These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

IRRADIATION DES MTAUX Par R. M. WALKER 1  

E-print Network

474. IRRADIATION DES M�TAUX Par R. M. WALKER 1 Laboratoire de Chimie Physique de la Faculté des Sciences de Paris. Résumé. 2014 On montre que la théorie simple du seuil pour les défauts par irradiation donne une description excellente des principales caractéristiques des modifications induites par l'irradiation

Boyer, Edmond

2

A Conserved Mode of Protein Recognition and Binding in a ParD?ParE Toxin?Antitoxin Complex  

SciTech Connect

Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems form a ubiquitous class of prokaryotic proteins with functional roles in plasmid inheritance, environmental stress response, and cell development. ParDE family TA systems are broadly conserved on plasmids and bacterial chromosomes and have been well characterized as genetic elements that promote stable plasmid inheritance. We present a crystal structure of a chromosomally encoded ParD-ParE complex from Caulobacter crescentus at 2.6 {angstrom} resolution. This TA system forms an {alpha}{sub 2}{beta}{sub 2} heterotetramer in the crystal and in solution. The toxin-antitoxin binding interface reveals extensive polar and hydrophobic contacts of ParD antitoxin helices with a conserved recognition and binding groove on the ParE toxin. A cross-species comparison of this complex structure with related toxin structures identified an antitoxin recognition and binding subdomain that is conserved between distantly related members of the RelE/ParE toxin superfamily despite a low level of overall primary sequence identity. We further demonstrate that ParD antitoxin is dimeric, stably folded, and largely helical when not bound to ParE toxin. Thus, the paradigmatic model in which antitoxin undergoes a disorder-to-order transition upon toxin binding does not apply to this chromosomal ParD-ParE TA system.

Dalton, Kevin M.; Crosson, Sean (UC)

2010-05-06

3

Breast conservation treatment with perioperative interstitial irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Limited resection of the breast combined with radiation has proved to be as effective as more radical surgery in treating early breast cancer. At the University of Kansas Medical Center, the radiotherapy consists of an interstitial implant at the time of lumpectomy to deliver an interstitial boost dose to the tumor bed with iridium-192 immediately following the surgical procedure. An axillary node dissection is also performed at the time of lumpectomy. A dose of 2000 cGy is delivered to the tumor bed between 40 and 60 h. Two to three weeks later, 4500-5000 cGy is delivered to the entire breast with external beam radiation over 5-5.5 weeks. One hundred breasts in 98 patients were so treated between June 1982 and February 1986, with 2 carcinomas in situ, 40 stage I, 51 stage II, and 7 stage III cancers, consisting of 2 TIS, 54 T1, 39 T2, and 5 T3 lesions. Locoregional control with a median follow-up of 31 months was 98%. One recurrence was in a different quadrant, and the other revealed predominantly the in situ component. Immediate implant did not compromise wound healing or cosmesis. The cosmetic result was graded as good to excellent in 88% of the breasts. Our preliminary results appear to suggest a better local control with immediate interstitial irradiation.

Krishnan, L.; Mansfield, C.M.; Jewell, W.R.; Reddy, E.K.; Thomas, J.H.; Krishnan, E.C.

1987-10-01

4

IRRADIATION D'ALLIAGES DE HEUSLER Par H. PAPADIMITRAKI-CHLICHLIA et A. BLAISE,  

E-print Network

-désordre. Abstract. 2014 Some Heusler alloys of the type (Cu2MnAl)x 2014 (Cu3Al)12014x (x = 0.4 and 0.5) showing463. IRRADIATION D'ALLIAGES DE HEUSLER Par H. PAPADIMITRAKI-CHLICHLIA et A. BLAISE, Section de alliages de Heusler du type (Cu2MnAl)x 2014 (Cu3Al)1-x (x = 0,4 et 0,5), présentant un comportement

Boyer, Edmond

5

EFFETS DES FAIBLES IRRADIATIONS SUR L'URANIUM Par Y. QUR,  

E-print Network

489. EFFETS DES FAIBLES IRRADIATIONS SUR L'URANIUM Par Y. QU�R�, Centre d'�tudes Nucléaires de fragments de fission dans l'uranium, on présente quelques résultats de mesure de longueur et de résistivité modifiés. Abstract. 2014 After recalling Brinkman's model for the action of fission fragments on uranium

Boyer, Edmond

6

Breast-conserving therapy after previous irradiation for lymphoma.  

PubMed

There is an increased risk of breast cancer in patients who have undergone radiation treatment for lymphoma. While this usually precludes further radiotherapy (RT), we report five women who received irradiation for lymphoma and who subsequently received breast-conserving therapy between 1995 and 2007 for early-stage breast cancer. There was an overlap between the two treatment fields in all patients. RT for lymphoma ranged between 29.8 and 40 grays (Gy). The interval between lymphoma and the diagnosis of breast cancer was 11-24 years. All five patients had lumpectomy and received subsequent RT (45 Gy in four patients, 50 Gy in the other). All tolerated breast RT well, and toxicity was limited to grade 1 events. All five patients were alive at last follow-up, and there was no local recurrence in the irradiated breast in any patient. We conclude that previous RT for lymphoma is not necessarily an absolute contraindication to breast-conserving therapy. PMID:19462230

Nguyen, Sonia K A; Dagnault, Anne

2010-12-01

7

Regional nodal irradiation in the conservative treatment of breast cancer  

SciTech Connect

At this institution conservative treatment of breast cancer was begun in the 1960's. The following analysis represents our experience through 1984 with specific reference to the management of the regional lymph nodes. A total of 432 patients with clinical stage I and II breast cancer were treated between 1962 and 1984 with lumpectomy and radiation therapy. The breast was treated with tangential fields to a median dose of 4800 cGy and electron conedown to a total tumor bed dose of 6400 cGy. Axillary dissection was not routinely performed, particularly in the earlier years. More recently, axillary dissection has been used with increasing frequency if it was felt that the results of the dissection would influence systemic treatment. One hundred eighty-seven patients (43%) underwent axillary dissection and routinely received regional nodal irradiation to the internal mammary and supraclavicular lymph nodes. Two hundred forty-five patients (57%) did not undergo axillary dissection and routinely received regional nodal irradiation to the internal mammary, supraclavicular, and entire axillary regions to a total median dose of 4600 cGy. As of May 1989 with a median follow-up of 7.5 years, there have been a total of 12 nodal failures for an actuarial nodal control rate of 97% at 5 years and 96% at 10 years. The actuarial 5-year regional nodal control rate was the same for both the group of patients receiving regional RT alone without axillary dissection and the group of patients receiving axillary dissection and supraclavicular/internal mammary radiation. There has been minimal morbidity associated with this treatment policy. We conclude that regional nodal irradiation, with or without axillary dissection, results in a high rate of regional nodal control and minimal treatment morbidity in patients undergoing conservative treatment of early stage breast cancer.

Haffty, B.G.; Fischer, D.; Fischer, J.J. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (USA))

1990-10-01

8

PAR  

E-print Network

La diffusion de ce mémoire se fait dans le ' respect des droits de son auteur, qui a signé le formulaire Autorisation de reproduire. et de diffuser un travail de recherche de cycles $Upérieurs (SDU-522- Rév.01-2006). Cette autorisation.stipule que «conformément · à l'article 11 du Règlement no 8 des études de cycles supérieurs, [l'auteur] concède à l'Université du Québec à Montréal une licence non exclusive d'utilisation et de. publication pe la totalité ou d'une partie importante de [son] travail de recherche pour 'des fins pédagogiques et non commerciales. Plus précisément, [l'auteur] autorise l'Université du Québec à Montréal à reproduire, diffuser, prêter, distribuer ou vendre des.· copies de. [son] travail de recherche à des fins non commerciales sur quelque support que ce soit, y compris l'Internet. Cette licence et cette autorisation n'entraînent pas une renonciation de [la] part [de l'auteur] à [ses] droits moraux ni à [ses] droits de propriété intellectuelle. Sauf entente contraire, [l'auteur] conserve la liberté de diffuser et de commercialiser ou non ce travail dont [il] possède un exemplaire..» AVANT-PROPOS Ce mémoire est constitué de deux chapitres sous la forme d'articles scientifiques

Persistance Et; Activité Reproductrice; Des Oiseaux; De La; Maîtrise En Biologie; Maxime Allard; Février Université; Du Québec; À Montréal; Service Des Bibliothèques

9

Etude par diffusion de Huang des auto-interstitiels dans un alliage ordonn Fe-40 at Al irradi aux lectrons  

E-print Network

651 Etude par diffusion de Huang des auto-interstitiels dans un alliage ordonné Fe-40 at Al irradié at liquid hydrogen temperature, and diffuse X-ray scattering (MoK03B11) near Bragg reflections has been with the different simple interstitial configurations proposed for b.c.c. crystals suggests that the most probable

Boyer, Edmond

10

Row orientation effect on UV-B, UV-A and PAR solar irradiation components in vineyards at Tuscany, Italy.  

PubMed

Besides playing an essential role in plant photosynthesis, solar radiation is also involved in many other important biological processes. In particular, it has been demonstrated that ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation plays a relevant role in grapevines (Vitis vinifera) in the production of certain important chemical compounds directly responsible for yield and wine quality. Moreover, the exposure to UV-B radiation (280-320 nm) can affect plant-disease interaction by influencing the behaviour of both pathogen and host. The main objective of this research was to characterise the solar radiative regime of a vineyard, in terms of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and UV components. In this analysis, solar spectral UV irradiance components, broadband UV (280-400 nm), spectral UV-B and UV-A (320-400 nm), the biological effective UVBE, as well as the PAR (400-700 nm) component, were all considered. The diurnal patterns of these quantities and the UV-B/PAR and UV-B/UV-A ratios were analysed to investigate the effect of row orientation of the vineyard in combination with solar azimuth and elevation angles. The distribution of PAR and UV irradiance at various heights of the vertical sides of the rows was also studied. The results showed that the highest portion of plants received higher levels of daily radiation, especially the UV-B component. Row orientation of the vines had a pronounced effect on the global PAR received by the two sides of the rows and, to a lesser extent, UV-A and UV-B. When only the diffused component was considered, this geometrical effect was greatly attenuated. UV-B/PAR and UV-A/PAR ratios were also affected, with potential consequences on physiological processes. Because of the high diffusive capacity of the UV-B radiation, the UV-B/PAR ratio was significantly lower on the plant portions exposed to full sunlight than on those in the shade. PMID:18594874

Grifoni, D; Carreras, G; Zipoli, G; Sabatini, F; Dalla Marta, A; Orlandini, S

2008-11-01

11

Row orientation effect on UV-B, UV-A and PAR solar irradiation components in vineyards at Tuscany, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Besides playing an essential role in plant photosynthesis, solar radiation is also involved in many other important biological processes. In particular, it has been demonstrated that ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation plays a relevant role in grapevines ( Vitis vinifera) in the production of certain important chemical compounds directly responsible for yield and wine quality. Moreover, the exposure to UV-B radiation (280-320 nm) can affect plant-disease interaction by influencing the behaviour of both pathogen and host. The main objective of this research was to characterise the solar radiative regime of a vineyard, in terms of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and UV components. In this analysis, solar spectral UV irradiance components, broadband UV (280-400 nm), spectral UV-B and UV-A (320-400 nm), the biological effective UVBE, as well as the PAR (400-700 nm) component, were all considered. The diurnal patterns of these quantities and the UV-B/PAR and UV-B/UV-A ratios were analysed to investigate the effect of row orientation of the vineyard in combination with solar azimuth and elevation angles. The distribution of PAR and UV irradiance at various heights of the vertical sides of the rows was also studied. The results showed that the highest portion of plants received higher levels of daily radiation, especially the UV-B component. Row orientation of the vines had a pronounced effect on the global PAR received by the two sides of the rows and, to a lesser extent, UV-A and UV-B. When only the diffused component was considered, this geometrical effect was greatly attenuated. UV-B/PAR and UV-A/PAR ratios were also affected, with potential consequences on physiological processes. Because of the high diffusive capacity of the UV-B radiation, the UV-B/PAR ratio was significantly lower on the plant portions exposed to full sunlight than on those in the shade.

Grifoni, D.; Carreras, G.; Zipoli, G.; Sabatini, F.; Dalla Marta, A.; Orlandini, S.

2008-11-01

12

Benefits versus risks in conservation surgery with irradiation for breast cancer  

SciTech Connect

This report analyzes the survival and complications inherent in the conventional treatment of breast cancer, radical mastectomy, and the more conservative procedure, conservation surgery with irradiation. Both procedures have benefits and risks. The benefits as measured by survivorship appear to be approximately the same. The major benefit of conservation surgery with irradiation is that the breast is left intact. The possible complication of irradiation carcinogenesis is addressed, and the literature analyzed. This review indicates that the absolute risk of breast cancer developing in the second breast is not nearly as great as originally thought. It is concluded that if a woman with breast cancer is a candidate for either mastectomy or the conservative procedure, it is the clinician's obligation to objectively present the evidence regarding the benefits and risks of these procedures.

Levitt, S.H.; Mandel, J.

1984-07-01

13

Interdiffusion de puits quantiques controlee par irradiation laser excimere pour l'integration de composants photoniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L'integration de composants discrets sur un systeme unique, tel une puce electronique, augmente les performances totales du systeme, fait apparaitre de nouvelles fonctionnalites et diminue les couts associes a la fabrication des dispositifs. Ces ameliorations, appliquees au secteur de la microelectronique, sont grandement responsables des avancements importants qu'ont connus les technologies de l'information et des communications au cours des dernieres annees. Puisque la fabrication de circuits photoniques integres necessite l'integration de structures ayant des bandes interdites differentes a partir d'une meme puce semiconductrice, leur niveau d'integration est bien inferieur que celui atteint pour un microprocesseur standard. Parmi les techniques ayant le potentiel de fabriquer des circuits photoniques integres monolithiquement, l'interdiffusion de puits quantique post-expitaxial controlee spatialement augmente la bande interdite d'une heterostructure semiconductrice a l'interieur de regions definies. Le processus d'interdiffusion, active thermiquement, est accelere par la diffusion d'impuretes et de defauts ponctuels tels que les lacunes et les interstitiels. L'hypothese de depart de mes travaux de doctorat suppose que la radiation laser ultra-violette module la diffusion et la generation de defauts ponctuels dans les heterostructures reposant sur les technologies a base de GaAs et d'InP et, consequemment, controle spatialement l'interdiffusion de puits quantiques. Nous avons demontre que lorsque appliquee sur des heterostructures a base de GaAs, l'irradiation laser excimere l'interdiffusion en favorisant la croissance d'un stresseur de surface qui empeche la diffusion des defauts ponctuels vers les puits quantiques. Nous avons souligne l'influence de la vapeur d'eau physisorbee sur la croissance du stresseur et avons determine la resolution spatiale de la technique. Dans les heterostructures basees sur les technologies InP, meme sous le seuil d'ablation, l'absorption des impulsions laser UV favorise la desorption des atomes de surface ce qui genere des defauts ponctuels en concentration excedentaire. Lors d'un recuit thermique, ces defauts ponctuels augmentent la vitesse de l'interdiffusion sous les regions irradiees. Mots cles : Interdiffusion de puits quantique, integration potonique, laser excimere, semiconducteur, InP, GaAs.

Genest, Jonathan

14

Excised and irradiated volumes in relation to the tumor size in breast-conserving therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In early-stage breast cancer and DCIS patients, breast-conserving therapy is today’s standard of care. The purpose of this\\u000a study was to evaluate the relation between the microscopic tumor diameter (mTD), the excised specimen (ES) volume, and the\\u000a irradiated postoperative complex (POC) volume, in patients treated with breast-conserving therapy. In 186 patients with pTis-2N0\\u000a breast cancer, the mTDs, ES, and POC

M. D. den Hartogh; B. van Asselen; E. M. Monninkhof; M. A. A. J. van den Bosch; M. van Vulpen; P. J. van Diest; K. G. A. Gilhuijs; A. J. Witkamp; L. van de Bunt; W. P. T. M. Mali; H. J. G. D. van den Bongard

15

Pattern of local recurrence after conservative surgery and whole-breast irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Most recurrences in the breast after conservative surgery and whole-breast irradiation have been reported to occur within the same quadrant as the initial primary tumor. We analyzed the long-term risk of recurrence by area of the breast after whole-breast irradiation. Materials and Methods: In all, 1,990 women with Stage 0-II breast cancer were treated with conservative surgery and whole-breast irradiation from 1970-1998. Stage was ductal carcinoma in situ in 237, T1 in 1273, and T2 in 480 patients. Of 120 local recurrences, 71 were classified as true local (confined to the original quadrant) and 49 as elsewhere (involving outside the original quadrant). Kaplan-Meier methodology was used to calculate 5-year, 10-year, and 15-year rates of recurrence (95% confidence intervals in parentheses). The median follow-up is 80 months. Results: There was no apparent difference in the 15-year rate of true local vs. elsewhere recurrence, but the time to recurrence was different. The rate of true local recurrence was 2%, 5%, and 7% (5-9%) at 5, 10, and 15 years, respectively. The recurrences elsewhere in the breast were rare at 5 (1%) and 10 (2%) years, but increased to 6 (3-9%) at 15 years. This 15-year rate of elsewhere recurrence was half the rate of contralateral breast cancers of 13% (10-16%). Conclusions: Recurrence elsewhere in the breast is rare for the first 10 years, but by 15 years is nearly equal to true local recurrence even after whole-breast irradiation. The 15-year rate of elsewhere recurrence was half the rate of contralateral breast cancers. This may indicate a therapeutic effect of whole-breast radiation for other areas of the breast. Very long follow-up will be needed for partial breast irradiation with or without tamoxifen to show that the risk of elsewhere recurrence is not significantly different than after whole-breast irradiation.

Freedman, Gary M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)]. E-mail: G_Freedman@FCCC.edu; Anderson, Penny R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hanlon, Alexandra L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Eisenberg, Debra F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Nicolaou, Nicos [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

2005-04-01

16

Defocused Irradiation Mode of Diode Laser for Conservative Treatment of Oral Hemangioma  

PubMed Central

Vascular lesions rise from abnormalities in blood vessels or endothelial proliferation. Capillary hemangiomas are formed by small capillaries surrounded by a layer of endothelial cells in a connective tissue stroma. Various treatments are used for these conditions like excisional surgery, sclerotherapy, and recently laser irradiation. In this case study, we report successful treatment of intraoral capillary hemangioma by gallium/aluminum/arsenide (GaAlAs) laser. A 29 year old woman with a red lesion on the upper side of the right maxillary premolar was referred to private dental office. The Diode laser with wavelength of 810 nm was selected for treatment of the lesion in defocused mode by output power of 4 W in continuous mode. No bleeding was observed during surgery which provided better vision for surgeon and resulted in a minimally invasive procedure. According to results, Diode laser can be considered as a conservative modality in treatment of oral capillary hemangioma, especially in the esthetic zone. PMID:25606323

Fekrazad, Reza; AM Kalhori, Katayoun; Chiniforush, Nasim

2013-01-01

17

Outcome After Conservative Surgery and Breast Irradiation in 5,717 Patients With Breast Cancer: Implications for Supraclavicular Nodal Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the outcome and predictive factors of patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy to the whole breast only, without supraclavicular nodal irradiation. Methods and Materials: A total of 5,717 patients with pT1-T4 breast cancer were treated at the University of Florence. The median age of the patient population was 55 years (range, 30-80 years). All patients were followed for a median of 6.8 years (range, 1-27 years). Adjuvant chemotherapy was recommended in 1,535 patients (26.9%). Tamoxifen was prescribed in 2,951 patients (51.6%). The patients were split into three groups according to number of positive axillary nodes (PAN): P1, negative axillary lymph nodes; P2, one to three PAN; P3, more than three PAN. Results: The P3 patients had a higher incidence of supraclavicular fossa recurrence (SFR) compared with P2 and P1 patients. However, the incidence of SFR in P3 patients was low (only 5.5%), whereas the incidence of distant metastases (DM) was 27.2%. Distant metastasis was the only independent prognostic factor for breast cancer survival. Additionally, in the subgroup of patients who developed local recurrence, DM was the most important death predictor. Conclusion: Our series suggests that isolated SFR in patients who did not receive supraclavicular radiotherapy is infrequent, as well as in those patients who have more than three PAN, and SFR seems not to influence the outcome, which depends on DM occurrence.

Livi, Lorenzo, E-mail: l.livi@dfc.unifi.i [Radiotherapy Unit, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Scotti, Vieri [Radiotherapy Unit, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Saieva, Calogero [Molecular and Nutritional Epidemiology Unit, Cancer Research and Prevention Center, Scientific Institute of Tuscany, Florence (Italy); Meattini, Icro; Detti, Beatrice; Simontacchi, Gabriele; Cardillo, Carla Deluca; Paiar, Fabiola; Mangoni, Monica [Radiotherapy Unit, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Marrazzo, Livia [Department of Medical Physics, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Agresti, Benedetta [Radiotherapy Unit, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Cataliotti, Luigi [Department of Surgery, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Bianchi, Simonetta [Department of Pathology, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Biti, Giampaolo [Radiotherapy Unit, University of Florence, Florence (Italy)

2010-03-15

18

Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

19

Partial breast irradiation as second conservative treatment for local breast cancer recurrence  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Mastectomy is the treatment of reference for local relapse after breast cancer (BC). The aim of this study was to document the feasibility and the results of associating lumpectomy with partial breast irradiation by interstitial brachytherapy (IB) as local treatment for an isolated ipsilateral BC local recurrence (LR). Methods and materials: Between 1975 and 1996 at Marseille and Nice Cancer Institutes, 4026 patients received lumpectomy and radiotherapy (RT) (50-80 Gy) for a localized breast cancer of which 473 presented a LR. Among these patients, 69 (14.6%) received a second lumpectomy followed by IB, which delivered 30 Gy (Nice, n = 24) or 45-50 Gy (Marseille, n = 45) with 3 to 8 {sup 192}Ir wires in 1 or 2 planes on the 85% isodose. Results: Median age at LR was 58.2 years, median follow-up since primary BC was 10 years, and median follow-up after the second conservative treatment was 50.2 months (range, 2-139 months). Immediate tolerance was good in all cases. Grade 2 to 3 long-term complications (LTC) according to IB dose were 0%, 28%, and 32%, respectively, for 30 Gy, 45 to 46 Gy, and 50 Gy (p 0.01). Grade 2 to 3 LTC according to total dose were 4% and 30%, respectively, for total doses (initial RT plus IB) {<=} 100 Gy or >100 Gy (p = 0.008). Logistic regression showed that the only factor associated with Grade 2 to 3 complications was higher IB doses (p = 0.01). We noted 11 second LRs (LR2), 10 distant metastases (DM), and 5 specific deaths. LR2 occurred either in the tumor bed (50.8%) or close to the tumor bed (34.3%) or in another quadrant (14.9%). Kaplan-Meier 5-year freedom from (FF) LR2 (FFLR2), FFDM, and DFS were 77.4%, 86.7%, and 68.9%, respectively. Overall 5-year survival (OS) was 91.8%. Univariate analysis showed the following factors associated with a higher FFLR2: (1) number of wires used for IB (3-4 vs. 5-8 wires, p = 0.006), (2) IB doses (30-45 Gy vs. 46-60 Gy, p = 0.05), (3) number of planes (1 vs. 2, p = 0.05), (4) interval between primary breast cancer and LR (< 36 months vs. {>=}36 months, p = 0.06). Multivariate analysis showed two factors associated with better local control: (1) number of wires (5-8 wires, p = 0.013) and (2) interval between primary breast cancer and LR {>=}36 months (p = 0.039). The multivariate analysis showed two factors associated with better FFDM: (1) absence of initial axilla involvement (p 0.019) and (2) relapse in a different location (p = 0.04). These two factors were also associated with a higher OS. Conclusion: Our experience showed that second conservative treatments for local relapse were feasible and gave results comparable to standard mastectomy. We recommend delivering IB doses of at least 46 Gy in 2 planes when initial radiotherapy delivered 50 Gy. The study gives enough information to encourage a Phase III trial that compares radical mastectomy to conservative procedures for localized breast cancer recurrences.

Hannoun-Levi, Jean-Michel [Department of Radiation Oncology and Surgery, A. Lacassagne Cancer Center, Nice (France)]. E-mail: jean-michel.hannoun-levi@fccc.edu; Houvenaeghel, Gilles [Department of Surgery, Paoli-Calmettes Cancer Center, Marseilles (France); Department of Radiation Oncology, Paoli-Calmettes Cancer Center, Marseilles (France); Ellis, Steve [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hopital La Timone, Marseilles (France); Teissier, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology, Clinique du Meridien, Cannes (France); Alzieu, Claude [Department of Surgery, Paoli-Calmettes Cancer Center, Marseilles (France); Department of Radiation Oncology, Paoli-Calmettes Cancer Center, Marseilles (France); Lallement, Michel [Department of Radiation Oncology and Surgery, A. Lacassagne Cancer Center, Nice (France); Department of Radiation Oncology, Hopital La Timone, Marseilles (France); Cowen, Didier [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hopital La Timone, Marseilles (France)

2004-12-01

20

Tumor margin assessment as a guide to optimal conservation surgery and irradiation in early stage breast carcinoma.  

PubMed

Between 1982 and 1985, 108 women with AJC Stage I and II invasive mammary carcinoma were treated to 115 breasts with conservative surgery and irradiation. The irradiation dose was adjusted to the histopathological normal tissue margin around the carcinoma in the tumor excision specimens. Margins were arbitrarily determined negative, close, and positive with normal tissue margins in the inked tumor excision specimens of greater than 5 mm, 2-5 mm, and less than 2 mm, respectively. Negative, close, and positive tumor margin patients were treated to radiation doses of 60, 65, and 70 Gy, respectively. The boost in excess of 50 Gy was directed to the tumor bearing quadrant of the breast using interstitial Ir-192 implants for doses greater than or equal to 70 Gy. The draining lymphatics were irradiated to 50 Gy except in patients with tumor in the lateral half of the breast and no axillary lymph node metastases. Histopathological evaluation of re-excision specimens revealed the difficulty of obtaining negative margins for tumors greater than 2 cm. By our criteria, 54% of the patients had a positive resection margin. None of the patients experienced a local recurrence at 60 months median follow-up. Three patients failed regionally, two in un-irradiated lymph node areas, one in the skin of the contralateral breast; five patients failed systemically. Overall and disease-free survival for Stages T1/N0, T1/N1, T2/N0 was 100 and 95%, respectively, and for T2/N1, 90 and 80%, respectively. The cosmesis was excellent in 66% of the patients with minimal treatment related complications. Carefully planned standardized irradiation with assessment of resection margins yields both excellent local control rates and cosmetic results. PMID:2777663

Schmidt-Ullrich, R; Wazer, D E; Tercilla, O; Safaii, H; Marchant, D J; Smith, T J; Homer, M A; Robert, N J

1989-10-01

21

Étude des dommages induits dans l'ADN par irradiation laser X-UV à 21.2 nm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the preliminary result of the application of the collisional Ne-like soft x-ray laser as radiation source to induce DNA damage. The goal of this experiment was a test bed study of the damage yields induced by soft x-ray radiation in dried plasmid DNA sample. The saturated Ne-like soft x-ray laser available at the PALS facility, delivering several millijoules in a single 100 ps pulse at 21.2 nm was used to irradiate two different plasmids: pSP189 and pBS. The study is centered on the dose effect leading to single and double strand break in DNA.

Cassou, K.; Ros, D.; Kazamias, S.; Klisnick, A.; Jamelot, G.; Guilbaud, O.; Rus, B.; Kozlová, M.; Polan, J.; Präg, A. R.; Stupka, M.; Eot-Houllier, G.; Sage, E.; Begusová, M.; Stísová, V.; Du Penhoat, M.-A. H.; Touati, A.; Chétioui, A.

2005-06-01

22

PRONE ACCELERATED PARTIAL BREAST IRRADIATION AFTER BREAST-CONSERVING SURGERY: FIVE YEAR RESULTS OF 100 PATIENTS  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report the 5-year results of a prospective trial of three-dimensional conformal external beam radiotherapy (3D-CRT) to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation in the prone position (P-APBI). Methods Post-menopausal patients with Stage I breast cancer with non palpable <2 cm tumors, negative margins, and negative nodes, positive hormonal receptors, and no extensive intraductal component (EIC) were eligible. The trial was offered only once eligible patients had refused to undergo standard whole-breast radiotherapy. Patients were simulated and treated on a dedicated table for prone set-up. The 3D-CRT delivered was 30 Gy in five 6 Gy/daily fractions over 10 days with port film verification at each treatment. Ipsilateral breast, ipsilateral nodal, contralateral breast, and distant failure (IBF, INF, CBF, DF) were estimated using the cumulative incidence method. Disease-free, overall, and cancer-specific survival (DFS, OS, CSS) were recorded. Results One hundred patients accrued to this IRB- approved prospective trial, one with bilateral breast cancer. One patient withdrew consent after simulation and another elected to interrupt radiotherapy after receiving two treatments. Ninety-eight patients are evaluable for toxicity and, in one case, both breasts were treated with PBI. Median patient age was 68 years (range 53–88 years); in 55% the tumor size was <1 cm. All patients had hormonal receptor positive cancers: 87% underwent adjuvant anti-hormonal therapy. At a median follow-up of 64 months (range, 2–125 months), there was one local recurrence (1% IBF) and one contralateral breast cancer (1% CBF). There were no deaths due to breast cancer by 5 years. Grade 3 late toxicities occurred in 2 patients (1 breast edema, 1 transient breast pain). Cosmesis was rated good/excellent in 89% of patients with at least 36 months follow-up. Conclusions Five-year efficacy and toxicity of 3D-CRT to deliver prone-PBI are comparable to other experiences with similar follow-up. PMID:22494589

Formenti, Silvia C.; Hsu, Howard; Fenton-Kerimian, Maria; Roses, Daniel; Guth, Amber; Jozsef, Gabor; Goldberg, Judith D.; DeWyngaert, J. Keith

2013-01-01

23

Treatment Techniques to Reduce Cardiac Irradiation for Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Breast-Conserving Surgery and Radiation Therapy: A Review  

PubMed Central

Thousands of women diagnosed with breast cancer each year receive breast-conserving surgery followed by adjuvant radiation therapy. For women with left-sided breast cancer, there is risk of potential cardiotoxicity from the radiation therapy. As data have become available to quantify the risk of cardiotoxicity from radiation, strategies have also developed to reduce the dose of radiation to the heart without compromising radiation dose to the breast. Several broad categories of techniques to reduce cardiac radiation doses include breath hold techniques, prone positioning, intensity-modulated radiation therapy, and accelerated partial breast irradiation, as well as many small techniques to improve traditional three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy. This review summarizes the published scientific literature on the various techniques to decrease cardiac irradiation in women treated to the left breast for breast cancer after breast-conserving surgery. PMID:25452938

Beck, Robert E.; Kim, Leonard; Yue, Ning J.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Khan, Atif J.; Goyal, Sharad

2014-01-01

24

Breast-Conserving Treatment With Partial or Whole Breast Irradiation for Low-Risk Invasive Breast Carcinoma-5-Year Results of a Randomized Trial  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report the 5-year results of a randomized study comparing the survival and cosmetic results of breast-conserving treatment with partial breast irradiation (PBI) or conventional whole breast irradiation (WBI). Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2004, 258 selected patients with T1 N0-1mi, Grade 1-2, nonlobular breast cancer without presence of extensive intraductal component and resected with negative margins were randomized after breast-conserving surgery to receive 50 Gy/25 fractions WBI (n = 130) or PBI (n = 128). The latter consisted of either 7 x 5.2 Gy high-dose-rate (HDR) multicatheter brachytherapy (BT; n = 88) or 50 Gy/25 fractions electron beam (EB) irradiation (n = 40). Results: At a median follow-up of 66 months, the 5-year actuarial rate of local recurrence was 4.7% and 3.4% in the PBI and WBI arms, respectively (p = 0.50). There was no significant difference in the 5-year probability of overall survival (94.6% vs. 91.8%), cancer-specific survival (98.3% vs. 96.0%), and disease-free survival (88.3% vs. 90.3%). The rate of excellent to good cosmetic result was 77.6% in the PBI group (81.2% after HDR BT; 70.0% after EB) and 62.9% in the control group (52.2% after telecobalt; 65.6% after 6-9-MV photons; p{sub WBI/PBI} = 0.009). Conclusions: Partial breast irradiation using interstitial HDR implants or EB to deliver radiation to the tumor bed alone for a selected group of early-stage breast cancer patients produces 5-year results similar to those achieved with conventional WBI. Significantly better cosmetic outcome can be achieved with carefully designed HDR multicatheter implants compared with the outcome after WBI.

Polgar, Csaba [Department of Radiotherapy, National Institute of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary)], E-mail: polgar@oncol.hu; Fodor, Janos; Major, Tibor; Nemeth, Gyoergy; Loevey, Katalin [Department of Radiotherapy, National Institute of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary); Orosz, Zsolt [Department of Human and Experimental Tumor Pathology, National Institute of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary); Sulyok, Zoltan [Department of General and Thoracic Surgery, National Institute of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary); Takacsi-Nagy, Zoltan; Kasler, Miklos [Department of Radiotherapy, National Institute of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary)

2007-11-01

25

ParB spreading requires DNA bridging  

PubMed Central

The parABS system is a widely employed mechanism for plasmid partitioning and chromosome segregation in bacteria. ParB binds to parS sites on plasmids and chromosomes and associates with broad regions of adjacent DNA, a phenomenon known as spreading. Although essential for ParB function, the mechanism of spreading remains poorly understood. Using single-molecule approaches, we discovered that Bacillus subtilis ParB (Spo0J) is able to trap DNA loops. Point mutants in Spo0J that disrupt DNA bridging are defective in spreading and recruitment of structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) condensin complexes in vivo. DNA bridging helps to explain how a limited number of Spo0J molecules per parS site (?20) can spread over many kilobases and suggests a mechanism by which ParB proteins could facilitate the loading of SMC complexes. We show that DNA bridging is a property of diverse ParB homologs, suggesting broad evolutionary conservation. PMID:24829297

Graham, Thomas G.W.; Wang, Xindan; Song, Dan; Etson, Candice M.; van Oijen, Antoine M.; Rudner, David Z.; Loparo, Joseph J.

2014-01-01

26

Efficacy and safety of accelerated partial breast irradiation after breast-conserving surgery: a meta-analysis of published comparative studies.  

PubMed

To compare the treatment outcomes between accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) and conventional whole-breast irradiation (WBI) and to explore the efficacy and safety of APBI as an adjuvant treatment for early-stage breast cancer who received breast-conserving therapy. Eligible studies were identified on Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library updated to July 10, 2012. Comparative studies were considered for inclusion. Analyses were carried out using Stata software. Eleven comparative studies with a total of 7,097 patients were included. The meta-analysis showed that there were no statistically significant differences between group APBI and group WBI associated with the supraclavicular failure, distant metastasis, overall survival, and disease-free survival, while local recurrence (LR) and axillary failure (AF) increased in group APBI. The sensitivity analysis indicated that both the LR and AF were not statistically significant difference between the two groups. In the subgroup analysis, LR was statistically significantly higher in group APBI for patients with the age <60, large tumor size, and unknown margin status. APBI is a safe treatment modality and could become a potential option for the delivery of adjuvant radiation therapy in patients receiving breast-conserving therapy, especially for the suitable group that was classified by the American Society of Radiation Oncology Consensus Panel. PMID:24372818

Kong, Lingling; Cheng, Jian; Ding, Xiuping; Li, Baosheng; Zhang, Jian; Li, Hongsheng; Huang, Wei; Zhou, Tao; Sun, Hongfu

2014-01-01

27

Transitions de phases et modes d'pitaxie complexes dans les couches minces d'oxydes de terres rares irradies par un faisceau d'lectrons  

E-print Network

matériaux très particuliers. La série des oxydes intermédiaires de cérium, praséodyme et terbium en est une of the intermediate oxide series for cerium, praseodymium and terbium. Treatment by water-vapor and irradiation'électrons (3). 3. Transitions de phases des oxides de cérium, pra- séodyme et terbium. Dans la série des terres

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

28

Prone Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation After Breast-Conserving Surgery: Five-year Results of 100 Patients  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report the 5-year results of a prospective trial of three-dimensional conformal external beam radiotherapy (3D-CRT) to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation in the prone position. Methods and Materials: Postmenopausal patients with Stage I breast cancer with nonpalpable tumors <2 cm, negative margins and negative nodes, positive hormone receptors, and no extensive intraductal component were eligible. The trial was offered only after eligible patients had refused to undergo standard whole-breast radiotherapy. Patients were simulated and treated on a dedicated table for prone setup. 3D-CRT was delivered at a dose of 30 Gy in five 6-Gy/day fractions over 10 days with port film verification at each treatment. Rates of ipsilateral breast failure, ipsilateral nodal failure, contralateral breast failure, and distant failure were estimated using the cumulative incidence method. Rates of disease-free, overall, and cancer-specific survival were recorded. Results: One hundred patients were enrolled in this institutional review board-approved prospective trial, one with bilateral breast cancer. One patient withdrew consent after simulation, and another patient elected to interrupt radiotherapy after receiving two treatments. Ninety-eight patients were evaluable for toxicity, and, in 1 case, both breasts were treated with partial breast irradiation. Median patient age was 68 years (range, 53-88 years); in 55% of patients the tumor size was <1 cm. All patients had hormone receptor-positive cancers: 87% of patients underwent adjuvant antihormone therapy. At a median follow-up of 64 months (range, 2-125 months), there was one local recurrence (1% ipsilateral breast failure) and one contralateral breast cancer (1% contralateral breast failure). There were no deaths due to breast cancer by 5 years. Grade 3 late toxicities occurred in 2 patients (one breast edema, one transient breast pain). Cosmesis was rated good/excellent in 89% of patients with at least 36 months follow-up. Conclusions: Five-year efficacy and toxicity of 3D-CRT delivered in prone partial breast irradiation are comparable to other experiences with similar follow-up.

Formenti, Silvia C., E-mail: silvia.formenti@nyumc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Hsu, Howard; Fenton-Kerimian, Maria [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Roses, Daniel; Guth, Amber [Department of Surgery, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Surgery, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Jozsef, Gabor [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Goldberg, Judith D. [Division of Biostastistics, Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Division of Biostastistics, Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); DeWyngaert, J. Keith [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine and Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States)

2012-11-01

29

Review of PAR parameterizations in ocean ecosystem models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commonly-used empirical equations for calculating downward 'photosynthetically available radiation' or PAR were reviewed in order to identify a more theoretically-sound parameterization for application to ocean biogeochemical models. Three different forms of broadband PAR parameterization are currently employed in biogeochemical models, each of them originating from the downward irradiance formulations normally applied to ocean circulation models, which produce poor attenuation estimates for PAR. Two of the PAR formulations, a single-exponential function and a double-exponential function, are parameterized by multiplying surface irradiance by a coefficient determining the portion of underwater PAR. The third formulation uses the second term of the double-exponential function. After elucidating the theoretical problems of modeling PAR using these parameterizations, we suggest an improved, R-modified double-exponential PAR formulation, including Paulson and Simpson's (1977) parameter values. We also newly estimate PAR penetration via least-squares fitting of values digitized from Jerlov's (1976) observations in different oceanic water types, and compare this PAR-observation derived parameterization with our new, theoretical, R-modified parameterization. Finally, we discuss a universal limitation inherent in current theoretical approaches to PAR parameterization.

Byun, Do-Seong; Wang, Xiao Hua; Hart, Deirdre E.; Zavatarelli, Marco

2014-12-01

30

ParAB-mediated intermolecular association of plasmid P1 parS sites.  

PubMed

The P1 plasmid partition system depends on ParA-ParB proteins acting on centromere-like parS sites for a faithful plasmid segregation during the Escherichia coli cell cycle. In vivo we placed parS into host E. coli chromosome and on a Sop(+) F plasmid and found that the stability of a P1 plasmid deleted for parA-parB could be partially restored when parB was expressed in trans. In vitro, parS, conjugated to magnetic beads could capture free parS DNA fragment in presence of ParB. In vitro, ParA stimulated ParB-mediated association of intermolecular parS sites in an ATP-dependent manner. However, in the presence of ADP, ParA reduced ParB-mediated pairing to levels below that seen by ParB alone. ParB of P1 pairs the parS sites of plasmids in vivo and fragments in vitro. Our findings support a model whereby ParB complexes P1 plasmids, ParA-ATP stimulates this interaction and ParA-ADP inhibits ParB pairing activity in a parS-independent manner. PMID:22018490

Kaur, Tranum; Al Abdallah, Qusai; Nafissi, Nafiseh; Wettig, Shawn; Funnell, Barbara E; Slavcev, Roderick A

2011-12-20

31

Par proteins and neuronal polarity  

PubMed Central

A hallmark of neurons is their ability to polarize with dendrite and axon specification to allow the proper flow of information through the nervous system. Over the past decade, extensive research has been performed in an attempt to understand the molecular and cellular machinery mediating this neuronal polarization process. It has become evident that many of the critical regulators involved in establishing neuronal polarity are evolutionarily conserved proteins that had previously been implicated in controlling the polarization of other cell types. At the forefront of this research are the partition defective (Par) proteins. In this review, we will provide a commentary on the progress of work regarding the central importance of Par proteins in the establishment of neuronal polarity. PMID:21557502

Insolera, Ryan; Chen, She; Shi, Song-Hai

2011-01-01

32

Reconstruction 3D du bti partir d'une seule image par naissances et morts multiples  

E-print Network

Reconstruction 3D du bâti à partir d'une seule image par naissances et morts multiples Jean ne conserver que les plus pertinentes par un algorithme de type naissances et morts multiples. Nous plus pertinents. Ce principe est décliné par un algorithme de type naissances et morts mul- tiples

Boyer, Edmond

33

BERKELEY PAR LABBERKELEY PAR LAB Where we ended up  

E-print Network

, David Wessel, and Kathy Yelick UC Berkeley Par Lab End-of-Project Party May 30, 2013 #12;BERKELEY PAR LAB Par Lab Timeline 2 Initial Meetings "Berkeley View" Techreport Win UPCRC Competition UPCRC PhaseBERKELEY PAR LABBERKELEY PAR LAB Par Lab: Where we ended up Krste Asanovic, Ras Bodik, Jim Demmel

California at Berkeley, University of

34

Influence de la distribution de dose d’irradiation dans la variation de l’effet radiobiologique du traitement radiochirurgical par Gamma Knife / Influence of radiation dose distribution in radiobiological modifications after Gamma Knife radiosurgery.  

