book has a European focus but still manages to emphasize the interdisciplinary nature of riverine research.

Boon, P.J.; Calow, P.; Petts, G.E. (eds.)

1992-01-01

254

MESURE DES MOBILITS D'IONS GAZEUX PAR L'ANALYSEUR PAUL LANGEVIN Par Mme E. MONTEL,  

E-print Network

'ionisation des deux signes, en fonction de l'azimut de l'électrode collec- trice. On a tracé les courbes de donnée par la formule où 6 est l'angle de l'azimut de l'électrode collec- trice E avec celui de la fente

Boyer, Edmond

255

UN EXEMPLE DE DTERMINATION PAR APPROXIMATION DE L'METTEUR D'UN NOUVEAU SPECTRE PRODUIT PAR DES MOLCULES ORGANIQUES  

E-print Network

'un spectre d'emission, situe dans le visible entre 5 ooo et 6 50o A, observe d'abord avec le benzene, et qui contenant beaucoup de molecules d'h6lium et peu de benzene et, par consequent, avec de grandes TABLEAU I

Boyer, Edmond

256

Safer Food with Irradiation  

E-print Network

This publication answers questions about food irradiation and how it helps prevent foodborne illnesses. Included are explanations of how irradiation works and its benefits. Irradiation is a safe method of preserving food quality and ensuring its...

Thompson, Britta; Vestal, Andy; Van Laanen, Peggy

2003-01-21

257

Conservation Biology Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Conservation Biology Institute (CBI), a non-profit organization founded in 1997, is active in three primary areas related to conservation biology - applied research, education, and professional services. Through its research - alone or in collaboration with others - CBI actively seeks to develop new conservation tools, techniques, and analyses that can be used to better address a wide range of ecological concerns from endangered species protection to regional conservation planning. Based on a combination of field-based biology and computer mapping technologies (i.e., remote sensing and geographic information systems), CBIs primary research areas include: forest, aquatic, and watershed assessments, local and regional conservation planning, endangered species research and management, ecosystem monitoring, and carnivore conservation. Their formal education program, still in development, currently consists of five basic subdivisions (or program areas) including internships/ fellowships, education materials, college courses, short courses, and workshops/guest lectures. CBIs professional services are conducted alone or in collaboration with outside organizations and include: biological surveys and consulting, geographical information system (GIS) mapping services, as well as scientific reviews and white papers.

2008-05-12

258

Binding and Spreading of ParB on DNA Determine Its Biological Function in Pseudomonas aeruginosa?†  

PubMed Central

ParB protein of Pseudomonas aeruginosa belongs to a widely represented ParB family of chromosomally and plasmid-encoded partitioning type IA proteins. Ten putative parS sites are dispersed in the P. aeruginosa chromosome, with eight of them localizing in the oriC domain. After binding to parS, ParB spreads on the DNA, causing transcriptional silencing of nearby genes (A. A. Bartosik et al., J. Bacteriol. 186:6983–6998, 2004). We have studied ParB derivatives impaired in spreading either due to loss of DNA-binding ability or oligomerization. We defined specific determinants outside of the helix-turn-helix motif responsible for DNA binding. Analysis confirmed the localization of the main dimerization domain in the C terminus of ParB but also mapped another self-interactive domain in the N-terminal domain. Reverse genetics were used to introduce five parB alleles impaired in spreading into the P. aeruginosa chromosome. The single amino acid substitutions in ParB causing a defect in oligomerization but not in DNA binding caused a chromosome segregation defect, slowed the growth rate, and impaired motilities, similarly to the pleiotropic phenotype of parB-null mutants, indicating that the ability to spread is vital for ParB function in the cell. The toxicity of ParB overproduction in Pseudomonas spp. is not due to the spreading since several ParB derivatives defective in oligomerization were still toxic for P. aeruginosa when provided in excess. PMID:21531806

Kusiak, Magdalena; Gapczynska, Anna; Plochocka, Danuta; Thomas, Christopher M.; Jagura-Burdzy, Grazyna

2011-01-01

259

The physical association of the P2Y12 receptor with PAR4 regulates arrestin-mediated Akt activation.  

PubMed

It is now well accepted that protease activated receptor (PAR) 1 and PAR4 have differential roles in platelet activation. PAR4, a low-affinity thrombin receptor in human platelets, participates in sustained platelet activation in a P2Y12-dependent manner; however, the mechanisms are not defined. Our previous studies demonstrated that thrombin induces the association of PAR4 with P2Y12, together with arrestin recruitment to the complex. Here we show that PAR4 and P2Y12 directly interact to coregulate Akt signaling after PAR4 activation. We observed direct and specific interaction of P2Y12 with PAR4 but not PAR1 by bioluminescent resonance energy transfer when the receptors were coexpressed in human embryonic kidney 293T cells. PAR4-P2Y12 dimerization was promoted by PAR4-AP and inhibited by P2Y12 antagonist. By using sequence comparison of the transmembrane domains of PAR1 and PAR4, we designed a mutant form of PAR4, "PAR4SFT," by replacing LGL194-196 at the base of transmembrane domain 4 with the corresponding aligned PAR1 residues SFT 220-222. PAR4SFT supported only 8.74% of PAR4-P2Y12 interaction, abolishing P2Y12-dependent arrestin recruitment to PAR4 and Akt activation. Nonetheless, PAR4SFT still supported homodimerization with PAR4. PAR4SFT failed to induce a calcium flux when expressed independently; however, coexpression of increasing concentrations of PAR4SFT, together with PAR4 potentiated PAR4-mediated calcium flux, suggested that PAR4 act as homodimers to signal to Gq-coupled calcium responses. In conclusion, PAR4 LGL (194-196) governs agonist-dependent association of PAR4 with P2Y12 and contributes to Gq-coupled calcium responses. PAR4-P2Y12 association supports arrestin-mediated sustained signaling to Akt. Hence, PAR4-P2Y12 dimerization is likely to be important for the PAR4-P2Y12 dependent stabilization of platelet thrombi. PMID:24723492

Khan, Aasma; Li, Dongjun; Ibrahim, Salam; Smyth, Emer; Woulfe, Donna S

2014-07-01

260

Satellite-derived photosynthetically available and total solar irradiance at the surface during FIFE's intensive field campaigns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite-derived photosynthetically available and total solar irradiance at the surface during First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment's (FIFE) intensive field compaigns are addressed. Graphs showing photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) vs. Julian Day and insolation vs. Julian Day are included.

Frouin, Robert; Mcpherson, J.

1993-01-01

261

Sur l'actinium et l'ionium Par B. SZILARD  

E-print Network

séparé le plomb' par l'hydrogène sul- furé, j'ai précipité les phosphates5 par l'hydrate d phosphates entraînaient la majeure partie de l'activité, quoique la liqueur restât, elle aussi, active. Elle qui se formaient dans le produit a été contrôlée par l'absorption qu'ils subissaient par des lames d'aluminium

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

262

ParCAT: A Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate science has employed increasingly complex models and simulations to analyze the past and predict the future of our climate. The size and dimensionality of climate simulation data has been growing with the complexity of the models. This growth in data is creating a widening gap between the data being produced and the tools necessary to analyze large, high dimensional data sets. With single run data sets increasing into 10's, 100's and even 1000's of gigabytes, parallel computing tools are becoming a necessity in order to analyze and compare climate simulation data. The Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit (ParCAT) provides basic tools that efficiently use parallel computing techniques to narrow the gap between data set size and analysis tools. ParCAT was created as a collaborative effort between climate scientists and computer scientists in order to provide efficient parallel implementations of the computing tools that are of use to climate scientists. Some of the basic functionalities included in the toolkit are the ability to compute spatio-temporal means and variances, differences between two runs and histograms of the values in a data set. ParCAT is designed to facilitate the "heavy lifting" that is required for large, multidimensional data sets. The toolkit does not focus on performing the final visualizations and presentation of results but rather, reducing large data sets to smaller, more manageable summaries. The output from ParCAT is provided in commonly used file formats (NetCDF, CSV, ASCII) to allow for simple integration with other tools. The toolkit is currently implemented as a command line utility, but will likely also provide a C library for developers interested in tighter software integration. Elements of the toolkit are already being incorporated into projects such as UV-CDAT and CMDX. There is also an effort underway to implement portions of the CCSM Land Model Diagnostics package using ParCAT in conjunction with Python and gnuplot. ParCAT is implemented in C to provide efficient file IO. The file IO operations in the toolkit use the parallel-netcdf library; this enables the code to use the parallel IO capabilities of modern HPC systems. Analysis that currently requires an estimated 12+ hours with the traditional CCSM Land Model Diagnostics Package can now be performed in as little as 30 minutes on a single desktop workstation and a few minutes for relatively small jobs completed on modern HPC systems such as ORNL's Jaguar.

Haugen, B.; Smith, B.; Steed, C.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Thornton, P. E.; Shipman, G.

2012-12-01

263

Mcanismes molculaires d'activation et d'inhibition de la sucrase intestinale par les cations alcalins et par les protons, par Monique VASSEUR, G. Van MELLE et F. ALVARADO.Monique VASSEUR, G. Van MELLE F. ALVARADO  

E-print Network

alcalins et par les protons, par Monique VASSEUR, G. Van MELLE et F. ALVARADO.Monique VASSEUR, G. Van MELLE F. ALVARADO C. N. R. S. Centre de Recherches Nutrition, 9, rue J. Hetzel 92190 Meudon Bel plusieurs sites inhibiteurs de fixations des métaux. (1) Vasseur M., Tellier C., Alvarado F., 1982. Sodium

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

264

Expression of Partitioning Defective 3 (Par-3) for Predicting Extrahepatic Metastasis and Survival with Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Partitioning defective 3 (Par-3), a crucial component of partitioning-defective complex proteins, controls cell polarity and contributes to cell migration and cancer cell epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. However, the clinical relevance of Par-3 in tumor progression and metastasis has not been well elucidated. In this study, we investigated the impact and association of Par-3 expression and clinical outcomes with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We first confirmed that Par-3 was abundantly expressed in HCC cell lines by Western blot analysis. We used immunohistochemistry to analyze the association of Par-3 expression and clinicopathological characteristics in primary and subsequent metastatic tumors of patients with HCC. Par-3 was overexpressed in 47 of 111 (42.3%) primary tumors. Increased expression of Par-3 in primary tumors predicted an increased five-year cumulative incidence of extrahepatic metastasis. In addition, multivariate analysis revealed that Par-3 overexpression was an independent risk factor of extrahepatic metastasis. Increased Par-3 expression in primary tumors was associated with poor five-year overall survival rates and was an independent prognostic factor on Cox regression analysis. In conclusion, we show for the first time that increased Par-3 expression is associated with distant metastasis and poor survival rates in patients with HCC. Par-3 may be a novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for HCC. PMID:23322019

Jan, Yee-Jee; Ko, Bor-Sheng; Liu, Tzu-An; Wu, Yao-Ming; Liang, Shu-Man; Chen, Shyh-Chang; Wang, John; Liou, Jun-Yang

2013-01-01

265

Proteinase-Activated Receptor 1 (PAR1) regulates leukemic stem cell functions.  

PubMed

External signals that are mediated by specific receptors determine stem cell fate. The thrombin receptor PAR1 plays an important role in haemostasis, thrombosis and vascular biology, but also in tumor biology and angiogenesis. Its expression and function in hematopoietic stem cells is largely unknown. Here, we analyzed expression and function of PAR1 in primary hematopoietic cells and their leukemic counterparts. AML patients' blast cells expressed much lower levels of PAR1 mRNA and protein than CD34+ progenitor cells. Constitutive Par1-deficiency in adult mice did not affect engraftment or stem cell potential of hematopoietic cells. To model an AML with Par1-deficiency, we retrovirally introduced the oncogene MLL-AF9 in wild type and Par1-/- hematopoietic progenitor cells. Par1-deficiency did not alter initial leukemia development. However, the loss of Par1 enhanced leukemic stem cell function in vitro and in vivo. Re-expression of PAR1 in Par1-/- leukemic stem cells delayed leukemogenesis in vivo. These data indicate that Par1 contributes to leukemic stem cell maintenance. PMID:24740120

Bäumer, Nicole; Krause, Annika; Köhler, Gabriele; Lettermann, Stephanie; Evers, Georg; Hascher, Antje; Bäumer, Sebastian; Berdel, Wolfgang E; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Tickenbrock, Lara

2014-01-01

266

ParABS Systems of the Four Replicons of Burkholderia cenocepacia: New Chromosome Centromeres Confer Partition Specificity†  

PubMed Central

Most bacterial chromosomes carry an analogue of the parABS systems that govern plasmid partition, but their role in chromosome partition is ambiguous. parABS systems might be particularly important for orderly segregation of multipartite genomes, where their role may thus be easier to evaluate. We have characterized parABS systems in Burkholderia cenocepacia, whose genome comprises three chromosomes and one low-copy-number plasmid. A single parAB locus and a set of ParB-binding (parS) centromere sites are located near the origin of each replicon. ParA and ParB of the longest chromosome are phylogenetically similar to analogues in other multichromosome and monochromosome bacteria but are distinct from those of smaller chromosomes. The latter form subgroups that correspond to the taxa of their hosts, indicating evolution from plasmids. The parS sites on the smaller chromosomes and the plasmid are similar to the “universal” parS of the main chromosome but with a sequence specific to their replicon. In an Escherichia coli plasmid stabilization test, each parAB exhibits partition activity only with the parS of its own replicon. Hence, parABS function is based on the independent partition of individual chromosomes rather than on a single communal system or network of interacting systems. Stabilization by the smaller chromosome and plasmid systems was enhanced by mutation of parS sites and a promoter internal to their parAB operons, suggesting autoregulatory mechanisms. The small chromosome ParBs were found to silence transcription, a property relevant to autoregulation. PMID:16452432

Dubarry, Nelly; Pasta, Franck; Lane, David

2006-01-01

267

Is PAR a Good Investment? Understanding the Costs and Benefits of Teacher Peer Assistance and Review Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Peer Assistance and Review (PAR) is a local labor-management initiative designed to improve teacher quality. In PAR, expert "consulting teachers" mentor, support, and evaluate novice and underperforming veteran teachers. Evaluations under PAR can lead to dismissals. The authors examine the costs and benefits of PAR, both financial and…

Papay, John P.; Johnson, Susan Moore

2012-01-01

268

Insect conservation and pest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issue of insect conservation in pest management has many conflicting aspects. For instance, it is desirable to conserve a pest residue in order to maintain natural enemy population and it is imperative to conserve natural enemies. However, conservation of pest species is not relevant if the pest species is an exotic invader and a candidate for eradication, mainly because

Marcos Kogan; John D. Lattin

1993-01-01

269

Conservative News Service (CNS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the Media Resource Center, the Conservative News Service aims to give users an alternative to what it calls "a liberal bias in the American news media and a frequent, liberal double-standard in editorial decisions on what constitutes 'news'." It does this via a mix of short digest news articles and longer analytical articles in eight areas, including politics, economics, defense, religion, and culture. The X-Pert/Files/Links section contains links to conservative experts and their institutions in 45 subject areas. In addition, the site includes links to information about several conservative talk shows ("Radio Uplink") and several bulletin boards. CNS was created by MRC Chairman L. Brent Bozell III.

1998-01-01

270

EPA and Bird Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although wildlife management is not the central focus of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) mission, numerous EPA programs complement and support efforts to conserve birds and their habitats. To that end, the Office of Water at the EPA has launched this new Website to point interested users towards related EPA (and other) programs. From wetlands to water quality, the specific EPA sites highlighted here cover topics that are bird-relevant in subject (e.g., wetlands, coasts) or geographical (e.g., Great Lakes, Gulf of Mexico) context. Four main sections form the heart of the site: Overview, Bird Conservation Initiatives, Related EPA Programs, and What You Can Do. In each section, summary information and a careful selection of related resources are provided. Students of bird conservation will find this site particularly helpful, especially those interested in relevant federal programs.

271

Bat Conservation International  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1982, the mission of Bat Conservation International (BCI) is âÂÂto teach people the value of bats, to protect and conserve critical bat habitats, and to advance scientific knowledge through researchâÂÂ. On their website, visitors will be able to learn about their advocacy and outreach efforts, along with learning more about these fascinating and important creatures. The âÂÂAll About Batsâ section is a fine place to start, as it has a number of illustrated essays that include brief overview of the natural history of bats and suggestions on photographing bats as they fly through the air. Equally compelling is the section is the conservation programs area, which details the various programs BCI operates in various bat habitats, including bridges and caves. Finally, visitors can also elect to send one of a number of electronic bat postcards to friends or colleagues.

2005-01-01

272

Communication and energy conservation  

SciTech Connect

Surveys of homeowners in two Wisconsin communities examined the relationship of media use to a set of cognitive, attitudinal, and behavioral components of energy conservation. The perceived importance of the energy issue was associated with media use in both communities. In addition, this relationship was stronger the more energy related the communication variable. Communication did not, however, relate consistently to energy behavior. Utility pamphlets had opposite relationships with energy conservation across communities. It is suggested that conservation campaigns must take into account the communication and energy use environment of specific groups of consumers, and that research into the impact of mass media on energy issue salience is particularly important in times of energy ''gluts.''

McLeod, J.M.; Glynn, C.J.; Griffin, R.J.

1987-01-01

273

LES MICROBES ET LE LAIT, par le Dl' VIOLLE.  

E-print Network

LES MICROBES ET LE LAIT, par le Dl' VIOLLE. d'e l'Institut Pasteur. Le lait est, à lui seul, la,originellement.snin, vierge de tout microbe et de tout corps toxique. Mai,s s'il parvient à maintenir la vie de l'adulte, à milieu qui contient les trois grands principes 'alimentaires, des sels minéraux et de l'eau, les microbes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

274

Classification de courriers lectroniques Une approche par apprentissage  

E-print Network

Classification de courriers électroniques Une approche par apprentissage basée sur des modèles courriers électroniques proposent des systèmes de sélection de courriers. Cette sélection est une indiquer au logiciel. La présence ou l'absence de ces mots-clés en fonction des divers champs du courrier

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

275

Au XIXe siècle : industrialisation linéaire ou industrialisation par bonds ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] Au XIXe siècle : industrialisation lineaire ou industrialisation par bonds ?. . Depuis 1945, beaucoup d'historiens économistes français, sous l'impulsion d'Ernest Labrousse, ont approfondi l'analyse des structures sociales et des mouvements conjoncturels. Mais Walt W. Rostow a présenté une analyse de la croissance selon laquelle l'industrialisation aurait été assurée grâce à de brèves périodes de take-off. Les travaux de

Marcel Gillet

1972-01-01

276

Bourses d'tudes aux 5 000 $ US par semestre  

E-print Network

Bourses d'études aux �tats-Unis 5 000 $ US par semestre Allocation pour l'assurance médicale de 1er cycle à temps plein Le programme de bourses Killam www.killamfellowships.com Geneviève Boutin-Maison Boursier Killam 2013-2014 Université d'Ottawa #12;Un coup d'oeil sur la bourse LE PROGRAMME DE BOURSES

Petriu, Emil M.

277

Electrocardiogram (ECG) Biometric Authentication Using Pulse Active Ratio (PAR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biometric authentication is a one-to-one verification process.A successful biometric system must be capable of avoiding a fraudulent claim while at the same time ensuring the privacy of individuals. This paper presents a novel framework for using the electrocardiogram (ECG) as a biometric system for human au- thentication. A new feature extraction technique known as pulse active ratio (PAR) is derived

Sairul I. Safie; John J. Soraghan; Lykourgos Petropoulakis

2011-01-01

278

PROPRITS LECTRIQUES ET OPTIQUES DU BORE Par J. LAGRENAUDIE.  

