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1

A conserved mode of protein recognition and binding in a ParD-ParE toxin-antitoxin complex†  

PubMed Central

Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems form a ubiquitous class of prokaryotic proteins with functional roles in plasmid inheritance, environmental stress response, and cell development. ParDE-family TA systems are broadly conserved on plasmids and bacterial chromosomes, and have been well characterized as genetic elements that promote stable plasmid inheritance. We present a crystal structure of a chromosomally-encoded ParD-ParE complex from Caulobacter crescentus at 2.6 Å resolution. This TA system forms an ?2?2 heterotetramer in the crystal and in solution. The toxin-antitoxin binding interface reveals extensive polar and hydrophobic contacts of ParD antitoxin helices with a conserved recognition and binding groove on the ParE toxin. A cross-species comparison of this complex structure with related toxin structures identified an antitoxin recognition and binding sub-domain that is conserved between distantly-related members of the RelE/ParE toxin superfamily despite low overall primary sequence identity. We further demonstrate that ParD antitoxin is dimeric, stably folded, and largely helical when not bound to ParE toxin. Thus, the paradigmatic model in which antitoxin undergoes a disorder-to-order transition upon toxin binding does not apply to this chromosomal ParD-ParE TA system.

Dalton, Kevin M.; Crosson, Sean

2010-01-01

2

Characterization of a Conserved Interaction between DNA Glycosylase and ParA in Mycobacterium smegmatis and M. tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

The chromosome partitioning proteins, ParAB, ensure accurate segregation of genetic materials into daughter cells and most bacterial species contain their homologs. However, little is known about the regulation of ParAB proteins. In this study, we found that 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase I MsTAG(Ms5082) regulates bacterial growth and cell morphology by directly interacting with MsParA (Ms6939) and inhibiting its ATPase activity in Mycobacterium smegmatis. Using bacterial two-hybrid and pull-down techniques in combination with co-immunoprecipitation assays, we show that MsTAG physically interacts with MsParA both in vitro and in vivo. Expression of MsTAG under conditions of DNA damage induction exhibited similar inhibition of growth as the deletion of the parA gene in M. smegmatis. Further, the effect of MsTAG on mycobacterial growth was found to be independent of its DNA glycosylase activity, and to result instead from direct inhibition of the ATPase activity of MsParA. Co-expression of these two proteins could counteract the growth defect phenotypes observed in strains overexpressing MsTAG alone in response to DNA damage induction. Based on protein co-expression and fluorescent co-localization assays, MsParA and MsTAG were further found to co-localize in mycobacterial cells. In addition, the interaction between the DNA glycosylase and ParA, and the regulation of ParA by the glycosylase were conserved in M. tuberculosis and M. smegmatis. Our findings provide important new insights into the regulatory mechanism of cell growth and division in mycobacteria.

Huang, Feng; He, Zheng-Guo

2012-01-01

3

Régulation de la production, par des cellules endothéliales, de cytokines pro-inflammatoires après irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma irradiation leads to an increased production of interleukin- (IL)-6 and IL-8 by human endothelial cells. In order to regulate the radio-induced production of these pro-inflammatory cytokines, we used the immunoregulatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10. These agents were added either before or after a 10 Gy-irradiation. Our results show that it is possible to decrease the radio-induced production of IL-6 and IL-8 with the use of IL-4 and IL-10. Differences in the intensity of the response have been observed according to the time of treatment. The anti-inflammatory potential of both IL-4 and IL-10 was more pronounced when added after irradiation. Après irradiation gamma, des cellules endothéliales humaines ont une production accrue des interleukines (IL-) -6 et -8. Dans le but de réguler la production de ces cytokines pro-inflammatoires, nous avons utilisé des cytokines dites anti-inflammatoires, l'IL-4 et l'IL-10. Ces agents ont été ajoutés soit avant soit après une irradiation de 10Gy. Nos résultats montrent qu'il est possible de diminuer les productions radio-induites d'IL-6 et d'IL-8 par l'IL-4 et l'IL-10. Des différences dans l'intensité de la réponse ont toutefois été observées selon que l'IL-4 ou l'IL-10 ont été ajoutées avant ou après irradiation; leur efficacité anti-inflammatoire étant plus marquée lorsque les cytokines sont ajoutées après l'irradiation.

van der Meeren, A.; Lafont, H.; Mathé, D.

1998-04-01

4

Soj (ParA) DNA binding is mediated by conserved arginines and is essential for plasmid segregation  

PubMed Central

Soj is a member of the ParA family of ATPases involved in plasmid and chromosomal segregation. It binds nonspecifically and cooperatively to DNA although the function of this binding is unknown. Here, we show that mutation of conserved arginine residues that map to the surface of Bacillus subtilis Soj caused only minimal effects on nucleotide-dependent dimerization but had dramatic effects on DNA binding. Using a model plasmid partitioning system in Escherichia coli, we find that Soj DNA-binding mutants are deficient in plasmid segregation. The location of the arginines on the Soj structure explains why DNA binding depends on dimerization and was used to orient the Soj dimer on the DNA, revealing the axis of Soj polymerization. The arginine residues are conserved among other chromosomal homologues, including the ParAs from Caulobacter crescentus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas putida, Streptomyces coelicolor, and chromosome I of Vibrio cholerae indicating that DNA binding is a common feature of members of this family.

Hester, Christina M.; Lutkenhaus, Joe

2007-01-01

5

The SPRY domain of SSB-2 adopts a novel fold that presents conserved Par-4-binding residues.  

PubMed

The four mammalian SPRY domain-containing SOCS box proteins (SSB-1 to SSB-4) are characterized by a C-terminal SOCS box and a central SPRY domain. We have determined the first SPRY-domain structure, as part of SSB-2, by NMR. This domain adopts a novel fold consisting of a beta-sandwich structure formed by two four-stranded antiparallel beta-sheets with a unique topology. We demonstrate that SSB-1, SSB-2 and SSB-4, but not SSB-3, bind prostate apoptosis response protein-4 (Par-4). Mutational analysis of SSB-2 loop regions identified conserved structural determinants for its interaction with Par-4 and the hepatocyte growth factor receptor, c-Met. Mutations in analogous loop regions of pyrin and midline-1 SPRY domains have been shown to cause Mediterranean fever and Opitz syndrome, respectively. Our findings provide a template for SPRY-domain structure and an insight into the mechanism of SPRY-protein interaction. PMID:16369487

Masters, Seth L; Yao, Shenggen; Willson, Tracy A; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Palmer, Kirsten R; Smith, Brian J; Babon, Jeffrey J; Nicola, Nicos A; Norton, Raymond S; Nicholson, Sandra E

2006-01-01

6

Interdiffusion de puits quantiques controlee par irradiation laser excimere pour l'integration de composants photoniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L'integration de composants discrets sur un systeme unique, tel une puce electronique, augmente les performances totales du systeme, fait apparaitre de nouvelles fonctionnalites et diminue les couts associes a la fabrication des dispositifs. Ces ameliorations, appliquees au secteur de la microelectronique, sont grandement responsables des avancements importants qu'ont connus les technologies de l'information et des communications au cours des dernieres annees. Puisque la fabrication de circuits photoniques integres necessite l'integration de structures ayant des bandes interdites differentes a partir d'une meme puce semiconductrice, leur niveau d'integration est bien inferieur que celui atteint pour un microprocesseur standard. Parmi les techniques ayant le potentiel de fabriquer des circuits photoniques integres monolithiquement, l'interdiffusion de puits quantique post-expitaxial controlee spatialement augmente la bande interdite d'une heterostructure semiconductrice a l'interieur de regions definies. Le processus d'interdiffusion, active thermiquement, est accelere par la diffusion d'impuretes et de defauts ponctuels tels que les lacunes et les interstitiels. L'hypothese de depart de mes travaux de doctorat suppose que la radiation laser ultra-violette module la diffusion et la generation de defauts ponctuels dans les heterostructures reposant sur les technologies a base de GaAs et d'InP et, consequemment, controle spatialement l'interdiffusion de puits quantiques. Nous avons demontre que lorsque appliquee sur des heterostructures a base de GaAs, l'irradiation laser excimere l'interdiffusion en favorisant la croissance d'un stresseur de surface qui empeche la diffusion des defauts ponctuels vers les puits quantiques. Nous avons souligne l'influence de la vapeur d'eau physisorbee sur la croissance du stresseur et avons determine la resolution spatiale de la technique. Dans les heterostructures basees sur les technologies InP, meme sous le seuil d'ablation, l'absorption des impulsions laser UV favorise la desorption des atomes de surface ce qui genere des defauts ponctuels en concentration excedentaire. Lors d'un recuit thermique, ces defauts ponctuels augmentent la vitesse de l'interdiffusion sous les regions irradiees. Mots cles : Interdiffusion de puits quantique, integration potonique, laser excimere, semiconducteur, InP, GaAs.

Genest, Jonathan

7

Benefits versus risks in conservation surgery with irradiation for breast cancer  

SciTech Connect

This report analyzes the survival and complications inherent in the conventional treatment of breast cancer, radical mastectomy, and the more conservative procedure, conservation surgery with irradiation. Both procedures have benefits and risks. The benefits as measured by survivorship appear to be approximately the same. The major benefit of conservation surgery with irradiation is that the breast is left intact. The possible complication of irradiation carcinogenesis is addressed, and the literature analyzed. This review indicates that the absolute risk of breast cancer developing in the second breast is not nearly as great as originally thought. It is concluded that if a woman with breast cancer is a candidate for either mastectomy or the conservative procedure, it is the clinician's obligation to objectively present the evidence regarding the benefits and risks of these procedures.

Levitt, S.H.; Mandel, J.

1984-07-01

8

Mecanismes de deformation de nanoparticules d'Au par irradiation ionique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present thesis, we study the anisotropic deformation of gold nanoparticles embedded in amorphous silica or crystalline aluminum arsenide, under ion bombardment. We try to comprehend the mechanism responsible for this deformation and to remove any ambiguity related to the explanation of this phenomenon. A hybrid process combining sputtering and plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition was used to fabricate Au/SiO2 layers on fused silica substrates. Structures with single and multilayer were obtained. Heating during or after deposition activates the Au atom agglomeration and favours the growth of the nanoparticles. Also, a Au/AlAs nanocomposite was obtained by ion implantation of AlAs films, followed by rapid thermal annealing. The samples of the two nanocomposites, cooled with liquid nitrogen, were irradiated with 2 to 40 MeV Cu, Si, Au or In ion beams, at fluences ranging from 1x10 13 to 4x1015 ions/cm2, using a Tandem or Tandetron accelerator. The structural and morphological properties of the Au/SiO2 nanocomposite were extracted by optical means; the frequency and the width of surface plasmon resonance band depend on the nanoparticle shape and size, their concentration, the inter-particle distance and the dielectric properties of material in which the particles are embedded. The aluminum arsenide crystallinity was studied by two techniques: Raman spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in channelling configuration (RBS/ channelling). The Au concentration in the nanocomposite layers was deducted from RBS results. The size distribution and metallic nanoparticles shape transformation in both nanocomposites were observed by electronic transmission microscopy. The results obtained within the framework of this work are the subject of three journal papers. The first publication shows the possibility of manipulating the width and spectral position of the gold nanoparticle absorption band in Au/SiO2 nanocomposites by modifying their structure (form, size and inter-particle distance). The obtained Au nanoparticles are nearly spherical. The surface plasmon (PS) absorption band corresponding to the distant particles is located at 520 nm. After ion irradiation, the spherical nanoparticles transform into ellipsoids aligned along the ion beam. The absorption band splits into two bands: transversal and longitudinal. The band corresponding to the ellipsoids small axis (transversal) is blue-shifted and that corresponding to the long axis (longitudinal) is red-shifted indicating the elongation of particles in the beam direction. The second paper is consecrated to the crucial role of the plastic deformation of the matrix and to the importance of the metal atomic mobility in the anisotropic nanoparticles deformation in Au/SiO 2 nanocomposites. Our measurements show that a threshold value of 2 keV/nm (electronic stopping power) is necessary for the deformation of Au nanoparticles. This value is close to that required for silica deformation. Mobility of the Au atoms at the time of the ion passage is confirmed by temperature calculation within the ionic track. The third paper treats the attempt of formation and deformation of Au nanoparticles in crystalline aluminum arsenide matrix known by its high resistance to amorphisation and deformation under ionic bombardment. The principal result of the last article confirms the essential role of the matrix. It proves that the anisotropic deformation of surrounding material is indispensable for gold nanoparticles deformation. The experimental results mentioned above and temperature calculations within ionic tracks allowed us to propose the following anisotropic deformation scenario of Au nanoparticles embedded in Au/SiO2 nanocomposite: (1) Each ion crossing the silica melts (very briefly) a narrow cylinder around its trajectory forming thus a latent track. This is consistent with the observed threshold value in the electronic stopping power. (2) The cumulative effect of many separate ion impacts leads to the anisotropic growth of the silica matrix which contracts in the direct

Harkati Kerbouah, Chahineze

9

Prokaryotic ParA-ParB-parS system links bacterial chromosome segregation with the cell cycle.  

PubMed

While the essential role of episomal par loci in plasmid DNA partitioning has long been appreciated, the function of chromosomally encoded par loci is less clear. The chromosomal parA-parB genes are conserved throughout the bacterial kingdom and encode proteins homologous to those of the plasmidic Type I active partitioning systems. The third conserved element, the centromere-like sequence called parS, occurs in several copies in the chromosome. Recent studies show that the ParA-ParB-parS system is a key player of a mitosis-like process ensuring proper intracellular localization of certain chromosomal regions such as oriC domain and their active and directed segregation. Moreover, the chromosomal par systems link chromosome segregation with initiation of DNA replication and the cell cycle. PMID:21924286

Mierzejewska, Jolanta; Jagura-Burdzy, Gra?yna

2012-01-01

10

External irradiation prior to conservative surgery for breast cancer treatment  

SciTech Connect

From 1981 to 1987, 138 patients with breast cancer unsuitable for primary tumorectomy received initial external radiotherapy (45 Gy/25f/35d) in order to reduce the tumor volume so that secondary limited surgery could be performed. There were 81 T2 and 57 T3. Fifty-seven percent of the patients had a tumor larger than 4.5 cm. After completion of the radiotherapy, 22 patients (16%) showed no more evidence of a tumor either clinically or radiologically and received a boost of 25 Gy. In 52 cases (38%) the tumor regression allowed for secondary tumorectomy followed by a boost of 20 Gy. Sixty-four patients (46%) showed either little or no tumor regression: radical surgery was performed in 14 cases (10%) and high dose boost curietherapy (37 Gy) in the 50 (36%) remaining patients who refused mastectomy. Breast conservation in good condition was thus obtained in 74 patients (54%). Sufficient tumor regression to allow secondary tumorectomy was more often observed in T2 than in T3, in poorly differentiated tumors or mucinous type, and in tumor with well defined mammographic aspects. Actuarial 5-year local control and disease-free survival rates after limited surgery were, respectively, 90% and 73%. No particular complications were observed after secondary tumorectomy. This therapeutic approach is encouraging in patients with large T2 and T3 breast tumors, but a longer follow-up is required to assess definitive conclusions.

Calitchi, E.; Otmezguine, Y.; Feuilhade, F.; Piedbois, P.; Pavlovitch, J.M.; Brun, B.; Mazeron, J.J.; Le Bourgeois, J.P.; Julien, M.; Pierquin, B. (Department of radiotherapy, Hopital Henri Mondor, Creteil (France))

1991-07-01

11

Par Pond water balance  

SciTech Connect

A water budget for the Par Pond hydrologic system was established in order to estimate the rate of groundwater influx to Par Pond. This estimate will be used in modeling exercises to predict Par Pond reservoir elevation and spillway discharge in the scenario where Savannah River water is no longer pumped and discharged into Par Pond. The principal of conservation of mass was used to develop the water budget, where water inflow was set equal to water outflow. Components of the water budget were identified, and the flux associated with each was determined. The water budget was considered balanced when inflow and outflow summed to zero. The results of this study suggest that Par Pond gains water from the groundwater system in the upper reaches of the reservoir, but looses water to the groundwater system near the dam. The rate of flux of groundwater from the water table aquifer into Par Pond was determined to be 13 cfs. The rate of flux from Par Pond to the water table aquifer near the dam was determined to be 7 cfs.

Hiergesell, R.A.; Dixon, K.L.

1996-06-01

12

Perioperative interstitial irradiation in the conservative management of early breast cancer  

SciTech Connect

Conservation of the breast in early breast cancer with limited resection and radiation is proving to be as effective as modified radical mastectomy in survival and in loco-regional control. Management at the University of Kansas Medical Center consists of an interstitial implant at the time of lumpectomy to facilitate perioperative irradiation with Iridium-192 to the tumor bed. An axillary node dissection is also performed at that time. Two to 3 weeks later external beam irradiation is delivered to the entire breast. One hundred and twenty-three breasts in 120 patients have been treated between June 1982 and June 1986. There were 49 pathological Stage I, 63 Stage II, 8 Stage III carcinomas, and 3 carcinomas in situ, consisting of 72 T1, 43 T2, 5 T3, and 3 TIS lesions. Patients have been followed for a median of 30 months. One patient had a ''true'' recurrence in the breast. Another patient developed recurrence in a different quadrant. Ninety percent of the patients had good to excellent cosmetic results, 7% were considered fair, and 3% had poor results. Seven patients developed mild arm edema, 4 were found to have moderate edema, and 1 had severe arm edema. Our preliminary results indicate that interstitial irradiation immediately after excision results in excellent local control, with very satisfactory cosmesis and no morbidity due to the simultaneous excision and irradiation.

Krishnan, L.; Jewell, W.R.; Mansfield, C.M.; Reddy, E.K.; Thomas, J.H.; Krishnan, E.C.

1987-11-01

13

Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

14

A Study of the Irradiation of Bacterial Spores By a Combined Gamma Irradiation-Heat Treatment in Different Leguminous Media; ETUDE DE L'IRRADIATION DES SPORES BACTERIENNES PAR UN TRAITEMENT COMBINE IRRADIATION GAMMACHALEUR DANS DIFFERENTS MILIEUX DE LEGUMES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combined influence of gamma irradiation and thermal treatment on ihe ; inactivation of Clostridium sporogenes PA 3679 spores was confirmed. The gamma ; irradiation appreciably increases the spore sensitivity to heat. The effect of ; preheating followed by irradiation is less important but is not negligible. The ; spores of this organism are affected in a similar way in

M. De Proost; R. Pierard

1960-01-01

15

Mesure de la durée d'émission X de différents éléments irradies par un laser de puissance subpicoseconde  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Les sources X ultra-brèves créées par laser sont toujours l'objet de recherches fondamentales. La mesure directe de leur durée est maintenant possible avec l'utilisation de caméras à balayage de fente de résolution sub-picoseconde couplées à un cristal de Bragg, apportant une connaissance plus approfondie de la source, tant au niveau de sa durée que de ses caractéristiques spectrales et spatiales. En focalisant un laser 100TW, 300 fs, sur divers éléments (Al, Se, Sm), nous avons mesuré la durée de l'émission X dans la gamme 0.7 0.8nm. L'émission X dure moins de 10ps, pour les trois éléments étudiés.

Chenais-Popovics, C.; Dorchies, F.; Audebert, P.; Nagels, V.; Geindre, J. P.; Gauthier, J. C.; Peyrusse, O.; Gary, S.; Girard, F.

2003-06-01

16

Prone accelerated partial breast irradiation after breast-conserving surgery: Preliminary clinical results and dose–volume histogram analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo report the clinical and dose–volume histogram results of the first 47 patients accrued to a protocol of accelerated partial breast irradiation. Patients were treated in the prone position with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery.

Silvia C. Formenti; Minh Tam Truong; Judith D. Goldberg; Vandana Mukhi; Barry Rosenstein; Daniel Roses; Richard Shapiro; Amber Guth; J. Keith Dewyngaert

2004-01-01

17

Cutaneous CD30-positive epithelioid angiosarcoma following breast-conserving therapy and irradiation: a potential diagnostic pitfall.  

PubMed

A case of cutaneous epithelioid angiosarcoma with anomalous CD30 expression, occurring after breast-conserving surgery and adjuvant irradiation, is reported. This seems to be the first such case reported. The differential diagnosis of CD30 epithelioid angiosarcoma is discussed. PMID:18645308

Weed, Brent R; Folpe, Andrew L

2008-08-01

18

Carcinomes épidermoïdes du col utérin opérables de stades IB et II de gros volume traités par irradiation première et chirurgie  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. – To identify prognostic factors and treatment toxicity in a series of operable bulky stages I and II cervical carcinomas treated with a therapeutic modality combining primary irradiation and surgery.Patients and methods. – Between July 1982 and May 1996, 66 patients with bulky squamous-cell cervical carcinomas (stages IB2, IIA, and IIB with 1\\/3 proximal parametrial invasion) underwent primary external beam pelvic

A Bernard; E Touboul; J. P Lefranc; E Deniaud-Alexandre; C Genestie; S Uzan; J Blondon

2002-01-01

19

Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR)-mediated regulation of WNT/?-catenin signaling is enhanced in irradiated medulloblastoma cells.  

PubMed

Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is known to promote invasion, migration, and metastasis in cancer cells. In this report, we showed that ionizing radiation (IR)-induced uPAR has a role in WNT-?-catenin signaling and mediates induction of cancer stem cell (CSC)-like properties in medulloblastoma cell lines UW228 and D283. We observed that IR induced the expression of uPAR and CSC markers, such as Musashi-1 and CD44, and activated WNT-7a-?-catenin signaling molecules. Overexpression of uPAR alone or with IR treatment led to increased WNT-7a-?-catenin-TCF/LEF-mediated transactivation, thereby promoting cancer stemness. In contrast, treatment with shRNA specific for uPAR (pU) suppressed WNT-7a-?-catenin-TCF/LEF-mediated transactivation both in vitro and in vivo. Quercetin, a potent WNT/?-catenin inhibitor, suppressed uPAR and uPAR-mediated WNT/?-catenin activation, and furthermore, addition of recombinant human WNT-7a protein induced uPAR, indicating the existence of a mutual regulatory relationship between uPAR and WNT/?-catenin signaling. We showed that uPAR was physically associated with the WNT effector molecule ?-catenin on the membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus of IR-treated cells and CSC. Most interestingly, we demonstrated for the first time that localization of uPAR in the nucleus was associated with transcription factors (TF) and their specific response elements. We observed from uPAR-ChIP, TF protein, and protein/DNA array analyses that uPAR associates with activating enhancer-binding protein 2? (AP2a) and mediates ?-catenin gene transcription. Moreover, association of uPAR with the ?-catenin·TCF/LEF complex and various other TF involved during embryonic development and cancer indicates that uPAR is a potent activator of stemness, and targeting of uPAR in combination with radiation has significant therapeutic implications. PMID:22511755

Asuthkar, Swapna; Gondi, Christopher S; Nalla, Arun Kumar; Velpula, Kiran Kumar; Gorantla, Bharathi; Rao, Jasti S

2012-06-01

20

Urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator Receptor (uPAR)-mediated Regulation of WNT/?-Catenin Signaling Is Enhanced in Irradiated Medulloblastoma Cells*  

PubMed Central

Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is known to promote invasion, migration, and metastasis in cancer cells. In this report, we showed that ionizing radiation (IR)-induced uPAR has a role in WNT-?-catenin signaling and mediates induction of cancer stem cell (CSC)-like properties in medulloblastoma cell lines UW228 and D283. We observed that IR induced the expression of uPAR and CSC markers, such as Musashi-1 and CD44, and activated WNT-7a-?-catenin signaling molecules. Overexpression of uPAR alone or with IR treatment led to increased WNT-7a-?-catenin-TCF/LEF-mediated transactivation, thereby promoting cancer stemness. In contrast, treatment with shRNA specific for uPAR (pU) suppressed WNT-7a-?-catenin-TCF/LEF-mediated transactivation both in vitro and in vivo. Quercetin, a potent WNT/?-catenin inhibitor, suppressed uPAR and uPAR-mediated WNT/?-catenin activation, and furthermore, addition of recombinant human WNT-7a protein induced uPAR, indicating the existence of a mutual regulatory relationship between uPAR and WNT/?-catenin signaling. We showed that uPAR was physically associated with the WNT effector molecule ?-catenin on the membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus of IR-treated cells and CSC. Most interestingly, we demonstrated for the first time that localization of uPAR in the nucleus was associated with transcription factors (TF) and their specific response elements. We observed from uPAR-ChIP, TF protein, and protein/DNA array analyses that uPAR associates with activating enhancer-binding protein 2? (AP2a) and mediates ?-catenin gene transcription. Moreover, association of uPAR with the ?-catenin·TCF/LEF complex and various other TF involved during embryonic development and cancer indicates that uPAR is a potent activator of stemness, and targeting of uPAR in combination with radiation has significant therapeutic implications.

Asuthkar, Swapna; Gondi, Christopher S.; Nalla, Arun Kumar; Velpula, Kiran Kumar; Gorantla, Bharathi; Rao, Jasti S.

2012-01-01

21

Atypical Protein Kinase C Is Involved in the Evolutionarily Conserved Par Protein Complex and Plays a Critical Role in Establishing Epithelia-Specific Junctional Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously shown that during early Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis PKC-3, a C. elegans atypical PKC (aPKC), plays critical roles in the establishment of cell polarity required for subse- quent asymmetric cleavage by interacting with PAR-3 (Tabuse, Y., Y. Izumi, F. Piano, K.J. Kemphues, J. Miwa, and S. Ohno. 1998. Development (Camb.). 125:3607- 3614). Together with the fact that aPKC

Atsushi Suzuki; Tomoyuki Yamanaka; Tomonori Hirose; Naoyuki Manabe; Keiko Mizuno; Miki Shimizu; Kazunori Akimoto; Yasushi Izumi; Tetsuo Ohnishi; Shigeo Ohno

2001-01-01

22

Partial breast irradiation as second conservative treatment for local breast cancer recurrence  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Mastectomy is the treatment of reference for local relapse after breast cancer (BC). The aim of this study was to document the feasibility and the results of associating lumpectomy with partial breast irradiation by interstitial brachytherapy (IB) as local treatment for an isolated ipsilateral BC local recurrence (LR). Methods and materials: Between 1975 and 1996 at Marseille and Nice Cancer Institutes, 4026 patients received lumpectomy and radiotherapy (RT) (50-80 Gy) for a localized breast cancer of which 473 presented a LR. Among these patients, 69 (14.6%) received a second lumpectomy followed by IB, which delivered 30 Gy (Nice, n = 24) or 45-50 Gy (Marseille, n = 45) with 3 to 8 {sup 192}Ir wires in 1 or 2 planes on the 85% isodose. Results: Median age at LR was 58.2 years, median follow-up since primary BC was 10 years, and median follow-up after the second conservative treatment was 50.2 months (range, 2-139 months). Immediate tolerance was good in all cases. Grade 2 to 3 long-term complications (LTC) according to IB dose were 0%, 28%, and 32%, respectively, for 30 Gy, 45 to 46 Gy, and 50 Gy (p 0.01). Grade 2 to 3 LTC according to total dose were 4% and 30%, respectively, for total doses (initial RT plus IB) {<=} 100 Gy or >100 Gy (p = 0.008). Logistic regression showed that the only factor associated with Grade 2 to 3 complications was higher IB doses (p = 0.01). We noted 11 second LRs (LR2), 10 distant metastases (DM), and 5 specific deaths. LR2 occurred either in the tumor bed (50.8%) or close to the tumor bed (34.3%) or in another quadrant (14.9%). Kaplan-Meier 5-year freedom from (FF) LR2 (FFLR2), FFDM, and DFS were 77.4%, 86.7%, and 68.9%, respectively. Overall 5-year survival (OS) was 91.8%. Univariate analysis showed the following factors associated with a higher FFLR2: (1) number of wires used for IB (3-4 vs. 5-8 wires, p = 0.006), (2) IB doses (30-45 Gy vs. 46-60 Gy, p = 0.05), (3) number of planes (1 vs. 2, p = 0.05), (4) interval between primary breast cancer and LR (< 36 months vs. {>=}36 months, p = 0.06). Multivariate analysis showed two factors associated with better local control: (1) number of wires (5-8 wires, p = 0.013) and (2) interval between primary breast cancer and LR {>=}36 months (p = 0.039). The multivariate analysis showed two factors associated with better FFDM: (1) absence of initial axilla involvement (p 0.019) and (2) relapse in a different location (p = 0.04). These two factors were also associated with a higher OS. Conclusion: Our experience showed that second conservative treatments for local relapse were feasible and gave results comparable to standard mastectomy. We recommend delivering IB doses of at least 46 Gy in 2 planes when initial radiotherapy delivered 50 Gy. The study gives enough information to encourage a Phase III trial that compares radical mastectomy to conservative procedures for localized breast cancer recurrences.

Hannoun-Levi, Jean-Michel [Department of Radiation Oncology and Surgery, A. Lacassagne Cancer Center, Nice (France)]. E-mail: jean-michel.hannoun-levi@fccc.edu; Houvenaeghel, Gilles [Department of Surgery, Paoli-Calmettes Cancer Center, Marseilles (France); Department of Radiation Oncology, Paoli-Calmettes Cancer Center, Marseilles (France); Ellis, Steve [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hopital La Timone, Marseilles (France); Teissier, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology, Clinique du Meridien, Cannes (France); Alzieu, Claude [Department of Surgery, Paoli-Calmettes Cancer Center, Marseilles (France); Department of Radiation Oncology, Paoli-Calmettes Cancer Center, Marseilles (France); Lallement, Michel [Department of Radiation Oncology and Surgery, A. Lacassagne Cancer Center, Nice (France); Department of Radiation Oncology, Hopital La Timone, Marseilles (France); Cowen, Didier [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hopital La Timone, Marseilles (France)

2004-12-01

23

Partial breast irradiation as second conservative treatment for local breast cancer recurrence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Mastectomy is the treatment of reference for local relapse after breast cancer (BC). The aim of this study was to document the feasibility and the results of associating lumpectomy with partial breast irradiation by interstitial brachytherapy (IB) as local treatment for an isolated ipsilateral BC local recurrence (LR). Methods and materials: Between 1975 and 1996 at Marseille and Nice

Jean-Michel. Hannoun-Levi; Gilles Houvenaeghel; Steve Ellis; Eric Teissier; Claude Alzieu; Michel Lallement; Didier Cowen

2004-01-01

24

Apoptosis mediated by a novel leucine zipper protein Par-4.  

PubMed

The prostate apoptosis response-4 (par-4) gene was isolated in a differential screen for immediate-early genes that are up-regulated during apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. Unlike most other immediate-early genes, par-4 is exclusively induced during apoptosis. The expression or induction of par-4 is not restricted to prostatic cells. The par-4 gene is widely expressed in diverse normal tissues and cell types and conserved during evolution. Par-4 protein contains a leucine zipper domain that is essential for sensitization of cells to apoptosis. Functional studies indicate that par-4 expression is necessary to induce apoptosis. Par-4 protein may induce apoptosis by a p53-independent pathway that involves cytoplasmic inactivation of atypical protein kinase C isoforms resulting in down-regulation of MAP kinase activity and an up-regulation of p38 kinase activity. However, Par-4 is detected in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus, suggesting both cytoplasmic and nuclear roles for the pro-apoptotic protein. Interestingly, Par-4 is predicted to contain a death domain homologous to that of Fas or TRADD, and may therefore trigger a death cascade analogous to that of the death domain proteins. Par-4-dependent apoptosis is abrogated by Bcl-2 and by caspase inhibitors. Identification of the components of the p53-independent apoptosis pathway induced by Par-4 may help to further elucidate the mechanism of Par-4 action. Moreover, in view of the pro-apoptotic function of Par-4, its role in diseases, such as cancer and neurogenerative disorders, whose pathophysiology involves apoptotic cell death needs further investigation. PMID:14646502

Rangnekar, V M

1998-03-01

25

Calibration of the Odyssey Photosynthetic Irradiance Recorder for Absolute Irradiance Measures  

EPA Science Inventory

Researchers are increasingly interested in measuring hotosynthetically active radiation (PAR) because of its importance in determining the structure and function of lotic ecosystems. The Odyssey Photosynthetic Irradiance Recorder is an affordable PAR meter gaining popularity am...

26

A new model for estimating boreal forest fPAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life on Earth is continuously sustained by the extraterrestrial flux of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) from the sun. This flux is converted to biomass by chloroplasts in green vegetation. Thus, the fraction of absorbed PAR (fPAR) is a key parameter used in carbon balance studies, and is listed as one of the Essential Climate Variables (ECV). Temporal courses of fPAR for boreal forests are difficult to measure, because of the complex 3D structures. Thus, they are most often estimated based on models which quantify the dependency of absorbed radiation on canopy structure. In this study, we adapted a physically-based canopy radiation model into a fPAR model, and compared modeled and measured fPAR in structurally different boreal forest stands. The model is based on the spectral invariants theory, and uses leaf area index (LAI), canopy gap fractions and spectra of foliage and understory as input data. The model differs from previously developed more detailed fPAR models in that the complex 3D structure of coniferous forests is described using an aggregated canopy parameter - photon recollision probability p. The strength of the model is that all model inputs are measurable or available through other simple models. First, the model was validated with measurements of instantaneous fPAR obtained with the TRAC instrument in nine Scots pine, Norway spruce and Silver birch stands in a boreal forest in southern Finland. Good agreement was found between modeled and measured fPAR. Next, we applied the model to predict temporal courses of fPAR using data on incoming radiation from a nearby flux tower and sky irradiance models. Application of the model to simulate diurnal and seasonal values of fPAR indicated that the ratio of direct-to-total incident radiation and leaf area index are the key factors behind the magnitude and variation of stand-level fPAR values.

Majasalmi, Titta; Rautiainen, Miina; Stenberg, Pauline

2014-05-01

27

Developmental Role of Zebrafish Protease-Activated Receptor 1 (PAR1) in the Cardio-Vascular System  

PubMed Central

Thrombin receptor, F2R or PAR1 is a G-protein coupled receptor, located in the membrane of endothelial cells. It has been initially found to transduce signals in hemostasis, but recently also known to act in cancer and in vascular development. Mouse embryos lacking PAR1 function die from hemorrhages with varying frequency at midgestation. We have performed a survey of potential PAR1 homologs in the zebrafish genome and identified a teleost ortholog of mammalian PAR1. Knockdown of par1 function in zebrafish embryos demonstrates a requirement for Par1 in cardio-vascular development. Furthermore, we show that function of Par1 requires the presence of a phylogenetically conserved proteolytic cleavage site and a second intracellular domain. Altogether our results demonstrate a high degree of conservation of PAR1 proteins in the vertebrate lineage in respect to amino acid sequence as well as protein function.

Bouzaffour, Mohamed; Dufourcq, Pascale; Trayer, Vincent; Gauron, Carole; Vriz, Sophie; Affolter, Markus; Rampon, Christine

2012-01-01

28

Breast-Conserving Treatment With Partial or Whole Breast Irradiation for Low-Risk Invasive Breast Carcinoma-5-Year Results of a Randomized Trial  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report the 5-year results of a randomized study comparing the survival and cosmetic results of breast-conserving treatment with partial breast irradiation (PBI) or conventional whole breast irradiation (WBI). Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2004, 258 selected patients with T1 N0-1mi, Grade 1-2, nonlobular breast cancer without presence of extensive intraductal component and resected with negative margins were randomized after breast-conserving surgery to receive 50 Gy/25 fractions WBI (n = 130) or PBI (n = 128). The latter consisted of either 7 x 5.2 Gy high-dose-rate (HDR) multicatheter brachytherapy (BT; n = 88) or 50 Gy/25 fractions electron beam (EB) irradiation (n = 40). Results: At a median follow-up of 66 months, the 5-year actuarial rate of local recurrence was 4.7% and 3.4% in the PBI and WBI arms, respectively (p = 0.50). There was no significant difference in the 5-year probability of overall survival (94.6% vs. 91.8%), cancer-specific survival (98.3% vs. 96.0%), and disease-free survival (88.3% vs. 90.3%). The rate of excellent to good cosmetic result was 77.6% in the PBI group (81.2% after HDR BT; 70.0% after EB) and 62.9% in the control group (52.2% after telecobalt; 65.6% after 6-9-MV photons; p{sub WBI/PBI} = 0.009). Conclusions: Partial breast irradiation using interstitial HDR implants or EB to deliver radiation to the tumor bed alone for a selected group of early-stage breast cancer patients produces 5-year results similar to those achieved with conventional WBI. Significantly better cosmetic outcome can be achieved with carefully designed HDR multicatheter implants compared with the outcome after WBI.

Polgar, Csaba [Department of Radiotherapy, National Institute of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary)], E-mail: polgar@oncol.hu; Fodor, Janos; Major, Tibor; Nemeth, Gyoergy; Loevey, Katalin [Department of Radiotherapy, National Institute of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary); Orosz, Zsolt [Department of Human and Experimental Tumor Pathology, National Institute of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary); Sulyok, Zoltan [Department of General and Thoracic Surgery, National Institute of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary); Takacsi-Nagy, Zoltan; Kasler, Miklos [Department of Radiotherapy, National Institute of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary)

2007-11-01

29

THE MEASURES PAR PROJECT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solar energy available for photosynthesis, known as PAR, controls the growth of phytoplankton and, therefore, regulates the composition and evolution of marine ecosystems. Knowing the spatial and temporal distribution of PAR over the oceans is critical to understanding biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nutrients, and oxygen, and to address important climate and global change issues such as the fate of anthropogenic atmospheric carbon dioxide. In view of this, a 12-year time series of PAR at the ocean surface, starting in September 1997, is being produced by the NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group from SeaWiFS, MODIS-Terra, and MODIS-Aqua data. The product covers the global oceans, with a spatial resolution of about 9.3x9.3 km (equal area grid) and a temporal resolution of one day. PAR is computed as the difference between the 400-700 nm solar flux incident on the top of the atmosphere (known) and reflected back to space by the atmosphere and surface (derived from satellite radiance), taking into account atmospheric absorption (modeled). Knowledge of pixel composition is not required, eliminating the need for cloud screening and arbitrary assumptions about sub-pixel cloudiness. Combining data from satellite sensors with different equatorial crossing times accounts for the diurnal variability of clouds and, therefore, increases accuracy on a daily time scale. The processing system, including routine check of accuracy and control of quality, is designed to operate during the entire lifetime of SeaWiFS and MODIS, and to accommodate future sensors with ocean-color capabilities. Maps of daily, weekly, and monthly PAR obtained from individual sensors are presented, as well as merged products. Accuracy is quantified in comparisons with other satellite estimates, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction reanalysis product, and in-situ measurements from fixed buoys and platforms. The good statistical performance makes the satellite PAR product suitable for large-scale studies of aquatic photosynthesis.

Frouin, R. J.; Franz, B.

2009-12-01

30

Bacterial DNA segregation dynamics mediated by the polymerizing protein ParF  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prokaryotic DNA segregation most commonly involves members of the Walker-type ParA superfamily. Here we show that the ParF partition protein specified by the TP228 plasmid is a ParA ATPase that assembles into extensive filaments in vitro. Polymerization is potentiated by ATP binding and does not require nucleotide hydrolysis. Analysis of mutations in conserved residues of the Walker A motif established

Daniela Barillà; Mark F Rosenberg; Ulf Nobbmann; Finbarr Hayes

2005-01-01

31

The influence of the use of CT-planning on the irradiated boost volume in breast conserving treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and purposeThe purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of CT-based delineation and planning on the irradiated boost volume. For this specific purpose we used the data as derived from 2 prospective phase III randomised trials.

Shafak Al Uwini; Ninja Antonini; Philip M. Poortmans; Liesbeth Boersma; Coen Hurkmans; Jan Willem Leer; Jean-Claude Horiot; Henk Struikmans; Harry Bartelink

2009-01-01

32

Spondylolisthésis par lyse isthmique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spondylolisthesis refers to a permanent forward slippage of the vertebral body, in most cases L5, more rarely L4 or higher lumbar vertebrae. Spondylolisthesis by isthmic spondylolysis or fractures of the pars interarticularis - acquired most of the time by repeated microtrauma during childhood – differ from congenital spondylolisthesis in which developmental abnormalities of the posterior arch are often associated to

J.-M. Vital; M. Pedram

2005-01-01

33

Roles of PAR1 and PAR2 in viral myocarditis.  

PubMed

Viral myocarditis is estimated to cause ~20% of sudden death in people under the age of 40. A variety of viruses have been found to cause myocarditis including coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3). Many studies have been performed with CVB3 because there is a mouse model of CVB3-induced myocarditis. Studies have shown that the TLR3-IFN? pathway plays a central role in the innate immune response to CVB3 infection. Our laboratory studies the role of protease activated receptors (PAR) in different biological responses including viral infection. We examined the effect of a deficiency in either PAR1 or PAR2 on CVB3-induced myocarditis. Interestingly, we found that PAR1 knockout mice had increased cardiac injury whereas PAR2 knockout mice had decreased cardiac injury. Our studies support the notion that PARs modulate the innate immune response and can have both positive and negative effects on TLR-dependent responses. PMID:24759133

Mackman, Nigel; Antoniak, Silvio

2014-05-01

34

Brulures par Diluant  

PubMed Central

Summary La flamme de diluant est une cause non rare de brûlure dans le contexte marocain. Nous avons jugé intéressant de faire une étude épidémiologique sur la brûlure par flamme de diluant (BFD) au centre national des brûlés (CNB) du CHU Ibn-Rochd de Casablanca. Ce travail a été réalisé sur une période de 10 mois (septembre 2007/juin 2008). Le but du travail est de montrer les caractéristiques de ce type de brûlures pour les prévenir et ce par l'information sur le diluant, produit causant ces brûlures, et ses différents dangers, la brûlure notamment. Durant cette période, nous avons colligé 17 cas de BFD sur un total de 356 patients admis au CNB pour brûlures aiguës toute étiologie confondue. La moyenne d'age des patients concernés est de 32 ans. Ils sont presque tous de sexe masculin (16 hommes/1 femme) et ont des antécédents de toxicomanie et/ou de délinquance. Tous nos patients sont de bas niveau socio-économique et habitent dans des bidonvilles pour la plupart. La brûlure est souvent secondaire à une agression dans la rue (92% des cas). Concernant les caractéristiques de la brûlure, la surface cutanée brûlée moyenne est de 23%; elle est souvent profonde et siège surtout au niveau des membres supérieurs et du tronc.

Benbrahim, A.; Jerrah, H.; Diouri, M.; Bahechar, N.; Boukind, E.H.

2009-01-01

35

Par-1 Regulates Tissue Growth by Influencing Hippo Phosphorylation Status and Hippo-Salvador Association  

PubMed Central

The evolutionarily conserved Hippo (Hpo) signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in organ size control by balancing cell proliferation and cell death. Here, we reported the identification of Par-1 as a regulator of the Hpo signaling pathway using a gain-of-function EP screen in Drosophila melanogaster. Overexpression of Par-1 elevated Yorkie activity, resulting in increased Hpo target gene expression and tissue overgrowth, while loss of Par-1 diminished Hpo target gene expression and reduced organ size. We demonstrated that par-1 functioned downstream of fat and expanded and upstream of hpo and salvador (sav). In addition, we also found that Par-1 physically interacted with Hpo and Sav and regulated the phosphorylation of Hpo at Ser30 to restrict its activity. Par-1 also inhibited the association of Hpo and Sav, resulting in Sav dephosphorylation and destabilization. Furthermore, we provided evidence that Par-1-induced Hpo regulation is conserved in mammalian cells. Taken together, our findings identified Par-1 as a novel component of the Hpo signaling network.

Yin, Meng-Xin; Dong, Liang; Wang, Chao; Wu, Wei; Lu, Yi; Feng, Miao; Dai, Chuanyang; Guo, Xiaocan; Li, Li; Zhao, Bin; Zhou, Zhaocai; Ji, Hongbin; Jiang, Jin; Zhao, Yun; Liu, Xin-Yuan; Zhang, Lei

2013-01-01

36

Transactivation of the PAR1-PAR2 Heterodimer by Thrombin Elicits ?-Arrestin-mediated Endosomal Signaling*  

PubMed Central

Thrombin cleaves the N terminus of PAR1, generating a new N-terminal domain that functions as a tethered ligand that binds intermolecularly to activate PAR2 in trans. The mechanisms that regulate PAR1-PAR2 heterodimer signaling and trafficking are not known. We now report that PAR1 and PAR2 form a heterodimer that exhibits unique trafficking and signaling behaviors compared with receptor protomers. Using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, immunofluorescence microscopy, co-immunoprecipitation, and cells expressing receptors exogenously and endogenously, we show that PAR1 and PAR2 specifically interact and form stable dimers. Intriguingly, the PAR1-PAR2 heterodimer displays constitutive internalization that is driven by PAR1 C-terminal tail sorting motifs and is a process that enhances dimer formation. Upon thrombin activation, PAR1-PAR2 dimers co-internalize and recruit ?-arrestins to endosomes. Remarkably, PAR1-PAR2 heterodimers appear to utilize a distinct interface for ?-arrestin interaction compared with receptor protomers. Moreover, thrombin-activated PAR1-PAR2 heterodimers enhance ?-arrestin-mediated ERK1/2 activation in the cytoplasm, whereas activated ERK1/2 induced by the thrombin-activated PAR1 protomer redistributes to the nucleus. Thus, the formation of PAR1-PAR2 heterodimers provides additional modes of thrombin-stimulated signaling responses that appear to be distinctly regulated compared with the receptor protomer.

Lin, Huilan; Trejo, JoAnn

2013-01-01

37

Protease-activated receptor-3 (PAR3) regulates PAR1 signaling by receptor dimerization  

PubMed Central

Thrombin activates endothelial cell signaling by cleaving the protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1). However, the function of the apparently nonsignaling receptor PAR3 also expressed in endothelial cells is unknown. We demonstrate here the crucial role of PAR3 in potentiating the responsiveness of PAR1 to thrombin. We tested the hypothesis that PAR1/PAR3 heterodimerization and its effect in modifying G protein selectivity was responsible for PAR3 regulation of PAR1 sensitivity. Using bioluminescent resonance energy transfer-2, we showed that PAR1 had comparable dimerization affinity for PAR3 as for itself. We observed increased G?13 coupling between the PAR1/3 heterodimer compared with the PAR1/1 homodimer. Moreover, knockdown of PAR3 moderated the PAR1-activated increase in endothelial permeability. These results demonstrate a role of PAR3 in allosterically regulating PAR1 signaling governing increased endothelial permeability. Because PAR3 is a critical determinant of PAR1 function, targeting of PAR3 may mitigate the effects of PAR1 in activating endothelial responses such as vascular inflammation.

McLaughlin, Joseph N.; Patterson, Myla M.; Malik, Asrar B.

2007-01-01

38

Par Pond vegetation status 1996  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995, and into the early spring and late summer of 1996. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities continue to become re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, watershield, and Pontederia are extensive and well developed. Measures of percent cover, width of beds, and estimates of area of coverage with satellite data indicate regrowth within two years of from 40 to 60% of levels prior to the draw down. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer of 1996, especially in the former warm arm of Par Pond, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the draw down still have not formed. Lotus has invaded and occupies many of the areas formerly dominated by cattail beds. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys through the summer and early fall of 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1996-12-01

39

Evidence for a DNA-relay mechanism in ParABS-mediated chromosome segregation  

PubMed Central

The widely conserved ParABS system plays a major role in bacterial chromosome segregation. How the components of this system work together to generate translocation force and directional motion remains uncertain. Here, we combine biochemical approaches, quantitative imaging and mathematical modeling to examine the mechanism by which ParA drives the translocation of the ParB/parS partition complex in Caulobacter crescentus. Our experiments, together with simulations grounded on experimentally-determined biochemical and cellular parameters, suggest a novel 'DNA-relay' mechanism in which the chromosome plays a mechanical function. In this model, DNA-bound ParA-ATP dimers serve as transient tethers that harness the elastic dynamics of the chromosome to relay the partition complex from one DNA region to another across a ParA-ATP dimer gradient. Since ParA-like proteins are implicated in the partitioning of various cytoplasmic cargos, the conservation of their DNA-binding activity suggests that the DNA-relay mechanism may be a general form of intracellular transport in bacteria. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02758.001

Lim, Hoong Chuin; Surovtsev, Ivan Vladimirovich; Beltran, Bruno Gabriel; Huang, Fang; Bewersdorf, Jorg; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine

2014-01-01

40

The polarity protein Par6 is coupled to the microtubule network during molluscan early embryogenesis  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} The cDNAs encoding Par6 and aPKC homologues were cloned from the snail Lymnaea stagnalis. {yields} L. stagnalis Par6 directly interacts with tubulin and microtubules and localizes to the microtubule cytoskeleton during the early embryogenesis. {yields} Identical sequence and localization of LsPar6 for the dextral and the sinistral snails exclude the possibility of the gene being the primary determinant of body handedness. -- Abstract: Cell polarity, which directs the orientation of asymmetric cell division and segregation of fate determinants, is a fundamental feature of development and differentiation. Regulators of polarity have been extensively studied, and the critical importance of the Par (partitioning-defective) complex as the polarity machinery is now recognized in a wide range of eukaryotic systems. The Par polarity module is evolutionarily conserved, but its mechanism and cooperating factors vary among different systems. Here we describe the cloning and characterization of a pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis homologue of partitioning-defective 6 (Lspar6). The protein product LsPar6 shows high affinity for microtubules and localizes to the mitotic apparatus during embryonic cell division. In vitro assays revealed direct binding of LsPar6 to tubulin and microtubules, which is the first evidence of the direct interaction between the two proteins. The interaction is mediated by two distinct regions of LsPar6 both located in the N-terminal half. Atypical PKC, a functional partner of Par6, was also found to localize to the mitotic spindle. These results suggest that the L. stagnalis Par complex employs the microtubule network in cell polarity processes during the early embryogenesis. Identical sequence and localization of LsPar6 for the dextral and the sinistral snails exclude the possibility of the gene being the primary determinant of handedness.