E-print Network

??La radiochirurgie par Gamma Knife constitue une modalité thérapeutique reconnue de certaines affections cérébrales. Le traitement se base sur l’administration d’un rayonnement focalisé au niveau… (more)

Massager, Nicolas

2008-01-01

35

Uptake and Costs of Hypofractionated vs Conventional Whole Breast Irradiation After Breast Conserving Surgery in the United States, 2008–2013  

PubMed Central

IMPORTANCE Based on randomized evidence, expert guidelines in 2011 endorsed shorter, hypofractionated whole breast irradiation (WBI) for selected patients with early-stage breast cancer and permitted hypofractionated WBI for other patients. OBJECTIVES To examine the uptake and costs of hypofractionated WBI among commercially insured patients in the United States. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective, observational cohort study, using administrative claims data from 14 commercial health care plans covering 7.4%of US adult women in 2013, we classified patients with incident early-stage breast cancer treated with lumpectomy and WBI from 2008 and 2013 into 2 cohorts: (1) the hypofractionation-endorsed cohort (n = 8924) included patients aged 50 years or older without prior chemotherapy or axillary lymph node involvement and (2) the hypofractionation-permitted cohort (n = 6719) included patients younger than 50 years or those with prior chemotherapy or axillary lymph node involvement. EXPOSURES Hypofractionated WBI (3–5 weeks of treatment) vs conventional WBI (5–7 weeks of treatment). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Use of hypofractionated and conventional WBI, total and radiotherapy-related health care expenditures, and patient out-of-pocket expenses. Patient and clinical characteristics included year of treatment, age, comorbid disease, prior chemotherapy, axillary lymph node involvement, intensity-modulated radiotherapy, practice setting, and other contextual variables. RESULTS Hypofractionated WBI increased from 10.6%(95%CI, 8.8%–12.5%) in 2008 to 34.5%(95%CI, 32.2%–36.8%) in 2013 in the hypofractionation-endorsed cohort and from 8.1% (95%CI, 6.0%–10.2%) in 2008 to 21.2%(95%CI, 18.9%–23.6%) in 2013 in the hypofractionation-permitted cohort. Adjusted mean total health care expenditures in the 1 year after diagnosis were $28 747 for hypofractionated and $31 641 for conventional WBI in the hypofractionation-endorsed cohort (difference, $2894; 95%CI, $1610–$4234; P < .001) and $64 273 for hypofractionated and $72 860 for conventional WBI in the hypofractionation-permitted cohort (difference, $8587; 95%CI, $5316–$12 017; P < .001). Adjusted mean total 1-year patient out-of-pocket expenses were not significantly different between hypofractionated vs conventional WBI in either cohort. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Hypofractionated WBI after breast conserving surgery increased among women with early-stage breast cancer in 14 US commercial health care plans between 2008 and 2013. However, only 34.5%of patients with hypofractionation-endorsed and 21.2%with hypofractionation-permitted early-stage breast cancer received hypofractionated WBI in 2013. PMID:25494006

Bekelman, Justin E.; Sylwestrzak, Gosia; Barron, John; Liu, Jinan; Epstein, Andrew J.; Freedman, Gary; Malin, Jennifer; Emanuel, Ezekiel J.

2014-01-01

36

A new model for estimating boreal forest fPAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life on Earth is continuously sustained by the extraterrestrial flux of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) from the sun. This flux is converted to biomass by chloroplasts in green vegetation. Thus, the fraction of absorbed PAR (fPAR) is a key parameter used in carbon balance studies, and is listed as one of the Essential Climate Variables (ECV). Temporal courses of fPAR for boreal forests are difficult to measure, because of the complex 3D structures. Thus, they are most often estimated based on models which quantify the dependency of absorbed radiation on canopy structure. In this study, we adapted a physically-based canopy radiation model into a fPAR model, and compared modeled and measured fPAR in structurally different boreal forest stands. The model is based on the spectral invariants theory, and uses leaf area index (LAI), canopy gap fractions and spectra of foliage and understory as input data. The model differs from previously developed more detailed fPAR models in that the complex 3D structure of coniferous forests is described using an aggregated canopy parameter - photon recollision probability p. The strength of the model is that all model inputs are measurable or available through other simple models. First, the model was validated with measurements of instantaneous fPAR obtained with the TRAC instrument in nine Scots pine, Norway spruce and Silver birch stands in a boreal forest in southern Finland. Good agreement was found between modeled and measured fPAR. Next, we applied the model to predict temporal courses of fPAR using data on incoming radiation from a nearby flux tower and sky irradiance models. Application of the model to simulate diurnal and seasonal values of fPAR indicated that the ratio of direct-to-total incident radiation and leaf area index are the key factors behind the magnitude and variation of stand-level fPAR values.

Majasalmi, Titta; Rautiainen, Miina; Stenberg, Pauline

2014-05-01

37

DTERMINATION DE L'NERGIE CINTIQUE MAXIMUM DES NEUTRONS MIS PAR LE GLUCINIUM BOMBARD PAR LES RAYONS a DU POLONIUM  

E-print Network

RAYONS a DU POLONIUM Par L. WINAND. Sommaire. 2014 L'auteur détermine les énergies cinétiques des noyaux envisagée. En admettant que c'est l'isotope 11 du Bore irradié par les particules alpha du Polonium qui est'énergie maximum observés. Ce noyau, sous l'action des rayons alpha du Polonium peut émettre, soit un proton, soit

Boyer, Edmond

38

Sahonagasy Action Plan Conservation Programs for the Amphibians of Madagascar  

E-print Network

Sahonagasy Action Plan Conservation Programs for the Amphibians of Madagascar Programmes de Conservation pour les Amphibiens de Madagascar Edited by / Edité par Franco Andreone Herilala Randriamahazo ACSAM A Conservation Strategy for the Amphibians of Madagascar Une Stratégie de Conservation pour les

Andreone, Franco

39

J. PROKS . .-:... RECHERCHES SUR L'IRRADIATION 331 RECHERCHES SUR L'IRRADIATION DES MILIEUX  

E-print Network

t J. PROKS . .-:... RECHERCHES SUR L'IRRADIATION 331 RECHERCHES SUR L'IRRADIATION DES MILIEUX des bactéries dans le lait. M. SEIFFERT(2) a construib, le premier, un appareil pour I'irradiation du.procédés de pasteurisation parI'Irradiation du lait. Quoi qu'il en soit, il semble bien démontré que l'irradiation

Boyer, Edmond

40

[Partial breast irradiation].  

PubMed

Owing to breast cancer screening, breast cancer is more and more diagnosed at early stage. For those breast cancer women, breast conserving treatment (breast conserving surgery followed by whole breast irradiation) is commonly used since many years. New radiation modalities have been recently developed in early breast cancers particularly accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Among all techniques of radiotherapy, 3D-conformal APBI and intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) are the main modalities of radiotherapy used. The present review states on indications, treatment modalities and updated results of local control and side effects of partial breast irradiation. PMID:24445657

Bourgier, Céline; Lemanski, Claire; Fenoglietto, Pascal; Riou, Olivier; Dubois, Jean Bernard; Azria, David

2014-01-01

41

Conservation physiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation biologists increasingly face the need to provide legislators, courts and conservation managers with data on causal mechanisms underlying conservation problems such as species decline. To develop and monitor solutions, conservation biologists are progressively using more techniques that are physiological. Here, we review the emerging discipline of conservation physiology and suggest that, for conservation strategies to be successful, it is

Martin Wikelski; Steven J. Cooke

2006-01-01

42

Alternative 3' UTR selection controls PAR-5 homeostasis and cell polarity in C. elegans embryos.  

PubMed

Cell polarity in one-cell C. elegans embryos guides asymmetric cell division and cell-fate specification. Shortly after fertilization, embryos establish two antagonistic cortical domains of PAR proteins. Here, we find that the conserved polarity factor PAR-5 regulates PAR domain size in a dose-dependent manner. Using quantitative imaging and controlled genetic manipulation, we find that PAR-5 protein levels reflect the cumulative output of three mRNA isoforms with different translational efficiencies mediated by their 3' UTRs. 3' UTR selection is regulated, influencing PAR-5 protein abundance. Alternative splicing underlies the selection of par-5 3' UTR isoforms. 3' UTR splicing is enhanced by the SR protein kinase SPK-1, and accordingly, SPK-1 is required for wild-type PAR-5 levels and PAR domain size. Precise regulation of par-5 isoform selection is essential for polarization when the posterior PAR network is compromised. Together, strict control of PAR-5 protein levels and feedback from polarity to par-5 3' UTR selection confer robustness to embryo polarization. PMID:25199833

Mikl, Martin; Cowan, Carrie R

2014-09-11

43

QUELQUES PROPRITS DES PARTICULES ANORMALEMENT LONGUES MISES PAR DES RADIOLMENTS  

E-print Network

de France. Résumé. 2014 Les sources de polonium naturel et de polonium artificiel provenant de. On constate également une émission de neutrons par les deux sources. Abstract. 2014 Natural polonium sources and artificial polonium sources from bismuth irradiated by neutrons, emit a same radiation, abormally long

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

44

Protease-activated Receptor 1 (PAR1) and PAR4 Heterodimers Are Required for PAR1-enhanced Cleavage of PAR4 by ?-Thrombin*  

PubMed Central

Thrombin is a potent platelet agonist that activates platelets and other cells of the cardiovascular system by cleaving its G-protein-coupled receptors, protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1), PAR4, or both. We now show that cleaving PAR1 and PAR4 with ?-thrombin induces heterodimer formation. PAR1-PAR4 heterodimers were not detected when unstimulated; however, when the cells were stimulated with 10 nm ?-thrombin, we were able to detect a strong interaction between PAR1 and PAR4 by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer. In contrast, activating the receptors without cleavage using PAR1 and PAR4 agonist peptides (TFLLRN and AYPGKF, respectively) did not enhance heterodimer formation. Preventing PAR1 or PAR4 cleavage with point mutations or hirugen also prevented the induction of heterodimers. To further characterize the PAR1-PAR4 interactions, we mapped the heterodimer interface by introducing point mutations in transmembrane helix 4 of PAR1 or PAR4 that prevented heterodimer formation. Finally, we show that mutations in PAR1 or PAR4 at the heterodimer interface prevented PAR1-assisted cleavage of PAR4. These data demonstrate that PAR1 and PAR4 require allosteric changes induced via receptor cleavage by ?-thrombin to mediate heterodimer formation, and we have determined the PAR1-PAR4 heterodimer interface. Our findings show that PAR1 and PAR4 have dynamic interactions on the cell surface that should be taken into account when developing and characterizing PAR antagonists. PMID:24097976

Arachiche, Amal; Mumaw, Michele M.; de la Fuente, María; Nieman, Marvin T.

2013-01-01

45

DUALITY SOLUTIONS FOR PRESSURELESS GASES, MONOTONE SCALAR CONSERVATION LAWS,  

E-print Network

DUALITY SOLUTIONS FOR PRESSURELESS GASES, MONOTONE SCALAR CONSERVATION LAWS, AND UNIQUENESS Fran pressureless gases, the dynamics of sticky par­ ticles and nonlinear scalar conservation laws with monotone -- scalar conservation laws -- Hamilton­Jacobi equations -- entropy conditions Work partially supported

d'Orléans, Université

46

A case of allergic reaction to surgical metal clips inserted for postoperative boost irradiation in a patient undergoing Breast-conserving therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of a 28-year-old woman with right-sided breast cancer. The patient had been treated for atopic dermatitis\\u000a since her infancy. She underwent breast-conserving surgery (BCS) in July 1998, and three titanium clips were placed at the\\u000a margin of the excision cavity at the time of surgery. Two months after surgery, the patient exhibited a rapid exacerbation\\u000a of

Ken Tamai; Michihide Mitsumori; Satsuki Fujishiro; Masaki Kokubo; Natsuo Ooya; Yasushi Nagata; Keisuke Sasai; Masahiro Hiraoka; Takashi Inamoto

2001-01-01

47

Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation: 5-Year Results of the German-Austrian Multicenter Phase II Trial Using Interstitial Multicatheter Brachytherapy Alone After Breast-Conserving Surgery  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the impact of accelerated partial breast irradiation on local control, side effects, and cosmesis using multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy as the sole method for the adjuvant local treatment of patients with low-risk breast cancer. Methods and Materials: 274 patients with low-risk breast cancer were treated on protocol. Patients were eligible for the study if the tumor size was < 3 cm, resection margins were clear by at least 2 mm, no lymph node metastases existed, age was >35 years, hormone receptors were positive, and histologic grades were 1 or 2. Of the 274 patients, 175 (64%) received pulse-dose-rate brachytherapy (D{sub ref} = 50 Gy). and 99 (36%) received high-dose-rate brachytherapy (D{sub ref} = 32.0 Gy). Results: Median follow-up was 63 months (range, 9-103). Only 8 of 274 (2.9%) patients developed an ipsilateral in-breast tumor recurrence at the time of analysis. The 5-year actuarial local recurrence-free survival probability was 98%. The 5- year overall and disease-free survival probabilities of all patients were 97% and 96%, respectively. Contralateral in-breast malignancies were detected in 2 of 274 (0.7%) patients, and distant metastases occurred in 6 of 274 (2.2%). Late side effects {>=}Grade 3 (i.e., breast tissue fibrosis and telangiectasia) occurred in 1 patient (0.4%, 95%CI:0.0-2.0%) and 6 patients (2.2%, 95%CI:0.8-4.7%), respectively. Cosmetic results were good to excellent in 245 of 274 patients (90%). Conclusions: The long-term results of this prospective Phase II trial confirm that the efficacy of accelerated partial breast irradiation using multicatheter brachytherapy is comparable with that of whole breast irradiation and that late side effects are negligible.

Strnad, Vratislav, E-mail: vratislav.strnad@uk-erlangen.d [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Hildebrandt, Guido [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Rostock, Rostock (Germany); Poetter, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology and Radiobiology, University Hospital AKH Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Hammer, Josef [Department of Radiation Oncology, Barmherzige Schwestern Hospital, Linz (Austria); Hindemith, Marion [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Resch, Alexandra [Department of Radiation Oncology and Radiobiology, University Hospital AKH Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Spiegl, Kurt [Department of Radiation Oncology, Barmherzige Schwestern Hospital, Linz (Austria); Lotter, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Uter, Wolfgang [Department for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); Bani, Mayada [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Beckmann, Matthias W. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Fietkau, Rainer; Ott, Oliver J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany)

2011-05-01

48

Results of a conservative treatment combining induction (neoadjuvant) and consolidation chemotherapy, hormonotherapy, and external and interstitial irradiation in 98 patients with locally advanced breast cancer (IIIA-IIIB)  

SciTech Connect

Ninety-eight patients with locally advanced breast cancer (Stage IIIA-IIIB) were entered into a pilot study combining intensive induction (neoadjuvant) chemotherapy (VTMFAP) with or without hormonochemotherapy, external and interstitial radiotherapy, and consolidation chemotherapy with or without hormonochemotherapy. Tumor regression over 50% was observed in 91% patients after chemotherapy, and complete clinical remission occurred in 100% patients after irradiation. The rate of local relapse is 13%. The 3-year disease-free survival is 62% and 3-year global survival is 77%. Initial chemotherapeutic tumor regression greater than 75% is the main predictive factor for disease-free survival.

Jacquillat, C.; Baillet, F.; Weil, M.; Auclerc, G.; Housset, M.; Auclerc, M.; Sellami, M.; Jindani, A.; Thill, L.; Soubrane, C.

1988-05-15

49

A Conservation Practices for Conserving  

E-print Network

A Conservation Catalog Practices for Conserving Pennsylvania's Natural Resources #12;#12;A Conservation Catalog 1 Introduction P ennsylvania is a land of great natural resources and Pennsylvania, additional assistance is also available. Local county conservation districts and the USDA's Natural Resources

Kaye, Jason P.

50

Par-1 regulates tissue growth by influencing hippo phosphorylation status and hippo-salvador association.  

PubMed

The evolutionarily conserved Hippo (Hpo) signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in organ size control by balancing cell proliferation and cell death. Here, we reported the identification of Par-1 as a regulator of the Hpo signaling pathway using a gain-of-function EP screen in Drosophila melanogaster. Overexpression of Par-1 elevated Yorkie activity, resulting in increased Hpo target gene expression and tissue overgrowth, while loss of Par-1 diminished Hpo target gene expression and reduced organ size. We demonstrated that par-1 functioned downstream of fat and expanded and upstream of hpo and salvador (sav). In addition, we also found that Par-1 physically interacted with Hpo and Sav and regulated the phosphorylation of Hpo at Ser30 to restrict its activity. Par-1 also inhibited the association of Hpo and Sav, resulting in Sav dephosphorylation and destabilization. Furthermore, we provided evidence that Par-1-induced Hpo regulation is conserved in mammalian cells. Taken together, our findings identified Par-1 as a novel component of the Hpo signaling network. PMID:23940457

Huang, Hong-Ling; Wang, Shimin; Yin, Meng-Xin; Dong, Liang; Wang, Chao; Wu, Wei; Lu, Yi; Feng, Miao; Dai, Chuanyang; Guo, Xiaocan; Li, Li; Zhao, Bin; Zhou, Zhaocai; Ji, Hongbin; Jiang, Jin; Zhao, Yun; Liu, Xin-Yuan; Zhang, Lei

2013-01-01

51

Par-1 Regulates Tissue Growth by Influencing Hippo Phosphorylation Status and Hippo-Salvador Association  

PubMed Central

The evolutionarily conserved Hippo (Hpo) signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in organ size control by balancing cell proliferation and cell death. Here, we reported the identification of Par-1 as a regulator of the Hpo signaling pathway using a gain-of-function EP screen in Drosophila melanogaster. Overexpression of Par-1 elevated Yorkie activity, resulting in increased Hpo target gene expression and tissue overgrowth, while loss of Par-1 diminished Hpo target gene expression and reduced organ size. We demonstrated that par-1 functioned downstream of fat and expanded and upstream of hpo and salvador (sav). In addition, we also found that Par-1 physically interacted with Hpo and Sav and regulated the phosphorylation of Hpo at Ser30 to restrict its activity. Par-1 also inhibited the association of Hpo and Sav, resulting in Sav dephosphorylation and destabilization. Furthermore, we provided evidence that Par-1-induced Hpo regulation is conserved in mammalian cells. Taken together, our findings identified Par-1 as a novel component of the Hpo signaling network. PMID:23940457

Yin, Meng-Xin; Dong, Liang; Wang, Chao; Wu, Wei; Lu, Yi; Feng, Miao; Dai, Chuanyang; Guo, Xiaocan; Li, Li; Zhao, Bin; Zhou, Zhaocai; Ji, Hongbin; Jiang, Jin; Zhao, Yun; Liu, Xin-Yuan; Zhang, Lei

2013-01-01

52

PAR-1 phosphorylates Mind bomb to promote vertebrate neurogenesis  

PubMed Central

Summary Generation of neurons in the vertebrate central nervous system requires complex transcriptional regulatory network and signaling processes in polarized neuroepithelial progenitor cells. Here we demonstrate that neurogenesis in the Xenopus neural plate in vivo and mammalian neural progenitors in vitro involves intrinsic antagonistic activities of the polarity proteins PAR-1 and aPKC. Furthermore, we show that Mind bomb (Mib), a ubiquitin ligase that promotes Notch ligand trafficking and activity, is a crucial molecular substrate for PAR-1. The phosphorylation of Mib by PAR-1 results in Mib degradation, repression of Notch signaling and stimulation of neuronal differentiation. These observations suggest a conserved mechanism for neuronal fate determination that might operate during asymmetric divisions of polarized neural progenitor cells. PMID:19686683

Ossipova, Olga; Ezan, Jerome; Sokol, Sergei Y.

2010-01-01

53

Conservation Conservation ResourcesConservation Resources  

E-print Network

, conservation development, wind cost & availability, climate change science and policycost & availability, climate change science and policy #12;slide 5 Northwest Power and Conservation Council ES-10 Base PlanAcquisitions(aMW) BPA and Utility Programs Alliance Programs Since 1980 the Region'sSince 1980 the Region's Utilities

54

Conservative logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservative logic is a comprehensive model of computation which explicitly reflects a number of fundamental principles of physics, such as the reversibility of the dynamical laws and the conservation of certainadditive quantities (among which energy plays a distinguished role). Because it more closely mirrors physics than traditional models of computation, conservative logic is in a better position to provide indications

Edward Fredkin; Tommaso Toffoli

1982-01-01

55

Loss of Par-1a/MARK3/C-TAK1 Kinase Leads to Reduced Adiposity, Resistance to Hepatic Steatosis, and Defective Gluconeogenesis ?  

PubMed Central

Par-1 is an evolutionarily conserved protein kinase required for polarity in worms, flies, frogs, and mammals. The mammalian Par-1 family consists of four members. Knockout studies of mice implicate Par-1b/MARK2/EMK in regulating fertility, immune homeostasis, learning, and memory as well as adiposity, insulin hypersensitivity, and glucose metabolism. Here, we report phenotypes of mice null for a second family member (Par-1a/MARK3/C-TAK1) that exhibit increased energy expenditure, reduced adiposity with unaltered glucose handling, and normal insulin sensitivity. Knockout mice were protected against high-fat diet-induced obesity and displayed attenuated weight gain, complete resistance to hepatic steatosis, and improved glucose handling with decreased insulin secretion. Overnight starvation led to complete hepatic glycogen depletion, associated hypoketotic hypoglycemia, increased hepatocellular autophagy, and increased glycogen synthase levels in Par-1a?/? but not in control or Par-1b?/? mice. The intercrossing of Par-1a?/? with Par-1b?/? mice revealed that at least one of the four alleles is necessary for embryonic survival. The severity of phenotypes followed a rank order, whereby the loss of one Par-1b allele in Par-1a?/? mice conveyed milder phenotypes than the loss of one Par-1a allele in Par-1b?/? mice. Thus, although Par-1a and Par-1b can compensate for one another during embryogenesis, their individual disruption gives rise to distinct metabolic phenotypes in adult mice. PMID:20733003

Lennerz, Jochen K.; Hurov, Jonathan B.; White, Lynn S.; Lewandowski, Katherine T.; Prior, Julie L.; Planer, G. James; Gereau, Robert W.; Piwnica-Worms, David; Schmidt, Robert E.; Piwnica-Worms, Helen

2010-01-01

56

The impact of the number of excised axillary nodes and of the percentage of involved nodes on regional nodal failure in patients treated by breast-conserving surgery with or without regional irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: After breast-conserving surgery, recommendations for regional nodal radiotherapy are usually based on the number of positive nodes. This number is dependent on the number of nodes removed during the axillary dissection. This study examines whether the percentage of positive nodes may help to select patients for regional radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A retrospective study was conducted on 1,372 T1-T2 node-positive breast cancer patients treated at L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec Hospital between 1972 and 1997. Results: Among the patients who did not receive regional radiotherapy, the percentage of involved nodes was significantly associated with axillary failure. Ten-year axillary control rates were 97% and 91% when the percentage of involved nodes was <50% and {>=}50%, respectively (p = 0.007). In addition, regional radiotherapy is always significantly associated with a decrease in overall regional failure (axillary and/or supraclavicular), regardless of the percentage of involved nodes. However, regional radiotherapy reduced the axillary failure rate (2% vs. 9%, p = 0.007) only when more than a specific percentage of nodes was involved ({>=}40% if N1-3 and {>=}50% if N>3 nodes). Conclusions: The percentage of involved nodes should be taken into consideration in selecting patients for regional radiotherapy. Irradiation of the axilla should be reserved for patients with a specific ratio: >40% involved nodes if N1-3 and {>=}50% involved nodes if N>3 nodes.

Fortin, Andre [Department of Radiation Oncology, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail: afortin@videotron.ca; Dagnault, Anne [Department of Radiation Oncology, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Blondeau, Lucie [Department of Radiation Oncology, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Thi Trinh Thuc Vu [Department of Radiation Oncology, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Larochelle, Marie [Department of Radiation Oncology, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada)

2006-05-01

57

Brulures par Diluant  

PubMed Central

Summary La flamme de diluant est une cause non rare de brûlure dans le contexte marocain. Nous avons jugé intéressant de faire une étude épidémiologique sur la brûlure par flamme de diluant (BFD) au centre national des brûlés (CNB) du CHU Ibn-Rochd de Casablanca. Ce travail a été réalisé sur une période de 10 mois (septembre 2007/juin 2008). Le but du travail est de montrer les caractéristiques de ce type de brûlures pour les prévenir et ce par l'information sur le diluant, produit causant ces brûlures, et ses différents dangers, la brûlure notamment. Durant cette période, nous avons colligé 17 cas de BFD sur un total de 356 patients admis au CNB pour brûlures aiguës toute étiologie confondue. La moyenne d'age des patients concernés est de 32 ans. Ils sont presque tous de sexe masculin (16 hommes/1 femme) et ont des antécédents de toxicomanie et/ou de délinquance. Tous nos patients sont de bas niveau socio-économique et habitent dans des bidonvilles pour la plupart. La brûlure est souvent secondaire à une agression dans la rue (92% des cas). Concernant les caractéristiques de la brûlure, la surface cutanée brûlée moyenne est de 23%; elle est souvent profonde et siège surtout au niveau des membres supérieurs et du tronc. PMID:21991179

Benbrahim, A.; Jerrah, H.; Diouri, M.; Bahechar, N.; Boukind, E.H.

2009-01-01

58

Simultaneous Integrated Boost Irradiation After Breast-Conserving Surgery: Physician-Rated Toxicity and Cosmetic Outcome at 30 Months' Follow-Up  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate toxicity and cosmetic outcome (CO) in breast cancer survivors treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy with a hypofractionated, simultaneous integrated boost (3D-CRT-SIB) and to identify risk factors for toxicity, with special focus on the impact of age. Methods and Materials: Included were 940 consecutive disease-free patients treated for breast cancer (Stage 0-III) with 3D-CRT-SIB, after breast-conserving surgery, from 2005 to 2010. Physician-rated toxicity (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0) and CO were prospectively assessed during yearly follow-up, up to 5 years after radiotherapy. Multivariate logistic regression analyses using a bootstrapping method were performed. Results: At 3 years, toxicity scores of 436 patients were available. Grade {>=}2 fibrosis in the boost area was observed in 8.5%, non-boost fibrosis in 49.4%, pain to the chest wall in 6.7%, and fair/poor CO in 39.7% of cases. Radiotherapy before chemotherapy was significantly associated with grade {>=}2 boost fibrosis at 3 years (odds ratio [OR] 2.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-6.0). Non-boost fibrosis was associated with re-resection (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.0) and larger tumors (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.1). At 1 year, chest wall pain was significantly associated with high boost dosage (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.7) and younger age (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.7). A fair/poor CO was observed more often after re-resection (OR 4.5, 95% CI 2.4-8.5), after regional radiotherapy (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.2-7.1), and in larger tumors (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.1). Conclusions: Toxicity and CO are not impaired after 3D-CRT-SIB. Fibrosis was not significantly associated with radiotherapy parameters. Independent risk factors for fibrosis were chemotherapy after radiotherapy, re-resection, and larger tumor size. Re-resection was most predictive for worse CO. Age had an impact on chest wall pain occurrence.

Bantema-Joppe, Enja J.; Schilstra, Cornelis [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Bock, Geertruida H. de [Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Dolsma, Wil V.; Busz, Dianne M.; Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Maduro, John H., E-mail: j.h.maduro@umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

2012-07-15

59

UNIVERSITE OUVERTE Voyage accompagn par  

E-print Network

l'empereur Auguste. Fin de la visite par les remparts (pas de promenade sur les remparts cela est'architecture religieuse de Catalogne. Il fut fondé par Raimond Bérenger IV, comte de Barcelone, qui le céda à l'ordre de

Jeanjean, Louis

60

The interaction of mPar3 with the ubiquitin ligase Smurf2 is required for the establishment of neuronal polarity.  

PubMed

The Par polarity complex consisting of the evolutionarily conserved proteins mPar3, mPar6, and aPKC regulates cell polarity in many cell types including neurons. Here we show that mPar3 is required for the establishment of neuronal polarity and links the Smurf2 to Kinesin-2. The HECT domain E3 ubiquitin ligase Smurf2 ensures that neurons extend only a single axon by initiating the degradation of inactive Rap1B through the ubiquitin/proteasome system. Its interaction with mPar3 is required to localize Smurf2 to growth cones and restrict Rap1B to the axon. Interfering with the binding of mPar3 to Kinesin-2 or Smurf2 to mPar3 and knockdown of mPar3 by RNAi disrupt the establishment of neuronal polarity through the failure to restrict Rap1B to a single neurite. PMID:17906294

Schwamborn, Jens C; Khazaei, Mohammad R; Püschel, Andreas W

2007-11-30

61

Evidence for a DNA-relay mechanism in ParABS-mediated chromosome segregation  

PubMed Central

The widely conserved ParABS system plays a major role in bacterial chromosome segregation. How the components of this system work together to generate translocation force and directional motion remains uncertain. Here, we combine biochemical approaches, quantitative imaging and mathematical modeling to examine the mechanism by which ParA drives the translocation of the ParB/parS partition complex in Caulobacter crescentus. Our experiments, together with simulations grounded on experimentally-determined biochemical and cellular parameters, suggest a novel 'DNA-relay' mechanism in which the chromosome plays a mechanical function. In this model, DNA-bound ParA-ATP dimers serve as transient tethers that harness the elastic dynamics of the chromosome to relay the partition complex from one DNA region to another across a ParA-ATP dimer gradient. Since ParA-like proteins are implicated in the partitioning of various cytoplasmic cargos, the conservation of their DNA-binding activity suggests that the DNA-relay mechanism may be a general form of intracellular transport in bacteria. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02758.001 PMID:24859756

Lim, Hoong Chuin; Surovtsev, Ivan Vladimirovich; Beltran, Bruno Gabriel; Huang, Fang; Bewersdorf, Jörg; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine

2014-01-01

62

Interim Cosmetic Results and Toxicity Using 3D Conformal External Beam Radiotherapy to Deliver Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation in Patients With Early-Stage Breast Cancer Treated With Breast-Conserving Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We present our ongoing clinical experience utilizing three-dimensional (3D)-conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) in patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy. Methods and Materials: Ninety-one consecutive patients were treated with APBI using our previously reported 3D-CRT technique. The clinical target volume consisted of the lumpectomy cavity plus a 10- to 15 -mm margin. The prescribed dose was 34 or 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions given over 5 consecutive days. The median follow-up was 24 months. Twelve patients have been followed for {>=}4 years, 20 for {>=}3.5 years, 29 for >3.0 years, 33 for {>=}2.5 years, and 46 for {>=}2.0 years. Results: No local recurrences developed. Cosmetic results were rated as good/excellent in 100% of evaluable patients at {>=} 6 months (n = 47), 93% at 1 year (n = 43), 91% at 2 years (n = 21), and in 90% at {>=}3 years (n = 10). Erythema, hyperpigmentation, breast edema, breast pain, telangiectasias, fibrosis, and fat necrosis were evaluated at 6, 24, and 36 months after treatment. All factors stabilized by 3 years posttreatment with grade I or II rates of 0%, 0%, 0%, 0%, 9%, 18%, and 9%, respectively. Only 2 patients (3%) developed grade III toxicity (breast pain), which resolved with time. Conclusions: Delivery of APBI with 3D-CRT resulted in minimal chronic ({>=}6 months) toxicity to date with good/excellent cosmetic results. Additional follow-up is needed to assess the long-term efficacy of this form of APBI.

Vicini, Frank A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)], E-mail: fvicini@beaumont.edu; Chen, Peter; Wallace, Michelle; Mitchell, Christina; Hasan, Yasmin; Grills, Inga; Kestin, Larry [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Schell, Scott [Department of Surgery, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Goldstein, Neal S. [Department of Anatomic Pathology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Kunzman, Jonathan [Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI (United States); Gilbert, Sam [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Martinez, Alvaro [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

2007-11-15

63

Evaluation of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the p53 Binding Protein 1 (TP53BP1) Gene in Breast Cancer Patients Treated With Breast-Conserving Surgery and Whole-Breast Irradiation (BCS + RT)  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: TP53BP1 is a key component of radiation-induced deoxyribonucleic acid damage repair. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the significance of a known common single nucleotide polymorphism in this gene (rs560191) in patients treated with breast-conserving surgery and whole-breast irradiation (BCS + RT). Methods and Materials: The population consisted of 176 premenopausal women treated with BCS + RT (median follow-up, 12 years). Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid was processed by use of TaqMan assays. Each allele for rs560191 was either C or G, so each patient was therefore classified as CC, CG, or GG. Patients were grouped as GG if they were homozygous for the variant G allele or CC-CG if they carried at least one copy of the common C allele (CC or CG). Results: Of the 176 women, 124 (71%) were CC-CG and 52 (29%) were GG. The mean age was 44 years for GG vs. 38 years for CC-CG (p < 0.001). GG was more common in African-American women than white women (69% vs. 13%, p < 0.001) and more commonly estrogen receptor negative (70% vs. 49%, p = 0.02). There were no significant correlations of rs560191 with other critical variables. Despite the fact that GG patients were older, the 10-year rate of local relapses was higher (22% for GG vs. 12% for CC-CG, p = 0.04). Conclusions: This novel avenue of investigation of polymorphisms in radiation repair/response genes in patients treated with BCS + RT suggests a correlation to local relapse. Additional evaluation is needed to assess the biological and functional significance of these single nucleotide polymorphisms, and larger confirmatory validation studies will be required to determine the clinical implications.

Haffty, Bruce G., E-mail: hafftybg@umdnj.ed [Robert Wood Johnson Medical School-Cancer Institute of New Jersey, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Goyal, Sharad; Kulkarni, Diptee; Green, Camille; Vazquez, Alexi; Schiff, Devora [Robert Wood Johnson Medical School-Cancer Institute of New Jersey, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Moran, Meena S. [Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Yang Qifeng [Department of Breast Surgery, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan (China); Ganesan, Shridar; Hirsfield, Kim M. [Robert Wood Johnson Medical School-Cancer Institute of New Jersey, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

2011-06-01

64

Par3 controls neural crest migration by promoting microtubule catastrophe during contact inhibition of locomotion  

PubMed Central

There is growing evidence that contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL) is essential for morphogenesis and its failure is thought to be responsible for cancer invasion; however, the molecular bases of this phenomenon are poorly understood. Here we investigate the role of the polarity protein Par3 in CIL during migration of the neural crest, a highly migratory mesenchymal cell type. In epithelial cells, Par3 is localised to the cell-cell adhesion complex and is important in the definition of apicobasal polarity, but the localisation and function of Par3 in mesenchymal cells are not well characterised. We show in Xenopus and zebrafish that Par3 is localised to the cell-cell contact in neural crest cells and is essential for CIL. We demonstrate that the dynamics of microtubules are different in different parts of the cell, with an increase in microtubule catastrophe at the collision site during CIL. Par3 loss-of-function affects neural crest migration by reducing microtubule catastrophe at the site of cell-cell contact and abrogating CIL. Furthermore, Par3 promotes microtubule catastrophe by inhibiting the Rac-GEF Trio, as double inhibition of Par3 and Trio restores microtubule catastrophe at the cell contact and rescues CIL and neural crest migration. Our results demonstrate a novel role of Par3 during neural crest migration, which is likely to be conserved in other processes that involve CIL such as cancer invasion or cell dispersion. PMID:24173803

Moore, Rachel; Theveneau, Eric; Pozzi, Sara; Alexandre, Paula; Richardson, Joanna; Merks, Anne; Parsons, Maddy; Kashef, Jubin; Linker, Claudia; Mayor, Roberto

2013-01-01

65

Transactivation of the PAR1-PAR2 heterodimer by thrombin elicits ?-arrestin-mediated endosomal signaling.  

PubMed

Thrombin cleaves the N terminus of PAR1, generating a new N-terminal domain that functions as a tethered ligand that binds intermolecularly to activate PAR2 in trans. The mechanisms that regulate PAR1-PAR2 heterodimer signaling and trafficking are not known. We now report that PAR1 and PAR2 form a heterodimer that exhibits unique trafficking and signaling behaviors compared with receptor protomers. Using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, immunofluorescence microscopy, co-immunoprecipitation, and cells expressing receptors exogenously and endogenously, we show that PAR1 and PAR2 specifically interact and form stable dimers. Intriguingly, the PAR1-PAR2 heterodimer displays constitutive internalization that is driven by PAR1 C-terminal tail sorting motifs and is a process that enhances dimer formation. Upon thrombin activation, PAR1-PAR2 dimers co-internalize and recruit ?-arrestins to endosomes. Remarkably, PAR1-PAR2 heterodimers appear to utilize a distinct interface for ?-arrestin interaction compared with receptor protomers. Moreover, thrombin-activated PAR1-PAR2 heterodimers enhance ?-arrestin-mediated ERK1/2 activation in the cytoplasm, whereas activated ERK1/2 induced by the thrombin-activated PAR1 protomer redistributes to the nucleus. Thus, the formation of PAR1-PAR2 heterodimers provides additional modes of thrombin-stimulated signaling responses that appear to be distinctly regulated compared with the receptor protomer. PMID:23476015

Lin, Huilan; Trejo, JoAnn

2013-04-19

66

Par Pond vegetation status 1996  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995, and into the early spring and late summer of 1996. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities continue to become re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, watershield, and Pontederia are extensive and well developed. Measures of percent cover, width of beds, and estimates of area of coverage with satellite data indicate regrowth within two years of from 40 to 60% of levels prior to the draw down. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer of 1996, especially in the former warm arm of Par Pond, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the draw down still have not formed. Lotus has invaded and occupies many of the areas formerly dominated by cattail beds. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys through the summer and early fall of 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1996-12-01

67

The metallic phase of the organic conductor TMTSF -DMTCNQ stabilized by a weak irradiation disorder  

E-print Network

977 The metallic phase of the organic conductor TMTSF -DMTCNQ stabilized by a weak irradiation 1982) Résumé. - Lorsque le conducteur organique TMTSF-DMTCNQ est soumis à une faible irradiation aux stabilisé par l'irradiation et etendujusqu'aux très basses températures. Abstract - A low dose X

Boyer, Edmond

68

Water Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity was developed to get students thinking about the many ways that people use freshwater and how we can conserve this precious and fundamental natural resource. Students will watch a short documentary describing issues related to clean water availability, analyze water-use data and start to think about how they consume and can conserve water. This background knowledge will lead to students collecting data about their own water use and finding areas in their lives to conserve water. This activity uses the 5E instructional model and is part of the "Survivor Earth" series of one-hour lessons.

69

Conservation Regional Conservation SavingsRegional Conservation Savings  

E-print Network

1 Northwest Power and Conservation Council Regional Conservation SavingsRegional Conservation the Plan''s Targets?s Targets? March 14, 2008 slide 2 Northwest Power and Conservation Council 55thth Plan Conservation ResourcePlan Conservation Resource Acquisition TargetsAcquisition Targets 20052005 ­­ 2009 = 700 a

70

Conservation Presentation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces a project in which students teach about the importance of recycling and conservation by presenting demonstrations. Includes demonstrations on water, plastic, and other recycling products such as steel. (YDS)

Friday, Gerald

2001-01-01

71

PRECISION CONSERVATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Precision conservation utilizes a set of technologies and procedures that link mapped variables with analytical capabilities to appropriate management actions. It requires the integration of spatial technologies of global positioning systems, remote sensing and geographic information systems with t...

72

PREUVES EXPRIMENTALES DE L'EXISTENCE DU NEUTRON Par IRNE CURIE et F. JOLIOT.  

E-print Network

lIoffmann de très grande sensibilité (fig. 9, Pl. I, A). Une source de rayons ot du polonium, une irradié par le polonium, et de même pour les autres éléments. (*) Une partie des résultats exposés dans ce

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

73

Mail Irradiation  

MedlinePLUS

... packages. Top of page How does irradiation kill anthrax? Irradiation kills anthrax by shattering its DNA and other cellular components. ... technology is used) strikes the mail and any anthrax spores it may contain. The radiation dose is ...

74

Characterization and function of human Ly-6/uPAR molecules  

PubMed Central

Human Ly-6/uPAR molecules are a superfamily composed of two subfamilies; one is the membrane bound proteins with a GPI-anchor and the other are secreted proteins without the GPI-anchor. Ly-6/uPAR molecules have remarkable amino acid homology through a distinctive 8-10 cysteine-rich domain that is associated predominantly with O-linked glycans. These molecules are encoded by multiple tightly linked genes located on Chr. 8q23, and have a conserved genomic organization. Ly-6/uPAR molecules have an interesting expression pattern during hematopoiesis and on specific tumors indicating that Ly-6/uPAR molecules are associated with development of the immune system and carcinogenesis. Thus, Ly-6/uPAR molecules are useful antigens for diagnostic and therapeutic targets. This review summarizes our understanding of human Ly-6/uPAR molecules with regard to molecular structure as well as what is known about their function in normal and malignant tissues and suggest Ly-6/uPAR molecules as target antigens for cancer immunotherapy. [BMB Reports 2012; 45(11): 595-603] PMID:23186997

Kong, Hyun Kyung; Park, Jong Hoon

2012-01-01

75

Neph-Nephrin Proteins Bind the Par3-Par6-Atypical Protein Kinase C (aPKC) Complex to Regulate Podocyte Cell Polarity*S?  

PubMed Central

The kidney filter represents a unique assembly of podocyte epithelial cells that tightly enwrap the glomerular capillaries with their foot processes and the interposed slit diaphragm. So far, very little is known about the guidance cues and polarity signals required to regulate proper development and maintenance of the glomerular filtration barrier. We now identify Par3, Par6, and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) polarity proteins as novel Neph1-Nephrin-associated proteins. The interaction was mediated through the PDZ domain of Par3 and conserved carboxyl terminal residues in Neph1 and Nephrin. Par3, Par6, and aPKC localized to the slit diaphragm as shown in immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy. Consistent with a critical role for aPKC activity in podocytes, inhibition of glomerular aPKC activity with a pseudosubstrate inhibitor resulted in a loss of regular podocyte foot process architecture. These data provide an important link between cell recognition mediated through the Neph1-Nephrin complex and Par-dependent polarity signaling and suggest that this molecular interaction is essential for establishing the three-dimensional architecture of podocytes at the kidney filtration barrier. PMID:18562307

Hartleben, Björn; Schweizer, Heiko; Lübben, Pauline; Bartram, Malte P.; Möller, Clemens C.; Herr, Ronja; Wei, Changli; Neumann-Haefelin, Elke; Schermer, Bernhard; Zentgraf, Hanswalter; Kerjaschki, Dontscho; Reiser, Jochen; Walz, Gerd; Benzing, Thomas; Huber, Tobias B.

2008-01-01

76

FRQUENCEMETRE RADIOLECTRIQUE Par Z. CARRIRE.  

E-print Network

'un stroboscope réglé sur les stries de la flamme. On peut obtenir, pour la fréquence 10 000, des stries espacées'éclairage sensible au son émis par le haut-parleur et d'un stroboscope réglé sur les franges qu'engendre le haut'analyseur par excellence des phénomènes périodiques : le stroboscope. Avec cet appareil, dans une flamme qui, au

Boyer, Edmond

77

BERKELEY PAR LABBERKELEY PAR LAB Three Challenges and Three  

E-print Network

Compiler/runtime infrastructure Domain-specific libraries, languages, and specializers 2 #12;BERKELEY PAR Domain-specific solutions in libraries, languages, and specializers Expert programmers solve) span 4 (global) Program Start Barrier Barrier Bar Exchange Bar Bar Bar 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 0, 1, 2

California at Berkeley, University of

78

Water Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students study the availability of water on Earth and discuss methods that can be used to purify and conserve this critical resource. Using multimedia interactives, video, and classroom activities, they will identify sources of fresh water available for consumption, understand the need for water conservation, and compare the benefits and drawbacks of different water management techniques. They will also assess how much water they and their families typically use, and think about ways to reduce their water usage. Finally, students explore different techniques being employed for water management around the world, including the use of dams to create reservoirs.

2005-01-01

79

DSEXCITATION DE NOYAUX DE DYSPROSIUM OBTENUS PAR BOMBARDEMENT DE TERBIUM PAR DES PROTONS  

E-print Network

833 D�SEXCITATION DE NOYAUX DE DYSPROSIUM OBTENUS PAR BOMBARDEMENT DE TERBIUM PAR DES PROTONS Par M (p, 9n) (p, 10n) induites sur le terbium-159. La comparaison avec un calcul fondé sur les Simonoff [6] ont récemment exa- miné la désexcitation de noyaux de terbium et de dysprosium obtenus par

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

80

PAR and Supply Distribution System The PAR Program is administered by Materials Logistics (Central Distribution)  

E-print Network

Logistics (Central Distribution) Services, a division of Materials Management. · The PAR Program is focused, except in the OR and NICU. (Materials Management will be reviewing a PAR system for the multiple units#12;PAR and Supply Distribution System OVERVIEW · The PAR Program is administered by Materials

Oliver, Douglas L.

81

Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond.

Paller, M.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Wike, L.D.

1996-06-01

82

[Conservation Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

Texas Education Agency, Austin.

83

[Conservation Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instructional units deal with each aspect of conservation: forests, wildlife, rangelands, water, minerals, and soil. The area of the secondary school curriculum with which each is correlated is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the topic, questions to…

Texas Education Agency, Austin.