E-print Network

PROPRI�T�S �LECTRIQUES ET OPTIQUES DU BORE Par J. LAGRENAUDIE. Laboratoire de Physique de l'E. N. S. Sommaire. 2014 La conductibilité du bore à basse température dénote des énergies d'activation d'impu- reté'élément Bore, au laboratoire de Physique de l'E. N. S. : io Conductibilité à différentes températures; 20

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

279

TUDE DES PROPRITS DU BORE Par J. LAGRENAUDIE.  

E-print Network

14. �TUDE DES PROPRI�T�S DU BORE Par J. LAGRENAUDIE. Laboratoire de Physique E. N. S. Sommaire. 2014 Le bore présente, selon des mesures poussées jusque vers 700° C,une énergie intrin- sèque d, JANVIER 1953, Rappelons que les trois catégories d'échantillons étudiés se composent de : A. Bore obtenu

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

280

Valid par CA du 31 janvier 2012 COMMISSIONS CULTURE  

E-print Network

Validé par CA du 31 janvier 2012 1 COMMISSIONS CULTURE Fonctionnement des commissions culture et actions dans le domaine de la culture. Afin de mener une politique culturelle cohérente avec les différents acteurs bourguignons de la culture, l'université de Bourgogne a décidé d'appuyer sa stratégie

Herrmann, Samuel

281

Cheminement par trimestre Le Baccalaurat en mathmatiques et informatique  

E-print Network

/ majeure-en-informatique/structure-du-programme/. Ce programme totalise 49 crédits obligatoires dont 24 enCheminement par trimestre Le Baccalauréat en mathématiques et informatique Le baccalauréat Le baccalauréat en mathématiques et informatique assure une formation solide en mathéma- tiques tout en permettant

Montréal, Université de

282

Cheminement par trimestre -Baccalaurat en informatique La passerelle DEC SIM  

E-print Network

référer à la structure du programme disponible sur le site des admissions à l'adresse : http://admission.umontreal.ca/programmes/majeure-en-informatiqueCheminement par trimestre - Baccalauréat en informatique La passerelle DEC SIM Le baccalauréat en informatique Le baccalauréat en informatique mise sur les aspects fondamentaux de l'informatique, favorisant l

Montréal, Université de

283

The Epic of Pabuji ki par in Performance  

E-print Network

for online viewing and download. Dr Mark Turin World Oral Literature Project University of Cambridge October 2010 The epic of Pabuji ki par in performance?1 moving lips. Who was singing? Finally, when the husband responded with an audibly enthusiastic... . ‘Cultural’ scenes including exotic animals and bovines, humans and the more familiar hunting encounters have been found on the walls of rock caves dating to the Paleolithic and Mesolithic periods. 18?I am grateful to my colleague Vimal Gopa of Jaisalmer...

Wickett, Elizabeth

2010-10-19

284

APPLICATION DES PALIERS A GAZ AUX GYROSCOPES Par G. GOBERT,  

E-print Network

43 APPLICATION DES PALIERS A GAZ AUX GYROSCOPES Par G. GOBERT, Centre d'�tudes Nucléaires de Saclay gyroscope dont le rotor de 4 cm de diamètre pesant plusieurs centaines de grammes tourne à une vitesse to the construction of a gyroscope. The rotor is 4 cm in diameter and runs at 180 000 r. p. m. Its weight is 500 g. LE

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

285

THORIE DES SAUTS QUANTIQUES par M. J. ULLMO.  

E-print Network

fréquences données par l'équation de Schrodinger, qui est re- trouvée à partir des conceptions précédentes» apparaissent. (Le succès de l'interprétation statistique de l'équation de Schrodinger est attribuée aux. Lorsque M. Louis de Broglie a introduit ses « ondes de phasc » , il les concevrait comme un phénomène

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

286

Review of Breast Conservation Therapy: Then and Now  

PubMed Central

Breast conservation therapy (BCT), which is the marriage of breast conserving surgery and radiation therapy to the breast, has revolutionized the treatment of breast cancer over the last few decades. Surgical direction had seen a heightened interest in the performance of cosmetically superior partial and segmental resections in breast conservation as well as increased demand by patients for breast preservation. The broadening of approaches to delivery of breast irradiation from whole breast to accelerated partial breast has allowed more patients to opt for breast conservation and allowed for what appears to be comparable measurable outcomes in emerging data. As well, the addition of state-of-the-art chemotherapeutic and hormonal therapies has allowed improved outcomes of patients from both local regional recurrence and overall survival standpoints. This paper will provide an overview of BCT and review some of the newest developments in optimizing this therapy for patients with breast cancer from a surgical-, medical-, and radiation-oncology standpoint. PMID:22229101

Hoover, Susan; Bloom, Elizabeth; Patel, Sunil

2011-01-01

287

Use of Irradiated Foods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The safety of irradiated foods is reviewed. Guidelines and regulations for processing irradiated foods are considered. The radiolytic products formed in food when it is irradiated and its wholesomeness is discussed. It is concluded that food irradiation processing is not a panacea for all problems in food processing but when properly used will serve the space station well.

Brynjolfsson, A.

1985-01-01

288

Conservation of tidal marshes  

SciTech Connect

This book is the first attempt to examine collectively the various uses and the consequences of marsh conservation efforts. Author Franklin Daiber emphasizes tidal marsh conservation from a holistic perspective rather than from the perspective of a single purpose or special economic interest. He addresses a topic receiving increasing attention, namely the concept of open marsh management as a means of controlling mosquito production without harmful effects on other marsh organisms. Topics considered include: water management; dikes, impoundments, ponds and ditches; reclaimed land and impoundments; ditching and ponding for mosquito control; sewage disposal and waste treatment; dredge material for wetland restoration; insecticides; oil pollution; and petroleum hydrocarbon interactions.

Daiber, F.C.

1986-01-01

289

The Par-4-GRP78 TRAIL, more twists and turns.  

PubMed

GRP78, also referred to as BiP, is an essential molecular chaperone and a master regulator of the unfolded protein response. Traditionally, GRP78 is regarded as localized in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). However, recent findings revealed that a subfraction of GRP78 can localize to the surface of specific cell types. Furthermore, preferential expression of GRP78 on the surface of tumor cells but not in normal organs suggests that surface GRP78 can serve both as a target as well as mediator for cancer-specific therapy. Recent reports further established that GRP78 forms complexes with specific proteins on the cell surface and plays an important role in signaling, impacting cell survival and proliferation. Burikhanov et al. (Cell 2009, 138:377) reported that Par-4, generally regarded as a cytosolic and nuclear protein that promotes cell death via the mitochondrial cell death pathway, is spontaneously secreted by normal and cancer cells and this process is enhanced by ER stress or with addition of TRAIL. It is proposed that ER stress, induced by extracellular insults such as TRAIL, causes translocation of the Par-4-GRP78 complex from the ER to the plasma membrane, and through a positive feedback loop, extracellular Par-4 binds to cell surface GRP78 and activates the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. In this journal club, we discuss some open questions and how these new findings integrate with current understanding of GRP78 function in vivo. PMID:19823030

Lee, Amy S

2009-11-01

290

Neutron irradiation of semiconductors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron irradiated GaAs-and Si-crystals were investigated to identify lattice defects, as a preparation for experiments on neutron irradiated Si and GaAs. The defects occurring after electron irradiation (E = 2MeV) are easier to analyze than after neutron irradiation. Moreover, beta emission from neutron transmutated GaAs and Si show effects which are very similar to the case of electron irradiation. Using

W. Ossau; U. Steigenberger; G. Landewehr; K. Elliott; P. L. Liu

1984-01-01

291

Transcriptional profiling of ParA and ParB mutants in actively dividing cells of an opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

Accurate chromosome segregation to progeny cells is a fundamental process ensuring proper inheritance of genetic material. In bacteria with simple cell cycle, chromosome segregation follows replication initiation since duplicated oriC domains start segregating to opposite halves of the cell soon after they are made. ParA and ParB proteins together with specific DNA sequences are parts of the segregation machinery. ParA and ParB proteins in Pseudomonas aeruginosa are important for optimal growth, nucleoid segregation, cell division and motility. Comparative transcriptome analysis of parA null and parB null mutants versus parental P. aeruginosa PAO1161 strain demonstrated global changes in gene expression pattern in logarithmically growing planktonic cultures. The set of genes similarly affected in both mutant strains is designated Par regulon and comprises 536 genes. The Par regulon includes genes controlled by two sigma factors (RpoN and PvdS) as well as known and putative transcriptional regulators. In the absence of Par proteins, a large number of genes from RpoS regulon is induced, reflecting the need for slowing down the cell growth rate and decelerating the metabolic processes. Changes in the expression profiles of genes involved in c-di-GMP turnover point out the role of this effector in such signal transmission. Microarray data for chosen genes were confirmed by RT-qPCR analysis. The promoter regions of selected genes were cloned upstream of the promoter-less lacZ gene and analyzed in the heterologous host E. coli?lac. Regulation by ParA and ParB of P. aeruginosa was confirmed for some of the tested promoters. Our data demonstrate that ParA and ParB besides their role in accurate chromosome segregation may act as modulators of genes expression. Directly or indirectly, Par proteins are part of the wider regulatory network in P. aeruginosa linking the process of chromosome segregation with the cell growth, division and motility. PMID:24498062

Bartosik, Aneta A; Glabski, Krzysztof; Jecz, Paulina; Mikulska, Sylwia; Fogtman, Anna; Koblowska, Marta; Jagura-Burdzy, Grazyna

2014-01-01

292

A model for the condensation of the bacterial chromosome by the partitioning protein ParB  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The molecular machinery responsible for faithful segregation of the chromosome in bacteria such as Caulobacter crescentus and Bacillus subtilis includes the ParABS a.k.a. Spo0J/Soj partitioning system. In Caulobacter, prior to division, hundreds of ParB proteins bind to the DNA near the origin of replication, and localize to one pole of the cell. Subsequently, the ParB-DNA complex is translocated to the far pole by the binding and retraction of the ParA spindle-like apparatus. Remarkably, the localization of ParB proteins to specific regions of the chromosome appears to be controlled by only a few centromeric parS binding sites. Although lateral interactions between DNA-bound ParB are likely to be important for their localization, the long-range order of ParB domains on the chromosome appears to be inconsistent with a picture in which protein-protein interactions are limited to neighboring DNA-bound proteins. We developed a coarse-grained Brownian dynamics model that allows for lateral and 3D protein-protein interactions among bound ParB proteins. Our model shows how such interactions can condense and organize the DNA spatially, and can control the localization and the long-range order of the DNA-bound proteins.

Broedersz, Chase; Wingreen, Ned

2013-03-01

293

PAR-1 contributes to the innate immune response during viral infection  

PubMed Central

Coagulation is a host defense system that limits the spread of pathogens. Coagulation proteases, such as thrombin, also activate cells by cleaving PARs. In this study, we analyzed the role of PAR-1 in coxsackievirus B3–induced (CVB3-induced) myocarditis and influenza A infection. CVB3-infected Par1–/– mice expressed reduced levels of IFN-? and CXCL10 during the early phase of infection compared with Par1+/+ mice that resulted in higher viral loads and cardiac injury at day 8 after infection. Inhibition of either tissue factor or thrombin in WT mice also significantly increased CVB3 levels in the heart and cardiac injury compared with controls. BM transplantation experiments demonstrated that PAR-1 in nonhematopoietic cells protected mice from CVB3 infection. Transgenic mice overexpressing PAR-1 in cardiomyocytes had reduced CVB3-induced myocarditis. We found that cooperative signaling between PAR-1 and TLR3 in mouse cardiac fibroblasts enhanced activation of p38 and induction of IFN-? and CXCL10 expression. Par1–/– mice also had decreased CXCL10 expression and increased viral levels in the lung after influenza A infection compared with Par1+/+ mice. Our results indicate that the tissue factor/thrombin/PAR-1 pathway enhances IFN-? expression and contributes to the innate immune response during single-stranded RNA viral infection. PMID:23391721

Antoniak, Silvio; Owens, A. Phillip; Baunacke, Martin; Williams, Julie C.; Lee, Rebecca D.; Weithauser, Alice; Sheridan, Patricia A.; Malz, Ronny; Luyendyk, James P.; Esserman, Denise A.; Trejo, JoAnn; Kirchhofer, Daniel; Blaxall, Burns C.; Pawlinski, Rafal; Beck, Melinda A.; Rauch, Ursula; Mackman, Nigel

2013-01-01

294

MISSION DE POSITONS PAR LES SOURCES RADIOACTIVES Par A. I. ALICHANOW, A. I. ALICHANIAN et M. S. KOSODAEW.  

E-print Network

de préparer que des sources très faibles. Le Thorium (C + C") sa tioe lai partiellement à la seconde'émission intense des positons par le dépôt actif du Thorium est déjà connue. J. Chadwick, P. Blackett et G. Occhialini ont observé à la chambre de Wilson 24 positons pour 2000 particules fi, soit environ, 1 pour 100

Boyer, Edmond

295

TUDE DU COBALT BOMBARD PAR DES LECTRONS A 20 K Par G. SULPICE, C. MINIER, P. MOSER et H. BILGER,  

E-print Network

les défauts créés sont essentiellement des paires de Frenkel proches qui se guérissent en dessous de 65 °K. Abstract. 2014 Electrical resistivity measurements seem to indicate that the point defects si nous suppo- sons qu'un meme bombardement, par des electrons de 1,4 MeV, cree la meme concentration

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

296

Proteinases and signalling: pathophysiological and therapeutic implications via PARs and more  

PubMed Central

Proteinases like thrombin, trypsin and tissue kallikreins are now known to regulate cell signaling by cleaving and activating a novel family of G-protein-coupled proteinase-activated receptors (PARs 1–4) via exposure of a tethered receptor-triggering ligand. On their own, short synthetic PAR-selective PAR-activating peptides (PAR-APs) mimicking the tethered ligand sequences can activate PARs 1, 2 and 4 and cause physiological responses both in vitro and in vivo. Using the PAR-APs as sentinel probes in vivo, it has been found that PAR activation can affect the vascular, renal, respiratory, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal and nervous systems (both central and peripheral nervous system) and can promote cancer metastasis and invasion. In general, responses triggered by PARs 1, 2 and 4 are in keeping with an innate immune inflammatory response, ranging from vasodilatation to intestinal inflammation, increased cytokine production and increased or decreased nociception. Further, PARs have been implicated in a number of disease states, including cancer and inflammation of the cardiovascular, respiratory, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal and nervous systems. In addition to activating PARs, proteinases can cause hormone-like effects by other signalling mechanisms, like growth factor receptor activation, that may be as important as the activation of PARs. We, therefore, propose that the PARs themselves, their activating serine proteinases and their associated signalling pathways can be considered as attractive targets for therapeutic drug development. Thus, proteinases in general must now be considered as ‘hormone-like' messengers that can signal either via PARs or other mechanisms. PMID:18059329

Ramachandran, R; Hollenberg, M D

2008-01-01

297

Par-4-mediated recruitment of Amida to the actin cytoskeleton leads to the induction of apoptosis  

SciTech Connect

Par-4 (prostate apoptosis response-4) sensitizes cells to apoptotic stimuli, but the exact mechanisms are still poorly understood. Using Par-4 as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified Amida as a novel interaction partner, a ubiquitously expressed protein which has been suggested to be involved in apoptotic processes. Complex formation of Par-4 and Amida occurs in vitro and in vivo and is mediated via the C-termini of both proteins, involving the leucine zipper of Par-4. Amida resides mainly in the nucleus but displays nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling in heterokaryons. Upon coexpression with Par-4 in REF52.2 cells, Amida translocates to the cytoplasm and is recruited to actin filaments by Par-4, resulting in enhanced induction of apoptosis. The synergistic effect of Amida/Par-4 complexes on the induction of apoptosis is abrogated when either Amida/Par-4 complex formation or association of these complexes with the actin cytoskeleton is impaired, indicating that the Par-4-mediated relocation of Amida to the actin cytoskeleton is crucial for the pro-apoptotic function of Par-4/Amida complexes in REF52.2 cells. The latter results in enhanced phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain of myosin II (MLC) as has previously been shown for Par-4-mediated recruitment of DAP-like kinase (Dlk), suggesting that the recruitment of nuclear proteins involved in the regulation of apoptotic processes to the actin filament system by Par-4 represents a potent mechanism how Par-4 can trigger apoptosis.

Boosen, Meike [Institute of Genetics, University of Bonn, Roemerstr. 164, D-53117 Bonn (Germany); Vetterkind, Susanne [Institute of Genetics, University of Bonn, Roemerstr. 164, D-53117 Bonn (Germany); Koplin, Ansgar [Institute of Genetics, University of Bonn, Roemerstr. 164, D-53117 Bonn (Germany); Illenberger, Susanne [Cell Biology, Zoological Institute, Technical University of Braunschweig, D-38092 Braunschweig (Germany); Preuss, Ute [Institute of Genetics, University of Bonn, Roemerstr. 164, D-53117 Bonn (Germany)]. E-mail: u.preuss@uni-bonn.de

2005-12-10

298

Marine Conservation Resource overexploitation  

E-print Network

exploited for food Marine Conservation · Risks to Marine Biodiversity · Overexploitation of marine resources · Global climate change · Pollution · Coastal habitat destruction or degradation · Invasive species · Advantages within reserves: % Reduce fishing mortality: · more effective than quotas % Reduce habitat

299

Angular momentum conservation demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A short article describing the fabrication and operation of a simple angular momentum conservation demonstration. The demonstration is based on a Lazy Susan, and cylindrical brass weights tied with a nylon string. The string can be pulled or released changing the radius or rotation of the weights.

Berg, Richard E.; Anders, Robert E.

2010-12-23

300

Invasive Species Conservation Biology  

E-print Network

Invasive Species Conservation Biology Dr. Philpott Thanks to Dr. Mayer for many images and text #12;Which of the following are "exotic species"? · Wheat in Kansas · Steelhead trout in Lake Michigan · Bluegrass in Kentucky · Zebra mussels in Lake Erie #12;Invasive Species · Terminology · Routes of Invasion

Gottgens, Hans

301

Conservation Focus and Executive  

E-print Network

and Conservation Council Resource Alternatives · Increased cost-effective efficiency potential ­ Technological generating resources are more expensive · Efficiency acquisition can affect rates ­ Effect depends on how and demonstrate new technologies (efficiency, DR, smart-grid) · Adaptive management of plan implementation #12

302

Coastal Conservation Network (CCN)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Coastal Conservation Network, (CCN), is a non-profit organization founded by Garry Brown, summer 2011, with an objective to facilitate nonprofits to effectively communicate with the public, collaborate on programs and projects, and enhance the voice of the marine environmental community on a global scale through the use of new technology and the social media.

2012-01-01

303

Conservation Commissions in Massachusetts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Conservation Foundation reported on the experience of a resource development specialist in the state of Massachusetts on the public's growing concern for environmental quality. After tracing the origins of the Massachusetts movement, the report draws upon a variety of specific state experiences to illustrate the commission's growing pains and…

Scheffey, Andrew J. W.

