Science.gov

Sample records for conservation par irradiation

  1. A conserved mode of protein recognition and binding in a ParD-ParE toxin-antitoxin complex†

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Kevin M.; Crosson, Sean

    2010-01-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems form a ubiquitous class of prokaryotic proteins with functional roles in plasmid inheritance, environmental stress response, and cell development. ParDE-family TA systems are broadly conserved on plasmids and bacterial chromosomes, and have been well characterized as genetic elements that promote stable plasmid inheritance. We present a crystal structure of a chromosomally-encoded ParD-ParE complex from Caulobacter crescentus at 2.6 Å resolution. This TA system forms an α2β2 heterotetramer in the crystal and in solution. The toxin-antitoxin binding interface reveals extensive polar and hydrophobic contacts of ParD antitoxin helices with a conserved recognition and binding groove on the ParE toxin. A cross-species comparison of this complex structure with related toxin structures identified an antitoxin recognition and binding sub-domain that is conserved between distantly-related members of the RelE/ParE toxin superfamily despite low overall primary sequence identity. We further demonstrate that ParD antitoxin is dimeric, stably folded, and largely helical when not bound to ParE toxin. Thus, the paradigmatic model in which antitoxin undergoes a disorder-to-order transition upon toxin binding does not apply to this chromosomal ParD-ParE TA system. PMID:20143871

  2. Breast conservation treatment with perioperative interstitial irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, L.; Mansfield, C.M.; Jewell, W.R.; Reddy, E.K.; Thomas, J.H.; Krishnan, E.C.

    1987-10-01

    Limited resection of the breast combined with radiation has proved to be as effective as more radical surgery in treating early breast cancer. At the University of Kansas Medical Center, the radiotherapy consists of an interstitial implant at the time of lumpectomy to deliver an interstitial boost dose to the tumor bed with iridium-192 immediately following the surgical procedure. An axillary node dissection is also performed at the time of lumpectomy. A dose of 2000 cGy is delivered to the tumor bed between 40 and 60 h. Two to three weeks later, 4500-5000 cGy is delivered to the entire breast with external beam radiation over 5-5.5 weeks. One hundred breasts in 98 patients were so treated between June 1982 and February 1986, with 2 carcinomas in situ, 40 stage I, 51 stage II, and 7 stage III cancers, consisting of 2 TIS, 54 T1, 39 T2, and 5 T3 lesions. Locoregional control with a median follow-up of 31 months was 98%. One recurrence was in a different quadrant, and the other revealed predominantly the in situ component. Immediate implant did not compromise wound healing or cosmesis. The cosmetic result was graded as good to excellent in 88% of the breasts. Our preliminary results appear to suggest a better local control with immediate interstitial irradiation.

  3. Caenorhabditis elegans PIG-1/MELK acts in a conserved PAR-4/LKB1 polarity pathway to promote asymmetric neuroblast divisions.

    PubMed

    Chien, Shih-Chieh; Brinkmann, Eva-Maria; Teuliere, Jerome; Garriga, Gian

    2013-03-01

    Asymmetric cell divisions produce daughter cells with distinct sizes and fates, a process important for generating cell diversity during development. Many Caenorhabditis elegans neuroblasts, including the posterior daughter of the Q cell (Q.p), divide to produce a larger neuron or neuronal precursor and a smaller cell that dies. These size and fate asymmetries require the gene pig-1, which encodes a protein orthologous to vertebrate MELK and belongs to the AMPK-related family of kinases. Members of this family can be phosphorylated and activated by the tumor suppressor kinase LKB1, a conserved polarity regulator of epithelial cells and neurons. In this study, we present evidence that the C. elegans orthologs of LKB1 (PAR-4) and its partners STRAD (STRD-1) and MO25 (MOP-25.2) regulate the asymmetry of the Q.p neuroblast division. We show that PAR-4 and STRD-1 act in the Q lineage and function genetically in the same pathway as PIG-1. A conserved threonine residue (T169) in the PIG-1 activation loop is essential for PIG-1 activity, consistent with the model that PAR-4 (or another PAR-4-regulated kinase) phosphorylates and activates PIG-1. We also demonstrate that PIG-1 localizes to centrosomes during cell divisions of the Q lineage, but this localization does not depend on T169 or PAR-4. We propose that a PAR-4-STRD-1 complex stimulates PIG-1 kinase activity to promote asymmetric neuroblast divisions and the generation of daughter cells with distinct fates. Changes in cell fate may underlie many of the abnormal behaviors exhibited by cells after loss of PAR-4 or LKB1. PMID:23267054

  4. Row orientation effect on UV-B, UV-A and PAR solar irradiation components in vineyards at Tuscany, Italy.

    PubMed

    Grifoni, D; Carreras, G; Zipoli, G; Sabatini, F; Dalla Marta, A; Orlandini, S

    2008-11-01

    Besides playing an essential role in plant photosynthesis, solar radiation is also involved in many other important biological processes. In particular, it has been demonstrated that ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation plays a relevant role in grapevines (Vitis vinifera) in the production of certain important chemical compounds directly responsible for yield and wine quality. Moreover, the exposure to UV-B radiation (280-320 nm) can affect plant-disease interaction by influencing the behaviour of both pathogen and host. The main objective of this research was to characterise the solar radiative regime of a vineyard, in terms of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and UV components. In this analysis, solar spectral UV irradiance components, broadband UV (280-400 nm), spectral UV-B and UV-A (320-400 nm), the biological effective UVBE, as well as the PAR (400-700 nm) component, were all considered. The diurnal patterns of these quantities and the UV-B/PAR and UV-B/UV-A ratios were analysed to investigate the effect of row orientation of the vineyard in combination with solar azimuth and elevation angles. The distribution of PAR and UV irradiance at various heights of the vertical sides of the rows was also studied. The results showed that the highest portion of plants received higher levels of daily radiation, especially the UV-B component. Row orientation of the vines had a pronounced effect on the global PAR received by the two sides of the rows and, to a lesser extent, UV-A and UV-B. When only the diffused component was considered, this geometrical effect was greatly attenuated. UV-B/PAR and UV-A/PAR ratios were also affected, with potential consequences on physiological processes. Because of the high diffusive capacity of the UV-B radiation, the UV-B/PAR ratio was significantly lower on the plant portions exposed to full sunlight than on those in the shade. PMID:18594874

  5. Row orientation effect on UV-B, UV-A and PAR solar irradiation components in vineyards at Tuscany, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grifoni, D.; Carreras, G.; Zipoli, G.; Sabatini, F.; Dalla Marta, A.; Orlandini, S.

    2008-11-01

    Besides playing an essential role in plant photosynthesis, solar radiation is also involved in many other important biological processes. In particular, it has been demonstrated that ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation plays a relevant role in grapevines ( Vitis vinifera) in the production of certain important chemical compounds directly responsible for yield and wine quality. Moreover, the exposure to UV-B radiation (280-320 nm) can affect plant-disease interaction by influencing the behaviour of both pathogen and host. The main objective of this research was to characterise the solar radiative regime of a vineyard, in terms of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and UV components. In this analysis, solar spectral UV irradiance components, broadband UV (280-400 nm), spectral UV-B and UV-A (320-400 nm), the biological effective UVBE, as well as the PAR (400-700 nm) component, were all considered. The diurnal patterns of these quantities and the UV-B/PAR and UV-B/UV-A ratios were analysed to investigate the effect of row orientation of the vineyard in combination with solar azimuth and elevation angles. The distribution of PAR and UV irradiance at various heights of the vertical sides of the rows was also studied. The results showed that the highest portion of plants received higher levels of daily radiation, especially the UV-B component. Row orientation of the vines had a pronounced effect on the global PAR received by the two sides of the rows and, to a lesser extent, UV-A and UV-B. When only the diffused component was considered, this geometrical effect was greatly attenuated. UV-B/PAR and UV-A/PAR ratios were also affected, with potential consequences on physiological processes. Because of the high diffusive capacity of the UV-B radiation, the UV-B/PAR ratio was significantly lower on the plant portions exposed to full sunlight than on those in the shade.

  6. Interdiffusion de puits quantiques controlee par irradiation laser excimere pour l'integration de composants photoniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genest, Jonathan

    L'integration de composants discrets sur un systeme unique, tel une puce electronique, augmente les performances totales du systeme, fait apparaitre de nouvelles fonctionnalites et diminue les couts associes a la fabrication des dispositifs. Ces ameliorations, appliquees au secteur de la microelectronique, sont grandement responsables des avancements importants qu'ont connus les technologies de l'information et des communications au cours des dernieres annees. Puisque la fabrication de circuits photoniques integres necessite l'integration de structures ayant des bandes interdites differentes a partir d'une meme puce semiconductrice, leur niveau d'integration est bien inferieur que celui atteint pour un microprocesseur standard. Parmi les techniques ayant le potentiel de fabriquer des circuits photoniques integres monolithiquement, l'interdiffusion de puits quantique post-expitaxial controlee spatialement augmente la bande interdite d'une heterostructure semiconductrice a l'interieur de regions definies. Le processus d'interdiffusion, active thermiquement, est accelere par la diffusion d'impuretes et de defauts ponctuels tels que les lacunes et les interstitiels. L'hypothese de depart de mes travaux de doctorat suppose que la radiation laser ultra-violette module la diffusion et la generation de defauts ponctuels dans les heterostructures reposant sur les technologies a base de GaAs et d'InP et, consequemment, controle spatialement l'interdiffusion de puits quantiques. Nous avons demontre que lorsque appliquee sur des heterostructures a base de GaAs, l'irradiation laser excimere l'interdiffusion en favorisant la croissance d'un stresseur de surface qui empeche la diffusion des defauts ponctuels vers les puits quantiques. Nous avons souligne l'influence de la vapeur d'eau physisorbee sur la croissance du stresseur et avons determine la resolution spatiale de la technique. Dans les heterostructures basees sur les technologies InP, meme sous le seuil d'ablation, l'absorption des impulsions laser UV favorise la desorption des atomes de surface ce qui genere des defauts ponctuels en concentration excedentaire. Lors d'un recuit thermique, ces defauts ponctuels augmentent la vitesse de l'interdiffusion sous les regions irradiees. Mots cles : Interdiffusion de puits quantique, integration potonique, laser excimere, semiconducteur, InP, GaAs.

  7. Atypical protein kinase C is involved in the evolutionarily conserved par protein complex and plays a critical role in establishing epithelia-specific junctional structures.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, A; Yamanaka, T; Hirose, T; Manabe, N; Mizuno, K; Shimizu, M; Akimoto, K; Izumi, Y; Ohnishi, T; Ohno, S

    2001-03-19

    We have previously shown that during early Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis PKC-3, a C. elegans atypical PKC (aPKC), plays critical roles in the establishment of cell polarity required for subsequent asymmetric cleavage by interacting with PAR-3 [Tabuse, Y., Y. Izumi, F. Piano, K.J. Kemphues, J. Miwa, and S. Ohno. 1998. Development (Camb.). 125:3607--3614]. Together with the fact that aPKC and a mammalian PAR-3 homologue, aPKC-specific interacting protein (ASIP), colocalize at the tight junctions of polarized epithelial cells (Izumi, Y., H. Hirose, Y. Tamai, S.-I. Hirai, Y. Nagashima, T. Fujimoto, Y. Tabuse, K.J. Kemphues, and S. Ohno. 1998. J. Cell Biol. 143:95--106), this suggests a ubiquitous role for aPKC in establishing cell polarity in multicellular organisms. Here, we show that the overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant of aPKC (aPKCkn) in MDCK II cells causes mislocalization of ASIP/PAR-3. Immunocytochemical analyses, as well as measurements of paracellular diffusion of ions or nonionic solutes, demonstrate that the biogenesis of the tight junction structure itself is severely affected in aPKCkn-expressing cells. Furthermore, these cells show increased interdomain diffusion of fluorescent lipid and disruption of the polarized distribution of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, suggesting that epithelial cell surface polarity is severely impaired in these cells. On the other hand, we also found that aPKC associates not only with ASIP/PAR-3, but also with a mammalian homologue of C. elegans PAR-6 (mPAR-6), and thereby mediates the formation of an aPKC-ASIP/PAR-3-PAR-6 ternary complex that localizes to the apical junctional region of MDCK cells. These results indicate that aPKC is involved in the evolutionarily conserved PAR protein complex, and plays critical roles in the development of the junctional structures and apico-basal polarization of mammalian epithelial cells. PMID:11257119

  8. Benefits versus risks in conservation surgery with irradiation for breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Levitt, S.H.; Mandel, J.

    1984-07-01

    This report analyzes the survival and complications inherent in the conventional treatment of breast cancer, radical mastectomy, and the more conservative procedure, conservation surgery with irradiation. Both procedures have benefits and risks. The benefits as measured by survivorship appear to be approximately the same. The major benefit of conservation surgery with irradiation is that the breast is left intact. The possible complication of irradiation carcinogenesis is addressed, and the literature analyzed. This review indicates that the absolute risk of breast cancer developing in the second breast is not nearly as great as originally thought. It is concluded that if a woman with breast cancer is a candidate for either mastectomy or the conservative procedure, it is the clinician's obligation to objectively present the evidence regarding the benefits and risks of these procedures.

  9. Irradiation treatment for the protection and conservation of cultural heritage artefacts in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katušin-Ražem, Branka; Ražem, Dušan; Braun, Mario

    2009-07-01

    The application of irradiation treatment for the protection of cultural heritage artefacts in Croatia was made possible by the development of radiation processing procedures at the Radiation Chemistry and Dosimetry Laboratory of the Ruđer Bo\\vsković Institute. After the upgrading of the 60Co gamma irradiation source in the panoramic irradiation facility in 1983 it became possible to perform both research and pilot plant-scale irradiations for sterilization, pasteurization and decontamination of various materials, including medical supplies, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and foods, but also for disinfestation of cultural heritage artefects. The demand for irradiation treatment of cultural heritage objects has particularly increased as the increasing number of these objects, especially polychromic wooden sculptures, were requiring salvation, restauration and conservation as a consequence of direct and indirect damages inflicted to them during the war in Croatia, 1991-1995. The irradiation facility at the Ruđer Bo\\vsković Institute is briefly described and an account of its fifteen years' activities in the irradiation treatment of cultural heritage objects is given. Some case studies performed in cooperation with the Croatian Conservation Institute and other interested parties are presented, as well as some cases of protective and curative treatments for disinfestation and decontamination. International cooperations and activities are also mentioned.

  10. External irradiation prior to conservative surgery for breast cancer treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Calitchi, E.; Otmezguine, Y.; Feuilhade, F.; Piedbois, P.; Pavlovitch, J.M.; Brun, B.; Mazeron, J.J.; Le Bourgeois, J.P.; Julien, M.; Pierquin, B. )

    1991-07-01

    From 1981 to 1987, 138 patients with breast cancer unsuitable for primary tumorectomy received initial external radiotherapy (45 Gy/25f/35d) in order to reduce the tumor volume so that secondary limited surgery could be performed. There were 81 T2 and 57 T3. Fifty-seven percent of the patients had a tumor larger than 4.5 cm. After completion of the radiotherapy, 22 patients (16%) showed no more evidence of a tumor either clinically or radiologically and received a boost of 25 Gy. In 52 cases (38%) the tumor regression allowed for secondary tumorectomy followed by a boost of 20 Gy. Sixty-four patients (46%) showed either little or no tumor regression: radical surgery was performed in 14 cases (10%) and high dose boost curietherapy (37 Gy) in the 50 (36%) remaining patients who refused mastectomy. Breast conservation in good condition was thus obtained in 74 patients (54%). Sufficient tumor regression to allow secondary tumorectomy was more often observed in T2 than in T3, in poorly differentiated tumors or mucinous type, and in tumor with well defined mammographic aspects. Actuarial 5-year local control and disease-free survival rates after limited surgery were, respectively, 90% and 73%. No particular complications were observed after secondary tumorectomy. This therapeutic approach is encouraging in patients with large T2 and T3 breast tumors, but a longer follow-up is required to assess definitive conclusions.

  11. Mecanismes de deformation de nanoparticules d'Au par irradiation ionique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkati Kerbouah, Chahineze

    2011-12-01

    In the present thesis, we study the anisotropic deformation of gold nanoparticles embedded in amorphous silica or crystalline aluminum arsenide, under ion bombardment. We try to comprehend the mechanism responsible for this deformation and to remove any ambiguity related to the explanation of this phenomenon. A hybrid process combining sputtering and plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition was used to fabricate Au/SiO2 layers on fused silica substrates. Structures with single and multilayer were obtained. Heating during or after deposition activates the Au atom agglomeration and favours the growth of the nanoparticles. Also, a Au/AlAs nanocomposite was obtained by ion implantation of AlAs films, followed by rapid thermal annealing. The samples of the two nanocomposites, cooled with liquid nitrogen, were irradiated with 2 to 40 MeV Cu, Si, Au or In ion beams, at fluences ranging from 1x10 13 to 4x1015 ions/cm2, using a Tandem or Tandetron accelerator. The structural and morphological properties of the Au/SiO2 nanocomposite were extracted by optical means; the frequency and the width of surface plasmon resonance band depend on the nanoparticle shape and size, their concentration, the inter-particle distance and the dielectric properties of material in which the particles are embedded. The aluminum arsenide crystallinity was studied by two techniques: Raman spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in channelling configuration (RBS/ channelling). The Au concentration in the nanocomposite layers was deducted from RBS results. The size distribution and metallic nanoparticles shape transformation in both nanocomposites were observed by electronic transmission microscopy. The results obtained within the framework of this work are the subject of three journal papers. The first publication shows the possibility of manipulating the width and spectral position of the gold nanoparticle absorption band in Au/SiO2 nanocomposites by modifying their structure (form, size and inter-particle distance). The obtained Au nanoparticles are nearly spherical. The surface plasmon (PS) absorption band corresponding to the distant particles is located at 520 nm. After ion irradiation, the spherical nanoparticles transform into ellipsoids aligned along the ion beam. The absorption band splits into two bands: transversal and longitudinal. The band corresponding to the ellipsoids small axis (transversal) is blue-shifted and that corresponding to the long axis (longitudinal) is red-shifted indicating the elongation of particles in the beam direction. The second paper is consecrated to the crucial role of the plastic deformation of the matrix and to the importance of the metal atomic mobility in the anisotropic nanoparticles deformation in Au/SiO 2 nanocomposites. Our measurements show that a threshold value of 2 keV/nm (electronic stopping power) is necessary for the deformation of Au nanoparticles. This value is close to that required for silica deformation. Mobility of the Au atoms at the time of the ion passage is confirmed by temperature calculation within the ionic track. The third paper treats the attempt of formation and deformation of Au nanoparticles in crystalline aluminum arsenide matrix known by its high resistance to amorphisation and deformation under ionic bombardment. The principal result of the last article confirms the essential role of the matrix. It proves that the anisotropic deformation of surrounding material is indispensable for gold nanoparticles deformation. The experimental results mentioned above and temperature calculations within ionic tracks allowed us to propose the following anisotropic deformation scenario of Au nanoparticles embedded in Au/SiO2 nanocomposite: (1) Each ion crossing the silica melts (very briefly) a narrow cylinder around its trajectory forming thus a latent track. This is consistent with the observed threshold value in the electronic stopping power. (2) The cumulative effect of many separate ion impacts leads to the anisotropic growth of the silica matrix which contracts in the direction of the beam and elongates in the perpendicular direction. The overlap model of the ionic tracks was used to validate this phenomenon. (3) The deformation of silica generates strains which act on the nanoparticles in the plane perpendicular to the ion trajectory. In order to accommodate these strains, the Au nanoparticles deform in the beam direction. (4) The deformation of nanoparticles occurs each time an ion traverses the gold particle and melts a cylinder around its trajectory. The mobility of the gold atoms was confirmed by a calculation of the equivalent temperature from the deposited energy in the material by incident ions. The scenario above is compatible with our experimental data obtained in the case of the Au/SiO2 nanocomposite. It is further supported by the fact that the Au nanoparticules do not deform when they are integrated in AlAs which is resistant to the deformation. Keywords: ion irradiation, nanoparticles, Au, electronic stopping power, surface plasmon resonance, elongation, silica, aluminum arsenide.

  12. Nonconsecutive Pars Interarticularis Defects.

    PubMed

    Elgafy, Hossein; Hart, Ryan C; Tanios, Mina

    2015-12-01

    Lumbar spondylolysis is a well-recognized condition occurring in adolescents because of repetitive overuse in sports. Nonconsecutive spondylolysis involving the lumbar spine is rare. In contrast to single-level pars defects that respond well to conservative treatment, there is no consensus about the management of multiple-level pars fractures; a few reports indicated that conservative management is successful, and the majority acknowledged that surgery is often required. The current study presents a rare case of pars fracture involving nonconsecutive segments and discusses the management options. In this case report, we review the patient's history, clinical examination, radiologic findings, and management, as well as the relevant literature. An 18-year-old man presented to the clinic with worsening lower back pain related to nonconsecutive pars fractures at L2 and L5. After 6 months of conservative management, diagnostic computed tomography-guided pars block was used to localize the symptomatic level at L2, which was treated surgically; the L5 asymptomatic pars fracture did not require surgery. At the last follow-up 2 years after surgery, the patient was playing baseball and basketball, and denied any back pain. This article reports a case of rare nonconsecutive pars fractures. Conservative management for at least 6 months is recommended. Successful management depends on the choice of appropriate treatment for each level. Single-photon emission computed tomography scan, and computed tomography-guided pars block are valuable preoperative tools to identify the symptomatic level in such a case. PMID:26665257

  13. Perioperative interstitial irradiation in the conservative management of early breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, L.; Jewell, W.R.; Mansfield, C.M.; Reddy, E.K.; Thomas, J.H.; Krishnan, E.C.

    1987-11-01

    Conservation of the breast in early breast cancer with limited resection and radiation is proving to be as effective as modified radical mastectomy in survival and in loco-regional control. Management at the University of Kansas Medical Center consists of an interstitial implant at the time of lumpectomy to facilitate perioperative irradiation with Iridium-192 to the tumor bed. An axillary node dissection is also performed at that time. Two to 3 weeks later external beam irradiation is delivered to the entire breast. One hundred and twenty-three breasts in 120 patients have been treated between June 1982 and June 1986. There were 49 pathological Stage I, 63 Stage II, 8 Stage III carcinomas, and 3 carcinomas in situ, consisting of 72 T1, 43 T2, 5 T3, and 3 TIS lesions. Patients have been followed for a median of 30 months. One patient had a ''true'' recurrence in the breast. Another patient developed recurrence in a different quadrant. Ninety percent of the patients had good to excellent cosmetic results, 7% were considered fair, and 3% had poor results. Seven patients developed mild arm edema, 4 were found to have moderate edema, and 1 had severe arm edema. Our preliminary results indicate that interstitial irradiation immediately after excision results in excellent local control, with very satisfactory cosmesis and no morbidity due to the simultaneous excision and irradiation.

  14. Calcul par simulation des paramètres dosimétriques pour le noyau cellulaire après irradiation α in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Foll, L.; Bailly, I.; Fritsch, P.

    1998-04-01

    Determination of absorbed dose in biological targets after high LET α particules irradiation needs heavy calculations. A softwave has been developed in order to allow everyone to calculate hit probability and absorbed dose. It is particularly adapted to the study of cell cultures irradiated with electrodeposited source or α-beam accelerator. It is based first, on a random generator of α-track homogeneously distributed in 4π, second, on the evaluation of energy loss in the different media along the track and then on a statistical analysis of the results. This method is accurate and low time consuming. The target is either modelised by an ellipsoid or represented by its 3D shape recorded using confocal microscopy. Des calculs dosimétriques complexes sont nécessaires pour l'évaluation des doses délivrées dans des cibles biologiques après irradiation par des particules α de haut TEL. Un logiciel a été développé pour rendre facilement accessible le calcul de la probabilité pour atteindre la cible et de la dose absorbée. il est particulièrement adapté à l'étude des cultures cellulaires irradiées par des sources électrodéposées de radionucléides ou des accélérateurs de particules. Il repose sur un générateur de traces aléatoires, sur une approximation de la perte d'énergie dans les différents milieux traversés et sur une exploitation statistique des résultats obtenus. Cette méthode s'avère précise et rapide. La cible est modélisée par un ellipsoïde ou représentée par son image 3D obtenue en microscopie confocale.

  15. Pattern of local recurrence after conservative surgery and whole-breast irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Freedman, Gary M. . E-mail: G_Freedman@FCCC.edu; Anderson, Penny R.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Eisenberg, Debra F.; Nicolaou, Nicos

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: Most recurrences in the breast after conservative surgery and whole-breast irradiation have been reported to occur within the same quadrant as the initial primary tumor. We analyzed the long-term risk of recurrence by area of the breast after whole-breast irradiation. Materials and Methods: In all, 1,990 women with Stage 0-II breast cancer were treated with conservative surgery and whole-breast irradiation from 1970-1998. Stage was ductal carcinoma in situ in 237, T1 in 1273, and T2 in 480 patients. Of 120 local recurrences, 71 were classified as true local (confined to the original quadrant) and 49 as elsewhere (involving outside the original quadrant). Kaplan-Meier methodology was used to calculate 5-year, 10-year, and 15-year rates of recurrence (95% confidence intervals in parentheses). The median follow-up is 80 months. Results: There was no apparent difference in the 15-year rate of true local vs. elsewhere recurrence, but the time to recurrence was different. The rate of true local recurrence was 2%, 5%, and 7% (5-9%) at 5, 10, and 15 years, respectively. The recurrences elsewhere in the breast were rare at 5 (1%) and 10 (2%) years, but increased to 6 (3-9%) at 15 years. This 15-year rate of elsewhere recurrence was half the rate of contralateral breast cancers of 13% (10-16%). Conclusions: Recurrence elsewhere in the breast is rare for the first 10 years, but by 15 years is nearly equal to true local recurrence even after whole-breast irradiation. The 15-year rate of elsewhere recurrence was half the rate of contralateral breast cancers. This may indicate a therapeutic effect of whole-breast radiation for other areas of the breast. Very long follow-up will be needed for partial breast irradiation with or without tamoxifen to show that the risk of elsewhere recurrence is not significantly different than after whole-breast irradiation.

  16. Etude Par Spectroscopie Raman De L'absorption Induite Lors De L'etirage Et De L'irradiation De Fibres Optiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, W.; Dumas, P.; Corset, J.; Neumanin, V.

    1984-03-01

    Les spectres de fluorescence ainsi que les spectres Raman de fibres optiques ont ete en-registres a partir d'echantillons soit irradies, soit presentant une bande d'absorption apres etirage. Il a ete mis en evidence que le maximum de la bande de fluorescence dans le rouge se situe a des valeurs differentes. Dans chaque cas, une valeur differente de la largeur mi-hauteur de cette bande a ete observee. La presence d'oxygene moleculaire dans les fibres presentant un pic de fibrage a ete mise en evidence par spectroscopie Raman. Par ailleurs, une bande d'emission situee a 695 nm a ete detectee. Les resultats obtenus mettent en evidence le role joue par la stoechiometrie sur les caracteristiques optiques des fibres. La formation de complexes (02)2 est suggere a partir d'un exces de molecules 02 dans les fibres. Ces complexes presentent des bandes d'emission dans les memes regions que celles observees dans les fibres.

  17. Insights into ParB spreading from the complex structure of Spo0J and parS.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo-Wei; Lin, Ming-Hsing; Chu, Chen-Hsi; Hsu, Chia-En; Sun, Yuh-Ju

    2015-05-26

    Spo0J (stage 0 sporulation protein J, a member of the ParB superfamily) is an essential component of the ParABS (partition system of ParA, ParB, and parS)-related bacterial chromosome segregation system. ParB (partition protein B) and its regulatory protein, ParA, act cooperatively through parS (partition S) DNA to facilitate chromosome segregation. ParB binds to chromosomal DNA at specific parS sites as well as the neighboring nonspecific DNA sites. Various ParB molecules can associate together and spread along the chromosomal DNA. ParB oligomer and parS DNA interact together to form a high-order nucleoprotein that is required for the loading of the structural maintenance of chromosomes proteins onto the chromosome for chromosomal DNA condensation. In this report, we characterized the binding of parS and Spo0J from Helicobacter pylori (HpSpo0J) and solved the crystal structure of the C-terminal domain truncated protein (Ct-HpSpo0J)-parS complex. Ct-HpSpo0J folds into an elongated structure that includes a flexible N-terminal domain for protein-protein interaction and a conserved DNA-binding domain for parS binding. Two Ct-HpSpo0J molecules bind with one parS. Ct-HpSpo0J interacts vertically and horizontally with its neighbors through the N-terminal domain to form an oligomer. These adjacent and transverse interactions are accomplished via a highly conserved arginine patch: RRLR. These interactions might be needed for molecular assembly of a high-order nucleoprotein complex and for ParB spreading. A structural model for ParB spreading and chromosomal DNA condensation that lead to chromosome segregation is proposed. PMID:25964325

  18. Insights into ParB spreading from the complex structure of Spo0J and parS

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo-Wei; Lin, Ming-Hsing; Chu, Chen-Hsi; Hsu, Chia-En; Sun, Yuh-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Spo0J (stage 0 sporulation protein J, a member of the ParB superfamily) is an essential component of the ParABS (partition system of ParA, ParB, and parS)-related bacterial chromosome segregation system. ParB (partition protein B) and its regulatory protein, ParA, act cooperatively through parS (partition S) DNA to facilitate chromosome segregation. ParB binds to chromosomal DNA at specific parS sites as well as the neighboring nonspecific DNA sites. Various ParB molecules can associate together and spread along the chromosomal DNA. ParB oligomer and parS DNA interact together to form a high-order nucleoprotein that is required for the loading of the structural maintenance of chromosomes proteins onto the chromosome for chromosomal DNA condensation. In this report, we characterized the binding of parS and Spo0J from Helicobacter pylori (HpSpo0J) and solved the crystal structure of the C-terminal domain truncated protein (Ct-HpSpo0J)-parS complex. Ct-HpSpo0J folds into an elongated structure that includes a flexible N-terminal domain for protein–protein interaction and a conserved DNA-binding domain for parS binding. Two Ct-HpSpo0J molecules bind with one parS. Ct-HpSpo0J interacts vertically and horizontally with its neighbors through the N-terminal domain to form an oligomer. These adjacent and transverse interactions are accomplished via a highly conserved arginine patch: RRLR. These interactions might be needed for molecular assembly of a high-order nucleoprotein complex and for ParB spreading. A structural model for ParB spreading and chromosomal DNA condensation that lead to chromosome segregation is proposed. PMID:25964325

  19. Secondary bremsstrahlung and the energy-conservation aspects of kerma in photon-irradiated media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sudhir; Nahum, Alan E.

    2016-02-01

    Kerma, collision kerma and absorbed dose in media irradiated by megavoltage photons are analysed with respect to energy conservation. The user-code DOSRZnrc was employed to compute absorbed dose D, kerma K and a special form of kerma, K ncpt, obtained by setting the charged-particle transport energy cut-off very high, thereby preventing the generation of ‘secondary bremsstrahlung’ along the charged-particle paths. The user-code FLURZnrc was employed to compute photon fluence, differential in energy, from which collision kerma, K col and K were derived. The ratios K/D, K ncpt/D and K col/D have thereby been determined over a very large volumes of water, aluminium and copper irradiated by broad, parallel beams of 0.1 to 25 MeV monoenergetic photons, and 6, 10 and 15 MV ‘clinical’ radiotherapy qualities. Concerning depth-dependence, the ‘area under the kerma, K, curve’ exceeded that under the dose curve, demonstrating that kerma does not conserve energy when computed over a large volume. This is due to the ‘double counting’ of the energy of the secondary bremsstrahlung photons, this energy being (implicitly) included in the kerma ‘liberated’ in the irradiated medium, at the same time as this secondary bremsstrahlung is included in the photon fluence which gives rise to kerma elsewhere in the medium. For 25 MeV photons this ‘violation’ amounts to 8.6%, 14.2% and 25.5% in large volumes of water, aluminium and copper respectively but only 0.6% for a ‘clinical’ 6 MV beam in water. By contrast, K col/D and K ncpt/D, also computed over very large phantoms of the same three media, for the same beam qualities, are equal to unity within (very low) statistical uncertainties, demonstrating that collision kerma and the special type of kerma, K ncpt, do conserve energy over a large volume. A comparison of photon fluence spectra for the 25 MeV beam at a depth of  ≈51 g cm-2 for both very high and very low charged-particle transport cut-offs reveals the considerable contribution to the total photon fluence by secondary bremsstrahlung in the latter case. Finally, a correction to the ‘kerma integral’ has been formulated to account for the energy transferred to charged particles by photons with initial energies below the Monte-Carlo photon transport cut-off PCUT; for 25 MeV photons this ‘photon track end’ correction is negligible for all PCUT below 10 keV.

  20. Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,

  1. Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

  2. Outcome After Conservative Surgery and Breast Irradiation in 5,717 Patients With Breast Cancer: Implications for Supraclavicular Nodal Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Livi, Lorenzo; Scotti, Vieri; Saieva, Calogero; Meattini, Icro; Detti, Beatrice; Simontacchi, Gabriele; Cardillo, Carla Deluca; Paiar, Fabiola; Mangoni, Monica; Marrazzo, Livia; Agresti, Benedetta; Cataliotti, Luigi; Bianchi, Simonetta; Biti, Giampaolo

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome and predictive factors of patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy to the whole breast only, without supraclavicular nodal irradiation. Methods and Materials: A total of 5,717 patients with pT1-T4 breast cancer were treated at the University of Florence. The median age of the patient population was 55 years (range, 30-80 years). All patients were followed for a median of 6.8 years (range, 1-27 years). Adjuvant chemotherapy was recommended in 1,535 patients (26.9%). Tamoxifen was prescribed in 2,951 patients (51.6%). The patients were split into three groups according to number of positive axillary nodes (PAN): P1, negative axillary lymph nodes; P2, one to three PAN; P3, more than three PAN. Results: The P3 patients had a higher incidence of supraclavicular fossa recurrence (SFR) compared with P2 and P1 patients. However, the incidence of SFR in P3 patients was low (only 5.5%), whereas the incidence of distant metastases (DM) was 27.2%. Distant metastasis was the only independent prognostic factor for breast cancer survival. Additionally, in the subgroup of patients who developed local recurrence, DM was the most important death predictor. Conclusion: Our series suggests that isolated SFR in patients who did not receive supraclavicular radiotherapy is infrequent, as well as in those patients who have more than three PAN, and SFR seems not to influence the outcome, which depends on DM occurrence.

  3. Examining the mean vertical attenuation of scalar quantum irradiance (PAR) over the Louisiana-Texas shelf (northern Gulf of Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugo-Fernández, A.; Gravois, M.; Green, R. E.; Montgomery, T.

    2012-04-01

    We examined freshwater and ocean circulation effects on the distribution of vertical quantum diffuse attenuation coefficients (Kq0) of photosyntheticaly available radiation (PAR) in waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico's Louisiana-Texas shelf. Mean Kq0 coefficients were estimated from 509 vertical profiles of PAR collected during 10 cruises spanning 30 months (1992-1994). Vertical profiles of density revealed that the shelf waters are divided into two periods: a stratified period with an upper layer 10 m thick of turbid waters (0.06≤Kq0≤1.18 m-1) and a lower layer of more transparent waters (0.01≤Kq0≤0.49 m-1). The second or non-stratified period consists of a homogenous layer ˜55 m thick and less turbid waters (0.03≤Kq0≤1.00 m-1). Horizontally, the distribution of Kq0 reveals nearshore coastal or case 2 waters followed by offshore oceanic or case 1 waters that separate near the 70-m isobath regardless of time and place. The Kq0 distribution reflects the freshwater influx from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers which causes a turbid surface trapped river plume, the shelf wind-driven circulation, and ensuing mixing. To investigate Kq0 we used two regression models involving salinity, suspended particulate matter (SPM), chlorophyll-a (Chl), and water depth. The best statistical model explained 57% to 85% of the observed Kq0 variability and involved the reciprocal of water depth, salinity, and SPM. However, a more bio-optically relevant model involving salinity, SPM, and Chl, explained only 32% to 64% of the observed Kq0 variability. Estimates of Kq0 for the upper layer indicate compensation depths of 30-92 m in waters deeper than 70 m which help account for the presence of coral communities on submerged banks near the shelf edge. The observed temporal and spatial distribution of Kq0 agrees qualitatively with that of satellite-derived values of the diffuse attenuation coefficient, Kd(4 9 0) over this shelf.

  4. The effect of anthracene and phenanthrene on the growth, photosynthesis, and SOD activity of the green alga Scenedesmus armatus depends on the PAR irradiance and CO2 level.

    PubMed

    Aksmann, A; Tukaj, Z

    2004-08-01

    Short-term (24-h) experiments were performed to examine the effect of phenanthrene (PHE) and anthracene (ANT) on algae grown in a batch culture system at irradiances of 12, 33, 48, and 64 W m(-2) of the PAR range. Cultures were aerated (0.1 or 2% CO(2)) or nonaerated. As a result of aeration the concentration of ANT dropped from 0.45 mg L(-1) at the beginning of the experiment (t(0)) to an undetectable value after 10 h. The PHE concentration dropped from 9.36 mg L(-1) at t0 to 0.17 mg L(-1) after 24 h. ANT at nominal concentrations exceeding 0.05 mg L(-1) inhibited the growth of the algae in a concentration- and irradiance-dependent manner. The algistatic effect of ANT observed at 64 and 48 W m(-2) was independent of the CO(2) level, whereas the growth inhibition at 33 and 12 W m(-2) was much greater in cultures aerated with 2% than with 0.1% CO(2). PHE inhibited the growth only at a concentration of 10 mg L(-1) (about 50% of the control) regardless of the irradiance or the CO(2) concentration. The toxicity of both PHE and ANT was similar in aerated (0.1% CO(2)) and nonaerated cultures. ANT and PHE had a distinct effect on the photosynthesis. At 0.1% CO(2), the irradiance-dependent inhibition (ANT) and stimulation (PHE) of the photosynthesis was observed. The inhibitory effect of ANT was enhanced when algae were grown at 2% CO(2), but at the same CO(2) concentration PHE did not affect the photosynthesis. ANT stimulated the total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the cells, this effect being generally more pronounced at elevated CO(2) levels and increasing with the irradiance. The total SOD activity was 250-300% higher in cells treated with PHE aerated with 0.1% CO(2). At 2% CO(2) no effect of PHE on the enzyme's activity was noted. The results obtained indicate that ANT acts as a photosensitizer causing an oxidative damage of cells, while PHE seems to affect the macromolecular synthesis. PMID:15386142

  5. Partial breast irradiation as second conservative treatment for local breast cancer recurrence

    SciTech Connect

    Hannoun-Levi, Jean-Michel . E-mail: jean-michel.hannoun-levi@fccc.edu; Houvenaeghel, Gilles; Ellis, Steve; Teissier, Eric; Alzieu, Claude; Lallement, Michel; Cowen, Didier

    2004-12-01

    Purpose: Mastectomy is the treatment of reference for local relapse after breast cancer (BC). The aim of this study was to document the feasibility and the results of associating lumpectomy with partial breast irradiation by interstitial brachytherapy (IB) as local treatment for an isolated ipsilateral BC local recurrence (LR). Methods and materials: Between 1975 and 1996 at Marseille and Nice Cancer Institutes, 4026 patients received lumpectomy and radiotherapy (RT) (50-80 Gy) for a localized breast cancer of which 473 presented a LR. Among these patients, 69 (14.6%) received a second lumpectomy followed by IB, which delivered 30 Gy (Nice, n = 24) or 45-50 Gy (Marseille, n = 45) with 3 to 8 {sup 192}Ir wires in 1 or 2 planes on the 85% isodose. Results: Median age at LR was 58.2 years, median follow-up since primary BC was 10 years, and median follow-up after the second conservative treatment was 50.2 months (range, 2-139 months). Immediate tolerance was good in all cases. Grade 2 to 3 long-term complications (LTC) according to IB dose were 0%, 28%, and 32%, respectively, for 30 Gy, 45 to 46 Gy, and 50 Gy (p 0.01). Grade 2 to 3 LTC according to total dose were 4% and 30%, respectively, for total doses (initial RT plus IB) {<=} 100 Gy or >100 Gy (p = 0.008). Logistic regression showed that the only factor associated with Grade 2 to 3 complications was higher IB doses (p = 0.01). We noted 11 second LRs (LR2), 10 distant metastases (DM), and 5 specific deaths. LR2 occurred either in the tumor bed (50.8%) or close to the tumor bed (34.3%) or in another quadrant (14.9%). Kaplan-Meier 5-year freedom from (FF) LR2 (FFLR2), FFDM, and DFS were 77.4%, 86.7%, and 68.9%, respectively. Overall 5-year survival (OS) was 91.8%. Univariate analysis showed the following factors associated with a higher FFLR2: (1) number of wires used for IB (3-4 vs. 5-8 wires, p = 0.006), (2) IB doses (30-45 Gy vs. 46-60 Gy, p = 0.05), (3) number of planes (1 vs. 2, p = 0.05), (4) interval between primary breast cancer and LR (< 36 months vs. {>=}36 months, p = 0.06). Multivariate analysis showed two factors associated with better local control: (1) number of wires (5-8 wires, p = 0.013) and (2) interval between primary breast cancer and LR {>=}36 months (p = 0.039). The multivariate analysis showed two factors associated with better FFDM: (1) absence of initial axilla involvement (p 0.019) and (2) relapse in a different location (p = 0.04). These two factors were also associated with a higher OS. Conclusion: Our experience showed that second conservative treatments for local relapse were feasible and gave results comparable to standard mastectomy. We recommend delivering IB doses of at least 46 Gy in 2 planes when initial radiotherapy delivered 50 Gy. The study gives enough information to encourage a Phase III trial that compares radical mastectomy to conservative procedures for localized breast cancer recurrences.

  6. [Usefulness of intensity-modulated radiation therapy for breast conserving radiation therapy: a three-dimensional treatment planning system comparison of irradiation methods].

    PubMed

    Kawamorita, Ryu; Iwai, Keisuke; Takeuchi, Yasushi; Kuroda, Daigo; Iguchi, Satoru; Satou, Kouichi

    2003-06-01

    Until recently, conservative radiation therapy of breast cancer using a wedge-filter combined with rectangular tangential irradiation was widely carried out. This method of irradiation creates uniform dose distribution in the target, minimizing the radiation dose to the lung. However, this method of irradiation results in many cases in which the amount of dose in the irradiated area differs as a result of the shape and size of the breast. It is necessary to prevent excessive doses from reaching the lung. IMRT ensures a uniform dose to the target. Therefore, IMRT was examined because of the possibility that the normal tissue dose can be effectively utilized in cases of conservative radiation therapy of breast cancer by providing a minimum dose. To compare the irradiation of each method of rectangular tangential irradiation, an electronic compensator (ELC), and IMRT, which uses Dynamic MLC, we evaluated target dose uniformity, standard deviation, and target differential DVH in 13 examples. We evaluated the lung dose of the irradiated side (V(30), 30 Gy volume) of the lung to the volume of the lung on the irradiated side based on the report of Hernando.(6)) With this method of irradiation, irrespective of the difference in the shape and size of the target, dose uniformity with ELC was very good. IMRT can reduce the lung dose in comparison with the other irradiation methods. However, it is apt to cause a high-dose area in the irradiation field. In addition, it affects the target and the skin-extracting contour, and the dose to the skin surface declines. Although ELC cannot offer lung doses that are as low as those of IMRT, most of the 13 examples planned for cure with ELC showed rates of 22% of V(30) and below. In conservative radiation therapy of breast cancer, ELC is more effective than the rectangular tangential irradiation method and IMRT. PMID:12881682

  7. Optimisation of UV irradiation as a binding site conserving method for crosslinking collagen-based scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Davidenko, Natalia; Bax, Daniel V; Schuster, Carlos F; Farndale, Richard W; Hamaia, Samir W; Best, Serena M; Cameron, Ruth E

    2016-01-01

    Short wavelength (λ = 254 nm) UV irradiation was evaluated over a range of intensities (0.06 to 0.96 J/cm(2)) as a means of cross-linking collagen- and gelatin-based scaffolds, to tailor their material characteristics whilst retaining biological functionality. Zero-link carbodiimide treatments are commonly applied to collagen-based materials, forming cross-links from carboxylate anions (for example the acidic E of GFOGER) that are an essential part of integrin binding sites on collagen. Cross-linking these amino acids therefore disrupts the bioactivity of collagen. In contrast, UV irradiation forms bonds from less important aromatic tyrosine and phenylalanine residues. We therefore hypothesised that UV cross-linking would not compromise collagen cell reactivity. Here, highly porous (~99 %) isotropic, collagen-based scaffolds were produced via ice-templating. A series of scaffolds (pore diameters ranging from 130-260 μm) with ascending stability in water was made from gelatin, two different sources of collagen I, or blends of these materials. Glucose, known to aid UV crosslinking of collagen, was added to some lower-stability formulations. These scaffolds were exposed to different doses of UV irradiation, and the scaffold morphology, dissolution stability in water, resistance to compression and cell reactivity was assessed. Stabilisation in aqueous media varied with both the nature of the collagen-based material employed and the UV intensity. Scaffolds made from the most stable materials showed the greatest stability after irradiation, although the levels of cross-linking in all cases were relatively low. Scaffolds made from pure collagen from the two different sources showed different optimum levels of irradiation, suggesting altered balance between stabilisation from cross-linking and destabilisation from denaturation. The introduction of glucose into the scaffold enhanced the efficacy of UV cross-linking. Finally, as hypothesized, cell attachment, spreading and proliferation on collagen materials were unaffected by UV cross-linking. UV irradiation may therefore be used to provide relatively low level cross-linking of collagen without loss of biological functionality. PMID:26676860

  8. Prone Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation After Breast-Conserving Surgery: Compliance to the Dosimetry Requirements of RTOG-0413

    SciTech Connect

    Wen Bixiu; Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080 ; Hsu, Howard; Formenti-Ujlaki, George F.; Lymberis, Stella; Magnolfi, Chiara; Zhao Xuan; Chang Jenghwa; DeWyngaert, J. Keith; Jozsef, Gabor; Formenti, Silvia C.

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: The dosimetric results from our institution's trials of prone accelerated partial breast irradiation are compared with the dosimetric requirements of RTOG-0413. Methods and Materials: Trial 1 and Trial 2 are 2 consecutive trials of prone-accelerated partial breast irradiation. Eligible for both trials were stage I breast cancer patients with negative margins after breast-conserving surgery. The planning target tumor volume (PTV) was created by extending the surgical cavity 2.0 cm for Trial 1 and 1.5 cm for Trial 2, respectively. Contralateral breast, heart, lungs, and thyroid were contoured. Thirty Gray was delivered in five daily fractions of 6 Gy by a three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy technique in Trial 1 and were by image-guided radiation therapy/intensity-modulated radiation therapy in Trial 2. Dosimetric results from the trials are reported and compared with RTOG 0413 requirements. Results: One hundred forty-six consecutive plans were analyzed: 67 left and 79 right breast cancers. The plans from the trials complied with the required >90% of prescribed dose covering 90% of PTV{sub E}VAL (=generated from the PTV by cropping 0.5 cm from the skin edge and excluding the chest wall): V90% was 98.1 {+-} 3.0% (with V100% and V95%, 89.4 {+-} 12.8%, 96.4 {+-} 5.1%, respectively). No significant difference between laterality was found (Student's t test). The dose constraints criteria of the RTOG-0413 protocol for ipsilateral and contralateral lung (V30 <15% and Dmax <3%), heart (V5 <40%), and thyroid (Dmax <3%) were satisfied because the plans showed an average V5% of 0.6% (range, 0-13.4) for heart, an average V30% of 0.6% (range, 0-9.1%) for ipsilateral lung, and <2% maximum dose to the thyroid. However, our partial breast irradiation plans demonstrated a higher dose to contralateral breast than that defined by RTOG constraints, with a median value of maximum doses of 4.1% (1.2 Gy), possibly as a result of contouring differences. Conclusions: Our technique for prone accelerated partial breast irradiation generally satisfied RTOG-0413 requirements.

  9. PRONE ACCELERATED PARTIAL BREAST IRRADIATION AFTER BREAST-CONSERVING SURGERY: FIVE YEAR RESULTS OF 100 PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Formenti, Silvia C.; Hsu, Howard; Fenton-Kerimian, Maria; Roses, Daniel; Guth, Amber; Jozsef, Gabor; Goldberg, Judith D.; DeWyngaert, J. Keith

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To report the 5-year results of a prospective trial of three-dimensional conformal external beam radiotherapy (3D-CRT) to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation in the prone position (P-APBI). Methods Post-menopausal patients with Stage I breast cancer with non palpable <2 cm tumors, negative margins, and negative nodes, positive hormonal receptors, and no extensive intraductal component (EIC) were eligible. The trial was offered only once eligible patients had refused to undergo standard whole-breast radiotherapy. Patients were simulated and treated on a dedicated table for prone set-up. The 3D-CRT delivered was 30 Gy in five 6 Gy/daily fractions over 10 days with port film verification at each treatment. Ipsilateral breast, ipsilateral nodal, contralateral breast, and distant failure (IBF, INF, CBF, DF) were estimated using the cumulative incidence method. Disease-free, overall, and cancer-specific survival (DFS, OS, CSS) were recorded. Results One hundred patients accrued to this IRB- approved prospective trial, one with bilateral breast cancer. One patient withdrew consent after simulation and another elected to interrupt radiotherapy after receiving two treatments. Ninety-eight patients are evaluable for toxicity and, in one case, both breasts were treated with PBI. Median patient age was 68 years (range 53–88 years); in 55% the tumor size was <1 cm. All patients had hormonal receptor positive cancers: 87% underwent adjuvant anti-hormonal therapy. At a median follow-up of 64 months (range, 2–125 months), there was one local recurrence (1% IBF) and one contralateral breast cancer (1% CBF). There were no deaths due to breast cancer by 5 years. Grade 3 late toxicities occurred in 2 patients (1 breast edema, 1 transient breast pain). Cosmesis was rated good/excellent in 89% of patients with at least 36 months follow-up. Conclusions Five-year efficacy and toxicity of 3D-CRT to deliver prone-PBI are comparable to other experiences with similar follow-up. PMID:22494589

  10. A single parS sequence from the cluster of four sites closest to oriC is necessary and sufficient for proper chromosome segregation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Jecz, Paulina; Bartosik, Aneta A; Glabski, Krzysztof; Jagura-Burdzy, Grazyna

    2015-01-01

    Among the mechanisms that control chromosome segregation in bacteria are highly-conserved partitioning systems comprising three components: ParA protein (a deviant Walker-type ATPase), ParB protein (a DNA-binding element) and multiple cis-acting palindromic centromere-like sequences, designated parS. Ten putative parS sites have been identified in the P. aeruginosa PAO1 genome, four localized in close proximity of oriC and six, diverged by more than one nucleotide from a perfect palindromic sequence, dispersed along the chromosome. Here, we constructed and analyzed P. aeruginosa mutants deprived of each single parS sequence and their different combinations. The analysis included evaluation of a set of phenotypic features, chromosome segregation, and ParB localization in the cells. It was found that ParB binds specifically to all ten parS sites, although with different affinities. The P. aeruginosa parS mutant with all ten parS sites modified (parSnull) is viable however it demonstrates the phenotype characteristic for parAnull or parBnull mutants: slightly slower growth rate, high frequency of anucleate cells, and defects in motility. The genomic position and sequence of parS determine its role in P. aeruginosa biology. It transpired that any one of the four parS sites proximal to oriC (parS1 to parS4), which are bound by ParB with the highest affinity, is necessary and sufficient for the parABS role in chromosome partitioning. When all these four sites are mutated simultaneously, the strain shows the parSnull phenotype, which indicates that none of the remaining six parS sites can substitute for these four oriC-proximal sites in this function. A single ectopic parS2 (inserted opposite oriC in the parSnull mutant) facilitates ParB organization into regularly spaced condensed foci and reverses some of the mutant phenotypes but is not sufficient for accurate chromosome segregation. PMID:25794281

  11. A Single parS Sequence from the Cluster of Four Sites Closest to oriC Is Necessary and Sufficient for Proper Chromosome Segregation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Jecz, Paulina; Bartosik, Aneta A.; Glabski, Krzysztof; Jagura-Burdzy, Grazyna

    2015-01-01

    Among the mechanisms that control chromosome segregation in bacteria are highly-conserved partitioning systems comprising three components: ParA protein (a deviant Walker-type ATPase), ParB protein (a DNA-binding element) and multiple cis-acting palindromic centromere-like sequences, designated parS. Ten putative parS sites have been identified in the P. aeruginosa PAO1 genome, four localized in close proximity of oriC and six, diverged by more than one nucleotide from a perfect palindromic sequence, dispersed along the chromosome. Here, we constructed and analyzed P. aeruginosa mutants deprived of each single parS sequence and their different combinations. The analysis included evaluation of a set of phenotypic features, chromosome segregation, and ParB localization in the cells. It was found that ParB binds specifically to all ten parS sites, although with different affinities. The P. aeruginosa parS mutant with all ten parS sites modified (parSnull) is viable however it demonstrates the phenotype characteristic for parAnull or parBnull mutants: slightly slower growth rate, high frequency of anucleate cells, and defects in motility. The genomic position and sequence of parS determine its role in P. aeruginosa biology. It transpired that any one of the four parS sites proximal to oriC (parS1 to parS4), which are bound by ParB with the highest affinity, is necessary and sufficient for the parABS role in chromosome partitioning. When all these four sites are mutated simultaneously, the strain shows the parSnull phenotype, which indicates that none of the remaining six parS sites can substitute for these four oriC-proximal sites in this function. A single ectopic parS2 (inserted opposite oriC in the parSnull mutant) facilitates ParB organization into regularly spaced condensed foci and reverses some of the mutant phenotypes but is not sufficient for accurate chromosome segregation. PMID:25794281

  12. Soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities: survival and patterns of failure with conservative surgery and postoperative irradiation compared to surgery alone

    SciTech Connect

    Leibel, S.A.; Tranbaugh, R.F.; Wara, W.M.; Beckstead, J.H.; Bovill, E.G.; Phillips, T.L.

    1982-09-15

    Between 1960 and 1978, 81 patients received their primary treatment for localized soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities, buttock and shoulder at the University of California, San Francisco. Initial treatment consisted of surgery alone in 47 patients, planned conservative surgery followed by radiation therapy in 29 patients, and irradiation alone in five patients. The two- and five-year determinate survival for all cases was 86% and 73%, respectively. The local control rate achieved with surgery alone was related to the extent of surgery. Eighty-seven percent (14/16) of the patients undergoing amputation were locally controlled. Seventy-two percent (8/11) were treated with wide en bloc resection and had local tumor control while only 30% (6/20) having simple excision were controlled. The local control rate with surgery and postoperative irradiation was 90% (26/29). No patients treated with irradiation therapy alone were controlled. This review suggests that local tumor control achieved with limb preserving conservative surgery and postoperative irradiation is superior to limited surgery alone. The survival and patterns of failure of patients undergoing radical surgery is comparable to combined treatment with the risk-benefit ratio favoring the latter. (JMT)

  13. De Par en Par (Wide Open), 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Par en Par, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This document consists of the four issues of the serial "De Par en Par" published during 1993. This serial provides lessons in Spanish for elementary school children. It is written by bilingual education teachers for use in the bilingual classroom. The magazine bases itself on the K-6 curriculum and offers a variety of activities for classroom

  14. Étude des dommages induits dans l'ADN par irradiation laser X-UV à 21.2 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassou, K.; Ros, D.; Kazamias, S.; Klisnick, A.; Jamelot, G.; Guilbaud, O.; Rus, B.; Kozlová, M.; Polan, J.; Präg, A. R.; Stupka, M.; Eot-Houllier, G.; Sage, E.; Begusová, M.; Stísová, V.; Du Penhoat, M.-A. H.; Touati, A.; Chétioui, A.

    2005-06-01

    We report the preliminary result of the application of the collisional Ne-like soft x-ray laser as radiation source to induce DNA damage. The goal of this experiment was a test bed study of the damage yields induced by soft x-ray radiation in dried plasmid DNA sample. The saturated Ne-like soft x-ray laser available at the PALS facility, delivering several millijoules in a single 100 ps pulse at 21.2 nm was used to irradiate two different plasmids: pSP189 and pBS. The study is centered on the dose effect leading to single and double strand break in DNA.

  15. Hydrodécyclisation du méthylcyclopentane et isomérisation des hexanes acycliques sur un catalyseur à 0,2 % de Pt sur Al{2}O{3} irradié par un champ microonde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medjram, M. S.; Rouainia, M.; Garin, F.

    2005-05-01

    Pour évaluer l'action du champ électromagnétique micro-onde sur la réaction, les propriétés et la préparation des catalyseurs, nous avons disposé d'un réacteur placé dans une cavité résonnante permettant de mesurer la plupart des grandeurs expérimentales importantes qui définissent la réaction et les conditions dans lesquelles l'irradiation micro-onde est effectuées. Parmi celles ci figure le champ électrique, la puissance apportée au système et la température. Les résultats obtenus pour les réactions d'hydrogénolyse du méthylcyclopentane font apparaître qu'indépendamment du mode de chauffage et quelle que soit la conversion, la distribution des produits formés est identique pour les deux systèmes et les rapports des différents hexanes obtenus obéissent à la règle statistique d'ouverture des liaisons C-C du cycle méthylcyclopentane. Par contre, lors des réactions d'isomérisation du méthyl-2pentane, méthyl-3pentane et n-hexane, la sélectivité globale en isomères est plus élevée lorsque la réaction a lieu en présence d'un champ micro-onde. A la suite de ces expériences il a été démontré que le catalyseur est modifié lors de son irradiation micro-onde et que cette modification est permanente.

  16. Breast-Conserving Treatment With Partial or Whole Breast Irradiation for Low-Risk Invasive Breast Carcinoma-5-Year Results of a Randomized Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Polgar, Csaba Fodor, Janos; Major, Tibor; Nemeth, Gyoergy; Loevey, Katalin; Orosz, Zsolt; Sulyok, Zoltan; Takacsi-Nagy, Zoltan; Kasler, Miklos

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: To report the 5-year results of a randomized study comparing the survival and cosmetic results of breast-conserving treatment with partial breast irradiation (PBI) or conventional whole breast irradiation (WBI). Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2004, 258 selected patients with T1 N0-1mi, Grade 1-2, nonlobular breast cancer without presence of extensive intraductal component and resected with negative margins were randomized after breast-conserving surgery to receive 50 Gy/25 fractions WBI (n = 130) or PBI (n = 128). The latter consisted of either 7 x 5.2 Gy high-dose-rate (HDR) multicatheter brachytherapy (BT; n = 88) or 50 Gy/25 fractions electron beam (EB) irradiation (n = 40). Results: At a median follow-up of 66 months, the 5-year actuarial rate of local recurrence was 4.7% and 3.4% in the PBI and WBI arms, respectively (p = 0.50). There was no significant difference in the 5-year probability of overall survival (94.6% vs. 91.8%), cancer-specific survival (98.3% vs. 96.0%), and disease-free survival (88.3% vs. 90.3%). The rate of excellent to good cosmetic result was 77.6% in the PBI group (81.2% after HDR BT; 70.0% after EB) and 62.9% in the control group (52.2% after telecobalt; 65.6% after 6-9-MV photons; p{sub WBI/PBI} = 0.009). Conclusions: Partial breast irradiation using interstitial HDR implants or EB to deliver radiation to the tumor bed alone for a selected group of early-stage breast cancer patients produces 5-year results similar to those achieved with conventional WBI. Significantly better cosmetic outcome can be achieved with carefully designed HDR multicatheter implants compared with the outcome after WBI.

  17. Review of PAR parameterizations in ocean ecosystem models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Do-Seong; Wang, Xiao Hua; Hart, Deirdre E.; Zavatarelli, Marco

    2014-12-01

    Commonly-used empirical equations for calculating downward 'photosynthetically available radiation' or PAR were reviewed in order to identify a more theoretically-sound parameterization for application to ocean biogeochemical models. Three different forms of broadband PAR parameterization are currently employed in biogeochemical models, each of them originating from the downward irradiance formulations normally applied to ocean circulation models, which produce poor attenuation estimates for PAR. Two of the PAR formulations, a single-exponential function and a double-exponential function, are parameterized by multiplying surface irradiance by a coefficient determining the portion of underwater PAR. The third formulation uses the second term of the double-exponential function. After elucidating the theoretical problems of modeling PAR using these parameterizations, we suggest an improved, R-modified double-exponential PAR formulation, including Paulson and Simpson's (1977) parameter values. We also newly estimate PAR penetration via least-squares fitting of values digitized from Jerlov's (1976) observations in different oceanic water types, and compare this PAR-observation derived parameterization with our new, theoretical, R-modified parameterization. Finally, we discuss a universal limitation inherent in current theoretical approaches to PAR parameterization.

  18. Phosphorylation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ParB participates in regulating the ParABS chromosome segregation system.

    PubMed

    Baronian, Grégory; Ginda, Katarzyna; Berry, Laurence; Cohen-Gonsaud, Martin; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta; Jakimowicz, Dagmara; Molle, Virginie

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present for the first time that Mycobacterium tuberculosis ParB is phosphorylated by several mycobacterial Ser/Thr protein kinases in vitro. ParB and ParA are the key components of bacterial chromosome segregation apparatus. ParB is a cytosolic conserved protein that binds specifically to centromere-like DNA parS sequences and interacts with ParA, a weak ATPase required for its proper localization. Mass spectrometry identified the presence of ten phosphate groups, thus indicating that ParB is phosphorylated on eight threonines, Thr32, Thr41, Thr53, Thr110, Thr195, and Thr254, Thr300, Thr303 as well as on two serines, Ser5 and Ser239. The phosphorylation sites were further substituted either by alanine to prevent phosphorylation or aspartate to mimic constitutive phosphorylation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed a drastic inhibition of DNA-binding by ParB phosphomimetic mutant compared to wild type. In addition, bacterial two-hybrid experiments showed a loss of ParA-ParB interaction with the phosphomimetic mutant, indicating that phosphorylation is regulating the recruitment of the partitioning complex. Moreover, fluorescence microscopy experiments performed in the surrogate Mycobacterium smegmatis ΔparB strain revealed that in contrast to wild type Mtb ParB, which formed subpolar foci similar to M. smegmatis ParB, phoshomimetic Mtb ParB was delocalized. Thus, our findings highlight a novel regulatory role of the different isoforms of ParB representing a molecular switch in localization and functioning of partitioning protein in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:25807382

  19. Phosphorylation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ParB Participates in Regulating the ParABS Chromosome Segregation System

    PubMed Central

    Baronian, Grégory; Ginda, Katarzyna; Berry, Laurence; Cohen-Gonsaud, Martin; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta; Jakimowicz, Dagmara; Molle, Virginie

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present for the first time that Mycobacterium tuberculosis ParB is phosphorylated by several mycobacterial Ser/Thr protein kinases in vitro. ParB and ParA are the key components of bacterial chromosome segregation apparatus. ParB is a cytosolic conserved protein that binds specifically to centromere-like DNA parS sequences and interacts with ParA, a weak ATPase required for its proper localization. Mass spectrometry identified the presence of ten phosphate groups, thus indicating that ParB is phosphorylated on eight threonines, Thr32, Thr41, Thr53, Thr110, Thr195, and Thr254, Thr300, Thr303 as well as on two serines, Ser5 and Ser239. The phosphorylation sites were further substituted either by alanine to prevent phosphorylation or aspartate to mimic constitutive phosphorylation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed a drastic inhibition of DNA-binding by ParB phosphomimetic mutant compared to wild type. In addition, bacterial two-hybrid experiments showed a loss of ParA-ParB interaction with the phosphomimetic mutant, indicating that phosphorylation is regulating the recruitment of the partitioning complex. Moreover, fluorescence microscopy experiments performed in the surrogate Mycobacterium smegmatis ΔparB strain revealed that in contrast to wild type Mtb ParB, which formed subpolar foci similar to M. smegmatis ParB, phoshomimetic Mtb ParB was delocalized. Thus, our findings highlight a novel regulatory role of the different isoforms of ParB representing a molecular switch in localization and functioning of partitioning protein in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:25807382

  20. Pars Injuries in Athletes.

    PubMed

    Oren, Jonathan; Gallina, Jason

    2016-03-01

    Pars injuries are common causes of low back pain in adolescent athletes. Workup traditionally has included lumbar radiographs with oblique views and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). However, recent literature has demonstrated the accuracy of MRI as a diagnostic modality. Acute injuries may be amenable to bracing with the goal of a healed lesion. Most cases of spondylolysis will result in asymptomatic non-union, though pars repair is an option for symptomatic pars defects without spondylolisthesis. PMID:26977552

  1. Participation of Chromosome Segregation Protein ParAI of Vibrio cholerae in Chromosome Replication▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Kadoya, Ryosuke; Baek, Jong Hwan; Sarker, Arnab; Chattoraj, Dhruba K.