Homma, Taihei [Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)] [Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Shimizu, Miho [Kuroda Chiromorphology Team, ERATO-SORST, JST, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan)] [Kuroda Chiromorphology Team, ERATO-SORST, JST, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Kuroda, Reiko, E-mail: ckuroda@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan) [Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kuroda Chiromorphology Team, ERATO-SORST, JST, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan)

2011-01-07

41

Par6 regulates skeletogenesis and gut differentiation in sea urchin larvae.  

PubMed

Partitioning-defective (par) genes were originally identified as genes that are essential for the asymmetric division of the Caenorhabditis elegans zygote. Studies have since revealed that the gene products are part of an evolutionarily conserved PAR-atypical protein kinase C system involved in cell polarity in various biological contexts. In this study, we analyzed the function of par6 during sea urchin morphogenesis by morpholino-mediated knockdown and by manipulation swapping of the primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs). Loss of Par6 resulted in defects in skeletogenesis and gut differentiation in larvae. Phenotypic analyses of chimeras constructed by PMC swapping showed that Par6 in non-PMCs is required for differentiation of archenteron into functional gut. In contrast, Par6 in both PMCs and ectodermal cells cooperatively regulates skeletogenesis. We suggest that Par6 in PMCs plays an immediate role in the deposition of biomineral in the syncytial cable, whereas Par6 in ectoderm may stabilize skeletal rods via an unknown signal(s). PMID:22903233

Shiomi, Kosuke; Yamazaki, Atsuko; Kagawa, Mitsuyoshi; Kiyomoto, Masato; Yamaguchi, Masaaki

2012-09-01

42

Par3 controls neural crest migration by promoting microtubule catastrophe during contact inhibition of locomotion  

PubMed Central

There is growing evidence that contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL) is essential for morphogenesis and its failure is thought to be responsible for cancer invasion; however, the molecular bases of this phenomenon are poorly understood. Here we investigate the role of the polarity protein Par3 in CIL during migration of the neural crest, a highly migratory mesenchymal cell type. In epithelial cells, Par3 is localised to the cell-cell adhesion complex and is important in the definition of apicobasal polarity, but the localisation and function of Par3 in mesenchymal cells are not well characterised. We show in Xenopus and zebrafish that Par3 is localised to the cell-cell contact in neural crest cells and is essential for CIL. We demonstrate that the dynamics of microtubules are different in different parts of the cell, with an increase in microtubule catastrophe at the collision site during CIL. Par3 loss-of-function affects neural crest migration by reducing microtubule catastrophe at the site of cell-cell contact and abrogating CIL. Furthermore, Par3 promotes microtubule catastrophe by inhibiting the Rac-GEF Trio, as double inhibition of Par3 and Trio restores microtubule catastrophe at the cell contact and rescues CIL and neural crest migration. Our results demonstrate a novel role of Par3 during neural crest migration, which is likely to be conserved in other processes that involve CIL such as cancer invasion or cell dispersion.

Moore, Rachel; Theveneau, Eric; Pozzi, Sara; Alexandre, Paula; Richardson, Joanna; Merks, Anne; Parsons, Maddy; Kashef, Jubin; Linker, Claudia; Mayor, Roberto

2013-01-01

43

Isolation and characterization of par1(+) and par2(+): two Schizosaccharomyces pombe genes encoding B' subunits of protein phosphatase 2A.  

PubMed Central

Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is one of the major serine/threonine phosphatases found in eukaryotic cells. We cloned two genes, par1(+) and par2(+), encoding distinct B' subunits of PP2A in fission yeast. They share 52% identity at the amino acid sequence level. Neither gene is essential but together they are required for normal septum positioning and cytokinesis, for growth at both high and low temperature, and for growth under a number of stressful conditions. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that Par2p has a cell-cycle-related localization pattern, being localized at cell ends during interphase and forming a medial ring in cells that are undergoing septation and cytokinesis. Our analyses also indicate that Par1p is more abundant than Par2p in the cell. Cross-organism studies showed that both par1(+) and par2(+) could complement the rts1Delta allele in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, albeit to different extents, in spite of the fact that neither contains a serine/threonine-rich N-terminal domain like that found in the S. cerevisiae homolog Rts1p. Thus, while Schizosaccharomyces pombe is more similar to higher eukaryotes with respect to its complement of B'-encoding genes, the function of those proteins is conserved relative to that of Rts1p.

Jiang, W; Hallberg, R L

2000-01-01

44

Conservation physiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation biologists increasingly face the need to provide legislators, courts and conservation managers with data on causal mechanisms underlying conservation problems such as species decline. To develop and monitor solutions, conservation biologists are progressively using more techniques that are physiological. Here, we review the emerging discipline of conservation physiology and suggest that, for conservation strategies to be successful, it is

Martin Wikelski; Steven J. Cooke

2006-01-01

45

Uncoupling of Nucleotide Hydrolysis and Polymerization in the ParA Protein Superfamily Disrupts DNA Segregation Dynamics*  

PubMed Central

DNA segregation in bacteria is mediated most frequently by proteins of the ParA superfamily that transport DNA molecules attached via the segrosome nucleoprotein complex. Segregation is governed by a cycle of ATP-induced polymerization and subsequent depolymerization of the ParA factor. Here, we establish that hyperactive ATPase variants of the ParA homolog ParF display altered segrosome dynamics that block accurate DNA segregation. An arginine finger-like motif in the ParG centromere-binding factor augments ParF ATPase activity but is ineffective in stimulating nucleotide hydrolysis by the hyperactive proteins. Moreover, whereas polymerization of wild-type ParF is accelerated by ATP and inhibited by ADP, filamentation of the mutated proteins is blocked indiscriminately by nucleotides. The mutations affect a triplet of conserved residues that are situated neither in canonical nucleotide binding and hydrolysis motifs in the ParF tertiary structure nor at interfaces implicated in ParF polymerization. Instead the residues are involved in shaping the contours of the binding pocket so that nucleotide binding locks the mutant proteins into a configuration that is refractory to polymerization. Thus, the architecture of the pocket not only is crucial for optimal ATPase kinetics but also plays a key role in the polymerization dynamics of ParA proteins that drive DNA segregation ubiquitously in procaryotes.

Dobruk-Serkowska, Aneta; Caccamo, Marisa; Rodriguez-Castaneda, Fernando; Wu, Meiyi; Bryce, Kerstyn; Ng, Irene; Schumacher, Maria A.; Barilla, Daniela; Hayes, Finbarr

2012-01-01

46

Breast Conservation Surgery: Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast conservation therapy (BCT) has become the preferred treatment for early stage breast cancer in most women. Breast conserving\\u000a therapy is defined as the complete removal of a breast tumor (invasive breast cancer or duct carcinoma in situ) with a surrounding\\u000a margin of normal tissue performed in a cosmetically acceptable manner followed by irradiation therapy (Schwartz et al., 2006). Well-designed

Lloyd A. Mack; Robert L. Lindsay; Walley J. Temple

47

Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond.

Paller, M.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Wike, L.D.

1996-06-01

48

Suppression of uPAR Retards Radiation-Induced Invasion and Migration Mediated by Integrin ?1/FAK Signaling in Medulloblastoma  

PubMed Central

Background Despite effective radiotherapy for the initial stages of cancer, several studies have reported the recurrence of various cancers, including medulloblastoma. Here, we attempt to capitalize on the radiation-induced aggressive behavior of medulloblastoma cells by comparing the extracellular protease activity and the expression pattern of molecules, known to be involved in cell adhesion, migration and invasion, between non-irradiated and irradiated cells. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified an increase in invasion and migration of irradiated compared to non-irradiated medulloblastoma cells. RT-PCR analysis confirmed increased expression of uPA, uPAR, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), N-Cadherin and integrin subunits (e.g., ?3, ?5 and ?1) in irradiated cells. Furthermore, we noticed a ?2-fold increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK in irradiated cells. Immunoprecipitation studies confirmed increased interaction of integrin ?1 and FAK in irradiated cells. In addition, our results show that overexpression of uPAR in cancer cells can mimic radiation-induced activation of FAK signaling. Moreover, by inhibiting FAK phosphorylation, we were able to reduce the radiation-induced invasiveness of the cancer cells. In this vein, we studied the effect of siRNA-mediated knockdown of uPAR on cell migration and adhesion in irradiated and non-irradiated medulloblastoma cells. Downregulation of uPAR reduced the radiation-induced adhesion, migration and invasion of the irradiated cells, primarily by inhibiting phosphorylation of FAK, Paxillin and Rac-1/Cdc42. As observed from the immunoprecipitation studies, uPAR knockdown reduced interaction among the focal adhesion molecules, such as FAK, Paxillin and p130Cas, which are known to play key roles in cancer metastasis. Pretreatment with uPAR shRNA expressing construct reduced uPAR and phospho FAK expression levels in pre-established medulloblastoma in nude mice. Conclusion/Significance Taken together, our results show that radiation enhances uPAR-mediated FAK signaling and by targeting uPAR we can inhibit radiation-activated cell adhesion and migration both in vitro and in vivo.

Nalla, Arun Kumar; Asuthkar, Swapna; Bhoopathi, Praveen; Gujrati, Meena; Dinh, Dzung H.; Rao, Jasti S.

2010-01-01

49

Regulation of Par-4 by oncogenic Ras.  

PubMed

Oncogenic Ras causes down-regulation of the proapoptotic tumor suppressor gene Par-4. Replenishment of the basal levels of Par-4 results in inhibition of Ras-inducible cellular transformation. Moreover, overexpression of Par-4 (twofold to fourfold over basal levels) results in apoptosis of cells expressing oncogenic Ras. Par-4 does not, on its own, induce apoptosis in immortalized or nontransformed cells. This chapter describes the key methods used for analysis of Par-4 down-regulation by oncogenic Ras, which can be extended to study most genes whose down-regulation by oncogenic Ras is critical for oncogenic transformation and cell survival. PMID:16757343

Vasudevan, Krishna Murthi; Ranganathan, Padhma; Rangnekar, Vivek M

2006-01-01

50

Irradiance-induced changes in the photobiology of Halophila johnsonii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endangered seagrass Halophila johnsonii Eiseman, exhibits high-light adapted photophysiology consistent with its distribution in intertidal and shallow subtidal (0–3 m) coastal-lagoon habitats along 200 km of southeastern Florida. To examine the short-term responses of this seagrass to three controlled-irradiance treatments (PAR + UVA + UVB [full spectrum], PAR + UVA, and PAR only), greenhouse-acclimated plants were transferred to outdoor mesocosms during July–August 2002. Chlorophyll fluorescence, UV fluorescence,

J. I. Kunzelman; M. J. Durako; W. J. Kenworthy; A. Stapleton; J. L. C. Wright

2005-01-01

51

Conserving Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will learn what energy is, how energy is used , and how to conserve it What are new ways of protecting the environment to conserve energy? Use your 4- column chart to record information about the questions i ask and you learn about. Begin by seeing what energy isEnergy Quest Tells different ways of conserving energy. List what you learn. What are simple ways to conserve energy everyday? How are vehicle manufactures inventing ways to conserve ...

Y, Mr.

2009-10-21

52

Differences in clinical characteristics of fallopian canal dehiscence associated with pars flaccida and pars tensa cholesteatomas.  

PubMed

This study investigated the difference in clinical characteristics of fallopian canal dehiscence associated with pars flaccida and pars tensa cholesteatomas for the purpose of increasing the preoperative detectability of dehiscence. A total of 189 ears of patients 7-80 years of age (mean 42 years) with pars flaccida cholesteatoma and 63 ears of patients 9-84 years of age (mean 50 years) with pars tensa cholesteatoma were studied. All patients had undergone prior surgical management at our institution from January 2006 to April 2012. The incidence of fallopian canal dehiscence and its location were compared between pars flaccida and pars tensa cholesteatomas. Intraoperative findings of coexistent pathologies, including destruction of the stapes superstructure, labyrinthine fistula, and dural exposure, were compared between the dehiscence and no-dehiscence groups for the two types of cholesteatomas. The incidence of dehiscence was significantly higher in patients with pars tensa cholesteatoma (55.6 %) than in patients with pars flaccida cholesteatoma (26.5 %). Dehiscence located posterior to the cochleariform process occurred slightly more frequently in patients with pars tensa cholesteatoma than in those with pars flaccida cholesteatoma. In patients with pars flaccida cholesteatoma, labyrinthine fistulas and dural exposure were significantly more frequent in the dehiscence group than in the no-dehiscence group. Fallopian canal dehiscence is more frequent in patients with pars tensa cholesteatoma than in those with pars flaccida cholesteatoma. Especially in patients with pars flaccida cholesteatoma, paying special attention to these coexisting pathologies is important to increase preoperative detectability of dehiscence. PMID:24071859

Shinnabe, Akihiro; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Hara, Mariko; Hasegawa, Masayo; Matsuzawa, Shingo; Kanazawa, Hiromi; Yoshida, Naohiro; Iino, Yukiko

2014-08-01

53

Décontamination nucléaire par laser UV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Le développement et l'utilisation de procédés propres pour le nettoyage ou la préparation de surfaces est l'une des priorités du milieu industriel. Cet intérêt est d'autant plus grand dans le domaine du nucléaire pour lequel la réduction des déchets est un axe de recherche important. Un dispositif de décontamination nucléaire par laser UV impulsionnel a été développé et testé. Il est composé. d'un laser à excimères de 1kW, d'un faisceau de fibres optiques et d'un dispositif de récupération des particules. Les essais réalisés en milieu actif ont démontré sa capacité à nettoyer des surfaces métalliques polluées par différents radioéléments avec des facteurs de décontamination généralement supérieurs à 10. Ce dispositif permet de décontaminer de grandes surfaces de géométrie simple en réduisant fortement la génération de déchets secondaires. Il est, à ce jour et dans ces conditions d'utilisations, le procédé de décontamination par voie sèche le plus efficace.

Delaporte, Ph.; Gastaud, M.; Marine, W.; Sentis, M.; Uteza, O.; Thouvenot, P.; Alcaraz, J. L.; Le Samedy, J. M.; Blin, D.

2003-06-01

54

Excimer laser irradiation at 248 nm of wooden archaeological objects and polymeric consolidants used in conservation: a study of cone formation and optimum cleaning parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of a prehistoric consolidated vegetable basketry, coming from an important pile building in the North-East of Italy\\u000a (Fiavé Carrera, Trento), had been irradiated with excimer laser pulses to remove the consolidant layer and restore the artifact.\\u000a Some problems, related to the nature of the consolidant resin, were found in the preliminary laser cleaning process. The two\\u000a main obstacles were

R. Belli; L. Toniutti; A. Miotello; P. Mosaner; D. Avi

2008-01-01

55

PAR for the Course: A Congruent Pedagogical Approach for a PAR Methods Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past two years, three graduate students and a senior faculty member have co-taught a participatory action research (PAR) course to undergraduate and graduate students. In this article the co-teachers advocate a set of pedagogical principles and practices in a PAR-oriented classroom that establishes congruency with community PAR projects in…

Hammond, Joyce D.; Hicks, Maria; Kalman, Rowenn; Miller, Jason

2005-01-01

56

Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation: 5-Year Results of the German-Austrian Multicenter Phase II Trial Using Interstitial Multicatheter Brachytherapy Alone After Breast-Conserving Surgery  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the impact of accelerated partial breast irradiation on local control, side effects, and cosmesis using multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy as the sole method for the adjuvant local treatment of patients with low-risk breast cancer. Methods and Materials: 274 patients with low-risk breast cancer were treated on protocol. Patients were eligible for the study if the tumor size was < 3 cm, resection margins were clear by at least 2 mm, no lymph node metastases existed, age was >35 years, hormone receptors were positive, and histologic grades were 1 or 2. Of the 274 patients, 175 (64%) received pulse-dose-rate brachytherapy (D{sub ref} = 50 Gy). and 99 (36%) received high-dose-rate brachytherapy (D{sub ref} = 32.0 Gy). Results: Median follow-up was 63 months (range, 9-103). Only 8 of 274 (2.9%) patients developed an ipsilateral in-breast tumor recurrence at the time of analysis. The 5-year actuarial local recurrence-free survival probability was 98%. The 5- year overall and disease-free survival probabilities of all patients were 97% and 96%, respectively. Contralateral in-breast malignancies were detected in 2 of 274 (0.7%) patients, and distant metastases occurred in 6 of 274 (2.2%). Late side effects {>=}Grade 3 (i.e., breast tissue fibrosis and telangiectasia) occurred in 1 patient (0.4%, 95%CI:0.0-2.0%) and 6 patients (2.2%, 95%CI:0.8-4.7%), respectively. Cosmetic results were good to excellent in 245 of 274 patients (90%). Conclusions: The long-term results of this prospective Phase II trial confirm that the efficacy of accelerated partial breast irradiation using multicatheter brachytherapy is comparable with that of whole breast irradiation and that late side effects are negligible.

Strnad, Vratislav, E-mail: vratislav.strnad@uk-erlangen.d [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Hildebrandt, Guido [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Rostock, Rostock (Germany); Poetter, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology and Radiobiology, University Hospital AKH Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Hammer, Josef [Department of Radiation Oncology, Barmherzige Schwestern Hospital, Linz (Austria); Hindemith, Marion [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Resch, Alexandra [Department of Radiation Oncology and Radiobiology, University Hospital AKH Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Spiegl, Kurt [Department of Radiation Oncology, Barmherzige Schwestern Hospital, Linz (Austria); Lotter, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Uter, Wolfgang [Department for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); Bani, Mayada [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Beckmann, Matthias W. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Fietkau, Rainer; Ott, Oliver J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany)

2011-05-01

57

Ablation de matériaux par laser femtoseconde  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L'ablation de métaux par laser impulsionnel ultrabref (femtoseconde) est étudiée en analysant les cratères par microscopie optique. La profondeur du cratère a été mesurée en fonction du nombre d'impulsions et de la fluence. Les résultats sont comparés à un modèle analytique décrivant l'interaction laser-matière en régime femtoseconde.

Bruneau, S.; Hermann, J.; Itina, T.; Sentis, M.; Semerok, A.; Marine, W.

2003-06-01

58

Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- Summary  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are extensive and well developed. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Estimates from SPOT HRV, remote sensing satellite data indicated that as much as 120 hectares of emergent wetlands vegetation may have been present along the Par Pond shoreline by early October, 1995. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1996-01-01

59

Conservation Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started as a germ of an idea back in 1987 (on a real, live bulletin board, as opposed to an electronic one), Conservation Online (CoOL) has been providing online resources for conservation professionals since 1993. As its website announces, it is a "full text library of conservation information," covering a wide array of topics ranging from digital imaging to reprographics, and quite a bit of material in between. By clicking on any given topic, visitors will receive a brief overview of the subject, its terminology, and then a list of general online resources for consideration. Another nice feature of the site is the mailing list archive, which contain the archives of various queries submitted to different professional conservation groups, such as the Association of Moving Image Archivists, the Textiles Conservation Discussion List, and the Conservation Framer's Mailing List. The site is rounded out by a timeline that traces the CoOL's history from the summer of 1987 to July 2003.

60

Segrosome assembly at the pliable parH centromere  

PubMed Central

The segrosome of multiresistance plasmid TP228 comprises ParF, which is a member of the ParA ATPase superfamily, and the ParG ribbon–helix–helix factor that assemble jointly on the parH centromere. Here we demonstrate that the distinctive parH site (?100-bp) consists of an array of degenerate tetramer boxes interspersed by AT-rich spacers. Although numerous consecutive AT-steps are suggestive of inherent curvature, parH lacks an intrinsic bend. Sequential deletion of parH tetramers progressively reduced centromere function. Nevertheless, the variant subsites could be rearranged in different geometries that accommodated centromere activity effectively revealing that the site is highly elastic in vivo. ParG cooperatively coated parH: proper centromere binding necessitated the protein's N-terminal flexible tails which modulate the centromere binding affinity of ParG. Interaction of the ParG ribbon–helix–helix domain with major groove bases in the tetramer boxes likely provides direct readout of the centromere. In contrast, the AT-rich spacers may be implicated in indirect readout that mediates cooperativity between ParG dimers assembled on adjacent boxes. ParF alone does not bind parH but instead loads into the segrosome interactively with ParG, thereby subtly altering centromere conformation. Assembly of ParF into the complex requires the N-terminal flexible tails in ParG that are contacted by ParF.

Wu, Meiyi; Zampini, Massimiliano; Bussiek, Malte; Hoischen, Christian; Diekmann, Stephan; Hayes, Finbarr

2011-01-01

61

Architecture and Assembly of a Divergent Member of the ParM Family of Bacterial Actin-like Proteins  

PubMed Central

Eubacteria and archaea contain a variety of actin-like proteins (ALPs) that form filaments with surprisingly diverse architectures, assembly dynamics, and cellular functions. Although there is much data supporting differences between ALP families, there is little data regarding conservation of structure and function within these families. We asked whether the filament architecture and biochemical properties of the best-understood prokaryotic actin, ParM from plasmid R1, are conserved in a divergent member of the ParM family from plasmid pB171. Previous work demonstrated that R1 ParM assembles into filaments that are structurally distinct from actin and the other characterized ALPs. They also display three biophysical properties thought to be essential for DNA segregation: 1) rapid spontaneous nucleation, 2) symmetrical elongation, and 3) dynamic instability. We used microscopic and biophysical techniques to compare and contrast the architecture and assembly of these related proteins. Despite being only 41% identical, R1 and pB171 ParMs polymerize into nearly identical filaments with similar assembly dynamics. Conservation of the core assembly properties argues for their importance in ParM-mediated DNA segregation and suggests that divergent DNA-segregating ALPs with different assembly properties operate via different mechanisms.

Rivera, Christopher R.; Kollman, Justin M.; Polka, Jessica K.; Agard, David A.; Mullins, R. Dyche

2011-01-01

62

Toward drugs for protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2).  

PubMed

PAR2 has a distinctive functional phenotype among an unusual group of GPCRs called protease activated receptors, which self-activate after cleavage of their N-termini by mainly serine proteases. PAR2 is the most highly expressed PAR on certain immune cells, and it is activated by multiple proteases (but not thrombin) in inflammation. PAR2 is expressed on many types of primary human cells and cancer cells. PAR2 knockout mice and PAR2 agonists and antagonists have implicated PAR2 as a promising target in inflammatory conditions; respiratory, gastrointestinal, metabolic, cardiovascular, and neurological dysfunction; and cancers. This article summarizes salient features of PAR2 structure, activation, and function; opportunities for disease intervention via PAR2; pharmacological properties of published or patented PAR2 modulators (small molecule agonists and antagonists, pepducins, antibodies); and some personal perspectives on limitations of assessing their properties and on promising new directions for PAR2 modulation. PMID:23895492

Yau, Mei-Kwan; Liu, Ligong; Fairlie, David P

2013-10-10

63

Conservation tillage.  

PubMed

Conservation production systems combine tillage and planting practices to reduce soil erosion and loss of water from farmland. Successful conservation tillage practices depend on the ability of farm managers to integrate sound crop production practices with effective pest management systems. More scientific information is needed to determine the relations between tillage practices and physical, chemical, and biological soil factors that affect plant and pest ecology. There is a need to devise improved pest management strategies for conservation tillage and to better understand the impact of conservation tillage on water-quality, especially as it is related to use of agricultural chemicals. While savings in fuel, labor, and soil have induced many farmers to adopt conservation tillage, improved methods and equipment should increase adoption even more. PMID:17797277

Gebhardt, M R; Daniel, T C; Schweizer, E E; Allmaras, R R

1985-11-01

64

Breast conserving therapy with accelerated partial breast versus external beam whole breast irradiation: comparison of imaging sequela and complications in a matched population.  

PubMed

Our purpose was to evaluate and compare the imaging sequela and complications of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) with those occurring in patients treated with standard external beam therapy. Patient selection included those who met the criteria for possible ABPI: age 45 or older; cancer stage T1N0M0 or ductal carcinoma in situ 3 cm or less, and negative surgical margins. One hundred and ninety seven had complete records and films available for review. Ninety-seven (49%) were treated with APBI (MammoSite) and 100(51%) were treated with external beam. Image findings for APBI versus external beam were: distortion 90(93%) versus 83(83%), seroma 67(69%) versus 7(7%), skin edema 52(54%) versus 47(47%), increased stroma 75(77%) versus 66(66%), calcifications 10(10%) versus 6(6%), and fat necrosis 12(12%) versus 6(6%). For APBI, skin and stromal edema was more commonly focal. At imaging, the seroma rate was statistically and significantly different between the two treatment modes (p < 0.0001). For patients treated with APBI, seroma formation was not related to balloon size and only weakly related to lumpectomy cavity size. The complication rate was significantly higher for those treated with APBI (36 versus 20%) and the types and treatment of complications differed. There were three recurrences among the APBI group and none among those treated with external beam radiation. PMID:21306469

Monticciolo, Debra L; Biggs, Kelly; Gist, Ashley K; Sincleair, Spencer T; Hajdik, Rodney L; Nipper, Michael L; Schnitker, James B

2011-01-01

65

Proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) and PAR2 mediate relaxation of guinea pig internal anal sphincter.  

PubMed

Activation of proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) and PAR2 stimulates contraction of the rat but relaxation of the guinea pig colon. The aim of the present study was to investigate PAR effects on internal anal sphincter (IAS) motility. We measured relaxation of isolated muscle strips from the guinea pig IAS caused by PAR agonists using isometric transducers. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to determine the existence of PAR. In the IAS, thrombin and PAR1 peptide agonists TFLLR-NH2 and SFLLRN-NH2 evoked moderate to marked relaxation in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, trypsin and PAR2 peptide agonists 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2, SLIGRL-NH2 and SLIGKV-NH2 produced relaxation. In contrast, both PAR1 and PAR2 inactive control peptides did not elicit relaxation. Furthermore, the selective PAR1 antagonist vorapaxar and PAR2 antagonist GB 83 specifically inhibited thrombin and trypsin-induced relaxations, respectively. RT-PCR revealed the presence of PAR1 and PAR2 in the IAS. This indicates that PAR1 and PAR2 mediate the IAS relaxation. The relaxant responses of TFLLR-NH2 and trypsin were attenuated by N(omega)-Nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), indicating involvement of NO. These responses were not affected by tetrodotoxin, implying that the PAR effects are not neurally mediated. On the other hand, PAR4 agonists GYPGKF-NH2, GYPGQV-NH2 and AYPGKF-NH2 did not cause relaxation or contraction, suggesting that PAR4 is not involved in the sphincter motility. Taken together, these results demonstrate that both PAR1 and PAR2 mediate relaxation of the guinea pig IAS through the NO pathway. PAR1 and PAR2 may regulate IAS tone and might be potential therapeutic targets for anal motility disorders. PMID:24631471

Huang, Shih-Che

2014-02-10

66

Comparative analysis of a plant pseudoautosomal region (PAR) in Silene latifolia with the corresponding S. vulgaris autosome  

PubMed Central

Background The sex chromosomes of Silene latifolia are heteromorphic as in mammals, with females being homogametic (XX) and males heterogametic (XY). While recombination occurs along the entire X chromosome in females, recombination between the X and Y chromosomes in males is restricted to the pseudoautosomal region (PAR). In the few mammals so far studied, PARs are often characterized by elevated recombination and mutation rates and high GC content compared with the rest of the genome. However, PARs have not been studied in plants until now. In this paper we report the construction of a BAC library for S. latifolia and the first analysis of a?>?100?kb fragment of a S. latifolia PAR that we compare to the homologous autosomal region in the closely related gynodioecious species S. vulgaris. Results Six new sex-linked genes were identified in the S. latifolia PAR, together with numerous transposable elements. The same genes were found on the S. vulgaris autosomal segment, with no enlargement of the predicted coding sequences in S. latifolia. Intergenic regions were on average 1.6 times longer in S. latifolia than in S. vulgaris, mainly as a consequence of the insertion of transposable elements. The GC content did not differ significantly between the PAR region in S. latifolia and the corresponding autosomal region in S. vulgaris. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the usefulness of the BAC library developed here for the analysis of plant sex chromosomes and indicate that the PAR in the evolutionarily young S. latifolia sex chromosomes has diverged from the corresponding autosomal region in the gynodioecious S. vulgaris mainly with respect to the insertion of transposable elements. Gene order between the PAR and autosomal region investigated is conserved, and the PAR does not have the high GC content observed in evolutionarily much older mammalian sex chromosomes.

2012-01-01

67

Techniques for measuring intercepted and absorbed PAR in corn canopies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The quantity of radiation potentially available for photosynthesis that is captured by the crop is best described as absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Absorbed PAR (APAR) is the difference between descending and ascending fluxes. The four components of APAR were measured above and within two planting densities of corn (Zea mays L.) and several methods of measuring and estimating APAR were examined. A line quantum sensor that spatially averages the photosynthetic photon flux density provided a rapid and portable method of measuring APAR. PAR reflectance from the soil (Typic Argiaquoll) surface decreased from 10% to less than 1% of the incoming PAR as the canopy cover increased. PAR reflectance from the canopy decreased to less than 3% at maximum vegetative cover. Intercepted PAR (1 - transmitted PAR) generally overestimated absorbed PAR by less than 4% throughout most of the growing season. Thus intercepted PAR appears to be a reasonable estimate of absorbed PAR.

Gallo, K. P.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

1984-01-01

68

Energy Conservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Possibilities of energy conservation in domestic buildings and households are reviewed, i.e. in technical systems, heating and air conditioning systems and other energy-consuming appliances. The present situation is reviewed, and suggestions for improveme...

J. Branch A. Gsponer B. Giovanni

1981-01-01

69

Conservation Presentation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces a project in which students teach about the importance of recycling and conservation by presenting demonstrations. Includes demonstrations on water, plastic, and other recycling products such as steel. (YDS)

Friday, Gerald

2001-01-01

70

Protease-Activated Receptor (PAR) 1 and PAR4 Differentially Regulate Factor V Expression from Human Platelets  

PubMed Central

With the recent interest of protease-activated receptors (PAR) 1 and PAR4 as possible targets for the treatment of thrombotic disorders, we compared the efficacy of protease-activated receptor (PAR)1 and PAR4 in the generation of procoagulant phenotypes on platelet membranes. PAR4-activating peptide (AP)–stimulated platelets promoted thrombin generation in plasma up to 5 minutes earlier than PAR1-AP–stimulated platelets. PAR4-AP–mediated factor V (FV) association with the platelet surface was 1.6-fold greater than for PAR1-AP. Moreover, PAR4 stimulation resulted in a 3-fold greater release of microparticles, compared with PAR1 stimulation. More robust FV secretion and microparticle generation with PAR4-AP was attributable to stronger and more sustained phosphorylation of myosin light chain at serine 19 and threonine 18. Inhibition of Rho-kinase reduced PAR4-AP–mediated FV secretion and microparticle generation to PAR1-AP–mediated levels. Thrombin generation assays measuring prothrombinase complex activity demonstrated 1.5-fold higher peak thrombin levels on PAR4-AP–stimulated platelets, compared with PAR1-AP–stimulated platelets. Rho-kinase inhibition reduced PAR4-AP–mediated peak thrombin generation by 25% but had no significant effect on PAR1-AP–mediated thrombin generation. In conclusion, stimulation of PAR4 on platelets leads to faster and more robust thrombin generation, compared with PAR1 stimulation. The greater procoagulant potential is related to more efficient FV release from intracellular stores and microparticle production driven by stronger and more sustained myosin light chain phosphorylation. These data have implications about the role of PAR4 during hemostasis and are clinically relevant in light of recent efforts to develop PAR antagonists to treat thrombotic disorders.

Duvernay, Matthew; Young, Summer; Gailani, David; Schoenecker, Jonathan

2013-01-01

71

The impact of the number of excised axillary nodes and of the percentage of involved nodes on regional nodal failure in patients treated by breast-conserving surgery with or without regional irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: After breast-conserving surgery, recommendations for regional nodal radiotherapy are usually based on the number of positive nodes. This number is dependent on the number of nodes removed during the axillary dissection. This study examines whether the percentage of positive nodes may help to select patients for regional radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A retrospective study was conducted on 1,372 T1-T2 node-positive breast cancer patients treated at L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec Hospital between 1972 and 1997. Results: Among the patients who did not receive regional radiotherapy, the percentage of involved nodes was significantly associated with axillary failure. Ten-year axillary control rates were 97% and 91% when the percentage of involved nodes was <50% and {>=}50%, respectively (p = 0.007). In addition, regional radiotherapy is always significantly associated with a decrease in overall regional failure (axillary and/or supraclavicular), regardless of the percentage of involved nodes. However, regional radiotherapy reduced the axillary failure rate (2% vs. 9%, p = 0.007) only when more than a specific percentage of nodes was involved ({>=}40% if N1-3 and {>=}50% if N>3 nodes). Conclusions: The percentage of involved nodes should be taken into consideration in selecting patients for regional radiotherapy. Irradiation of the axilla should be reserved for patients with a specific ratio: >40% involved nodes if N1-3 and {>=}50% involved nodes if N>3 nodes.

Fortin, Andre [Department of Radiation Oncology, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail: afortin@videotron.ca; Dagnault, Anne [Department of Radiation Oncology, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Blondeau, Lucie [Department of Radiation Oncology, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Thi Trinh Thuc Vu [Department of Radiation Oncology, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Larochelle, Marie [Department of Radiation Oncology, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada)

2006-05-01

72

ATP-regulated interactions between P1 ParA, ParB and non-specific DNA that are stabilized by the plasmid partition site, parS  

PubMed Central

Localization of the P1 plasmid requires two proteins, ParA and ParB, which act on the plasmid partition site, parS. ParB is a site-specific DNA-binding protein and ParA is a Walker-type ATPase with non-specific DNA-binding activity. In vivo ParA binds the bacterial nucleoid and forms dynamic patterns that are governed by the ParB–parS partition complex on the plasmid. How these interactions drive plasmid movement and localization is not well understood. Here we have identified a large protein–DNA complex in vitro that requires ParA, ParB and ATP, and have characterized its assembly by sucrose gradient sedimentation and light scattering assays. ATP binding and hydrolysis mediated the assembly and disassembly of this complex, while ADP antagonized complex formation. The complex was not dependent on, but was stabilized by, parS. The properties indicate that ParA and ParB are binding and bridging multiple DNA molecules to create a large meshwork of protein–DNA molecules that involves both specific and non-specific DNA. We propose that this complex represents a dynamic adaptor complex between the plasmid and nucleoid, and further, that this interaction drives the redistribution of partition proteins and the plasmid over the nucleoid during partition.

Havey, James C.; Vecchiarelli, Anthony G.; Funnell, Barbara E.

2012-01-01

73

The horse pseudoautosomal region (PAR): characterization and comparison with the human, chimp and mouse PARs.  

PubMed

The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) is a genomic segment on mammalian sex chromosomes where sequence homology mimics that seen between autosomal homologues. The region is essential for pairing and proper segregation of sex chromosomes during male meiosis. As yet, only human/chimp and mouse PARs have been characterized. The two groups of species differ dramatically in gene content and size of the PAR and therefore do not provide clues about the likely evolution and constitution of PAR among mammals. Here we characterize the equine PAR by i) isolating and arranging 71 BACs containing 129 markers (110 STS and 19 genes) into two contigs spanning the region, ii) precisely localizing the pseudoautosomal boundary (PAB), and iii) describing part of the contiguous X- and Y-specific regions. We also report the discovery of an approximately 200 kb region in the middle of the PAR that is present in the male-specific region of the Y (MSY) as well. Such duplication is a novel observation in mammals. Further, comparison of the equine PAR with the human counterpart shows that despite containing orthologs from an additional 1 Mb region beyond the human PAR1, the equine PAR is around 0.9 Mb smaller than the size of the human PAR. We theorize that the PAR varies in size and gene content across evolutionarily closely as well as distantly related mammals. Although striking differences like those observed between human and mouse may be rare, variations similar to those seen between horse and human may be prevalent among mammals. PMID:18544933

Raudsepp, T; Chowdhary, B P

2008-01-01

74

Mécanismes d'éjection de particules par laser impulsionnel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L'enlèvement de particules de dimensions nanométriques est l'un des principaux challenges à relever pour atteindre les futurs objectifs de l'industrie microélectronique. Les procédés laser présentent, dans certains cas, des performances très intéressantes, mais les mécanismes d'éjection des particules polluant la surface restent cependant fort mal connus. L'étude de la dynamique d'éjection des particules, par une technique optique, a mis en évidence l'existence de deux mécanismes dont l'importance relative dépend de la fluence d'irradiation. A forte fluence l'ablation locale du substrat sous la particule prédomine, alors que pour les fluences plus faibles le mécanisme semble être lié à l'enlèvement de l'humidité résiduelle à l'interface particule substrat. Contrairement aux modèles précédemment proposés, la contribution de la force d'inertie s'exerçant sur la particule lors de l'expansion thermique rapide des matériaux est négligeable.

Grojo, D.; Cros, A.; Delaporte, Ph.; Sentis, M.; Dubus, H.; Mionetto, R.

2006-12-01

75

Optical engineering application of modeled photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) for high-speed digital camera dynamic range optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As efforts to create accurate yet computationally efficient estimation models for clear-sky photosynthetically active solar radiation (PAR) have succeeded, the range of practical engineering applications where these models can be successfully applied has increased. This paper describes a novel application of the REST2 radiative model (developed by the second author) in optical engineering. The PAR predictions in this application are used to predict the possible range of instantaneous irradiances that could impinge on the image plane of a stationary video camera designed to image license plates on moving vehicles. The overall spectral response of the camera (including lens and optical filters) is similar to the 400-700 nm PAR range, thereby making PAR irradiance (rather than luminance) predictions most suitable for this application. The accuracy of the REST2 irradiance predictions for horizontal surfaces, coupled with another radiative model to obtain irradiances on vertical surfaces, and to standard optical image formation models, enable setting the dynamic range controls of the camera to ensure that the license plate images are legible (unsaturated with adequate contrast) regardless of the time of day, sky condition, or vehicle speed. A brief description of how these radiative models are utilized as part of the camera control algorithm is provided. Several comparisons of the irradiance predictions derived from the radiative model versus actual PAR measurements under varying sky conditions with three Licor sensors (one horizontal and two vertical) have been made and showed good agreement. Various camera-to-plate geometries and compass headings have been considered in these comparisons. Time-lapse sequences of license plate images taken with the camera under various sky conditions over a 30-day period are also analyzed. They demonstrate the success of the approach at creating legible plate images under highly variable lighting, which is the main goal of this application. Graphs of plate contrast over various sky conditions and camera aiming geometries are also presented to quantify the performance of the plate's legibility.

Alves, James; Gueymard, Christian A.

2009-08-01

76

Bazooka and PAR6 are required with PAR1 for the maintenance of oocyte fate in Drosophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anterior-posterior axis of C. elegans is defined by the asymmetric division of the one-cell zygote, and this is controlled by the PAR proteins, including PAR-3 and PAR-6, which form a complex at the anterior of the cell, and PAR-1, which localizes at the posterior [1–4]. PAR-1 plays a similar role in axis formation in Drosophila: the protein localizes to

Jean-René Huynh; Mark Petronczki; Juergen A. Knoblich; Daniel St Johnston

2001-01-01

77

Massachusetts Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Massachusetts has long been a leader in the conservation and preservation movements. From early attempts to create an Emerald Necklace around Boston to the battle to save the Old State House, the commonwealth has rich, fascinating tales and experiences. This wonderful travel itinerary was created by the National Park Service's Heritage Education Services in partnership with the Massachusetts Historical Commission and the National Conference of State Historic Preservation Officers. On the site, visitors can look over essays, a list of sites, maps, and external websites. The powerful essays include "Conservation and Landscape Planning in Massachusetts" and "American Conservation in the Twentieth Century." Checking out the List of Sites area, visitors can read a complete list of all the places mentioned in the itinerary (complete with details and photos) such as the Boston Public Garden, the Lynn Woods Historic District, and the Fruitlands Museums Historic District.

78

Caractérisation par ellipsométrie spectroscopique de films minces de tellurure de bismuth obtenus par voie électrochimique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Des films de tellurure de bismuth (Bi2Te3) d’épaisseur proche de 1 mm ont été développés par voie électrochimique. Leurs indices optiques ont été déterminés par ellipsométrie spectroscopique (SE). Le domaine spectral des indices optiques s’étend de 400 nm à 1300 nm. L’ellipsométrie spectroscopique à angle d’incidence variable (VASE) a été utilisée pour corréler les données SE. Cette partie a été complétée par des analyses par microscopie à force atomique (AFM) qui ont permis de déterminer la rugosité des films. A partir de ces résultats et en associant l’absorption fondamentale des films de Bi2Te3 à une transition indirecte, l’énergie de bande interdite a été évaluée à 0,3 eV. Par ailleurs des mesures associant ellipsométrie spectroscopique à temps réel et électrochimie ont pu être réalisées. Ainsi les premiers instants de croissance ont été observés.

Zimmer, A.; Stein, N.; Boulanger, C.; Johann, L.

2004-12-01

79

Peroxynitrite-induced thymocyte apoptosis: the role of caspases and poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase (PARS) activation.  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms by which immature thymocyte apoptosis is induced during negative selection are poorly defined. Reports demonstrated that cross-linking of T-cell receptor leads to stromal cell activation, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and, subsequently, to thymocyte apoptosis. Therefore we examined, whether NO directly or indirectly, through peroxynitrite formation, causes thymocyte apoptosis. Immuno-histochemical detection of nitrotyrosine revealed in vivo peroxynitrite formation in the thymi of naive mice. Nitrotyrosine, the footprint of peroxynitrite, was predominantly found in the corticomedullary junction and the medulla of naive mice. In the thymi of mice deficient in the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase, considerably less nitrotyrosine was found. Exposure of thymocytes in vitro to low concentrations (10 microM) of peroxynitrite led to apoptosis, whereas higher concentrations (50 microM) resulted in intense cell death with the characteristics of necrosis. We also investigated the effect of poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase (PARS) inhibition on thymocyte apoptosis. Using the PARS inhibitor 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB), or thymocytes from PARS-deficient animals, we established that PARS determines the fate of thymocyte death. Suppression of cellular ATP levels, and the cellular necrosis in response to peroxynitrite were prevented by PARS inhibition. Therefore, in the absence of PARS, cells are diverted towards the pathway of apoptotic cell death. Similar results were obtained with H2O2 treatment, while apoptosis induced by non-oxidative stimuli such as dexamethasone or anti-FAS antibody was unaffected by PARS inhibition. In conclusion, we propose that peroxynitrite-induced apoptosis may play a role in the process of thymocyte negative selection. Furthermore, we propose that the physiological role of PARS cleavage by apopain during apoptosis may serve as an energy-conserving step, enabling the cell to complete the process of apoptosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6

Virag, L; Scott, G S; Cuzzocrea, S; Marmer, D; Salzman, A L; Szabo, C

1998-01-01

80

ParCAT: Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit  

SciTech Connect

Climate science is employing increasingly complex models and simulations to analyze the past and predict the future of Earth s climate. This growth in complexity is creating a widening gap between the data being produced and the ability to analyze the datasets. Parallel computing tools are necessary to analyze, compare, and interpret the simulation data. The Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit (ParCAT) provides basic tools to efficiently use parallel computing techniques to make analysis of these datasets manageable. The toolkit provides the ability to compute spatio-temporal means, differences between runs or differences between averages of runs, and histograms of the values in a data set. ParCAT is implemented as a command-line utility written in C. This allows for easy integration in other tools and allows for use in scripts. This also makes it possible to run ParCAT on many platforms from laptops to supercomputers. ParCAT outputs NetCDF files so it is compatible with existing utilities such as Panoply and UV-CDAT. This paper describes ParCAT and presents results from some example runs on the Titan system at ORNL.

Smith, Brian E [ORNL; Steed, Chad A [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Ricciuto, Daniel M [ORNL; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Wehner, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

2013-01-01

81

Dose and polymorphic genes xrcc1, xrcc3, gst play a role in the risk of articledeveloping erythema in breast cancer patients following single shot partial breast irradiation after conservative surgery  

PubMed Central

Background To evaluate the association between polymorphisms involved in DNA repair and oxidative stress genes and mean dose to whole breast on acute skin reactions (erythema) in breast cancer (BC) patients following single shot partial breast irradiation (SSPBI) after breast conservative surgery. Materials and Methods Acute toxicity was assessed using vers.3 criteria. single nucleotides polymorphisms(SNPs) in genes: XRCC1(Arg399Gln/Arg194Trp), XRCC3 (A4541G-5'UTR/Thr241Met), GSTP1(Ile105Val), GSTA1 and RAD51(untranslated region). SNPs were determined in 57 BC patients by the Pyrosequencing analysis. Univariate(ORs and 95% CI) and logistic multivariate analyses (MVA) were performed to correlate polymorphic genes with the risk of developing acute skin reactions to radiotherapy. Results After SSPBI on the tumour bed following conservative surgery, grade 1 or 2 acute erythema was observed in 19 pts(33%). Univariate analysis indicated a higher significant risk of developing erythema in patients with polymorphic variant wt XRCC1Arg194Trp, mut/het XRCC3Thr241Met, wt/het XRCC3A4541G-5'UTR. Similarly a higher erythema rate was also found in the presence of mut/het of XRCC1Arg194Trp or wt of GSTA1. Whereas, a lower erythema rate was observed in patients with mut/het of XRCC1Arg194Trp or wt of XRCC1Arg399Gln. The mean dose to whole breast(p = 0.002), the presence of either mut/het XRCC1Arg194Trp or wt XRCC3Thr241Met (p = 0.006) and the presence of either mut/het XRCC1Arg194Trp or wt GSTA1(p = 0.031) were confirmed as predictors of radiotherapy-induced erythema by MVA. Conclusions The Whole breast mean dose together with the presence of some polymorphic genes involved in DNA repair or oxidative stress could explain the erythema observed after SSPBI, but further studies are needed to confirm these results in a larger cohort. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01316328

2011-01-01

82

Marketing Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1986, Northeast Utilities began helping shool administrators combat school building energy wastage through a program called Energy Alliance. The typical school can reduce its energy bill by 30 percent by adopting a wide range of conservation measures, including cogeneration, relamping, and energy audits. (MLH)

Ellis, William B.

1987-01-01

83

Colorful Conservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some people only think about conservation on Earth Day. Being in the "art business" however, this author is always conscious of the many products she thinks get wasted when they could be reused, recycled, and restored--especially in a school building and art room. In this article, she describes an art lesson that allows students to paint…

Skophammer, Karen

2011-01-01

84

Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This selection of class activities involves a sequence of 10 class sessions. The goal of the collection is to aid students in learning the concepts of energy conservation and to put this knowledge into practice. Attention is also given to the development of alternate energy sources. Each lesson includes an activity title, motivational hints,…

Land, Amy A.

85

Conserving Soil.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed as enrichment materials for grades six through nine, this program is an interdisciplinary study of soils. As part of the program students: (1) examine soil organisms; (2) research history of local Native Americans to see how they and others have used the land and its soils; (3) investigate how soils are degraded and how they are conserved

Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

86

Water Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students study the availability of fresh water on Earth and the methods that can be used to purify and conserve it. They also assess how much water they and their families typically use, and think about ways to reduce water usage.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2005-12-17

87

Evaluation of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the p53 Binding Protein 1 (TP53BP1) Gene in Breast Cancer Patients Treated With Breast-Conserving Surgery and Whole-Breast Irradiation (BCS + RT)  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: TP53BP1 is a key component of radiation-induced deoxyribonucleic acid damage repair. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the significance of a known common single nucleotide polymorphism in this gene (rs560191) in patients treated with breast-conserving surgery and whole-breast irradiation (BCS + RT). Methods and Materials: The population consisted of 176 premenopausal women treated with BCS + RT (median follow-up, 12 years). Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid was processed by use of TaqMan assays. Each allele for rs560191 was either C or G, so each patient was therefore classified as CC, CG, or GG. Patients were grouped as GG if they were homozygous for the variant G allele or CC-CG if they carried at least one copy of the common C allele (CC or CG). Results: Of the 176 women, 124 (71%) were CC-CG and 52 (29%) were GG. The mean age was 44 years for GG vs. 38 years for CC-CG (p < 0.001). GG was more common in African-American women than white women (69% vs. 13%, p < 0.001) and more commonly estrogen receptor negative (70% vs. 49%, p = 0.02). There were no significant correlations of rs560191 with other critical variables. Despite the fact that GG patients were older, the 10-year rate of local relapses was higher (22% for GG vs. 12% for CC-CG, p = 0.04). Conclusions: This novel avenue of investigation of polymorphisms in radiation repair/response genes in patients treated with BCS + RT suggests a correlation to local relapse. Additional evaluation is needed to assess the biological and functional significance of these single nucleotide polymorphisms, and larger confirmatory validation studies will be required to determine the clinical implications.