304

CONSERVATION VOICES GRAVITY RULES  

E-print Network

CONSERVATION VOICES GRAVITY RULES By David R. Montgomery When it comes to runoff and erosion opportunities. They provide cool, clear water clean enough to provide drinking water for Seattle with hardly any, and cleared of large woody debris, and cities, towns, and suburbs were paved over. Recognition

Montgomery, David R.

305

Foundry energy conservation workbook  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses methods for promoting energy conservation in foundries. Use of electric power, natural gas, and coke are evaluated. Waste heat recovery systems are considered. Energy consumption in the specific processes of electric melting, natural gas melting, heat treatments, ladle melting, and coke fuel melting is described. An example energy analysis is included. (GHH)

Not Available

1990-12-31

306

Marine Conservation Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stay current with the latest marine conservation issues, plus find information on workshops and job and research opportunities. Access information on the latest research, legislation, and MCI's latest publications. Learn about marine protected areas, destructive fishing practices, endangered species, and how MCI is advancing marine science. Features include a photo gallery, links to an abundance of worldwide external resources, and several downloadable videos.

2012-07-06

307

Water conservation plan guidelines  

SciTech Connect

These Water Conservation Plan Guidelines are addressed to water system planners but use of the Guidelines is not required by federal law or regulation. The first part of the document introduces the Guidelines and provides information to the States about their nature and possible use. The second part of the document, written for water systems, is an overview to the organization, content, and the use of the Guidelines. The next three parts contain the water conservation plan Guidelines: Basic, Intermediate, and Advanced. The Basic Guidelines are designed for use by water systems serving populations of 10,000 or fewer; The Intermediate Guidelines are designed for water systems serving between 10,000 and 100,000 people; The Advanced Guidelines are designed for water systems serving more than 100,000 people. Six appendixes to the Guidelines provide supporting information: detailed descriptions of conservation measures (Appendix A), conservation benchmarks (Appendix B), acronyms and a glossary (Appendix C), information resources (Appendix D), funding sources (Appendix E), and state contacts (Appendix F).

NONE

1998-08-06

308

Water Conservation in Oman  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limited resources and growing needs for water have triggered a nationwide campaign for water conservation in the Sultanate of Oman. A land and soil survey study of Oman shows the availability of more arable land than present water resources could support. Groundwater is the main source for agricultural production. Overpumping at rates higher than the natural recharge has resulted in

Hayder A. Abdel-Rahman; Isam Mohammed Abdel-Magid

1993-01-01

309

Conservation: the centerpiece  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Carter Administration's energy policy involves convincing people that conservation means giving up extravagance rather than comfort and that financial incentives to develop greater energy efficiency can produce savings that offset rising energy costs. The poliicy is geared to economics, with emphasis on encouraging voluntary cuts in consumption. Consumer choice will largely determine whether this will work or whether higher

Sparks

1977-01-01

310

Designing for Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alief Independent School District, Texas, has been successful in obtaining energy efficient designs for its new schools by developing energy goals prior to the selection of architects and engineers. Features of four projects designed to conserve energy are described. (Author/MLF)

Estes, R. C.

1979-01-01

311

Conservation Awareness Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recommendations for incorporating conservation education into the K-5 curriculum comprise this teacher's guide. Examined are eight natural resources: air, energy, forests and plant life, human resources, minerals, soil, water, and wildlife. Each of these topics is considered in two ways: (1) a chart depicts concepts basic to understanding the…

Santa Rosa County Board of Public Instruction, Milton, FL.

312

Behavioural Ecology Conservation Biology  

E-print Network

Behavioural Ecology & Conservation Biology BIO3176 - University of Ottawa Prof. Gabriel Blouin, economics, law, policy, etc.) 2 At Least 5 Extinction Extinction of dinosaurs Extinction of 76 trees are masting · Sexually dimorphic (30-40% in mass), leks, combats 14 Case study: Kakapo · Nest

Blouin-Demers, Gabriel

313

Conservation in Conflict  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What happens when war occurs in areas where there is war? Ecologist Peter Zahler who has worked in Afghanistan since 2002, talks about how conserving biodiversity may bring peace to the war-torn region. You can read more about Zahler's work in the article Nurturing Wildlife in War-Torn Afghanistan that appeared in the New Yorker Times in December, 2011.

Society, Wildlife C.

314

Conservation and solar guidelines  

SciTech Connect

Guidelines are given for selecting R-values and infiltration levels, and determining the size of the solar collection area for passive solar buildings. The guidelines are based on balancing the incremental cost/benefit of conservation and passive solar strategies. Tables are given for 90 cities in the US and the results are also displayed on maps. An example is included.

Balcomb, J.D.

1983-01-01

315

Hydrology and Conservation Ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responses to change in the behavior of ecological systems are largely governed by interactions at different levels. Research is essential and is to be necessarily designed to gain insights into various interactions at the community level. Sustainable resource management is only possible if conservation of biodiversity can be accomplished by properly using the knowledge discovered. It is well known that

M. Narayanan

2006-01-01

316

Many glitters of conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the glitter and media-reported hoopla of energy conservation is discussed, and some facts to dull that glitter are described. On a natonal TV program in the US, the glitter of an electric car drive system and an airborne bicycle powered by solar photovoltaic cells was presented. But, analysis of the energy required to manufacture the electric batteries and

Hall

1980-01-01

317

Conservation of Matter Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The phenomena are three examples that illustrate conservation of matter - dissolving salt in water, adding an effervescent tablet to water, and a change in state from ice to water. The resource describes a laboratory exercise that asks students to compare the mass before substances are combined or changed to the mass after substances are combined or changed.

318

Creative Soil Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Take plant lessons outdoors with this engaging and inquiry-based activity in which third-grade students learn how to apply soil conservation methods to growing plants. They also collect data and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of their method of

Smith, Martha

2010-02-01

319

Energy Conservation (Bernoulli's Equation)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Chiang Shih's Thermal-Fluids I course at the FAMU-FSU College of Engineering combines "the traditional thermal disciplines in Thermodynamics, heat transfer and fluid mechanics." This PowerPoint presentation, from Shih's lecture notes, illustrates Benoulli's Equation and energy conservation. Along with mathematical equations, there are also a number of illustrations and examples which show the concepts discussed.

Shih, Chiang

2008-09-24

320

Carcinome ?pidermo?de de l'ur?tre masculin r?v?l? par une rupture spontan?e de l'ur?tre  

PubMed Central

Résumé Le carcinome épidermoïde de l’urètre masculin est une tumeur rare, les tumeurs de l’urètre tous types confondus représentant moins de 1 % des tumeurs de l’appareil urinaire. Le pronostic reste défavorable malgré un traitement chirurgical énergique. La radiochimiothérapie semble être un traitement prometteur, mais son rôle doit être défini par d’autres études. Nous rapportons un cas rare de carcinome épidermoïde de l’urètre bulbo-membraneux découvert à un stade localement avancé après observation d’une rupture urétrale transtumorale chez un homme âgé de 70 ans. Le patient a été traité, après drainage vésical, par une irradiation externe associée à une chimiothérapie par cisplatine, et est décédé après progression de la maladie sur un an. La rupture spontanée de l’urètre transtumorale est un mode de découverte exceptionnel témoignant d’une évolution locale défavorable, ce qui rend ces tumeurs difficilement opérables. Cependant, l’espoir actuel réside dans des protocoles thérapeutiques associant radiothérapie et chimiothérapie. PMID:21672490

Ghorbel, Jilani; Hafsia, Ghassen; Derouiche, Amine; Jrad, Anis; Chebil, Mohamed

2011-01-01

321

Estimating Photosynthetically Available Radiation (PAR) at the Earth's surface from satellite observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current satellite algorithms to estimate photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) at the earth' s surface are reviewed. PAR is deduced either from an insolation estimate or obtained directly from top-of-atmosphere solar radiances. The characteristics of both approaches are contrasted and typical results are presented. The inaccuracies reported, about 10 percent and 6 percent on daily and monthly time scales, respectively, are useful to model oceanic and terrestrial primary productivity. At those time scales variability due to clouds in the ratio of PAR and insolation is reduced, making it possible to deduce PAR directly from insolation climatologies (satellite or other) that are currently available or being produced. Improvements, however, are needed in conditions of broken cloudiness and over ice/snow. If not addressed properly, calibration/validation issues may prevent quantitative use of the PAR estimates in studies of climatic change. The prospects are good for an accurate, long-term climatology of PAR over the globe.

Frouin, Robert

1993-01-01

322

Supplementary Table 2 Conservation of helicase motifs. Conservation  

E-print Network

. The truncation is a conserved feature of SWI2/SNF2 proteins (Snf2 hmm of PlSTl), and the Rad54 structure/SNF2 family (Snf2 hmm TSYEl), and is part of the previously defined Snf-A motif. II Conserved in SF1 two residues that are highly conserved in the Snf2 hmm (DEgHrLKN; higher conservation in uppercase

Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.

323

Allocation de crneaux de dcollage sans conflit en programmation par contraintes  

E-print Network

Allocation de créneaux de décollage sans conflit en programmation par contraintes Cyril Allignol1@recherche.enac.fr Mots-Clés : Créneau de décollage, Résolution de conflit, Programmation par contraintes 1 Introduction proposons de résoudre directement les conflits potentiels entre les différents vols par des modifications

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

324

uPAR-Induced Cell Adhesion and Migration: Vitronectin Provides the Key  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression of the membrane receptor uPAR induces profound changes in cell morphology and migration, and its expression correlates with the malignant phenotype of cancers. To identify the molecular interactions essential for uPAR function in these processes, we carried out a complete functional alanine scan of uPAR in HEK293 cells. Of the 255 mutant receptors characterized, 34 failed to induce changes

Chris D. Madsen; Gian Maria Sarra Ferraris; Annapaola Andolfo; Orla Cunningham; Nicolai Sidenius

2007-01-01

325

Cathepsin S Causes Inflammatory Pain via Biased Agonism of PAR2 and TRPV4.  

PubMed

Serine proteases such as trypsin and mast cell tryptase cleave protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) at R(36)?S(37) and reveal a tethered ligand that excites nociceptors, causing neurogenic inflammation and pain. Whether proteases that cleave PAR2 at distinct sites are biased agonists that also induce inflammation and pain is unexplored. Cathepsin S (Cat-S) is a lysosomal cysteine protease of antigen-presenting cells that is secreted during inflammation and which retains activity at extracellular pH. We observed that Cat-S cleaved PAR2 at E(56)?T(57), which removed the canonical tethered ligand and prevented trypsin activation. In HEK and KNRK cell lines and in nociceptive neurons of mouse dorsal root ganglia, Cat-S and a decapeptide mimicking the Cat-S-revealed tethered ligand-stimulated PAR2 coupling to G?s and formation of cAMP. In contrast to trypsin, Cat-S did not mobilize intracellular Ca(2+), activate ERK1/2, recruit ?-arrestins, or induce PAR2 endocytosis. Cat-S caused PAR2-dependent activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) in Xenopus laevis oocytes, HEK cells and nociceptive neurons, and stimulated neuronal hyperexcitability by adenylyl cyclase and protein kinase A-dependent mechanisms. Intraplantar injection of Cat-S caused inflammation and hyperalgesia in mice that was attenuated by PAR2 or TRPV4 deletion and adenylyl cyclase inhibition. Cat-S and PAR2 antagonists suppressed formalin-induced inflammation and pain, which implicates endogenous Cat-S and PAR2 in inflammatory pain. Our results identify Cat-S as a biased agonist of PAR2 that causes PAR2- and TRPV4-dependent inflammation and pain. They expand the role of PAR2 as a mediator of protease-driven inflammatory pain. PMID:25118282

Zhao, Peishen; Lieu, TinaMarie; Barlow, Nicholas; Metcalf, Matthew; Veldhuis, Nicholas A; Jensen, Dane D; Kocan, Martina; Sostegni, Silvia; Haerteis, Silke; Baraznenok, Vera; Henderson, Ian; Lindström, Erik; Guerrero-Alba, Raquel; Valdez-Morales, Eduardo E; Liedtke, Wolfgang; McIntyre, Peter; Vanner, Stephen J; Korbmacher, Christoph; Bunnett, Nigel W

2014-09-26

326

A low-complexity PAR-reduction method for DMT-VDSL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract DMT-VDSL signals have a high peak-to-average power ratio (PAR). In the transmitters, the PAR governs the necessary resolution of the digital-to-analog converter (DAC) and is an important factor for the power consumption of the line-driver. Aiming at implementation in a specific system, we propose a low complexity PAR-reduction method based on the iterative algorithm derived in [5, 20, 24,

Per Ola B Orjesson; Hans G. Feichtinger; Niklas Grip; Mikael Isaksson; Norbert Kaiblinger; Per Odling; Lars-erik Persson

327

Pars intermedia of the pituitary gland and integumentary colour changes in the garden lizard Calotes versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The effect of light and of colour of the background on the secretory activity of the pars intermedia of the garden lizard has been investigated.2.Absence of light, as well as black illuminated background, produces increased acticity of the pars intermedia, proportional to the duration of the experiment.3.Pale illuminated background has no effect on the secretory activity of the pars intermedia.4.The

Shanta Nayar; K. R. Pandalai

1963-01-01

328

The Urokinase Receptor (uPAR) Facilitates Clearance of Borrelia burgdorferi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, has been shown to induce expression of the urokinase receptor (uPAR); however, the role of uPAR in the immune response against Borrelia has never been investigated. uPAR not only acts as a proteinase receptor, but can also, dependently or independently of ligation to uPA, directly affect leukocyte function. We here

Joppe W. R. Hovius; Maarten F. Bijlsma; Gerritje J. W. van der Windt; W. Joost Wiersinga; Bastiaan J. D. Boukens; Jeroen Coumou; Anneke Oei; Regina de Beer; Alex F. de Vos; Cornelis van t Veer; Alje P. van Dam; Penghua Wang; Erol Fikrig; Marcel M. Levi; Joris J. T. H. Roelofs; Tom van der Poll

2009-01-01

329

Inactivation of the Candidate Tumor Suppressor Par4 in Endometrial Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, it has been shown that mice deficient in the pro- apoptotic protein prostate apoptosis response 4 (Par-4) are specifically prone to develop endometrial carcinomas. Based on this, we have examined here the possible role of Par-4 as a tumor suppressor gene in human endometrial cancer. Using cDNA arrays, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, and immunohistochemistry, we detected Par-4 down-regulation in f40%

Gema Moreno-Bueno; Pablo J. Fernandez-Marcos; Manuel Collado; Mercedes J. Tendero; Isabel Garcia-Cao; David Hardisson; Jorge Moscat; Manuel Serrano; Jose Palacios

330

Roadmap: Environmental and Conservation Biology Conservation Biology Bachelor of Science  

E-print Network

Biology ­Conservation Biology Bachelor of Science [AS-BS-ECB-CBIO] College of Arts and Sciences DepartmentRoadmap: Environmental and Conservation Biology ­Conservation Biology Bachelor of Science [AS-BS-ECB-CBIO] College of Arts and Sciences Department of Biological Sciences Catalog Year: 2013-2014 Page 1 of 3 | Last

Sheridan, Scott

331

Roadmap: Environmental and Conservation Biology Conservation Biology Bachelor of Science  

E-print Network

Roadmap: Environmental and Conservation Biology ­Conservation Biology Bachelor of Science [AS-BS-ECB-CBIO] College of Arts and Sciences Department of Biological Sciences Catalog Year: 2012­2013 Page 1 of 3 | Last Summary on page 2 Conservation Biology Concentration Elective 2 See note 3 on page 2 Semester Five: [15

Sheridan, Scott

332

Environmental Conservation Online System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Conservation Online System (ECOS) is a gateway web site that provides access to data systems in the Endangered Species and Fisheries and Habitat Conservation program areas, as well as other FWS and Government data sources. ECOS provides a central point of access to assist FWS personnel in managing data and information as well as provide general public access to information from numerous FWS databases. ECOS allows users to view, query, and, in some cases, edit data. Some of the larger applications are: Threatened and Endangered Species System (TESS), Habitat Tracking Information System (HabITS), Fish Passage Decision Support System (FPDSS), Contaminant Assessment Program (CAP), and Environmental Contaminants Data Management System (ECDMS). Mapping capabilities are also available, utilizing spatially referenced data in these databases. The general mapping utility, Geotract, is an interactive tool that includes data relevant to many service personnel and the public. Other specialized mapping tools are available for specific project and end-user needs.

333

Northeast Document Conservation Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1973, the Northeast Document Conservation Center (NDCC) was created to address the rapid deterioration of older paper-based documents in a number of institutions across New England. On their website, visitors can learn about their conservation and imaging services, and also examine some of their fine resources intended for members of the preservation community. The "Resources" area is a good place to start, as it contains a number of suggestions for preserving private and family collections and also contains a set of additional web-based resources and links. Beyond those materials, there are a number of digitized leaflets here, such as "Assessing Preservation Needs: A Self-Survey Guide" and "Preservation of Library and Archival Materials". The site is rounded out by an excellent disaster assistance section that includes an online disaster planning tool called "dPlan" and a set of general guidelines for archival institutions that may be coping with such situations.

334

Herpetological Conservation & Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 2006, the Herpetological Conservation & Biology journal was started to offer a place for manuscripts in the field "that were descriptive or natural history oriented." This journal publishes original peer-reviewed research, reviews, and perspectives on the "ecology, natural history, management, and conservation biology of amphibians and reptiles." Recent articles have included "Population decline in Grassland Earless Lizards" and "Invasive shrub benefits a Sri Lankan lizard." Visitors can click on the Volumes tab to look over all of the past issues and search the entire archive here as well. The Photo Gallery is a real treat, featuring dozens of photos submitted by the editors and other users. Finally, visitors can also learn about how to submit material for possible publication, along with signing up for email updates.

2012-09-21

335

Soil erosion and conservation  

SciTech Connect

This is a review of worldwide land degradation problems. Four themes are emphasized: delineating and estimating the magnitude of soil erosion, quantifying erosion and sedimentation impacts on land productivity, establishing quantitative values for erosion-causing parameters, and implementing global and regional soil and water conservation programs. Papers deal with both developing and developed countries and illustrate how erosion control techniques used in developed countries can or cannot be applied in developing countries.

El-Swaify, S.A.; Moldenhauer, W.C.; Lo, A.

1985-01-01

336

Conservation laryngeal surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation laryngeal surgery is an increasingly available alternative for treatment of laryngeal cancer. In addition to\\u000a the traditional techniques of vertical partial laryngectomy (hemilaryngectomy) and supraglottic laryngectomy, new techniques\\u000a are now in practice that extend the indications to a far greater number of patients. The carbon dioxide laser is used to resect\\u000a both glottic and supraglottic cancers. This procedure is

Steven C. Marks

1999-01-01

337

Interactive Distributed Conservation Planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the environmental and agricultural conservation planning process, more efficient and effective tools are needed for planners to assist private landowners with making wiser land use decisions. Current methods are slow, inefficient, and costly. Scientific techniques have not been fully implemented within the planning process, yet such plans are increasingly needed to meet water quality and Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) requirements. The objectives of this study are to (a) utilize the web for accessing an integrated science-based land use decision support system; (b) link decision tools, models, and databases to the user via the web; (c) link distributed models and databases for enhanced planning efficiency; and (d) integrate the above into an easily usable and readily accessible system. The procedures resulting in the initial design involved planning expertise and focus groups' input. The system was developed in partnership with the Natural Resources Conservation Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and several state agencies. A survey of 150 certified conservation planners, the end users, was conducted to identify the data sets and planning tools needed. Data, tools, and models then were selected and integrated into a web accessible system. Specifically, the first generation used a web interactive Geographic Information System (GIS) that overlaid onto digital orthoquads and/or soils polygons field boundaries, transportation, hydrologic features (such as drains, rivers, lakes, etc.), and high pesticide risk runoff or infiltration areas. Conservation planners found they could save time with the system. Clients could access the system quickly to help them prepare for meeting with their planner. Previously acquiring GIS maps in some cases had been a lengthy process that limited use of the information in land use decisions.