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae carries homologs of plasmid-borne parA and parB genes on both of its chromosomes. The par genes help to segregate many plasmids and chromosomes. Here we have studied the par genes of V. cholerae chromosome I. Earlier studies suggested that ParBI binds to the centromeric site parSI near the origin of replication (oriI), and parSI-ParBI complexes are placed at the cell poles by ParAI. Deletion of parAI and parSI caused the origin-proximal DNA to be less polar. Here we found that deletion of parBI also resulted in a less polar localization of oriI. However, unlike the deletion of parAI, the deletion of parBI increased the oriI number. Replication was normal when both parAI and parBI were deleted, suggesting that ParBI mediates its action through ParAI. Overexpression of ParAI in a parABI-deleted strain also increased the DNA content. The results are similar to those found for Bacillus subtilis, where ParA (Soj) stimulates replication and this activity is repressed by ParB (SpoOJ). As in B. subtilis, the stimulation of replication most likely involves the replication initiator DnaA. Our results indicate that control of chromosomal DNA replication is an additional function of chromosomal par genes conserved across the Gram-positive/Gram-negative divide. PMID:21257772

  2. Both PHYTOCHROME RAPIDLY REGULATED1 (PAR1) and PAR2 promote seedling photomorphogenesis in multiple light signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peng; Song, Meifang; Yang, Qinghua; Su, Liang; Hou, Pei; Guo, Lin; Zheng, Xu; Xi, Yulin; Meng, Fanhua; Xiao, Yang; Yang, Li; Yang, Jianping

    2014-02-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings undergo photomorphogenesis in the light and etiolation in the dark. Light-activated photoreceptors transduce the light signals through a series of photomorphogenesis promoting or repressing factors to modulate many developmental processes in plants, such as photomorphogenesis and shade avoidance. CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1) is a conserved RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligase, which mediates degradation of several photomorphogenesis promoting factors, including ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5) and LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FAR-RED1 (HFR1), through a 26S proteasome-dependent pathway. PHYTOCHROME RAPIDLY REGULATED1 (PAR1) was first detected as an early repressed gene in both phytochrome A (phyA)-mediated far-red and phyB-mediated red signaling pathways, and subsequent studies showed that both PAR1 and PAR2 are negative factors of shade avoidance in Arabidopsis. However, the role of PAR1 and PAR2 in seedling deetiolation, and their relationships with other photomorphogenesis promoting and repressing factors are largely unknown. Here, we confirmed that both PAR1 and PAR2 redundantly enhance seedling deetiolation in multiple photoreceptor signaling pathways. Their transcript abundances are repressed by phyA, phyB, and cryptochrome1 under far-red, red, and blue light conditions, respectively. Both PAR1 and PAR2 act downstream of COP1, and COP1 mediates the degradation of PAR1 and PAR2 through the 26S proteasome pathway. Both PAR1 and PAR2 act in a separate pathway from HY5 and HFR1 under different light conditions, except for sharing in the same pathway with HFR1 under far-red light. Together, our results substantiate that PAR1 and PAR2 are positive factors functioning in multiple photoreceptor signaling pathways during seedling deetiolation. PMID:24335334

  3. Calibration of the Odyssey Photosynthetic Irradiance Recorder for Absolute Irradiance Measures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Researchers are increasingly interested in measuring hotosynthetically active radiation (PAR) because of its importance in determining the structure and function of lotic ecosystems. The Odyssey Photosynthetic Irradiance Recorder is an affordable PAR meter gaining popularity am...

  4. Utilisation de l'essai comete et du biomarqueur gamma-H2AX pour detecter les dommages induits a l'ADN cellulaire par le 5-bromodeoxyuridine post-irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Madeleine, Carole

    Ce memoire est presente a la Faculte de medecine et des sciences de la sante de l'Universite de Sherbrooke en vue de l'obtention du grade de maitre es sciences (M.Sc.) en radiobiologie (2009). Un jury a revise les informations contenues dans ce memoire. Il etait compose de professeurs de la Faculte de medecine et des sciences de la sante soit : Darel Hunting PhD, directeur de recherche (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie), Leon Sanche PhD, directeur de recherche (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie), Richard Wagner PhD, membre du programme (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie) et Guylain Boissonneault PhD, membre exterieur au programme (departement de biochimie). Le 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), un analogue halogene de la thymidine reconnu depuis les annees 60 comme etant un excellent radiosensibilisateur. L'hypothese la plus repandue au sujet de l'effet radio sensibilisant du BrdU est qu'il augmente le nombre de cassures simple et double brin lorsqu'il est incorpore dans l'ADN de la cellule et expose aux radiations ionisantes. Toutefois, de nouvelles recherches semblent remettre en question les observations precedentes. Ces dernieres etudes ont confirme que le BrdU est un bon radiosensibilisateur, car il augmente les dommages radio-induits dans l'ADN. Mais, c'est en etant incorpore dans une region simple brin que le BrdU radiosensibilise l'ADN. Ces recherches ont egalement revele pour la premiere fois un nouveau type de dommages produits lors de l'irradiation de l'ADN contenant du BrdU : les dimeres interbrins. Le but de ces travaux de recherche est de determiner si la presence de bromodeoxyuridine dans l'ADN augmente l'induction de bris simple et / ou double brin chez les cellules irradiees en utilisant de nouvelles techniques plus sensibles et specifiques que celles utilisees auparavant. Pour ce faire, les essais cometes et la detection des foci H2AX phosphorylee pourraient permettre d'etablir les effets engendres par le BrdU au niveau cellulaire. Notre hypothese (basee sur des resultats preliminaires effectues dans notre laboratoire) est que l'irradiation de l'ADN cellulaire en presence de BrdU augmentera le nombre de bris simple brin sans toutefois augmenter le nombre de bris double brin. Les resultats presentes dans ce memoire semblent corroborer cette hypothese. Les nouvelles methodes d'analyse, soient l'essai comete et la detection des foci gamma-H2AX remettent en question ce qui a ete dit sur le BrdU au sujet de l'induction des cassures double brin depuis plusieurs annees. L'ensemble de ces nouveaux resultats effectue a l'aide de cellules ayant incorporees du BrdU sont en correlation avec de precedents resultats obtenus dans notre laboratoire sur des oligonucleotides bromes. Ils reaffirment que l'irradiation combinee au BrdU augmente l'induction de bris simple brin mais pas de bris double brin. L'investigation approfondie des mecanismes d'action non elucides du BrdU au niveau cellulaire et son utilisation a des moments strategiques pendant le traitement de radiotherapie pourraient accroitre son efficacite a des fins d'utilisation clinique. Mots cles : 5-bromodeoxyuridine, dimeres interbrins, dommage a l'ADN, essai comete, H2AX, radiosensibilisateur, radiotherapie

  5. Excimer laser irradiation at 248 nm of wooden archaeological objects and polymeric consolidants used in conservation: a study of cone formation and optimum cleaning parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belli, R.; Toniutti, L.; Miotello, A.; Mosaner, P.; Avi, D.

    2008-07-01

    Samples of a prehistoric consolidated vegetable basketry, coming from an important pile building in the North-East of Italy (Fiavé Carrera, Trento), had been irradiated with excimer laser pulses to remove the consolidant layer and restore the artifact. Some problems, related to the nature of the consolidant resin, were found in the preliminary laser cleaning process. The two main obstacles were related to the unknown composition of the polymeric resin and to the irregular surface morphology of the archaeological find. We observed that large numbers of laser pulses, for selected laser parameters, strongly modify the resin surface morphology with formation of a large number of cones. After cone formation, the surface was so irregular that it was almost impossible to complete the laser cleaning procedure. To find a solution to the problem, we here try to understand the mechanisms of cone formation in the present polymeric material. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) have been used to study surface morphology and chemical modification after selected irradiation processes. To understand the influence of laser irradiation on surface modifications and to establish a cleaning procedure for this specific application, investigations have been carried out separately on models of resin consolidants and wood (both dried and buried wood sample). The consolidants were commercial resins, typically used in archaeological conservation (Plexisol and Paraloid), deposited on a silicon substrate. Silicon was used because it is an appropriate substrate in FT-IR analysis. Finally, we chose wood because of its wide use in prehistoric artefact (Viburnum lantana).

  6. Prone Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation After Breast-Conserving Surgery: Five-year Results of 100 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Formenti, Silvia C.; Hsu, Howard; Fenton-Kerimian, Maria; Roses, Daniel; Guth, Amber; Jozsef, Gabor; Goldberg, Judith D.; DeWyngaert, J. Keith

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To report the 5-year results of a prospective trial of three-dimensional conformal external beam radiotherapy (3D-CRT) to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation in the prone position. Methods and Materials: Postmenopausal patients with Stage I breast cancer with nonpalpable tumors <2 cm, negative margins and negative nodes, positive hormone receptors, and no extensive intraductal component were eligible. The trial was offered only after eligible patients had refused to undergo standard whole-breast radiotherapy. Patients were simulated and treated on a dedicated table for prone setup. 3D-CRT was delivered at a dose of 30 Gy in five 6-Gy/day fractions over 10 days with port film verification at each treatment. Rates of ipsilateral breast failure, ipsilateral nodal failure, contralateral breast failure, and distant failure were estimated using the cumulative incidence method. Rates of disease-free, overall, and cancer-specific survival were recorded. Results: One hundred patients were enrolled in this institutional review board-approved prospective trial, one with bilateral breast cancer. One patient withdrew consent after simulation, and another patient elected to interrupt radiotherapy after receiving two treatments. Ninety-eight patients were evaluable for toxicity, and, in 1 case, both breasts were treated with partial breast irradiation. Median patient age was 68 years (range, 53-88 years); in 55% of patients the tumor size was <1 cm. All patients had hormone receptor-positive cancers: 87% of patients underwent adjuvant antihormone therapy. At a median follow-up of 64 months (range, 2-125 months), there was one local recurrence (1% ipsilateral breast failure) and one contralateral breast cancer (1% contralateral breast failure). There were no deaths due to breast cancer by 5 years. Grade 3 late toxicities occurred in 2 patients (one breast edema, one transient breast pain). Cosmesis was rated good/excellent in 89% of patients with at least 36 months follow-up. Conclusions: Five-year efficacy and toxicity of 3D-CRT delivered in prone partial breast irradiation are comparable to other experiences with similar follow-up.

  7. Time Interval From Breast-Conserving Surgery to Breast Irradiation in Early Stage Node-Negative Breast Cancer: 17-Year Follow-Up Results and Patterns of Recurrence

    SciTech Connect

    Vujovic, Olga; Yu, Edward; Cherian, Anil; Dar, A. Rashid; Stitt, Larry; Perera, Francisco

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: A retrospectivechart review was conducted to determine whether the time interval from breast-conserving surgery to breast irradiation (surgery-radiation therapy interval) in early stage node-negative breast cancer had any detrimental effects on recurrence rates. Methods and Materials: There were 566 patients with T1 to T3, N0 breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery and breast irradiation and without adjuvant systemic treatment between 1985 and 1992. The surgery-to-radiation therapy intervals used for analysis were 0 to 8 weeks (201 patients), >8 to 12 weeks (233 patients), >12 to 16 weeks (91 patients), and >16 weeks (41 patients). Kaplan-Meier estimates of time to local recurrence, disease-free survival, distant disease-free survival, cause-specific survival, and overall survival rates were calculated. Results: Median follow-up was 17.4 years. Patients in all 4 time intervals were similar in terms of characteristics and pathologic features. There were no statistically significant differences among the 4 time groups in local recurrence (P=.67) or disease-free survival (P=.82). The local recurrence rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 4.9%, 11.5%, and 15.0%, respectively. The distant disease relapse rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 10.6%, 15.4%, and 18.5%, respectively. The disease-free failure rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 20%, 32.3%, and 39.8%, respectively. Cause-specific survival rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 92%, 84.6%, and 79.8%, respectively. The overall survival rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 89.3%, 79.2%, and 66.9%, respectively. Conclusions: Surgery-radiation therapy intervals up to 16 weeks from breast-conserving surgery are not associated with any increased risk of recurrence in early stage node-negative breast cancer. There is a steady local recurrence rate of 1% per year with adjuvant radiation alone.

  8. [Accelerated partial breast irradiation with three-dimensional conformal external beam radiotherapy following breast-conserving surgery -- preliminary results of a phase II clinical study].

    PubMed

    Mózsa, Emőke; Polgár, Csaba; Fröhlich, Georgina; Major, Tibor; Jánváry, Levente; Lövey, Katalin; Sulyok, Zoltán; Takácsi Nagy, László; Fodor, János; Kásler, Miklós

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the study was to implement accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) by means of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) following breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for early-stage breast cancer. Between December 2006 and February 2011, in 45 cases of low-risk, stage I-II breast cancer the tumour bed was marked with titanium clips during BCS. Postoperative APBI was given by means of 3D-CRT using 3 to 5 non-coplanar fields. The total dose of APBI was 36.9 Gy (9 x 4.1 Gy) using a twice-a-day fractionation over 5 consecutive days. Early and late radiation side effects and cosmetic results were analysed for the first 30 patients with a minimum follow-up of 1 year. At a mean follow-up of 25.2 months neither loco-regional nor distant failure was observed. Excellent, good, fair, and poor cosmetic outcome was detected in 10 (33.3%), 16 (53.4%), 4 (13.3%), and 0 (0%) patients, respectively. Grade 2 or worse acute side effect was not observed. Grade 1 fibrosis, grade 2 teleangiectasia and asymptomatic fat necrosis occurred in 4 (13.3%), 1 (3.3%) and 5 (16.7%) patients, respectively. No grade 3-4 late side effects were detected. 3D-CRT is a reproducible and feasible technique for the delivery of APBI following conservative surgery for the treatment of low-risk, early-stage invasive breast carcinoma. The preliminary results are promising, early- and mid-term radiation side effects are rare, and cosmetic results are excellent. PMID:23236593

  9. Dosimetric Comparison of the Simultaneous Integrated Boost in Whole-Breast Irradiation after Breast-Conserving Surgery: IMRT, IMRT plus an Electron Boost and VMAT

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuan; Chen, Shanyu; Dai, Mingming; Zhou, Juan; Lin, Qin; Chi, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To compare the target volume coverage and doses to organs at risks (OARs) using three techniques that simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) in whole-breast irradiation (WBI) after breast-conserving surgery, including intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), IMRT plus an electron boost (IMRT-EB), and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Methods A total of 10 patients with early-stage left-sided breast cancer after breast-conserving surgery were included in this study. IMRT, IMRT-EB and VMAT plans were generated for each patient. Results The conformity index (CI) of the planning target volumes evaluation (PTV-Eval) of VMAT was significantly superior to those of IMRT and IMRT-EB (P < 0.05). The CI of the PTV Eval-boost of VMAT was better than that of IMRT (P = 0.018) and IMRT-EB (P < 0.001), while the CI of the PTV Eval-boost of IMRT was better than that of IMRT-EB (P = 0.002). The V5, V10 and Dmean in ipsilateral lung with VMAT were significantly higher than IMRT (P < 0.05) and IMRT-EB (P < 0.05). The Dmean, V5 and V10 in heart with VMAT were significantly greater than those of IMRT and IMRT-EB (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the OARs between IMRT and IMRT-EB (P > 0.05). Conclusions Considered the target volume coverage and radiation dose delivered to the OARs (especially the heart and lung), IMRT may be more suitable for the SIB in WBI than IMRT-EB and VMAT. Additional clinical studies with a larger sample size will be needed to assess the long-term feasibility and efficacy of SIB using different radiotherapy techniques. PMID:25781183

  10. A three-field model of transient 3D multiphase, three-component flow for the computer code 4 A3. Par1: Theoretical basis: Conservation and state equations, numerics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolev, N. I.

    1991-12-01

    The physical and mathematical basis on which the IVA3 computer code relies are described. IVA3 was developed for numerical simulation of flows of air, steam, water, microscopic solid particles which can be carried only by water, and 'liquid metal' that is immiscible with water. The state of the art of the 3D (three dimensional) modeling for transient multiphase flows, the model assumptions, and the modeling technique used in IVA3 are described. Starting with the principles of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy, the nonaveraged conservation equations are derived for each of the velocity fields which consist of different isothermal components. Thereafter, averaging is applied and the working form of the system of 21 partial differential equations is derived. Special attention is paid to the strict consistence of the modeling technique used in IVA3 with the second principle of thermodynamics. The entropy concept used is derived starting with the unaveraged conservation equations and subsequent averaging.

  11. La pelade par plaques

    PubMed Central

    Spano, Frank; Donovan, Jeff C.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille des renseignements de base pour faire comprendre l’épidémiologie, la pathogenèse, l’histologie et l’approche clinique au diagnostic de la pelade par plaques. Sources des données Une recension a été effectuée dans PubMed pour trouver des articles pertinents concernant la pathogenèse, le diagnostic et le pronostic de la pelade par plaques. Message principal La pelade par plaques est une forme de perte pileuse auto-immune dont la prévalence durant une vie est d’environ 2 %. Des antécédents personnels ou familiaux de troubles auto-immuns concomitants, comme le vitiligo ou une maladie de la thyroïde, peuvent être observés dans un petit sous-groupe de patients. Le diagnostic peut souvent être posé de manière clinique en se fondant sur la perte de cheveux non cicatricielle et circulaire caractéristique, accompagnée de cheveux en « point d’exclamation » en périphérie chez ceux dont le problème en est aux premiers stades. Le diagnostic des cas plus complexes ou des présentations inhabituelles peut être facilité par une biopsie et un examen histologique. Le pronostic varie largement et de mauvais résultats sont associés à une apparition à un âge précoce, une perte importante, la variante ophiasis, des changements aux ongles, des antécédents familiaux ou des troubles auto-immuns concomitants. Conclusion La pelade par plaques est une forme auto-immune de perte de cheveux périodiquement observée en soins primaires. Les médecins de famille sont bien placés pour identifier la pelade par plaques, déterminer la gravité de la maladie et poser le diagnostic différentiel approprié. De plus, ils sont en mesure de renseigner leurs patients à propos de l’évolution clinique de la maladie ainsi que du pronostic général selon le sous-type de patients.

  12. [Accelerated partial breast irradiation with image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy following breast-conserving surgery - preliminary results of a phase II clinical study].

    PubMed

    Mészáros, Norbert; Major, Tibor; Stelczer, Gábor; Zaka, Zoltán; Mózsa, Emõke; Fodor, János; Polgár, Csaba

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to implement accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) by means of image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) following breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for low-risk early invasive breast cancer. Between July 2011 and March 2014, 60 patients with low-risk early invasive (St I-II) breast cancer who underwent BCS were enrolled in our phase II prospective study. Postoperative APBI was given by means of step and shoot IG-IMRT using 4 to 5 fields to a total dose of 36.9 Gy (9×4.1 Gy) using a twice-a-day fractionation. Before each fraction, series of CT images were taken from the region of the target volume using a kV CT on-rail mounted in the treatment room. An image fusion software was used for automatic image registration of the planning and verification CT images. Patient set-up errors were detected in three directions (LAT, LONG, VERT), and inaccuracies were adjusted by automatic movements of the treatment table. Breast cancer related events, acute and late toxicities, and cosmetic results were registered and analysed. At a median follow-up of 24 months (range 12-44) neither locoregional nor distant failure was observed. Grade 1 (G1), G2 erythema, G1 oedema, and G1 and G2 pain occurred in 21 (35%), 2 (3.3%), 23 (38.3%), 6 (10%) and 2 (3.3%) patients, respectively. No G3-4 acute side effects were detected. Among late radiation side effects G1 pigmentation, G1 fibrosis, and G1 fat necrosis occurred in 5 (8.3%), 7 (11.7%), and 2 (3.3%) patients, respectively. No ≥G2 late toxicity was detected. Excellent and good cosmetic outcome was detected in 45 (75%) and 15 (25%) patients. IG-IMRT is a reproducible and feasible technique for the delivery of APBI following conservative surgery for the treatment of low-risk, early-stage invasive breast carcinoma. Preliminary results are promising, early radiation side effects are minimal, and cosmetic results are excellent. PMID:26035158

  13. La pelade par plaques

    PubMed Central

    Spano, Frank; Donovan, Jeff C.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille des renseignements de base pour faire comprendre les schémas thérapeutiques et les résultats des traitements pour la pelade par plaques, de même que les aider à identifier les patients pour qui une demande de consultation en dermatologie pourrait s’imposer. Sources des données Une recension a été effectuée dans PubMed pour trouver des articles pertinents concernant le traitement de la pelade par plaques. Message principal La pelade par plaques est une forme auto-immune de perte pileuse qui touche à la fois les enfants et les adultes. Même s’il n’y a pas de mortalité associée à la maladie, la morbidité découlant des effets psychologiques de la perte des cheveux peut être dévastatrice. Lorsque la pelade par plaques et le sous-type de la maladie sont identifiés, un schéma thérapeutique approprié peut être amorcé pour aider à arrêter la chute des cheveux et possiblement faire commencer la repousse. Les traitements de première intention sont la triamcinolone intralésionnelle avec des corticostéroïdes topiques ou du minoxidil ou les 2. Les médecins de famille peuvent prescrire ces traitements en toute sécurité et amorcer ces thérapies. Les cas plus avancés ou réfractaires pourraient avoir besoin de diphénylcyclopropénone topique ou d’anthraline topique. On peut traiter la perte de cils avec des analogues de la prostaglandine. Les personnes ayant subi une perte de cheveux abondante peuvent recourir à des options de camouflage ou à des prothèses capillaires. Il est important de surveiller les troubles psychiatriques en raison des effets psychologiques profonds de la perte de cheveux. Conclusion Les médecins de famille verront de nombreux patients qui perdent leurs cheveux. La reconnaissance de la pelade par plaques et la compréhension du processus pathologique sous-jacent permettent d’amorcer un schéma thérapeutique approprié. Les cas plus graves ou réfractaires doivent être identifiés pour qu’une demande de consultation en dermatologie soit demandée au besoin.

  14. The Par3/Par6/aPKC complex and epithelial cell polarity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia; Zhang, Mingjie

    2013-06-10

    Apical-basal polarity is the basic organizing principle of epithelial cells, and endows epithelial cells to function as defensive barriers and as mediators of vectorial transport of nutrients in and out of organisms. Apical-basal polarity is controlled by a number of conserved polarity factors that regulate cytoskeletal organizations, asymmetric distributions of cellular components, and directional transports across cells. Polarity factors often occupy specific membrane regions in response to the adhesion forces generated by cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Both internal polarity factors and the external extracellular matrices play fundamental roles in epithelial cell polarity establishment and maintenance. This review focuses on recent developments of the Par3/Par6/aPKC complex and its interacting proteins in epithelial cell polarity. PMID:23535009

  15. Model parameterization to simulate and compare the PAR absorption potential of two competing plant species

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Brenner; Roos, Kristin; Göttlicher, Dietrich Otto; Rollenbeck, Rütger; Nauß, Thomas; Beck, Erwin

    2009-01-01

    Mountain pastures dominated by the pasture grass Setaria sphacelata in the Andes of southern Ecuador are heavily infested by southern bracken (Pteridium arachnoideum), a major problem for pasture management. Field observations suggest that bracken might outcompete the grass due to its competitive strength with regard to the absorption of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). To understand the PAR absorption potential of both species, the aims of the current paper are to (1) parameterize a radiation scheme of a two-big-leaf model by deriving structural (LAI, leaf angle parameter) and optical (leaf albedo, transmittance) plant traits for average individuals from field surveys, (2) to initialize the properly parameterized radiation scheme with realistic global irradiation conditions of the Rio San Francisco Valley in the Andes of southern Ecuador, and (3) to compare the PAR absorption capabilities of both species under typical local weather conditions. Field data show that bracken reveals a slightly higher average leaf area index (LAI) and more horizontally oriented leaves in comparison to Setaria. Spectrometer measurements reveal that bracken and Setaria are characterized by a similar average leaf absorptance. Simulations with the average diurnal course of incoming solar radiation (1998–2005) and the mean leaf–sun geometry reveal that PAR absorption is fairly equal for both species. However, the comparison of typical clear and overcast days show that two parameters, (1) the relation of incoming diffuse and direct irradiance, and (2) the leaf–sun geometry play a major role for PAR absorption in the two-big-leaf approach: Under cloudy sky conditions (mainly diffuse irradiance), PAR absorption is slightly higher for Setaria while under clear sky conditions (mainly direct irradiance), the average bracken individual is characterized by a higher PAR absorption potential. (∼74 MJ m−2 year−1). The latter situation which occurs if the maximum daily irradiance exceeds 615 W m−2 is mainly due to the nearly orthogonal incidence of the direct solar beam onto the horizontally oriented frond area which implies a high amount of direct PAR absorption during the noon maximum of direct irradiance. Such situations of solar irradiance favoring a higher PAR absorptance of bracken occur in ∼36% of the observation period (1998–2005). By considering the annual course of PAR irradiance in the San Francisco Valley, the clear advantage of bracken on clear days (36% of all days) is completely compensated by the slight but more frequent advantage of Setaria under overcast conditions (64% of all days). This means that neither bracken nor Setaria show a distinct advantage in PAR absorption capability under the current climatic conditions of the study area. PMID:19937454

  16. "To illustrate and increase Chyrurgerie": Ambroise Paré (1510-1590).

    PubMed

    Goyal, Praveen Kumar; Williams, Andrew N

    2010-10-01

    The quincentenary of Ambroise Paré's birth celebrates a man who rose from a humble origin to become the leading surgeon of the Renaissance. Now remembered as a celebrated war surgeon, especially for his gentle treatment of gunshot wounds, it is generally forgotten that Paré also treated children and wrote about them. Despite his little schooling, Paré was appointed as the Head of the French College of Surgeons in 1567. Paré's contributions to child health include conservative management of childhood deformities, such as clubfoot and scoliosis. He also gave descriptions of conjoined twins and intersex. Paré managed childhood trauma and bladder stones using devices that he invented. This article will briefly demonstrate Paré's wide-ranging contribution to pediatric surgery, adding new insights and material to earlier work. PMID:20920741

  17. SSO-ASTRO Consensus Guideline on Margins for Breast-Conserving Surgery with Whole Breast Irradiation in Stage I and II Invasive Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Meena S.; Schnitt, Stuart J.; Giuliano, Armando E.; Harris, Jay R.; Khan, Seema A.; Horton, Janet; Klimberg, Suzanne; Chavez-MacGregor, Mariana; Freedman, Gary; Houssami, Nehmat; Johnson, Peggy L.; Morrow, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Summary Changes in the management of breast cancer over time have led to decreased rates of IBTR. The 2013 SSO/ASTRO guidelines on margins in breast-conserving surgery for invasive cancer are summarized in this document. PMID:24521674

  18. Protease-activated receptor (PAR)1, PAR2 and PAR4 expressions in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    LI, Si-Man; JIANG, Ping; XIANG, Yang; WANG, Wei-Wei; ZHU, Yue-Chun; FENG, Wei-Yang; LI, Shu-De; YU, Guo-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Here, we used reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and western blot to detect protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1, PAR 2 and PAR 4 expression in cancer tissues and cell lines of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and investigated the co-relationship between PAR expression and clinic-pathological data for esophageal cancer. The methylation of PAR4 gene promoter involved in esophageal carcinoma was also analyzed. By comparing the mRNA expressions of normal esophageal tissue and human esophageal epithelial cells (HEEpiC), we found that among the 28 cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, PAR1 (60%) and PAR2 (71%) were elevated in 17 and 20 cases, respectively, and PAR4 (68%) expression was lowered in 19 cases. Whereas, in human esophageal squamous cells (TE-1 and TE-10), PAR1 and PAR2 expression was increased but PAR4 was decreased. Combined with clinical data, the expression of PAR1 in poorly differentiated (P=0.016) and middle and lower parts of the esophagus (P=0.016) was higher; expression of PAR4 in poorly differentiated carcinoma was lower (P=0.049). Regarding TE-1 and TE-10 protein expression, we found that in randomized esophageal carcinoma, PAR1 (P=0.027) and PAR2 (P=0.039) expressions were increased, but lowered for PAR4 (P=0.0001). In HEEpiC, TE-1, TE-10, esophageal and normal esophagus tissue samples (case No. 7), the frequency of methylation at the 19 CpG loci of PAR4 was 35.4%, 95.2%, 83.8%, 62.6% and 48.2%, respectively. Our results indicate that the expression of PAR1 and PAR2 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is increased but PAR4 is decreased. Hypermethylation of the promoter of the PAR4 gene may contribute to reduced expression of PAR4 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25297082

  19. Par Pond vegetation status 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1996-12-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995, and into the early spring and late summer of 1996. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities continue to become re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, watershield, and Pontederia are extensive and well developed. Measures of percent cover, width of beds, and estimates of area of coverage with satellite data indicate regrowth within two years of from 40 to 60% of levels prior to the draw down. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer of 1996, especially in the former warm arm of Par Pond, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the draw down still have not formed. Lotus has invaded and occupies many of the areas formerly dominated by cattail beds. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys through the summer and early fall of 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  20. The 14-3-3 protein PAR-5 regulates the asymmetric localization of the LET-99 spindle positioning protein.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jui-Ching; Espiritu, Eugenel B; Rose, Lesilee S

    2016-04-15

    PAR proteins play important roles in establishing cytoplasmic polarity as well as regulating spindle positioning during asymmetric division. However, the molecular mechanisms by which the PAR proteins generate asymmetry in different cell types are still being elucidated. Previous studies in Caenorhabditis elegans revealed that PAR-3 and PAR-1 regulate the asymmetric localization of LET-99, which in turn controls spindle positioning by affecting the distribution of the conserved force generating complex. In wild-type embryos, LET-99 is localized in a lateral cortical band pattern, via inhibition at the anterior by PAR-3 and at the posterior by PAR-1. In this report, we show that the 14-3-3 protein PAR-5 is also required for cortical LET-99 asymmetry. PAR-5 associated with LET-99 in pull-down assays, and two PAR-5 binding sites were identified in LET-99 using the yeast two-hybrid assay. Mutation of these sites abolished binding in yeast and altered LET-99 localization in vivo: LET-99 was present at the highest levels at the posterior pole of the embryo instead of a band in par-5 embryos. Together the results indicate that PAR-5 acts in a mechanism with PAR-1 to regulate LET-99 cortical localization. PMID:26921457

  1. Immunopathogenic Background of Pars Planitis.

    PubMed

    Przeździecka-Dołyk, Joanna; Węgrzyn, Agnieszka; Turno-Kręcicka, Anna; Misiuk-Hojło, Marta

    2016-04-01

    Pars planitis is defined as an intermediate uveitis of unknown background of systemic disease with characteristic formations such as vitreous snowballs, snowbanks and changes in peripheral retina. The incidence of pars planitis varies 2.4-15.4 % of the uveitis patients. The pathogenesis of the disease is to be determined in future. Clinical and histopathological findings suggest an autoimmune etiology, most likely as a reaction to endogenous antigen of unknown source, with T cells predominant in both vitreous and pars plana infiltrations. T cells subsets play an important role as a memory-effector peripheral cell. Snowbanks are formed as an effect of post inflammatory glial proliferation of fibrous astrocytes. There is also a genetic predisposition for pars planitis by human leukocyte antigen and several other genes. A coexistence of multiple sclerosis and optic neuritis has been described in numerous studies. Epiretinal membrane, cataract, cystoid macular edema, retinal detachment, retinal vasculitis, neovascularization, vitreous peripheral traction, peripheral hole formation, vitreous hemorrhage, disc edema are common complications observed in pars planitis. There is a need to expand the knowledge of the pathogenic and immunologic background of the pars planitis to create an accurate pharmacological treatment. PMID:26438050

  2. Dishevelled-induced phosphorylation regulates membrane localization of Par1b

    SciTech Connect

    Terabayashi, Takeshi; Funato, Yosuke; Miki, Hiroaki

    2008-10-31

    Par1b is an evolutionarily conserved kinase that plays crucial roles in cell polarity. Controlling intracellular localization of Par1b is important for its biological activity. We previously reported that Wnt stimulation or expression of Dvl promotes accumulation of Par1b in the membrane (T. Terabayashi, T.J. Itoh, H. Yamaguchi, Y. Yoshimura, Y. Funato, S. Ohno, H. Miki, Polarity-Regulating Kinase Partitioning-Defective 1/Microtubule Affinity-Regulating Kinase 2 Negatively Regulates Development of Dendrites on Hippocampal Neurons, J. Neurosci. 27 (2007) 13098-13107). However, its molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here we show the importance of Par1b phosphorylation in the regulation of membrane localization. We find that Thr-324 is phosphorylated in a Dvl-dependent manner. Interestingly, the conversion of Thr-324 to Glu results in a significant accumulation of Par1b in the membrane, without any effects on the kinase activity. Moreover, the phospho-mimicking Par1b mutant does not antagonistically function against Dvl in microtubule stabilization and neurite extension, although wildtype Par1b does. These results suggest that membrane accumulation of Par1b induced by Dvl is regulated by its phosphorylation status, which is important for Par1b to regulate the microtubule dynamics.

  3. Operational Principles for the Dynamics of the In Vitro ParA-ParB System

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Lavisha; Emberly, Eldon

    2015-01-01

    In many bacteria the ParA-ParB protein system is responsible for actively segregating DNA during replication. ParB proteins move by interacting with DNA bound ParA-ATP, stimulating their unbinding by catalyzing hydrolysis, that leads to rectified motion due to the creation of a wake of depleted ParA. Recent in vitro experiments have shown that a ParB covered magnetic bead can move with constant speed over a DNA covered substrate that is bound by ParA. It has been suggested that the formation of a gradient in ParA leads to diffusion-ratchet like motion of the ParB bead but how it forms and generates a force is still a matter of exploration. Here we develop a deterministic model for the in vitro ParA-ParB system and show that a ParA gradient can spontaneously form due to any amount of initial spatial noise in bound ParA. The speed of the bead is independent of this noise but depends on the ratio of the range of ParA-ParB force on the bead to that of removal of surface bound ParA by ParB. We find that at a particular ratio the speed attains a maximal value. We also consider ParA rebinding (including cooperativity) and ParA surface diffusion independently as mechanisms for ParA recovery on the surface. Depending on whether the DNA covered surface is undersaturated or saturated with ParA, we find that the bead can accelerate persistently or potentially stall. Our model highlights key requirements of the ParA-ParB driving force that are necessary for directed motion in the in vitro system that may provide insight into the in vivo dynamics of the ParA-ParB system. PMID:26670738

  4. Operational Principles for the Dynamics of the In Vitro ParA-ParB System.

    PubMed

    Jindal, Lavisha; Emberly, Eldon

    2015-12-01

    In many bacteria the ParA-ParB protein system is responsible for actively segregating DNA during replication. ParB proteins move by interacting with DNA bound ParA-ATP, stimulating their unbinding by catalyzing hydrolysis, that leads to rectified motion due to the creation of a wake of depleted ParA. Recent in vitro experiments have shown that a ParB covered magnetic bead can move with constant speed over a DNA covered substrate that is bound by ParA. It has been suggested that the formation of a gradient in ParA leads to diffusion-ratchet like motion of the ParB bead but how it forms and generates a force is still a matter of exploration. Here we develop a deterministic model for the in vitro ParA-ParB system and show that a ParA gradient can spontaneously form due to any amount of initial spatial noise in bound ParA. The speed of the bead is independent of this noise but depends on the ratio of the range of ParA-ParB force on the bead to that of removal of surface bound ParA by ParB. We find that at a particular ratio the speed attains a maximal value. We also consider ParA rebinding (including cooperativity) and ParA surface diffusion independently as mechanisms for ParA recovery on the surface. Depending on whether the DNA covered surface is undersaturated or saturated with ParA, we find that the bead can accelerate persistently or potentially stall. Our model highlights key requirements of the ParA-ParB driving force that are necessary for directed motion in the in vitro system that may provide insight into the in vivo dynamics of the ParA-ParB system. PMID:26670738

  5. Exploration of locomotion in the ParA/ParB system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindal, Lavisha; Emberly, Eldon

    2015-03-01

    In many bacteria the ParA/ParB system is responsible for actively segregating DNA during replication. ParB precessively moves by hydrolyzing DNA bound ParA-ATP forming a depleted ParA region in its wake. Recent in-vitro experiments have shown that a ParB covered bead can traverse a ParA bound DNA substrate. It has been suggested that the formation of a gradient in ParA leads to diffusion-ratchet like motion of the ParB bead but its origin and potential consequences requires investigation. We have developed a deterministic model for the in-vitro ParA/ParB system and show that any amount of spatial noise in ParA can lead to the spontaneous formation of its gradient. The velocity of the bead is independent of this noise but depends on the scale over which ParA exerts a force on the bead and the scale over which ParB hydrolyzes ParA from the substrate. There is a particular ratio of these scales at which the velocity is a maximum. We also explore the effects of cooperative vs independent rebinding of ParA to the substrate. Our model shows how the driving force for ParB originates and highlights necessary conditions for directed motion in the in-vitro system that may provide insight into the in-vivo behaviour of the ParA/ParB system.

  6. Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation: 5-Year Results of the German-Austrian Multicenter Phase II Trial Using Interstitial Multicatheter Brachytherapy Alone After Breast-Conserving Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Strnad, Vratislav; Hildebrandt, Guido; Poetter, Richard; Hammer, Josef; Hindemith, Marion; Resch, Alexandra; Spiegl, Kurt; Lotter, Michael; Uter, Wolfgang; Bani, Mayada; Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Fietkau, Rainer; Ott, Oliver J.

    2011-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of accelerated partial breast irradiation on local control, side effects, and cosmesis using multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy as the sole method for the adjuvant local treatment of patients with low-risk breast cancer. Methods and Materials: 274 patients with low-risk breast cancer were treated on protocol. Patients were eligible for the study if the tumor size was < 3 cm, resection margins were clear by at least 2 mm, no lymph node metastases existed, age was >35 years, hormone receptors were positive, and histologic grades were 1 or 2. Of the 274 patients, 175 (64%) received pulse-dose-rate brachytherapy (D{sub ref} = 50 Gy). and 99 (36%) received high-dose-rate brachytherapy (D{sub ref} = 32.0 Gy). Results: Median follow-up was 63 months (range, 9-103). Only 8 of 274 (2.9%) patients developed an ipsilateral in-breast tumor recurrence at the time of analysis. The 5-year actuarial local recurrence-free survival probability was 98%. The 5- year overall and disease-free survival probabilities of all patients were 97% and 96%, respectively. Contralateral in-breast malignancies were detected in 2 of 274 (0.7%) patients, and distant metastases occurred in 6 of 274 (2.2%). Late side effects {>=}Grade 3 (i.e., breast tissue fibrosis and telangiectasia) occurred in 1 patient (0.4%, 95%CI:0.0-2.0%) and 6 patients (2.2%, 95%CI:0.8-4.7%), respectively. Cosmetic results were good to excellent in 245 of 274 patients (90%). Conclusions: The long-term results of this prospective Phase II trial confirm that the efficacy of accelerated partial breast irradiation using multicatheter brachytherapy is comparable with that of whole breast irradiation and that late side effects are negligible.

  7. Results of a conservative treatment combining induction (neoadjuvant) and consolidation chemotherapy, hormonotherapy, and external and interstitial irradiation in 98 patients with locally advanced breast cancer (IIIA-IIIB)

    SciTech Connect

    Jacquillat, C.; Baillet, F.; Weil, M.; Auclerc, G.; Housset, M.; Auclerc, M.; Sellami, M.; Jindani, A.; Thill, L.; Soubrane, C.

    1988-05-15

    Ninety-eight patients with locally advanced breast cancer (Stage IIIA-IIIB) were entered into a pilot study combining intensive induction (neoadjuvant) chemotherapy (VTMFAP) with or without hormonochemotherapy, external and interstitial radiotherapy, and consolidation chemotherapy with or without hormonochemotherapy. Tumor regression over 50% was observed in 91% patients after chemotherapy, and complete clinical remission occurred in 100% patients after irradiation. The rate of local relapse is 13%. The 3-year disease-free survival is 62% and 3-year global survival is 77%. Initial chemotherapeutic tumor regression greater than 75% is the main predictive factor for disease-free survival.

  8. Evidence for a DNA-relay mechanism in ParABS-mediated chromosome segregation

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hoong Chuin; Surovtsev, Ivan Vladimirovich; Beltran, Bruno Gabriel; Huang, Fang; Bewersdorf, Jörg; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The widely conserved ParABS system plays a major role in bacterial chromosome segregation. How the components of this system work together to generate translocation force and directional motion remains uncertain. Here, we combine biochemical approaches, quantitative imaging and mathematical modeling to examine the mechanism by which ParA drives the translocation of the ParB/parS partition complex in Caulobacter crescentus. Our experiments, together with simulations grounded on experimentally-determined biochemical and cellular parameters, suggest a novel 'DNA-relay' mechanism in which the chromosome plays a mechanical function. In this model, DNA-bound ParA-ATP dimers serve as transient tethers that harness the elastic dynamics of the chromosome to relay the partition complex from one DNA region to another across a ParA-ATP dimer gradient. Since ParA-like proteins are implicated in the partitioning of various cytoplasmic cargos, the conservation of their DNA-binding activity suggests that the DNA-relay mechanism may be a general form of intracellular transport in bacteria. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02758.001 PMID:24859756

  9. Evidence for a DNA-relay mechanism in ParABS-mediated chromosome segregation.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hoong Chuin; Surovtsev, Ivan Vladimirovich; Beltran, Bruno Gabriel; Huang, Fang; Bewersdorf, Jörg; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The widely conserved ParABS system plays a major role in bacterial chromosome segregation. How the components of this system work together to generate translocation force and directional motion remains uncertain. Here, we combine biochemical approaches, quantitative imaging and mathematical modeling to examine the mechanism by which ParA drives the translocation of the ParB/parS partition complex in Caulobacter crescentus. Our experiments, together with simulations grounded on experimentally-determined biochemical and cellular parameters, suggest a novel 'DNA-relay' mechanism in which the chromosome plays a mechanical function. In this model, DNA-bound ParA-ATP dimers serve as transient tethers that harness the elastic dynamics of the chromosome to relay the partition complex from one DNA region to another across a ParA-ATP dimer gradient. Since ParA-like proteins are implicated in the partitioning of various cytoplasmic cargos, the conservation of their DNA-binding activity suggests that the DNA-relay mechanism may be a general form of intracellular transport in bacteria.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02758.001. PMID:24859756

  10. Par3 controls neural crest migration by promoting microtubule catastrophe during contact inhibition of locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Rachel; Theveneau, Eric; Pozzi, Sara; Alexandre, Paula; Richardson, Joanna; Merks, Anne; Parsons, Maddy; Kashef, Jubin; Linker, Claudia; Mayor, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence that contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL) is essential for morphogenesis and its failure is thought to be responsible for cancer invasion; however, the molecular bases of this phenomenon are poorly understood. Here we investigate the role of the polarity protein Par3 in CIL during migration of the neural crest, a highly migratory mesenchymal cell type. In epithelial cells, Par3 is localised to the cell-cell adhesion complex and is important in the definition of apicobasal polarity, but the localisation and function of Par3 in mesenchymal cells are not well characterised. We show in Xenopus and zebrafish that Par3 is localised to the cell-cell contact in neural crest cells and is essential for CIL. We demonstrate that the dynamics of microtubules are different in different parts of the cell, with an increase in microtubule catastrophe at the collision site during CIL. Par3 loss-of-function affects neural crest migration by reducing microtubule catastrophe at the site of cell-cell contact and abrogating CIL. Furthermore, Par3 promotes microtubule catastrophe by inhibiting the Rac-GEF Trio, as double inhibition of Par3 and Trio restores microtubule catastrophe at the cell contact and rescues CIL and neural crest migration. Our results demonstrate a novel role of Par3 during neural crest migration, which is likely to be conserved in other processes that involve CIL such as cancer invasion or cell dispersion. PMID:24173803

  11. Binding of Crumbs to the Par-6 CRIB-PDZ Module Is Regulated by Cdc42.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Dustin S; Peterson, Francis C; Kittell, Aaron W; Egner, John M; Prehoda, Kenneth E; Volkman, Brian F

    2016-03-15

    Par-6 is a scaffold protein that organizes other proteins into a complex required to initiate and maintain cell polarity. Cdc42-GTP binds the CRIB module of Par-6 and alters the binding affinity of the adjoining PDZ domain. Allosteric regulation of the Par-6 PDZ domain was first demonstrated using a peptide identified in a screen of typical carboxyl-terminal ligands. Crumbs, a membrane protein that localizes a conserved polarity complex, was subsequently identified as a functional partner for Par-6 that likely interacts with the PDZ domain. Here we show by nuclear magnetic resonance that Par-6 binds a Crumbs carboxyl-terminal peptide and report the crystal structure of the PDZ-peptide complex. The Crumbs peptide binds Par-6 more tightly than the previously studied carboxyl peptide ligand and interacts with the CRIB-PDZ module in a Cdc42-dependent manner. The Crumbs:Par-6 crystal structure reveals specific PDZ-peptide contacts that contribute to its higher affinity and Cdc42-enhanced binding. Comparisons with existing structures suggest that multiple C-terminal Par-6 ligands respond to a common conformational switch that transmits the allosteric effects of GTPase binding. PMID:26894406

  12. Par6 regulates skeletogenesis and gut differentiation in sea urchin larvae.

    PubMed

    Shiomi, Kosuke; Yamazaki, Atsuko; Kagawa, Mitsuyoshi; Kiyomoto, Masato; Yamaguchi, Masaaki

    2012-09-01

    Partitioning-defective (par) genes were originally identified as genes that are essential for the asymmetric division of the Caenorhabditis elegans zygote. Studies have since revealed that the gene products are part of an evolutionarily conserved PAR-atypical protein kinase C system involved in cell polarity in various biological contexts. In this study, we analyzed the function of par6 during sea urchin morphogenesis by morpholino-mediated knockdown and by manipulation swapping of the primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs). Loss of Par6 resulted in defects in skeletogenesis and gut differentiation in larvae. Phenotypic analyses of chimeras constructed by PMC swapping showed that Par6 in non-PMCs is required for differentiation of archenteron into functional gut. In contrast, Par6 in both PMCs and ectodermal cells cooperatively regulates skeletogenesis. We suggest that Par6 in PMCs plays an immediate role in the deposition of biomineral in the syncytial cable, whereas Par6 in ectoderm may stabilize skeletal rods via an unknown signal(s). PMID:22903233

  13. The polarity protein Par6 is coupled to the microtubule network during molluscan early embryogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Homma, Taihei; Shimizu, Miho; Kuroda, Reiko; Kuroda Chiromorphology Team, ERATO-SORST, JST, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902; Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} The cDNAs encoding Par6 and aPKC homologues were cloned from the snail Lymnaea stagnalis. {yields} L. stagnalis Par6 directly interacts with tubulin and microtubules and localizes to the microtubule cytoskeleton during the early embryogenesis. {yields} Identical sequence and localization of LsPar6 for the dextral and the sinistral snails exclude the possibility of the gene being the primary determinant of body handedness. -- Abstract: Cell polarity, which directs the orientation of asymmetric cell division and segregation of fate determinants, is a fundamental feature of development and differentiation. Regulators of polarity have been extensively studied, and the critical importance of the Par (partitioning-defective) complex as the polarity machinery is now recognized in a wide range of eukaryotic systems. The Par polarity module is evolutionarily conserved, but its mechanism and cooperating factors vary among different systems. Here we describe the cloning and characterization of a pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis homologue of partitioning-defective 6 (Lspar6). The protein product LsPar6 shows high affinity for microtubules and localizes to the mitotic apparatus during embryonic cell division. In vitro assays revealed direct binding of LsPar6 to tubulin and microtubules, which is the first evidence of the direct interaction between the two proteins. The interaction is mediated by two distinct regions of LsPar6 both located in the N-terminal half. Atypical PKC, a functional partner of Par6, was also found to localize to the mitotic spindle. These results suggest that the L. stagnalis Par complex employs the microtubule network in cell polarity processes during the early embryogenesis. Identical sequence and localization of LsPar6 for the dextral and the sinistral snails exclude the possibility of the gene being the primary determinant of handedness.

  14. Collections Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCandido, Robert

    Collections conservation is an approach to the preservation treatment of books and book-like materials that is conceptualized and organized in terms of large groups of materials. This guide is intended to enable a library to evaluate its current collections conservation activities. The introduction describes collections conservation and gives…

  15. Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.

    1996-06-01

    The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond.

  16. The ParB-parS Chromosome Segregation System Modulates Competence Development in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Attaiech, Laetitia; Minnen, Anita; Kjos, Morten; Gruber, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT ParB proteins bind centromere-like DNA sequences called parS sites and are involved in plasmid and chromosome segregation in bacteria. We previously showed that the opportunistic human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae contains four parS sequences located close to the origin of replication which are bound by ParB. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), we found here that ParB spreads out from one of these parS sites, parS(−1.6°), for more than 5 kb and occupies the nearby comCDE operon, which drives competence development. Competence allows S. pneumoniae to take up DNA from its environment, thereby mediating horizontal gene transfer, and is also employed as a general stress response. Mutating parS(−1.6°) or deleting parB resulted in transcriptional up-regulation of comCDE and ssbB (a gene belonging to the competence regulon), demonstrating that ParB acts as a repressor of competence. However, genome-wide transcription analysis showed that ParB is not a global transcriptional regulator. Different factors, such as the composition of the growth medium and antibiotic-induced stress, can trigger the sensitive switch driving competence. This work shows that the ParB-parS chromosome segregation machinery also influences this developmental process. PMID:26126852

  17. Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit (ParCAT)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-06-30

    The parallel analysis toolkit (ParCAT) provides parallel statistical processing of large climate model simulation datasets. ParCAT provides parallel point-wise average calculations, frequency distributions, sum/differences of two datasets, and difference-of-average and average-of-difference for two datasets for arbitrary subsets of simulation time. ParCAT is a command-line utility that can be easily integrated in scripts or embedded in other application. ParCAT supports CMIP5 post-processed datasets as well as non-CMIP5 post-processed datasets. ParCAT reads and writes standard netCDF files.

  18. A cost comparison analysis of partial versus whole-breast irradiation after breast-conserving surgery for early-stage breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, W. . E-mail: wsuh@lroc.harvard.edu; Pierce, Lori J.; Vicini, Frank A.; Hayman, James A.

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: To assess, if and for whom, there are cost savings associated with alternate breast radiotherapy (RT) techniques when compared with the conventional external beam-based whole-breast RT with a boost (WBRT-B). Methods and Materials: Treatment planning and delivery utilization data were modeled for eight different breast RT techniques: (1) WBRT-B: 60 Gy in 30 fractions; (2) WBRT: 50 Gy in 25 fractions; (3) WBRT-accelerated (AC): 42.5 Gy in 16 fractions; (4) WBRT-intensity-modulated RT (IMRT): 60 Gy in 30 fractions; (5) accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI)-IC, MammoSite: 34 Gy in 10 twice-daily fractions; (6) APBI-IT, HDR interstitial: 34 Gy in 10 twice-daily fractions; (7) APBI three-dimensional conformal RT (3D-CRT): 38.5 Gy in 10 twice-daily fractions; or (8) APBI-IMRT: 38.5 Gy in 10 twice-daily fractions. Costs incurred by payer (i.e., direct medical costs; 2003 Medicare Fee Schedule) and patient (i.e., direct nonmedical costs; time and travel) were estimated. Total societal costs were then calculated for each treatment approach. Results: Not all efforts to reduce overall treatment time result in total cost savings. The least expensive partial breast-based RT approaches were the external beam techniques (APBI-3D-CRT, APBI-IMRT). Any reduced cost to patients for the HDR brachytherapy-based APBI regimens were overshadowed by substantial increases in cost to payers, resulting in higher total societal costs; the cost of HDR treatment delivery was primarily responsible for the increased direct medical cost. For the whole breast-based RT approaches, treating without a boost (WBRT) or with WBRT-AC reduced total costs. Overall, WBRT-AC was the least costly of all the regimens, in terms of costs to society; APBI approaches, in general, were favored over whole-breast techniques when only considering costs to patients. Conclusions: Based on societal cost considerations, WBRT-AC appears to be the preferred approach. If one were to pursue a partial-breast RT regimen to minimize patient costs, it would be more advantageous from a societal perspective to pursue external beam-based approaches such as APBI-3D-CRT or APBI-IMRT in lieu of the brachytherapy-based regimens.

  19. Simultaneous Integrated Boost Irradiation After Breast-Conserving Surgery: Physician-Rated Toxicity and Cosmetic Outcome at 30 Months' Follow-Up

    SciTech Connect

    Bantema-Joppe, Enja J.; Schilstra, Cornelis; Bock, Geertruida H. de; Dolsma, Wil V.; Busz, Dianne M.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Maduro, John H.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate toxicity and cosmetic outcome (CO) in breast cancer survivors treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy with a hypofractionated, simultaneous integrated boost (3D-CRT-SIB) and to identify risk factors for toxicity, with special focus on the impact of age. Methods and Materials: Included were 940 consecutive disease-free patients treated for breast cancer (Stage 0-III) with 3D-CRT-SIB, after breast-conserving surgery, from 2005 to 2010. Physician-rated toxicity (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0) and CO were prospectively assessed during yearly follow-up, up to 5 years after radiotherapy. Multivariate logistic regression analyses using a bootstrapping method were performed. Results: At 3 years, toxicity scores of 436 patients were available. Grade {>=}2 fibrosis in the boost area was observed in 8.5%, non-boost fibrosis in 49.4%, pain to the chest wall in 6.7%, and fair/poor CO in 39.7% of cases. Radiotherapy before chemotherapy was significantly associated with grade {>=}2 boost fibrosis at 3 years (odds ratio [OR] 2.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-6.0). Non-boost fibrosis was associated with re-resection (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.0) and larger tumors (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.1). At 1 year, chest wall pain was significantly associated with high boost dosage (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.7) and younger age (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.7). A fair/poor CO was observed more often after re-resection (OR 4.5, 95% CI 2.4-8.5), after regional radiotherapy (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.2-7.1), and in larger tumors (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.1). Conclusions: Toxicity and CO are not impaired after 3D-CRT-SIB. Fibrosis was not significantly associated with radiotherapy parameters. Independent risk factors for fibrosis were chemotherapy after radiotherapy, re-resection, and larger tumor size. Re-resection was most predictive for worse CO. Age had an impact on chest wall pain occurrence.

  20. Directed and persistent movement arises from mechanochemistry of the ParA/ParB system

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Longhua; Vecchiarelli, Anthony G.; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi; Neuman, Keir C.; Liu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The segregation of DNA before cell division is essential for faithful genetic inheritance. In many bacteria, segregation of low-copy number plasmids involves an active partition system composed of a nonspecific DNA-binding ATPase, ParA, and its stimulator protein ParB. The ParA/ParB system drives directed and persistent movement of DNA cargo both in vivo and in vitro. Filament-based models akin to actin/microtubule-driven motility were proposed for plasmid segregation mediated by ParA. Recent experiments challenge this view and suggest that ParA/ParB system motility is driven by a diffusion ratchet mechanism in which ParB-coated plasmid both creates and follows a ParA gradient on the nucleoid surface. However, the detailed mechanism of ParA/ParB-mediated directed and persistent movement remains unknown. Here, we develop a theoretical model describing ParA/ParB-mediated motility. We show that the ParA/ParB system can work as a Brownian ratchet, which effectively couples the ATPase-dependent cycling of ParA–nucleoid affinity to the motion of the ParB-bound cargo. Paradoxically, this resulting processive motion relies on quenching diffusive plasmid motion through a large number of transient ParA/ParB-mediated tethers to the nucleoid surface. Our work thus sheds light on an emergent phenomenon in which nonmotor proteins work collectively via mechanochemical coupling to propel cargos—an ingenious solution shaped by evolution to cope with the lack of processive motor proteins in bacteria. PMID:26647183

  1. Conservation Tillage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, Maurice R.; Daniel, Tommy C.; Schweizer, Edward E.; Allmaras, Raymond R.

    1985-11-01

    Conservation production systems combine tillage and planting practices to reduce soil erosion and loss of water from farmland. Successful conservation tillage practices depend on the ability of farm managers to integrate sound crop production practices with effective pest management systems. More scientific information is needed to determine the relations between tillage practices and physical, chemical, and biological soil factors that affect plant and pest ecology. There is a need to devise improved pest management strategies for conservation tillage and to better understand the impact of conservation tillage on water quality, especially as it is related to use of agricultural chemicals. While savings in fuel, labor, and soil have induced many farmers to adopt conservation tillage, improved methods and equipment should increase adoption even more.

  2. Role of PAR-4 in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Meynier, Sonia; Kramer, Marianne; Ribaux, Pascale; Tille, Jean-Christophe; Delie, Florence; Petignat, Patrick; Cohen, Marie

    2015-09-01

    Prostate apoptosis response-4 (PAR-4) is considered as a tumour suppressor due to its ability to selectively induce cell apoptosis in most cancer cells. However little is known about the role of PAR-4 in ovarian cancer. In this study, we investigated for the first time the role of PAR-4 in ovarian carcinogenesis. We showed that PAR-4 mRNA level is not significantly different between healthy and cancer ovarian cells. Immunohistochemistry on ovarian tissue showed that ovarian cancer cells are positive for PAR-4 nuclear and cytoplasmic staining whereas ovarian healthy cells are negative for PAR-4 nuclear staining. We then studied the role of PAR-4 in cell apoptosis. We determined that PAR-4 induces cell apoptosis in response to stimuli, in vitro, but is also involved in the relocation of GRP78 from endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface of ovarian cancer cell line (SKOV-3 cells). In ovo, PAR-4 decreases ovarian tumour development and increases the response to taxol treatment. These observations suggest that PAR-4 is a very interesting therapeutic target against ovarian carcinogenesis. PMID:26246468

  3. Role of PAR-4 in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Meynier, Sonia; Kramer, Marianne; Ribaux, Pascale; Tille, Jean-Christophe; Delie, Florence; Petignat, Patrick; Cohen, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Prostate apoptosis response-4 (PAR-4) is considered as a tumour suppressor due to its ability to selectively induce cell apoptosis in most cancer cells. However little is known about the role of PAR-4 in ovarian cancer. In this study, we investigated for the first time the role of PAR-4 in ovarian carcinogenesis. We showed that PAR-4 mRNA level is not significantly different between healthy and cancer ovarian cells. Immunohistochemistry on ovarian tissue showed that ovarian cancer cells are positive for PAR-4 nuclear and cytoplasmic staining whereas ovarian healthy cells are negative for PAR-4 nuclear staining. We then studied the role of PAR-4 in cell apoptosis. We determined that PAR-4 induces cell apoptosis in response to stimuli, in vitro, but is also involved in the relocation of GRP78 from endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface of ovarian cancer cell line (SKOV-3 cells). In ovo, PAR-4 decreases ovarian tumour development and increases the response to taxol treatment. These observations suggest that PAR-4 is a very interesting therapeutic target against ovarian carcinogenesis. PMID:26246468

  4. Pars triangularis asymmetry and language dominance.

    PubMed Central

    Foundas, A L; Leonard, C M; Gilmore, R L; Fennell, E B; Heilman, K M

    1996-01-01

    The pars triangular is a portion of Broca's area. The convolutions that form the inferior and caudal extent of the pars triangularis include the anterior horizontal and anterior ascending rami of the sylvian fissure, respectively. To learn if there are anatomic asymmetries of the pars triangularis, these convolutions were measured on volumetric magnetic resonance imaging scans of 11 patients who had undergone selective hemispheric anesthesia (Wada testing) to determine hemispheric speech and language lateralization. Of the 10 patients with language lateralized to the left hemisphere, 9 had a leftward asymmetry of the pars triangularis. The 1 patient with language lateralized to the right hemisphere had a significant rightward asymmetry of the pars triangularis. Our data suggest that asymmetries of the pars triangularis may be related to speech-language lateralization. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8570622

  5. The Par3-Like Polarity Protein, Par3L, is Essential for Mammary Stem Cell Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Yongliang; Macara, Ian G.

    2014-01-01

    The Par polarity proteins play key roles in asymmetric division of Drosophila stem cells; however, whether the same mechanisms control stem cells in mammals is controversial. Although necessary for mammary gland morphogenesis, Par3 is not essential for mammary stem cell function. We discovered that, instead, a previously uncharacterized protein, Par3-Like (Par3L), is vital for mammary gland stem cell maintenance. Par3L function has been mysterious because unlike Par3 it does not interact with atypical protein kinase C or the Par6 polarity protein. We found that Par3L is expressed by multipotent stem cells in the terminal end buds of murine mammary glands. Ablation of Par3L resulted in rapid and profound stem cell loss. Unexpectedly, Par3L, but not Par3, binds to the tumor suppressor protein LKB1 and inhibits its kinase activity. This interaction is key for the function of Par3L in mammary stem cell maintenance. Our data reveal insights into a linkage between cell polarity proteins and stem cell survival, and uncover the first known biological function for Par3L. PMID:24859006

  6. Conservation Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friday, Gerald

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a project in which students teach about the importance of recycling and conservation by presenting demonstrations. Includes demonstrations on water, plastic, and other recycling products such as steel. (YDS)

  7. PRECISION CONSERVATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision conservation utilizes a set of technologies and procedures that link mapped variables with analytical capabilities to appropriate management actions. It requires the integration of spatial technologies of global positioning systems, remote sensing and geographic information systems with t...