Haffty, Bruce G., E-mail: hafftybg@umdnj.ed [Robert Wood Johnson Medical School-Cancer Institute of New Jersey, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Goyal, Sharad; Kulkarni, Diptee; Green, Camille; Vazquez, Alexi; Schiff, Devora [Robert Wood Johnson Medical School-Cancer Institute of New Jersey, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Moran, Meena S. [Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Yang Qifeng [Department of Breast Surgery, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan (China); Ganesan, Shridar; Hirsfield, Kim M. [Robert Wood Johnson Medical School-Cancer Institute of New Jersey, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

2011-06-01

88

Objective and Longitudinal Assessment of Dermatitis After Postoperative Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using High-Dose-Rate Interstitial Brachytherapy in Patients With Breast Cancer Treated With Breast Conserving Therapy: Reduction of Moisture Deterioration by APBI  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To objectively evaluate the radiation dermatitis caused by accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy. Patients and Methods: The skin color and moisture changes were examined using a newly installed spectrophotometer and corneometer in 22 patients who had undergone APBI using open cavity implant high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (36 Gy in six fractions) and compared with the corresponding values for 44 patients in an external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) control group (50-60 Gy in 25-30 fractions within 5-6 weeks) after breast conserving surgery. Results: All values changed significantly as a result of APBI. The extent of elevation in a Asterisk-Operator (reddish) and reduction in L Asterisk-Operator (black) values caused by APBI were similar to those for EBRT, with slightly delayed recovery for 6-12 months after treatment owing to the surgical procedure. In contrast, only APBI caused a change in the b Asterisk-Operator values, and EBRT did not, demonstrating that the reduction in b Asterisk-Operator values (yellowish) depends largely on the surgical procedure. The changes in moisture were less severe after APBI than after EBRT, and the recovery was more rapid. The toxicity assessment using the Common Toxicity Criteria, version 3, showed that all dermatitis caused by APBI was Grade 2 or less. Conclusion: An objective analysis can quantify the effects of APBI procedures on color and moisture cosmesis. The radiation dermatitis caused by APBI using the present schedule showed an equivalent effect on skin color and a less severe effect on moisture than the effects caused by standard EBRT.

Tanaka, Eiichi [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Hospital Organization, Osaka National Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Yamazaki, Hideya, E-mail: hideya10@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Yoshida, Ken; Takenaka, Tadashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Hospital Organization, Osaka National Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Masuda, Norikazu [Department of Surgery and Breast Oncology, National Hospital Organization, Osaka National Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Kotsuma, Tadayuki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Inoue, Takehiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita (Japan)

2011-11-15

89

Soundscape conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We argue that soundscapes possess both ecological and social value and that they should be considered natural resources worthy\\u000a of management and conservation. In this paper we bring together diverse bodies of literature that identify the human and ecological\\u000a benefits provided by soundscapes. Sense of place, cultural significance, interactions with landscape perceptions, and wildlife\\u000a wellbeing are a few of the

Sarah L. Dumyahn; Bryan C. Pijanowski

90

Heron conservation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Herons are large, popular and, in many cases, spectacular birds found in wetlands world-wide, both tropical and temperate, natural and man-made. Some populations are very small and localized, some have decreased, some have expanded their ranges, and a few are pests of human activities. In the fifteen years since the publication of the latest monographic treatment of the family, The Herons Handbook, there has been a tremendous increase in our knowledge of heron status and conservation requirements, set against a backdrop of increasing concern about the future of the world?s wetland habitats. This book provides a comprehensive update following two distinct threads. The status and conservation needs of herons are first presented on a regional basis, in a series of chapters set at a continental or subcontinental scale. Over 200 biologists and heron conservationists have contributed to the data summarized here, and the very latest census and survey results provide the most up-to-date and detailed picture of heron populations currently available. Chapters discussing several critical issues in heron conservation follow, tending to focus on the international nature of the problems.

2000-01-01

91

Systemic Par-4 inhibits non-autochthonous tumor growth.  

PubMed

The tumor suppressor protein Par-4 (Prostate apoptosis response-4) is spontaneously secreted by normal and cancer cells. Extracellular Par-4 induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in cancer cell cultures by binding, via its effector SAC domain, to cell surface GRP78 receptor. However, the functional significance of extracellular Par-4/SAC has not been validated in animal models. We show that Par-4/SAC-transgenic mice express systemic Par-4/SAC protein and are resistant to the growth of non-autochthonous tumors. Consistently, secretory Par-4/SAC pro-apoptotic activity can be transferred from these cancer-resistant transgenic mice to cancer-susceptible mice by bone marrow transplantation. Moreover, intravenous injection of recombinant Par-4 or SAC protein inhibits metastasis of cancer cells. Collectively, our findings indicate that extracellular Par-4/SAC is systemically functional in inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis progression, and may merit investigation as a therapy. PMID:21613819

Zhao, Yanming; Burikhanov, Ravshan; Brandon, Jason; Qiu, Shirley; Shelton, Brent J; Spear, Brett; Bondada, Subbarao; Bryson, Scott; Rangnekar, Vivek M

2011-07-15

92

View from east to west of PAR site storage building; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View from east to west of PAR site storage building; formerly PAR dispensary - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Storage Building, Across street from Family Housing Units 110 & 111, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

93

A Combined Global and Local Approach to Elucidate Spatial Organization of the Mycobacterial ParB-parS Partition Assembly  

SciTech Connect

Combining diverse sets of data at global (size, shape) and local (residue) scales is an emerging trend for elucidating the organization and function of the cellular assemblies. We used such a strategy, combining data from X-ray and neutron scattering with H/D-contrast variation and X-ray footprinting with mass spectrometry, to elucidate the spatial organization of the ParB-parS assembly from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The ParB-parS participates in plasmid and chromosome segregation and condensation in predivisional bacterial cells. ParB polymerizes around the parS centromere(s) to form a higher-order assembly that serves to recruit cyto-skeletal ParA ATPases and SMC proteins for chromosome segregation. A hybrid model of the ParB-parS was built by combining and correlating computational models with experiment-derived information about size, shape, position of the symmetry axis within the shape, internal topology, DNA-protein interface, exposed surface patches, and prior knowledge. This first view of the ParB-parS leads us to propose how ParB spread on the chromosome to form a larger assembly.

B Chaudhuri; S Gupta; V Urban; M Chance; R DMello; L Smith; K Lyons; J Gee

2011-12-31

94

A Combined Global and Local Approach to Elucidate Spatial Organization of the Mycobacterial ParB-parS Partition  

SciTech Connect

Combining diverse sets of data at global (size, shape) and local (residue) scales is an emerging trend for elucidating the organization and function of the cellular assemblies. We used such a strategy, combining data from X-ray and neutron scattering with H/D-contrast variation and X-ray footprinting with mass spectrometry, to elucidate the spatial organization of the ParB-parS assembly from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The ParB-parS participates in plasmid and chromosome segregation and condensation in predivisional bacterial cells. ParB polymerizes around the parS centromere(s) to form a higher-order assembly that serves to recruit cyto-skeletal ParA ATPases and SMC proteins for chromosome segregation. A hybrid model of the ParB-parS was built by combining and correlating computational models with experiment-derived information about size, shape, position of the symmetry axis within the shape, internal topology, DNA-protein interface, exposed surface patches, and prior knowledge. This first view of the ParB-parS leads us to propose how ParB spread on the chromosome to form a larger assembly.

Chaudhuri, Barnali [University of Buffalo, The State University of New York; Gupta, Sayan [Case Western Reserve University; Urban, Volker S [ORNL; Chance, Mark [Case Western Reserve University; D'Mello, Rhijuta [Case Western Reserve University; Smith, Lauren [University of Buffalo, The State University of New York; Lyons, Kelly [University of Buffalo, The State University of New York; Gee, Jessica [University of Buffalo, The State University of New York

2010-01-01

95

A combined global and local approach to elucidate spatial organization of the mycobacterial ParB-parS partition assembly  

PubMed Central

Combining diverse sets of data at global (size, shape) and local (residue) scales is an emerging trend for elucidating the organization and function of the cellular assemblies. We used such a strategy, combining data from X-ray and neutron scattering with H/D-contrast variation and X-ray footprinting with mass spectrometry, to elucidate the spatial organization of the ParB-parS assembly from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The ParB-parS participates in plasmid and chromosome segregation and condensation in pre-divisional bacterial cells. ParB polymerizes around the parS centromere(s) to form a higher-order assembly that serves to recruit cyto-skeletal ParA ATPases and SMC proteins for chromosome segregation. Hybrid model of the ParB-parS was built by combining and correlating computational models with experiment-derived information about size, shape, position of the symmetry axis within the shape, internal topology, DNA-protein interface, exposed surface patches and prior knowledge. This first view of the ParB-parS leads us to propose how ParB spread on the chromosome to form a larger assembly.

Chaudhuri, Barnali N.; Gupta, Sayan; Urban, Volker S.; Chance, Mark R.; D'Mello, Rhijuta; Smith, Lauren; Lyons, Kelly; Gee, Jessica

2011-01-01

96

Apoptosis Mediated by a Novel Leucine Zipper Protein Par4  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prostate apoptosis response-4 (par-4) gene was isolated in a differential screen for immediate-early genes that are up-regulated during apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. Unlike most other immediate-early genes, par-4 is exclusively induced during apoptosis. The expression or induction of par-4 is not restricted to prostatic cells. The par-4 gene is widely expressed in diverse normal tissues and cell types

V. M. Rangnekar

1998-01-01

97

Par(-4)oxysm in breast cancer.  

PubMed

Women suffering from breast cancer often succumb to incurable recurrent disease resulting from therapy-resistant cancer cells. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Alvarez and colleagues identify downregulation of the tumor suppressor Par-4 as the key determinant in apoptosis evasion, which leads to tumor recurrence in breast cancer. PMID:23845436

Shrestha-Bhattarai, Tripti; Hebbar, Nikhil; Rangnekar, Vivek M

2013-07-01

98

suPAR and Team Nephrology  

PubMed Central

Primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) accounts for nearly 10 % of patients who require renal replacement therapy. Elevated circulating levels of soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) have been identified as a biomarker to discriminate primary FSGS from other glomerulopathies. Subsequent reports have questioned the diagnostic utility of this test. In a study in BMC Medicine, Huang et al. demonstrate that urinary soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) excretion assists in distinguishing primary FSGS from other glomerular diseases, and that high plasma suPAR concentrations are not directly linked to a decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). This observation suggests that further investigation of suPAR is warranted in patients with FSGS. It should be interpreted in light of a recent report that B7-1 is expressed in the podocytes of a subset of patients with FSGS, and that blocking this molecule may represent the first successful targeted intervention for this disease. These advances highlight the rapid pace of scientific progress in the field of nephrology. Nephrologists should work together, share resources, and expedite the design of protocols to evaluate these novel biomarkers in a comprehensive and scientifically valid manner. Please see related article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/12/81.

2014-01-01

99

Differential expression levels of Par-4 in melanoma.  

PubMed

The pro-apoptotic prostate apoptosis response-4 gene product Par-4 sensitizes prostate cells to the induction of programmed cell death. In this study we examined Par-4 expression in human melanoma cell lines and melanoma metastases. The heterogeneous expression detected prompted us to investigate the biological relevance of Par-4 in a human melanoma xenotransplantation model. Overexpression of Par-4 by transfection decreased tumour development in xenotransplanted A375-C6 melanoma cells in SCID mice and correlated to an increase in tumour cell apoptosis. These data suggest that high expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Par-4 could qualify as a prognostic marker in human melanoma. PMID:11479426

Lucas, T; Pratscher, B; Krishnan, S; Fink, D; Günsberg, P; Wolschek, M; Wacheck, V; Muster, T; Romirer, I; Wolff, K; Pehamberger, H; Eichler, H G; Rangnekar, V M; Jansen, B

2001-08-01

100

Project Plan 7930 Cell G PaR Remote Handling System Replacement  

SciTech Connect

For over 40 years the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have made Californium-252 ({sup 252}Cf) available for a wide range of industries including medical, nuclear fuels, mining, military and national security. The Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) located within the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) processes irradiated production targets from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Operations in Building 7930, Cell G provide over 70% of the world's demand for {sup 252}Cf. Building 7930 was constructed and equipped in the mid-1960s. Current operations for {sup 252}Cf processing in Building 7930, Cell G require use of through-the-wall manipulators and the PaR Remote Handling System. Maintenance and repairs for the manipulators is readily accomplished by removal of the manipulator and relocation to a repair shop where hands-on work can be performed in glove boxes. Contamination inside cell G does not currently allow manned entry and no provisions were created for a maintenance area inside the cell. There has been no maintenance of the PaR system or upgrades, leaving operations vulnerable should the system have a catastrophic failure. The Cell G PaR system is currently being operated in a run to failure mode. As the manipulator is now 40+ years old there is significant risk in this method of operation. In 2006 an assessment was completed that resulted in recommendations for replacing the manipulator operator control and power centers which are used to control and power the PaR manipulator in Cell G. In mid-2008 the chain for the bridge drive failed and subsequent examinations indicated several damaged links (see Figure 1). To continue operations the PaR manipulator arm is being used to push and pull the bridge as a workaround. A retrieval tool was fabricated, tested and staged inside Cell G that will allow positioning of the bridge and manipulator arm for removal from the cell should the PaR system completely fail. A fully functioning and reliable Par manipulator arm is necessary for uninterrupted {sup 252}Cf operations; a fully-functioning bridge is needed for the system to function as intended.

Kinney, Kathryn A [ORNL

2009-10-01

101

Mechanisms of apoptosis by the tumor suppressor Par-4.  

PubMed

Par-4 is a pro-apoptotic, tumor suppressor protein that induces apoptosis selectively in cancer cells. Endoplasmic reticulum-stress and higher levels of protein kinase A in tumor cells confer the coveted feature of cancer selective response to extracellular and intracellular Par-4, respectively. Recent studies have shown that systemic Par-4 confers resistance to tumor growth in mice, and that tumor-resistance is transferable by bone-marrow transplantation. Moreover, recombinant Par-4 inhibits the growth of tumors in mice. As systemic Par-4 induces apoptosis via cell surface GRP78, strategies that promote GRP78 trafficking to the cell surface are expected sensitize cancer cells to circulating levels of Par-4. This review illustrates the domains and mechanisms by which Par-4 orchestrates the apoptotic process in both cell culture models and in physiological settings. PMID:22552839

Hebbar, Nikhil; Wang, Chi; Rangnekar, Vivek M

2012-12-01

102

Apoptosis and tumor resistance conferred by Par-4.  

PubMed

Par-4 is a tumor suppressor protein with a pro-apoptotic function. Epigenetic silencing of Par-4 is seen in diverse tumors and Par-4 knockout mice develop spontaneous tumors in various tissues. Endogenous Par-4 is essential for sensitization of cells to diverse apoptotic stimuli, whereas ectopic expression of Par-4 can selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells. The cancer-specific pro-apoptotic action of Par-4 resides in its centrally located SAC domain. This review emphasizes the role of Par-4/SAC in apoptosis and tumor resistance. SAC transgenic mice display normal development and life span, and, most importantly, are resistant to spontaneous, as well as oncogene-induced, autochthonous tumors. The tumor resistant phenotype and undetectable toxicity of SAC in vivo suggests the SAC domain possesses tremendous therapeutic potential. PMID:18836307

Zhao, Yanming; Rangnekar, Vivek M

2008-12-01

103

Mechanisms of Apoptosis by the Tumor Suppressor Par-4  

PubMed Central

Par-4 is a pro-apoptotic, tumor suppressor protein that induces apoptosis selectively in cancer cells. Endoplasmic reticulum-stress and higher levels of protein kinase A in tumor cells confer the coveted feature of cancer selective response to extracellular and intracellular Par-4, respectively. Recent studies have shown that systemic Par-4 confers resistance to tumor growth in mice, and that tumor-resistance is transferable by bone marrow transplantation. Moreover, recombinant Par-4 inhibits the growth of tumors in mice. As systemic Par-4 induces apoptosis via cell surface GRP78, strategies that promote GRP78 trafficking to the cell surface are expected sensitize cancer cells to circulating levels of Par-4. This review illustrates the domains and mechanisms by which Par-4 orchestrates the apoptotic process in both cell culture models and in physiological settings.

Hebbar, Nikhil; Wang, Chi; Rangnekar, Vivek M.

2012-01-01

104

Study on the surface performance of carbon fibres irradiated by ?-ray under different irradiation dose  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technology of high-energy irradiation is widely used in the field of material interface modification because of its high efficiency, energy conservation and environment friendliness. In this paper, ?-ray irradiation graft technology was used in order to enhance the surface performance of the carbon fibre (CF). The surface chemical elements and functional groups of untreated and irradiated CF were observed

Jun-Qing Li; Yu-Dong Huang; Shao-Yun Fu; Li-Hui Yang; Hai-tao Qu; Guang-shun Wu

2010-01-01

105

Apoptosis Induced by Knockdown of uPAR and MMP-9 is Mediated by Inactivation of EGFR/STAT3 Signaling in Medulloblastoma  

PubMed Central

Background Medulloblastoma is a highly invasive cancer of central nervous system diagnosed mainly in children. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) are over expressed in several cancers and well established for their roles in tumor progression. The present study is aimed to determine the consequences of targeting these molecules on medulloblastoma progression. Methodology/Principal Findings Radiation is one of the foremost methods applied for treating cancer and considerable evidence showed that radiation elevated uPAR and MMP-9 expression in medulloblastoma cell. Therefore efforts are made to target these molecules in non-irradiated and irradiated medulloblastoma cells. Our results showed that siRNA-mediated knockdown of uPAR and MMP-9, either alone or in combination with radiation modulated a series of events leading to apoptosis. Down regulation of uPAR and MMP-9 inhibited the expression of anti-apoptotic molecules like Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, survivin, XIAP and cIAPI; activated BID cleavage, enhanced the expression of Bak and translocated cyctochrome C to cytosol. Capsase-3 and -9 activities were also increased in uPAR- and MMP-9-downregulated cells. The apoptosis induced by targeting MMP-9 and uPAR was initiated by inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mediated activation of STAT3 and NF-?B related signaling molecules. Silencing uPAR and MMP-9 inhibited DNA binding activity of STAT3 and also reduced the recruitment of STAT3 protein at the promoter region of Bcl-2 and survivin genes. Our results suggest that inhibiting uPAR and MMP-9 reduced the expression of anti-apoptotic molecules by inactivating the transcriptional activity of STAT3. In addition, treating pre-established medulloblastoma with siRNAs against uPAR and MMP-9 both alone or in combination with radiation suppressed uPAR, MMP-9, EGFR, STAT3 expression and induced Bak activation leading to apoptosis. Conclusion/Significance Taken together, our results illustrated that RNAi mediated targeting of uPAR and MMP-9 might have therapeutic potential against medulloblastoma.

Asuthkar, Swapna; Gondi, Christopher S.; Dinh, Dzung H.; Rao, Jasti S.

2012-01-01

106

Par-4 prevents breast cancer recurrence.  

PubMed

Therapy resistance and disease recurrence are two of the most challenging aspects in breast cancer treatment. A recent article in Cancer Cell makes a significant contribution toward a better understanding of this therapeutic problem by establishing downregulation of the tumor suppressor Par-4 as the primary determinant of breast cancer recurrence. This viewpoint brings forth the importance of their findings and its implications on future research and therapy. PMID:24164776

Hebbar, Nikhil; Shrestha-Bhattarai, Tripti; Rangnekar, Vivek M

2013-01-01

107

Enlèvement de particules par laser impulsionnel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L'enlèvement de particules par laser impulsionnel (ns) est étudié expérimentalement. Des efficacités supérieures à 90% sont obtenues pour l'enlèvement de particules de polystyrene (PS) de diamètre 385 nm sur des surfaces de Si et Cu. Les fluences seuils d'enlèvement sont déterminées et comparées à une modélisation de l'expansion thermique du substrat. L'interprétation est discutée en terme de mécanismes fondamentaux envisageables responsables de l'éjection des particules.

Grojo, D.; Delaporte, P.; Cros, A.

2005-06-01

108

Par Pond refill water quality sampling  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to document anoxia and its cause in the event that the anoxia caused a fish kill. However, no fish kill was observed during this study, and dissolved oxygen and nutrient concentrations generally remained within the range expected for southeastern reservoirs. Par Pond water quality monitoring will continue during the second summer after refill as the aquatic macrophytes become reestablished and nutrients in the sediments are released to the water column.

Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Westbury, H.M.

1996-08-01

109

Par-4 prevents breast cancer recurrence  

PubMed Central

Therapy resistance and disease recurrence are two of the most challenging aspects in breast cancer treatment. A recent article in Cancer Cell makes a significant contribution toward a better understanding of this therapeutic problem by establishing downregulation of the tumor suppressor Par-4 as the primary determinant of breast cancer recurrence. This viewpoint brings forth the importance of their findings and its implications on future research and therapy.

2013-01-01

110

La modélisation par Reverse Monte Carlo (RMC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La technique de modélisation par Reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) est une méthode générale de modélisation structurale à partir d'un ensemble de données expérimentales. Cette méthode étant très souple, elle peut s'appliquer à de nombreux types de données. Jusqu'à présent ces applications comprennent : la diffraction des neutrons (y compris la substitution isotopique), la diffraction des rayons X (y compris la diffusion anomale), la diffraction des électrons, la RMN (les techniques d'angle magique et de 2ème moment) et l'EXAFS. Les systèmes étudiés sont également d'une grande variété : liquides, verres, polymères, cristaux et matériaux magnétiques, par exemple. Ce cours présente les bases de la méthode RMC en signalant certaines des idées fausses répandues. L'accent sera mis sur le fait que les modèles structuraux obtenus par RMC ne sont ni'uniques' ni 'exacts' ; cependant ils sont souvent utiles à la compréhension soit de la structure du système, soit des relations entre structure et autres propriétés physiques.

McGreevy, R. L.

2003-09-01

111

Distinct PAR\\/IQGAP expression patterns during murine development: implications for thrombin-associated cytoskeletal reorganization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thrombin has a critical role in many adult and embryologic cellular processes, exerting its effects through two high-affinity thrombin receptor systems: protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) and the PAR3\\/PAR4 system. Both hPAR1 and hPAR3 are coclustered in the human genome, with hPAR3 encompassed within hIQGAP2, a putative GTPase activating protein with actin polymerizing functions linked to cytoskeletal reorganization. Since hPARs colocalize

Lisa D. Cupit; Valentina A. Schmidt; Frederick Miller; Wadie F. Bahou

2004-01-01

112

PARS: a web server for the prediction of Protein Allosteric and Regulatory Sites.  

PubMed

The regulation of protein activity is a key aspect of life at the molecular level. Unveiling its details is thus crucial to understanding signalling and metabolic pathways. The most common and powerful mechanism of protein-function regulation is allostery, which has been increasingly calling the attention of medicinal chemists due to its potential for the discovery of novel therapeutics. In this context, PARS is a simple and fast method that queries protein dynamics and structural conservation to identify pockets on a protein structure that may exert a regulatory effect on the binding of a small-molecule ligand. PMID:24413526

Panjkovich, Alejandro; Daura, Xavier

2014-05-01

113

An Explanation for Increasing PAR Reflectance When Plants Are Water Stressed: Implication for Remote/Nondestructive Measurement of Plant Photoprotective Response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical reflectance from leaf surfaces has been known for decades to increase with decreasing leaf water content. Experimental results show this increase consistently in maize in the visible (photosynthetically active radiation - PAR) and middle infrared (MIR) spectral regions and with weaker correlation in the near infrared (NIR) region. Changes in chlorophyll concentration have been shown to be too small to substantially contribute to increasing reflectance during the duration of these experiments. Therefore, the reflectance responses to water deficit are perplexing since reflectance in the PAR region is dominated by pigment absorption while reflectance in the MIR region is dominated by water molecule absorption. We report on recent experiments with maize which indicate that the reflectance changes during water stress in the PAR and MIR regions are due to changing optical absorption whilst those in the NIR region are due to changing optical scatter and, moreover, that reflectance in PAR and MIR is influenced by down-welling irradiance. The implication is that reflectance in PAR is influenced by both pigment absorption and plant stress level. These findings, with confirmation by microscopy, establish that increasing PAR reflectance induced by water stress results, primarily, from chloroplast avoidance movement, a plant photoprotective response, which decreases light absorption by pigments. We discuss the potential for using this phenomenon to detect and measure the level of plant stress.

Zygielbaum, A. I.; Arkebauer, T. J.; Walter-Shea, E. A.; Scoby, D. L.; Gitelson, A. A.

2011-12-01

114

Structural basis for Par-4 recognition by the SPRY domain- and SOCS box-containing proteins SPSB1, SPSB2, and SPSB4.  

PubMed

The mammalian SPRY domain- and SOCS box-containing proteins, SPSB1 to SPSB4, belong to the SOCS box family of E3 ubiquitin ligases. Substrate recognition sites for the SPRY domain are identified only for human Par-4 (ELNNNL) and for the Drosophila orthologue GUSTAVUS binding to the DEAD-box RNA helicase VASA (DINNNN). To further investigate this consensus motif, we determined the crystal structures of SPSB1, SPSB2, and SPSB4, as well as their binding modes and affinities for both Par-4 and VASA. Mutation of each of the three Asn residues in Par-4 abrogated binding to all three SPSB proteins, while changing EL to DI enhanced binding. By comparison to SPSB1 and SPSB4, the more divergent protein SPSB2 showed only weak binding to Par-4 and was hypersensitive to DI substitution. Par-4((59-77)) binding perturbed NMR resonances from a number of SPSB2 residues flanking the ELNNN binding site, including loop D, which binds the EL/DI sequence. Although interactions with the consensus peptide motif were conserved in all structures, flanking sites in SPSB2 were identified as sites of structural change. These structural changes limit high-affinity interactions for SPSB2 to aspartate-containing sequences, whereas SPSB1 and SPSB4 bind strongly to both Par-4 and VASA peptides. PMID:20561531

Filippakopoulos, Panagis; Low, Andrew; Sharpe, Timothy D; Uppenberg, Jonas; Yao, Shenggen; Kuang, Zhihe; Savitsky, Pavel; Lewis, Rowena S; Nicholson, Sandra E; Norton, Raymond S; Bullock, Alex N

2010-08-20

115

The protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2) polymorphic variant F240S constitutively activates PAR2 receptors and potentiates responses to small-molecule PAR2 agonists.  

PubMed

AC-55541 [N-[[1-(3-bromo-phenyl)-eth-(E)-ylidene-hydrazinocarbonyl]-(4-oxo-3,4-dihydro-phthalazin-1-yl)-methyl]-benzamide] and AC-264613 [2-oxo-4-phenylpyrrolidine-3-carboxylic acid [1-(3-bromo-phenyl)-(E/Z)-ethylidene]-hydrazide] are the first two small-molecule agonists described for the G protein-coupled receptor protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2), but whether they activate PAR2 through a similar mechanism as its tethered peptide ligand or soluble peptide mimetics of its tethered peptide ligand is unclear. Extracellular loop 2 (ECL2) has been shown to play a critical role in the activation mechanism of PAR2. Therefore, we constructed a series of PAR2 receptors mutated in ECL2, including a previously described polymorphic variant of PAR2 (F240S), and compared AC-55541 and AC-264613 to SLIGRL and a potent analog of SLIGRL called 2-furoyl LIGRLO in a series of functional assays, including cellular proliferation, phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis, and ?-arrestin recruitment assays. Surprisingly, receptors with the F240S mutation were constitutively active in all functional assays tested. Furthermore, AC-55541 and AC-264613 were potentiated over 30-fold at the receptors with the F240S mutation, whereas SLIGRL and 2-furoyl LIGRLO were much less affected. In contrast, mutagenesis of charged residues in ECL2 confirmed their important role in the actions of peptide agonists of PAR2, whereas these mutations did not significantly affect activation of PAR2 by AC-55541 or AC-264613. These results suggest that F240S PAR2 receptors may be useful in screens to detect novel small-molecule PAR2 modulators and that further work on the biological importance of the F240S PAR2 variant is warranted. PMID:24078870

Ma, Jian-Nong; Burstein, Ethan S

2013-12-01

116

Apoptosis by Par4 in cancer and neurodegenerative diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prostate apoptosis response-4 (par-4) is a pro-apoptotic gene identified in prostate cancer cells undergoing apoptosis. Par-4 protein, which contains a leucine zipper domain at the carboxy-terminus, functions as a transcriptional repressor in the nucleus. Par-4 selectively induces apoptosis in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells and Ras-transformed cells but not in androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells or normal cells. Cells that are resistant

Nadia El-Guendy; Vivek M Rangnekar

2003-01-01

117

Regulation of cancer cell survival by Par-4.  

PubMed

Prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) is a unique pro-apoptotic protein that selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cells. Moreover, Par-4 sensitizes cells to the action of diverse apoptotic stimuli and causes tumor regression. This review discusses the prominent structural and functional features of Par-4 and the multiple levels of regulation of its apoptotic function, all of which can be utilized to develop targeted cancer therapy. PMID:16382046

Ranganathan, Padhma; Rangnekar, Vivek M

2005-11-01

118

A new method for PAR reduction in baseband DMT systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high peak-to-average power ratio (PAR) in real-baseband discrete multitone modulation (DMT) systems can significantly limit performance. Tone reservation techniques use unavailable or reserved tones to design a peak-cancelling signal that lowers the PAR of a transmit data block. Previous methods converge very slowly to a good solution. Our new active-set method converges much faster toward a minimum-PAR solution at

Brian S. Krongold; Douglas L. Jones

2001-01-01

119

Water Conservation Devices: Residential Water Conservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A consumer-oriented capsule report highlights findings of research projects funded through the Office of Water Research and Technology which treat the significance, economics, and application of water conservation. Water conservation measures and devices,...

1977-01-01

120

ParABS system in chromosome partitioning in the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus.  

PubMed

Chromosome segregation is an essential cellular function in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. The ParABS system is a fundamental player for a mitosis-like process in chromosome partitioning in many bacterial species. This work shows that the social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus also uses the ParABS system for chromosome segregation. Its large prokaryotic genome of 9.1 Mb contains 22 parS sequences near the origin of replication, and it is shown here that M. xanthus ParB binds preferentially to a consensus parS sequence in vitro. ParB and ParA are essential for cell viability in M. xanthus as in Caulobacter crescentus, but unlike in many other bacteria. Absence of ParB results in anucleate cells, chromosome segregation defects and loss of viability. Analysis of ParA subcellular localization shows that it clusters at the poles in all cells, and in some, in the DNA-free cell division plane between two chromosomal DNA masses. This ParA localization pattern depends on ParB but not on FtsZ. ParB inhibits the nonspecific interaction of ParA with DNA, and ParA colocalizes with chromosomal DNA only when ParB is depleted. The subcellular localization of ParB suggests a single ParB-parS complex localized at the edge of the nucleoid, next to a polar ParA cluster, with a second ParB-parS complex migrating after the replication of parS takes place to the opposite nucleoid edge, next to the other polar ParA cluster. PMID:24466283

Iniesta, Antonio A

2014-01-01

121

ParABS System in Chromosome Partitioning in the Bacterium Myxococcus xanthus  

PubMed Central

Chromosome segregation is an essential cellular function in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. The ParABS system is a fundamental player for a mitosis-like process in chromosome partitioning in many bacterial species. This work shows that the social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus also uses the ParABS system for chromosome segregation. Its large prokaryotic genome of 9.1 Mb contains 22 parS sequences near the origin of replication, and it is shown here that M. xanthus ParB binds preferentially to a consensus parS sequence in vitro. ParB and ParA are essential for cell viability in M. xanthus as in Caulobacter crescentus, but unlike in many other bacteria. Absence of ParB results in anucleate cells, chromosome segregation defects and loss of viability. Analysis of ParA subcellular localization shows that it clusters at the poles in all cells, and in some, in the DNA-free cell division plane between two chromosomal DNA masses. This ParA localization pattern depends on ParB but not on FtsZ. ParB inhibits the nonspecific interaction of ParA with DNA, and ParA colocalizes with chromosomal DNA only when ParB is depleted. The subcellular localization of ParB suggests a single ParB-parS complex localized at the edge of the nucleoid, next to a polar ParA cluster, with a second ParB-parS complex migrating after the replication of parS takes place to the opposite nucleoid edge, next to the other polar ParA cluster.

Iniesta, Antonio A.

2014-01-01

122

Analyses par diffraction de rayons X sur des revêtements barrières thermiques réalisés par un procédé hybride plasma-laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Les revêtements barrières thermiques (BTs) constitués de zircone yttriée partiellement stabilisée (ZrO{2} + 7% en masse d'Y{2}O{3}) et d'une sous-couche métallique (MCrAlY où M représente une combinaison de nickel et de cobalt) sont extrêmement utilisés afin d'améliorer les performances des composants des parties chaudes des turbines à gaz. La projection plasma sous atmosphère ambiante et l'irradiation laser in situ (au moyen d'un laser à diodes) sont associés ici afin de modifier les caractéristiques structurales des BTs. Les phases présentes au sein de la BT ont un rôle important. Des analyses par diffraction de rayons X ont été menées pour étudier les changements de phase possibles après traitement laser. Aucun changement de phase n'a été remarqué : la phase tétragonale métastable (t') demeure la phase prépondérante aussi bien pour les dépôts projetés que les dépôts post-traités au laser et refondus in situ. La formation de cette phase semble être liée à la solidification et au refroidissement rapide découlant de la projection plasma ainsi que de la refusion laser. Ce résultat est prometteur, car :

Antou, G.; Hlawka, F.; Montavon, G.; Bach, M.; Cornet, A.; Coddet, C.

2004-11-01

123

Modelisation par elements finis du muscle strie  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ce present projet de recherche a permis. de creer un modele par elements finis du muscle strie humain dans le but d'etudier les mecanismes engendrant les lesions musculaires traumatiques. Ce modele constitue une plate-forme numerique capable de discerner l'influence des proprietes mecaniques des fascias et de la cellule musculaire sur le comportement dynamique du muscle lors d'une contraction excentrique, notamment le module de Young et le module de cisaillement de la couche de tissu conjonctif, l'orientation des fibres de collagene de cette membrane et le coefficient de poisson du muscle. La caracterisation experimentale in vitro de ces parametres pour des vitesses de deformation elevees a partir de muscles stries humains actifs est essentielle pour l'etude de lesions musculaires traumatiques. Le modele numerique developpe est capable de modeliser la contraction musculaire comme une transition de phase de la cellule musculaire par un changement de raideur et de volume a l'aide des lois de comportement de materiau predefinies dans le logiciel LS-DYNA (v971, Livermore Software Technology Corporation, Livermore, CA, USA). Le present projet de recherche introduit donc un phenomene physiologique qui pourrait expliquer des blessures musculaires courantes (crampes, courbatures, claquages, etc.), mais aussi des maladies ou desordres touchant le tissu conjonctif comme les collagenoses et la dystrophie musculaire. La predominance de blessures musculaires lors de contractions excentriques est egalement exposee. Le modele developpe dans ce projet de recherche met ainsi a l'avant-scene le concept de transition de phase ouvrant la porte au developpement de nouvelles technologies pour l'activation musculaire chez les personnes atteintes de paraplegie ou de muscles artificiels compacts pour l'elaboration de protheses ou d'exosquelettes. Mots-cles Muscle strie, lesion musculaire, fascia, contraction excentrique, modele par elements finis, transition de phase

Leonard, Mathieu

124

Childhood Pars Planitis; Clinical Features and Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the demographic and clinical features of childhood pars planitis, and to determine the therapeutic and visual outcomes of the disease. Methods Medical records of pediatric patients (less than 16 years of age at diagnosis) with pars planitis and at least 6 months of follow-up who were referred to Labbafinejad Medical Center, Tehran, Iran over a 22 year period were reviewed. Results Overall, 117 eyes of 61 patients including 51 (83.6%) male subjects were included. Mean age at the time of diagnosis was 7.8±3.2 (range, 3–16) years. Mean best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 0.88±0.76 logMAR at presentation which improved to 0.39±0.51 logMAR at final visit (P<0.001). Endotheliitis was present in 23 (19.6%) eyes and was significantly more prevalent in subjects younger than 9 years (P=0.025). Cataract formation (41.9%) and cystoid macular edema (19.7%) were the most prevalent complications. Univariate regression analysis showed that better baseline visual acuity (OR=0.38, 95%CI 0.21–0.70, P=0.002), age older than 5 years at disease onset (OR=0.36, 95%CI 0.14–0.9, P=0.029), absence of endotheliitis (OR=0.39, 95%CI 0.15–0.99, P=0.047) and female gender (OR=3.77, 95%CI 1.03–13.93, P=0.046) were significantly associated with final BCVA of 20/40 or better. Conclusion Childhood pars planitis was much more common among male subjects. Endotheliitis may be a sign of inflammation spillover and is more prevalent in younger patients. Visual prognosis is favorable in most patients with appropriate treatment.

Nikkhah, Homayoon; Ramezani, Alireza; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Soheilian, Masoud; Azarmina, Mohsen; Dehghan, Mohammad-Hossein; Moradian, Siamak; Nourinia, Ramin

2011-01-01

125

L’endoscopie vue par le malade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé  Les auteurs se proposent de vérifier si et en quelle mesure un examen œsophago-gastro-duodenoscopique altère ou modifie le\\u000a schéma corporel de l’individu.\\u000a \\u000a Comme instrument de recherche les A.A. ont employé le dessin, en tant que moins sujet à des modifications conscientes ou inconscientes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a On a examiné 30 malades hétérogènes par sexe, âge, culture et condition socio-économique. A l’intérieur de cet

G. Schelotto; F. Molinari; E. Bovero

1977-01-01

126

[Vision loss after uncomplicated pars plana vitrectomy].  

PubMed

Every eye surgery has its pitfalls and possible complications. Even after properly and noncomplicated orbital or intraocular surgery there can develop a loss of visual acuity or visual field. In the perioperative period was on the operated eye for epimacular membrane (23G pars plana vitrectomy) retinal arterial occlusion with fatal consequences for visual function. Entrance visual acuity decreased from 20/63 to counting fingers. Risk factors for age-related and underlying diseases were accompanied by systemic hypotension and mild anemia. Commonly available topical and general therapy did not lead to any significant improvement. PMID:24697538

Hejsek, L; Dusová, J; Stepanov, A; Rozsíval, P

2013-12-01

127

Current status of accelerated partial breast irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is a radiotherapy method used in breast-conserving therapy. In APBI, the tumor\\u000a bed is topically irradiated over a short period after breast-conserving surgery. The fundamental concept underlying APBI is\\u000a that more than 70% of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence occurs in the neighborhood of the original tumor, and that hypofractionated\\u000a radiotherapy can be applied safely when

Michihide Mitsumori; Masahiro Hiraoka

2008-01-01

128

Condensation and localization of the partitioning protein ParB on the bacterial chromosome.  

PubMed

The ParABS system mediates chromosome segregation and plasmid partitioning in many bacteria. As part of the partitioning mechanism, ParB proteins form a nucleoprotein complex at parS sites. The biophysical basis underlying ParB-DNA complex formation and localization remains elusive. Specifically, it is unclear whether ParB spreads in 1D along DNA or assembles into a 3D protein-DNA complex. We show that a combination of 1D spreading bonds and a single 3D bridging bond between ParB proteins constitutes a minimal model for a condensed ParB-DNA complex. This model implies a scaling behavior for ParB-mediated silencing of parS-flanking genes, which we confirm to be satisfied by experimental data from P1 plasmids. Furthermore, this model is consistent with experiments on the effects of DNA roadblocks on ParB localization. Finally, we show experimentally that a single parS site is necessary and sufficient for ParB-DNA complex formation in vivo. Together with our model, this suggests that ParB binding to parS triggers a conformational switch in ParB that overcomes a nucleation barrier. Conceptually, the combination of spreading and bridging bonds in our model provides a surface tension ensuring the condensation of the ParB-DNA complex, with analogies to liquid-like compartments such as nucleoli in eukaryotes. PMID:24927534

Broedersz, Chase P; Wang, Xindan; Meir, Yigal; Loparo, Joseph J; Rudner, David Z; Wingreen, Ned S

2014-06-17

129

Apoptosis by Par-4 in cancer and neurodegenerative diseases.  

PubMed

Prostate apoptosis response-4 (par-4) is a pro-apoptotic gene identified in prostate cancer cells undergoing apoptosis. Par-4 protein, which contains a leucine zipper domain at the carboxy-terminus, functions as a transcriptional repressor in the nucleus. Par-4 selectively induces apoptosis in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells and Ras-transformed cells but not in androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells or normal cells. Cells that are resistant to apoptosis by Par-4 alone, however, are greatly sensitized by Par-4 to the action of other pro-apoptotic insults such as growth factor withdrawal, tumor necrosis factor, ionizing radiation, intracellular calcium elevation, or those involved in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's, and stroke. Apoptosis induction by Par-4 involves a complex mechanism that requires activation of the Fas death receptor signaling pathway and coparallel inhibition of cell survival NF-kappaB transcription activity. The unique ability of Par-4 to induce apoptosis in cancer cells but not normal cells and the ability of Par-4 antisense or dominant-negative mutant to abrogate apoptosis in neurodegenerative disease paradigms makes it an appealing candidate for molecular therapy of cancer and neuronal diseases. PMID:12565819

El-Guendy, Nadia; Rangnekar, Vivek M

2003-02-01

130

Clinical and immunopathological studies of pars planitis in a family  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined a family in which two brothers with identical HLA typing have pars planitis with snowbanking. Immunopathological studies of one of their eyes showed that in the area of snowbanking over the pars plana there was mild to moderate inflammatory cell infiltration, consisting of mostly Pan T (Leu 4+) lymphocytes. The ratio of T helper\\/inducer to T suppressor\\/cytotoxic cells

R P Wetzig; C C Chan; R B Nussenblatt; A G Palestine; D O Mazur; K K Mittal

1988-01-01

131

Mutually exclusive expression patterns of Bcl2 and Par4 in human prostate tumors consistent with down-regulation of Bcl2 by Par4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Par-4 is a widely expressed protein that sensitizes both prostatic and non-prostatic cells to apoptosis. Constitutive- or regulated- overexpression of Par-4 caused a reduction in the levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Replenishment of Bcl-2 levels abrogated susceptibility to Par-4-dependent apoptosis, suggesting that Par-4-mediated apoptosis requires downmodulation of Bcl-2 levels. The inverse correlation between Par-4 and Bcl-2 expression was recapitulated

Guofang Qiu; Mansoor Ahmed; Stephen F Sells; Mohammed Mohiuddin; Michael H Weinstein; Vivek M Rangnekar

1999-01-01

132

Recombination in the Human Pseudoautosomal Region PAR1  

PubMed Central

The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) is a short region of homology between the mammalian X and Y chromosomes, which has undergone rapid evolution. A crossover in the PAR is essential for the proper disjunction of X and Y chromosomes in male meiosis, and PAR deletion results in male sterility. This leads the human PAR with the obligatory crossover, PAR1, to having an exceptionally high male crossover rate, which is 17-fold higher than the genome-wide average. However, the mechanism by which this obligatory crossover occurs remains unknown, as does the fine-scale positioning of crossovers across this region. Recent research in mice has suggested that crossovers in PAR may be mediated independently of the protein PRDM9, which localises virtually all crossovers in the autosomes. To investigate recombination in this region, we construct the most fine-scale genetic map containing directly observed crossovers to date using African-American pedigrees. We leverage recombination rates inferred from the breakdown of linkage disequilibrium in human populations and investigate the signatures of DNA evolution due to recombination. Further, we identify direct PRDM9 binding sites using ChIP-seq in human cells. Using these independent lines of evidence, we show that, in contrast with mouse, PRDM9 does localise peaks of recombination in the human PAR1. We find that recombination is a far more rapid and intense driver of sequence evolution in PAR1 than it is on the autosomes. We also show that PAR1 hotspot activities differ significantly among human populations. Finally, we find evidence that PAR1 hotspot positions have changed between human and chimpanzee, with no evidence of sharing among the hottest hotspots. We anticipate that the genetic maps built and validated in this work will aid research on this vital and fascinating region of the genome.

Hinch, Anjali G.; Altemose, Nicolas; Noor, Nudrat; Donnelly, Peter; Myers, Simon R.

2014-01-01

133

TMS suppression of right pars triangularis, but not pars opercularis, improves naming in aphasia.  

PubMed

This study sought to discover if an optimum 1 cm(2) area in the non-damaged right hemisphere (RH) was present, which could temporarily improve naming in chronic, nonfluent aphasia patients when suppressed with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Ten minutes of slow, 1Hz rTMS was applied to suppress different RH ROIs in eight aphasia cases. Picture naming and response time (RT) were examined before, and immediately after rTMS. In aphasia patients, suppression of right pars triangularis (PTr) led to significant increase in pictures named, and significant decrease in RT. Suppression of right pars opercularis (POp), however, led to significant increase in RT, but no change in number of pictures named. Eight normals named all pictures correctly; similar to aphasia patients, RT significantly decreased following rTMS to suppress right PTr, versus right POp. Differential effects following suppression of right PTr versus right POp suggest different functional roles for these regions. PMID:21864891

Naeser, Margaret A; Martin, Paula I; Theoret, Hugo; Kobayashi, Masahito; Fregni, Felipe; Nicholas, Marjorie; Tormos, Jose M; Steven, Megan S; Baker, Errol H; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

2011-12-01

134

TMS suppression of right pars triangularis, but not pars opercularis, improves naming in aphasia  

PubMed Central

This study sought to discover if an optimum 1 cm2 area in the non-damaged right hemisphere (RH) was present, which could temporarily improve naming in chronic, nonfluent aphasia patients when suppressed with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Ten minutes of slow, 1 Hz rTMS was applied to suppress different RH ROIs in eight aphasia cases. Picture naming and response time (RT) were examined before, and immediately after rTMS. In aphasia patients, suppression of right pars triangularis (PTr) led to significant increase in pictures named, and significant decrease in RT. Suppression of right pars opercularis (POp), however, led to significant increase in RT, but no change in number of pictures named. Eight normals named all pictures correctly; similar to aphasia patients, RT significantly decreased following rTMS to suppress right PTr, versus right POp. Differential effects following suppression of right PTr versus right POp suggest different functional roles for these regions.

Naeser, Margaret A.; Martin, Paula I.; Theoret, Hugo; Kobayashi, Masahito; Fregni, Felipe; Nicholas, Marjorie; Tormos, Jose M.; Steven, Megan S.; Baker, Errol H.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

2011-01-01

135

Conservation potential of agricultural water conservation subsidies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A current policy subsidizes farmers to invest in improved on-farm irrigation efficiency, expecting water to be conserved off farm. Contrary to expectation, water has been increasingly depleted in some regions after such improvements. This paper investigates the policy's failure to conserve water consistently by (1) formulating an economic model of irrigated crop production to determine a profit-maximizing irrigator's range of responses to a subsidy and (2) embedding these responses into hypothetical streamflow diagrams to ascertain their potential to conserve water under various hydrologic regimes. Testable hypotheses are developed to predict the conservation potential of a subsidy in real-world application.

Huffaker, Ray

2008-07-01

136

Novel Role for Proteinase-activated Receptor 2 (PAR2) in Membrane Trafficking of Proteinase-activated Receptor 4 (PAR4)*  

PubMed Central

Proteinase-activated receptors 4 (PAR4) is a class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) recognized through the ability of serine proteases such as thrombin and trypsin to mediate receptor activation. Due to the irreversible nature of activation, a fresh supply of receptor is required to be mobilized to the cell surface for responsiveness to agonist to be sustained. Unlike other PAR subtypes, the mechanisms regulating receptor trafficking of PAR4 remain unknown. Here, we report novel features of the intracellular trafficking of PAR4 to the plasma membrane. PAR4 was poorly expressed at the plasma membrane and largely retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in a complex with the COPI protein subunit ?-COP1. Analysis of the PAR4 protein sequence identified an arginine-based (RXR) ER retention sequence located within intracellular loop-2 (R183AR ? A183AA), mutation of which allowed efficient membrane delivery of PAR4. Interestingly, co-expression with PAR2 facilitated plasma membrane delivery of PAR4, an effect produced through disruption of ?-COP1 binding and facilitation of interaction with the chaperone protein 14-3-3?. Intermolecular FRET studies confirmed heterodimerization between PAR2 and PAR4. PAR2 also enhanced glycosylation of PAR4 and activation of PAR4 signaling. Our results identify a novel regulatory role for PAR2 in the anterograde traffic of PAR4. PAR2 was shown to both facilitate and abrogate protein interactions with PAR4, impacting upon receptor localization and cell signal transduction. This work is likely to impact markedly upon the understanding of the receptor pharmacology of PAR4 in normal physiology and disease.