Brown, Elaine M.; Ouyang, Da; Jeremiah Asher, A.; Batholic, Jon F.

2002-08-01

338

Conservation: illiberal motives  

SciTech Connect

The activities of consumer groups who encourage energy conservation parallel the activities of firms who wish to raise product prices either through collusion or advertising. The purpose of this article is not to impugn the motives of such groups, but to point out that at least some of the analysis of their activities should be based on an explanation of self-interest. 1 figure.

Brown, K.C.

1984-08-01

339

Conservation of Fern Spores  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ferns are a diverse and important group of plants, but diversity of ­species and populations are at risk from increasing social\\u000a pressures, loss of habitat, and climate change. Ex situ conservation is a useful strategy to limit decline in genetic diversity and requires technologies to preserve fern germplasm.\\u000a Fern spore storage has received little research attention but, by analogy to

Daniel Ballesteros

340

Laser conservation paleontology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Just as lasers have found countless applications in science, industry, medicine, and entertainment, an array of real and potential uses for lasers in art-conservation analytes and practice have been investigated over the past thirty years. These include holographic recording, holographic recording, holographic nondestructive testing, laser-induced ultrasonic imaging, laser-scattering surface characterization, atomic and molecular analyses, photoacoustic spectroscopy, surface modification, as well as surface divestment and cleaning. The initial endeavors in exploring and assessing the utility of these tools for art conservation are recounted for investigations involving ruby, glass, ion, YAG, carbon dioxide, dye, and excimer lasers as well as high-intensity nonlaser light generators such as xenon flashlamps and argon pinchlamps. Initially, laser divestment/cleaning was, by general consensus, the least plausible laser application in art conservation. In the past ten years it has emerged to dominate all the other applications noted above. Today, at least a dozen firms supply user-friendly laser systems optimized for a range of art-conservation divestment applications. The first-generation laser-cleaning tools are essentially a laser, a beam-delivery device, and a debris- collection accessory. Advanced developmental work has turned in large measure to ancillary subsystems for more sophisticated process control. Of particular importance are acoustic, optical, spectral, EMP, and electronic-vision process control. Beam direction may be via manual, translational-scanner, or robotic beam positioning implemented by means of fiber optics, minors, or prisms and computer control. Substrate thermal alteration and debris redeposition may be minimized or avoided through the incorporation of a gas jet, fluid or fluid jet, or dry-ice blast.

Asmus, John F.

2001-10-01

341

Laser conservation paleontology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Just as lasers have found countless applications in science, industry, medicine, and entertainment, an array of real and potential uses for lasers in art-conservation analytes and practice have been investigated over the past thirty years. These include holographic recording, holographic recording, holographic nondestructive testing, laser-induced ultrasonic imaging, laser-scattering surface characterization, atomic and molecular analyses, photoacoustic spectroscopy, surface modification, as well

John F. Asmus

2001-01-01

342

SYSTEMS OF CONSERVATION LAWS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide class of difference equations is described for approximating ;\\u000a discontinuous time dependent solutions, with prescribed initial data, of ;\\u000a hyperbolic systems of nonlinear conservation laws. Among these schemes we ;\\u000a determine the best ones, i.e., these which have the smallest truncation error and ;\\u000a in which the discontinuities are confined to a narrow band of 2 to 3

P. Lax; B. Wendroff

1958-01-01

343

Common variants in the human platelet PAR4 thrombin receptor alter platelet function and differ by race.  

PubMed

Human platelets express 2 thrombin receptors: protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 and PAR4. Recently, we reported 3.7-fold increased PAR4-mediated aggregation kinetics in platelets from black subjects compared with white subjects. We now show that platelets from blacks (n = 70) express 14% more PAR4 protein than those from whites (n = 84), but this difference is not associated with platelet PAR4 function. Quantitative trait locus analysis identified 3 common single nucleotide polymorphisms in the PAR4 gene (F2RL3) associated with PAR4-induced platelet aggregation. Among these single nucleotide polymorphisms, rs773902 determines whether residue 120 in transmembrane domain 2 is an alanine (Ala) or threonine (Thr). Compared with the Ala120 variant, Thr120 was more common in black subjects than in white subjects (63% vs 19%), was associated with higher PAR4-induced human platelet aggregation and Ca(2+) flux, and generated greater inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate in transfected cells. A second, less frequent F2RL3 variant, Phe296Val, was only observed in blacks and abolished the enhanced PAR4-induced platelet aggregation and 1,4,5-triphosphate generation associated with PAR4-Thr120. PAR4 genotype did not affect vorapaxar inhibition of platelet PAR1 function, but a strong pharmacogenetic effect was observed with the PAR4-specific antagonist YD-3 [1-benzyl-3(ethoxycarbonylphenyl)-indazole]. These findings may have an important pharmacogenetic effect on the development of new PAR antagonists. PMID:25293779

Edelstein, Leonard C; Simon, Lukas M; Lindsay, Cory R; Kong, Xianguo; Teruel-Montoya, Raúl; Tourdot, Benjamin E; Chen, Edward S; Ma, Lin; Coughlin, Shaun; Nieman, Marvin; Holinstat, Michael; Shaw, Chad A; Bray, Paul F

2014-11-27

344

IL2-Mediated Upregulation of uPA and uPAR in Natural Killer Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and its receptor uPAR play a major role in immune cell-mediated, including natural killer (NK) cell-mediated, degradation of extracellular matrices. Herein, we investigate the effects of IL-2 on NK cell uPA and uPAR. RNA and protein analyses showed upregulation of uPA and uPAR following IL-2 stimulation. Gel-shift assays and Western blots detected uPA and uPAR mRNA

Gheath Al-Atrash; Sreerama Shetty; Steven Idell; Yaming Xue; Richard P. Kitson; Prathap Kumar Shetty Halady; Ronald H. Goldfarb

2002-01-01

345

Immunohistochemical analysis of the proapoptotic protein Par-4 in normal rat tissues.  

PubMed

Prostate apoptosis response 4 (par-4) is a recently identified gene that encodes a transcription factor, Par-4, with a leucine zipper domain. Par-4 protein is constitutively expressed in various cell lines and is functionally required but not sufficient for apoptosis. Induction of Par-4 in cultured cells is found exclusively during apoptosis, and ectopic overexpression of Par-4 enhances the potency of apoptotic stimuli. Western or Northern blot analysis on mRNA or protein extracts, respectively, from rat organs revealed that the expression of Par-4 was ubiquitous and was not restricted to any specific organ(s). To further identify specific cell types that expressed Par-4, we performed an immunohistochemical analysis of the protein in paraffin-embedded sections of various organs from rats. Our findings indicated that consistent with its proapoptotic role, Par-4 is expressed in apoptotic granulosa cells of atretic ovarian follicles and in terminally differentiated cells, such as the cardiomyocytes, cerebellar Purkinje cells, and pyramidal cells of the hypothalamus. Moreover, testosterone ablation by castration of rats caused an early and transient induction of Par-4 in the ductal cells of the prostate that undergo apoptosis. By contrast, in tissues in which the cells could be visually differentiated from their mature counterparts, Par-4 expression was lowest in the mature cells. This was the case for epithelia of the mammary and the prostate gland in which the basal cells maintained higher protein levels of Par-4 than did the terminally differentiated ductal cells. Similarly, cells of the stratum corneum of the skin and cells on top of the duodenal villi stained less intensely for Par-4 as compared to the stem cells in the stratum basale and at the bottom of the crypts of Lieberkühn, respectively. It is possible that Par-4 has to be down-regulated for successful differentiation in these tissues. Taken together, the widespread expression of Par-4 in various adult cell types underscores the physiological importance of the protein. The observation of constitutive Par-4 expression in the stem cell compartments is inconsistent with the probability of apoptosis per se and can be extended to determine whether Par-4 plays a role in other cellular processes. PMID:9269897

Boghaert, E R; Sells, S F; Walid, A J; Malone, P; Williams, N M; Weinstein, M H; Strange, R; Rangnekar, V M

1997-08-01

346

Cancer-Selective Apoptotic Effects of Extracellular and Intracellular Par-4  

PubMed Central

Selectivity toward cancer cells is the most desirable element in cancer therapeutics. Par-4 is a cancer cell-selective pro-apoptotic protein that functions intracellularly in the cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments, as a tumor suppressor. Moreover, recent findings indicate that the Par-4 protein is secreted by cells, and extracellular Par-4 induces cancer cell-specific apoptosis by interaction with the cell-surface receptor GRP78. This review describes the mechanisms underlying the apoptotic effects of both extracellular and intracellular Par-4 acting via its effector domain SAC. PMID:20440265

Bhattarai, Tripti Shrestha; Rangnekar, Vivek M.

2010-01-01

347

The PAR network: redundancy and robustness in a symmetry-breaking system  

PubMed Central

To become polarized, cells must first ‘break symmetry’. Symmetry breaking is the process by which an unpolarized, symmetric cell develops a singularity, often at the cell periphery, that is used to develop a polarity axis. The Caenorhabditis elegans zygote breaks symmetry under the influence of the sperm-donated centrosome, which causes the PAR polarity regulators to sort into distinct anterior and posterior cortical domains. Modelling analyses have shown that cortical flows induced by the centrosome combined with antagonism between anterior and posterior PARs (mutual exclusion) are sufficient, in principle, to break symmetry, provided that anterior and posterior PAR activities are precisely balanced. Experimental evidence indicates, however, that the system is surprisingly robust to changes in cortical flows, mutual exclusion and PAR balance. We suggest that this robustness derives from redundant symmetry-breaking inputs that engage two positive feedback loops mediated by the anterior and posterior PAR proteins. In particular, the PAR-2 feedback loop stabilizes the polarized state by creating a domain where posterior PARs are immune to exclusion by anterior PARs. The two feedback loops in the PAR network share characteristics with the two feedback loops in the Cdc42 polarization network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:24062581

Motegi, Fumio; Seydoux, Geraldine

2013-01-01

348

NEWS AND COMMENTARY Conservation genetics...............................................................  

E-print Network

NEWS AND COMMENTARY Conservation genetics............................................................... Genetics at the brink of extinction R De doubt in the minds of conservation geneticists, first raised in the 1980s, that genetic considerations

DeSalle, Rob

349

Groundwater Conservation Districts: Success Stories  

E-print Network

Demand for water is increasing, so our aquifers must be conserved and protected. The Groundwater Conservation Districts in Texas are carrying out a number of successful programs in the areas of education and public awareness, technical assistance...

Porter, Dana; Persyn, Russell A.; Enciso, Juan

1999-09-06

350

Magnetic-bubble conservative logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among integrated-circuit devices, magnetic bubbles are a particularly interesting candidate to implement the Fredkin gate and conservative logic. The magnetostatic repulsion of magnetic bubbles simulates the bouncing-ball model of conservative logic.

Hsu Chang

1982-01-01

351

EXPRIENCE D'HYDROSTATIQUE; PAR M. C.-E. WASTEELS.  

E-print Network

. Plongeons-le, d'abord par la partie AB, dans une éprouvette remplie de mercure e t d'eau ; la différence des'élève, à l'intérieur du tube, jusqu'en B. Dès que celui-ci plonge dans le mercure, l'eau contenue dans AB liquide dans l'éprouvette ; en même temps, on voit le mercure s'élever à l'intérieur du tube, au-dessus du

Boyer, Edmond

352

INSTITUT POLYTECHNIQUE DE GRENOBLE No attribu par la bibliothque  

E-print Network

-encadré par M. Bruno Raffin JURY wF toelyn Serot D résident wmeF prnçoise Baude D pporteur wF orsten Kuhlen D pporteur wF henis Trystram D hireteur de hèse wF fruno Raffin D goEendrnt tel-00459665,version1-24Feb2010 endré durnt m thèse et mon msterF t9i vriment ppréié les R nnées de trvil ensemleF te le remerie de m9

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

353

BOREAS TE-12 Incoming PAR Through the Forest Canopy Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-12 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on shoot geometry, leaf optical properties, leaf water potential, and leaf gas exchange. The data were collected at the Southern Study Area-Old Black Spruce (SSA-OBS) site from 04-Jul-1996 to 25-Jul-1996. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor); Walter-Shea, Elizabeth A.; Mesarch, Mark A.

2000-01-01

354

Inflammation and Macular Oedema after Pars Plana Vitrectomy  

PubMed Central

Cystoid macular oedema (CMO) is a major cause of reduced vision following intraocular surgery. Although the aetiology of CMO is not completely clarified, intraocular inflammation is known to play a major role in its development. The macula may develop cytotoxic oedema when the primary lesion and fluid accumulation occur in the parenchymatous cells (intracellular oedema) or vasogenic oedema when the primary defect occurs in the blood-retinal barrier and leads to extracellular fluid accumulation (extracellular oedema). We report on the mechanisms of CMO formation after pars plana vitrectomy and associated surgical procedures and discuss possible therapeutic approaches. PMID:24288446

Romano, Vito; Angi, Martina; del Grosso, Renata; Romano, Davide; Vinciguerra, Paolo; Romano, Mario R.

2013-01-01

355

Postmodernism and African conservation science  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Africa, the movement away from traditional protectionist conservation to community-based approaches is partially related to postmodernist influences. Proposed transfrontier conservation areas will incorporate local communities, and a clearer understanding of the limitations of community-based conservation is thus needed. The sustainability of community-based conservation projects is questioned on economic and other grounds, and many African countries lack the prerequisites (ecological,

C. A. M. Attwell; F. P. D. Cotterill

2000-01-01

356

Appropriate Margin Width in Breast-Conserving Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) is an oncologically safe treatment for early-stage breast cancer. BCS refers to the excision\\u000a of the primary tumor plus a margin of surrounding tissue with preservation of adequate breast tissue for acceptable cosmesis.\\u000a Breast irradiation following BCS is considered “standard” therapy for most women, but the ideal or minimal acceptable margin\\u000a has remained a point of controversy.

Tamra McKenzie-Johnson; Amelia Grover; Harry D. Bear

2010-01-01

357

Noncanonical PAR3 activation by factor Xa identifies a novel pathway for Tie2 activation and stabilization of vascular integrity.  

PubMed

Endothelial barrier protective effects of activated protein C (APC) require the endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR), protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1, and PAR3. In contrast, PAR1 and PAR3 activation by thrombin results in barrier disruption. Noncanonical PAR1 and PAR3 activation by APC vs canonical activation by thrombin provides an explanation for the functional selectivity of these proteases. Here we found that factor Xa (FXa) activated PAR1 at canonical Arg41 similar to thrombin but cleaved PAR3 at noncanonical Arg41 similar to APC. This unique PAR1-PAR3 activation profile permitted the identification of noncanonical PAR3 activation as a novel activation pathway for barrier protective tunica intima endothelial receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (Tie2). APC, FXa, and the noncanonical PAR3 tethered-ligand peptide induced prolonged activation of Tie2, whereas thrombin and the canonical PAR3 tethered-ligand peptide did not. Tie2 activation by FXa required PAR3 and EPCR. FXa and the noncanonical PAR3 tethered-ligand peptide induced Tie2- and PAR3-dependent upregulation of tight-junction-associated protein zona occludens 1 (ZO-1), translocation of ZO-1 to cell-cell borders, and the formation of typical ZO-1 honeycomb patterns that are indicative of tight-junction stabilization. These data provide intriguing novel insights into the diversification of functional selectivity of protease signaling achievable by canonical and noncanonical PAR activation, such as the activation of vascular-protective Tie2 by noncanonical PAR3 activation. PMID:25320242

Stavenuiter, Fabian; Mosnier, Laurent O

2014-11-27

358

Stress fractures of the lumbar pars interarticularis in athletes: a review based on long-term results of 18 professional cricketers.  

PubMed

The physical demand of the modern game of cricket on the fast bowler is known to cause stress fractures of the lumbar spine. Between 1983 and 2001, we diagnosed pars interarticularis defects in 18 professional cricketers contracted to a single English County Cricket Club. Eight of these players were treated conservatively, with rest, supervised rehabilitation, bowling action analysis and re-education where necessary. The remaining 10 were treated operatively, 9 by Buck's repair of the spondylolytic lesion. All 18 players returned to professional sport.We recommend treatment of this select group of sportsmen in a unit consisting of a specialist physiotherapist, a bowling coach and a spinal surgeon. Should conservative measures fail, we recommend Buck's repair as the operation of choice. PMID:14636734

Ranawat, V S; Dowell, J K; Heywood-Waddington, M B

2003-12-01

359

PAGOSA SPRINGS Conservation Action Plan  

E-print Network

PAGOSA SPRINGS Conservation Action Plan 2011 Update Plant Species of Focus: Pagosa skyrocket ..................................................................................................................................................... 233 Neely, B., P. Lyon, S. Panjabi, and B. Kuhn. 2011. Pagosa Springs: Conservation Action Plan 2011 led conservation action planning workshops with local partners in 2008 and 2010 to identify

360

MIDDLE PARK Conservation Action Plan  

E-print Network

MIDDLE PARK Conservation Action Plan 2011 Update Plant Species of Focus: Kremmling milkvetch Panjabi, S. and B. Neely. 2011. Middle Park Conservation Action Plan, 2011 Update. Prepared by The Nature and threats by participants of an initial conservation action planning workshop held in June 2008 and a July

361

Conservation Comparison of Plan, Current  

E-print Network

Northwest Power and Conservation Council Comparison of Plan, Current Policy, and No-Policy Cases Comparison of Plan Case and Current Policy Case · Current policy case includes: ­ 630 MWa less conservation higher (at 2005 level) Northwest Power and Conservation Council Comparison of Plan Case and No Policy

362

Teaching Conservation in Developing Nations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed to provide Peace Corps volunteers and other field workers with ideas, activities, and resources for incorporating conservation education into their day-to-day community activities. It begins with a chapter dealing with a self-contained conservation center. Other chapters tell of ways in which a conservation education…

Brace, Judith; And Others

363

Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation  

E-print Network

in Contemporary Issues in Forest Resources & 1 credit Conservation Spring FNR4343C Forest Water Resources 3Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation University of Florida/IFAS School of Forest Resources & Conservation www.sfrc.ufl.edu ~ 352-846-0847 ~ khaselier@ufl.edu Protected Areas Management is for students

Watson, Craig A.

364

Energy Management and Conservation Plan  

E-print Network

Institute (TTI) has been committed to reducing energy consumption, conserving water and recycling since and Conservation Plan documents various initiatives implemented which have reduced energy, water and fuelEnergy Management and Conservation Plan December 2005 #12;Texas Transportation Institute December

365

Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation  

E-print Network

Conservation, SWS4245 Water Resource Sustainability or AEB4123 Agricultural & Natural Resource Law Physical Issues in Forest Resources & 1 credit Conservation Spring FNR4343C Forest Water Resources 3 credits FNR & Water Conservation, SWS4245 Water Resource Sustainability or AEB4123 Agricultural & Natural Resource Law

Watson, Craig A.