  8. Rassf5 and Ndr kinases regulate neuronal polarity through Par3 phosphorylation in a novel pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Rui; Kong, Eryan; Jin, Jing; Hergovich, Alexander; Püschel, Andreas W.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The morphology and polarized growth of cells depend on pathways that control the asymmetric distribution of regulatory factors. The evolutionarily conserved Ndr kinases play important roles in cell polarity and morphogenesis in yeast and invertebrates but it is unclear whether they perform a similar function in mammalian cells. Here, we analyze the function of mammalian Ndr1 and Ndr2 (also known as STK38 or STK38L, respectively) in the establishment of polarity in neurons. We show that they act downstream of the tumor suppressor Rassf5 and upstream of the polarity protein Par3 (also known as PARD3). Rassf5 and Ndr1 or Ndr2 are required during the polarization of hippocampal neurons to prevent the formation of supernumerary axons. Mechanistically, the Ndr kinases act by phosphorylating Par3 at Ser383 to inhibit its interaction with dynein, thereby polarizing the distribution of Par3 and reinforcing axon specification. Our results identify a novel Rassf5–Ndr–Par3 signaling cascade that regulates the transport of Par3 during the establishment of neuronal polarity. Their role in neuronal polarity suggests that Ndr kinases perform a conserved function as regulators of cell polarity. PMID:24928906

  9. Rassf5 and Ndr kinases regulate neuronal polarity through Par3 phosphorylation in a novel pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rui; Kong, Eryan; Jin, Jing; Hergovich, Alexander; Püschel, Andreas W

    2014-08-15

    The morphology and polarized growth of cells depend on pathways that control the asymmetric distribution of regulatory factors. The evolutionarily conserved Ndr kinases play important roles in cell polarity and morphogenesis in yeast and invertebrates but it is unclear whether they perform a similar function in mammalian cells. Here, we analyze the function of mammalian Ndr1 and Ndr2 (also known as STK38 or STK38L, respectively) in the establishment of polarity in neurons. We show that they act downstream of the tumor suppressor Rassf5 and upstream of the polarity protein Par3 (also known as PARD3). Rassf5 and Ndr1 or Ndr2 are required during the polarization of hippocampal neurons to prevent the formation of supernumerary axons. Mechanistically, the Ndr kinases act by phosphorylating Par3 at Ser383 to inhibit its interaction with dynein, thereby polarizing the distribution of Par3 and reinforcing axon specification. Our results identify a novel Rassf5-Ndr-Par3 signaling cascade that regulates the transport of Par3 during the establishment of neuronal polarity. Their role in neuronal polarity suggests that Ndr kinases perform a conserved function as regulators of cell polarity. PMID:24928906

  10. PAR for the Course: A Congruent Pedagogical Approach for a PAR Methods Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Joyce D.; Hicks, Maria; Kalman, Rowenn; Miller, Jason

    2005-01-01

    In the past two years, three graduate students and a senior faculty member have co-taught a participatory action research (PAR) course to undergraduate and graduate students. In this article the co-teachers advocate a set of pedagogical principles and practices in a PAR-oriented classroom that establishes congruency with community PAR projects in…

  11. Interim Cosmetic Results and Toxicity Using 3D Conformal External Beam Radiotherapy to Deliver Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation in Patients With Early-Stage Breast Cancer Treated With Breast-Conserving Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Vicini, Frank A. Chen, Peter; Wallace, Michelle; Mitchell, Christina; Hasan, Yasmin; Grills, Inga; Kestin, Larry; Schell, Scott; Goldstein, Neal S.; Kunzman, Jonathan; Gilbert, Sam; Martinez, Alvaro

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: We present our ongoing clinical experience utilizing three-dimensional (3D)-conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) in patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy. Methods and Materials: Ninety-one consecutive patients were treated with APBI using our previously reported 3D-CRT technique. The clinical target volume consisted of the lumpectomy cavity plus a 10- to 15 -mm margin. The prescribed dose was 34 or 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions given over 5 consecutive days. The median follow-up was 24 months. Twelve patients have been followed for {>=}4 years, 20 for {>=}3.5 years, 29 for >3.0 years, 33 for {>=}2.5 years, and 46 for {>=}2.0 years. Results: No local recurrences developed. Cosmetic results were rated as good/excellent in 100% of evaluable patients at {>=} 6 months (n = 47), 93% at 1 year (n = 43), 91% at 2 years (n = 21), and in 90% at {>=}3 years (n = 10). Erythema, hyperpigmentation, breast edema, breast pain, telangiectasias, fibrosis, and fat necrosis were evaluated at 6, 24, and 36 months after treatment. All factors stabilized by 3 years posttreatment with grade I or II rates of 0%, 0%, 0%, 0%, 9%, 18%, and 9%, respectively. Only 2 patients (3%) developed grade III toxicity (breast pain), which resolved with time. Conclusions: Delivery of APBI with 3D-CRT resulted in minimal chronic ({>=}6 months) toxicity to date with good/excellent cosmetic results. Additional follow-up is needed to assess the long-term efficacy of this form of APBI.

  12. Objective and Longitudinal Assessment of Dermatitis After Postoperative Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using High-Dose-Rate Interstitial Brachytherapy in Patients With Breast Cancer Treated With Breast Conserving Therapy: Reduction of Moisture Deterioration by APBI

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Eiichi; Yamazaki, Hideya; Yoshida, Ken; Takenaka, Tadashi; Masuda, Norikazu; Kotsuma, Tadayuki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Inoue, Takehiro

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To objectively evaluate the radiation dermatitis caused by accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy. Patients and Methods: The skin color and moisture changes were examined using a newly installed spectrophotometer and corneometer in 22 patients who had undergone APBI using open cavity implant high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (36 Gy in six fractions) and compared with the corresponding values for 44 patients in an external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) control group (50-60 Gy in 25-30 fractions within 5-6 weeks) after breast conserving surgery. Results: All values changed significantly as a result of APBI. The extent of elevation in a Asterisk-Operator (reddish) and reduction in L Asterisk-Operator (black) values caused by APBI were similar to those for EBRT, with slightly delayed recovery for 6-12 months after treatment owing to the surgical procedure. In contrast, only APBI caused a change in the b Asterisk-Operator values, and EBRT did not, demonstrating that the reduction in b Asterisk-Operator values (yellowish) depends largely on the surgical procedure. The changes in moisture were less severe after APBI than after EBRT, and the recovery was more rapid. The toxicity assessment using the Common Toxicity Criteria, version 3, showed that all dermatitis caused by APBI was Grade 2 or less. Conclusion: An objective analysis can quantify the effects of APBI procedures on color and moisture cosmesis. The radiation dermatitis caused by APBI using the present schedule showed an equivalent effect on skin color and a less severe effect on moisture than the effects caused by standard EBRT.

  13. Evaluation of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the p53 Binding Protein 1 (TP53BP1) Gene in Breast Cancer Patients Treated With Breast-Conserving Surgery and Whole-Breast Irradiation (BCS + RT)

    SciTech Connect

    Haffty, Bruce G.; Goyal, Sharad; Kulkarni, Diptee; Green, Camille; Vazquez, Alexi; Schiff, Devora; Moran, Meena S.; Yang Qifeng; Ganesan, Shridar; Hirsfield, Kim M.

    2011-06-01

    Purpose: TP53BP1 is a key component of radiation-induced deoxyribonucleic acid damage repair. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the significance of a known common single nucleotide polymorphism in this gene (rs560191) in patients treated with breast-conserving surgery and whole-breast irradiation (BCS + RT). Methods and Materials: The population consisted of 176 premenopausal women treated with BCS + RT (median follow-up, 12 years). Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid was processed by use of TaqMan assays. Each allele for rs560191 was either C or G, so each patient was therefore classified as CC, CG, or GG. Patients were grouped as GG if they were homozygous for the variant G allele or CC-CG if they carried at least one copy of the common C allele (CC or CG). Results: Of the 176 women, 124 (71%) were CC-CG and 52 (29%) were GG. The mean age was 44 years for GG vs. 38 years for CC-CG (p < 0.001). GG was more common in African-American women than white women (69% vs. 13%, p < 0.001) and more commonly estrogen receptor negative (70% vs. 49%, p = 0.02). There were no significant correlations of rs560191 with other critical variables. Despite the fact that GG patients were older, the 10-year rate of local relapses was higher (22% for GG vs. 12% for CC-CG, p = 0.04). Conclusions: This novel avenue of investigation of polymorphisms in radiation repair/response genes in patients treated with BCS + RT suggests a correlation to local relapse. Additional evaluation is needed to assess the biological and functional significance of these single nucleotide polymorphisms, and larger confirmatory validation studies will be required to determine the clinical implications.

  14. Organization, evolution and functions of the human and mouse Ly6/uPAR family genes.

    PubMed

    Loughner, Chelsea L; Bruford, Elspeth A; McAndrews, Monica S; Delp, Emili E; Swamynathan, Sudha; Swamynathan, Shivalingappa K

    2016-01-01

    Members of the lymphocyte antigen-6 (Ly6)/urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) superfamily of proteins are cysteine-rich proteins characterized by a distinct disulfide bridge pattern that creates the three-finger Ly6/uPAR (LU) domain. Although the Ly6/uPAR family proteins share a common structure, their expression patterns and functions vary. To date, 35 human and 61 mouse Ly6/uPAR family members have been identified. Based on their subcellular localization, these proteins are further classified as GPI-anchored on the cell membrane, or secreted. The genes encoding Ly6/uPAR family proteins are conserved across different species and are clustered in syntenic regions on human chromosomes 8, 19, 6 and 11, and mouse Chromosomes 15, 7, 17, and 9, respectively. Here, we review the human and mouse Ly6/uPAR family gene and protein structure and genomic organization, expression, functions, and evolution, and introduce new names for novel family members. PMID:27098205

  15. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are extensive and well developed. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Estimates from SPOT HRV, remote sensing satellite data indicated that as much as 120 hectares of emergent wetlands vegetation may have been present along the Par Pond shoreline by early October, 1995. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  16. ParAB Partition Dynamics in Firmicutes: Nucleoid Bound ParA Captures and Tethers ParB-Plasmid Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Lioy, Virginia S.; Volante, Andrea; Soberón, Nora E.; Lurz, Rudi; Ayora, Silvia; Alonso, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    In Firmicutes, small homodimeric ParA-like (δ2) and ParB-like (ω2) proteins, in concert with cis-acting plasmid-borne parS and the host chromosome, secure stable plasmid inheritance in a growing bacterial population. This study shows that (ω:YFP)2 binding to parS facilitates plasmid clustering in the cytosol. (δ:GFP)2 requires ATP binding but not hydrolysis to localize onto the cell’s nucleoid as a fluorescent cloud. The interaction of (δ:CFP)2 or δ2 bound to the nucleoid with (ω:YFP)2 foci facilitates plasmid capture, from a very broad distribution, towards the nucleoid and plasmid pairing. parS-bound ω2 promotes redistribution of (δ:GFP)2, leading to the dynamic release of (δ:GFP)2 from the nucleoid, in a process favored by ATP hydrolysis and protein-protein interaction. (δD60A:GFP)2, which binds but cannot hydrolyze ATP, also forms unstable complexes on the nucleoid. In the presence of ω2, (δD60A:GFP)2 accumulates foci or patched structures on the nucleoid. We propose that (δ:GFP)2 binding to different nucleoid regions and to ω2-parS might generate (δ:GFP)2 gradients that could direct plasmid movement. The iterative pairing and unpairing cycles may tether plasmids equidistantly on the nucleoid to ensure faithful plasmid segregation by a mechanism compatible with the diffusion-ratchet mechanism as proposed from in vitro reconstituted systems. PMID:26161642

  17. Colorful Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Some people only think about conservation on Earth Day. Being in the "art business" however, this author is always conscious of the many products she thinks get wasted when they could be reused, recycled, and restored--especially in a school building and art room. In this article, she describes an art lesson that allows students to paint…

  18. Energy Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Land, Amy A.

    This selection of class activities involves a sequence of 10 class sessions. The goal of the collection is to aid students in learning the concepts of energy conservation and to put this knowledge into practice. Attention is also given to the development of alternate energy sources. Each lesson includes an activity title, motivational hints,…

  19. [Conservation Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  20. [Conservation Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Instructional units deal with each aspect of conservation: forests, wildlife, rangelands, water, minerals, and soil. The area of the secondary school curriculum with which each is correlated is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the topic, questions to…

  1. Conservative Remapper

    SciTech Connect

    2006-03-31

    Conservative Remapper (CORE) is a C++ language software library for remapping cell masses and cell-averaged densities on unstructured two dimensional grids, maintaining conservation of total mass in the process. CORE contains implementation of two remapping algorithms: a new, efficient "swept region" algorithm, and a more traditional algorithm basedon the computation of cell intersections. Grids may be Cartesian or cylindrical, and cells may have three or more vertices, with no upper limit. CORE can run in serial and in parallel, but in order to achieve wide applicability, CORE used no particular parallel communication library. Instead it achieves parallel communication through strategically placed, user defined callbacks. Users can also provide callbacks to redefine different parts or subcomponents of the remapping process. CORE allows the use of different data types, e.g. single-, double-, and quadruple- precision floating-point numbers, through the use of C++ templates. Using CORE is simple, and requires no configuration scripts or makefiles.

  2. Displacement of the lumpectomy cavity defined by surgical clips and seroma based on 4D-CT scan for external-beam partial breast irradiation after breast-conserving surgery: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Y; Wang, W; Wang, S; Fan, T; Xu, M; Shao, Q; Ma, Z

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the displacements of the lumpectomy cavity delineated by the surgical clips and the seroma based on four-dimensional CT (4D-CT) for external-beam partial breast irradiation (EB-PBI) after breast-conserving surgery (BCS). Methods: 14 breast cancer patients after BCS were recruited for EB-PBI and undertook 4D-CT simulation. On the 10 sets of the 4D-CT images, all the surgical clips in the cavity were delineated. The gross tumour volume (GTV) formed by the clips, the seroma, and both the clips and the seroma were defined as GTVc, GTVs and GTVc+s, respectively. The displacements of the centre of mass (COM) of the clips, GTVc, GTVs, GTVc+s and the selected clips in the three-dimensional (3D) directions were recorded and compared. Results: In the left–right, anterior–posterior and superior–inferior directions, the displacements were 2.20, 1.80 and 2.70 mm for the clip COM; 0.90, 1.05 and 1.20 mm for GTVc; 0.80, 1.05 and 0.80 mm for GTVs; and 0.90, 1.20 and 1.40 mm for GTVc+s, respectively. In the 3D directions, the displacements of the clip COM were greater than the GTVc, GTVs, GTVc+s, and the displacements of the clip COM, GTVc+s, GTVc and GTVs were significantly greater than the displacements of the selected clips (p<0.05). Conclusion: The displacements of the clip COM were greater than that of the GTVc, GTVs, GTVc+s and the four selected clips. The optimal internal target volume should be defined based on the boundary displacements. Advances in knowledge: When the GTV was delineated using the clips and/or the seroma, there was displacement difference between the lumpectomy cavity centre and the boundary for the EB-PBI. The optimal internal target volume should be defined based on the boundary displacements of the lumpectomy cavity. PMID:23995875

  3. Heron conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2000-01-01

    Herons are large, popular and, in many cases, spectacular birds found in wetlands world-wide, both tropical and temperate, natural and man-made. Some populations are very small and localized, some have decreased, some have expanded their ranges, and a few are pests of human activities. In the fifteen years since the publication of the latest monographic treatment of the family, The Herons Handbook, there has been a tremendous increase in our knowledge of heron status and conservation requirements, set against a backdrop of increasing concern about the future of the world?s wetland habitats. This book provides a comprehensive update following two distinct threads. The status and conservation needs of herons are first presented on a regional basis, in a series of chapters set at a continental or subcontinental scale. Over 200 biologists and heron conservationists have contributed to the data summarized here, and the very latest census and survey results provide the most up-to-date and detailed picture of heron populations currently available. Chapters discussing several critical issues in heron conservation follow, tending to focus on the international nature of the problems.

  4. Comparative cactus architecture and par interception

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, G.N.; Nobel, P.S. )

    1987-07-01

    Because CO{sup 2} uptake by cacti can be limited by low levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and because plant form affects PAR interception, various cactus forms were studied using a computer model, field measurements, and laboratory phototropic studies. Model predictions indicated that CO{sub 2} uptake by individual stems at an equinox was greatest when the stem were vertical, but at the summer and the winter solstice CO{sub 2} uptake was greatest for stems titled 30{degree} away from the equator. Stem tilting depended on form and taxonomic group. Not only can the shape of cacti be affected by PAR, but also shape influences PAR interception and hence CO{sub 2} uptake.

  5. PAR -- Interface to the ADAM Parameter System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Malcolm J.; Chipperfield, Alan J.

    PAR is a library of Fortran subroutines that provides convenient mechanisms for applications to exchange information with the outside world, through input-output channels called parameters. Parameters enable a user to control an application's behaviour. PAR supports numeric, character, and logical parameters, and is currently implemented only on top of the ADAM parameter system. The PAR library permits parameter values to be obtained, without or with a variety of constraints. Results may be put into parameters to be passed onto other applications. Other facilities include setting a prompt string, and suggested defaults. This document also introduces a preliminary C interface for the PAR library -- this may be subject to change in the light of experience.

  6. Architecture and Assembly of a Divergent Member of the ParM Family of Bacterial Actin-like Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Christopher R.; Kollman, Justin M.; Polka, Jessica K.; Agard, David A.; Mullins, R. Dyche

    2011-01-01

    Eubacteria and archaea contain a variety of actin-like proteins (ALPs) that form filaments with surprisingly diverse architectures, assembly dynamics, and cellular functions. Although there is much data supporting differences between ALP families, there is little data regarding conservation of structure and function within these families. We asked whether the filament architecture and biochemical properties of the best-understood prokaryotic actin, ParM from plasmid R1, are conserved in a divergent member of the ParM family from plasmid pB171. Previous work demonstrated that R1 ParM assembles into filaments that are structurally distinct from actin and the other characterized ALPs. They also display three biophysical properties thought to be essential for DNA segregation: 1) rapid spontaneous nucleation, 2) symmetrical elongation, and 3) dynamic instability. We used microscopic and biophysical techniques to compare and contrast the architecture and assembly of these related proteins. Despite being only 41% identical, R1 and pB171 ParMs polymerize into nearly identical filaments with similar assembly dynamics. Conservation of the core assembly properties argues for their importance in ParM-mediated DNA segregation and suggests that divergent DNA-segregating ALPs with different assembly properties operate via different mechanisms. PMID:21339292

  7. Radioecological implications of the Par Pond drawdown

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, H.; Whicker, F.W.

    1991-12-05

    The drawdown of the Par Pond reservoir created dramatic alterations in this formerly stable lentic ecosystem. In addition, the radiation environment at Par Pond has changed significantly because of the exposure of Cesium 137-contaminated sediments and the appearance of new transport pathways to the terrestrial environment. In response to this situation, SREL was asked to study the radioecological implications of the reservoir drawdown. This report contains the objectives, methods, and results of the SREL study.

  8. Energy Conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, P.

    1995-06-01

    There are two fundamental reasons or motivations for energy conservation: (1) economics; and (2) consideration of energy - its sources and availability. Economics speaks for itself and needs little explanation: a project is undertaken, the cost is recovered in a given period of time (we hope) and our company realizes cost savings thereafter. We study and propose a project; we estimate the payback. If approved, we implement the project. Then, we eagerly watch for its effectiveness - for the proposed payback. The second consideration in regard to energy conservation might - in the foreseeable future - become by far the most important - that of availability. Very knowledgeable persons have stated that this - in reality - is the most serious problem facing our nation today. Readily available, reasonably priced energy has given to the US the high form of living experienced today. An interruption in this flow could catapult our nation in an awesome catastrophe. The energy shortage of the late 70`s might be a forerunner of such an experience.

  9. Conservative Remapper

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-03-31

    Conservative Remapper (CORE) is a C++ language software library for remapping cell masses and cell-averaged densities on unstructured two dimensional grids, maintaining conservation of total mass in the process. CORE contains implementation of two remapping algorithms: a new, efficient "swept region" algorithm, and a more traditional algorithm basedon the computation of cell intersections. Grids may be Cartesian or cylindrical, and cells may have three or more vertices, with no upper limit. CORE can run inmore » serial and in parallel, but in order to achieve wide applicability, CORE used no particular parallel communication library. Instead it achieves parallel communication through strategically placed, user defined callbacks. Users can also provide callbacks to redefine different parts or subcomponents of the remapping process. CORE allows the use of different data types, e.g. single-, double-, and quadruple- precision floating-point numbers, through the use of C++ templates. Using CORE is simple, and requires no configuration scripts or makefiles.« less

  10. Techniques for measuring intercepted and absorbed PAR in corn canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallo, K. P.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

    1984-01-01

    The quantity of radiation potentially available for photosynthesis that is captured by the crop is best described as absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Absorbed PAR (APAR) is the difference between descending and ascending fluxes. The four components of APAR were measured above and within two planting densities of corn (Zea mays L.) and several methods of measuring and estimating APAR were examined. A line quantum sensor that spatially averages the photosynthetic photon flux density provided a rapid and portable method of measuring APAR. PAR reflectance from the soil (Typic Argiaquoll) surface decreased from 10% to less than 1% of the incoming PAR as the canopy cover increased. PAR reflectance from the canopy decreased to less than 3% at maximum vegetative cover. Intercepted PAR (1 - transmitted PAR) generally overestimated absorbed PAR by less than 4% throughout most of the growing season. Thus intercepted PAR appears to be a reasonable estimate of absorbed PAR.

  11. Optical engineering application of modeled photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) for high-speed digital camera dynamic range optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, James; Gueymard, Christian A.

    2009-08-01

    As efforts to create accurate yet computationally efficient estimation models for clear-sky photosynthetically active solar radiation (PAR) have succeeded, the range of practical engineering applications where these models can be successfully applied has increased. This paper describes a novel application of the REST2 radiative model (developed by the second author) in optical engineering. The PAR predictions in this application are used to predict the possible range of instantaneous irradiances that could impinge on the image plane of a stationary video camera designed to image license plates on moving vehicles. The overall spectral response of the camera (including lens and optical filters) is similar to the 400-700 nm PAR range, thereby making PAR irradiance (rather than luminance) predictions most suitable for this application. The accuracy of the REST2 irradiance predictions for horizontal surfaces, coupled with another radiative model to obtain irradiances on vertical surfaces, and to standard optical image formation models, enable setting the dynamic range controls of the camera to ensure that the license plate images are legible (unsaturated with adequate contrast) regardless of the time of day, sky condition, or vehicle speed. A brief description of how these radiative models are utilized as part of the camera control algorithm is provided. Several comparisons of the irradiance predictions derived from the radiative model versus actual PAR measurements under varying sky conditions with three Licor sensors (one horizontal and two vertical) have been made and showed good agreement. Various camera-to-plate geometries and compass headings have been considered in these comparisons. Time-lapse sequences of license plate images taken with the camera under various sky conditions over a 30-day period are also analyzed. They demonstrate the success of the approach at creating legible plate images under highly variable lighting, which is the main goal of this application. Graphs of plate contrast over various sky conditions and camera aiming geometries are also presented to quantify the performance of the plate's legibility.

  12. Protease-Activated Receptor (PAR) 1 and PAR4 Differentially Regulate Factor V Expression from Human Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Duvernay, Matthew; Young, Summer; Gailani, David; Schoenecker, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    With the recent interest of protease-activated receptors (PAR) 1 and PAR4 as possible targets for the treatment of thrombotic disorders, we compared the efficacy of protease-activated receptor (PAR)1 and PAR4 in the generation of procoagulant phenotypes on platelet membranes. PAR4-activating peptide (AP)–stimulated platelets promoted thrombin generation in plasma up to 5 minutes earlier than PAR1-AP–stimulated platelets. PAR4-AP–mediated factor V (FV) association with the platelet surface was 1.6-fold greater than for PAR1-AP. Moreover, PAR4 stimulation resulted in a 3-fold greater release of microparticles, compared with PAR1 stimulation. More robust FV secretion and microparticle generation with PAR4-AP was attributable to stronger and more sustained phosphorylation of myosin light chain at serine 19 and threonine 18. Inhibition of Rho-kinase reduced PAR4-AP–mediated FV secretion and microparticle generation to PAR1-AP–mediated levels. Thrombin generation assays measuring prothrombinase complex activity demonstrated 1.5-fold higher peak thrombin levels on PAR4-AP–stimulated platelets, compared with PAR1-AP–stimulated platelets. Rho-kinase inhibition reduced PAR4-AP–mediated peak thrombin generation by 25% but had no significant effect on PAR1-AP–mediated thrombin generation. In conclusion, stimulation of PAR4 on platelets leads to faster and more robust thrombin generation, compared with PAR1 stimulation. The greater procoagulant potential is related to more efficient FV release from intracellular stores and microparticle production driven by stronger and more sustained myosin light chain phosphorylation. These data have implications about the role of PAR4 during hemostasis and are clinically relevant in light of recent efforts to develop PAR antagonists to treat thrombotic disorders. PMID:23307185

  13. ParCAT: Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Brian E.; Steed, Chad A.; Shipman, Galen M.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Thornton, Peter E.; Wehner, Michael; Williams, Dean N.

    2013-01-01

    Climate science is employing increasingly complex models and simulations to analyze the past and predict the future of Earth s climate. This growth in complexity is creating a widening gap between the data being produced and the ability to analyze the datasets. Parallel computing tools are necessary to analyze, compare, and interpret the simulation data. The Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit (ParCAT) provides basic tools to efficiently use parallel computing techniques to make analysis of these datasets manageable. The toolkit provides the ability to compute spatio-temporal means, differences between runs or differences between averages of runs, and histograms of the values in a data set. ParCAT is implemented as a command-line utility written in C. This allows for easy integration in other tools and allows for use in scripts. This also makes it possible to run ParCAT on many platforms from laptops to supercomputers. ParCAT outputs NetCDF files so it is compatible with existing utilities such as Panoply and UV-CDAT. This paper describes ParCAT and presents results from some example runs on the Titan system at ORNL.

  14. ParA and ParB coordinate chromosome segregation with cell elongation and division during Streptomyces sporulation

    PubMed Central

    Donczew, Magdalena; Mackiewicz, Paweł; Wróbel, Agnieszka; Flärdh, Klas; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    In unicellular bacteria, the ParA and ParB proteins segregate chromosomes and coordinate this process with cell division and chromosome replication. During sporulation of mycelial Streptomyces, ParA and ParB uniformly distribute multiple chromosomes along the filamentous sporogenic hyphal compartment, which then differentiates into a chain of unigenomic spores. However, chromosome segregation must be coordinated with cell elongation and multiple divisions. Here, we addressed the question of whether ParA and ParB are involved in the synchronization of cell-cycle processes during sporulation in Streptomyces. To answer this question, we used time-lapse microscopy, which allows the monitoring of growth and division of single sporogenic hyphae. We showed that sporogenic hyphae stop extending at the time of ParA accumulation and Z-ring formation. We demonstrated that both ParA and ParB affect the rate of hyphal extension. Additionally, we showed that ParA promotes the formation of massive nucleoprotein complexes by ParB. We also showed that FtsZ ring assembly is affected by the ParB protein and/or unsegregated DNA. Our results indicate the existence of a checkpoint between the extension and septation of sporogenic hyphae that involves the ParA and ParB proteins.

  15. suPAR and Team Nephrology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) accounts for nearly 10 % of patients who require renal replacement therapy. Elevated circulating levels of soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) have been identified as a biomarker to discriminate primary FSGS from other glomerulopathies. Subsequent reports have questioned the diagnostic utility of this test. In a study in BMC Medicine, Huang et al. demonstrate that urinary soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) excretion assists in distinguishing primary FSGS from other glomerular diseases, and that high plasma suPAR concentrations are not directly linked to a decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). This observation suggests that further investigation of suPAR is warranted in patients with FSGS. It should be interpreted in light of a recent report that B7-1 is expressed in the podocytes of a subset of patients with FSGS, and that blocking this molecule may represent the first successful targeted intervention for this disease. These advances highlight the rapid pace of scientific progress in the field of nephrology. Nephrologists should work together, share resources, and expedite the design of protocols to evaluate these novel biomarkers in a comprehensive and scientifically valid manner. Please see related article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/12/81. PMID:24885021

  16. Par(-4)oxysm in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha-Bhattarai, Tripti; Hebbar, Nikhil; Rangnekar, Vivek M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Women suffering from breast cancer often succumb to incurable recurrent disease resulting from therapy-resistant cancer cells. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Alvarez and colleagues identify downregulation of the tumor suppressor Par-4 as the key determinant in apoptosis evasion that leads to tumor recurrence in breast cancer. PMID:23845436

  17. Par(-4)oxysm in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Shrestha-Bhattarai, Tripti; Hebbar, Nikhil; Rangnekar, Vivek M

    2013-07-01

    Women suffering from breast cancer often succumb to incurable recurrent disease resulting from therapy-resistant cancer cells. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Alvarez and colleagues identify downregulation of the tumor suppressor Par-4 as the key determinant in apoptosis evasion, which leads to tumor recurrence in breast cancer. PMID:23845436

  18. Par-4: A New Activator of Myosin Phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Vetterkind, Susanne; Lee, Eunhee; Sundberg, Eric; Poythress, Ransom H.; Tao, Terence C.; Preuss, Ute

    2010-01-01

    Myosin phosphatase (MP) is a key regulator of myosin light chain (LC20) phosphorylation, a process essential for motility, apoptosis, and smooth muscle contractility. Although MP inhibition is well studied, little is known about MP activation. We have recently demonstrated that prostate apoptosis response (Par)-4 modulates vascular smooth muscle contractility. Here, we test the hypothesis that Par-4 regulates MP activity directly. We show, by proximity ligation assays, surface plasmon resonance and coimmunoprecipitation, that Par-4 interacts with the targeting subunit of MP, MYPT1. Binding is mediated by the leucine zippers of MYPT1 and Par-4 and reduced by Par-4 phosphorylation. Overexpression of Par-4 leads to increased phosphatase activity of immunoprecipitated MP, whereas small interfering RNA knockdown of endogenous Par-4 significantly decreases MP activity and increases MYPT1 phosphorylation. LC20 phosphorylation assays demonstrate that overexpression of Par-4 reduces LC20 phosphorylation. In contrast, a phosphorylation site mutant, but not wild-type Par-4, interferes with zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK)-mediated MP inhibition. We conclude from our results Par-4 operates through a “padlock” model in which binding of Par-4 to MYPT1 activates MP by blocking access to the inhibitory phosphorylation sites, and inhibitory phosphorylation of MYPT1 by ZIPK requires “unlocking” of Par-4 by phosphorylation and displacement of Par-4 from the MP complex. PMID:20130087

  19. Paré as a neurosurgeon.

    PubMed

    Simpson, D

    1997-08-01

    The Cowlishaw Collection gives a splendid representation of the works of a Ambroise Paré (1510-1590). His Complete Works, in the great French edition edited by J.F. Malgaigne, are essential in any study of Paré's achievement, but the 1649 English edition provides a good basis for consideration of Paré's practice in what would now be termed neurosurgery. Paré had a large clinical experience in head injury management. His patients included Henri II King of France, who died from a penetrating orbital wound, and be described a number of other craniofacial wounds sustained in war or in warlike sports. His surgical instruments and operative techniques do not appear very innovative, but were doubtless good in their day; his methods of trephination compare favourably with those of the English surgeon John Woodall, his younger contemporary. He operated on head injuries and cranial infection, but had no capacity to treat intradural conditions, such as cerebral abscesses and tumours: his technical limitations are obvious, and the physicians on whom he had to rely could give him no guidance in neurological diagnosis. He was keenly interested in developmental malformations, and described several conditions that would now be referred to a paediatric neurosurgeon. Paré is of great historical importance as an outstanding Renaissance surgeon, whose influence extended throughout the literate world, and as far as Japan. With him, France replaced Italy and Spain in leadership in European surgical progress, a position that France retained at least until the age of Hunter. PMID:9287921

  20. PAR Corneal Topography System (PAR CTS): the clinical application of close-range photogrammetry.

    PubMed

    Belin, M W; Cambier, J L; Nabors, J R; Ratliff, C D

    1995-11-01

    The PAR Corneal Topography System (CTS) is a computer-driven corneal imaging system which uses close-range photogrammetry (rasterphotogrammetry) to measure and produce a topographic map of the corneal surface. The PAR CTS makes direct point-by-point measurements of surface elevation using a stereo-triangulation technique. The CTS uses a grid pattern composed of horizontal and vertical lines spaced about 0.2 mm (200 microns) apart. Each grid intersection comprises a surface feature which can be located in multiple images and used to generate an (x,y,z) coordinate. Unlike placido disc-based videokeratoscopes, the PAR CTS requires neither a smooth reflective surface nor precise spatial alignment for accurate imaging. In addition to surface elevation, the PAR CTS computes axial and tangential curvatures and refractive power. Difference maps are available in all curvatures, refractive power, and in absolute elevation. PMID:8587772

  1. Peroxynitrite-induced thymocyte apoptosis: the role of caspases and poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase (PARS) activation.

    PubMed Central

    Virág, L; Scott, G S; Cuzzocrea, S; Marmer, D; Salzman, A L; Szabó, C

    1998-01-01

    The mechanisms by which immature thymocyte apoptosis is induced during negative selection are poorly defined. Reports demonstrated that cross-linking of T-cell receptor leads to stromal cell activation, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and, subsequently, to thymocyte apoptosis. Therefore we examined, whether NO directly or indirectly, through peroxynitrite formation, causes thymocyte apoptosis. Immuno-histochemical detection of nitrotyrosine revealed in vivo peroxynitrite formation in the thymi of naive mice. Nitrotyrosine, the footprint of peroxynitrite, was predominantly found in the corticomedullary junction and the medulla of naive mice. In the thymi of mice deficient in the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase, considerably less nitrotyrosine was found. Exposure of thymocytes in vitro to low concentrations (10 microM) of peroxynitrite led to apoptosis, whereas higher concentrations (50 microM) resulted in intense cell death with the characteristics of necrosis. We also investigated the effect of poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase (PARS) inhibition on thymocyte apoptosis. Using the PARS inhibitor 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB), or thymocytes from PARS-deficient animals, we established that PARS determines the fate of thymocyte death. Suppression of cellular ATP levels, and the cellular necrosis in response to peroxynitrite were prevented by PARS inhibition. Therefore, in the absence of PARS, cells are diverted towards the pathway of apoptotic cell death. Similar results were obtained with H2O2 treatment, while apoptosis induced by non-oxidative stimuli such as dexamethasone or anti-FAS antibody was unaffected by PARS inhibition. In conclusion, we propose that peroxynitrite-induced apoptosis may play a role in the process of thymocyte negative selection. Furthermore, we propose that the physiological role of PARS cleavage by apopain during apoptosis may serve as an energy-conserving step, enabling the cell to complete the process of apoptosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9767416

  2. View from east to west of PAR site storage building; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from east to west of PAR site storage building; formerly PAR dispensary - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Storage Building, Across street from Family Housing Units 110 & 111, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  3. View from west to east of PAR site resident engineer's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from west to east of PAR site resident engineer's office building (REOB) - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Resident Engineers Office Building, Southeast of intersection of PAR Access Road & Fourth Avenue, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  4. A Combined Global and Local Approach to Elucidate Spatial Organization of the Mycobacterial ParB-parS Partition Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    B Chaudhuri; S Gupta; V Urban; M Chance; R DMello; L Smith; K Lyons; J Gee

    2011-12-31

    Combining diverse sets of data at global (size, shape) and local (residue) scales is an emerging trend for elucidating the organization and function of the cellular assemblies. We used such a strategy, combining data from X-ray and neutron scattering with H/D-contrast variation and X-ray footprinting with mass spectrometry, to elucidate the spatial organization of the ParB-parS assembly from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The ParB-parS participates in plasmid and chromosome segregation and condensation in predivisional bacterial cells. ParB polymerizes around the parS centromere(s) to form a higher-order assembly that serves to recruit cyto-skeletal ParA ATPases and SMC proteins for chromosome segregation. A hybrid model of the ParB-parS was built by combining and correlating computational models with experiment-derived information about size, shape, position of the symmetry axis within the shape, internal topology, DNA-protein interface, exposed surface patches, and prior knowledge. This first view of the ParB-parS leads us to propose how ParB spread on the chromosome to form a larger assembly.

  5. A Combined Global and Local Approach to Elucidate Spatial Organization of the Mycobacterial ParB-parS Partition

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhuri, Barnali; Gupta, Sayan; Urban, Volker S; Chance, Mark; D'Mello, Rhijuta; Smith, Lauren; Lyons, Kelly; Gee, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Combining diverse sets of data at global (size, shape) and local (residue) scales is an emerging trend for elucidating the organization and function of the cellular assemblies. We used such a strategy, combining data from X-ray and neutron scattering with H/D-contrast variation and X-ray footprinting with mass spectrometry, to elucidate the spatial organization of the ParB-parS assembly from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The ParB-parS participates in plasmid and chromosome segregation and condensation in predivisional bacterial cells. ParB polymerizes around the parS centromere(s) to form a higher-order assembly that serves to recruit cyto-skeletal ParA ATPases and SMC proteins for chromosome segregation. A hybrid model of the ParB-parS was built by combining and correlating computational models with experiment-derived information about size, shape, position of the symmetry axis within the shape, internal topology, DNA-protein interface, exposed surface patches, and prior knowledge. This first view of the ParB-parS leads us to propose how ParB spread on the chromosome to form a larger assembly.

  6. Kallikrein 6 signals through PAR1 and PAR2 to promote neuron injury and exacerbate glutamate neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyesook; Radulovic, Maja; Wu, Jianmin; Blaber, Sachiko I; Blaber, Michael; Fehlings, Michael G; Scarisbrick, Isobel A

    2013-10-01

    CNS trauma generates a proteolytic imbalance contributing to secondary injury, including axonopathy and neuron degeneration. Kallikrein 6 (Klk6) is a serine protease implicated in neurodegeneration, and here we investigate the role of protease-activated receptors 1 (PAR1) and PAR2 in mediating these effects. First, we demonstrate Klk6 and the prototypical activator of PAR1, thrombin, as well as PAR1 and PAR2, are each elevated in murine experimental traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) at acute or subacute time points. Recombinant Klk6 triggered extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) signaling in cerebellar granule neurons and in the NSC34 spinal cord motoneuron cell line, in a phosphoinositide 3-kinae and MEK-dependent fashion. Importantly, lipopeptide inhibitors of PAR1 or PAR2, and PAR1 genetic deletion, each reduced Klk6-ERK1/2 activation. In addition, Klk6 and thrombin promoted degeneration of cerebellar neurons and exacerbated glutamate neurotoxicity. Moreover, genetic deletion of PAR1 blocked thrombin-mediated cerebellar neurotoxicity and reduced the neurotoxic effects of Klk6. Klk6 also increased glutamate-mediated Bim signaling, poly-ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage and lactate dehydrogenase release in NSC34 motoneurons and these effects were blocked by PAR1 and PAR2 lipopeptide inhibitors. Taken together, these data point to a novel Klk6-signaling axis in CNS neurons that is mediated by PAR1 and PAR2 and is positioned to contribute to neurodegeneration. PMID:23647384

  7. Élaboration de films de molécules organiques par ablation par laser UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Perez, M. A.; Garapon, C.; Champeaux, C.; Coleman, A. W.

    2006-12-01

    Les potentialités des méthodes de dépôt par ablation laser (PLD) pour la préparation de films minces de matériaux organiques sont illustrées par un bref rappel bibliographique et par des résultats expérimentaux concernant des molécules d'intérêt biologique (acides aminés, calix-arènes, protéines). Les films sont préparés par PLD avec un laser KrF sans dégradation de la structure chimique des molécules dans une gamme de fluences de quelques dizaines à quelques centaines de mJ/cm2. Les propriétés structurales et optiques des films sont étudiées en fonction de la fluence du laser et mettent en évidence des arrangements moléculaires particuliers induits par cette méthode de dépôt. Le guidage optique a été obtenu pour des films de toutes ces molécules.

  8. Elevated CO2 alleviates high PAR and UV stress in the unicellular chlorophyte Dunaliella tertiolecta.

    PubMed

    García-Gómez, Candela; Gordillo, Francisco J L; Palma, Armando; Lorenzo, M Rosario; Segovia, María

    2014-09-01

    The effects of increased CO2 and irradiance on the physiological performance of the chlorophyte Dunaliella tertiolecta were studied at different PAR and UVR (UVA + UVB) irradiances, simulating the solar radiation at different depths, at present (390 ppmv, LC) and predicted CO2 levels for the year 2100 (1000 ppmv, HC). Elevated CO2 resulted in higher optimum and effective quantum yields (F(v)/F(m) and ϕPSII, respectively), electron transport rates (ETR) and specific growth rates (μ). Cell stress was alleviated in HC with respect to LC as evidenced by a decrease in reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. DNA damage showed a 42-fold increase in cyclobutane-pyrimidine dimer (CPD) formation under the highest irradiance (1100 μmol quanta m(-2) s(-1)) in LC with respect to the lowest irradiance (200 μmol quanta m(-2) s(-1)). Photolyase (CII-PCD-PL) gene expression was upregulated under HC resulting in a drastic decrease in CPD accumulation to only 25% with respect to LC. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) accumulation was always higher in HC and the accumulation pattern indicated its involvement in repair or growth depending on the irradiance dose. The repressor of silencing (ROS1) was only marginally involved in the response, suggesting that photoreactivation was the most relevant mechanism to overcome UVR damage. Our results demonstrate that future scenarios of global change result in alleviation of irradiance stress by CO2-induced photoprotection in D. tertiolecta. PMID:25043601

  9. Minimally Invasive Direct Repair of Bilateral Lumbar Spine Pars Defects in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Widi, Gabriel A.; Williams, Seth K.; Levi, Allan D.

    2013-01-01

    Spondylolysis of the lumbar spine has traditionally been treated using a variety of techniques ranging from conservative care to fusion. Direct repair of the defect may be utilized in young adult patients without significant disc degeneration and lumbar instability. We used minimally invasive techniques to place pars interarticularis screws with the use of an intraoperative CT scanner in three young adults, including two athletes. This technique is a modification of the original procedure in 1970 by Buck, and it offers the advantage of minimal muscle dissection and optimal screw trajectory. There were no intra- or postoperative complications. The detailed operative procedure and the postoperative course along with a brief review of pars interarticularis defect treatment are discussed. PMID:23737800

  10. Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) as targets for antiplatelet therapy.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Margaret; McIntosh, Kathryn; Bushell, Trevor; Sloan, Graeme; Plevin, Robin

    2016-04-15

    Since the identification of the proteinase-activated receptor (PAR) family as mediators of serine protease activity in the 1990s, there has been tremendous progress in the elucidation of their pathophysiological roles. The development of drugs that target PARs has been the focus of many laboratories for the potential treatment of thrombosis, cancer and other inflammatory diseases. Understanding the mechanisms of PAR activation and G protein signalling pathways evoked in response to the growing list of endogenous proteases has yielded great insight into receptor regulation at the molecular level. This has led to the development of new selective modulators of PAR activity, particularly PAR1. The mixed success of targeting PARs has been best exemplified in the context of inhibiting PAR1 as a new antiplatelet therapy. The development of the competitive PAR1 antagonist, vorapaxar (Zontivity), has clearly shown the value in targeting PAR1 in acute coronary syndrome (ACS); however the severity of associated bleeding with this drug has limited its use in the clinic. Due to the efficacy of thrombin acting via PAR1, strategies to selectively inhibit specific PAR1-mediated G protein signalling pathways or to target the second thrombin platelet receptor, PAR4, are being devised. The rationale behind these alternative approaches is to bias downstream thrombin activity via PARs to allow for inhibition of pro-thrombotic pathways but maintain other pathways that may preserve haemostatic balance and improve bleeding profiles for widespread clinical use. This review summarizes the structural determinants that regulate PARs and the modulators of PAR activity developed to date. PMID:27068977

  11. Role of PAR2 in murine pulmonary pseudomonal infection.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Theo J; Martin, Raiza; Plumb, Jonathan D; Vachon, Eric; Cameron, Cheryl M; Danesh, Ali; Kelvin, David J; Ruf, Wolfram; Downey, Gregory P

    2008-02-01

    Proteinases can influence lung inflammation by various mechanisms, including via cleavage and activation of protease-activated receptors (PAR) such as PAR2. In addition, proteinases such as neutrophil and/or Pseudomonas-derived elastase can disarm PAR2 resulting in loss of PAR2 signaling. Currently, the role of PAR2 in host defense against bacterial infection is not known. Using a murine model of acute Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia, we examined differences in the pulmonary inflammatory response between wild-type and PAR2(-/-) mice. Compared with wild-type mice, PAR2(-/-) mice displayed more severe lung inflammation and injury in response to P. aeruginosa infection as indicated by higher bronchoalveolar lavage fluid neutrophil numbers, protein concentration, and TNF-alpha levels. By contrast, IFN-gamma levels were markedly reduced in PAR2(-/-) compared with wild-type mice. Importantly, clearance of P. aeruginosa was diminished in PAR2(-/-) mice. In vitro testing revealed that PAR2(-/-) neutrophils killed significantly less bacteria than wild-type murine neutrophils. Further, both neutrophils and macrophages from PAR2(-/-) mice displayed significantly reduced phagocytic efficiency compared with wild-type phagocytes. Stimulation of PAR2 on macrophages using a PAR2-activating peptide resulted in enhanced phagocytosis directly implicating PAR2 signaling in the phagocytic process. We conclude that genetic deletion of PAR2 is associated with decreased clearance of P. aeruginosa. Our data suggest that a deficiency in IFN-gamma production and impaired bacterial phagocytosis are two potential mechanisms responsible for this defect. PMID:18083764

  12. Les Brulures Chimiques Par Le Laurier Rose

    PubMed Central

    Bakkali, H.; Ababou, M.; Nassim Sabah, T.; Moussaoui, A.; Ennouhi, A.; Fouadi, F.Z.; Siah, S.; Ihrai, H.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Le laurier rose ou Nerium oleander est un arbuste qui pousse naturellement dans les régions méditerranéennes. Au Maroc on le trouve dans les lieux humides. Il est réputé par ses risques de toxicité systémique en cas d'empoisonnement à cause de la présence de deux alcaloïdes, surtout l'oléandrine. La littérature illustre des cas d'utilisation locale des feuilles de cette plante contre la gale, les hémorroïdes et les furoncles. Nous rapportons deux cas de brûlures chimiques par le laurier rose de gravité différente. Cela doit aboutir à une information élargie de la population, ainsi qu'une réglementation stricte de sa commercialisation. PMID:21991211

  13. PAR and UV effects on vertical migration and photosynthesis in Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Richter, Peter; Helbling, Walter; Streb, Christine; Hder, Donat-P

    2007-01-01

    Recently it was shown that the unicellular flagellate Euglena gracilis changes the sign of gravitaxis from negative to positive upon excessive radiation. This sign change persists in a cell culture for hours even if subsequently transferred to dim light. To test the ecological relevance of this behavior, a vertical column experiment was performed (max. depth 65 cm) to test distribution, photosynthetic efficiency and motility in different horizons of the column (surface, 20, 40 and 65 cm). One column was covered with a UV cut-off filter, which transmits photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) only, the other with a filter which transmits PAR and UV. The columns were irradiated with a solar simulator (PAR 162 W m(-2), UV-A 32.6 W m(-2), UV-B 1.9 W m(-2)). The experiment was conducted for 10 days, normally with a light/dim light cycle of 12 h:12 h, but in some cases the light regime was changed (dim light instead of full radiation). Under irradiation the largest fraction of cells was found at the bottom of the column. The cell density decreased toward the surface. Photosynthetic efficiency, determined with a pulse amplitude modulated fluorometer, was negligible at the surface and increased toward the bottom. While the cell suspension showed a positive gravitaxis at the bottom, the cells in the 40 cm horizon were bimodally oriented (about the same percentage of cells swimming upward and downward, respectively). At 20 cm and at the surface the cells showed negative gravitaxis. Positive gravitaxis was more pronounced in the UV + PAR samples. At the surface and in the 20 and 40 cm horizons photosynthetic efficiency was better in the PAR-only samples than in the PAR + UV samples. At the bottom photosynthetic efficiency was similar in both light treatments. The data suggest that high light reverses gravitaxis of the cells, so that they move downward in the water column. At the bottom the light intensity is lower (attenuation of the water column and self shading of the cells) and the cells recover. After recovery the cells swim upward again until the negative gravitaxis is reversed again. PMID:17645652

  14. Irradiance Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lean, J. L.

    2003-05-01

    From the solar interior emerges magnetic flux that alters the Sun's electromagnetic radiation, producing irradiance variability on a wide range of time scales. The organization, outward extension and expansion of magnetic fields structure the solar atmosphere and cause the entire electromagnetic spectrum to vary in different ways, depending on wavelength. Surface magnetic fields produce variations in near UV, visible and near IR spectra which emerge from the photosphere, and comprise the bulk of total irradiance. Yet the correlation of daily total irradiance and total magnetic field strength is poor; rather, the net effect of two different magnetic features - dark sunspots and bright faculae - better account for the variations observed in total irradiance during the solar cycle. The relationship of UV irradiance with magnetic flux is more direct since bright active regions control the global variations in both these quantities. Connecting X-ray and short wavelength EUV irradiance variations to the solar interior requires the extrapolation of emerging surface magnetic fields to the corona and assumptions about the relationship of their strengths and topologies with coronal pressure. Knowledge of the emergence, evolution, transport and decay of magnetic flux is thus a key to understanding and forecasting solar irradiance variability at all wavelengths. Identification of sizeable magnetic regions on the side of the Sun far from Earth may enable EUV and X-ray irradiance forecasts and subsequent space weather effects on time scales of days to weeks. On multi-decadal time scales improved knowledge of the sub surface dynamo and surface transport processes may help constrain secular solar irradiance evolution, needed for climate change attribution. Also needed is quantification of the association between the closed flux that controls irradiance variability and the open flux that extends into the heliosphere. Although utilized frequently to infer irradiance variability, proxies of long-term solar activity in tree-rings and ice-cores actually reflect heliospheric modulation of galactic cosmic rays. Funded by NASA and ONR.

  15. Par Pond refill water quality sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Westbury, H.M.

    1996-08-01

    This study was designed to document anoxia and its cause in the event that the anoxia caused a fish kill. However, no fish kill was observed during this study, and dissolved oxygen and nutrient concentrations generally remained within the range expected for southeastern reservoirs. Par Pond water quality monitoring will continue during the second summer after refill as the aquatic macrophytes become reestablished and nutrients in the sediments are released to the water column.

  16. Par-4 prevents breast cancer recurrence.

    PubMed

    Hebbar, Nikhil; Shrestha-Bhattarai, Tripti; Rangnekar, Vivek M

    2013-01-01

    Therapy resistance and disease recurrence are two of the most challenging aspects in breast cancer treatment. A recent article in Cancer Cell makes a significant contribution toward a better understanding of this therapeutic problem by establishing downregulation of the tumor suppressor Par-4 as the primary determinant of breast cancer recurrence. This viewpoint brings forth the importance of their findings and its implications on future research and therapy. PMID:24164776

  17. Par-4 prevents breast cancer recurrence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Therapy resistance and disease recurrence are two of the most challenging aspects in breast cancer treatment. A recent article in Cancer Cell makes a significant contribution toward a better understanding of this therapeutic problem by establishing downregulation of the tumor suppressor Par-4 as the primary determinant of breast cancer recurrence. This viewpoint brings forth the importance of their findings and its implications on future research and therapy. PMID:24164776

  18. A unique hetero-hexadecameric architecture displayed by the Escherichia coli O157 PaaA2-ParE2 antitoxin-toxin complex.

    PubMed

    Sterckx, Yann G-J; Jové, Thomas; Shkumatov, Alexander V; Garcia-Pino, Abel; Geerts, Lieselotte; De Kerpel, Maia; Lah, Jurij; De Greve, Henri; Van Melderen, Laurence; Loris, Remy

    2016-04-24

    Many bacterial pathogens modulate their metabolic activity, virulence and pathogenicity through so-called "toxin-antitoxin" (TA) modules. The genome of the human pathogen Escherichia coli O157 contains two three-component TA modules related to the known parDE module. Here, we show that the toxin EcParE2 maps in a branch of the RelE/ParE toxin superfamily that is distinct from the branches that contain verified gyrase and ribosome inhibitors. The structure of EcParE2 closely resembles that of Caulobacter crescentus ParE but shows a distinct pattern of conserved surface residues, in agreement with its apparent inability to interact with GyrA. The antitoxin EcPaaA2 is characterized by two α-helices (H1 and H2) that serve as molecular recognition elements to wrap itself around EcParE2. Both EcPaaA2 H1 and H2 are required to sustain a high-affinity interaction with EcParE2 and for the inhibition of EcParE2-mediated killing in vivo. Furthermore, evidence demonstrates that EcPaaA2 H2, but not H1, determines specificity for EcParE2. The initially formed EcPaaA2-EcParE2 heterodimer then assembles into a hetero-hexadecamer, which is stable in solution and is formed in a highly cooperative manner. Together these findings provide novel data on quaternary structure, TA interactions and activity of a hitherto poorly characterized family of TA modules. PMID:26996937

  19. Examination of the abscission-associated transcriptomes for soybean, tomato, and Arabidopsis highlights the conserved biosynthesis of an extensible extracellular matrix and boundary layer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PAR1, photoassimilate-responsive-1, was originally identified in a subtraction library prepared from leaves of transgenic tobacco plants, ppa-1, that accumulate high concentrations of sucrose in source leaves. PAR1 genes are highly conserved in both dicots and monocots. All appear to have a signal...

  20. Mechanisms of Apoptosis by the Tumor Suppressor Par-4

    PubMed Central

    Hebbar, Nikhil; Wang, Chi; Rangnekar, Vivek M.

    2012-01-01

    Par-4 is a pro-apoptotic, tumor suppressor protein that induces apoptosis selectively in cancer cells. Endoplasmic reticulum-stress and higher levels of protein kinase A in tumor cells confer the coveted feature of cancer selective response to extracellular and intracellular Par-4, respectively. Recent studies have shown that systemic Par-4 confers resistance to tumor growth in mice, and that tumor-resistance is transferable by bone marrow transplantation. Moreover, recombinant Par-4 inhibits the growth of tumors in mice. As systemic Par-4 induces apoptosis via cell surface GRP78, strategies that promote GRP78 trafficking to the cell surface are expected sensitize cancer cells to circulating levels of Par-4. This review illustrates the domains and mechanisms by which Par-4 orchestrates the apoptotic process in both cell culture models and in physiological settings. PMID:22552839

  1. Mechanisms of apoptosis by the tumor suppressor Par-4.

    PubMed

    Hebbar, Nikhil; Wang, Chi; Rangnekar, Vivek M

    2012-12-01

    Par-4 is a pro-apoptotic, tumor suppressor protein that induces apoptosis selectively in cancer cells. Endoplasmic reticulum-stress and higher levels of protein kinase A in tumor cells confer the coveted feature of cancer selective response to extracellular and intracellular Par-4, respectively. Recent studies have shown that systemic Par-4 confers resistance to tumor growth in mice, and that tumor-resistance is transferable by bone-marrow transplantation. Moreover, recombinant Par-4 inhibits the growth of tumors in mice. As systemic Par-4 induces apoptosis via cell surface GRP78, strategies that promote GRP78 trafficking to the cell surface are expected sensitize cancer cells to circulating levels of Par-4. This review illustrates the domains and mechanisms by which Par-4 orchestrates the apoptotic process in both cell culture models and in physiological settings. PMID:22552839

  2. Project Plan 7930 Cell G PaR Remote Handling System Replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, Kathryn A

    2009-10-01

    For over 40 years the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have made Californium-252 ({sup 252}Cf) available for a wide range of industries including medical, nuclear fuels, mining, military and national security. The Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) located within the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) processes irradiated production targets from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Operations in Building 7930, Cell G provide over 70% of the world's demand for {sup 252}Cf. Building 7930 was constructed and equipped in the mid-1960s. Current operations for {sup 252}Cf processing in Building 7930, Cell G require use of through-the-wall manipulators and the PaR Remote Handling System. Maintenance and repairs for the manipulators is readily accomplished by removal of the manipulator and relocation to a repair shop where hands-on work can be performed in glove boxes. Contamination inside cell G does not currently allow manned entry and no provisions were created for a maintenance area inside the cell. There has been no maintenance of the PaR system or upgrades, leaving operations vulnerable should the system have a catastrophic failure. The Cell G PaR system is currently being operated in a run to failure mode. As the manipulator is now 40+ years old there is significant risk in this method of operation. In 2006 an assessment was completed that resulted in recommendations for replacing the manipulator operator control and power centers which are used to control and power the PaR manipulator in Cell G. In mid-2008 the chain for the bridge drive failed and subsequent examinations indicated several damaged links (see Figure 1). To continue operations the PaR manipulator arm is being used to push and pull the bridge as a workaround. A retrieval tool was fabricated, tested and staged inside Cell G that will allow positioning of the bridge and manipulator arm for removal from the cell should the PaR system completely fail. A fully functioning and reliable Par manipulator arm is necessary for uninterrupted {sup 252}Cf operations; a fully-functioning bridge is needed for the system to function as intended.

  3. Compensation and Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Irwin W.; Rose, Arthur P.

    1982-01-01

    Although the idea that conservation can occur without compensation was rejected by Piaget, direct and indirect evidence from developmental studies and conservation training research indicates that conservation can and does develop without compensation. Nevertheless, adults' conservation concepts include the compensation principle and influence…

  4. CDK-1 and Two B-Type Cyclins Promote PAR-6 Stabilization during Polarization of the Early C. elegans Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Rabilotta, Alexia; Desrosiers, Marianne; Labbé, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    In the C. elegans embryo, formation of an antero-posterior axis of polarity relies on signaling by the conserved PAR proteins, which localize asymmetrically in two mutually exclusive groups at the embryonic cortex. Depletion of any PAR protein causes a loss of polarity and embryonic lethality. A genome-wide RNAi screen previously identified two B-type cyclins, cyb-2.1 and cyb-2.2, as suppressors of par-2(it5ts) lethality. We found that the loss of cyb-2.1 or cyb-2.2 suppressed the lethality and polarity defects of par-2(it5ts) mutants and that these cyclins act in cell polarity with their cyclin-dependent kinase partner, CDK-1. Interestingly, cyb-2.1; cyb-2.2 double mutants did not show defects in cell cycle progression or timing of polarity establishment, suggesting that they regulate polarity independently of their typical role in cell cycle progression. Loss of both cyclin genes or of cdk-1 resulted in a decrease in PAR-6 levels in the embryo. Furthermore, the activity of the cullin CUL-2 was required to achieve suppression of par-2 lethality when both cyclins were absent. Our results support a model in which CYB-2.1/2/CDK-1 antagonize CUL-2 activity to promote stabilization of PAR-6 levels during polarization of the early C. elegans embryo. They also suggest that CYB-2.1 and CYB-2.2 contribute to the coupling of cell cycle progression and asymmetric segregation of cell fate determinants. PMID:25658117

  5. Conservation potential of agricultural water conservation subsidies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffaker, Ray

    2008-07-01

    A current policy subsidizes farmers to invest in improved on-farm irrigation efficiency, expecting water to be conserved off farm. Contrary to expectation, water has been increasingly depleted in some regions after such improvements. This paper investigates the policy's failure to conserve water consistently by (1) formulating an economic model of irrigated crop production to determine a profit-maximizing irrigator's range of responses to a subsidy and (2) embedding these responses into hypothetical streamflow diagrams to ascertain their potential to conserve water under various hydrologic regimes. Testable hypotheses are developed to predict the conservation potential of a subsidy in real-world application.

  6. Estimates and Measurements of Photosynthetically Active Radiation and Global Solar Irradiance in Rondonia

    SciTech Connect

    Aguiar, Leonardo J. G.; Costa, Jose M. N. da; Fischer, Graciela R.; Aguiar, Renata G.

    2009-03-11

    Measurements of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and global solar irradiance (R{sub s}) were made at a LBA (The Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia) experimental site, at Fazenda Nossa Senhora (10 deg. 45' S; 62 deg. 21' W), in Rondonia, in the years of 2004 and 2005, with the objective of estimating the seasonal variation of the ratio between the photosynthetically active radiation and the global solar irradiance. The relationship between PAR and R{sub s} were made by using linear regressions equations with data from year 2004 and tested with data from the year 2005. The seasonal variation of the ratio PAR/R{sub s} ranged from 0.43 (September) to 0.48 (January). The linear regression equations between PAR and R{sub s} obtained were: a) On an hourly basis: PAR 0.747+0.478*R{sub s},(R{sup 2} = 0.99; wet season) and PAR = -4.578+0.452*R{sub s}(R{sup 2} 0.99; dry season); b) On a daily basis: PAR = 4.956+0.466*R{sub s}(R{sup 2} = 0.99; wet season) and PAR = -6.762+0.457*R{sub s}(R{sup 2} = 0.96; dry season)

  7. PAR-2 regulates dental pulp inflammation associated with caries.

    PubMed

    Lundy, F T; About, I; Curtis, T M; McGahon, M K; Linden, G J; Irwin, C R; El Karim, I A

    2010-07-01

    Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are G-protein-coupled receptors that are activated enzymatically by proteolysis of an N-terminal domain. The cleavage and activation of PARs by serine proteases represent a novel mechanism by which such enzymes could influence the host inflammatory response. The aim of this study was to determine whether PAR-2 expression and activation were increased in dental caries. Using immunohistochemistry, we showed PAR-2 to be localized to pulp cells subjacent to caries lesions, but minimally expressed by healthy pulp tissue. Trypsin and the PAR-2 agonist (PAR2-AP) activated PAR-2 in an in vitro functional assay. Endogenous molecules present in pulp cell lysates from carious teeth specifically activated PAR-2, but those from healthy teeth failed to do so. The activation of PAR-2 in vitro was shown to increase the expression of the pro-inflammatory mediator cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2), providing a mechanism whereby PAR-2 could modulate pulpal inflammation. PMID:20505052

  8. Modelisation par elements finis du muscle strie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Mathieu

    Ce present projet de recherche a permis. de creer un modele par elements finis du muscle strie humain dans le but d'etudier les mecanismes engendrant les lesions musculaires traumatiques. Ce modele constitue une plate-forme numerique capable de discerner l'influence des proprietes mecaniques des fascias et de la cellule musculaire sur le comportement dynamique du muscle lors d'une contraction excentrique, notamment le module de Young et le module de cisaillement de la couche de tissu conjonctif, l'orientation des fibres de collagene de cette membrane et le coefficient de poisson du muscle. La caracterisation experimentale in vitro de ces parametres pour des vitesses de deformation elevees a partir de muscles stries humains actifs est essentielle pour l'etude de lesions musculaires traumatiques. Le modele numerique developpe est capable de modeliser la contraction musculaire comme une transition de phase de la cellule musculaire par un changement de raideur et de volume a l'aide des lois de comportement de materiau predefinies dans le logiciel LS-DYNA (v971, Livermore Software Technology Corporation, Livermore, CA, USA). Le present projet de recherche introduit donc un phenomene physiologique qui pourrait expliquer des blessures musculaires courantes (crampes, courbatures, claquages, etc.), mais aussi des maladies ou desordres touchant le tissu conjonctif comme les collagenoses et la dystrophie musculaire. La predominance de blessures musculaires lors de contractions excentriques est egalement exposee. Le modele developpe dans ce projet de recherche met ainsi a l'avant-scene le concept de transition de phase ouvrant la porte au developpement de nouvelles technologies pour l'activation musculaire chez les personnes atteintes de paraplegie ou de muscles artificiels compacts pour l'elaboration de protheses ou d'exosquelettes. Mots-cles Muscle strie, lesion musculaire, fascia, contraction excentrique, modele par elements finis, transition de phase

  9. Healing in the irradiated wound

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.H.; Rudolph, R. )

    1990-07-01

    Poor or nonhealing of irradiated wounds has been attributed to progressive obliterative endarteritis. Permanently damaged fibroblasts may also play an important part in poor healing. Regardless of the cause, the key to management of irradiated skin is careful attention to prevent its breakdown and conservative, but adequate, treatment when wounds are minor. When wounds become larger and are painful, complete excision of the wound or ulcer is called for and coverage should be provided by a well-vascularized nonparasitic distant flap.16 references.