Cunningham, Margaret R.; McIntosh, Kathryn A.; Pediani, John D.; Robben, Joris; Cooke, Alexandra E.; Nilsson, Mary; Gould, Gwyn W.; Mundell, Stuart; Milligan, Graeme; Plevin, Robin

2012-01-01

137

Simulation de l'accretion de glace sur un obstacle bidimensionnel par la methode des bissectrices et par la modelisation des ruisselets et des gouttes de surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Le LIMA (Laboratoire International des Materiaux Antigivre) en collaboration avec le CIRA (Italian Aerospace Research Centre) a developpe un logiciel simulant l'accretion de la glace en regimes sec et humide sur un objet bidimensionnel fixe. L'approche utilisee s'appuie sur les travaux de Lozowski pour les bilans energetiques, sur une etude du comportement du film d'eau, des ruisselets et des gouttes de surface pour le calcul des rugosites et des masses d'eau residuelle, ainsi que sur une methode de bissectrice pour l'evolution de la surface de glace. La contribution du CIRA a ete de fournir le logiciel pour le calcul des ecoulements et de la captation. Le bilan energetique base sur la conservation de l'energie est la sommation de la chaleur latente de fusion, d'evaporation et de sublimation, du rechauffement adiabatique et cinetique, et des pertes de chaleur par convection et conduction, ainsi que de l'evolution thermodynamique de l'eau de son etat initial a son etat final. La densite de la glace, qui a un impact important sur la simulation, est calculee a partir d'une correlation empirique developpee avec les cylindres tournants. En se basant sur les travaux de Al-Khalil et Hansman, le comportement des gouttes en regimes sec et humide a ete decrit analytiquement, ce qui a mene a determiner la hauteur maximale que peuvent atteindre les gouttes avant mouvement. Cette hauteur, appelee hauteur de mouvement, permet de determiner l'etat de l'eau sur la surface (film, ruisselets ou gouttes), ainsi que la hauteur des rugosites lorsque l'eau existe sous forme de gouttes ou de ruisselets. La hauteur de mouvement est determinee par l'equilibre entre les forces de cisaillement, induites par les effets aerodynamiques et gravitationnels evalues pour une goutte non deformee, et la force de cisaillement, induite par la tension de surface et la deformation de la goutte. Elle a ete validee en laboratoire et la precision obtenue pour la partie aerodynamique et gravitationnelle est de 80%. L'etude de la vague qui se forme sur le film a permis de determiner la hauteur des rugosites lorsque l'eau existe sous forme de film. La masse d'eau residuelle est calculee a partir des modeles analytiques elabores selon l'etat de surface et la hauteur de mouvement. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Fortin, Guy

138

Taare Zameen Par and dyslexic savants  

PubMed Central

The film Taare Zameen Par (Stars upon the Ground) portrays the tormented life at school and at home of a child with dyslexia and his eventual success after his artistic talents are discovered by his art teacher at the boarding school. The film hints at a curious neurocognitive phenomenon of creativity in the midst of language disability, as exemplified in the lives of people like Leonardo da Vinci and Albert Einstein, both of whom demonstrated extraordinary creativity even though they were probably affected with developmental learning disorders. It has been hypothesized that a developmental delay in the dominant hemisphere most likely ‘disinhibits’ the nondominant parietal lobe, unmasking talents—artistic or otherwise—in some such individuals. It has been suggested that, in remedial training, children with learning disorders be encouraged to develop such hidden talents to full capacity, rather than be subjected to the usual overemphasis on the correction of the disturbed coded symbol operations.

Chakravarty, Ambar

2009-01-01

139

Control of Cleavage Spindle Orientation in Caenorhabditis Elegans: The Role of the Genes Par-2 and Par-3  

PubMed Central

Polarized asymmetric divisions play important roles in the development of plants and animals. The first two embryonic cleavages of Caenorhabditis elegans provide an opportunity to study the mechanisms controlling polarized asymmetric divisions. The first cleavage is unequal, producing daughters with different sizes and fates. The daughter blastomeres divide with different orientations at the second cleavage; the anterior blastomere divides equally across the long axis of the egg, whereas the posterior blastomere divides unequally along the long axis. We report here the results of our analysis of the genes par-2 and par-3 with respect to their contribution to the polarity of these division. Strong loss-of-function mutations in both genes lead to an equal first cleavage and an altered second cleavage. Interestingly, the mutations exhibit striking gene-specific differences at the second cleavage. The par-2 mutations lead to transverse spindle orientations in both blastomeres, whereas par-3 mutations lead to longitudinal spindle orientations in both blastomeres. The spindle orientation defects correlate with defects in centrosome movements during both the first and the second cell cycle. Temperature shift experiments with par-2(it5ts) indicate that the par-2(+) activity is not required after the two-cell stage. Analysis of double mutants shows that par-3 is epistatic to par-2. We propose a model wherein par-2(+) and par-3(+) act in concert during the first cell cycle to affect asymmetric modification of the cytoskeleton. This polar modification leads to different behaviors of centrosomes in the anterior and posterior and leads ultimately to blastomere-specific spindle orientations at the second cleavage.

Cheng, N. N.; Kirby, C. M.; Kemphues, K. J.

1995-01-01

140

Mapping Human Protease-activated Receptor 4 (PAR4) Homodimer Interface to Transmembrane Helix 4*  

PubMed Central

Thrombin activates platelets by binding and cleaving protease-activated receptors 1 and 4 (PAR1 and PAR4). Because of the importance of PAR4 activation on platelets in humans and mice and emerging roles for PAR4 in other tissues, experiments were done to characterize the interaction between PAR4 homodimers. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) were used to examine the PAR4 homodimer interface. In bimolecular fluorescence complementation experiments, PAR4 formed homodimers that were disrupted by unlabeled PAR4 in a concentration-dependent manner, but not by rhodopsin. In BRET experiments, the PAR4 homodimers showed a specific interaction as indicated by a hyperbolic BRET signal in response to increasing PAR4-GFP expression. PAR4 did not interact with rhodopsin in BRET assays. The threshold maximum BRET signal was disrupted in a concentration-dependent manner by unlabeled PAR4. In contrast, rhodopsin was unable to disrupt the BRET signal, indicating that the disruption of the PAR4 homodimer is not due to nonspecific interactions. A panel of rho-PAR4 chimeras and PAR4 point mutants has mapped the dimer interface to hydrophobic residues in transmembrane helix 4. Finally, mutations that disrupted dimer formation had reduced calcium mobilization in response to the PAR4 agonist peptide. These results link the loss of dimer formation to a loss of PAR4 signaling.

de la Fuente, Maria; Noble, Daniel N.; Verma, Sheetal; Nieman, Marvin T.

2012-01-01

141

Insight into centromere-binding properties of ParB proteins: a secondary binding motif is essential for bacterial genome maintenance  

PubMed Central

ParB proteins are one of the three essential components of partition systems that actively segregate bacterial chromosomes and plasmids. In binding to centromere sequences, ParB assembles as nucleoprotein structures called partition complexes. These assemblies are the substrates for the partitioning process that ensures DNA molecules are segregated to both sides of the cell. We recently identified the sopC centromere nucleotides required for binding to the ParB homologue of plasmid F, SopB. This analysis also suggested a role in sopC binding for an arginine residue, R219, located outside the helix-turn-helix (HTH) DNA-binding motif previously shown to be the only determinant for sopC-specific binding. Here, we demonstrated that the R219 residue is critical for SopB binding to sopC during partition. Mutating R219 to alanine or lysine abolished partition by preventing partition complex assembly. Thus, specificity of SopB binding relies on two distinct motifs, an HTH and an arginine residue, which define a split DNA-binding domain larger than previously thought. Bioinformatic analysis over a broad range of chromosomal ParBs generalized our findings with the identification of a non-HTH positively charged residue essential for partition and centromere binding, present in a newly identified highly conserved motif. We propose that ParB proteins possess two DNA-binding motifs that form an extended centromere-binding domain, providing high specificity.

Sanchez, Aurore; Rech, Jerome; Gasc, Cyrielle; Bouet, Jean-Yves

2013-01-01

142

Insight into centromere-binding properties of ParB proteins: a secondary binding motif is essential for bacterial genome maintenance.  

PubMed

ParB proteins are one of the three essential components of partition systems that actively segregate bacterial chromosomes and plasmids. In binding to centromere sequences, ParB assembles as nucleoprotein structures called partition complexes. These assemblies are the substrates for the partitioning process that ensures DNA molecules are segregated to both sides of the cell. We recently identified the sopC centromere nucleotides required for binding to the ParB homologue of plasmid F, SopB. This analysis also suggested a role in sopC binding for an arginine residue, R219, located outside the helix-turn-helix (HTH) DNA-binding motif previously shown to be the only determinant for sopC-specific binding. Here, we demonstrated that the R219 residue is critical for SopB binding to sopC during partition. Mutating R219 to alanine or lysine abolished partition by preventing partition complex assembly. Thus, specificity of SopB binding relies on two distinct motifs, an HTH and an arginine residue, which define a split DNA-binding domain larger than previously thought. Bioinformatic analysis over a broad range of chromosomal ParBs generalized our findings with the identification of a non-HTH positively charged residue essential for partition and centromere binding, present in a newly identified highly conserved motif. We propose that ParB proteins possess two DNA-binding motifs that form an extended centromere-binding domain, providing high specificity. PMID:23345617

Sanchez, Aurore; Rech, Jérôme; Gasc, Cyrielle; Bouet, Jean-Yves

2013-03-01

143

Conservation Education Today & Tomorrow: Resource Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This kit was developed by the Illinois Department of Conservation's Education Program with assistance from the State Board of Education, as a teaching tool which can be used to promote conservation awareness of young people. It is designed to enable educators to help students in grades 7-10 learn about Illinois' renewable natural resources through…

Illinois State Dept. of Conservation, Springfield.

144

Attenuated Vasodilator Effectiveness of Protease-Activated Receptor 2 Agonist in Heterozygous par2 Knockout Mice  

PubMed Central

Studies of homozygous PAR2 gene knockout mice have described a mix of phenotypic effects in vitro and in vivo. However, there have been few studies of PAR2 heterozygous (wild-type/knockout; PAR2-HET) mice. The phenotypes of many hemi and heterozygous transgenic mice have been described as intermediates between those of wild-type and knockout animals. In our study we aimed to determine the effects of intermediary par2 gene zygosity on vascular tissue responses to PAR2 activation. Specifically, we compared the vasodilator effectiveness of the PAR2 activating peptide 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-amide in aortas of wild-type PAR2 homozygous (PAR2-WT) and PAR2-HET mice. In myographs under isometric tension conditions, isolated aortic rings were contracted by alpha 1-adrenoeceptor agonist (phenylephrine), and thromboxane receptor agonist (U46619) and then relaxation responses by the additions of 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-amide, acetylcholine, and nitroprusside were recorded. A Schild regression analysis of the inhibition by a PAR2 antagonist (GB-83) of PAR2 agonist-induced aortic ring relaxations was used to compare receptor expression in PAR2-WT to PAR2-HET. PAR2 mRNA in aortas was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. In aortas contracted by either phenylephrine or U46619, the maximum relaxations induced by 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-amide were less in PAR2-HET than in the gender-matched PAR2-WT. GB-83 was 3- to 4-fold more potent for inhibition of 2fly in PAR2-HET than in PAR2-WT. PAR2 mRNA content of aortas from PAR2-HET was not significantly different than in PAR2-WT. Acetylcholine- and nitroprusside-induced relaxations of aortas from PAR2-HET were not significantly different than in PAR2-WT and PAR2 knockout. An interesting secondary finding was that relaxations induced by agonists of PAR2 and muscarinic receptors were larger in females than in males. We conclude that the lower PAR2-mediated responses in PAR2-HET aortas are consistent with evidence of a lower quantity of functional receptor expression, despite the apparently normal PAR2 mRNA content in PAR2-HET aortas.

Hennessey, John C.; McGuire, John J.

2013-01-01

145

Non-par banking: competition and monopoly in markets for payments services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Once the Federal Reserve Banks started providing par interbank funds transfers, their check collection service was unnecessary to bring nationwide par check collection in competitive banking markets. The survival of non-par banks probably reflected the absence of competition in the markets where they operated. The empirical evidence is consistent with this conclusion, since non-par banks typically were monopolists in isolated

Ed Stevens

1998-01-01

146

The Conservator's Studio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the Seattle Art Museum, this online resource explores the Art Conservator's profession, showing you 4 paintings through a conservator's eyes. The exhibit begins with an overview of the profession.

Museum, Seattle A.

147

Residential Water Conservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility of using various water conservation measures to reduce residential water demand was examined. Ten conservation techniques were found to be relevant. These included meters, recycle systems, devices, pressure and flow reducers, public educat...

W. P. Weakley

1977-01-01

148

Energy Conservation in Buildings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

These proceedings of the 5th Asian School present various aspects of energy conservation problems: analysis of the energy consumption trends since 1973 and the energy politics evolution, description of several energy conservation systems for residential a...

Anon

1987-01-01

149

From conservation genetics to conservation genomics.  

PubMed

Although the application of population and evolutionary genetic theory and methods to address issues of conservation relevance has a long history, the formalization of conservation genetics as a research field is still relatively recent. One of the periodic catalysts for increased research effort in the field has been advances in molecular technologies, leading to an increasingly wider variety of molecular markers for application in conservation genetic studies. To date, genetic methods have been applied in conservation biology primarily as selectively neutral molecular tools for resolving questions of conservation relevance. However, there has been renewed interest in complementing the analysis of neutral markers with the assessment of loci that may be directly involved in responses to processes such as environmental change, with a view to identifying the genes involved in them. These kinds of studies are now possible due to the increase in availability of genomic resources for nonmodel organisms, and there will likely be an even more rapid increase in the near future due to the advent of new ultrahigh throughput-sequencing technologies. This review considers the implications of the most recent developments in genomic technologies and their potential for contributing to the conservation of populations and species. Three "conservation genomics" case studies are presented (Atlantic salmon, Salmo sala; the butterfly, Melitaea cinxia; and the California condor, Gymnogyps californianus) in order to demonstrate the diversity of applications now possible. While it is clear that genomics approaches in conservation will not replace other tried-and-true methods, these recent developments open up an exciting new range of possibilities that will enable further diversification of the application of genomics in conservation biology. PMID:19432656

Primmer, Craig R

2009-04-01

150

Western Cave Conservancy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"The Western Cave Conservancy is dedicated to securing permanent protection for threatened caves in the western United States." The website provides a great summary about the reasons for the need for cave protection. Visitors can learn about the Conservancy's current efforts to save Rippled Cave and Marble Mountain Quarry Cave. Users can view numerous images of these two caves as well as pictures of the Conservancy at work. The website provides downloads to the Conservancy's newsletters and minutes and meeting notes.

151

The Ocean Conservancy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn about the Ocean Conservancy's conservation projects, the latest news in marine conservation, how to get involved, and more. Read over the current issues the Ocean Conservancy is working on, such as by catch, invasive species, and overfishing. Explore the "Fish and Wildlife" link for pictures and information on threatened and endangered animals; and read past and current issues of Blue Planet Magazine, OC's quarterly publication.

2012-05-03

152

PARS: Programs for Analysis and Resizing of Structures, user manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PARS processors and their use, flutter analysis, sensitivity analysis for stresses, and resizing are presented. Design variable definition and interface with finite element model, static constraints and their derivatives, flutter derivatives, and optimization are discussed.

Haftka, R. T.; Prasad, B.; Tsach, U.

1979-01-01

153

Conservation in Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed is the physical concept of conservation as it is framed within the laws of conservation of mass, of momentum, and of energy. The derivation of Ohm's Law as a generalization of the relationship between the observed measurements of voltage and current serves as the exemplar of how conservation theories are formed. (JJK)

Finkel, Edward

1991-01-01

154

Biodiversity and Conservation Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for Biodiversity and Conservation (CBC) at the American Museum of Natural History aims to "integrate scientific research, education, and outreach so that people, themselves major catalysts in the rapid loss of biodiversity, will become participants in its conservation." The CBC currently conducts biodiversity conservation research in the Bahamas, Bolivia, Madagascar, Vietnam, and in metropolitan New York.

2001-01-01

155

Par-4 inducible apoptosis in prostate cancer cells.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer is associated with the inability of prostatic epithelial cells to undergo apoptosis rather than with increased cell proliferation. Prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) is a unique pro-apoptotic molecule that is capable of selectively inducing apoptosis in cancer cells when over-expressed, sensitizing the cells to diverse apoptotic stimuli and causing regression of tumors in animal models. This review discusses the salient functions of Par-4 that can be harnessed to prostate cancer therapy. PMID:14755681

Gurumurthy, Sushma; Rangnekar, Vivek M

2004-02-15

156

Another application for trellis shaping: PAR reduction for DMT (OFDM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bound for the possible reduction of the peak-to-average ratio (PAR) dependent on the rate as well as possible practical procedures are presented. The idea of trellis shaping, originally used to minimize average transmit power in single-carrier systems, is applied to the problem of PAR reduction in multicarrier transmission. Its impact, as a function of code rate, as well as

Werner Henkel; Björn Wagner

2000-01-01

157

Immunohistochemical Analysis of the Proapoptotic Protein Par4 in Normal Rat Tissues1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prostate apoptosis response 4 (par-4) is a recently identified gene that encodes a transcription factor, Par-4, with a leucine zipper domain. Par-4 protein is constitutively expressed in various cell lines and is functionally required but not sufficient for apoptosis. Induction of Par-4 in cultured cells is found exclusively during apoptosis, and ectopic overexpression of Par-4 enhances the potency of apoptotic

Erwin R Boghaert; Stephen F. Sells; Al-Jumaily Walid; Patricia Malone; Neil M. Williams; Michael H. Weinstein; Robert Strange; Vivek M. Rangnekar

158

Pars intermedia peptides: studies in adult humans.  

PubMed

A combination of radioimmunoassays and chromatography under acid-dissociating conditions has been used to obtain profiles of ACTH and LPH-related peptides in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. The spectra of peptides observed in these two fluids differ markedly. ACTH, beta-LPH, gamma-LPH and beta-endorphin are observed in the plasma of normal subjects and patients with increased pituitary ACTH secretion, whereas cerebrospinal fluid contains ACTH, beta-LPH, gamma-LPH and beta-endorphin, a 31 000-molecular-weight putative precursor having ACTH, LPH and gamma-MSH immunoreactivities, as well as pro-gamma-MSH(1-77) and smaller immunoreactive gamma-MSH fragments, alpha-MSH was not observed in blood or cerebrospinal fluid but this pars intermedia peptide and corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP) were both found in tumour tissues obtained from patients with the ectopic ACTH syndrome. In vitro studies of human pituitary tumour tissues confirmed concomitant secretion of ACTH, beta-LPH, gamma-LPH, beta-endorphin and pro-gamma-MSH, which could be stimulated by a preparation of crude stalk median eminence and synthetic arginine vasopressin, from the rat, and could be suppressed by hydrocortisone. Clinical studies in which electroacupuncture was used to alleviate the symptoms of heroin withdrawal or recurrent pain revealed that concentrations of met-enkephalin and beta-endorphin, respectively, may rise in cerebrospinal fluid in association with relief of symptoms. PMID:6268379

Ratter, S J; McLoughlin, L; Gillies, G; Clement-Jones, V; Hope, J; Rees, L H

1981-01-01

159

The pars flaccida middle ear pressure and mastoid pneumatization index.  

PubMed

The degree of pars flaccida retraction and the levels of mastoid pneumatization were assessed and correlated in 388 adults with intact pars tensa. Poorly pneumatized mastoids were found to be associated with retraction of pars flaccida; the poorer the pneumatization, the deeper the retraction. Well pneumatized mastoids were usually associated with normal position of the pars flaccida. The pars flaccida was previously also shown to retract in face of ME negative pressure--and its degree can be seen to be an index of ME negative pressure. Thus, the correlation of deeper degrees of pars flaccida retractions with mastoid hypopneumatization (and vice versa) lends strength to the studies which show the mastoid pneumatic system to have a function of a passive ME pressure buffer. This observation lends further evidence as to why ears with poorly pneumatized mastoids are a priori at risk to develop complications such as SOM in adults, tympanic membrane retractions and perforations, incus necrosis or retraction pocket cholesteatoma. Ears with a large pneumatic system are hardly at such risk. PMID:8725533

Sadé, J; Fuchs, C; Luntz, M

1996-03-01

160

Exactly conservative integrators  

SciTech Connect

Traditional numerical discretizations of conservative systems generically yield an artificial secular drift of any nonlinear invariants. In this work we present an explicit nontraditional algorithm that exactly conserves invariants. We illustrate the general method by applying it to the Three-Wave truncation of the Euler equations, the Volterra-Lotka predator-prey model, and the Kepler problem. We discuss our method in the context of symplectic (phase space conserving) integration methods as well as nonsymplectic conservative methods. We comment on the application of our method to general conservative systems.

Shadwick, B.A.; Bowman, J.C.; Morrison, P.J.

1995-07-19

161

Conservation: Toward firmer ground  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following aspects of energy conservation were reviewed in order to place the problems in proper perspective: history and goals, conservation accounting-criteria, and a method to overcome obstacles. The effect of changing prices and available supplies of energy sources and their causes on consumption levels during the last few decades were described. Some examples of attainable conservation goals were listed and justified. A number of specific criteria applicable to conservation accounting were given. Finally, a discussion was presented to relate together the following aspects of energy conservation: widespread impact, involvement of government, industry, politics, moral and ethical aspects, urgency and time element.

1975-01-01

162

Exactly conservation integrators  

SciTech Connect

Traditional explicit numerical discretizations of conservative systems generically predict artificial secular drifts of any nonlinear invariants. In this work the authors present a general approach for developing explicit nontraditional algorithms that conserve such invariants exactly. They illustrate the method by applying it to the three-wave truncation of the Euler equations, the Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model, and the Kepler problem. The ideas are discussed in the context of symplectic (phase-space-conserving) integration methods as well as nonsymplectic conservative methods. They comment on the application of the method to general conservative systems.

Shadwick, B.A.; Bowman, J.C.; Morrison, P.J. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)] [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1999-03-01

163

American Bird Conservancy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Bird Conservancy (ABC) is a nonprofit organization working to "conserve wild birds and their habitats throughout the Americas." The ABC website provides informative and useful features such as the Bird Conservation Directory, a searchable directory of contact information for professionals engaged in bird conservation throughout the Americas, and the downloadable Birdwatcher's Guide to Global Warming (last mentioned in the June 28, 2002 NSDL Scout Report for the Life Sciences). The site also provides information about ABC membership and a variety of conservation programs such as Partners in Flight, Cats Indoors, The North American Bird Conservation Initiative, and the Pesticides and Birds Campaign. Site visitors may also view past copies of the ABC newsletter; and sign up for free email bulletins containing conservation action alerts, information, and news.

164

Par4 Is an Essential Downstream Target of DAP-like Kinase (Dlk) in Dlk\\/Par4-mediated Apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) was initially identified as a gene product up-regulated in prostate cancer cells undergoing apoptosis. In rat fibroblasts, coexpression of Par-4 and its interaction partner DAP-like kinase (Dlk, which is also known as zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK)) induces relocation of the kinase from the nucleus to the actin filament system, followed by extensive myosin light chain (MLC)

Meike Boosen; Susanne Vetterkind; Jan Kubicek; Karl-Heinz Scheidtmann; Susanne Illenberger; Ute Preuss

2009-01-01

165

Platelet protease-activated receptor (PAR)4, but not PAR1, associated with neutral sphingomyelinase responsible for thrombin-stimulated ceramide-NF-?B signaling in human platelets  

PubMed Central

Thrombin activates platelets mainly through protease-activated receptor (PAR)1 and PAR4. However, downstream platelet signaling between PAR1 and PAR4 is not yet well understood. This study investigated the relationship between nSMase/ceramide and the NF-?B signaling pathway in PARs-mediated human platelet activation. The LC-MS/MS, aggregometry, flow cytometry, immunoprecipitation, and mesenteric microvessels of mice were used in this study. Human platelets stimulated by thrombin, 3-OMS (a neutral sphingomyelinase [nSMase] inhibitor) and Bay11-7082 (an NF-?B inhibitor) significantly inhibited platelet activation such as P-selectin expression. Thrombin also activated I?B kinase (IKK)? and I?B? phosphorylation; such phosphorylation was inhibited by 3-OMS and SB203580 (a p38 MAPK inhibitor). Moreover, 3-OMS abolished platelet aggregation, IKK?, and p38 MAPK phosphorylation stimulated by PAR4-AP (a PAR4 agonist) but not by PAR1-AP (a PAR1 agonist). Immunoprecipitation revealed that nSMase was directly associated with PAR4 but not PAR1 in resting platelets. In human platelets, C24:0-ceramide is the predominant form of ceramides in the LC/MS-MS assay; C24:0-ceramide increases after stimulation by thrombin or PAR4-AP, but not after stimulation by PAR1-AP. We also found that C2-ceramide (a cell-permeable ceramide analog) activated p38 MAPK and IKK? phosphorylation in platelets and markedly shortened the occlusion time of platelet plug formation in vivo. This study demonstrated that thrombin activated nSMase by binding to PAR4, but not to PAR1, to increase the C24:0-ceramide level, followed by the activation of p38 MAPK-NF-?B signaling. Our results showed a novel physiological significance of PAR4-nSMase/ceramide-p38 MAPK-NF-?B cascade in platelet activation.

Chen, Wei-Fan; Lee, Jie-Jen; Chang, Chao-Chien; Lin, Kuan-Hong; Wang, Shwu-Huey; Sheu, Joen-Rong

2013-01-01

166

The actinobacterial signature protein ParJ (SCO1662) regulates ParA polymerization and affects chromosome segregation and cell division during Streptomyces sporulation.  

PubMed

Bacterial chromosome segregation usually involves cytoskeletal ParA proteins, ATPases which can form dynamic filaments. In aerial hyphae of the mycelial bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor, ParA filaments extend over tens of microns and are responsible for segregation of dozens of chromosomes. We have identified a novel interaction partner of S. coelicolor ParA, ParJ. ParJ negatively regulates ParA polymerization in vitro and is important for efficient chromosome segregation in sporulating aerial hyphae. ParJ-EGFP formed foci along aerial hyphae even in the absence of ParA. ParJ, which is encoded by sco1662, turned out to be one of the five actinobacterial signature proteins, and another of the five is a ParJ paralogue. We hypothesize that polar growth, which is characteristic not only of streptomycetes, but even of simple Actinobacteria, may be interlinked with ParA polymer assembly and its specific regulation by ParJ. PMID:21143314

Ditkowski, Bartosz; Tro?, Paulina; Ginda, Katarzyna; Donczew, Magdalena; Chater, Keith F; Zakrzewska-Czerwi?ska, Jolanta; Jakimowicz, Dagmara

2010-12-01

167

Croissance epitaxiale de GaAs sur substrats de Ge par epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La situation energetique et les enjeux environnementaux auxquels la societe est confrontee entrainent un interet grandissant pour la production d'electricite a partir de l'energie solaire. Parmi les technologies actuellement disponibles, la filiere du photovoltaique a concentrateur solaire (CPV pour concentrator photovoltaics) possede un rendement superieur et mi potentiel interessant a condition que ses couts de production soient competitifs. La methode d'epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques (CBE pour chemical beam epitaxy) possede plusieurs caracteristiques qui la rendent interessante pour la production a grande echelle de cellules photovoltaiques a jonctions multiples a base de semi-conducteurs III-V. Ce type de cellule possede la meilleure efficacite atteinte a ce jour et est utilise sur les satellites et les systemes photovoltaiques a concentrateur solaire (CPV) les plus efficaces. Une des principales forces de la technique CBE se trouve dans son potentiel d'efficacite d'utilisation des materiaux source qui est superieur a celui de la technique d'epitaxie qui est couramment utilisee pour la production a grande echelle de ces cellules. Ce memoire de maitrise presente les travaux effectues dans le but d'evaluer le potentiel de la technique CBE pour realiser la croissance de couches de GaAs sur des substrats de Ge. Cette croissance constitue la premiere etape de fabrication de nombreux modeles de cellules solaires a haute performance decrites plus haut. La realisation de ce projet a necessite le developpement d'un procede de preparation de surface pour les substrats de germanium, la realisation de nombreuses sceances de croissance epitaxiale et la caracterisation des materiaux obtenus par microscopie optique, microscopie a force atomique (AFM), diffraction des rayons-X a haute resolution (HRXRD), microscopie electronique a transmission (TEM), photoluminescence a basse temperature (LTPL) et spectrometrie de masse des ions secondaires (SIMS). Les experiences ont permis de confirmer l'efficacite du procede de preparation de surface et d'identifier les conditions de croissance optimales. Les resultats de caracterisation indiquent que les materiaux obtenus presentent une tres faible rugosite de surface, une bonne qualite cristalline et un dopage residuel relativement important. De plus, l'interface GaAs/Ge possede une faible densite de defauts. Finalement, la diffusion d'arsenic dans le substrat de germanium est comparable aux valeurs trouvees dans la litterature pour la croissance a basse temperature avec les autres procedes d'epitaxie courants. Ces resultats confirment que la technique d'epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques (CBE) permet de produire des couches de GaAs sur Ge de qualite adequate pour la fabrication de cellules solaires a haute performance. L'apport a la communaute scientifique a ete maximise par le biais de la redaction d'un article soumis a la revue Journal of Crystal Growth et la presentation des travaux a la conference Photovoltaics Canada 2010 . Mots-cles : Epitaxie par jets chimiques, Chemical beam epitaxy, CBE, MOMBE, Germanium, GaAs, Ge

Belanger, Simon

168

Healing in the irradiated wound  

SciTech Connect

Poor or nonhealing of irradiated wounds has been attributed to progressive obliterative endarteritis. Permanently damaged fibroblasts may also play an important part in poor healing. Regardless of the cause, the key to management of irradiated skin is careful attention to prevent its breakdown and conservative, but adequate, treatment when wounds are minor. When wounds become larger and are painful, complete excision of the wound or ulcer is called for and coverage should be provided by a well-vascularized nonparasitic distant flap.16 references.

Miller, S.H.; Rudolph, R. (Univ. of California, San Diego (USA))

1990-07-01

169

Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- June survey descriptive summary  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the shoreline aquatic plant communities in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level, indicated that much of the original plant communities and the intermediate shoreline communities present on the exposed sediments have been lost. The extensive old-field and emergent marsh communities that were present on the exposed shoreline during the drawdown have been flooded and much of the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities have not had sufficient time for re-establishment. The shoreline does, however, have extensive beds of maidencane which extend from the shoreline margin to areas as deep as 2 and perhaps 3 meters. Scattered individual plants of lotus and watershield are common and may indicate likely directions of future wetland development in Par Pond. In addition, within isolated coves, which apparently received ground water seepage and/or stream surface flows during the period of the Par Pond draw down, extensive beds of waterlilies and spike rush are common. Invasion of willow and red maple occurred along the lake shoreline as well. Although not absent from this survey, evidence of the extensive redevelopment of the large cattail and eel grass beds was not observed in this first survey of Par Pond. Future surveys during the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997 along with the evaluation of satellite date to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond are planned.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1995-06-01

170

Latitudinal UVR-PAR measurements in Argentina: extent of the 'ozone hole'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The UVR-PAR Argentinean Monitoring Network started its operation in September 1994 recording ultraviolet (UVR) and Photosynthetic Available Radiation (PAR) at a frequency of once per minute, at four sites, throughout the entire year. Four spectroradiometers (GUV-511, Biospherical Instruments, Inc.) were installed at research centers separated by about 8-12 degrees of latitude, extending from the Subantarctic-Fueguian region to the Tropic of Capricorn. The instruments are located in populated areas ranging from 30,000 to 11 million people and with extremely different climate regimes and conditions of tropospheric pollution. Our ground-based data indicated that the irradiance increased steadily from south to north. This increase was also observed in the calculated daily doses of UV-B (280-320 nm); however, daily integrated values for UV-A (320-400 nm) and PAR (400-700 nm) were higher at mid-latitudes (Puerto Madryn, 42°47'S). A similar south-to-north increase was evident in the ratio of the energy at 305 nm and 340 nm wavelengths (with low 305/340 ratios indicating high total ozone column concentration), with low values at Ushuaia (55°01'S) and high values at Jujuy (24°10'S). However, the 305/340 ratios increased significantly over their normal spring values at two sites, Ushuaia and Puerto Madryn, for variable time periods during October-December. Our data suggest that the ozone hole was over South America extending to about 38°S for at least a week during October and about two weeks during November-December of the years of 1994 and 1995. However, it should be noted that the erythemal irradiance, in the area influenced by the ozone hole, was at all times lower than that in Buenos Aires and well below the value at Jujuy (tropical station). This study also indicates that when assessing the impact of solar UVR upon organisms, other variables such as cloud cover, solar zenith angle, day length, latitude, and atmospheric pollution should be considered in addition to total ozone column concentration.

Luis Orce, V.; Walter Helbling, E.

1997-10-01

171

A comparative study on the volume and localization of the internal gross target volume defined using the seroma and surgical clips based on 4DCT scan for external-beam partial breast irradiation after breast conserving surgery  

PubMed Central

Background To explore the volume and localization of the internal gross target volume defined using the seroma and/or surgical clips based on the four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) during free-breathing. Methods Fifteen breast cancer patients after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) were recruited for EB-PBI. On the ten sets CT images, the gross target volume formed by the clips, the seroma, both the clips and seroma delineated by one radiation oncologist and defined as GTVc, GTVs and GTVc?+?s, respectively. The ten GTVc, GTVs and GTVc?+?s on the ten sets CT images produced the IGTVc, IGTVs, IGTVc?+?s, respectively. The IGTV volume and the distance between the center of IGTVc, IGTVs, IGTVc?+?s were all recorded. Conformity index (CI), degree of inclusion (DI) were calculated for IGTV/IGTV, respectively. Results The volume of IGTVc?+?s were significantly larger than the IGTVc and IGTVs (p?

2014-01-01

172

(Symposium on energy conservation)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler attended the International Energy Conservation Symposium and presented a paper on the integrated resource planning project in Costa Rica being conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and RCG/Hagler-Bailly, Inc., in conjunction with US AID. The Symposium was organized primarily to promote awareness of energy conservation opportunities in Pakistan. The Symposium was well attended by over 470 people the vast majority of whom were from Pakistan. The symposium included sessions on policy issues, national experiences in energy conservation, energy conservation in the industrial sector, energy conservation in buildings and agriculture, energy conservation in the power sector, and prospective technologies in energy systems. The symposium had a great deal of political support including a keynote address by the Minister of State for Production, a closing session with the Governor of Sindh, and the majority of sessions being chaired by senior industry or government representatives.

Kuliasha, M.A.

1990-05-25

173

Conservation: Toward firmer ground  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following aspects of energy conservation were discussed: conservation history and goals, conservation modes, conservation accounting-criteria, and a method to overcome obstacles. The conservation modes tested fall into one of the following categories: reduced energy consumption, increased efficiency of energy utilization, or substitution of one or more forms of energy for another which is in shorter supply or in some sense thought to be of more value. The conservation accounting criteria include net energy reduction, economic, and technical criteria. A method to overcome obstacles includes (approaches such as: direct personal impact (life style, income, security, aspiration), an element of crisis, large scale involvement of environmental, safety, and health issues, connections to big government, big business, big politics, involvement of known and speculative science and technology, appeal to moral and ethical standards, the transient nature of opportunities to correct the system.

1975-01-01

174

Expression and function of the leucine zipper protein Par-4 in apoptosis.  

PubMed

The prostate apoptosis response-4 (par-4) gene was identified by differential screening for genes that are upregulated when prostate cancer cells are induced to undergo apoptosis. The par-4 gene is induced by apoptotic signals but not by growth-arresting, necrotic, or growth-stimulatory signals. The deduced amino acid sequence of par-4 predicts a protein with a leucine zipper domain at its carboxy terminus. We have recently shown that the Par-4 protein binds, via its leucine zipper domain, to the zinc finger domain of Wilms' tumor protein WT1 (R. W. Johnstone et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 16:6945-6956, 1996). In experiments aimed at determining the functional role of par-4 in apoptosis, an antisense par-4 oligomer abrogated par-4 expression and activator-driven apoptosis in rat prostate cancer cell line AT-3, suggesting that par-4 is required for apoptosis in these cells. Consistent with a functional role for par-4 in apoptosis, ectopic overexpression of par-4 in prostate cancer cell line PC-3 and melanoma cell line A375-C6 conferred supersensitivity to apoptotic stimuli. Transfection studies with deletion mutants of Par-4 revealed that full-length Par-4, but not mutants that lacked the leucine zipper domain of Par-4, conferred enhanced sensitivity to apoptotic stimuli. Most importantly, ectopic coexpression of the leucine zipper domain of Par-4 inhibited the ability of Par-4 to enhance apoptosis. Finally, ectopic expression of WT1 attenuated apoptosis, and coexpression of Par-4 but not a leucine zipperless mutant of Par-4 rescued the cells from the antiapoptotic effect of WT1. These findings suggest that the leucine zipper domain is required for the Par-4 protein to function in apoptosis. PMID:9199316

Sells, S F; Han, S S; Muthukkumar, S; Maddiwar, N; Johnstone, R; Boghaert, E; Gillis, D; Liu, G; Nair, P; Monnig, S; Collini, P; Mattson, M P; Sukhatme, V P; Zimmer, S G; Wood, D P; McRoberts, J W; Shi, Y; Rangnekar, V M

1997-07-01

175

Society for Conservation Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1985, the "Society for Conservation Biology (SCB) is an international professional organization dedicated to promoting the scientific study of phenomena that affect the maintenance, loss, and restoration of biological diversity." Online services provided by SCB include a great conservation jobs database; a bulletin board for conservation-related postings; listings for educational resources, and academic programs in the field of Conservation Biology. Site visitors can also peruse SCB annual reports, archived online newsletters, and information about local chapters, committees, membership, and meetings.

176

Oncogenic Ras sensitizes cells to apoptosis by Par-4.  

PubMed

Certain mutations in the mammalian ras gene are oncogenic and are often detected in human cancers. Oncogenic Ras induces the transcription activity of NF-kappaB that confers cell survival. Oncogenic Ras also down-modulates the expression of Par-4, a transcriptional repressor protein, that is essential but not sufficient on its own to induce apoptosis. Here we show that reintroduction of Par-4 by transient transfection leads to apoptosis in cells expressing oncogenic Ras but not in those that lack oncogenic Ras expression. Par-4 abrogates oncogenic Ras-inducible NF-kappaB transcription activity but does not interfere with cytoplasmic activation, or the DNA binding activity, of NF-kappaB. Because abrogation of NF-kappaB transcription activity is sufficient to cause apoptosis in cells expressing oncogenic Ras, our findings identify Par-4 as a novel example of a pro-apoptotic protein that selectively inhibits oncogenic Ras-dependent NF-kappaB function at the transcription level and suggest a mechanism by which Par-4 expression may selectively induce apoptosis in oncogenic Ras-expressing cells. PMID:10514481

Nalca, A; Qiu, S G; El-Guendy, N; Krishnan, S; Rangnekar, V M

1999-10-15

177

Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- October survey descriptive summary  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this late October survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maiden cane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1995-11-01

178

Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- September survey descriptive summary  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this mid-September survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys during the late growing seasons of 1995, and throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1995-09-01

179

Tonsil Irradiation  

Cancer.gov

A cohort of about 3,000 individuals who were irradiated during childhood for benign head and neck conditions at Michael Reese Hospital was assembled and monitored for the risk of thyroid and other cancers.

180

PAR-3 Oligomerization May Provide an Actin-Independent Mechanism to Maintain Distinct Par Protein Domains in the Early Caenorhabditis elegans Embryo  

PubMed Central

Par proteins establish discrete intracellular spatial domains to polarize many different cell types. In the single-cell embryo of the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans, the segregation of Par proteins is crucial for proper division and cell fate specification. Actomyosin-based cortical flows drive the initial formation of anterior and posterior Par domains, but cortical actin is not required for the maintenance of these domains. Here we develop a model of interactions between the Par proteins that includes both mutual inhibition and PAR-3 oligomerization. We show that this model gives rise to a bistable switch mechanism, allowing the Par proteins to occupy distinct anterior and posterior domains seen in the early C. elegans embryo, independent of dynamics or asymmetries in the actin cortex. The model predicts a sharp loss of cortical Par protein asymmetries during gradual depletion of the Par protein PAR-6, and we confirm this prediction experimentally. Together, these results suggest both mutual inhibition and PAR-3 oligomerization are sufficient to maintain distinct Par protein domains in the early C. elegans embryo.

Dawes, Adriana T.; Munro, Edwin M.

2011-01-01

181

Conserved distances between vertebrate highly conserved elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

High numbers of sequence element with very high (>95%) sequence conservation between the human and other vertebrate genomes have been reported and ascribed putative cis-regulatory functions. We have inves- tigated the structural relationships between such elements in mammalian genomes and find that not only their sequences, but also the distances between them are significantly (P < 2.2 3 10216) more

Hong Sun; Geir Skogerbø; Runsheng Chen

2006-01-01

182

Two cases of malignant glaucoma unresolved by pars plana vitrectomy  

PubMed Central

Malignant glaucoma, which is characterized by a shallow or flat anterior chamber with high intraocular pressure, can usually be resolved by pars plana vitrectomy with anterior hyaloidectomy. We describe two cases in which malignant glaucoma was refractory to conventional treatment and complete vitrectomy. Case one an 88-year-old woman with pseudoexfoliation glaucoma underwent trabeculotomy and subsequently developed malignant glaucoma. Four months after transient recovery by pars plana vitrectomy, the malignant glaucoma recurred. She underwent peripheral iridectomy and local zonulectomy with successful control of her intraocular pressure. In case two, an 85-year-old man had a history of pseudoexfoliation glaucoma. Seven months after phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation, he developed malignant glaucoma that was refractory to pars plana vitrectomy. He underwent peripheral iridectomy, goniosynechialysis and trabectome surgery resulting in the successful control of his intraocular pressure. In rare cases of malignant glaucoma refractive to vitrectomy, peripheral iridectomy with or without local zonulectomy is a reasonable and minimally invasive surgical procedure.

Hosoda, Yoshikatsu; Akagi, Tadamichi; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

2014-01-01

183

The bacterial chromosome segregation protein Spo0J spreads along DNA from parS nucleation sites.  

PubMed

Regulation of chromosome inheritance is essential to ensure proper transmission of genetic information. To accomplish accurate genome segregation, cells organize their chromosomes and actively separate them prior to cytokinesis. In Bacillus subtilis the Spo0J protein is required for accurate chromosome segregation and it regulates the developmental switch from vegetative growth to sporulation. Spo0J is a DNA-binding protein that recognizes at least eight identified parS sites located near the origin of replication. As judged by fluorescence microscopy, Spo0J forms discrete foci associated with the oriC region of the chromosome throughout the cell cycle. In an attempt to determine the mechanisms utilized by Spo0J to facilitate productive chromosome segregation, we have investigated the DNA binding activity of Spo0J. In vivo we find Spo0J associates with several kilobases of DNA flanking its specific binding sites (parS) through a parS-dependent nucleation event that promotes lateral spreading of Spo0J along the chromosome. Using purified components we find that Spo0J has the ability to coat non-specific DNA substrates. These 'Spo0J domains' provide large structures near oriC that could potentially demark, organize or localize the origin region of the chromosome. PMID:16925562

Murray, Heath; Ferreira, Henrique; Errington, Jeff

2006-09-01

184

ParA-mediated plasmid partition driven by protein pattern self-organization  

PubMed Central

DNA segregation ensures the stable inheritance of genetic material prior to cell division. Many bacterial chromosomes and low-copy plasmids, such as the plasmids P1 and F, employ a three-component system to partition replicated genomes: a partition site on the DNA target, typically called parS, a partition site binding protein, typically called ParB, and a Walker-type ATPase, typically called ParA, which also binds non-specific DNA. In vivo, the ParA family of ATPases forms dynamic patterns over the nucleoid, but how ATP-driven patterning is involved in partition is unknown. We reconstituted and visualized ParA-mediated plasmid partition inside a DNA-carpeted flowcell, which acts as an artificial nucleoid. ParA and ParB transiently bridged plasmid to the DNA carpet. ParB-stimulated ATP hydrolysis by ParA resulted in ParA disassembly from the bridging complex and from the surrounding DNA carpet, which led to plasmid detachment. Our results support a diffusion-ratchet model, where ParB on the plasmid chases and redistributes the ParA gradient on the nucleoid, which in turn mobilizes the plasmid.

Hwang, Ling Chin; Vecchiarelli, Anthony G; Han, Yong-Woon; Mizuuchi, Michiyo; Harada, Yoshie; Funnell, Barbara E; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi

2013-01-01

185

Home Energy Conservation Primer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide was prepared to support a program of training for community specialists in contemporary and practical techniques of home energy conservation. It is designed to assist professionals in efficient operation of energy conservation programs and to provide ideas for expanding education operations. Eight major sections are presented: (1)…

DeLuca, V. William; And Others

186

On exactly conservative integrators  

SciTech Connect

Traditional explicit numerical discretizations of conservative systems generically predict artificial secular drifts of nonlinear invariants. These algorithms are based on polynomial functions of the time step. The authors discuss a general approach for developing explicit algorithms that conserve such invariants exactly. They illustrate the method by applying it to the truncated two-dimensional Euler equations.

Bowman, J.C. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Shadwick, B.A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Morrison, P.J. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies

1997-06-01

187

Regional Conservation Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes, in the spirit of good library keeping, a regional cooperative approach to the preservation of library materials which would embody conservation services of a lower order than a conservation laboratory: e.g., stack cleaning, facilities inspection and repair, and book dusting. (JD)

Bohem, Hilda

1979-01-01

188

Energy Conservation Update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy Conservation Update (ECU) provides abstracting and indexing coverage of current scientific and technical reports, journal articles, conference papers and proceedings, books, patents, theses, and monographs for all energy conservation information. All information announced in ECU, plus additional backup information, is included in the energy information data base of the US Department of Energy's Technical Information Center. The subject matter

1980-01-01

189

Creative Soil Conservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Take plant lessons outdoors with this engaging and inquiry-based activity in which third-grade students learn how to apply soil conservation methods to growing plants. They also collect data and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of their method of soil conservation. An added benefit to this activity is that the third-grade students played…

Smith, Martha

2010-01-01

190

Conservation in transportation  

SciTech Connect

A nationwide examination was made of grassroots energy conservation programs related to transportation. Information compiled from civic groups, trade associations, and corporations is included on driver awareness/mass transit; travel; and ride sharing. It is concluded that a willingness by the public to cooperate in transportation energy conservation exists and should be exploited. (LCL)

None

1980-05-30

191

Conservation of Momentum 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab introduces students to the idea of recoil and how conservation of momentum can be used to explain it. Many people use action/reaction to explain recoil, but conservation of momentum can be used equally well. Before shooting a gun, there is zero m

Horton, Michael

2009-05-30

192

Water Conservation Resource List.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alarmed by the growing water shortage, the New Jersey State Office of Dissemination has prepared this annotated list of free or inexpensive instructional materials for teaching about water conservation, K-l2. A tipsheet for home water conservation is appended. (Editor/SJL)

NJEA Review, 1981

1981-01-01

193

Teaching Teachers Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a two-week summer course for elementary and secondary teachers on soil and water conservation taught in Wisconsin. Discusses the efforts to recruit teachers for the course, the course content, the field trips, and the evaluation procedures. Stresses the cooperation between educators and conservation agencies in developing the course. (TW)

Meyers, N. L.; And Others

1987-01-01

194

Take Action: Water Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this regular column of the free, online magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, the author looks at the importance of conserving water and practicing good conservation habits daily. The column is designed for teachers in K-Grade 5 classrooms and presents concepts of climate literacy that are appropriate for young children. Identified online resources provide data collection activities, lessons, and games.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

2012-02-01

195

Wilderness and biodiversity conservation  

PubMed Central

Human pressure threatens many species and ecosystems, so conservation efforts necessarily prioritize saving them. However, conservation should clearly be proactive wherever possible. In this article, we assess the biodiversity conservation value, and specifically the irreplaceability in terms of species endemism, of those of the planet's ecosystems that remain intact. We find that 24 wilderness areas, all > 1 million hectares, are > 70% intact and have human densities of less than or equal to five people per km2. This wilderness covers 44% of all land but is inhabited by only 3% of people. Given this sparse population, wilderness conservation is cost-effective, especially if ecosystem service value is incorporated. Soberingly, however, most wilderness is not speciose: only 18% of plants and 10% of terrestrial vertebrates are endemic to individual wildernesses, the majority restricted to Amazonia, Congo, New Guinea, the Miombo-Mopane woodlands, and the North American deserts. Global conservation strategy must target these five wildernesses while continuing to prioritize threatened biodiversity hotspots.

Mittermeier, R. A.; Mittermeier, C. G.; Brooks, T. M.; Pilgrim, J. D.; Konstant, W. R.; da Fonseca, G. A. B.; Kormos, C.

2003-01-01

196

Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (uPAR) Targeted Nuclear Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy  

PubMed Central

Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein. Besides regulating proteolysis, uPAR could also activate many intracellular signaling pathways that promote cell motility, invasion, proliferation, and survival through cooperating with transmembrane receptors. uPAR is overexpressed across a variety of tumors and is associated with cancer invasion and metastasis. In order to meet the demand for a rapid development and potential clinical application of anti-cancer therapy based on uPA/uPAR system, it is desirable to develop non-invasive imaging methods to visualize and quantify uPAR expression in vivo. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in the development of uPAR-targeted nuclear imaging and radionuclide therapy agents. The successful development of molecular imaging probes to visualize uPAR expression in vivo would not only assist preclinical researches on uPAR function, but also eventually impact patient management.