84

Conservatively Speaking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An estimated 4,000 members of the politically active fundamentalist Christian Coalition organization met in September 1995. The two-day convention featured speeches from prominent conservative politicians. Ralph Reed, executive director, touched upon the Coalition's growing emphasis on local politics, especially school boards. (MLF)

Vail, Kathleen

1995-01-01

85

Colorful Conservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some people only think about conservation on Earth Day. Being in the "art business" however, this author is always conscious of the many products she thinks get wasted when they could be reused, recycled, and restored--especially in a school building and art room. In this article, she describes an art lesson that allows students to paint…

Skophammer, Karen

2011-01-01

86

NOUVEAU SPECTROSCOPE; PAR M. THOLLON.  

E-print Network

I4I NOUVEAU SPECTROSCOPE; PAR M. THOLLON. J'ai eu l'honneur de présenter récemment à l'Académie et qu'on fasse varier la position du couple sur le trajet d'un rayon d'une certaine réfrangibilité, il y

Boyer, Edmond

87

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C 4, supplment au no 8-9, Tome 28, Aot-Septembre 1967, page C 4-100 TUDE PAR R. P. E. D'UN NOUVEAU DEFAUT PONCTUEL  

E-print Network

-100 �TUDE PAR R. P. E. D'UN NOUVEAU DEFAUT PONCTUEL DANS LE FLUORURE DE LITHIUM (1) par G. BACQUET(2), J célibataire, placé dans un site vacant de lithium, avec les six ions fluor plus proches voisins. Abstract nearest neighbour fluorines. Introduction. - L'étude par R. P. E. du LiF «pur )) et irradié à la

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

88

Conservation Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, learners will understand the concepts behind endangered and extinct animals and develop their own conservation plan to save three endangered species. Each group or pair of learners will receive an animal profile and sketch it from the description that is given. Then, they will consider the animalâs habitat, behavior, diet, and threats as well as the peopleâs need for cities, agricultural areas, and tribal lands and share this information with other groups. After learners become familiar with their animal (considering both animal and human needs), they must choose what sections of land to conserve and give a short presentation. This lesson plan includes wrap-up suggestions, educator resources, extension ideas, and is standards-based.

Sciences, California A.

2008-01-01

89

Breaking the epithelial polarity barrier in cancer: the strange case of LKB1/PAR-4  

PubMed Central

The PAR clan of polarity regulating genes was initially discovered in a genetic screen searching for genes involved in asymmetric cell divisions in the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo. Today, investigations in worms, flies and mammals have established PAR proteins as conserved and fundamental regulators of animal cell polarization in a broad range of biological phenomena requiring cellular asymmetries. The human homologue of invertebrate PAR-4, a serine–threonine kinase LKB1/STK11, has caught attention as a gene behind Peutz–Jeghers polyposis syndrome and as a bona fide tumour suppressor gene commonly mutated in sporadic cancer. LKB1 functions as a master regulator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and 12 other kinases referred to as the AMPK-related kinases, including four human homologues of PAR-1. The role of LKB1 as part of the energy sensing LKB1-AMPK module has been intensively studied, whereas the polarity function of LKB1, in the context of homoeostasis or cancer, has gained less attention. Here, we focus on the PAR-4 identity of LKB1, discussing the weight of evidence indicating a role for LKB1 in regulation of cell polarity and epithelial integrity across species and highlight recent investigations providing new insight into the old question: does the PAR-4 identity of LKB1 matter in cancer? PMID:24062587

Partanen, Johanna I.; Tervonen, Topi A.; Klefström, Juha

2013-01-01

90

Irradiance Variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the solar interior emerges magnetic flux that alters the Sun's electromagnetic radiation, producing irradiance variability on a wide range of time scales. The organization, outward extension and expansion of magnetic fields structure the solar atmosphere and cause the entire electromagnetic spectrum to vary in different ways, depending on wavelength. Surface magnetic fields produce variations in near UV, visible and near IR spectra which emerge from the photosphere, and comprise the bulk of total irradiance. Yet the correlation of daily total irradiance and total magnetic field strength is poor; rather, the net effect of two different magnetic features - dark sunspots and bright faculae - better account for the variations observed in total irradiance during the solar cycle. The relationship of UV irradiance with magnetic flux is more direct since bright active regions control the global variations in both these quantities. Connecting X-ray and short wavelength EUV irradiance variations to the solar interior requires the extrapolation of emerging surface magnetic fields to the corona and assumptions about the relationship of their strengths and topologies with coronal pressure. Knowledge of the emergence, evolution, transport and decay of magnetic flux is thus a key to understanding and forecasting solar irradiance variability at all wavelengths. Identification of sizeable magnetic regions on the side of the Sun far from Earth may enable EUV and X-ray irradiance forecasts and subsequent space weather effects on time scales of days to weeks. On multi-decadal time scales improved knowledge of the sub surface dynamo and surface transport processes may help constrain secular solar irradiance evolution, needed for climate change attribution. Also needed is quantification of the association between the closed flux that controls irradiance variability and the open flux that extends into the heliosphere. Although utilized frequently to infer irradiance variability, proxies of long-term solar activity in tree-rings and ice-cores actually reflect heliospheric modulation of galactic cosmic rays. Funded by NASA and ONR.

Lean, J. L.

2003-05-01

91

prsente par Pierre Niainarivony ZOKIMILA  

E-print Network

stockage des déchets radioactifs : Approche par homogénéisation Date de soutenance : 7 octobre 2005 Frédéric Pellet Université Joseph Fourier - Grenoble I Rapporteurs Denis Fabre Conservatoire National des à l'accomplissement de cette thèse. Tout d'abord, je veux remercier Monsieur Frédéric Pellet, Maître

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

92

PHONOPTOMTRE ; PAR M. J. LISSAJOUS.  

E-print Network

265 PHONOPTOM�TRE ; PAR M. J. LISSAJOUS. (Société de Physique; séance du I3 mars I87 4.) Le'une couche d'alcool : ce godet se meut verticalement au moyen d une vis de réglage R. Le courant de la pile façon à produire lim" des figures si- b Il al é e spa r nous clalm 1 étude optique des sons. () Il

Boyer, Edmond

93

Prsente par M. J CORNEBISE  

E-print Network

T 'U P M C Spécialité M Option S M Présentée par M. J CORNEBISE Pour obtenir le grade de D 'U P M C Effectuée sous la direction de M. E MOULINES, M. P DEHEUVELS M M C S A A S M C M Soutenue le 25 Juin 2009 Devant le jury composé de : M. Paul DEHEUVELS (Directeur) M. Eric MOULINES (Directeur) M. Fabien CAMPILLO

Cornebise, Julien

94

The Par3-Like Polarity Protein, Par3L, is Essential for Mammary Stem Cell Maintenance  

PubMed Central

The Par polarity proteins play key roles in asymmetric division of Drosophila stem cells; however, whether the same mechanisms control stem cells in mammals is controversial. Although necessary for mammary gland morphogenesis, Par3 is not essential for mammary stem cell function. We discovered that, instead, a previously uncharacterized protein, Par3-Like (Par3L), is vital for mammary gland stem cell maintenance. Par3L function has been mysterious because unlike Par3 it does not interact with atypical protein kinase C or the Par6 polarity protein. We found that Par3L is expressed by multipotent stem cells in the terminal end buds of murine mammary glands. Ablation of Par3L resulted in rapid and profound stem cell loss. Unexpectedly, Par3L, but not Par3, binds to the tumor suppressor protein LKB1 and inhibits its kinase activity. This interaction is key for the function of Par3L in mammary stem cell maintenance. Our data reveal insights into a linkage between cell polarity proteins and stem cell survival, and uncover the first known biological function for Par3L. PMID:24859006

Huo, Yongliang; Macara, Ian G.

2014-01-01

95

Apprentissage par Renforcement JER EMIE MARY  

E-print Network

Apprentissage par Renforcement J´ER ´EMIE MARY ´equipe TAO LRI 27 f´evrier 2006 J´ER ´EMIE MARY MDPs 5 R´ef´erences J´ER ´EMIE MARY Apprentissage par Renforcement #12;Introduction Apprendre et'influer sur l'environnement, 5 Le monde est stochastique et bruit´e. J´ER ´EMIE MARY Apprentissage par

Mary, Jeremie - Groupe de Recherche sur l'Apprentissage Automatique, Université Charles de Gaulle

96

PAR for the Course: A Congruent Pedagogical Approach for a PAR Methods Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past two years, three graduate students and a senior faculty member have co-taught a participatory action research (PAR) course to undergraduate and graduate students. In this article the co-teachers advocate a set of pedagogical principles and practices in a PAR-oriented classroom that establishes congruency with community PAR projects in…

Hammond, Joyce D.; Hicks, Maria; Kalman, Rowenn; Miller, Jason

2005-01-01

97

PHOTOLUMINESCENCE DU MTAANTIMONIATE DE CALCIUM ACTIV PAR LE BISMUTH Par ROGER BERNARD et JOSEPH JANIN,  

E-print Network

616. PHOTOLUMINESCENCE DU M�TAANTIMONIATE DE CALCIUM ACTIV� PAR LE BISMUTH Par ROGER BERNARD et différentes concentrations en bismuth ; les courbes corres- pondantes sont reproduites sur la figure 1. FiG. 1 concentrations en activateur. présentent pas de modification par addition de bismuth. Il semble plus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

98

Phospho-dependent ubiquitination and degradation of PAR-1 regulates synaptic morphology and tau-mediated A? toxicity in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

The conserved kinases PAR-1/MARK are critically involved in processes such as asymmetric cell division, cell polarity and neuronal differentiation. Their deregulation has been implicated in diseases including Alzheimer’s disease and cancer. Given the importance of PAR-1/MARK in health and disease, their activities need to be tightly controlled. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying their regulation in vivo. Here we show that in Drosophila, a phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination mechanism restrains PAR-1 activation. Active PAR-1 generated by LKB1-controlled phosphorylation is targeted for ubiquitination and degradation by SCF (Skp, Cullin, F-box containing complex) (Slimb), whose action is antagonized by the deubiquitinating enzyme fat facets. This newly identified PAR-1-modifying module critically regulates synaptic morphology and tau-mediated postsynaptic toxicity of amyloid precursor protein (APP)/A?-42, the causative agents of Alzheimer’s disease, at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. Our results provide new insights into the regulation of PAR-1 in various physiological processes and offer new therapeutic strategies for diseases involving PAR-1/MARK deregulation. PMID:23271647

Lee, Seongsoo; Wang, Ji-Wu; Yu, Wendou; Lu, Bingwei

2015-01-01

99

RAB-5 Controls the Cortical Organization and Dynamics of PAR Proteins to Maintain C. elegans Early Embryonic Polarity  

PubMed Central

In all organisms, cell polarity is fundamental for most aspects of cell physiology. In many species and cell types, it is controlled by the evolutionarily conserved PAR-3, PAR-6 and aPKC proteins, which are asymmetrically localized at the cell cortex where they define specific domains. While PAR proteins define the antero-posterior axis of the early C. elegans embryo, the mechanism controlling their asymmetric localization is not fully understood. Here we studied the role of endocytic regulators in embryonic polarization and asymmetric division. We found that depleting the early endosome regulator RAB-5 results in polarity-related phenotypes in the early embryo. Using Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, we observed that PAR-6 is localized at the cell cortex in highly dynamic puncta and depleting RAB-5 decreased PAR-6 cortical dynamics during the polarity maintenance phase. Depletion of RAB-5 also increased PAR-6 association with clathrin heavy chain (CHC-1) and this increase depended on the presence of the GTPase dynamin, an upstream regulator of endocytosis. Interestingly, further analysis indicated that loss of RAB-5 leads to a disorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and that this occurs independently of dynamin activity. Our results indicate that RAB-5 promotes C. elegans embryonic polarity in both dynamin-dependent and -independent manners, by controlling PAR-6 localization and cortical dynamics through the regulation of its association with the cell cortex and the organization of the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:22545101

Hyenne, Vincent; Tremblay-Boudreault, Thierry; Velmurugan, Ramraj; Grant, Barth D.; Loerke, Dinah; Labbé, Jean-Claude

2012-01-01

100

Par6 is phosphorylated by aPKC to facilitate EMT  

PubMed Central

The conserved polarity proteins Par6 and aPKC regulate cell polarization processes. However, increasing evidence also suggests that they play a role in oncogenic progression. During tumor progression, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) delineates an evolutionary conserved process that converts stationary epithelial cells into mesenchymal cells, which have an acquired ability for independent migration and invasion. In addition to signaling pathways that alter genetic programes that trigger the loss of cell-cell adhesion, alternative pathways can alter cell plasticity to regulate cell-cell cohesion and increase invasive potential. One such pathway involves TGF?-induced phosphorylation of Par6. In epithelial cells, Par6 phosphorylation results in the dissolution of junctional complexes, cytoskeletal remodelling, and increased metastatic potential. Recently, we found that aPKC can also phosphorylate Par6 to drive EMT and increase the migratory potential of non-small cell lung cancer cells. This result has implications with respect to homeostatic and developmental processes involving polarization, and also with respect to cancer progression—particularly since aPKC has been reported to be an oncogenic regulator in various tumor cells. PMID:23880940

Gunaratne, Adrian; Di Guglielmo, Gianni M.

2013-01-01

101

Afrotherian Conservation  

E-print Network

w members: I do not think Professor Jonathan Kingdon needs any introduction! Dr. Thomas Lehmann from the Transvaal Museum joined us as an authority on aardvarks and Dr. Andrew Baker of the Philadelphia Zoo agreed to give us his expertise on captive afrotheres, especially sengis and aardvarks (see issue No. 3 of our newsletter). WELCOME to these new members! The complete membership list is attached at the end of the newsletter. As this issue of Afrotherian Conservation goes to press, we are waiting for news as to whether Jon Benstead, Link Olson, Daniel Rakotondravony, and Erika Ranoarivony will be successful in obtaining a Chicago Board of Trade grant, through the Chicago Zoological Society, for their proposal on the web-footed tenrec in Madagascar. With the GMA, Red List update, and new quadrennial behind us we have two main activities that need our focus. First, our web site needs attention, including finishing the golden mole and tenrec pages, and updating the taxonomy, Red List s

Newsletter Of The; Galen Rathbun; R. W. Yarnell; D. M. Scott; Moles G. B. Rathbun; L. Rathbun; F. Kachel; U. Zeller; V Besnard

2006-01-01

102

Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- Summary  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are extensive and well developed. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Estimates from SPOT HRV, remote sensing satellite data indicated that as much as 120 hectares of emergent wetlands vegetation may have been present along the Par Pond shoreline by early October, 1995. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1996-01-01

103

Breast-conserving surgery in breast cancer.  

PubMed

The breast cancer treatment is based nowadays on new surgical options: breast-conserving surgery, which applies at least for the first and second stage cancer, with radical intention. We have been practicing breast-conserving surgery for the last 16 years and we have performed 303 breast conserving operations from a total of 673. We recorded 12 local recurrences (3,96%) and 2 deaths due to cancer progression. Our protocol includes removal of the primary tumor with enough surrounding tissue to ensure negative margins of the resectable specimen, associated with axillary lymph-node dissection and postoperative breast irradiation. Our oncologist indicated chemotherapy on different postoperative conditions: tumor size, axillary lymph node involvement, patient's age, etc. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize our modest experience, nevertheless to draw the attention on important results, obtained by long-term monitoring of the patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery, in a two prospective protocols, and demonstrate the importance and applicability of breast conserving therapy. The conclusion of this study is that breast-conserving surgery followed by breast irradiation is reliable, as the results are similar with radical mastectomies; the main objective is to obtain a good cosmetic result, which depends on tumor size / breast size. PMID:23116836

Tenea Cojan, T S; Vidrighin, C D; Ciobanu, M; Paun, I; Teodorescu, M; Mogos, G; Tenovici, M; Florescu, M; Mogos, D

2012-01-01

104

Par1b/MARK2 Phosphorylates Kinesin-Like Motor Protein GAKIN/KIF13B To Regulate Axon Formation ? †  

PubMed Central

Here we report that Par1b/MARK2 regulates axon formation via phosphorylation of a kinesin superfamily protein GAKIN/KIF13B. Accumulating evidence indicated the importance of the evolutionarily conserved kinase Par1b in the regulation of cell polarity. Using hippocampal neurons in culture, it has been shown that Par1b regulates axon specification, but the underlying mechanism remains uncharacterized. We identify GAKIN/KIF13B as a novel Par1b-binding protein and reveal that GAKIN/KIF13B is a physiological substrate for Par1b, and the phosphorylation sites are conserved from Drosophila. In hippocampal neurons, GAKIN/KIF13B accumulates at the distal part of the microtubules in the tips of axons, but not of dendrites. Overexpression of GAKIN/KIF13B by itself can induce the formation of extra axons, which is inhibited by the coexpression of Par1b in a manner dependent on its kinase activity. In contrast, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of GAKIN/KIF13B severely retards neurite extension and promotes the axonless phenotype. The extra axon phenotype caused by Par1b siRNA is suppressed by cointroduction of GAKIN/KIF13B siRNA, thus placing the GAKIN/KIF13B function downstream of Par1b. We also find that GAKIN/KIF13B acts downstream of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling via Par1b phosphorylation. These results reveal that GAKIN/KIF13B is a key intermediate linking Par1b to the regulation of axon formation. PMID:20194617

Yoshimura, Yuta; Terabayashi, Takeshi; Miki, Hiroaki

2010-01-01

105

Comparative analysis of a plant pseudoautosomal region (PAR) in Silene latifolia with the corresponding S. vulgaris autosome  

PubMed Central

Background The sex chromosomes of Silene latifolia are heteromorphic as in mammals, with females being homogametic (XX) and males heterogametic (XY). While recombination occurs along the entire X chromosome in females, recombination between the X and Y chromosomes in males is restricted to the pseudoautosomal region (PAR). In the few mammals so far studied, PARs are often characterized by elevated recombination and mutation rates and high GC content compared with the rest of the genome. However, PARs have not been studied in plants until now. In this paper we report the construction of a BAC library for S. latifolia and the first analysis of a?>?100?kb fragment of a S. latifolia PAR that we compare to the homologous autosomal region in the closely related gynodioecious species S. vulgaris. Results Six new sex-linked genes were identified in the S. latifolia PAR, together with numerous transposable elements. The same genes were found on the S. vulgaris autosomal segment, with no enlargement of the predicted coding sequences in S. latifolia. Intergenic regions were on average 1.6 times longer in S. latifolia than in S. vulgaris, mainly as a consequence of the insertion of transposable elements. The GC content did not differ significantly between the PAR region in S. latifolia and the corresponding autosomal region in S. vulgaris. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the usefulness of the BAC library developed here for the analysis of plant sex chromosomes and indicate that the PAR in the evolutionarily young S. latifolia sex chromosomes has diverged from the corresponding autosomal region in the gynodioecious S. vulgaris mainly with respect to the insertion of transposable elements. Gene order between the PAR and autosomal region investigated is conserved, and the PAR does not have the high GC content observed in evolutionarily much older mammalian sex chromosomes. PMID:22681719

2012-01-01

106

Water conservation programs  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses three water conservation programs: statewide water conservation efforts, a 5-point program of the City of Albuquerque, and the program for recycling wastewater by the Intel Corporation. Water conservation programs depend largely on public education programs. Albuquerque`s program, for example, includes development of a K-12th grade curriculum on water conservation, live theater performances promoting conservation for elementary school children, and collaboration with existing community organizations to promote water conservation.

Darilek, A. [New Mexico State Engineer Office, Santa Fe, NM (United States). Water Conservation Program; Witherspoon, J. [City of Albuquerque, NM (United States). Public Works Dept.; Hutchinson, D.L. [Intel Corp., Rio Rancho, NM (United States)

1995-12-31

107

Energy Conservation Renewable Energy  

E-print Network

Energy Conservation Renewable Energy The Future at Rutgers University Facilities & Capital Planning ti ? R bl EWhy Conservation? Renewable Energy · Climate control reduces green house gases · Reduces

Delgado, Mauricio

108

Irradiance Variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the solar interior emerges magnetic flux that alters the Sun's electromagnetic radiation, producing irradiance variability on a wide range of time scales. The organization, outward extension and expansion of magnetic fields structure the solar atmosphere and cause the entire electromagnetic spectrum to vary in different ways, depending on wavelength. Surface magnetic fields produce variations in near UV, visible and

J. L. Lean

2003-01-01

109

Irradiance gradients  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for improving the accuracy of a diffuse interreflection calculation is introduced in a ray tracing context. The information from a hemispherical sampling of the luminous environment is interpreted in a new way to predict the change in irradiance as a function of position and surface orientation. The additional computation involved is modest and the benefit is substantial.

Gregory J. Ward; Paul S. Heckbert

2008-01-01

110

Irradiated foods  

MedlinePLUS

... and reduces the risk of food poisoning . Food irradiation is used in many countries. It was first approved in the U.S. to prevent sprouts on white potatoes and for the control of insects on wheat and in certain spices and seasonings.

111

[Pars plana phacoemulsification. Technics, indications and results].  

PubMed

Pars plana phacoemulsification allows cataract extraction through a 3 mm posterior sclerotomy. The indications of these technics are the combined cataract-vitrectomy, the cataracts on vitrectomised eyes and cataracts on eyes filled with silicone oil. The alteration of corneal endothelium is very reduced with the endocapsular pars plana phacoemulsification. After the emulsification, the capsular bag is extracted with a microforceps through the pars plana. It is also possible to save the anterior capsule to reduce corneal alteration during endocular surgery. We present the indications and the advantages of these technics. PMID:2641077

Furia, M; Puech, M; Elalouf, M; Boulley-Duparc, A

1989-01-01

112

LAND & WATER CONSERVATION PROGRAM  

E-print Network

and resources in a geographic area Promote conservation of these natural features and resources Guide ________________________________________________________________________ Preparing a Conservation Plan INTRODUCTION Conservation of land, water and other natural features and resources is a priority for many New Hampshire communities. In order to implement conservation projects

New Hampshire, University of

113

The PAR complex controls the spatiotemporal dynamics of F-actin and the MTOC in directionally migrating leukocytes  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Inflammatory cells acquire a polarized phenotype to migrate towards sites of infection or injury. A conserved polarity complex comprising PAR-3, PAR-6 and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) relays extracellular polarizing cues to control cytoskeletal and signaling networks affecting morphological and functional polarization. However, there is no evidence that myeloid cells use PAR signaling to migrate vectorially in three-dimensional (3D) environments in vivo. Using genetically encoded bioprobes and high-resolution live imaging, we reveal the existence of F-actin oscillations in the trailing edge and constant repositioning of the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) to direct leukocyte migration in wounded medaka fish larvae (Oryzias latipes). Genetic manipulation in live myeloid cells demonstrates that the catalytic activity of aPKC and the regulated interaction with PAR-3 and PAR-6 are required for consistent F-actin oscillations, MTOC perinuclear mobility, aPKC repositioning and wound-directed migration upstream of Rho kinase (also known as ROCK or ROK) activation. We propose that the PAR complex coordinately controls cytoskeletal changes affecting both the generation of traction force and the directionality of leukocyte migration to sites of injury. PMID:25179599

Crespo, Carolina Lage; Vernieri, Claudio; Keller, Philipp J.; Garrè, Massimiliano; Bender, Jeffrey R.; Wittbrodt, Joachim; Pardi, Ruggero

2014-01-01

114

PREVENTIVE CONSERVATION: A CONCEPT SUITED TO THE CONSERVATION OF EARTHEN  

E-print Network

PREVENTIVE CONSERVATION: A CONCEPT SUITED TO THE CONSERVATION OF EARTHEN ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE and Construction Key words: Preventive conservation, traditional conservation practices, risk reduction, heritage management Abstract The concept of "preventive conservation" is relatively old as it has already been

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

115

Comparative cactus architecture and par interception  

SciTech Connect

Because CO{sup 2} uptake by cacti can be limited by low levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and because plant form affects PAR interception, various cactus forms were studied using a computer model, field measurements, and laboratory phototropic studies. Model predictions indicated that CO{sub 2} uptake by individual stems at an equinox was greatest when the stem were vertical, but at the summer and the winter solstice CO{sub 2} uptake was greatest for stems titled 30{degree} away from the equator. Stem tilting depended on form and taxonomic group. Not only can the shape of cacti be affected by PAR, but also shape influences PAR interception and hence CO{sub 2} uptake.

Geller, G.N.; Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))

1987-07-01

116

Techniques for measuring intercepted and absorbed PAR in corn canopies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The quantity of radiation potentially available for photosynthesis that is captured by the crop is best described as absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Absorbed PAR (APAR) is the difference between descending and ascending fluxes. The four components of APAR were measured above and within two planting densities of corn (Zea mays L.) and several methods of measuring and estimating APAR were examined. A line quantum sensor that spatially averages the photosynthetic photon flux density provided a rapid and portable method of measuring APAR. PAR reflectance from the soil (Typic Argiaquoll) surface decreased from 10% to less than 1% of the incoming PAR as the canopy cover increased. PAR reflectance from the canopy decreased to less than 3% at maximum vegetative cover. Intercepted PAR (1 - transmitted PAR) generally overestimated absorbed PAR by less than 4% throughout most of the growing season. Thus intercepted PAR appears to be a reasonable estimate of absorbed PAR.

Gallo, K. P.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

1984-01-01

117

Protease-Activated Receptor (PAR) 1 and PAR4 Differentially Regulate Factor V Expression from Human Platelets  

PubMed Central

With the recent interest of protease-activated receptors (PAR) 1 and PAR4 as possible targets for the treatment of thrombotic disorders, we compared the efficacy of protease-activated receptor (PAR)1 and PAR4 in the generation of procoagulant phenotypes on platelet membranes. PAR4-activating peptide (AP)–stimulated platelets promoted thrombin generation in plasma up to 5 minutes earlier than PAR1-AP–stimulated platelets. PAR4-AP–mediated factor V (FV) association with the platelet surface was 1.6-fold greater than for PAR1-AP. Moreover, PAR4 stimulation resulted in a 3-fold greater release of microparticles, compared with PAR1 stimulation. More robust FV secretion and microparticle generation with PAR4-AP was attributable to stronger and more sustained phosphorylation of myosin light chain at serine 19 and threonine 18. Inhibition of Rho-kinase reduced PAR4-AP–mediated FV secretion and microparticle generation to PAR1-AP–mediated levels. Thrombin generation assays measuring prothrombinase complex activity demonstrated 1.5-fold higher peak thrombin levels on PAR4-AP–stimulated platelets, compared with PAR1-AP–stimulated platelets. Rho-kinase inhibition reduced PAR4-AP–mediated peak thrombin generation by 25% but had no significant effect on PAR1-AP–mediated thrombin generation. In conclusion, stimulation of PAR4 on platelets leads to faster and more robust thrombin generation, compared with PAR1 stimulation. The greater procoagulant potential is related to more efficient FV release from intracellular stores and microparticle production driven by stronger and more sustained myosin light chain phosphorylation. These data have implications about the role of PAR4 during hemostasis and are clinically relevant in light of recent efforts to develop PAR antagonists to treat thrombotic disorders. PMID:23307185

Duvernay, Matthew; Young, Summer; Gailani, David; Schoenecker, Jonathan

2013-01-01

118

par Elias Sanbar Ambassadeur de Palestine  

E-print Network

par Elias Sanbar Ambassadeur de Palestine auprès de l'UNESCO l'église de la Nativité au Patrimoi PatrimoiNe moNdial Portée et enjeux par Elias Sanbar Ambassadeur de Palestine auprès de l'UNESCO Considérée que s'exprimera Elias Sanbar. mardi 4 mars 2014 | 18h30, uni dufour l'eglise de la Nativité au

Citi, Sandra

119

Céphalées par abus médicamenteux et addiction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé  \\u000a Objectifs: étude de la comorbidité pour les troubles liés à l’utilisation de substances psychoactives chez les patients souffrant de\\u000a céphalées par abus médicamenteux.Méthode: étude comparative de quarante et un migraineux (MIG) et quarante et un patients souffrant de céphalées par abus médicamenteux\\u000a issus de migraines (CAM).Résultats: les CAM ulilisant des médicaments contenant des substances psychoactives (caféine et codéine) remplissent

F. Radat; C. Creac'h; M. Lafitau; S. Irachabal; V. Dousset; P. Henry

2005-01-01

120

Irradiation Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Food Safety Consortium (FSC) is a federally created consortium consisting of researchers from the University of Arkansas, Iowa State University and Kansas State University. The FSC conducts research in poultry, beef, and pork production. This site contains summary articles from the FDA, the Washington Times, the Los Angeles Times, the Chicago Tribune, and newsletter articles from the FSC. Previously approved for use on poultry and fruits and vegetables in the US, irradiation can kill disease-causing bacteria like Salmonella and Escherichia coli 0157:H7 (discussed in the Scout Report for Science and Engineering's In the News section, September 17, 1997), and molds and funguses that cause rot. With recent US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval, irradiation can now be used to process red meat (e.g., beef, pork, lamb, and byproducts). The process involves exposing food to a source of radiation such as gamma rays from radioactive cobalt 60, cesium 137, or x-rays. No radioactive material is added to the product, and the technique is routinely used on grains and spices, as well as for sterilizing disposable medical devices. In spite of a number of tests conducted over the last 30 years substantiating its safety, irradiation has not gained widespread public acceptance in the US. This is largely due to the public's general fear of processes utilizing radiation. Supporters of the technology claim that it will virtually eliminate food-borne illness in the US, while skeptics feel that technology such as steam treatment can accomplish adequate sterilization without the purported risks and public concern associated with irradiation.

1997-01-01

121

Mongabay.com Open Access Journal -Tropical Conservation Science Vol.5 (3):381-393, 2012 Tropical Conservation Science | ISSN 1940-0829 | Tropicalconservationscience.org  

E-print Network

Mongabay.com Open Access Journal - Tropical Conservation Science Vol.5 (3):381-393, 2012 Tropical colobus (Procolobus rufomitratus) with access to this area. As predicted, regenerating forests did have energía era un determinante potencial de esos parámetros, pero no encontramos evidencia de su importancia

Rothman, Jessica M.

122

Non-convex entropies for conservation laws with involutions.  

PubMed

The paper discusses systems of conservation laws endowed with involutions and contingent entropies. Under the assumption that the contingent entropy function is convex merely in the direction of a cone in state space, associated with the involution, it is shown that the Cauchy problem is locally well posed in the class of classical solutions, and that classical solutions are unique and stable even within the broader class of weak solutions that satisfy an entropy inequality. This is on a par with the classical theory of solutions to hyperbolic systems of conservation laws endowed with a convex entropy. The equations of elastodynamics provide the prototypical example for the above setting. PMID:24249772

Dafermos, Constantine M

2013-12-28

123

Elevated CO2 alleviates high PAR and UV stress in the unicellular chlorophyte Dunaliella tertiolecta.  

PubMed

The effects of increased CO2 and irradiance on the physiological performance of the chlorophyte Dunaliella tertiolecta were studied at different PAR and UVR (UVA + UVB) irradiances, simulating the solar radiation at different depths, at present (390 ppmv, LC) and predicted CO2 levels for the year 2100 (1000 ppmv, HC). Elevated CO2 resulted in higher optimum and effective quantum yields (F(v)/F(m) and ?PSII, respectively), electron transport rates (ETR) and specific growth rates (?). Cell stress was alleviated in HC with respect to LC as evidenced by a decrease in reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. DNA damage showed a 42-fold increase in cyclobutane-pyrimidine dimer (CPD) formation under the highest irradiance (1100 ?mol quanta m(-2) s(-1)) in LC with respect to the lowest irradiance (200 ?mol quanta m(-2) s(-1)). Photolyase (CII-PCD-PL) gene expression was upregulated under HC resulting in a drastic decrease in CPD accumulation to only 25% with respect to LC. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) accumulation was always higher in HC and the accumulation pattern indicated its involvement in repair or growth depending on the irradiance dose. The repressor of silencing (ROS1) was only marginally involved in the response, suggesting that photoreactivation was the most relevant mechanism to overcome UVR damage. Our results demonstrate that future scenarios of global change result in alleviation of irradiance stress by CO2-induced photoprotection in D. tertiolecta. PMID:25043601

García-Gómez, Candela; Gordillo, Francisco J L; Palma, Armando; Lorenzo, M Rosario; Segovia, María

2014-09-01

124

NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION FOREST ECOLOGY & CONSERVATION  

E-print Network

NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION FOREST ECOLOGY & CONSERVATION For students entering after 8 oriented towards natural resources, e.g., GEO-SCI 360 Economic Geography; REGIONPL 574 City Planning; NRC ____________________ Senior Year NRC 526 Silviculture (EOY even) 4 NRC 540 Forest Resources Mgt. 4 Land/mgt./resource elective

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

125

The African Conservation Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal provides in-depth information about conservation issues and initiatives in Africa. The online searchable databases and forums showcase, promote and provide background information on almost 300 conservation organisations and protected area institutions across the continent. The African Conservation Foundation (ACF) is primarily concerned with education and capacity building in Africa in the areas of environment and conservation. Its mission is to support and link African conservation initiatives, groups and NGOs, with the aim of strengthening their capacity, building partnerships and promoting effective communication and co-ordination of conservation efforts.

Terry Harnwell

2001-08-15

126

ERK2-mediated phosphorylation of Par3 regulates neuronal polarization.  

PubMed

Axon formation is one of the most important events in neuronal polarization and is regulated by signaling molecules involved in cytoskeletal rearrangement and protein transport. We previously found that Partition-defective 3 (Par3) is associated with KIF3A (kinesin-2) and is transported into the nascent axon in a KIF3A-dependent fashion. Par3 interacts with the Rac-specific guanine nucleotide-exchange factors (GEFs) Tiam1/2, which activate Rac1, and participates in axon formation in cultured hippocampal neurons. However, the regulatory mechanism of the Par3-KIF3A interaction is poorly understood, and the role of Par3 in neuronal polarization in vivo remains elusive. Here, we found that extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) directly interacts with Par3, that ERK2 phosphorylates Par3 at Ser-1116, and that the phosphorylated Par3 accumulates at the axonal tips in a manner dependent upon ERK2 activity. The phosphorylation of Par3 by ERK2 inhibited the interaction of Par3 with KIF3A but not with the other Par3 partners, including Par6 and aPKC. The phosphomimic mutant of Par3 (Par3-S1116D) showed less binding activity with the KIF3s and slower transport in the axons. The knockdown of Par3 by RNA interference impaired neuronal polarization, which was rescued with RNAi-resistant Par3, but not with the phosphomimic Par3 mutant, in cultured rat hippocampal neurons and mouse cortical projection neurons in vivo. These results suggest that ERK2 phosphorylates Par3 and inhibits its binding with KIF3A, thereby controlling Par3 transport and neuronal polarity. PMID:23946386

Funahashi, Yasuhiro; Namba, Takashi; Fujisue, Shin; Itoh, Norimichi; Nakamuta, Shinichi; Kato, Katsuhiro; Shimada, Akiko; Xu, Chundi; Shan, Wei; Nishioka, Tomoki; Kaibuchi, Kozo

2013-08-14

127

Prone Whole-Breast Irradiation Using Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy in Women Undergoing Breast Conservation for Early Disease Yields High Rates of Excellent to Good Cosmetic Outcomes in Patients With Large and/or Pendulous Breasts  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report our institution's experience using prone positioning for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) to deliver post-lumpectomy whole breast irradiation (WBI) in a cohort of women with large and/or pendulous breasts, to determine the rate of acute and late toxicities and, more specifically, cosmetic outcomes. We hypothesized that using 3D-CRT for WBI in the prone position would reduce or eliminate patient and breast size as negative prognostic indicators for toxicities associated with WBI. Methods and Materials: From 1998 to 2006, 110 cases were treated with prone WBI using 3D-CRT. The lumpectomy, breast target volumes, heart, and lung were contoured on all computed tomography scans. A dose of 45-50 Gy was prescribed to the breast volume using standard fractionation schemes. The planning goals were {>=}95% of prescription to 95% of the breast volume, and 100% of boost dose to 95% of lumpectomy planning target volume. Toxicities and cosmesis were prospectively scored using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Effects Version 3.0 and the Harvard Scale. The median follow-up was 40 months. Results: The median body mass index (BMI) was 33.6 kg/m{sup 2}, and median breast volume was 1396 cm{sup 3}. The worst toxicity encountered during radiation was Grade 3 dermatitis in 5% of our patient population. Moist desquamation occurred in 16% of patients, with only 2% of patients with moist desquamation outside the inframammary/axillary folds. Eleven percent of patients had Grade {>=}2 late toxicities, including Grade 3 induration/fibrosis in 2%. Excellent to good cosmesis was achieved in 89%. Higher BMI was associated with moist desquamation and breast pain, but BMI and breast volume did not impact fibrosis or excellent to good cosmesis. Conclusion: In patients with higher BMI and/or large-pendulous breasts, delivering prone WBI using 3D-CRT results in favorable toxicity profiles and high excellent to good cosmesis rates. Higher BMI was associated with moist desquamation, but prone positioning removed BMI and breast size as factors for poorer cosmetic outcomes. This series adds to the growing literature demonstrating that prone WBI may be advantageous in select patients.

Bergom, Carmen; Kelly, Tracy; Morrow, Natalya; Wilson, J. Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Walker, Alonzo [Department of Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Xiang Qun; Ahn, Kwang Woo [Division of Biostatistics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); White, Julia, E-mail: jwhite@mcw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

2012-07-01

128

Prone Whole-Breast Irradiation Using Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy in Women Undergoing Breast Conservation for Early Disease Yields High Rates of Excellent to Good Cosmetic Outcomes in Patients With Large and/or Pendulous Breasts  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report our institution’s experience using prone positioning for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) to deliver post-lumpectomy whole breast irradiation (WBI) in a cohort of women with large and/or pendulous breasts, to determine the rate of acute and late toxicities and, more specifically, cosmetic outcomes. We hypothesized that using 3D-CRT for WBI in the prone position would reduce or eliminate patient and breast size as negative prognostic indicators for toxicities associated with WBI. Methods and Materials From 1998 to 2006, 110 cases were treated with prone WBI using 3D-CRT. The lumpectomy, breast target volumes, heart, and lung were contoured on all computed tomography scans. A dose of 45–50 Gy was prescribed to the breast volume using standard fractionation schemes. The planning goals were ?95% of prescription to 95% of the breast volume, and 100% of boost dose to 95% of lumpectomy planning target volume. Toxicities and cosmesis were prospectively scored using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Effects Version 3.0 and the Harvard Scale. The median follow-up was 40 months. Results The median body mass index (BMI) was 33.6 kg/m2, and median breast volume was 1396 cm3. The worst toxicity encountered during radiation was Grade 3 dermatitis in 5% of our patient population. Moist desquamation occurred in 16% of patients, with only 2% of patients with moist desquamation outside the inframammary/axillary folds. Eleven percent of patients had Grade ?2 late toxicities, including Grade 3 induration/fibrosis in 2%. Excellent to good cosmesis was achieved in 89%. Higher BMI was associated with moist desquamation and breast pain, but BMI and breast volume did not impact fibrosis or excellent to good cosmesis. Conclusion In patients with higher BMI and/or large–pendulous breasts, delivering prone WBI using 3D-CRT results in favorable toxicity profiles and high excellent to good cosmesis rates. Higher BMI was associated with moist desquamation, but prone positioning removed BMI and breast size as factors for poorer cosmetic outcomes. This series adds to the growing literature demonstrating that prone WBI may be advantageous in select patients. PMID:22208973

Bergom, Carmen; Kelly, Tracy; Morrow, Natalya; Wilson, J. Frank; Walker, Alonzo; Xiang, Qun; Ahn, Kwang Woo; White, Julia

2013-01-01

129

Conservation and Reading Readiness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conservation is positively correlated with reading readiness and intelligence. Suggests that conservation is worthy of attention by primary teachers as a predictor of the child's readiness for learning to read. (ST)

Brekke, Beverly W.; And Others

1973-01-01

130

The Conservator's Studio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Produced by the Seattle Art Museum, this online resource explores the Art Conservator's profession, showing you 4 paintings through a conservator's eyes. The exhibit begins with an overview of the profession.

Museum, Seattle A.

131

Anthropological Objects Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article introduces students to the Objects Conservation Laboratory run by the museum's Anthropology Division. It discusses the main activities of the lab's conservators what that process involves.

132

ParCAT: Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit  

SciTech Connect

Climate science is employing increasingly complex models and simulations to analyze the past and predict the future of Earth s climate. This growth in complexity is creating a widening gap between the data being produced and the ability to analyze the datasets. Parallel computing tools are necessary to analyze, compare, and interpret the simulation data. The Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit (ParCAT) provides basic tools to efficiently use parallel computing techniques to make analysis of these datasets manageable. The toolkit provides the ability to compute spatio-temporal means, differences between runs or differences between averages of runs, and histograms of the values in a data set. ParCAT is implemented as a command-line utility written in C. This allows for easy integration in other tools and allows for use in scripts. This also makes it possible to run ParCAT on many platforms from laptops to supercomputers. ParCAT outputs NetCDF files so it is compatible with existing utilities such as Panoply and UV-CDAT. This paper describes ParCAT and presents results from some example runs on the Titan system at ORNL.

Smith, Brian E [ORNL; Steed, Chad A [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Ricciuto, Daniel M [ORNL; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Wehner, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

2013-01-01

133

The Ocean Conservancy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn about the Ocean Conservancy's conservation projects, the latest news in marine conservation, how to get involved, and more. Read over the current issues the Ocean Conservancy is working on, such as by catch, invasive species, and overfishing. Explore the "Fish and Wildlife" link for pictures and information on threatened and endangered animals; and read past and current issues of Blue Planet Magazine, OC's quarterly publication.

134

Natural Resources Conservation Service: Backyard Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Natural Resources Conservation Service, a division of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, has a feature on their website on backyard conservation. Conservation practices used on agricultural land throughout the country have been adapted for the smaller scale of backyards. Not only can visitors download and print out a 28-page booklet in English or Spanish, but they can also download and print out eight tip sheets on backyard conversation. Information on how to order the free above-mentioned material, through the mail, is also provided. Using the link in the middle of the page, "See More Tips and Topics on Backyard Conservation", visitors can read over 30 archived tips and topics, including "Invite a Toad to Dinner", "Selecting the Right Tree", and "Dream Yard". For teachers, the link "Backyard Conservation Lesson Plans" in the middle of the page provides a variety of lesson plans. Some of the lessons included are "Team Flight", which is about birds; "Growing Native", which is about native plant communities; and "Backyard Conservation and Local Laws", which is about how community laws may help or hinder backyard conservation efforts. A mock city council hearing is the final activity of the lesson.

135

From conservation genetics to conservation genomics.  