  10. Tissue irradiator

    DOEpatents

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1975-12-16

    A tissue irradiator is provided for the in-vivo irradiation of body tissue. The irradiator comprises a radiation source material contained and completely encapsulated within vitreous carbon. An embodiment for use as an in- vivo blood irradiator comprises a cylindrical body having an axial bore therethrough. A radioisotope is contained within a first portion of vitreous carbon cylindrically surrounding the axial bore, and a containment portion of vitreous carbon surrounds the radioisotope containing portion, the two portions of vitreous carbon being integrally formed as a single unit. Connecting means are provided at each end of the cylindrical body to permit connections to blood- carrying vessels and to provide for passage of blood through the bore. In a preferred embodiment, the radioisotope is thulium-170 which is present in the irradiator in the form of thulium oxide. A method of producing the preferred blood irradiator is also provided, whereby nonradioactive thulium-169 is dispersed within a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin which is carbonized and fired to form the integral vitreous carbon body and the device is activated by neutron bombardment of the thulium-169 to produce the beta-emitting thulium-170.

  11. Non-convex entropies for conservation laws with involutions.

    PubMed

    Dafermos, Constantine M

    2013-12-28

    The paper discusses systems of conservation laws endowed with involutions and contingent entropies. Under the assumption that the contingent entropy function is convex merely in the direction of a cone in state space, associated with the involution, it is shown that the Cauchy problem is locally well posed in the class of classical solutions, and that classical solutions are unique and stable even within the broader class of weak solutions that satisfy an entropy inequality. This is on a par with the classical theory of solutions to hyperbolic systems of conservation laws endowed with a convex entropy. The equations of elastodynamics provide the prototypical example for the above setting. PMID:24249772

  12. Multiple enzymatic activities of ParB/Srx superfamily mediate sexual conflict among conjugative plasmids

    PubMed Central

    Maindola, Priyank; Raina, Rahul; Goyal, Parveen; Atmakuri, Krishnamohan; Ojha, Abhishek; Gupta, Sourabh; Christie, Peter J.; Iyer, Lakshminarayan M.; Aravind, L.; Arockiasamy, Arulandu

    2014-01-01

    Conjugative plasmids are typically locked in intergenomic and sexual conflicts with coresident rivals, whose translocation they block using fertility inhibition factors (FINs). We describe here the first crystal structure of an enigmatic FIN Osa deployed by the proteobacterial plasmid pSa. Osa contains a catalytically active version of the ParB/Sulfiredoxin fold with both ATPase and DNase activity, the latter being regulated by an ATP-dependent switch. Using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirB/D4 type-IV secretion system (T4SS), a relative of the conjugative T4SS, we demonstrate that catalytically active Osa blocks T-DNA transfer into plants. With a partially reconstituted T4SS in vitro, we show that Osa degrades T-DNA in the T-DNA-VirD2 complex prior to its translocation. Further, we present evidence for conservation and interplay between ATPase and DNase activities throughout the ParB/Sulfiredoxin fold, using other members of the family, namely P1 ParB and RK2 KorB, which have general functional implications across diverse biological contexts. PMID:25358815

  13. Allosteric activation of the Par-6 PDZ via a partial unfolding transition

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, Dustin S.; Peterson, Francis C.; Kovrigin, Evgenii L.; Volkman, Brian F.

    2013-01-01

    Proteins exist in a delicate balance between the native and unfolded states, where thermodynamic stability may be sacrificed to attain the flexibility required for efficient catalysis, binding or allosteric control. Par-6 regulates the Par polarity complex by transmitting a GTPase signal through the CRIB-PDZ module that alters PDZ lig-and binding. Allosteric activation of the PDZ is achieved by local rearrangement of the L164 and K165 side chains to stabilize the interdomain CRIB-PDZ interface and reposition a conserved element of the ligand binding pocket. However, microsecond to millisecond dynamics measurements revealed that L164/K165 exchange requires a larger rearrangement than expected. The margin of thermodynamic stability for the PDZ domain is modest (~3 kcal/mol) and further reduced by transient interactions with the disordered CRIB domain. Measurements of local structural stability revealed that tertiary contacts within the PDZ are disrupted by a partial unfolding transition that enables interconversion of the L/K switch. The unexpected participation of partial PDZ unfolding in the allosteric mechanism of Par-6 suggests that native-state unfolding may be essential for the function of other marginally stable proteins. PMID:23705660

  14. Historic macrophyte development in Par Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, J.B.

    1985-08-01

    Aerial photographs from 1975, 1980, and 1983 were examined to evaluate the changes that have occurred in the wetland vegetation of Par Pond, a reactor-cooling reservoir. Evaluation of the aerial photographs was based on comparisons with ground-level vegetation maps made during July 1984. Comparisons of photographs from August and December of 1983 revealed the main seasonal change in the aerial coverage of wetland vegetation to be the wintertime loss of non-persistent emergent species such as Nelumbo lutea and Nymphaea odorata. Comparisons between September 1980 and August 1983 revealed that the lakeward extent of non-persistent macrophytes has increased by an average of 8.2 m, though not all sites have changed equally. For persistent macrophytes (principally Typha), the average increase in lakeward extent between December 1975 and August 1983 was 3.48 m. The extensive development of wetland vegetation in Par Pond as well as the substantial spread of vegetation over only a few years time indicates the high suitability of this habitat for the growth of wetland plants.

  15. A Par-1-Par-3-Centrosome Cell Polarity Pathway and Its Tuning for Isotropic Cell Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tao; McKinley, R F Andrew; McGill, Melanie A; Angers, Stephane; Harris, Tony J C

    2015-10-19

    To form regulated barriers between body compartments, epithelial cells polarize into apical and basolateral domains and assemble adherens junctions (AJs). Despite close links with polarity networks that generate single polarized domains, AJs distribute isotropically around the cell circumference for adhesion with all neighboring cells [1-3]. How AJs avoid the influence of polarity networks to maintain their isotropy has been unclear. In established epithelia, trans cadherin interactions could maintain AJ isotropy [4], but AJs are dynamic during epithelial development and remodeling [5, 6], and thus specific mechanisms may control their isotropy. In Drosophila, aPKC prevents hyper-polarization of junctions as epithelia develop from cellularization to gastrulation [7]. Here, we show that aPKC does so by inhibiting a positive feedback loop between Bazooka (Baz)/Par-3, a junctional organizer [5, 8-10], and centrosomes. Without aPKC, Baz and centrosomes lose their isotropic distributions and recruit each other to single plasma membrane (PM) domains. Surprisingly, our loss- and gain-of-function analyses show that the Baz-centrosome positive feedback loop is driven by Par-1, a kinase known to phosphorylate Baz and inhibit its basolateral localization [8, 11, 12]. We find that Par-1 promotes the positive feedback loop through both centrosome microtubule effects and Baz phosphorylation. Normally, aPKC attenuates the circuit by expelling Par-1 from the apical domain at gastrulation. The combination of local activation and global inhibition is a common polarization strategy [13-16]. Par-1 seems to couple both effects for a potent Baz polarization mechanism that is regulated for the isotropy of Baz and AJs around the cell circumference. PMID:26455305

  16. 2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) BARRACKS WITH RADAR ATTACHED. - Nike Hercules Missile Battery Summit Site, Battery Control Administration & Barracks Building, Anchorage, Anchorage, AK

  17. mPar6 alpha controls neuronal migration.

    PubMed

    Solecki, David J; Govek, Eve-Ellen; Hatten, Mary E

    2006-10-18

    We review studies on the polarity of developing cerebellar granule, showing that the centrosome localizes to the pole of the neuron that extrudes the nascent axon, and the Rho GTPase Cdc42 (cell division cycle 42) activates the mPar6alpha/Par3 (Par for partitioning defective) complex to coordinate actin dynamics in the growth cone. Subsequently, mPar6alpha signaling controls the migration of immature granule neurons down the Bergmann glial fibers into the internal granule cell layer in which they establish synaptic connections. PMID:17050699

  18. L'analyse par activation de neutrons de réacteur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, G.

    2003-02-01

    Quand les neutrons traversent la matière, certains sont transmis sans interaction, les autres interagissent avec le milieu traversé par diffusion et par absorption. Ce phénomène d'absorption est utilisé pour se protéger des neutrons, mais aussi pour les détecter; il peut également être utilisé pour identifier les noyaux “absorbants" et ainsi analyser le milieu traversé. En effet par différentes réactions nucléaires (n,γ), (n,p), (n,α), (n,fission), on obtient des noyaux résiduels qui sont souvent radioactifs; on dit que l'échantillon est “activé". Si l'on connaît le rendement d'activation et donc le pourcentage de noyaux ainsi “transmutés", les mesures de radioactivité induite vont permettre de déterminer la composition de l'échantillon irradié. Cette méthode dite d'analyse par activation neutronique est pratiquée depuis la découverte du neutron. Elle a permis grâce à sa sélectivité et à sa sensibilité d'avoir accès au domaine des traces et des ultra-traces dans des champs d'application très divers comme la métallurgie, l'archéologie, la biologie, la géochimie etc...

  19. Conservation Action Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Rifle Association, Washington, DC.

    Conservation problems are identified, with some suggestions for action. General areas covered are: Wildlife Conservation, Soil Conservation, Clean Water, Air Pollution Action, and Outdoor Recreation Action. Appendices list private organizations or agencies concerned with natural resource use and/or management, congressional committees considering

  20. Building robust conservation plans.

    PubMed

    Visconti, Piero; Joppa, Lucas

    2015-04-01

    Systematic conservation planning optimizes trade-offs between biodiversity conservation and human activities by accounting for socioeconomic costs while aiming to achieve prescribed conservation objectives. However, the most cost-efficient conservation plan can be very dissimilar to any other plan achieving the set of conservation objectives. This is problematic under conditions of implementation uncertainty (e.g., if all or part of the plan becomes unattainable). We determined through simulations of parallel implementation of conservation plans and habitat loss the conditions under which optimal plans have limited chances of implementation and where implementation attempts would fail to meet objectives. We then devised a new, flexible method for identifying conservation priorities and scheduling conservation actions. This method entails generating a number of alternative plans, calculating the similarity in site composition among all plans, and selecting the plan with the highest density of neighboring plans in similarity space. We compared our method with the classic method that maximizes cost efficiency with synthetic and real data sets. When implementation was uncertain--a common reality--our method provided higher likelihood of achieving conservation targets. We found that χ, a measure of the shortfall in objectives achieved by a conservation plan if the plan could not be implemented entirely, was the main factor determining the relative performance of a flexibility enhanced approach to conservation prioritization. Our findings should help planning authorities prioritize conservation efforts in the face of uncertainty about future condition and availability of sites. PMID:25362995

  1. Conservation Action Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Rifle Association, Washington, DC.

    Conservation problems are identified, with some suggestions for action. General areas covered are: Wildlife Conservation, Soil Conservation, Clean Water, Air Pollution Action, and Outdoor Recreation Action. Appendices list private organizations or agencies concerned with natural resource use and/or management, congressional committees considering…

  2. Conservation in Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Edward

    1991-01-01

    Discussed is the physical concept of conservation as it is framed within the laws of conservation of mass, of momentum, and of energy. The derivation of Ohm's Law as a generalization of the relationship between the observed measurements of voltage and current serves as the exemplar of how conservation theories are formed. (JJK)

  3. Society of Surgical Oncology–American Society for Radiation Oncology Consensus Guideline on Margins for Breast-Conserving Surgery With Whole-Breast Irradiation in Stages I and II Invasive Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, Meena S.; Schnitt, Stuart J.; Giuliano, Armando E.; Harris, Jay R.; Khan, Seema A.; Horton, Janet; Klimberg, Suzanne; Chavez-MacGregor, Mariana; Freedman, Gary; Houssami, Nehmat; Johnson, Peggy L.; Morrow, Monica

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To convene a multidisciplinary panel of breast experts to examine the relationship between margin width and ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) and develop a guideline for defining adequate margins in the setting of breast conserving surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A multidisciplinary consensus panel used a meta-analysis of margin width and IBTR from a systematic review of 33 studies including 28,162 patients as the primary evidence base for consensus. Results: Positive margins (ink on invasive carcinoma or ductal carcinoma in situ) are associated with a 2-fold increase in the risk of IBTR compared with negative margins. This increased risk is not mitigated by favorable biology, endocrine therapy, or a radiation boost. More widely clear margins than no ink on tumor do not significantly decrease the rate of IBTR compared with no ink on tumor. There is no evidence that more widely clear margins reduce IBTR for young patients or for those with unfavorable biology, lobular cancers, or cancers with an extensive intraductal component. Conclusions: The use of no ink on tumor as the standard for an adequate margin in invasive cancer in the era of multidisciplinary therapy is associated with low rates of IBTR and has the potential to decrease re-excision rates, improve cosmetic outcomes, and decrease health care costs.

  4. Irradiation subassembly

    DOEpatents

    Seim, O.S.; Filewicz, E.C.; Hutter, E.

    1973-10-23

    An irradiation subassembly for use in a nuclear reactor is described which includes a bundle of slender elongated irradiation -capsules or fuel elements enclosed by a coolant tube and having yieldable retaining liner between the irradiation capsules and the coolant tube. For a hexagonal bundle surrounded by a hexagonal tube the yieldable retaining liner may consist either of six segments corresponding to the six sides of the tube or three angular segments each corresponding in two adjacent sides of the tube. The sides of adjacent segments abut and are so cut that metal-tometal contact is retained when the volume enclosed by the retaining liner is varied and Springs are provided for urging the segments toward the center of the tube to hold the capsules in a closely packed configuration. (Official Gazette)

  5. Identification of a Novel Regulatory Mechanism of Nutrient Transport Controlled by TORC1-Npr1-Amu1/Par32.

    PubMed

    Boeckstaens, Mélanie; Merhi, Ahmad; Llinares, Elisa; Van Vooren, Pascale; Springael, Jean-Yves; Wintjens, René; Marini, Anna Maria

    2015-07-01

    Fine-tuning the plasma-membrane permeability to essential nutrients is fundamental to cell growth optimization. Nutritional signals including nitrogen availability are integrated by the TORC1 complex which notably regulates arrestin-mediated endocytosis of amino-acid transporters. Ammonium is a ubiquitous compound playing key physiological roles in many, if not all, organisms. In yeast, it is a preferred nitrogen source transported by three Mep proteins which are orthologues of the mammalian Rhesus factors. By combining genetic, kinetic, biochemical and cell microscopy analyses, the current study reveals a novel mechanism enabling TORC1 to regulate the inherent activity of ammonium transport proteins, independently of arrestin-mediated endocytosis, identifying the still functional orphan Amu1/Par32 as a selective regulator intermediate. We show that, under poor nitrogen supply, the TORC1 effector kinase' Npr1' promotes phosphorylation of Amu1/Par32 which appears mainly cytosolic while ammonium transport proteins are active. Upon preferred nitrogen supplementation, like glutamine or ammonium addition, TORC1 upregulation enables Npr1 inhibition and Amu1/Par32 dephosphorylation. In these conditions, as in Npr1-lacking cells, hypophosphorylated Amu1/Par32 accumulates at the cell surface and mediates the inhibition of specific ammonium transport proteins. We show that the integrity of a conserved repeated motif of Amu1/Par32 is required for the interaction with these transport proteins. This study underscores the diversity of strategies enabling TORC1-Npr1 to selectively monitor cell permeability to nutrients by discriminating between transporters to be degraded or transiently inactivated and kept stable at the plasma membrane. This study further identifies the function of Amu1/Par32 in acute control of ammonium transport in response to variations in nitrogen availability. PMID:26172854

  6. Identification of a Novel Regulatory Mechanism of Nutrient Transport Controlled by TORC1-Npr1-Amu1/Par32

    PubMed Central

    Boeckstaens, Mélanie; Merhi, Ahmad; Llinares, Elisa; Van Vooren, Pascale; Springael, Jean-Yves; Wintjens, René; Marini, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    Fine-tuning the plasma-membrane permeability to essential nutrients is fundamental to cell growth optimization. Nutritional signals including nitrogen availability are integrated by the TORC1 complex which notably regulates arrestin-mediated endocytosis of amino-acid transporters. Ammonium is a ubiquitous compound playing key physiological roles in many, if not all, organisms. In yeast, it is a preferred nitrogen source transported by three Mep proteins which are orthologues of the mammalian Rhesus factors. By combining genetic, kinetic, biochemical and cell microscopy analyses, the current study reveals a novel mechanism enabling TORC1 to regulate the inherent activity of ammonium transport proteins, independently of arrestin-mediated endocytosis, identifying the still functional orphan Amu1/Par32 as a selective regulator intermediate. We show that, under poor nitrogen supply, the TORC1 effector kinase' Npr1' promotes phosphorylation of Amu1/Par32 which appears mainly cytosolic while ammonium transport proteins are active. Upon preferred nitrogen supplementation, like glutamine or ammonium addition, TORC1 upregulation enables Npr1 inhibition and Amu1/Par32 dephosphorylation. In these conditions, as in Npr1-lacking cells, hypophosphorylated Amu1/Par32 accumulates at the cell surface and mediates the inhibition of specific ammonium transport proteins. We show that the integrity of a conserved repeated motif of Amu1/Par32 is required for the interaction with these transport proteins. This study underscores the diversity of strategies enabling TORC1-Npr1 to selectively monitor cell permeability to nutrients by discriminating between transporters to be degraded or transiently inactivated and kept stable at the plasma membrane. This study further identifies the function of Amu1/Par32 in acute control of ammonium transport in response to variations in nitrogen availability. PMID:26172854

  7. Exactly conservative integrators

    SciTech Connect

    Shadwick, B.A.; Bowman, J.C.; Morrison, P.J.

    1995-07-19

    Traditional numerical discretizations of conservative systems generically yield an artificial secular drift of any nonlinear invariants. In this work we present an explicit nontraditional algorithm that exactly conserves invariants. We illustrate the general method by applying it to the Three-Wave truncation of the Euler equations, the Volterra-Lotka predator-prey model, and the Kepler problem. We discuss our method in the context of symplectic (phase space conserving) integration methods as well as nonsymplectic conservative methods. We comment on the application of our method to general conservative systems.

  8. Exactly conservation integrators

    SciTech Connect

    Shadwick, B.A.; Bowman, J.C.; Morrison, P.J.

    1999-03-01

    Traditional explicit numerical discretizations of conservative systems generically predict artificial secular drifts of any nonlinear invariants. In this work the authors present a general approach for developing explicit nontraditional algorithms that conserve such invariants exactly. They illustrate the method by applying it to the three-wave truncation of the Euler equations, the Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model, and the Kepler problem. The ideas are discussed in the context of symplectic (phase-space-conserving) integration methods as well as nonsymplectic conservative methods. They comment on the application of the method to general conservative systems.

  9. Conservation: Toward firmer ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The following aspects of energy conservation were reviewed in order to place the problems in proper perspective: history and goals, conservation accounting-criteria, and a method to overcome obstacles. The effect of changing prices and available supplies of energy sources and their causes on consumption levels during the last few decades were described. Some examples of attainable conservation goals were listed and justified. A number of specific criteria applicable to conservation accounting were given. Finally, a discussion was presented to relate together the following aspects of energy conservation: widespread impact, involvement of government, industry, politics, moral and ethical aspects, urgency and time element.

  10. Irradiance gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, G.J. Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne ); Heckbert, P.S. . School of Computer Science Technische Hogeschool Delft . Dept. of Technical Mathematics and Informatics)

    1992-04-01

    A new method for improving the accuracy of a diffuse interreflection calculation is introduced in a ray tracing context. The information from a hemispherical sampling of the luminous environment is interpreted in a new way to predict the change in irradiance as a function of position and surface orientation. The additional computation involved is modest and the benefit is substantial. An improved interpolation of irradiance resulting from the gradient calculation produces smoother, more accurate renderings. This result is achieved through better utilization of ray samples rather than additional samples or alternate sampling strategies. Thus, the technique is applicable to a variety of global illumination algorithms that use hemicubes or Monte Carlo sampling techniques.

  11. Transcriptome profiling reveals links between ParS/ParR, MexEF-OprN, and quorum sensing in the regulation of adaptation and virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The ParS/ParR two component regulatory system plays critical roles for multidrug resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It was demonstrated that in the presence of antimicrobials, ParR enhances bacterial survival by distinct mechanisms including activation of the mexXY efflux genes, enhancement of lipopolysaccharide modification through the arn operon, and reduction of the expression of oprD porin. Results In this study, we report on transcriptomic analyses of P. aeruginosa PAO1 wild type and parS and parR mutants growing in a defined minimal medium. Our transcriptomic analysis provides the first estimates of transcript abundance for the 5570 coding genes in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Comparative transcriptomics of P. aeruginosa PAO1 and par mutants identified a total of 464 genes regulated by ParS and ParR. Results also showed that mutations in the parS/parR system abolished expression of the mexEF-oprN operon by down-regulating the regulatory gene mexS. In addition to the known effects on drug resistance genes, transcript abundances of the quorum sensing genes (rhlIR and pqsABCDE-phnAB) were higher in both parS and parR mutants. In accordance with these results, a significant portion of the ParS/ParR regulated genes belonged to the MexEF-OprN and quorum sensing regulons. Deletion of the par genes also led to increased phenazine production and swarming motility, consistent with the up-regulation of the phenazine and rhamnolipid biosynthetic genes, respectively. Conclusion Our results link the ParS/ParR two component signal transduction system to MexEF-OprN and quorum sensing systems in P. aeruginosa. These results expand our understanding of the roles of the ParS/ParR system in the regulation of gene expression in P. aeruginosa, especially in the absence of antimicrobials. PMID:24034668

  12. Biased signaling: potential agonist and antagonist of PAR2.

    PubMed

    Kakarala, Kavita Kumari; Jamil, Kaiser

    2016-06-01

    Protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2) has emerged as one of the promising therapeutic targets to inhibit rapidly metastasizing breast cancer cells. However, its elusive molecular mechanism of activation and signaling has made it a difficult target for drug development. In this study, in silico methods were used to unfold PAR2 molecular mechanism of signaling based on the concept of GPCR receptor plasticity. Although, there are no conclusive evidences of the presence of specific endogenous ligands for PAR2, the efficacy of synthetic agonist and antagonist in PAR2 signaling has opened up the possibilities of ligand-mediated signaling. Furthermore, it has been proved that ligands specific for one GPCR can induce signaling in GPCRs belonging to other subfamilies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify potential agonists and antagonists from the GPCR ligand library (GLL), which may induce biased signaling in PAR2 using the concept of existence of multiple ligand-stabilized receptor conformations. The results of our in silico study suggest that PAR2 may show biased signaling mainly with agonists of serotonin type 1, β-adrenergic type 1,3 and antagonists of substance K (NK1), serotonin type 2, dopamine type 4, and thromboxane receptors. Further, this study also throws light on the putative ligand-specific conformations of PAR2. Thus, the results of this study provide structural insights to putative conformations of PAR2 and also gives initial clues to medicinal chemists for rational drug design targeting this challenging receptor. PMID:26295578

  13. Prone Whole-Breast Irradiation Using Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy in Women Undergoing Breast Conservation for Early Disease Yields High Rates of Excellent to Good Cosmetic Outcomes in Patients With Large and/or Pendulous Breasts

    SciTech Connect

    Bergom, Carmen; Kelly, Tracy; Morrow, Natalya; Wilson, J. Frank; Walker, Alonzo; Xiang Qun; Ahn, Kwang Woo; White, Julia

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To report our institution's experience using prone positioning for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) to deliver post-lumpectomy whole breast irradiation (WBI) in a cohort of women with large and/or pendulous breasts, to determine the rate of acute and late toxicities and, more specifically, cosmetic outcomes. We hypothesized that using 3D-CRT for WBI in the prone position would reduce or eliminate patient and breast size as negative prognostic indicators for toxicities associated with WBI. Methods and Materials: From 1998 to 2006, 110 cases were treated with prone WBI using 3D-CRT. The lumpectomy, breast target volumes, heart, and lung were contoured on all computed tomography scans. A dose of 45-50 Gy was prescribed to the breast volume using standard fractionation schemes. The planning goals were {>=}95% of prescription to 95% of the breast volume, and 100% of boost dose to 95% of lumpectomy planning target volume. Toxicities and cosmesis were prospectively scored using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Effects Version 3.0 and the Harvard Scale. The median follow-up was 40 months. Results: The median body mass index (BMI) was 33.6 kg/m{sup 2}, and median breast volume was 1396 cm{sup 3}. The worst toxicity encountered during radiation was Grade 3 dermatitis in 5% of our patient population. Moist desquamation occurred in 16% of patients, with only 2% of patients with moist desquamation outside the inframammary/axillary folds. Eleven percent of patients had Grade {>=}2 late toxicities, including Grade 3 induration/fibrosis in 2%. Excellent to good cosmesis was achieved in 89%. Higher BMI was associated with moist desquamation and breast pain, but BMI and breast volume did not impact fibrosis or excellent to good cosmesis. Conclusion: In patients with higher BMI and/or large-pendulous breasts, delivering prone WBI using 3D-CRT results in favorable toxicity profiles and high excellent to good cosmesis rates. Higher BMI was associated with moist desquamation, but prone positioning removed BMI and breast size as factors for poorer cosmetic outcomes. This series adds to the growing literature demonstrating that prone WBI may be advantageous in select patients.

  14. Proteases in agricultural dust induce lung inflammation through PAR-1 and PAR-2 activation.

    PubMed

    Romberger, Debra J; Heires, Art J; Nordgren, Tara M; Souder, Chelsea P; West, William; Liu, Xiang-de; Poole, Jill A; Toews, Myron L; Wyatt, Todd A

    2015-08-15

    Workers exposed to aerosolized dust present in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are susceptible to inflammatory lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Extracts of dust collected from hog CAFOs [hog dust extract (HDE)] are potent stimulators of lung inflammatory responses in several model systems. The observation that HDE contains active proteases prompted the present study, which evaluated the role of CAFO dust proteases in lung inflammatory processes and tested whether protease-activated receptors (PARs) are involved in the signaling pathway for these events. We hypothesized that the damaging proinflammatory effect of HDE is due, in part, to the proteolytic activation of PARs, and inhibiting the proteases in HDE or disrupting PAR activation would attenuate HDE-mediated inflammatory indexes in bronchial epithelial cells (BECs), in mouse lung slices in vitro, and in a murine in vivo exposure model. Human BECs and mouse lung slice cultures stimulated with 5% HDE released significantly more of each of the cytokines measured (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, keratinocyte-derived chemokine/CXC chemokine ligand 1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2/CXC chemokine ligand 2) than controls, and these effects were markedly diminished by protease inhibition. Inhibition of PARs also blunted the HDE-induced cytokine release from BECs. In addition, protease depletion inhibited HDE-induced BEC intracellular PKCα and PKCε activation. C57BL/6J mice administered 12.5% HDE intranasally, either once or daily for 3 wk, exhibited increased total cellular and neutrophil influx, bronchial alveolar fluid inflammatory cytokines, lung histopathology, and inflammatory scores compared with mice receiving protease-depleted HDE. These data suggest that proteases in dust from CAFOs are important mediators of lung inflammation, and these proteases and their receptors may provide novel targets for therapeutic intervention in CAFO dust-induced airways disease. PMID:26092994

  15. Irradiated foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... it reduces the risk of food poisoning . Food irradiation is used in many countries. It was first approved in the U.S. to prevent sprouts on white potatoes, and to control insects on wheat and in certain spices and seasonings.

  16. Cancer-selective apoptosis by tumor suppressor par-4.

    PubMed

    Hebbar, Nikhil; Shrestha-Bhattarai, Tripti; Rangnekar, Vivek M

    2014-01-01

    Tumor suppressor genes play an important role in preventing neoplastic transformation and maintaining normal tissue homeostasis. Par-4 is one such tumor suppressor which is unique in its ability to selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells while leaving the normal cells unaffected. The cancer cell specific activity of Par-4 is elicited through intracellular as well as extracellular mechanisms. Intracellularly Par-4 acts through the inhibition of pro-survival pathways and activation of Fas mediated apoptosis whereas extracellular (secreted Par-4) acts by binding to cell surface GRP78 leading to activation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Many studies have highlighted the importance of Par-4 not only in preventing cancer development/recurrence but also as a promising anticancer therapeutic agent. PMID:25001535

  17. Recombination in the human Pseudoautosomal region PAR1.

    PubMed

    Hinch, Anjali G; Altemose, Nicolas; Noor, Nudrat; Donnelly, Peter; Myers, Simon R

    2014-07-01

    The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) is a short region of homology between the mammalian X and Y chromosomes, which has undergone rapid evolution. A crossover in the PAR is essential for the proper disjunction of X and Y chromosomes in male meiosis, and PAR deletion results in male sterility. This leads the human PAR with the obligatory crossover, PAR1, to having an exceptionally high male crossover rate, which is 17-fold higher than the genome-wide average. However, the mechanism by which this obligatory crossover occurs remains unknown, as does the fine-scale positioning of crossovers across this region. Recent research in mice has suggested that crossovers in PAR may be mediated independently of the protein PRDM9, which localises virtually all crossovers in the autosomes. To investigate recombination in this region, we construct the most fine-scale genetic map containing directly observed crossovers to date using African-American pedigrees. We leverage recombination rates inferred from the breakdown of linkage disequilibrium in human populations and investigate the signatures of DNA evolution due to recombination. Further, we identify direct PRDM9 binding sites using ChIP-seq in human cells. Using these independent lines of evidence, we show that, in contrast with mouse, PRDM9 does localise peaks of recombination in the human PAR1. We find that recombination is a far more rapid and intense driver of sequence evolution in PAR1 than it is on the autosomes. We also show that PAR1 hotspot activities differ significantly among human populations. Finally, we find evidence that PAR1 hotspot positions have changed between human and chimpanzee, with no evidence of sharing among the hottest hotspots. We anticipate that the genetic maps built and validated in this work will aid research on this vital and fascinating region of the genome. PMID:25033397

  18. Circulating suPAR in Two Cohorts of Primary FSGS

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Changli; Trachtman, Howard; Li, Jing; Dong, Chuanhui; Friedman, Aaron L.; Gassman, Jennifer J.; McMahan, June L.; Radeva, Milena; Heil, Karsten M.; Trautmann, Agnes; Anarat, Ali; Emre, Sevinc; Ghiggeri, Gian M.; Ozaltin, Fatih; Haffner, Dieter; Gipson, Debbie S.; Kaskel, Frederick; Fischer, Dagmar-Christiane; Schaefer, Franz

    2012-01-01

    Overexpression of soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) causes pathology in animal models similar to primary FSGS, and one recent study demonstrated elevated levels of serum suPAR in patients with the disease. Here, we analyzed circulating suPAR levels in two cohorts of children and adults with biopsy-proven primary FSGS: 70 patients from the North America–based FSGS clinical trial (CT) and 94 patients from PodoNet, the Europe-based consortium studying steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. Circulating suPAR levels were elevated in 84.3% and 55.3% of patients with FSGS patients in the CT and PodoNet cohorts, respectively, compared with 6% of controls (P<0.0001); inflammation did not account for this difference. Multiple regression analysis suggested that lower suPAR levels associated with higher estimated GFR, male sex, and treatment with mycophenolate mofetil. In the CT cohort, there was a positive association between the relative reduction of suPAR after 26 weeks of treatment and reduction of proteinuria, with higher odds for complete remission (P=0.04). In the PodoNet cohort, patients with an NPHS2 mutation had higher suPAR levels than those without a mutation. In conclusion, suPAR levels are elevated in geographically and ethnically diverse patients with FSGS and do not reflect a nonspecific proinflammatory milieu. The associations between a change in circulating suPAR with different therapeutic regimens and with remission support the role of suPAR in the pathogenesis of FSGS. PMID:23138488

  19. Recombination in the Human Pseudoautosomal Region PAR1

    PubMed Central

    Hinch, Anjali G.; Altemose, Nicolas; Noor, Nudrat; Donnelly, Peter; Myers, Simon R.

    2014-01-01

    The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) is a short region of homology between the mammalian X and Y chromosomes, which has undergone rapid evolution. A crossover in the PAR is essential for the proper disjunction of X and Y chromosomes in male meiosis, and PAR deletion results in male sterility. This leads the human PAR with the obligatory crossover, PAR1, to having an exceptionally high male crossover rate, which is 17-fold higher than the genome-wide average. However, the mechanism by which this obligatory crossover occurs remains unknown, as does the fine-scale positioning of crossovers across this region. Recent research in mice has suggested that crossovers in PAR may be mediated independently of the protein PRDM9, which localises virtually all crossovers in the autosomes. To investigate recombination in this region, we construct the most fine-scale genetic map containing directly observed crossovers to date using African-American pedigrees. We leverage recombination rates inferred from the breakdown of linkage disequilibrium in human populations and investigate the signatures of DNA evolution due to recombination. Further, we identify direct PRDM9 binding sites using ChIP-seq in human cells. Using these independent lines of evidence, we show that, in contrast with mouse, PRDM9 does localise peaks of recombination in the human PAR1. We find that recombination is a far more rapid and intense driver of sequence evolution in PAR1 than it is on the autosomes. We also show that PAR1 hotspot activities differ significantly among human populations. Finally, we find evidence that PAR1 hotspot positions have changed between human and chimpanzee, with no evidence of sharing among the hottest hotspots. We anticipate that the genetic maps built and validated in this work will aid research on this vital and fascinating region of the genome. PMID:25033397

  20. Dual targeting DNA gyrase B (GyrB) and topoisomerse IV (ParE) inhibitors: A review.

    PubMed

    Azam, Mohammed Afzal; Thathan, Janarthanan; Jubie, Selvaraj

    2015-10-01

    GyrB and ParE are type IIA topoisomerases and found in most bacteria. Its function is vital for DNA replication, repair and decatenation. The highly conserved ATP-binding subunits of DNA GyrB and ParE are structurally related and have been recognized as prime candidates for the development of dual-targeting antibacterial agents with broad-spectrum potential. However, no natural product or small molecule inhibitors targeting ATPase catalytic domain of both GyrB and ParE enzymes have succeeded in the clinic. Moreover, no inhibitors of these enzymes with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against Gram-negative pathogens have been reported. Availability of high resolution crystal structures of GyrB and ParE made it possible for the design of many different classes of inhibitors with dual mechanism of action. Among them benzimidazoles, benzothiazoles, thiazolopyridines, imidiazopyridazoles, pyridines, indazoles, pyrazoles, imidazopyridines, triazolopyridines, pyrrolopyrimidines, pyrimidoindoles as well as related structures are disclosed in literatures. Unfortunately most of these inhibitors are found to be active against Gram-positive pathogens. In the present review we discuss about studies on novel dual targeting ATPase inhibitors. PMID:26232660

  1. A Casein Kinase 1 and PAR Proteins Regulate Asymmetry of a PIP2 Synthesis Enzyme for Asymmetric Spindle Positioning

    PubMed Central

    Panbianco, Costanza; Weinkove, David; Zanin, Esther; Jones, David; Divecha, Nullin; Gotta, Monica; Ahringer, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Summary Spindle positioning is an essential feature of asymmetric cell division. The conserved PAR proteins together with heterotrimeric G proteins control spindle positioning in animal cells, but how these are linked is not known. In C. elegans, PAR protein activity leads to asymmetric spindle placement through cortical asymmetry of Gα regulators GPR-1/2. Here, we establish that the casein kinase 1 gamma CSNK-1 and a PIP2 synthesis enzyme (PPK-1) transduce PAR polarity to asymmetric Gα regulation. PPK-1 is posteriorly enriched in the one-celled embryo through PAR and CSNK-1 activities. Loss of CSNK-1 causes uniformly high PPK-1 levels, high symmetric cortical levels of GPR-1/2 and LIN-5, and increased spindle pulling forces. In contrast, knockdown of ppk-1 leads to low GPR-1/2 levels and decreased spindle forces. Furthermore, loss of CSNK-1 leads to increased levels of PIP2. We propose that asymmetric generation of PIP2 by PPK-1 directs the posterior enrichment of GPR-1/2 and LIN-5, leading to posterior spindle displacement. PMID:18694560

  2. SPRY1 promotes the degradation of uPAR and inhibits uPAR-mediated cell adhesion and proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiufeng; Lan, Yan; Zhang, Di; Wang, Kai; Wang, Yao; Hua, Zi-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a GPI anchored cell surface protein that is closely associated with invasion, migration, and metastasis of cancer cells. Many functional extracellular proteins and transmembrane receptors interact with uPAR. However, few studies have examined the association of uPAR with cytoplasm proteins. We previously used yeast two-hybrid screening to isolate several novel uPAR-interacting cytoplasmic proteins, including Sprouty1 (SPRY1), an inhibitor of the (Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase) MAPK pathway. In this study, we show that SPRY1 interacts with uPAR and directs it toward lysosomal-mediated degradation. Overexpression of SPRY1 decreased the cell surface and cytoplasmic uPAR protein level. Moreover, SPRY1 overexpression augmented uPAR-induced cell adhesion to vitronectin as well as proliferation of cancer cells. Our results also further support the critical role of SPRY1 contribution to tumor growth. In a subcutaneous tumor model, overexpression of SPRY1 in HCT116 or A549 xenograft in athymic nude mice led to great suppression of tumor growth. These results show that SPRY1 may affect tumor cell function through direct interaction with uPAR and promote its lysosomal degradation. PMID:25520860

  3. Traitement des fractures des plateaux externes par vissage percutané assisté par arthroscopie

    PubMed Central

    Abouchane, Merouane; Belmoubarik, Amine; Benameur, Hamza; Haddoun, Ahmed Reda; Nechad, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Le but de notre étude est d'évaluer les résultats de fractures des plateaux tibiaux externes traitées par ostéosynthèse percutanée assistée par arthroscopie. Dix patients (8 hommes et 2 femmes) de 32 ans en moyenne ont subi cette intervention afin de réparer des fractures des plateaux tibiaux Schatzker I-III. Après avoir appliqué un garrot pneumatique, nous avons réduit et fixé la fracture au moyen de vis cannelées souschondrales. Lésions associées retrouvent deux lésions partielles du ménisque externe ont été retrouvé, traitées par résection partielle. Une orthèse de genou été de mise à but antalgique et protectrice pendant six semaines avec béquillage et interdiction de l'appui pour une durée de douze semaines avec reprise d'appui partiel au delà. La durée d'hospitalisation été d'une moyenne de cinq jours. La rééducation passive a été commence le lendemain de l'intervention et continuait dans chez un kinésithérapeute à la sortie du patient du service. Le suivi été à J7, J15, 1mois, 3mois, 6 mois puis tous les 6 mois. Neuf de nos patients ont été revu régulièrement sauf un perdu de vue. Le recul moyen de notre série été de 16 mois (10 et 24 mois). Le score de Lysholm a été utilisé pour évaluer les résultats cliniques chez nos neuf patients: excellent chez trois patients bons chez trois moyen chez un seul et mauvais chez deux patients. Tous nos neuf patients ont consolidé (figure 10 contrôle scopique d un article). Aucune gonarthrose n'a été note chez nos neuf patients due essentiellement au recul moyen faible de 16 mois. Le traitement des fractures des plateaux tibiaux externes assisté par arthroscopie produit des résultats satisfaisants et peut être accepté comme solution de rechange efficace au traitement des fractures des plateaux tibiaux causées par un choc de faible énergie. PMID:26587137

  4. Radiation technology for environmental conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machi, S.

    The use of radiation technology for environmental conservation is becoming increasingly important. Commercial plants for the radiation treatment of sewage sludge to reduce pathogenic micro-organisms have been operating in the Federal Republic of Germany for the past ten years and their technical and economical feasibility has been demonstrated. Irradiation of dried sludge has been developed at the Sandia National Laboratory (USA) using Cs-137, and the construction of a commercial plant is planned in Albuquerque. At the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), efforts are under way to increase the rate of composting of sludge by radiation. Regarding waste water treatment, a significant synergistic effect of radiation and ozone was found in the reduction of TOC. The construction of a gamma irradiation plant is in the planning stage in Canada, for the disinfection of virus-contaminated waste effluents from the Canadian Animal Disease Research Institute. The treatment of exhaust gases by electron beam has been studied in Japan using a large pilot plant which demonstrated that 90% of SO 2 and 80% of NO x can be removed from the flue gas of iron ore sintering furnaces. The US Department of Energy is assisting in projects for the further development of this technology for combined removal of SO 2 and NO x in flue gas from coal burning power stations.

  5. Conservation: Toward firmer ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The following aspects of energy conservation were discussed: conservation history and goals, conservation modes, conservation accounting-criteria, and a method to overcome obstacles. The conservation modes tested fall into one of the following categories: reduced energy consumption, increased efficiency of energy utilization, or substitution of one or more forms of energy for another which is in shorter supply or in some sense thought to be of more value. The conservation accounting criteria include net energy reduction, economic, and technical criteria. A method to overcome obstacles includes (approaches such as: direct personal impact (life style, income, security, aspiration), an element of crisis, large scale involvement of environmental, safety, and health issues, connections to big government, big business, big politics, involvement of known and speculative science and technology, appeal to moral and ethical standards, the transient nature of opportunities to correct the system.

  6. Control of cleavage spindle orientation in Caenorhabditis elegans: The role of the genes par-2 and par-3

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, N.N.; Kirby, C.M.; Kemphues, K.J.

    1995-02-01

    Polarized asymmetric divisions play important roles in the development of plants and animals. The first two embryonic cleavages of Caenorhabditis elegans provide an opportunity to study the mechanisms controlling polarized asymmetric divisions. The first cleavage is unequal, producing daughters with different sizes and fates. The daughter blastomeres divide with different orientations at the second cleavage; the anterior blastomere divides equally across the long axis of the egg, whereas the posterior blastomere divides unequally along the long axis. We report here the results of our analysis of the genes par-2 and par-3 with respect to their contribution to the polarity of these divisions. Strong loss-of-function mutations in both genes lead to an equal first cleavage and an altered second cleavage. Interestingly, the mutations exhibit striking gene-specific differences at the second cleavage. The par-2 mutations lead to transverse spindle orientations in both blastomeres, whereas par-3 mutations lead to longitudinal spindle orientations in both blastomeres. The spindle orientation defects correlate with defects in centrosome movements during both the first and the second cell cycle. Temperature shift experiments with par-2 (it5ts) indicate that the par-2(+) activity is not required after the two-cell stage. Analysis of double mutants shows that par-3 is epistatic to par-2. We propose a model wherein par-2(+) and par-3(+) act in concert during the first cell cycle to affect asymmetric modification of the cytoskeleton. This polar modification leads to different behaviors of centrosomes in the anterior and posterior and leads ultimately to blastomere-specific spindle orientations at the second cleavage. 44 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Energy conservation marketing handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.K.

    1983-01-01

    Energy-conservation investment estimates for the 1981 to 1985 period total almost $200 billion, but studies show that much more is needed to modify American buildings during the energy squeeze. Energy engineers must continue to perfect conservation equipment and techniques if the industry is to continue to prosper. This book reviews major energy-related events, policies, and legislation; basic energy-use data; opportunities for energy-conservation research, development, and marketing; the federal role as an energy user and the DOE role in the effective management of energy problems; and the economic decisions involved in financing energy-conservation projects. 82 references, 39 figures, 109 tables. (DCK)

  8. Simulation de l'accretion de glace sur un obstacle bidimensionnel par la methode des bissectrices et par la modelisation des ruisselets et des gouttes de surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, Guy

    Le LIMA (Laboratoire International des Materiaux Antigivre) en collaboration avec le CIRA (Italian Aerospace Research Centre) a developpe un logiciel simulant l'accretion de la glace en regimes sec et humide sur un objet bidimensionnel fixe. L'approche utilisee s'appuie sur les travaux de Lozowski pour les bilans energetiques, sur une etude du comportement du film d'eau, des ruisselets et des gouttes de surface pour le calcul des rugosites et des masses d'eau residuelle, ainsi que sur une methode de bissectrice pour l'evolution de la surface de glace. La contribution du CIRA a ete de fournir le logiciel pour le calcul des ecoulements et de la captation. Le bilan energetique base sur la conservation de l'energie est la sommation de la chaleur latente de fusion, d'evaporation et de sublimation, du rechauffement adiabatique et cinetique, et des pertes de chaleur par convection et conduction, ainsi que de l'evolution thermodynamique de l'eau de son etat initial a son etat final. La densite de la glace, qui a un impact important sur la simulation, est calculee a partir d'une correlation empirique developpee avec les cylindres tournants. En se basant sur les travaux de Al-Khalil et Hansman, le comportement des gouttes en regimes sec et humide a ete decrit analytiquement, ce qui a mene a determiner la hauteur maximale que peuvent atteindre les gouttes avant mouvement. Cette hauteur, appelee hauteur de mouvement, permet de determiner l'etat de l'eau sur la surface (film, ruisselets ou gouttes), ainsi que la hauteur des rugosites lorsque l'eau existe sous forme de gouttes ou de ruisselets. La hauteur de mouvement est determinee par l'equilibre entre les forces de cisaillement, induites par les effets aerodynamiques et gravitationnels evalues pour une goutte non deformee, et la force de cisaillement, induite par la tension de surface et la deformation de la goutte. Elle a ete validee en laboratoire et la precision obtenue pour la partie aerodynamique et gravitationnelle est de 80%. L'etude de la vague qui se forme sur le film a permis de determiner la hauteur des rugosites lorsque l'eau existe sous forme de film. La masse d'eau residuelle est calculee a partir des modeles analytiques elabores selon l'etat de surface et la hauteur de mouvement. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  9. Anti-Urokinase Receptor Antisense Oligonucleotide (uPAR-aODN) to Prevent and Cure Long-Term Space Exploration-Related Retinal Pathological Angiogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzarano, Stefano; Lulli, Matteo; Fibbi, Gabriella; Margheri, Francesca; Papucci, Laura; Serrati, Simona; Witort, Ewa; Chilla, Anastasia; Lapucci, Andrea; Donnini, Martino; Quaglierini, Paolo; Romiti, Alice; Specogna, Rebecca; Del Rosso, Mario; Capaccioli, Sergio

    2008-06-01

    Angiogenesis underlies a variety of physiological processes and its possible deregulation during long term space exploration needs to be investigated. Angiogenesis is a multistep process of new blood capillary formation, where degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) by proteolytic enzymes, including uPA (urokinase plasminogen activator) and opening the way to migration of endothelial cells (EC), is critical. Plasminogen activation system regulates angiogenesis by both uPA-driven ECM degradation and uPA receptor (uPAR). Microgravity and low dose irradiations promote tissue neoangiogeenesis and neovascularization is often common occurence in ophthalmologic pathologies. We have designed and patented the uPAR antisense oligonucleotide (aODN) and evaluated its antiangiogenetic activity by EC cellular migration and capillary morphogenesis assays. The uPAR aODN treatment caused a 75% inhibition of human microvascular EC migration and a complete inhibition of capillary morphogenesis, suggesting its therapeutic application to prevent neoangiogenesis-related ophthalmologic pathologies during space exploration.

  10. Biodiversity Conservation and Conservation Biotechnology Tools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This special issue is dedicated to the in vitro tools and methods used to conserve the genetic diversity of rare and threatened species from around the world. Species that are on the brink of extinction, due to the rapid loss of genetic diversity and habitat, come mainly from resource poor areas the...

  11. Protease-Activated Receptor (PAR)2, but Not PAR1, Is Involved in Collateral Formation and Anti-Inflammatory Monocyte Polarization in a Mouse Hind Limb Ischemia Model

    PubMed Central

    Nossent, Anne Yael; van Oeveren-Rietdijk, Annemarie M.; de Vries, Margreet R.; Spek, C. Arnold; van Zonneveld, Anton Jan; Reitsma, Pieter H.; Hamming, Jaap F.; de Boer, Hetty C.; Versteeg, Henri H.; Quax, Paul H. A.

    2013-01-01

    Aims In collateral development (i.e. arteriogenesis), mononuclear cells are important and exist as a heterogeneous population consisting of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory/repair-associated cells. Protease-activated receptor (PAR)1 and PAR2 are G-protein-coupled receptors that are both expressed by mononuclear cells and are involved in pro-inflammatory reactions, while PAR2 also plays a role in repair-associated responses. Here, we investigated the physiological role of PAR1 and PAR2 in arteriogenesis in a murine hind limb ischemia model. Methods and Results PAR1-deficient (PAR1-/-), PAR2-deficient (PAR2-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice underwent femoral artery ligation. Laser Doppler measurements revealed reduced post-ischemic blood flow recovery in PAR2-/- hind limbs when compared to WT, while PAR1-/- mice were not affected. Upon ischemia, reduced numbers of smooth muscle actin (SMA)-positive collaterals and CD31-positive capillaries were found in PAR2-/- mice when compared to WT mice, whereas these parameters in PAR1-/- mice did not differ from WT mice. The pool of circulating repair-associated (Ly6C-low) monocytes and the number of repair-associated (CD206-positive) macrophages surrounding collaterals in the hind limbs were increased in WT and PAR1-/- mice, but unaffected in PAR2-/- mice. The number of repair-associated macrophages in PAR2-/- hind limbs correlated with CD11b- and CD115-expression on the circulating monocytes in these animals, suggesting that monocyte extravasation and M-CSF-dependent differentiation into repair-associated cells are hampered. Conclusion PAR2, but not PAR1, is involved in arteriogenesis and promotes the repair-associated response in ischemic tissues. Therefore, PAR2 potentially forms a new pro-arteriogenic target in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. PMID:23637930

  12. Novel Role for Proteinase-activated Receptor 2 (PAR2) in Membrane Trafficking of Proteinase-activated Receptor 4 (PAR4)*

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Margaret R.; McIntosh, Kathryn A.; Pediani, John D.; Robben, Joris; Cooke, Alexandra E.; Nilsson, Mary; Gould, Gwyn W.; Mundell, Stuart; Milligan, Graeme; Plevin, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Proteinase-activated receptors 4 (PAR4) is a class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) recognized through the ability of serine proteases such as thrombin and trypsin to mediate receptor activation. Due to the irreversible nature of activation, a fresh supply of receptor is required to be mobilized to the cell surface for responsiveness to agonist to be sustained. Unlike other PAR subtypes, the mechanisms regulating receptor trafficking of PAR4 remain unknown. Here, we report novel features of the intracellular trafficking of PAR4 to the plasma membrane. PAR4 was poorly expressed at the plasma membrane and largely retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in a complex with the COPI protein subunit β-COP1. Analysis of the PAR4 protein sequence identified an arginine-based (RXR) ER retention sequence located within intracellular loop-2 (R183AR → A183AA), mutation of which allowed efficient membrane delivery of PAR4. Interestingly, co-expression with PAR2 facilitated plasma membrane delivery of PAR4, an effect produced through disruption of β-COP1 binding and facilitation of interaction with the chaperone protein 14-3-3ζ. Intermolecular FRET studies confirmed heterodimerization between PAR2 and PAR4. PAR2 also enhanced glycosylation of PAR4 and activation of PAR4 signaling. Our results identify a novel regulatory role for PAR2 in the anterograde traffic of PAR4. PAR2 was shown to both facilitate and abrogate protein interactions with PAR4, impacting upon receptor localization and cell signal transduction. This work is likely to impact markedly upon the understanding of the receptor pharmacology of PAR4 in normal physiology and disease. PMID:22411985

  13. Enhancement effect of irradiation by methotrexate

    SciTech Connect

    Shehata, W.M.; Meyer, R.L.

    1980-09-15

    Three cases are described in which complications developed which were believed to be due to the enhancement effect of irradiation by methotrexate during the course of therapy for lung, kidney, and bladder cancer. These included esophageal and large bowel complications. In two of these cases, the patients improved with conservative therapy.

  14. Resource Conservation Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    This glossary is a composite of terms selected from 13 technologies, and is the expanded revision of the original 1952 edition of "The Soil and Water Conservation Glossary." The terms were selected from these areas: agronomy, biology, conservation, ecology, economics, engineering, forestry, geology, hydrology, range, recreation, soils, and…

  15. Introducing Conservation of Momentum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunt, Marjorie; Brunt, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    The teaching of the principle of conservation of linear momentum is considered (ages 15 + ). From the principle, the momenta of two masses in an isolated system are considered. Sketch graphs of the momenta make Newton's laws appear obvious. Examples using different collision conditions are considered. Conservation of momentum is considered…

  16. Youth Conservation Corps Guidance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This document provides guidelines for operating Youth Conservation Corps programs under both the Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Park Service. The guide contains 11 units that cover the following topics: (1) enrollees; (2) enrollee payroll; (3) enrollee problems; (4) Youth Conservation Corps staff; (5) accounting; (6) operations; (7)…

  17. Water Conservation Resource List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NJEA Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Alarmed by the growing water shortage, the New Jersey State Office of Dissemination has prepared this annotated list of free or inexpensive instructional materials for teaching about water conservation, K-l2. A tipsheet for home water conservation is appended. (Editor/SJL)

  18. Creative Soil Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Martha

    2010-01-01

    Take plant lessons outdoors with this engaging and inquiry-based activity in which third-grade students learn how to apply soil conservation methods to growing plants. They also collect data and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of their method of soil conservation. An added benefit to this activity is that the third-grade students played…

  19. Home Energy Conservation Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLuca, V. William; And Others

    This guide was prepared to support a program of training for community specialists in contemporary and practical techniques of home energy conservation. It is designed to assist professionals in efficient operation of energy conservation programs and to provide ideas for expanding education operations. Eight major sections are presented: (1)…

  20. Teaching Teachers Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, N. L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes a two-week summer course for elementary and secondary teachers on soil and water conservation taught in Wisconsin. Discusses the efforts to recruit teachers for the course, the course content, the field trips, and the evaluation procedures. Stresses the cooperation between educators and conservation agencies in developing the course. (TW)

  1. On exactly conservative integrators

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, J.C.; Shadwick, B.A.; Morrison, P.J.

    1997-06-01

    Traditional explicit numerical discretizations of conservative systems generically predict artificial secular drifts of nonlinear invariants. These algorithms are based on polynomial functions of the time step. The authors discuss a general approach for developing explicit algorithms that conserve such invariants exactly. They illustrate the method by applying it to the truncated two-dimensional Euler equations.

  2. Conservation--Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Conservation Foundation, Parkville, Victoria.

    Developed by the Australian Conservation Foundation to meet the need for a general conservation bibliography, this booklet offers resources for a wide spectrum of possible users. Material selected is that which is relevant and helpful for conservationists in their various fields of activity and what is likely to be in print and obtainable without…

  3. Conservation in perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, A.; Goldsmith, F.B.; Goldsmith, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book reflects the changes that have taken place in the nature conservation movement over the last decade. It includes essays on issues of nature conservation itself, rather than on environmental issues. Habitats, elements of the ecosystem, and some of the political and organizational activity currently of interest are covered.

  4. Introducing Conservation of Momentum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunt, Marjorie; Brunt, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    The teaching of the principle of conservation of linear momentum is considered (ages 15 + ). From the principle, the momenta of two masses in an isolated system are considered. Sketch graphs of the momenta make Newton's laws appear obvious. Examples using different collision conditions are considered. Conservation of momentum is considered

  5. Creative Soil Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Martha

    2010-01-01

    Take plant lessons outdoors with this engaging and inquiry-based activity in which third-grade students learn how to apply soil conservation methods to growing plants. They also collect data and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of their method of soil conservation. An added benefit to this activity is that the third-grade students played

  6. Setting conservation priorities.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kerrie A; Carwardine, Josie; Possingham, Hugh P

    2009-04-01

    A generic framework for setting conservation priorities based on the principles of classic decision theory is provided. This framework encapsulates the key elements of any problem, including the objective, the constraints, and knowledge of the system. Within the context of this framework the broad array of approaches for setting conservation priorities are reviewed. While some approaches prioritize assets or locations for conservation investment, it is concluded here that prioritization is incomplete without consideration of the conservation actions required to conserve the assets at particular locations. The challenges associated with prioritizing investments through time in the face of threats (and also spatially and temporally heterogeneous costs) can be aided by proper problem definition. Using the authors' general framework for setting conservation priorities, multiple criteria can be rationally integrated and where, how, and when to invest conservation resources can be scheduled. Trade-offs are unavoidable in priority setting when there are multiple considerations, and budgets are almost always finite. The authors discuss how trade-offs, risks, uncertainty, feedbacks, and learning can be explicitly evaluated within their generic framework for setting conservation priorities. Finally, they suggest ways that current priority-setting approaches may be improved. PMID:19432651

  7. Nature Conservation in Bophuthatswana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motaung, Maria

    1992-01-01

    This presentation to the International Girl Guides Jamboree, July 1991, addressed the issue of nature conservation and the role of the National Parks and Wildlife Management Board of Bophuthatswana in creating parks and conserving wildlife. Describes three national parks and the boards' achievements in preserving wildlife. (MDH)

  8. Conservation in transportation

    SciTech Connect

    1980-05-30

    A nationwide examination was made of grassroots energy conservation programs related to transportation. Information compiled from civic groups, trade associations, and corporations is included on driver awareness/mass transit; travel; and ride sharing. It is concluded that a willingness by the public to cooperate in transportation energy conservation exists and should be exploited. (LCL)

  9. MEX-5 asymmetry in one-cell C. elegans embryos requires PAR-4- and PAR-1-dependent phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Tenlen, Jennifer R; Molk, Jeffrey N; London, Nitobe; Page, Barbara D; Priess, James R

    2008-11-01

    Anteroposterior polarity in early C. elegans embryos is required for the specification of somatic and germline lineages, and is initiated by a sperm-induced reorganization of the cortical cytoskeleton and PAR polarity proteins. Through mechanisms that are not understood, the kinases PAR-1 and PAR-4, and other PAR proteins cause the cytoplasmic zinc finger protein MEX-5 to accumulate asymmetrically in the anterior half of the one-cell embryo. We show that MEX-5 asymmetry requires neither vectorial transport to the anterior, nor protein degradation in the posterior. MEX-5 has a restricted mobility before fertilization and in the anterior of one-cell embryos. However, MEX-5 mobility in the posterior increases as asymmetry develops, presumably allowing accumulation in the anterior. The MEX-5 zinc fingers and a small, C-terminal domain are essential for asymmetry; the zinc fingers restrict MEX-5 mobility, and the C-terminal domain is required for the increase in posterior mobility. We show that a crucial residue in the C-terminus, Ser 458, is phosphorylated in vivo. PAR-1 and PAR-4 kinase activities are required for the phosphorylation of S458, providing a link between PAR polarity proteins and the cytoplasmic asymmetry of MEX-5. PMID:18842813

  10. Conservative mastectomies: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Nava, Maurizio Bruno; Catanuto, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Conservative mastectomies provide removal of the entire breast parenchyma, saving the outer covering of the mammary gland with the possibility of performing an immediate reconstruction preserving women body image. We rationalised and systematically organized our reconstructive algorythms giving a new different light to mastectomies, the so-called “conservative mastectomies”, an oxymoron indicating skin-sparing mastectomies (SSM), nipple-areola complex-sparing mastectomies (NSM) and skin-reducing mastectomies (SRM). Eventhough randomized controlled trials comparing conservative mastectomies with traditional mastectomy and breast conserving surgery would be auspicable in order to achieve higher levels of evidence, we could confidently conclude that conservative mastectomies offer the psychological advantages of good cosmesis and maintenance of woman body image without compromising the oncological safety of mastectomy. PMID:26645000

  11. Residential conservation service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, J. M.

    The Residential Conservation Services Program is a result of the 1978 National Energy Conservation Policy Act, Public Law 95-619 passed by congress to address the need for energy conservation in the residential sector. Large utility companies and fuel suppliers will be offering audits of their customers' homes to relay technical and economic data about conservation, solar, and wind measures. The impact on utility companies as a result of this program is to offer low cost audits ($15.00 charge for an audit costing approximately $100.00) and to assist their customers in reducing their consumption of electricity, gas, and oil through the use of conservation and renewables. The impact of RCS on wind turbine manufacturers and dealers is an opportunity to participate in a program which provides potential customers.

  12. PAR1- and PAR2-induced innate immune markers are negatively regulated by PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in oral keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Protease-Activated Receptors (PARs), members of G-protein-coupled receptors, are activated by proteolytic activity of various proteases. Activation of PAR1 and PAR2 triggers innate immune responses in human oral keratinocytes (HOKs), but the signaling pathways downstream of PAR activation in HOKs have not been clearly defined. In this study, we aimed to determine if PAR1- and PAR2-mediated signaling differs in the induction of innate immune markers CXCL3, CXCL5 and CCL20 via ERK, p38 and PI3K/Akt. Results Our data show the induction of innate immunity by PAR1 requires both p38 and ERK MAP kinases, while PAR2 prominently signals via p38. However, inhibition of PI3K enhances expression of innate immune markers predominantly via suppressing p38 phosphorylation signaled by PAR activation. Conclusion Our data indicate that proteases mediating PAR1 and PAR2 activation differentially signal via MAP kinase cascades. In addition, the production of chemokines induced by PAR1 and PAR2 is suppressed by PI3K/Akt, thus keeping the innate immune responses of HOK in balance. The results of our study provide a novel insight into signaling pathways involved in PAR activation. PMID:21029417

  13. Protection des ions organiques contre les dommages induits a l'ADN par les electrons de basse energie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, Ariane

    Il a ete demontre que les electrons de basse energie (EBE) peuvent induire des cassures simple brin (CSB) a l'ADN, via la formation d'anions transitoires qui decroissent par attachement dissociatif, ou dans d'autres etats electroniques dissociatifs menant a la fragmentation. Afin d'effectuer une etude complete des effets des electrons de basse energie sur la matiere biologique, il est necessaire de comprendre leur mecanismes d'interaction non seulement avec l'ADN, mais avec les constituants de son environnement. Les histones sont une composante importante de l'environnement moleculaire de l'ADN. Leur charge positive leur permet de s'associer aux groupements phosphate anionique de l'ADN. Le role principal de ces proteines basiques consiste a organiser l'ADN et l'empaqueter afin de former la chromatine. Les cations sont une autre composante importante de la cellule; ils jouent un role dans la stabilisation de la conformation B de l'ADN in vitro par leurs interactions avec les petits et grands sillons de l'ADN, ainsi qu'avec le groupement phosphate charge negativement. Avec les histones, ils participent egalement a la compaction de l'ADN pour former la chromatine. Cette etude a pour but de comprendre comment la presence d'ions organiques (sous forme de Tris et d'EDTA) a proximite de l'ADN modifie le rendement de cassures simple brin induit par les electrons de basse energie. Le Tris et l'EDTA ont-ete choisis comme objet d'etude, puisqu'en solution, ils forment le tampon standard pour solubiliser l'ADN dans les experiences in vitro (10mM Tris, 1mM EDTA). De plus, la molecule Tris possede un groupement amine alors que l'EDTA possede 4 groupements carboxyliques. Ensembles, ils peuvent se comporter comme un modele simple pour les acides amines. Le ratio molaire de 10 :1 de Tris par rapport a l'EDTA a pour but d'imiter le comportement des histones qui sont riches en arginine et lysine, acides amines possedant un groupement amine charge positivement additionnel. Des films d'ADN de differentes epaisseurs, possedant entre 0 et 32 ions organiques/ nucleotide, ont ete irradies avec des electrons de 10eV. Les dommages induits par les electrons, sous forme de cassures, ont ete detectes par electrophorese. Nous avons demontre que le rendement de cassure simple brin diminuait de facon dramatique en fonction du nombre d'ions organiques/ nucleotide. Aussi peu que 2 ions organiques/ nucleotide sont suffisant pour decroitre le rendement de SSB de 70%. Cet effet radioprotecteur est en partie explique par l'augmentation de l'epaisseur des films, mais surtout par la modification du champ electrique a proximite de l'ADN, due a l'ajout de molecules chargees positivement. La modification du champ electrique pres de l'ADN altere les parametres de resonance comme le temps de vie de l'anion transitoire et la limite de dissociation, qui influent directement sur la section efficace d'attachement dissociatif. L'effet protecteur peut egalement etre explique par la restauration des bases anioniques deshydrogenees induites par l'attachement dissociatif de l'electron sur une base (G(-H)-). Ce sont les molecules Tris qui, en transferant un atome d'hydrogene ou un proton, restaurent les bases deshydrogenees et inhibent par le fait meme la formation de cassures simple brin. Ces resultats indiquent que les histones peuvent egalement participer a la reparation de dommages precoces induits a l'ADN avant qu'elles ne menent a des dommages encore plus nocifs et difficiles a reparer, comme les cassures simples brins. Mots cles : Electrons de basse energie, dommage a l'ADN, ions organiques, attachement dissociatif de l'electron.