366

Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation  

E-print Network

for Management of Ecosystems, SWS4233 Soil & Water Conservation, SWS4245 Water Resource Sustainability or AEB Issues in Forest Resources & 1 credit Conservation Spring FNR4343C Forest Water Conservation, SWS4245 Water Resource Sustainability or AEB4123 Agricultural & Natural Resource Law

Watson, Craig A.

367

Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation  

E-print Network

credit Conservation Spring FNR4343C Forest Water Resources 3 credits FOR3214 Fire Ecology and ManagementMajoring in Forest Resources & Conservation University of Florida/IFAS School of Forest Resources & Conservation www.sfrc.ufl.edu ~ 352-846-0847 ~ khaselier@ufl.edu Business Management gives students a sound

Watson, Craig A.

368

Conservation Education: A Position Statement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Soil Conservation Society of America's (SCSA) aim is to advance the science and art of good land and water use. Conservation education has a significant role in achieving the wise use of these resources. In this report, perspectives are offered on: (1) the requirements for effective conservation education programs; (2) rationale for…

Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

369

Conservation Biogeography: assessment and prospect  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is general agreement among scientists that biodiversity is under assault on a global basis and that species are being lost at a greatly enhanced rate. This article examines the role played by biogeographical science in the emergence of conservation guidance and makes the case for the recognition of Conservation Biogeography as a key subfield of conservation biology delimited as:

Robert J. Whittaker; Miguel B. Araujo; Jepson Paul; Richard J. Ladle; James E. M. Watson; Katherine J. Willis

2005-01-01

370

Conservation subdivisions: A wildlife perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation subdivision is a design concept used by landscape architects and other built environment professionals to conserve wildlife habitat within growing communities. The idea is by clustering homes together to maximize open space, one can conserve urban biodiversity. It is a popular concept used by many planners and landscape architects and is used in many municipalities as an alternative to

Mark Hostetler; David Drake

2009-01-01

371

Saving Money Through Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is an introduction to personal energy conservation. The first chapter presents a rationale for conserving energy and points out that private citizens control about one third of this country's energy consumption. Chapters two and three show how to save money by saving energy. Chapter two discusses energy conservation methods in the…

Presley, Michael H.; And Others

372

Phototherapy irradiation chamber  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phototherapy irradiation chamber having substantial uniformity of irradiance therewithin comprises an array of vertical fluorescent lamps surrounding the irradiation space. Reflectors are located within the array at the top and bottom thereof. The ends of the lamps extend beyond the reflectors. 8 claims.

1978-01-01

373

A simple method for reducing ovarian dose during megavoltage irradiation of the breast  

SciTech Connect

Breast cancer in its early stages can be effectively treated with conservative surgery and irradiation. In young women who wish to subsequently bear children, reduction of ovarian dose during irradiation could be of great emotional significance. We describe a simple, convenient, cost-effective method by which ovarian dose was reduced from 18 cGy to 8 cGy during tangential irradiation of the intact breast with 6 MV photons.

Pennington, E.C.; Staples, J.; Jani, S.K. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (USA))

1989-12-01

374

Habitat Conservation Planning Support  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides an overview of the concept of habitat conservation planning (HCP), a program administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The information includes descriptions of the primary aspects of HCP: collection of ecological field data; design of reserves; analysis of the impacts that may result in the extinction of vulnerable species; monitoring to evaluate the progress of a given HCP; and areas of support such as geographic information systems (GIS), remote sensing, and simulation modeling. There are also links to examples of current research being conducted to support each of these aspects.

375

Conservation and drought management  

E-print Network

and washing machines. Using e#19;cient irrigation systems and #25;xing leaks are also behavioral habits that can save water. #31;e use of low water-demand landscape plants probably quali#25;es as a technological change. However, a lush, colorful landscape... using less water comes only if people caring for the landscape choose to use the right amount of water at the right time to take advantage of the plants? capabilities. Water purveyors can conserve water with good maintenance and leak repair...

Finch, Calvin

2012-01-01

376

Water Conservation: Israel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A recent report stated that in the next decade or so, nearly half of the world's population will live in countries whose water supplies are over-stressed. In parts of Africa, northern China, southern Asia, and the Middle East, water is already being pumped from aquifers faster than it is being replenished. In India, the water table is falling 1-3 m (3-10 ft) per year. This video segment, adapted from the television program 'Last Oasis', discusses how Israel has approached its water scarcity problem by developing innovative ways to conserve and reuse its supply.

2012-10-29

377

Water Conservation: Israel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A recent report stated that in the next decade or so, nearly half of the world's population will live in countries whose water supplies are over-stressed. In parts of Africa, northern China, southern Asia, and the Middle East, water is already being pumped from aquifers faster than it is being replenished. In India, the water table is falling 1-3 m (3-10 ft) per year. This video segment, adapted from the television program 'Last Oasis', discusses how Israel has approached its water scarcity problem by developing innovative ways to conserve and reuse its supply.

378

Conserving Water at Home  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Humans depend on freshwater for drinking as well as for domestic, agricultural, and industrial uses. Careless and wasteful use of this renewable but high-demand natural resource contributes to water depletion. This video segment provides a look at a house in Tuscon, Arizona that is equipped with water conservation devices that cut its household water consumption in half. There is also discussion of xeriscape landscaping techniques and a program to install low-flow toilets in Los Angeles, California. The segment is two minutes fifty-seven seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

2011-03-15

379

Conserving Water at Home  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Humans depend on freshwater for drinking as well as for domestic, agricultural, and industrial uses. Careless and wasteful use of this renewable but high-demand natural resource contributes to water depletion. This video segment provides a look at a house in Tuscon, Arizona that is equipped with water conservation devices that cut its household water consumption in half. There is also discussion of xeriscape landscaping techniques and a program to install low-flow toilets in Los Angeles, California. The segment is two minutes fifty-seven seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

380

Water Conservation: Denver, CO  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dams are widely distributed throughout the U.S. Their impact is perhaps most apparent in western cities, many of which lack a sufficient local water supply and thus rely on water diverted from far-away sources, particularly man-made lakes. This video segment shows how the city of Denver, Colorado, faced with a growing water crisis, developed and later abandoned a plan for a nearby dam and instead adopted policies consistent with a broader water-conservation strategy. The segment is three minutes forty-nine seconds in length.

2012-10-24

381

Water Conservation: Denver, CO  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dams are widely distributed throughout the U.S. Their impact is perhaps most apparent in western cities, many of which lack a sufficient local water supply and thus rely on water diverted from far-away sources, particularly man-made lakes. This video segment shows how the city of Denver, Colorado, faced with a growing water crisis, developed and later abandoned a plan for a nearby dam and instead adopted policies consistent with a broader water-conservation strategy. The segment is three minutes forty-nine seconds in length.

382

Pneumatic Air Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief interactive activity, by Electromechanical Digital Library and Wisconsin Technical College System faculty members Terry Bartelt and Stephen Schneider, introduces pneumatic air conservation. The lesson begins with an illustration comparing production of air force by electric and pneumatic systems. The lesson then moves on to discuss ways to reduce the cost of supplying pneumatic systems with electrical power, by reducing leakage and selecting the proper air pressure. This is an excellent and practical resource for reducing the monetary and environmental cost of running pneumatic air systems.

Bartelt, Terry L.; Schneider, Stephen

2009-05-12

383

Bat Conservation International, Inc.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Web site for Bat Conservation International, Inc. (last mentioned in the November 12, 1997_Scout Report for Science and Engineering_) has added significant content since our last coverage of the site. Although the site still has information about the organization, bat facts, FAQs, and information on bat biology, in-depth sections on a wide variety of research projects have been added, ranging from bats in Latin American ecosystems to bats in your very own yard. Although there is a large focus on research, the text is still written for a general audience, and most sections include a variety of photos.

384

TUDE PAR ABSORPTION HERTZIENNE DE L'EAU ADSORBE SUR UN GEL DE SILICE Par M. KAN-TCHI KAMIYOSHI (*), et M. JEAN RIPOCHE (**),  

E-print Network

943. �TUDE PAR ABSORPTION HERTZIENNE DE L'EAU ADSORB�E SUR UN GEL DE SILICE Par M. KAN. Résumé. 2014 L'absorption hertzienne de l'eau adsorbée sur un gel de silice a été étudiée ici, en of the adsorbed water on silica-gel is studied here as a function of water content from 0% to 40

Boyer, Edmond

385

Shedding and cleavage of the urokinase receptor (uPAR): identification and characterisation of uPAR fragments in vitro and in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applying a novel, highly specific and sensitive immunoabsorption\\/Western blotting technique we have identified in vitro in conditioned cell culture medium and in vivo in human urine different soluble forms of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR\\/CD87). These include the uPAR fragment D2D3 and the never before identified domain 1 (D1) fragment. These forms correspond to fragments previously characterised as biologically

Nicolai Sidenius; Cornelis F. M Sier; Francesco Blasi

2000-01-01

386

Local-scale heterogeneity of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), absorbed PAR and net radiation as a function of topography, sky conditions and leaf area index  

Microsoft Academic Search

The local-scale spatial distribution of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), absorbed PAR (APAR) and net all-wave radiation (Q?) across the top of a forest canopy was investigated as a function of topography, sky conditions and forest heterogeneity for a forested hilly study site located in south-central Indiana, USA that is part of the FLUXNET and SpecNet networks. The method to estimate

Andrew Oliphant; C. Susan; B. Grimmond; Hans-Peter Schmid; Craig A. Wayson

2006-01-01

387

Concentration dependent dual effect of thrombin in endothelial cells via PAR-1 and PI3 kinase  

PubMed Central

Disruption of endothelial barrier is a critical pathophysiological factor in inflammation. Thrombin exerts a variety of cellular effects including inflammation and apoptosis through activation of the protease activated receptors (PARs). The activation of PAR-1 by thrombin is known to have a bimodal effect in endothelial cell permeability with a low concentration (pM levels) eliciting a barrier protective and a high concentration (nM levels) eliciting a barrier disruptive response. It is not known whether this PAR-1-dependent activity of thrombin is a unique phenomenon specific for the in vitro assay or it is part of a general anti-inflammatory effect of low concentrations of thrombin that may have a physiological relevance. Here, we report that low concentrations of thrombin or of PAR-1 agonist peptide induced significant anti-inflammatory activities. However, relatively high concentration of thrombin or of PAR-1 agonist peptide showed pro-inflammatory activities. By using function-blocking anti-PAR-1 antibodies and PI3 kinase inhibitor, we show that the direct anti-inflammatory effects of low concentrations of thrombin are dependent on the activation of PAR-1 and PI3 kinase. These results suggest a role for cross communication between PAR-1 activation and PI3 kinase pathway in mediating the cytoprotective effects of low concentrations of thrombin in the cytokine-stimulated endothelial cells. PMID:19189342

Bae, Jong-Sup; Kim, Yong-ung; Park, Moon-Ki; Rezaie, Alireza R.

2009-01-01

388

Reconnaissance de courriers manuscrits par HMMs contextuels et modle de langage  

E-print Network

Reconnaissance de courriers manuscrits par HMMs contextuels et modèle de langage Olivier Morillot manuscrites, sou- mis par les auteurs lors de la compétition ICDAR 2011 sur la reconnaissance de courriers en, adaptée à un système de reconnaissance de courriers qui comprend un prétraitement original des lignes, un

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

389

Prepar ation and proper ties of protein par ticles from human hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein microspheres were conveniently prepared from human hair without chemical modification. The par ticle size was dependent on the mechanical stimuli and the aver age diameter was approximately 0.5 P m when the wet protein films were homogenized by mechanical stimuli using a Polytron and sonicator. The protein par ticles mainly consisted of D -ker atin types I and II.

Toshihiro Fujii; Kaoru Nakai; Hideto Kikuta; Shunichi Kobayashi; Toshihiro Hirai

2006-01-01

390

Optimisation par colonies de fourmis pour le problme du sac dos multidimensionnel  

E-print Network

Optimisation par colonies de fourmis pour le problème du sac à dos multidimensionnel Inès Alaya (Ant Colony Optimization / ACO) pour résoudre le problème du sac à dos multidimensionnel. L competitive results. MOTS-CL�S : Optimisation par colonies de fourmis, Problème du sac à dos multidimensionnel

Solnon, Christine

391

La perception des changements comptables par les acteurs : le cas du Vit-Nam  

E-print Network

of their profile; (2) it appears that the perception concerning the conceptual changes and the practical changes1 La perception des changements comptables par les acteurs : le cas du Viêt-Nam Nhu Tuyên Lê déterminants de la perception des changements comptables par les acteurs mêmes de la Comptabilité, dans le

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

392

Adult fish and ichthyoplankton of Par Pond and Pond B. Interim report, December 1983-May 1984  

SciTech Connect

The objective was to characterize the fish community of Par Pond and investigate the relative impacts of thermal effects, trophic effects and other factors on the ecology of Par Pond fishes. This report presents data collected from the first six months of the study. 18 figs., 16 tabs. (ACR)

Paller, M.; O'Hara, J.; Hughes, D.

1985-04-01

393

LUMINESCENCE DU SULFURE DE CADMIUM EXCIT PAR LASER (*) R. LEVY, A. BIVAS et J. B. GRUN  

E-print Network

507 LUMINESCENCE DU SULFURE DE CADMIUM EXCIT� PAR LASER (*) R. LEVY, A. BIVAS et J. B. GRUN 12 février 1970)] Résumé. 2014 La luminescence excitonique du Sulfure de Cadmium excité par des sources intenses (lasers) a été étudiée. La raie la plus intense du spectre de luminescence obtenue dans

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

394

Paternal age related schizophrenia (PARS): latent subgroups detected by k-means clustering analysis  

E-print Network

1 Paternal age related schizophrenia (PARS): latent subgroups detected by k-means clustering.antonius@nyumc.org #12;2 Abstract Background: Paternal age related schizophrenia (PARS) has been proposed as a subgroup of schizophrenia with distinct etiology, pathophysiology and symptoms. This study uses a k-means clustering

Ahn, Hongshik

395

Contribution du Gipsa lab au projet ANR LURGA Localisation d'Urgence Reconfigurable par GALILEO .  

E-print Network

1 Contribution du Gipsa lab au projet ANR LURGA � Localisation d'Urgence Reconfigurable par GALILEO r�ception des signaux GALILEO n'est pas perturb�e. Zone de crise avec canal de propagation perturb� par des trajets multiples Station de base 1 Constellation de satellites GALILEO Station de base 2

Boyer, Edmond

396

Structural Mechanism of ATP-induced Polymerization of the Partition Factor ParF  

PubMed Central

Segregation of the bacterial multidrug resistance plasmid TP228 requires the centromere-binding protein ParG, the parH centromere, and the Walker box ATPase ParF. The cycling of ParF between ADP- and ATP-bound states drives TP228 partition; ATP binding stimulates ParF polymerization, which is essential for segregation, whereas ADP binding antagonizes polymerization and inhibits DNA partition. The molecular mechanism involved in this adenine nucleotide switch is unclear. Moreover, it is unknown how any Walker box protein polymerizes in an ATP-dependent manner. Here, we describe multiple ParF structures in ADP- and phosphomethylphosphonic acid adenylate ester (AMPPCP)-bound states. ParF-ADP is monomeric but dimerizes when complexed with AMPPCP. Strikingly, in ParF-AMPPCP structures, the dimers interact to create dimer-of-dimer “units” that generate a specific linear filament. Mutation of interface residues prevents both polymerization and DNA segregation in vivo. Thus, these data provide insight into a unique mechanism by which a Walker box protein forms polymers that involves the generation of ATP-induced dimer-of-dimer building blocks. PMID:22674577

Schumacher, Maria A.; Ye, Qiaozhen; Barge, Madhuri T.; Zampini, Massimiliano; Barilla, Daniela; Hayes, Finbarr

2012-01-01

397

PAR extinction in shortgrass ecosystems: effects of clumping, sky conditions and soil albedo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) absorbed by a canopy (APAR) is an important driving variable for vegetation processes such as photosynthesis. PAR extinction in clumped canopies of shortgrass ecosystems is the focus of this paper. Directional gap fractions estimated at peak biomass on several Mexican shortgrass ecosystems with a hemispherical radiation sensor (Li-Cor, LAI-2000) were higher than those

Yann Nouvellon; Agnès Bégué; M. Susan Morana; Danny Lo Seen; Serge Rambal; Delphine Luquet; Ghani Chehbouni; Yoshio Inoue

2000-01-01

398

Ultrastructure of the pituitary gland (pars distalis) in sockeye salmon ( Oncorhynchus nerka ) during gonad maturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fine structure of the various hormone-producing cell types (with the exclusion of the prolactin cells) in the pituitary gland (pars distalis) of migratory sockeye salmon is described. All fish were in an advanced stage of sexual maturation. In the proximal pars distalis five cell types were distinguished: growth hormone cells, ACTH cells, gonadotrops, “vesicular cells”, and “chromophobe cells”. Gonadotrops

H. Cook; A. P. van Overbeeke

1972-01-01

399

12 CFR 1263.19 - Par value and price of stock.  

...2014-01-01 false Par value and price of stock. 1263.19 Section... Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME... § 1263.19 Par value and price of stock. The capital...the Director has fixed a higher...

2014-01-01

400

12 CFR 1263.19 - Par value and price of stock.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Par value and price of stock. 1263.19 Section... Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME... § 1263.19 Par value and price of stock. The capital...the Director has fixed a higher...

2012-01-01

401

12 CFR 1263.19 - Par value and price of stock.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Par value and price of stock. 1263.19 Section... Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME... § 1263.19 Par value and price of stock. The capital...the Director has fixed a higher...

2011-01-01

402

12 CFR 925.19 - Par value and price of stock.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Par value and price of stock. 925.19 Section 925.19 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN...Requirements § 925.19 Par value and price of stock. The capital stock...

2010-01-01

403

12 CFR 1263.19 - Par value and price of stock.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Par value and price of stock. 1263.19 Section... Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME... § 1263.19 Par value and price of stock. The capital...the Director has fixed a higher...

2013-01-01

404

Modelisation et analyse des syst`emes Duree: 4h. Une feuille par question.  

E-print Network

- bies et un groupe d'^etres humains "normaux" (non zombies). Il est bien connu que lorsqu'un zombie touche un ^etre humain, ce dernier se transforme en zombie. Par ailleurs, la panique provoqu´ee dans le camp des humains par la pr´esence des zombies cr´ee un rapprochement entre les humains, rapprochement

Catholique de Louvain, Université

405

Conservative treatment vs phonosurgery.  