PubMed

Although the application of population and evolutionary genetic theory and methods to address issues of conservation relevance has a long history, the formalization of conservation genetics as a research field is still relatively recent. One of the periodic catalysts for increased research effort in the field has been advances in molecular technologies, leading to an increasingly wider variety of molecular markers for application in conservation genetic studies. To date, genetic methods have been applied in conservation biology primarily as selectively neutral molecular tools for resolving questions of conservation relevance. However, there has been renewed interest in complementing the analysis of neutral markers with the assessment of loci that may be directly involved in responses to processes such as environmental change, with a view to identifying the genes involved in them. These kinds of studies are now possible due to the increase in availability of genomic resources for nonmodel organisms, and there will likely be an even more rapid increase in the near future due to the advent of new ultrahigh throughput-sequencing technologies. This review considers the implications of the most recent developments in genomic technologies and their potential for contributing to the conservation of populations and species. Three "conservation genomics" case studies are presented (Atlantic salmon, Salmo sala; the butterfly, Melitaea cinxia; and the California condor, Gymnogyps californianus) in order to demonstrate the diversity of applications now possible. While it is clear that genomics approaches in conservation will not replace other tried-and-true methods, these recent developments open up an exciting new range of possibilities that will enable further diversification of the application of genomics in conservation biology. PMID:19432656

Primmer, Craig R

2009-04-01

136

Introduction to Conservation Genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction to Conservation Genetics written by R. Frankham, J.D. Ballou, and D.A. Briscoe, is a comprehensive introductory text that provides an enlightening synthesis of data and theory from ecology, population genetics, evolution, and conservation biology. The book focuses on the science of conservation genetics and is appealing in its general lack of overt advocacy, while the final section provides meaningful

R. Frankham; J. D. Ballou; D. A. Briscoe; Alec R. Lindsay

2002-01-01

137

Global Biodiversity Conservation Priorities  

E-print Network

irreplaceability/vulnerability framework of systematic conservation planning. Most of the templates prioritize, results, impacts, and challenges of these prioritizations of conservation practice within the theoretical so within the framework of conservation planning (10). We review the published concepts and methods

Wilmers, Chris

138

Global Biodiversity Conservation Priorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The location of and threats to biodiversity are distributed unevenly, so prioritization is essential to minimize biodiversity loss. To address this need, biodiversity conservation organizations have proposed nine templates of global priorities over the past decade. Here, we review the concepts, methods, results, impacts, and challenges of these prioritizations of conservation practice within the theoretical irreplaceability\\/vulnerability framework of systematic conservation

T. M. Brooks; R. A. Mittermeier; G. A. B. da Fonseca; J. Gerlach; M. Hoffmann; J. F. Lamoreux; C. G. Mittermeier; J. D. Pilgrim; A. S. L. Rodrigues

2006-01-01

139

Building robust conservation plans.  

PubMed

Systematic conservation planning optimizes trade-offs between biodiversity conservation and human activities by accounting for socioeconomic costs while aiming to achieve prescribed conservation objectives. However, the most cost-efficient conservation plan can be very dissimilar to any other plan achieving the set of conservation objectives. This is problematic under conditions of implementation uncertainty (e.g., if all or part of the plan becomes unattainable). We determined through simulations of parallel implementation of conservation plans and habitat loss the conditions under which optimal plans have limited chances of implementation and where implementation attempts would fail to meet objectives. We then devised a new, flexible method for identifying conservation priorities and scheduling conservation actions. This method entails generating a number of alternative plans, calculating the similarity in site composition among all plans, and selecting the plan with the highest density of neighboring plans in similarity space. We compared our method with the classic method that maximizes cost efficiency with synthetic and real data sets. When implementation was uncertain-a common reality-our method provided higher likelihood of achieving conservation targets. We found that ?, a measure of the shortfall in objectives achieved by a conservation plan if the plan could not be implemented entirely, was the main factor determining the relative performance of a flexibility enhanced approach to conservation prioritization. Our findings should help planning authorities prioritize conservation efforts in the face of uncertainty about future condition and availability of sites. PMID:25362995

Visconti, Piero; Joppa, Lucas

2014-10-31

140

Biodiversity and Conservation Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for Biodiversity and Conservation (CBC) at the American Museum of Natural History aims to "integrate scientific research, education, and outreach so that people, themselves major catalysts in the rapid loss of biodiversity, will become participants in its conservation." The CBC currently conducts biodiversity conservation research in the Bahamas, Bolivia, Madagascar, Vietnam, and in metropolitan New York.

141

Conservation Focus and Executive  

E-print Network

Northwest Power and Conservation Council Focus and Executive Summary Background Power Committee Walla Walla May 12, 2009 #12;Northwest Power and Conservation Council Conditions Facing the Region and Conservation Council Resource Alternatives · Increased cost-effective efficiency potential ­ Technological

142

Multispecies Conservation Planning  

E-print Network

CHAPTER 3 Multispecies Conservation Planning on U.S. Federal Lands Barry R. Noon, Kevin S. McKelvey, and Brett G. Dickson Numerous laws directly, or indirectly, mandate the conservation of all species that govern the use of these same lands that are in conflict with a goal of maximizing the conservation

143

Scanning the Conservation Horizon  

E-print Network

.S. Geological Survey Fundamental Science Practices. Scanning the Conservation Horizon is available online at Sciences Evan Girvetz, The Nature Conservancy Patty Glick, National Wildlife Federation John GrossScanning the Conservation Horizon A Guide to Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment #12;Scanning

144

Marine bioluminescence estimation algorithms for in-situ irradiance measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two simple algorithms are examined for estimating the volumetric generation rate of a bioluminescent light field in the upper ocean from measurements of the irradiance and scalar irradiance at two depths beneath the surface of seawater. Both algorithms require that in situ irradiance and scalar irradiance measurements be made and that the absorption coefficient be known. Radiative transfer calculations have been done to numerically test the sensitivity of the algorithms, and the one based on the principle of photon conservation is shown to work well when searching for the presence of a source and for estimating the source magnitude.

McCormick, Norman J.; Sanchez, R.; Yi, Hwa C.

1990-09-01

145

PAR polarity: from complexity to design principles.  

PubMed

The par-titioning-defective or PAR proteins comprise the core of an essential cell polarity network that underlies polarization in a wide variety of cell types and developmental contexts. The output of this network in nearly every case is the establishment of opposing and complementary membrane domains that define a cell?s polarity axis. Yet, behind this simple pattern is a complex system of interactions, regulation and dynamic behaviors. How these various parts combine to generate polarized patterns of protein localization in cells is only beginning to become clear. This review, part of the Special Issue on Cell Polarity, aims to highlight several emerging themes and design principles that underlie the process of cell polarization by components of the PAR network. PMID:25128809

Goehring, Nathan W

2014-11-01

146

Evidence of a conserved functional role for DNA methylation in termites  

E-print Network

Evidence of a conserved functional role for DNA methylation in termites K. M. Glastad, B. G. Hunt in the expressed genes of two termites, Reticu- litermes flavipes and Coptotermes formosanus. Further, we show is present at par- ticularly high levels in termites and may play similar roles to those found in other

Yi, Soojin

147

Exactly conservative integrators  

SciTech Connect

Traditional numerical discretizations of conservative systems generically yield an artificial secular drift of any nonlinear invariants. In this work we present an explicit nontraditional algorithm that exactly conserves invariants. We illustrate the general method by applying it to the Three-Wave truncation of the Euler equations, the Volterra-Lotka predator-prey model, and the Kepler problem. We discuss our method in the context of symplectic (phase space conserving) integration methods as well as nonsymplectic conservative methods. We comment on the application of our method to general conservative systems.

Shadwick, B.A.; Bowman, J.C.; Morrison, P.J.

1995-07-19

148

Conservation: Toward firmer ground  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following aspects of energy conservation were reviewed in order to place the problems in proper perspective: history and goals, conservation accounting-criteria, and a method to overcome obstacles. The effect of changing prices and available supplies of energy sources and their causes on consumption levels during the last few decades were described. Some examples of attainable conservation goals were listed and justified. A number of specific criteria applicable to conservation accounting were given. Finally, a discussion was presented to relate together the following aspects of energy conservation: widespread impact, involvement of government, industry, politics, moral and ethical aspects, urgency and time element.

1975-01-01

149

Les Brulures Chimiques Par Le Laurier Rose  

PubMed Central

Summary Le laurier rose ou Nerium oleander est un arbuste qui pousse naturellement dans les régions méditerranéennes. Au Maroc on le trouve dans les lieux humides. Il est réputé par ses risques de toxicité systémique en cas d'empoisonnement à cause de la présence de deux alcaloïdes, surtout l'oléandrine. La littérature illustre des cas d'utilisation locale des feuilles de cette plante contre la gale, les hémorroïdes et les furoncles. Nous rapportons deux cas de brûlures chimiques par le laurier rose de gravité différente. Cela doit aboutir à une information élargie de la population, ainsi qu'une réglementation stricte de sa commercialisation. PMID:21991211

Bakkali, H.; Ababou, M.; Nassim Sabah, T.; Moussaoui, A.; Ennouhi, A.; Fouadi, F.Z.; Siah, S.; Ihrai, H.

2010-01-01

150

Émission X(L) du xénon par interaction laser-agrégats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nous avons étudié le rayonnement X provenant d'ions fortement multichargés (ge24+) présentant des lacunes en couche L produits lors de l'irradiation d'agrégats de xénon par des impulsions lumineuses issues d'un laser femtoseconde de puissance. Les résultats obtenus lors de la toute dernière campagne d'expériences réalisée auprès du serveur LUCA du SPAM/DRECAM au CEA/Saclay mettent en cause certains travaux antérieurs [4-6]. Des divergences marquées apparaissent tant au niveau de l'interprétation des spectres X que sur la variation du taux d'émission en fonction de l'éclairement et de la longueur d'onde.

Adoui, L.; Gobert, O.; Indelicato, P.; Lamour, E.; Meynadier, P.; Normand, D.; Perdrix, M.; Prigent, C.; Rozet, J.-P.; Vernhet, D.

2003-06-01

151

-calcul et dualite : appel par nom et appel par valeur Jer^ome ROCHETEAU  

E-print Network

µ-calcul et dualit´e : appel par nom et appel par valeur J´er^ome ROCHETEAU R´esum´e L'extension `a r´eduction avec appel par valeur. On ´etudie cette dualit´e, d'une part `a travers le µ-calcul dont'autre part `a travers le ¯µ~µ-calcul dont les r´eductions reposent sur une sym´etrie gauche/droite du calcul

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

152

American Bird Conservancy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Bird Conservancy (ABC) is a nonprofit organization working to "conserve wild birds and their habitats throughout the Americas." The ABC website provides informative and useful features such as the Bird Conservation Directory, a searchable directory of contact information for professionals engaged in bird conservation throughout the Americas, and the downloadable Birdwatcher's Guide to Global Warming (last mentioned in the June 28, 2002 NSDL Scout Report for the Life Sciences). The site also provides information about ABC membership and a variety of conservation programs such as Partners in Flight, Cats Indoors, The North American Bird Conservation Initiative, and the Pesticides and Birds Campaign. Site visitors may also view past copies of the ABC newsletter; and sign up for free email bulletins containing conservation action alerts, information, and news.

153

CDK-1 and Two B-Type Cyclins Promote PAR-6 Stabilization during Polarization of the Early C. elegans Embryo.  

PubMed

In the C. elegans embryo, formation of an antero-posterior axis of polarity relies on signaling by the conserved PAR proteins, which localize asymmetrically in two mutually exclusive groups at the embryonic cortex. Depletion of any PAR protein causes a loss of polarity and embryonic lethality. A genome-wide RNAi screen previously identified two B-type cyclins, cyb-2.1 and cyb-2.2, as suppressors of par-2(it5ts) lethality. We found that the loss of cyb-2.1 or cyb-2.2 suppressed the lethality and polarity defects of par-2(it5ts) mutants and that these cyclins act in cell polarity with their cyclin-dependent kinase partner, CDK-1. Interestingly, cyb-2.1; cyb-2.2 double mutants did not show defects in cell cycle progression or timing of polarity establishment, suggesting that they regulate polarity independently of their typical role in cell cycle progression. Loss of both cyclin genes or of cdk-1 resulted in a decrease in PAR-6 levels in the embryo. Furthermore, the activity of the cullin CUL-2 was required to achieve suppression of par-2 lethality when both cyclins were absent. Our results support a model in which CYB-2.1/2/CDK-1 antagonize CUL-2 activity to promote stabilization of PAR-6 levels during polarization of the early C. elegans embryo. They also suggest that CYB-2.1 and CYB-2.2 contribute to the coupling of cell cycle progression and asymmetric segregation of cell fate determinants. PMID:25658117

Rabilotta, Alexia; Desrosiers, Marianne; Labbé, Jean-Claude

2015-01-01

154

CDK-1 and Two B-Type Cyclins Promote PAR-6 Stabilization during Polarization of the Early C. elegans Embryo  

PubMed Central

In the C. elegans embryo, formation of an antero-posterior axis of polarity relies on signaling by the conserved PAR proteins, which localize asymmetrically in two mutually exclusive groups at the embryonic cortex. Depletion of any PAR protein causes a loss of polarity and embryonic lethality. A genome-wide RNAi screen previously identified two B-type cyclins, cyb-2.1 and cyb-2.2, as suppressors of par-2(it5ts) lethality. We found that the loss of cyb-2.1 or cyb-2.2 suppressed the lethality and polarity defects of par-2(it5ts) mutants and that these cyclins act in cell polarity with their cyclin-dependent kinase partner, CDK-1. Interestingly, cyb-2.1; cyb-2.2 double mutants did not show defects in cell cycle progression or timing of polarity establishment, suggesting that they regulate polarity independently of their typical role in cell cycle progression. Loss of both cyclin genes or of cdk-1 resulted in a decrease in PAR-6 levels in the embryo. Furthermore, the activity of the cullin CUL-2 was required to achieve suppression of par-2 lethality when both cyclins were absent. Our results support a model in which CYB-2.1/2/CDK-1 antagonize CUL-2 activity to promote stabilization of PAR-6 levels during polarization of the early C. elegans embryo. They also suggest that CYB-2.1 and CYB-2.2 contribute to the coupling of cell cycle progression and asymmetric segregation of cell fate determinants. PMID:25658117

Rabilotta, Alexia; Desrosiers, Marianne; Labbé, Jean-Claude

2015-01-01

155

Systemic Par-4 inhibits non-autochthonous tumor growth  

PubMed Central

The tumor suppressor protein Par-4 (prostate apoptosis response-4) is spontaneously secreted by normal and cancer cells. Extracellular Par-4 induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in cancer cell cultures by binding, via its effector SAC domain, to cell surface GRP78 receptor. However, the functional significance of extracellular Par-4/SAC has not been validated in animal models. We show that Par-4/SAC-transgenic mice express systemic Par-4/SAC protein and are resistant to the growth of non-autochthonous tumors. Consistently, secretory Par-4/SAC pro-apoptotic activity can be transferred from these cancer-resistant transgenic mice to cancer-susceptible mice by bone marrow transplantation. Moreover, intravenous injection of recombinant Par-4 or SAC protein inhibits metastasis of cancer cells. Collectively, our findings indicate that extracellular Par-4/SAC is systemically functional in inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis progression, and may merit investigation as a therapy. PMID:21613819

Brandon, Jason; Qiu, Shirley; Shelton, Brent J; Spear, Brett; Bondada, Subbarao; Bryson, Scott

2011-01-01

156

A Combined Global and Local Approach to Elucidate Spatial Organization of the Mycobacterial ParB-parS Partition  

SciTech Connect

Combining diverse sets of data at global (size, shape) and local (residue) scales is an emerging trend for elucidating the organization and function of the cellular assemblies. We used such a strategy, combining data from X-ray and neutron scattering with H/D-contrast variation and X-ray footprinting with mass spectrometry, to elucidate the spatial organization of the ParB-parS assembly from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The ParB-parS participates in plasmid and chromosome segregation and condensation in predivisional bacterial cells. ParB polymerizes around the parS centromere(s) to form a higher-order assembly that serves to recruit cyto-skeletal ParA ATPases and SMC proteins for chromosome segregation. A hybrid model of the ParB-parS was built by combining and correlating computational models with experiment-derived information about size, shape, position of the symmetry axis within the shape, internal topology, DNA-protein interface, exposed surface patches, and prior knowledge. This first view of the ParB-parS leads us to propose how ParB spread on the chromosome to form a larger assembly.

Chaudhuri, Barnali [University of Buffalo, The State University of New York; Gupta, Sayan [Case Western Reserve University; Urban, Volker S [ORNL; Chance, Mark [Case Western Reserve University; D'Mello, Rhijuta [Case Western Reserve University; Smith, Lauren [University of Buffalo, The State University of New York; Lyons, Kelly [University of Buffalo, The State University of New York; Gee, Jessica [University of Buffalo, The State University of New York

2010-01-01

157

A Combined Global and Local Approach to Elucidate Spatial Organization of the Mycobacterial ParB-parS Partition Assembly  

SciTech Connect

Combining diverse sets of data at global (size, shape) and local (residue) scales is an emerging trend for elucidating the organization and function of the cellular assemblies. We used such a strategy, combining data from X-ray and neutron scattering with H/D-contrast variation and X-ray footprinting with mass spectrometry, to elucidate the spatial organization of the ParB-parS assembly from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The ParB-parS participates in plasmid and chromosome segregation and condensation in predivisional bacterial cells. ParB polymerizes around the parS centromere(s) to form a higher-order assembly that serves to recruit cyto-skeletal ParA ATPases and SMC proteins for chromosome segregation. A hybrid model of the ParB-parS was built by combining and correlating computational models with experiment-derived information about size, shape, position of the symmetry axis within the shape, internal topology, DNA-protein interface, exposed surface patches, and prior knowledge. This first view of the ParB-parS leads us to propose how ParB spread on the chromosome to form a larger assembly.

B Chaudhuri; S Gupta; V Urban; M Chance; R DMello; L Smith; K Lyons; J Gee

2011-12-31

158

Radiation technology for environmental conservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of radiation technology for environmental conservation is becoming increasingly important. Commercial plants for the radiation treatment of sewage sludge to reduce pathogenic micro-organisms have been operating in the Federal Republic of Germany for the past ten years and their technical and economical feasibility has been demonstrated. Irradiation of dried sludge has been developed at the Sandia National Laboratory (USA) using Cs-137, and the construction of a commercial plant is planned in Albuquerque. At the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), efforts are under way to increase the rate of composting of sludge by radiation. Regarding waste water treatment, a significant synergistic effect of radiation and ozone was found in the reduction of TOC. The construction of a gamma irradiation plant is in the planning stage in Canada, for the disinfection of virus-contaminated waste effluents from the Canadian Animal Disease Research Institute. The treatment of exhaust gases by electron beam has been studied in Japan using a large pilot plant which demonstrated that 90% of SO 2 and 80% of NO x can be removed from the flue gas of iron ore sintering furnaces. The US Department of Energy is assisting in projects for the further development of this technology for combined removal of SO 2 and NO x in flue gas from coal burning power stations.

Machi, S.

159

Project Plan 7930 Cell G PaR Remote Handling System Replacement  

SciTech Connect

For over 40 years the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have made Californium-252 ({sup 252}Cf) available for a wide range of industries including medical, nuclear fuels, mining, military and national security. The Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) located within the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) processes irradiated production targets from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Operations in Building 7930, Cell G provide over 70% of the world's demand for {sup 252}Cf. Building 7930 was constructed and equipped in the mid-1960s. Current operations for {sup 252}Cf processing in Building 7930, Cell G require use of through-the-wall manipulators and the PaR Remote Handling System. Maintenance and repairs for the manipulators is readily accomplished by removal of the manipulator and relocation to a repair shop where hands-on work can be performed in glove boxes. Contamination inside cell G does not currently allow manned entry and no provisions were created for a maintenance area inside the cell. There has been no maintenance of the PaR system or upgrades, leaving operations vulnerable should the system have a catastrophic failure. The Cell G PaR system is currently being operated in a run to failure mode. As the manipulator is now 40+ years old there is significant risk in this method of operation. In 2006 an assessment was completed that resulted in recommendations for replacing the manipulator operator control and power centers which are used to control and power the PaR manipulator in Cell G. In mid-2008 the chain for the bridge drive failed and subsequent examinations indicated several damaged links (see Figure 1). To continue operations the PaR manipulator arm is being used to push and pull the bridge as a workaround. A retrieval tool was fabricated, tested and staged inside Cell G that will allow positioning of the bridge and manipulator arm for removal from the cell should the PaR system completely fail. A fully functioning and reliable Par manipulator arm is necessary for uninterrupted {sup 252}Cf operations; a fully-functioning bridge is needed for the system to function as intended.

Kinney, Kathryn A [ORNL

2009-10-01

160

CHAMBRE A TINCELLES CYLINDRIQUE A FILS AVEC ENREGISTREMENT PAR FERRITES  

E-print Network

304. CHAMBRE A �TINCELLES CYLINDRIQUE A FILS AVEC ENREGISTREMENT PAR FERRITES A. E. TAYLOR, I fils, avec enregistrement par ferrites, présentant l'avantage d'une quantité de matériau réduite pour assurée par des chambres à étincelles à ferrites. Les électrodes sont constituées par des feuilles d

Boyer, Edmond

161

Asservissement par PID Application du PWM au pont en H  

E-print Network

Plan Asservissement par PID PWM Ponts en H Application du PWM au pont en H Bibliographie Asservissement par PID, PWM et Ponts en H Siwar, Cédric, Samuel Télécom Paristech 4 mars 2011 Siwar, Cédric, Samuel ROSE 1 / 33 4 mars 2011 #12;Plan Asservissement par PID PWM Ponts en H Application du PWM au pont

Tardieu, Samuel

162

Bioluminescence estimation from ocean in situ irradiances.  

PubMed

An algorithm is developed for estimating the spatial location and magnitude of a bioluminescent radiation source from measurements of the in situ irradiance and scalar irradiance at two depths. The algorithm is based on the principle of photon conservation. The most direct application of the algorithm requires that the absorption coefficient be known, but the algorithm is useful even if that coefficient is unknown. Numerical tests and an error analysis have been done to test the algorithm numerically. In addition we show that if the estimated source magnitude is nearly constant, that value can be used to estimate the vertical attenuation coefficient of the radiation field. PMID:20720689

Yi, H C; Sanchez, R; McCormick, N J

1992-02-20

163

235 -2010 Anne : 2010 Dlivre par  

E-print Network

Sandrine ISOARD-GAUTHEUR LE BURNOUT SPORTIF CHEZ DES ADOLESCENTS(TES) EN POLE ESPOIR HANDBALL : APPROCHE tel-00842944,version1-9Jul2013 #12;Le Burnout Sportif chez des Adolescents(tes) en Pôle Espoir premier chapitre présente une revue de littérature sur le burnout sportif. Par la suite trois axes de

164

Historic macrophyte development in Par Pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerial photographs from 1975, 1980, and 1983 were examined to evaluate the changes that have occurred in the wetland vegetation of Par Pond, a reactor-cooling reservoir. Evaluation of the aerial photographs was based on comparisons with ground-level vegetation maps made during July 1984. Comparisons of photographs from August and December of 1983 revealed the main seasonal change in the aerial

1985-01-01

165

NOUVEAU SYSTME TLGRAPHIQUE; PAR M. ESTIENNE.  

E-print Network

conformément au code Morse. Le trait peut occuper, en hauteur, la largeur du ruban de papier, quelle que soit volume du Morse. L'avan- cement du papier se produit par un mécanisme analogue à celui de ce dernier

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

166

Intramural Sports Par 3 Golf League  

E-print Network

The Department of Recreational Sports does not provide health or accident insurance that covers intramural sports participants. The Intramural Sports Program encourages each participant to maintain health and accidentIntramural Sports Par 3 Golf League Summer 2014 Intramural Sports Calendar of Events Summer 2014

Escher, Christine

167

suPAR and Team Nephrology  

PubMed Central

Primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) accounts for nearly 10 % of patients who require renal replacement therapy. Elevated circulating levels of soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) have been identified as a biomarker to discriminate primary FSGS from other glomerulopathies. Subsequent reports have questioned the diagnostic utility of this test. In a study in BMC Medicine, Huang et al. demonstrate that urinary soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) excretion assists in distinguishing primary FSGS from other glomerular diseases, and that high plasma suPAR concentrations are not directly linked to a decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). This observation suggests that further investigation of suPAR is warranted in patients with FSGS. It should be interpreted in light of a recent report that B7-1 is expressed in the podocytes of a subset of patients with FSGS, and that blocking this molecule may represent the first successful targeted intervention for this disease. These advances highlight the rapid pace of scientific progress in the field of nephrology. Nephrologists should work together, share resources, and expedite the design of protocols to evaluate these novel biomarkers in a comprehensive and scientifically valid manner. Please see related article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/12/81. PMID:24885021

2014-01-01

168

CARTOGRAPHIE DES ACCIDENTS GOLOGIQUES PAR IMAGERIE  

E-print Network

119 CARTOGRAPHIE DES ACCIDENTS G�OLOGIQUES PAR IMAGERIE SATELLITAIRE LANDSAT-7 ETM+ ET ANALYSE DES cartographier les réseaux de fractures dans les roches cristallines et métamorphiques à l'aide des images les images brutes, permettant une meilleure cartographie des accidents géologiques. La carte

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

169

pr esent ee par Boubakeur BOUFAMA  

E-print Network

#12;ERES 3 Table des mati#12;eres Introduction 6 1 G eom etrie et vision par ordinateur 11 1.1 G eom : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 13 1.1.3 Invariants projectifs : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 14 1.1.4 G eom etrie a ne : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 17 1.1.5 G eom etrie euclidienne

Boyer, Edmond

170

L'ABSORPTION DES ULTRASONS PAR CERTAINES CTONES Par S. PARTHASARATHY et V. NARASIMHAN,  

E-print Network

957. L'ABSORPTION DES ULTRASONS PAR CERTAINES C�TONES Par S. PARTHASARATHY et V. NARASIMHAN coefficient d'absorption ont été mesurés dans plusieurs cétones à différentes températures et les résultats variation de l'absorption avec la température était positif dans l'intervalle considéré dans ce travail

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

171

Comptes Rendus des JNC 17 -Poitiers 2011 Simulation par lments finis des procds par infusion de rsine  

E-print Network

Comptes Rendus des JNC 17 - Poitiers 2011 Simulation par éléments finis des procédés par infusion de résine Finite Simulation of the liquid infusion processes G. Pacquaut, J. Bruchon, N. Moulin, S permettant de simuler par éléments finis les procé- dés par infusion de résine au travers de renforts fibreux

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

172

Conservation: Toward firmer ground  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following aspects of energy conservation were discussed: conservation history and goals, conservation modes, conservation accounting-criteria, and a method to overcome obstacles. The conservation modes tested fall into one of the following categories: reduced energy consumption, increased efficiency of energy utilization, or substitution of one or more forms of energy for another which is in shorter supply or in some sense thought to be of more value. The conservation accounting criteria include net energy reduction, economic, and technical criteria. A method to overcome obstacles includes (approaches such as: direct personal impact (life style, income, security, aspiration), an element of crisis, large scale involvement of environmental, safety, and health issues, connections to big government, big business, big politics, involvement of known and speculative science and technology, appeal to moral and ethical standards, the transient nature of opportunities to correct the system.

1975-01-01

173

Migratory Bird Conservancy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The recently launched Migratory Bird Conservancy represents a unique partnership among birders, birding businesses, and the conservation community. Headed by the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation (NFWF), this original and somewhat unusual initiative was established to facilitate public contributions to the goals and objectives of Partners in Flight. The mission of the Conservancy is to raise a minimum of $500,000 annually "to help conserve bird habitats throughout the Western Hemisphere." This site offers summary information on the Migratory Bird Conservancy (MBC), including how to apply for a MBC grant and how to make donations. For those interested in the future of migratory birds or in learning about conservation funding, this site will be of direct interest.

174

Global biodiversity conservation priorities.  

PubMed

The location of and threats to biodiversity are distributed unevenly, so prioritization is essential to minimize biodiversity loss. To address this need, biodiversity conservation organizations have proposed nine templates of global priorities over the past decade. Here, we review the concepts, methods, results, impacts, and challenges of these prioritizations of conservation practice within the theoretical irreplaceability/vulnerability framework of systematic conservation planning. Most of the templates prioritize highly irreplaceable regions; some are reactive (prioritizing high vulnerability), and others are proactive (prioritizing low vulnerability). We hope this synthesis improves understanding of these prioritization approaches and that it results in more efficient allocation of geographically flexible conservation funding. PMID:16825561

Brooks, T M; Mittermeier, R A; da Fonseca, G A B; Gerlach, J; Hoffmann, M; Lamoreux, J F; Mittermeier, C G; Pilgrim, J D; Rodrigues, A S L

2006-07-01

175

Carcinome épidermoïde de l’urètre masculin révélé par une rupture spontanée de l’urètre  

PubMed Central

Résumé Le carcinome épidermoïde de l’urètre masculin est une tumeur rare, les tumeurs de l’urètre tous types confondus représentant moins de 1 % des tumeurs de l’appareil urinaire. Le pronostic reste défavorable malgré un traitement chirurgical énergique. La radiochimiothérapie semble être un traitement prometteur, mais son rôle doit être défini par d’autres études. Nous rapportons un cas rare de carcinome épidermoïde de l’urètre bulbo-membraneux découvert à un stade localement avancé après observation d’une rupture urétrale transtumorale chez un homme âgé de 70 ans. Le patient a été traité, après drainage vésical, par une irradiation externe associée à une chimiothérapie par cisplatine, et est décédé après progression de la maladie sur un an. La rupture spontanée de l’urètre transtumorale est un mode de découverte exceptionnel témoignant d’une évolution locale défavorable, ce qui rend ces tumeurs difficilement opérables. Cependant, l’espoir actuel réside dans des protocoles thérapeutiques associant radiothérapie et chimiothérapie. PMID:21672490

Ghorbel, Jilani; Hafsia, Ghassen; Derouiche, Amine; Jrad, Anis; Chebil, Mohamed

2011-01-01

176

Involvement of gibberellins in the stem elongation of sun and shade ecotypes of Stellaria longipes that is induced by low light irradiance.  

PubMed

Plants from two ecotypes of Stellaria longipes, alpine (an open, sunny habitat) and prairie (where adjacent plants provide a shaded habitat), were grown under normal and reduced levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Growth under low PAR is significantly promoted in both ecotypes. When quantified by the stable isotope dilution method, endogenous gibberellins (GAs) (GA1, GA8, GA20, GA19) were significantly elevated under low PAR in both 'sun' and 'shade' ecotypes, as was GA53 in the shade ecotype. Changes in endogenous GA1 levels were significantly correlated with stem growth during a 28 d growth cycle and with relative growth rate (RGR) for height under low PAR for both ecotypes. Interestingly, under low irradiance PAR, changes (both increases and decreases) in GA8, the 2beta-hydroxylated 'inactive' catabolite of GA1, closely parallel bidaily stem growth changes for both ecotypes. Because the significantly greater stem elongation of both ecotypes in response to low irradiance PAR is associated with significant increases in the endogenous levels of five GAs (GA53, GA19, GA1, GA8) in the early 13-hydroxylation GA biosynthesis pathway (measured at days 7,14 and 21), we conclude that the low irradiance PAR has very likely induced an overall increase in GA biosynthesis. PMID:17080953

Kurepin, Leonid V; Pharis, Richard P; Reid, David M; Chinnappa, C C

2006-07-01

177

Mechanisms of Apoptosis by the Tumor Suppressor Par-4  

PubMed Central

Par-4 is a pro-apoptotic, tumor suppressor protein that induces apoptosis selectively in cancer cells. Endoplasmic reticulum-stress and higher levels of protein kinase A in tumor cells confer the coveted feature of cancer selective response to extracellular and intracellular Par-4, respectively. Recent studies have shown that systemic Par-4 confers resistance to tumor growth in mice, and that tumor-resistance is transferable by bone marrow transplantation. Moreover, recombinant Par-4 inhibits the growth of tumors in mice. As systemic Par-4 induces apoptosis via cell surface GRP78, strategies that promote GRP78 trafficking to the cell surface are expected sensitize cancer cells to circulating levels of Par-4. This review illustrates the domains and mechanisms by which Par-4 orchestrates the apoptotic process in both cell culture models and in physiological settings. PMID:22552839

Hebbar, Nikhil; Wang, Chi; Rangnekar, Vivek M.

2012-01-01

178

Analyses par diffraction de rayons X sur des revêtements barrières thermiques réalisés par un procédé hybride plasma-laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Les revêtements barrières thermiques (BTs) constitués de zircone yttriée partiellement stabilisée (ZrO{2} + 7% en masse d'Y{2}O{3}) et d'une sous-couche métallique (MCrAlY où M représente une combinaison de nickel et de cobalt) sont extrêmement utilisés afin d'améliorer les performances des composants des parties chaudes des turbines à gaz. La projection plasma sous atmosphère ambiante et l'irradiation laser in situ (au moyen d'un laser à diodes) sont associés ici afin de modifier les caractéristiques structurales des BTs. Les phases présentes au sein de la BT ont un rôle important. Des analyses par diffraction de rayons X ont été menées pour étudier les changements de phase possibles après traitement laser. Aucun changement de phase n'a été remarqué : la phase tétragonale métastable (t') demeure la phase prépondérante aussi bien pour les dépôts projetés que les dépôts post-traités au laser et refondus in situ. La formation de cette phase semble être liée à la solidification et au refroidissement rapide découlant de la projection plasma ainsi que de la refusion laser. Ce résultat est prometteur, car :

Antou, G.; Hlawka, F.; Montavon, G.; Bach, M.; Cornet, A.; Coddet, C.

2004-11-01

179

Conservation in perspective  

SciTech Connect

This book reflects the changes that have taken place in the nature conservation movement over the last decade. It includes essays on issues of nature conservation itself, rather than on environmental issues. Habitats, elements of the ecosystem, and some of the political and organizational activity currently of interest are covered.

Warren, A.; Goldsmith, F.B.; Goldsmith, B.

1984-01-01

180

On exactly conservative integrators  

SciTech Connect

Traditional explicit numerical discretizations of conservative systems generically predict artificial secular drifts of nonlinear invariants. These algorithms are based on polynomial functions of the time step. The authors discuss a general approach for developing explicit algorithms that conserve such invariants exactly. They illustrate the method by applying it to the truncated two-dimensional Euler equations.

Bowman, J.C. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Shadwick, B.A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Morrison, P.J. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies

1997-06-01

181

Montana Forest and Conservation  

E-print Network

Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station 2009/2010 #12;Director's Message Page 2 The Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station (MFCES) continues its proud history of serving natural legacy. The forests of Montana faced considerable challenges over recent years with contracting

Vonessen, Nikolaus

182

The Ocean Conservancy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ocean Conservancy (formerly Center for Marine Conservation) promotes science-based advocacy, research, and public education for the protection of marine resources and environments. This environmental organization's site includes: news and current issues; wildlife information; advocacy activities and events; an on-line newsletter and membership information.

183

Water & Energy Conservation Plan  

E-print Network

Water & Energy Conservation Plan View of PGI construction and retention pond, Sitapura Industrial of Colleges (PGC) in Rajasthan, India suggests measures to mitigate the impending water and energy crisis that India and the college both face. Within, plans are made for the conservation of water and energy

Illinois at Chicago, University of

184

Setting conservation priorities.  

PubMed

A generic framework for setting conservation priorities based on the principles of classic decision theory is provided. This framework encapsulates the key elements of any problem, including the objective, the constraints, and knowledge of the system. Within the context of this framework the broad array of approaches for setting conservation priorities are reviewed. While some approaches prioritize assets or locations for conservation investment, it is concluded here that prioritization is incomplete without consideration of the conservation actions required to conserve the assets at particular locations. The challenges associated with prioritizing investments through time in the face of threats (and also spatially and temporally heterogeneous costs) can be aided by proper problem definition. Using the authors' general framework for setting conservation priorities, multiple criteria can be rationally integrated and where, how, and when to invest conservation resources can be scheduled. Trade-offs are unavoidable in priority setting when there are multiple considerations, and budgets are almost always finite. The authors discuss how trade-offs, risks, uncertainty, feedbacks, and learning can be explicitly evaluated within their generic framework for setting conservation priorities. Finally, they suggest ways that current priority-setting approaches may be improved. PMID:19432651

Wilson, Kerrie A; Carwardine, Josie; Possingham, Hugh P

2009-04-01

185

Resource Conservation Glossary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This glossary is a composite of terms selected from 13 technologies, and is the expanded revision of the original 1952 edition of "The Soil and Water Conservation Glossary." The terms were selected from these areas: agronomy, biology, conservation, ecology, economics, engineering, forestry, geology, hydrology, range, recreation, soils, and…

Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

186

Take Action: Water Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this regular column of the free, online magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, the author looks at the importance of conserving water and practicing good conservation habits daily. The column is designed for teachers in K-Grade 5 classrooms and presents concepts of climate literacy that are appropriate for young children. Identified online resources provide data collection activities, lessons, and games.

Jessica Fries-Gaither

187

Systematic conservation planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The realization of conservation goals requires strategies for managing whole landscapes including areas allocated to both production and protection. Reserves alone are not adequate for nature conservation but they are the cornerstone on which regional strategies are built. Reserves have two main roles. They should sample or represent the biodiversity of each region and they should separate this biodiversity from

C. R. Margules; R. L. Pressey

2000-01-01

188

Creative Soil Conservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Take plant lessons outdoors with this engaging and inquiry-based activity in which third-grade students learn how to apply soil conservation methods to growing plants. They also collect data and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of their method of soil conservation. An added benefit to this activity is that the third-grade students played…

Smith, Martha

2010-01-01

189

Conservation Bentley Historical  

E-print Network

Conservation at the Bentley Historical Library #12;Conservation of Leather and Parchment #12;Full leather binding with contrasting leather inlay over stringing #12;3/4 leather binding with hand-sewn headbands #12;Rebacking with original spine over new leather #12;Stretching parchment #12;Parchment

Michigan, University of

190

Conservative parameterization schemes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parameterization (closure) schemes in numerical weather and climate prediction models account for the effects of physical processes that cannot be resolved explicitly by these models. Methods for finding physical parameterization schemes that preserve conservation laws of systems of differential equations are introduced. These methods rest on the possibility to regard the problem of finding conservative parameterization schemes as a conservation law classification problem for classes of differential equations. The relevant classification problems can be solved using the direct or inverse classification procedures. In the direct approach, one starts with a general functional form of the parameterization scheme. Specific forms are then found so that corresponding closed equations admit conservation laws. In the inverse approach, one seeks parameterization schemes that preserve one or more pre-selected conservation laws of the initial model. The physical interpretation of both classification approaches is discussed. Special attention is paid to the problem of finding parameterization schemes that preserve both conservation laws and symmetries. All methods are illustrated by finding conservative and invariant conservative parameterization schemes for systems of one-dimensional shallow-water equations.

Bihlo, Alexander; Bluman, George

2013-08-01

191

Bryophyte conservation in Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scotland has an internationally important bryophyte flora. The oceanic element in our flora is the most important, with the bryophyte communities of broadleaf woodland and montane heath being of particular significance. Until recently, all management for bryophyte conservation has been incidental; with bryophytes possibly benefiting from measures for the protection of the habitats in which they occur. Conservation interest in

Gordon Rothero

2003-01-01

192

Teaching Teachers Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a two-week summer course for elementary and secondary teachers on soil and water conservation taught in Wisconsin. Discusses the efforts to recruit teachers for the course, the course content, the field trips, and the evaluation procedures. Stresses the cooperation between educators and conservation agencies in developing the course. (TW)

Meyers, N. L.; And Others

1987-01-01

193

Water Conservation Resource List.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alarmed by the growing water shortage, the New Jersey State Office of Dissemination has prepared this annotated list of free or inexpensive instructional materials for teaching about water conservation, K-l2. A tipsheet for home water conservation is appended. (Editor/SJL)

NJEA Review, 1981

1981-01-01

194

December 9, 2008 Conservation  

E-print Network

Council Sixth Northwest Conservation & Electric Power Plan Rankine-cycle Coal-fired Power Plant Resource and Conservation Council Coal-fired power plant technologies Rankine-cycle (a.k.a. "conventional", "pulverized coal Council Rankine-cycle coal-fired power plant considerations I Investment risk: · Moderately high capital

195

Structural Basis for Par-4 Recognition by the SPRY Domain- and SOCS Box-Containing Proteins SPSB1, SPSB2, and SPSB4  

PubMed Central

The mammalian SPRY domain- and SOCS box-containing proteins, SPSB1 to SPSB4, belong to the SOCS box family of E3 ubiquitin ligases. Substrate recognition sites for the SPRY domain are identified only for human Par-4 (ELNNNL) and for the Drosophila orthologue GUSTAVUS binding to the DEAD-box RNA helicase VASA (DINNNN). To further investigate this consensus motif, we determined the crystal structures of SPSB1, SPSB2, and SPSB4, as well as their binding modes and affinities for both Par-4 and VASA. Mutation of each of the three Asn residues in Par-4 abrogated binding to all three SPSB proteins, while changing EL to DI enhanced binding. By comparison to SPSB1 and SPSB4, the more divergent protein SPSB2 showed only weak binding to Par-4 and was hypersensitive to DI substitution. Par-4(59–77) binding perturbed NMR resonances from a number of SPSB2 residues flanking the ELNNN binding site, including loop D, which binds the EL/DI sequence. Although interactions with the consensus peptide motif were conserved in all structures, flanking sites in SPSB2 were identified as sites of structural change. These structural changes limit high-affinity interactions for SPSB2 to aspartate-containing sequences, whereas SPSB1 and SPSB4 bind strongly to both Par-4 and VASA peptides. PMID:20561531

Filippakopoulos, Panagis; Low, Andrew; Sharpe, Timothy D.; Uppenberg, Jonas; Yao, Shenggen; Kuang, Zhihe; Savitsky, Pavel; Lewis, Rowena S.; Nicholson, Sandra E.; Norton, Raymond S.; Bullock, Alex N.

2010-01-01

196

Structural basis for Par-4 recognition by the SPRY domain- and SOCS box-containing proteins SPSB1, SPSB2, and SPSB4.  

PubMed

The mammalian SPRY domain- and SOCS box-containing proteins, SPSB1 to SPSB4, belong to the SOCS box family of E3 ubiquitin ligases. Substrate recognition sites for the SPRY domain are identified only for human Par-4 (ELNNNL) and for the Drosophila orthologue GUSTAVUS binding to the DEAD-box RNA helicase VASA (DINNNN). To further investigate this consensus motif, we determined the crystal structures of SPSB1, SPSB2, and SPSB4, as well as their binding modes and affinities for both Par-4 and VASA. Mutation of each of the three Asn residues in Par-4 abrogated binding to all three SPSB proteins, while changing EL to DI enhanced binding. By comparison to SPSB1 and SPSB4, the more divergent protein SPSB2 showed only weak binding to Par-4 and was hypersensitive to DI substitution. Par-4((59-77)) binding perturbed NMR resonances from a number of SPSB2 residues flanking the ELNNN binding site, including loop D, which binds the EL/DI sequence. Although interactions with the consensus peptide motif were conserved in all structures, flanking sites in SPSB2 were identified as sites of structural change. These structural changes limit high-affinity interactions for SPSB2 to aspartate-containing sequences, whereas SPSB1 and SPSB4 bind strongly to both Par-4 and VASA peptides. PMID:20561531

Filippakopoulos, Panagis; Low, Andrew; Sharpe, Timothy D; Uppenberg, Jonas; Yao, Shenggen; Kuang, Zhihe; Savitsky, Pavel; Lewis, Rowena S; Nicholson, Sandra E; Norton, Raymond S; Bullock, Alex N

2010-08-20

197

Wildlife Conservation Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1895 as the New York Zoological Society, the re-named Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) works "to save wildlife and wild lands throughout the world." WCS has five public facilities in New York City, where zoologists, veterinarians, zookeepers, teachers, health technicians, trainers, and others care for over 1,000 species of animals. These facilities promote "conservation education, breeding of endangered species, and understanding wildlife health and science." WCS also maintains an International Conservation program, overseeing (and funding) field conservation projects in 52 countries. Although the site targets the general public, several projects of interest to researchers are listed in the Science section, and conservation programs are outlined in In The Wild.

198

UNIVERSIT DE GRENOBLE attribu par la bibliothque  

E-print Network

, for offering me a great place to stay during my thesis writing and for making sure that I am always properly the writing of my thesis. Finally, I woulkd like to thank my friends Vasil, Fabio, Pierre, Gaetan, Amael l'imiter avec de la stéréo-vision par ordinateur. Cela se fait à l'aide de deux caméras, une pour

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

199

Conservation by design.  