  14. PARS: Programs for Analysis and Resizing of Structures, user manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haftka, R. T.; Prasad, B.; Tsach, U.

    1979-01-01

    PARS processors and their use, flutter analysis, sensitivity analysis for stresses, and resizing are presented. Design variable definition and interface with finite element model, static constraints and their derivatives, flutter derivatives, and optimization are discussed.

  15. View from southwest to northeast of PAR site fresh water ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from southwest to northeast of PAR site fresh water pump house - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Fresh Water Pump House, In Limited Access Area, on Patrol Road next to Open Storage Reservoir No. 736, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  16. View from northeast to southwest of PAR site sentry station; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from northeast to southwest of PAR site sentry station; formerly the bachelor's enlisted men's quarter (BEQ) - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Sentry Station, North of Second Avenue & West of Electrical Switch Station No. 2, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  17. Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) power supply

    SciTech Connect

    Fathizadeh, M.

    1995-08-01

    The Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) consists of 8 dipole magnets connected in series. These magnets are energized via one 12-pulse dc power supply. The power supply consists of four phase controlled half-wave wye group converters. Each of the two half-wave converters are connected through an interphase transformer to obtain a full-wave converter with 120{degrees} conduction. The input voltage for these two half-wave converters are 180{degrees} apart. The two full-wave converters are connected in parallel through a third interphase transformer. This type of connection of the converters not only provides the required output current, it also improves the input power factor of the power supply. The output of the wye group converters is filtered through a passive L-R-C filter to reduce the ripple content of the output current. At low current values of the power supply the current ripple is high, thus a large filter is needed, which adds to the cost of the power supply, however at high output current levels, the current ripple is less severe. The large size of the filter can be reduced by adding an anti-parallel rectifier diode(D1) to the output of the power supply. A freewheeling diode(D2) is connected before the choke to circulate the current once the power supply is turned off. In order to measure the current in the magnet a high precision, low drift, zero flux current transductor is used. This transductor senses the magnet current which provides a feedback signal to control the gating of the converter`s thyristors. A true 14 bit Digital to Analog Converter (DAC) is programmed by the control computer for the required current value, providing a reference for the current regulator. Fast correction of the line transients is provided by a relatively fast voltage loop controlled by a high gain slow response current loop.

  18. StePar: an automatic code for stellar parameter determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabernero, H. M.; González Hernández, J. I.; Montes, D.

    2013-05-01

    We introduce a new automatic code (StePar) for determinig stellar atmospheric parameters (T_{eff}, log{g}, ξ and [Fe/H]) in an automated way. StePar employs the 2002 version of the MOOG code (Sneden 1973) and a grid of Kurucz ATLAS9 plane-paralell model atmospheres (Kurucz 1993). The atmospheric parameters are obtained from the EWs of 263 Fe I and 36 Fe II lines (obtained from Sousa et al. 2008, A&A, 487, 373) iterating until the excitation and ionization equilibrium are fullfilled. StePar uses a Downhill Simplex method that minimizes a quadratic form composed by the excitation and ionization equilibrium conditions. Atmospheric parameters determined by StePar are independent of the stellar parameters initial-guess for the problem star, therefore we employ the canonical solar values as initial input. StePar can only deal with FGK stars from F6 to K4, also it can not work with fast rotators, veiled spectra, very metal poor stars or Signal to noise ratio below 30. Optionally StePar can operate with MARCS models (Gustafson et al. 2008, A&A, 486, 951) instead of Kurucz ATLAS9 models, additionally Turbospectrum (Alvarez & Plez 1998, A&A, 330, 1109) can replace the MOOG code and play its role during the parameter determination. StePar has been used to determine stellar parameters for some studies (Tabernero et al. 2012, A&A, 547, A13; Wisniewski et al. 2012, AJ, 143, 107). In addition StePar is being used to obtain parameters for FGK stars from the GAIA-ESO Survey.

  19. Conservation by design.

    PubMed

    Root-Bernstein, Meredith; Ladle, Richard J

    2010-10-01

    Conservation researchers are increasingly aware of the need to conduct interdisciplinary research and to engage nonscientists in practical applications of conservation biology. But so far, industrial designers have been left out of such collaboration and outreach efforts. Conservation of wildlife often depends on products such as nest boxes, feeders, barriers, and corridors, all of which have a designed component that is frequently overlooked. Furthermore, many products are adopted without testing on short or long time scales. We argue that the design of products for conservation, and hence their functionality, effectiveness, and value, can be improved through collaboration with industrial designers. We see four key benefits that can arise from interactions with industrial designers: improvement of product quality and value, innovation and improvement in functionality of products, harmonization of conservation products with local values, and development of a psychological biomimesis approach to design. The role of industrial designers in conservation projects would be to improve factors such as product durability, affordability, functionality, and aesthetic appeal to local people. Designers can also help to create multiple product options whose success can be tested in the field. We propose that collaborations with industrial designers can contribute to the development of improvements to existing products and innovations in the practice of animal conservation. PMID:20408866

  20. Urban Water Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moomaw, Ronald L.

    According to its abstract, this book attempts ‘an assessment of various water conservation measures aimed at reducing residential water usage.’ Its intent is to develop a research program whose ‘ultimate goal is to engender a conservation ethic among water users and managers and develop a predictable array of conservation methodologies. …’ Professor Flack indeed has presented an excellent assessment of conservation methodologies, but I believe that the proposed research program is too limited.Following a brief introductory chapter, chapter II presents an extensive review of the water conservation literature published in the 1970's and earlier. It and chapter III, which describes Flack's systematic comparison of the technical, economic, and political aspects of each conservation methodology, are the heart of the book. Chapter IV is a brief discussion and analysis of conservation programs (with examples) that a water utility might adopt. Chapter V is essentially a pilot study of methods of assessing political and social feasibility. Finally, a set of recommendations is presented in chapter VI. All in all, this book is a nice blend of literature review and original research that deals with an important issue.

  1. Croissance epitaxiale de GaAs sur substrats de Ge par epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belanger, Simon

    La situation energetique et les enjeux environnementaux auxquels la societe est confrontee entrainent un interet grandissant pour la production d'electricite a partir de l'energie solaire. Parmi les technologies actuellement disponibles, la filiere du photovoltaique a concentrateur solaire (CPV pour concentrator photovoltaics) possede un rendement superieur et mi potentiel interessant a condition que ses couts de production soient competitifs. La methode d'epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques (CBE pour chemical beam epitaxy) possede plusieurs caracteristiques qui la rendent interessante pour la production a grande echelle de cellules photovoltaiques a jonctions multiples a base de semi-conducteurs III-V. Ce type de cellule possede la meilleure efficacite atteinte a ce jour et est utilise sur les satellites et les systemes photovoltaiques a concentrateur solaire (CPV) les plus efficaces. Une des principales forces de la technique CBE se trouve dans son potentiel d'efficacite d'utilisation des materiaux source qui est superieur a celui de la technique d'epitaxie qui est couramment utilisee pour la production a grande echelle de ces cellules. Ce memoire de maitrise presente les travaux effectues dans le but d'evaluer le potentiel de la technique CBE pour realiser la croissance de couches de GaAs sur des substrats de Ge. Cette croissance constitue la premiere etape de fabrication de nombreux modeles de cellules solaires a haute performance decrites plus haut. La realisation de ce projet a necessite le developpement d'un procede de preparation de surface pour les substrats de germanium, la realisation de nombreuses sceances de croissance epitaxiale et la caracterisation des materiaux obtenus par microscopie optique, microscopie a force atomique (AFM), diffraction des rayons-X a haute resolution (HRXRD), microscopie electronique a transmission (TEM), photoluminescence a basse temperature (LTPL) et spectrometrie de masse des ions secondaires (SIMS). Les experiences ont permis de confirmer l'efficacite du procede de preparation de surface et d'identifier les conditions de croissance optimales. Les resultats de caracterisation indiquent que les materiaux obtenus presentent une tres faible rugosite de surface, une bonne qualite cristalline et un dopage residuel relativement important. De plus, l'interface GaAs/Ge possede une faible densite de defauts. Finalement, la diffusion d'arsenic dans le substrat de germanium est comparable aux valeurs trouvees dans la litterature pour la croissance a basse temperature avec les autres procedes d'epitaxie courants. Ces resultats confirment que la technique d'epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques (CBE) permet de produire des couches de GaAs sur Ge de qualite adequate pour la fabrication de cellules solaires a haute performance. L'apport a la communaute scientifique a ete maximise par le biais de la redaction d'un article soumis a la revue Journal of Crystal Growth et la presentation des travaux a la conference Photovoltaics Canada 2010 . Mots-cles : Epitaxie par jets chimiques, Chemical beam epitaxy, CBE, MOMBE, Germanium, GaAs, Ge

  2. Par-4 secretion: stoichiometry of 3-arylquinoline binding to vimentin.

    PubMed

    Sviripa, Vitaliy M; Burikhanov, Ravshan; Obiero, Josiah M; Yuan, Yaxia; Nickell, Justin R; Dwoskin, Linda P; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Liu, Chunming; Tsodikov, Oleg V; Rangnekar, Vivek M; Watt, David S

    2016-01-01

    Advanced prostate tumors usually metastasize to the lung, bone, and other vital tissues and are resistant to conventional therapy. Prostate apoptosis response-4 protein (Par-4) is a tumor suppressor that causes apoptosis in therapy-resistant prostate cancer cells by binding specifically to a receptor, Glucose-regulated protein-78 (GRP78), found only on the surface of cancer cells. 3-Arylquinolines or "arylquins" induce normal cells to release Par-4 from the intermediate filament protein, vimentin and promote Par-4 secretion that targets cancer cells in a paracrine manner. A structure-activity study identified arylquins that promote Par-4 secretion, and an evaluation of arylquin binding to the hERG potassium ion channel using a [(3)H]-dofetilide binding assay permitted the identification of structural features that separated this undesired activity from the desired Par-4 secretory activity. A binding study that relied on the natural fluorescence of arylquins and that used the purified rod domain of vimentin (residues 99-411) suggested that the mechanism behind Par-4 release involved arylquin binding to multiple sites in the rod domain. PMID:26548370

  3. Commitment and energy conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Pallak, M.S.; Cook, D.A.; Sullivan, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    The authors discuss the process of becoming committed to energy conservation research, then describe practical issues of field research and several data sets on household energy conservation. Their results show that taking a stand affected behavior in reducing the levels of natural gas and electricity usage, with the effect continuing even after the study ended. Although based on the assumption that homeowners were initially favorable toward energy conservation, the studies suggest that energy-related behavior is malleable and amenable to approaches familiar to psychologists. The study indicates that feedback on energy use during peak seasons could help to avoid power shortages. 16 references, 6 tables.

  4. Conservative quantum computing.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Masanao

    2002-07-29

    The Wigner-Araki-Yanase theorem shows that conservation laws limit the accuracy of measurement. Here, we generalize the argument to show that conservation laws limit the accuracy of quantum logic operations. A rigorous lower bound is obtained of the error probability of any physical realization of the controlled-NOT gate under the constraint that the computational basis is represented by a component of spin, and that physical implementations obey the angular momentum conservation law. The lower bound is shown to be inversely proportional to the number of ancilla qubits or the strength of the external control field. PMID:12144465

  5. Conservative Quantum Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Masanao

    2002-07-01

    The Wigner-Araki-Yanase theorem shows that conservation laws limit the accuracy of measurement. Here, we generalize the argument to show that conservation laws limit the accuracy of quantum logic operations. A rigorous lower bound is obtained of the error probability of any physical realization of the controlled-NOT gate under the constraint that the computational basis is represented by a component of spin, and that physical implementations obey the angular momentum conservation law. The lower bound is shown to be inversely proportional to the number of ancilla qubits or the strength of the external control field.

  6. Mammalian aPKC/Par polarity complex mediated regulation of epithelial division orientation and cell fate

    SciTech Connect

    Vorhagen, Susanne; Niessen, Carien M.

    2014-11-01

    Oriented cell division is a key regulator of tissue architecture and crucial for morphogenesis and homeostasis. Balanced regulation of proliferation and differentiation is an essential property of tissues not only to drive morphogenesis but also to maintain and restore homeostasis. In many tissues orientation of cell division is coupled to the regulation of differentiation producing daughters with similar (symmetric cell division, SCD) or differential fate (asymmetric cell division, ACD). This allows the organism to generate cell lineage diversity from a small pool of stem and progenitor cells. Division orientation and/or the ratio of ACD/SCD need to be tightly controlled. Loss of orientation or an altered ratio can promote overgrowth, alter tissue architecture and induce aberrant differentiation, and have been linked to morphogenetic diseases, cancer and aging. A key requirement for oriented division is the presence of a polarity axis, which can be established through cell intrinsic and/or extrinsic signals. Polarity proteins translate such internal and external cues to drive polarization. In this review we will focus on the role of the polarity complex aPKC/Par3/Par6 in the regulation of division orientation and cell fate in different mammalian epithelia. We will compare the conserved function of this complex in mitotic spindle orientation and distribution of cell fate determinants and highlight common and differential mechanisms in which this complex is used by tissues to adapt division orientation and cell fate to the specific properties of the epithelium.

  7. Reasons to Conserve Nature.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Richard G

    2016-05-01

    Is it sufficient to base arguments for conservation on the intrinsic value of nature, regardless of the services and economic benefits that biodiversity provides for humans? This question underlies much recent debate that has been at times acrimonious and has led to calls for a more inclusive approach to conservation. Yet melding different ideologies within a unified conceptual framework has proven difficult. Here I describe an approach that recognizes the importance of the level of biological organization and spatial extent in determining the strength of alternative arguments for why we should conserve nature. I argue that the framework helps reconcile contrasting viewpoints and brings clarity to when different conservation management approaches (for instance, regulation versus monetary valuation) are most appropriate. PMID:26936225

  8. Potential conservation laws

    SciTech Connect

    Kunzinger, Michael; Popovych, Roman O.

    2008-10-15

    We prove that potential conservation laws have characteristics depending only on local variables if and only if they are induced by local conservation laws. Therefore, characteristics of pure potential conservation laws have to essentially depend on potential variables. This statement provides a significant generalization of results of the recent paper by Bluman et al. [J. Math. Phys. 47, 113505 (2006)]. Moreover, we present extensions to gauged potential systems, Abelian and general coverings, and general foliated systems of differential equations. An example illustrating possible applications of these results is given. A special version of the Hadamard lemma for fiber bundles and the notions of weighted jet spaces are proposed as new tools for the investigation of potential conservation laws.

  9. Conservation of wading birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kushlan, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The conservation and management of wading birds has received considerable attention over the past twenty years, through research, population monitoring, habitat protection, and through activities of specialist groups devoted to all three groups, the herons, ibises and allies, and flamingos. While populations are best known in North America, greatest advances in knowledge may have come in Australasia. The status of most species and many populations is now sufficiently known to allow assessment of risk. Conservation and management techniques allow creation of global and regional action plans for conservation of many species. Global action plans are being developed, but few regional plans have been undertaken. Management of nesting sites is now particularly well appreciated. Although known in broad stroke, much remains to be learned about managing feeding habitat. Problems related to disturbance, conflict with humans, habitat loss, contaminants and other environmental stresses remain for some species and many populations. New challenges lie in creating conservation action that account for genetic stocks.

  10. Energy: Conservation, Energy Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation's Schools and Colleges, 1975

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive energy conservation program at College of the Holy Cross has saved nearly one-third of the fuel oil and one-fifth of the electricity used at the college; briefs on boilers, lights, design. (Author/MLF)

  11. Conservation ethics and anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Houghton, I T

    2003-10-01

    The current attitude of conservators towards restoration is to preserve objects and materials in the condition as they are but without attempting to restore them 'as new'. Museum objects have generally ceased to serve their original utilitarian function but have become objects for study, information and inspiration. Conservation and restoration are discussed in relation to anaesthetic exhibits. Conservation is the prevention, detection, containment, control and recovery but risk avoidance and monitoring hopefully will lessen the need for conservation. Some objects such as rubber and plastic items are, by their very nature, prone to ageing, accident and mistreatment. Cleaning and maintenance may lead to loss of original detail and is 'an act of critical interpretation'. Reshaping of distorted objects and repair of broken pieces can sometimes be justified but, in other work, the actual restoration may become part of the object's history that should not be lost in trying to restore something to a presumed earlier state. The mind interprets images by reference to earlier patterns and so imperfections, if not disguised, may be unduly distracting. Museums exist for information, evidence, enlightenment and even entertainment. Conservation must serve these purposes and is not an end in its own right. The professional actions of the conservator must be governed by a total respect for physical, historic, and aesthetic integrity but this must be interpreted widely. PMID:12969040

  12. Resource Management and Conservation Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arey, David G.; Baumann, Duane D.

    1972-01-01

    The definition of conservation, the future of resource availability, the status of conservation education today are topics examined and suggestions are made on improving the content and emphasis of conservation courses. (Author)

  13. Conservation Kickstart- Catalyzing Conservation Initiatives Worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treinish, G.

    2014-12-01

    Adventurers and Scientists for Conservation (ASC) is a nonprofit organization that collects environmental data to catalyze conservation initiatives worldwide. Adventure athletes have the skills and motivation to reach the most remote corners of the world. ASC utilizes those skills to provide the scientific community with data while providing the outdoor community with purpose beyond the personal high of reaching a summit or rowing across an ocean. We carefully select projects, choosing partnerships that will maximize the impact of ASC volunteers. Each project must have a clear path to a tangible conservation outcome and demonstrate a clear need for our brand of volunteers. We partner with government agencies, universities, and independant reseachers to kickstart data collection efforts around the world. Last year, through a partnership with the Olympic National Forest, 20 volunteers from the Seattle area set up and monitored camera traps in an effort to survey for costal Pacific marten. Our work led to the species' listing as "critically imperiled" with NatureServe. A partnership with the inaugural Great Pacific Race, engaging trans-Pacific rowing teams, searched for microplastics in the Pacific Ocean as part of our ongoing microplastics campaign. In a multi-year partnership with the American Prairie Reserve (APR), ASC volunteer crews live and work on the Reserve collecting wildlife data year round. The data we obtain directly informs the Reserve's wildlife management decisions. On this project, our crews have safely and effectively navigated temperature extremes from -30 degrees to 100+ degrees while traveling in a remote location. We are currently scouting projects in the Okavango Delta of Botswana and the rainforest of Suriname where we will be able to cover large amounts of area in a short periord of time. ASC is at the crossroads of the adventure and coservation science communities. Our approach of answering specific questions by using highly skilled and motivate volunteers ensures that we are able to collect quality data, cost effectively, and in a fraction of the traditional timeframe.

  14. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- June survey descriptive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-06-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the shoreline aquatic plant communities in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level, indicated that much of the original plant communities and the intermediate shoreline communities present on the exposed sediments have been lost. The extensive old-field and emergent marsh communities that were present on the exposed shoreline during the drawdown have been flooded and much of the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities have not had sufficient time for re-establishment. The shoreline does, however, have extensive beds of maidencane which extend from the shoreline margin to areas as deep as 2 and perhaps 3 meters. Scattered individual plants of lotus and watershield are common and may indicate likely directions of future wetland development in Par Pond. In addition, within isolated coves, which apparently received ground water seepage and/or stream surface flows during the period of the Par Pond draw down, extensive beds of waterlilies and spike rush are common. Invasion of willow and red maple occurred along the lake shoreline as well. Although not absent from this survey, evidence of the extensive redevelopment of the large cattail and eel grass beds was not observed in this first survey of Par Pond. Future surveys during the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997 along with the evaluation of satellite date to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond are planned.

  15. Pars Planitis: Epidemiology, Clinical Characteristics, Management and Visual Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Ozdal, Pinar Cakar; Berker, Nilufer; Tugal-Tutkun, Ilknur

    2015-01-01

    Pars planitis is an idiopathic chronic intermediate uveitis which predominantly affects children and adolescents, and accounts for 5-26.7% of pediatric uveitis. Although an autoimmune process with a genetic predisposition has been suggested, its etiology still remains unknown. The most common presenting symptoms are floaters and blurred vision. Diffuse vitreous cells, haze, snowballs and snowbanks are typical findings of pars planitis. Peripheral retinal vasculitis, optic disc edema and anterior segment inflammation are other well-known findings. Although pars planitis is known to be a benign form of uveitis in most cases, it may become a potentially blinding disease due to complications including cataract, cystoid macular edema, vitreous opacities and optic disc edema. Cystoid macular edema is the most common cause of visual morbidity. Band keratopathy, epiretinal membrane formation, vitreous condensation, neovascularizations, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment, cyclitic membranes, glaucoma and amblyopia may develop as a consequence of the chronic course of the disease. Exclusion of infectious and non-infectious causes which may present with intermediate uveitis is of utmost importance before starting treatment. Treatment of pars planitis has been a controversial issue. There is no consensus specifically for treatment of cases with minimal inflammation and relatively good visual acuity. However, current experience shows that pars planitis may cause severe inflammation and needs an aggressive treatment. A stepladder approach including corticosteroids, immunosupressive agents, anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha and pars plana vitrectomy and/or laser photocoagulation is the most commonly used method for treatment of pars planitis. Adequate control of inflammation and prompt detection of associated complications are crucial in order to improve the overall prognosis of the disease. PMID:27051493

  16. Pars Planitis: Epidemiology, Clinical Characteristics, Management and Visual Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Ozdal, Pinar Cakar; Berker, Nilufer; Tugal-Tutkun, Ilknur

    2015-01-01

    Pars planitis is an idiopathic chronic intermediate uveitis which predominantly affects children and adolescents, and accounts for 5-26.7% of pediatric uveitis. Although an autoimmune process with a genetic predisposition has been suggested, its etiology still remains unknown. The most common presenting symptoms are floaters and blurred vision. Diffuse vitreous cells, haze, snowballs and snowbanks are typical findings of pars planitis. Peripheral retinal vasculitis, optic disc edema and anterior segment inflammation are other well-known findings. Although pars planitis is known to be a benign form of uveitis in most cases, it may become a potentially blinding disease due to complications including cataract, cystoid macular edema, vitreous opacities and optic disc edema. Cystoid macular edema is the most common cause of visual morbidity. Band keratopathy, epiretinal membrane formation, vitreous condensation, neovascularizations, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment, cyclitic membranes, glaucoma and amblyopia may develop as a consequence of the chronic course of the disease. Exclusion of infectious and non-infectious causes which may present with intermediate uveitis is of utmost importance before starting treatment. Treatment of pars planitis has been a controversial issue. There is no consensus specifically for treatment of cases with minimal inflammation and relatively good visual acuity. However, current experience shows that pars planitis may cause severe inflammation and needs an aggressive treatment. A stepladder approach including corticosteroids, immunosupressive agents, anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha and pars plana vitrectomy and/or laser photocoagulation is the most commonly used method for treatment of pars planitis. Adequate control of inflammation and prompt detection of associated complications are crucial in order to improve the overall prognosis of the disease. PMID:27051493

  17. The PAR polarity complex and cerebellar granule neuron migration.

    PubMed

    Ramahi, Joseph S; Solecki, David J

    2014-01-01

    Proper migration of neurons is one of the most important aspects of early brain development. After neuronal progenitors are born in their respective germinal niches, they must migrate to their final locations to form precise neural circuits. A majority of migrating neurons move by associating and disassociating with glial fibers, which serve as scaffolding for the developing brain. Cerebellar granule neurons provide a model system for examination of the mechanisms of neuronal migration in dissociated and slice culture systems; the ability to purify these cells allows migration assays to be paired with genetic, molecular, and biochemical findings. CGNs migrate in a highly polarized fashion along radial glial fibers, using a two-stroke nucleokinesis cycle. The PAR polarity complex of PARD3, PARD6, and an atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) regulate several aspects of neuronal migration. The PAR polarity complex regulates the coordinated movements of the centrosome and soma during nucleokinesis, and also the stability of the microtubule cytoskeleton during migration. PAR proteins coordinate actomyosin dynamics in the leading process of migrating neurons, which are required for migration. The PAR complex also controls the cell-cell adhesions made by migrating neurons along glial cells, and through this mechanism regulates germinal zone exit during prenatal brain development. These findings suggest that the PAR complex coordinates the movement of multiple cellular elements as neurons migrate and that further examination of PAR complex effectors will not only provide novel insights to address fundamental challenges to the field but also expand our understanding of how the PAR complex functions at the molecular level. PMID:24243103

  18. Latitudinal UVR-PAR measurements in Argentina: extent of the 'ozone hole'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luis Orce, V.; Walter Helbling, E.

    1997-10-01

    The UVR-PAR Argentinean Monitoring Network started its operation in September 1994 recording ultraviolet (UVR) and Photosynthetic Available Radiation (PAR) at a frequency of once per minute, at four sites, throughout the entire year. Four spectroradiometers (GUV-511, Biospherical Instruments, Inc.) were installed at research centers separated by about 8-12 degrees of latitude, extending from the Subantarctic-Fueguian region to the Tropic of Capricorn. The instruments are located in populated areas ranging from 30,000 to 11 million people and with extremely different climate regimes and conditions of tropospheric pollution. Our ground-based data indicated that the irradiance increased steadily from south to north. This increase was also observed in the calculated daily doses of UV-B (280-320 nm); however, daily integrated values for UV-A (320-400 nm) and PAR (400-700 nm) were higher at mid-latitudes (Puerto Madryn, 4247'S). A similar south-to-north increase was evident in the ratio of the energy at 305 nm and 340 nm wavelengths (with low 305/340 ratios indicating high total ozone column concentration), with low values at Ushuaia (5501'S) and high values at Jujuy (2410'S). However, the 305/340 ratios increased significantly over their normal spring values at two sites, Ushuaia and Puerto Madryn, for variable time periods during October-December. Our data suggest that the ozone hole was over South America extending to about 38S for at least a week during October and about two weeks during November-December of the years of 1994 and 1995. However, it should be noted that the erythemal irradiance, in the area influenced by the ozone hole, was at all times lower than that in Buenos Aires and well below the value at Jujuy (tropical station). This study also indicates that when assessing the impact of solar UVR upon organisms, other variables such as cloud cover, solar zenith angle, day length, latitude, and atmospheric pollution should be considered in addition to total ozone column concentration.

  19. Combined pars plana vitrectomy-scleral buckle versus pars plana vitrectomy for proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Lai, Frank H P; Lo, Ernie C F; Chan, Vesta C K; Brelen, Mårten; Lo, Wai Ling; Young, Alvin L

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the surgical outcomes of combined pars plana vitrectomy-scleral buckle (PPV-SB) versus pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment complicated with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). One thousand one hundred and seventy four patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment surgery between January 2002 and December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with grade C PVR treated with either combined PPV-SB or PPV alone were included in the study. Study outcomes included single surgery anatomic success rate and postoperative visual outcome at 12 months postoperatively. Seventy-seven patients with grade C PVR were identified for analysis. At the end of 12-month follow-up, 80.5 % eyes (33/41) in the PPV-SB group and 58.3 % eyes (21/36) in the PPV group achieved single surgery anatomical success. In a multiple logistic regression model, none of the baseline variables (age, gender, macula status, grade of PVR, extent of detachment, presence of vitreous hemorrhage, lens status, status of high myopia) nor types of retinal detachment surgery (use of scleral buckle, barrier endolaser, 360 degree endolaser, cryopexy, retinectomy, tamponade agent, phacoemulsification) had significant effect on single surgery anatomical success. The post-treatment mean logMAR visual acuity of the PPV-SB group was 1.58 ± 0.58 and the PPV group was 1.57 ± 0.61. There was no significant difference in the postoperative visual acuity between the two groups (P = 0.849). For patients with grade C PVR, PPV-SB did not demonstrate a superiority over PPV alone in achieving single surgery anatomical success. PMID:26260357

  20. Responses of a rice-field cyanobacterium Anabaena siamensis TISTR-8012 upon exposure to PAR and UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Rajesh P; Incharoensakdi, Aran; Madamwar, Datta

    2014-10-15

    The effects of PAR and UV radiation and subsequent responses of certain antioxidant enzymatic and non-enzymatic defense systems were studied in a rice field cyanobacterium Anabaena siamensis TISTR 8012. UV radiation resulted in a decline in growth accompanied by a decrease in chlorophyll a and photosynthetic efficiency. Exposure of cells to UV radiation significantly affected the differentiation of vegetative cells into heterocysts or akinetes. UV-B radiation caused the fragmentation of the cyanobacterial filaments conceivably due to the observed oxidative stress. A significant increase of reactive oxygen species in vivo and DNA strand breaks were observed in UV-B exposed cells followed by those under UV-A and PAR radiation, respectively. The UV-induced oxidative damage was alleviated due to an induction of antioxidant enzymatic/non-enzymatic defense systems. In response to UV irradiation, the studied cyanobacterium exhibited a significant increase in antioxidative enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase. Moreover, the cyanobacterium also synthesized some UV-absorbing/screening substances. HPLC coupled with a PDA detector revealed the presence of three compounds with UV-absorption maxima at 326, 331 and 345 nm. The induction of the biosynthesis of these UV-absorbing compounds was found under both PAR and UV radiation, thus suggesting their possible function as an active photoprotectant. PMID:25128787

  1. Involvement of gibberellins in the stem elongation of sun and shade ecotypes of Stellaria longipes that is induced by low light irradiance.

    PubMed

    Kurepin, Leonid V; Pharis, Richard P; Reid, David M; Chinnappa, C C

    2006-07-01

    Plants from two ecotypes of Stellaria longipes, alpine (an open, sunny habitat) and prairie (where adjacent plants provide a shaded habitat), were grown under normal and reduced levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Growth under low PAR is significantly promoted in both ecotypes. When quantified by the stable isotope dilution method, endogenous gibberellins (GAs) (GA1, GA8, GA20, GA19) were significantly elevated under low PAR in both 'sun' and 'shade' ecotypes, as was GA53 in the shade ecotype. Changes in endogenous GA1 levels were significantly correlated with stem growth during a 28 d growth cycle and with relative growth rate (RGR) for height under low PAR for both ecotypes. Interestingly, under low irradiance PAR, changes (both increases and decreases) in GA8, the 2beta-hydroxylated 'inactive' catabolite of GA1, closely parallel bidaily stem growth changes for both ecotypes. Because the significantly greater stem elongation of both ecotypes in response to low irradiance PAR is associated with significant increases in the endogenous levels of five GAs (GA53, GA19, GA1, GA8) in the early 13-hydroxylation GA biosynthesis pathway (measured at days 7,14 and 21), we conclude that the low irradiance PAR has very likely induced an overall increase in GA biosynthesis. PMID:17080953

  2. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- September survey descriptive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-09-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this mid-September survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys during the late growing seasons of 1995, and throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  3. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- October survey descriptive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-11-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this late October survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maiden cane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  4. Hydrology and Conservation Ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2006-12-01

    Responses to change in the behavior of ecological systems are largely governed by interactions at different levels. Research is essential and is to be necessarily designed to gain insights into various interactions at the community level. Sustainable resource management is only possible if conservation of biodiversity can be accomplished by properly using the knowledge discovered. It is well known that the United States Department of Agriculture provides technical information, resources, and data necessary to assist the researchers in addressing their conservation needs. Conservation aims to protect, preserve and conserve the earth's natural resources. These include, but not limited to the conservation of soil, water, minerals, air, plants and all living beings. The United States Department of Agriculture also encourages farmers and ranchers to voluntarily address threats to soil and water. Protection of wetlands and wildlife habitat has been on the radar screen of conservation experts for a very long time. The main objective has always been to help farmers and landowners conform and comply with federal and state environmental laws. During the implementation phase, farmers should be encouraged to make beneficial, cost-effective changes to methods of irrigation systems. In some cases, the hydrologic regime of the project area can be thought of as principally an issue of river flow regimes for floodplain forests. In this presentation, the author tries to focus on the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology on global warming. He also discusses the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology global air concerns such as greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. References: Chow, V. T, D. R. Maidment, and L. W. Mays. 1988. Applied Hydrology. McGraw-Hill, Inc. U.S. Soil Conservation Service. Technical Release 55: Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds. USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture). June 1986. Lehner, B. and P. Döll (2004). Development and validation of a global database of lakes, reservoirs and wetlands. Journal of Hydrology 296/1-4. 1-22. http://www.wcc.nrcs.usda.gov http://www.ceh-nerc.ac.uk http://www.usda.gov

  5. Par6G suppresses cell proliferation and is targeted by loss-of-function mutations in multiple cancers.

    PubMed

    Marques, E; Englund, J I; Tervonen, T A; Virkunen, E; Laakso, M; Myllynen, M; Mäkelä, A; Ahvenainen, M; Lepikhova, T; Monni, O; Hautaniemi, S; Klefström, J

    2016-03-17

    Differentiated epithelial structure communicates with individual constituent epithelial cells to suppress their proliferation activity. However, the pathways linking epithelial structure to cessation of the cell proliferation machinery or to unscheduled proliferation in the context of tumorigenesis are not well defined. Here we demonstrate the strong impact of compromised epithelial integrity on normal and oncogenic Myc-driven proliferation in three-dimensional mammary epithelial organoid culture. Systematic silencing of 34 human homologs of Drosophila genes, with previously established functions in control of epithelial integrity, demonstrates a role for human genes of apico-basal polarity, Wnt and Hippo pathways and actin dynamics in regulation of the size, integrity and cell proliferation in organoids. Perturbation of these pathways leads to diverse functional interactions with Myc: manifested as a RhoA-dependent synthetic lethality and Par6-dependent effects on the cell cycle. Furthermore, we show a role for Par6G as a negative regulator of the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1/Akt pathway and epithelial cell proliferation and evidence for frequent inactivation of Par6G gene in epithelial cancers. The findings demonstrate that determinants of epithelial structure regulate the cell proliferation activity via conserved and cancer-relevant regulatory circuitries, which are important for epithelial cell cycle restriction and may provide new targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26073086

  6. Par6G suppresses cell proliferation and is targeted by loss-of-function mutations in multiple cancers

    PubMed Central

    Marques, E; Englund, J I; Tervonen, T A; Virkunen, E; Laakso, M; Myllynen, M; Mäkelä, A; Ahvenainen, M; Lepikhova, T; Monni, O; Hautaniemi, S; Klefström, J

    2016-01-01

    Differentiated epithelial structure communicates with individual constituent epithelial cells to suppress their proliferation activity. However, the pathways linking epithelial structure to cessation of the cell proliferation machinery or to unscheduled proliferation in the context of tumorigenesis are not well defined. Here we demonstrate the strong impact of compromised epithelial integrity on normal and oncogenic Myc-driven proliferation in three-dimensional mammary epithelial organoid culture. Systematic silencing of 34 human homologs of Drosophila genes, with previously established functions in control of epithelial integrity, demonstrates a role for human genes of apico-basal polarity, Wnt and Hippo pathways and actin dynamics in regulation of the size, integrity and cell proliferation in organoids. Perturbation of these pathways leads to diverse functional interactions with Myc: manifested as a RhoA-dependent synthetic lethality and Par6-dependent effects on the cell cycle. Furthermore, we show a role for Par6G as a negative regulator of the phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase/phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1/Akt pathway and epithelial cell proliferation and evidence for frequent inactivation of Par6G gene in epithelial cancers. The findings demonstrate that determinants of epithelial structure regulate the cell proliferation activity via conserved and cancer-relevant regulatory circuitries, which are important for epithelial cell cycle restriction and may provide new targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26073086

  7. Wilderness and biodiversity conservation

    PubMed Central

    Mittermeier, R. A.; Mittermeier, C. G.; Brooks, T. M.; Pilgrim, J. D.; Konstant, W. R.; da Fonseca, G. A. B.; Kormos, C.

    2003-01-01

    Human pressure threatens many species and ecosystems, so conservation efforts necessarily prioritize saving them. However, conservation should clearly be proactive wherever possible. In this article, we assess the biodiversity conservation value, and specifically the irreplaceability in terms of species endemism, of those of the planet's ecosystems that remain intact. We find that 24 wilderness areas, all > 1 million hectares, are > 70% intact and have human densities of less than or equal to five people per km2. This wilderness covers 44% of all land but is inhabited by only 3% of people. Given this sparse population, wilderness conservation is cost-effective, especially if ecosystem service value is incorporated. Soberingly, however, most wilderness is not speciose: only 18% of plants and 10% of terrestrial vertebrates are endemic to individual wildernesses, the majority restricted to Amazonia, Congo, New Guinea, the Miombo-Mopane woodlands, and the North American deserts. Global conservation strategy must target these five wildernesses while continuing to prioritize threatened biodiversity hotspots. PMID:12930898

  8. Creative Conservation Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houston, Jason

    2015-04-01

    I am a fellow with the International League of Conservation photographers (iLCP) and have been focused on photographing conservation dynamics at the intersection of social and environmental issues for a decade. Subjects have included traditional concerns such as deforestation, water conservation, endangered species, and fisheries. However, I rarely make photographs of the traditional nature, wildlife, landscapes, or environmental atrocities that most people think of when they think about environmentalism. Instead, I photograph people and how they live on the planet, as I believe passionately that without also considering social and cultural concerns, we will not be able to effectively and sustainably do conservation work or achieve positive environmental change. My presentation will share recent photography projects on forest conservation in Indonesian Borneo and fisheries management in Central America where I used a 'stakeholder profile-based' process to broadly survey the complexity of the issues while also making personal connections for these projects' diverse audiences. Through these case studies I will explore the opportunities and challenges of combining the authenticity, accuracy, and scientific validity of journalistic and documentary work with the emotional impact of the conventions of art and storytelling.

  9. Estimation of the Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient KdPAR Using MERIS Satellite Reflections for European Coastal Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saulquin, Bertand; Hamdi, Anouar; Populus, Jacques; Loutier, Romain; Demaria, Julien; Mangin, Antoine; D'Andon, Odile Fanton

    2010-12-01

    Accurate estimations of the diffuse attenuation coefficient is critical to understand physical processes such as the heat transfer in the upper layer of the ocean and also biological processes such as phytoplankton photosynthesis in the ocean euphotic zone. Light availability in the water column and the seabed determine the euphotic zone and constraints the type and distribution of the algae species. The EuSeaMap project's aim is to characterize at a resolution of 250m the European infralitoral benthic zone, according to biology, physic and geology criteriums and using observations and models. Satellite observations of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of the downwelling spectral irradiance at wavelength 490 nm (Kd490) or the diffuse attenuation coefficient for the downwelling photosynthetically available radiation (KdPAR) is an effective method to provide large scale maps of these parameters at high spatial and temporal resolution. Several empirical and semi-analytical models are commonly used to derive the Kd490 and KdPAR maps from ocean colour satellite sensors such as the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer Instrument (MERIS), the Sea- viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Most of these existing empirical or semi- analytical models have been calibrated on open ocean waters and provide good results in these areas, but tend to underestimate the attenuation of light in coastal waters, our area of interest. We propose here a new estimation of the euphotic depth and the KdPAR for coastal European waters using MERIS reflectances at the resolution of 1km and 250 m. First, a semi-analytical model is used to estimate the Kd490, and in a second step, two relationships have been developed between the KdPAR and the Kd490 for respectively clear and turbid waters. Satellite-derived fields of Kd490 and the deduced KdPAR are validated using matchups collected over the world. Distribution maps of seabed algae are compared with the satellite-derived euphotic limit and the influence of the KdPAR on a hydrodynamic simulation is also illustrated.

  10. Energy conservation in distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mix, T. W.; Dweck, J. S.; Weinberg, M.; Armstrong, R. C.

    1981-07-01

    An audit of major industrial and processes and key colums in each major process indicated that approximately twoquads of energy were consumed for distillation in the US in 1976. Energy usage by industry is included: petroleum refineries, 66% chemical (including petrochemical) industry, 29% natural gas liquids processing, 5%. Techniques and current practices for conserving distillation energy are reviewed, and guidelines indicating those process conditons which favor the use of each energy conserving technique are enumerated. Expressions for payout time for tray and control retrofit options are developed based on energy savings and increased throughput. Calculations for industrial colums suggested that both types of retrofits would frequently have short (,6 months) payout times based on either criterion. Extractive distillation is also discussed, and criteria enabling the estimation of the energy which may be conserved using this technique are developed. Good housekeeping practices and field techniques for checking the energy efficiency of industrial distillations are also discussed.

  11. On electromagnetic conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goedecke, G. H.

    2000-04-01

    Subdivision of any charge-current source into N separately conserved sources results in N(N+1)/2 separate conservation laws for each of the interesting electromagnetic quantities, energy, momentum, and angular momentum. The subdivision may be done arbitrarily, so N is also arbitrary. These separate conservation laws are derived and applied to several examples, including the Fourier series representation of any time-dependent source, the derivation of the optical theorem in scattering, the energy balance for a resistor carrying a steady current, and the force on one charged capacitor plate due to the other. A general result is that the Lorentz force exerted by any static source on itself is zero. Other applications are also discussed.

  12. Conservation reaches new heights.

    PubMed

    Pepall, J; Khanal, P

    1992-10-01

    The conservation program with the management assistance of the Woodlands Mountain Institute in 2 contiguous parks, the Mount Everest National Park in Nepal and the Qomolangma Nature Reserve in China, in 2 countries is described. The focus is on conservation of the complex ecosystem with sustainable development by showing local people how to benefit from the park without environmental damage. Cultural diversity is as important as biological diversity. The area has been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site with the "last pure ecological seed" of the Himalayas. The regional geography and culture are presented. Population growth has impacted natural resources through overgrazing, cultivation of marginal land, and deforestation; future plans to build a dam and road bordering the nature reserve pose other threats. Proposed management plans for the Makalu-Barun Nature Park (established in November 1991) and Conservation Area include a division of the park into nature reserve areas free of human activity, protected areas which permit traditional land use, and special sites and trail for tourists and religious pilgrims. The conservation area will act as a buffer for the park and provide economic opportunities; further subdivisions include land use for biodiversity protection, community forest and pasture, agroforestry, and agriculture and settlement. Efforts will be made to increase the welfare of women and local people; proposed projects include the introduction of higher milk-producing animals for stall feeding. Also proposed is a cultural and natural history museum. 70% of the project's resources will be directed to local community participation in consultation and park maintenance. The project is a model of how conservation and protection of natural resources can coexist with local economic development and participation; an integration of preservation of biological diversity, mountain wisdom, and the value of local people as resources for conservation. PMID:12285834

  13. Couches Minces de Titanate de Baryum Par Depot Organometallique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ousi Benomar, Wahib

    1993-01-01

    Nous avons demontre la possibilite de realiser des couches minces de titanate de baryum par depot organometallique. Les films sont obtenus apres dissolution d'organometalliques choisis dans un solvant et une cuisson a une temperature determinee par thermogravimetrie. Apres un second traitement thermique a des temperatures plus elevees, les echantillons presentent une structure polycristalline tetragonale; les cristallites sont observes par microscopie electronique a balayage. La mesure de la constante dielectrique a permis de mettre en evidence une transition de phase de la structure tetragonale a la structure cubique a une temperature d'environ 125^circC. Les mesures d'indice ont ete effectuees. On note une augmentation de l'indice de refraction des films avec la temperature indiquant une meilleure densification des films. Nous avons aussi montre qu'il etait possible d'utiliser ce materiau en tant que guide d'onde optique pour pouvoir exploiter ses proprietes electrooptiques dans l'avenir.

  14. Protease activated receptor-2 (PAR2): possible target of phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Kakarala, Kavita Kumari; Jamil, Kaiser

    2015-09-01

    The use of phytochemicals either singly or in combination with other anticancer drugs comes with an advantage of less toxicity and minimal side effects. Signaling pathways play central role in cell cycle, cell growth, metabolism, etc. Thus, the identification of phytochemicals with promising antagonistic effect on the receptor/s playing key role in single transduction may have better therapeutic application. With this background, phytochemicals were screened against protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2). PAR2 belongs to the superfamily of GPCRs and is an important target for breast cancer. Using in silico methods, this study was able to identify the phytochemicals with promising binding affinity suggesting their therapeutic potential in the treatment of breast cancer. The findings from this study acquires importance as the information on the possible agonists and antagonists of PAR2 is limited due its unique mechanism of activation. PMID:25386994

  15. Conservation of tidal marshes

    SciTech Connect

    Daiber, F.C.

    1986-01-01

    This book is the first attempt to examine collectively the various uses and the consequences of marsh conservation efforts. Author Franklin Daiber emphasizes tidal marsh conservation from a holistic perspective rather than from the perspective of a single purpose or special economic interest. He addresses a topic receiving increasing attention, namely the concept of open marsh management as a means of controlling mosquito production without harmful effects on other marsh organisms. Topics considered include: water management; dikes, impoundments, ponds and ditches; reclaimed land and impoundments; ditching and ponding for mosquito control; sewage disposal and waste treatment; dredge material for wetland restoration; insecticides; oil pollution; and petroleum hydrocarbon interactions.

  16. LAKE PONTCHARTRAIN ESTUARY CONSERVATION PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Nature Conservancy will conduct a series of a least four science expert workshops to develop a Site Conservation Plan for the Lake Pontchartrain Estuary and adjacent wetlands. The objective of the Site Conservation Plan is to identify conservation targets, threats or stresse...

  17. Two Centuries of Soil Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Douglas

    1991-01-01

    Narrates U.S. soil conservation history since the late eighteenth century. Discusses early practices such as contour plowing. Profiles individuals who promoted soil conservation and were largely responsible for the creation of the Soil Conservation Service. Explains the causes of erosion and how soil conservation districts help farmers prevent…

  18. Genetic polymorphisms of PAI-1 and PAR-1 are associated with acute normal tissue toxicity in Chinese rectal cancer patients treated with pelvic radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Mengyun; Shi, Tingyan; Shen, Lijun; Zhu, Ji; Sun, Menghong; Deng, Yun; Liang, Liping; Li, Guichao; Wu, Yongxin; Fan, Ming; Wei, Qingyi; Zhang, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) and protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) are crucial mediators of the intestinal microenvironment and are involved in radiation-induced acute and chronic injury. To evaluate whether genetic polymorphisms of PAI-1 and PAR-1 were predictors of radiation-induced injury in patients with rectal cancer, we retrospectively evaluated 356 rectal cancer patients who had received pelvic radiotherapy and analyzed the association of genetic polymorphisms of PAI-1 and PAR-1 with acute toxicities after radiotherapy. Acute adverse events were scored, including dermatitis, fecal incontinence (anal toxicity), hematological toxicity, diarrhea, and vomiting. The patients were grouped into grade ≥2 and grade 0–1 toxicity groups to analyze the acute toxicities. Genotyping of six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of PAI-1 and PAR-1 was performed using TaqMan assays. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Of the 356 individuals, 264 (72.5%) had grade ≥2 total toxicities; within this group, there were 65 (18.3%) individuals who reached grade ≥3 toxicities. There were 19.5% (69/354) and 36.9% (130/352) patients that developed grade ≥2 toxicities for diarrhea and fecal incontinence, respectively. The variant genotype GG of rs1050955 in PAI-1 was found to be negatively associated with the risk of diarrhea and incontinence (P<0.05), whereas the AG and GG genotypes of rs2227631 in PAI-1 were associated with an increased risk of incontinence. The CT genotype of PAR-1 rs32934 was associated with an increased risk of total toxicity compared with the CC allele. Our results demonstrated that SNPs in the PAI-1 and PAR-1 genes were associated with acute injury in rectal cancer patients treated with pelvic irradiation. These SNPs may be useful biomarkers for predicting acute radiotoxicity in patients with rectal cancer if validated in future studies. PMID:26347502

  19. Use of Irradiated Foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brynjolfsson, A.

    1985-01-01

    The safety of irradiated foods is reviewed. Guidelines and regulations for processing irradiated foods are considered. The radiolytic products formed in food when it is irradiated and its wholesomeness is discussed. It is concluded that food irradiation processing is not a panacea for all problems in food processing but when properly used will serve the space station well.

  20. Gliome du nerf optique rvl par un strabisme divergent

    PubMed Central

    Handor, Hanan; Laghmari, Mina; Hafidi, Zouheir; Daoudi, Rajae

    2014-01-01

    Les gliomes des nerfs optiques sont des tumeurs rares qui s'observent essentiellement chez l'enfant. L'exophtalmie et le strabisme sont les principaux signes rvlateurs de la maladie. La neuroimagerie et notamment l'imagerie par rsonnance magntique est d'un grand apport dans le diagnostic et le suivi de ces tumeurs. La prise en charge thrapeutique de ces gliomes fait appel diffrents moyens: l'exrse chirurgicale, la chimiothrapie, la radiothrapie ou l'abstention sous surveillance. Les indications doivent tre discutes au cas par cas. PMID:25309656

  1. Manipulation quantique de la lumire par un amplificateur non linaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symul, T.; Bencheikh, K.; Levenson, J. A.

    2002-06-01

    Nous proposons un dispositif original, appel Amplificateur Non Linaire (ANL), permettant la gnration et la manipulation d'tats quantiques de la lumire. Ce dispositif permet une compression du bruit quantique de la lumire en dessous de la limite quantique standard plus efficace que celle obtenue par interactions non linaires du second ordre ou du troisime ordre. Il permet galement d'inverser les fluctuations quantiques en intensit de la lumire, et de produire des photons jumeaux ayant des corrlations quantiques plus leves et plus robustes que ceux produits par un amplificateur paramtrique seul.

  2. La projection par plasma : une revue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauchais, P.; Grimaud, A.; Vardelle, A.; Vardelle, M.

    The quality of a plasma sprayed coating depends on numerous parameters that start to be understood due to the recent progresses in modelling and measurement techniques for plasma jets, momentum, heat and mass transfers between plasma and particles, the way the particules splat and cool down upon impact on the substrate or the previously deposited layers. In this paper, first are recalled the used measurement techniques and their limitations both for plasma jets and particles in flight. Then are underlined the importance of the different phenomena envolved in the transfers between plasma and particles such as steep temperature and chemical species density gradients around the particles, heat propagation phenomenon especially for ceramic particles and the connected evaporation effect, rarefaction effect which occurs even at atmospheric pressure. The problems related to the size and injection velocity distributions which determine the trajectory distributions and the heat treatments undergone by the particles are treated. The study of plasma generation shows on one hand for d.c. arc plasma torches the drastic influence on the plasma jets lengths and diameters of the gas injection chamber design, the gas nature, the design of the arc chamber and nozzle, the surrounding atmosphere (especially air pumping which cools down very fast the plasma) and on the other hand for RF plasmas the importance of the particle injection design to avoid the coupling between the RF discharge and the carrier gas with the particles. All these points are illustrated with examples of coatings of alumina, zirconia carbide and nickel particles. The way the particles splat is then studied with the chemical reactions in flight, the fast quenching of the particles and the resulting cristalline structures, the coating adhesion and also the residual stesses and their control through that of the temperature gradients into the coatings during spraying. At last a few actual and potential applications are presented in the fields of aeronautics and mechanics. La qualité d'un dépôt projete par plasma dépend de nombreux paramètres que l'on commence à mieux appréhender du fait des progrès de la modélisation et de la métrologie tant des écoulements plasmas que des transferts plasma-particules ou que des conditions d'écrasement et de refroidissement des particules lors de leur impact sur le substrat ou les couches déjà déposées. Les techniques de mesure utilisdes et leurs limitations sont d'abord rappelées tant pour les jets de plasma que pour les particules en vol et l'importance des différents phénomènes intervenant dans les transferts plasma-particules est soulignée : gradients de température et de concentration d'espèces chimiques très élevés autour des particules, effets de propagation de la chaleur, notamment pour les particules céramiques, effet d'évaporation, effet de raréfaction sensible dès la pression atmosphérique. Les problèmes de distribution de taille et de vitesse d'injection des particules sont également abordés car ils conditionnent les distributions de trajectoires et donc le traitement des particules dans le jet de plasma. La génération du plasma montre d'une part 1'influence considérable de l'injection du gaz, de sa nature, du dessin de la chambre d'arc et de la tuyère ainsi que du pompage de l'air ambiant sur la longueur des jets de plasma d'arc et d'autre part les problèmes d'injection pour éviter le couplage avec la décharge dans les jets de plasmas R.E Tout ceci est illustré avec des exemples de dépôt d'alumine, de zircone, de cermet carbure et de nickel. L'écrasement des particules est ensuite abordé avec les problèmes de réactions chimiques, de trempe ultra-rapide et donc de structure cristalline des dépôts, d'adhdsion mais aussi de containtes résiduelles et de leur contrôle via les gradients de température dans les dépôts pendant le tir. Enfin quelques applications actuelles sont présentées notamment pour l'aéronautique et la mécanique.

  3. Scale in conservation planning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation planning has been widely embraced as a method to efficiently allocate limited resources to those aspects of biodiversity most in need of protection or management. However, in order to create successful strategies for long-term biodiversity protection and sustainability, explicit conside...

  4. Soil: Conservation practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary source to meet global food and fiber demands is production agriculture, but accelerated soil erosion threatens its sustainability. Soil erosion is an important contributor to the normal soil formation process, but erosion becomes problematic when it is accelerated. Soil conservation prac...

  5. Foundry energy conservation workbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    This report discusses methods for promoting energy conservation in foundries. Use of electric power, natural gas, and coke are evaluated. Waste heat recovery systems are considered. Energy consumption in the specific processes of electric melting, natural gas melting, heat treatments, ladle melting, and coke fuel melting is described. An example energy analysis is included. (GHH)

  6. Foundry energy conservation workbook

    SciTech Connect

    1990-10-01

    This report discusses methods for promoting energy conservation in foundries. Use of electric power, natural gas, and coke are evaluated. Waste heat recovery systems are considered. Energy consumption in the specific processes of electric melting, natural gas melting, heat treatments, ladle melting, and coke fuel melting is described. An example energy analysis is included. (GHH)

  7. Energy Conservation Simplified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    The standard formulation of energy conservation involves the subsidiary ideas of kinetic energy ("KE"), work ("W"), thermal energy, internal energy, and a half-dozen different kinds of potential energy ("PE"): elastic, chemical, nuclear, gravitational, and so forth. These quantities came to be recognized during the centuries over which the…

  8. Conservation of fern spores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ferns are a diverse and important group of plants, but diversity of species and populations are at risk from increasing social pressures, loss of habitat and climate change. Ex situ conservation is a useful strategy to limit decline in genetic diversity and requires technologies to preserve fern ger...

  9. Conserved herpesvirus protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Gershburg, Edward; Pagano, Joseph S.

    2008-01-01

    Conserved herpesviral protein kinases (CHPKs) are a group of enzymes conserved throughout all subfamilies of Herpesviridae. Members of this group are serine/threonine protein kinases that are likely to play a conserved role in viral infection by interacting with common host cellular and viral factors; however along with a conserved role, individual kinases may have unique functions in the context of viral infection in such a way that they are only partially replaceable even by close homologues. Recent studies demonstrated that CHPKs are crucial for viral infection and suggested their involvement in regulation of numerous processes at various infection steps (primary infection, nuclear egress, tegumentation), although the mechanisms of this regulation remain unknown. Notwithstanding, recent advances in discovery of new CHPK targets, and studies of CHPK knockout phenotypes have raised their attractiveness as targets for antiviral therapy. A number of compounds have been shown to inhibit the activity of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-encoded UL97 protein kinase and exhibit a pronounced antiviral effect, although the same compounds are inactive against Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-encoded protein kinase BGLF4, illustrating the fact that low homology between the members of this group complicates development of compounds targeting the whole group, and suggesting that individualized, structure-based inhibitor design will be more effective. Determination of CHPK structures will greatly facilitate this task. PMID:17881303

  10. Conservation Commissions in Massachusetts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheffey, Andrew J. W.

    The Conservation Foundation reported on the experience of a resource development specialist in the state of Massachusetts on the public's growing concern for environmental quality. After tracing the origins of the Massachusetts movement, the report draws upon a variety of specific state experiences to illustrate the commission's growing pains and…

  11. Communities, Cameras, and Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Communities, Cameras, and Conservation (CCC) is the most exciting and valuable program the author has seen in her 30 years of teaching field science courses. In this citizen science project, students and community volunteers collect data on mountain lions ("Puma concolor") at four natural areas and public parks along the Front Range of Colorado.…

  12. Conservation Directory, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, William E., Ed.

    The 1974 Conservation Directory is the 19th edition of a national comprehensive listing of organizations, agencies, and officials concerned with natural resources. It includes entries for about 1,400 organizations and over 7,000 individuals. Sections listing members of Congress, congressional committees, federal agencies, international, national,

  13. [Conservative Therapy of Osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Krasselt, Marco; Baerwald, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    The therapy of osteoarthritis is based on conservative therapeutic approaches, depending on the disease's severity. In this context, physical therapy and the use of sufficient analgesic regimes are of decisive importance. This article will discuss the current evidence based therapeutic concepts as well as promising new therapeutic approaches. PMID:26625235

  14. Communities, Cameras, and Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Communities, Cameras, and Conservation (CCC) is the most exciting and valuable program the author has seen in her 30 years of teaching field science courses. In this citizen science project, students and community volunteers collect data on mountain lions ("Puma concolor") at four natural areas and public parks along the Front Range of Colorado.

  15. Conservation Is Job One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatzai, Glen

    1998-01-01

    The University of Michigan, winner of a federal award for its campus energy conservation, has developed a building automation system that uses direct-digital-control technology to manage energy use. The project, undertaken in partnership with an energy management company, has saved over $10 million since its inception, and includes a revolving…

  16. Hearing Conservation Medical Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on hearing impairment is presented including causes and criteria for safe noise levels. The purpose of the Hearing Conservation Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Hearing Impairment at LeRC are discussed.

  17. Conservation and gene banking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant conservation has several objectives the main ones include safeguarding our food supply, preserving crop wild relatives for breeding and selection of new cultivars, providing material for industrial and pharmaceutical uses and preserving the beauty and diversity of our flora for generations to ...

  18. Conservation of Library Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Libraries, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Twelve articles cover books as artifacts; workstations for conservation of library materials; care of scrapbooks, albums, and photographs; map preservation; library environment; flood recovery; disaster prevention and preparedness; incorporating preservation into library organization; and bibliography of Chester Public Library (Illinois) First…

  19. Energy Conservation Simplified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    The standard formulation of energy conservation involves the subsidiary ideas of kinetic energy ("KE"), work ("W"), thermal energy, internal energy, and a half-dozen different kinds of potential energy ("PE"): elastic, chemical, nuclear, gravitational, and so forth. These quantities came to be recognized during the centuries over which the

  20. Conservative Public Interest Litigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pell, Terence J.

    2007-01-01

    The idea that lawsuits can move a public as well as a legal agenda is not new. In recent years, conservatives have brought high profile lawsuits designed both to vindicate the rights of an individual plaintiff and to educate the public about an important issue. For example, lawsuits filed nearly 10 years ago against the University of Michigan's…

  1. Conservation Awareness Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Rosa County Board of Public Instruction, Milton, FL.

    Recommendations for incorporating conservation education into the K-5 curriculum comprise this teacher's guide. Examined are eight natural resources: air, energy, forests and plant life, human resources, minerals, soil, water, and wildlife. Each of these topics is considered in two ways: (1) a chart depicts concepts basic to understanding the…

  2. Mass conservation for instantaneous sources in FEM3 simulations of material dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Rodean, H.C.

    1987-11-01

    This report presents the results of a systematic study in which it is shown that the numerical integration errors in determining material mass content are negligible; the material phase-change model by itself is not a cause of material mass variation; and a linear relation between fractional mass change and fractional density change at the source center for given mesh and source geometries exists over a range of values from 10/sup -5/ to 10/sup -1/. This suggests that the omission of the par. delta rho/par. deltat term from the mass conservation equation is the cause of the observed non-conservation of mass by FEM3. It is shown that these mass variations can be minimized by minimizing the initial density gradients in the source region. 5 refs., 18 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. The Pars Triangularis in Dyslexia and ADHD: A Comprehensive Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibby, Michelle Y.; Kroese, Judith M.; Krebbs, Hillery; Hill, Crystal E.; Hynd, George W.

    2009-01-01

    Limited research has been conducted on the structure of the pars triangularis (PT) in dyslexia despite functional neuroimaging research finding it may play a role in phonological processing. Furthermore, research to date has not examined PT size in ADHD even though the right inferior frontal region has been implicated in the disorder. Hence, one

  4. Par Pond vegetation status summer 1995 - July survey descriptive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-07-01

    A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant, communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet (61 meters) above mean sea level, and continued with this July survey. Aquatic plant communities, similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond communities, are becoming reestablished. Beds of maidencane (Panicum hemitomon), lotus (Nelumbo lutea), water lily (Nymphaea odorata), and watershield (Brasenia schreberi) are now extensive and well established. In addition, within isolated coves, extensive beds of water lilies and spike-rush (Eleocharis sp.) are common. Cattail occurrence has increased since refill, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Invasion of willow (Salix sp.) and red maple (Acer rubrum) occurred along the lake shoreline during drawdown. The red maples along the present shoreline are beginning to show evidence of stress and mortality from flooding over the past four months. Some of the willows appear to be stressed as well. The loblolly pines (Pinus taeda), which were flooded in all but the shallow shoreline areas, are now dead. Future surveys are planned for the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data for mapping the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond.

  5. Radiological impact of Par Pond drawdown from liquid effluent pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, W.H.; Hamby, D.M.