PubMed

In Phoniatric Dpt. everyday practice we try to keep specific multidisciplinary approach to the communication disorders, that includes an expert team using modern technology. Over the last six years we have treated 110 singers (3% of all new cases) and the results of their diagnostic and therapeutic management are presented here. There were 67 women and 43 men, 41 were smokers and 69 nonsmokers. The singing genres included 24 pop, 41 folk, 8 ethnic, 29 choral and 8 opera singers. The therapy success was compared with the demographic parameters, level of education and music genres across the subjects. A precise history, clinical examination, endovideolaryngostroboscopy and multidimensional computer analysis of voice and speech was carried out by two phoniatricians, two logopeds, two nurses and one clinical psychologist. Additional consultations were carried out by audiologists, allergists, endocrinologists, chest physicians, gastroenterologists and neurologists where necessary. We suggest that the gold standard is conservative therapy, with phonosurgery if conservative measures fail. We also suggest that an annual systematic examination is optimal in preventing disease in professional singers. PMID:19245144

Vukasinovi?, M; Stankovi?, P D; Nikoli?, Lj; Stojanovi?, M; Ajdukovi?, M; Djuki?, V; Janosevi?, Lj

2008-01-01

406

Molecular contributions to conservation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent advances in molecular technology have opened a new chapter in species conservation efforts, as well as population biology. DNA sequencing, MHC (major histocompatibility complex), minisatellite, microsatellite, and RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) procedures allow for identification of parentage, more distant relatives, founders to new populations, unidentified individuals, population structure, effective population size, population-specific markers, etc. PCR (polymerase chain reaction) amplification of mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA, ribosomal DNA, chloroplast DNA, and other systems provide for more sophisticated analyses of metapopulation structure, hybridization events, and delineation of species, subspecies, and races, all of which aid in setting species recovery priorities. Each technique can be powerful in its own right but is most credible when used in conjunction with other molecular techniques and, most importantly, with ecological and demographic data collected from the field. Surprisingly few taxa of concern have been assayed with any molecular technique. Thus, rather than showcasing exhaustive details from a few well-known examples, this paper attempts to present a broad range of cases in which molecular techniques have been used to provide insight into conservation efforts.

Haig, Susan M.

1998-01-01

407

Energy conservation in museums  

SciTech Connect

An overall assessment of energy conservation in museums in New York is made in view of the special environmental considerations involved. The special relative humidity, temperature, and lighting requirements of museums were studied extensively. An energy consumption data base was formed with actual energy use data obtained from over fifty institutions across the state. The computerized energy consumption data base compiled covers an extremely wide range of energy usage levels. On-site energy consumption ranged from approximately 20,000 to 400,000 Btu/ft/sup 2/ year. The data base includes small rural institutions and large metropolitan museums, historic and modern structures, seasonal and year-round museums, single buildings and collections of buildings, single-story buildings and multiple-story buildings, an aquarium, and a zoo. Thus, it is difficult to identify trends in the energy consumption data and to make correlations with such parameters as age, type, size, etc. Walk-through or mini energy audits were performed on ten museums located in various parts of New York State. This project also included a thorough study of all potential funding sources to which museums can apply for financing energy conservation measures. Sources of technical assistance and information were also identified. (MCW)

Ucar, M.; Doering, G.C.

1980-07-01

408

Measuring and Incorporating Vulnerability into Conservation Planning  

E-print Network

FORUM Measuring and Incorporating Vulnerability into Conservation Planning KERRIE WILSON / Conservation planning is the process of locating and designing conservation areas to promote the persistence, measuring and incorporating vul- nerability into conservation planning have been problematic. We develop

Queensland, University of

409

Soil and Water Conservation Spring 2014  

E-print Network

SWS 4233 Soil and Water Conservation Spring 2014 Instructor Susan Curry scurry@ufl.edu 352 equations and reduction practices, government conservation programs; water conservation, irrigation students with an understanding of the interconnectedness of soil and water conservation. The course

Ma, Lena

410

Par-4 inhibits Akt and suppresses Ras-induced lung tumorigenesis  

PubMed Central

The atypical PKC-interacting protein, Par-4, inhibits cell survival and tumorigenesis in vitro, and its genetic inactivation in mice leads to reduced lifespan, enhanced benign tumour development and low-frequency carcinogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that Par-4 is highly expressed in normal lung but reduced in human lung cancer samples. We show, in a mouse model of lung tumours, that the lack of Par-4 dramatically enhances Ras-induced lung carcinoma formation in vivo, acting as a negative regulator of Akt activation. We also demonstrate in cell culture, in vivo, and in biochemical experiments that Akt regulation by Par-4 is mediated by PKC?, establishing a new paradigm for Akt regulation and, likely, for Ras-induced lung carcinogenesis, wherein Par-4 is a novel tumour suppressor. PMID:18650932

Joshi, Jayashree; Fernandez-Marcos, Pablo J; Galvez, Anita; Amanchy, Ramars; Linares, Juan F; Duran, Angeles; Pathrose, Peterson; Leitges, Michael; Canamero, Marta; Collado, Manuel; Salas, Clara; Serrano, Manuel; Moscat, Jorge; Diaz-Meco, Maria T

2008-01-01

411

Loss of the Par3 Polarity Protein Promotes Breast Tumorigenesis and Metastasis  

PubMed Central

Loss of epithelial organization is a hallmark of carcinomas, but whether polarity regulates tumor growth and metastasis is poorly understood. To address this issue we depleted the Par3 polarity gene by RNAi in combination with oncogenic Notch or Ras61L expression in the murine mammary gland. Par3 silencing dramatically reduced tumor latency in both models, and produced invasive and metastatic tumors that retained epithelial marker expression. Par3 depletion was associated with induction of MMP9, destruction of the extracellular matrix, and invasion, all mediated by atypical PKC-dependant JAK/Stat3 activation. Importantly, Par3 expression is significantly reduced in human breast cancers, which correlates with active aPKC and Stat3. These data identify Par3 as a regulator of signaling pathways relevant to invasive breast cancer. PMID:23153534

McCaffrey, Luke Martin; Montalbano, JoAnne; Mihai, Constantina; Macara, Ian G.

2012-01-01

412

Substituted indoles as selective protease activated receptor 4 (PAR-4) antagonists: Discovery and SAR of ML354.  

PubMed

Herein we report the discovery and SAR of an indole-based protease activated receptor-4 (PAR-4) antagonist scaffold derived from a similarity search of the Vanderbilt HTS collection, leading to MLPCN probe ML354 (VU0099704). Using a novel PAC-1 fluorescent ?IIb?3 activation assay this probe molecule antagonist was found to have an IC50 of 140nM for PAR-4 with 71-fold selectivity versus PAR-1 (PAR-1IC50=10?M). PMID:25176330

Wen, Wandong; Young, Summer E; Duvernay, Matthew T; Schulte, Michael L; Nance, Kellie D; Melancon, Bruce J; Engers, Julie; Locuson, Charles W; Wood, Michael R; Daniels, J Scott; Wu, Wenjun; Lindsley, Craig W; Hamm, Heidi E; Stauffer, Shaun R

2014-10-01

413

Revue. Volume X n x/anne, pages 1 X Suivi d'endommagement par EA dans un  

E-print Network

Revue. Volume X ­ n° x/année, pages 1 à X Suivi d'endommagement par EA dans un composite obtenu par matériau composite à fibres de verre et à matrice vinylester, obtenu par pultrusion, est soumis à un mode d'endommagement, gouverné principalement par les divers micro-mécanismes d'endommagement de la

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

414

PROBABILIT DE TRANSITION DE LA RAIE 61S0 -63P0 DU MERCURE Par Mlle M. C. BIGEON,  

E-print Network

51. PROBABILIT� DE TRANSITION DE LA RAIE 61S0 - 63P0 DU MERCURE Par Mlle M. C. BIGEON, Faculté des raie interdite (61S0 2014 63P0) du mercure est émise par les isotopes impairs 199Hg et 201Hg de spin expérimentalement par des mesures d'absorption de la raie interdite par la vapeur de mercure. L'accord est

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

415

National energy conservation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of energy conservation actions that cut across all sectors of the economy were analyzed so that all actions under consideration be analyzed systematically and as a whole. The actions considered were as follows: (1) roll back the price of newly discovered oil, (2) freeze gasoline production for 3 years at 1972 levels, (3) mandate automobile mileage improvements, (4) require industry to improve energy efficiency, (5) require manufacture of household appliances with greater efficiency, (6) force conversion of many power plants from gas and oil to coal. The results showed that considerable gas and oil would be saved by forcing switches to coal. However, the large scale switch to coal was shown to require greatly increased outputs from many other industries that in turn require more energy. It was estimated that nearly 2.5 quads of additional coal were needed to produce these additional requirements. Also, the indirect requirements would create more jobs.

1975-01-01

416

Conservation International: Biodiversity Hotspots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From Conservation International, this Biodiversity Hotspots site (first reported on in the October 18, 2002 NSDL Scout Report for Life Sciences) "was re-launched in 2005 with completely updated information as presented in the new book _Hotspots Revisited_." The updated Hotspots website features profiles of more than 30 ecologically important areas of the world. Hotspots are categorized under five world regions including South America, Africa, North and Central America, Europe and Central Asia, and Asia-Pacific. Site visitors will find profiles about such Hotspots as the Himalaya, Mediterranean Basin, Horn of Africa, Tropical Andes, Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands, Sundaland, and more. In addition to regional profiles, the site offers a number of helpful resources such as a Terrestrial Vertebrate Species Database, a Glossary, Maps, and related References.

417

PRISMS: Conservation of Matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

PRISMS is a collection of reviewed phenomena and representations for middle school science. This page features a classroom demonstration that illustrates the Law of Conservation of Mass: no matter how substances within a closed system interact with one another, the total mass of the system remains the same. In this demo, steel wool is placed in a flask, covered by a balloon, and the mass is measured before and after the steel wool rusts. Editor's Note: The key elements of PRISMS are the professional reviews that accompany each digital resource. The resource is evaluated for its quality, alignment to national science standards, scope, and appropriateness for the grade level intended. PRISMS database topics include astronomy, biology, earth science, structure of matter, energy, force and motion, and ecology.

2011-04-28

418

Energy Conservation Code Decoded  

SciTech Connect

Designing an energy-efficient, affordable, and comfortable home is a lot easier thanks to a slime, easier to read booklet, the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC), published in March 2006. States, counties, and cities have begun reviewing the new code as a potential upgrade to their existing codes. Maintained under the public consensus process of the International Code Council, the IECC is designed to do just what its title says: promote the design and construction of energy-efficient homes and commercial buildings. Homes in this case means traditional single-family homes, duplexes, condominiums, and apartment buildings having three or fewer stories. The U.S. Department of Energy, which played a key role in proposing the changes that resulted in the new code, is offering a free training course that covers the residential provisions of the 2006 IECC.

Cole, Pam C.; Taylor, Zachary T.

2006-09-01

419

Pars flaccida perforation in tissue culture: morphological study.  

PubMed

Subtotal pars flaccida perforation was effected in vitro in rat tympanic membranes. The drums were subsequently kept in tissue culture and after various intervals studied by means of light and scanning electron microscopy. No complete covering of the perforation was seen, though a marked thickening and hyperplasia of the outer, keratinizing, squamous epithelium (OE) was evident. The inner, tympanal epithelium (IE) appeared swollen, containing rounded structures in the cytoplasm especially close to the contact area with the OE. Ingrowth of OE onto the tympanal side of the drum was seen particularly in the areas where the IE was sparse and completely lacking. Complete covering of a drum perforation seems to be dependent on the formation of supporting granulation tissue, probably resulting from an inflammatory reaction in the healing area. PMID:2324630

Stenfors, L E; Olsen, E G; Henriksen, A O

1990-02-01

420

Myopathy in horses with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (Cushing's disease).  

PubMed

Fifteen horses with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction were studied. The horses were of various breeds and between 15 and 28 years of age. Control horses matched for breed and age were studied for comparison. Evaluations included complete blood cell count and serum biochemical analysis, electromyography, and gluteus medius muscle biopsies for histochemical, morphometric, and ultrastructural analysis. No differences were found between groups of horses on routine laboratory analysis or electromyography. We demonstrated that muscle wasting in diseased horses was the result of atrophy of types 2A and 2B muscle fibers and loss of type 2B myofibers. Mild non-specific non-inflammatory myopathic alterations such as myofiber size variation, internal nuclei, perimysial, endomysial and sarcoplasmic fat accumulation were observed. At the ultrastructural level, subsarcolemmal mitochondrial accumulation and increased lipid droplets were evident. Similar to other species, this study confirmed atrophy of type 2 fibers as the cause of muscle mass loss in horses with Cushing's disease. PMID:17005399

Aleman, M; Watson, J L; Williams, D C; LeCouteur, R A; Nieto, J E; Shelton, G D

2006-11-01

421

Pars plana vitrectomy through the Boston Keratoprosthesis type 1  

PubMed Central

Purpose To ascertain the feasibility of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) through a permanent Boston Keratoprosthesis type 1 (KPro) without the use of a temporary KPro. Methods A retrospective interventional case series. Eyes implanted with Boston KPro type 1 between 2008 and 2011 requiring PPV for vitreoretinal complications were included. Feasibility of PPV through the KPro, its anatomical and functional success were studied. Results Five out of 70 patients required PPV for vitreoretinal complications post-KPro surgery resulting in an incidence of 7%. PPV was feasible through the Boston KPro with no deleterious effects on the corneal carrier or the KPro itself. Repeat PPV was necessary in some cases. Although anatomical repair of the vitreoretinal complications was achieved in most cases, post PPV visual acuity remained poor in the majority. Conclusion Our study suggests that although PPV through the Boston KPro is a viable approach for vitreoretinal disease repair, visual rehabilitation remains poor. PMID:23579405

Harissi-Dagher, M; Durr, G M; Biernacki, K; Sebag, M; Rheaume, M-A

2013-01-01

422

[Problems in pars plana vitrectomy in complicated diabetic retinopathy].  

PubMed

Introduction summarizes basal indications for pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) in complicated diabetic retinopathy (DR) and indications for urgently performed PPV are accentuated. Further there are explained various peculiarities of PPV in DR, various components forming the solution for infusion, advantages of the cerclage, some problems with surgery of the complicated cataracts, contribution and indications of the use of the silicone oil for the inner tamponade. Special attention was paid to the postoperative complications affecting the cornea, rubeosis iridis, iatrogenic tears of the retina and recurring intravitreal hemorrhages. Thereafter author concludes this review evaluating prognosis and long-term results of PPV and DR. He emphasizes the technical difficulties of this operation and recommends to concentrate the performance of this operation into the centres specialized for vitreoretinal surgery. PMID:2713920

Karel, I

1989-03-01

423

Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) - focus on receptor-receptor-interactions and their physiological and pathophysiological impact  

PubMed Central

Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) are a subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) with four members, PAR1, PAR2, PAR3 and PAR4, playing critical functions in hemostasis, thrombosis, embryonic development, wound healing, inflammation and cancer progression. PARs are characterized by a unique activation mechanism involving receptor cleavage by different proteinases at specific sites within the extracellular amino-terminus and the exposure of amino-terminal “tethered ligand“ domains that bind to and activate the cleaved receptors. After activation, the PAR family members are able to stimulate complex intracellular signalling networks via classical G protein-mediated pathways and beta-arrestin signalling. In addition, different receptor crosstalk mechanisms critically contribute to a high diversity of PAR signal transduction and receptor-trafficking processes that result in multiple physiological effects. In this review, we summarize current information about PAR-initiated physical and functional receptor interactions and their physiological and pathological roles. We focus especially on PAR homo- and heterodimerization, transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and receptor serine/threonine kinases (RSTKs), communication with other GPCRs, toll-like receptors and NOD-like receptors, ion channel receptors, and on PAR association with cargo receptors. In addition, we discuss the suitability of these receptor interaction mechanisms as targets for modulating PAR signalling in disease. PMID:24215724

2013-01-01

424

NUMERUS CLAUSUS DU CONCOURS DE MAIEUTIQUE Par arrt du 5 novembre 2010, le nombre d'tudiants de premire anne  

E-print Network

NUMERUS CLAUSUS DU CONCOURS DE MAIEUTIQUE 2011 Par arrêté du 5 novembre 2010, le nombre d. #12;NUMERUS CLAUSUS DU CONCOURS DE MEDECINE 2011 Par arrêté du 5 novembre 2010, le nombre d;NUMERUS CLAUSUS DU CONCOURS D'ODONTOLOGIE 2011 Par arrêté du 5 novembre 2010, le nombre d'étudiants de

Jeanjean, Louis

425

D-Serine is reabsorbed in rat renal pars recta.  

PubMed

D-Serine normally contributes up to 3% to total plasma serine and up to 23% in chronic renal failure. D-Serine is metabolized by tubular D-amino acid oxidase (D-AAO), and high D-serine plasma levels are nephrotoxic; both events are localized in the straight part of the proximal tubule. We therefore investigated if and how D-serine is reabsorbed there. We microinfused 14C-labeled D- or -L-serine + [3H]inulin into early proximal (EP), late proximal (LP), or early distal (ED) tubule sections of superficial nephrons and into long loops of Henle (LLH) of rats in vivo and in situ. The fractional reabsorption (FR) of the 14C label was determined from the 14C:3H ratio in the final urine. At 0.36 mM, FR of D-[14C]serine was 86% (EP), 90% (LP), and approximately 0 (ED, LLH). FR of D-serine could be saturated and inhibited by L-serine (and vice versa). D-methionine, but not D-glutamate or D-arginine, blocked FR of D-serine (LP). We conlude that filtered D-serine is able to enter the pars recta cells, thereby getting access to D-AAO. The uptake carrier has a very low stereospecificity and is, therefore, different from that in the proximal convolution. The colocalization of exclusive reabsorption and metabolism makes the pars recta the tubule site for the recycling of the carbon structure of D-amino acids and, at the same time, the target of D-serine nephrotoxicity. PMID:10362774

Silbernagl, S; Völker, K; Dantzler, W H

1999-06-01

426

Operationalizing biodiversity for conservation planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiversity has acquired such a general meaning that people now find it difficult to pin down a precise sense for planning\\u000a and policy-making aimed at biodiversity conservation. Because biodiversity is rooted in place, the task of conserving biodiversity\\u000a should target places for conservation action; and because all places contain biodiversity, but not all places can be targeted\\u000a for action, places

Sahotra Sarkar; Chris Margules

2002-01-01

427

Ambient intelligence for energy conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Home energy savings and low CO2 emissions are indispensable against global warming. This paper proposes a home energy conservation support system by using ubiquitous sensors. This system encourages energy conservation to the residents by indicating the non-energy conservation activities and the estimated loss money. This system is composed by human activities and environment monitoring system and energy-saving advice system. Human

Keisuke Kobayashi; Mina Tsukahara; Akira Tokumasu; Kousuke Okuyama; Kouhei Saitou; Yasushi Nakauchi

2011-01-01

428

Athletic Fields and Water Conservation  

E-print Network

Athletic Fields and Water Conservation 10/99 Water Supply and Conservation Education Programs Gene R. Taylor, II, Assistant Professor and Extension Turfgrass Specialist Richard H. White, Associate Professor Turfgrass Physiology, Texas Agricultural... Experiment Station Scott Abernathy, Former Turfgrass Extension Assistant David Smith, Former Extension Associate?Integrated Landscape Management The Texas A&M University System E-530 Water conservation must be considered by anyone working in turf and grounds...

Taylor, Gene R.; White, Richard; Abernathy, Scott; Smith, David

1999-12-10

429

Center for Biodiversity and Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for Biodiversity and Conservation (CBC) site contains: information on the research CBC scientists are engaged in; links to information on how to help the CBC and learn more about protecting and conserving biodiversity; an explanation of what biodiversity is; and a list of CBC summary papers, education manuals, field reports, and brochures on conservation issues. Downloadable documents cover biodiversity, global taxonomy, the tree of life, and extinction. Research programs are located in the Bahamas, for marine reserve design; Madagascar, for application of conservation genetics to humpback whales and other studies; and in Vietnam, Bolivia, and New York State.