PubMed

Conservation researchers are increasingly aware of the need to conduct interdisciplinary research and to engage nonscientists in practical applications of conservation biology. But so far, industrial designers have been left out of such collaboration and outreach efforts. Conservation of wildlife often depends on products such as nest boxes, feeders, barriers, and corridors, all of which have a designed component that is frequently overlooked. Furthermore, many products are adopted without testing on short or long time scales. We argue that the design of products for conservation, and hence their functionality, effectiveness, and value, can be improved through collaboration with industrial designers. We see four key benefits that can arise from interactions with industrial designers: improvement of product quality and value, innovation and improvement in functionality of products, harmonization of conservation products with local values, and development of a psychological biomimesis approach to design. The role of industrial designers in conservation projects would be to improve factors such as product durability, affordability, functionality, and aesthetic appeal to local people. Designers can also help to create multiple product options whose success can be tested in the field. We propose that collaborations with industrial designers can contribute to the development of improvements to existing products and innovations in the practice of animal conservation. PMID:20408866

Root-Bernstein, Meredith; Ladle, Richard J

2010-10-01

200

Land & Water Conservation Fund  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1965, the US Congress created the Land and Water Conservation Fund (LWCF) "to preserve open space, develop recreation opportunities, and assure that all Americans have access to quality outdoor recreation." The Land and Water Conservation Fund receives $900 million annually, mainly from ocean oil drilling revenues. However, as much as 85 percent of each year's Fund is diverted for purposes other than conservation and recreation. The National Park Service provides this site, which gives technical information on the State and Federal components of the LWCF, with some historical information. For those interested in the future of natural places in this country, this site will be of great interest.

201

Natural Resources Conservation Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A division of the US Department of Agriculture, the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) has a mission to provide leadership and partner with private land owners to "help people conserve, maintain, and improve our natural resources and environment." Their home page is useful in that regard as it currently provides significant information on topics related to the 2002 Farm Bill, water quality and quantity, wildfires, conservation, and more. The site is easy to navigate, with top and side navigation bars that allow users to select information based on either the type of information or the category of user.

1969-12-31

202

Nasopharyngeal Radium Irradiation (NRI)  

MedlinePLUS

... assess the health risks associated with nasopharyngeal radium irradiation. This treatment was an accepted medical practice in ... on "The Public Health Response to Nasopharyngeal Radium Irradiation." It brought together a diverse group of more ...

203

Online Courses: WCS: Conservation Communication  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While part of conservation is based in science, a large portion of conservation relies on people and their actions. This course will help participants define and create an effective conservation communication strategy on an issue of their choice. Particip

1900-01-01

204

Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation  

E-print Network

Conservation, SWS4245 Water Resource Sustainability or AEB4123 Agricultural & Natural Resource LawMajoring in Forest Resources & Conservation Specialization: Watershed Science & Management Foundations in Forest Resources and Conservation 3 credits FOR3434C Forest Resources Information

Watson, Craig A.

205

MIDDLE PARK Conservation Action Plan  

E-print Network

MIDDLE PARK Conservation Action Plan 2011 Update Plant Species of Focus: Kremmling milkvetch Conservation Initiative Workshop dates: June 26, 2008 and July 6, 2010 Report date: August 25, 2011 Middle Park................................................................................................................... 6 A. Conservation Targets

206

Wastewater treatment using gamma irradiation: Tétouan pilot station, Morocco  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing demand on limited water supplies has accelerated the wastewater reuse and reclamation. We investigated gamma irradiation effects on wastewater by measuring differences in the legislated parameters, aiming to reuse the wastewater. Effluents samples were collected at the urban wastewater treatment station of Tetouan and were irradiated at different doses ranging from 0 to 14 kGy using a Co 60 gamma source. The results showed an elimination of bacterial flora, a decrease of biochemical and chemical oxygen demand, and higher conservation of nutritious elements. The results of this study indicated that gamma irradiation might be a good choice for the reuse of wastewater for agricultural activities.

Tahri, Loubna; Elgarrouj, Driss; Zantar, Said; Mouhib, Mohamed; Azmani, Amina; Sayah, Fouad

2010-04-01

207

MADAGASCAR CONSERVATION & DEVELOPMENT VOLUME 5 | ISSUE 1 --JUNE 2010 PAGE 6 Madagascar rosewood, illegal logging and the  

E-print Network

MADAGASCAR CONSERVATION & DEVELOPMENT VOLUME 5 | ISSUE 1 -- JUNE 2010 PAGE 6 SPOTLIGHTS Madagascar issue for many countries. This is particularly true of Madagascar, where recent government instability Madagascar que de récents troubles politiques ont été accompagnés par une augmentation significative de l

208

Very low temperature (irradiation  

E-print Network

irradiation M. V. Ramana Murty and Harry A. Atwater Thomas J. Watson Laboratory of Applied Physics, California 18 February 1993) Concurrent low energy (50-70 eV) ion irradiation during silicon molecular beam molecular beam epitaxy. Ion irradiation of a ( 1X 1) dihydride-terminated Si(OO1) results in a (2 X 1

Atwater, Harry

209

The drought causes conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interdisciplinary, multi-day lesson students will use their knowledge of the importance of water to learn about the hydrosphere. The drought being experienced will be explored through graphs and a personal plan for water conservation.

Linda Cummer

2007-12-12

210

Conserving Madagascar's Freshwater Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience is about conserving freshwater diversity in Madagascar. The island nation of Madagascar, an international conservation priority, is now also recognized as a global hotspot for freshwater biodiversity. Three emerging characteristics of Madagascar's threatened freshwater biota deserve increased attention from the scientific and conservation communities. First, species richness is not low, as was once assumed for both the freshwater fishes and the invertebrates. Second, many species are restricted to a specific region or even to single river basins. Often these species are also limited to streams or rivers draining primary forest habitat. Finally, many of the island's freshwater fishes are basal taxa, having diverged earlier than any other extant members of their clade. As such, these taxa assume disproportional phylogenetic importance. In the face of ongoing environmental threats, links among microendemism, forest stream specialization, and basal phylogenetic position highlight the importance and vulnerability of these species and provide a powerful incentive for immediate conservation action.

JONATHAN P. BENSTEAD, PATRICK H. DE RHAM, JEAN-LUC GATTOLLIAT, FRANÃ?OIS-MARIE GIBON, PAUL V. LOISELLE, MICHEL SARTORI, JOHN S. SPARKS, and MELANIE L. J. STIASSNY (; )

2003-11-01

211

Natural flavor conservation  

SciTech Connect

It is shown that the fiats of Natural Flavor Conservation for an arbitrary U(1)-unbroken gauge theory require that all quarks of a given charge and helicity transform identically under the gauge group.

Rothman, A.C.; Kang, K.

1980-01-01

212

Conservation of Momentum 2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This inquiry activity should be performed after students have learned about momentum, but before they learn about conservation of momentum. Students will discover that when two objects push off each other, the momentum must be equal but in opposite direct

Michael Horton

2009-05-30

213

Potential Conservation Laws  

E-print Network

We prove that potential conservation laws have characteristics depending only on local variables if and only if they are induced by local conservation laws. Therefore, characteristics of pure potential conservation laws have to essentially depend on potential variables. This statement provides a significant generalization of results of the recent paper by Bluman, Cheviakov and Ivanova [J. Math. Phys., 2006, V.47, 113505]. Moreover, we present extensions to gauged potential systems, Abelian and general coverings and general foliated systems of differential equations. An example illustrating possible applications of proved statements is considered. A special version of the Hadamard lemma for fiber bundles and the notions of weighted jet spaces are proposed as new tools for the investigation of potential conservation laws.

Michael Kunzinger; Roman O. Popovych

2008-03-07

214

Potential conservation laws  

SciTech Connect

We prove that potential conservation laws have characteristics depending only on local variables if and only if they are induced by local conservation laws. Therefore, characteristics of pure potential conservation laws have to essentially depend on potential variables. This statement provides a significant generalization of results of the recent paper by Bluman et al. [J. Math. Phys. 47, 113505 (2006)]. Moreover, we present extensions to gauged potential systems, Abelian and general coverings, and general foliated systems of differential equations. An example illustrating possible applications of these results is given. A special version of the Hadamard lemma for fiber bundles and the notions of weighted jet spaces are proposed as new tools for the investigation of potential conservation laws.

Kunzinger, Michael [Fakultaet fuer Mathematik, Universitaet Wien, Nordbergstrasse 15, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Popovych, Roman O. [Fakultaet fuer Mathematik, Universitaet Wien, Nordbergstrasse 15, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Institute of Mathematics, NAS of Ukraine, 3 Tereshchenkivska Str., Kyiv-4 (Ukraine)

2008-10-15

215

Kansas urban conservation handbook  

SciTech Connect

The contents are: the problem in Kansas; policies and procedures; urban conservation planning; stormwater management, erosion, and sediment control; control measure characteristics; site planning process; determine erosion and sedimentation control measures; procedure for input process of subdivision plans.

Not Available

1990-01-01

216

Financing energy conservation projects  

SciTech Connect

Methods for financing energy conservation projects are outlined. The following topics are presented: two basic financing methods, direct leasing and direct leasing methods, project financing, direct lease example, and shared savings example.

Wainwwright, F.

1996-12-31

217

Energy: Conservation, Energy Briefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comprehensive energy conservation program at College of the Holy Cross has saved nearly one-third of the fuel oil and one-fifth of the electricity used at the college; briefs on boilers, lights, design. (Author/MLF)

Nation's Schools and Colleges, 1975

1975-01-01

218

Conservation of wading birds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The conservation and management of wading birds has received considerable attention over the past twenty years, through research, population monitoring, habitat protection, and through activities of specialist groups devoted to all three groups, the herons, ibises and allies, and flamingos. While populations are best known in North America, greatest advances in knowledge may have come in Australasia. The status of most species and many populations is now sufficiently known to allow assessment of risk. Conservation and management techniques allow creation of global and regional action plans for conservation of many species. Global action plans are being developed, but few regional plans have been undertaken. Management of nesting sites is now particularly well appreciated. Although known in broad stroke, much remains to be learned about managing feeding habitat. Problems related to disturbance, conflict with humans, habitat loss, contaminants and other environmental stresses remain for some species and many populations. New challenges lie in creating conservation action that account for genetic stocks.

Kushlan, J.A.

1996-01-01

219

Sur le rayonnement du polonium Par B. KUCERA,  

E-print Network

75 Sur le rayonnement du polonium Par B. KUCERA, [Laboratoire de l'Institut de physique de l avec B Ma- sek sur le le polonium. Il s'agit de la nature du rayonnemet émis par par le plonium , de du polonium. Le dispositif de mesure se comprend sans cxplica- 1 ion d'après la figure 1. V est un

Boyer, Edmond

220

DSINTGRATION DU TERBIUM 164 Par E. MONNAND et A. MOUSSA,  

E-print Network

D�SINT�GRATION DU TERBIUM 164 Par E. MONNAND et A. MOUSSA, Laboratoire de Chimie Nucléaire, Centre terbium 164 produit par la réaction nucléaire 164Dy(n, p)164Tb avec des neutrons de 14 MeV. L'isotope 164 du terbium n'a 6t6 signal6 jusqu'ici que par Alstad et Pappas [1] qui l'ont obtenu a partir de

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

221

SUR LA THORIE OSMOTIQUE DES PILES ; Par M. M. COUETTE.  

E-print Network

200 SUR LA TH�ORIE OSMOTIQUE DES PILES ; Par M. M. COUETTE. 1 Introduction. - La théorie osmotique des forces électromotrice créée par M. T~TTalther Nernst (~ ), en 1889, est devenue, ce me semble déterminer séparément les diffé- rences de potentiel aux divers contacts. M. Pellat a demandé cette dernière

Boyer, Edmond

222

Regulation of cell signalling by uPAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) expression is elevated during inflammation and tissue remodelling and in many human cancers, in which it frequently indicates poor prognosis. uPAR regulates proteolysis by binding the extracellular protease urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA; also known as urokinase) and also activates many intracellular signalling pathways. Coordination of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteolysis and cell signalling by uPAR underlies

Harvey W. Smith; Chris J. Marshall

2010-01-01

223

Forest Conservation Portal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Forest Conservation Portal is maintained by Forests.org, a non-governmental organization dedicated to "ending deforestation, preserving old-growth forests, conserving all forests, maintaining climatic systems and commencing the age of ecological restoration." At the Portal, users will find a large series of news articles and resources on forests, forest regions, forest ecology, forest destruction and protection, and related information. Intended for activists and activism, this site contains current news with international coverage.

224

Conservation and Environment Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These historic and more recent conservation and environment maps show early exploration and subsequent land use in various areas of the United States; changes in the landscape, including natural and man-made features; recreational and wilderness areas; geology; topography; wetland area; vegetation; and wildlife. Specific conservation projects such as the growth and development of U.S. National Parks are included. The maps can be searched by title, subject, creator, or geographic location.

225

Transcriptome profiling reveals links between ParS/ParR, MexEF-OprN, and quorum sensing in the regulation of adaptation and virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Background The ParS/ParR two component regulatory system plays critical roles for multidrug resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It was demonstrated that in the presence of antimicrobials, ParR enhances bacterial survival by distinct mechanisms including activation of the mexXY efflux genes, enhancement of lipopolysaccharide modification through the arn operon, and reduction of the expression of oprD porin. Results In this study, we report on transcriptomic analyses of P. aeruginosa PAO1 wild type and parS and parR mutants growing in a defined minimal medium. Our transcriptomic analysis provides the first estimates of transcript abundance for the 5570 coding genes in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Comparative transcriptomics of P. aeruginosa PAO1 and par mutants identified a total of 464 genes regulated by ParS and ParR. Results also showed that mutations in the parS/parR system abolished expression of the mexEF-oprN operon by down-regulating the regulatory gene mexS. In addition to the known effects on drug resistance genes, transcript abundances of the quorum sensing genes (rhlIR and pqsABCDE-phnAB) were higher in both parS and parR mutants. In accordance with these results, a significant portion of the ParS/ParR regulated genes belonged to the MexEF-OprN and quorum sensing regulons. Deletion of the par genes also led to increased phenazine production and swarming motility, consistent with the up-regulation of the phenazine and rhamnolipid biosynthetic genes, respectively. Conclusion Our results link the ParS/ParR two component signal transduction system to MexEF-OprN and quorum sensing systems in P. aeruginosa. These results expand our understanding of the roles of the ParS/ParR system in the regulation of gene expression in P. aeruginosa, especially in the absence of antimicrobials. PMID:24034668

2013-01-01

226

2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) BARRACKS WITH RADAR ATTACHED. - Nike Hercules Missile Battery Summit Site, Battery Control Administration & Barracks Building, Anchorage, Anchorage, AK

227

The evolving role of partial breast irradiation in early-stage breast cancer.  

PubMed

Whole breast irradiation (WBI) over 5-7 weeks has long been considered standard adjuvant treatment after breast-conserving surgery. Recently the concept of irradiating the whole breast has been challenged by accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI), which exclusively targets the lumpectomy site plus margin. We review the evidence supporting APBI from modern clinical trials, the pros and cons of various APBI techniques, and the controversies regarding the applicability of APBI to specific patient groups. PMID:23463089

Barry, Mitchel; Ho, Alice; Morrow, Monica

2013-08-01

228

A CONSERVATIVE FRONT TRACKING HETHOD FOR HYPERBOLIC CONSERVATION LAWS  

E-print Network

UCRL-97200 PREPRINT A CONSERVATIVE FRONT TRACKING HETHOD FOR HYPERBOLIC CONSERVATION LAWS I FRONT TRACKING METHOD FOR HYPERBOLIC CONSERVATION LAWS I-Liang Chern InstibJte of Mathematics Academia finite difference method for computing discontinuous solutions to systems of hyperbolic conservation laws

229

Hyperbolic Conservation Laws The 1D conservation law  

E-print Network

Hyperbolic Conservation Laws The 1D conservation law wt + f(w)x = 0 (where w and f have m of linearly independent eigenvectors). Then solutions to the conservation law can be viewed in terms to form a complete linearly independent set, and the conservation law is called strictly hyperbolic

Gardner, Carl

230

SPECIAL OFFER Conservation Science Trade-offs in Conservation  

E-print Network

SPECIAL OFFER Conservation Science Trade-offs in Conservation Deciding What to Save NIGEL LEADER that surround making decisions about which species and biogeographic areas to prioritise for conservation of the Conservation Science and Practice book series Also available online. For further information, visit: www

231

NOMBRE DE RAYONS 03B1 MIS PAR UNE PRPARATION DE DPOT ACTIF DU THORIUM MESURE PAR SON RAYONNEMENT PNTRANT  

E-print Network

NOMBRE DE RAYONS 03B1 �MIS PAR UNE PR�PARATION DE D�POT ACTIF DU THORIUM MESUR�E PAR SON cm de Pb. Résultats. 1. But du travail. - Le Radiothorium, le Thorium X et le dépôt actif du Thorium sont généralement dosés par leur rayonnement y provenant de Thorium (C + Cfl). A cet effet, à l

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

232

CONTOUR DES RAIES D'ARC DU SODIUM ELARGIES PAR L'EFFET STARK INTERMOLCULAIRE Par S. WENIGER,  

E-print Network

37 CONTOUR DES RAIES D'ARC DU SODIUM ELARGIES PAR L'EFFET STARK INTERMOL�CULAIRE Par S. WENIGER le contour théorique d'une raie uni- quem'ent élargie par l'effet Stark, on procède de la façon observé permet de déterminer les valeurs approchées des constantes Stark pour les raies qui n'avaient pas

Boyer, Edmond

233

ETUDE DES RADIATIONS IONISANTES MISES PAR LES DCHARGES LECTRIQUES DANS L'AIR Par M. GEORGES DCHNE.  

E-print Network

l'étude, à la chambre d'ionisation, des radiations ionisantes très absor- bables émises par lesETUDE DES RADIATIONS IONISANTES �MISES PAR LES D�CHARGES �LECTRIQUES DANS L'AIR Par M. GEORGES décharges électriques non condensées dans l'air (aigrettes, étincelles en tension alternative avec

Boyer, Edmond

234

Diet-induced obesity, adipose inflammation, and metabolic dysfunction correlating with PAR2 expression are attenuated by PAR2 antagonism.  

PubMed

Excessive uptake of fatty acids and glucose by adipose tissue triggers adipocyte dysfunction and infiltration of immune cells. Altered metabolic homeostasis in adipose tissue promotes insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Inflammatory and metabolic processes are mediated by certain proteolytic enzymes that share a common cellular target, protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2). This study showed that human and rat obesity correlated in vivo with increased expression of PAR2 in adipose tissue, primarily in stromal vascular cells (SVCs) including macrophages. PAR2 was expressed more than other PARs on human macrophages and was increased by dietary fatty acids (palmitic, stearic, and myristic). A novel PAR2 antagonist, GB88 (5-isoxazoyl-Cha-Ile-spiroindene-1,4-piperidine), given orally at 10 mg/kg/d (wk 8-16) reduced body weight by ?10% in obese rats fed a high-carbohydrate high-fat (HCHF) diet for 16 wk, and strongly attenuated adiposity, adipose tissue inflammation, infiltrated macrophages and mast cells, insulin resistance, and cardiac fibrosis and remodeling; while reversing liver and pancreatic dysfunction and normalizing secretion of PAR2-directed glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in MIN6 ? cells. In summary, PAR2 is a new biomarker for obesity, and its expression is stimulated by dietary fatty acids; PAR2 is a substantial contributor to inflammatory and metabolic dysfunction; and a PAR2 antagonist inhibits diet-induced obesity and inflammatory, metabolic, and cardiovascular dysfunction. PMID:23964081

Lim, Junxian; Iyer, Abishek; Liu, Ligong; Suen, Jacky Y; Lohman, Rink-Jan; Seow, Vernon; Yau, Mei-Kwan; Brown, Lindsay; Fairlie, David P

2013-12-01

235

Springtime size-fractionated primary production across hydrographic and PAR-light gradients in Chilean Patagonia (41-50°S)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We combined on-deck and in situ measurements and satellite-derived data to study the spatial variability of springtime size-fractionated primary production and chlorophyll-a biomass along gradients of hydrographic conditions and surface PAR in central and northern Chilean Patagonia (41-50°S). This extensive and fragmented region encompasses numerous fjords and channels, as well as the northern and southern icefields (46-47°S, 48-52°S). Primary production displayed a latitudinal pattern decreasing southwards (6-fold lower), particularly toward areas influenced by rivers with a nival regime. Micro-phytoplankton (>20 ?m) dominated the primary production (57-93%) and chlorophyll-a (43-91%) of northern sites, where warmer and more saline surface waters exhibit greater PAR irradiance. Small phytoplankton cells (<2 ?m; 2-20 ?m) contributed > 50% of carbon fixation and chlorophyll-a in the southernmost sites, especially those located near glaciers and major rivers, where surface temperature, salinity, and PAR irradiance were lowest. The long-term (2002-2012) average field of springtime PAR derived from satellite imagery showed a southward increase in longitudinal gradients, which indicates that spatial changes in surface light attenuation along this region are largely driven by glacier-derived freshwater inputs. A principal component analysis of surface temperature, salinity, and PAR produced an ordination of sites that was consistent with spatial changes in the balance of oceanic versus riverine influence on surface conditions along this region. Total primary production was significantly correlated (r = 0.61, p = 0.007) with the first principal component, which explained 65% of joint variability in hydrographic conditions and PAR. The same principal component clearly separated sites in northern Patagonia where micro-phytoplankton dominated total primary production - along the Reloncavi fjord and Inner Sea of Chiloe - from those located further south where other size fractions were equally or more important. We stress the need to include spatial variability in nutrient concentrations, which together with the strong light attenuation induced by glacier-derived freshwater may further explain the spatial patterns in primary productivity, phytoplankton biomass, and carbon fluxes along Chilean Patagonia.

Jacob, Bárbara G.; Tapia, Fabián J.; Daneri, Giovanni; Iriarte, Jose L.; Montero, Paulina; Sobarzo, Marcus; Quiñones, Renato A.

2014-12-01

236

Condensation and localization of the partitioning protein ParB on the bacterial chromosome.  

PubMed

The ParABS system mediates chromosome segregation and plasmid partitioning in many bacteria. As part of the partitioning mechanism, ParB proteins form a nucleoprotein complex at parS sites. The biophysical basis underlying ParB-DNA complex formation and localization remains elusive. Specifically, it is unclear whether ParB spreads in 1D along DNA or assembles into a 3D protein-DNA complex. We show that a combination of 1D spreading bonds and a single 3D bridging bond between ParB proteins constitutes a minimal model for a condensed ParB-DNA complex. This model implies a scaling behavior for ParB-mediated silencing of parS-flanking genes, which we confirm to be satisfied by experimental data from P1 plasmids. Furthermore, this model is consistent with experiments on the effects of DNA roadblocks on ParB localization. Finally, we show experimentally that a single parS site is necessary and sufficient for ParB-DNA complex formation in vivo. Together with our model, this suggests that ParB binding to parS triggers a conformational switch in ParB that overcomes a nucleation barrier. Conceptually, the combination of spreading and bridging bonds in our model provides a surface tension ensuring the condensation of the ParB-DNA complex, with analogies to liquid-like compartments such as nucleoli in eukaryotes. PMID:24927534

Broedersz, Chase P; Wang, Xindan; Meir, Yigal; Loparo, Joseph J; Rudner, David Z; Wingreen, Ned S

2014-06-17

237

Ecologically relevant UV-B dose combined with high PAR intensity distinctly affect plant growth and accumulation of secondary metabolites in leaves of Centella asiatica L. Urban.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of environmentally relevant dose of ultraviolet (UV)-B and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) on saponin accumulation in leaves on the example of Centella asiatica L. Urban. For this purpose, plants were exposed to one of four light regimes i.e., two PAR intensities with or without UV-B radiation. The experiment was conducted in technically complex sun simulators under almost natural irradiance and climatic conditions. As observed, UV-B radiation increased herb and leaf production as well as the content of epidermal flavonols, which was monitored by non-destructive fluorescence measurements. Specific fluorescence indices also indicate an increase in the content of anthocyanins under high PAR; this increase was likewise observed for the saponin concentrations. In contrast, UV-B radiation had no distinct effects on saponin and sapogenin concentrations. Our findings suggest that besides flavonoids, also saponins were accumulated under high PAR protecting the plant from oxidative damage. Furthermore, glycosylation of sapogenins seems to be important either for the protective function and/or for compartmentalization of the compounds. Moreover, our study revealed that younger leaves contain higher amounts of saponins, while in older leaves the sapogenins were the most abundant constituents. Concluding, our results proof that ambient dose of UV-B and high PAR intensity distinctly affect the accumulation of flavonoids and saponins, enabling the plant tissue to adapt to the light conditions. PMID:24044900

Müller, Viola; Albert, Andreas; Barbro Winkler, J; Lankes, Christa; Noga, Georg; Hunsche, Mauricio

2013-10-01

238

LAKE PONTCHARTRAIN ESTUARY CONSERVATION PLAN  

EPA Science Inventory

The Nature Conservancy will conduct a series of a least four science expert workshops to develop a Site Conservation Plan for the Lake Pontchartrain Estuary and adjacent wetlands. The objective of the Site Conservation Plan is to identify conservation targets, threats or stresse...

239

LABORATORY V CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM  

E-print Network

Lab V - 1 LABORATORY V CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM In this lab you will use conservation of momentum enough information for a complete analysis of collisions in terms of forces. Conservation principles can of the complicated details of the collision process itself, but conservation of energy alone is usually not enough

Minnesota, University of

240

Conservation Strategy for Sable Island  

E-print Network

Towards a Conservation Strategy for Sable Island Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, Atlantic Region #12;SABLE ISLAND CONSERVATION STRATEGY page - i March, 1998 A CONSERVATION STRATEGY FOR SABLE ISLAND PREPARED BY This Conservation Strategy for Sable Island was prepared for Environment Canada

Jones, Ian L.

241

Conservation Issues Raised for the  

E-print Network

Northwest Power and Conservation Council Issues Raised for the Sixth Power Plan Power Committee Web Meeting June 30, 2009 Northwest Power and Conservation Council Conservation Targets · Problem ­ Are 5-Year conservation targets too high? · Issue for Bonneville and the Public Utilities ­ Are targets being driven

242

Two Centuries of Soil Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Narrates U.S. soil conservation history since the late eighteenth century. Discusses early practices such as contour plowing. Profiles individuals who promoted soil conservation and were largely responsible for the creation of the Soil Conservation Service. Explains the causes of erosion and how soil conservation districts help farmers prevent…

Helms, Douglas

1991-01-01

243

Hydrology and Conservation Ecology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Responses to change in the behavior of ecological systems are largely governed by interactions at different levels. Research is essential and is to be necessarily designed to gain insights into various interactions at the community level. Sustainable resource management is only possible if conservation of biodiversity can be accomplished by properly using the knowledge discovered. It is well known that the United States Department of Agriculture provides technical information, resources, and data necessary to assist the researchers in addressing their conservation needs. Conservation aims to protect, preserve and conserve the earth's natural resources. These include, but not limited to the conservation of soil, water, minerals, air, plants and all living beings. The United States Department of Agriculture also encourages farmers and ranchers to voluntarily address threats to soil and water. Protection of wetlands and wildlife habitat has been on the radar screen of conservation experts for a very long time. The main objective has always been to help farmers and landowners conform and comply with federal and state environmental laws. During the implementation phase, farmers should be encouraged to make beneficial, cost-effective changes to methods of irrigation systems. In some cases, the hydrologic regime of the project area can be thought of as principally an issue of river flow regimes for floodplain forests. In this presentation, the author tries to focus on the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology on global warming. He also discusses the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology global air concerns such as greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. References: Chow, V. T, D. R. Maidment, and L. W. Mays. 1988. Applied Hydrology. McGraw-Hill, Inc. U.S. Soil Conservation Service. Technical Release 55: Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds. USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture). June 1986. Lehner, B. and P. Döll (2004). Development and validation of a global database of lakes, reservoirs and wetlands. Journal of Hydrology 296/1-4. 1-22. http://www.wcc.nrcs.usda.gov http://www.ceh-nerc.ac.uk http://www.usda.gov

Narayanan, M.

2006-12-01

244

Wilderness and biodiversity conservation.  

PubMed

Human pressure threatens many species and ecosystems, so conservation efforts necessarily prioritize saving them. However, conservation should clearly be proactive wherever possible. In this article, we assess the biodiversity conservation value, and specifically the irreplaceability in terms of species endemism, of those of the planet's ecosystems that remain intact. We find that 24 wilderness areas, all > or = 1 million hectares, are > or = 70% intact and have human densities of less than or equal to five people per km2. This wilderness covers 44% of all land but is inhabited by only 3% of people. Given this sparse population, wilderness conservation is cost-effective, especially if ecosystem service value is incorporated. Soberingly, however, most wilderness is not speciose: only 18% of plants and 10% of terrestrial vertebrates are endemic to individual wildernesses, the majority restricted to Amazonia, Congo, New Guinea, the Miombo-Mopane woodlands, and the North American deserts. Global conservation strategy must target these five wildernesses while continuing to prioritize threatened biodiversity hotspots. PMID:12930898

Mittermeier, R A; Mittermeier, C G; Brooks, T M; Pilgrim, J D; Konstant, W R; da Fonseca, G A B; Kormos, C

2003-09-01

245

78 FR 42584 - Additional Designation of Aluminat, Pars Amayesh Sanaat Kish, Parviz Khaki, Pishro Systems...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Additional Designation of Aluminat, Pars Amayesh Sanaat Kish, Parviz Khaki, Pishro...General, has determined that Aluminat, Pars Amayesh Sanaat Kish, Parviz Khaki, Pishro...Arak Road, Parcham Street, Arak, Iran PARS Amayesh Sanaat Kish AKA: PASK AKA:...

2013-07-16

246

Historic macrophyte development in Par Pond  

SciTech Connect

Aerial photographs from 1975, 1980, and 1983 were examined to evaluate the changes that have occurred in the wetland vegetation of Par Pond, a reactor-cooling reservoir. Evaluation of the aerial photographs was based on comparisons with ground-level vegetation maps made during July 1984. Comparisons of photographs from August and December of 1983 revealed the main seasonal change in the aerial coverage of wetland vegetation to be the wintertime loss of non-persistent emergent species such as Nelumbo lutea and Nymphaea odorata. Comparisons between September 1980 and August 1983 revealed that the lakeward extent of non-persistent macrophytes has increased by an average of 8.2 m, though not all sites have changed equally. For persistent macrophytes (principally Typha), the average increase in lakeward extent between December 1975 and August 1983 was 3.48 m. The extensive development of wetland vegetation in Par Pond as well as the substantial spread of vegetation over only a few years time indicates the high suitability of this habitat for the growth of wetland plants.

Grace, J.B.

1985-08-01

247

Mechanisms of induced conductivity in polyvinylidene fluoride irradiated by X-rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prompt and delayed components of conductivity of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) samples induced by continuous irradiation of X-rays were measured under vacuum. The prompt component was composed of two distinct parts, classified as instantaneous radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) and time-dependent evolution of the RIC. With the help of thermally stimulated current measurements carried out with both virgin and irradiated samples, which indicated the existence of deep-trap levels in the material, we developed a model of kinetics of the carriers to explain the time-evolution of the RIC. Hot electrons generated by irradiation ware considered as responsible for the instantaneous part of the RIC. We also showed that the electrodes had a nonblocking behaviour during the electrical current measurements under irradiation, while the external electric field caused the generated carriers to drift out of the sample. Nous avons mesuré sous vide la conductivité induite due à la radiation des rayons X sur des échantillons de poly(fluorure de vinylidène), pendant et après irradiation (composante retardée). Pendant l'irradiation la conductivité induite est formée de deux différentes parties : l'une est la conductivité instantanée, et l'autre est une fonction croissante avec le temps. Grâce à la méthode du courant stimulé par la température, exécutée sur des échantillons vierges d'une part, et irradiés d'autre part, nous avons conclu à l'existence de niveaux de pièges profonds dans le matériau. Nous avons par la suite développé un modèle de cinétique des porteurs qui explique l'évolution avec le temps de la conductivité induite. Les électrons chauds créés par la radiation ont été considérés comme responsables de la conductivité induite instantanée. Nous montrons aussi que les électrodes sont non-bloquées pendant les mesures de courant électrique sous irradiation, alors que le champ électrique appliqué rejette les porteurs hors de l'échantillon.

Faria, R. M.

1992-10-01

248

National Conservation Training Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS)'s National Conservation Training Center (NCTC) provides "training and education services to the natural resource management community to better accomplish our common goal of conserving fish, wildlife, and their habitat." The NCTC homepage spans an impressive list of training topics, from Aquatics/Fisheries Resources and Environmental Contaminants through GIS and GPS, to name a few. Each topic area contains a hyperlinked listing of courses (available at the NCTC campus in West Virginia) with course summaries and objectives. Additionally, a particularly useful feature of the NCTC homepage is the Conservation Library (in the National Systems section). Here, users may access FWS publications, search several citation databases, browse a list of new titles, or click on links to other Web libraries. While some parts of the site are restricted to FWS employees, most sections are open to the public, and well worth the visit.

249

Bat Conservation International  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1982, the mission of Bat Conservation International (BCI) is âÂÂto teach people the value of bats, to protect and conserve critical bat habitats, and to advance scientific knowledge through researchâÂÂ. On their website, visitors will be able to learn about their advocacy and outreach efforts, along with learning more about these fascinating and important creatures. The âÂÂAll About Batsâ section is a fine place to start, as it has a number of illustrated essays that include brief overview of the natural history of bats and suggestions on photographing bats as they fly through the air. Equally compelling is the section is the conservation programs area, which details the various programs BCI operates in various bat habitats, including bridges and caves. Finally, visitors can also elect to send one of a number of electronic bat postcards to friends or colleagues.

2005-01-01

250

Communication and energy conservation  

SciTech Connect

Surveys of homeowners in two Wisconsin communities examined the relationship of media use to a set of cognitive, attitudinal, and behavioral components of energy conservation. The perceived importance of the energy issue was associated with media use in both communities. In addition, this relationship was stronger the more energy related the communication variable. Communication did not, however, relate consistently to energy behavior. Utility pamphlets had opposite relationships with energy conservation across communities. It is suggested that conservation campaigns must take into account the communication and energy use environment of specific groups of consumers, and that research into the impact of mass media on energy issue salience is particularly important in times of energy ''gluts.''

McLeod, J.M.; Glynn, C.J.; Griffin, R.J.

1987-01-01

251

Conservation of closed loops.  

PubMed

The closed loop hypothesis of Berezovsky and Trifonov implicates the closure of loops of length 25-35 through hydrophobic interactions at the 'locks' as a key event in protein folding. The hypothesis is supported by published analyses of nine major superfolds. Here, we have generated multiple sequence alignments for the nine superfolds with PDB codes lthb, 1ilb, 256b, 2rhe, 1aps, 2stv, 4fxn (2fox), lubq and 7tim and have analysed the degree of conservation at the loop ends. Seventy percent of these loop ends are found to be well conserved and the peak in the distribution of distances between these well conserved regions lies at around 25 residues; both observations are consistent with the Berezovsky and Trifonov's hypothesis. PMID:17459747

Yew, Boon K; Chintapalli, Sree V; Upton, Graham G C; Reynolds, Christopher A

2007-10-01

252

EPA and Bird Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although wildlife management is not the central focus of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) mission, numerous EPA programs complement and support efforts to conserve birds and their habitats. To that end, the Office of Water at the EPA has launched this new Website to point interested users towards related EPA (and other) programs. From wetlands to water quality, the specific EPA sites highlighted here cover topics that are bird-relevant in subject (e.g., wetlands, coasts) or geographical (e.g., Great Lakes, Gulf of Mexico) context. Four main sections form the heart of the site: Overview, Bird Conservation Initiatives, Related EPA Programs, and What You Can Do. In each section, summary information and a careful selection of related resources are provided. Students of bird conservation will find this site particularly helpful, especially those interested in relevant federal programs.

253

Par Pond vegetation status summer 1995 - July survey descriptive summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant, communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet (61 meters) above mean sea level, and continued with this July survey. Aquatic plant communities, similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond communities, are becoming reestablished. Beds of maidencane (Panicum hemitomon), lotus (Nelumbo lutea), water lily

H. E. Jr. Mackey; R. S. Riley

1995-01-01

254

Clinical and immunopathological studies of pars planitis in a family  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined a family in which two brothers with identical HLA typing have pars planitis with snowbanking. Immunopathological studies of one of their eyes showed that in the area of snowbanking over the pars plana there was mild to moderate inflammatory cell infiltration, consisting of mostly Pan T (Leu 4+) lymphocytes. The ratio of T helper\\/inducer to T suppressor\\/cytotoxic cells

R P Wetzig; C C Chan; R B Nussenblatt; A G Palestine; D O Mazur; K K Mittal

1988-01-01

255

Pars plana incisions of four patients: histopathology and electron microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathology of pars plana incisions of four patients is described: three with light microscopy and one with light and electron microscopy. Two eyes were removed because of choroidal melanoma, immediately and 8 days after vitrectomy and transvitreous retinal biopsy. Considerable disruption of tissues surrounding the pars plana incisions was observed. Vitreous was incarcerated in the wounds, which healed with

F H Koch; A E Kreiger; M Spitznas; B Glasgow; R Y Foos; M O Yoshizumi

1995-01-01

256

Conservation reaches new heights.  

PubMed

The conservation program with the management assistance of the Woodlands Mountain Institute in 2 contiguous parks, the Mount Everest National Park in Nepal and the Qomolangma Nature Reserve in China, in 2 countries is described. The focus is on conservation of the complex ecosystem with sustainable development by showing local people how to benefit from the park without environmental damage. Cultural diversity is as important as biological diversity. The area has been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site with the "last pure ecological seed" of the Himalayas. The regional geography and culture are presented. Population growth has impacted natural resources through overgrazing, cultivation of marginal land, and deforestation; future plans to build a dam and road bordering the nature reserve pose other threats. Proposed management plans for the Makalu-Barun Nature Park (established in November 1991) and Conservation Area include a division of the park into nature reserve areas free of human activity, protected areas which permit traditional land use, and special sites and trail for tourists and religious pilgrims. The conservation area will act as a buffer for the park and provide economic opportunities; further subdivisions include land use for biodiversity protection, community forest and pasture, agroforestry, and agriculture and settlement. Efforts will be made to increase the welfare of women and local people; proposed projects include the introduction of higher milk-producing animals for stall feeding. Also proposed is a cultural and natural history museum. 70% of the project's resources will be directed to local community participation in consultation and park maintenance. The project is a model of how conservation and protection of natural resources can coexist with local economic development and participation; an integration of preservation of biological diversity, mountain wisdom, and the value of local people as resources for conservation. PMID:12285834

Pepall, J; Khanal, P

1992-10-01

257

Net carbon dioxide exchange rates and predicted growth patterns in Alstroemeria Jacqueline' at varying irradiances, carbon dioxide concentrations, and air temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of irradiance, CO[sub 2] concentration, and air temperature on leaf and whole-plant net C exchange rate (NCER) of Alstroemeria Jacqueline' was studied. At ambient CO[sub 2], leaf net photosynthesis was maximum at irradiances above 600 [mu]mol[center dot]m[sup [minus]2][center dot]s[sup [minus]1] photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), while whole-plant NCER required 1,200 [mu]mol[center dot]m[sup [minus]2][center dot]s[sup [minus]1] PAR to be saturated.

E. D. Leonardos; M. J. Tsujita; B. Grodzinski

1994-01-01

258

Dissection of the region of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ParA that is important for dimerization and interactions with its partner ParB.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas aeruginosa ParA belongs to a large subfamily of Walker-type ATPases acting as partitioning proteins in bacteria. ParA has the ability to both self-associate and interact with its partner ParB. Analysis of the deletion mutants defined the part of the protein involved in dimerization and interactions with ParB. Here, a set of ParA alanine substitution mutants in the region between E67 and L85 was created and analysed in vivo and in vitro. All mutants impaired in dimerization (substitutions at positions M74, H79, Y82 and L84) were also defective in interactions with ParB, suggesting that ParA-ParB interactions depend on the ability of ParA to dimerize. Mutants with alanine substitutions at positions E67, C68, L70, E72, F76, Q83 and L85 were not impaired in dimerization, but were defective in interactions with ParB. The dimerization interface partly overlapped the pseudo-hairpin, involved in interactions with ParB. ParA mutant derivatives tested in vitro showed no defects in ATPase activity. Two parA alleles (parA84, whose product can neither self-interact nor interact with ParB, and parA67, whose product is impaired in interactions with ParB, but not in dimerization) were introduced into the P. aeruginosa chromosome by homologous gene exchange. Both mutants showed defective separation of ParB foci, but to different extents. Only PAO1161 parA84 was visibly impaired in terms of chromosome segregation, growth rate and motility, similar to a parA-null mutant. PMID:25139949

Bartosik, Aneta A; Glabski, Krzysztof; Jecz, Paulina; Lasocki, Krzysztof; Mikosa, Malgorzata; Plochocka, Danuta; Thomas, Christopher M; Jagura-Burdzy, Grazyna

2014-11-01

259

Conservation of tidal marshes  

SciTech Connect

This book is the first attempt to examine collectively the various uses and the consequences of marsh conservation efforts. Author Franklin Daiber emphasizes tidal marsh conservation from a holistic perspective rather than from the perspective of a single purpose or special economic interest. He addresses a topic receiving increasing attention, namely the concept of open marsh management as a means of controlling mosquito production without harmful effects on other marsh organisms. Topics considered include: water management; dikes, impoundments, ponds and ditches; reclaimed land and impoundments; ditching and ponding for mosquito control; sewage disposal and waste treatment; dredge material for wetland restoration; insecticides; oil pollution; and petroleum hydrocarbon interactions.

Daiber, F.C.

1986-01-01

260

Protection des ions organiques contre les dommages induits a l'ADN par les electrons de basse energie  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Il a ete demontre que les electrons de basse energie (EBE) peuvent induire des cassures simple brin (CSB) a l'ADN, via la formation d'anions transitoires qui decroissent par attachement dissociatif, ou dans d'autres etats electroniques dissociatifs menant a la fragmentation. Afin d'effectuer une etude complete des effets des electrons de basse energie sur la matiere biologique, il est necessaire de comprendre leur mecanismes d'interaction non seulement avec l'ADN, mais avec les constituants de son environnement. Les histones sont une composante importante de l'environnement moleculaire de l'ADN. Leur charge positive leur permet de s'associer aux groupements phosphate anionique de l'ADN. Le role principal de ces proteines basiques consiste a organiser l'ADN et l'empaqueter afin de former la chromatine. Les cations sont une autre composante importante de la cellule; ils jouent un role dans la stabilisation de la conformation B de l'ADN in vitro par leurs interactions avec les petits et grands sillons de l'ADN, ainsi qu'avec le groupement phosphate charge negativement. Avec les histones, ils participent egalement a la compaction de l'ADN pour former la chromatine. Cette etude a pour but de comprendre comment la presence d'ions organiques (sous forme de Tris et d'EDTA) a proximite de l'ADN modifie le rendement de cassures simple brin induit par les electrons de basse energie. Le Tris et l'EDTA ont-ete choisis comme objet d'etude, puisqu'en solution, ils forment le tampon standard pour solubiliser l'ADN dans les experiences in vitro (10mM Tris, 1mM EDTA). De plus, la molecule Tris possede un groupement amine alors que l'EDTA possede 4 groupements carboxyliques. Ensembles, ils peuvent se comporter comme un modele simple pour les acides amines. Le ratio molaire de 10 :1 de Tris par rapport a l'EDTA a pour but d'imiter le comportement des histones qui sont riches en arginine et lysine, acides amines possedant un groupement amine charge positivement additionnel. Des films d'ADN de differentes epaisseurs, possedant entre 0 et 32 ions organiques/ nucleotide, ont ete irradies avec des electrons de 10eV. Les dommages induits par les electrons, sous forme de cassures, ont ete detectes par electrophorese. Nous avons demontre que le rendement de cassure simple brin diminuait de facon dramatique en fonction du nombre d'ions organiques/ nucleotide. Aussi peu que 2 ions organiques/ nucleotide sont suffisant pour decroitre le rendement de SSB de 70%. Cet effet radioprotecteur est en partie explique par l'augmentation de l'epaisseur des films, mais surtout par la modification du champ electrique a proximite de l'ADN, due a l'ajout de molecules chargees positivement. La modification du champ electrique pres de l'ADN altere les parametres de resonance comme le temps de vie de l'anion transitoire et la limite de dissociation, qui influent directement sur la section efficace d'attachement dissociatif. L'effet protecteur peut egalement etre explique par la restauration des bases anioniques deshydrogenees induites par l'attachement dissociatif de l'electron sur une base (G(-H)-). Ce sont les molecules Tris qui, en transferant un atome d'hydrogene ou un proton, restaurent les bases deshydrogenees et inhibent par le fait meme la formation de cassures simple brin. Ces resultats indiquent que les histones peuvent egalement participer a la reparation de dommages precoces induits a l'ADN avant qu'elles ne menent a des dommages encore plus nocifs et difficiles a reparer, comme les cassures simples brins. Mots cles : Electrons de basse energie, dommage a l'ADN, ions organiques, attachement dissociatif de l'electron.