    1991-10-25

    The water level of Par Pond has been lowered over the past several months to reduce the effects in the event of catastrophic dam failure while assessing the condition of the dam and determining if repairs are necessary. In lowering the level of Par Pond, 60 billion liters of water containing low levels of tritium and cesium-137 were discharged to several onsite streams. SRS surface streams flow to the Savannah River. An assessment made to determine the total amount of tritium and Cs-137 discharged and to estimate the consequences to downstream Savannah River users. It is estimated that a total of 160 curies of tritium were displaced from Par Pond to the Savannah River between June 28, 1991 and September 19, 1991. This release could hypothetically result in a maximum individual dose of 3. 2{times}10{sup {minus}4} mrem and a total (80-km and drinking water populations) population dose of 1.4{times}10{sup {minus}2} person-rem. Likewise, a maximum individual dose of 5.0{times}10{sup {minus}2} mrem and a total population dose of 1.7{times}10{sup {minus}1} person- rem are predicted as a result of an estimated 0.21 curies of Cs-137 being discharged from Par Pond to the Savannah River.

  6. Are You Up to PAR? (Program Administrative Review).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Regional Resource Center, Salt Lake City, UT.

    The document focuses on the workings of PAR (Program Administrative Review), a method by which local education agencies (LEAs) and state operated programs (SOPs) in Utah can conduct ongoing self-evaluation and identify areas where additional efforts are needed to improve the quality of programs and services for handicapped children. It is…

  7. BOREAS RSS-10 TOMS Circumpolar One-Degree PAR Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dye, Dennis G.; Holben, Brent; Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Remote Sensing Science (RSS)-10 team investigated the magnitude of daily, seasonal, and yearly variations of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) from ground and satellite observations. This data set contains satellite estimates of surface-incident PAR (400-700 nm, MJ/sq m) at one-degree spatial resolution. The spatial coverage is circumpolar from latitudes of 41 to 66 degrees north. The temporal coverage is from May through September for years 1979 through 1989. Eleven-year statistics are also provided: (1) mean, (2) standard deviation, and (3) coefficient of variation for 1979-89. The PAR estimates were derived from the global gridded ultraviolet reflectivity data product (average of 360, 380 nm) from the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). Image mask data are provided for identifying the boreal forest zone, and ocean/land and snow/ice-covered areas. The data are available as binary image format data files. The PAR data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  8. Reconstruction d’une Carbonisation du Pouce par Lambeau Chinois

    PubMed Central

    Khales, A.; Achbouk, J.A.; Moussaoui, A.; Belmir, R.; Tourabi, K.; Oufkir, A.; Ihrai, H.

    2010-01-01

    Summary La main en tant qu’organe majeur de la préhension peut être le siège de brûlures graves qui compromettent sa fonction. Bien qu’elle ne représente que 2% de la surface corporelle la brûlure de la main est grave et difficile à traiter, vu la vulnérabilité et la complexité de son appareil locomoteur. Nous rapportons dans ce travail le cas d’un patient victime d’une carbonisation de la main. Huit mois après le parage et la couverture par lambeau inguinal, le patient bénéficie d’une reconstruction du pouce par lambeau chinois associé à une greffe osseuse. Le résultat s’est avéré satisfaisant. Le lambeau chinois prouve par son apport vasculaire et par sa facilité technique qu’il est un moyen très intéressant dans la reconstruction du pouce - ou des doigts en général - surtout dans un contexte de brûlure. PMID:21991226

  9. Solar radiation (PAR and UVA) and water temperature in relation to biochemical performance of Gelidium corneum (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) in subtidal bottoms off the Basque coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintano, Endika; Ganzedo, Unai; Díez, Isabel; Figueroa, Félix L.; Gorostiaga, José M.

    2013-10-01

    Gelidium corneum (Hudson) J.V. Lamouroux is a very important primary producer in the Cantabrian coastal ecosystem. Some local declines in their populations have been recently detected in the Basque coast. Occurrences of yellowing and an unusual branch breakdown pattern have also been reported for some G. corneum populations. In order to gain further insight into those environmental stressors operating at a local scale, here we investigate if shallow subtidal populations of G. corneum living under potentially different conditions of irradiance (PAR and UVA) and water temperature exhibit differences in some biochemical indicators of stress, namely C:N, antioxidant activity (radical cation of 2,2‧-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate); ABTS+ assay) and mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) (Asterine 330 and Palythine). We hypothesised that G. corneum subjected to higher ambient levels of irradiance and water temperature would show higher C:N ratios, lower antioxidant activity and higher MAA concentrations. Our results partially support this hypothesis. We found that G. corneum exposed to increased levels of irradiance (PAR, UVA) exhibited greater C:N ratios and lower antioxidant activity (higher IC50), whereas no relationship was found regarding MAAs. No differences in biochemical performance in relation to temperature were detected among G. corneum exposed to comparable high light. Similarly, G. corneum growing under lower UVA radiation levels showed no differences in any of the measured biochemical variables with regard to PAR and water temperature. These findings suggest that, among the environmental factors examined, UVA radiation may be an important driver in regulating the along-shore variation in G. corneum biochemical performance. Therefore, the role of irradiance, especially UV radiation, in potential future alterations in Cantabrian G. corneum populations cannot be ruled out as a potential underlying factor.

  10. Promiscuous stimulation of ParF protein polymerization by heterogeneous centromere binding factors.

    PubMed

    Machón, Cristina; Fothergill, Timothy J G; Barillà, Daniela; Hayes, Finbarr

    2007-11-16

    The segrosome is the nucleoprotein complex that mediates accurate segregation of bacterial plasmids. The segrosome of plasmid TP228 comprises ParF and ParG proteins that assemble on the parH centromere. ParF, which exemplifies one clade of the ubiquitous ParA superfamily of segregation proteins, polymerizes extensively in response to ATP binding. Polymerization is modulated by the ParG centromere binding factor (CBF). The segrosomes of plasmids pTAR, pVT745 and pB171 include ParA homologues of the ParF subgroup, as well as diverse homodimeric CBFs with no primary sequence similarity to ParG, or each other. Centromere binding by these analogues is largely specific. Here, we establish that the ParF homologues of pTAR and pB171 filament modestly with ATP, and that nucleotide hydrolysis is not required for this polymerization, which is more prodigious when the cognate CBF is also present. By contrast, the ParF homologue of plasmid pVT745 did not respond appreciably to ATP alone, but polymerized extensively in the presence of both its cognate CBF and ATP. The co-factors also stimulated nucleotide-independent polymerization of cognate ParF proteins. Moreover, apart from the CBF of pTAR, the disparate ParG analogues promoted polymerization of non-cognate ParF proteins suggesting that filamentation of the ParF proteins is enhanced by a common mechanism. Like ParG, the co-factors may be modular, possessing a centromere-specific interaction domain linked to a flexible region containing determinants that promiscuously stimulate ParF polymerization. The CBFs appear to function as bacterial analogues of formins, microtubule-associated proteins or related ancillary factors that regulate eucaryotic cytoskeletal dynamics. PMID:17920627

  11. Electron irradiation of YBa2CU3O7 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konczykowski, Marcin; Gilchrist, John

    1991-11-01

    Irradiation treatments generally have three effects on the superconducting properties of high T_c ceramics. The superconductivity of the grains is modified, as witnessed by a shift in T_c. The mixed-state properties of the grains are changed due to the additional pinning centres, and inter-granular links are modified by the accumulation of irradiation defects at the grain boundaries. These effects are discussed with particular reference to the irradiation of polycrystalline YBa2CU3O7 at low temperature with 2-3 MeV electrons, which initially produces a random distribution of Frenkel defects. We draw attention to several kinds of measurements which can be made in situ or after transferring the sample to a measuring cryostat : the transfer allows the defects to recombine or migrate. Various DC and AC measurement methods are compared, and the three effects of irradiation are demonstrated. The irreversibility line is found to shift with T_c. Les propriétés supraconductrices des céramiques à haut T_c, sont généralement influencées dans trois domaines distincts par les irradiations. D'une part la supraconductivité des grains est modifiée, comme en témoigne le changement de T_c. D'autre part les propriétés à l'état mixte des grains sont modifiées par la présence de nouveaux centres de piégeage. Enfin les liaisons inter-granulaires sont altérées par l'accumulation de défauts d'irradiation aux joints de grains. Nous insistons particulièrement sur l'irradiation de YBa2CU3O7 polycristallin à basse température avec des électrons de 2 à 3 MeV, ce qui produit, en premier lieu, des défauts de Frenkel à répartition aléatoire. Plusieurs types de mesures peuvent être faites soit in situ, soit après transfert de l'échantillon dans un cryostat de mesures: le transfert permet la recombinaison ou la migration des défauts. Différentes méthodes en courant continu et en alternatif sont comparées, et les effets de l'irradiation sur les trois domaines ci-dessus sont mis en évidence. La ligne d'irréversibilité paraît se déplacer comme T_c.

  12. Modeling the Establishment of PAR Protein Polarity in the One-Cell C. elegans Embryo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tostevin, F.; Howard, M.

    2008-11-01

    At the one-cell stage, the C. elegans embryo becomes polarized along the anterior-posterior axis. The PAR proteins form complementary anterior and posterior domains in a dynamic process driven by cytoskeletal rearrangement. Initially, the PAR proteins are uniformly distributed throughout the embryo. Following a cue from fertilization, cortical actomyosin contracts towards the anterior pole. PAR-3/PAR-6/PKC-3 (the anterior PAR proteins) become restricted to the anterior cortex. PAR-1 and PAR-2 (the posterior PAR proteins) become enriched in the posterior cortical region. We present a mathematical model of this polarity establishment process, in which we take a novel approach to combine reaction-diffusion dynamics of the PAR proteins coupled to a simple model of actomyosin contraction. We show that known interactions between the PAR proteins are sufficient to explain many aspects of the observed cortical PAR dynamics in both wild-type and mutant embryos. However, cytoplasmic PAR protein polarity, which is vital for generating daughter cells with distinct molecular components, cannot be properly explained within such a framework. We therefore consider additional mechanisms that can reproduce the proper cytoplasmic polarity. In particular we predict that cytoskeletal asymmetry in the cytoplasm, in addition to the cortical actomyosin asymmetry, is a critical determinant of PAR protein localization.

  13. PH motifs in PAR1&2 endow breast cancer growth

    PubMed Central

    Kancharla, A.; Maoz, M.; Jaber, M.; Agranovich, D.; Peretz, T.; Grisaru-Granovsky, S.; Uziely, B.; Bar-Shavit, R.

    2015-01-01

    Although emerging roles of protease-activated receptor1&2 (PAR1&2) in cancer are recognized, their underlying signalling events are poorly understood. Here we show signal-binding motifs in PAR1&2 that are critical for breast cancer growth. This occurs via the association of the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain with Akt/PKB as a key signalling event of PARs. Other PH-domain signal-proteins such as Etk/Bmx and Vav3 also associate with PAR1 and PAR2 through their PH domains. PAR1 and PAR2 bind with priority to Etk/Bmx. A point mutation in PAR2, H349A, but not in R352A, abrogates PH-protein association and is sufficient to markedly reduce PAR2-instigated breast tumour growth in vivo and placental extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invasion in vitro. Similarly, the PAR1 mutant hPar1-7A, which is unable to bind the PH domain, reduces mammary tumours and EVT invasion, endowing these motifs with physiological significance and underscoring the importance of these previously unknown PAR1 and PAR2 PH-domain-binding motifs in both pathological and physiological invasion processes. PMID:26600192

  14. PH motifs in PAR1&2 endow breast cancer growth.

    PubMed

    Kancharla, A; Maoz, M; Jaber, M; Agranovich, D; Peretz, T; Grisaru-Granovsky, S; Uziely, B; Bar-Shavit, R

    2015-01-01

    Although emerging roles of protease-activated receptor1&2 (PAR1&2) in cancer are recognized, their underlying signalling events are poorly understood. Here we show signal-binding motifs in PAR1&2 that are critical for breast cancer growth. This occurs via the association of the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain with Akt/PKB as a key signalling event of PARs. Other PH-domain signal-proteins such as Etk/Bmx and Vav3 also associate with PAR1 and PAR2 through their PH domains. PAR1 and PAR2 bind with priority to Etk/Bmx. A point mutation in PAR2, H349A, but not in R352A, abrogates PH-protein association and is sufficient to markedly reduce PAR2-instigated breast tumour growth in vivo and placental extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invasion in vitro. Similarly, the PAR1 mutant hPar1-7A, which is unable to bind the PH domain, reduces mammary tumours and EVT invasion, endowing these motifs with physiological significance and underscoring the importance of these previously unknown PAR1 and PAR2 PH-domain-binding motifs in both pathological and physiological invasion processes. PMID:26600192

  15. Energy-conservation indicators

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, D.B.

    1982-06-01

    A series of Energy Conservation Indicators were developed for the Department of Energy to assist in the evaluation of current and proposed conservation strategies. As descriptive statistics that signify current conditions and trends related to efficiency of energy use, indicators provide a way of measuring, monitoring, or inferring actual responses by consumers in markets for energy services. Related sets of indicators are presented in some 30 one-page indicator summaries. Indicators are shown graphically, followed by several paragraphs that explain their derivation and highlight key findings. Indicators are classified according to broad end-use sectors: Aggregate (economy), Residential, Commercial, Industrial, and transportation. In most cases annual time series information is presented covering the period 1960 through 1981.

  16. Three strategies for conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The three strategies considered as energy conservation oriented were given: national energy conservation, electrification, and diversification. The first one applies to the near term period (now-1985), the second one to the mid term (1985-2000), and the third one to the far term (2000- ). The rest of this section was focussed on the near term period. The following proposed actions were considered: (1) roll back the price of newly discovered oil, (2) force conversion of many power plants from gas and oil to coal, (3) freeze gasoline production for three years at 1972 levels, (4) mandate automobile mileage requirements, (5) require industry to improve energy efficiency, and (6) require manufacture of household appliances with greater efficiency. Each of these six actions was described and discussed in more detail.

  17. Landscapes, tourism, and conservation

    PubMed

    Burger

    2000-04-17

    One key aspect of global change is a decrease in ecological integrity as more and more landscapes are developed, leaving a mosaic of intact refuges and degraded patches that may not be sufficient for conserving biodiversity. While increases in human population and shifts in the distribution of people affect land use, the temporary movement of people can have major implications for conservation and biodiversity. Three examples are presented where recreation/tourism can enhance the conservation of land on a landscape scale, leading to habitat protection and biodiversity preservation: (1) Shorebirds often require a matrix of different habitat types during migratory stopovers, and ecotourism can serve as a catalyst for landscape scale protection of habitat. (2) Riparian habitats can serve as corridors to link diverse habitat patches, as well as serving as biodiversity hotspots. (3) Remediation and rehabilitation of contaminated lands, such as those of the US Department of Energy, aimed at developing recreational activities on the uncontaminated portions, can be the most economical form of re-development with no increase in human or ecological risk. Since large areas on many DOE sites have been undisturbed since the Second World War, when they were acquired, they contain unique or valuable ecosystems that serve an important role within their regional landscapes. In all three cases the judicious development of recreational/tourist interests can encourage both the conservation of habitats and the wise management of habitats on a landscape scale. While some species or habitats are too fragile for sustained tourism, many can be managed so that species, ecosystems and ecotourists flourish. By contributing to the economic base of regions, ecotourists/recreationists can influence the protection of land and biodiversity on a landscape scale, contributing to ecosystem management. The human dimensions of land preservation and biodiversity protection are key to long-term sustainability, and ecotourists/recreationists can be one management option. PMID:10813445

  18. Motor Energy Conservation Measures

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple motor inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: High Efficiency Motor retrofit and Cogged V-belts retrofit. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  19. Laser conservation paleontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmus, John F.

    2001-10-01

    Just as lasers have found countless applications in science, industry, medicine, and entertainment, an array of real and potential uses for lasers in art-conservation analytes and practice have been investigated over the past thirty years. These include holographic recording, holographic recording, holographic nondestructive testing, laser-induced ultrasonic imaging, laser-scattering surface characterization, atomic and molecular analyses, photoacoustic spectroscopy, surface modification, as well as surface divestment and cleaning. The initial endeavors in exploring and assessing the utility of these tools for art conservation are recounted for investigations involving ruby, glass, ion, YAG, carbon dioxide, dye, and excimer lasers as well as high-intensity nonlaser light generators such as xenon flashlamps and argon pinchlamps. Initially, laser divestment/cleaning was, by general consensus, the least plausible laser application in art conservation. In the past ten years it has emerged to dominate all the other applications noted above. Today, at least a dozen firms supply user-friendly laser systems optimized for a range of art-conservation divestment applications. The first-generation laser-cleaning tools are essentially a laser, a beam-delivery device, and a debris- collection accessory. Advanced developmental work has turned in large measure to ancillary subsystems for more sophisticated process control. Of particular importance are acoustic, optical, spectral, EMP, and electronic-vision process control. Beam direction may be via manual, translational-scanner, or robotic beam positioning implemented by means of fiber optics, minors, or prisms and computer control. Substrate thermal alteration and debris redeposition may be minimized or avoided through the incorporation of a gas jet, fluid or fluid jet, or dry-ice blast.

  20. Conservation and Education in Murchison Falls Conservation Area, Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordahl, Mark D.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis forms the foundation for a conservation education training manual to help guides in Murchison Falls National Park, Uganda, communicate to foreign visitors about conservation issues. For background information I used a combination of text-based research and interviews to examine the application of community conservation and…

  1. Conservation businesses and conservation planning in a biological diversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    Di Minin, Enrico; Macmillan, Douglas Craig; Goodman, Peter Styan; Escott, Boyd; Slotow, Rob; Moilanen, Atte

    2013-08-01

    The allocation of land to biological diversity conservation competes with other land uses and the needs of society for development, food, and extraction of natural resources. Trade-offs between biological diversity conservation and alternative land uses are unavoidable, given the realities of limited conservation resources and the competing demands of society. We developed a conservation-planning assessment for the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal, which forms the central component of the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany biological diversity hotspot. Our objective was to enhance biological diversity protection while promoting sustainable development and providing spatial guidance in the resolution of potential policy conflicts over priority areas for conservation at risk of transformation. The conservation-planning assessment combined spatial-distribution models for 646 conservation features, spatial economic-return models for 28 alternative land uses, and spatial maps for 4 threats. Nature-based tourism businesses were competitive with other land uses and could provide revenues of >US$60 million/year to local stakeholders and simultaneously help meeting conservation goals for almost half the conservation features in the planning region. Accounting for opportunity costs substantially decreased conflicts between biological diversity, agricultural use, commercial forestry, and mining. Accounting for economic benefits arising from conservation and reducing potential policy conflicts with alternative plans for development can provide opportunities for successful strategies that combine conservation and sustainable development and facilitate conservation action. PMID:23565917

  2. Arylquins Target Vimentin to Trigger Par-4 Secretion for Tumor Cell Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Hebbar, Nikhil; Zhang, Wen; Layton, W. John; Hamza, Adel; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Watt, David S.; Liu, Chunming; Rangnekar, Vivek M.

    2014-01-01

    The tumor suppressor protein Par-4, which is secreted by normal cells, selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cells. We identified a 3-arylquinoline derivative, designated Arylquin 1, as a potent Par-4 secretagogue in cell cultures and mice. Mechanistically, Arylquin 1 binds to vimentin, displaces Par-4 from vimentin for secretion and triggers the efficient paracrine apoptosis of diverse cancer cells. Thus, targeting vimentin with Par-4 secretagogues efficiently induces paracrine apoptosis of tumor cells. PMID:25218743

  3. Arylquins target vimentin to trigger Par-4 secretion for tumor cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Burikhanov, Ravshan; Sviripa, Vitaliy M; Hebbar, Nikhil; Zhang, Wen; Layton, W John; Hamza, Adel; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Watt, David S; Liu, Chunming; Rangnekar, Vivek M

    2014-11-01

    The tumor suppressor protein prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4), which is secreted by normal cells, selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cells. We identified a 3-arylquinoline derivative, designated Arylquin 1, as a potent Par-4 secretagogue in cell cultures and mice. Mechanistically, Arylquin 1 binds vimentin, displaces Par-4 from vimentin for secretion and triggers the efficient paracrine apoptosis of diverse cancer cells. Thus, targeting vimentin with Par-4 secretagogues efficiently induces paracrine apoptosis of tumor cells. PMID:25218743

  4. Perivascular adipose tissue-derived relaxing factors: release by peptide agonists via proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) and non-PAR2 mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y; Mihara, K; Saifeddine, M; Krawetz, A; Lau, DCW; Li, H; Ding, H; Triggle, CR; Hollenberg, MD

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE We hypothesized that proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2)-mediated vasorelaxation in murine aorta tissue can be due in part to the release of adipocyte-derived relaxing factors (ADRFs). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Aortic rings from obese TallyHo and C57Bl6 intact or PAR2-null mice either without or with perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) were contracted with phenylephrine and relaxation responses to PAR2-selective activating peptides (PAR2-APs: SLIGRL-NH2 and 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2), trypsin and to PAR2-inactive peptides (LRGILS-NH2, 2-furoyl-OLRGIL-NH2 and LSIGRL-NH2) were measured. Relaxation was monitored in the absence or presence of inhibitors that either alone or in combination were previously shown to inhibit ADRF-mediated responses: L-NAME (NOS), indomethacin (COX), ODQ (guanylate cyclase), catalase (H2O2) and the K+ channel-targeted reagents, apamin, charybdotoxin, 4-aminopyridine and glibenclamide. KEY RESULTS Endothelium-intact PVAT-free preparations did not respond to PAR2-inactive peptides (LRGILS-NH2, LSIGRL-NH2, 2-furoyl-OLRGIL-NH2), whereas active PAR2-APs (SLIGRL-NH2; 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2) caused an L-NAME-inhibited relaxation. However, in PVAT-containing preparations treated with L-NAME/ODQ/indomethacin together, both PAR2-APs and trypsin caused relaxant responses in PAR2-intact, but not PAR2-null-derived tissues. The PAR2-induced PVAT-dependent relaxation (SLIGRL-NH2) persisted in the presence of apamin plus charybdotoxin, 4-aminopyridine and glibenclamide, but was blocked by catalase, implicating a role for H2O2. Surprisingly, the PAR2-inactive peptides, LRGILS-NH2 and 2-furoyl-OLRGIL-NH2 (but not LSIGRL-NH2), caused relaxation in PVAT-containing preparations from both PAR2-null and PAR2-intact (C57Bl, TallyHo) mice. The LRGILS-NH2-induced relaxation was distinct from the PAR2 response, being blocked by 4-aminopyridine, but not catalase. CONCLUSIONS Distinct ADRFs that may modulate vascular tone in pathophysiological settings can be released from murine PVAT by both PAR2-dependent and PAR2-independent mechanisms. PMID:21615723

  5. Is There an "F" in Your PAR? Understanding, Teaching and Doing Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzetti, Liza; Walsh, Christine Ann

    2014-01-01

    Participatory Action Research (PAR) is increasingly recognized within academic research and pedagogy. What are the benefits of including feminism within participatory action research and teaching? In responding to this question, we discuss the similarities and salient differences between PAR and feminist informed PAR (FPAR). There are eight themes…

  6. ParA resolvase catalyzes site-specific excision of DNA from the Arabidopsis genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The small serine resolvase ParA from bacterial plasmids RK2 and RP4 catalyzes the recombination of two identical 133 bp recombination sites known as MRS. Previously, we reported that ParA is active in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In this work, the parA recombinase gene was placed un...

  7. ParCAT: A Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugen, B.; Smith, B.; Steed, C.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Thornton, P. E.; Shipman, G.

    2012-12-01

    Climate science has employed increasingly complex models and simulations to analyze the past and predict the future of our climate. The size and dimensionality of climate simulation data has been growing with the complexity of the models. This growth in data is creating a widening gap between the data being produced and the tools necessary to analyze large, high dimensional data sets. With single run data sets increasing into 10's, 100's and even 1000's of gigabytes, parallel computing tools are becoming a necessity in order to analyze and compare climate simulation data. The Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit (ParCAT) provides basic tools that efficiently use parallel computing techniques to narrow the gap between data set size and analysis tools. ParCAT was created as a collaborative effort between climate scientists and computer scientists in order to provide efficient parallel implementations of the computing tools that are of use to climate scientists. Some of the basic functionalities included in the toolkit are the ability to compute spatio-temporal means and variances, differences between two runs and histograms of the values in a data set. ParCAT is designed to facilitate the "heavy lifting" that is required for large, multidimensional data sets. The toolkit does not focus on performing the final visualizations and presentation of results but rather, reducing large data sets to smaller, more manageable summaries. The output from ParCAT is provided in commonly used file formats (NetCDF, CSV, ASCII) to allow for simple integration with other tools. The toolkit is currently implemented as a command line utility, but will likely also provide a C library for developers interested in tighter software integration. Elements of the toolkit are already being incorporated into projects such as UV-CDAT and CMDX. There is also an effort underway to implement portions of the CCSM Land Model Diagnostics package using ParCAT in conjunction with Python and gnuplot. ParCAT is implemented in C to provide efficient file IO. The file IO operations in the toolkit use the parallel-netcdf library; this enables the code to use the parallel IO capabilities of modern HPC systems. Analysis that currently requires an estimated 12+ hours with the traditional CCSM Land Model Diagnostics Package can now be performed in as little as 30 minutes on a single desktop workstation and a few minutes for relatively small jobs completed on modern HPC systems such as ORNL's Jaguar.

  8. Independent Confirmation of the MODIS LAI/fPAR Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganapol, B. D.; Dungan, J. L.

    2001-12-01

    The Leaf Canopy Model (LCM)-2 is a nested model that combines leaf radiative transfer with a full canopy reflectance model through the phase function (Ganapol et al. 1999). The basic components of the model include inversion for a leaf scattering coefficient, construction of a representative absorption coefficient and the determination of canopy reflectance given leaf area index (LAI) values and information on canopy type and structure. It can also be used to calculate the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fPAR) for the canopy. It therefore serves as an independent means of confirming the results of the MOD15 algorithm (Knyazikhin et al. 1998) that produces LAI and fPAR fields from reflectance measured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS). In LCM2, relatively simple first principles of radiative transfer are used whereas in the MOD15 algorithm, scene variability is accounted for by specifying distributions and a response surface in a table-lookup procedure. The distributions are generated by various radiative transfer models with a host of underlying assumptions. The attempt to compare results from these two models is a useful means of addressing the structural uncertainty in the Earth Observing System prediction problem. We compared LCM2 results with those from the MOD15 algorithm for fPAR calculation. 100 pixels for an EOS Core Validation Site where there were coincident reflectance, vegetation index, fPAR and LAI products were chosen. The 8-day 500 m reflectance product was spatially degraded to coincide with 8-day 1 km LAI and fPAR products and LAI and land cover products were used to parameterize LCM2. Most fPAR results agreed to within 10 percent, though a bias was observed. Poor agreement was seen with vegetation index products. Ganapol, B.D., L.F. Johnson, C.A. Hlavka, D.L. Peterson, and B. Bond, LCM2: A coupled leaf/canopy radiative transfer model, Remote Sensing of Environment, 70:153-166, 1999. Knyazikhin, Y., J.V. Martonchik, R.B. Myneni, D.J. Diner, and S.W. Running (1998) Synergistic algorithm for estimating vegetation canopy leaf area index and fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation from MODIS and MISR data, Journal of Geophysical Research, 103:32257-32276.

  9. Oncologic safety of conservative mastectomy in the therapeutic setting.

    PubMed

    Benson, John R; Dumitru, Dorin; Malata, Charles M

    2016-02-01

    Conservative mastectomy is a form of nipple-sparing mastectomy which is emerging as a surgical option for selected breast cancer patients. This technique differs from subcutaneous mastectomy which is well established as a technique for risk reduction but leaves behind a finite remnant of retro-areolar breast tissue. Clinical trials have confirmed the efficacy and safety of breast conservation therapy for smaller localised breast tumors whereby a variable amount of surrounding normal tissue is excised with administration of breast radiotherapy post-operatively. Conservative mastectomy aims to remove all breast tissue with dissection continued into the core of the nipple. However, the indication for conservative mastectomy remains to be defined but generally includes tumors of modest size located at least 2 cm away from the nipple. Patients undergoing conservative mastectomy do not necessarily receive adjuvant radiotherapy and this may only be intra-operative irradiation of the nipple-areola complex (NAC). Preservation of the NAC as part of a skin-sparing mastectomy in patients who might otherwise require standard mastectomy is of unproven safety from an oncologic perspective but is associated with enhanced cosmetic outcomes and quality-of-life. The advent of conservative mastectomy has coincided with a trend for "maximal surgery" with bilateral extirpation of all breast tissue in conjunction with immediate breast reconstruction. It is essential there is no compromise of local recurrence and survival in terms of ipsilateral breast cancer treatment. Further studies are required to clarify the indications for conservative mastectomy and confirm oncologic equivalence to either wide local excision and breast irradiation or conventional/skin-sparing mastectomy with sacrifice of the nipple areola complex. PMID:26855907

  10. Oncologic safety of conservative mastectomy in the therapeutic setting

    PubMed Central

    Dumitru, Dorin; Malata, Charles M.

    2016-01-01

    Conservative mastectomy is a form of nipple-sparing mastectomy which is emerging as a surgical option for selected breast cancer patients. This technique differs from subcutaneous mastectomy which is well established as a technique for risk reduction but leaves behind a finite remnant of retro-areolar breast tissue. Clinical trials have confirmed the efficacy and safety of breast conservation therapy for smaller localised breast tumors whereby a variable amount of surrounding normal tissue is excised with administration of breast radiotherapy post-operatively. Conservative mastectomy aims to remove all breast tissue with dissection continued into the core of the nipple. However, the indication for conservative mastectomy remains to be defined but generally includes tumors of modest size located at least 2 cm away from the nipple. Patients undergoing conservative mastectomy do not necessarily receive adjuvant radiotherapy and this may only be intra-operative irradiation of the nipple-areola complex (NAC). Preservation of the NAC as part of a skin-sparing mastectomy in patients who might otherwise require standard mastectomy is of unproven safety from an oncologic perspective but is associated with enhanced cosmetic outcomes and quality-of-life. The advent of conservative mastectomy has coincided with a trend for “maximal surgery” with bilateral extirpation of all breast tissue in conjunction with immediate breast reconstruction. It is essential there is no compromise of local recurrence and survival in terms of ipsilateral breast cancer treatment. Further studies are required to clarify the indications for conservative mastectomy and confirm oncologic equivalence to either wide local excision and breast irradiation or conventional/skin-sparing mastectomy with sacrifice of the nipple areola complex. PMID:26855907

  11. Water Savings Through Conservation Tillage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Through a partnership with the University of Georgia – College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, USDA-Agricultural Research Service, USDA-Natural Resource Conservation Service, Soil and Water Conservation Society and Resource Conservation and Development Councils to name a few, research and...

  12. Saving Money Through Energy Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presley, Michael H.; And Others

    This publication is an introduction to personal energy conservation. The first chapter presents a rationale for conserving energy and points out that private citizens control about one third of this country's energy consumption. Chapters two and three show how to save money by saving energy. Chapter two discusses energy conservation methods in the…

  13. Estimating Conservation Thresholds on Rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) is a multi-agency effort designed to quantify the environmental and economic impacts of land conservation practices. One of USDA’s goals is to identify Conservation Thresholds, the point at which accelerated erosion occurs, and to examine the usefu...

  14. Approved Practices in Soil Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Albert B.

    This book is written for individuals who wish to apply conservation practices, especially those of soil and water conservation, without technical assistance, to meet one's own conditions, and within his own capability to apply them. To meet these needs, the book includes a discussion and description of soil and water conservation methods for the…

  15. Conservation of tropical plant species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book is designed to provide a review of the methods and current status of conservation of many tropical plant species. Future perspectives of conservation of tropical species will also be discussed. The section on methods covers the range of conservation techniques, in situ, seed banking, in vi...

  16. Conservation Education: A Position Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    The Soil Conservation Society of America's (SCSA) aim is to advance the science and art of good land and water use. Conservation education has a significant role in achieving the wise use of these resources. In this report, perspectives are offered on: (1) the requirements for effective conservation education programs; (2) rationale for…

  17. Conservation systems in the Southeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation describes how conservation systems that include non-inversion tillage and cover crops, a key component of conservation systems, are managed in the Southeast to maximize benefits. Benefits include weed suppression, moisture conservation, and increased organic matter contents. Mana...

  18. Teaching Conservation in Developing Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brace, Judith; And Others

    This manual is designed to provide Peace Corps volunteers and other field workers with ideas, activities, and resources for incorporating conservation education into their day-to-day community activities. It begins with a chapter dealing with a self-contained conservation center. Other chapters tell of ways in which a conservation education…

  19. Saving Money Through Energy Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presley, Michael H.; And Others

    This publication is an introduction to personal energy conservation. The first chapter presents a rationale for conserving energy and points out that private citizens control about one third of this country's energy consumption. Chapters two and three show how to save money by saving energy. Chapter two discusses energy conservation methods in the

  20. Approved Practices in Soil Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Albert B.

    This book is written for individuals who wish to apply conservation practices, especially those of soil and water conservation, without technical assistance, to meet one's own conditions, and within his own capability to apply them. To meet these needs, the book includes a discussion and description of soil and water conservation methods for the

  1. Satellite-derived photosynthetically available and total solar irradiance at the surface during FIFE's intensive field campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frouin, Robert; Mcpherson, J.

    1993-01-01

    Satellite-derived photosynthetically available and total solar irradiance at the surface during First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment's (FIFE) intensive field compaigns are addressed. Graphs showing photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) vs. Julian Day and insolation vs. Julian Day are included.

  2. Integrating Agriculture and Conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandever, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    The USGS produces the needed science-based information to guide management actions and policy decisions that support wildlife habitat and other environmental services compatible with USDA conservation goals and farm operations. The Policy Analysis and Science Assistance Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) has conducted research involving a national landowner survey and numerous short- and long-term evaluations regarding vegetation responses to land management practices. This research helps land and resource managers to make informed decisions and resolve resource management conflicts.

  3. Water Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Metzger, Jesse Dean

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple water fixture inventory information and calculates the water/energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes water conservation measures for: Low-flow Toilets, Low-flow Urinals, Low-flow Faucets, and Low-flow Showheads. This tool calculates water savings, energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  4. New electromagnetic conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergqvist, G.; Eriksson, I.; Senovilla, J. M. M.

    2003-07-01

    The Chevreton superenergy tensor was introduced in 1964 as a counterpart, for electromagnetic fields, of the well-known Bel-Robinson tensor of the gravitational field. We here prove the unnoticed facts that, in the absence of electromagnetic currents, Chevreton's tensor (i) is completely symmetric, and (ii) has a trace-free divergence if the Einstein-Maxwell equations hold. It follows that the trace of the Chevreton tensor is a rank-2, symmetric, trace-free, conserved tensor, which is different from the energy-momentum tensor, and nonetheless can be constructed for any test Maxwell field or any Einstein-Maxwell spacetime.

  5. Water Conservation Measures

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple water fixture inventory information and calculates the water/energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes water conservation measures for: Low-flow Toilets, Low-flow Urinals, Low-flow Faucets, and Low-flow Showheads. This tool calculates water savings, energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits ofmore » a project.« less

  6. Plug Loads Conservation Measures

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple plug loads inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: Vending Machine Misers, Delamp Vending Machine, Desktop to Laptop retrofit, CRT to LCD monitors retrofit, Computer Power Management Settings, and Energy Star Refrigerator retrofit. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings tomore » investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.« less

  7. Plug Loads Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Metzger, Jesse Dean

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple plug loads inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: Vending Machine Misers, Delamp Vending Machine, Desktop to Laptop retrofit, CRT to LCD monitors retrofit, Computer Power Management Settings, and Energy Star Refrigerator retrofit. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  8. On integrable conservation laws

    PubMed Central

    Arsie, Alessandro; Lorenzoni, Paolo; Moro, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    We study normal forms of scalar integrable dispersive (not necessarily Hamiltonian) conservation laws, via the Dubrovin–Zhang perturbative scheme. Our computations support the conjecture that such normal forms are parametrized by infinitely many arbitrary functions that can be identified with the coefficients of the quasi-linear part of the equation. Moreover, in general, we conjecture that two scalar integrable evolutionary partial differential equations having the same quasi-linear part are Miura equivalent. This conjecture is also consistent with the tensorial behaviour of these coefficients under general Miura transformations. PMID:25568614

  9. Wastewater treatment using gamma irradiation: Ttouan pilot station, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahri, Loubna; Elgarrouj, Driss; Zantar, Said; Mouhib, Mohamed; Azmani, Amina; Sayah, Fouad

    2010-04-01

    The increasing demand on limited water supplies has accelerated the wastewater reuse and reclamation. We investigated gamma irradiation effects on wastewater by measuring differences in the legislated parameters, aiming to reuse the wastewater. Effluents samples were collected at the urban wastewater treatment station of Tetouan and were irradiated at different doses ranging from 0 to 14 kGy using a Co 60 gamma source. The results showed an elimination of bacterial flora, a decrease of biochemical and chemical oxygen demand, and higher conservation of nutritious elements. The results of this study indicated that gamma irradiation might be a good choice for the reuse of wastewater for agricultural activities.

  10. Par6alpha signaling controls glial-guided neuronal migration.

    PubMed

    Solecki, David J; Model, Lynn; Gaetz, Jedidiah; Kapoor, Tarun M; Hatten, Mary E

    2004-11-01

    Neuronal migrations along glial fibers provide a primary pathway for the formation of cortical laminae. To examine the mechanisms underlying glial-guided migration, we analyzed the dynamics of cytoskeletal and signaling components in living neurons. Migration involves the coordinated two-stroke movement of a perinuclear tubulin 'cage' and the centrosome, with the centrosome moving forward before nuclear translocation. Overexpression of mPar6alpha disrupts the perinuclear tubulin cage, retargets PKCzeta and gamma-tubulin away from the centrosome, and inhibits centrosomal motion and neuronal migration. Thus, we propose that during neuronal migration the centrosome acts to coordinate cytoskeletal dynamics in response to mPar6alpha-mediated signaling. PMID:15475953

  11. Intraoperative raster photogrammetry--the PAR Corneal Topography System.

    PubMed

    Belin, M W

    1993-01-01

    The PAR Corneal Topography System (CTS) is a computer-driven corneal imaging system that uses close-range raster photogrammetry to measure and produce a topographic map of the corneal surface. The CTS determines distortion in a projected two-dimensional grid. Unlike Placido-disc-based videokeratoscopes, the PAR CTS produces a true topographic map (elevation map) and requires neither a smooth reflective surface nor precise spatial alignment for accurate imaging. Because the system uses two noncoaxial optical paths, it can be integrated into other optical devices. A modified CTS was integrated into an experimental erbium: YAG photoablative laser. The CTS successfully imaged corneas before, after, and during laser photoablation. Its ability to image nonreflective surfaces and to be integrated into other optical systems may make it suitable for intraoperative refractive monitoring. PMID:8450443

  12. Springtime size-fractionated primary production across hydrographic and PAR-light gradients in Chilean Patagonia (41-50°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Bárbara G.; Tapia, Fabián J.; Daneri, Giovanni; Iriarte, Jose L.; Montero, Paulina; Sobarzo, Marcus; Quiñones, Renato A.

    2014-12-01

    We combined on-deck and in situ measurements and satellite-derived data to study the spatial variability of springtime size-fractionated primary production and chlorophyll-a biomass along gradients of hydrographic conditions and surface PAR in central and northern Chilean Patagonia (41-50°S). This extensive and fragmented region encompasses numerous fjords and channels, as well as the northern and southern icefields (46-47°S, 48-52°S). Primary production displayed a latitudinal pattern decreasing southwards (6-fold lower), particularly toward areas influenced by rivers with a nival regime. Micro-phytoplankton (>20 μm) dominated the primary production (57-93%) and chlorophyll-a (43-91%) of northern sites, where warmer and more saline surface waters exhibit greater PAR irradiance. Small phytoplankton cells (<2 μm; 2-20 μm) contributed > 50% of carbon fixation and chlorophyll-a in the southernmost sites, especially those located near glaciers and major rivers, where surface temperature, salinity, and PAR irradiance were lowest. The long-term (2002-2012) average field of springtime PAR derived from satellite imagery showed a southward increase in longitudinal gradients, which indicates that spatial changes in surface light attenuation along this region are largely driven by glacier-derived freshwater inputs. A principal component analysis of surface temperature, salinity, and PAR produced an ordination of sites that was consistent with spatial changes in the balance of oceanic versus riverine influence on surface conditions along this region. Total primary production was significantly correlated (r = 0.61, p = 0.007) with the first principal component, which explained 65% of joint variability in hydrographic conditions and PAR. The same principal component clearly separated sites in northern Patagonia where micro-phytoplankton dominated total primary production - along the Reloncavi fjord and Inner Sea of Chiloe - from those located further south where other size fractions were equally or more important. We stress the need to include spatial variability in nutrient concentrations, which together with the strong light attenuation induced by glacier-derived freshwater may further explain the spatial patterns in primary productivity, phytoplankton biomass, and carbon fluxes along Chilean Patagonia.

  13. Traumatismes Oculaires par Petards: Bilan sur Trois Annees

    PubMed Central

    Zouaoui-Kesraoui, N.; Derdour, A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Les accidents dus aux pétards sont des accidents graves. Leur recrudescence ces dernières années en Algérie, essentiellement durant les fêtes du Mawlid Ennabaoui (fête de la naissance du prophète), mérite à notre sens d'entreprendre des bilans exhaustifs dont celui-ci dans le but d'une sensibilisation de toutes les compétences concernées. Nous avons réuni sur trois années consécutives (2002, 2003, 2004) 60 dossiers de malades ayant subi des accidents oculaires par pétards. Nos patients sont répartis en 42 consultations pour blessures légères et 18 hospitalisations pour blessures graves. Parmi ces derniers, neuf ont présenté des complications et séquelles graves (cinq cas de cécité par atrophie du globe oculaire, trois cas de cécité cornéenne et un cas de cécité par trou maculaire). Dans tous ces cas l'incapacité permanente partielle est au minimum de 30%. Au vu de ces données nous proposons des mesures d'éducation sanitaire et une sensibilisation du grand public aux traumatismes oculaires, par le biais de mé dias appropriés: radio, télévision, affiches. PMID:21991157

  14. Defining biocultural approaches to conservation.

    PubMed

    Gavin, Michael C; McCarter, Joe; Mead, Aroha; Berkes, Fikret; Stepp, John Richard; Peterson, Debora; Tang, Ruifei

    2015-03-01

    We contend that biocultural approaches to conservation can achieve effective and just conservation outcomes while addressing erosion of both cultural and biological diversity. Here, we propose a set of guidelines for the adoption of biocultural approaches to conservation. First, we draw lessons from work on biocultural diversity and heritage, social-ecological systems theory, integrated conservation and development, co-management, and community-based conservation to define biocultural approaches to conservation. Second, we describe eight principles that characterize such approaches. Third, we discuss reasons for adopting biocultural approaches and challenges. If used well, biocultural approaches to conservation can be a powerful tool for reducing the global loss of both biological and cultural diversity. PMID:25622889

  15. Focusing ecological research for conservation.

    PubMed

    Cristescu, Bogdan; Boyce, Mark S

    2013-11-01

    Ecologists are increasingly actively involved in conservation. We identify five key topics from a broad sweep of ecology that merit research attention to meet conservation needs. We examine questions from landscape ecology, behavioral ecology, ecosystem dynamics, community ecology, and nutrient cycling related to key topics. Based on literature review and publication trend assessment, consultation with colleagues, and roundtable discussions at the 24th International Congress for Conservation Biology, focused research on the following topics could benefit conservation while advancing ecological understanding: 1. Carbon sequestration, requiring increased linkages to biodiversity conservation; 2. Ecological invasiveness, challenging our ability to find solutions to ecological aliens; 3. Individual variation, having applications in the conservation of rare species; 4. Movement of organisms, integrating ecological processes across landscapes and scales and addressing habitat fragmentation; and 5. Trophic-level interactions, driving ecological dynamics at the ecosystem-level. Addressing these will require cross-disciplinary research under the overarching framework of conservation ecology. PMID:23609103

  16. Energy conservation in museums

    SciTech Connect

    Ucar, M.; Doering, G.C.

    1980-07-01

    An overall assessment of energy conservation in museums in New York is made in view of the special environmental considerations involved. The special relative humidity, temperature, and lighting requirements of museums were studied extensively. An energy consumption data base was formed with actual energy use data obtained from over fifty institutions across the state. The computerized energy consumption data base compiled covers an extremely wide range of energy usage levels. On-site energy consumption ranged from approximately 20,000 to 400,000 Btu/ft/sup 2/ year. The data base includes small rural institutions and large metropolitan museums, historic and modern structures, seasonal and year-round museums, single buildings and collections of buildings, single-story buildings and multiple-story buildings, an aquarium, and a zoo. Thus, it is difficult to identify trends in the energy consumption data and to make correlations with such parameters as age, type, size, etc. Walk-through or mini energy audits were performed on ten museums located in various parts of New York State. This project also included a thorough study of all potential funding sources to which museums can apply for financing energy conservation measures. Sources of technical assistance and information were also identified. (MCW)

  17. Beyond conservation agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Giller, Ken E.; Andersson, Jens A.; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture. PMID:26579139

  18. Conservative treatment vs phonosurgery.

    PubMed

    Vukasinović, M; Stanković, P D; Nikolić, Lj; Stojanović, M; Ajduković, M; Djukić, V; Janosević, Lj

    2008-01-01

    In Phoniatric Dpt. everyday practice we try to keep specific multidisciplinary approach to the communication disorders, that includes an expert team using modern technology. Over the last six years we have treated 110 singers (3% of all new cases) and the results of their diagnostic and therapeutic management are presented here. There were 67 women and 43 men, 41 were smokers and 69 nonsmokers. The singing genres included 24 pop, 41 folk, 8 ethnic, 29 choral and 8 opera singers. The therapy success was compared with the demographic parameters, level of education and music genres across the subjects. A precise history, clinical examination, endovideolaryngostroboscopy and multidimensional computer analysis of voice and speech was carried out by two phoniatricians, two logopeds, two nurses and one clinical psychologist. Additional consultations were carried out by audiologists, allergists, endocrinologists, chest physicians, gastroenterologists and neurologists where necessary. We suggest that the gold standard is conservative therapy, with phonosurgery if conservative measures fail. We also suggest that an annual systematic examination is optimal in preventing disease in professional singers. PMID:19245144

  19. Selling energy conservation.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, D

    1995-01-01

    This article concerns the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) crisis and its impact on energy efficiency measures in the US. In 1985, when the OPEC collapsed, the US government had avoided the need to construct 350 gigawatts of new electric capacity. The most successful efficiency improvements, especially in household appliances and equipment, lighting and tightened energy efficiency standards in new buildings, resulted from the OPEC event. The real innovation of that time was the change in profit rules for utilities. This revolution and the way some US utilities view energy have not caught on elsewhere. Despite the initiative toward improving energy efficiency in homes, offices and industries, the change has been slow. Partly to blame are the big development banks, which pointed out that short-term conservation and efficiency measures could save at least 15% of the total energy demand without the need for major investment. The benefits of energy conservation was shown during the oil shock when per capita energy consumption fell by 5% in the member states of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, while the per capita gross domestic product grew by a third. There has been a decrease in energy expenditure worldwide, and the scope for further energy savings is enormous, but governments need to recognize and seize the opportunity. PMID:12295818

  20. Integrable viscous conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsie, Alessandro; Lorenzoni, Paolo; Moro, Antonio

    2015-06-01

    We propose an extension of the Dubrovin-Zhang perturbative approach to the study of normal forms for non-Hamiltonian integrable scalar conservation laws. The explicit computation of the first few corrections leads to the conjecture that such normal forms are parameterized by one single functional parameter, named the viscous central invariant. A constant valued viscous central invariant corresponds to the well-known Burgers hierarchy. The case of a linear viscous central invariant provides a viscous analog of the Camassa-Holm equation, that formerly appeared as a reduction of two-component Hamiltonian integrable systems. We write explicitly the negative and positive hierarchy associated with this equation and prove the integrability showing that they can be mapped respectively into the heat hierarchy and its negative counterpart, named the Klein-Gordon hierarchy. A local well-posedness theorem for periodic initial data is also proven. We show how transport equations can be used to effectively construct asymptotic solutions via an extension of the quasi-Miura map that preserves the initial datum. The method is alternative to the method of the string equation for Hamiltonian conservation laws and naturally extends to the viscous case. Using these tools we derive the viscous analog of the Painlevé I2 equation that describes the universal behaviour of the solution at the critical point of gradient catastrophe.

  1. Lyme disease and conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, H.

    1994-01-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness that is wide-spread in North America, especially in the northeastern and northcentral United States. This disease could negatively influence efforts to conserve natural populations in two ways: (1) the disease could directly affect wild animal health; and (2) tick control efforts could adversely affect natural populations and communities. Lyme disease affects several domestic animals, but symptoms have been reported in only a few wild species. Direct effects of Lyme disease on wild animal populations have not been reported, but the disease should be considered as a possible cause in cases of unexplained population declines in endemic areas. Methods available to manage ticks and Lyme disease include human self-protection techniques, manipulation of habitats and hosts species populations, biological control, and pesticide applications. The diversity of available techniques allows selection of approaches to minimize environmental effects by (1) emphasizing personal protection techniques, (2) carefully targeting management efforts to maximize efficiency, and (3) integrating environmentally benign techniques to improve management while avoiding broad-scale environmentally destructive approaches. The environmental effects of Lyme disease depend, to a large extent, on the methods chosen to minimize human exposure to infected ticks. Conservation biologists can help design tick management programs that effectively lower the incidence of human Lyme disease while simultaneously minimizing negative effects on natural populations.

  2. Beyond conservation agriculture.

    PubMed

    Giller, Ken E; Andersson, Jens A; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture. PMID:26579139

  3. Molecular contributions to conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haig, Susan M.

    1998-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular technology have opened a new chapter in species conservation efforts, as well as population biology. DNA sequencing, MHC (major histocompatibility complex), minisatellite, microsatellite, and RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) procedures allow for identification of parentage, more distant relatives, founders to new populations, unidentified individuals, population structure, effective population size, population-specific markers, etc. PCR (polymerase chain reaction) amplification of mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA, ribosomal DNA, chloroplast DNA, and other systems provide for more sophisticated analyses of metapopulation structure, hybridization events, and delineation of species, subspecies, and races, all of which aid in setting species recovery priorities. Each technique can be powerful in its own right but is most credible when used in conjunction with other molecular techniques and, most importantly, with ecological and demographic data collected from the field. Surprisingly few taxa of concern have been assayed with any molecular technique. Thus, rather than showcasing exhaustive details from a few well-known examples, this paper attempts to present a broad range of cases in which molecular techniques have been used to provide insight into conservation efforts.

  4. La modélisation par Reverse Monte Carlo (RMC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGreevy, R. L.

    2003-09-01

    La technique de modélisation par Reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) est une méthode générale de modélisation structurale à partir d'un ensemble de données expérimentales. Cette méthode étant très souple, elle peut s'appliquer à de nombreux types de données. Jusqu'à présent ces applications comprennent : la diffraction des neutrons (y compris la substitution isotopique), la diffraction des rayons X (y compris la diffusion anomale), la diffraction des électrons, la RMN (les techniques d'angle magique et de 2ème moment) et l'EXAFS. Les systèmes étudiés sont également d'une grande variété : liquides, verres, polymères, cristaux et matériaux magnétiques, par exemple. Ce cours présente les bases de la méthode RMC en signalant certaines des idées fausses répandues. L'accent sera mis sur le fait que les modèles structuraux obtenus par RMC ne sont ni'uniques' ni 'exacts' ; cependant ils sont souvent utiles à la compréhension soit de la structure du système, soit des relations entre structure et autres propriétés physiques.

  5. Accuracy of the PAR corneal topography system with spatial misalignment.

    PubMed

    Belin, M W; Zloty, P

    1993-01-01

    The PAR Corneal Topography System is a computerized corneal imaging system which uses close-range raster photogrammetry to measure and produce a topographic map of the corneal surface. Raster photogrammetry is a standard method of extracting object information by projecting a known pattern onto an object and recording the distortion when viewed from an oblique angle. Unlike placido disc based videokeratoscopes, the PAR system requires neither a smooth reflective surface nor precise spatial alignment for accurate imaging. We studied both the accuracy of the system with purposeful misalignment (defocusing) of the test object and determined the ability to image freshly deepithelialized, keratectomized, and photoablated corneas. The PAR system was both accurate and reproducible in imaging calibrated spheres within a defined zone in space. Whole cadaver eyes were imaged both before and immediately after removal of the epithelium, lamellar keratectomy, and laser photoablation. The system demonstrated the ability to image irregular, deepithelialized, and keratectomized corneas. The ability to maintain accuracy without precise alignment and the facility to image freshly deepithelialized and keratectomized corneas may make the system suitable for intraoperative refractive monitoring. PMID:8453756

  6. Welding irradiated stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Kanne, W.R. Jr.; Chandler, G.T.; Nelson, D.Z.; Franco-Ferreira, E.A.

    1993-12-31

    Conventional welding processes produced severe underbead cracking in irradiated stainless steel containing 1 to 33 appm helium from n,a reactions. A shallow penetration overlay technique was successfully demonstrated for welding irradiated stainless steel. The technique was applied to irradiated 304 stainless steel that contained 10 appm helium. Surface cracking, present in conventional welds made on the same steel at the same and lower helium concentrations, was eliminated. Underbead cracking was minimal compared to conventional welding methods. However, cracking in the irradiated material was greater than in tritium charged and aged material at the same helium concentrations. The overlay technique provides a potential method for repair or modification of irradiated reactor materials.

  7. Atypical protein kinase C cooperates with PAR-3 to establish embryonic polarity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Tabuse, Y; Izumi, Y; Piano, F; Kemphues, K J; Miwa, J; Ohno, S

    1998-09-01

    Asymmetric cell divisions, critically important to specify cell types in the development of multicellular organisms, require polarized distribution of cytoplasmic components and the proper alignment of the mitotic apparatus. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the maternally expressed protein, PAR-3, is localized to one pole of asymmetrically dividing blastomeres and is required for these asymmetric divisions. In this paper, we report that an atypical protein kinase C (PKC-3) is essential for proper asymmetric cell divisions and co-localizes with PAR-3. Embryos depleted of PKC-3 by RNA interference die showing Par-like phenotypes including defects in early asymmetric divisions and mislocalized germline-specific granules (P granules). The defective phenotypes of PKC-3-depleted embryos are similar to those exhibited by mutants for par-3 and another par gene, par-6. Direct interaction of PKC-3 with PAR-3 is shown by in vitro binding analysis. This result is reinforced by the observation that PKC-3 and PAR-3 co-localize in vivo. Furthermore, PKC-3 and PAR-3 show mutual dependence on each other and on three of the other par genes for their localization. We conclude that PKC-3 plays an indispensable role in establishing embryonic polarity through interaction with PAR-3. PMID:9716526

  8. Sensitivity analysis of conservation targets in systematic conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Levin, Noam; Mazor, Tessa; Brokovich, Eran; Jablon, Pierre-Elie; Kark, Salit

    2015-10-01

    Systematic conservation planning has rapidly advanced in the past decade and has been increasingly incorporated in multiple studies and conservation projects. One of its requirements is a quantitative definition of conservation targets. While the Convention on Biological Diversity aims to expand the world's protected area network to 17% of the land surface, in many cases such uniform policy-driven targets may not be appropriate for achieving persistence of various species. Targets are often set arbitrarily, often because information required for the persistence of each species is unavailable or unknown in the focal region. Conservation planners therefore need to establish complementary novel approaches to address the gaps in setting targets. Here, we develop and present a novel method that aims to help guide the selection of conservation targets, providing support for decision makers, planners, and managers. This is achieved by examining the overall flexibility of the conservation network resulting from conservation prioritization, and aiming for greater flexibility. To test this approach we applied the decision support tool Marxan to determine marine conservation priority areas in the eastern Mediterranean Sea as a case study. We assessed the flexibility of the conservation network by comparing 80 different scenarios in which conservation targets were gradually increased and assessed by a range of calculated metrics (e.g., the percentage of the total area selected, the overall connectivity). We discovered that when conservation targets were set too low (i.e., below 10% of the distribution range of each species), very few areas were identified as irreplaceable and the conservation network was not well defined. Interestingly, when conservation targets were set too high (over 50% of the species' range), too many conservation priority areas were selected as irreplaceable, an outcome which is realistically infeasible to implement. As a general guideline, we found that flexibility in a conservation network is adequate when ~10-20% of the study area is considered irreplaceable (selection frequency values over 90%). This approach offers a useful sensitivity analysis when applying target-based systematic conservation planning tools, ensuring that the resulting protected area conservation network offers more choices for managers and decision makers. PMID:26591464

  9. Supply Curves of Conserved Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan Kevin

    1982-05-01

    Supply curves of conserved energy provide an accounting framework that expresses the potential for energy conservation. The economic worthiness of a conservation measure is expressed in terms of the cost of conserved energy, and a measure is considered economical when the cost of conserved energy is less than the price of the energy it replaces. A supply curve of conserved energy is independent of energy prices; however, the economical reserves of conserved energy will depend on energy prices. Double-counting of energy savings and error propagation are common problems when estimating conservation potentials, but supply curves minimize these difficulties and make their consequences predictable. The sensitivity of the cost of conserved energy is examined, as are variations in the optimal investment strategy in response to changes in inputs. Guidelines are presented for predicting the consequences of such changes. The conservation supply curve concept can be applied to peak power, water, pollution, and other markets where consumers demand a service rather than a particular good.

  10. National energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A set of energy conservation actions that cut across all sectors of the economy were analyzed so that all actions under consideration be analyzed systematically and as a whole. The actions considered were as follows: (1) roll back the price of newly discovered oil, (2) freeze gasoline production for 3 years at 1972 levels, (3) mandate automobile mileage improvements, (4) require industry to improve energy efficiency, (5) require manufacture of household appliances with greater efficiency, (6) force conversion of many power plants from gas and oil to coal. The results showed that considerable gas and oil would be saved by forcing switches to coal. However, the large scale switch to coal was shown to require greatly increased outputs from many other industries that in turn require more energy. It was estimated that nearly 2.5 quads of additional coal were needed to produce these additional requirements. Also, the indirect requirements would create more jobs.

  11. Why not energy conservation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    Energy conservation is a deep principle that is obeyed by all of the fundamental forces of nature. It puts stringent constraints on all systems, particularly systems that are ‘isolated,’ meaning that no energy can enter or escape. Notwithstanding the success of the principle of stationary action, it is fair to wonder to what extent physics can be formulated from the principle of stationary energy. We show that if one interprets mechanical energy as a state function, then its stationarity leads to a novel formulation of classical mechanics. However, unlike Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics, which deliver their state functions via algebraic proscriptions (i.e., the Lagrangian is always the difference between a system’s kinetic and potential energies), this new formalism identifies its state functions as the solutions to a differential equation. This is an important difference because differential equations can generate more general solutions than algebraic recipes. When applied to Newtonian systems for which the energy function is separable, these state functions are always the mechanical energy. However, while the stationary state function for a charged particle moving in an electromagnetic field proves not to be energy, the function nevertheless correctly encodes the dynamics of the system. Moreover, the stationary state function for a free relativistic particle proves not to be the energy either. Rather, our differential equation yields the relativistic free-particle Lagrangian (plus a non-dynamical constant) in its correct dynamical context. To explain how this new formalism can consistently deliver stationary state functions that give the correct dynamics but that are not always the mechanical energy, we propose that energy conservation is a specific realization of a deeper principle of stationarity that governs both relativistic and non-relativistic mechanics.

  12. Kinase Associated-1 Domains Drive MARK/PAR1 Kinases to Membrane Targets by Binding Acidic Phospholipids

    SciTech Connect

    Moravcevic, Katarina; Mendrola, Jeannine M.; Schmitz, Karl R.; Wang, Yu-Hsiu; Slochower, David; Janmey, Paul A.; Lemmon, Mark A.

    2011-09-28

    Phospholipid-binding modules such as PH, C1, and C2 domains play crucial roles in location-dependent regulation of many protein kinases. Here, we identify the KA1 domain (kinase associated-1 domain), found at the C terminus of yeast septin-associated kinases (Kcc4p, Gin4p, and Hsl1p) and human MARK/PAR1 kinases, as a membrane association domain that binds acidic phospholipids. Membrane localization of isolated KA1 domains depends on phosphatidylserine. Using X-ray crystallography, we identified a structurally conserved binding site for anionic phospholipids in KA1 domains from Kcc4p and MARK1. Mutating this site impairs membrane association of both KA1 domains and intact proteins and reveals the importance of phosphatidylserine for bud neck localization of yeast Kcc4p. Our data suggest that KA1 domains contribute to coincidence detection, allowing kinases to bind other regulators (such as septins) only at the membrane surface. These findings have important implications for understanding MARK/PAR1 kinases, which are implicated in Alzheimer's disease, cancer, and autism.

  13. Magi Is Associated with the Par Complex and Functions Antagonistically with Bazooka to Regulate the Apical Polarity Complex

    PubMed Central

    Padash Barmchi, Mojgan; Samarasekera, Gayathri; Gilbert, Mary; Auld, Vanessa J.; Zhang, Bing

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian MAGI proteins play important roles in the maintenance of adherens and tight junctions. The MAGI family of proteins contains modular domains such as WW and PDZ domains necessary for scaffolding of membrane receptors and intracellular signaling components. Loss of MAGI leads to reduced junction stability while overexpression of MAGI can lead to increased adhesion and stabilization of epithelial morphology. However, how Magi regulates junction assembly in epithelia is largely unknown. We investigated the single Drosophila homologue of Magi to study the in vivo role of Magi in epithelial development. Magi is localized at the adherens junction and forms a complex with the polarity proteins, Par3/Bazooka and aPKC. We generated a Magi null mutant and found that Magi null mutants were viable with no detectable morphological defects even though the Magi protein is highly conserved with vertebrate Magi homologues. However, overexpression of Magi resulted in the displacement of Baz/Par3 and aPKC and lead to an increase in the level of PIP3. Interestingly, we found that Magi and Baz functioned in an antagonistic manner to regulate the localization of the apical polarity complex. Maintaining the balance between the level of Magi and Baz is an important determinant of the levels and localization of apical polarity complex. PMID:27074039

  14. Kinase Associated-1 (KA1) Domains Drive MARK/PAR1 Kinases to Membrane Targets by Binding Acidic Phospholipids

    PubMed Central

    Moravcevic, Katarina; Mendrola, Jeannine M.; Schmitz, Karl R.; Wang, Yu-Hsiu; Slochower, David; Janmey, Paul A.; Lemmon, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Phospholipid-binding modules such as PH, C1, and C2 domains play crucial roles in location-dependent regulation of many protein kinases. Here, we identify the KA1 domain (kinase associated-1 domain), found at the C-terminus of yeast septin-associated kinases (Kcc4p, Gin4p and Hsl1p) and human MARK/PAR1 kinases, as a membrane association domain that binds acidic phospholipids. Membrane localization of isolated KA1 domains depends on phosphatidylserine. Using X-ray crystallography, we identified a structurally conserved binding site for anionic phospholipids in KA1 domains from Kcc4p and MARK1. Mutating this site impairs membrane association of both KA1 domains and intact proteins, and reveals the importance of phosphatidylserine for bud neck localization of yeast Kcc4p. Our data suggest that KA1 domains contribute to “coincidence detection”, allowing kinases to bind other regulators (such as septins) only at the membrane surface. These findings have important implications for understanding MARK/PAR1 kinases, which are implicated in Alzheimer’s disease, cancer, and autism. PMID:21145462

  15. 77 FR 74167 - Information Collection Request: Highly Erodible Land Conservation and Wetland Conservation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... Farm Service Agency Information Collection Request: Highly Erodible Land Conservation and Wetland... associated with Highly Erodible Land Conservation and Wetland Conservation certification requirements. This.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Highly Erodible Land Conservation and Wetland Conservation Certification....