430

Entropy conservative finite element schemes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The question of entropy stability for discrete approximations to hyperbolic systems of conservation laws is studied. The amount of numerical viscosity present in such schemes is quantified and related to their entropy stability by means of comparison. To this end, two main ingredients are used: entropy variables and the construction of certain entropy conservative schemes in terms of piecewise-linear finite element approximations. It is then shown that conservative schemes are entropy stable, if and (for three-point schemes) only if, they contain more numerical viscosity than the abovementioned entropy conservation ones.

Tadmor, E.

1986-01-01

431

Community Markets for Conservation (COMACO) links biodiversity conservation with sustainable  

E-print Network

-secure households and trains them in sustainable agricultural practices that minimize threats to natural resources-value markets and progress to- ward economic self-sufficiency; and the adoption of sustainable agriculturalCommunity Markets for Conservation (COMACO) links biodiversity conservation with sustainable

Lehmann, Johannes

432

Leopards of the Cape: conservation and conservation concerns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leopard (Panthera pardus) is the apex predator in the Western Cape, South Africa. It has until recently been regarded as vermin by farmers and conservation officials and been highly persecuted for over 350 years. It is now restricted to the more inaccessible mountains, such as the Cederberg. We have initiated several projects to highlight conservation concerns and needs of

Quinton Martins; Nicole Martins

2006-01-01

433

Thermoluminescence of irradiated foodstuffs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements have been made of the thermoluminescent response of a number of foodstuffs, namely spices, chicken bone, eggshell and strawberries. From the results, irradiated samples can be clearly distinguished from unirradiated ones for several weeks after irradiation of 5-10 kGy, or in the case of some spices for up to 20 months. It is concluded that measurement of thermoluminescence is a promising technique for detecting the irradiation of foodstuffs.

Oduko, J. M.; Spyrou, N. M.

434

Targeting uPAR with Antagonistic Recombinant Human Antibodies in Aggressive Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Components of the plasminogen activation system (PAS) which are overexpressed in aggressive breast cancer subtypes offer appealing targets for development of new diagnostics and therapeutics. By comparing gene expression data in patient populations and cultured cell lines, we identified elevated levels of the urokinase plasminogen activation receptor (uPAR, PLAUR) in highly aggressive breast cancer subtypes and cell lines. Recombinant human anti-uPAR antagonistic antibodies exhibited potent binding in vitro to the surface of cancer cells expressing uPAR. In vivo these antibodies detected uPAR expression in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) tumor xenografts using near infrared (NIR) imaging and 111In single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Antibody-based uPAR imaging probes accurately detected small disseminated lesions in a tumor metastasis model, complementing the current clinical imaging standard 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) at detecting non-glucose-avid metastatic lesions. A monotherapy study using the antagonistic antibodies resulted in a significant decrease in tumor growth in a TNBC xenograft model. Additionally, a radioimmunotherapy (RIT) study, using the anti-uPAR antibodies conjugated to the therapeutic radioisotope 177Lu, found that they were effective at reducing tumor burden in vivo. Taken together, our results offer a preclinical proof of concept for uPAR targeting as a strategy for breast cancer diagnosis and therapy using this novel human antibody technology. PMID:23400595

LeBeau, Aaron M.; Duriseti, Sai; Murphy, Stephanie T.; Pepin, Francois; Hann, Byron; Gray, Joe W.; VanBrocklin, Henry F.; Craik, Charles S.

2013-01-01

435

Cathepsin S Signals via PAR2 and Generates a Novel Tethered Ligand Receptor Agonist  

PubMed Central

Protease-activated receptor-2 is widely expressed in mammalian epithelial, immune and neural tissues. Cleavage of PAR2 by serine proteases leads to self-activation of the receptor by the tethered ligand SLIGRL. The contribution of other classes of proteases to PAR activation has not been studied in detail. Cathepsin S is a widely expressed cysteine protease that is upregulated in inflammatory conditions. It has been suggested that cathepsin S activates PAR2. However, cathepsin S activation of PAR2 has not been demonstrated directly nor has the potential mechanism of activation been identified. We show that cathepsin S cleaves near the N-terminus of PAR2 to expose a novel tethered ligand, KVDGTS. The hexapeptide KVDGTS generates downstream signaling events specific to PAR2 but is weaker than SLIGRL. Mutation of the cathepsin S cleavage site prevents receptor activation by the protease while KVDGTS retains activity. In conclusion, the range of actions previously ascribed to cysteine cathepsins in general, and cathepsin S in particular, should be expanded to include molecular signaling. Such signaling may link together observations that had been attributed previously to PAR2 or cathepsin S individually. These interactions may contribute to inflammation. PMID:24964046

Lerner, Ethan A.

2014-01-01

436

Aberrations in Pseudoautosomal Regions (PARs) Found in Infertile Men with Y-Chromosome Microdeletions  

PubMed Central

Context: The pseudoautosomal regions (PARs) of the Y-chromosome undergo meiotic recombination with the X-chromosome. PAR mutations are associated with infertility and mental and stature disorders. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine whether men with Y-chromosome microdeletions have structural defects in PARs. Design and Participants: Eighty-seven infertile men with Y-chromosome microdeletions and 35 controls were evaluated for chromosomal rearrangements using commercial or custom (X- and Y-chromosome) array comparative genomic hybridization or by quantitative PCR of selected PAR genes. Multisoftware-defined chromosomal gains or losses were validated by quantitative PCR and FISH. Results: Array comparative genomic hybridization confirmed the AZF deletions identified by multiplex PCR. All men with Y-chromosome microdeletions and an abnormal karyotype displayed PAR abnormalities, as did 10% of men with Y-chromosome microdeletions and a normal karyotype. None of the control subjects or infertile men without Y-chromosome microdeletions had PAR duplications or deletions. SHOX aberrations occurred in 14 men (nine gains and five losses); four were short in stature (<10th percentile), and one was tall (>95th percentile). In contrast, the height of 23 men with Y-chromosome microdeletions and normal PARs was average at 176.8 cm (50th percentile). Conclusions: Y-chromosome microdeletions can include PAR defects causing genomic disorders such as SHOX, which may be transmitted to offspring. Previously unrecognized PAR gains and losses in men with Y-chromosome microdeletions may have consequences for offspring. PMID:21252244

Weedin, John W.; Sahin, Aysegul; Tannour-Louet, Mounia; Han, Shuo; Bournat, Juan C.; Mielnik, Anna; Cheung, Sau Wai; Nangia, Ajay K.; Schlegel, Peter N.; Lipshultz, Larry I.

2011-01-01

437

Environmental Conservation: page 1 of 9 C Foundation for Environmental Conservation 2013 doi:10.1017/S0376892913000015 Rethinking property rights: comparative analysis of conservation  

E-print Network

), focusing on conservation easements (or conservation covenants) created to conserve wildlife habitat The Nature Conservancy deployed conservation easements for wildlife habitat: rural Lassen Foothills conservation, land trusts, private lands, property concepts, property rights, wildlife habitat, urbanization

Rissman, Adena

438

TECHNIQUES FOR TEACHING CONSERVATION EDUCATION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

CONSERVATION PRINCIPLES, FIELD METHODS AND TECHNIQUES, AND SPECIFIC FIELD LEARNING ACTIVITIES ARE INCLUDED IN THIS REFERENCE VOLUME FOR TEACHERS. CONSERVATION PRINCIPLES INCLUDE STATEMENTS PERTAINING TO (1) SOIL, (2) WATER, (3) FOREST, AND (4) WILDLIFE. FIELD METHODS AND TECHNIQUES INCLUDE (1) PREPARING FOR A FIELD TRIP, (2) GETTING STUDENT…

BROWN, ROBERT E.; MOUSER, G.W.

439

Animal conservation, carbon and sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

International conventions to reduce carbon dioxide levels focus on ecosystems and do not specifically recognize the need to conserve species. However, species are the build- ing blocks of ecosystems, they are more widely understood among the public, and they provide means of capturing market values from ecosystems. Achieving successful conservation globally will require ensuring that the systems under which species

N. Leader-Williams

2002-01-01

440

Communication Skills for Conservation Professionals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides in-depth guidance for students, scientists, managers, and professionals in achieving conservation goals through better communication. It introduces communication approaches--marketing and mass media, citizen participation, public information, environmental interpretation, and conservation education activities--and offers scores…

Jacobson, Susan K.

441

Laser technology in art conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applications of modern laser technology in art conservation are reviewed with emphasis in the conservation of painted artworks. In particular, processes and critical parameters for the cleaning of paintings by excimer lasers are discussed. The influence of photoxidation or free radical formation processes leading to potential damage is examined in experiments involving model and realistic systems. Laser based spectroscopic techniques

C. Fotakis; D. Anglos; S. Couris; S. Georgiou; V. Zafiropulos; I. Zergioti

1997-01-01

442

Conservation Farming in New Mexico  

E-print Network

conservation farming methods for many years. However, soil conservation also is mandated by the 1985 Food? Bare soils, associated with conventional tillage, lead to severe soil erosion from both wind and water cover on the soil surface at planting time to reduce soil erosion by water, or, where soil erosion

Johnson, Eric E.

443

Genetic conservation of native trees  

E-print Network

, 2001). Chloroplast DNA investigations have continued and include work on veteran oak treesGenetic conservation of native trees Scott McG. Wilson1 and C. J. A. Samuel Over recent years, the genetic conservation of British native tree populations has become an increasingly important part

444

Medicinal plants, conservation and livelihoods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many types of action can be taken in favour of the conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants. Some of these are undertaken directly at the places where the plants are found, while others are less direct, such as some of those relating to commercial systems, ex situ conservation and bioprospecting. In the latter cases, actions taken will not lead

Alan C. Hamilton

2004-01-01

445

Misadventures in Conservation and Development  

E-print Network

Misadventures in Conservation and Development Friday, September 28, 2012 12:00 - 1:30 p.m. (lunch will be provided) Wrigley Hall, Room 481 Candice Carr Kelman Assistant Director, School of Sustainability Governance issues are at the heart of successful biodiversity conservation and sustainable development

Hall, Sharon J.

446

Relativistic dynamics without conservation laws  

E-print Network

We show that relativistic dynamics can be approached without using conservation laws (conservation of momentum, of energy and of the centre of mass). Our approach avoids collisions that are not easy to teach without mnemonic aids. The derivations are based on the principle of relativity and on its direct consequence, the addition law of relativistic velocities.

Bernhard Rothenstein; Stefan Popescu

2006-05-23

447

Relativistic dynamics without conservation laws  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that relativistic dynamics can be approached without using conservation laws (conservation of momentum, of energy and of the centre of mass). Our approach avoids collisions that are not easy to teach without mnemonic aids. The derivations are based on the principle of relativity and on its direct consequence, the addition law of relativistic velocities.

Bernhard Rothenstein; Stefan Popescu

2006-01-01

448

How Academe Shortchanges Conservative Thinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notwithstanding the outcome of the recent election, in one respect, the last few decades mark a breakthrough era for conservative intellectuals. Their visibility has soared. Thirty years ago, the only place to find conservatives on television was Firing Line, William F. Buckley's urbane talk show. Today they appear on Meet the Press and 60…

Bauerlein, Mark

2006-01-01

449

Public Attitudes Toward Water Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumer attitudes toward water conservation were surveyed in seven northeastern Colorado communities to determine whether relationships exist between (1) attitudes and type of community or (2) attitudes and socioeconomic variables. The water conservation alternatives presented to these users included metering, price increases, restrictions on water use, restrictions on lawn size, controls on population growth, and reuse of treated wastewater for

J. Ernest Flack; Joanne Greenberg

1987-01-01

450

The politics of energy conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a decade of debate about U.S. energy policy, the two political parties reached consensus that conservation is needed to achieve energy efficiency and to ensure adequate future supplies. But what is the most effective spur to energy conservation. In this book, Pietro S. Nivola argues that basic pricing reform in all energy sectors, though politically controversial, should be the

Nivola

1986-01-01

451

Thrombin induces rapid PAR1-mediated non-classical FGF1 release  

SciTech Connect

Thrombin induces cell proliferation and migration during vascular injury. We report that thrombin rapidly stimulated expression and release of the pro-angiogenic polypeptide fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1). Thrombin failed to induce FGF1 release from protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) null fibroblasts, indicating that this effect was dependent on PAR1. Similarly to thrombin, FGF1 expression and release were induced by TRAP, a specific oligopeptide agonist of PAR1. These results identify a novel aspect of the crosstalk between FGF and thrombin signaling pathways which both play important roles in tissue repair and angiogenesis.

Duarte, Maria [Maine Medical Center Research Institute, 81 Research Drive, Scarborough, ME 04074 (United States); Kolev, Vihren [Maine Medical Center Research Institute, 81 Research Drive, Scarborough, ME 04074 (United States); Soldi, Raffaella [Maine Medical Center Research Institute, 81 Research Drive, Scarborough, ME 04074 (United States); Kirov, Alexander [Maine Medical Center Research Institute, 81 Research Drive, Scarborough, ME 04074 (United States); Graziani, Irene [Maine Medical Center Research Institute, 81 Research Drive, Scarborough, ME 04074 (United States); Oliveira, Silvia Marta [Maine Medical Center Research Institute, 81 Research Drive, Scarborough, ME 04074 (United States); Kacer, Doreen [Maine Medical Center Research Institute, 81 Research Drive, Scarborough, ME 04074 (United States); Friesel, Robert [Maine Medical Center Research Institute, 81 Research Drive, Scarborough, ME 04074 (United States); Maciag, Thomas [Maine Medical Center Research Institute, 81 Research Drive, Scarborough, ME 04074 (United States); Prudovsky, Igor [Maine Medical Center Research Institute, 81 Research Drive, Scarborough, ME 04074 (United States)]. E-mail: prudoi@mmc.org

2006-11-24

452

Conservation of strategic metals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A long-range program in support of the aerospace industry aimed at reducing the use of strategic materials in gas turbine engines is discussed. The program, which is called COSAM (Conservation of Strategic Aerospace Materials), has three general objectives. The first objective is to contribute basic scientific understanding to the turbine engine technology bank so that our national security is not jeopardized if our strategic material supply lines are disrupted. The second objective is to help reduce the dependence of United States military and civilian gas turbine engines on worldwide supply and price fluctuations in regard to strategic materials. The third objective is, through research, to contribute to the United States position of preeminence in the world gas turbine engine markets by minimizing the acquisition costs and optimizing the performance of gas turbine engines. Three major research thrusts are planned: strategic element substitution; advanced processing concepts; and alternate material identification. Results from research and any required supporting technology will give industry the materials technology options it needs to make tradeoffs in material properties for critical components against the cost and availability impacts related to their strategic metal content.

Stephens, J. R.

1982-01-01

453

Intergenerational equity and conservation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The issue of integenerational equity in the use of natural resources is discussed in the context of coal mining conversion. An attempt to determine if there is a clear-cut benefit to future generations in setting minimum coal extraction efficiency standards in mining is made. It is demonstrated that preserving fossil fuels beyond the economically efficient level is not necessarily beneficial to future generations even in terms of their own preferences. Setting fossil fuel conservation targets for intermediate products (i.e. energy) may increase the quantities of fossil fuels available to future generations and hence lower the costs, but there may be serious disadvantages to future generations as well. The use of relatively inexpensive fossil fuels in this generation may result in more infrastructure development and more knowledge production available to future generations. The value of fossil fuels versus these other endowments in the future depends on many factors which cannot possibly be evaluated at present. Since there is no idea of whether future generations are being helped or harmed, it is recommended that integenerational equity not be used as a factor in setting coal mine extraction efficiency standards, or in establishing requirements.

Otoole, R. P.; Walton, A. L.

1980-01-01

454

Par-complex aPKC and Par3 cross-talk with innate immunity NF-?B pathway in epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Summary Components of the Par-complex, atypical PKC and Par3, have been found to be downregulated upon activation of NF-?B in intestinal epithelial cells. To determine their possible role in pro-inflammatory responses we transduced Caco-2 human colon carcinoma cells with constitutively active (ca) PKC? or anti-Par3 shRNA-expressing lentiviral particles. Contrary to previous reports in other cell types, ca-PKC? did not activate, but rather decreased, baseline NF-?B activity in a luminiscence reporter assay. An identical observation applied to a PB1 domain deletion PKC?, which fails to localize to the tight-junction. Conversely, as expected, the same ca-PKC? activated NF-?B in non-polarized HEK293 cells. Likewise, knockdown of Par3 increased NF-?B activity and, surprisingly, greatly enhanced its response to TNF?, as shown by transcription of IL-8, GRO-1, GRO-2 and GRO-3. We conclude that aPKC and Par3 are inhibitors of the canonical NF-?B activation pathway, although perhaps acting through independent pathways, and may be involved in pro-inflammatory responses. PMID:24244864

Forteza, Radia; Wald, Flavia A.; Mashukova, Anastasia; Kozhekbaeva, Zhanna; Salas, Pedro J.

2013-01-01

455

Formation Des Techniciens Ce document a t developp par les  

E-print Network

Pauvreté Fabricants des sacs PICS Grossites et détaillants sacs PICS Nouveau produit Chiffres d triples sacs ­ Grossistes distributeurs paysans­ Grossistes , distributeurs , paysans · Adoption du triple'air · Les bruches ne peuvent pas vivre sans air · Utilisons les sacs PICS pour conserver notre niébé #12

456

Regulation of the proapoptotic functions of prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) by casein kinase 2 in prostate cancer cells  

PubMed Central

The proapoptotic protein, prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4), acts as a tumor suppressor in prostate cancer cells. The serine/threonine kinase casein kinase 2 (CK2) has a well-reported role in prostate cancer resistance to apoptotic agents or anticancer drugs. However, the mechanistic understanding on how CK2 supports survival is far from complete. In this work, we demonstrate both in rat and humans that (i) Par-4 is a new substrate of the survival kinase CK2 and (ii) phosphorylation by CK2 impairs Par-4 proapoptotic functions. We also unravel different levels of CK2-dependent regulation of Par-4 between species. In rats, the phosphorylation by CK2 at the major site, S124, prevents caspase-mediated Par-4 cleavage (D123) and consequently impairs the proapoptotic function of Par-4. In humans, CK2 strongly impairs the apoptotic properties of Par-4, independently of the caspase-mediated cleavage of Par-4 (D131), by triggering the phosphorylation at residue S231. Furthermore, we show that human Par-4 residue S231 is highly phosphorylated in prostate cancer cells as compared with their normal counterparts. Finally, the sensitivity of prostate cancer cells to apoptosis by CK2 knockdown is significantly reversed by parallel knockdown of Par-4. Thus, Par-4 seems a critical target of CK2 that could be exploited for the development of new anticancer drugs. PMID:24457960

de Thonel, A; Hazoume, A; Kochin, V; Isoniemi, K; Jego, G; Fourmaux, E; Hammann, A; Mjahed, H; Filhol, O; Micheau, O; Rocchi, P; Mezger, V; Eriksson, J E; Rangnekar, V M; Garrido, C

2014-01-01

457

Optimal Conservation of Migratory Species  

PubMed Central

Background Migratory animals comprise a significant portion of biodiversity worldwide with annual investment for their conservation exceeding several billion dollars. Designing effective conservation plans presents enormous challenges. Migratory species are influenced by multiple events across land and sea–regions that are often separated by thousands of kilometres and span international borders. To date, conservation strategies for migratory species fail to take into account how migratory animals are spatially connected between different periods of the annual cycle (i.e. migratory connectivity) bringing into question the utility and efficiency of current conservation efforts. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we report the first framework for determining an optimal conservation strategy for a migratory species. Employing a decision theoretic approach using dynamic optimization, we address the problem of how to allocate resources for habitat conservation for a Neotropical-Nearctic migratory bird, the American redstart Setophaga ruticilla, whose winter habitat is under threat. Our first conservation strategy used the acquisition of winter habitat based on land cost, relative bird density, and the rate of habitat loss to maximize the abundance of birds on the wintering grounds. Our second strategy maximized bird abundance across the entire range of the species by adding the constraint of maintaining a minimum percentage of birds within each breeding region in North America using information on migratory connectivity as estimated from stable-hydrogen isotopes in feathers. We show that failure to take into account migratory connectivity may doom some regional populations to extinction, whereas including information on migratory connectivity results in the protection of the species across its entire range. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that conservation strategies for migratory animals depend critically upon two factors: knowledge of migratory connectivity and the correct statement of the conservation problem. Our framework can be used to identify efficient conservation strategies for migratory taxa worldwide, including insects, birds, mammals, and marine organisms. PMID:17710150

Martin, Tara G.; Chades, Iadine; Arcese, Peter; Marra, Peter P.; Possingham, Hugh P.; Norris, D. Ryan

2007-01-01

458

Sixth Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan Chapter 4: Conservation Supply Assumptions  

E-print Network

Sixth Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan Chapter 4: Conservation Supply Assumptions.............................................................................................................. 1 Recent Changes Since the Fifth Power Plan.............................................................................................. 4 Estimating the Cost of Conservation

459

Comminuting irradiated ferritic steel  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a method of comminuting irradiated ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other irradiated components.