Dumont, Ariane

261

Current modalities of accelerated partial breast irradiation.  

PubMed

The benefits of adjuvant whole-breast irradiation (WBI) after breast-conserving surgery are well established and WBI is a standard of care. In selected patients with early stage breast cancer, accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) has emerged as an alternative treatment option to WBI. Early trials of APBI have demonstrated an excellent local control rate and an associated good-to-excellent cosmetic outcome. APBI can reduce both the treatment volume and overall treatment time of adjuvant radiation therapy, which potentially overcomes logistical barriers associated with WBI that have previously prevented eligible women from pursuing breast-conserving therapy. Likewise, the addition of new modalities for APBI delivery has increased the number of patients who might be eligible for this adjuvant treatment-in the setting of breast-conserving surgery-despite the limited availability of long-term data on APBI outcomes compared to historical WBI outcomes. Ongoing phase III trials aim to compare APBI with WBI and also point the practitioner to the appropriate APBI patient selection criteria. Here, we review available modalities, patient selection criteria and consensus guideline recommendations, and current controversies in APBI. PMID:23629470

Cox, John A; Swanson, Todd A

2013-06-01

262

Recombination in the Human Pseudoautosomal Region PAR1  

PubMed Central

The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) is a short region of homology between the mammalian X and Y chromosomes, which has undergone rapid evolution. A crossover in the PAR is essential for the proper disjunction of X and Y chromosomes in male meiosis, and PAR deletion results in male sterility. This leads the human PAR with the obligatory crossover, PAR1, to having an exceptionally high male crossover rate, which is 17-fold higher than the genome-wide average. However, the mechanism by which this obligatory crossover occurs remains unknown, as does the fine-scale positioning of crossovers across this region. Recent research in mice has suggested that crossovers in PAR may be mediated independently of the protein PRDM9, which localises virtually all crossovers in the autosomes. To investigate recombination in this region, we construct the most fine-scale genetic map containing directly observed crossovers to date using African-American pedigrees. We leverage recombination rates inferred from the breakdown of linkage disequilibrium in human populations and investigate the signatures of DNA evolution due to recombination. Further, we identify direct PRDM9 binding sites using ChIP-seq in human cells. Using these independent lines of evidence, we show that, in contrast with mouse, PRDM9 does localise peaks of recombination in the human PAR1. We find that recombination is a far more rapid and intense driver of sequence evolution in PAR1 than it is on the autosomes. We also show that PAR1 hotspot activities differ significantly among human populations. Finally, we find evidence that PAR1 hotspot positions have changed between human and chimpanzee, with no evidence of sharing among the hottest hotspots. We anticipate that the genetic maps built and validated in this work will aid research on this vital and fascinating region of the genome. PMID:25033397

Hinch, Anjali G.; Altemose, Nicolas; Noor, Nudrat; Donnelly, Peter; Myers, Simon R.

2014-01-01

263

Amlioration de l'utilisation par les bovins des chaumes de Sorghum bicolor par le hachage et la complmentation  

E-print Network

Amélioration de l'utilisation par les bovins des chaumes de Sorghum bicolor par le hachage et la and Leng, 1986 ILCA/Addis Ababa). Un essai d'amélioration de pailles de Sorghum bicolor complémenté à l

Boyer, Edmond

264

SPRY1 promotes the degradation of uPAR and inhibits uPAR-mediated cell adhesion and proliferation  

PubMed Central

Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a GPI anchored cell surface protein that is closely associated with invasion, migration, and metastasis of cancer cells. Many functional extracellular proteins and transmembrane receptors interact with uPAR. However, few studies have examined the association of uPAR with cytoplasm proteins. We previously used yeast two-hybrid screening to isolate several novel uPAR-interacting cytoplasmic proteins, including Sprouty1 (SPRY1), an inhibitor of the (Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase) MAPK pathway. In this study, we show that SPRY1 interacts with uPAR and directs it toward lysosomal-mediated degradation. Overexpression of SPRY1 decreased the cell surface and cytoplasmic uPAR protein level. Moreover, SPRY1 overexpression augmented uPAR-induced cell adhesion to vitronectin as well as proliferation of cancer cells. Our results also further support the critical role of SPRY1 contribution to tumor growth. In a subcutaneous tumor model, overexpression of SPRY1 in HCT116 or A549 xenograft in athymic nude mice led to great suppression of tumor growth. These results show that SPRY1 may affect tumor cell function through direct interaction with uPAR and promote its lysosomal degradation. PMID:25520860

Liu, Xiufeng; Lan, Yan; Zhang, Di; Wang, Kai; Wang, Yao; Hua, Zi-Chun

2014-01-01

265

77 FR 74167 - Information Collection Request: Highly Erodible Land Conservation and Wetland Conservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Highly Erodible Land Conservation and Wetland Conservation AGENCIES: Farm Service Agency...Highly Erodible Land Conservation and Wetland Conservation certification requirements...Highly Erodible Land Conservation and Wetland Conservation Certification. OMB...

2012-12-13

266

Species and Incompatibility Determination within the P1par Family of Plasmid Partition Elements  

PubMed Central

The P1par family of active plasmid partition systems consists of at least six members, broadly distributed in a variety of plasmid types and bacterial genera. Each encodes two Par proteins and contains a cis-acting parS site. Individual par systems can show distinct species specificities; the proteins from one type cannot function with the parS site of another. P1par-versus-P7par specificity resides within two hexamer BoxB repeats encoded by parS that contact the ParB protein near the carboxy terminus. Here, we examine the species specificity differences between Yersinia pestis pMT1parS and Escherichia coli P1 and P7parS. pMT1parS site specificity could be altered to that of either P1 or P7 by point mutation changes in the BoxB repeats. Just one base change in a single BoxB repeat sometimes sufficed. The BoxB sequence appears to be able to adopt a number of forms that define exclusive interactions with different ParB species. The looped parS structure may facilitate this repertoire of interaction specificities. Different P1par family members have different partition-mediated incompatibility specificities. This property defines whether two related plasmids can coexist in the same cell and is important in promoting the evolution of new plasmid species. BoxB sequence changes that switch species specificity between P1, P7, and pMT1 species switched partition-mediated plasmid incompatibility in concert. Thus, there is a direct mechanistic link between species specificity and partition-mediated incompatibility, and the BoxB-ParB interaction can be regarded as a special mechanism for facilitating plasmid evolution. PMID:16109939

Dabrazhynetskaya, Alena; Sergueev, Kirill; Austin, Stuart

2005-01-01

267

December 18, 2008 Conservation  

E-print Network

transfers energy to salt/water boiler; steam drives conventional steam turbine generator Molten salt thermal Council Northwest Power and Conservation Council Dish/Engine Heat-driven engine/generator (usually energy in an oil/water boiler; steam drives conventional steam turbine generator Oil thermal storage

268

Energy conservation measures  

SciTech Connect

The first four of the nineteen papers give a wide overview of the energy scene, with an historical perspective on energy systems. These were followed by papers concentrating on utility growth and load management, conservation in the building and construction industry and in transport, and recycling. The final three papers concentrated on energy applications in Kuwait.

Parker, J.D.

1984-01-01

269

Energy Conservation Simplified  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The standard formulation of energy conservation involves the subsidiary ideas of kinetic energy ("KE"), work ("W"), thermal energy, internal energy, and a half-dozen different kinds of potential energy ("PE"): elastic, chemical, nuclear, gravitational, and so forth. These quantities came to be recognized during the centuries over which the…

Hecht, Eugene

2008-01-01

270

CPT conserving cosmological birefringence  

E-print Network

We demonstrate that the cosmological birefringence can arise from CPT conserving effect, originated from the CPT-even dimension-six Chern-Simons-like term. We show that a sizable rotation polarization angle in the data of the cosmic microwave background radiation polarization can be induced.

C. Q. Geng; S. H. Ho; J. N. Ng

2007-12-29

271

Marine Conservation Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stay current with the latest marine conservation issues, plus find information on workshops and job and research opportunities. Access information on the latest research, legislation, and MCI's latest publications. Learn about marine protected areas, destructive fishing practices, endangered species, and how MCI is advancing marine science. Features include a photo gallery, links to an abundance of worldwide external resources, and several downloadable videos.

272

Conservation Conflicts Across Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing evidence that areas of outstanding conservation importance may coincide with dense human settlement or impact. We tested the generality of these findings using 1°-resolution data for sub-Saharan Africa. We find that human population density is positively correlated with species richness of birds, mammals, snakes, and amphibians. This association holds for widespread, narrowly endemic, and threatened species and

Andrew Balmford; Joslin L. Moore; Thomas Brooks; Neil Burgess; Louis A. Hansen; Paul Williams; Carsten Rahbek

2001-01-01

273

Department of Conservation.  

E-print Network

Publisher's note: A report summarising the major findings of this study has been published the Department of Conservation. It is "A habitat survey of North Island kokako, in Puketi Forest, Northland by H A Best and P J Bellingham. " Science & Research Series 17.

Puketi Forest Northland; H A Best; P J Bellingham; Published Head Office

274

Molecular Conservation Genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation biology seeks to maintain both unique species and the genetic diversity within those species. Without the help of molecular genetics, however, it's not necessarily easy to quantify either quality. Using mitochondrial DNA, polymerase chain reaction techniques, and microsatellite DNA, molecular geneticists help biologists determine which species are genetically distinct and whether their DNA are adequately diverse, allowing wise management

Mary V. Ashley

1999-01-01

275

Many glitters of conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the glitter and media-reported hoopla of energy conservation is discussed, and some facts to dull that glitter are described. On a natonal TV program in the US, the glitter of an electric car drive system and an airborne bicycle powered by solar photovoltaic cells was presented. But, analysis of the energy required to manufacture the electric batteries and

Hall

1980-01-01

276

Wildlife Conservation Serials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changing philosophy concerning wildlife conservation and its impact on the scientific literature is considered in order to define the serials relevant to this topic. These serials are presented in an annotated bibliography. which n compiled from lists of serials shown to be relevant as a result of three analyses of the literature. These analyses include a study of serials

Vernon N. Kisling Jr; Stephanie Haas

1994-01-01

277

Conservative Public Interest Litigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The idea that lawsuits can move a public as well as a legal agenda is not new. In recent years, conservatives have brought high profile lawsuits designed both to vindicate the rights of an individual plaintiff and to educate the public about an important issue. For example, lawsuits filed nearly 10 years ago against the University of Michigan's…

Pell, Terence J.

2007-01-01

278

Communities, Cameras, and Conservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Communities, Cameras, and Conservation (CCC) is the most exciting and valuable program the author has seen in her 30 years of teaching field science courses. In this citizen science project, students and community volunteers collect data on mountain lions ("Puma concolor") at four natural areas and public parks along the Front Range of Colorado.…

Patterson, Barbara

2012-01-01

279

Kiwi Careers - Conservator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mark Stranage fixes photographs. He takes damaged photos and nurses them back to health. Read his profile to learn how he got this job and how he does his work. Check the other links at this site to find out what tasks a conservator generally performs, typical working conditions and pay.

Zeland, Career S.

280

Supersymmetric non conservative systems  

E-print Network

We give the generalization of a recent variational formulation for nonconservative classical mechanics, for fermionic and sypersymmetric systems. Both cases require slightly modified boundary conditions. The supersymmetric version is given in the superfield formalism. The corresponding Noether theorem is formulated. As expected, like the energy, the supersymmetric charges are not conserved. Examples are discussed.

Martínez-Pérez, N E

2015-01-01

281

Measuring biodiversity for conservation  

E-print Network

Measuring biodiversity for conservation Summary Policy document 10/03 May 2003 ISBN 0 85403 592 3 This report can be found at www.royalsoc.ac.uk #12;The reality of ongoing biodiversity loss The living world for assimilating data on the loss of biodiversity and for assessing its impact on society, does not exist. Losses

Reynolds, John D.

282

Conservation of Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides a description of energy and thermodynamics equations as applied to propulsion systems and the understanding of high speed flows. Conservation of energy concepts are discussed along with equations. A set of energy activities and problems are linked following the description. This page is a part of a much larger hyper-linked Beginner's Guide to Aerodynamics site.

Project, Nasa G.

2005-12-25

283

The Getty Conservation Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started in 1985, The Getty Conservation Institute (GCI) "works internationally to advance conservation practice in the visual arts." Their mission is quite broad, as it includes conservation projects that involve architecture, individual objects, and site examinations. First-time visitors may wish to start by looking at the "What's New" area on the right-hand side of the homepage. Here they will find short videos on Asian orange colorants, information about Middle East heritage databases, and a direct link to the latest edition of the GCI's newsletter, "Conservation". Moving on, the "Free PDF Publications" area contains access to full-length books, reports, glossaries, and short papers published by the GCI. The "Videos and Audio" area contains a number of compelling talks, including a conversation with a panel of experts about long-term preservation plans for the bridges that span the Los Angeles River. Finally, the site also contains information for potential visiting scholars, graduate students, and interns within the "Public Programs" area of the site.

2008-01-01

284

Science Experience Unit: Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

GRADES OR AGES: Intermediate grades. SUBJECT MATTER: Conservation. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into 24 experiments. It is mimeographed and staple-bound with a paper cover. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: A specific skill or knowledge objective is stated at the beginning of each experiment. Detailed procedures are listed…

Ferguson-Florissant School District, Ferguson, MO.

285

Conservation of Matter Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The phenomena are three examples that illustrate conservation of matter - dissolving salt in water, adding an effervescent tablet to water, and a change in state from ice to water. The resource describes a laboratory exercise that asks students to compare the mass before substances are combined or changed to the mass after substances are combined or changed.

286

Angular momentum conservation demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A short article describing the fabrication and operation of a simple angular momentum conservation demonstration. The demonstration is based on a Lazy Susan, and cylindrical brass weights tied with a nylon string. The string can be pulled or released changing the radius or rotation of the weights.

Berg, Richard E.; Anders, Robert E.

2010-12-23

287

Conservation Awareness Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recommendations for incorporating conservation education into the K-5 curriculum comprise this teacher's guide. Examined are eight natural resources: air, energy, forests and plant life, human resources, minerals, soil, water, and wildlife. Each of these topics is considered in two ways: (1) a chart depicts concepts basic to understanding the…

Santa Rosa County Board of Public Instruction, Milton, FL.

288

The Conservation Alternative  

E-print Network

Of all of the issues involved in our national energy dilemma, the matter of conservation of energy has, without a doubt, received major attention. Much has been said on the subject and certainly a great deal has been written on the many facets...

Allaire, W. F.

1979-01-01

289

Torsion and conservation laws  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of spinor and electromagnetic fields with the torsion of space-time is studied within the framework of the Einstein-Cartan theory. The equivalent nonlinear theory in Riemann space is obtained. The conservation laws for the vector and pseudovector currents are investigated in the nonlinear theory.

E. V. Smetanin; E. Ostgaard; V. Canute; L. D. Landau; R. L. Bowers; E. P. T. Liang; H. Heintzmann; W. Hillebrandt; V. Ureche; S. Weinberg; B. Zel; I. M. Lifshits

1986-01-01

290

Marine Conservation Resource overexploitation  

E-print Network

Marine Conservation · Overview · Resource overexploitation % Impacts on target spp % Impacts on non'target spp, % Impacts on community/ecosystem % Marine protected areas Friday: · Global climate change · Invasive species · Solutions · Study Guide: Monday !" April · Discussion: Wednesday# !$ April % Marine

291

Genomics and conservation genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In large part, the relevance of genetics to conservation rests on the premise that neutral marker variation in populations reflects levels of detrimental and adaptive genetic variation. Despite its prominence, this tenet has been difficult to evaluate, until now. As we discuss here, genome sequence information and new technological and bioinformatics platforms now enable comprehen- sive surveys of neutral variation

Michael H. Kohn; William J. Murphy; Elaine A. Ostrander; Robert K. Wayne

2006-01-01

292

Creative Soil Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Take plant lessons outdoors with this engaging and inquiry-based activity in which third-grade students learn how to apply soil conservation methods to growing plants. They also collect data and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of their method of

Smith, Martha

2010-02-01

293

Water conservation plan guidelines  

SciTech Connect

These Water Conservation Plan Guidelines are addressed to water system planners but use of the Guidelines is not required by federal law or regulation. The first part of the document introduces the Guidelines and provides information to the States about their nature and possible use. The second part of the document, written for water systems, is an overview to the organization, content, and the use of the Guidelines. The next three parts contain the water conservation plan Guidelines: Basic, Intermediate, and Advanced. The Basic Guidelines are designed for use by water systems serving populations of 10,000 or fewer; The Intermediate Guidelines are designed for water systems serving between 10,000 and 100,000 people; The Advanced Guidelines are designed for water systems serving more than 100,000 people. Six appendixes to the Guidelines provide supporting information: detailed descriptions of conservation measures (Appendix A), conservation benchmarks (Appendix B), acronyms and a glossary (Appendix C), information resources (Appendix D), funding sources (Appendix E), and state contacts (Appendix F).

NONE

1998-08-06

294

Water Conservation in Oman  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limited resources and growing needs for water have triggered a nationwide campaign for water conservation in the Sultanate of Oman. A land and soil survey study of Oman shows the availability of more arable land than present water resources could support. Groundwater is the main source for agricultural production. Overpumping at rates higher than the natural recharge has resulted in

Hayder A. Abdel-Rahman; Isam Mohammed Abdel-Magid

1993-01-01

295

Conservation of fern spores  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ferns are a diverse and important group of plants, but diversity of species and populations are at risk from increasing social pressures, loss of habitat and climate change. Ex situ conservation is a useful strategy to limit decline in genetic diversity and requires technologies to preserve fern ger...

296

Conservation and solar guidelines  

SciTech Connect

Guidelines are given for selecting R-values and infiltration levels, and determining the size of the solar collection area for passive solar buildings. The guidelines are based on balancing the incremental cost/benefit of conservation and passive solar strategies. Tables are given for 90 cities in the US and the results are also displayed on maps. An example is included.

Balcomb, J.D.

1983-01-01

297

An Introduction to Conservation  

E-print Network

is a firm obligation of the U.S. government.The amount is determined annually five years in advanceAn Introduction to Northwest Power Conservation Council and The Columbia River Treaty Mica Dam With the fourth-largest volume of all the rivers in North America,the Columbia has the power to provide

298

Protease-Activated Receptor (PAR)2, but Not PAR1, Is Involved in Collateral Formation and Anti-Inflammatory Monocyte Polarization in a Mouse Hind Limb Ischemia Model  

PubMed Central

Aims In collateral development (i.e. arteriogenesis), mononuclear cells are important and exist as a heterogeneous population consisting of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory/repair-associated cells. Protease-activated receptor (PAR)1 and PAR2 are G-protein-coupled receptors that are both expressed by mononuclear cells and are involved in pro-inflammatory reactions, while PAR2 also plays a role in repair-associated responses. Here, we investigated the physiological role of PAR1 and PAR2 in arteriogenesis in a murine hind limb ischemia model. Methods and Results PAR1-deficient (PAR1-/-), PAR2-deficient (PAR2-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice underwent femoral artery ligation. Laser Doppler measurements revealed reduced post-ischemic blood flow recovery in PAR2-/- hind limbs when compared to WT, while PAR1-/- mice were not affected. Upon ischemia, reduced numbers of smooth muscle actin (SMA)-positive collaterals and CD31-positive capillaries were found in PAR2-/- mice when compared to WT mice, whereas these parameters in PAR1-/- mice did not differ from WT mice. The pool of circulating repair-associated (Ly6C-low) monocytes and the number of repair-associated (CD206-positive) macrophages surrounding collaterals in the hind limbs were increased in WT and PAR1-/- mice, but unaffected in PAR2-/- mice. The number of repair-associated macrophages in PAR2-/- hind limbs correlated with CD11b- and CD115-expression on the circulating monocytes in these animals, suggesting that monocyte extravasation and M-CSF-dependent differentiation into repair-associated cells are hampered. Conclusion PAR2, but not PAR1, is involved in arteriogenesis and promotes the repair-associated response in ischemic tissues. Therefore, PAR2 potentially forms a new pro-arteriogenic target in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. PMID:23637930

Nossent, Anne Yael; van Oeveren-Rietdijk, Annemarie M.; de Vries, Margreet R.; Spek, C. Arnold; van Zonneveld, Anton Jan; Reitsma, Pieter H.; Hamming, Jaap F.; de Boer, Hetty C.; Versteeg, Henri H.; Quax, Paul H. A.

2013-01-01

299

TUDE PAR MESURE DE CONDUCTIBILIT LECTRIQUE ET PAR RSONANCE PARAMAGNTIQUE LECTRONIQUE DU MANGANSE  

E-print Network

MANGAN�SE DANS LE FLUORURE DE LITHIUM Par M. P. BERGE, C. GAGO (1), G. BLANC, Mmes M. ADAM-BENVENISTE et M étendu de température le processus de conduc- tibilité est lié aux paires Mn2+-lacunes lithium. Analysis of superhyperfine spectra confirms the presence of Mn2+ surrounded by an octahedron of fluorine

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

300

Taare Zameen Par and dyslexic savants  

PubMed Central

The film Taare Zameen Par (Stars upon the Ground) portrays the tormented life at school and at home of a child with dyslexia and his eventual success after his artistic talents are discovered by his art teacher at the boarding school. The film hints at a curious neurocognitive phenomenon of creativity in the midst of language disability, as exemplified in the lives of people like Leonardo da Vinci and Albert Einstein, both of whom demonstrated extraordinary creativity even though they were probably affected with developmental learning disorders. It has been hypothesized that a developmental delay in the dominant hemisphere most likely ‘disinhibits’ the nondominant parietal lobe, unmasking talents—artistic or otherwise—in some such individuals. It has been suggested that, in remedial training, children with learning disorders be encouraged to develop such hidden talents to full capacity, rather than be subjected to the usual overemphasis on the correction of the disturbed coded symbol operations. PMID:20142854

Chakravarty, Ambar

2009-01-01

301

Control of Cleavage Spindle Orientation in Caenorhabditis Elegans: The Role of the Genes Par-2 and Par-3  

PubMed Central

Polarized asymmetric divisions play important roles in the development of plants and animals. The first two embryonic cleavages of Caenorhabditis elegans provide an opportunity to study the mechanisms controlling polarized asymmetric divisions. The first cleavage is unequal, producing daughters with different sizes and fates. The daughter blastomeres divide with different orientations at the second cleavage; the anterior blastomere divides equally across the long axis of the egg, whereas the posterior blastomere divides unequally along the long axis. We report here the results of our analysis of the genes par-2 and par-3 with respect to their contribution to the polarity of these division. Strong loss-of-function mutations in both genes lead to an equal first cleavage and an altered second cleavage. Interestingly, the mutations exhibit striking gene-specific differences at the second cleavage. The par-2 mutations lead to transverse spindle orientations in both blastomeres, whereas par-3 mutations lead to longitudinal spindle orientations in both blastomeres. The spindle orientation defects correlate with defects in centrosome movements during both the first and the second cell cycle. Temperature shift experiments with par-2(it5ts) indicate that the par-2(+) activity is not required after the two-cell stage. Analysis of double mutants shows that par-3 is epistatic to par-2. We propose a model wherein par-2(+) and par-3(+) act in concert during the first cell cycle to affect asymmetric modification of the cytoskeleton. This polar modification leads to different behaviors of centrosomes in the anterior and posterior and leads ultimately to blastomere-specific spindle orientations at the second cleavage. PMID:7713417

Cheng, N. N.; Kirby, C. M.; Kemphues, K. J.

1995-01-01

302

Supplementary Table 2 Conservation of helicase motifs. Conservation  

E-print Network

. The truncation is a conserved feature of SWI2/SNF2 proteins (Snf2 hmm of PlSTl), and the Rad54 structure/SNF2 family (Snf2 hmm TSYEl), and is part of the previously defined Snf-A motif. II Conserved in SF1 two residues that are highly conserved in the Snf2 hmm (DEgHrLKN; higher conservation in uppercase

Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.

303

Roadmap: Environmental and Conservation Biology Conservation Biology Bachelor of Science  

E-print Network

Roadmap: Environmental and Conservation Biology ­Conservation Biology Bachelor of Science [AS Elements of Genetics 3 MATH 12002 Analytic Geometry and Calculus I 5 Fulfills Kent Core Mathematics Summary on page 2 Conservation Biology Concentration Elective 2 See note 3 on page 2 Semester Five: [15

Sheridan, Scott

304

Conservation and Education in Murchison Falls Conservation Area, Uganda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This thesis forms the foundation for a conservation education training manual to help guides in Murchison Falls National Park, Uganda, communicate to foreign visitors about conservation issues. For background information I used a combination of text-based research and interviews to examine the application of community conservation and…

Jordahl, Mark D.

2005-01-01

305

Irradiator apparatus and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

An irradiator of the type using a radioactive material as a source of radiation is combined with a gaseous liquid contact chamber. The irradiator has a casing having an input and output therefrom and a plurality of connected chambers formed in the casing and separated by walls having an opening therethrough. A plurality of gamma radiation sources are located in

Woodbridge

1984-01-01

306

The Irradiance Volume  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: This paper presentsavolumetric representation for the global illumination within a space based on theradiometric quantity irradiance. We call this representation the irradiance volume. Although irradianceis traditionally computed only for surfaces, we extend its de#nition to all points and directions in space.

Gene Greger; Peter Shirley; Philip M. Hubbard; Donald P. Greenberg

1998-01-01

307

Comminuting irradiated ferritic steel  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a method of comminuting irradiated ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other irradiated components.

Bauer, Roger E. (Kennewick, WA); Straalsund, Jerry L. (Kennewick, WA); Chin, Bryan A. (Auburn, AL)

1985-01-01

308

TOLERANCE OF IRRADIATED FATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

As is known, irradiation of polyene acids causes them to undergo similar ; changes as occur in auto-oxidation, and auto-oxidized fat can become toxic under ; certain conditions. Thus experiments were devised to study the effects of ; feeding fats irradiated by a substantially higher dose than is necessary for the ; sterilization or pasteurization of foodstuifs; to determine the

Lang

1962-01-01

309

Irradiation Creep in Graphite  

SciTech Connect

An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of irradiation creep in graphite material is required to correctly interpret experimental data, explain micromechanical modeling results, and predict whole-core behavior. This project will focus on experimental microscopic data to demonstrate the mechanism of irradiation creep. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy should be able to image both the dislocations in graphite and the irradiation-induced interstitial clusters that pin those dislocations. The team will first prepare and characterize nanoscale samples of virgin nuclear graphite in a transmission electron microscope. Additional samples will be irradiated to varying degrees at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) facility and similarly characterized. Researchers will record microstructures and crystal defects and suggest a mechanism for irradiation creep based on the results. In addition, the purchase of a tensile holder for a transmission electron microscope will allow, for the first time, in situ observation of creep behavior on the microstructure and crystallographic defects.

Ubic, Rick; Butt, Darryl; Windes, William

2014-03-13

310

Biodiversity Conservation in Tropical Agroecosystems  

E-print Network

Biodiversity Conservation in Tropical Agroecosystems A New Conservation Paradigm Ivette Perfectoa. This conclusion has major consequences for biodiversity con- servation in fragmented tropical forests the literature on biodiversity in tropical agricul- tural landscapes and present evidence that many tropical

311

Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation  

E-print Network

Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation Specialization: Forest Informatics Forest resources where quantification, modeling, descriptive and predictive analyses of natural resources Resources and Conservation 3 credits FOR3434C Forest Resources Information Systems 3

Watson, Craig A.

312

Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation  

E-print Network

Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation Specialization: Forest Resource Management Forest. Summer FOR3200C Foundations in Forest Resources and Conservation 3 credits FOR3434C Forest Resources Information Systems 3 credits Fall FNR3410C Natural Resource Sampling

Watson, Craig A.

313

Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation  

E-print Network

Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation Specialization: Protected Areas Management. Summer FOR3200C Foundations in Forest Resources and Conservation 3 credits FOR3434C Forest Resources Information Systems 3 credits Fall FNR3410C Natural Resource Sampling

Watson, Craig A.

314

76 FR 22785 - Wetland Conservation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...This action removes provisions concerning the Natural Resources Conservation Service's (NRCS) coordination responsibilities...Division, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Room 6819, South Building,...

2011-04-25

315

Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation  

E-print Network

Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation Specialization: Business Management Business Management gives students a sound background in natural resource management and a broad introduction projects. Summer FOR3200C Foundations in Forest Resources and Conservation 3 credits

Watson, Craig A.

316

Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation  

E-print Network

Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation Specialization: Urban Forestry Urban Forestry FOR3200C Foundations in Forest Resources and Conservation 3 credits FOR3434C Forest Resources Information Systems 3 credits Fall FNR3410C Natural Resource Sampling 3

Watson, Craig A.

317

Herpetological Conservation & Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 2006, the Herpetological Conservation & Biology journal was started to offer a place for manuscripts in the field "that were descriptive or natural history oriented." This journal publishes original peer-reviewed research, reviews, and perspectives on the "ecology, natural history, management, and conservation biology of amphibians and reptiles." Recent articles have included "Population decline in Grassland Earless Lizards" and "Invasive shrub benefits a Sri Lankan lizard." Visitors can click on the Volumes tab to look over all of the past issues and search the entire archive here as well. The Photo Gallery is a real treat, featuring dozens of photos submitted by the editors and other users. Finally, visitors can also learn about how to submit material for possible publication, along with signing up for email updates.

2012-09-21

318

Postmodernism and African conservation science  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Africa, the movement away from traditional protectionist conservation to community-based approaches is partially related to postmodernist influences. Proposed transfrontier conservation areas will incorporate local communities, and a clearer understanding of the limitations of community-based conservation is thus needed. The sustainability of community-based conservation projects is questioned on economic and other grounds, and many African countries lack the prerequisites (ecological,

C. A. M. Attwell; F. P. D. Cotterill

2000-01-01

319

Salmon Conservation in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydroelectric power developments in Sweden are a menace to the populations of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Conservation measures, started as early as in the 1860's, now aim at the substituting of hatchery-reared 2-year-old smolt for the freshwater part of the life cycle of the salmon. The smolt plantings will soon reach 2 million annually, and the return now amounts

Arne Lindroth

1963-01-01

320

Laser conservation paleontology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Just as lasers have found countless applications in science, industry, medicine, and entertainment, an array of real and potential uses for lasers in art-conservation analytes and practice have been investigated over the past thirty years. These include holographic recording, holographic recording, holographic nondestructive testing, laser-induced ultrasonic imaging, laser-scattering surface characterization, atomic and molecular analyses, photoacoustic spectroscopy, surface modification, as well as surface divestment and cleaning. The initial endeavors in exploring and assessing the utility of these tools for art conservation are recounted for investigations involving ruby, glass, ion, YAG, carbon dioxide, dye, and excimer lasers as well as high-intensity nonlaser light generators such as xenon flashlamps and argon pinchlamps. Initially, laser divestment/cleaning was, by general consensus, the least plausible laser application in art conservation. In the past ten years it has emerged to dominate all the other applications noted above. Today, at least a dozen firms supply user-friendly laser systems optimized for a range of art-conservation divestment applications. The first-generation laser-cleaning tools are essentially a laser, a beam-delivery device, and a debris- collection accessory. Advanced developmental work has turned in large measure to ancillary subsystems for more sophisticated process control. Of particular importance are acoustic, optical, spectral, EMP, and electronic-vision process control. Beam direction may be via manual, translational-scanner, or robotic beam positioning implemented by means of fiber optics, minors, or prisms and computer control. Substrate thermal alteration and debris redeposition may be minimized or avoided through the incorporation of a gas jet, fluid or fluid jet, or dry-ice blast.

Asmus, John F.

2001-10-01

321

Wildlife Conservation Research Unit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oxford University has a very important website dedicated to its Wildlife Conservation Research Unit (WildCRU), that hopes to solve the "conflict between peoples' futures and wildlife conservation." There are several themes on the website, all of which can be found on the left hand menu. Visitors will find the following topics to explore: "Endangered Species", "Invasives", "Land Use & Biodiversity", "Fundamental Biology", "Wildlife Diseases", and "Wildlife as a Resource". The "Publications" link at the top right side of the page contains "Books", "Papers", "Reports", and "Theses" available to read online or find in a physical library. A multitude of animal issues are discussed in the documents here, including a paper called "The World Can't Have Wild Tigers and Eat Them, Too" and "State of Britain's Mammals 2008". The "Research" link near the top of the page, includes the dozens of research projects WildCRU is involved in, such as "Badger Genetic Research", "Transfrontier Conservation of Andean Cats" and "Towards Reducing the Total Environmental Impacts of Agriculture."

322

Optimal Conservation of Migratory Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Migratory animals comprise a significant portion of biodiversity worldwide with annual investment for their conservation exceeding several billion dollars. Designing effective conservation plans presents enormous challenges. Migratory species are influenced by multiple events across land and sea-regions that are often separated by thousands of kilometres and span international borders. To date, conservation strategies for migratory species fail to take

Tara G. Martin; Iadine Chadès; Peter Arcese; Peter P. Marra; Hugh P. Possingham; D. Ryan Norris

2007-01-01

323

Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation  

E-print Network

Summer B FOR3200C Foundations in Natural Resources and Conservation 3 credits FOR3434C Forest ResourcesMajoring in Forest Resources & Conservation University of Florida/IFAS School of Forest Resources & Conservation www.sfrc.ufl.edu ~ 352-846-0847 ~ khaselier@ufl.edu Forest Resource Management is for students

Watson, Craig A.

324

Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation  

E-print Network

: Watershed Science & Management Summer B FOR3200C Foundations in Natural Resources and Conservation 3 credits Conservation, SWS4245 Water Resource Sustainability or AEB4123 Agricultural & Natural Resource Law Physical & Water Conservation, SWS4245 Water Resource Sustainability or AEB4123 Agricultural & Natural Resource Law

Watson, Craig A.

325

Saving Money Through Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is an introduction to personal energy conservation. The first chapter presents a rationale for conserving energy and points out that private citizens control about one third of this country's energy consumption. Chapters two and three show how to save money by saving energy. Chapter two discusses energy conservation methods in the…

Presley, Michael H.; And Others

326

Discovering Conservation Rules Lukasz Golab #  

E-print Network

Discovering Conservation Rules Lukasz Golab # , Howard Karloff , Flip Korn , Barna Saha , Divesh a "conservation law" between related quantities. For example, in traffic monitoring, every incoming event outgoing counterpart. We propose a new class of constraints--Conservation Rules--that express the semantics

Greenberg, Albert

327

Energy Management and Conservation Plan  

E-print Network

Energy Management and Conservation Plan December 2005 #12;Texas Transportation Institute December 2005 Energy Management and Conservation Plan Page 2 of 24 Table of Contents Section One: Executive: Reporting Progress #12;Texas Transportation Institute December 2005 Energy Management and Conservation Plan

328

Conservation Comparison of Plan, Current  

E-print Network

Northwest Power and Conservation Council Comparison of Plan, Current Policy, and No-Policy Cases Power Committee Web Meeting June 30, 2009 Northwest Power and Conservation Council Definition of Cases, new plant emissions limits, and carbon price risk #12;Northwest Power and Conservation Council

329

75 FR 34924 - Conservation Stewardship Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Credit Corporation, Natural Resources Conservation Service, United States...SUMMARY: The Natural Resources Conservation Service is correcting...Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, 1400...

2010-06-21

330

Prostate Apoptosis Response 4 (Par-4), a Novel Substrate of Caspase-3 during Apoptosis Activation  

PubMed Central

Prostate apoptosis response 4 (Par-4) is a ubiquitously expressed proapoptotic tumor suppressor protein. Here, we show for the first time, that Par-4 is a novel substrate of caspase-3 during apoptosis. We found that Par-4 is cleaved during cisplatin-induced apoptosis in human normal and cancer cell lines. Par-4 cleavage generates a C-terminal fragment of ?25 kDa, and the cleavage of Par-4 is completely inhibited by a caspase-3 inhibitor, suggesting that caspase-3 is directly involved in the cleavage of Par-4. Caspase-3-deficient MCF-7 cells do not show Par-4 cleavage in response to cisplatin treatment, and restoration of caspase-3 in MCF-7 cells produces a decrease in Par-4 levels, with the appearance of a cleaved fragment. Additionally, knockdown of Par-4 reduces caspase-3 activation and apoptosis induction. Site-directed mutagenesis reveals that Par-4 cleavage by caspase-3 occurs at an unconventional site, EEPD131?G. Interestingly, overexpression of wild-type Par-4 but not the Par-4 D131A mutant sensitizes cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Upon caspase-3 cleavage, the cleaved fragment of Par-4 accumulates in the nucleus and displays increased apoptotic activity. Overexpression of the cleaved fragment of Par-4 inhibits I?B? phosphorylation and blocks NF-?B nuclear translocation. We have identified a novel specific caspase-3 cleavage site in Par-4, and the cleaved fragment of Par-4 retains proapoptotic activity. PMID:22184067

Chaudhry, Parvesh; Singh, Mohan; Parent, Sophie

2012-01-01

331

GABA, Receptor-Mediated Inhibition of Rat Substantia Nigra Dopaminergic Neurons by Pars Reticulata Projection Neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence from electrophysiological studies has suggested an inhibitory interaction between GABAergic neurons in substantia nigra pars reticulata and dopaminergic neurons in pars compacta. However, that this inhibitory interaction is due to a projection from pars reticulata to pars compacta has never been demonstrated directly, nor has the GA- BAergic neuron that mediates the interaction been identi- fied either electrophysiologically or

J. M. Tepper; L. P. Martin; D. R. Anderson

1995-01-01

332

View from southeast to northwest of PAR site bachelor officers' ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View from southeast to northwest of PAR site bachelor officers' quarters - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Bachelor Officers' Quarters, North of Second Avenue; South of Metal & Woodworking Shop No. 706, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

333

View from northeast to southwest of PAR site sentry station; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View from northeast to southwest of PAR site sentry station; formerly the bachelor's enlisted men's quarter (BEQ) - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Sentry Station, North of Second Avenue & West of Electrical Switch Station No. 2, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

334

PARS: Programs for Analysis and Resizing of Structures, user manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PARS processors and their use, flutter analysis, sensitivity analysis for stresses, and resizing are presented. Design variable definition and interface with finite element model, static constraints and their derivatives, flutter derivatives, and optimization are discussed.

Haftka, R. T.; Prasad, B.; Tsach, U.

1979-01-01

335

Universit de Grenoble N attribu par la bibliothque  

E-print Network

.1. Scriptural Translation, Transliteration and Transcription traduction (Methods and Tools for Weak Problems of Translation) Thèse dirigée par M. Christian BOITET...................................................................................................................... 7 Scriptural Translation and other Weak Translation Problems ...................... 7 Chapter 1

Boyer, Edmond

336

Description des alignements forms par DTW Franois Petitjean  

E-print Network

distance de Levenshtein, également appe- lée distance d'édition, et a été introduite par [2, 3] dans le'autre séquence en minimisant les coûts d'association. Le coût d'une association correspond à la distance entre séquence par rapport à une autre, et parvient ainsi à saisir des similarités que la distance euclidienne ne

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

337

StePar: an automatic code for stellar parameter determination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a new automatic code (StePar) for determinig stellar atmospheric parameters (T_{eff}, log{g}, ? and [Fe/H]) in an automated way. StePar employs the 2002 version of the MOOG code (Sneden 1973) and a grid of Kurucz ATLAS9 plane-paralell model atmospheres (Kurucz 1993). The atmospheric parameters are obtained from the EWs of 263 Fe I and 36 Fe II lines (obtained from Sousa et al. 2008, A&A, 487, 373) iterating until the excitation and ionization equilibrium are fullfilled. StePar uses a Downhill Simplex method that minimizes a quadratic form composed by the excitation and ionization equilibrium conditions. Atmospheric parameters determined by StePar are independent of the stellar parameters initial-guess for the problem star, therefore we employ the canonical solar values as initial input. StePar can only deal with FGK stars from F6 to K4, also it can not work with fast rotators, veiled spectra, very metal poor stars or Signal to noise ratio below 30. Optionally StePar can operate with MARCS models (Gustafson et al. 2008, A&A, 486, 951) instead of Kurucz ATLAS9 models, additionally Turbospectrum (Alvarez & Plez 1998, A&A, 330, 1109) can replace the MOOG code and play its role during the parameter determination. StePar has been used to determine stellar parameters for some studies (Tabernero et al. 2012, A&A, 547, A13; Wisniewski et al. 2012, AJ, 143, 107). In addition StePar is being used to obtain parameters for FGK stars from the GAIA-ESO Survey.

Tabernero, H. M.; González Hernández, J. I.; Montes, D.

2013-05-01

338

Analyse structurale des matriaux carbons trs dsordonns par microspectroscopie Raman  

E-print Network

Analyse structurale des matériaux carbonés très désordonnés par microspectroscopie Raman'organisation de la matière organique dans les métasédiments peut être quantifié par microspectroscopie Raman. De'organisation et les pics de température du métamorphisme, et ont calibré le géothermomètre RSCM (Raman

Boyer, Edmond

339

Article original Diffrenciation par le systme API 50 CH  

E-print Network

Article original Différenciation par le système API 50 CH et électrophorèse des mycoplasmes Marcy-l'Ã?toile, France (Reçu le 15 janvier 1991; accepté le 11 juin 1991) Résumé ― Le système API'aspect des colonies lors de l'isolement, ainsi que les résultats fournis par le système API 50 CH ont permis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

340

Par reduction in ofdm via active constellation extension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high peak-to-average power ratio (PAR) in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation systems can significantly reduce power efficiency and performance. Methods exist which alter or introduce new signal constellations to combat large signal peaks. We present a new PAR-reduction method that dynamically extends outer constellation points in active (data-carrying) channels, within margin-preserving constraints, in order to minimize the peak

Brian Scott Krongold; Douglas L. Jones

2003-01-01

341

Solar radiation (PAR and UVA) and water temperature in relation to biochemical performance of Gelidium corneum (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) in subtidal bottoms off the Basque coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gelidium corneum (Hudson) J.V. Lamouroux is a very important primary producer in the Cantabrian coastal ecosystem. Some local declines in their populations have been recently detected in the Basque coast. Occurrences of yellowing and an unusual branch breakdown pattern have also been reported for some G. corneum populations. In order to gain further insight into those environmental stressors operating at a local scale, here we investigate if shallow subtidal populations of G. corneum living under potentially different conditions of irradiance (PAR and UVA) and water temperature exhibit differences in some biochemical indicators of stress, namely C:N, antioxidant activity (radical cation of 2,2?-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate); ABTS+ assay) and mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) (Asterine 330 and Palythine). We hypothesised that G. corneum subjected to higher ambient levels of irradiance and water temperature would show higher C:N ratios, lower antioxidant activity and higher MAA concentrations. Our results partially support this hypothesis. We found that G. corneum exposed to increased levels of irradiance (PAR, UVA) exhibited greater C:N ratios and lower antioxidant activity (higher IC50), whereas no relationship was found regarding MAAs. No differences in biochemical performance in relation to temperature were detected among G. corneum exposed to comparable high light. Similarly, G. corneum growing under lower UVA radiation levels showed no differences in any of the measured biochemical variables with regard to PAR and water temperature. These findings suggest that, among the environmental factors examined, UVA radiation may be an important driver in regulating the along-shore variation in G. corneum biochemical performance. Therefore, the role of irradiance, especially UV radiation, in potential future alterations in Cantabrian G. corneum populations cannot be ruled out as a potential underlying factor.