  16. Tailless and Atrophin control Drosophila aggression by regulating neuropeptide signalling in the pars intercerebralis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Shaun M.; Thomas, Amanda L.; Nomie, Krystle J.; Huang, Longwen; Dierick, Herman A.

    2014-02-01

    Aggressive behaviour is widespread throughout the animal kingdom. However, its mechanisms are poorly understood, and the degree of molecular conservation between distantly related species is unknown. Here we show that knockdown of tailless (tll) increases aggression in Drosophila, similar to the effect of its mouse orthologue Nr2e1. Tll localizes to the adult pars intercerebralis (PI), which shows similarity to the mammalian hypothalamus. Knockdown of tll in the PI is sufficient to increase aggression and is rescued by co-expressing human NR2E1. Knockdown of Atrophin, a Tll co-repressor, also increases aggression, and both proteins physically interact in the PI. tll knockdown-induced aggression is fully suppressed by blocking neuropeptide processing or release from the PI. In addition, genetically activating PI neurons increases aggression, mimicking the aggression-inducing effect of hypothalamic stimulation. Together, our results suggest that a transcriptional control module regulates neuropeptide signalling from the neurosecretory cells of the brain to control aggressive behaviour.

  17. Tailless and Atrophin control Drosophila aggression by regulating neuropeptide signalling in the pars intercerebralis.

    PubMed

    Davis, Shaun M; Thomas, Amanda L; Nomie, Krystle J; Huang, Longwen; Dierick, Herman A

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behaviour is widespread throughout the animal kingdom. However, its mechanisms are poorly understood, and the degree of molecular conservation between distantly related species is unknown. Here we show that knockdown of tailless (tll) increases aggression in Drosophila, similar to the effect of its mouse orthologue Nr2e1. Tll localizes to the adult pars intercerebralis (PI), which shows similarity to the mammalian hypothalamus. Knockdown of tll in the PI is sufficient to increase aggression and is rescued by co-expressing human NR2E1. Knockdown of Atrophin, a Tll co-repressor, also increases aggression, and both proteins physically interact in the PI. tll knockdown-induced aggression is fully suppressed by blocking neuropeptide processing or release from the PI. In addition, genetically activating PI neurons increases aggression, mimicking the aggression-inducing effect of hypothalamic stimulation. Together, our results suggest that a transcriptional control module regulates neuropeptide signalling from the neurosecretory cells of the brain to control aggressive behaviour. PMID:24495972

  18. Caracterisation et transformation par hydroviscoreduction du brut lourd de Doba/Tchad: Strategie de pompage par pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehkissia, Soumaine

    Le projet de la these est defini par rapport a la recente exploitation commerciale du brut lourd de Doba, une region du Tchad, pays enclave d'ou le brut ainsi produit doit etre achemine par pipeline. Le but dans ce travail est de caracteriser ce brut et de determiner une strategie thermique de transformation en vue de reduire de la facon la plus economique, la viscosite du brut pour permettre son transport par pipeline. Concernant la partie caracterisation, nous avons utilise entre autres, un rheometre rotatif et des analyseurs (LECO CHN-2000 & LECO S-144DR Elemental Analyzers) pour evaluer respectivement la viscosite et les elements tels que C, H, N, O, S. Sur la base des methodes de transformation disponibles, nous avons determine une strategie simple de transformation thermique par hydroviscoreduction , strategie dans laquelle, la fraction legere du brut comme le naphta (80--180°C), pourrait constituer la source d'hydrogene a utiliser. Le brut de Doba, a une faible teneur en soufre (0.14%) et sa densite specifique de 0.940 a 15.6°C, soit 18.8° API, le classe parmi les bruts lourds. Outre le point initial se situant a 85°C, la distillation du brut a revele que la fraction distillant avant 250°C ne represente que 10% (v/v) et que le craquage thermique du substrat debute a 300°C. Par ailleurs, outre son caractere Newtonien, les densites specifiques de la fraction lourde de l'essence (100--200°C) et de la fraction distillant au-dessus 350°C, etant respectivement de 0.813 (0.813 > 0.800) et de 0.951 (0.930 < 0.951 < 0.975), le brut de Doba est donc de type aromatique. Les viscosites du brut et du brut desasphalte, sont respectivement de 184.4 cSt et 152.4 cSt a 50°C, suggerant que le desasphaltage ne constitue pas une methode efficace pouvant aider au pompage du brut par pipeline, d'ou la necessite de transformation. Les resultats des travaux en autoclave montrent que, si le brut doit etre traite entierement, la viscosite de 25cSt 50°C, recommandee pour le transport par pipeline, peut-etre atteinte a une severite de traitement log(R0) = 6.3. Pour des raisons economiques, si le brut traite, devrait etre melange avec 50% en poids du brut non-traite, un traitement a une severite de 6.4 s'impose. De plus, La viscosite du brut traite a une severite de 6.4 ne souffre d'aucun effet de vieillissement meme apres deux mois, ce qui correspond au temps de sejour du brut dans le pipeline. L'etude montre aussi que les asphaltenes du brut traite en absence d'un catalyseur sont moins aromatiques que ceux du brut non-traite.

  19. Is PAR a Good Investment? Understanding the Costs and Benefits of Teacher Peer Assistance and Review Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papay, John P.; Johnson, Susan Moore

    2012-01-01

    Peer Assistance and Review (PAR) is a local labor-management initiative designed to improve teacher quality. In PAR, expert "consulting teachers" mentor, support, and evaluate novice and underperforming veteran teachers. Evaluations under PAR can lead to dismissals. The authors examine the costs and benefits of PAR, both financial and…

  20. Anterior PAR Proteins Function During Cytokinesis and Maintain DYN-1 at the Cleavage Furrow in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Pittman, Kelly J.; Skop, Ahna R.

    2013-01-01

    PAR proteins are key regulators of cellular polarity and have links to the endocytic machinery and the actin cytoskeleton. Our data suggest a unique role for PAR proteins in cytokinesis. We have found that at the onset of cytokinesis, anterior PAR-6 and posterior PAR-2 proteins are redistributed to the furrow membrane in a temporal and spatial manner. PAR-6 and PAR-2 localize to the furrow membrane during ingression but PAR-2-GFP is distinct in that it is excluded from the extreme tip of the furrow. Once the midbody has formed, PAR-2-GFP becomes restricted to the midbody region (the midbody plus the membrane flanking it). Depletion of both anterior PAR proteins, PAR-3 and PAR-6, led to an increase in multinucleate embryos, suggesting that the anterior PAR proteins are necessary during cytokinesis and that PAR-3 and PAR-6 function in cytokinesis may be partially redundant. Lastly, anterior PAR proteins play a role in the maintenance of DYN-1 in the cleavage furrow. Our data indicate that the PAR proteins are involved in the events that occur during cytokinesis and may play a role in promoting the membrane trafficking and remodeling events that occur during this time. PMID:22887994

  1. Floristic and phytosociology in dense "terra firme" rainforest in the Belo Monte Hydroelectric Plant influence area, Pará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lemos, D A N; Ferreira, B G A; Siqueira, J D P; Oliveira, M M; Ferreira, A M

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterise the floristic and phytosociological composition on a stretch of dense "Terra Firme" rainforest located in the Belo Monte hydroelectric plant area of influence, located in the state of Pará, Brazil. All trees with DAP >10 cm situated in 75 permanent plots of 1 ha were inventoried. 27,126 individuals trees (361 ind.ha-1), distributed in 59 botanical families, comprising 481 species were observed. The families with the largest number of species were Fabaceae (94), Araceae (65) and Arecaceae (43), comprising 43.7% of total species. The species Alexa grandiflora (4.41), Cenostigma tocantinum (2.50) and Bertholletia excelsa (2.28) showed the highest importance values (IV). The ten species with greater IV are concentrated (22%). The forest community has high species richness and can be classified as diverse age trees, heterogeneous and of medium conservation condition. PMID:26691099

  2. The Rhetoric of Conservative Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnick, Barbara

    1977-01-01

    Identifies and illustrates characteristics of conservative resistance rhetoric and examines the psychological origins and ideological statements of this rhetoric in the West Virginia textbook protest. (MH)

  3. Priorities for global felid conservation.

    PubMed

    Dickman, Amy J; Hinks, Amy E; Macdonald, Ewan A; Burnham, Dawn; Macdonald, David W

    2015-06-01

    Conservation resources are limited, necessitating prioritization of species and locations for action. Most prioritization approaches are based solely on biologically relevant characteristics of taxa or areas and ignore geopolitical realities. Doing so risks a poor return on conservation investment due to nonbiological factors, such as economic or political instability. We considered felids, a taxon which attracts intense conservation attention, to demonstrate a new approach that incorporates both intrinsic species traits and geopolitical characteristics of countries. We developed conservation priority scores for wild felids based on their International Union for Conservation of Nature status, body mass, habitat, range within protected area, evolutionary distinctiveness, and conservation umbrella potential. We used published data on governance, economics and welfare, human population pressures, and conservation policy to assign conservation-likelihood scores to 142 felid-hosting countries. We identified 71 countries as high priorities (above median) for felid conservation. These countries collectively encompassed all 36 felid species and supported an average of 96% of each species' range. Of these countries, 60.6% had below-average conservation-likelihood scores, which indicated these countries are relatively risky conservation investments. Governance was the most common factor limiting conservation likelihood. It was the major contributor to below-median likelihood scores for 62.5% of the 32 felid species occurring in lower-likelihood countries. Governance was followed by economics for which scores were below median for 25% of these species. An average of 58% of species' ranges occurred in 43 higher-priority lower-likelihood countries. Human population pressure was second to governance as a limiting factor when accounting for percentage of species' ranges in each country. As conservation likelihood decreases, it will be increasingly important to identify relevant geopolitical limitations and tailor conservation strategies accordingly. Our analysis provides an objective framework for biodiversity conservation action planning. Our results highlight not only which species most urgently require conservation action and which countries should be prioritized for such action, but also the diverse constraints which must be overcome to maximize long-term success. PMID:25864434

  4. Characterization of Mammalian Par 6 as a Dual-Location Protein▿

    PubMed Central

    Cline, Erin G.; Nelson, W. James

    2007-01-01

    Par 6 acts as a scaffold protein to facilitate atypical protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation of cytoplasmic protein complexes, leading to epithelial and neuronal cell polarization. In addition to its location in the cytoplasm, Par 6 is localized to the nucleus. However, its organization and potential functions in the nucleus have not been examined. Using an affinity-purified Par 6 antibody and a chimera of Par 6 and green fluorescent protein, we show that Par 6 localizes precisely to nuclear speckles, but not to other nuclear structures, and displays characteristics of speckle proteins. We show that Par 6 colocalizes in the nucleus with Tax, a transcriptional activator of the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 long terminal repeat, but multiple lines of evidence show that Par 6 is not directly involved in known functions of speckle proteins, including general transcription, splicing, or mRNA transport. Significantly, however, the structure of nuclear speckles is lost when Par 6 levels are reduced by Par 6-specific small interfering RNA. Therefore, we hypothesize that Par 6 in the nucleus acts as a scaffolding protein in nuclear speckle complexes, similar to its role in the cytoplasm. PMID:17420281

  5. Par-4-mediated recruitment of Amida to the actin cytoskeleton leads to the induction of apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Boosen, Meike; Vetterkind, Susanne; Koplin, Ansgar; Illenberger, Susanne; Preuss, Ute . E-mail: u.preuss@uni-bonn.de

    2005-12-10

    Par-4 (prostate apoptosis response-4) sensitizes cells to apoptotic stimuli, but the exact mechanisms are still poorly understood. Using Par-4 as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified Amida as a novel interaction partner, a ubiquitously expressed protein which has been suggested to be involved in apoptotic processes. Complex formation of Par-4 and Amida occurs in vitro and in vivo and is mediated via the C-termini of both proteins, involving the leucine zipper of Par-4. Amida resides mainly in the nucleus but displays nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling in heterokaryons. Upon coexpression with Par-4 in REF52.2 cells, Amida translocates to the cytoplasm and is recruited to actin filaments by Par-4, resulting in enhanced induction of apoptosis. The synergistic effect of Amida/Par-4 complexes on the induction of apoptosis is abrogated when either Amida/Par-4 complex formation or association of these complexes with the actin cytoskeleton is impaired, indicating that the Par-4-mediated relocation of Amida to the actin cytoskeleton is crucial for the pro-apoptotic function of Par-4/Amida complexes in REF52.2 cells. The latter results in enhanced phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain of myosin II (MLC) as has previously been shown for Par-4-mediated recruitment of DAP-like kinase (Dlk), suggesting that the recruitment of nuclear proteins involved in the regulation of apoptotic processes to the actin filament system by Par-4 represents a potent mechanism how Par-4 can trigger apoptosis.

  6. Conservation or Conversation? Contextual Facilitation of Inappropriate Conservation Judgments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Paul; Gilmour, Amanda

    1983-01-01

    A total of 4six children with a mean age of 6 years were randomly assigned to either a standard or modified testing condition in order to assess their conservation judgments. Significantly higher levels of "conserving" judgments were obtained in the modified condition. (Author/CI)

  7. Décontamination nucléaire par laser UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaporte, Ph.; Gastaud, M.; Marine, W.; Sentis, M.; Uteza, O.; Thouvenot, P.; Alcaraz, J. L.; Le Samedy, J. M.; Blin, D.

    2003-06-01

    Le développement et l'utilisation de procédés propres pour le nettoyage ou la préparation de surfaces est l'une des priorités du milieu industriel. Cet intérêt est d'autant plus grand dans le domaine du nucléaire pour lequel la réduction des déchets est un axe de recherche important. Un dispositif de décontamination nucléaire par laser UV impulsionnel a été développé et testé. Il est composé. d'un laser à excimères de 1kW, d'un faisceau de fibres optiques et d'un dispositif de récupération des particules. Les essais réalisés en milieu actif ont démontré sa capacité à nettoyer des surfaces métalliques polluées par différents radioéléments avec des facteurs de décontamination généralement supérieurs à 10. Ce dispositif permet de décontaminer de grandes surfaces de géométrie simple en réduisant fortement la génération de déchets secondaires. Il est, à ce jour et dans ces conditions d'utilisations, le procédé de décontamination par voie sèche le plus efficace.

  8. Inflammation and Macular Oedema after Pars Plana Vitrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Vito; Angi, Martina; del Grosso, Renata; Romano, Davide; Vinciguerra, Paolo; Romano, Mario R.

    2013-01-01

    Cystoid macular oedema (CMO) is a major cause of reduced vision following intraocular surgery. Although the aetiology of CMO is not completely clarified, intraocular inflammation is known to play a major role in its development. The macula may develop cytotoxic oedema when the primary lesion and fluid accumulation occur in the parenchymatous cells (intracellular oedema) or vasogenic oedema when the primary defect occurs in the blood-retinal barrier and leads to extracellular fluid accumulation (extracellular oedema). We report on the mechanisms of CMO formation after pars plana vitrectomy and associated surgical procedures and discuss possible therapeutic approaches. PMID:24288446

  9. BOREAS TE-12 Incoming PAR Through the Forest Canopy Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor); Walter-Shea, Elizabeth A.; Mesarch, Mark A.

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-12 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on shoot geometry, leaf optical properties, leaf water potential, and leaf gas exchange. The data were collected at the Southern Study Area-Old Black Spruce (SSA-OBS) site from 04-Jul-1996 to 25-Jul-1996. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  10. Solar Irradiance Changes and Phytoplankton Productivity in Earth's Ocean Following Astrophysical Ionizing Radiation Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neale, Patrick J.; Thomas, Brian C.

    2016-04-01

    Two atmospheric responses to simulated astrophysical ionizing radiation events significant to life on Earth are production of odd-nitrogen species, especially NO2, and subsequent depletion of stratospheric ozone. Ozone depletion increases incident short-wavelength ultraviolet radiation (UVB, 280-315 nm) and longer ( > 600 nm) wavelengths of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR, 400 -700 nm). On the other hand, the NO2 haze decreases atmospheric transmission in the long-wavelength UVA (315-400 nm) and short wavelength PAR. Here we use the results of previous simulations of incident spectral irradiance following an ionizing radiation event to predict changes in Terran productivity focusing on photosynthesis of marine phytoplankton. The prediction is based on a spectral model of photosynthetic response developed for the dominant genera in central regions of the ocean (Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus), and remote-sensing based observations of spectral water transparency, temperature, wind speed and mixed layer depth. Predicted productivity declined after a simulated ionizing event, but the effect integrated over the water column was small. For integrations taking into account the full depth range of PAR transmission (down to 0.1% of utilizable PAR), the decrease was at most 2-3% (depending on strain), with larger effects (5-7%) for integrations just to the depth of the surface mixed layer. The deeper integrations were most affected by the decreased utilizable PAR at depth due to the NO2 haze, whereas shallower integrations were most affected by the increased surface UV.

  11. Energy conservation with flywheels

    SciTech Connect

    Rabenhorst, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    The flywheel can be made to store more energy per unit weight, volume and cost than conventional electric storage batteries. It accepts or delivers the energy at a much higher rate than the electric battery, and has a much longer operating life. These capabilities uniquely qualify the flywheel for many mobile energy conservation concepts which, if implemented, could significantly reduce world oil consumption. Flywheels made of isotropic materials, such as solid steel, are generally limited to about five or six watt-hours-per-pound. The performance of the improved wound flywheels is now in the range of ten to thirty-watt-hours-per-pound, and the principal objective of the current U.S. Department of Energy high performance program is a demonstration of flywheels having a capability of forty watt-hours-per-pound. Actual laboratory demonstrations have exceeded twice this value. Applications subject to current flywheel programs are for urban buses (flywheel only; flywheel/diesel hybrid), automobiles (flywheel/battery hybrid, flywheel/engine hybrid, miniature car with flywheel only), mine shuttle car, stationary electric generators from about 1 kWh to 100 kWh,and for tools.

  12. Intergenerational equity and conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otoole, R. P.; Walton, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    The issue of integenerational equity in the use of natural resources is discussed in the context of coal mining conversion. An attempt to determine if there is a clear-cut benefit to future generations in setting minimum coal extraction efficiency standards in mining is made. It is demonstrated that preserving fossil fuels beyond the economically efficient level is not necessarily beneficial to future generations even in terms of their own preferences. Setting fossil fuel conservation targets for intermediate products (i.e. energy) may increase the quantities of fossil fuels available to future generations and hence lower the costs, but there may be serious disadvantages to future generations as well. The use of relatively inexpensive fossil fuels in this generation may result in more infrastructure development and more knowledge production available to future generations. The value of fossil fuels versus these other endowments in the future depends on many factors which cannot possibly be evaluated at present. Since there is no idea of whether future generations are being helped or harmed, it is recommended that integenerational equity not be used as a factor in setting coal mine extraction efficiency standards, or in establishing requirements.

  13. Conserved Proteins Are Fragile

    PubMed Central

    Assis, Raquel; Kondrashov, Alexey S.

    2014-01-01

    Levels of selective constraint vary among proteins. Although strong constraint on a protein is often attributed to its functional importance, evolutionary rate may also be limited if a protein is fragile, such that a large proportion of amino acid replacements reduce its fitness. To determine the relative contributions of essentiality and fragility to selective constraint, we compared relationships of selection against nonsense mutations (snon) and selection against missense mutations (smis) to protein sequence conservation (Ka). As expected, snon is greater than smis; however, the correlation between smis and Ka is nearly three times stronger than the correlation between snon and Ka. Moreover, examination of relationships to gene expression level, tissue specificity, and number of protein–protein interactions shows that smis is more strongly correlated than snon to all three measures of biological function. Thus, our analysis reveals that slowly evolving proteins are under strong selective constraint primarily because they are fragile, and that this association likely exists because allowing a protein to function improperly, rather than removing it from a biological network, can negatively affect the functions of other molecules it interacts with and their downstream products. PMID:24202613

  14. Intergenerational equity and conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otoole, R. P.; Walton, A. L.

    1980-06-01

    The issue of integenerational equity in the use of natural resources is discussed in the context of coal mining conversion. An attempt to determine if there is a clear-cut benefit to future generations in setting minimum coal extraction efficiency standards in mining is made. It is demonstrated that preserving fossil fuels beyond the economically efficient level is not necessarily beneficial to future generations even in terms of their own preferences. Setting fossil fuel conservation targets for intermediate products (i.e. energy) may increase the quantities of fossil fuels available to future generations and hence lower the costs, but there may be serious disadvantages to future generations as well. The use of relatively inexpensive fossil fuels in this generation may result in more infrastructure development and more knowledge production available to future generations. The value of fossil fuels versus these other endowments in the future depends on many factors which cannot possibly be evaluated at present. Since there is no idea of whether future generations are being helped or harmed, it is recommended that integenerational equity not be used as a factor in setting coal mine extraction efficiency standards, or in establishing requirements.

  15. Conservation of strategic metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    A long-range program in support of the aerospace industry aimed at reducing the use of strategic materials in gas turbine engines is discussed. The program, which is called COSAM (Conservation of Strategic Aerospace Materials), has three general objectives. The first objective is to contribute basic scientific understanding to the turbine engine technology bank so that our national security is not jeopardized if our strategic material supply lines are disrupted. The second objective is to help reduce the dependence of United States military and civilian gas turbine engines on worldwide supply and price fluctuations in regard to strategic materials. The third objective is, through research, to contribute to the United States position of preeminence in the world gas turbine engine markets by minimizing the acquisition costs and optimizing the performance of gas turbine engines. Three major research thrusts are planned: strategic element substitution; advanced processing concepts; and alternate material identification. Results from research and any required supporting technology will give industry the materials technology options it needs to make tradeoffs in material properties for critical components against the cost and availability impacts related to their strategic metal content.

  16. SIFamide is a highly conserved neuropeptide: a comparative study in different insect species.

    PubMed

    Verleyen, Peter; Huybrechts, Jurgen; Baggerman, Geert; Van Lommel, Alfons; De Loof, Arnold; Schoofs, Liliane

    2004-07-23

    Neb-LFamide or AYRKPPFNGSLFamide was originally purified from the grey flesh fly Neobellieria bullata as a myotropic neuropeptide. We studied the occurrence of this peptide and its isoforms in the central nervous system of different insect species by means of whole mount fluorescence immunohistochemistry, mass spectrometry, and data mining. We found that both sequence and immunoreactive distribution pattern are very conserved in the studied insects. In all species and stages we counted two pairs of immunoreactive cells in the pars intercerebralis. These cells projected axons throughout the ventral nerve cord. In the adult CNSs they formed a large number of immunoreactive varicosities as well. Mass spectrometry and data mining revealed that SIFamide exists in two isoforms: [G1]-SIFamide and [A1]-SIFamide. In addition, the SIFamide joining peptide is relatively well conserved throughout arthropod species. The conserved presence of two cysteine residues, separated by six amino acid residues, allows the formation of disulphide bridges. PMID:15219831

  17. Aging-like Changes in the Transcriptome of Irradiated Microglia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Matthew D.; Burns, Terry C.; Kumar, Sunny; Morgan, Alexander A.; Sloan, Steven A.; Palmer, Theo D.

    2014-01-01

    Whole brain irradiation remains important in the management of brain tumors. Although necessary for improving survival outcomes, cranial irradiation also results in cognitive decline in long-term survivors. A chronic inflammatory state characterized by microglial activation has been implicated in radiation-induced brain injury. We here provide the first comprehensive transcriptional profile of irradiated microglia. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) was used to isolate CD11b+ microglia from the hippocampi of C57BL/6 and Balb/c mice 1 month after 10Gy cranial irradiation. Affymetrix gene expression profiles were evaluated using linear modeling, rank product analyses. One month after irradiation, a conserved irradiation signature across strains was identified, comprising 448 and 85 differentially up- and down-regulated genes, respectively. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) demonstrated enrichment for inflammation, including M1 macrophage-associated genes, but also an unexpected enrichment for extracellular matrix and blood coagulation-related gene sets, in contrast previously described microglial states. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) confirmed these findings and further revealed alterations in mitochondrial function. The RNA-seq transcriptome of microglia 24h post-radiation proved similar to the 1-month transcriptome, but additionally featured alterations in apoptotic and lysosomal gene expression. Re-analysis of published aging mouse microglia transcriptome data demonstrated striking similarity to the 1 month irradiated microglia transcriptome, suggesting that shared mechanisms may underlie aging and chronic irradiation-induced cognitive decline. PMID:25690519

  18. Assessing Conservation Benefits and Costs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantifying the environmental and economic impact of conservation practices is important to the success of agricultural policy/programs aimed at protecting natural resources. The Upper Big Walnut Creek (UBWC) watershed is one of 14 national cropland watersheds selected for the Conservation Effects A...

  19. Educating Astronauts About Conservation Biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews the training of astronauts in the interdisciplinary work of conservation biology. The primary responsibility of the conservation biologist at NASA is directing and supporting the photography of the Earth and maintaining the complete database of the photographs. In order to perform this work, the astronauts who take the pictures must be educated in ecological issues.

  20. TECHNIQUES FOR TEACHING CONSERVATION EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROWN, ROBERT E.; MOUSER, G.W.

    CONSERVATION PRINCIPLES, FIELD METHODS AND TECHNIQUES, AND SPECIFIC FIELD LEARNING ACTIVITIES ARE INCLUDED IN THIS REFERENCE VOLUME FOR TEACHERS. CONSERVATION PRINCIPLES INCLUDE STATEMENTS PERTAINING TO (1) SOIL, (2) WATER, (3) FOREST, AND (4) WILDLIFE. FIELD METHODS AND TECHNIQUES INCLUDE (1) PREPARING FOR A FIELD TRIP, (2) GETTING STUDENT

  1. Semiarid soil and water conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Finkel, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides an overview of soil and water conservation and emphasizes practical control measures. Contents include surface hydrology, analysis of the erosion process, and practical control measures through: correct land use; crop rotations; shifting cultivation; contour farming; and strip cropping; Water harvesting, recently developed systems now in use, and rangeland management for soil and water conservation in semi-arid regions are reviewed.

  2. TECHNIQUES FOR TEACHING CONSERVATION EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROWN, ROBERT E.; MOUSER, G.W.

    CONSERVATION PRINCIPLES, FIELD METHODS AND TECHNIQUES, AND SPECIFIC FIELD LEARNING ACTIVITIES ARE INCLUDED IN THIS REFERENCE VOLUME FOR TEACHERS. CONSERVATION PRINCIPLES INCLUDE STATEMENTS PERTAINING TO (1) SOIL, (2) WATER, (3) FOREST, AND (4) WILDLIFE. FIELD METHODS AND TECHNIQUES INCLUDE (1) PREPARING FOR A FIELD TRIP, (2) GETTING STUDENT…

  3. Orchid conservation: making the links.

    PubMed

    Fay, Michael F; Pailler, Thierry; Dixon, Kingsley W

    2015-09-01

    Orchidaceae, one of the largest families of flowering plants, present particular challenges for conservation, due in great part to their often complex interactions with mycorrhizal fungi, pollinators and host trees. In this Highlight, we present seven papers focusing on orchids and their interactions and other factors relating to their conservation. PMID:26311710

  4. Creative Learning Experiences in Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is a collection of ten short articles originally published in "Soil Conservation" from 1964-1968. The articles are written for the teacher and are concerned with recent innovations in conservation education in various schools in the eastern United States. Innovations include school land laboratories, soil monolith tours for teachers,…

  5. Energy conservation and air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Air transportation demand and passenger energy demand are discussed, in relation to energy conservation. Alternatives to air travel are reviewed, along with airline advertising and ticket pricing. Cargo energy demand and airline systems efficiency are also examined, as well as fuel conservation techniques. Maximum efficiency of passenger aircraft, from B-747 to V/STOL to British Concorde, is compared.

  6. Communication Skills for Conservation Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Susan K.

    This book provides in-depth guidance for students, scientists, managers, and professionals in achieving conservation goals through better communication. It introduces communication approaches--marketing and mass media, citizen participation, public information, environmental interpretation, and conservation education activities--and offers scores…

  7. Residential Conservation Service installer's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Thor, P.W.; Gallagher, N.

    1981-01-01

    Background on the Residential Conservation Service (RCS) Program is presented for the contractor; the role of the contractor in this program is described; and the contractor is provided with the standards (required under RCS) for the installation of energy conserving measures. (MHR)

  8. Conservation laws and thermodynamic efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Benenti, Giuliano; Casati, Giulio; Wang, Jiao

    2013-02-15

    We show that generic systems with a single relevant conserved quantity reach the Carnot efficiency in the thermodynamic limit. Such a general result is illustrated by means of a diatomic chain of hard-point elastically colliding particles where the total momentum is the only relevant conserved quantity. PMID:25166362

  9. The Scribble and Par complexes in polarity and migration: friends or foes?

    PubMed

    Humbert, Patrick O; Dow, Lukas E; Russell, Sarah M

    2006-12-01

    The Par complex [consisting of Bazooka (also called Par3), Par6 and aPKC] is a well-described regulator of cell polarity whose role in many aspects of cell morphogenesis is under intense investigation. Recently, another set of proteins known as the Scribble complex (consisting of Scribble, Discs large and Lethal giant larvae) has also been shown to be important in polarity regulation in several settings. Here, we describe the current status of Scribble in polarity and review evidence from various model systems that indicates an essential but context-dependent role for the Scribble and Par complexes in directed cell migration. Based on the known interactions of Scribble and Par complexes with each other and with other signalling pathways, we propose models by which Par and Scribble might interact to regulate cell migration. PMID:17067797

  10. Estimating Photosynthetically Available Radiation (PAR) at the Earth's surface from satellite observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frouin, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Current satellite algorithms to estimate photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) at the earth' s surface are reviewed. PAR is deduced either from an insolation estimate or obtained directly from top-of-atmosphere solar radiances. The characteristics of both approaches are contrasted and typical results are presented. The inaccuracies reported, about 10 percent and 6 percent on daily and monthly time scales, respectively, are useful to model oceanic and terrestrial primary productivity. At those time scales variability due to clouds in the ratio of PAR and insolation is reduced, making it possible to deduce PAR directly from insolation climatologies (satellite or other) that are currently available or being produced. Improvements, however, are needed in conditions of broken cloudiness and over ice/snow. If not addressed properly, calibration/validation issues may prevent quantitative use of the PAR estimates in studies of climatic change. The prospects are good for an accurate, long-term climatology of PAR over the globe.

  11. Comparative validation of the IPAQ and the 7-Day PAR among women diagnosed with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Johnson-Kozlow, Marilyn; Sallis, James F; Gilpin, Elizabeth A; Rock, Cheryl L; Pierce, John P

    2006-01-01

    Background The criterion-related validity and measurement bias of the long form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was compared to the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall (PAR). Methods Participants were women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer and enrolled in the ongoing Women's Healthy Eating and Living Study. Women (N = 159, average age 57 years) wore an accelerometer for one week and then completed the IPAQ or the PAR. Results The validity correlation of the PAR was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than the IPAQ (0.73 vs. 0.33, respectively). The PAR and IPAQ overestimated total physical activity by 13% vs. 247%, respectively. The PAR had better sensitivity (p = 0.14) and specificity (p < .01) than the IPAQ (100% vs. 71% and 84% vs. 59%, respectively) in predicting attainment of the ACSM physical activity guideline. Conclusion The PAR was superior to the IPAQ in terms of validity, measurement bias, and screening statistics. PMID:16579852

  12. Ratio of PAR to broadband solar radiation based on long-term measurements in Moscow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shilovtseva, Olga

    2013-05-01

    The results of long-term (1980-2011) photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) monitoring, which have been held at the Meteorological Observatory of Moscow State University (MSU MO) are presented. The PAR measurements are carried out within wavelength ranges 380-710 nm and 400-700 nm using modified thermoelectrically pyranometer (1980-2001) and LI-COR quantum sensor (from 1999 to the present) with the accuracy 7-10%. Main attention was paid to the variability of the magnitude of the relationship between the broadband total solar radiation (Q) and PAR (QPAR). The dependence of this ratio (qPAR=QPAR/Q) on various meteorological factors is investigated. The simple empirically derived model for PAR estimation is developed. Based on these methods the long-term variations of PAR during the XX Century in the Moscow region was obtained.

  13. Paracrine apoptotic effect of p53 mediated by tumor suppressor Par-4.

    PubMed

    Burikhanov, Ravshan; Shrestha-Bhattarai, Tripti; Hebbar, Nikhil; Qiu, Shirley; Zhao, Yanming; Zambetti, Gerard P; Rangnekar, Vivek M

    2014-01-30

    The guardian of the genome, p53, is often mutated in cancer and may contribute to therapeutic resistance. Given that p53 is intact and functional in normal tissues, we harnessed its potential to inhibit the growth of p53-deficient cancer cells. Specific activation of p53 in normal fibroblasts selectively induced apoptosis in p53-deficient cancer cells. This paracrine effect was mediated by p53-dependent secretion of the tumor suppressor Par-4. Accordingly, the activation of p53 in normal mice, but not p53(-)/(-) or Par-4(-)/(-) mice, caused systemic elevation of Par-4, which induced apoptosis of p53-deficient tumor cells. Mechanistically, p53 induced Par-4 secretion by suppressing the expression of its binding partner, UACA, which sequesters Par-4. Thus, normal cells can be empowered by p53 activation to induce Par-4 secretion for the inhibition of therapy-resistant tumors. PMID:24412360

  14. Paracrine Apoptotic Effect of p53 Mediated by Tumor Suppressor Par-4

    PubMed Central

    Burikhanov, Ravshan; Shrestha-Bhattarai, Tripti; Hebbar, Nikhil; Qiu, Shirley; Zhao, Yanming; Zambetti, Gerard P.; Rangnekar, Vivek M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The guardian of the genome, p53, is often mutated in cancer and may contribute to therapeutic resistance. As p53 is intact and functional in normal tissues, we harnessed its potential to inhibit the growth of p53-deficient cancer cells. Specific activation of p53 in normal fibroblasts selectively induced apoptosis in p53-deficient cancer cells. This paracrine effect was mediated by p53-dependent secretion of the tumor suppressor Par-4. Accordingly, activation of p53 in normal mice, but not in p53?/? or Par-4?/? mice, caused systemic elevation of Par-4 that induced apoptosis of p53-deficient tumor cells. Mechanistically, p53 induced Par-4 secretion by suppressing the expression of UACA, which sequesters Par-4. Thus, normal cells can be empowered by p53 activation to induce Par-4 secretion for inhibition of therapy-resistant tumors. PMID:24412360

  15. Is international conservation aid enough?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Elizabeth A.

    2016-02-01

    Bare et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 125010) ask an important question: is international conservation enough? Since the 1990’s international conservation donors have spent over 3.4 billion on biodiversity conservation related projects in sub-Saharan Africa. Both donors and recipients have a right to know if this is effective. Surprisingly, this question is rarely asked. It is a difficult question—involving many rival social, environmental, and economic explanations. Bare, Kauffman and Miller uncover some interesting associations, supporting existing hypotheses and proposing their own: that conservation aid alone is insufficient to mitigate drivers of deforestation (and in some cases may even exacerbate forest loss). This controversial result warrants further investigation—but what is needed now is nuance and robustness in further analyses, to have more confidence in the critique and it’s implications for international conservation aid.

  16. Optimal Conservation of Migratory Species

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Tara G.; Chadès, Iadine; Arcese, Peter; Marra, Peter P.; Possingham, Hugh P.; Norris, D. Ryan

    2007-01-01

    Background Migratory animals comprise a significant portion of biodiversity worldwide with annual investment for their conservation exceeding several billion dollars. Designing effective conservation plans presents enormous challenges. Migratory species are influenced by multiple events across land and sea–regions that are often separated by thousands of kilometres and span international borders. To date, conservation strategies for migratory species fail to take into account how migratory animals are spatially connected between different periods of the annual cycle (i.e. migratory connectivity) bringing into question the utility and efficiency of current conservation efforts. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we report the first framework for determining an optimal conservation strategy for a migratory species. Employing a decision theoretic approach using dynamic optimization, we address the problem of how to allocate resources for habitat conservation for a Neotropical-Nearctic migratory bird, the American redstart Setophaga ruticilla, whose winter habitat is under threat. Our first conservation strategy used the acquisition of winter habitat based on land cost, relative bird density, and the rate of habitat loss to maximize the abundance of birds on the wintering grounds. Our second strategy maximized bird abundance across the entire range of the species by adding the constraint of maintaining a minimum percentage of birds within each breeding region in North America using information on migratory connectivity as estimated from stable-hydrogen isotopes in feathers. We show that failure to take into account migratory connectivity may doom some regional populations to extinction, whereas including information on migratory connectivity results in the protection of the species across its entire range. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that conservation strategies for migratory animals depend critically upon two factors: knowledge of migratory connectivity and the correct statement of the conservation problem. Our framework can be used to identify efficient conservation strategies for migratory taxa worldwide, including insects, birds, mammals, and marine organisms. PMID:17710150

  17. 12 CFR 1263.19 - Par value and price of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Par value and price of stock. 1263.19 Section 1263.19 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Stock Requirements § 1263.19 Par value and price of stock. The capital stock of each Bank shall be sold at par, unless the Director has fixed...

  18. Cathepsin S Causes Inflammatory Pain via Biased Agonism of PAR2 and TRPV4*

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Peishen; Lieu, TinaMarie; Barlow, Nicholas; Metcalf, Matthew; Veldhuis, Nicholas A.; Jensen, Dane D.; Kocan, Martina; Sostegni, Silvia; Haerteis, Silke; Baraznenok, Vera; Henderson, Ian; Lindström, Erik; Guerrero-Alba, Raquel; Valdez-Morales, Eduardo E.; Liedtke, Wolfgang; McIntyre, Peter; Vanner, Stephen J.; Korbmacher, Christoph; Bunnett, Nigel W.

    2014-01-01

    Serine proteases such as trypsin and mast cell tryptase cleave protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) at R36↓S37 and reveal a tethered ligand that excites nociceptors, causing neurogenic inflammation and pain. Whether proteases that cleave PAR2 at distinct sites are biased agonists that also induce inflammation and pain is unexplored. Cathepsin S (Cat-S) is a lysosomal cysteine protease of antigen-presenting cells that is secreted during inflammation and which retains activity at extracellular pH. We observed that Cat-S cleaved PAR2 at E56↓T57, which removed the canonical tethered ligand and prevented trypsin activation. In HEK and KNRK cell lines and in nociceptive neurons of mouse dorsal root ganglia, Cat-S and a decapeptide mimicking the Cat-S-revealed tethered ligand-stimulated PAR2 coupling to Gαs and formation of cAMP. In contrast to trypsin, Cat-S did not mobilize intracellular Ca2+, activate ERK1/2, recruit β-arrestins, or induce PAR2 endocytosis. Cat-S caused PAR2-dependent activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) in Xenopus laevis oocytes, HEK cells and nociceptive neurons, and stimulated neuronal hyperexcitability by adenylyl cyclase and protein kinase A-dependent mechanisms. Intraplantar injection of Cat-S caused inflammation and hyperalgesia in mice that was attenuated by PAR2 or TRPV4 deletion and adenylyl cyclase inhibition. Cat-S and PAR2 antagonists suppressed formalin-induced inflammation and pain, which implicates endogenous Cat-S and PAR2 in inflammatory pain. Our results identify Cat-S as a biased agonist of PAR2 that causes PAR2- and TRPV4-dependent inflammation and pain. They expand the role of PAR2 as a mediator of protease-driven inflammatory pain. PMID:25118282

  19. Perspective on food irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-01

    Recent US Food and Drug Administration approval of irradiation treatment for fruit, vegetables and pork has stimulated considerable discussion in the popular press on the safety and efficacy of irradiation processing of food. This perspective is designed to summarize the current scientific information available on this issue.

  20. MASSIVE LEAKAGE IRRADIATOR

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Szilard, L.; Christy, R.F.; Friedman, F.L.

    1961-05-30

    An irradiator designed to utilize the neutrons that leak out of a reactor around its periphery is described. It avoids wasting neutron energy and reduces interference with the core flux to a minimum. This is done by surrounding all or most of the core with removable segments of the material to be irradiated within a matrix of reflecting material.

  1. Comminuting irradiated ferritic steel

    DOEpatents

    Bauer, Roger E.; Straalsund, Jerry L.; Chin, Bryan A.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of comminuting irradiated ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other irradiated components.

  2. Regional Nodal Irradiation in Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Whelan, Timothy J.; Olivotto, Ivo A.; Parulekar, Wendy R.; Ackerman, Ida; Chua, Boon H.; Nabid, Abdenour; Vallis, Katherine A.; White, Julia R.; Rousseau, Pierre; Fortin, Andre; Pierce, Lori J.; Manchul, Lee; Chafe, Susan; Nolan, Maureen C.; Craighead, Peter; Bowen, Julie; McCready, David R.; Pritchard, Kathleen I.; Gelmon, Karen; Murray, Yvonne; Chapman, Judy-Anne W.; Chen, Bingshu E.; Levine, Mark N.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Most women with breast cancer who undergo breast-conserving surgery receive whole-breast irradiation. We examined whether the addition of regional nodal irradiation to whole-breast irradiation improved outcomes. METHODS We randomly assigned women with node-positive or high-risk node-negative breast cancer who were treated with breast-conserving surgery and adjuvant systemic therapy to undergo either whole-breast irradiation plus regional nodal irradiation (including internal mammary, supraclavicular, and axillary lymph nodes) (nodal-irradiation group) or whole-breast irradiation alone (control group). The primary outcome was overall survival. Secondary outcomes were disease-free survival, isolated locoregional disease-free survival, and distant disease-free survival. RESULTS Between March 2000 and February 2007, a total of 1832 women were assigned to the nodal-irradiation group or the control group (916 women in each group). The median follow-up was 9.5 years. At the 10-year follow-up, there was no significant between-group difference in survival, with a rate of 82.8% in the nodal-irradiation group and 81.8% in the control group (hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72 to 1.13; P = 0.38). The rates of disease-free survival were 82.0% in the nodal-irradiation group and 77.0% in the control group (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.94; P = 0.01). Patients in the nodal-irradiation group had higher rates of grade 2 or greater acute pneumonitis (1.2% vs. 0.2%, P = 0.01) and lymphedema (8.4% vs. 4.5%, P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Among women with node-positive or high-risk node-negative breast cancer, the addition of regional nodal irradiation to whole-breast irradiation did not improve overall survival but reduced the rate of breast-cancer recurrence. PMID:26200977

  3. Helicobacter pylori CagA targets PAR1/MARK kinase to disrupt epithelial cell polarity.

    PubMed

    Saadat, Iraj; Higashi, Hideaki; Obuse, Chikashi; Umeda, Mayumi; Murata-Kamiya, Naoko; Saito, Yasuhiro; Lu, Huaisheng; Ohnishi, Naomi; Azuma, Takeshi; Suzuki, Atsushi; Ohno, Shigeo; Hatakeyama, Masanori

    2007-05-17

    Helicobacter pylori cagA-positive strains are associated with gastritis, ulcerations and gastric adenocarcinoma. CagA is delivered into gastric epithelial cells and, on tyrosine phosphorylation, specifically binds and activates the SHP2 oncoprotein, thereby inducing the formation of an elongated cell shape known as the 'hummingbird' phenotype. In polarized epithelial cells, CagA also disrupts the tight junction and causes loss of apical-basolateral polarity. We show here that H. pylori CagA specifically interacts with PAR1/MARK kinase, which has an essential role in epithelial cell polarity. Association of CagA inhibits PAR1 kinase activity and prevents atypical protein kinase C (aPKC)-mediated PAR1 phosphorylation, which dissociates PAR1 from the membrane, collectively causing junctional and polarity defects. Because of the multimeric nature of PAR1 (ref. 14), PAR1 also promotes CagA multimerization, which stabilizes the CagA-SHP2 interaction. Furthermore, induction of the hummingbird phenotype by CagA-activated SHP2 requires simultaneous inhibition of PAR1 kinase activity by CagA. Thus, the CagA-PAR1 interaction not only elicits the junctional and polarity defects but also promotes the morphogenetic activity of CagA. Our findings revealed that PAR1 is a key target of H. pylori CagA in the disorganization of gastric epithelial architecture underlying mucosal damage, inflammation and carcinogenesis. PMID:17507984

  4. Dysregulated protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1) promotes metastatic phenotype in breast cancer through HMGA2.

    PubMed

    Yang, E; Cisowski, J; Nguyen, N; O'Callaghan, K; Xu, J; Agarwal, A; Kuliopulos, A; Covic, L

    2016-03-24

    As the majority of patients with basal-like breast carcinoma present with invasive, metastatic disease that do not respond to available therapies, it is essential to identify new therapeutic targets that impact invasion and metastasis. Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1), a G-protein coupled receptor has been shown to act as an oncogene, but underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we show that ectopic expression of functionally active PAR1 in MCF-7 cells induced a hormone-refractory, invasive phenotype representative of advanced basal-like breast carcinoma that readily formed metastatic lesions in lungs of mice. PAR1 was found to globally upregulate mesenchymal markers, including vimentin, a direct target of PAR1, and downregulate the epithelial markers including E-cadherin, as well as estrogen receptor. In contrast, non-signaling PAR1 mutant receptor did not lead to an invasive, hormone refractory phenotype. PAR1 expression increased spheroid formation and the level of stemness markers and self-renewal capacity in human breast cancer cells. We identified HMGA2 (high mobility group A2) as an important regulator of PAR1-mediated invasion. Inhibition of PAR1 signaling suppresses HMGA2-driven invasion in breast cancer cells. HMGA2 gene and protein are highly expressed in metastatic breast cancer cells. Overall, our results show that PAR1/HMGA2 pathway may present a novel therapeutic target. PMID:26165842

  5. Irradiation Creep in Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Ubic, Rick; Butt, Darryl; Windes, William

    2014-03-13

    An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of irradiation creep in graphite material is required to correctly interpret experimental data, explain micromechanical modeling results, and predict whole-core behavior. This project will focus on experimental microscopic data to demonstrate the mechanism of irradiation creep. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy should be able to image both the dislocations in graphite and the irradiation-induced interstitial clusters that pin those dislocations. The team will first prepare and characterize nanoscale samples of virgin nuclear graphite in a transmission electron microscope. Additional samples will be irradiated to varying degrees at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) facility and similarly characterized. Researchers will record microstructures and crystal defects and suggest a mechanism for irradiation creep based on the results. In addition, the purchase of a tensile holder for a transmission electron microscope will allow, for the first time, in situ observation of creep behavior on the microstructure and crystallographic defects.

  6. Effects of PAR and UV Radiation on the Structural and Functional Integrity of Phycocyanin, Phycoerythrin and Allophycocyanin Isolated from the Marine Cyanobacterium Lyngbya sp. A09DM.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Rajesh Prasad; Sonani, Ravi Raghav; Madamwar, Datta

    2015-01-01

    An in vitro analysis of the effects of photosynthetically active and ultraviolet radiations was executed to assess the photostability of biologically relevant pigments phycocyanin (PC), phycoerythrin (PE) and allophycocyanin (APC) isolated from Lyngbya sp. A09DM. Ultraviolet (UV) irradiances significantly affected the integrity of PC, PE and APC; however, PAR showed least effect. UV radiation affected the bilin chromophores covalently attached to phycobiliproteins (PBPs). Almost complete elimination of the chromophore bands associated with α- and β-subunit of PE and APC occurred after 4 h of UV-B exposure. After 5 h of UV-B exposure, the content of PC, PE and APC decreased by 51.65%, 96.8% and 96.53%, respectively. Contrary to PAR and UV-A radiation, a severe decrease in fluorescence of all PBPs was observed under UV-B irradiation. The fluorescence activity of extracted PBP was gradually inhibited immediately after 15-30 min of UV-B exposure. In comparison to the PC, the fluorescence properties of PE and APC were severely lost under UV-B radiation. Moreover, the present study indicates that UV-B radiation can damage the structural and functional integrity of phycobiliproteins leading to the loss of their ecological and biological functions. PMID:25763657

  7. Predicting threshold laser beam irradiances for melting and welding

    SciTech Connect

    Leong, K.H.; Geyer, H.K.; Sabo, K.R.; Sanders, P.G.

    1997-09-01

    A model based on conservation of energy for a moving heat source incident on a flat plate is used to predict the threshold laser beam irradiance required to initiate melting on a metal surface. With the use of a nondimensional variable and its solution, the threshold irradiance can be predicted with the use of a simple equation that is a function of the absorptivity of the surface, thermal conductivity of the metal, temperature increase for melting, diameter of the laser beam at the surface and the nondimensional variable value for the ratio of the thermal diffusivity of the metal to the product of the beam diameter and velocity used. Laser beam irradiances exceeding these predicted values are required for welding. The model predictions are validated with experimental results of beam irradiances required for welding different metals.

  8. Genomic toolboxes for conservation biologists

    PubMed Central

    Angeloni, Francesco; Wagemaker, Niels; Vergeer, Philippine; Ouborg, Joop

    2012-01-01

    Conservation genetics is expanding its research horizon with a genomic approach, by incorporating the modern techniques of next-generation sequencing (NGS). Application of NGS overcomes many limitations of conservation genetics. First, NGS allows for genome-wide screening of markers, which may lead to a more representative estimation of genetic variation within and between populations. Second, NGS allows for distinction between neutral and non-neutral markers. By screening populations on thousands of single nucleotide polymorphism markers, signals of selection can be found for some markers. Variation in these markers will give insight into functional rather than neutral genetic variation. Third, NGS facilitates the study of gene expression. Conservation genomics will increase our insight in how the environment and genes interact to affect phenotype and fitness. In addition, the NGS approach opens a way to study processes such as inbreeding depression and local adaptation mechanistically. Conservation genetics programs are directed to a fundamental understanding of the processes involved in conservation genetics and should preferably be started in species for which large databases on ecology, demography and genetics are available. Here, we describe and illustrate the connection between the application of NGS technologies and the research questions in conservation. The perspectives of conservation genomics programs are also discussed. PMID:25568036

  9. Nanoparticules d'or: De l'imagerie par resonance magnetique a la radiosensibilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebert, Etienne M.

    Cette thèse approfondit l'étude de nanoparticules d'or de 5 nm de diamètre recouvertes de diamideéthanethioldiethylènetriaminepentacétate de gadolinium (DTDTPA:Gd), un agent de contraste pour l'imagerie par résonance magnétique (IRM). En guise de ciblage passif, la taille des nanoparticules a été contrôlée afin d'utiliser le réseau de néovaisseaux poreux et perméable des tumeurs. De plus les tumeurs ont un drainage lymphatique déficient qui permet aux nanoparticules de demeurer plus longtemps dans le milieu interstitiel de la tumeur. Les expériences ont été effectuées sur des souris Balb/c femelles portant des tumeurs MC7-L1. La concentration de nanoparticules a pu être mesurée à l'IRM in vivo. La concentration maximale se retrouvait à la fin de l'infusion de 10 min. La concentration s'élevait à 0.3 mM dans la tumeur et de 0.12 mM dans le muscle environnant. Les nanoparticules étaient éliminées avec une demi-vie de 22 min pour les tumeurs et de 20 min pour le muscle environnant. Les nanoparticules ont été fonctionnalisées avec le peptide Tat afin de leur conférer des propriétés de ciblage actif La rétention de ces nanoparticules a ainsi été augmentée de 1600 %, passant d'une demi-vie d'élimination de 22 min à 350 min. La survie des souris a été mesurée à l'aide de courbes Kaplan-Meier et d'un modèle mathématique évalue l'efficacité de traitements. Le modèle nous permet, à l'aide de la vitesse de croissance des tumeurs et de l'efficacité des traitements, de calculer la courbe de survie des spécimens. Un effet antagoniste a été observé au lieu de l'effet synergétique attendu entre une infusion de Au@DTDTPA:Gd et l'irradiation aux rayons X. L'absence d'effet synergétique a été attribuée à l'épaisseur du recouvrement de DTDTPA:Gd qui fait écran aux électrons produits par l'or. De plus, le moyen d'ancrage du recouvrement utilise des thiols qui peuvent s'avérer être des capteurs de radicaux. De plus, contrairement a ce qui était escompté, un effet chimiothérapeutique de ces nanoparticules a été observé in vitro et in vivo. Par contre, le mécanisme précis de cet effet est encore à être expliquer, mais on sait déjà que les nanoparticules d'or affectent les fonctions des macrophages ainsi que l'angiogenèse. MOTS-CLÉS : Radiosensibilisateur, Nanoparticules d'or, Agent de contraste pour l'IRM, Électrons de basses énergies, Kaplan-Meier, Effet chimiothérapeutique.

  10. Do Private Conservation Activities Match Science-Based Conservation Priorities?

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jonathan R. B.; Dills, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Background Private land conservation is an essential strategy for biodiversity protection in the USA, where half of the federally listed species have at least 80% of their habitat on private lands. We investigated the alignment between private land protection conducted by the world's largest land trust (The Nature Conservancy) and the science driven identification of priority areas for conservation. This represents the first quantitative assessment of the influence of defining priority areas on the land acquisitions of a conservation non-governmental organization (NGO). Methodology/Principal Findings The lands acquired by The Nature Conservancy (TNC) were analyzed using GIS to determine to what extent they were in areas defined as priorities for conservation. The spatial analysis of TNC lands was broken up into land known to be acquired in the last five years, five to ten years ago, prior to ten years ago, and anytime during the last sixty years (including previous sets of data plus acquisitions lacking a date). For the entire history of TNC the proportion of TNC lands within the priority areas was 74%. Prior to 10 years ago it was 80%, 5–10 years ago it was 76%, and in the last five years it was 81%. Conservation easements were found to have lower alignment with priority areas (64%) than outright fee simple acquisitions (86%). Conclusions/Significance Overall the location of lands acquired was found to be well aligned with the priority areas. Since there was comparable alignment in lands acquired before and after formalized conservation planning had been implemented as a standard operating procedure, this analysis did not find evidence that defining priority areas has influenced land acquisition decisions. PMID:23029516

  11. Conservation genetics in the USGS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobs, Ruth; Haig, Susan; Talbot, Sandy; Winton, James; King, Tim; Kendall, Kate

    2006-01-01

    Conservation genetics is the application of the tools and concepts of genetics to the conservation of biological resources. Once too sophisticated and expensive for routine use, the tools of conservation genetics are now widely used to address many complex management questions. These novel methods of analysis can augment assessments made with traditional methods and can bring new information to light. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is well suited to provide scientific information and expertise using these tools to support the management of biological resources.

  12. Value basis for conservation policy

    SciTech Connect

    Leiss, W.

    1981-01-01

    This paper is a case study in attempting to apply a particular value (caring) to the domain of social policy, specifically resource conservation policy. The argument is that our consumer society erodes the social basis for the development by individuals of a sense of well-being and personal identity, and that a conservation ethic based on the concept of caring could provide a foundation in practical morality and public policy for a viable sense of well-being. Conservation, then, goes beyond eliminating wasteful consumption to encompass a public commitment that can further economic and social goals. 11 references.

  13. Common variants in the human platelet PAR4 thrombin receptor alter platelet function and differ by race

    PubMed Central

    Edelstein, Leonard C.; Simon, Lukas M.; Lindsay, Cory R.; Kong, Xianguo; Teruel-Montoya, Raúl; Tourdot, Benjamin E.; Chen, Edward S.; Ma, Lin; Coughlin, Shaun; Nieman, Marvin; Holinstat, Michael; Shaw, Chad A.

    2014-01-01

    Human platelets express 2 thrombin receptors: protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 and PAR4. Recently, we reported 3.7-fold increased PAR4-mediated aggregation kinetics in platelets from black subjects compared with white subjects. We now show that platelets from blacks (n = 70) express 14% more PAR4 protein than those from whites (n = 84), but this difference is not associated with platelet PAR4 function. Quantitative trait locus analysis identified 3 common single nucleotide polymorphisms in the PAR4 gene (F2RL3) associated with PAR4-induced platelet aggregation. Among these single nucleotide polymorphisms, rs773902 determines whether residue 120 in transmembrane domain 2 is an alanine (Ala) or threonine (Thr). Compared with the Ala120 variant, Thr120 was more common in black subjects than in white subjects (63% vs 19%), was associated with higher PAR4-induced human platelet aggregation and Ca2+ flux, and generated greater inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate in transfected cells. A second, less frequent F2RL3 variant, Phe296Val, was only observed in blacks and abolished the enhanced PAR4-induced platelet aggregation and 1,4,5-triphosphate generation associated with PAR4-Thr120. PAR4 genotype did not affect vorapaxar inhibition of platelet PAR1 function, but a strong pharmacogenetic effect was observed with the PAR4-specific antagonist YD-3 [1-benzyl-3(ethoxycarbonylphenyl)-indazole]. These findings may have an important pharmacogenetic effect on the development of new PAR antagonists. PMID:25293779

  14. 43 CFR 418.31 - Conservation measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conservation measures. 418.31 Section 418... Management and Conservation § 418.31 Conservation measures. (a) Specific conservation actions will be needed... part. The District is best able to determine the particular conservation measures that meet the...

  15. 43 CFR 418.31 - Conservation measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conservation measures. 418.31 Section 418... Management and Conservation § 418.31 Conservation measures. (a) Specific conservation actions will be needed... part. The District is best able to determine the particular conservation measures that meet the...

  16. 43 CFR 418.31 - Conservation measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Conservation measures. 418.31 Section 418... Management and Conservation § 418.31 Conservation measures. (a) Specific conservation actions will be needed... part. The District is best able to determine the particular conservation measures that meet the...

  17. 43 CFR 418.31 - Conservation measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Conservation measures. 418.31 Section 418... Management and Conservation § 418.31 Conservation measures. (a) Specific conservation actions will be needed... part. The District is best able to determine the particular conservation measures that meet the...

  18. 43 CFR 418.31 - Conservation measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Conservation measures. 418.31 Section 418... Management and Conservation § 418.31 Conservation measures. (a) Specific conservation actions will be needed... part. The District is best able to determine the particular conservation measures that meet the...

  19. Acquisition of Conservation Through Cognitive Dissonance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Frank B.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Primary school children at different stages of acquisition of conservation pretended that their judgments on a series of conservation problems were the opposite of their actual beliefs. The nonconservers and transitional conservers made significant gains in conservation, while the conservers did not regress. Cognitive dissonance training is…

  20. Local Responses to Participatory Conservation in Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadka, Damodar; Nepal, Sanjay K.

    2010-02-01

    Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for participation. In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the barriers encountered in its implementation, a questionnaire survey of 188 households was employed in the communities of the Upper Mustang extension of Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. The study provides a comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers between Non-Tourist (NT) and Tourist (TV) villages. The results revealed important differences between the two groups in terms of their participation in community programs, barriers to participation, and perception of benefits from participation. Owing to their distinct spatial, demographic and attitudinal differences, the two village groups have their own sets of needs, values and motivation factors which cannot be generalized and treated as such. The research clearly identifies the need for the conservation agency to be creative in devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific social groups so as to optimize their input in participatory conservation.

  1. Local responses to participatory conservation in Annapurna conservation area, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Khadka, Damodar; Nepal, Sanjay K

    2010-02-01

    Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for participation. In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the barriers encountered in its implementation, a questionnaire survey of 188 households was employed in the communities of the Upper Mustang extension of Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. The study provides a comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers between Non-Tourist (NT) and Tourist (TV) villages. The results revealed important differences between the two groups in terms of their participation in community programs, barriers to participation, and perception of benefits from participation. Owing to their distinct spatial, demographic and attitudinal differences, the two village groups have their own sets of needs, values and motivation factors which cannot be generalized and treated as such. The research clearly identifies the need for the conservation agency to be creative in devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific social groups so as to optimize their input in participatory conservation. PMID:19967362

  2. Influence d'une substitution partielle du ciment par du laitier de hauts fourneaux sur la résistance des mortiers en milieu acide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achoura, D.; Lanos, Ch.; Jauberthie, R.; Redjel, B.

    2004-11-01

    Le stockage de produits chimiques dans du béton présente souvent des problèmes de durabilité dus aux attaques chimiques. Inévitablement les concentrations élevées sont les plus dangereuses. Le but de notre étude est de déterminer les changements de phases qui apparaissent dans le béton lorsqu'on substitue une partie du ciment par du laitier de haut fourneaux. Les échantillons sont conservés dans des solutions acides différents anions (HCl, H{2}SO{4}, H{3}PO{4} et CH{3}COOH) et différentes concentrations (0,1; 0,25 et 0,5M). Les formations qui apparaissent sont déterminées par diffraction X et observées au MEB. Les solutions sulfatiques conduisent à une formation de gypse en surface et d'ettringite au contact de la matrice cimentaire. Avec l'acide acétique, il y a formation de calcium acétate hydrate sous forme spongieuse tandis que, avec l'acide phosphatique, la formation de calcium hydrogeno phosphate hydrate est très superficielle. Enfin, avec l'acide chlorhydrique, la surface du mortier est recouverte de chlorure de calcium dihydrate et d'hydroxyde de fer. Les résistances mécaniques sont plus ou moins affectées par la concentration mais aussi et surtout par la nature des acides avec dans l'ordre le plus agressif H{2}SO{4} puis HCl et CH{3}COOH enfin peu de modification pour H{3}PO{4}.

  3. Noncanonical PAR3 activation by factor Xa identifies a novel pathway for Tie2 activation and stabilization of vascular integrity

    PubMed Central

    Stavenuiter, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial barrier protective effects of activated protein C (APC) require the endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR), protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1, and PAR3. In contrast, PAR1 and PAR3 activation by thrombin results in barrier disruption. Noncanonical PAR1 and PAR3 activation by APC vs canonical activation by thrombin provides an explanation for the functional selectivity of these proteases. Here we found that factor Xa (FXa) activated PAR1 at canonical Arg41 similar to thrombin but cleaved PAR3 at noncanonical Arg41 similar to APC. This unique PAR1-PAR3 activation profile permitted the identification of noncanonical PAR3 activation as a novel activation pathway for barrier protective tunica intima endothelial receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (Tie2). APC, FXa, and the noncanonical PAR3 tethered-ligand peptide induced prolonged activation of Tie2, whereas thrombin and the canonical PAR3 tethered-ligand peptide did not. Tie2 activation by FXa required PAR3 and EPCR. FXa and the noncanonical PAR3 tethered-ligand peptide induced Tie2- and PAR3-dependent upregulation of tight-junction-associated protein zona occludens 1 (ZO-1), translocation of ZO-1 to cell-cell borders, and the formation of typical ZO-1 honeycomb patterns that are indicative of tight-junction stabilization. These data provide intriguing novel insights into the diversification of functional selectivity of protease signaling achievable by canonical and noncanonical PAR activation, such as the activation of vascular-protective Tie2 by noncanonical PAR3 activation. PMID:25320242

  4. Irradiation-Induced Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Birtcher, R.C.; Ewing, R.C.; Matzke, Hj.; Meldrum, A.; Newcomer, P.P.; Wang, L.M.; Wang, S.X.; Weber, W.J.