Li, Dan; Liu, Shuanglong; Shan, Hong; Conti, Peter; Li, Zibo

2013-01-01

197

Par-4 downregulation promotes breast cancer recurrence by preventing multinucleation following targeted therapy.  

PubMed

Most deaths from breast cancer result from tumor recurrence, but mechanisms underlying tumor relapse are largely unknown. We now report that Par-4 is downregulated during tumor recurrence and that Par-4 downregulation is necessary and sufficient to promote recurrence. Tumor cells with low Par-4 expression survive therapy by evading a program of Par-4-dependent multinucleation and apoptosis that is otherwise engaged following treatment. Low Par-4 expression is associated with poor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and an increased risk of relapse in patients with breast cancer, and Par-4 is downregulated in residual tumor cells that survive neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Our findings identify Par-4-induced multinucleation as a mechanism of cell death in oncogene-addicted cells and establish Par-4 as a negative regulator of breast cancer recurrence. PMID:23770012

Alvarez, James V; Pan, Tien-Chi; Ruth, Jason; Feng, Yi; Zhou, Alice; Pant, Dhruv; Grimley, Joshua S; Wandless, Thomas J; Demichele, Angela; Chodosh, Lewis A

2013-07-01

198

La croissance des PME par le biais des ressources et compétences : quelles voies ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Les PME sont des organisations particulières, bien différentes par rapport à la grande entreprise. Les PME en croissance sont vues comme des vrais leviers pour la création d'emploi et de richesse dans une économie. La croissance des PME est alimentée soit par les nouvelles ressources générées dans l'entreprise pendant le processus de croissance, soit par l'apport externe des ressources (par

A. E Popa Postariu

2010-01-01

199

Coherence and Conservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A principal aim of current conservation policy is to reduce the impact of habitat fragmentation. Conservation corridors may achieve this goal by facilitating movement among isolated patches, but there is a risk that increased connectivity could synchronize local population fluctuations (causing coherent oscillations) and thereby increase the danger of global extinction. We identify general conditions under which populations can or cannot undergo coherent oscillations, and we relate these conditions to local and global extinction probabilities. We suggest a simple method to explore the potential success of conservation corridors and, more generally, any manipulations of dispersal patterns that aim to protect threatened species or control pests.

Earn, David J. D.; Levin, Simon A.; Rohani, Pejman

2000-11-01

200

Wildwatch: African Wildlife & Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Wildwatch is an online publication created by CC Africa (Conservation Corporation Africa), one of Africa's most comprehensive eco-tourism companies." Visitors will find a number of interesting and informative features, such as CC Africa's monthly magazine and details of the company's six-point conservation and sustainable development model. Other items include first-hand accounts of wildlife sightings and an excellent image gallery. Some of the Web site is devoted to CC Africa's commercial ventures, but this does not detract from the overall focus on conservation and public education.

201

Land & Water Conservation Fund  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1965, the US Congress created the Land and Water Conservation Fund (LWCF) "to preserve open space, develop recreation opportunities, and assure that all Americans have access to quality outdoor recreation." The Land and Water Conservation Fund receives $900 million annually, mainly from ocean oil drilling revenues. However, as much as 85 percent of each year's Fund is diverted for purposes other than conservation and recreation. The National Park Service provides this site, which gives technical information on the State and Federal components of the LWCF, with some historical information. For those interested in the future of natural places in this country, this site will be of great interest.

202

Conservative quantum computing.  

PubMed

The Wigner-Araki-Yanase theorem shows that conservation laws limit the accuracy of measurement. Here, we generalize the argument to show that conservation laws limit the accuracy of quantum logic operations. A rigorous lower bound is obtained of the error probability of any physical realization of the controlled-NOT gate under the constraint that the computational basis is represented by a component of spin, and that physical implementations obey the angular momentum conservation law. The lower bound is shown to be inversely proportional to the number of ancilla qubits or the strength of the external control field. PMID:12144465

Ozawa, Masanao

2002-07-29

203

par genes in Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium smegmatis are arranged in an operon transcribed from "SigGC" promoters  

PubMed Central

Background The ParA/Soj and ParB/Spo0J proteins, and the cis-acting parS site, participate actively in chromosome segregation and cell cycle progression. Genes homologous to parA and parB, and two putative parS copies, have been identified in the Mycobacterium bovis BCG and Mycobacterium smegmatis chromosomes. As in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the parA and parB genes in these two non-pathogenic mycobacteria are located near the chromosomal origin of replication. The present work focused on the determination of the transcriptional organisation of the ~6 Kb orf60K-parB region of M. bovis BCG and M. smegmatis by primer extension, transcriptional fusions to the green fluorescence protein (GFP) and quantitative RT-PCR. Results The parAB genes were arranged in an operon. However, we also found promoters upstream of each one of these genes. Seven putative promoter sequences were identified in the orf60K-parB region of M. bovis BCG, whilst four were identified in the homologous region of M. smegmatis, one upstream of each open reading frame (ORF). Real-time PCR assays showed that in M. smegmatis, mRNA-parA and mRNA-parB levels decreased between the exponential and stationary phases. In M. bovis BCG, mRNA-parA levels also decreased between the exponential and stationary phases. However, parB expression was higher than parA expression and remained almost unchanged along the growth curve. Conclusion The majority of the proposed promoter regions had features characteristic of Mycobacterium promoters previously denoted as Group D. The -10 hexamer of a strong E. coli ?70-like promoter, located upstream of gidB of M. bovis BCG, overlapped with a putative parS sequence, suggesting that the transcription from this promoter might be regulated by the binding of ParB to parS.

Casart, Yveth; Gamero, Elida; Rivera-Gutierrez, Sandra; Gonzalez-y-Merchand, Jorge A; Salazar, Leiria

2008-01-01

204

Biased signalling and proteinase-activated receptors (PARs): targeting inflammatory disease.  

PubMed

Although it has been known since the 1960s that trypsin and chymotrypsin can mimic hormone action in tissues, it took until the 1990s to discover that serine proteinases can regulate cells by cleaving and activating a unique four-member family of GPCRs known as proteinase-activated receptors (PARs). PAR activation involves the proteolytic exposure of its N-terminal receptor sequence that folds back to function as a 'tethered' receptor-activating ligand (TL). A key N-terminal arginine in each of PARs 1 to 4 has been singled out as a target for cleavage by thrombin (PARs 1, 3 and 4), trypsin (PARs 2 and 4) or other proteases to unmask the TL that activates signalling via Gq , Gi or G12 /13 . Similarly, synthetic receptor-activating peptides, corresponding to the exposed 'TL sequences' (e.g. SFLLRN-, for PAR1 or SLIGRL- for PAR2) can, like proteinase activation, also drive signalling via Gq , Gi and G12 /13 , without requiring receptor cleavage. Recent data show, however, that distinct proteinase-revealed 'non-canonical' PAR tethered-ligand sequences and PAR-activating agonist and antagonist peptide analogues can induce 'biased' PAR signalling, for example, via G12 /13 -MAPKinase instead of Gq -calcium. This overview summarizes implications of this 'biased' signalling by PAR agonists and antagonists for the recognized roles the PARs play in inflammatory settings. PMID:24354792

Hollenberg, M D; Mihara, K; Polley, D; Suen, J Y; Han, A; Fairlie, D P; Ramachandran, R

2014-03-01

205

Molecular cloning of the rat proteinase-activated receptor 4 (PAR4)  

PubMed Central

Background The proteinase-activated receptor 4 (PAR4) is a G-protein-coupled receptor activated by proteases such as thrombin and trypsin. Although activation of PAR4 has been shown to modulate rat gastrointestinal motility, the rat PAR4 sequence was unknown until now. This study aimed to identify the rat PAR4 cDNA. Results The cDNA coding for the rat PAR4 homologue was cloned from the duodenum. Northern blots demonstrated a 3.0 kb transcript in the duodenum. Protein homology with mouse and human counterparts was 90% and 75% respectively. PAR4 is expressed predominantly in the esophagus, stomach, duodenum and the spleen. When expressed in COS cells, PAR4 is activated by trypsin (1 nM), thrombin (50 nM), mouse PAR4 specific peptide (500 ?M) and a putative rat PAR4 specific activating peptide (100 ?M), as measured by intracellular Ca2+-changes. Conclusions We have identified and characterized cDNA encoding the rat PAR4 homologue. PAR4 is expressed predominantly in the upper gastrointestinal tract. It is activated by trypsin, thrombin and its newly identified rat PAR4 specific activating peptide.

Hoogerwerf, Willemijntje A; Hellmich, Helen Lee; Micci, Maria Adelaide; Winston, John H; Zou, Lei; Pasricha, Pankaj J

2002-01-01

206

Bacterial chromosome segregation: structure and DNA binding of the Soj dimer--a conserved biological switch.  

PubMed

Soj and Spo0J of the Gram-negative hyperthermophile Thermus thermophilus belong to the conserved ParAB family of bacterial proteins implicated in plasmid and chromosome partitioning. Spo0J binds to DNA near the replication origin and localises at the poles following initiation of replication. Soj oscillates in the nucleoid region in an ATP- and Spo0J-dependent fashion. Here, we show that Soj undergoes ATP-dependent dimerisation in solution and forms nucleoprotein filaments with DNA. Crystal structures of Soj in three nucleotide states demonstrate that the empty and ADP-bound states are monomeric, while a hydrolysis-deficient mutant, D44A, is capable of forming a nucleotide 'sandwich' dimer. Soj ATPase activity is stimulated by Spo0J or the N-terminal 20 amino-acid peptide of Spo0J. Our analysis shows that dimerisation and activation involving a peptide containing a Lys/Arg is conserved for Soj, ParA and MinD and their modulators Spo0J, ParB and MinE, respectively. By homology to the nitrogenase iron protein and the GTPases Ffh/FtsY, we suggest that Soj dimerisation and regulation represent a conserved biological switch. PMID:15635448

Leonard, Thomas A; Butler, P Jonathan; Löwe, Jan

2005-01-26

207

Laser picoseconde pompé par diode à basse cadence de récurrence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nous présentons une étude expérimentale d'un laser Nd:YAG picoseconde à faible cadence de récurrence. Nous comparons les performances obtenues avec un laser de cavité métrique utilisant la même source de pompe. Des gains en énergie et en puissance crête par impulsion de 10 et 7 ont été obtenus.

Albert, A.; Couderc, V.; Louradour, F.; Barthélémy, A.

2002-06-01

208

Pars plana vitrectomy in vitreous haemorrhage due to Eales' disease.  

PubMed

Repeated vitreous haemorrhage is a common occurrence in Eales disease. 25 eyes of unresolving vitreous haemorrhage were subjected to pars plana vitrectomy. 18 eyes improved to 1/60 or better. Vitreous rebleed was the commonest problem encountered. We discuss our experience, complications and limitations. PMID:1452278

Gadkari, S S; Kamdar, P A; Jehangir, R P; Shah, N A; Adrianwala, S D

1992-01-01

209

Summary of radiological impacts of Par Pond drawdown.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On March 14, 1991, a ten square foot depression was discovered on the lower downstream slope of Par Pond Dam. The water level in the pond was lowered about 19 feet during the period June 28--September 19, 1991, as a safety precaution to significantly redu...

W. L. Marter A. L. Boni

1991-01-01

210

PhyloPars: estimation of missing parameter values using phylogeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wealth of information on metabolic parameters of a species can be inferred from observations on spe- cies that are phylogenetically related. Phylogeny- based information can complement direct empirical evidence, and is particularly valuable if experiments on the species of interest are not feasible. The PhyloPars web server provides a statistically con- sistent method that combines an incomplete set of

Jorn Bruggeman; Jaap Heringa; Bernd W. Brandt

2009-01-01

211

Par Pond vegetation status summer 1995 - July survey descriptive summary  

SciTech Connect

A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant, communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet (61 meters) above mean sea level, and continued with this July survey. Aquatic plant communities, similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond communities, are becoming reestablished. Beds of maidencane (Panicum hemitomon), lotus (Nelumbo lutea), water lily (Nymphaea odorata), and watershield (Brasenia schreberi) are now extensive and well established. In addition, within isolated coves, extensive beds of water lilies and spike-rush (Eleocharis sp.) are common. Cattail occurrence has increased since refill, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Invasion of willow (Salix sp.) and red maple (Acer rubrum) occurred along the lake shoreline during drawdown. The red maples along the present shoreline are beginning to show evidence of stress and mortality from flooding over the past four months. Some of the willows appear to be stressed as well. The loblolly pines (Pinus taeda), which were flooded in all but the shallow shoreline areas, are now dead. Future surveys are planned for the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data for mapping the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1995-07-01

212

BOREAS RSS-10 TOMS Circumpolar One-Degree PAR Images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Remote Sensing Science (RSS)-10 team investigated the magnitude of daily, seasonal, and yearly variations of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) from ground and satellite observations. This data set contains satellite estimates of surface-incident PAR (400-700 nm, MJ/sq m) at one-degree spatial resolution. The spatial coverage is circumpolar from latitudes of 41 to 66 degrees north. The temporal coverage is from May through September for years 1979 through 1989. Eleven-year statistics are also provided: (1) mean, (2) standard deviation, and (3) coefficient of variation for 1979-89. The PAR estimates were derived from the global gridded ultraviolet reflectivity data product (average of 360, 380 nm) from the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). Image mask data are provided for identifying the boreal forest zone, and ocean/land and snow/ice-covered areas. The data are available as binary image format data files. The PAR data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

Dye, Dennis G.; Holben, Brent; Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

213

Estimating PAR absorbed by vegetation from bidirectional reflectance measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite remote sensing allows estimation, at a global scale, of the photosynthetically active radiation absorbed (APAR) by the vegetation. Current estimates are based on retrieving the fraction (fAPAR) of PAR absorbed by the canopy from spectral vegetation indices (SVI) derived from combinations of spectral reflectance measurements. We show that currently used SVI are strongly affected by the soil reflectance as

Jean-Louis Roujean; François-Marie Breon

1995-01-01

214

Laboratory diagnosis of equine pituitary pars intermedia adenoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to determine the sensitivity with which an adenoma of the pars intermedia of the pituitary gland can be predicted in horses by measuring the basal plasma concentrations of glucose, cortisol, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), and insulin, the urinary concentration of corticoids, the urinary corticoid:creatinine ratio, and the plasma cortisol concentration after the administration of 25 IU

J. H. van der Kolk; T. Wensing; H. C. Kalsbeek; H. J. Breukink

1995-01-01

215

Photoémission de Csl induite par une impulsion laser intense femtoseconde  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nous avons mesuré pour la première fois les spectres de photoélectrons émis par un cristal isolant à large bande interdite, Csl, avec une dynamique de 10^6 coups/s, excité par la source laser haute cadence du C.E.L.I.A (800 nm, 40 fs, 1 kHz, 1 TW). L'émission d'électrons jusqu'à des énergies de quelques dizaines d'électrons-volts a été observée pour des impulsions d'éclairement compris entre 0.5 et 3 TW/cm^2, relativement faible donc par comparaison aux éclairements utilisés pour accélérer les électrons d'un atome aux mêmes énergies. Ces spectres contiennent tous, en particulier, deux bandes dans le domaine des basses énergies d'électrons (<5 eV), également observées lors d'études précédentes. Les électrons les plus énergétiques forment un plateau intense légèrement structuré et limité par une coupure exponentielle. Pour des impulsions de 3 TW/cm^2 cette coupure est située à 27 eV. L'insuffisance du mécanisme électron-photon-phonon, considéré jusqu'à présent comme le principal processus d'échauffement des électrons dans les solides en interaction non destructrice avec un champ laser, nous a poussé à proposer un mécanisme alternatif. Ce modèle met en évidence les transitions directes multiphotoniques dans la bande de conduction du solide qui sont incontournables du fait de sa structure électronique multi-branches

Belsky, A.; Vasil'Ev, A.; Yatsenko, B.; Bachau, H.; Martin, P.; Geoffroy, G.; Guizard, S.

2003-06-01

216

Radiological impact of Par Pond drawdown from liquid effluent pathways  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond has been lowered over the past several months to reduce the effects in the event of catastrophic dam failure while assessing the condition of the dam and determining if repairs are necessary. In lowering the level of Par Pond, 60 billion liters of water containing low levels of tritium and cesium-137 were discharged to several onsite streams. SRS surface streams flow to the Savannah River. An assessment made to determine the total amount of tritium and Cs-137 discharged and to estimate the consequences to downstream Savannah River users. It is estimated that a total of 160 curies of tritium were displaced from Par Pond to the Savannah River between June 28, 1991 and September 19, 1991. This release could hypothetically result in a maximum individual dose of 3. 2{times}10{sup {minus}4} mrem and a total (80-km and drinking water populations) population dose of 1.4{times}10{sup {minus}2} person-rem. Likewise, a maximum individual dose of 5.0{times}10{sup {minus}2} mrem and a total population dose of 1.7{times}10{sup {minus}1} person- rem are predicted as a result of an estimated 0.21 curies of Cs-137 being discharged from Par Pond to the Savannah River.

Carlton, W.H.; Hamby, D.M.

1991-10-25

217

Traumatismes Oculaires par Petards: Bilan sur Trois Annees  

PubMed Central

Summary Les accidents dus aux pétards sont des accidents graves. Leur recrudescence ces dernières années en Algérie, essentiellement durant les fêtes du Mawlid Ennabaoui (fête de la naissance du prophète), mérite à notre sens d'entreprendre des bilans exhaustifs dont celui-ci dans le but d'une sensibilisation de toutes les compétences concernées. Nous avons réuni sur trois années consécutives (2002, 2003, 2004) 60 dossiers de malades ayant subi des accidents oculaires par pétards. Nos patients sont répartis en 42 consultations pour blessures légères et 18 hospitalisations pour blessures graves. Parmi ces derniers, neuf ont présenté des complications et séquelles graves (cinq cas de cécité par atrophie du globe oculaire, trois cas de cécité cornéenne et un cas de cécité par trou maculaire). Dans tous ces cas l'incapacité permanente partielle est au minimum de 30%. Au vu de ces données nous proposons des mesures d'éducation sanitaire et une sensibilisation du grand public aux traumatismes oculaires, par le biais de mé dias appropriés: radio, télévision, affiches.

Zouaoui-Kesraoui, N.; Derdour, A.

2009-01-01

218

PAR-5 is a PARty hub in the germline  

PubMed Central

As our understanding of how molecular machineries work expands, an increasing number of proteins that appear as regulators of different processes have been identified. These proteins are hubs within and among functional networks. The 14-3-3 protein family is involved in multiple cellular pathways and, therefore, influences signaling in several disease processes, from neurobiological disorders to cancer. As a consequence, 14-3-3 proteins are currently being investigated as therapeutic targets. Moreover, 14-3-3 protein levels have been associated with resistance to chemotherapies. There are seven 14-3-3 genes in humans, while Caenorhabditis elegans only possesses two, namely par-5 and ftt-2. Among the C. elegans scientific community, par-5 is mainly recognized as one of the par genes that is essential for the asymmetric first cell division in the embryo. However, a recent study from our laboratory describes roles of par-5 in germ cell proliferation and in the cellular response to DNA damage induced by genotoxic agents. In this review, we explore the broad functionality of 14-3-3 proteins in C. elegans and comment on the potential use of worms for launching a drugs/modifiers discovery platform for the therapeutic regulation of 14-3-3 function in cancer.

Aristizabal-Corrales, David; Schwartz Jr, Simo; Ceron, Julian

2013-01-01

219

Management of persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous by pars plana vitrectomy.  

PubMed Central

Two children with persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV) underwent vitrectomy and lensectomy via the pars plana to remove the fibrovascular stalk. Postoperatively the eyes were quiet, only a slight vitreous haze obscured the fundus view in the immediate postoperative period, and the stumps of the stalks retracted. Early surgical treatment of PHPV may prevent later serious complications. Images

Peyman, G A; Sanders, D R; Nagpal, K C

1976-01-01

220

Conserving Madagascar's Freshwater Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience is about conserving freshwater diversity in Madagascar. The island nation of Madagascar, an international conservation priority, is now also recognized as a global hotspot for freshwater biodiversity. Three emerging characteristics of Madagascar's threatened freshwater biota deserve increased attention from the scientific and conservation communities. First, species richness is not low, as was once assumed for both the freshwater fishes and the invertebrates. Second, many species are restricted to a specific region or even to single river basins. Often these species are also limited to streams or rivers draining primary forest habitat. Finally, many of the island's freshwater fishes are basal taxa, having diverged earlier than any other extant members of their clade. As such, these taxa assume disproportional phylogenetic importance. In the face of ongoing environmental threats, links among microendemism, forest stream specialization, and basal phylogenetic position highlight the importance and vulnerability of these species and provide a powerful incentive for immediate conservation action.

JONATHAN P. BENSTEAD, PATRICK H. DE RHAM, JEAN-LUC GATTOLLIAT, FRANÃÂOIS-MARIE GIBON, PAUL V. LOISELLE, MICHEL SARTORI, JOHN S. SPARKS, and MELANIE L. J. STIASSNY (;)

2003-11-01

221

River conservation and management  

SciTech Connect

River Conservation and Management' is a book based on a symposium sponsored by the Nature Conservancy Council of Great Britain. The symposium was held at the University of York in September of 1990 and which was. The book consists of 29 contributed papers which are organized into an introduction, four subject sections, and a conclusion. The subjects covered include (1) The Case for Conservation; (2) River Classification and the Assessment of Conservation Potential; (3) Recovery and Rehabilitation; and (4) Protecting Rivers--Legislation and Public Participation. The common themes which characterize the book include whole catchment planning, the division of water resource responsibilities among political entities and the concomitant decrease in accountability for the well-being of the resource. This book has a European focus but still manages to emphasize the interdisciplinary nature of riverine research.

Boon, P.J.; Calow, P.; Petts, G.E. (eds.)

1992-01-01

222

Chimpanzee Conservation Problem Space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Actively learn about chimpanzee conservation. The way it works: you ask your own questions, we give you tools to find credible answers and then you share your results for future users of this website.

John Greenler (BioQUEST Curriculum Consortium;)

2005-12-15

223

Energy: Conservation, Energy Briefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comprehensive energy conservation program at College of the Holy Cross has saved nearly one-third of the fuel oil and one-fifth of the electricity used at the college; briefs on boilers, lights, design. (Author/MLF)

Nation's Schools and Colleges, 1975

1975-01-01

224

Library of Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As we try to achieve the National Science Education Standards (National Research Council, 1996) and promote general science literacy for young children, we might begin by discussing conservation or stewardship. Children can readily understand the

Tiedt, Iris M.

1999-11-01

225

Nanoparticules d'or: De l'imagerie par resonance magnetique a la radiosensibilisation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cette thèse approfondit l'étude de nanoparticules d'or de 5 nm de diamètre recouvertes de diamideéthanethioldiethylènetriaminepentacétate de gadolinium (DTDTPA:Gd), un agent de contraste pour l'imagerie par résonance magnétique (IRM). En guise de ciblage passif, la taille des nanoparticules a été contrôlée afin d'utiliser le réseau de néovaisseaux poreux et perméable des tumeurs. De plus les tumeurs ont un drainage lymphatique déficient qui permet aux nanoparticules de demeurer plus longtemps dans le milieu interstitiel de la tumeur. Les expériences ont été effectuées sur des souris Balb/c femelles portant des tumeurs MC7-L1. La concentration de nanoparticules a pu être mesurée à l'IRM in vivo. La concentration maximale se retrouvait à la fin de l'infusion de 10 min. La concentration s'élevait à 0.3 mM dans la tumeur et de 0.12 mM dans le muscle environnant. Les nanoparticules étaient éliminées avec une demi-vie de 22 min pour les tumeurs et de 20 min pour le muscle environnant. Les nanoparticules ont été fonctionnalisées avec le peptide Tat afin de leur conférer des propriétés de ciblage actif La rétention de ces nanoparticules a ainsi été augmentée de 1600 %, passant d'une demi-vie d'élimination de 22 min à 350 min. La survie des souris a été mesurée à l'aide de courbes Kaplan-Meier et d'un modèle mathématique évalue l'efficacité de traitements. Le modèle nous permet, à l'aide de la vitesse de croissance des tumeurs et de l'efficacité des traitements, de calculer la courbe de survie des spécimens. Un effet antagoniste a été observé au lieu de l'effet synergétique attendu entre une infusion de Au@DTDTPA:Gd et l'irradiation aux rayons X. L'absence d'effet synergétique a été attribuée à l'épaisseur du recouvrement de DTDTPA:Gd qui fait écran aux électrons produits par l'or. De plus, le moyen d'ancrage du recouvrement utilise des thiols qui peuvent s'avérer être des capteurs de radicaux. De plus, contrairement a ce qui était escompté, un effet chimiothérapeutique de ces nanoparticules a été observé in vitro et in vivo. Par contre, le mécanisme précis de cet effet est encore à être expliquer, mais on sait déjà que les nanoparticules d'or affectent les fonctions des macrophages ainsi que l'angiogenèse. MOTS-CLÉS : Radiosensibilisateur, Nanoparticules d'or, Agent de contraste pour l'IRM, Électrons de basses énergies, Kaplan-Meier, Effet chimiothérapeutique.

Hebert, Etienne M.

226

Gamma irradiators  

SciTech Connect

The commercial use of gamma radiation to sterilize medical equipment and supplies began in the late 1950s. This article describes the basic technology and design aspects of commercial irradiation facilities. It explains the safety features and interlocks which protect workers, the public, and the environment from radiation and radioactive material.

Cuda, J.; McKinnon, R.G. (Nordion International Inc. (US)); Baker, P.G. (Baxter/Convertors (US))

1989-02-01

227

Irradiated foods  

MedlinePLUS

... and reduces the risk of food poisoning . Food irradiation is used in many countries. It was first approved in the U.S. to prevent sprouts on white potatoes and for the control of insects on wheat and in certain spices and seasonings.

228

The Physical Association of the P2Y12 Receptor with PAR4 Regulates Arrestin-Mediated Akt Activation.  

PubMed

It is now well accepted that protease activated receptor (PAR) 1 and PAR4 have differential roles in platelet activation. PAR4, a low-affinity thrombin receptor in human platelets, participates in sustained platelet activation in a P2Y12-dependent manner; however, the mechanisms are not defined. Our previous studies demonstrated that thrombin induces the association of PAR4 with P2Y12, together with arrestin recruitment to the complex. Here we show that PAR4 and P2Y12 directly interact to coregulate Akt signaling after PAR4 activation. We observed direct and specific interaction of P2Y12 with PAR4 but not PAR1 by bioluminescent resonance energy transfer when the receptors were coexpressed in human embryonic kidney 293T cells. PAR4-P2Y12 dimerization was promoted by PAR4-AP and inhibited by P2Y12 antagonist. By using sequence comparison of the transmembrane domains of PAR1 and PAR4, we designed a mutant form of PAR4, "PAR4SFT," by replacing LGL194-196 at the base of transmembrane domain 4 with the corresponding aligned PAR1 residues SFT 220-222. PAR4SFT supported only 8.74% of PAR4-P2Y12 interaction, abolishing P2Y12-dependent arrestin recruitment to PAR4 and Akt activation. Nonetheless, PAR4SFT still supported homodimerization with PAR4. PAR4SFT failed to induce a calcium flux when expressed independently; however, coexpression of increasing concentrations of PAR4SFT, together with PAR4 potentiated PAR4-mediated calcium flux, suggested that PAR4 act as homodimers to signal to Gq-coupled calcium responses. In conclusion, PAR4 LGL (194-196) governs agonist-dependent association of PAR4 with P2Y12 and contributes to Gq-coupled calcium responses. PAR4-P2Y12 association supports arrestin-mediated sustained signaling to Akt. Hence, PAR4-P2Y12 dimerization is likely to be important for the PAR4-P2Y12 dependent stabilization of platelet thrombi. PMID:24723492

Khan, Aasma; Li, Dongjun; Ibrahim, Salam; Smyth, Emer; Woulfe, Donna S

2014-07-01

229

Étude d'un empilement multicouche périodique Mo/Si par spectroscopie d'émission X et par réflectométrie X  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nous avons étudié par spectroscopie d'émission X induite par électrons (EXES) et par réflectométrie X (RX), un empilement périodique constitué de bicouches Mo/Si, destiné à servir de miroir interférentiel dans le domaine des rayons X mous. Les résultats de RX rasante (? = 0,154 nm) peuvent être interprétés par une succession de couches où les atomes de Si se mélangent aux couches Mo et réciproquement, avec de plus une rugosité interfaciale. D'après l'analyse EXES, les atomes de silicium sont présents dans deux environnements physico-chimiques différents. Au centre des couches Si, se trouve du silicium amorphe et au niveau des interfaces se trouve une interphase sur une épaisseur d'environ 2 nm où les atomes de Si sont sous forme de siliciures (Mo{5}Si{3} et MoSi{2}). La composition de cette interphase a été déterminée et a permis de reproduire d'une manière satisfaisante les mesures de réflectivité absolue effectuées en RX mou (? = 1,33 nm).

Jonnard, P.; André, J.-M.; Gautier, J.; Roulliay, M.; Bridou, F.; Delmotte, F.; Ravet, M.-F.

2004-11-01

230

Decreased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Par-4 in renal cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Par-4 is a widely expressed leucine zipper protein that confers sensitization to apoptosis induced by exogenous insults. Because the expression of genes that promote apoptosis may be down-regulated during tumorigenesis, we sought to examine the expression of Par-4 in human tumors. We present here evidence that Par-4 protein levels were severely decreased in human renal cell carcinoma specimens relative to normal tubular cells. Replenishment of Par-4 protein levels in renal cell carcinoma cell lines conferred sensitivity to apoptosis. Because apoptosis may serve as a defense mechanism against malignant transformation or progression, decreased expression of Par-4 may contribute to the pathophysiology of renal cell carcinoma. PMID:10022126

Cook, J; Krishnan, S; Ananth, S; Sells, S F; Shi, Y; Walther, M M; Linehan, W M; Sukhatme, V P; Weinstein, M H; Rangnekar, V M

1999-02-01

231

Brulure par Plaque de Bistouri Electrique: a Propos de Quatre Cas  

PubMed Central

Summary La brûlure par plaque de bistouri électrique est un accident rare mais grave par la profondeur de la lésion et par sa localisation, surtout quand qu’elle survient dans un contexte chirurgical dont le vécu reste difficile de la part du malade et du chirurgien. Cette brûlure bien que imprévisible reste grave par la profondeur et la localisation de la brûlure et par sa survenue dans un contexte opératoire, chez des patients malades. La prise en charge de la brûlure doit se faire en milieu spécialisé. La prévention reste le seul moyen d’éviter ce type d’accident.

Khales, A.; Achbouk, A.; Belmir, R.; Cherkab, L.; Ennouhi, M.A.; Ababou, K.; Ihrai, H.

2010-01-01

232

Macroinvertebrates of Par Pond and Pond B: Final report, January 1984-June 1985  

SciTech Connect

This document reports on the Par Pond and Pond B macroinvertebrate sampling program from January 1984 through June 1985. It includes data on quantitative and qualitative benthic sampling, quantitative meroplankton sampling and quarterly diel sample. The basic objectives were to: (1) characterize the benthic and meroplankton macroinvertebrate communities of Par Pond and Pond B, with respect to taxonomic composition and diversity, density and relative abundance of functional feeding groups; (2) assess the impact of thermal discharges on the macroinvertebrate community of Par Pond; (3) assess the impact and significance of entrainment losses of macroinvertebrate meroplankton from Par Pond; and (4) compare Par Pond macroninvertebrate communities with those in Pond B.

Kondratieff, B.C.; Chimney, M.J.; Painter, W.B.

1985-08-01

233

Mutually exclusive expression patterns of Bcl-2 and Par-4 in human prostate tumors consistent with down-regulation of Bcl-2 by Par-4.  

PubMed

Par-4 is a widely expressed protein that sensitizes both prostatic and non-prostatic cells to apoptosis. Constitutive- or regulated- overexpression of Par-4 caused a reduction in the levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Replenishment of Bcl-2 levels abrogated susceptibility to Par-4-dependent apoptosis, suggesting that Par-4-mediated apoptosis requires downmodulation of Bcl-2 levels. The inverse correlation between Par-4 and Bcl-2 expression was recapitulated in human prostate tumors. Par-4 but not Bcl-2 was detected in the secretory epithelium of benign prostatic tumors and in primary and metastatic prostate cancers that are apt to undergo apoptosis. Moreover, xenografts of human, androgen-dependent CWR22 tumors showed Par-4 but not Bcl-2 expression. By contrast, androgen-independent CWR22R tumors derived from the CWR22 xenografts showed mutually exclusive expression patterns of Par-4 and Bcl-2. These findings suggest a mechanism by which Par-4 may sensitize prostate tumor cells to apoptosis. PMID:9989812

Qiu, G; Ahmed, M; Sells, S F; Mohiuddin, M; Weinstein, M H; Rangnekar, V M

1999-01-21

234

Irradiance-mediated dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP) responses of red coralline algae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Red coralline algae produce significant quantities of dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP), whose breakdown products include the important climate gas dimethylsulphide (DMS) but little is known about how environmental factors influence this DMS(P) production. The effect of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on intracellular DMS(P) concentrations in the red coralline algae Lithothamnion glaciale was investigated using short (30 min) and longer-term (up to 507 h) acclimatory responses and control and high-PAR light regimes. Longer-term acclimatory intracellular DMS(P) concentrations were significantly reduced following exposure to high-PAR (220-250 ?mol m -2 s -1). No short-term acclimatory effects were observed. We conclude that while DMS(P) content in L. glaciale does respond to changes in irradiance, the effect takes place over hours - days rather than minutes, suggesting a continued turnover of DMS(P) to combat oxidative stress induced by prolonged high-PAR exposure. Immediate short-term acclimatory responses do not appear to occur.

Rix, L. N.; Burdett, H. L.; Kamenos, N. A.

2012-01-01

235

Breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy: a possible treatment for lobular carcinoma in situ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is generally treated by conservative surgery alone and less often by mastectomy. We report our experience using conservative surgery and whole breast irradiation (WBI) for the treatment of patients with LCIS. From 1980 to 1992, 25 women with a median age of 54 years underwent lumpectomy (20) or quadrantectomy (5) and WBI (median dose: 52

Bruno Cutuli; Brigitte de Lafontan; Philippe Quetin; Eliane Mery

2005-01-01

236

Expression of Partitioning Defective 3 (Par-3) for Predicting Extrahepatic Metastasis and Survival with Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Partitioning defective 3 (Par-3), a crucial component of partitioning-defective complex proteins, controls cell polarity and contributes to cell migration and cancer cell epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. However, the clinical relevance of Par-3 in tumor progression and metastasis has not been well elucidated. In this study, we investigated the impact and association of Par-3 expression and clinical outcomes with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We first confirmed that Par-3 was abundantly expressed in HCC cell lines by Western blot analysis. We used immunohistochemistry to analyze the association of Par-3 expression and clinicopathological characteristics in primary and subsequent metastatic tumors of patients with HCC. Par-3 was overexpressed in 47 of 111 (42.3%) primary tumors. Increased expression of Par-3 in primary tumors predicted an increased five-year cumulative incidence of extrahepatic metastasis. In addition, multivariate analysis revealed that Par-3 overexpression was an independent risk factor of extrahepatic metastasis. Increased Par-3 expression in primary tumors was associated with poor five-year overall survival rates and was an independent prognostic factor on Cox regression analysis. In conclusion, we show for the first time that increased Par-3 expression is associated with distant metastasis and poor survival rates in patients with HCC. Par-3 may be a novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for HCC.

Jan, Yee-Jee; Ko, Bor-Sheng; Liu, Tzu-An; Wu, Yao-Ming; Liang, Shu-Man; Chen, Shyh-Chang; Wang, John; Liou, Jun-Yang

2013-01-01

237

Proteinase-Activated Receptor 1 (PAR1) Regulates Leukemic Stem Cell Functions  

PubMed Central

External signals that are mediated by specific receptors determine stem cell fate. The thrombin receptor PAR1 plays an important role in haemostasis, thrombosis and vascular biology, but also in tumor biology and angiogenesis. Its expression and function in hematopoietic stem cells is largely unknown. Here, we analyzed expression and function of PAR1 in primary hematopoietic cells and their leukemic counterparts. AML patients' blast cells expressed much lower levels of PAR1 mRNA and protein than CD34+ progenitor cells. Constitutive Par1-deficiency in adult mice did not affect engraftment or stem cell potential of hematopoietic cells. To model an AML with Par1-deficiency, we retrovirally introduced the oncogene MLL-AF9 in wild type and Par1?/? hematopoietic progenitor cells. Par1-deficiency did not alter initial leukemia development. However, the loss of Par1 enhanced leukemic stem cell function in vitro and in vivo. Re-expression of PAR1 in Par1?/? leukemic stem cells delayed leukemogenesis in vivo. These data indicate that Par1 contributes to leukemic stem cell maintenance.

Baumer, Nicole; Krause, Annika; Kohler, Gabriele; Lettermann, Stephanie; Evers, Georg; Hascher, Antje; Baumer, Sebastian; Berdel, Wolfgang E.

2014-01-01

238

Structure of the ParM filament at 8.5 ? resolution  

PubMed Central

The actin-like protein ParM forms the cytomotive filament of the ParMRC system, a type II plasmid segregation system encoded by Escherichia coli R1 plasmid. We report an 8.5 Å resolution reconstruction of the ParM filament, obtained using cryo-electron microscopy. Fitting of the 3D density reconstruction with monomeric crystal structures of ParM provides insights into dynamic instability of ParM filaments. The structural analysis suggests that a ParM conformation, corresponding to a metastable state, is held within the filament by intrafilament contacts. This filament conformation of ParM can be attained only from the ATP-bound state, and induces a change in conformation of the bound nucleotide. The structural analysis also provides a rationale for the observed stimulation of hydrolysis upon polymerisation into the filament.

Gayathri, Pananghat; Fujii, Takashi; Namba, Keiichi; Lowe, Jan

2013-01-01

239

A Bipolar Spindle Of Antiparallel ParM Filaments Drives Bacterial Plasmid Segregation  

PubMed Central

To ensure their stable inheritance by daughter cells during cell division, bacterial low copy-number plasmids make simple DNA segregating machines that use an elongating protein filament between sister plasmids. In the ParMRC system of Escherichia coli R1 plasmid, ParM, an actin-like protein, forms the spindle between ParRC complexes on sister plasmids. Using a combination of structural work and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we show that ParRC bound and could accelerate growth at only one end of polar ParM filaments, mechanistically resembling eukaryotic formins. The architecture of ParM filaments enabled two ParRC-bound filaments to associate in an antiparallel orientation, forming a bipolar spindle. The spindle elongated as a bundle of at least two antiparallel filaments, thereby pushing two plasmid clusters towards the poles.

Gayathri, P.; Fujii, T.; M?ller-Jensen, J.; van den Ent, F.; Namba, K.; Lowe, J.

2013-01-01

240

A bipolar spindle of antiparallel ParM filaments drives bacterial plasmid segregation.  

PubMed

To ensure their stable inheritance by daughter cells during cell division, bacterial low-copy-number plasmids make simple DNA segregating machines that use an elongating protein filament between sister plasmids. In the ParMRC system of the Escherichia coli R1 plasmid, ParM, an actinlike protein, forms the spindle between ParRC complexes on sister plasmids. By using a combination of structural work and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we show that ParRC bound and could accelerate growth at only one end of polar ParM filaments, mechanistically resembling eukaryotic formins. The architecture of ParM filaments enabled two ParRC-bound filaments to associate in an antiparallel orientation, forming a bipolar spindle. The spindle elongated as a bundle of at least two antiparallel filaments, thereby pushing two plasmid clusters toward the poles. PMID:23112295

Gayathri, P; Fujii, T; Møller-Jensen, J; van den Ent, F; Namba, K; Löwe, J

2012-12-01

241

Hydrology and Conservation Ecology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Responses to change in the behavior of ecological systems are largely governed by interactions at different levels. Research is essential and is to be necessarily designed to gain insights into various interactions at the community level. Sustainable resource management is only possible if conservation of biodiversity can be accomplished by properly using the knowledge discovered. It is well known that the United States Department of Agriculture provides technical information, resources, and data necessary to assist the researchers in addressing their conservation needs. Conservation aims to protect, preserve and conserve the earth's natural resources. These include, but not limited to the conservation of soil, water, minerals, air, plants and all living beings. The United States Department of Agriculture also encourages farmers and ranchers to voluntarily address threats to soil and water. Protection of wetlands and wildlife habitat has been on the radar screen of conservation experts for a very long time. The main objective has always been to help farmers and landowners conform and comply with federal and state environmental laws. During the implementation phase, farmers should be encouraged to make beneficial, cost-effective changes to methods of irrigation systems. In some cases, the hydrologic regime of the project area can be thought of as principally an issue of river flow regimes for floodplain forests. In this presentation, the author tries to focus on the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology on global warming. He also discusses the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology global air concerns such as greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. References: Chow, V. T, D. R. Maidment, and L. W. Mays. 1988. Applied Hydrology. McGraw-Hill, Inc. U.S. Soil Conservation Service. Technical Release 55: Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds. USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture). June 1986. Lehner, B. and P. Döll (2004). Development and validation of a global database of lakes, reservoirs and wetlands. Journal of Hydrology 296/1-4. 1-22. http://www.wcc.nrcs.usda.gov http://www.ceh-nerc.ac.uk http://www.usda.gov

Narayanan, M.

2006-12-01

242

ParCAT: A Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate science has employed increasingly complex models and simulations to analyze the past and predict the future of our climate. The size and dimensionality of climate simulation data has been growing with the complexity of the models. This growth in data is creating a widening gap between the data being produced and the tools necessary to analyze large, high dimensional data sets. With single run data sets increasing into 10's, 100's and even 1000's of gigabytes, parallel computing tools are becoming a necessity in order to analyze and compare climate simulation data. The Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit (ParCAT) provides basic tools that efficiently use parallel computing techniques to narrow the gap between data set size and analysis tools. ParCAT was created as a collaborative effort between climate scientists and computer scientists in order to provide efficient parallel implementations of the computing tools that are of use to climate scientists. Some of the basic functionalities included in the toolkit are the ability to compute spatio-temporal means and variances, differences between two runs and histograms of the values in a data set. ParCAT is designed to facilitate the "heavy lifting" that is required for large, multidimensional data sets. The toolkit does not focus on performing the final visualizations and presentation of results but rather, reducing large data sets to smaller, more manageable summaries. The output from ParCAT is provided in commonly used file formats (NetCDF, CSV, ASCII) to allow for simple integration with other tools. The toolkit is currently implemented as a command line utility, but will likely also provide a C library for developers interested in tighter software integration. Elements of the toolkit are already being incorporated into projects such as UV-CDAT and CMDX. There is also an effort underway to implement portions of the CCSM Land Model Diagnostics package using ParCAT in conjunction with Python and gnuplot. ParCAT is implemented in C to provide efficient file IO. The file IO operations in the toolkit use the parallel-netcdf library; this enables the code to use the parallel IO capabilities of modern HPC systems. Analysis that currently requires an estimated 12+ hours with the traditional CCSM Land Model Diagnostics Package can now be performed in as little as 30 minutes on a single desktop workstation and a few minutes for relatively small jobs completed on modern HPC systems such as ORNL's Jaguar.

Haugen, B.; Smith, B.; Steed, C.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Thornton, P. E.; Shipman, G.

2012-12-01

243

Identification of a Unique Core Domain of Par-4 sufficient for Selective Apoptosis Induction in Cancer Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates to Par-4 mutants which cause apoptosis in cancer cells which are sensitive to Par-4 and also induce apoptosis in cancer cells which are resistant to Par-4. The present invention also relates to methods of using the Par-4 muta...

V. M. Rangnekar

2003-01-01

244

Asymmetrically distributed PAR3 protein contributes to cell polarity and spindle alignment in early C. elegans embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The par-3 gene is required for establishing polarity in early C. elegans embryos. Embryos from par-3 homozygous mothers show defects in segregation of cytoplasmic determinants and in positioning of the early cleavage spindles. We report here that the PAR-3 protein is asymmetrically distributed at the periphery of the zygote and asymmetrically dividing blastomeres of the germline lineage. The PAR-3 distribution

Bijan Etemad-Moghadam; Su Guo; Kenneth J. Kemphues

1995-01-01

245

Anterior PAR Proteins Function During Cytokinesis and Maintain DYN-1 at the Cleavage Furrow in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

PAR proteins are key regulators of cellular polarity and have links to the endocytic machinery and the actin cytoskeleton. Our data suggest a unique role for PAR proteins in cytokinesis. We have found that at the onset of cytokinesis, anterior PAR-6 and posterior PAR-2 proteins are redistributed to the furrow membrane in a temporal and spatial manner. PAR-6 and PAR-2 localize to the furrow membrane during ingression but PAR-2-GFP is distinct in that it is excluded from the extreme tip of the furrow. Once the midbody has formed, PAR-2-GFP becomes restricted to the midbody region (the midbody plus the membrane flanking it). Depletion of both anterior PAR proteins, PAR-3 and PAR-6, led to an increase in multinucleate embryos, suggesting that the anterior PAR proteins are necessary during cytokinesis and that PAR-3 and PAR-6 function in cytokinesis may be partially redundant. Lastly, anterior PAR proteins play a role in the maintenance of DYN-1 in the cleavage furrow. Our data indicate that the PAR proteins are involved in the events that occur during cytokinesis and may play a role in promoting the membrane trafficking and remodeling events that occur during this time.

Pittman, Kelly J.; Skop, Ahna R.

2013-01-01

246

Irradiation Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Food Safety Consortium (FSC) is a federally created consortium consisting of researchers from the University of Arkansas, Iowa State University and Kansas State University. The FSC conducts research in poultry, beef, and pork production. This site contains summary articles from the FDA, the Washington Times, the Los Angeles Times, the Chicago Tribune, and newsletter articles from the FSC. Previously approved for use on poultry and fruits and vegetables in the US, irradiation can kill disease-causing bacteria like Salmonella and Escherichia coli 0157:H7 (discussed in the Scout Report for Science and Engineering's In the News section, September 17, 1997), and molds and funguses that cause rot. With recent US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval, irradiation can now be used to process red meat (e.g., beef, pork, lamb, and byproducts). The process involves exposing food to a source of radiation such as gamma rays from radioactive cobalt 60, cesium 137, or x-rays. No radioactive material is added to the product, and the technique is routinely used on grains and spices, as well as for sterilizing disposable medical devices. In spite of a number of tests conducted over the last 30 years substantiating its safety, irradiation has not gained widespread public acceptance in the US. This is largely due to the public's general fear of processes utilizing radiation. Supporters of the technology claim that it will virtually eliminate food-borne illness in the US, while skeptics feel that technology such as steam treatment can accomplish adequate sterilization without the purported risks and public concern associated with irradiation.

1997-01-01

247

Conservative treatment of lumbar spondylolysis in childhood and adolescence: the radiological signs which predict healing.  

PubMed

It has been noted that bony union of a pars defect can be achieved in children if they wear a trunk brace. Our aim was to evaluate how the stage of the defect on CT and the presence or absence of high signal change in the adjacent pedicle on T2-weighted MRI were related to bony healing. We treated 23 children conservatively for at least three months. There were 19 boys and four girls with a mean age of 13.5 years (7 to 17). They were asked to refrain from sporting activity and to wear a Damen soft thoracolumbosacral type brace. There were 41 pars defects in 23 patients. These were classified as an early, progressive or terminal stage on CT. The early-stage lesions had a hairline crack in the pars interarticularis, which became a gap in the progressive stage. A terminal-stage defect was equivalent to a pseudarthrosis. On the T2-weighted MR scan the presence or absence of high signal change in the adjacent pedicle was assessed and on this basis the defects were divided into high signal change-positive or -negative. Healing of the defect was assessed by CT. In all, 13 (87%) of the 15 early defects healed. Of 19 progressive defects, only six (32%) healed. None of the seven terminal defects healed. Of the 26 high signal change-positive defects 20 (77%) healed after conservative treatment whereas none of the high signal change-negative defects did so. We concluded that an early-stage defect on CT and high signal change in the adjacent pedicle on a T2-weighted MR scan are useful predictors of bony healing of a pars defect in children after conservative treatment. PMID:19190055

Sairyo, K; Sakai, T; Yasui, N

2009-02-01

248

Surgical margins in breast conservation.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is the most common tumor affecting women worldwide. Breast-conserving therapy (BCT) followed by irradiation nowadays is the treatment of choice for early-stage disease; there is no difference in long-term survival between mastectomy and BCT combined with external radiotherapy. A positive margin is associated with increased risk of local recurrences after BCT for invasive breast cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ. The exact definition of an adequate surgical margin after breast cancer resection has long been debated among physicians and represents an area of considerable variation in clinical practice. There is a lack of standardization in the pathology methods of margin evaluation, which yields little consensus regarding what constitutes an adequate negative margin. As a consequence, patient management varies widely based on the threshold that surgeons accept for adequate margins and the subsequent need for re-excision. We analyze and discuss recent literature about this topic both from the pathological and from the surgical point of view. PMID:24380558

Chiappa, Corrado; Rovera, Francesca; Corben, Adriana Dionigi; Fachinetti, Anna; De Berardinis, Valentina; Marchionini, Valentina; Rausei, Stefano; Boni, Luigi; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Dionigi, Renzo

2013-01-01

249

Conservative News Service (CNS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the Media Resource Center, the Conservative News Service aims to give users an alternative to what it calls "a liberal bias in the American news media and a frequent, liberal double-standard in editorial decisions on what constitutes 'news'." It does this via a mix of short digest news articles and longer analytical articles in eight areas, including politics, economics, defense, religion, and culture. The X-Pert/Files/Links section contains links to conservative experts and their institutions in 45 subject areas. In addition, the site includes links to information about several conservative talk shows ("Radio Uplink") and several bulletin boards. CNS was created by MRC Chairman L. Brent Bozell III.