Quintano, Endika; Ganzedo, Unai; Díez, Isabel; Figueroa, Félix L.; Gorostiaga, José M.

2013-10-01

342

Radiographic findings after treatment with balloon brachytherapy accelerated partial breast irradiation.  

PubMed

The use of accelerated partial breast irradiation ( APBI accelerated partial breast irradiation ) following breast-conserving surgery is rapidly gaining popularity as an alternative to whole-breast irradiation ( WBI whole-breast irradiation ) in selected patients with early-stage breast cancer. Although data on the long-term effectiveness and safety of APBI accelerated partial breast irradiation are still being gathered, the shorter treatment course and narrowed radiation target of APBI accelerated partial breast irradiation provide an attractive alternative for carefully selected patients. These patients include those with relatively small tumors (?3 cm), negative or close margins, and negative sentinel lymph nodes. Possible long-term complications include telangiectasia and the development of a palpable mass at the lumpectomy site. Mammographic findings in patients who have undergone APBI accelerated partial breast irradiation are distinct from those in patients who have undergone conventional WBI whole-breast irradiation . The most common post- APBI accelerated partial breast irradiation radiographic findings include formation of seromas at the lumpectomy site, focal parenchymal changes such as increased trabeculation and parenchymal distortion, fat necrosis, and skin changes such as thickening or retraction. Given the continued evolution of breast cancer treatment, it is important that radiologists have a comprehensive understanding of APBI accelerated partial breast irradiation in terms of rationale, patient selection criteria, common postprocedural radiographic findings (and how they differ from post- WBI whole-breast irradiation findings), and advantages and potential complications. (©)RSNA, 2015. PMID:25590384

Ibrahim, Nafisa B; Anandan, Srividya; Hartman, Audrey L; McSweeney, Michelle; Chun, Jeanette; McKee, Andrea; Yang, Rebecca; Kim, Cathleen

2015-01-01

343

Outcomes in breast cancer patients relative to margin status after treatment with breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy: the University of Pennsylvania experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To evaluate the significance of final microscopic resection margin status on treatment outcomes in women with early breast cancer who are treated with breast-conserving surgery and definitive breast irradiation.Methods and Materials: An analysis was performed of 1021 consecutive women with clinical Stage I or II invasive carcinoma of the breast treated with breast-conserving surgery and definitive breast irradiation. Complete

Michael E Peterson; Delray J Schultz; Carol Reynolds; Lawrence J Solin

1999-01-01

344

43 CFR 418.31 - Conservation measures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Conservation measures. 418.31...RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA Water Management and Conservation § 418.31 Conservation...determine the particular conservation measures that meet the needs of its water users. This...

2010-10-01

345

43 CFR 418.31 - Conservation measures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Conservation measures. 418.31...RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA Water Management and Conservation § 418.31 Conservation...determine the particular conservation measures that meet the needs of its water users. This...

2013-10-01

346

43 CFR 418.31 - Conservation measures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2011-10-01 true Conservation measures. 418.31...RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA Water Management and Conservation § 418.31 Conservation...determine the particular conservation measures that meet the needs of its water users. This...

2012-10-01

347

43 CFR 418.31 - Conservation measures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Conservation measures. 418.31...RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA Water Management and Conservation § 418.31 Conservation...determine the particular conservation measures that meet the needs of its water users. This...

2011-10-01

348

43 CFR 418.31 - Conservation measures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Conservation measures. 418.31...RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA Water Management and Conservation § 418.31 Conservation...determine the particular conservation measures that meet the needs of its water users. This...

2014-10-01

349

Water Conservation: Denver, CO  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dams are widely distributed throughout the U.S. Their impact is perhaps most apparent in western cities, many of which lack a sufficient local water supply and thus rely on water diverted from far-away sources, particularly man-made lakes. This video segment shows how the city of Denver, Colorado, faced with a growing water crisis, developed and later abandoned a plan for a nearby dam and instead adopted policies consistent with a broader water-conservation strategy. The segment is three minutes forty-nine seconds in length.

2012-10-24

350

Water Conservation: Denver, CO  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dams are widely distributed throughout the U.S. Their impact is perhaps most apparent in western cities, many of which lack a sufficient local water supply and thus rely on water diverted from far-away sources, particularly man-made lakes. This video segment shows how the city of Denver, Colorado, faced with a growing water crisis, developed and later abandoned a plan for a nearby dam and instead adopted policies consistent with a broader water-conservation strategy. The segment is three minutes forty-nine seconds in length.

351

Bat Conservation International, Inc.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Web site for Bat Conservation International, Inc. (last mentioned in the November 12, 1997_Scout Report for Science and Engineering_) has added significant content since our last coverage of the site. Although the site still has information about the organization, bat facts, FAQs, and information on bat biology, in-depth sections on a wide variety of research projects have been added, ranging from bats in Latin American ecosystems to bats in your very own yard. Although there is a large focus on research, the text is still written for a general audience, and most sections include a variety of photos.

352

Pneumatic Air Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief interactive activity, by Electromechanical Digital Library and Wisconsin Technical College System faculty members Terry Bartelt and Stephen Schneider, introduces pneumatic air conservation. The lesson begins with an illustration comparing production of air force by electric and pneumatic systems. The lesson then moves on to discuss ways to reduce the cost of supplying pneumatic systems with electrical power, by reducing leakage and selecting the proper air pressure. This is an excellent and practical resource for reducing the monetary and environmental cost of running pneumatic air systems.

Bartelt, Terry L. M.

353

Conserving Water at Home  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Humans depend on freshwater for drinking as well as for domestic, agricultural, and industrial uses. Careless and wasteful use of this renewable but high-demand natural resource contributes to water depletion. This video segment provides a look at a house in Tuscon, Arizona that is equipped with water conservation devices that cut its household water consumption in half. There is also discussion of xeriscape landscaping techniques and a program to install low-flow toilets in Los Angeles, California. The segment is two minutes fifty-seven seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

354

Energy Conservation: Student Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This teacher's guide contains six student activities on the topic of energy conservation and the impact of energy use on society. These materials are developed for use in middle schools for energy-related studies in many different subject areas. The activities each contain objectives, lesson plans, teaching tips, supplementary resources, and references. The top document on this page contains the Introduction and Table of Contents. The Primary Documents link can be opened to access the individual student activities. This is one of several similar modules and activity books regarding science, technology, and societal issues.

2012-01-27

355

Placenta accreta: conservative approach.  

PubMed

Placenta accreta refers to any abnormally invasive placental implantation. Diagnosis is suspected postpartum with failed delivery of a retained placenta. Massive obstetrical hemorrhage is a known complication, often requiring peripartum hysterectomy. The authors report a case of placenta accreta in a primiparous patient with multinodular leiofibromyomatosis of the uterus following failed manual removals of a retained placenta. They describe a conservative management in a stable patient desiring future fertility with a unilateral prophylactic uterine artery embolization, a multidose regimen of methotrexate, and a subsequent abdominal myomectomy. PMID:24597266

Di Luigi, G; Patacchiola, F; Di Stefano, L; D'Alfonso, A; Carta, A; Carta, G

2013-01-01

356

Conservation of Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet illustrates both conservation of energy and circular motion. A roller coaster car starts on top of a hill, falls through a valley and travels over second hill, then goes through a loop. The depth of the valley, height of barrier, and size of the loop can be varied and the effect on the motion of the body can be viewed. If the velocity is too small or too large the car leaves the tracks. A motion diagram for the car is also available. This is part of a large collection of physics and math applets by the author.

Reddy, Surendranath

2006-06-06

357

Integrating Agriculture and Conservation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The USGS produces the needed science-based information to guide management actions and policy decisions that support wildlife habitat and other environmental services compatible with USDA conservation goals and farm operations. The Policy Analysis and Science Assistance Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) has conducted research involving a national landowner survey and numerous short- and long-term evaluations regarding vegetation responses to land management practices. This research helps land and resource managers to make informed decisions and resolve resource management conflicts.

Vandever, Mark W.

2010-01-01

358

Water Conservation: Israel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A recent report stated that in the next decade or so, nearly half of the world's population will live in countries whose water supplies are over-stressed. In parts of Africa, northern China, southern Asia, and the Middle East, water is already being pumped from aquifers faster than it is being replenished. In India, the water table is falling 1-3 m (3-10 ft) per year. This video segment, adapted from the television program 'Last Oasis', discusses how Israel has approached its water scarcity problem by developing innovative ways to conserve and reuse its supply.

2012-10-29

359

Vaissire, J, 2010, Le franais, langue frontires par excellence , dans FRONTIRES, DU LINGUISTIQUE AU SMIOTIQUE, ouvrage collectif initi par  

E-print Network

segmentation du continuum vocal. Les résultats issus des expérimentations contrôlées ont mis à jour la de la parole, les pauses respiratoires et les différences d'effort articulatoire (mesurables par les discours. Cet effort peut augmenter, par exemple, sur un élément du message à focaliser. Le niveau

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

360

Platelet protease-activated receptor (PAR)4, but not PAR1, associated with neutral sphingomyelinase responsible for thrombin-stimulated ceramide-NF-?B signaling in human platelets.  

PubMed

Thrombin activates platelets mainly through protease-activated receptor (PAR)1 and PAR4. However, downstream platelet signaling between PAR1 and PAR4 is not yet well understood. This study investigated the relationship between nSMase/ceramide and the NF-?B signaling pathway in PARs-mediated human platelet activation. The LC-MS/MS, aggregometry, flow cytometry, immunoprecipitation, and mesenteric microvessels of mice were used in this study. Human platelets stimulated by thrombin, 3-OMS (a neutral sphingomyelinase [nSMase] inhibitor) and Bay11-7082 (an NF-?B inhibitor) significantly inhibited platelet activation such as P-selectin expression. Thrombin also activated I?B kinase (IKK)? and I?B? phosphorylation; such phosphorylation was inhibited by 3-OMS and SB203580 (a p38 MAPK inhibitor). Moreover, 3-OMS abolished platelet aggregation, IKK?, and p38 MAPK phosphorylation stimulated by PAR4-AP (a PAR4 agonist) but not by PAR1-AP (a PAR1 agonist). Immunoprecipitation revealed that nSMase was directly associated with PAR4 but not PAR1 in resting platelets. In human platelets, C24:0-ceramide is the predominant form of ceramides in the LC/MS-MS assay; C24:0-ceramide increases after stimulation by thrombin or PAR4-AP, but not after stimulation by PAR1-AP. We also found that C2-ceramide (a cell-permeable ceramide analog) activated p38 MAPK and IKK? phosphorylation in platelets and markedly shortened the occlusion time of platelet plug formation in vivo. This study demonstrated that thrombin activated nSMase by binding to PAR4, but not to PAR1, to increase the C24:0-ceramide level, followed by the activation of p38 MAPK-NF-?B signaling. Our results showed a novel physiological significance of PAR4-nSMase/ceramide-p38 MAPK-NF-?B cascade in platelet activation. PMID:23065519

Chen, Wei-Fan; Lee, Jie-Jen; Chang, Chao-Chien; Lin, Kuan-Hong; Wang, Shwu-Huey; Sheu, Joen-Rong

2013-05-01

361

Supply Curves of Conserved Energy  

SciTech Connect

Supply curves of conserved energy provide an accounting framework that expresses the potential for energy conservation. The economic worthiness of a conservation measure is expressed in terms of the cost of conserved energy, and a measure is considered economical when the cost of conserved energy is less than the price of the energy it replaces. A supply curve of conserved energy is independent of energy prices; however, the economical reserves of conserved energy will depend on energy prices. Double-counting of energy savings and error propagation are common problems when estimating conservation potentials, but supply curves minimize these difficulties and make their consequences predictable. The sensitivity of the cost of conserved energy is examined, as are variations in the optimal investment strategy in response to changes in inputs. Guidelines are presented for predicting the consequences of such changes. The conservation supply curve concept can be applied to peak power, water, pollution, and other markets where consumers demand a service rather than a particular good.

Meier, Alan Kevin

1982-05-01

362

Integrable viscous conservation laws  

E-print Network

We propose an extension of the Dubrovin-Zhang perturbative approach to the study of normal forms for non-Hamiltonian integrable scalar conservation laws. The explicit computation of the first few corrections leads to the conjecture that such normal forms are parameterized by one single functional parameter, named viscous central invariant. A constant valued viscous central invariant corresponds to the well-known Burgers hierarchy. The case of a linear viscous central invariant provides a viscous analog of the Camassa-Holm equation, that formerly appeared as a reduction of a two-component Hamiltonian integrable systems. We write explicitly the negative and positive hierarchy associated with this equation and prove the integrability showing that they can be mapped respectively into the heat hierarchy and its negative counterpart, named the Klein-Gordon hierarchy. A local well-posedness theorem for periodic initial data is also proven. We show how transport equations can be used to effectively construct asymptotic solutions via an extension of the quasi-Miura map that preserves the initial datum. The method is alternative to the method of the string equation for Hamiltonian conservation laws and naturally extends to the viscous case. Using these tools we derive the viscous analog of the Painlev\\'e I2 equation that describes the universal behaviour of the solution at the critical point of gradient catastrophe.

Alessandro Arsie; Paolo Lorenzoni; Antonio Moro

2014-06-25

363

Conservative treatment vs phonosurgery.  

PubMed

In Phoniatric Dpt. everyday practice we try to keep specific multidisciplinary approach to the communication disorders, that includes an expert team using modern technology. Over the last six years we have treated 110 singers (3% of all new cases) and the results of their diagnostic and therapeutic management are presented here. There were 67 women and 43 men, 41 were smokers and 69 nonsmokers. The singing genres included 24 pop, 41 folk, 8 ethnic, 29 choral and 8 opera singers. The therapy success was compared with the demographic parameters, level of education and music genres across the subjects. A precise history, clinical examination, endovideolaryngostroboscopy and multidimensional computer analysis of voice and speech was carried out by two phoniatricians, two logopeds, two nurses and one clinical psychologist. Additional consultations were carried out by audiologists, allergists, endocrinologists, chest physicians, gastroenterologists and neurologists where necessary. We suggest that the gold standard is conservative therapy, with phonosurgery if conservative measures fail. We also suggest that an annual systematic examination is optimal in preventing disease in professional singers. PMID:19245144

Vukasinovi?, M; Stankovi?, P D; Nikoli?, Lj; Stojanovi?, M; Ajdukovi?, M; Djuki?, V; Janosevi?, Lj

2008-01-01

364

Selling energy conservation.  

PubMed

This article concerns the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) crisis and its impact on energy efficiency measures in the US. In 1985, when the OPEC collapsed, the US government had avoided the need to construct 350 gigawatts of new electric capacity. The most successful efficiency improvements, especially in household appliances and equipment, lighting and tightened energy efficiency standards in new buildings, resulted from the OPEC event. The real innovation of that time was the change in profit rules for utilities. This revolution and the way some US utilities view energy have not caught on elsewhere. Despite the initiative toward improving energy efficiency in homes, offices and industries, the change has been slow. Partly to blame are the big development banks, which pointed out that short-term conservation and efficiency measures could save at least 15% of the total energy demand without the need for major investment. The benefits of energy conservation was shown during the oil shock when per capita energy consumption fell by 5% in the member states of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, while the per capita gross domestic product grew by a third. There has been a decrease in energy expenditure worldwide, and the scope for further energy savings is enormous, but governments need to recognize and seize the opportunity. PMID:12295818

Hinrichsen, D

1995-01-01

365

Lyme disease and conservation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness that is wide-spread in North America, especially in the northeastern and northcentral United States. This disease could negatively influence efforts to conserve natural populations in two ways: (1) the disease could directly affect wild animal health; and (2) tick control efforts could adversely affect natural populations and communities. Lyme disease affects several domestic animals, but symptoms have been reported in only a few wild species. Direct effects of Lyme disease on wild animal populations have not been reported, but the disease should be considered as a possible cause in cases of unexplained population declines in endemic areas. Methods available to manage ticks and Lyme disease include human self-protection techniques, manipulation of habitats and hosts species populations, biological control, and pesticide applications. The diversity of available techniques allows selection of approaches to minimize environmental effects by (1) emphasizing personal protection techniques, (2) carefully targeting management efforts to maximize efficiency, and (3) integrating environmentally benign techniques to improve management while avoiding broad-scale environmentally destructive approaches. The environmental effects of Lyme disease depend, to a large extent, on the methods chosen to minimize human exposure to infected ticks. Conservation biologists can help design tick management programs that effectively lower the incidence of human Lyme disease while simultaneously minimizing negative effects on natural populations.

Ginsberg, H.

1994-01-01

366

ACCLRATEUR DE 340 KV DESTIN A TUDIER LES RACTIONS INDUITES PAR TRITONS Par Mme D. MAGNAC-VALETTE, MM. M. SUFFERT, M. LIESS et P. CER,  

E-print Network

88. ACC�L�RATEUR DE 340 KV DESTIN� A �TUDIER LES R�ACTIONS INDUITES PAR TRITONS Par Mme D. MAGNAC électrostatique et spécialement construit pour étudier les réactions induites par tritons. Il donne un faisceau working with an electrostatic high tension is described. It is specially designed for triton acceleration

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

367

MSc Conservation The leading degree for aspiring  

E-print Network

MSc Conservation The leading degree for aspiring nature conservation professionals www.geog.ucl.ac.uk/conservation LONDON'S GLOBAL UNIVERSITY #12;Student fieldwork, Norfolk (Picture: Jan Axmacher) Conservation at UCL The UCL MSc Conservation is widely recognised as the leading course for aspiring nature conservation

Jones, Peter JS

368

Blood irradiation: Rationale and technique  

SciTech Connect

Upon request by the local American Red Cross, the Savannah Regional Center for Cancer Care irradiates whole blood or blood components to prevent post-transfusion graft-versus-host reaction in patients who have severely depressed immune systems. The rationale for blood irradiation, the total absorbed dose, the type of patients who require irradiated blood, and the regulations that apply to irradiated blood are presented. A method of irradiating blood using a linear accelerator is described.

Lewis, M.C. (Savannah Regional Center for Cancer Care, Memorial Medical Center, GA (USA))

1990-01-01

369

Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- June survey descriptive summary  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the shoreline aquatic plant communities in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level, indicated that much of the original plant communities and the intermediate shoreline communities present on the exposed sediments have been lost. The extensive old-field and emergent marsh communities that were present on the exposed shoreline during the drawdown have been flooded and much of the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities have not had sufficient time for re-establishment. The shoreline does, however, have extensive beds of maidencane which extend from the shoreline margin to areas as deep as 2 and perhaps 3 meters. Scattered individual plants of lotus and watershield are common and may indicate likely directions of future wetland development in Par Pond. In addition, within isolated coves, which apparently received ground water seepage and/or stream surface flows during the period of the Par Pond draw down, extensive beds of waterlilies and spike rush are common. Invasion of willow and red maple occurred along the lake shoreline as well. Although not absent from this survey, evidence of the extensive redevelopment of the large cattail and eel grass beds was not observed in this first survey of Par Pond. Future surveys during the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997 along with the evaluation of satellite date to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond are planned.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1995-06-01

370

National Association of Conservation Districts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The idea of creating conservation districts through the support of private landowners was one that had gestated for decades before the National Association of Conservation Districts (NACD) was formed in 1946. Currently, there are over 3000 conservation districts throughout the United States, and the NACD effectively acts as a unified voice that represents the interests of these districts and also helps develop national conservation policies and fruitful partnerships with other agencies and organizations. First-time visitors to the site will want to perhaps go to the directory section to learn more about the NACD and look through the site's interactive map to learn about where the various conservation districts are located. Students and practitioners may want to look through the electronic publications area, which includes such helpful materials as the organization's in-house weekly news briefs (called eNotes) and their publications produced through effective joint-partnerships, such as Forestry Notes and Conservation.

371

Bacillus subtilis Soj (ParA): The involvement of DNA binding and dynamic localization in plasmid partitioning  

E-print Network

The ParA family of ATPases encompasses proteins with a wide variety of functions. The prototype of this family is the ParA ATPase from the P1 prophage plasmid, which, along with ParB and the parS binding site, is required for the faithful...

Hester, Christina Marie

2008-05-08

372

[Conservative approach for breast cancer. The experience of the European Institute of Oncology].  

PubMed

Conservative surgery represents the standard care for patients with early breast cancer. The aim of this review was to discuss the extension of conservative surgery in controversial fields such as after primary chemotherapy for large tumours or the possibility to repeat conservative surgery for a local reappearance. The project of a conservative approach to breast cancers continues with sentinel node biopsy which is worldwide performed more and more frequently. In our institute sentinel node biopsy is the standard procedure in the axillary staging of breast cancer even in those clinical scenarios which were previously considered either controversial or a contraindication such as in multicentric breast cancer, during pregnancy, in intra-ductal neoplasias, after primary chemotherapy, and male breast cancer. This conservative approach is completed by the possibility to deliver a partial breast irradiation and to provide patients with more personalized adjuvant treatments tailored on the biological features of the tumour. PMID:18091655

Gentilini, O; Veronesi, P; Gatti, G; Intra, M; Mazzarol, G; Trifirò, G; Bassi, F; Caliskan, M; Da Lima, L; Galimberti, V; Luini, A

2007-12-01

373

Superradiance and flux conservation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theoretical foundations of the phenomenon known as superradiance still continue to attract considerable attention. Despite many valiant attempts at pedagogically clear presentations, the effect nevertheless still continues to generate some significant confusion. Part of the confusion arises from the fact that superradiance in a quantum field theory context is not the same as superradiance (superfluorescence) in some condensed matter contexts; part of the confusion arises from traditional but sometimes awkward normalization conventions, and part is due to sometimes unnecessary confusion between fluxes and probabilities. We shall argue that the key point underlying the effect is flux conservation (and, in the presence of dissipation, a controlled amount of flux nonconservation), and that attempting to phrase things in terms of reflection and transmission probabilities only works in the absence of superradiance. To help clarify the situation we present a simple exactly solvable toy model exhibiting both superradiance and damping.

Boonserm, Petarpa; Ngampitipan, Tritos; Visser, Matt

2014-09-01

374

Conservation International: Biodiversity Hotspots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From Conservation International, this Biodiversity Hotspots site (first reported on in the October 18, 2002 NSDL Scout Report for Life Sciences) "was re-launched in 2005 with completely updated information as presented in the new book _Hotspots Revisited_." The updated Hotspots website features profiles of more than 30 ecologically important areas of the world. Hotspots are categorized under five world regions including South America, Africa, North and Central America, Europe and Central Asia, and Asia-Pacific. Site visitors will find profiles about such Hotspots as the Himalaya, Mediterranean Basin, Horn of Africa, Tropical Andes, Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands, Sundaland, and more. In addition to regional profiles, the site offers a number of helpful resources such as a Terrestrial Vertebrate Species Database, a Glossary, Maps, and related References.

375

Bat Conservation Trust  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to the folks at the Bat Conservation Trust (BCT) in the UK, "Bats are amazing animals, and an important part of our natural environment." In the UK there are 18 different species of bats, and all of them are protected by law due to rapidly decreasing populations. To start visitors should visit the "About Bats" section found on the toolbar near the top of the page. Here, they will find more information about bats, threats to bats, bats and the law, bats and rabies, and the White-Nose Syndrome plaguing bat populations. Back on the homepage visitors should also check out the "News, Training, & Events" and "Publications & Resources". In addition, you can follow the BCT on Twitter, Facebook, and through their blog.

2010-12-20

376

Sea Turtle Conservancy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Caribbean Conservation Corporation (CCC) was founded in 1959 by sea turtle champions such as ecologist Dr. Archie Carr, who served as the CCC's Scientific Director for nearly three decades. As the oldest sea turtle organization on the globe, the CCC "works to enact protective laws and establish refuges for the preservation of sea turtle habitats and coastal environments." The CCC created the Sea Turtle Survival League (STSL) in 1993 "as a public education and advocacy program to begin addressing the threats that face U.S. sea turtle populations." The CCC & STSL website contains information about a number of sea turtle programs and projects, tracking sea turtles, different sea turtle species, and ways to become a sea turtle conservationist. CCC also offers a public discussion board, a variety of downloadable publications (including activities for kids), and a collection of related links.

377

Biodiversity and Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Peter J. Bryant, Professor of Developmental and Cell Biology at the University of California, Irvine, provides this hypertext book as a learning aid for his Biological Conservation class. It is an excellent, comprehensive introduction to the topic. Divided into sixteen understandable chapters, it covers such topics as the history of life, depletion and extinction from over-exploitation, exotic introductions, and deforestation, among others. The content is supported by illustrations, photos, charts, and a webliography for each chapter (a work in progress which is also available in full at the end of the book). However, the features that add the greatest value to the site are the well thought out hyperlinks to other relevant resources. There are literally hundreds of these; they combine with the original content of the site to form a powerful resource for undergraduate students.

Bryant, Peter J.

378

Accelerated partial-breast irradiation: the current state of our knowledge.  

PubMed

Breast-conserving therapy consisting of segmental mastectomy followed by whole-breast irradiation (WBI) has become widely accepted as an alternative to mastectomy as a treatment for women with early-stage breast cancer. Accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI) is a shorter, alternative radiation technique for select patients with favorable early-stage breast cancer. We review here the different modalities of APBI delivery and discuss the possible benefits and harms associated with these treatments. PMID:23781698

Shaitelman, Simona F; Kim, Leonard H

2013-04-01

379

Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- September survey descriptive summary  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this mid-September survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys during the late growing seasons of 1995, and throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1995-09-01

380

Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- October survey descriptive summary  

SciTech Connect

The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this late October survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maiden cane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1995-11-01

381

ORNL irradiation creep facility  

SciTech Connect

A machine was developed at ORNL to measure the rates of elongation observed under irradiation in stressed materials. The source of radiation is a beam of 60 MeV alpha particles from the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC). This choice allows experiments to be performed which simulate the effects of fast neutrons. A brief review of irradiation creep and experimental constraints associated with each measurement technique is given. Factors are presented which lead to the experimental choices made for the Irradiation Creep Facility (ICF). The ICF consists of a helium-filled chamber which houses a high-precision mechanical testing device. The specimen to be tested must be thermally stabilized with respect to the temperature fluctuations imposed by the particle beam which passes through the specimen. Electrical resistance of the specimen is the temperature control parameter chosen. Very high precision in length measurement and temperature control are required to detect the small elongation rates relevant to irradiation creep in the test periods available (approx. 1 day). The apparatus components and features required for the above are presented in some detail, along with the experimental procedures. The damage processes associated with light ions are discussed and displacement rates are calculated. Recent irradiation creep results are given, demonstrating the suitability of the apparatus for high resolution experiments. Also discussed is the suitability of the ICF for making high precision thermal creep measurements.

Reiley, T.C.; Auble, R.L.; Beckers, R.M.; Bloom, E.E.; Duncan, M.G.; Saltmarsh, M.J.; Shannon, R.H.

1980-09-01

382

PAR-3 Oligomerization May Provide an Actin-Independent Mechanism to Maintain Distinct Par Protein Domains in the Early Caenorhabditis elegans Embryo  

PubMed Central

Par proteins establish discrete intracellular spatial domains to polarize many different cell types. In the single-cell embryo of the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans, the segregation of Par proteins is crucial for proper division and cell fate specification. Actomyosin-based cortical flows drive the initial formation of anterior and posterior Par domains, but cortical actin is not required for the maintenance of these domains. Here we develop a model of interactions between the Par proteins that includes both mutual inhibition and PAR-3 oligomerization. We show that this model gives rise to a bistable switch mechanism, allowing the Par proteins to occupy distinct anterior and posterior domains seen in the early C. elegans embryo, independent of dynamics or asymmetries in the actin cortex. The model predicts a sharp loss of cortical Par protein asymmetries during gradual depletion of the Par protein PAR-6, and we confirm this prediction experimentally. Together, these results suggest both mutual inhibition and PAR-3 oligomerization are sufficient to maintain distinct Par protein domains in the early C. elegans embryo. PMID:21943422

Dawes, Adriana T.; Munro, Edwin M.

2011-01-01

383

Effects of gamma irradiation on chemical composition and antioxidant potential of processed samples of the wild mushroom Macrolepiota procera.  

PubMed

It was previously demonstrated that gamma irradiation was the processing technology with the highest capacity to maintain the chemical profile of fresh Macrolepiota procera wild mushroom, when compared to freeze-dried or oven-dried samples. Herein, it was aimed to evaluate gamma irradiation effects on processed samples. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of irradiated (0.5 and 1 kGy) fresh, frozen and dried samples were determined by chromatographic techniques and in vitro assays, respectively. M. procera irradiation attenuated the effects caused by oven-drying or freezing; combining freeze treatment with 0.5 kGy dose preserved total tocopherols. Rather than a conservation methodology, gamma irradiation might act as a useful adjuvant to other conservation techniques (e.g., freezing or oven-drying). PMID:24295681

Fernandes, Ângela; Barreira, João C M; Antonio, Amilcar L; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Martins, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2014-04-15

384

The Pars Interarticularis Stress Reaction, Spondylolysis, and Spondylolisthesis Progression  

PubMed Central

Objective: To review the classification, etiology, clinical and radiologic evaluation, and management of the pars interarticularis stress reaction, spondylolysis, and spondylolisthesis progression. Data Sources: Grateful Med was searched from 1980 to 1998 using the terms “spondylolysis,” “spondylolisthesis,” “female athlete” “spondylogenic,” and “pars interarticularis.” Data Synthesis: The progression from pars interarticularis stress reaction through spondylolysis to spondylolisthesis is common in adolescent athletes, and, because of hormonal influences and cheerleading and gymnastic maneuvers, females are particularly at risk. Proper diagnosis and management include a thorough evaluation, radiographs (possibly with technetium bone scan or single-photon emission computed tomography), activity modification, dietary counseling, a therapeutic exercise program focusing on proper trunk and hip muscle strength and extensibility balances, and education regarding proper back postures, positioning, lifting mechanics, and jump landings. Conclusions/Recommendations: The athletic trainer plays an integral part in managing this injury progression, particularly with identifying at-risk individuals and intervening appropriately. ImagesFigure 4. PMID:16558534

Motley, Gina; Nyland, John; Jacobs, Jake; Caborn, David N. M.

1998-01-01

385

Effect of trans pars plana surgery on the corneal endothelium.  

PubMed

Endothelial cell density and thickness of the cornea do not appear to be affected by long-standing diabetes mellitus. Standard intra- or extracapsular cataract surgery results in a statistically significant reduction of endothelial cell density, but not in a long-term change of corneal thickness. Endothelial cell loss after trans pars plana surgery averages 8.5%. Differences in endothelial cell loss between phakic eyes of diabetics and phakic and aphakic eyes of nondiabetics subjected to lens removal and/or vitrectomy are not statistically significant. Corneal thickness is increased to a statistically significant degree in all eyes after trans pars plana surgery. Although the cornea in diabetics requires more time to recover after trans pars plana surgery, we found no evidence that it suffers significantly more damage than the cornea in nondiabetics. PMID:7262410

Buettner, H; Bourne, W M

1981-01-01

386

Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation  

E-print Network

Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation Specialization: Watershed Science & Management Issues in Forest Resources and Conservation 1 credit Management and social dimensions elective ­ choose one GLY3882C Hydrology & Human Affairs, FNR4624C Field Operations for Management of Ecosystems, SWS

Hill, Jeffrey E.

387

Conservation Laws for Cosmological Perurbations  

E-print Network

We briefly recall the problem of defining conserved quantities such as energy in general relativity, and the solution by introducing a symmetric background. We apply the general formalism to perturbed Robertson-Walker spacetimes with de Sitter geometry as background. We relate the obtained conserved quantities to Traschen's integral constraints and mention a few applications in cosmology.

Nathalie Deruelle; Jean-Philippe Uzan

1998-04-21

388

Capital Improvements for Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although colleges and universities have been aggressive in making capital improvements to conserve energy, their efforts have been hampered by limited capital funds. Decisions about capital investments tend to be complex because of the interrelatedness of conservation strategies and the need to consider the cost advantage of alternatives.…

Green, Alan C.

1981-01-01

389

Communication Skills for Conservation Professionals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides in-depth guidance for students, scientists, managers, and professionals in achieving conservation goals through better communication. It introduces communication approaches--marketing and mass media, citizen participation, public information, environmental interpretation, and conservation education activities--and offers scores…

Jacobson, Susan K.

390

Focus On.... Biodiversity and Conservation  

E-print Network

Focus On.... Biodiversity and Conservation This resource guide aims to provide useful, detailed, high quality sources of information on biodiversity and conservation for students in Higher and Further at http://www.intute.ac.uk/biologicalsciences/ This Focus On... guide is located at: http://www.intute.ac.uk/supportdocs/focuson/biodiversity

Miranda, Eduardo Reck

391

Relativistic dynamics without conservation laws  

E-print Network

We show that relativistic dynamics can be approached without using conservation laws (conservation of momentum, of energy and of the centre of mass). Our approach avoids collisions that are not easy to teach without mnemonic aids. The derivations are based on the principle of relativity and on its direct consequence, the addition law of relativistic velocities.

Bernhard Rothenstein; Stefan Popescu

2006-05-23

392

Conservation laws and thermodynamic efficiencies.  

PubMed

We show that generic systems with a single relevant conserved quantity reach the Carnot efficiency in the thermodynamic limit. Such a general result is illustrated by means of a diatomic chain of hard-point elastically colliding particles where the total momentum is the only relevant conserved quantity. PMID:25166362

Benenti, Giuliano; Casati, Giulio; Wang, Jiao

2013-02-15

393

Systems of Conservation Laws 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems of conservation laws arise naturally in physics and chemistry. To understand them and their consequences (shock waves, finite velocity wave propagation) properly in mathematical terms requires, however, knowledge of a broad range of topics. This book sets up the foundations of the modern theory of conservation laws describing the physical models and mathematical methods, leading to the Glimm scheme.

Denis Serre

1999-01-01

394

Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation  

E-print Network

projects. Summer B FOR3200C Foundations in Natural Resources and Conservation 3 credits FOR3434C ForestMajoring in Forest Resources & Conservation Specialization: Environmental Pre-Law Environmental Pre-Law provides a solid undergraduate basis of forest and natural resources science and management upon which

Hill, Jeffrey E.

395

Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation  

E-print Network

and Conservation 3 credits FOR3434C Forest Resources Information Systems 3 credits Fall FNR3410C Natural ResourceMajoring in Forest Resources & Conservation University of Florida/IFAS School of Forest Resources students for graduate school and for careers in those aspects of natural resources where quantification

Watson, Craig A.

396

Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation  

E-print Network

-Law Summer B FOR3200C Foundations in Natural Resources and Conservation 3 credits FOR3434C Forest ResourcesMajoring in Forest Resources & Conservation Environmental Pre-Law provides a solid undergraduate basis of forest and natural resources science and management upon which is built a broad introduction

Watson, Craig A.

397

Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation  

E-print Network

Summer B FOR3200C Foundations in Natural Resources and Conservation 3 credits FOR3434C Forest ResourcesMajoring in Forest Resources & Conservation University of Florida/IFAS School of Forest Resources Information Systems 3 credits Fall FNR3410C Natural Resource Sampling 3 credits SWS3022 Introduction to Soils

Watson, Craig A.

398

Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation  

E-print Network

C Foundations in Natural Resources and Conservation 3 credits FOR3434C Forest Resources InformationMajoring in Forest Resources & Conservation Specialization: Forest Resource Management Forest Systems 3 credits Fall FNR 3131C Dendrology/Forest Plants 3 credits FNR 3410C Natural Resource Sampling 3

Hill, Jeffrey E.

399

Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation  

E-print Network

Foundations in Natural Resources and Conservation 3 credits FOR3434C Forest Resources Information Systems 3Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation Specialization: Urban Forestry Urban Forestry credits Fall FNR 3131C Dendrology/Forest Plants 3 credits FNR 3410C Natural Resource Sampling 3 credits

Hill, Jeffrey E.

400

Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation  

E-print Network

Foundations in Natural Resources and Conservation 3 credits FOR3434C Forest Resources Information Systems 3Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation Specialization: Protected Areas Management Protected credits Fall FNR 3131C Dendrology/Forest Plants 3 credits FNR 3410C Natural Resource Sampling 3 credits

Hill, Jeffrey E.

401

Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation  

E-print Network

Management Summer B FOR3200C Foundations in Natural Resources and Conservation 3 credits FOR3434C ForestMajoring in Forest Resources & Conservation University of Florida/IFAS School of Forest Resources background in natural resource management and a broad introduction to business as appropriate for students

Watson, Craig A.

402

Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation  

E-print Network

3200C Foundations in Natural Resources and Conservation 3 credits FOR3434C Forest Resources InformationMajoring in Forest Resources & Conservation University of Florida/IFAS School of Forest Resources Systems 3 credits Fall FNR3410C Natural Resource Sampling 3 credits SWS3022 Introduction to Soils

Watson, Craig A.

403

Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation  

E-print Network

substantial field work and group projects. Summer B FOR3200C Foundations in Natural Resources and ConservationMajoring in Forest Resources & Conservation Specialization: Forest Informatics Forest Informatics is designed to prepare students for graduate school and for careers in those aspects of natural resources

Hill, Jeffrey E.

404

Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation  

E-print Network

Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation Specialization: Recreation Resources Management Recreation Resources Management focuses on the sustainable management of recreation for our natural resources Resources and Conservation 3 credits FOR3434C Forest Resources Information Systems 3 credits Fall FNR 3131C

Hill, Jeffrey E.

405

Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation  

E-print Network

. Summer B FOR3200C Foundations in Natural Resources and Conservation 3 credits FOR3434C Forest ResourcesMajoring in Forest Resources & Conservation Specialization: Business Management Business Management gives students a sound background in natural resource management and a broad introduction to business

Hill, Jeffrey E.

406

Creative Learning Experiences in Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet is a collection of ten short articles originally published in "Soil Conservation" from 1964-1968. The articles are written for the teacher and are concerned with recent innovations in conservation education in various schools in the eastern United States. Innovations include school land laboratories, soil monolith tours for teachers,…

Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

407

Toward a Defensible Lynx Conservation  

E-print Network

carnivores--notably including the lynx. The basis for concern over most of these species was their putative. The findings of the forest carnivore conservation assessment were pub- lished in a report entitled, The Scientific Basis for Conserving Forest Carnivores: American Marten, Fisher, Lynx and Wolverine in the Western

408

Educating Astronauts About Conservation Biology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article reviews the training of astronauts in the interdisciplinary work of conservation biology. The primary responsibility of the conservation biologist at NASA is directing and supporting the photography of the Earth and maintaining the complete database of the photographs. In order to perform this work, the astronauts who take the pictures must be educated in ecological issues.

Robinson, Julie A.

2001-01-01

409

LABORATORY IV CONSERVATION OF ENERGY  

E-print Network

. · Calculate the gravitational potential energy of an object with respect to the earth. #12;PROBLEM #1: KINETIC conservation of energy. · Identify different types of energy when applying energy conservation to real systems of an object using video analysis. · Calculate the kinetic energy of a moving object. · Calculate the work

Minnesota, University of

410

Misadventures in Conservation and Development  

E-print Network

Misadventures in Conservation and Development Friday, September 28, 2012 12:00 - 1:30 p.m. (lunch Governance issues are at the heart of successful biodiversity conservation and sustainable development and Development Projects (ICDPs) conducted in Indonesian national parks on the island of Borneo. Dr. Carr Kelman

Hall, Sharon J.

411

Chemometric characterization of gamma irradiated chestnuts from Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller) is a valuable natural resource, with high exportation levels. Due to their water content, chestnuts are susceptible to storage problems like dehydration or development of insects and microorganisms. Irradiation has been revealing interesting features to be considered as an alternative conservation technology, increasing food products shelf-life. Any conservation methodology should have a wide application range. Hence, and after evaluating Portuguese cultivars, the assessment of irradiation effects in foreign cultivars might act as an important indicator of the versatility of this technology. In this work, the effects of gamma irradiation (0.0, 0.5 and 3.0 kGy) on proximate composition, sugars, fatty acids (FA) and tocopherols composition of Turkish chestnuts stored at 4 °C for different periods (0, 15 and 30 days) were evaluated. Regarding proximate composition, the storage time (ST) had higher influence than the irradiation dose (ID), especially on fat, ash, carbohydrates and energetic value. Sucrose exhibited similar behavior in response to the assayed ST and ID. The prevalence of ST influence was also verified for FA, tocopherols and sucrose. Lauric, palmitoleic and linolenic acids were the only FA that underwent some differences with ID. Saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were not affected either by storage or irradiation. ?-Tocopherol was the only vitamer with significant differences among the assayed ST and ID. Overall, Turkish cultivars showed a compositional profile closely related with Portuguese cultivars, and seemed to confirm that gamma irradiation in the applied doses did not change chestnut chemical and nutritional composition.

Barreira, João C. M.; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Günaydi, Tugba; Alkan, Hasan; Bento, Albino; Luisa Botelho, M.; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

2012-09-01

412

Competing ParA Structures Space Bacterial Plasmids Equally over the Nucleoid.  

PubMed

Low copy number plasmids in bacteria require segregation for stable inheritance through cell division. This is often achieved by a parABC locus, comprising an ATPase ParA, DNA-binding protein ParB and a parC region, encoding ParB-binding sites. These minimal components space plasmids equally over the nucleoid, yet the underlying mechanism is not understood. Here we investigate a model where ParA-ATP can dynamically associate to the nucleoid and is hydrolyzed by plasmid-associated ParB, thereby creating nucleoid-bound, self-organizing ParA concentration gradients. We show mathematically that differences between competing ParA concentrations on either side of a plasmid can specify regular plasmid positioning. Such positioning can be achieved regardless of the exact mechanism of plasmid movement, including plasmid diffusion with ParA-mediated immobilization or directed plasmid motion induced by ParB/parC-stimulated ParA structure disassembly. However, we find experimentally that parABC from Escherichia coli plasmid pB171 increases plasmid mobility, inconsistent with diffusion/immobilization. Instead our observations favor directed plasmid motion. Our model predicts less oscillatory ParA dynamics than previously believed, a prediction we verify experimentally. We also show that ParA localization and plasmid positioning depend on the underlying nucleoid morphology, indicating that the chromosomal architecture constrains ParA structure formation. Our directed motion model unifies previously contradictory models for plasmid segregation and provides a robust mechanistic basis for self-organized plasmid spacing that may be widely applicable. PMID:25521716

Ietswaart, Robert; Szardenings, Florian; Gerdes, Kenn; Howard, Martin

2014-12-01

413

Competing ParA Structures Space Bacterial Plasmids Equally over the Nucleoid  

PubMed Central

Low copy number plasmids in bacteria require segregation for stable inheritance through cell division. This is often achieved by a parABC locus, comprising an ATPase ParA, DNA-binding protein ParB and a parC region, encoding ParB-binding sites. These minimal components space plasmids equally over the nucleoid, yet the underlying mechanism is not understood. Here we investigate a model where ParA-ATP can dynamically associate to the nucleoid and is hydrolyzed by plasmid-associated ParB, thereby creating nucleoid-bound, self-organizing ParA concentration gradients. We show mathematically that differences between competing ParA concentrations on either side of a plasmid can specify regular plasmid positioning. Such positioning can be achieved regardless of the exact mechanism of plasmid movement, including plasmid diffusion with ParA-mediated immobilization or directed plasmid motion induced by ParB/parC-stimulated ParA structure disassembly. However, we find experimentally that parABC from Escherichia coli plasmid pB171 increases plasmid mobility, inconsistent with diffusion/immobilization. Instead our observations favor directed plasmid motion. Our model predicts less oscillatory ParA dynamics than previously believed, a prediction we verify experimentally. We also show that ParA localization and plasmid positioning depend on the underlying nucleoid morphology, indicating that the chromosomal architecture constrains ParA structure formation. Our directed motion model unifies previously contradictory models for plasmid segregation and provides a robust mechanistic basis for self-organized plasmid spacing that may be widely applicable. PMID:25521716

Gerdes, Kenn; Howard, Martin

2014-01-01

414

Subcellular Localization and Characterization of the ParAB System from Corynebacterium glutamicum?  