Bauer, Roger E. (Kennewick, WA); Straalsund, Jerry L. (Kennewick, WA); Chin, Bryan A. (Auburn, AL)

1985-01-01

460

Comminuting irradiated ferritic steel  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is a method of comminuting irradiated ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other irradiated components.

Bauer, R. E.; Chin, B. A.; Straalsund, J. L.

1985-03-26

461

Breast cancer: a 21 year experience with conservative surgery and radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence is presented from a study of 680 patients followed over a period of 21 years that conservative treatment of breast cancer by local excision of the primary tumor followed by breast irradiation yields results equivalent to the traditional radical approach, with the added benefit of an excellent cosmetic result and improved quality of life. The relative survivals were 83%

R. M. Clack; R. H. Wilkinson; L. J. Mahoney; J. G. Reid; W. D. MacDonald

1982-01-01

462

par-1, atypical pkc, and PP2A/B55 sur-6 are implicated in the regulation of exocyst-mediated membrane trafficking in Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed

The exocyst is a conserved protein complex that is involved in tethering secretory vesicles to the plasma membrane and regulating cell polarity. Despite a large body of work, little is known how exocyst function is controlled. To identify regulators for exocyst function, we performed a targeted RNA interference (RNAi) screen in Caenorhabditis elegans to uncover kinases and phosphatases that genetically interact with the exocyst. We identified seven kinase and seven phosphatase genes that display enhanced phenotypes when combined with hypomorphic alleles of exoc-7 (exo70), exoc-8 (exo84), or an exoc-7;exoc-8 double mutant. We show that in line with its reported role in exocytotic membrane trafficking, a defective exoc-8 caused accumulation of exocytotic soluble NSF attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins in both intestinal and neuronal cells in C. elegans. Down-regulation of the phosphatase protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) phosphatase regulatory subunit sur-6/B55 gene resulted in accumulation of exocytic SNARE proteins SNB-1 and SNAP-29 in wild-type and in exoc-8 mutant animals. In contrast, RNAi of the kinase par-1 caused reduced intracellular green fluorescent protein signal for the same proteins. Double RNAi experiments for par-1, pkc-3, and sur-6/B55 in C. elegans suggest a possible cooperation and involvement in postembryo lethality, developmental timing, as well as SNARE protein trafficking. Functional analysis of the homologous kinases and phosphatases in Drosophila median neurosecretory cells showed that atypical protein kinase C kinase and phosphatase PP2A regulate exocyst-dependent, insulin-like peptide secretion. Collectively, these results characterize kinases and phosphatases implicated in the regulation of exocyst function, and suggest the possibility for interplay between the par-1 and pkc-3 kinases and the PP2A phosphatase regulatory subunit sur-6 in this process. PMID:24192838

Jiu, Yaming; Hasygar, Kiran; Tang, Lois; Liu, Yanbo; Holmberg, Carina I; Bürglin, Thomas R; Hietakangas, Ville; Jäntti, Jussi

2014-01-01

463

par-1, Atypical pkc, and PP2A/B55 sur-6 Are Implicated in the Regulation of Exocyst-Mediated Membrane Trafficking in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

The exocyst is a conserved protein complex that is involved in tethering secretory vesicles to the plasma membrane and regulating cell polarity. Despite a large body of work, little is known how exocyst function is controlled. To identify regulators for exocyst function, we performed a targeted RNA interference (RNAi) screen in Caenorhabditis elegans to uncover kinases and phosphatases that genetically interact with the exocyst. We identified seven kinase and seven phosphatase genes that display enhanced phenotypes when combined with hypomorphic alleles of exoc-7 (exo70), exoc-8 (exo84), or an exoc-7;exoc-8 double mutant. We show that in line with its reported role in exocytotic membrane trafficking, a defective exoc-8 caused accumulation of exocytotic soluble NSF attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins in both intestinal and neuronal cells in C. elegans. Down-regulation of the phosphatase protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) phosphatase regulatory subunit sur-6/B55 gene resulted in accumulation of exocytic SNARE proteins SNB-1 and SNAP-29 in wild-type and in exoc-8 mutant animals. In contrast, RNAi of the kinase par-1 caused reduced intracellular green fluorescent protein signal for the same proteins. Double RNAi experiments for par-1, pkc-3, and sur-6/B55 in C. elegans suggest a possible cooperation and involvement in postembryo lethality, developmental timing, as well as SNARE protein trafficking. Functional analysis of the homologous kinases and phosphatases in Drosophila median neurosecretory cells showed that atypical protein kinase C kinase and phosphatase PP2A regulate exocyst-dependent, insulin-like peptide secretion. Collectively, these results characterize kinases and phosphatases implicated in the regulation of exocyst function, and suggest the possibility for interplay between the par-1 and pkc-3 kinases and the PP2A phosphatase regulatory subunit sur-6 in this process. PMID:24192838

Jiu, Yaming; Hasygar, Kiran; Tang, Lois; Liu, Yanbo; Holmberg, Carina I.; Burglin, Thomas R.; Hietakangas, Ville; Jantti, Jussi

2013-01-01

464

Genomic toolboxes for conservation biologists  

PubMed Central

Conservation genetics is expanding its research horizon with a genomic approach, by incorporating the modern techniques of next-generation sequencing (NGS). Application of NGS overcomes many limitations of conservation genetics. First, NGS allows for genome-wide screening of markers, which may lead to a more representative estimation of genetic variation within and between populations. Second, NGS allows for distinction between neutral and non-neutral markers. By screening populations on thousands of single nucleotide polymorphism markers, signals of selection can be found for some markers. Variation in these markers will give insight into functional rather than neutral genetic variation. Third, NGS facilitates the study of gene expression. Conservation genomics will increase our insight in how the environment and genes interact to affect phenotype and fitness. In addition, the NGS approach opens a way to study processes such as inbreeding depression and local adaptation mechanistically. Conservation genetics programs are directed to a fundamental understanding of the processes involved in conservation genetics and should preferably be started in species for which large databases on ecology, demography and genetics are available. Here, we describe and illustrate the connection between the application of NGS technologies and the research questions in conservation. The perspectives of conservation genomics programs are also discussed.

Angeloni, Francesco; Wagemaker, Niels; Vergeer, Philippine; Ouborg, Joop

2012-01-01

465

HiPAR-DSP 16: a new DSP for onboard real-time SAR systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present the HiPAR-DSP 16, a parallel and programmable processor architecture which is adapted to the demands of SAR image processing. TO provide a high performance, the HiPAR-DSP 16 features an array of 16 parallel processing units. Each of these processing units can process up to 3 instructions per clock cycle. Efficient data exchange between the processing units can be done by a shared memory with concurrent access. The HiPAR-DSP 16 is able to perform a 4096 samples complex FFT in 154 microsecond(s) and a compete (omega) k SAR processing algorithm on 4k range line with a PRF of more than 200 Hz in real-time. This shows the high capability of the HiPAR-DSP 16 for onboard real-time SAR systems.

Kloos, Helge; Friebe, Lars; Wittenburg, Jens P.; Hinrichs, Willm; Lieske, Hanno; Pirsch, Peter

2001-07-01

466

Hormone de croissance placentaire. Signification par rapport aux hormones de croissance et  

E-print Network

Hormone de croissance placentaire. Signification par rapport aux hormones de croissance et. Placentalgrowth hormone. Significance relative to pituitary growth hormo- nes and placental lactogen hormone growth hormone (PGH). This entity, agonist of pituitary GH, appears responsible for the elevated IGFI

Boyer, Edmond

467

INSTITUT NATIONAL POLYTECHNIQUE DE GRENOBLE N o attribu par la bibliothque  

E-print Network

CHETOUANI Le 28 novembre 2007 MICROSYSTEMES ET MICROMANIPULATION A LEVITATION DIAMAGNETIQUE CONCEPTION » présentée et soutenue publiquement par Hichem Lamri CHETOUANI Le 28 novembre 2007 MICROSYSTEMES ET

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

468

Caractrisation des hydrolases scrtes par les champignons anarobies M. HEBRAUD M. FEVRE  

E-print Network

cellulase Trichoderma reesei C30 (5). L'isolement et l'identification par le laboratoire de microbiologie à population of the rumen includes anaerobic phycomycetes in addition to bacteria and protozoa (11

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

469

Project Based Energy Conservation vs. Management Based Energy Conservation  

E-print Network

. Due to this fact, BAF started a corporation wide energy reduction program in 1999. The program was one full time project engineer focused only on energy reduction projects. This approach, called project based energy conservation, worked well for about...

Judy, K.; O'Brien, S.

470

7 CFR 12.23 - Conservation plans and conservation systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...operates highly erodible land that was under a Conservation Reserve Program contract as authorized by section 1231 of the Food Security Act of 1985, as amended, shall have 2 years after the expiration of termination of the contract to fully...

2010-01-01

471

Design of 118 MHz twelfth harmonic cavity of APS PAR  

SciTech Connect

Two radio frequency (RF) cavities are needed in the Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) of the Advanced Photon Source. One is for the first harmonic frequency at 9.8 MHz, and the other is for the twelfth harmonic frequency at 118 MHz. This note reports on the design of the 118 MHz RF cavity. Computer models are used to find the mode frequencies, impedances, Q-factors, and field distributions in the cavity. The computer codes MAFIA, URMEL, and URMEL-T are useful tools which model and simulate the resonance characteristics of a cavity. These codes employ the finite difference method to solve Maxwell`s equations. MAFIA is a three-dimensional problem solver and uses square patches to approximate the inner surface of a cavity. URMEL and URMEL-T are two-dimensional problem solvers and use rectangular and triangular meshes, respectively. URMEL-T and MAFIA can handle problems with arbitrary dielectric materials located inside the boundary. The cavity employs a circularly cylindrical ceramic window to limit the vacuum to the beam pipe. The ceramic window used in the modeling will have a wall thickness of 0.9 cm. This wall thickness is not negligible in determining the resonant frequencies of the cavity. In the following, results of two- and three-dimensional modeling of the cavities using the URMEL-T and MAFIA codes are reported.

Kang, Y.W.; Kustom, R.L.; Bridges, J.F.

1992-10-22

472

Nostoc sphaeroides Kütz, a candidate producer par excellence for CELSS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A lot of aquatic organisms could be regarded as suitable candidates par excellence in the establishment of CELSS, since they are relatively easy and fast to grow and resistant to changes in environmental condition as well as providing nutritious, protein-and vitamin-rich foods for the crew, which can fulfill the main functions of CELSS, including supplying oxygen, water and food, removing carbon dioxide and making daily life waste reusable. Our labotory has developed mass culture of Nostoc sphaeroides Kütz, which is one of traditional healthy food in China and. The oxygen evolution rate of the cyanobacterium is about 150 molO2.mg-1.h-1, and it usually grows into colony with size between 2-20mm, which is easy to be harvested. It also can be cultured with high density, which show that the productivity of the cyanobacterium in limited volume is higher than other microalgae. We had measured the nutrient content of the cyanobacterium and developed some Chinese Dishes and Soups with Nostoc sphaeroides Kütz, which showed that it was a good food for crew. Using remote sensing technique, we also investigated its growth in Closed System under microgravity by SHENZHOU-2 spacecraft in January 2001. We plan to develop suitable bioreactor with the cyanobacterium for supplying oxygen and food to crew in future.

Wang, Gaohong; Hao, Zongjie; Liu, Yongding

473

Pulsed power supply for PAR injection/extraction septum magnet  

SciTech Connect

A 22.5 {mu}H, 22.5 m{Omega} transformer septum magnet must be pulsed at a 60 Hz rate to inject beam from a 450 MeV positron linac into a positron accumulator ring (PAR) and to extract beam from it. Of the 60 pulses per second the first 24 are used for injection and the 30th for extraction. The 25th through the 29th are not used. This pattern is repeated continuously. A design study was performed of the power supply proposed in the APS Title I design. This supply produces a pulse that is approximately a half-sine-wave with a base width of approximately 1/3 ms; its peak current is adjustable from 3.5kA to 4.7kA and is repeatable within {+-}0.05%. The septum steel is reset by a half-sine pulse of reverse polarity a few milliseconds after the forward current pulse. No beam is present during reset. The use of the transformer design minimizes the cost of the capacitors used for energy storage.

McGhee, D.G.

1990-09-23

474

Value basis for conservation policy  

SciTech Connect

This paper is a case study in attempting to apply a particular value (caring) to the domain of social policy, specifically resource conservation policy. The argument is that our consumer society erodes the social basis for the development by individuals of a sense of well-being and personal identity, and that a conservation ethic based on the concept of caring could provide a foundation in practical morality and public policy for a viable sense of well-being. Conservation, then, goes beyond eliminating wasteful consumption to encompass a public commitment that can further economic and social goals. 11 references.

Leiss, W.

1981-01-01

475

Thse bnficiant du dispositif Jeunes Chercheurs Entrepreneurs (JCE), financ par la Rgion Universit de Bourgogne  

E-print Network

Thèse bénéficiant du dispositif Jeunes Chercheurs Entrepreneurs (JCE), financé par la Région #12;Thèse bénéficiant du dispositif Jeunes Chercheurs Entrepreneurs (JCE), financé par la Région thèse s'est de plus déroulée dans le cadre du dispositif JCE (Jeunes Chercheurs Entrepreneurs) qui vise

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

476

II. DTERMINATION DE LA CONSTANTE DILECTRIQUE STATIQUE PAR DES MTHODES LECTRIQUES.  

E-print Network

to determine the static dielectric constant of cuprous oxide as 03B5s = 7.5 ± 0.15. The measurements were made321. II. D�TERMINATION DE LA CONSTANTE DI�LECTRIQUE STATIQUE PAR DES M�THODES �LECTRIQUES. Par valeur statique de la constante diélectrique (03B5s = 7,5 ± 0,15). Les mesures ont été faites entre 100

Boyer, Edmond

477

QUELQUES PROPRITS LECTROCHIMIQUES DU NIOBIUM par Jacques PAGETTI et Jean TALBOT  

E-print Network

of niobium oxide. Preliminary results have been obtained on the anodic behaviour of niobium in deaerated365 QUELQUES PROPRI�T�S �LECTROCHIMIQUES DU NIOBIUM par Jacques PAGETTI et Jean TALBOT Laboratoire-et-Marie-Curie, Paris 5e Résumé. - Le comportement du niobium dans les solutions acides et alcalines a été étudié par

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

478

Molecular mechanism of bundle formation by the bacterial actin ParM  

SciTech Connect

The actin homolog ParM plays a microtubule-like role in segregating DNA prior to bacterial cell division. Fluorescence and cryo-electron microscopy have shown that ParM forms filament bundles between separating DNA plasmids in vivo. Given the lack of ParM bundling proteins it remains unknown how ParM bundles form at the molecular level. Here we show using time-lapse TIRF microscopy, under in vitro molecular crowding conditions, that ParM-bundle formation consists of two distinct phases. At the onset of polymerization bundle thickness and shape are determined in the form of nuclei of short helically disordered filaments arranged in a liquid-like lattice. These nuclei then undergo an elongation phase whereby they rapidly increase in length. At steady state, ParM bundles fuse into one single large aggregate. This behavior had been predicted by theory but has not been observed for any other cytomotive biopolymer, including F-actin. We employed electron micrographs of ParM rafts, which are 2-D analogs of 3-D bundles, to identify the main molecular interfilament contacts within these suprastructures. The interface between filaments is similar for both parallel and anti-parallel orientations and the distribution of filament polarity is random within a bundle. We suggest that the interfilament interactions are not due to the interactions of specific residues but rather to long-range, counter ion mediated, electrostatic attractive forces. A randomly oriented bundle ensures that the assembly is rigid and that DNA may be captured with equal efficiency at both ends of the bundle via the ParR binding protein.

Popp, David, E-mail: dpopp@imcb.a-star.edu.sg [ERATO 'Actin Filament Dynamics' Project, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, c/o RIKEN Harima Institute at Spring 8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan) [ERATO 'Actin Filament Dynamics' Project, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, c/o RIKEN Harima Institute at Spring 8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, 61 Biopolis Drive, Proteos, 138673 Singapore (Singapore); Narita, Akihiro [ERATO 'Actin Filament Dynamics' Project, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, c/o RIKEN Harima Institute at Spring 8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan) [ERATO 'Actin Filament Dynamics' Project, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, c/o RIKEN Harima Institute at Spring 8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Nagoya University Graduate School of Science, Structural Biology Research Center and Division of Biological Sciences, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Iwasa, Mitsusada [ERATO 'Actin Filament Dynamics' Project, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, c/o RIKEN Harima Institute at Spring 8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)] [ERATO 'Actin Filament Dynamics' Project, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, c/o RIKEN Harima Institute at Spring 8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Maeda, Yuichiro [ERATO 'Actin Filament Dynamics' Project, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, c/o RIKEN Harima Institute at Spring 8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan) [ERATO 'Actin Filament Dynamics' Project, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, c/o RIKEN Harima Institute at Spring 8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Nagoya University Graduate School of Science, Structural Biology Research Center and Division of Biological Sciences, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Robinson, Robert C. [Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, 61 Biopolis Drive, Proteos, 138673 Singapore (Singapore)] [Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, 61 Biopolis Drive, Proteos, 138673 Singapore (Singapore)

2010-01-22

479

Une mthode de Branch and Bound par Intervalles applique la rsolution en vitesse de conflits ariens  

E-print Network

Une méthode de Branch and Bound par Intervalles appliquée à la résolution en vitesse de conflits Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9, France Mots-Clés : IBBA, résolution de conflits 1 Introduction Deux avions en croisière à la même altitude séparés de moins de 5 miles nautiques sont dits en conflit. Le

Boyer, Edmond

480

uPA and uPAR in fibrinolysis, immunity and pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and its receptor (uPAR) exert pleiotropic functions over the course of both physiological and pathological processes. Data generated in deficient mice have underlined how uPA not only has a key