    1999-08-09

    This paper summarizes the results of the studies of the irradiation-induced formation of nanostructures, where the injected interstitials from the source of irradiation are not major components of the nanophase. This phenomena has been observed by in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in a number of intermetallic compounds and ceramics during high-energy electron or ion irradiations when the ions completely penetrate through the specimen. Beginning with single crystals, electron or ion irradiation in a certain temperature range may result in nanostructures composed of amorphous domains and nanocrystals with either the original composition and crystal structure or new nanophases formed by decomposition of the target material. The phenomenon has also been observed in natural materials which have suffered irradiation from the decay of constituent radioactive elements and in nuclear reactor fuels which have been irradiated by fission neutrons and other fission products. The mechanisms involved in the process of this nanophase formation are discussed in terms of the evolution of displacement cascades, radiation-induced defect accumulation, radiation-induced segregation and phase decomposition, as well as the competition between irradiation-induced amorphization and recrystallization.

  5. Conservative smoothing versus artificial viscosity

    SciTech Connect

    Guenther, C.; Hicks, D.L.; Swegle, J.W.

    1994-08-01

    This report was stimulated by some recent investigations of S.P.H. (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method). Solid dynamics computations with S.P.H. show symptoms of instabilities which are not eliminated by artificial viscosities. Both analysis and experiment indicate that conservative smoothing eliminates the instabilities in S.P.H. computations which artificial viscosities cannot. Questions were raised as to whether conservative smoothing might smear solutions more than artificial viscosity. Conservative smoothing, properly used, can produce more accurate solutions than the von Neumann-Richtmyer-Landshoff artificial viscosity which has been the standard for many years. The authors illustrate this using the vNR scheme on a test problem with known exact solution involving a shock collision in an ideal gas. They show that the norms of the errors with conservative smoothing are significantly smaller than the norms of the errors with artificial viscosity.

  6. The NASA Energy Conservation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffney, G. P.

    1977-01-01

    Large energy-intensive research and test equipment at NASA installations is identified, and methods for reducing energy consumption outlined. However, some of the research facilities are involved in developing more efficient, fuel-conserving aircraft, and tradeoffs between immediate and long-term conservation may be necessary. Major programs for conservation include: computer-based systems to automatically monitor and control utility consumption; a steam-producing solid waste incinerator; and a computer-based cost analysis technique to engineer more efficient heating and cooling of buildings. Alternate energy sources in operation or under evaluation include: solar collectors; electric vehicles; and ultrasonically emulsified fuel to attain higher combustion efficiency. Management support, cooperative participation by employees, and effective reporting systems for conservation programs, are also discussed.

  7. The Total Irradiance Monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Greg

    2015-08-01

    The first Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) launched on NASA’s Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment in 2003 and quickly proved to be the most accurate and stable instrument on orbit for measuring the total solar irradiance (TSI). The TIM’s design improvements over the older classical radiometers helped its selection on many subsequent missions, including NASA’s Glory, NOAA’s TSI Calibration Transfer Experiment, and the series of NASA’s Total and Spectral Solar Irradiance Sensor instruments currently underway. I will summarize the status of and differences between each of the TIMs currently on-orbit or in production.

  8. Alaskan Commodities Irradiation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Zarling, J.P.; Swanson, R.B.; Logan, R.R.; Das, D.K.; Lewis, C.E.; Workman, W.G.; Tumeo, M.A.; Hok, C.I.; Birklid, C.A.; Bennett, F.L.

    1988-12-01

    The ninety-ninth US Congress commissioned a six-state food irradiation research and development program to evaluate the commercial potential of this technology. Hawaii, Washington, Iowa, Oklahoma and Florida as well as Alaska have participated in the national program; various food products including fishery products, red meats, tropical and citrus fruits and vegetables have been studied. The purpose of the Alaskan study was to review and evaluate those factors related to the technical and economic feasibility of an irradiator in Alaska. This options analysis study will serve as a basis for determining the state's further involvement in the development of food irradiation technology. 40 refs., 50 figs., 53 tabs.

  9. Les galaxies de Seyfert 1 vues par BeppoSAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, P. O.

    2001-01-01

    En première partie de cette contribution, je rappelle les principaux résultats obtenus par BeppoSAX sur l'émission haute énergie des galaxies de Seyfert 1. Je présente ensuite les résultats de travaux portant, plus précisément, sur l'étude du continuum X de ces objets, en me placant dans le cadre des modèles de Comptonisation thermique. Je me base pour cela sur des observations BeppoSAX longues (entre 100 et 300 ks) de six galaxies de Seyfert 1. La qualité de ces données permet de contraindre certains des paramètres physiques de la source d'émission X. Je souligne également la forte dépendance de ces paramètres aux modèles utilisés.

  10. Secreted uPAR isoform 2 (uPAR7b) is a novel direct target of miR-221

    PubMed Central

    Falkenberg, Natalie; Anastasov, Nataa; Schaub, Annalisa; Radulovic, Vanja; Schmitt, Manfred; Magdolen, Viktor; Aubele, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    miR-221/-222 and components of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator system (uPAS) are associated with metastasis and poor prognosis in breast cancer, including the triple-negative subtype (TNBC). Modification of components of uPAS and involved miRNAs may contribute to targeted therapy for breast cancer patients. miR-221?/?222-overexpressing or miR-221-depleted cells were employed for qRT-PCR and Western blots to show associations of uPAR with miR-221/-222. To substantiate direct targeting of miR-221/-222 within 3? UTR of the uPAR isoform 2, in silico analysesand in vitro assays were conducted. Significant associations between miR-221 and uPAR isoform 2 expressions were observed at the mRNA and protein levels in breast cancer cells representing TNBC. For the first time, the uPAR isoform 2 was demonstrated as direct target for miR-221/-222. Inhibition of miR-221 reduced uPAR protein expression and expression of the tumor cell invasion markers vimentin and RHOC. These results demonstrate a direct and positive regulation of the secreted uPAR isoform 2 by miR-221, increasing its protein expression, a prerequisite for malignancy, while the other uPAR isoforms (1, 3 and 4) are indirectly regulated through miR-10b and miR-221/-222. By targeting uPAR isoforms and/or miRNA-221/-222, the diagnosis and therapy of breast cancer, in particular in TNBC, could be significantly improved. PMID:25797271

  11. Conservation Planning for Ecosystem Services

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kai M. A; Shaw, M. Rebecca; Cameron, David R; Underwood, Emma C; Daily, Gretchen C

    2006-01-01

    Despite increasing attention to the human dimension of conservation projects, a rigorous, systematic methodology for planning for ecosystem services has not been developed. This is in part because flows of ecosystem services remain poorly characterized at local-to-regional scales, and their protection has not generally been made a priority. We used a spatially explicit conservation planning framework to explore the trade-offs and opportunities for aligning conservation goals for biodiversity with six ecosystem services (carbon storage, flood control, forage production, outdoor recreation, crop pollination, and water provision) in the Central Coast ecoregion of California, United States. We found weak positive and some weak negative associations between the priority areas for biodiversity conservation and the flows of the six ecosystem services across the ecoregion. Excluding the two agriculture-focused servicescrop pollination and forage productioneliminates all negative correlations. We compared the degree to which four contrasting conservation network designs protect biodiversity and the flow of the six services. We found that biodiversity conservation protects substantial collateral flows of services. Targeting ecosystem services directly can meet the multiple ecosystem services and biodiversity goals more efficiently but cannot substitute for targeted biodiversity protection (biodiversity losses of 44% relative to targeting biodiversity alone). Strategically targeting only biodiversity plus the four positively associated services offers much promise (relative biodiversity losses of 7%). Here we present an initial analytical framework for integrating biodiversity and ecosystem services in conservation planning and illustrate its application. We found that although there are important potential trade-offs between conservation for biodiversity and for ecosystem services, a systematic planning framework offers scope for identifying valuable synergies. PMID:17076586

  12. Energy Conservation vs. Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Somasundaram, Sriram

    2010-09-30

    Energy conservation is considered by some as synonymous with energy efficiency, but to others, it has a meaning of getting fewer or lower quality energy services. The degree of confusion between these meanings varies widely by individual, culture, historic period and language spoken. In the context of this document, energy conservation means to keep from being lost or wasted; saved, and energy efficiency means the ability to produce a desired effect or product with a minimum of effort, expense or waste.

  13. The political economy of conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A political economic purview of energy conservation in the United States was delineated. The concepts of substitution and elasticity are distinguished, and further distinctions are made between short run price elasticity, cross price elasticity, and available fund elasticity. An assessment of the role which cost factors can play in conservation is given. The structure of the petroleum industry and foreign petroleum resources is discussed. Also discussed is the role of government, industry and the consumer with the economic sphere.

  14. Conservative Treatment for Postprostatectomy Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Chughtai, Bilal; Lee, Richard; Sandhu, Jaspreet; Te, Alexis; Kaplan, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Postprostatectomy incontinence (PPI) is a bothersome complication of radical prostatectomy. Although most men recover from PPI, some men continue to have persistent urinary incontinence. The initial management of persistent PPI usually consists of conservative measures such as pelvic floor muscle exercises. Surgical treatments are usually not entertained for men with urinary incontinence until conservative treatments have failed. This article discusses risk factors for PPI and various options for its treatment, including biofeedback and pharmacotherapy. PMID:24082844

  15. Clinical outcomes of pars plicata anterior vitrectomy: 2-year results

    PubMed Central

    Narang, Priya; Agarwal, Amar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the safety and outcome of a surgical approach that uses pars plicata site for anterior vitrectomy during phacoemulsification procedure complicated by posterior capsule rupture and residual cortical matter. Design: Single center, retrospective, interventional, noncomparative study. Materials and Methods: Medical records of a consecutive series of 35 eyes of 35 patients who underwent pars plicata anterior vitrectomy (PPAV) were reviewed. The main outcome measures were corrected and uncorrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, UDVA), early and late postoperative complications and intraocular pressure (IOP). Ultrasound biomicroscopic (UBM) evaluation of sclerotomy site and spectral domain optical coherence tomography analysis for central macular thickness (CMT) was performed. The final visual outcome at 2 years was evaluated. Results: At 2 years follow-up, the mean postoperative UDVA (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR]) and CDVA (logMAR) was 0.49 ± 0.26 and 0.19 ± 0.14, respectively. There was no significant change in the IOP (P = 0.061) and the mean CMT at 2 years was 192.5 ± 5.54 μm. The postoperative UBM image of the sclerotomy site at 8 weeks demonstrated a clear wound without any vitreous adhesion or incarceration. Intraoperative hyphema was seen in 1 (2.8%) case and postoperative uveitis was seen in 2 (5.7%) cases, which resolved with medications. No case of an iatrogenic retinal break or retinal detachment was reported. Conclusions: PPAV enables a closed chamber approach, allows thorough cleanup of vitreous in the pupillary plane and anterior chamber and affords better access to the subincisional and retropupillary cortical remnant with a significant visual outcome and an acceptable complication rate. PMID:26632124

  16. Targeted gene flow for conservation.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Ella; Phillips, Ben L

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic threats often impose strong selection on affected populations, causing rapid evolutionary responses. Unfortunately, these adaptive responses are rarely harnessed for conservation. We suggest that conservation managers pay close attention to adaptive processes and geographic variation, with an eye to using them for conservation goals. Translocating pre-adapted individuals into recipient populations is currently considered a potentially important management tool in the face of climate change. Targeted gene flow, which involves moving individuals with favorable traits to areas where these traits would have a conservation benefit, could have a much broader application in conservation. Across a species' range there may be long-standing geographic variation in traits or variation may have rapidly developed in response to a threatening process. Targeted gene flow could be used to promote natural resistance to threats to increase species resilience. We suggest that targeted gene flow is a currently underappreciated strategy in conservation that has applications ranging from the management of invasive species and their impacts to controlling the impact and virulence of pathogens. PMID:26332195

  17. Comparative genomics for biodiversity conservation

    PubMed Central

    Grueber, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    Genomic approaches are gathering momentum in biology and emerging opportunities lie in the creative use of comparative molecular methods for revealing the processes that influence diversity of wildlife. However, few comparative genomic studies are performed with explicit and specific objectives to aid conservation of wild populations. Here I provide a brief overview of comparative genomic approaches that offer specific benefits to biodiversity conservation. Because conservation examples are few, I draw on research from other areas to demonstrate how comparing genomic data across taxa may be used to inform the characterisation of conservation units and studies of hybridisation, as well as studies that provide conservation outcomes from a better understanding of the drivers of divergence. A comparative approach can also provide valuable insight into the threatening processes that impact rare species, such as emerging diseases and their management in conservation. In addition to these opportunities, I note areas where additional research is warranted. Overall, comparing and contrasting the genomic composition of threatened and other species provide several useful tools for helping to preserve the molecular biodiversity of the global ecosystem. PMID:26106461

  18. Poly (ADP-ribose) (PAR) Binding to Apoptosis-Inducing Factor Is Critical For PAR Polymerase-1-Dependent Cell Death (Parthanatos)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yingfei; Kim, No Soo; Haince, Jean-Francois; Kang, HoChul; David, Karen K.; Andrabi, Shaida A.; Poirier, Guy G.; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.

    2011-01-01

    The mitochondrial protein apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) plays a pivotal role in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1)-mediated cell death (parthanatos), during which it is released from the mitochondria and translocates to the nucleus. Here, we show that AIF is a high affinity poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR)–binding protein and that PAR binding to AIF is required for parthanatos both in vitro and in vivo. AIF bound PAR at a site distinct from AIF’s DNA binding site and this interaction triggered AIF release from the cytosolic side of the mitochondrial outer membrane. Mutation of the PAR binding site in AIF did not affect its NADH oxidase activity, its ability to bind FAD or DNA, or its ability to induce nuclear condensation. However, this AIF mutant was not released from mitochondria and did not translocate to the nucleus or mediate cell death following PARP-1 activation. These results suggest a mechanism for PARP-1 to initiate AIF-mediated cell death and indicate that AIF’s bioenergetic cell survival-promoting functions are separate from its effects as a mitochondrially-derived death effector. Interference with the PAR-AIF interaction or PAR signaling may provide unique opportunities for preventing cell death following activation of PARP-1. PMID:21467298

  19. Manual for the Use of the Pupil Activities Record--Revised (PAR-R).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ligon, Glynn; And Others

    A comprehensive guide for observers using the Pupil Activities Record--Revised (PAR-R), this manual covers procedures followed in systematic observation of a student's classroom activities for the period of one instructional day. The manual provides general information about the purpose and design of the PAR and explains the revisions, which were…

  20. Questioning Our Questions: Assessing Question Asking Practices to Evaluate a yPAR Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Sarah; Langhout, Regina Day

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine question asking practices in a youth participatory action research (yPAR) after school program housed at an elementary school. The research question was: In which ways did the adult question asking practices in a yPAR setting challenge and/or reproduce conventional models of power in educational…

  1. 12 CFR 1263.19 - Par value and price of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Par value and price of stock. 1263.19 Section 1263.19 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Stock Requirements § 1263.19 Par value and price of stock. The capital stock of each Bank shall be...

  2. 12 CFR 1263.19 - Par value and price of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Par value and price of stock. 1263.19 Section 1263.19 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Stock Requirements § 1263.19 Par value and price of stock. The capital stock of each Bank shall be...

  3. 12 CFR 1263.19 - Par value and price of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Par value and price of stock. 1263.19 Section 1263.19 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Stock Requirements § 1263.19 Par value and price of stock. The capital stock of each Bank shall be...

  4. Solar PAR and UVR modify the community composition and photosynthetic activity of sea ice algae.

    PubMed

    Enberg, Sara; Piiparinen, Jonna; Majaneva, Markus; Vähätalo, Anssi V; Autio, Riitta; Rintala, Janne-Markus

    2015-10-01

    The effects of increased photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on species diversity, biomass and photosynthetic activity were studied in fast ice algal communities. The experimental set-up consisted of nine 1.44 m(2) squares with three treatments: untreated with natural snow cover (UNT), snow-free (PAR + UVR) and snow-free ice covered with a UV screen (PAR). The total algal biomass, dominated by diatoms and dinoflagellates, increased in all treatments during the experiment. However, the smaller biomass growth in the top 10-cm layer of the PAR + UVR treatment compared with the PAR treatment indicated the negative effect of UVR. Scrippsiella complex (mainly Scrippsiella hangoei, Biecheleria baltica and Gymnodinium corollarium) showed UV sensitivity in the top 5-cm layer, whereas Heterocapsa arctica ssp. frigida and green algae showed sensitivity to both PAR and UVR. The photosynthetic activity was highest in the top 5-cm layer of the PAR treatment, where the biomass of the pennate diatom Nitzschia frigida increased, indicating the UV sensitivity of this species. This study shows that UVR is one of the controlling factors of algal communities in Baltic Sea ice, and that increased availability of PAR together with UVR exclusion can cause changes in algal biomass, photosynthetic activity and community composition. PMID:26310455

  5. 12 CFR 925.19 - Par value and price of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Par value and price of stock. 925.19 Section 925.19 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK MEMBERS AND HOUSING ASSOCIATES MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Stock Requirements § 925.19 Par value and price of stock. The capital...

  6. PAR--A Theoretic Model for Self-Assessment and Practice toward Multicultural Counseling Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steward, Robbie J.

    The development and refinement of the Preservation, Accommodation, and Repatterning model (PAR) took place over a 10-year period. This paper presents a discussion of the evolution of PAR. The paper describes the observations and the line of empirical research findings that guided conceptualization and evaluation of the model. The model was…

  7. Questioning Our Questions: Assessing Question Asking Practices to Evaluate a yPAR Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Sarah; Langhout, Regina Day

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine question asking practices in a youth participatory action research (yPAR) after school program housed at an elementary school. The research question was: In which ways did the adult question asking practices in a yPAR setting challenge and/or reproduce conventional models of power in educational

  8. The parA resolvase performs site-specific genomic excision in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have designed a site-specific excision detection system in Arabidopsis to study the in planta activity of the small serine recombinase ParA. Using a transient expression assay as well as stable transgenic plant lines, we show that the ParA recombinase is catalytically active and capable of perfo...

  9. Economics of food irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Deitch, J.

    1982-01-01

    This article examines the cost competitiveness of the food irradiation process. An analysis of the principal factors--the product, physical plant, irradiation source, and financing--that impact on cost is made. Equations are developed and used to calculate the size of the source for planned product throughput, efficiency factors, power requirements, and operating costs of sources, radionuclides, and accelerators. Methods of financing and capital investment are discussed. A series of tables show cost breakdowns of sources, buildings, equipment, and essential support facilities for both a cobalt-60 and a 10-MeV electron accelerator facility. Additional tables present irradiation costs as functions of a number of parameters--power input, source size, dose, and hours of annual operation. The use of the numbers in the tables are explained by examples of calculations of the irradiation costs for disinfestation of grains and radicidation of feed.

  10. Evaluating local benefits from conservation in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area.

    PubMed

    Spiteri, Arian; Nepal, Sanjay K

    2008-09-01

    Protected areas are integral to the global effort to conserve biodiversity, and, over the past two decades, protected area managers have begun to recognize that conservation objectives are next to impossible to achieve without considering the needs and concerns of local communities. Incentive-based programs (IBPs) have become a favored approach to protected area management, geared at fostering local stewardship by delivering benefits tied to conservation to local people. Effective IBPs require benefits to accrue to and be recognized by those experiencing the greatest consequences as a result of the protected area, and those likely to continue extractive activities if their livelihood needs are compromised. This research examines dispersal of IBP benefits, as perceived by local residents in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area. Results reported here are based on questionnaire interviews with 188 households conducted between September and December 2004. Results indicate that local residents primarily identify benefits from social development activities, provisions for resource extraction, and economic opportunities. Overall, benefits have been dispersed equally to households in villages on and off the main tourist route, and regardless of a household's participation in tourism. However, benefits are not effectively targeted to poorer residents, those highly dependent on natural resources, and those experiencing the most crop damage and livestock loss from protected wildlife. This article provides several suggestions for improving the delivery of conservation incentives. PMID:18458999

  11. The ParA/MinD family puts things in their place

    PubMed Central

    Lutkenhaus, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria must segregate their DNA and position a septum to grow and divide. In many bacteria MinD is involved in spatial regulation of the cytokinetic Z ring and ParAs are involved in chromosome and plasmid segregation. The use of the MinD/ParA family to provide positional information for spatial organization continues to expand with the recognition that orphan ParAs are required for segregating cytoplasmic protein clusters and the polar localization of chemotaxis proteins, conjugative transfer machinery, type IV pili and cellulose synthesis. Also, some bacteria lacking MinD use orphan ParAs to regulate cell division. Positioning of MinD/ParA proteins is either due to self-organization on a surface or reliance on a landmark protein which functions as a molecular beacon. PMID:22672910

  12. Simulation d'ecoulements internes compressibles laminaires et turbulents par une methode d'elements finis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebaine, Ali

    1997-08-01

    Ce travail consiste en la simulation numerique des ecoulements internes compressibles bidimensionnels laminaires et turbulents. On s'interesse, particulierement, aux ecoulements dans les ejecteurs supersoniques. Les equations de Navier-Stokes sont formulees sous forme conservative et utilisent, comme variables independantes, les variables dites enthalpiques a savoir: la pression statique, la quantite de mouvement et l'enthalpie totale specifique. Une formulation variationnelle stable des equations de Navier-Stokes est utilisee. Elle est base sur la methode SUPG (Streamline Upwinding Petrov Galerkin) et utilise un operateur de capture des forts gradients. Un modele de turbulence, pour la simulation des ecoulements dans les ejecteurs, est mis au point. Il consiste a separer deux regions distinctes: une region proche de la paroi solide, ou le modele de Baldwin et Lomax est utilise et l'autre, loin de la paroi, ou une formulation nouvelle, basee sur le modele de Schlichting pour les jets, est proposee. Une technique de calcul de la viscosite turbulente, sur un maillage non structure, est implementee. La discretisation dans l'espace de la forme variationnelle est faite a l'aide de la methode des elements finis en utilisant une approximation mixte: quadratique pour les composantes de la quantite de mouvement et de la vitesse et lineaire pour le reste des variables. La discretisation temporelle est effectuee par une methode de differences finies en utilisant le schema d'Euler implicite. Le systeme matriciel, resultant de la discretisation spatio-temporelle, est resolu a l'aide de l'algorithme GMRES en utilisant un preconditionneur diagonal. Les validations numeriques ont ete menees sur plusieurs types de tuyeres et ejecteurs. La principale validation consiste en la simulation de l'ecoulement dans l'ejecteur teste au centre de recherche NASA Lewis. Les resultats obtenus sont tres comparables avec ceux des travaux anterieurs et sont nettement superieurs concernant les ecoulements turbulents dans les ejecteurs.

  13. Irradiance optimization of outdoor microalgal cultures using solar tracked photobioreactors.

    PubMed

    Hindersin, Stefan; Leupold, Marco; Kerner, Martin; Hanelt, Dieter

    2013-03-01

    Photosynthetic activity and temperature regulation of microalgal cultures (Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus) under different irradiances controlled by a solar tracker and different cell densities were studied in outdoor flat panel photobioreactors. An automated process control unit regulated light and temperature as well as pH value and nutrient concentration in the culture medium. CO2 was supplied using flue gas from an attached combined block heat and power station. Photosynthetic activity was determined by pulse amplitude modulation fluorometry. Compared to the horizontal irradiance of 55 mol photons m(-2) d(-1) on a clear day, the solar tracked photobioreactors enabled a decrease and increase in the overall light absorption from 19 mol photons m(-2) d(-1) (by rotation out of direct irradiance) to 79 mol photons m(-2) d(-1) (following the position of the sun). At biomass concentrations below 1.1 g cell dry weight (CDW) L(-1), photoinhibition of about 35 % occurred at irradiances of ≥1,000 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). Using solar tracked photobioreactors, photoinhibition can be reduced and at optimum biomass concentration (≥2.3 g CDW L(-1)), the culture was irradiated up to 2,000 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) to overcome light limitation with biomass yields of 0.7 g CDW mol photons(-1) and high photosynthetic activities indicated by an effective quantum yield of 0.68 and a maximum quantum yield of 0.80 (F v/F m). Overheating due to high irradiance was avoided by turning the PBR out of the sun or using a cooling system, which maintained the temperature close to the species-specific temperature optima. PMID:22847362

  14. Total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-05-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen.

  15. Alternaria alternata serine proteases induce lung inflammation and airway epithelial cell activation via PAR2

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Andrea N.; Sherwood, Cara L.; Schulz, Stephanie M.; Hoffman, Justin; Gruzinova, Irina; Daines, Michael O.

    2011-01-01

    Allergens are diverse proteins from mammals, birds, arthropods, plants, and fungi. Allergens associated with asthma (asthmagens) share a common protease activity that may directly impact respiratory epithelial biology and lead to symptoms of asthma. Alternaria alternata is a strong asthmagen in semiarid regions. We examined the impact of proteases from A. alternata on lung inflammation in vivo and on cleaving protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) in vitro. A. alternata filtrate applied to the airway in nonsensitized Balb/c mice induced a protease-dependent lung inflammation. Moreover, A. alternata filtrate applied to human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE14o-) induced changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), consistent with PAR2 activation. These effects were blocked by heat inactivation or by serine protease inhibition of A. alternata filtrates, and mimicked by PAR2 specific ligands SLIGRL-NH2 or 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2, but not the PAR1-specific ligand TFLLR-NH2. Desensitization of PAR2 in 16HBE14o- cells with 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2 or trypsin prevented A. alternata-induced [Ca2+]i changes while desensitization of PAR1, PAR3, and PAR4 with thrombin had no effect on A. alternata-induced Ca2+ responses. Furthermore, the Ca2+ response to A. alternata filtrates was dependent on PAR2 expression in stably transfected HeLa cell models. These data demonstrate that A. alternata proteases act through PAR2 to induce rapid increases in human airway epithelial [Ca2+]i in vitro and cell recruitment in vivo. These responses are likely critical early steps in the development of allergic asthma. PMID:21296894

  16. Water Conservation and Water Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2014-12-01

    Water storage can be a viable part of the solution to water conservation. This means that we should include reservoirs. Regardless, one should evaluate all aspects of water conservation principles. Recent drought in California indicates that there is an urgent need to re-visit the techniques used to maintain the water supply-chain mechanism in the entire state. We all recognize the fact that fish and wildlife depend on the streams, rivers and wetlands for survival. It is a well-known fact that there is an immediate need to provide solid protection to all these resources. Laws and regulations should help meet the needs of natural systems. Farmers may be forced to drilling wells deeper than ever. But, they will be eventually depleting groundwater reserves. Needless to say that birds, fish and wildlife cannot access these groundwater table. California is talking a lot about conservation. Unfortunately, the conservation efforts have not established a strong visible hold. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN (Narayanan, 2012). It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The author has previously reported these in detail at the 2012 AGU fall meeting. References: Ziegler, Jay (15 JUNE 2014). The Conversation: Water conservation efforts aren't taking hold, but there are encouraging signs. THE SACRAMENTO BEE. California. Narayanan, Mysore. (2012). The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century. 72nd AGU International Conference. Eos Transactions: American Geophysical Union, Vol. 92, No. 56, Fall Meeting Supplement, 2012. H31I - 1255.http://www.sacbee.com/2014/06/15/6479862/jay-ziegler-water-conservation.html#storylink=cpy

  17. Forest conservation delivers highly variable coral reef conservation outcomes.

    PubMed

    Klein, Carissa J; Jupiter, Stacy D; Selig, Elizabeth R; Watts, Matthew E; Halpern, Benjamin S; Kamal, Muhammad; Roelfsema, Chris; Possingham, Hugh P

    2012-06-01

    Coral reefs are threatened by human activities on both the land (e.g., deforestation) and the sea (e.g., overfishing). Most conservation planning for coral reefs focuses on removing threats in the sea, neglecting management actions on the land. A more integrated approach to coral reef conservation, inclusive of land-sea connections, requires an understanding of how and where terrestrial conservation actions influence reefs. We address this by developing a land-sea planning approach to inform fine-scale spatial management decisions and test it in Fiji. Our aim is to determine where the protection of forest can deliver the greatest return on investment for coral reef ecosystems. To assess the benefits of conservation to coral reefs, we estimate their relative condition as influenced by watershed-based pollution and fishing. We calculate the cost-effectiveness of protecting forest and find that investments deliver rapidly diminishing returns for improvements to relative reef condition. For example, protecting 2% of forest in one area is almost 500 times more beneficial than protecting 2% in another area, making prioritization essential. For the scenarios evaluated, relative coral reef condition could be improved by 8-58% if all remnant forest in Fiji were protected rather than deforested. Finally, we determine the priority of each coral reef for implementing a marine protected area when all remnant forest is protected for conservation. The general results will support decisions made by the Fiji Protected Area Committee as they establish a national protected area network that aims to protect 20% of the land and 30% of the inshore waters by 2020. Although challenges remain, we can inform conservation decisions around the globe by tackling the complex issues relevant to integrated land-sea planning. PMID:22827132

  18. Decentralizing conservation and diversifying livelihoods within Kanchenjunga Conservation Area, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Parker, Pete; Thapa, Brijesh; Jacob, Aerin

    2015-12-01

    To alleviate poverty and enhance conservation in resource dependent communities, managers must identify existing livelihood strategies and the associated factors that impede household access to livelihood assets. Researchers increasingly advocate reallocating management power from exclusionary central institutions to a decentralized system of management based on local and inclusive participation. However, it is yet to be shown if decentralizing conservation leads to diversified livelihoods within a protected area. The purpose of this study was to identify and assess factors affecting household livelihood diversification within Nepal's Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project, the first protected area in Asia to decentralize conservation. We randomly surveyed 25% of Kanchenjunga households to assess household socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and access to livelihood assets. We used a cluster analysis with the ten most common income generating activities (both on- and off-farm) to group the strategies households use to diversify livelihoods, and a multinomial logistic regression to identify predictors of livelihood diversification. We found four distinct groups of household livelihood strategies with a range of diversification that directly corresponded to household income. The predictors of livelihood diversification were more related to pre-existing socioeconomic and demographic factors (e.g., more landholdings and livestock, fewer dependents, receiving remittances) than activities sponsored by decentralizing conservation (e.g., microcredit, training, education, interaction with project staff). Taken together, our findings indicate that without direct policies to target marginalized groups, decentralized conservation in Kanchenjunga will continue to exclude marginalized groups, limiting a household's ability to diversify their livelihood and perpetuating their dependence on natural resources. PMID:26363256

  19. Animal conservation, carbon and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Leader-Williams, N

    2002-08-15

    International conventions to reduce carbon dioxide levels focus on ecosystems and do not specifically recognize the need to conserve species. However, species are the building blocks of ecosystems, they are more widely understood among the public, and they provide means of capturing market values from ecosystems. Achieving successful conservation globally will require ensuring that the systems under which species and ecosystems are conserved are more inclusive than statutory protected areas. Equal emphasis needs to be placed on including effective regimes that also encompass private and communal ownership through incentive-based approaches. Nevertheless, if globalized industries such as nature-based tourism or consumptive use are to provide meaningful incentives locally, a key requirement is to reduce leakage of revenue that is earned as a result of conserving species, such that local development concerns are addressed. However, current biodiversity conventions that address these needs are largely aspirational, while globalized industries such as tourism mainly promote their green credentials only through voluntary codes of conduct. Greatly improved linkages are needed between international conservation concerns and ensuring effective solutions to sustainability, which inevitably rest at national and sub-national levels, through systems of rights, tenure, benefits and incentives. PMID:12460498

  20. Estimation of aerosol direct radiative effects on surface PAR radiation at Xianghe, Northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Siya; Zhang, Jing

    2014-05-01

    In northern China, anthropogenic activities cause emissions of large amount of aerosol particles to the atmosphere. Such particles could alter the radiation balance directly by scattering and absorbing incident solar radiation, thus decrease the amount of light reaching the surface and increase the fraction of diffuse radiation. By using the aerosol data obtained from both the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), aerosol effects on surface photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) are explored in this study. PAR is quantitatively estimated using the NCAR Tropospheric Ultraviolet-Visible (TUV) radiation transfer model, with the influence of clouds taken into account through sunshine-duration data and the diffuse PAR calculated with diffuse radiation empirical models. This method is examined against the observations of PAR under all-sky conditions at Xianghe, northern China, and a significant linear correlation between the measured and estimated PAR is obtained with R of 0.96 and relative error of 8.47%. Aerosol effects on PAR are thus evaluated with this method. Compared with the background aerosol loading (defined as aerosol optical depth = 0.05), the monthly average PAR under present aerosol level for May, June, July and August decreases 20.65, 26.17, 17.38 and 17.84 W/m2 respectively, while the diffuse PAR for the four months increases 14.03, 21.39, 7.29, and 5.44 W/m2 respectively. The mean ratios of global and diffuse PAR under present aerosol level to that under background aerosol loading for this period are 82.9% and 130% respectively. It is found that the diffuse PAR is determined predominantly by clouds and to a lesser extent by aerosol loading. For days with high cloud transmittance, aerosols could significantly increase the diffuse PAR. In contrast, clouds with very low transmittance causes high ratio of diffuse to global PAR, and aerosols could even decrease both global and diffuse PAR. The effects of such changes induced by aerosols on plant productivity would be further studied.

  1. Facteurs de risque de mortalité par tuberculose pulmonaire

    PubMed Central

    Janah, Hicham; Souhi, Hicham; Kouismi, Hatim; Mark, Karima; Zahraoui, Rachida; Benamor, Jouda; Soualhi, Mona; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine

    2014-01-01

    La tuberculose est une maladie infectieuse transmissible provoquée par myco-bacterium tuberculosis (bacille de Koch ou BK). Elle représente, selon les estimations del'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS), l'une des pathologies infectieuses causant le plus de décès au niveau mondial avec plus de 1 million de décès par an. Pour déterminer les facteurs de risque de mortalité au cours de la tuberculose pulmonaire à microscopie positive nous avons mené une étude rétrospective portant sur tous les cas de tuberculose pulmonaire à microscopie positive et qui étaient décédés au cours de leur hospitalisation. Cette étude a colligé 1803 cas de tuberculose sur une période de 2 ans et demi dont 46 sont décédés. La prévalence de décès est de 2,55%. La population se répartit en 32 hommes et 14 femmes. L’âge moyen était de 53ans ± 17 ans. Le tabagisme était retrouvé chez la moitié des cas. Une comorbidité était retrouvée dans 43%, avec 17% de diabète. Le délai de diagnostic avait une médiane de 60 jours avec percentile (30j; 105j). La symptomatologie clinique était dominée par la toux, la dyspnée et les expectorations soit respectivement: 97,8%, 69,6% et 67,4% des cas. Sur le plan radiologique les lésions étaient diffuses et bilatérales dans 76,1% des cas. Tous les patients étaient mis sous SRHZ. 11% avaient présenté une toxicité aux antibacillaires (de type hépatiques dans 3 cas et neurologiques dans 2 cas). Le délai médian de décès était de 8,5 jours (5j; 17j). Les causes de décès retrouvées étaient: Une hépatite fulminante (3 cas), une décompensation acido-cétosique (3 cas), un SDRA (2 cas), des hémoptysies foudroyantes (2 cas), et respectivement un cas secondaire à une décompensation de BPCO, une décompensation cardiaque, une hypoglycémie et un tableau d'anasarque. Cette étude suggère que le terrain, le retard diagnostique et les effets secondaires du traitement sont les principaux facteurs de risque de mortalité chez les patients hospitalisés pour tuberculose pulmonaire. PMID:25922636

  2. The status of conservation of urban forests in eastern Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Amaral, D D; Vieira, I C G; Salomão, R P; Almeida, S S; Jardim, M A G

    2012-05-01

    This study aims to identify the remnant tree flora in six forest fragments in the metropolitan area of Belém and to analyze these fragments in terms of biological conservation, species richness and diversity in the local urban landscape. The fragments and their respective sampling areas were as follows: Amafrutas reserve (15 ha), Trambioca Is. reserve (2 ha), Bosque Rodrigues Alves city park (15 ha), Combu Is. reserve (10 ha), Gunma Park reserve (10 ha) and Mocambo reserve (5 ha). Inventories were built from lineal plots of 250 m² and included trees with DBH equal to or greater than 10 cm at a height of 1.3 m above ground. Sixty-nine families and 759 species, of which eight were officially listed as endangered (Brazilian National Flora: Ministry of Environment, Normative Instruction of September, 2008; Pará State Flora: Decree Nº. 802 of February 2008) were recorded. These endangered species are: Aspidosperma desmanthum Benth. ex Müll. Arg. (Apocynaceae), Cedrela odorata L. (Meliaceae), Eschweilera piresii S.A Mori (Lecythidaceae), Euxylophora paraensis Huber (Rutaceae), Hymenolobium excelsum Ducke (Leguminosae), Manilkara huberi (Ducke) Chevalier (Sapotaceae), Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. ex DC.) Standl. (Bignoniaceae), Mezilaurus itauba (Meisn.) Taub. ex Mez (Lauraceae) and Qualea coerulea Aubl. (Vochysiaceae). Emergency actions such as implementing management plans for already existing Conservation Units, the creation of new such units in areas of primary forest fragments (as in the case of the Amafrutas reserve), as well as the intensification of actions of surveillance and monitoring, should be undertaken by Federal, State, and Municipal environmental agencies so as to ensure the conservation of these last primary forest remnants in the metropolitan area of Belém. PMID:22735132

  3. Profiling gene expression induced by protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) activation in human kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Suen, Jacky Y; Gardiner, Brooke; Grimmond, Sean; Fairlie, David P

    2010-01-01

    Protease-Activated Receptor-2 (PAR2) has been implicated through genetic knockout mice with cytokine regulation and arthritis development. Many studies have associated PAR2 with inflammatory conditions (arthritis, airways inflammation, IBD) and key events in tumor progression (angiogenesis, metastasis), but they have relied heavily on the use of single agonists to identify physiological roles for PAR2. However such probes are now known not to be highly selective for PAR2, and thus precisely what PAR2 does and what mechanisms of downstream regulation are truly affected remain obscure. Effects of PAR2 activation on gene expression in Human Embryonic Kidney cells (HEK293), a commonly studied cell line in PAR2 research, were investigated here by comparing 19,000 human genes for intersecting up- or down-regulation by both trypsin (an endogenous protease that activates PAR2) and a PAR2 activating hexapeptide (2f-LIGRLO-NH(2)). Among 2,500 human genes regulated similarly by both agonists, there were clear associations between PAR2 activation and cellular metabolism (1,000 genes), the cell cycle, the MAPK pathway, HDAC and sirtuin enzymes, inflammatory cytokines, and anti-complement function. PAR-2 activation up-regulated four genes more than 5 fold (DUSP6, WWOX, AREG, SERPINB2) and down-regulated another six genes more than 3 fold (TXNIP, RARG, ITGB4, CTSD, MSC and TM4SF15). Both PAR2 and PAR1 activation resulted in up-regulated expression of several genes (CD44, FOSL1, TNFRSF12A, RAB3A, COPEB, CORO1C, THBS1, SDC4) known to be important in cancer. This is the first widespread profiling of specific activation of PAR2 and provides a valuable platform for better understanding key mechanistic roles of PAR2 in human physiology. Results clearly support the development of both antagonists and agonists of human PAR2 as potential disease modifying therapeutic agents. PMID:21072196

  4. Refroidissement par vaporation d'un jet atomique guid magntiquement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahaye, T.

    2006-01-01

    This work deals with the experimental realization of an ultracold, magnetically guided atomic beam in the collisional regime. After a detailed description of the experimental setup developed for this purpose, a method to measure the beam temperature with radio-frequency spectroscopy is proposed theoretically and demonstrated experimentally. The variations in temperature, phase-space density and elastic collision rate of the beam during a cycle evaporation-rethermalization are calculated. Two-antenna radio-frequency evaporation experiments are then described. They allow one to demonstrate the occurrence of elastic collisions within the atomic beam. Two Hamiltonian methods allowing one to increase the elastic collision rate are then studied theoretically and investigated experimentally. The gain in the elastic collision rate obtained this way is then used in order to cool the beam by means of ten evaporation zones, thus increasing the beam's phase-space density by one order of magnitude. Finally, a detailed theoretical study of the evaporation kinetics shows that a ten-fold increase of the collision rate obtained so far should be sufficient to achieve quantum degeneracy. Cet ouvrage traite de la ralisation exprimentale d'un jet atomique ultrafroid guid magntiquement, dans le rgime collisionnel. Aprs une description dtaille du dispositif exprimental dvelopp cette fin, une mthode de thermomtrie par spectroscopie radio-frquence est propose et dmontre exprimentalement. Les variations de temprature, densit dans l'espace des phases et taux de collisions lastiques du jet au cours d'un cycle vaporation-rethermalisation sont calcules. Des expriences d'vaporation radio-frquence deux antennes sont ensuite prsentes, qui permettent de prouver l'existence de collisions au sein du jet. Deux mthodes permettant d'augmenter le taux de collisions sont ensuite tudies thoriquement, puis mises en uvre. Le gain en taux de collisions ainsi obtenu est mis profit pour refroidir le jet l'aide d'une dizaine de zones d'vaporation, permettant d'en accrotre la densit dans l'espace des phases par un ordre de grandeur. Enfin, une tude thorique dtaille de la cintique d'vaporation montre qu'un gain d'un facteur dix sur le taux de collisions lastiques obtenu jusqu' prsent devrait permettre d'atteindre la dgnrescence quantique.

  5. Water conservation behavior in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

    2012-01-01

    Ensuring a nation's long term water supply requires the use of both supply-sided approaches such as water augmentation through water recycling, and demand-sided approaches such as water conservation. Conservation behavior can only be increased if the key drivers of such behavior are understood. The aim of this study is to reveal the main drivers from a comprehensive pool of hypothesized factors. An empirical study was conducted with 3094 Australians. Data was analyzed using multivariate linear regression analysis and decision trees to determine which factors best predict self-reported water conservation behavior. Two key factors emerge: high level of pro-environmental behavior; and pro-actively seeking out information about water. A number of less influential factors are also revealed. Public communication strategy implications are derived. PMID:22522412

  6. Conservative treatment for anal incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Anal incontinence (AI) in adults is a troublesome condition that negatively impacts upon quality of life and results in significant embarrassment and social isolation. The conservative management of AI is the first step and targets symptomatic relief. The reported significant improvement with conservative treatments for AI is close to 25% and involves prescribed changes in lifestyle habits, a reduced intake of foods that may cause or aggravate diarrhea or rectal urgency, and the use of specific anti-diarrheal agents. The use of a mechanical barrier in the form of an anal plug and the outcomes and principles of pelvic kinesitherapies and biofeedback options are outlined. This review discusses a gastroenterologist's approach towards conservative therapy in patients referred with anal incontinence. PMID:24759347

  7. Conservation laws in embedding theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo, Oscar; Mustafaev, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    In this work is considered embedding theory, a theory in which independent variables which describe gravity are functions of the space-time embedding into a ten-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean space. Neother's theorem is used to find conservation laws for energy and angular momentum as a result from the action's invariance in relation to the rotation and translation of the system. The form of these conservation laws and their consequences depending on the different formulations of embedding theory is discussed. It is also analyzed a transition from embedding theory to a field theory in a flat space-time with a number of dimensions greater than four. The same procedure is followed in this case to find conservation laws, resulting in the solution of the problem of time present in Einstein's theory of general relativity.

  8. Genetic conservation: our evolutionary responsibility.

    PubMed

    Frankel, O H

    1974-09-01

    The conservation of the crop varieties of traditional agriculture in the centers of genetic diversity is essential to provide genetic resources for plant improvement. These resources are acutely threatened by rapid agricultural development which is essential for the welfare of millions. Methodologies for genetic conservation have been worked out which are both effective and economical. Urgent action is needed to collect and preserve irreplaceable genetic resources.Wild species, increasingly endangered by loss of habitats, will depend on organized protection for their survival. On a long term basis this is feasible only within natural communities in a state of continuing evolution, hence there is an urgent need for exploration and clarification of the genetic principles of conservation. Gene pools of wild species are increasingly needed for various uses, from old and new industries to recreation. But the possibility of a virtual end to the evolution of species of no direct use to man raises questions of responsibility and ethics. PMID:17248668

  9. Pollution reduction through energy conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Stroot, P.G.; Nemeth, R.J.; Fournier, D.J.

    1995-06-01

    In addition to lowering energy costs, energy conserving technologies also reduce the amount of Pollution created either on-site, or at the electric generation plant. Numerous studies have placed societal costs on the generation of pollution. Although the societal costs vary significantly from one study to another, the important fact is the recognition that pollution adds an additional cost to energy. As the implications of consuming energy are observed holistically, energy conservation gains appeal beyond simple cost savings. Using the Renewables and Energy Efficiency Planning (REEP) program developed at the United States Army Corps of Engineers - Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL), energy and resource savings estimates for seventy-eight (78) Energy and Water Conservation Opportunities (ECOs/WCOs) have been predicted for 110 Army installations across the United States. Based on the predicted energy savings for each ECO/WCO, the tons of controlled pollution abated are estimated and valued. Abatement of six different pollutants are calculated: SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, CO, CO{sub 2}, particulate matter, and hydrocarbons. To calculate the tons of controlled pollution abated, conservation technologies that directly offset gas, oil, or coal consumption are multiplied by the average value of pollution produced by the combustion of these fossil fuels. For technologies that conserve electrical energy, the regional characteristics of how electricity is produced in each state are used to adjust the pollution offset through electrical conservation. The societal benefits of the pollution abated are calculated by multiplying the tons of pollution offset by the societal cost per ton of pollutant. This paper expands on the methodology used to calculate pollution abated and provides some examples of the results from the program.

  10. Energy Conservation in School Transportation Systems. Energy Conservation Guidelines 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesguth, John, Ed.; Scheingold, Edward, Ed.

    Fourth in a series of four publications on energy conservation, this booklet offers basic guidelines for sound fuel reduction in school transportation. The pamphlet suggests ways to implement energy-saving practices, guidelines for preventive maintenance of school vehicles, a definition of the drivers' and superintendents' roles, school policies…

  11. Energy Conservation Guidelines - 4: Energy Conservation in School Transportation Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesguth, John, Ed.; Scheingold, Edward, Ed.

    Recommended are practices for reducing energy consumed in the process of transporting school pupils. Among the areas in which energy conservation measures may be instituted are preventive bus maintenance, field trip coordination, bus driving practices, modified scheduling policies, and training of bus drivers. (WB)

  12. Conservation Seeds Activities Book. An Early Childhood Conservation Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Sherri

    This activities book is used with an early childhood conservation education program. The activities are presented in four color-coded sections, each section representing one of the four seasons. Each activity includes a statement of purpose, list of materials needed, instructional strategies, and a list of supplementary activities. In addition to…

  13. Reasons for the Decalage between Identity Conservation and Equivalence Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Ron

    1983-01-01

    Two experiments investigated which of two factors is responsible for decalage between Piaget's equivalence and identity conservation tasks. Performance of 78 primary school students between 57 and 79 months of age was compared on equivalence and identity tasks and a third task, equivalence I, which retains transitivity requirement of Piaget's task…

  14. Agricultural Water Conservation via Conservation Tillage and Thermal Infrared

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Georgia water conservation is an issue that involves all citizens. Within the agricultural row crop community, water is a very important part of producing a harvestable and profitable product. Although irrigation is used only as a supplement to natural rainfall, it can greatly affect crop yield...

  15. Conservation Seeds Activities Book. An Early Childhood Conservation Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Sherri

    This activities book is used with an early childhood conservation education program. The activities are presented in four color-coded sections, each section representing one of the four seasons. Each activity includes a statement of purpose, list of materials needed, instructional strategies, and a list of supplementary activities. In addition to

  16. Backyard Conservation: Bringing Conservation from the Countryside to Your Backyard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildlife Habitat Council, Silver Spring, MD.

    This guide highlights 10 conservation activities, adapted from farms and ranches, that can be used in the backyard. Each activity provides background information and instructions on how to complete the activity. The activities concern: (1) tree planting; (2) wildlife habitat; (3) backyard ponds; (4) nutrient management; (5) terracing; (6) water…

  17. Air Conservation, The Report of the Air Conservation Commission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC.

    This book is a report designed to be used by scientists in a wide variety of disciplines and by interested laymen. Thus, the readability of the material was maintained without sacrificing scientific accuracy. The document consisted of three parts. Part 1, Air Conservation and Public Policy, was written to be of interest to the broadest possible…

  18. Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) – focus on receptor-receptor-interactions and their physiological and pathophysiological impact

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) are a subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) with four members, PAR1, PAR2, PAR3 and PAR4, playing critical functions in hemostasis, thrombosis, embryonic development, wound healing, inflammation and cancer progression. PARs are characterized by a unique activation mechanism involving receptor cleavage by different proteinases at specific sites within the extracellular amino-terminus and the exposure of amino-terminal “tethered ligand“ domains that bind to and activate the cleaved receptors. After activation, the PAR family members are able to stimulate complex intracellular signalling networks via classical G protein-mediated pathways and beta-arrestin signalling. In addition, different receptor crosstalk mechanisms critically contribute to a high diversity of PAR signal transduction and receptor-trafficking processes that result in multiple physiological effects. In this review, we summarize current information about PAR-initiated physical and functional receptor interactions and their physiological and pathological roles. We focus especially on PAR homo- and heterodimerization, transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and receptor serine/threonine kinases (RSTKs), communication with other GPCRs, toll-like receptors and NOD-like receptors, ion channel receptors, and on PAR association with cargo receptors. In addition, we discuss the suitability of these receptor interaction mechanisms as targets for modulating PAR signalling in disease. PMID:24215724

  19. A conserved germline multipotency program

    PubMed Central

    Juliano, Celina E.; Swartz, S. Zachary; Wessel, Gary M.

    2010-01-01

    The germline of multicellular animals is segregated from somatic tissues, which is an essential developmental process for the next generation. Although certain ecdysozoans and chordates segregate their germline during embryogenesis, animals from other taxa segregate their germline after embryogenesis from multipotent progenitor cells. An overlapping set of genes, including vasa, nanos and piwi, operate in both multipotent precursors and in the germline. As we propose here, this conservation implies the existence of an underlying germline multipotency program in these cell types that has a previously underappreciated and conserved function in maintaining multipotency. PMID:21098563

  20. Animal models and conserved processes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The concept of conserved processes presents unique opportunities for using nonhuman animal models in biomedical research. However, the concept must be examined in the context that humans and nonhuman animals are evolved, complex, adaptive systems. Given that nonhuman animals are examples of living systems that are differently complex from humans, what does the existence of a conserved gene or process imply for inter-species extrapolation? Methods We surveyed the literature including philosophy of science, biological complexity, conserved processes, evolutionary biology, comparative medicine, anti-neoplastic agents, inhalational anesthetics, and drug development journals in order to determine the value of nonhuman animal models when studying conserved processes. Results Evolution through natural selection has employed components and processes both to produce the same outcomes among species but also to generate different functions and traits. Many genes and processes are conserved, but new combinations of these processes or different regulation of the genes involved in these processes have resulted in unique organisms. Further, there is a hierarchy of organization in complex living systems. At some levels, the components are simple systems that can be analyzed by mathematics or the physical sciences, while at other levels the system cannot be fully analyzed by reducing it to a physical system. The study of complex living systems must alternate between focusing on the parts and examining the intact whole organism while taking into account the connections between the two. Systems biology aims for this holism. We examined the actions of inhalational anesthetic agents and anti-neoplastic agents in order to address what the characteristics of complex living systems imply for inter-species extrapolation of traits and responses related to conserved processes. Conclusion We conclude that even the presence of conserved processes is insufficient for inter-species extrapolation when the trait or response being studied is located at higher levels of organization, is in a different module, or is influenced by other modules. However, when the examination of the conserved process occurs at the same level of organization or in the same module, and hence is subject to study solely by reductionism, then extrapolation is possible. PMID:22963674

  1. 7 CFR 1466.10 - Conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conservation practices. 1466.10 Section 1466.10... Contracts and Payments § 1466.10 Conservation practices. (a) NRCS will determine the conservation practices... the public. (b) Payments will not be made to a participant for a conservation practice that either...

  2. 7 CFR 1466.10 - Conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conservation practices. 1466.10 Section 1466.10... Contracts and Payments § 1466.10 Conservation practices. (a) NRCS will determine the conservation practices... the public. (b) Payments will not be made to a participant for a conservation practice that either...

  3. 7 CFR 1465.7 - Conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conservation practices. 1465.7 Section 1465.7... Provisions § 1465.7 Conservation practices. (a) The State Conservationist will determine the conservation practices eligible for AMA payments. To be considered eligible conservation practices, the practices...

  4. 7 CFR 1465.7 - Conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conservation practices. 1465.7 Section 1465.7... Provisions § 1465.7 Conservation practices. (a) The State Conservationist will determine the conservation practices eligible for AMA payments. To be considered eligible conservation practices, the practices...

  5. 7 CFR 1465.7 - Conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conservation practices. 1465.7 Section 1465.7... Provisions § 1465.7 Conservation practices. (a) The State Conservationist will determine the conservation practices eligible for AMA payments. To be considered eligible conservation practices, the practices...

  6. 7 CFR 1466.10 - Conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conservation practices. 1466.10 Section 1466.10... Contracts and Payments § 1466.10 Conservation practices. (a) NRCS will determine the conservation practices... the public. (b) Payments will not be made to a participant for a conservation practice that either...

  7. 7 CFR 1466.10 - Conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conservation practices. 1466.10 Section 1466.10... Contracts and Payments § 1466.10 Conservation practices. (a) NRCS will determine the conservation practices... the public. (b) Payments will not be made to a participant for a conservation practice that either...

  8. 7 CFR 1465.7 - Conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conservation practices. 1465.7 Section 1465.7... Provisions § 1465.7 Conservation practices. (a) The State Conservationist will determine the conservation practices eligible for AMA payments. To be considered eligible conservation practices, the practices...

  9. 7 CFR 1466.10 - Conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conservation practices. 1466.10 Section 1466.10... Contracts and Payments § 1466.10 Conservation practices. (a) NRCS will determine the conservation practices... the public. (b) Payments will not be made to a participant for a conservation practice that either...

  10. 7 CFR 1465.7 - Conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conservation practices. 1465.7 Section 1465.7... Provisions § 1465.7 Conservation practices. (a) The State Conservationist will determine the conservation practices eligible for AMA payments. To be considered eligible conservation practices, the practices...

  11. 12 CFR 627.2770 - Conservators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conservators. 627.2770 Section 627.2770 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM TITLE IV CONSERVATORS, RECEIVERS, AND VOLUNTARY LIQUIDATIONS Conservators and Conservatorships § 627.2770 Conservators. (a) The...

  12. 7 CFR 766.110 - Conservation Contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Conservation Service's (NRCS) technical decisions made in connection with a Conservation Contract, will be... Conservation Contract areas; (vii) Areas that contain soils generally not suited for cultivation; or (viii... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conservation Contract. 766.110 Section...

  13. 7 CFR 766.110 - Conservation Contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Conservation Service's (NRCS) technical decisions made in connection with a Conservation Contract, will be... Conservation Contract areas; (vii) Areas that contain soils generally not suited for cultivation; or (viii... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conservation Contract. 766.110 Section...

  14. 7 CFR 766.110 - Conservation Contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Conservation Service's (NRCS) technical decisions made in connection with a Conservation Contract, will be... Conservation Contract areas; (vii) Areas that contain soils generally not suited for cultivation; or (viii... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conservation Contract. 766.110 Section...

  15. Inhibition, Conflict Detection, and Number Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubin, Amlie; Simon, Grgory; Houd, Olivier; De Neys, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The acquisition of number conservation is a critical step in children's numerical and mathematical development. Classic developmental studies have established that children's number conservation is often biased by misleading intuitions. However, the precise nature of these conservation errors is not clear. A key question is whether conservation

  16. PAR-1, -4, and the mTOR Pathway Following Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Lekic, Tim; Krafft, Paul R; Klebe, Damon; Flores, Jerry; Rolland, William B; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H

    2016-01-01

    Germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH) is the most common cause of neurological complications of prematurity and has lasting implications. PAR-1 and PAR-4 receptors are involved with upstream signaling pathways following brain hemorrhage in adult models of stroke, of which the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a potential downstream mediator. Therefore, we hypothesized a role for PAR-1, -4/ mTOR signaling following GMH brain injury. Postnatal day 7 Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to GMH through stereotactic infusion of collagenase into the right ganglionic eminence. Rodents were euthanized at 72 h (short term), or 4 weeks (long term). Short-term mTOR expression was evaluated by Western blot in the context of PAR-1 (SCH-79797) and PAR-4 (P4pal10) inhibition. Pups in the long-term group were administered the selective mTOR inhibitor (rapamycin) with neurobehavioral and brain pathological examinations performed at 4 weeks. Pharmacological PAR-1, -4 antagonism normalized the increased mTOR expression following GMH. Early inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin improved long-term outcomes in rats. Mammalian-TOR signaling plays an important role in brain injury following neonatal GMH, possibly involving upstream PAR-1, -4 mechanisms. PMID:26463951

  17. CERCLA interim action at the Par Pond unit: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, H.M.; Matthews, S.S.; Neal, L.W.; Weiss, W.R.

    1993-11-01

    The Par Pond unit designated under CERCLA consists of sediments within a Savannah River Site (SRS) cooling water reservoir. The sediments are contaminated with radionuclides and nonradioactive constituents from nuclear production reactor operations. The mercury in Par Pond is believed to have originated from the Savannah River. Because of Par Pond Dam safety Issues, the water level of the reservoir was drawn down, exposing more than 1300 acres of contaminated sediments and triggering the need for CERCLA interim remedial action. This paper presents the interim action approach taken with Par Pond as a case study. The approach considered the complexity of the Par Pond ecosystem, the large size of Par Pond, the volume of contaminated sediments, and the institutional controls existing at SRS. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considers units with large volumes of low-concentration wastes, as is the case with Par Pond, to be {open_quotes}special sites.{close_quotes} Accordingly, EPA guidance establishes that the range of alternatives developed focus primarily on containment options and other remedial approaches that mitigate potential risks associated with the {open_quotes}special site.{close_quotes} The remedial alternatives, according to EPA, are not to be prohibitively expensive or difficult to implement. This case study also is representative of the types of issues that will need to be addressed within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex as nuclear facilities are transitioned to inactive status and corrective/remedial actions are warranted.

  18. Small caliber arterial endothelial cells calcium signals elicited by PAR2 are preserved from endothelial dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Hennessey, John C; Stuyvers, Bruno D; McGuire, John J

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial cell (EC)-dependent vasodilation by proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is preserved in small caliber arteries in disease states where vasodilation by muscarinic receptors is decreased. In this study, we identified and characterized the PAR2-mediated intracellular calcium (Ca2+)-release mechanisms in EC from small caliber arteries in healthy and diseased states. Mesenteric arterial EC were isolated from PAR2 wild-type (WT) and null mice, after saline (controls) or angiotensin II (AngII) infusion, for imaging intracellular calcium and characterizing the calcium-release system by immunofluorescence. EC Ca2+ signals comprised two forms of Ca2+-release events that had distinct spatial-temporal properties and occurred near either the plasmalemma (peripheral) or center of EC. In healthy EC, PAR2-dependent increases in the densities and firing rates of both forms of Ca2+-release were abolished by inositol 1,4,5- trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) inhibitor, but partially reduced by transient potential vanilloid channels inhibitor ruthenium red (RR). Acetylcholine (ACh)-induced less overall Ca2+-release than PAR2 activation, but enhanced selectively the incidence of central events. PAR2-dependent Ca2+-activity, inhibitors sensitivities, IP3R, small- and intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated potassium channels expressions were unchanged in EC from AngII WT. However, the same cells exhibited decreases in ACh-induced Ca2+-release, RR sensitivity, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression, indicating AngII-induced dysfunction was differentiated by receptor, Ca2+-release, and downstream targets of EC activation. We conclude that PAR2 and muscarinic receptors selectively elicit two elementary Ca2+ signals in single EC. PAR2-selective IP3R-dependent peripheral Ca2+-release mechanisms are identical between healthy and diseased states. Further study of PAR2-selective Ca2+-release for eliciting pathological and/or normal EC functions is warranted. PMID:25729579

  19. PAR-2 elicits afferent arteriolar vasodilation by NO-dependent and NO-independent actions.

    PubMed

    Trottier, Greg; Hollenberg, Morley; Wang, Xuemei; Gui, Yu; Loutzenhiser, Kathy; Loutzenhiser, Rodger

    2002-05-01

    Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) are a novel class of G protein-coupled receptors that respond to signals through endogenous proteinases. PAR activation involves enzymatic cleavage of the extracellular NH(2)-terminal domain and unmasking of a new NH(2) terminus, which serves as an anchored ligand to activate the receptor. At least four PAR subtypes have been identified. In the present study, we used the in vitro perfused hydronephrotic rat kidney to examine the effects of activating PAR-2 on the afferent arteriole. The synthetic peptide SLIGRL-NH(2), which corresponds to the exposed ligand sequence and selectively activates PAR-2, did not alter basal afferent arteriolar diameter but caused a concentration-dependent vasodilation (3-30 microM) of arterioles preconstricted by angiotensin II (0.1 nM). A modified peptide sequence (LSIGRL-NH(2), inactive at PAR-2) had no effect. This vasodilation was characterized by an initial transient component followed by a smaller sustained response. A similar pattern of vasodilation was seen when SLIGRL-NH(2) was administered to isolated perfused normal rat kidney. The sustained component of the PAR-2-induced afferent arteriolar vasodilation was eliminated by nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibition (100 microM nitro-L-arginine methyl ester). In contrast, the transient vasodilation persisted under these conditions. This transient response was not observed when afferent arterioles were preconstricted with elevated KCl, suggesting involvement of an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor. Finally, RT-PCR revealed the presence of PAR-2 mRNA in isolated afferent arterioles. These findings indicate that PAR-2 is expressed in the afferent arteriole and that its activation elicits afferent arteriolar vasodilation by NO-dependent and NO-independent mechanisms. PMID:11934700

  20. Pulsed power supply for PAR injection/extraction septum magnet

    SciTech Connect

    McGhee, D.G.

    1990-09-23

    A 22.5 {mu}H, 22.5 m{Omega} transformer septum magnet must be pulsed at a 60 Hz rate to inject beam from a 450 MeV positron linac into a positron accumulator ring (PAR) and to extract beam from it. Of the 60 pulses per second the first 24 are used for injection and the 30th for extraction. The 25th through the 29th are not used. This pattern is repeated continuously. A design study was performed of the power supply proposed in the APS Title I design. This supply produces a pulse that is approximately a half-sine-wave with a base width of approximately 1/3 ms; its peak current is adjustable from 3.5kA to 4.7kA and is repeatable within {+-}0.05%. The septum steel is reset by a half-sine pulse of reverse polarity a few milliseconds after the forward current pulse. No beam is present during reset. The use of the transformer design minimizes the cost of the capacitors used for energy storage.