1998-01-01

250

Communication and energy conservation  

SciTech Connect

Surveys of homeowners in two Wisconsin communities examined the relationship of media use to a set of cognitive, attitudinal, and behavioral components of energy conservation. The perceived importance of the energy issue was associated with media use in both communities. In addition, this relationship was stronger the more energy related the communication variable. Communication did not, however, relate consistently to energy behavior. Utility pamphlets had opposite relationships with energy conservation across communities. It is suggested that conservation campaigns must take into account the communication and energy use environment of specific groups of consumers, and that research into the impact of mass media on energy issue salience is particularly important in times of energy ''gluts.''

McLeod, J.M.; Glynn, C.J.; Griffin, R.J.

1987-01-01

251

LAKE PONTCHARTRAIN ESTUARY CONSERVATION PLAN  

EPA Science Inventory

The Nature Conservancy will conduct a series of a least four science expert workshops to develop a Site Conservation Plan for the Lake Pontchartrain Estuary and adjacent wetlands. The objective of the Site Conservation Plan is to identify conservation targets, threats or stresse...

252

Conservative generalized bifurcation diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bifurcation cascades in conservative systems are shown to exhibit a generalized diagram, which contains all relevant informations regarding the location of periodic orbits (resonances), their width (island size), irrational tori and the infinite higher-order resonances, showing the intricate way they are born. Contraction rates for islands sizes, along period-doubling bifurcations, are estimated to be ?I?3.9. Results are demonstrated for the standard map and for the continuous Hénon-Heiles potential. The methods used here are very suitable to find periodic orbits in conservative systems, and to characterize the regular, mixed or chaotic dynamics as the nonlinear parameter is varied.

Manchein, Cesar; Beims, Marcus W.

2013-04-01

253

Conservation of tidal marshes  

SciTech Connect

This book is the first attempt to examine collectively the various uses and the consequences of marsh conservation efforts. Author Franklin Daiber emphasizes tidal marsh conservation from a holistic perspective rather than from the perspective of a single purpose or special economic interest. He addresses a topic receiving increasing attention, namely the concept of open marsh management as a means of controlling mosquito production without harmful effects on other marsh organisms. Topics considered include: water management; dikes, impoundments, ponds and ditches; reclaimed land and impoundments; ditching and ponding for mosquito control; sewage disposal and waste treatment; dredge material for wetland restoration; insecticides; oil pollution; and petroleum hydrocarbon interactions.

Daiber, F.C.

1986-01-01

254

Oncoplastic breast conserving surgery  

PubMed Central

Oncoplastic breast conserving surgery is a fundamental component of the repertoire for the management of breast cancer. It facilitates removal of large volumes of breast tissue, and can improve cosmetic outcomes and patient satisfaction whilst maintaining good oncological principles, reducing re-excision and mastectomy rates and assisting in adjuvant radiotherapy planning. We review the various techniques for oncoplastic breast conserving surgery that have emerged over recent years and describe their utilisation in excising tumours from various locations within the breast, and the pertinent patient specific factors that must be considered in technique selection. Finally complications and the evidence for the oncological safety specific to this type of surgery are discussed.

Agrawal, Avi; Cutress, Ramsey I.

2013-01-01

255

Laser UV à semiconducteur nitrure pompé par des micropointes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dans un Laser à Semiconducteur Micropointes (LSM), le milieu amplificateur est pompé par un faisceau d'électrons issus de micropointes effet de champ. Ce type de laser est particulièrement adapté aux semi-conducteurs à grands gaps tels que les nitrures GaN et AIN émettant dans l'UltraViolet, pour lesquels le dopage et la prise de contact ohmique deviennent problématiques. Ce papier présente ce dispositif et l'état d'avancement des travaux.

Barjon, J.; Adelmann, C.; Baptist, R.; Brault, J.; Daudin, B.; Dang, Le Si; Molva, E.

2002-06-01

256

ParSyC: An Efficient SystemC Parser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the ever increasing complexity of circuits and systems new methodologies for system design are mandatory. Lan- guages that enable modeling at higher levels of abstraction but also allow for a concise hardware description offer a promising way into this direction. One such language is SystemC. In this paper we propose the SystemC parser ParSyC, that allows to convert

Görschwin Fey; Daniel Große; Tim Cassens; Christian Genz; Tim Warode; Rolf Drechsler

2004-01-01

257

ParSyC: An Efficient SystemC Parser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract— Due to the ever increasing complexity of circuits and systems new methodologies for system design are mandatory. Languages that enable modeling at higher levels of abstraction but also allow for a concise hardware description offer a promising way into this direction. One such language is SystemC. In this paper we propose the SystemC parser ParSyC, that allows to convert

G. Fey; T. Cassens; C. Genz; T. Warode; R. Drechsler

2004-01-01

258

PAR OU POUR : LEQUEL ET DANS QUELS CAS ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Les prépositions sont presque toujours une zone d'ombre dans l'apprentissage d'une langue étrangère, car elles portent non seulement des traits sémantiques, mais aussi des traits culturels, y compris une représentation du monde qu'une description grammaticale n'arrive pas à expliquer. Pour le cas qui nous intéresse, c'est-à-dire, la maîtrise des prépositions du français par des apprenants dont la langue maternelle est

Marta Gonçalves; Sandra de Melo

259

An Evalutation of Planar-Adaptive Routing (PAR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network performance can be improved by allowingadaptive routing, but doing so introduces new possibilitiesof deadlock which can overwhelm the flexibilityadvantages. Planar-adaptive routing (PAR) resolvesthis tension by limiting adaptive routing to a seriesof two-dimensional planes, reducing hardware requirementsfor deadlock prevention.We explore the performance of planar-adaptiverouters for two, three, and four-dimensional networks.Under non-uniform traffic loads, the planar-adaptive...

Jae H. Kim; Andrew A. Chien

1992-01-01

260

Satellite-derived photosynthetically available and total solar irradiance at the surface during FIFE's intensive field campaigns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite-derived photosynthetically available and total solar irradiance at the surface during First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment's (FIFE) intensive field compaigns are addressed. Graphs showing photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) vs. Julian Day and insolation vs. Julian Day are included.

Frouin, Robert; Mcpherson, J.

1993-01-01

261

Ultrasound biomicroscopy of hyperpressurized eyes following pars plana vitrectomy  

PubMed Central

Early elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) following pars plana vitrectomy is a common complication of vitreoretinal surgery and severe pressure elevation may result in visual loss. To investigate the mechanism of IOP elevation following pars plana vitrectomy, a retrospective review of 119 patients (132 eyes) who had undergone vitreoretinal surgery was performed. Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) was used to observe the changes in the structure of the anterior segment following vitrectomy and to compare various parameters pre- and postsurgery. The UBM examination revealed inflammation within the anterior chamber and hyphema with increased IOP. In certain patients, the iris had adhered to the trabecular meshwork and the anterior chamber angle was closed. Cyclodialysis involving the pars plicata and iris was also observed. Furthermore, silicone oil emulsification in the anterior chamber angle and posterior chamber presurgery were noted in certain cases. Edema and forward rotation of the ciliary body resulted in the closure of the anterior chamber angle. The measured parameters indicated that the anterior chamber became shallower and that the anterior chamber angle was narrowed in phakic eyes with elevated IOP. Eyes with elevated IOP and intraocular lenses were not observed to be different from phakic eyes with elevated IOP. This may be due to the fact that an eye with an intraocular lens is thinner than a phakic eye. This study suggests that UBM examination is useful for investigating the pathogenesis of elevated IOP following vitrectomy, and provides a theoretical basis.

WU, NA; ZHANG, HONG

2013-01-01

262

Modifications vibrationnelles induites par différentes vapeurs acides sur les polyanilines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a comparative study of conductive form of polyaniline, i.e, polyemeraldine doped with HCl vapor or with HCSA upon m-cresol vapor. UV-Vis.-nir absorption measurements on polyaniline thin films, vs acid vapors time exposure, have been made. In the same way, Raman spectra have been recorded with different excitation lines from the blue and red ranges to the infrared region. Finally, an assignment of Raman bands observed, is proposed and confirmed by vibrational calculations based on valence-force-field. Nous présentons une étude comparative de la forme conductrice de la polyaniline, c'est-à-dire de la polyéméraldine dopée par des vapeurs d'HCl ou dopée par l'acide camphre sulfonique (HCSA) sous vapeurs de m-crésol. Des mesures d'absorption UV-Vis-proche infrarouge sur des films minces de polyaniline, en fonction du temps d'exposition aux vapeurs acides, ont été réalisées. Parallèlement, les spectres Raman ont été obtenus pour différentes longueurs d'onde d'excitation allant du visible jusqu'au proche infrarouge. Finalement, une attribution des bandes Raman observées est proposée et confirmée par des calculs vibrationnels basés sur des champs de force de valence.

Cochet, M.; Quillard, S.; Buisson, J. P.; Lefrant, S.; Louarn, G.

1998-06-01

263

Being on PAR: Outcomes of a Pilot Trial to Improve Mental Health and Wellbeing in the Workplace With the Promoting Adult Resilience (PAR) Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an urgent need to find strategies to promote positive mental health in the workplace. The current study presents outcomes of a pilot trial of the Promoting Adult Resilience (PAR) program, an innovative mental health promotion pro- gram, which is conducted in the workplace over 11 weekly sessions. The PAR pro- gram is a strengths-based resilience-building program that integrates

Prudence Millear; Poppy Liossis; Ian M. Shochet; Herbert Biggs; Maria Donald

2008-01-01

264

Arp2/3 mediates early endosome dynamics necessary for the maintenance of PAR asymmetry in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

The widely conserved Arp2/3 complex regulates branched actin dynamics that are necessary for a variety of cellular processes. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the actin cytoskeleton has been extensively characterized in its role in establishing PAR asymmetry; however, the contributions of actin to the maintenance of polarity before the onset of mitosis are less clear. Endocytic recycling has emerged as a key mechanism in the dynamic stabilization of cellular polarity, and the large GTPase dynamin participates in the stabilization of cortical polarity during maintenance phase via endocytosis in C. elegans. Here we show that disruption of Arp2/3 function affects the formation and localization of short cortical actin filaments and foci, endocytic regulators, and polarity proteins during maintenance phase. We detect actin associated with events similar to early endosomal fission, movement of endosomes into the cytoplasm, and endosomal movement from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane, suggesting the involvement of actin in regulating processes at the early endosome. We also observe aberrant accumulations of PAR-6 cytoplasmic puncta near the centrosome along with early endosomes. We propose a model in which Arp2/3 affects the efficiency of rapid endocytic recycling of polarity cues that ultimately contributes to their stable maintenance.

Shivas, Jessica M.; Skop, Ahna R.

2012-01-01

265

Étude de la structure des alliages vitreux Ag-As2S3 par diffraction de rayons X  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of several silver alloyed arsenic chalocgenide has been determined by X-ray diffraction. For low silver doping the disordered layer structure, characteristic to the glassy AS2S3 is retained as demonstrated by the well developed first sharp diffraction peak in the X-ray diffraction pattern. For high amount of silver introduced in the As2S3 matrix, the disoredered layer configurations disappear, as shown by the diminishing and even disappearance of the first sharp diffraction peak in the X-ray patterns. A three-dimensional structure based on Ag2S -type configuration is formed. La structure de quelques alliages sulfure d'arsenic - argent a été determinée par diffraction de rayons X. Pour de faibles dopages à l'argent on conserve la structure desordonnées caractéristique des couches atomique d'As2S3 vitreux ; ceci est prouvé par la forte intensité du premier pic étroit de diffraction. Pour des plus grandes proportions d'argent la structure de l'alliage vitreux fait apparaître des unités structurales caractéristiques du cristal d'Ag2S et la configuration atomique avec des couches desordonnées disparaît (le premier pic étroit de diffraction s'évanouit) en faisant place à une structure tridimensionelle.

Popescu, M.; Sava, F.; Cornet, A.; Broll, N.

2002-07-01

266

Arp2/3 mediates early endosome dynamics necessary for the maintenance of PAR asymmetry in Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed

The widely conserved Arp2/3 complex regulates branched actin dynamics that are necessary for a variety of cellular processes. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the actin cytoskeleton has been extensively characterized in its role in establishing PAR asymmetry; however, the contributions of actin to the maintenance of polarity before the onset of mitosis are less clear. Endocytic recycling has emerged as a key mechanism in the dynamic stabilization of cellular polarity, and the large GTPase dynamin participates in the stabilization of cortical polarity during maintenance phase via endocytosis in C. elegans. Here we show that disruption of Arp2/3 function affects the formation and localization of short cortical actin filaments and foci, endocytic regulators, and polarity proteins during maintenance phase. We detect actin associated with events similar to early endosomal fission, movement of endosomes into the cytoplasm, and endosomal movement from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane, suggesting the involvement of actin in regulating processes at the early endosome. We also observe aberrant accumulations of PAR-6 cytoplasmic puncta near the centrosome along with early endosomes. We propose a model in which Arp2/3 affects the efficiency of rapid endocytic recycling of polarity cues that ultimately contributes to their stable maintenance. PMID:22456506

Shivas, Jessica M; Skop, Ahna R

2012-05-01

267

Kinase Associated-1 Domains Drive MARK/PAR1 Kinases to Membrane Targets by Binding Acidic Phospholipids  

SciTech Connect

Phospholipid-binding modules such as PH, C1, and C2 domains play crucial roles in location-dependent regulation of many protein kinases. Here, we identify the KA1 domain (kinase associated-1 domain), found at the C terminus of yeast septin-associated kinases (Kcc4p, Gin4p, and Hsl1p) and human MARK/PAR1 kinases, as a membrane association domain that binds acidic phospholipids. Membrane localization of isolated KA1 domains depends on phosphatidylserine. Using X-ray crystallography, we identified a structurally conserved binding site for anionic phospholipids in KA1 domains from Kcc4p and MARK1. Mutating this site impairs membrane association of both KA1 domains and intact proteins and reveals the importance of phosphatidylserine for bud neck localization of yeast Kcc4p. Our data suggest that KA1 domains contribute to coincidence detection, allowing kinases to bind other regulators (such as septins) only at the membrane surface. These findings have important implications for understanding MARK/PAR1 kinases, which are implicated in Alzheimer's disease, cancer, and autism.

Moravcevic, Katarina; Mendrola, Jeannine M.; Schmitz, Karl R.; Wang, Yu-Hsiu; Slochower, David; Janmey, Paul A.; Lemmon, Mark A. (UPENN-MED)

2011-09-28

268

Platelet Specific Promoters Are Insufficient to Express Protease Activated Receptor 1 (PAR1) Transgene in Mouse Platelets  

PubMed Central

The in vivo study of protease activated receptors (PARs) in platelets is complicated due to species specific expression profiles. Human platelets express PAR1 and PAR4 whereas mouse platelets express PAR3 and PAR4. Further, PAR subtypes interact with one another to influence activation and signaling. The goal of the current study was to generate mice expressing PAR1 on their platelets using transgenic approaches to mimic PAR expression found in human platelets. This system would allow us to examine specific signaling from PAR1 and the PAR1-PAR4 heterodimer in vivo. Our first approach used the mouse GPIb? promoter to drive expression of mouse PAR1 in platelets (GPIb?-Tg-mPAR1). We obtained the expected frequency of founders carrying the transgene and had the expected Mendelian distribution of the transgene in multiple founders. However, we did not observe expression or a functional response of PAR1. As a second approach, we targeted human PAR1 with the same promoter (GPIb?-Tg-hPAR1). Once again we observed the expected frequency and distributing of the transgene. Human PAR1 expression was detected in platelets from the GPIb?-Tg-hPAR1 mice by flow cytometry, however, at a lower level than for human platelets. Despite a low level of PAR1 expression, platelets from the GPIb?-Tg-hPAR1 mice did not respond to the PAR1 agonist peptide (SFLLRN). In addition, they did not respond to thrombin when crossed to the PAR4?/? mice. Finally, we used an alternative platelet specific promoter, human ?IIb, to express human PAR1 (?IIb-Tg-hPAR1). Similar to our previous attempts, we obtained the expected number of founders but did not detect PAR1 expression or response in platelets from ?IIb-Tg-hPAR1 mice. Although unsuccessful, the experiments described in this report provide a resource for future efforts in generating mice expressing PAR1 on their platelets. We provide an experimental framework and offer considerations that will save time and research funds.

Arachiche, Amal; de la Fuente, Maria; Nieman, Marvin T.

2014-01-01

269

PAR proteins diffuse freely across the anterior-posterior boundary in polarized C. elegans embryos  

PubMed Central

Polarization of cells by PAR proteins requires the segregation of antagonistic sets of proteins into two mutually exclusive membrane-associated domains. Understanding how nanometer scale interactions between individual PAR proteins allow spatial organization across cellular length scales requires determining the kinetic properties of PAR proteins and how they are modified in space. We find that PAR-2 and PAR-6, which localize to opposing PAR domains, undergo exchange between well mixed cytoplasmic populations and laterally diffusing membrane-associated states. Domain maintenance does not involve diffusion barriers, lateral sorting, or active transport. Rather, both PAR proteins are free to diffuse between domains, giving rise to a continuous boundary flux because of lateral diffusion of molecules down the concentration gradients that exist across the embryo. Our results suggest that the equalizing effects of lateral diffusion are countered by actin-independent differences in the effective membrane affinities of PAR proteins between the two domains, which likely depend on the ability of each PAR species to locally modulate the membrane affinity of opposing PAR species within its domain. We propose that the stably polarized embryo reflects a dynamic steady state in which molecules undergo continuous diffusion between regions of net association and dissociation.

Goehring, Nathan W.; Hoege, Carsten

2011-01-01

270

Phosphorylation of Par-4 by protein kinase A is critical for apoptosis.  

PubMed

Despite distinct dissimilarities, diverse cancers express several common protumorigenic traits. We present here evidence that the proapoptotic protein Par-4 utilizes one such common tumorigenic trait to become selectively activated and induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Elevated protein kinase A (PKA) activity noted in cancer cells activated the apoptotic function of ectopic Par-4 or its SAC (selective for apoptosis induction in cancer cells) domain, which induces apoptosis selectively in cancer cells and not in normal or immortalized cells. PKA preferentially phosphorylated Par-4 at the T155 residue within the SAC domain in cancer cells. Moreover, pharmacological-, peptide-, or small interfering RNA-mediated inhibition of PKA activity in cancer cells resulted in abrogation of both T155 phosphorylation and apoptosis by Par-4. The mechanism of activation of endogenous Par-4 was similar to that of ectopic Par-4, and in response to exogenous stimuli, endogenous Par-4 induced apoptosis by a PKA- and phosphorylated T155-dependent mechanism. Enforced elevation of PKA activity in normal cells resulted in apoptosis by the SAC domain of Par-4 in a T155-dependent manner. Together, these observations suggest that selective apoptosis of cancer cells by the SAC domain of Par-4 involves phosphorylation of T155 by PKA. These findings uncover a novel mechanism engaging PKA, a procancerous activity commonly elevated in most tumor cells, to activate the cancer selective apoptotic action of Par-4. PMID:15657440

Gurumurthy, Sushma; Goswami, Anindya; Vasudevan, Krishna Murthi; Rangnekar, Vivek M

2005-02-01

271

PAR-1 contributes to the innate immune response during viral infection  

PubMed Central

Coagulation is a host defense system that limits the spread of pathogens. Coagulation proteases, such as thrombin, also activate cells by cleaving PARs. In this study, we analyzed the role of PAR-1 in coxsackievirus B3–induced (CVB3-induced) myocarditis and influenza A infection. CVB3-infected Par1–/– mice expressed reduced levels of IFN-? and CXCL10 during the early phase of infection compared with Par1+/+ mice that resulted in higher viral loads and cardiac injury at day 8 after infection. Inhibition of either tissue factor or thrombin in WT mice also significantly increased CVB3 levels in the heart and cardiac injury compared with controls. BM transplantation experiments demonstrated that PAR-1 in nonhematopoietic cells protected mice from CVB3 infection. Transgenic mice overexpressing PAR-1 in cardiomyocytes had reduced CVB3-induced myocarditis. We found that cooperative signaling between PAR-1 and TLR3 in mouse cardiac fibroblasts enhanced activation of p38 and induction of IFN-? and CXCL10 expression. Par1–/– mice also had decreased CXCL10 expression and increased viral levels in the lung after influenza A infection compared with Par1+/+ mice. Our results indicate that the tissue factor/thrombin/PAR-1 pathway enhances IFN-? expression and contributes to the innate immune response during single-stranded RNA viral infection.

Antoniak, Silvio; Owens, A. Phillip; Baunacke, Martin; Williams, Julie C.; Lee, Rebecca D.; Weithauser, Alice; Sheridan, Patricia A.; Malz, Ronny; Luyendyk, James P.; Esserman, Denise A.; Trejo, JoAnn; Kirchhofer, Daniel; Blaxall, Burns C.; Pawlinski, Rafal; Beck, Melinda A.; Rauch, Ursula; Mackman, Nigel

2013-01-01

272

Many glitters of conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the glitter and media-reported hoopla of energy conservation is discussed, and some facts to dull that glitter are described. On a natonal TV program in the US, the glitter of an electric car drive system and an airborne bicycle powered by solar photovoltaic cells was presented. But, analysis of the energy required to manufacture the electric batteries and

Hall

1980-01-01

273

Kiwi Careers - Conservator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mark Stranage fixes photographs. He takes damaged photos and nurses them back to health. Read his profile to learn how he got this job and how he does his work. Check the other links at this site to find out what tasks a conservator generally performs, typical working conditions and pay.

Zeland, Career S.

274

Marine Conservation Biology Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stay current with the latest marine conservation issues, plus find information on workshops and job and research opportunities. Access information on the latest research, legislation, and MCBI's latest publications. Learn about marine protected areas, destructive fishing practices, endangered species, and how MCBI is advancing marine science. Features include a photo gallery, links to an abundance of worldwide external resources, and several downloadable videos.

275

Promoting household energy conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is commonly assumed that households must change their behaviour to reduce the problems caused by increasing levels of fossil energy use. Strategies for behaviour change will be more effective if they target the most important causes of the behaviour in question. Therefore, this paper first discusses the factors influencing household energy use. Three barriers to fossil fuel energy conservation

Linda Steg

2008-01-01

276

Conservation of Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides a description of energy and thermodynamics equations as applied to propulsion systems and the understanding of high speed flows. Conservation of energy concepts are discussed along with equations. A set of energy activities and problems are linked following the description. This page is a part of a much larger hyper-linked Beginner's Guide to Aerodynamics site.

Project, Nasa G.

2005-12-25

277

A conserved Bach current  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bach tensor and a vector which generates conformal symmetries allow a conserved 4-current to be defined. The Bach 4-current gives rise to a quasilocal 2-surface expression for power per luminosity distance in the Vaidya exterior of collapsing fluid interiors. This is interpreted in terms of entropy generation.

Glass, E. N.

2001-09-01

278

Creative Soil Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Take plant lessons outdoors with this engaging and inquiry-based activity in which third-grade students learn how to apply soil conservation methods to growing plants. They also collect data and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of their method of

Smith, Martha

2010-02-01

279

Foundry energy conservation workbook  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses methods for promoting energy conservation in foundries. Use of electric power, natural gas, and coke are evaluated. Waste heat recovery systems are considered. Energy consumption in the specific processes of electric melting, natural gas melting, heat treatments, ladle melting, and coke fuel melting is described. An example energy analysis is included. (GHH)

Not Available

1990-12-31

280

Energy Conservation (Bernoulli's Equation)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Chiang Shih's Thermal-Fluids I course at the FAMU-FSU College of Engineering combines "the traditional thermal disciplines in Thermodynamics, heat transfer and fluid mechanics." This PowerPoint presentation, from Shih's lecture notes, illustrates Benoulli's Equation and energy conservation. Along with mathematical equations, there are also a number of illustrations and examples which show the concepts discussed.

Shih, Chiang

2008-09-24

281

Marine Conservation Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stay current with the latest marine conservation issues, plus find information on workshops and job and research opportunities. Access information on the latest research, legislation, and MCI's latest publications. Learn about marine protected areas, destructive fishing practices, endangered species, and how MCI is advancing marine science. Features include a photo gallery, links to an abundance of worldwide external resources, and several downloadable videos.

2012-07-06

282

Conservation of Matter Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The phenomena are three examples that illustrate conservation of matter - dissolving salt in water, adding an effervescent tablet to water, and a change in state from ice to water. The resource describes a laboratory exercise that asks students to compare the mass before substances are combined or changed to the mass after substances are combined or changed.

283

Energy Conservation Simplified  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The standard formulation of energy conservation involves the subsidiary ideas of kinetic energy ("KE"), work ("W"), thermal energy, internal energy, and a half-dozen different kinds of potential energy ("PE"): elastic, chemical, nuclear, gravitational, and so forth. These quantities came to be recognized during the centuries over which the…

Hecht, Eugene

2008-01-01

284

Conservation of Language Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three successful school program models designed to help language minority students conserve the language skills acquired in their homes and continue normal native language development are described. The programs were developed to counteract a trend toward wasting valuable existing language skills and resources. The programs include: (1) an…

Campbell, Russell N.; Lindholm, Kathryn J.

285

Angular momentum conservation demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A short article describing the fabrication and operation of a simple angular momentum conservation demonstration. The demonstration is based on a Lazy Susan, and cylindrical brass weights tied with a nylon string. The string can be pulled or released changing the radius or rotation of the weights.

Berg, Richard E.; Anders, Robert E.

2010-12-23

286

Flared Gas Conservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to (1) identify the flared and vented gas sources at major field facilities, on leases and at gas processing plants, (2) quantify the amount of gas lost and categorize by type of source, (3) identify the conservation practice...

D. M. Gammell J. H. Williams S. Krueger

1979-01-01

287

Molecular Contributions to Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in molecular technology have opened a new chapter in species conservation efforts, as well as population biology. DNA sequencing, MHC (major histocompatibility complex), minisatellite, microsatellite, and RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) procedures allow for identification of parentage, more distant relatives, founders to new populations, unidentified individuals, population structure, effective pop- ulation size, population-specific markers, etc. PCR (polymerase chain

Susan M. Haig

1998-01-01

288

Conservation in Conflict  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What happens when war occurs in areas where there is war? Ecologist Peter Zahler who has worked in Afghanistan since 2002, talks about how conserving biodiversity may bring peace to the war-torn region. You can read more about Zahler's work in the article Nurturing Wildlife in War-Torn Afghanistan that appeared in the New Yorker Times in December, 2011.

Society, Wildlife C.

289

Genomics and conservation genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In large part, the relevance of genetics to conservation rests on the premise that neutral marker variation in populations reflects levels of detrimental and adaptive genetic variation. Despite its prominence, this tenet has been difficult to evaluate, until now. As we discuss here, genome sequence information and new technological and bioinformatics platforms now enable comprehen- sive surveys of neutral variation

Michael H. Kohn; William J. Murphy; Elaine A. Ostrander; Robert K. Wayne

2006-01-01

290

Communities, Cameras, and Conservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Communities, Cameras, and Conservation (CCC) is the most exciting and valuable program the author has seen in her 30 years of teaching field science courses. In this citizen science project, students and community volunteers collect data on mountain lions ("Puma concolor") at four natural areas and public parks along the Front Range of Colorado.…

Patterson, Barbara

2012-01-01

291

Hearing Conservation Medical Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Background on hearing impairment is presented including causes and criteria for safe noise levels. The purpose of the Hearing Conservation Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Hearing Impairment at LeRC are discussed.

1993-01-01

292

Water conservation plan guidelines  

SciTech Connect

These Water Conservation Plan Guidelines are addressed to water system planners but use of the Guidelines is not required by federal law or regulation. The first part of the document introduces the Guidelines and provides information to the States about their nature and possible use. The second part of the document, written for water systems, is an overview to the organization, content, and the use of the Guidelines. The next three parts contain the water conservation plan Guidelines: Basic, Intermediate, and Advanced. The Basic Guidelines are designed for use by water systems serving populations of 10,000 or fewer; The Intermediate Guidelines are designed for water systems serving between 10,000 and 100,000 people; The Advanced Guidelines are designed for water systems serving more than 100,000 people. Six appendixes to the Guidelines provide supporting information: detailed descriptions of conservation measures (Appendix A), conservation benchmarks (Appendix B), acronyms and a glossary (Appendix C), information resources (Appendix D), funding sources (Appendix E), and state contacts (Appendix F).

NONE

1998-08-06

293

Water Conservation in Oman  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limited resources and growing needs for water have triggered a nationwide campaign for water conservation in the Sultanate of Oman. A land and soil survey study of Oman shows the availability of more arable land than present water resources could support. Groundwater is the main source for agricultural production. Overpumping at rates higher than the natural recharge has resulted in

Hayder A. Abdel-Rahman; Isam Mohammed Abdel-Magid

1993-01-01

294

Review of Breast Conservation Therapy: Then and Now  

PubMed Central

Breast conservation therapy (BCT), which is the marriage of breast conserving surgery and radiation therapy to the breast, has revolutionized the treatment of breast cancer over the last few decades. Surgical direction had seen a heightened interest in the performance of cosmetically superior partial and segmental resections in breast conservation as well as increased demand by patients for breast preservation. The broadening of approaches to delivery of breast irradiation from whole breast to accelerated partial breast has allowed more patients to opt for breast conservation and allowed for what appears to be comparable measurable outcomes in emerging data. As well, the addition of state-of-the-art chemotherapeutic and hormonal therapies has allowed improved outcomes of patients from both local regional recurrence and overall survival standpoints. This paper will provide an overview of BCT and review some of the newest developments in optimizing this therapy for patients with breast cancer from a surgical-, medical-, and radiation-oncology standpoint.

Hoover, Susan; Bloom, Elizabeth; Patel, Sunil

2011-01-01

295

[Relationships of rice canopy PAR interception and light use efficiency to grain yield].  

PubMed

Taking two rice cultivars (Liangyoupeijiu and Wuxiangjing 14) with different plant types as test materials, a 2-year field experiment was conducted to study the relationships of rice canopy photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) interception and light use efficiency to grain yield under three planting densities and five nitrogen (N) application rates. From tillering to maturing stage, the average PAR reflectance in all treatments was 3.45%. The ratio of reflected PAR to the total loss of PAR from tillering to heading stage was 10.90%, which was significantly lower than that (22.06%) from heading to maturiting stage. The PAR conversion efficiency from tillering to maturing stage decreased with increasing planting density but increased with increasing nitrogen rate, and the conversion efficiency was significantly higher from tillering to heading than from heading to maturing stage. The PAR use efficiency from tillering to maturing stage increased with the increase of planting density and nitrogen application rate, and the average PAR use efficiency of Liangyoupeijiu (1.83 g x MJ(-1)) was significantly higher than that of Wuxiangjing 14 (1.42 g x MJ(-1)). Due to the longer growth period of Wuxiangjing 14, its incident PAR and intercepted PAR under midium and high planting densities were higher, as compared with Liangyoupeijiu. The grain yield was significantly positively correlated with the canopy PAR interceptance and use efficiency at different growth stages, but less correlated with the PAR conversion efficiency. To increase the canopy PAR use efficiency and conversion efficiency on the basis of maintaining higher PAR interception rate could be an effective way to increase rice yield. PMID:22919837

Tang, Liang; Zhu, Xiang-Cheng; Cao, Meng-Ying; Cao, Wei-Xing; Zhu, Yan

2012-05-01

296

Carcinome ?pidermo?de de l'ur?tre masculin r?v?l? par une rupture spontan?e de l'ur?tre  

PubMed Central

Résumé Le carcinome épidermoïde de l’urètre masculin est une tumeur rare, les tumeurs de l’urètre tous types confondus représentant moins de 1 % des tumeurs de l’appareil urinaire. Le pronostic reste défavorable malgré un traitement chirurgical énergique. La radiochimiothérapie semble être un traitement prometteur, mais son rôle doit être défini par d’autres études. Nous rapportons un cas rare de carcinome épidermoïde de l’urètre bulbo-membraneux découvert à un stade localement avancé après observation d’une rupture urétrale transtumorale chez un homme âgé de 70 ans. Le patient a été traité, après drainage vésical, par une irradiation externe associée à une chimiothérapie par cisplatine, et est décédé après progression de la maladie sur un an. La rupture spontanée de l’urètre transtumorale est un mode de découverte exceptionnel témoignant d’une évolution locale défavorable, ce qui rend ces tumeurs difficilement opérables. Cependant, l’espoir actuel réside dans des protocoles thérapeutiques associant radiothérapie et chimiothérapie.

Ghorbel, Jilani; Hafsia, Ghassen; Derouiche, Amine; Jrad, Anis; Chebil, Mohamed

2011-01-01

297

An Atypical PKC Directly Associates and Colocalizes at the Epithelial Tight Junction with ASIP, a Mammalian Homologue of Caenorhabditis elegans Polarity Protein PAR-3  

PubMed Central

Cell polarity is fundamental to differentiation and function of most cells. Studies in mammalian epithelial cells have revealed that the establishment and maintenance of cell polarity depends upon cell adhesion, signaling networks, the cytoskeleton, and protein transport. Atypical protein kinase C (PKC) isotypes PKC? and PKC? have been implicated in signaling through lipid metabolites including phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphates, but their physiological role remains elusive. In the present study we report the identification of a protein, ASIP (atypical PKC isotype–specific interacting protein), that binds to aPKCs, and show that it colocalizes with PKC? to the cell junctional complex in cultured epithelial MDCKII cells and rat intestinal epithelia. In addition, immunoelectron microscopy revealed that ASIP localizes to tight junctions in intestinal epithelial cells. Furthermore, ASIP shows significant sequence similarity to Caenorhabditis elegans PAR-3. PAR-3 protein is localized to the anterior periphery of the one-cell embryo, and is required for the establishment of cell polarity in early embryos. ASIP and PAR-3 share three PDZ domains, and can both bind to aPKCs. Taken together, our results suggest a role for a protein complex containing ASIP and aPKC in the establishment and/or maintenance of epithelial cell polarity. The evolutionary conservation of the protein complex and its asymmetric distribution in polarized cells from worm embryo to mammalian-differentiated cells may mean that the complex functions generally in the organization of cellular asymmetry.

Izumi, Yasushi; Hirose, Tomonori; Tamai, Yoko; Hirai, Syu-ichi; Nagashima, Yoji; Fujimoto, Toyoshi; Tabuse, Yo; Kemphues, Kenneth J.; Ohno, Shigeo

1998-01-01

298

Paracrine apoptotic effect of p53 mediated by tumor suppressor Par-4.  

PubMed

The guardian of the genome, p53, is often mutated in cancer and may contribute to therapeutic resistance. Given that p53 is intact and functional in normal tissues, we harnessed its potential to inhibit the growth of p53-deficient cancer cells. Specific activation of p53 in normal fibroblasts selectively induced apoptosis in p53-deficient cancer cells. This paracrine effect was mediated by p53-dependent secretion of the tumor suppressor Par-4. Accordingly, the activation of p53 in normal mice, but not p53(-)/(-) or Par-4(-)/(-) mice, caused systemic elevation of Par-4, which induced apoptosis of p53-deficient tumor cells. Mechanistically, p53 induced Par-4 secretion by suppressing the expression of its binding partner, UACA, which sequesters Par-4. Thus, normal cells can be empowered by p53 activation to induce Par-4 secretion for the inhibition of therapy-resistant tumors. PMID:24412360

Burikhanov, Ravshan; Shrestha-Bhattarai, Tripti; Hebbar, Nikhil; Qiu, Shirley; Zhao, Yanming; Zambetti, Gerard P; Rangnekar, Vivek M

2014-01-30

299

Estimating Photosynthetically Available Radiation (PAR) at the Earth's surface from satellite observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current satellite algorithms to estimate photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) at the earth' s surface are reviewed. PAR is deduced either from an insolation estimate or obtained directly from top-of-atmosphere solar radiances. The characteristics of both approaches are contrasted and typical results are presented. The inaccuracies reported, about 10 percent and 6 percent on daily and monthly time scales, respectively, are useful to model oceanic and terrestrial primary productivity. At those time scales variability due to clouds in the ratio of PAR and insolation is reduced, making it possible to deduce PAR directly from insolation climatologies (satellite or other) that are currently available or being produced. Improvements, however, are needed in conditions of broken cloudiness and over ice/snow. If not addressed properly, calibration/validation issues may prevent quantitative use of the PAR estimates in studies of climatic change. The prospects are good for an accurate, long-term climatology of PAR over the globe.

Frouin, Robert

1993-01-01

300

Northeast Document Conservation Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1973, the Northeast Document Conservation Center (NDCC) was created to address the rapid deterioration of older paper-based documents in a number of institutions across New England. On their website, visitors can learn about their conservation and imaging services, and also examine some of their fine resources intended for members of the preservation community. The "Resources" area is a good place to start, as it contains a number of suggestions for preserving private and family collections and also contains a set of additional web-based resources and links. Beyond those materials, there are a number of digitized leaflets here, such as "Assessing Preservation Needs: A Self-Survey Guide" and "Preservation of Library and Archival Materials". The site is rounded out by an excellent disaster assistance section that includes an online disaster planning tool called "dPlan" and a set of general guidelines for archival institutions that may be coping with such situations.

301

Energy-conservation indicators  

SciTech Connect

A series of Energy Conservation Indicators were developed for the Department of Energy to assist in the evaluation of current and proposed conservation strategies. As descriptive statistics that signify current conditions and trends related to efficiency of energy use, indicators provide a way of measuring, monitoring, or inferring actual responses by consumers in markets for energy services. Related sets of indicators are presented in some 30 one-page indicator summaries. Indicators are shown graphically, followed by several paragraphs that explain their derivation and highlight key findings. Indicators are classified according to broad end-use sectors: Aggregate (economy), Residential, Commercial, Industrial, and transportation. In most cases annual time series information is presented covering the period 1960 through 1981.

Belzer, D.B.

1982-06-01

302

Conservative entropic forces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Entropic forces have recently attracted considerable attention as ways to reformulate, retrodict, and perhaps even "explain" classical Newtonian gravity from a rather specific thermodynamic perspective. In this article I point out that if one wishes to reformulate classical Newtonian gravity in terms of an entropic force, then the fact that Newtonian gravity is described by a conservative force places significant constraints on the form of the entropy and temperature functions. (These constraints also apply to entropic reinterpretations of electromagnetism, and indeed to any conservative force derivable from a potential.) The constraints I will establish are sufficient to present real and significant problems for any reasonable variant of Verlinde's entropic gravity proposal, though for technical reasons the constraints established herein do not directly impact on either Jacobson'sor Padmanabhan's versions of entropic gravity. In an attempt to resolve these issues, I will extend the usual notion of entropic force to multiple heat baths with multiple "temperatures" and multiple "entropies".

Visser, Matt

2011-10-01

303

Environmental Conservation Online System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Conservation Online System (ECOS) is a gateway web site that provides access to data systems in the Endangered Species and Fisheries and Habitat Conservation program areas, as well as other FWS and Government data sources. ECOS provides a central point of access to assist FWS personnel in managing data and information as well as provide general public access to information from numerous FWS databases. ECOS allows users to view, query, and, in some cases, edit data. Some of the larger applications are: Threatened and Endangered Species System (TESS), Habitat Tracking Information System (HabITS), Fish Passage Decision Support System (FPDSS), Contaminant Assessment Program (CAP), and Environmental Contaminants Data Management System (ECDMS). Mapping capabilities are also available, utilizing spatially referenced data in these databases. The general mapping utility, Geotract, is an interactive tool that includes data relevant to many service personnel and the public. Other specialized mapping tools are available for specific project and end-user needs.

304

Caracterisation et transformation par hydroviscoreduction du brut lourd de Doba/Tchad: Strategie de pompage par pipeline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Le projet de la these est defini par rapport a la recente exploitation commerciale du brut lourd de Doba, une region du Tchad, pays enclave d'ou le brut ainsi produit doit etre achemine par pipeline. Le but dans ce travail est de caracteriser ce brut et de determiner une strategie thermique de transformation en vue de reduire de la facon la plus economique, la viscosite du brut pour permettre son transport par pipeline. Concernant la partie caracterisation, nous avons utilise entre autres, un rheometre rotatif et des analyseurs (LECO CHN-2000 & LECO S-144DR Elemental Analyzers) pour evaluer respectivement la viscosite et les elements tels que C, H, N, O, S. Sur la base des methodes de transformation disponibles, nous avons determine une strategie simple de transformation thermique par hydroviscoreduction , strategie dans laquelle, la fraction legere du brut comme le naphta (80--180°C), pourrait constituer la source d'hydrogene a utiliser. Le brut de Doba, a une faible teneur en soufre (0.14%) et sa densite specifique de 0.940 a 15.6°C, soit 18.8° API, le classe parmi les bruts lourds. Outre le point initial se situant a 85°C, la distillation du brut a revele que la fraction distillant avant 250°C ne represente que 10% (v/v) et que le craquage thermique du substrat debute a 300°C. Par ailleurs, outre son caractere Newtonien, les densites specifiques de la fraction lourde de l'essence (100--200°C) et de la fraction distillant au-dessus 350°C, etant respectivement de 0.813 (0.813 > 0.800) et de 0.951 (0.930 < 0.951 < 0.975), le brut de Doba est donc de type aromatique. Les viscosites du brut et du brut desasphalte, sont respectivement de 184.4 cSt et 152.4 cSt a 50°C, suggerant que le desasphaltage ne constitue pas une methode efficace pouvant aider au pompage du brut par pipeline, d'ou la necessite de transformation. Les resultats des travaux en autoclave montrent que, si le brut doit etre traite entierement, la viscosite de 25cSt 50°C, recommandee pour le transport par pipeline, peut-etre atteinte a une severite de traitement log(R0) = 6.3. Pour des raisons economiques, si le brut traite, devrait etre melange avec 50% en poids du brut non-traite, un traitement a une severite de 6.4 s'impose. De plus, La viscosite du brut traite a une severite de 6.4 ne souffre d'aucun effet de vieillissement meme apres deux mois, ce qui correspond au temps de sejour du brut dans le pipeline. L'etude montre aussi que les asphaltenes du brut traite en absence d'un catalyseur sont moins aromatiques que ceux du brut non-traite.

Dehkissia, Soumaine

305

Decreased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Par4 in renal cell carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Par-4 is a widely expressed leucine zipper protein that confers sensitization to apoptosis induced by exogenous insults. Because the expression of genes that promote apoptosis may be down-regulated during tumorigenesis, we sought to examine the expression of Par-4 in human tumors. We present here evidence that Par-4 protein levels were severely decreased in human renal cell carcinoma specimens relative to

Jason Cook; Sumathi Krishnan; Subbian Ananth; Stephen F Sells; Yang Shi; McClellan M Walther; W Marston Linehan; Vikas P Sukhatme; Michael H Weinstein; Vivek M Rangnekar

1999-01-01

306

A low-complexity PAR-reduction method for DMT-VDSL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract DMT-VDSL signals have a high peak-to-average power ratio (PAR). In the transmitters, the PAR governs the necessary resolution of the digital-to-analog converter (DAC) and is an important factor for the power consumption of the line-driver. Aiming at implementation in a specific system, we propose a low complexity PAR-reduction method based on the iterative algorithm derived in [5, 20, 24,

Per Ola B Orjesson; Hans G. Feichtinger; Niklas Grip; Mikael Isaksson; Norbert Kaiblinger; Per Odling; Lars-erik Persson

307

Suppression of Par4 Protects Human Renal Proximal Tubule Cells from Apoptosis Induced by Oxidative Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Oxidative stress is an important inducer of cell apoptosis and plays a key role in the development of renal inflammation. The prostate apoptosis response factor-4 (Par-4) gene was originally identified in prostate cells undergoing apoptosis. Subsequently, Par-4 was found to possess potent pro-apoptotic activity in various cellular systems. However, it remains unclear whether Par-4 is involved in oxidant injury

Bin Sun; Chao Lu; Guo-Ping Zhou; Chang-Ying Xing

2011-01-01

308

ScalParC: A New Scalable and Efficient Parallel Classification Algorithm for Mining Large Datasets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present ScalParC ( Scalable Parallel Classifier), a new parallel formulation of a decision tree based classification process. Like other state-of-the-art de- cision tree classifiers such as SPRINT, ScalParC is suited for handling large datasets. We show that existing parallel formulation of SPRINT is unscalable, whereas ScalParC is shown to be scalable in both runtime and memory

Mahesh V. Joshi; George Karypis; Vipin Kumar

1998-01-01

309

Pars intermedia of the pituitary gland and integumentary colour changes in the garden lizard Calotes versicolor  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The effect of light and of colour of the background on the secretory activity of the pars intermedia of the garden lizard has been investigated.2.Absence of light, as well as black illuminated background, produces increased acticity of the pars intermedia, proportional to the duration of the experiment.3.Pale illuminated background has no effect on the secretory activity of the pars intermedia.4.The

Shanta Nayar; K. R. Pandalai

1963-01-01

310

DmPAR-6 directs epithelial polarity and asymmetric cell division of  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Drosophila protein Bazooka is required for both apical-basal polarity in epithelial cells and directing asymmetric cell division in neuroblasts. Here we show that the PDZ-domain protein DmPAR-6 cooperates with Bazooka for both of these functions. DmPAR-6 colocalizes with Bazooka at the apical cell cortex of epithelial cells and neuroblasts, and binds to Bazooka in vitro. DmPAR-6 localization requires Bazooka,

Mark Petronczki; Juergen A. Knoblich; Bohr Gasse

311

DmPAR-6 directs epithelial polarity and asymmetric cell division of neuroblasts in Drosophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Drosophila protein Bazooka is required for both apical–basal polarity in epithelial cells and directing asymmetric cell division in neuroblasts. Here we show that the PDZ-domain protein DmPAR-6 cooperates with Bazooka for both of these functions. DmPAR-6 colocalizes with Bazooka at the apical cell cortex of epithelial cells and neuroblasts, and binds to Bazooka in vitro . DmPAR-6 localization requires

Mark Petronczki; Juergen A. Knoblich

2000-01-01

312

siRNA-mediated Downregulation of MMP-9 and uPAR in Combination with Radiation Induces G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest in Medulloblastoma  

PubMed Central

Our previous work and that of other investigators strongly suggest a relationship between the upregulation of MMP-9 and uPAR and tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. In this study, we evaluated the role of MMP-9 and uPAR in medulloblastoma cancer cell resistance to ionizing irradiation (IR) and tested the anti-tumor efficacy of siRNA against MMP-9 (pM) and uPAR (pU) either alone or in combination (pUM). Cell proliferation (BrdU assay), apoptosis (in situ TUNEL for DNA fragmentation), and cell cycle (FACS) analyses were carried out to determine the effect of siRNA either alone or in combination with IR on G2/M cell cycle arrest in medulloblastoma cells. IR upregulated MMP-9 and uPAR expression in medulloblastoma cells; pM, pU, and pUM in combination with IR effectively reduced both MMP-9 and uPAR expression, thereby leading to increased radiosensitivity of medulloblastoma cells. siRNA treatments (pM, pU, and pUM) also promoted IR-induced apoptosis and enhanced IR-induced G2/M arrest during cell cycle progression. While IR induces G2/M cell cycle arrest through inhibition of the pCdc2 and cyclin B-regulated signaling pathways involving p53, p21/WAF1, and Chk2 gene expression, siRNA (pM, pU, and pUM) alone or in combination with IR induced G2/M arrest mediated through inhibition of the pCdc2 and cyclin B1-regulated signaling pathways involving Chk1 and Cdc25A gene expression. Taken together, our data suggest that downregulation of MMP-9, and uPAR induces Chk1-mediated G2/M cell cycle arrest, whereas the disruption caused by IR alone is dependent on p53- and Chk2-mediated G2/M cell cycle arrest.

Ganji, Purnachandra Nagaraju; Nalla, Arun Kumar; Gupta, Reshu; Mohanam, Sanjeeva; Gujrati, Meena; Dinh, Dzung H.; Rao, Jasti S.

2010-01-01

313

Conservation businesses and conservation planning in a biological diversity hotspot.  

PubMed

The allocation of land to biological diversity conservation competes with other land uses and the needs of society for development, food, and extraction of natural resources. Trade-offs between biological diversity conservation and alternative land uses are unavoidable, given the realities of limited conservation resources and the competing demands of society. We developed a conservation-planning assessment for the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal, which forms the central component of the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany biological diversity hotspot. Our objective was to enhance biological diversity protection while promoting sustainable development and providing spatial guidance in the resolution of potential policy conflicts over priority areas for conservation at risk of transformation. The conservation-planning assessment combined spatial-distribution models for 646 conservation features, spatial economic-return models for 28 alternative land uses, and spatial maps for 4 threats. Nature-based tourism businesses were competitive with other land uses and could provide revenues of >US$60 million/year to local stakeholders and simultaneously help meeting conservation goals for almost half the conservation features in the planning region. Accounting for opportunity costs substantially decreased conflicts between biological diversity, agricultural use, commercial forestry, and mining. Accounting for economic benefits arising from conservation and reducing potential policy conflicts with alternative plans for development can provide opportunities for successful strategies that combine conservation and sustainable development and facilitate conservation action. PMID:23565917

Di Minin, Enrico; Macmillan, Douglas Craig; Goodman, Peter Styan; Escott, Boyd; Slotow, Rob; Moilanen, Atte

2013-08-01

314

Conservation and Education in Murchison Falls Conservation Area, Uganda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This thesis forms the foundation for a conservation education training manual to help guides in Murchison Falls National Park, Uganda, communicate to foreign visitors about conservation issues. For background information I used a combination of text-based research and interviews to examine the application of community conservation and…

Jordahl, Mark D.

2005-01-01

315

Interactive Distributed Conservation Planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the environmental and agricultural conservation planning process, more efficient and effective tools are needed for planners to assist private landowners with making wiser land use decisions. Current methods are slow, inefficient, and costly. Scientific techniques have not been fully implemented within the planning process, yet such plans are increasingly needed to meet water quality and Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) requirements. The objectives of this study are to (a) utilize the web for accessing an integrated science-based land use decision support system; (b) link decision tools, models, and databases to the user via the web; (c) link distributed models and databases for enhanced planning efficiency; and (d) integrate the above into an easily usable and readily accessible system. The procedures resulting in the initial design involved planning expertise and focus groups' input. The system was developed in partnership with the Natural Resources Conservation Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and several state agencies. A survey of 150 certified conservation planners, the end users, was conducted to identify the data sets and planning tools needed. Data, tools, and models then were selected and integrated into a web accessible system. Specifically, the first generation used a web interactive Geographic Information System (GIS) that overlaid onto digital orthoquads and/or soils polygons field boundaries, transportation, hydrologic features (such as drains, rivers, lakes, etc.), and high pesticide risk runoff or infiltration areas. Conservation planners found they could save time with the system. Clients could access the system quickly to help them prepare for meeting with their planner. Previously acquiring GIS maps in some cases had been a lengthy process that limited use of the information in land use decisions.

Brown, Elaine M.; Ouyang, Da; Jeremiah Asher, A.; Batholic, Jon F.

2002-08-01

316

Is Baryon Number Conserved?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We suggest that baryon-number conservation may not be absolute and that an integrally charged quark may disintegrate into two leptons and an antilepton with a coupling strength GBmp2<~10-9. On the other hand, if quarks are much heavier than low-lying hadrons, the decay of a three-quark system like the proton is highly forbidden (proton lifetime >~ 1028 y). Motivation for these

Jogesh C. Pati; Abdus Salam

1973-01-01

317

CLEANER PRODUCTION THROUGH CONSERVATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Colorado State University Industrial Assessment Center (CSU IAC) promotes cleaner production through conservation of energy and materials. This paper reports results from 75 1996-99 CSU IAC industrial assessments at small and mid-size manufacturing plants. Teams of faculty members and engineering students carry out the industrial assessments. Each assessment includes a full-day plant visit and generates a detailed assessment report

Harry W. Edwards; Michael F. Kostrzewa; Jason M. Jonkman

318

Conservation of Fern Spores  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ferns are a diverse and important group of plants, but diversity of ­species and populations are at risk from increasing social\\u000a pressures, loss of habitat, and climate change. Ex situ conservation is a useful strategy to limit decline in genetic diversity and requires technologies to preserve fern germplasm.\\u000a Fern spore storage has received little research attention but, by analogy to

Daniel Ballesteros

319

A musical conservation problem.  

PubMed

7 piano pupils (8 to 16 yr.) judged which of two printed musical passages required more playing time. It was hypothesized that younger pupils would not conserve the indicated rhythm. Results support the hypothesis, showing that these children based their judgments on spatial/perceptual characteristics rather than on implied quantitative dimensions of the stimuli. Implications for developing non-traditional teaching methods are discussed. PMID:840614

Roberts-Gray, C; Yip, J

1977-02-01

320

Conservation laryngeal surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation laryngeal surgery is an increasingly available alternative for treatment of laryngeal cancer. In addition to\\u000a the traditional techniques of vertical partial laryngectomy (hemilaryngectomy) and supraglottic laryngectomy, new techniques\\u000a are now in practice that extend the indications to a far greater number of patients. The carbon dioxide laser is used to resect\\u000a both glottic and supraglottic cancers. This procedure is

Steven C. Marks

1999-01-01

321

Hearing Conservation in Industry  

PubMed Central

Noise-induced hearing loss is a major and entirely preventable public health problem. Effective prevention of this disorder has yet to be achieved in the United States but would improve the overall hearing health of the population more than the treatment of all other otologic disorders combined. Losses that are mild to moderately severe and maximal at 3, 4 or 6 kHz are typical but not pathognomonic. Individual differences in susceptibility are substantial but unpredictable. Hearing conservation programs are now required by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration for almost all employees whose daily exposure to noise exceeds a time-weighted average of 85 dBA (A-weighted sound pressure level). The permitted exposure level is 90 dBA time-weighted average, above which engineering or administrative controls or hearing protectors are required. Workers with lesser exposures (85 to 90 dBA time-weighted average) who have hearing changes must be similarly protected. Many, but not all, elements of required hearing conservation programs have been specified recently by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Medical supervision and otologic referral are important components of hearing conservation programs because otologic problems other than noise-induced hearing loss are common in industrial populations. Compensation for noise-induced hearing loss, which is awarded through state workers' compensation boards, as well as certain federal sources, varies widely.

Dobie, Robert A.

1982-01-01

322

Wildlife Conservation Research Unit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oxford University has a very important website dedicated to its Wildlife Conservation Research Unit (WildCRU), that hopes to solve the "conflict between peoples' futures and wildlife conservation." There are several themes on the website, all of which can be found on the left hand menu. Visitors will find the following topics to explore: "Endangered Species", "Invasives", "Land Use & Biodiversity", "Fundamental Biology", "Wildlife Diseases", and "Wildlife as a Resource". The "Publications" link at the top right side of the page contains "Books", "Papers", "Reports", and "Theses" available to read online or find in a physical library. A multitude of animal issues are discussed in the documents here, including a paper called "The World Can't Have Wild Tigers and Eat Them, Too" and "State of Britain's Mammals 2008". The "Research" link near the top of the page, includes the dozens of research projects WildCRU is involved in, such as "Badger Genetic Research", "Transfrontier Conservation of Andean Cats" and "Towards Reducing the Total Environmental Impacts of Agriculture."

323

Immunohistochemical analysis of the proapoptotic protein Par-4 in normal rat tissues.  

PubMed

Prostate apoptosis response 4 (par-4) is a recently identified gene that encodes a transcription factor, Par-4, with a leucine zipper domain. Par-4 protein is constitutively expressed in various cell lines and is functionally required but not sufficient for apoptosis. Induction of Par-4 in cultured cells is found exclusively during apoptosis, and ectopic overexpression of Par-4 enhances the potency of apoptotic stimuli. Western or Northern blot analysis on mRNA or protein extracts, respectively, from rat organs revealed that the expression of Par-4 was ubiquitous and was not restricted to any specific organ(s). To further identify specific cell types that expressed Par-4, we performed an immunohistochemical analysis of the protein in paraffin-embedded sections of various organs from rats. Our findings indicated that consistent with its proapoptotic role, Par-4 is expressed in apoptotic granulosa cells of atretic ovarian follicles and in terminally differentiated cells, such as the cardiomyocytes, cerebellar Purkinje cells, and pyramidal cells of the hypothalamus. Moreover, testosterone ablation by castration of rats caused an early and transient induction of Par-4 in the ductal cells of the prostate that undergo apoptosis. By contrast, in tissues in which the cells could be visually differentiated from their mature counterparts, Par-4 expression was lowest in the mature cells. This was the case for epithelia of the mammary and the prostate gland in which the basal cells maintained higher protein levels of Par-4 than did the terminally differentiated ductal cells. Similarly, cells of the stratum corneum of the skin and cells on top of the duodenal villi stained less intensely for Par-4 as compared to the stem cells in the stratum basale and at the bottom of the crypts of Lieberkühn, respectively. It is possible that Par-4 has to be down-regulated for successful differentiation in these tissues. Taken together, the widespread expression of Par-4 in various adult cell types underscores the physiological importance of the protein. The observation of constitutive Par-4 expression in the stem cell compartments is inconsistent with the probability of apoptosis per se and can be extended to determine whether Par-4 plays a role in other cellular processes. PMID:9269897

Boghaert, E R; Sells, S F; Walid, A J; Malone, P; Williams, N M; Weinstein, M H; Strange, R; Rangnekar, V M

1997-08-01

324

Cancer-selective apoptotic effects of extracellular and intracellular Par-4.  

PubMed

Selectivity toward cancer cells is the most desirable element in cancer therapeutics. Par-4 is a cancer cell-selective proapoptotic protein that functions intracellularly in the cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments as a tumor suppressor. Moreover, recent findings indicate that the Par-4 protein is secreted by cells, and extracellular Par-4 induces cancer cell-specific apoptosis by interaction with the cell-surface receptor GRP78. This review describes the mechanisms underlying the apoptotic effects of both extracellular and intracellular Par-4 acting through its effector domain SAC. PMID:20440265

Shrestha-Bhattarai, T; Rangnekar, V M

2010-07-01

325

ParA ATPases can move and position DNA and subcellular structures.  

PubMed

Prokaryotic chromosomes and plasmids can be actively segregated by partitioning (par) loci. The common ParA-encoding par loci segregate plasmids by arranging them in regular arrays over the nucleoid by an unknown mechanism. Recent observations indicate that ParA moves plasmids and chromosomes by a pulling mechanism. Even though ParAs form filaments in vitro it is not known whether similar structures are present in vivo. ParA of P1 forms filaments in vitro at very high concentrations only and filament-like structures have not been observed in vivo. Consequently, a 'diffusion-ratchet' mechanism was suggested to explain plasmid movement by ParA of P1. We compare this mechanism with our previously proposed filament model for plasmid movement by ParA. Remarkably, ParA homologues have been discovered to arrange subcellular structures such as carboxysomes and chemotaxis sensory receptors in a regular manner very similar to those of the plasmid arrays. PMID:21963112

Szardenings, Florian; Guymer, David; Gerdes, Kenn

2011-12-01

326

Tryptase-PAR2 axis in experimental autoimmune prostatitis, a model for chronic pelvic pain syndrome.  

PubMed

Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) affects up to 15% of the male population and is characterized by pelvic pain. Mast cells are implicated in the murine experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP) model as key to chronic pelvic pain development. The mast cell mediator tryptase-? and its cognate receptor protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) are involved in mediating pain in other visceral disease models. Prostatic secretions and urines from CP/CPPS patients were examined for the presence of mast cell degranulation products. Tryptase-? and PAR2 expression were examined in murine EAP. Pelvic pain and inflammation were assessed in the presence or absence of PAR2 expression and upon PAR2 neutralization. Tryptase-? and carboxypeptidase A3 were elevated in CP/CPPS compared to healthy volunteers. Tryptase-? was capable of inducing pelvic pain and was increased in EAP along with its receptor PAR2. PAR2 was required for the development of chronic pelvic pain in EAP. PAR2 signaling in dorsal root ganglia led to extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 phosphorylation and calcium influx. PAR2 neutralization using antibodies attenuated chronic pelvic pain in EAP. The tryptase-PAR2 axis is an important mediator of pelvic pain in EAP and may play a role in the pathogenesis of CP/CPPS. PMID:24726923

Roman, Kenny; Done, Joseph D; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Murphy, Stephen F; Thumbikat, Praveen

2014-07-01

327

Key to the cladocera of Par Pond on the Savannah River Plant  

SciTech Connect

A key is provided for the identification of the cladocerans of Par Pond, a thermally enriched impoundment on the grounds of the Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina. Extensive use was made of existing data on cladoceran species and their distribution in Par Pond. Information is presented under the following section headings: species found in Par Pond: their abundance, temporal, and spatial distribution; methods for collection, preservation, and identification; key to the cladocerans of Par Pond (including, major divisions of the order cladocera and genera and species within the families). A glossary is included. (JGB)

Berner, D.B.

1982-06-01

328

Adaptation: Conservation for any budget  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deciding where and how to allocate scarce funding to conserve plants and animals in a changing and uncertain climate is a thorny issue. Numerical modelling identifies the most effective mix of conservation measures based on the level of expenditure available.

Lawler, Joshua J.

2011-10-01

329

Educating Astronauts About Conservation Biology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This article reviews the training of astronauts in the interdisciplinary work of conservation biology. The primary responsibility of the conservation biologist at NASA is directing and supporting the photography of the Earth and maintaining the complete d...

J. A. Robinson

2001-01-01

330

A role for the centrosome and PAR-3 in the hand-off of microtubule organizing center function during epithelial polarization  

PubMed Central

Summary Background The centrosome is the major microtubule organizing center (MTOC) in dividing cells and in many post-mitotic, differentiated cells. In other cell types, however, MTOC function is reassigned from the centrosome to non-centrosomal sites. Here, we analyze how MTOC function is reassigned to the apical membrane of C. elegans intestinal cells. Results After the terminal intestinal cell division, the centrosomes and nuclei move near the future apical membranes, and the postmitotic centrosomes lose all, or nearly all, of their associated microtubules. We show that microtubule-nucleating proteins such as ?-tubulin and CeGrip-1 that are centrosome components in dividing cells become localized to the apical membrane, which becomes highly enriched in microtubules. Our results suggest that centrosomes are critical to specify the apical membrane as the new MTOC. First, ?-tubulin appears to redistribute directly from the migrating centrosome onto the lateral, then apical membrane. Second, ?-tubulin fails to accumulate apically in wild-type cells following laser ablation of the centrosome. We show that centrosomes localize apically by first moving toward lateral foci of the conserved polarity proteins PAR-3 and PAR-6, and then move together with these foci toward the future apical surface. Embryos lacking PAR-3 fail to localize their centrosomes apically, and have aberrant localization of ?-tubulin and CeGrip-1. Conclusions These data suggest that PAR proteins contribute to apical polarity in part by determining centrosome position and that the reassignment of MTOC function from centrosomes to the apical membrane is associated with a physical hand-off of nucleators of microtubule assembly.

Feldman, Jessica L.; Priess, James R.

2012-01-01

331

The Two Cis-Acting Sites, parS1 and oriC1, Contribute to the Longitudinal Organisation of Vibrio cholerae Chromosome I  

PubMed Central

The segregation of bacterial chromosomes follows a precise choreography of spatial organisation. It is initiated by the bipolar migration of the sister copies of the replication origin (ori). Most bacterial chromosomes contain a partition system (Par) with parS sites in close proximity to ori that contribute to the active mobilisation of the ori region towards the old pole. This is thought to result in a longitudinal chromosomal arrangement within the cell. In this study, we followed the duplication frequency and the cellular position of 19 Vibrio cholerae genome loci as a function of cell length. The genome of V. cholerae is divided between two chromosomes, chromosome I and II, which both contain a Par system. The ori region of chromosome I (oriI) is tethered to the old pole, whereas the ori region of chromosome II is found at midcell. Nevertheless, we found that both chromosomes adopted a longitudinal organisation. Chromosome I extended over the entire cell while chromosome II extended over the younger cell half. We further demonstrate that displacing parS sites away from the oriI region rotates the bulk of chromosome I. The only exception was the region where replication terminates, which still localised to the septum. However, the longitudinal arrangement of chromosome I persisted in Par mutants and, as was reported earlier, the ori region still localised towards the old pole. Finally, we show that the Par-independent longitudinal organisation and oriI polarity were perturbed by the introduction of a second origin. Taken together, these results suggest that the Par system is the major contributor to the longitudinal organisation of chromosome I but that the replication program also influences the arrangement of bacterial chromosomes.

David, Ariane; Demarre, Gaelle; Muresan, Leila; Paly, Evelyne; Barre, Francois-Xavier; Possoz, Christophe

2014-01-01

332

Emerging Roles of PAR-1 and PAFR in Melanoma Metastasis  

PubMed Central

Melanoma growth, angiogenesis and metastatic progression are strongly promoted by the inflammatory tumor microenvironment due to high levels of cytokine and chemokine secretion by the recruited inflammatory and stromal cells. In addition, platelets and molecular components of procoagulant pathways have been recently emerging as critical players of tumor growth and metastasis. In particular, thrombin, through the activity of its receptor protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1), regulates tumor cell adhesion to platelets and endothelial cells, stimulates tumor angiogenesis, and promotes tumor growth and metastasis. Notably, in many tumor types including melanoma, PAR-1 expression directly correlates with their metastatic phenotype and is directly responsible for the expression of interleukin-8, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and integrins. Another proinflammatory receptor–ligand pair, platelet-activating factor (PAF) and its receptor (PAFR), have been shown to act as important modulators of tumor cell adhesion to endothelial cells, angiogenesis, tumor growth and metastasis. PAF is a bioactive lipid produced by a variety of cells from membrane glycerophospholipids in the same reaction that releases arachidonic acid, and can be secreted by platelets, inflammatory cells, keratinocytes and endothelial cells. We have demonstrated that in metastatic melanoma cells, PAF stimulates the phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB) and activating transcription factor 1 (ATF-1), which results in overexpression of MMP-2 and membrane type 1-MMP (membrane type 1-MMP). Since only metastatic melanoma cells overexpress CREB/ATF-1, we propose that metastatic melanoma cells are better equipped than their non-metastatic counterparts to respond to PAF within the tumor microenvironment. The evidence supporting the hypothesis that the two G-protein coupled receptors, PAR-1 and PAFR, contribute to the acquisition of the metastatic phenotype of melanoma is presented and discussed.

Melnikova, Vladislava O.; Villares, Gabriel J.

2008-01-01

333

SIFamide is a highly conserved neuropeptide: a comparative study in different insect species.  

PubMed

Neb-LFamide or AYRKPPFNGSLFamide was originally purified from the grey flesh fly Neobellieria bullata as a myotropic neuropeptide. We studied the occurrence of this peptide and its isoforms in the central nervous system of different insect species by means of whole mount fluorescence immunohistochemistry, mass spectrometry, and data mining. We found that both sequence and immunoreactive distribution pattern are very conserved in the studied insects. In all species and stages we counted two pairs of immunoreactive cells in the pars intercerebralis. These cells projected axons throughout the ventral nerve cord. In the adult CNSs they formed a large number of immunoreactive varicosities as well. Mass spectrometry and data mining revealed that SIFamide exists in two isoforms: [G1]-SIFamide and [A1]-SIFamide. In addition, the SIFamide joining peptide is relatively well conserved throughout arthropod species. The conserved presence of two cysteine residues, separated by six amino acid residues, allows the formation of disulphide bridges. PMID:15219831

Verleyen, Peter; Huybrechts, Jurgen; Baggerman, Geert; Van Lommel, Alfons; De Loof, Arnold; Schoofs, Liliane

2004-07-23

334

Restoration ecology and conservation biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restoration ecology is undergoing rapid growth as an academic discipline, similar to that experienced by conservation biology over the last 15 years. Restoration ecology and conservation biology share many underlying biodiversity goals, but differ in striking ways. Using data from published literature in these two fields, I document that conservation biology has been more zoological, more descriptive and theoretical, and

Truman P. Young

2000-01-01

335

Conservation Education: A Position Statement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Soil Conservation Society of America's (SCSA) aim is to advance the science and art of good land and water use. Conservation education has a significant role in achieving the wise use of these resources. In this report, perspectives are offered on: (1) the requirements for effective conservation education programs; (2) rationale for…

Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

336

Saving Money Through Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is an introduction to personal energy conservation. The first chapter presents a rationale for conserving energy and points out that private citizens control about one third of this country's energy consumption. Chapters two and three show how to save money by saving energy. Chapter two discusses energy conservation methods in the…

Presley, Michael H.; And Others

337

Diffraction d’ondes électromagnétiques impulsionnelles par des obstacles métalliques  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Analyse  \\u000a La diffraction en régime transitoire est traitée directement dans le domaine temporel par une méthode originale utilisant\\u000a la théorie des distributions. Pour les obstacles métalliques parfaitement conducteurs, cette approche généralise les solutions\\u000a existantes dans la littérature, mais permet aussi d’établir de nouvelles équations intégrales donnant la solution des problèmes\\u000a de diffraction à deux dimensions (l’onde et l’obstacle présentent une

Bernard Jecko

1983-01-01

338

BOREAS TE-12 Incoming PAR Through the Forest Canopy Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-12 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on shoot geometry, leaf optical properties, leaf water potential, and leaf gas exchange. The data were collected at the Southern Study Area-Old Black Spruce (SSA-OBS) site from 04-Jul-1996 to 25-Jul-1996. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor); Walter-Shea, Elizabeth A.; Mesarch, Mark A.

2000-01-01

339

A systematic computation scheme of PAR-WIG cruising performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A systematic computation scheme is presented for PAR-WIG cruising performance, on a FORTRAN program. It is suitable for implementation on PCs. Effects of many parameters on the transportation efficiency are explored. Two concepts are presented in three views and artist impressions. One is a smallest single-crewman vehicle for experiment, sports, or pleasure. The other is a large vehicle for civil transportation. Both have twin hulls, which are quite suitable for installing a 'SMALL-TAIL-WIG' or 'WIG-let' to establish longitudinal attitude stability.

Ando, Shigenori

1993-08-01

340

Inflammation and Macular Oedema after Pars Plana Vitrectomy  

PubMed Central

Cystoid macular oedema (CMO) is a major cause of reduced vision following intraocular surgery. Although the aetiology of CMO is not completely clarified, intraocular inflammation is known to play a major role in its development. The macula may develop cytotoxic oedema when the primary lesion and fluid accumulation occur in the parenchymatous cells (intracellular oedema) or vasogenic oedema when the primary defect occurs in the blood-retinal barrier and leads to extracellular fluid accumulation (extracellular oedema). We report on the mechanisms of CMO formation after pars plana vitrectomy and associated surgical procedures and discuss possible therapeutic approaches.

Romano, Vito; Angi, Martina; del Grosso, Renata; Romano, Davide; Vinciguerra, Paolo; Romano, Mario R.

2013-01-01

341

Paternal age related schizophrenia (PARS): latent subgroups detected by k-means clustering analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Paternal age related schizophrenia (PARS) has been proposed as a subgroup of schizophrenia with distinct etiology, pathophysiology and symptoms. This study uses a k-means clustering analysis approach to generate hypotheses about differences between PARS and other cases of schizophrenia. Methods We studied PARS (operationally defined as not having any family history of schizophrenia among first and second-degree relatives and fathers’ age at birth ?35 years) in a series of schizophrenia cases recruited from a research unit. Data were available on demographic variables, symptoms (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale; PANSS), cognitive tests (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Revised; WAIS-R) and olfaction (University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test; UPSIT). We conducted a series of k-means clustering analyses to identify clusters of cases containing high concentrations of PARS. Results Two analyses generated clusters with high concentrations of PARS cases. The first analysis (N=136; PARS=34) revealed a cluster containing 83% PARS cases, in which the patients showed a significant discrepancy between verbal and performance intelligence. The mean paternal and maternal ages were 41 and 33, respectively. The second analysis (N=123; PARS=30) revealed a cluster containing 71% PARS cases, of which 93% were females; the mean age of onset of psychosis, at 17.2, was significantly early. Conclusions These results strengthen the evidence that PARS cases differ from other patients with schizophrenia. Hypothesis-generating findings suggest that features of PARS may include a discrepancy between verbal and performance intelligence, and in females, an early age of onset. These findings provide a rationale for separating these phenotypes from others in future clinical, genetic and pathophysiologic studies of schizophrenia and in considering responses to treatment.

Lee, Hyejoo; Malaspina, Dolores; Ahn, Hongshik; Perrin, Mary; Opler, Mark G.; Kleinhaus, Karine; Harlap, Susan; Goetz, Raymond; Antonius, Daniel

2011-01-01

342

75 FR 18472 - Cooperative Conservation Partnership Initiative  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...natural resource concerns include soil quality, water conservation, water quality, plant condition, air quality...conservation practices to address water quality, water conservation, or State, regional, or national...

2010-04-12

343

Integrating Agriculture and Conservation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The USGS produces the needed science-based information to guide management actions and policy decisions that support wildlife habitat and other environmental services compatible with USDA conservation goals and farm operations. The Policy Analysis and Science Assistance Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) has conducted research involving a national landowner survey and numerous short- and long-term evaluations regarding vegetation responses to land management practices. This research helps land and resource managers to make informed decisions and resolve resource management conflicts.

Vandever, Mark W.

2010-01-01

344

CITES: A Conservation Tool  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1973, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) remains one of the most critical documents in the regulation of international trade of wild animals and plants. Amendments to the CITES appendices occur every two years, and "can include the addition to or removal from an Appendix of a species, or transfer of species between Appendices." CITES: A Conservation Tool is the most current "guide to amending the appendices." The eighth edition of the document is only available in pdf version in English, while the seventh edition is still available in French or Spanish at this site.

345

Conservation of Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan, authored and curated by David P. Stern, introduces the concept of energy through the ideas of conservation and the ability to run machines. A series of both qualitative and quantitative examples are used to explore different forms of energy and transformations between them. Starting with and focusing on mechanical energy, examples regarding chemical energy, electrical energy, and heat are included. This is part of the larger site "From Stargazers to Starships", and includes a link to the Energy chapter in this online text.

Stern, David P. (David Peter), 1931-

2009-05-06

346

Water Conservation: Israel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A recent report stated that in the next decade or so, nearly half of the world's population will live in countries whose water supplies are over-stressed. In parts of Africa, northern China, southern Asia, and the Middle East, water is already being pumped from aquifers faster than it is being replenished. In India, the water table is falling 1-3 m (3-10 ft) per year. This video segment, adapted from the television program 'Last Oasis', discusses how Israel has approached its water scarcity problem by developing innovative ways to conserve and reuse its supply.

2012-10-29

347

Conserving Water at Home  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Humans depend on freshwater for drinking as well as for domestic, agricultural, and industrial uses. Careless and wasteful use of this renewable but high-demand natural resource contributes to water depletion. This video segment provides a look at a house in Tuscon, Arizona that is equipped with water conservation devices that cut its household water consumption in half. There is also discussion of xeriscape landscaping techniques and a program to install low-flow toilets in Los Angeles, California. The segment is two minutes fifty-seven seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

2011-03-15

348

Water Conservation: Denver, CO  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dams are widely distributed throughout the U.S. Their impact is perhaps most apparent in western cities, many of which lack a sufficient local water supply and thus rely on water diverted from far-away sources, particularly man-made lakes. This video segment shows how the city of Denver, Colorado, faced with a growing water crisis, developed and later abandoned a plan for a nearby dam and instead adopted policies consistent with a broader water-conservation strategy. The segment is three minutes forty-nine seconds in length.

349

Conserving Water at Home  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Humans depend on freshwater for drinking as well as for domestic, agricultural, and industrial uses. Careless and wasteful use of this renewable but high-demand natural resource contributes to water depletion. This video segment provides a look at a house in Tuscon, Arizona that is equipped with water conservation devices that cut its household water consumption in half. There is also discussion of xeriscape landscaping techniques and a program to install low-flow toilets in Los Angeles, California. The segment is two minutes fifty-seven seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

350

Water Conservation: Denver, CO  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dams are widely distributed throughout the U.S. Their impact is perhaps most apparent in western cities, many of which lack a sufficient local water supply and thus rely on water diverted from far-away sources, particularly man-made lakes. This video segment shows how the city of Denver, Colorado, faced with a growing water crisis, developed and later abandoned a plan for a nearby dam and instead adopted policies consistent with a broader water-conservation strategy. The segment is three minutes forty-nine seconds in length.

2012-10-24

351

Improved irradiances for use in ocean heating, primary production, and photo-oxidation calculations.  

PubMed

Accurate calculation of underwater light is fundamental to predictions of upper-ocean heating, primary production, and photo-oxidation. However, most ocean models simulating these processes do not yet incorporate radiative transfer modules for their light calculations. Such models are often driven by above-surface, broadband, daily averaged irradiance or photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) values obtained from climatology or satellite observations, sometimes without correction for sea-surface reflectance, even though surface reflectance can reduce in-water values by more than 20%. We present factors computed by a radiative transfer code that can be used to convert above-surface values in either energy or quantum units to in-water net irradiance, as needed for calculations of water heating, and to in-water PAR, as needed for calculations of photosynthesis and photo-oxidation. PMID:23033025

Mobley, Curtis D; Boss, Emmanuel S

2012-09-20

352

Brulure par Foudre. A Propos d'une Observation  

PubMed Central

Summary Aussi loin que l’on remonte dans la littérature, on retrouve des récits relatant des accidents consécutifs à la fulguration chez l’homme. La foudre était alors associée à la colère des dieux ou à la notion de châtiment. La fulguration correspond à un transfert d’énergie entre un cumulonimbus de charge négative et un objet de charge positive se trouvant au niveau du sol. Les lésions déterminées sont à la fois thermiques et électrothermiques. Bien que l’arrêt cardiorespiratoire soit une cause bien documentée de décès, la plupart des cas rapportés dans la littérature décrivent un éventail très disparate des séquelles qui surviennent suite à cet accident. Les Auteurs rapportent le cas d’un patient atteint par la foudre en insistant particulièrement sur les complications neurologiques qui sont survenues en cours d’évolution. Se basant sur cette observation et sur une revue de la littérature, les Auteurs soulignent que le pronostic des patients atteints par la foudre est plus favorable que généralement rapporté.

Mradmi, W.; Fassi-Fihri, J.; Mehaji, G.; Ezzoubi, M.; Diouri, M.; Bahechar, N.; Boukind, E.H.

2005-01-01

353

Comparison and influence of two newly produced Iranian oil dispersants (Pars1 &Pars2) with the Gamlen OD4000 on rainbow trout.  

PubMed

Dispersants are the group of chemicals, designed to be sprayed on to the oil slicks to accelerate the process of natural dispersion. In this study, the acute toxicity of two newly produced Iranian oil dispersants (Pars1 &Pars2) was evaluated and compared to the Gamlen OD 4000 in different concentrations on 28-32 g of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The 50% of lethal concentration (LC50) of 96-h acute toxicity of exposed fish were determined by means of Probit value and ANOVA test. Relative effectiveness toxicity (RET) of all oil dispersants according to their LC50 has been measured. Pars1 has the lowest RET (12.56) in contrast to Pars2 (RET = 47.51) and Gamlen OD4000 (RET = 21.34) proved to have the highest efficiency and to be the best one under the laboratory conditions used in this study. PMID:18988096

Bordbar, Leila; Emtyazjoo, Mozhgan; Farkhani, Daroush

2008-12-01

354

Phosphorylation of the Par Polarity Complex Protein Par3 at Serine 962 Is Mediated by Aurora A and Regulates Its Function in Neuronal Polarity*  

PubMed Central

The Aurora kinases are a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that perform important functions during the cell cycle. Recently, it was shown that Drosophila Aurora A also regulates the asymmetric localization of Numb to the basal and the partitioning-defective (Par) complex to the apical cortex of neuroblasts by phosphorylating Par6. Here, we show that Aurora A is required for neuronal polarity. Suppression of Aurora A by RNA interference results in the loss of neuronal polarity. Aurora A interacts directly with the atypical protein kinase C binding domain of Par3 and phosphorylates it at serine 962. The phosphorylation of Par3 at serine 962 contributes to its function in the establishment of neuronal polarity.

Khazaei, Mohammad R.; Puschel, Andreas W.

2009-01-01

355

Molecular contributions to conservation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent advances in molecular technology have opened a new chapter in species conservation efforts, as well as population biology. DNA sequencing, MHC (major histocompatibility complex), minisatellite, microsatellite, and RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) procedures allow for identification of parentage, more distant relatives, founders to new populations, unidentified individuals, population structure, effective population size, population-specific markers, etc. PCR (polymerase chain reaction) amplification of mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA, ribosomal DNA, chloroplast DNA, and other systems provide for more sophisticated analyses of metapopulation structure, hybridization events, and delineation of species, subspecies, and races, all of which aid in setting species recovery priorities. Each technique can be powerful in its own right but is most credible when used in conjunction with other molecular techniques and, most importantly, with ecological and demographic data collected from the field. Surprisingly few taxa of concern have been assayed with any molecular technique. Thus, rather than showcasing exhaustive details from a few well-known examples, this paper attempts to present a broad range of cases in which molecular techniques have been used to provide insight into conservation efforts.

Haig, Susan M.

1998-01-01

356

Selling energy conservation.  

PubMed

This article concerns the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) crisis and its impact on energy efficiency measures in the US. In 1985, when the OPEC collapsed, the US government had avoided the need to construct 350 gigawatts of new electric capacity. The most successful efficiency improvements, especially in household appliances and equipment, lighting and tightened energy efficiency standards in new buildings, resulted from the OPEC event. The real innovation of that time was the change in profit rules for utilities. This revolution and the way some US utilities view energy have not caught on elsewhere. Despite the initiative toward improving energy efficiency in homes, offices and industries, the change has been slow. Partly to blame are the big development banks, which pointed out that short-term conservation and efficiency measures could save at least 15% of the total energy demand without the need for major investment. The benefits of energy conservation was shown during the oil shock when per capita energy consumption fell by 5% in the member states of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, while the per capita gross domestic product grew by a third. There has been a decrease in energy expenditure worldwide, and the scope for further energy savings is enormous, but governments need to recognize and seize the opportunity. PMID:12295818

Hinrichsen, D

1995-01-01

357

Breast compliance: A new method for evaluation of cosmetic outcome after conservative treatment of early breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary As a measure of cosmetic outcome, the compliance of normal and irradiated breasts has been quantified using a new method of Breast Compliance Evaluation (BCE). A total of 151 women were studied, of whom 100 were normal controls and 51 had previous breast irradiation as part of breast-conserving treatment. Compliance was taken as the difference between the anterior breast

L. I. Tsouskas; I. S. Fentiman

1990-01-01

358

Negative regulation of Par4 by oncogenic Ras is essential for cellular transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oncogenic variants of the cellular Ras protein are often associated with different types of human cancers. However, the mechanisms by which oncogenic Ras induces transformation are not fully established. Expression of the transcriptional repressor Par-4 was down-regulated by oncogenic Ras via the Raf – MEK – ERK pathway. Restoration of Par-4 levels by abrogation of the Raf – MEK –

Shirley Guofang Qiu; Sumathi Krishnan; Nadia El-Guendy; Vivek M Rangnekar

1999-01-01

359

The tumor suppressor Par-4 activates an extrinsic pathway for apoptosis.  

PubMed

Prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) is a proapoptotic protein with intracellular functions in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Unexpectedly, we noted Par-4 protein is spontaneously secreted by normal and cancer cells in culture, and by Par-4 transgenic mice that are resistant to spontaneous tumors. Short exposure to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-inducing agents further increased cellular secretion of Par-4 by a brefeldin A-sensitive pathway. Secretion occurred independently of caspase activation and apoptosis. Interestingly, extracellular Par-4 induced apoptosis by binding to the stress response protein, glucose-regulated protein-78 (GRP78), expressed at the surface of cancer cells. The interaction of extracellular Par-4 and cell surface GRP78 led to apoptosis via ER stress and activation of the FADD/caspase-8/caspase-3 pathway. Moreover, apoptosis inducible by TRAIL, which also exerts cancer cell-specific effects, is dependent on extracellular Par-4 signaling via cell surface GRP78. Thus, Par-4 activates an extrinsic pathway involving cell surface GRP78 receptor for induction of apoptosis. PMID:19632185

Burikhanov, Ravshan; Zhao, Yanming; Goswami, Anindya; Qiu, Shirley; Schwarze, Steven R; Rangnekar, Vivek M

2009-07-23

360

PAR-4: a possible new target for age-related disease.  

PubMed

Introduction: Apoptosis plays an important role in age-related disease, and prostate apoptosis response-4 (PAR-4) is a novel apoptosis-inducing factor that regulates apoptosis in most cells. Recent studies suggest that PAR-4 plays an important role in the progression of many age-related diseases. This review highlights the significance of PAR-4 and builds a strong case supporting its role as a possible therapeutic target in age-related disease. Areas covered: This review covers the advancements over the last 15 years with respect to PAR-4 and its significance in age-related disease. Additionally, it provides knowledge regarding the significance of PAR-4 in age-related disease as well as its role in apoptotic signaling pathways, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and other mechanisms that may induce age-related disease. Expert Opinion: PAR-4 may be a potential therapeutic target that can trigger selective apoptosis in cancer cells. It is induced by ER stress and increased ER stress, and it is involved in the activity of the dopamine D2 receptor. Abnormal expression of PAR-4 may be associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes. PAR-4 agonists and inhibitors must be identified before gene therapy can commence. PMID:24890982

Qinan, Wu; Ling, Zhang; Bing, Chen

2014-08-01

361

MAKING POOR LESS IMPOVERISHED THROUGH FINANCE \\/ RENDRE MOINS PAUVRES LES PAUVRES PAR UNE POLITIQUE DE CREDIT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Les petits exploitants agricoles, les artisans ruraux et en général les plus pauvres opérateurs des zones rurales des P.V.D., dont la production est caractérisée par de nombreuses contraintes et par des risques élevés, sont restés en marge du développement économique de leur pays. La mécanisation, les innovations technologiques, les « révolutions vertes » et de façon générale l'ensemble des politiques

K. P. Padmanbhan

1984-01-01

362

Visual Results and Complications after Trans Pars Plana Vitrectomy and Lensectomy for Lens Dislocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between the cause of lens dislocation and visual outcomes with complications in patients undergo- ing trans pars plana vitrectomy (TPPV) and trans pars plana lensectomy (TPPL) for lens dislocation. Methods: This retrospective study was carried out from July 1995 through November 2003. After excluding patients with previous retinal detachment

Hsiu-Mei Huang; Min-Lun Kao; Shih-Hao Tsai; Yung-Jen Chen; Chi-Chang Liu

363

Diffraction de rayons X sur les plaquettes de fer durcies par cyanuration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Une méthode de cyanuration a été developpée pour les surfaces des plaquettes de fer, basée sur une réaction thermochimique qui conduit à la formation des couches dures sur le métal. Les échantillons ont été analysés, pour de temps différents de traitement, par diffraction de rayons X et par mesures de dureté.

Popescu, M.; Hoyer, W.; Stegarescu, M.; Cornet, A.; Broll, N.

2004-11-01

364

PAR-1 upregulation by trimethyltin and lipopolysaccharide in cultured rat astrocytes.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that various protease-activated receptor (PAR) isoforms, mainly PAR-1, are upregulated in reactive astrocytes of rat hippocampus following i.p. administration of trimethyltin (TMT), a neurotoxicant which is known to cause neuronal death and reactive gliosis. In the present paper, we demonstrate that this PAR-1 upregulation was also mimicked in primary cultures of neonatal rat cortex astrocytes after exposure (24 and 48 h) to TMT (10-100 microM). This result suggests that the PAR-1 increase we have observed in vivo may represent a direct effect of TMT on astrocytes rather than a consequence of a complex astrocytic reaction following neuronal death. Furthermore, an evident upregulation of PAR-1 in cultured primary astrocytes also occurred following exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (a well-known inductor of glial cell activation) whereas other neurotoxic agents (such as staurosporine, hydrogen peroxide and sodium azide), which are known to induce cell death, were unable to determine any PAR-1 variation. Similarly to astrocytes, both TMT and LPS induced an upregulation of PAR-1 in the rat astrocytoma cell line, C6, thus indicating that this phenomenon was independent from microglial cells eventually contaminating astrocyte primary cultures. Furthermore, after exposure to TMT and LPS, the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1beta were also increased in astrocyte cultures, suggesting that the PAR-1 upregulation we have detected may be involved in glial inflammatory response rather than in cell death. PMID:16786153

Pompili, Elena; Fabrizi, Cinzia; Fumagalli, Lorenzo

2006-07-01

365

Generating and forecasting monthly flows of the Ganges river with PAR model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary building techniques and underlying theories of periodic autoregressive (PAR) models are revisited, reviewed, modified and recast. New techniques for generating synthetic data from any PAR model with provision to constrain some parameter values to zero have been proposed. The developed method is applied to the Ganges river for its monthly flow forecasting and generation. The results demonstrate that the

M. Shahjahan Mondal; Saleh A. Wasimi

2006-01-01

366

Structural Mechanism of ATP-induced Polymerization of the Partition Factor ParF  

PubMed Central

Segregation of the bacterial multidrug resistance plasmid TP228 requires the centromere-binding protein ParG, the parH centromere, and the Walker box ATPase ParF. The cycling of ParF between ADP- and ATP-bound states drives TP228 partition; ATP binding stimulates ParF polymerization, which is essential for segregation, whereas ADP binding antagonizes polymerization and inhibits DNA partition. The molecular mechanism involved in this adenine nucleotide switch is unclear. Moreover, it is unknown how any Walker box protein polymerizes in an ATP-dependent manner. Here, we describe multiple ParF structures in ADP- and phosphomethylphosphonic acid adenylate ester (AMPPCP)-bound states. ParF-ADP is monomeric but dimerizes when complexed with AMPPCP. Strikingly, in ParF-AMPPCP structures, the dimers interact to create dimer-of-dimer “units” that generate a specific linear filament. Mutation of interface residues prevents both polymerization and DNA segregation in vivo. Thus, these data provide insight into a unique mechanism by which a Walker box protein forms polymers that involves the generation of ATP-induced dimer-of-dimer building blocks.

Schumacher, Maria A.; Ye, Qiaozhen; Barge, Madhuri T.; Zampini, Massimiliano; Barilla, Daniela; Hayes, Finbarr

2012-01-01

367

Vissage percutan? du scapho?de carpien par vis de Herbert - ? propos de 10 cas  

PubMed Central

Les fractures du scaphoïde carpien sont de diagnostic et de traitement difficiles. Les auteurs rapportent les résultats du traitement de ces fractures par le vissage percutané par la vis de Herbert. Les résultats étaient intéressants vu la rapidité de consolidation et la qualité du résultat fonctionnel.

Abbassi, Najib; Abdeljawad, Najib; Erraji, Moncef; Abdelillah, Rachid; Daoudi, Abdelkrim; Yacoubi, Hicham

2013-01-01

368

Relationship between woody biomass and PAR conversion efficiency for estimating net primary production from NDVI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terrestrial net primary production (NPP) may be determined from remotely-sensed vegetation indices by estimating the amount of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) absorbed by vegetation. Studies from the literature were used to determine the upper limit of the PAR conversion efficiency (?) as a function of woody biomass for forest vegetation. Without climatic or other limitations, the upper limit was about

E. RAYMOND HUNT JR

1994-01-01

369

Interface between a Biomation 805 and a PAR 4202 signal averager  

Microsoft Academic Search

An easy to build low cost interface between a Biomation 805 waveform recorder and a Princeton Applied Research 4202 Signal Averager is described. This allows averaging of faster signals than is possible with the PAR 4202. A circuit modification of the PAR 4202 Signal Averager permits remote control of the front panel functions CLEAR\\/START\\/STOP and ERASE MEM. The function of

M. Meier

1983-01-01

370

Caspase-8-mediated PAR-4 cleavage is required for TNF?-induced apoptosis  

PubMed Central

The tumor suppressor protein prostate apoptosis response-4 (PAR-4) is silenced in a subset of human cancers and its down-regulation serves as a mechanism for cancer cell survival following chemotherapy. PAR-4 re-expression selectively causes apoptosis in cancer cells but how its pro-apoptotic functions are controlled and executed precisely is currently unknown. We demonstrate here that UV-induced apoptosis results in a rapid caspase-dependent PAR-4 cleavage at EEPD131G, a sequence that was preferentially recognized by caspase-8. To investigate the effect on cell growth for this cleavage event we established stable cell lines that express wild-type-PAR-4 or the caspase cleavage resistant mutant PAR-4 D131G under the control of a doxycycline-inducible promoter. Induction of the wild-type protein but not the mutant interfered with cell proliferation, predominantly through induction of apoptosis. We further demonstrate that TNF?-induced apoptosis leads to caspase-8-dependent PAR-4-cleavage followed by nuclear accumulation of the C-terminal PAR-4 (132-340) fragment, which then induces apoptosis. Taken together, our results indicate that the mechanism by which PAR-4 orchestrates the apoptotic process requires cleavage by caspase-8.

Treude, Fabian; Kappes, Ferdinand; Fahrenkamp, Dirk; Muller-Newen, Gerhard; Dajas-Bailador, Federico; Kramer, Oliver H.; Luscher, Bernhard; Hartkamp, Jorg

2014-01-01

371

Activation of protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1 by frog trefoil factor (TFF) 2 and PAR4 by human TFF2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trefoil factors (TFFs) promote epithelial cell migration to reseal superficial wounds after mucosal injury, but their receptors\\u000a and the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are poorly understood. In this study, we showed that frog TFF2 activates\\u000a protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1 to induce human platelet aggregation. Based on this result, we further tested the involvement\\u000a of PARs in human TFF2 (hTFF2)-promoted

Yong Zhang; Guoyu Yu; Yanjie Wang; Yang Xiang; Qian Gao; Ping Jiang; Jie Zhang; Wenhui Lee; Yun Zhang

372

L'influence du système neurovégétatif sur l'hyperglycémie par la glucagone et sur l'hypoglycémie par N-(4-méthyl-benzosulfonyl)-N'-butylurée  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé Les Auteurs, ayant déterminé chez le lapin de modifications de la glycémie après administration intraveineuse de substances douées d'action pharmacodynamique sur le système neuro-végétatif central (chloropromazine) ou périphérique (ergotamine et atropine), étudient les effets des mêmes substances sur l'hyperglycémie par la glucagone et sur l'hypoglycémie par la N-(4-méthyl-benzosulfonyl)-N'-butylurée (D 860). La chloropromazine à la dose de mg 5\\/kg et

C. Cavallero; B. Malandra

1957-01-01

373

Par-4 is a mediator of neuronal degeneration associated with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease.  

PubMed

Prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) is a protein containing both a leucine zipper and a death domain that was isolated by differential screening for genes upregulated in prostate cancer cells undergoing apoptosis. Par-4 is expressed in the nervous system, where its function is unknown. In Alzheimer disease (AD), neurons may die by apoptosis, and amyloid beta-protein (A beta) may play a role in this. We report here that Par-4 expression is increased in vulnerable neurons in AD brain and is induced in cultured neurons undergoing apoptosis. Blockade of Par-4 expression or function prevented neuronal apoptosis induced by Ab and trophic factor withdrawal. Par-4 expression was enhanced, and mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis exacerbated, in cells expressing presenilin-1 mutations associated with early-onset inherited AD. PMID:9701251

Guo, Q; Fu, W; Xie, J; Luo, H; Sells, S F; Geddes, J W; Bondada, V; Rangnekar, V M; Mattson, M P

1998-08-01

374

The ParA/MinD family puts things in their place  

PubMed Central

Bacteria must segregate their DNA and position a septum to grow and divide. In many bacteria MinD is involved in spatial regulation of the cytokinetic Z ring and ParAs are involved in chromosome and plasmid segregation. The use of the MinD/ParA family to provide positional information for spatial organization continues to expand with the recognition that orphan ParAs are required for segregating cytoplasmic protein clusters and the polar localization of chemotaxis proteins, conjugative transfer machinery, type IV pili and cellulose synthesis. Also, some bacteria lacking MinD use orphan ParAs to regulate cell division. Positioning of MinD/ParA proteins is either due to self-organization on a surface or reliance on a landmark protein which functions as a molecular beacon.

Lutkenhaus, Joe

2012-01-01

375

ParA-like protein uses nonspecific chromosomal DNA binding to partition protein complexes  

PubMed Central

Recent data have shown that plasmid partitioning Par-like systems are used by some bacterial cells to control localization of protein complexes. Here we demonstrate that one of these homologs, PpfA, uses nonspecific chromosome binding to separate cytoplasmic clusters of chemotaxis proteins upon division. Using fluorescent microscopy and point mutations, we show dynamic chromosome binding and Walker-type ATPase activity are essential for cluster segregation. The N-terminal domain of a cytoplasmic chemoreceptor encoded next to ppfA is also required for segregation, probably functioning as a ParB analog to control PpfA ATPase activity. An orphan ParA involved in segregating protein clusters therefore uses a similar mechanism to plasmid-segregating ParA/B systems and requires a partner protein for function. Given the large number of genomes that encode orphan ParAs, this may be a common mechanism regulating segregation of proteins and protein complexes.

Roberts, Mark A. J.; Wadhams, George H.; Hadfield, Katie A.; Tickner, Susan; Armitage, Judith P.

2012-01-01

376

Patterns of axonal branching of neurons of the substantia nigra pars reticulata and pars lateralis in the rat.  

PubMed

Axons from neurons of the rat substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) and pars lateralis (SNl) were traced after injecting their cell body with biotinylated dextran amine. Thirty-two single axons were reconstructed from serial sagittal sections with a camera lucida, whereas four other SNr axons were reconstructed in the coronal plane to determine whether they innervate the contralateral hemisphere. Four distinct types of SNr projection neurons were identified based on their main axonal targets: type I neurons that project to the thalamus; type II neurons that target the thalamus, the superior colliculus (SC), and the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg); type III neurons that project to the periaqueductal gray matter and the thalamus; and type IV neurons that target the deep mesencephalic nucleus (DpMe) and the SC. The axons of the SNl showed the same branching patterns as SNr axons of types I, II, and IV. The coronal reconstructions demonstrated that SNr neurons innervate the thalamus, the SC, and the DpMe bilaterally. At the thalamic level, SNr and SNl axons targeted preferentially the ventral medial, ventral lateral, paracentral, parafascicular, and mediodorsal nuclei. Axons reaching the SC arborized selectively within the deep layers of this structure. Our results reveal that the SNr and SNl harbor several subtypes of projection neurons endowed with a highly patterned set of axon collaterals. This organization allows single neurons of these output structures of the basal ganglia to exert a multifaceted influence on a wide variety of diencephalic and midbrain structures. PMID:16217789

Cebrián, Carolina; Parent, André; Prensa, Lucía

2005-11-21

377

Residential Water Conservation: An Annotated Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This annotated bibliography of 155 references lists publications on water conservation tips, water conservation devices, water conservation projects, and economics regarding residential water conservation and regional variables. Useful information is summ...

1980-01-01

378

Energy Conservation Code Decoded  

SciTech Connect

Designing an energy-efficient, affordable, and comfortable home is a lot easier thanks to a slime, easier to read booklet, the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC), published in March 2006. States, counties, and cities have begun reviewing the new code as a potential upgrade to their existing codes. Maintained under the public consensus process of the International Code Council, the IECC is designed to do just what its title says: promote the design and construction of energy-efficient homes and commercial buildings. Homes in this case means traditional single-family homes, duplexes, condominiums, and apartment buildings having three or fewer stories. The U.S. Department of Energy, which played a key role in proposing the changes that resulted in the new code, is offering a free training course that covers the residential provisions of the 2006 IECC.

Cole, Pam C.; Taylor, Zachary T.

2006-09-01

379

Unexpected coherence and conservation.  

PubMed Central

The effects of migration in a network of patch populations, or metapopulation, are extremely important for predicting the possibility of extinctions both at a local and a global scale. Migration between patches synchronizes local populations and bestows upon them identical dynamics (coherent or synchronous oscillations), a feature that is understood to enhance the risk of global extinctions. This is one of the central theoretical arguments in the literature associated with conservation ecology. Here, rather than restricting ourselves to the study of coherent oscillations, we examine other types of synchronization phenomena that we consider to be equally important. Intermittent and out-of-phase synchronization are but two examples that force us to reinterpret some classical results of the metapopulation theory. In addition, we discuss how asynchronous processes (for example, random timing of dispersal) can paradoxically generate metapopulation synchronization, another non-intuitive result that cannot easily be explained by the standard theory.

Cazelles, B.; Bottani, S.; Stone, L.

2001-01-01

380

GAIA Forest Conservation Archives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

GAIA Forest Conservation Archives: For the past five years, Glen Barry, the Director of Ecological Enterprises, has been gathering and disseminating information concerning Papua New Guinea's rainforests, biodiversity and the indigenous environmental movement. This was done through Ecological Enterprises' "PNG Rainforest Campaign News" - an internet mailing list distributed to several hundred activists and academics worldwide. As the amount of information on the Internet about efforts by NGO and local peoples to protect rainforests and biodiversity greatly increased another mailing list was started, the "Worldwide Biodiversity/Forest Campaign News." Archives of these rainforest and biodiversity materials have been posted on this site along with recent articles, a selection of the best of the articles, government effects on rainforests, and more.

381

Conservation International: Biodiversity Hotspots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From Conservation International, this Biodiversity Hotspots site (first reported on in the October 18, 2002 NSDL Scout Report for Life Sciences) "was re-launched in 2005 with completely updated information as presented in the new book _Hotspots Revisited_." The updated Hotspots website features profiles of more than 30 ecologically important areas of the world. Hotspots are categorized under five world regions including South America, Africa, North and Central America, Europe and Central Asia, and Asia-Pacific. Site visitors will find profiles about such Hotspots as the Himalaya, Mediterranean Basin, Horn of Africa, Tropical Andes, Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands, Sundaland, and more. In addition to regional profiles, the site offers a number of helpful resources such as a Terrestrial Vertebrate Species Database, a Glossary, Maps, and related References.

382

Sea Turtle Conservancy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Caribbean Conservation Corporation (CCC) was founded in 1959 by sea turtle champions such as ecologist Dr. Archie Carr, who served as the CCC's Scientific Director for nearly three decades. As the oldest sea turtle organization on the globe, the CCC "works to enact protective laws and establish refuges for the preservation of sea turtle habitats and coastal environments." The CCC created the Sea Turtle Survival League (STSL) in 1993 "as a public education and advocacy program to begin addressing the threats that face U.S. sea turtle populations." The CCC & STSL website contains information about a number of sea turtle programs and projects, tracking sea turtles, different sea turtle species, and ways to become a sea turtle conservationist. CCC also offers a public discussion board, a variety of downloadable publications (including activities for kids), and a collection of related links.

383

Protease-activated receptors (PAR)-1 and -3 drive epithelial-mesenchymal transition of alveolar epithelial cells - potential role in lung fibrosis.  

PubMed

Extravascular activation of the coagulation cascade in the lung is commonly observed in pulmonary fibrosis. Coagulation proteases may exert profibrotic cellular effects via protease-activated receptors (PARs)-1 and -2. Here, we investigated the potential role of two other members of the PAR family, namely PAR-3 and PAR-4, in the pathobiology of lung fibrosis. Elevated expression of PAR-3, but not PAR-4, was detected in the lungs of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients and in bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in mice. Increased PAR-3 expression in fibrotic lungs was mainly attributable to alveolar type II (ATII) cells. Stimulation of primary mouse ATII, MLE15 and A549 cells with thrombin (FIIa) - that may activate PAR-1, PAR-3 and PAR-4 - induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process that has been suggested to be a possible mechanism underlying the expanded (myo)fibroblast pool in lung fibrosis. EMT was evidenced by morphological alterations, expression changes of epithelial and mesenchymal phenotype markers, and functional changes. Single knockdown of FIIa receptors, PAR-1, PAR-3, or PAR-4, had no major impact on FIIa-induced EMT. Simultaneous depletion of PAR-1 and PAR-3, however, almost completely inhibited this process, whereas only a partial effect on FIIa-mediated EMT was observed when PAR-1 and PAR-4, or PAR-3 and PAR-4 were knocked down. PAR-1 and PAR-3 co-localise within ATII cells with both being predominantely plasma membrane associated. In conclusion, our study indicates that PARs synergise to mediate FIIa-induced EMT and provides first evidence that PAR-3 via its ability to potentiate FIIa-triggered EMT could potentially contribute to the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:23739922

Wygrecka, Malgorzata; Didiasova, Miroslava; Berscheid, Sebastian; Piskulak, Katarzyna; Taborski, Brigitte; Zakrzewicz, Dariusz; Kwapiszewska, Grazyna; Preissner, Klaus T; Markart, Philipp

2013-08-01

384

Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) - focus on receptor-receptor-interactions and their physiological and pathophysiological impact  

PubMed Central

Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) are a subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) with four members, PAR1, PAR2, PAR3 and PAR4, playing critical functions in hemostasis, thrombosis, embryonic development, wound healing, inflammation and cancer progression. PARs are characterized by a unique activation mechanism involving receptor cleavage by different proteinases at specific sites within the extracellular amino-terminus and the exposure of amino-terminal “tethered ligand“ domains that bind to and activate the cleaved receptors. After activation, the PAR family members are able to stimulate complex intracellular signalling networks via classical G protein-mediated pathways and beta-arrestin signalling. In addition, different receptor crosstalk mechanisms critically contribute to a high diversity of PAR signal transduction and receptor-trafficking processes that result in multiple physiological effects. In this review, we summarize current information about PAR-initiated physical and functional receptor interactions and their physiological and pathological roles. We focus especially on PAR homo- and heterodimerization, transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and receptor serine/threonine kinases (RSTKs), communication with other GPCRs, toll-like receptors and NOD-like receptors, ion channel receptors, and on PAR association with cargo receptors. In addition, we discuss the suitability of these receptor interaction mechanisms as targets for modulating PAR signalling in disease.

2013-01-01

385

Over-expression of PAR3 suppresses contact-mediated inhibition of cell migration in MDCK cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: PAR-3 is one of the PAR proteins, previously named ASIP, which are indispensable for the establishment of cell polarity in the embryo as well as differentiated epithelial cells. In mammalian epithelial cells, it forms a ternary complex with aPKC and PAR-6, and is localized to the tight junction that has been suggested as being important for creating cell polarity.

Aki Mishima; Atsushi Suzuki; Makiko Enaka; Tomonori Hirose; Keiko Mizuno; Tetsuo Ohnishi; Hiroshi Mohri; Yoshiaki Ishigatsubo; Shigeo Ohno

2002-01-01

386

Gamma -ray irradiation head for panoramic irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The invention relates to a gamma -ray irradiation head for panoramic irradiation comprising a tungsten target revolving about an axis, and means for deflecting electrons around the same axis for producing photons in several directions either successively or simultaneously. When the beam of electrons is deflected in its entirety and when the impact zone moves on the target about the axis, the axis of the radiation lobe moves in the same way and permits irradiation according to a variable azimuth.

Azam, G.; Bensussan, A.

1980-10-21

387

Conserving biodiversity in production landscapes.  

PubMed

Alternative land uses make different contributions to the conservation of biodiversity and have different implementation and management costs. Conservation planning analyses to date have generally assumed that land is either protected or unprotected, and that the unprotected portion does not contribute to conservation goals. We develop and apply a new planning approach that explicitly accounts for the contribution of a diverse range of land uses to achieving conservation goals. Using East Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo) as a case study, we prioritize investments in alternative conservation strategies and account for the relative contribution of land uses ranging from production forest to well-managed protected areas. We employ data on the distribution of mammals and assign species-specific conservation targets to achieve equitable protection by accounting for life history characteristics and home range sizes. The relative sensitivity of each species to forest degradation determines the contribution of each land use to achieving targets. We compare the cost effectiveness of our approach to a plan that considers only the contribution of protected areas to biodiversity conservation, and to a plan that assumes that the cost of conservation is represented by only the opportunity costs of conservation to the timber industry. Our preliminary results will require further development and substantial stakeholder engagement prior to implementation; nonetheless we reveal that, by accounting for the contribution of unprotected land, we can obtain more refined estimates of the costs of conservation. Using traditional planning approaches would overestimate the cost of achieving the conservation targets by an order of magnitude. Our approach reveals not only where to invest, but which strategies to invest in, in order to effectively and efficiently conserve biodiversity. PMID:20945770

Wilson, K A; Meijaard, E; Drummond, S; Grantham, H S; Boitani, L; Catullo, G; Christie, L; Dennis, R; Dutton, I; Falcucci, A; Maiorano, L; Possingham, H P; Rondinini, C; Turner, W R; Venter, O; Watts, M

2010-09-01

388

Center for Biodiversity and Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for Biodiversity and Conservation (CBC) site contains: information on the research CBC scientists are engaged in; links to information on how to help the CBC and learn more about protecting and conserving biodiversity; an explanation of what biodiversity is; and a list of CBC summary papers, education manuals, field reports, and brochures on conservation issues. Downloadable documents cover biodiversity, global taxonomy, the tree of life, and extinction. Research programs are located in the Bahamas, for marine reserve design; Madagascar, for application of conservation genetics to humpback whales and other studies; and in Vietnam, Bolivia, and New York State.

389

Estimation of aerosol direct radiative effects on surface PAR radiation at Xianghe, Northern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In northern China, anthropogenic activities cause emissions of large amount of aerosol particles to the atmosphere. Such particles could alter the radiation balance directly by scattering and absorbing incident solar radiation, thus decrease the amount of light reaching the surface and increase the fraction of diffuse radiation. By using the aerosol data obtained from both the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), aerosol effects on surface photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) are explored in this study. PAR is quantitatively estimated using the NCAR Tropospheric Ultraviolet-Visible (TUV) radiation transfer model, with the influence of clouds taken into account through sunshine-duration data and the diffuse PAR calculated with diffuse radiation empirical models. This method is examined against the observations of PAR under all-sky conditions at Xianghe, northern China, and a significant linear correlation between the measured and estimated PAR is obtained with R of 0.96 and relative error of 8.47%. Aerosol effects on PAR are thus evaluated with this method. Compared with the background aerosol loading (defined as aerosol optical depth = 0.05), the monthly average PAR under present aerosol level for May, June, July and August decreases 20.65, 26.17, 17.38 and 17.84 W/m2 respectively, while the diffuse PAR for the four months increases 14.03, 21.39, 7.29, and 5.44 W/m2 respectively. The mean ratios of global and diffuse PAR under present aerosol level to that under background aerosol loading for this period are 82.9% and 130% respectively. It is found that the diffuse PAR is determined predominantly by clouds and to a lesser extent by aerosol loading. For days with high cloud transmittance, aerosols could significantly increase the diffuse PAR. In contrast, clouds with very low transmittance causes high ratio of diffuse to global PAR, and aerosols could even decrease both global and diffuse PAR. The effects of such changes induced by aerosols on plant productivity would be further studied.

Shao, Siya; Zhang, Jing

2014-05-01

390

Magnétomètre à ^3He pompé par diode laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the realization of a ^3He magnetometer based on the free precession of nuclear spins oriented by optical pumping with a laser. The use of a laser diode, directly tuned to 1.083 ?m, and the increase of the ^3He nuclear orientation relaxation time with cesium coated cells, allow us to elaborate a new original magnetometer, which operates sequentially and opens several possibilities of use. Nous décrivons une réalisation d'un magnétomètre à ^3He mettant en oeuvre la précession libre des spins nucléaires orientés par pompage optique laser. L'utilisation d'une diode laser directement accordée à 1,083 ?m ainsi que l'allongement du temps de relaxation de l'orientation nucléaire de ^3He à l'aide d'une cellule avec enduit de césium nous a permis de réaliser un nouveau magnétomètre à fonctionnement séquentiel original et aux possiblités d'utilisation multiples.

Moreau, O.; Chéron, B.; Gilles, H.; Hamel, J.; Noël, E.

1997-01-01

391

Par-4 for molecular therapy of prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in American men. Although many treatment measures such as androgen deprivation, radiation therapy, and cryoablation exist for primary prostate cancer, there is currently no effective treatment for patients presenting advanced or metastatic stages of the disease. Molecular therapy offers an attractive approach to the treatment of primary prostate cancer because the prostate is not a life-sustaining organ, and a number of tissue specific promoters can be used for prostatic gene expression following relatively straightforward delivery routes. This review discusses the general molecular therapy applications in the context of prostate cancer, and most importantly, identifies the prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) gene, which exclusively induces apoptosis in cancer cells and not normal cells, as a prospective molecule for therapy of the disease. PMID:12643472

Butler, James; Rangnekar, Vivek M

2003-04-01

392

La structure des verres étudiée par diffraction des neutrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La diffraction des neutrons est une méthode largement utilisée pour déterminer la structure des matériaux amorphes et en particulier des verres. L'utilisation de la méthode de substitution isotopique permet d'extraire les fonctions de distribution de paires partielles centrées autour d'un élément choisi. Nous présentons quelques exemples récents d'études par diffraction des neutrons sur des verres qui ont permis de mieux comprendre à la fois le réseau polymérique de la matrice vitreuse et l'environnement local et à moyenne distance autour des cations. Ces études ont révélées un ordre structural s'étendant au delà des premiers voisins, jusque vers de distances d'environ 10Å. Le couplage avec d'autres méthodes expérimentales (diffraction anormale des rayons X) et des techniques de simulations (dynamique moléculaire, Monte Carlo Inverse ou RMC) sont indispensables pour affiner nos connaissances de la structure des verres.

Cormier, L.

2003-09-01

393

Simulation d'ecoulements internes compressibles laminaires et turbulents par une methode d'elements finis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ce travail consiste en la simulation numerique des ecoulements internes compressibles bidimensionnels laminaires et turbulents. On s'interesse, particulierement, aux ecoulements dans les ejecteurs supersoniques. Les equations de Navier-Stokes sont formulees sous forme conservative et utilisent, comme variables independantes, les variables dites enthalpiques a savoir: la pression statique, la quantite de mouvement et l'enthalpie totale specifique. Une formulation variationnelle stable des equations de Navier-Stokes est utilisee. Elle est base sur la methode SUPG (Streamline Upwinding Petrov Galerkin) et utilise un operateur de capture des forts gradients. Un modele de turbulence, pour la simulation des ecoulements dans les ejecteurs, est mis au point. Il consiste a separer deux regions distinctes: une region proche de la paroi solide, ou le modele de Baldwin et Lomax est utilise et l'autre, loin de la paroi, ou une formulation nouvelle, basee sur le modele de Schlichting pour les jets, est proposee. Une technique de calcul de la viscosite turbulente, sur un maillage non structure, est implementee. La discretisation dans l'espace de la forme variationnelle est faite a l'aide de la methode des elements finis en utilisant une approximation mixte: quadratique pour les composantes de la quantite de mouvement et de la vitesse et lineaire pour le reste des variables. La discretisation temporelle est effectuee par une methode de differences finies en utilisant le schema d'Euler implicite. Le systeme matriciel, resultant de la discretisation spatio-temporelle, est resolu a l'aide de l'algorithme GMRES en utilisant un preconditionneur diagonal. Les validations numeriques ont ete menees sur plusieurs types de tuyeres et ejecteurs. La principale validation consiste en la simulation de l'ecoulement dans l'ejecteur teste au centre de recherche NASA Lewis. Les resultats obtenus sont tres comparables avec ceux des travaux anterieurs et sont nettement superieurs concernant les ecoulements turbulents dans les ejecteurs.

Rebaine, Ali

1997-08-01

394

Energy Conservation Guidelines - 1: District Level Plan for Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are suggestions written to help local school districts develop an energy conservation program in order to minimize budget problems brought about by rising energy costs. Program areas covered include formation of the district energy conservation team, assignment of duties, operation of energy audit systems, and evaluation procedures. To…

Peterson, Irving M., Ed.; Colavita, Leon J., Ed.

395

[A case of cutaneous mammary re-irradiation].  

PubMed

In early-stage breast cancer, radiotherapy delivered after conservative surgery leads to a reduction in the risk of local recurrences by approximately two thirds. However, some local recurrences can occur in a previously irradiated region and be relevant for a second radiotherapy, exposing to an increased risk of adverse effects. We describe here the observation of a 66-year-old woman treated for a triple negative ductal infiltrative carcinoma of the left breast, who presented an early locoregional recurrence, notably as skin nodules, developed within the irradiated volume and progressing on chemotherapy. The patient was treated by re-irradiation performed concomitantly to oral chemotherapy by capecitabine. PMID:23092807

Jacob, J; Pierga, J-Y; Fourchotte, V; Kirova, Y M; Bollet, M-A

2012-10-01

396

Binding and phosphorylation of par-4 by akt is essential for cancer cell survival.  

PubMed

Activation of the PI3K-Akt pathway by loss of tumor suppressor PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) function, increased growth factor signaling, or oncogene expression renders cancer cells resistant to apoptotic signals and promotes tumor growth. Although Akt acts as a global survival signal, the molecular circuits of this pathway have not been completely established. We report that Akt physically binds to the pro-apoptotic protein Par-4 via the Par-4 leucine zipper domain and phosphorylates Par-4 to inhibit apoptosis. Suppression of Akt activation by the PI3K-inhibitor PTEN or LY294002, Akt expression by RNA-interference, or Akt function by dominant-negative Akt caused apoptosis in cancer cells. Apoptosis induced by inhibiting Akt was blocked by inhibition of Par-4 expression, but not by inhibition of other apoptosis agonists that are Akt substrates, suggesting that inhibition of the PI3K-Akt pathway leads to Par-4-dependent apoptosis. Thus, Par-4 is essential for PTEN-inducible apoptosis, and inactivation of Par-4 by Akt promotes cancer cell survival. PMID:16209943

Goswami, Anindya; Burikhanov, Ravshan; de Thonel, Aurelie; Fujita, Naoya; Goswami, Mamta; Zhao, Yanming; Eriksson, John E; Tsuruo, Takashi; Rangnekar, Vivek M

2005-10-01

397

Cathepsin S Signals via PAR2 and Generates a Novel Tethered Ligand Receptor Agonist  

PubMed Central

Protease-activated receptor-2 is widely expressed in mammalian epithelial, immune and neural tissues. Cleavage of PAR2 by serine proteases leads to self-activation of the receptor by the tethered ligand SLIGRL. The contribution of other classes of proteases to PAR activation has not been studied in detail. Cathepsin S is a widely expressed cysteine protease that is upregulated in inflammatory conditions. It has been suggested that cathepsin S activates PAR2. However, cathepsin S activation of PAR2 has not been demonstrated directly nor has the potential mechanism of activation been identified. We show that cathepsin S cleaves near the N-terminus of PAR2 to expose a novel tethered ligand, KVDGTS. The hexapeptide KVDGTS generates downstream signaling events specific to PAR2 but is weaker than SLIGRL. Mutation of the cathepsin S cleavage site prevents receptor activation by the protease while KVDGTS retains activity. In conclusion, the range of actions previously ascribed to cysteine cathepsins in general, and cathepsin S in particular, should be expanded to include molecular signaling. Such signaling may link together observations that had been attributed previously to PAR2 or cathepsin S individually. These interactions may contribute to inflammation.

Lerner, Ethan A.

2014-01-01

398

Dual role of host par2 in a murine model of spontaneous metastatic b16 melanoma.  

PubMed

Aim: We investigated differences of metastatic spread of normal proteinase-activated receptor-2 (Par2(+/+)) melanoma B16 in Par2(-/-) (knock-out) animals compared to C57Bl6 mice. Materials and Methods: Nine knock-out mice B6.Cg-F2rl1tm1Mslb/J (Par2(-/-)) and nine C57Bl6/J controls were subcutaneously inoculated with B16 melanoma tissue cells. Twelve days after inoculation, all primary tumors were removed. Survival and metastatic spread was followed for up to 100 days after primary tumor extirpation. Results: Excised primary tumors were on average larger in Par2(-/-) mice (360 mm(3) vs. 221 mm(3) in C57Bl6/J). Distant spontaneous metastases developed in only 3 of 9 of Par2(-/-) mice in comparison to 6 of 9 controls. The average survival time was 84 days in Par2(-/-) animals compared to 63 days in C57Bl6/J mice. Conclusion: Host Par2 melanoma model contributes to the limitation of local cancer progression in one area, while on the other hand is important for enhancing distant metastatic spread. PMID:24982362

Olejar, Tomas; Vetvicka, David; Zadinova, Marie; Pouckova, Pavla; Kukal, Jaromir; Jezek, Petr; Matej, Radoslav

2014-07-01

399

CERCLA interim action at the Par Pond unit: A case study  

SciTech Connect

The Par Pond unit designated under CERCLA consists of sediments within a Savannah River Site (SRS) cooling water reservoir. The sediments are contaminated with radionuclides and nonradioactive constituents from nuclear production reactor operations. The mercury in Par Pond is believed to have originated from the Savannah River. Because of Par Pond Dam safety Issues, the water level of the reservoir was drawn down, exposing more than 1300 acres of contaminated sediments and triggering the need for CERCLA interim remedial action. This paper presents the interim action approach taken with Par Pond as a case study. The approach considered the complexity of the Par Pond ecosystem, the large size of Par Pond, the volume of contaminated sediments, and the institutional controls existing at SRS. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considers units with large volumes of low-concentration wastes, as is the case with Par Pond, to be {open_quotes}special sites.{close_quotes} Accordingly, EPA guidance establishes that the range of alternatives developed focus primarily on containment options and other remedial approaches that mitigate potential risks associated with the {open_quotes}special site.{close_quotes} The remedial alternatives, according to EPA, are not to be prohibitively expensive or difficult to implement. This case study also is representative of the types of issues that will need to be addressed within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex as nuclear facilities are transitioned to inactive status and corrective/remedial actions are warranted.

Hickey, H.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Matthews, S.S.; Neal, L.W. [Rust Environment and Infrastructure, Inc., Greenville, SC (United States); Weiss, W.R. [Rust Environment and Infrastructure, Inc., Aiken, SC (United States)

1993-11-01

400

Influence of atmospheric aerosols on solar spectral irradiance in an urban area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar radiation reaching the earth's surface at different wavelengths has been extensively discussed during the last decades. Great emphasis has been placed on the potential increase in surface UV radiation due to the depletion of stratospheric ozone. The present study reports the variation of solar spectral irradiance and its relation with aerosols over a typical urban environment in India. Synchronous measurements of aerosol optical depth, UV irradiance, aerosol-particle size, black carbon (BC) concentration and solar irradiance have been carried out at the urban station of Hyderabad located in central India. Considerable reduction in the UV intensity has been observed during periods of high aerosol loading. A comparison of the erythemal UV (UVery) intensities on normal day with those of high aerosol loading suggested a ˜24% decrease in the UVery reaching the ground. Satellite observations showed forest fire occurrence over the region. PAR and diffuse-to-direct-beam ratio of solar irradiance showed marked differences under varying aerosol-loading conditions.

Badarinath, K. V. S.; Kharol, Shailesh Kumar; Kaskaoutis, D. G.; Kambezidis, H. D.

2007-04-01

401

The proteinase activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) mediates mitogenic responses in human vascular endothelial cells.  

PubMed Central

Proteolytically cleaved receptors, typified by the functional thrombin receptor (TR), represent a novel class of receptors that mediate signaling events by functional coupling to G proteins. Northern blot analysis completed with a human proteinase activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) cDNA as probe demonstrated the approximately 3.5kb PAR-2 transcript in total cellular RNA from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Microspectrofluorimetry using Fura2-loaded HUVEC demonstrated a dose-dependent elevation in intracellular calcium transients ([Ca2+]i) to murine PAR39-44 (SLIGRL, putative neoligand after cleavage), with an approximate EC50 of 30 microM, and evidence for homologous desensitization with complete recovery at 45 min. Xenopus oocytes microinjected with TR cRNA failed to respond to 200 microM PAR39-44, and TR-targeted antisense oligonucleotides specifically abrogated thrombin-induced but not PAR39-44-mediated [Ca2+]i, excluding the possibility that TR/PAR-2 cell-surface coexpression was structurally linked. HUVEC incubated with PAR39-44 demonstrated a dose- and time-dependent mitogenic response similar to that seen with thrombin or TR42-47 (TR-activating peptide, SFLLRN). Preactivation of HUVEC with either PAR39-44 or thrombin resulted in heterologous desensitization to the corresponding agonist, an effect that was mediated primarily by TR internalization as evaluated by immunofluorescence and quantitative ELISA. These results ascribe a previously unrecognized function to the PAR-2 receptor, imply that a natural enzyme agonist may circulate in plasma, and suggest the presence of an additional regulatory mechanism controlling receptor activation events in vascular endothelial cells.

Mirza, H; Yatsula, V; Bahou, W F

1996-01-01

402

Intergenerational equity and conservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The issue of integenerational equity in the use of natural resources is discussed in the context of coal mining conversion. An attempt to determine if there is a clear-cut benefit to future generations in setting minimum coal extraction efficiency standards in mining is made. It is demonstrated that preserving fossil fuels beyond the economically efficient level is not necessarily beneficial to future generations even in terms of their own preferences. Setting fossil fuel conservation targets for intermediate products (i.e. energy) may increase the quantities of fossil fuels available to future generations and hence lower the costs, but there may be serious disadvantages to future generations as well. The use of relatively inexpensive fossil fuels in this generation may result in more infrastructure development and more knowledge production available to future generations. The value of fossil fuels versus these other endowments in the future depends on many factors which cannot possibly be evaluated at present. Since there is no idea of whether future generations are being helped or harmed, it is recommended that integenerational equity not be used as a factor in setting coal mine extraction efficiency standards, or in establishing requirements.

Otoole, R. P.; Walton, A. L.

1980-06-01

403

Facts about food irradiation: Food irradiation costs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This fact sheet gives the cost of a typical food irradiation facility (US $1 million to US $3 million) and of the food irradiation process (US $10-15 per tonne for low-dose applications; US $100-250 per tonne for high-dose applications). These treatments ...

1991-01-01

404

How Academe Shortchanges Conservative Thinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notwithstanding the outcome of the recent election, in one respect, the last few decades mark a breakthrough era for conservative intellectuals. Their visibility has soared. Thirty years ago, the only place to find conservatives on television was Firing Line, William F. Buckley's urbane talk show. Today they appear on Meet the Press and 60…

Bauerlein, Mark

2006-01-01

405

Markovian Interpretations of Conservation Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A general theory of how children learn conservation concepts is presented. The acquisition process is described at an abstract level in terms of a rule-sampling system, implying a three-state Markov model with identifiable parameters. Three experiments testing the model's quantitative predictions about conservation learning experiments are…

Brainerd, Charles J.

1979-01-01

406

SOEP: Forestry, Conservation and Recreation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of nine articles discusses the viability of supervised occupational experience programs (SOEPs) in forestry, conservation, and recreation; pros and cons of vocational agricultural preparation for recreation management and forestry occupations; the school farm as a conservation laboratory; the importance of SOEPs in forestry; and forestry…

Kirts, Carla A.; And Others

1984-01-01

407

Animal conservation, carbon and sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

International conventions to reduce carbon dioxide levels focus on ecosystems and do not specifically recognize the need to conserve species. However, species are the build- ing blocks of ecosystems, they are more widely understood among the public, and they provide means of capturing market values from ecosystems. Achieving successful conservation globally will require ensuring that the systems under which species

N. Leader-Williams

2002-01-01

408

Educating Astronauts About Conservation Biology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article reviews the training of astronauts in the interdisciplinary work of conservation biology. The primary responsibility of the conservation biologist at NASA is directing and supporting the photography of the Earth and maintaining the complete database of the photographs. In order to perform this work, the astronauts who take the pictures must be educated in ecological issues.

Robinson, Julie A.

2001-01-01

409

Medicinal plants, conservation and livelihoods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many types of action can be taken in favour of the conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants. Some of these are undertaken directly at the places where the plants are found, while others are less direct, such as some of those relating to commercial systems, ex situ conservation and bioprospecting. In the latter cases, actions taken will not lead

Alan C. Hamilton

2004-01-01

410

Conducting an Energy Conservation Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a lesson where students conduct an attitude survey on energy conservation in order to learn about survey research and scales in handling survey data. Explains that the understanding of survey research and energy conservation is relevant to ones civic life. Provides the energy attitude survey the students used for data collection. (CMK)

Allen, Rodney F.; LaHart, David E.

1999-01-01

411

Energy conservation and air transportation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Air transportation demand and passenger energy demand are discussed, in relation to energy conservation. Alternatives to air travel are reviewed, along with airline advertising and ticket pricing. Cargo energy demand and airline systems efficiency are also examined, as well as fuel conservation techniques. Maximum efficiency of passenger aircraft, from B-747 to V/STOL to British Concorde, is compared.

1973-01-01

412

Solar Irradiation over Zambia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Angstroem-Page linear regression equation between global irradiation and sunshine duration is fitted for five Zambian locations for which the direct measured values of the global irradiation exist. Excellent correlation is found to exist for all the five ...

P. C. Jain

1983-01-01

413

Generating and forecasting monthly flows of the Ganges river with PAR model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contemporary building techniques and underlying theories of periodic autoregressive (PAR) models are revisited, reviewed, modified and recast. New techniques for generating synthetic data from any PAR model with provision to constrain some parameter values to zero have been proposed. The developed method is applied to the Ganges river for its monthly flow forecasting and generation. The results demonstrate that the PAR model can capture the seasonal variability of the Ganges river flow reasonably well preserving both its short- and the long-term important historical statistics.

Mondal, M. Shahjahan; Wasimi, Saleh A.

2006-05-01

414

Radiological findings and healing patterns of incomplete stress fractures of the pars interarticularis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The objective was to retrospectively record the CT and MRI features and healing patterns of acute, incomplete stress fractures\\u000a of the pars interarticularis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  The CT scans of 156 adolescents referred with suspected pars interarticularis stress fractures were reviewed. Patients with\\u000a incomplete (grade 2) pars fractures were included in the study. Fractures were assessed on CT according to vertebral level,\\u000a location

Andrew J. Dunn; Robert S. D. Campbell; Peter E. Mayor; Dai Rees

2008-01-01

415

Dynamic interplay of ParA with the polarity protein, Scy, coordinates the growth with chromosome segregation in Streptomyces coelicolor.  

PubMed

Prior to bacterial cell division, the ATP-dependent polymerization of the cytoskeletal protein, ParA, positions the newly replicated origin-proximal region of the chromosome by interacting with ParB complexes assembled on parS sites located close to the origin. During the formation of unigenomic spores from multi-genomic aerial hyphae compartments of Streptomyces coelicolor, ParA is developmentally triggered to form filaments along the hyphae; this promotes the accurate and synchronized segregation of tens of chromosomes into prespore compartments. Here, we show that in addition to being a segregation protein, ParA also interacts with the polarity protein, Scy, which is a component of the tip-organizing centre that controls tip growth. Scy recruits ParA to the hyphal tips and regulates ParA polymerization. These results are supported by the phenotype of a strain with a mutant form of ParA that uncouples ParA polymerization from Scy. We suggest that the ParA-Scy interaction coordinates the transition from hyphal elongation to sporulation. PMID:23536551

Ditkowski, Bartosz; Holmes, Neil; Rydzak, Joanna; Donczew, Magdalena; Bezulska, Martyna; Ginda, Katarzyna; Kedzierski, Pawel; Zakrzewska-Czerwi?ska, Jolanta; Kelemen, Gabriella H; Jakimowicz, Dagmara

2013-03-01

416

Regulation of the proapoptotic functions of prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) by casein kinase 2 in prostate cancer cells.  

PubMed

The proapoptotic protein, prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4), acts as a tumor suppressor in prostate cancer cells. The serine/threonine kinase casein kinase 2 (CK2) has a well-reported role in prostate cancer resistance to apoptotic agents or anticancer drugs. However, the mechanistic understanding on how CK2 supports survival is far from complete. In this work, we demonstrate both in rat and humans that (i) Par-4 is a new substrate of the survival kinase CK2 and (ii) phosphorylation by CK2 impairs Par-4 proapoptotic functions. We also unravel different levels of CK2-dependent regulation of Par-4 between species. In rats, the phosphorylation by CK2 at the major site, S124, prevents caspase-mediated Par-4 cleavage (D123) and consequently impairs the proapoptotic function of Par-4. In humans, CK2 strongly impairs the apoptotic properties of Par-4, independently of the caspase-mediated cleavage of Par-4 (D131), by triggering the phosphorylation at residue S231. Furthermore, we show that human Par-4 residue S231 is highly phosphorylated in prostate cancer cells as compared with their normal counterparts. Finally, the sensitivity of prostate cancer cells to apoptosis by CK2 knockdown is significantly reversed by parallel knockdown of Par-4. Thus, Par-4 seems a critical target of CK2 that could be exploited for the development of new anticancer drugs. PMID:24457960

de Thonel, A; Hazoumé, A; Kochin, V; Isoniemi, K; Jego, G; Fourmaux, E; Hammann, A; Mjahed, H; Filhol, O; Micheau, O; Rocchi, P; Mezger, V; Eriksson, J E; Rangnekar, V M; Garrido, C

2014-01-01

417

Regulation of the proapoptotic functions of prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) by casein kinase 2 in prostate cancer cells  

PubMed Central

The proapoptotic protein, prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4), acts as a tumor suppressor in prostate cancer cells. The serine/threonine kinase casein kinase 2 (CK2) has a well-reported role in prostate cancer resistance to apoptotic agents or anticancer drugs. However, the mechanistic understanding on how CK2 supports survival is far from complete. In this work, we demonstrate both in rat and humans that (i) Par-4 is a new substrate of the survival kinase CK2 and (ii) phosphorylation by CK2 impairs Par-4 proapoptotic functions. We also unravel different levels of CK2-dependent regulation of Par-4 between species. In rats, the phosphorylation by CK2 at the major site, S124, prevents caspase-mediated Par-4 cleavage (D123) and consequently impairs the proapoptotic function of Par-4. In humans, CK2 strongly impairs the apoptotic properties of Par-4, independently of the caspase-mediated cleavage of Par-4 (D131), by triggering the phosphorylation at residue S231. Furthermore, we show that human Par-4 residue S231 is highly phosphorylated in prostate cancer cells as compared with their normal counterparts. Finally, the sensitivity of prostate cancer cells to apoptosis by CK2 knockdown is significantly reversed by parallel knockdown of Par-4. Thus, Par-4 seems a critical target of CK2 that could be exploited for the development of new anticancer drugs.

de Thonel, A; Hazoume, A; Kochin, V; Isoniemi, K; Jego, G; Fourmaux, E; Hammann, A; Mjahed, H; Filhol, O; Micheau, O; Rocchi, P; Mezger, V; Eriksson, J E; Rangnekar, V M; Garrido, C

2014-01-01

418

Dynamic interplay of ParA with the polarity protein, Scy, coordinates the growth with chromosome segregation in Streptomyces coelicolor  

PubMed Central

Prior to bacterial cell division, the ATP-dependent polymerization of the cytoskeletal protein, ParA, positions the newly replicated origin-proximal region of the chromosome by interacting with ParB complexes assembled on parS sites located close to the origin. During the formation of unigenomic spores from multi-genomic aerial hyphae compartments of Streptomyces coelicolor, ParA is developmentally triggered to form filaments along the hyphae; this promotes the accurate and synchronized segregation of tens of chromosomes into prespore compartments. Here, we show that in addition to being a segregation protein, ParA also interacts with the polarity protein, Scy, which is a component of the tip-organizing centre that controls tip growth. Scy recruits ParA to the hyphal tips and regulates ParA polymerization. These results are supported by the phenotype of a strain with a mutant form of ParA that uncouples ParA polymerization from Scy. We suggest that the ParA–Scy interaction coordinates the transition from hyphal elongation to sporulation.

Ditkowski, Bartosz; Holmes, Neil; Rydzak, Joanna; Donczew, Magdalena; Bezulska, Martyna; Ginda, Katarzyna; Kedzierski, Pawel; Zakrzewska-Czerwinska, Jolanta; Kelemen, Gabriella H.; Jakimowicz, Dagmara

2013-01-01

419

Par-complex aPKC and Par3 cross-talk with innate immunity NF-?B pathway in epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Summary Components of the Par-complex, atypical PKC and Par3, have been found to be downregulated upon activation of NF-?B in intestinal epithelial cells. To determine their possible role in pro-inflammatory responses we transduced Caco-2 human colon carcinoma cells with constitutively active (ca) PKC? or anti-Par3 shRNA-expressing lentiviral particles. Contrary to previous reports in other cell types, ca-PKC? did not activate, but rather decreased, baseline NF-?B activity in a luminiscence reporter assay. An identical observation applied to a PB1 domain deletion PKC?, which fails to localize to the tight-junction. Conversely, as expected, the same ca-PKC? activated NF-?B in non-polarized HEK293 cells. Likewise, knockdown of Par3 increased NF-?B activity and, surprisingly, greatly enhanced its response to TNF?, as shown by transcription of IL-8, GRO-1, GRO-2 and GRO-3. We conclude that aPKC and Par3 are inhibitors of the canonical NF-?B activation pathway, although perhaps acting through independent pathways, and may be involved in pro-inflammatory responses.

Forteza, Radia; Wald, Flavia A.; Mashukova, Anastasia; Kozhekbaeva, Zhanna; Salas, Pedro J.

2013-01-01

420

Overexpression of protease-activated receptor type 1 (PAR-1) in glioblastoma multiforme WHO IV cells and blood vessels revealed by NCAM-assisted glioblastoma border labeling.  

PubMed

Glioblastomas are neuroepithelial tumors with lost cellular differentiation and tenfold increased growth rates compared to low-grade gliomas. Despite of very aggressive treatment options based on surgery, irradiation, and chemotherapy, the prognosis of affected patients has remained poor and showed only slight improvements during the last 30 years. Research on glioblastoma border zone was hindered by the tumor's intense invasion into the brain parenchyma and the lack of suitable tumor cell markers. Nevertheless, the compact tumor mass and tumor invasion zone are composed of distinct cell types that need to be distinguished from each other to be addressed selectively. As the isoform 140 of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM-140) was recently demonstrated to be lost in human gliomas with rising WHO grade, human multiform glioblastomas were characterized as a NCAM-140 negative entity displaying three main distinct invasion patterns. Evaluation of putative therapy targets within the tumor tissue and tumor invasion zone has been made possible through NCAM-140 negativity. In the present study, brain tissue controls and human glioblastoma samples with compact tumor mass and invasion areas were analyzed for their vascularization at the tumor border and the expression of thrombin receptor protease-activated receptor type 1 (PAR-1) within tumor tissue and vascular vessel walls. Use of NCAM-140 enabled the identification of the tumor invasion zone and its experimental investigation. Tissue vascularization was found to be significantly increased in the compact tumor mass of glioblastomas compared to their invasion zone and tumor-free controls with a significantly high and specific overexpression of PAR-1 within tumor cells and within tumor blood vessels depending upon the tumor area. This suggests thereby a functional role of the thrombin receptor PAR-1 in glioma cell malignancy and glioblastoma neoangiogenesis. PMID:24620969

Kuhn, Susanne A; Martin, Manuela; Brodhun, Michael; Kratzsch, Tobias; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten; Haberl, Hannes

2014-08-01

421

Genomic toolboxes for conservation biologists  

PubMed Central

Conservation genetics is expanding its research horizon with a genomic approach, by incorporating the modern techniques of next-generation sequencing (NGS). Application of NGS overcomes many limitations of conservation genetics. First, NGS allows for genome-wide screening of markers, which may lead to a more representative estimation of genetic variation within and between populations. Second, NGS allows for distinction between neutral and non-neutral markers. By screening populations on thousands of single nucleotide polymorphism markers, signals of selection can be found for some markers. Variation in these markers will give insight into functional rather than neutral genetic variation. Third, NGS facilitates the study of gene expression. Conservation genomics will increase our insight in how the environment and genes interact to affect phenotype and fitness. In addition, the NGS approach opens a way to study processes such as inbreeding depression and local adaptation mechanistically. Conservation genetics programs are directed to a fundamental understanding of the processes involved in conservation genetics and should preferably be started in species for which large databases on ecology, demography and genetics are available. Here, we describe and illustrate the connection between the application of NGS technologies and the research questions in conservation. The perspectives of conservation genomics programs are also discussed.

Angeloni, Francesco; Wagemaker, Niels; Vergeer, Philippine; Ouborg, Joop

2012-01-01

422

par-1, Atypical pkc, and PP2A/B55 sur-6 Are Implicated in the Regulation of Exocyst-Mediated Membrane Trafficking in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

The exocyst is a conserved protein complex that is involved in tethering secretory vesicles to the plasma membrane and regulating cell polarity. Despite a large body of work, little is known how exocyst function is controlled. To identify regulators for exocyst function, we performed a targeted RNA interference (RNAi) screen in Caenorhabditis elegans to uncover kinases and phosphatases that genetically interact with the exocyst. We identified seven kinase and seven phosphatase genes that display enhanced phenotypes when combined with hypomorphic alleles of exoc-7 (exo70), exoc-8 (exo84), or an exoc-7;exoc-8 double mutant. We show that in line with its reported role in exocytotic membrane trafficking, a defective exoc-8 caused accumulation of exocytotic soluble NSF attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins in both intestinal and neuronal cells in C. elegans. Down-regulation of the phosphatase protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) phosphatase regulatory subunit sur-6/B55 gene resulted in accumulation of exocytic SNARE proteins SNB-1 and SNAP-29 in wild-type and in exoc-8 mutant animals. In contrast, RNAi of the kinase par-1 caused reduced intracellular green fluorescent protein signal for the same proteins. Double RNAi experiments for par-1, pkc-3, and sur-6/B55 in C. elegans suggest a possible cooperation and involvement in postembryo lethality, developmental timing, as well as SNARE protein trafficking. Functional analysis of the homologous kinases and phosphatases in Drosophila median neurosecretory cells showed that atypical protein kinase C kinase and phosphatase PP2A regulate exocyst-dependent, insulin-like peptide secretion. Collectively, these results characterize kinases and phosphatases implicated in the regulation of exocyst function, and suggest the possibility for interplay between the par-1 and pkc-3 kinases and the PP2A phosphatase regulatory subunit sur-6 in this process.

Jiu, Yaming; Hasygar, Kiran; Tang, Lois; Liu, Yanbo; Holmberg, Carina I.; Burglin, Thomas R.; Hietakangas, Ville; Jantti, Jussi

2013-01-01

423

Saving Money with Energy Conservation: Economic Analysis of Conservation Measures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The basic tools for performing simple economic analyses of energy-conservation measures are reviewed. Energy accounting establishes energy-utilization patterns and performance goals. Directions for analyzing the utility bill are presented. Part 2 introduc...

J. E. Bailey D. A. Roller W. C. Moor

1980-01-01

424

On the Uncertainty of Conservation: Responses to Misleading Conservation Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three studies of preadolescents and college students found that many children and adults failed to give logically correct answers when presented with misleading weight conservation questions. The results show the importance of suggestibility and context. (MDM)

Winer, Gerald A.; McGlone, Chadd

1993-01-01

425

Seismic analysis of the Par Pond Dam: Study of slope failure and liquefaction. Technical evaluation report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Stability concerns of the Par Pond Dam, an embankment structure in the Savannah River Site complex, resulted in a comprehensive evaluation of the state of its integrity. Specifically, excessive seepage through the embankment, slope failure due to an earth...

N. Simos M. Reich

1994-01-01

426

Negative regulation of Par-4 by oncogenic Ras is essential for cellular transformation.  

PubMed

Oncogenic variants of the cellular Ras protein are often associated with different types of human cancers. However, the mechanisms by which oncogenic Ras induces transformation are not fully established. Expression of the transcriptional repressor Par-4 was down-regulated by oncogenic Ras via the Raf-MEK-ERK pathway. Restoration of Par-4 levels by abrogation of the Raf-MEK-ERK pathway with the MEK-inhibitor PD98059 or by ectopic Par-4, that acted to inhibit ERK expression and activation, was sufficient to suppress oncogenic Ras-induced transformation. These findings identify Par-4 as a novel target that has to be down-modulated by oncogenic Ras for successful transformation. PMID:10597313

Qiu, S G; Krishnan, S; el-Guendy, N; Rangnekar, V M

1999-11-25

427

Mice lacking the thrombin receptor, PAR1, have normal skin wound healing.  

PubMed Central

Thrombin's actions on platelets, macrophages, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells have prompted the hypothesis that thrombin may be important for inflammatory and fibroproliferative processes in wound healing. Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is a G-protein-coupled receptor that mediates many of the cellular activities of thrombin. To test the role of this receptor in vivo, we generated PAR1-deficient mice. Despite the observation that fibroblasts cultured from these mice lacked responsiveness to thrombin in vitro, we now report that there was no difference detected between wild-type and PAR1-deficient mice in skin wound healing assays including time to closure of open wounds, tensile strength of healed incisional wounds, wound histology, and hydroxyproline/DNA content of wound implants. We conclude that PAR1 is not necessary for normal skin wound healing in mice. Images Figure 2

Connolly, A. J.; Suh, D. Y.; Hunt, T. K.; Coughlin, S. R.

1997-01-01

428

Conservation genetics in the USGS  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Conservation genetics is the application of the tools and concepts of genetics to the conservation of biological resources. Once too sophisticated and expensive for routine use, the tools of conservation genetics are now widely used to address many complex management questions. These novel methods of analysis can augment assessments made with traditional methods and can bring new information to light. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is well suited to provide scientific information and expertise using these tools to support the management of biological resources.

Jacobs, Ruth; Haig, Susan; Talbot, Sandy; Winton, James; King, Tim; Kendall, Kate

2006-01-01

429

Acid rain and electricity conservation  

SciTech Connect

Conservation directly lowers the emissions of SO/sub 2/ and other pollutants by reducing the amount of coal and other fuels that must be burned to meet electricity demand. This book is the first report to provide an integrated analysis of electricity supply, acid raid abatement, and conservation opportunities. The authors use a utility simulation model to examine SO/sub 2/ emissions, electric rates, and overall costs to consumers for different load growth and emissions control scenarios. The study also suggests how acid rain legislation can be designed to encourage electricity conservation.

Geller, H.; Miller, E.; Ledbetter, M.; Miller, P.

1987-01-01

430

Local responses to participatory conservation in Annapurna conservation area, Nepal.  

PubMed

Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for participation. In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the barriers encountered in its implementation, a questionnaire survey of 188 households was employed in the communities of the Upper Mustang extension of Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. The study provides a comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers between Non-Tourist (NT) and Tourist (TV) villages. The results revealed important differences between the two groups in terms of their participation in community programs, barriers to participation, and perception of benefits from participation. Owing to their distinct spatial, demographic and attitudinal differences, the two village groups have their own sets of needs, values and motivation factors which cannot be generalized and treated as such. The research clearly identifies the need for the conservation agency to be creative in devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific social groups so as to optimize their input in participatory conservation. PMID:19967362

Khadka, Damodar; Nepal, Sanjay K

2010-02-01

431

Local Responses to Participatory Conservation in Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for