PubMed Central

Faithful segregation of chromosomes and plasmids is a vital prerequisite to produce viable and genetically identical progeny. Bacteria use a specialized segregation system composed of the partitioning proteins ParA and ParB to segregate certain plasmids. Strikingly, homologues of ParA and ParB are found to be encoded in many chromosomes. Although mutations in the chromosomal Par system have effects on segregation efficiency, the exact mechanism by which the chromosomes are segregated into the daughter cells is not fully understood. We describe the polar localization of the ParB origin nucleoprotein complex in the actinomycete Corynebacterium glutamicum. ParB and the origin of replication were found to be stably localized to the cell poles. After replication, the origins move toward the opposite pole. Purified ParB was able to bind to the parS consensus sequence in vitro. C. glutamicum possesses two ParA-like partitioning ATPase proteins. Both proteins interact with ParB but show a slightly different subcellular localization and phenotype. While ParA might be part of a conventional partitioning system, PldP seems to play a role in division site selection. PMID:20435732

Donovan, Catriona; Schwaiger, Astrid; Krämer, Reinhard; Bramkamp, Marc

2010-01-01

415

Modelling the Establishment of PAR Protein Polarity in the One-Cell C. elegans Embryo  

E-print Network

At the one-cell stage, the C. elegans embryo becomes polarized along the anterior-posterior axis. The PAR proteins form complementary anterior and posterior domains in a dynamic process driven by cytoskeletal rearrangement. Initially, the PAR proteins are uniformly distributed throughout the embryo. Following a cue from fertilization, cortical actomyosin contracts towards the anterior pole. PAR-3/PAR-6/PKC-3 (the anterior PAR proteins) become restricted to the anterior cortex. PAR-1 and PAR-2 (the posterior PAR proteins) become enriched in the posterior cortical region. We present a mathematical model of this polarity establishment process, in which we take a novel approach to combine reaction-diffusion dynamics of the PAR proteins coupled to a simple model of actomyosin contraction. We show that known interactions between the PAR proteins are sufficient to explain many aspects of the observed cortical PAR dynamics in both wild-type and mutant embryos. However, cytoplasmic PAR protein polarity, which is vital for generating daughter cells with distinct molecular components, cannot be properly explained within such a framework. We therefore consider additional mechanisms that can reproduce the proper cytoplasmic polarity. In particular we predict that cytoskeletal asymmetry in the cytoplasm, in addition to the cortical actomyosin asymmetry, is a critical determinant of PAR protein localization.

Filipe Tostevin; Martin Howard

2008-11-20

416

New Zealand Plant Conservation Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The New Zealand Plant Conservation Network (NZPCN) provides information about native plants and their conservation, focusing primarily on nationally threatened plants and plant communities that require conservation management for their continued survival. The NZPCN web site features a database and search tool for locating information on nationally threatened plant species and lists of species that are regionally uncommon. Users may search for threatened plants, bryophytes, fungi, naturalized (introduced) plants, or animal pests by common name, taxonomic name, conservation status, or family. The information includes taxonomic nomenclature, common name, geographic distribution and habitat, a description, images, conservation status, cultural use or importance, and other data. Other materials at the site include information on New Zealand native plants and threats to native plant life, an archive and bibliography of publications, event announcements and news articles, and information on the organization's membership.

417

Intergenerational equity and conservation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The issue of integenerational equity in the use of natural resources is discussed in the context of coal mining conversion. An attempt to determine if there is a clear-cut benefit to future generations in setting minimum coal extraction efficiency standards in mining is made. It is demonstrated that preserving fossil fuels beyond the economically efficient level is not necessarily beneficial to future generations even in terms of their own preferences. Setting fossil fuel conservation targets for intermediate products (i.e. energy) may increase the quantities of fossil fuels available to future generations and hence lower the costs, but there may be serious disadvantages to future generations as well. The use of relatively inexpensive fossil fuels in this generation may result in more infrastructure development and more knowledge production available to future generations. The value of fossil fuels versus these other endowments in the future depends on many factors which cannot possibly be evaluated at present. Since there is no idea of whether future generations are being helped or harmed, it is recommended that integenerational equity not be used as a factor in setting coal mine extraction efficiency standards, or in establishing requirements.

Otoole, R. P.; Walton, A. L.

1980-01-01

418

Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (uPAR) Targeted Nuclear Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy  

PubMed Central

Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein. Besides regulating proteolysis, uPAR could also activate many intracellular signaling pathways that promote cell motility, invasion, proliferation, and survival through cooperating with transmembrane receptors. uPAR is overexpressed across a variety of tumors and is associated with cancer invasion and metastasis. In order to meet the demand for a rapid development and potential clinical application of anti-cancer therapy based on uPA/uPAR system, it is desirable to develop non-invasive imaging methods to visualize and quantify uPAR expression in vivo. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in the development of uPAR-targeted nuclear imaging and radionuclide therapy agents. The successful development of molecular imaging probes to visualize uPAR expression in vivo would not only assist preclinical researches on uPAR function, but also eventually impact patient management. PMID:23843898

Li, Dan; Liu, Shuanglong; Shan, Hong; Conti, Peter; Li, Zibo

2013-01-01

419

Par-4 Down-regulation Promotes Breast Cancer Recurrence by Preventing Multinucleation following Targeted Therapy  

PubMed Central

Summary Most deaths from breast cancer result from tumor recurrence, but the mechanisms underlying tumor relapse are largely unknown. We now report that Par-4 is down-regulated during tumor recurrence and that Par-4 down-regulation is necessary and sufficient to promote recurrence. Tumor cells with low Par-4 expression survive therapy by evading a program of Par-4-dependent multinucleation and apoptosis that is otherwise engaged following treatment. Low Par-4 expression is associated with poor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and an increased risk of relapse in breast cancer patients, and Par-4 is down-regulated in residual tumor cells that survive neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Our findings identify Par-4-induced multinucleation as a mechanism of cell death in oncogene-addicted cells and establish Par-4 as a negative regulator of breast cancer recurrence. PMID:23770012

Alvarez, James V.; Pan, Tien-chi; Ruth, Jason; Feng, Yi; Zhou, Alice; Pant, Dhruv; Grimley, Joshua S.; Wandless, Thomas J.; DeMichele, Angela; Chodosh, Lewis A.

2013-01-01

420

Numerical modelling of vertical suspended solids concentrations and irradiance in a turbid shallow system (Vaccares, Se France)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In shallow ecosystems, the short temporal variability of available underwater irradiance is considered a major process controlling\\u000a submerged macrophytes development. Mechanistic models that estimate photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) in shallow\\u000a ecosystems at very short time scales are needed for use in predicting submerged macrophyte growth and persistence. We coupled\\u000a a 2D horizontal circulation model with, first, a 1D vertical numerical

Bertrand Millet; Christian Robert; Patrick Grillas; Clare Coughlan; Damien Banas

2010-01-01

421

Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zeala...

422

Update on meat irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The irradiation of meat and poultry in the United States is intended to eliminate pathogenic bacteria from raw product, preferably after packaging to prevent recontamination. Irradiation will also increase the shelf life of raw meat and poultry products approximately two to three times the normal shelf life. Current clearances in the United States are for poultry (fresh or frozen) at doses from 1.5 to 3.0 kGy and for fresh pork at doses from 0.3 to 1.0 kGy. A petition for the clearance of all red meat was submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in July 1994. The petition is for clearances of fresh meat at doses from 1.5 to 4.5 kGy and for frozen meat at {approximately}2.5 to 7.5 kGy. Clearance for red meat is expected before the end of 1997. There are 28 countries that have food irradiation clearances, of which 18 countries have clearances for meat or poultry. However, there are no uniform categories or approved doses for meat and poultry among the countries that could hamper international trade of irradiated meat and poultry.

Olson, D.G. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

1997-12-01

423

Safer Food with Irradiation  

E-print Network

radioactiv e . The amount of energy used to irradiate food is enough to kill harm-ful bacteria but it does not mak e the food radioactiv e , just as luggage does not become radioactiv e after passing through an airport luggage scanner . Man y common items...

Thompson, Britta; Vestal, Andy; Van Laanen, Peggy

2003-01-21

424

MFR PAPER 1135 Irradiation of  

E-print Network

MFR PAPER 1135 Irradiation of shrimp extends their storage life. Low Level Ionizing Radiation treated with turmeric and salt and ionizing radiation. Sensory assessment of irradiated shrimp and shrimp, respectively, than nonirradiated shrimp. The spice treatment masks off-odors and flavors caused by irradiation

425

Food irradiation: Activities and potentialities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the acceptance of food irradiation up to an overall average dose of 10 kGy recommended by the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food in October 1980, the G.D.R. started a programme for the development of techniques for food irradiation. A special onion irradiator was designed and built as a pilot plant for studying technological and economic parameters of the irradiation of onions. The new principle of bulk-cargo irradiation allows the integration of this technology into the usual harvest technology for onions on the way from field to storage. Scientific and applied research work has been carried out in the past 3 yr on the irradiation of spices, potatoes, eviscerated chicken, animal feeds, fodder yeast, drugs and vaccines. In connection with the irradiation of eviscerated chicken, fodder yeast and animal feeds the basis of an antisalmonella programme has been discussed. Germ-count-reduced spices were employed for the production of test charges of preserves and tinned products. The results have led to the decision to design and build a new multipurpose irradiator for food irradiation. In order to cover the legal aspects of food irradiation the Ministry of Health issued regulations concerning the recommendation of irradiated food in the G.D.R.

Doellstaedt, R.; Huebner, G.

426

Sixth Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan Appendix E: Conservation Supply Curve  

E-print Network

Sixth Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan Appendix E: Conservation Supply Curve................................... 2 Decision Rules for Modeling Conservation Resource Acquisition in the Resource Portfolio Model...................................................................................................................................... 3 Determining the Cost-Effectiveness Limit for Conservation

427

Actions prioritaires de conservation marine Darwin Darwin Priority Marine Conservation Actions  

E-print Network

and marine protected areas C. Science based conservation of targeted species D. Improved sustainabilityActions prioritaires de conservation marine Darwin Darwin Priority Marine Conservation Actions Actions prioritaires de conservation marine Darwin Introduction: Le Gabon dispose d'importantes ressources

Exeter, University of

428

Class 8. Telomeres and PAR October 5, 2009 Boyd, et al., 1996  

E-print Network

Class 8. Telomeres and PAR October 5, 2009 1 Telomeres A model Boyd, et al., 1996 #12;Class 8. Telomeres and PAR October 5, 2009 2 Spatial cue -> polarity Cuenca, A. A. et al. Development 2003://ftp.wormbase.org/pub/wormbase/datasets/seydoux_2003/MOVIE02%20PAR-6.mov #12;Class 8. Telomeres and PAR October 5, 2009 3 Cuenca, A. A. et al

Devoto, Stephen H.

429

Etude de la prvision de la digestibilit des fourrages par une mthode enzymatique  

E-print Network

pepsine dans l'acide chlorhydrique 1 N, 24 heures à 40°, suivi d'un traitement par une cellulase « Onozuka celle par la pepsine-cellulase était améliorée par la présence de pepsine (SR = 0,036 avec pepsine) ; toutefois avec la valeur de 1 N choisie, la valeur de la digestibilité par la pepsine-cellulase se rapproche

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

430

Quasilocal conserved charges and holography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct a quasilocal formalism for conserved charges in a theory of gravity in the presence of matter fields that may have slow falloff behaviors at the asymptotic infinity. This construction depends only on equations of motion, and so it is irrespective of ambiguities in the total derivatives of the Lagrangian. By using identically conserved currents, we show that this formalism leads to the same expressions of conserved charges as those in the covariant phase space approach. At the boundary of the asymptotic anti-de Sitter space, we also introduce an identically conserved boundary current that has the same structure as the bulk current and then show that this boundary current gives us the holographic conserved charges identical with those from the boundary stress tensor method. In our quasilocal formalism, we present a general proof that conserved charges from the bulk potential are identical with those from the boundary current. Our results can be regarded as the extension of the existing results on the equivalence of conserved charges by the covariant phase space approach and by the boundary stress tensor method.

Hyun, Seungjoon; Jeong, Jaehoon; Park, Sang-A.; Yi, Sang-Heon

2014-11-01

431

7 CFR 12.23 - Conservation plans and conservation systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...achieve substantial reductions in soil erosion. Conservation systems shall be technically... (b) Substantial reduction in soil erosion. For the purpose of determining whether there is a substantial reduction in soil erosion on a field containing highly...

2014-01-01

432

7 CFR 12.23 - Conservation plans and conservation systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...achieve substantial reductions in soil erosion. Conservation systems shall be technically... (b) Substantial reduction in soil erosion. For the purpose of determining whether there is a substantial reduction in soil erosion on a field containing highly...

2011-01-01

433

7 CFR 12.23 - Conservation plans and conservation systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...achieve substantial reductions in soil erosion. Conservation systems shall be technically... (b) Substantial reduction in soil erosion. For the purpose of determining whether there is a substantial reduction in soil erosion on a field containing highly...

2010-01-01

434

7 CFR 12.23 - Conservation plans and conservation systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...achieve substantial reductions in soil erosion. Conservation systems shall be technically... (b) Substantial reduction in soil erosion. For the purpose of determining whether there is a substantial reduction in soil erosion on a field containing highly...

2012-01-01

435

7 CFR 12.23 - Conservation plans and conservation systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...achieve substantial reductions in soil erosion. Conservation systems shall be technically... (b) Substantial reduction in soil erosion. For the purpose of determining whether there is a substantial reduction in soil erosion on a field containing highly...

2013-01-01

436

Project Based Energy Conservation vs. Management Based Energy Conservation  

E-print Network

Basic American Foods (BAF) is the largest potato dehydrator worldwide. This paper will trace the shift from a Project Based to Management Based energy conservation program. Second only to raw material, energy is one of the highest expenses at BAF...

Judy, K.; O'Brien, S.

437

Trends in Ocean Irradiance using a Radiative Model Forced with Terra Aerosols and Clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerosol and cloud information from MODIS on Terra provide enhanced capability to understand surface irradiance over the oceans and its variability. These relationships can be important for ocean biology and carbon cycles. An established radiative transfer model, the Ocean-Atmosphere Spectral Irradiance Model (OASIM) is used to describe ocean irradiance variability on seasonal to decadal time scales. The model is forced with information on aerosols and clouds from the MODIS sensor on Terra and Aqua. A 7-year record (2000-2006) showed no trends in global ocean surface irradiance or photosynthetic available irradiance (PAR). There were significant (P<0.05) negative trends in the Mediterranean Sea, tropical Pacific) and tropical Indian Oceans, of -7.0, -5.0 and -2.7 W/sq m respectively. Global interannual variability was also modest. Regional interannual variability was quite large in some ocean basins, where monthly excursions from climatology were often >20 W/sq m. The trends using MODIS data contrast with results from OASIM using liquid water path estimates from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). Here, a global trend of -2 W/sq m was observed, largely dues to a large negative trend in the Antarctic -12 W/sq m. These results suggest the importance of the choice of liquid water path data sets in assessments of medium-length trends in ocean surface irradiance. The choices also impact the evaluation of changes in ocean biogeochemistry.

Gregg, Watson; Casey, Nancy; Romanou, Anastasia

2010-01-01

438

Beyond Bonferroni: Less conservative analyses for conservation genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies in conservation genetics often attempt to determine genetic differentiation between two or more temporally or geographically distinct sample collections. Pairwise p-values from Fisher’s exact tests or contingency Chi-square tests are commonly reported with a Bonferroni correction for multiple tests. While the Bonferroni correction controls the experiment-wise ?, this correction is very conservative and results in greatly diminished power to

Shawn R. Narum

2006-01-01

439

Do Private Conservation Activities Match Science-Based Conservation Priorities?  

PubMed Central

Background Private land conservation is an essential strategy for biodiversity protection in the USA, where half of the federally listed species have at least 80% of their habitat on private lands. We investigated the alignment between private land protection conducted by the world's largest land trust (The Nature Conservancy) and the science driven identification of priority areas for conservation. This represents the first quantitative assessment of the influence of defining priority areas on the land acquisitions of a conservation non-governmental organization (NGO). Methodology/Principal Findings The lands acquired by The Nature Conservancy (TNC) were analyzed using GIS to determine to what extent they were in areas defined as priorities for conservation. The spatial analysis of TNC lands was broken up into land known to be acquired in the last five years, five to ten years ago, prior to ten years ago, and anytime during the last sixty years (including previous sets of data plus acquisitions lacking a date). For the entire history of TNC the proportion of TNC lands within the priority areas was 74%. Prior to 10 years ago it was 80%, 5–10 years ago it was 76%, and in the last five years it was 81%. Conservation easements were found to have lower alignment with priority areas (64%) than outright fee simple acquisitions (86%). Conclusions/Significance Overall the location of lands acquired was found to be well aligned with the priority areas. Since there was comparable alignment in lands acquired before and after formalized conservation planning had been implemented as a standard operating procedure, this analysis did not find evidence that defining priority areas has influenced land acquisition decisions. PMID:23029516

Fisher, Jonathan R. B.; Dills, Benjamin

2012-01-01

440

Motivating People to Conserve Energy--Energy Conservation Education  

E-print Network

's most popular responses for specific recommendations for educational programs for engineers include: conbustion schools, water treatment seminars, short courses by miscellaneous professional societies, seminars by steam trap manufacturers, seminars... of an energy conservation program include proper equipment, efficient operating techniques, and an effective maintenance program. But, the most important part of any energy conservation pr ogram is lP'E(o)lP'nuE. Motivation of Management, Engineer s, Operator...

Cobb, D. L.; Jackson F.M.

1979-01-01

441

Conservation genetics in the USGS  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Conservation genetics is the application of the tools and concepts of genetics to the conservation of biological resources. Once too sophisticated and expensive for routine use, the tools of conservation genetics are now widely used to address many complex management questions. These novel methods of analysis can augment assessments made with traditional methods and can bring new information to light. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is well suited to provide scientific information and expertise using these tools to support the management of biological resources.

Jacobs, Ruth; Haig, Susan; Talbot, Sandy; Winton, James; King, Tim; Kendall, Kate

2006-01-01

442

TUDE COMPARATIVE DES VIBRATIONS DE BASSES FRQUENCES DE LA 03B2-HYDROQUINONE PAR INFRAROUGE  

E-print Network

amorcee par ensemencement avec un monocristal de clathrate d'hydroquinone pr6sentant un taux eleve de H2S ET PAR DIFFUSION IN�LASTIQUE DES NEUTRONS J. S. HIGGINS Institut Laue-Langevin, 38000 Grenoble 1976, accepté le 23 aofit 1976Jj Résumé. 2014 La diffusion des neutrons lents par l'hydroquinone 03B2

Boyer, Edmond

443

SUR UN SILICATE DE CADMIUM LUMINESCENT Par A. LEVIALDI et V. LUZZATI.  

E-print Network

SUR UN SILICATE DE CADMIUM LUMINESCENT Par A. LEVIALDI et V. LUZZATI. Sommaire. - �tude de quelques propriétés d'un silicate de cadmium (1) luminescent. Leur interpré- tation par la théorie des trappes de silicate de cadmium par des radiations ultra- violettes de longueur d'onde voisine de ), = 2537 A

Boyer, Edmond

444

Is There an "F" in Your PAR? Understanding, Teaching and Doing Action Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participatory Action Research (PAR) is increasingly recognized within academic research and pedagogy. What are the benefits of including feminism within participatory action research and teaching? In responding to this question, we discuss the similarities and salient differences between PAR and feminist informed PAR (FPAR). There are eight themes…

Lorenzetti, Liza; Walsh, Christine Ann

2014-01-01

445

TUDE OPTIQUE ET LECTRIQUE SUR LE TELLURURE DE BISMUTH Bi2Te3 Par J. LAGRENAUDIE,  

E-print Network

39 A �TUDE OPTIQUE ET �LECTRIQUE SUR LE TELLURURE DE BISMUTH Bi2Te3 Par J. LAGRENAUDIE, C. N. E. T, PAGE Le tellurure de bismuth Bi2 Te 3 a été préparé par cofusion des éléments, vers 600 °C, et purifié

Boyer, Edmond

446

05 Novembre 2012 IPNO-T-12-05 Prsente par  

E-print Network

and nitrilotriacetic acids was studied using liquid-liquid extraction with the element at tracer scale (CPa en Sciences De l'Université Paris Sud Complexation des actinides (III, IV et V) par des acides/11/2012 par Sébastien LEGUAY Complexation des actinides (III, IV et V) par des acides organiques Directeur de

Boyer, Edmond

447

43 CFR 427.1 - Water conservation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Water conservation. 427.1 Section 427.1...RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WATER CONSERVATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 427.1 Water conservation. (a) In general....

2012-10-01

448

43 CFR 427.1 - Water conservation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Water conservation. 427.1 Section 427.1...RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WATER CONSERVATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 427.1 Water conservation. (a) In general....

2013-10-01

449

43 CFR 427.1 - Water conservation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Water conservation. 427.1 Section 427.1...RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WATER CONSERVATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 427.1 Water conservation. (a) In general....

2014-10-01

450

43 CFR 427.1 - Water conservation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Water conservation. 427.1 Section 427.1...RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WATER CONSERVATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 427.1 Water conservation. (a) In general....

2011-10-01

451

7 CFR 631.9 - Conservation plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Conservation plan. 631.9 ...Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...cooperation with the conservation district, that protects the resource base in a manner...

2010-01-01

452

7 CFR 631.9 - Conservation plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Conservation plan. 631.9 ...Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...cooperation with the conservation district, that protects the resource base in a manner...

2012-01-01

453

A Landscape Approach to Rangeland Conservation  

E-print Network

Ecologist, US Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service Jornada Experimental Range Natural Resources Conservation Service West National Technology Support Center, Portland, OR 97232; and 5 (hereafter "practices") supported by the US Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service

454

7 CFR 631.9 - Conservation plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Conservation plan. 631.9 ...Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...cooperation with the conservation district, that protects the resource base in a manner...

2013-01-01

455

7 CFR 631.9 - Conservation plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Conservation plan. 631.9 ...Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...cooperation with the conservation district, that protects the resource base in a manner...

2014-01-01

456

7 CFR 631.9 - Conservation plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Conservation plan. 631.9 ...Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...cooperation with the conservation district, that protects the resource base in a manner...

2011-01-01

457

Ireland's Global University MSc World Heritage Conservation  

E-print Network

Ireland's Global University MSc World Heritage Conservation (Three Years Part Time) (Online facing conservation challenges, there is a growing need for professionals who understand how the Convention operates in terms of nomination, monitoring, conservation reporting and mitigation of threats

458

EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER CONSERVATION  

E-print Network

EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER CONSERVATION Leadership Team Subcommittee: Joan Bradshaw Michael Dukes Pierce Jones Kati Migliaccio #12;Water Conservation - Situation · Florida water supplies;Water Conservation Initiative 2: Enhancing and protecting water quality, quantity, and supply Priority 1

Kane, Andrew S.

459

7 CFR 633.9 - Conservation plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Conservation plan. 633.9 Section...Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... LONG TERM CONTRACTING WATER BANK PROGRAM § 633.9 Conservation plan. (a) The...

2014-01-01

460

7 CFR 633.9 - Conservation plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Conservation plan. 633.9 Section...Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... LONG TERM CONTRACTING WATER BANK PROGRAM § 633.9 Conservation plan. (a) The...

2011-01-01

461

7 CFR 633.9 - Conservation plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Conservation plan. 633.9 Section...Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... LONG TERM CONTRACTING WATER BANK PROGRAM § 633.9 Conservation plan. (a) The...

2010-01-01

462

7 CFR 633.9 - Conservation plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Conservation plan. 633.9 Section...Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... LONG TERM CONTRACTING WATER BANK PROGRAM § 633.9 Conservation plan. (a) The...

2013-01-01

463

7 CFR 633.9 - Conservation plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Conservation plan. 633.9 Section...Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... LONG TERM CONTRACTING WATER BANK PROGRAM § 633.9 Conservation plan. (a) The...

2012-01-01

464

43 CFR 427.1 - Water conservation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water conservation. 427.1 Section 427.1...RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WATER CONSERVATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 427.1 Water conservation. (a) In general....

2010-10-01

465

The pars intermedia of the mink, Mustela vison  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pars intermedia of intact and experimental female minks has been studied by light, electron and fluorescence microscopy. The general structure of the mink intermediate lobe is described. Two main cell types are recognized. One, termed glandular cell, predominates in number and is characterized by the presence of electron-dense granules about 200 nm in diameter and numerous large vesicles up

B. Weman; A. Nobin

1973-01-01

466

ParFlow User's Manual GMWI 2010-01  

E-print Network

. Smith3 , Carol S. Woodward4 , Robert D. Falgout5 , Ian M. Ferguson6 , Chuck Baldwin, William J. Bosl 7.M. Ferguson, C. Baldwin, W.J. Bosl, R. Hornung, S. Ashby, ParFlow User's Manual. International Ground Water. Kollet, Ian M. Ferguson, Steven G. Smith, Carol S. Woodward. Permission is granted to copy, distribute

467

La simulation pour les systmes pilots par le produit  

E-print Network

résolution du problème, vieux de 50 ans, de synchronisation, de lien entre les flux Chapitre rédigé par celle-ci les hauts niveaux de décision ont une vision globale de tout le système. La plupart des

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

468

INCIDENCE DU DOPAGE PAR LES TRANQUILLISANTS SUR L'ACTIVIT  

E-print Network

OF TRANQUILLIZER DOPING ON THE MUSCULAR ACTIVITY ON THE SPORT HORSE. I. - ACEPROMAZINE Doping with tranquillizersINCIDENCE DU DOPAGE PAR LES TRANQUILLISANTS SUR L'ACTIVITÃ? MUSCULAIRE DU CHEVAL DE SPORT I has appeared recently in horse-back riding sports. In this paper we study the effects of acepromazine

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

469

INSTITUT NATIONAL POLYTECHNIQUE DE GRENOBLE N attribu par la bibliothque  

E-print Network

, Myriam, Alexis ainsi que l'équipe de la ligne D2AM pour leur aide lors des expériences de diffusion aux ou friction stir welding (FSW) 4 A-1 Principe du soudage par friction malaxage (friction stir welding

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

470

DIFFUSION STIMULE INDUITE PAR UNE ABSORPTION A DEUX PHOTONS  

E-print Network

harmonique d'un laser a Rubis déclenché. L'impulsion a 3 471 A avait une duree de 8 ns a mi-hauteur. Le faisceau, monomode longitudinal et spatial a la sortie de l'oscillateur, étant degrade par la chaine d

Boyer, Edmond

471

INFECTION EXPRIMENTALE DU BLIER PAR SALMONELLA ABORTUS OVIS  

E-print Network

INFECTION EXPÃ?RIMENTALE DU BÃ?LIER PAR SALMONELLA ABORTUS OVIS R. SANCHIS P. PARDON2 Georgette, France Summary EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION OF RAM WITH SALMONELLA ABORTUS OVIS. - The susceptibility of rams to experimental challenge with Salmonella abortus ovis was investigated by subcutaneous, conjunctival or preputial

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

472

L'analyse par activation de neutrons de réacteur  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quand les neutrons traversent la matière, certains sont transmis sans interaction, les autres interagissent avec le milieu traversé par diffusion et par absorption. Ce phénomène d'absorption est utilisé pour se protéger des neutrons, mais aussi pour les détecter; il peut également être utilisé pour identifier les noyaux “absorbants" et ainsi analyser le milieu traversé. En effet par différentes réactions nucléaires (n,?), (n,p), (n,?), (n,fission), on obtient des noyaux résiduels qui sont souvent radioactifs; on dit que l'échantillon est “activé". Si l'on connaît le rendement d'activation et donc le pourcentage de noyaux ainsi “transmutés", les mesures de radioactivité induite vont permettre de déterminer la composition de l'échantillon irradié. Cette méthode dite d'analyse par activation neutronique est pratiquée depuis la découverte du neutron. Elle a permis grâce à sa sélectivité et à sa sensibilité d'avoir accès au domaine des traces et des ultra-traces dans des champs d'application très divers comme la métallurgie, l'archéologie, la biologie, la géochimie etc...

Meyer, G.

2003-02-01

473

Par Pond vegetation status summer 1995 - July survey descriptive summary  

SciTech Connect

A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant, communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet (61 meters) above mean sea level, and continued with this July survey. Aquatic plant communities, similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond communities, are becoming reestablished. Beds of maidencane (Panicum hemitomon), lotus (Nelumbo lutea), water lily (Nymphaea odorata), and watershield (Brasenia schreberi) are now extensive and well established. In addition, within isolated coves, extensive beds of water lilies and spike-rush (Eleocharis sp.) are common. Cattail occurrence has increased since refill, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Invasion of willow (Salix sp.) and red maple (Acer rubrum) occurred along the lake shoreline during drawdown. The red maples along the present shoreline are beginning to show evidence of stress and mortality from flooding over the past four months. Some of the willows appear to be stressed as well. The loblolly pines (Pinus taeda), which were flooded in all but the shallow shoreline areas, are now dead. Future surveys are planned for the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data for mapping the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond.

Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

1995-07-01

474

Histoire(de(l'Astronomie( par(Thomas(Widemann((  

E-print Network

(ses(observations.(Dans(son(oeuvre,( "l'Almageste",(ainsi(dénommée(par(les( Arabes,(il(présente(son(système( géocentrique(du(centre(de(l'épicycle(est(uniforme.(( Almageste (grec, IXe siècle)! Almageste (latin, XIII-XIVe siècle)! L'astronomie(araboIislamique( ( Parmi

Demoulin, Pascal

475

Acetylcholinesterase in der Pars distalis von Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii (Aves)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photoperiodic stimulation of photosensitive male white-crowned sparrows, Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii, causes the appearance of acetylcholinesterase activity in the cephalic and caudal lobes of the pars distalis. In photosensitive birds held on short daily photoperiods little or no activity can he demonstrated histochemically. The enzyme is restricted to PAS-positive cells. After attaining a maximum between 31 and 52 days after the

Eberhard Haase; Donald S. Farner

1969-01-01

476

BOREAS RSS-10 TOMS Circumpolar One-Degree PAR Images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Remote Sensing Science (RSS)-10 team investigated the magnitude of daily, seasonal, and yearly variations of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) from ground and satellite observations. This data set contains satellite estimates of surface-incident PAR (400-700 nm, MJ/sq m) at one-degree spatial resolution. The spatial coverage is circumpolar from latitudes of 41 to 66 degrees north. The temporal coverage is from May through September for years 1979 through 1989. Eleven-year statistics are also provided: (1) mean, (2) standard deviation, and (3) coefficient of variation for 1979-89. The PAR estimates were derived from the global gridded ultraviolet reflectivity data product (average of 360, 380 nm) from the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). Image mask data are provided for identifying the boreal forest zone, and ocean/land and snow/ice-covered areas. The data are available as binary image format data files. The PAR data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

Dye, Dennis G.; Holben, Brent; Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

477

Cartographie des graphes de terrain par une approche proxmique  

E-print Network

Cartographie des graphes de terrain par une approche proxémique Bruno Gaume 10 décembre 2009 1 des particules qui cartographient les propriétés structurelles des graphes étudiés. Cette méthode). Cartographier la forme du sens dans les petits mondes lexicaux. JADT. [Watts and Strogatz, 1998] Watts, D. J

Grigoras, .Romulus

478

The Pars Triangularis in Dyslexia and ADHD: A Comprehensive Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Limited research has been conducted on the structure of the pars triangularis (PT) in dyslexia despite functional neuroimaging research finding it may play a role in phonological processing. Furthermore, research to date has not examined PT size in ADHD even though the right inferior frontal region has been implicated in the disorder. Hence, one…

Kibby, Michelle Y.; Kroese, Judith M.; Krebbs, Hillery; Hill, Crystal E.; Hynd, George W.

2009-01-01

479

Conservation justice in metropolitan Cape Town: A study at the Macassar Dunes Conservation Area  

E-print Network

Conservation justice in metropolitan Cape Town: A study at the Macassar Dunes Conservation Area J xxxx Keywords: Conservation justice Community-based conservation South Africa Urban conservation Stakeholder analysis a b s t r a c t Conservation justice, a concept analogous to environmental justice

Silander Jr., John A.

480

PROGRAMME GROUP RESEARCH UPDATE: Conservation &  

E-print Network

1 PROGRAMME GROUP RESEARCH UPDATE: Conservation & management of species & genetic resources Grey.ferryman@forestry.gsi.gov.uk Or visit: www.forestresearch.gov.uk/greysquirrels Molecular genetics of native tree species Joan Cottrell

481

California's Energy Policy: Conservation Works  

E-print Network

Conservation is the foundation of California's energy policy and the largest single source of the state's 'new energy supply'. Our goal is to use economic market forces and government programs to direct energy Investments away from our current...

Greene, D.

1982-01-01

482

Office of Conservation 1986 Yearbook.  

SciTech Connect

Accomplishments of BPA conservation efforts are described in the following fields: residential sector; commercial sector; industrial sector; agricultural sector; technical, financial assistance, and education; and research, development, and technical demonstration. (DLC)

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1986-01-01

483

Philadelphia Museum of Art: Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Philadelphia Museum of Art presents this online mini-tutorial on the conservation of fine arts objects, complete with definitions, and plenty of examples. The site starts with differentiating preventative conservation measures - everything that can be done to slow the deterioration of a work. The Projects section contains examples of these conservation techniques. Within this section, the "Costume and Textile Department Move" describes the eight-year-long process of moving the Museum's extensive costume collection to a better storage facility. The section entitled "Rodin's The Thinker" describes the conservation treatments used to restore the finish of this famous statue, corroded and damaged by acid rain, after being exhibited outdoors for sixty years. One of the final steps was applying a protective wax coating, which has been renewed twice since the restored Thinker was re-installed in 1992.

484

Georgia Land Conservation Partnership Plan  

E-print Network

County Commission Mr. Ralph Callaway, Vice President Callaway Gardens Mr. Deke Copenhaver, Director State Representative Honorable Cecil Pruett, Mayor City of Canton Mr. Wade Shealy Hampton Island 23 Creating Land Conservation Partnerships 27 State Organizational Structure 31 Reconstituting

Rosemond, Amy Daum

485

Conservation in signal processing systems  

E-print Network

Conservation principles have played a key role in the development and analysis of many existing engineering systems and algorithms. In electrical network theory for example, many of the useful theorems regarding the ...

Baran, Thomas A. (Thomas Anthony)

2012-01-01

486

Electric Utility Industrial Conservation Programs  

E-print Network

The Alliance to Save Energy conducted a study, funded by the John A. Hartford Foundation, of industrial and commercial electricity conservation opportunities in the service territory of Arkansas Power and Light Company (AP&L). The study determined...

Norland, D. L.

1983-01-01

487

Contests In Conservation and Horticulture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Growing interest in conservation and horticulture in New York State has caused the addition of these specialized areas to the annual statewide agricultural education contests. Contest categories in both areas are listed. (MF)

Jones, Richard D.

1977-01-01

488

Conservative smoothing versus artificial viscosity  

SciTech Connect

This report was stimulated by some recent investigations of S.P.H. (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method). Solid dynamics computations with S.P.H. show symptoms of instabilities which are not eliminated by artificial viscosities. Both analysis and experiment indicate that conservative smoothing eliminates the instabilities in S.P.H. computations which artificial viscosities cannot. Questions were raised as to whether conservative smoothing might smear solutions more than artificial viscosity. Conservative smoothing, properly used, can produce more accurate solutions than the von Neumann-Richtmyer-Landshoff artificial viscosity which has been the standard for many years. The authors illustrate this using the vNR scheme on a test problem with known exact solution involving a shock collision in an ideal gas. They show that the norms of the errors with conservative smoothing are significantly smaller than the norms of the errors with artificial viscosity.

Guenther, C.; Hicks, D.L. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Swegle, J.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Solid and Structural Mechanics Dept.

1994-08-01

489

Conservation Biology GIS lab exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rose McKenney, Pacific Lutheran University Summary Introductory exploration of GIS as a conservation biology tool Context Type and level of course This activity was designed as a one time use of GIS to support ...

Mckenney, Rose

490

The political economy of conservation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A political economic purview of energy conservation in the United States was delineated. The concepts of substitution and elasticity are distinguished, and further distinctions are made between short run price elasticity, cross price elasticity, and available fund elasticity. An assessment of the role which cost factors can play in conservation is given. The structure of the petroleum industry and foreign petroleum resources is discussed. Also discussed is the role of government, industry and the consumer with the economic sphere.

1975-01-01

491

Hyperbolic conservation laws with relaxation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of relaxation is important in many physical situations. It is present in the kinetic theory of gases, elasticity with memory, gas flow with thermo-non-equilibrium, water waves, etc. The governing equations often take the form of hyperbolic conservation laws with lower-order terms. In this article, we present and analyze a simple model of hyperbolic conservation laws with relaxation effects.

Tai-Ping Liu

1987-01-01

492

Conservation Planning for Ecosystem Services  

PubMed Central

Despite increasing attention to the human dimension of conservation projects, a rigorous, systematic methodology for planning for ecosystem services has not been developed. This is in part because flows of ecosystem services remain poorly characterized at local-to-regional scales, and their protection has not generally been made a priority. We used a spatially explicit conservation planning framework to explore the trade-offs and opportunities for aligning conservation goals for biodiversity with six ecosystem services (carbon storage, flood control, forage production, outdoor recreation, crop pollination, and water provision) in the Central Coast ecoregion of California, United States. We found weak positive and some weak negative associations between the priority areas for biodiversity conservation and the flows of the six ecosystem services across the ecoregion. Excluding the two agriculture-focused services—crop pollination and forage production—eliminates all negative correlations. We compared the degree to which four contrasting conservation network designs protect biodiversity and the flow of the six services. We found that biodiversity conservation protects substantial collateral flows of services. Targeting ecosystem services directly can meet the multiple ecosystem services and biodiversity goals more efficiently but cannot substitute for targeted biodiversity protection (biodiversity losses of 44% relative to targeting biodiversity alone). Strategically targeting only biodiversity plus the four positively associated services offers much promise (relative biodiversity losses of 7%). Here we present an initial analytical framework for integrating biodiversity and ecosystem services in conservation planning and illustrate its application. We found that although there are important potential trade-offs between conservation for biodiversity and for ecosystem services, a systematic planning framework offers scope for identifying valuable synergies. PMID:17076586

Chan, Kai M. A; Shaw, M. Rebecca; Cameron, David R; Underwood, Emma C; Daily, Gretchen C

2006-01-01

493

The expansion of conservation genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 'crisis discipline' of conservation biology has voraciously incorporated many technologies to speed up and increase the accuracy of conservation decision-making. Genetic approaches to characterizing endangered species or areas that contain endangered species are prime examples of this. Technical advances in areas such as high-throughput sequencing, microsatellite analysis and non-invasive DNA sampling have led to a much-expanded role for genetics

George Amato; Rob DeSalle

2004-01-01

494

Conservation planning for ecosystem services.  

PubMed

Despite increasing attention to the human dimension of conservation projects, a rigorous, systematic methodology for planning for ecosystem services has not been developed. This is in part because flows of ecosystem services remain poorly characterized at local-to-regional scales, and their protection has not generally been made a priority. We used a spatially explicit conservation planning framework to explore the trade-offs and opportunities for aligning conservation goals for biodiversity with six ecosystem services (carbon storage, flood control, forage production, outdoor recreation, crop pollination, and water provision) in the Central Coast ecoregion of California, United States. We found weak positive and some weak negative associations between the priority areas for biodiversity conservation and the flows of the six ecosystem services across the ecoregion. Excluding the two agriculture-focused services-crop pollination and forage production-eliminates all negative correlations. We compared the degree to which four contrasting conservation network designs protect biodiversity and the flow of the six services. We found that biodiversity conservation protects substantial collateral flows of services. Targeting ecosystem services directly can meet the multiple ecosystem services and biodiversity goals more efficiently but cannot substitute for targeted biodiversity protection (biodiversity losses of 44% relative to targeting biodiversity alone). Strategically targeting only biodiversity plus the four positively associated services offers much promise (relative biodiversity losses of 7%). Here we present an initial analytical framework for integrating biodiversity and ecosystem services in conservation planning and illustrate its application. We found that although there are important potential trade-offs between conservation for biodiversity and for ecosystem services, a systematic planning framework offers scope for identifying valuable synergies. PMID:17076586

Chan, Kai M A; Shaw, M Rebecca; Cameron, David R; Underwood, Emma C; Daily, Gretchen C

2006-10-01

495

Water Pollution Prevention and Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is designed to help students apply the pollution prevention (P2) concept to water. It contains the needed background information about water pollution and provides guidance and activities to help students describe water uses and sources, explain why water conservation is important, and explain how pollution prevention concepts can be used to conserve water and prevent water pollution. The preceding pages of the fact sheet contain background information and the definitions necessary to implement this lesson plan.

496

TUDE DE LA TRANSMUTATION DU CUIVRE PAR L'AZOTE, L'OXYGNE ET LE NON Par Mmes H. FARAGGI, J. OLKOWSKY, Mlles J. BEYDON, M. CRUT  

E-print Network

519. �TUDE DE LA TRANSMUTATION DU CUIVRE PAR L'AZOTE, L'OXYG�NE ET LE N�ON Par Mmes H. FARAGGI, J. Abstract. 2014 We have studied the relative yields of the radioelement formed in the transmutation »).° Nous avons étudié, à Saclay, la transmutation du cuivre par l'azote et l'oxygène [2]. Nous avons pu

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

497

PRODUCTION DE TRITIUM DANS LE THORIUM PAR DES PROTONS DE 135 MeV Par M. LEFORT, G. SIMONOFF et X. TARRAGO  

E-print Network

959 PRODUCTION DE TRITIUM DANS LE THORIUM PAR DES PROTONS DE 135 MeV Par M. LEFORT, G. SIMONOFF et thorium par des protons de 135 MeV accélérés au synchro-cyclotron d'Orsay. Le tritium était extrait des measured the cross-section of tritium production by bombardement of thorium by 135 MeV protons in the Orsay

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

498

DTERMINATION PRCISE DE L'NERGIE DES RAYONS 03B1 EMIS PAR LE THORIUM Par M. GEORGES PHILBERT, Mme JEANNINE GNIN et M. LOPOLD VIGNERON,  

E-print Network

16 D�TERMINATION PR�CISE DE L'�NERGIE DES RAYONS 03B1 EMIS PAR LE THORIUM Par M. GEORGES PHILBERT. Sommaire. 2014 Du thorium, de l'ionium et du polonium ont été introduits ensemble dans une émulsion, les et autres nous ont permis de ne pas être gênés par les dérivés radioactifs du thorium. L

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

499

Etudes par spectroscopie Raman et par RMN des verres du système B2O3SiO2Li2O  

Microsoft Academic Search

Une approche structurale par spectroscopie Raman des verres du système B2O3-SiO2-Li2O a été effectuée. D'autre part une étude de l'environment du bore par RMN a été entreprise. Les résultats obtenus semblent indiquer que ces verres sont constitués de deux phases vitreuses distinctes, respectivement boratée et silicatée. Des phénomènes de démixtion ont d'ailleurs été mis en évidence par microscopie électronique à

Jean-Claude Brethous; Alain Levasseur; Gerard Villeneuve; Patrick Echegut; Paul Hagenmuller; Michel Couzi

1981-01-01

500

The physical association of the P2Y12 receptor with PAR4 regulates arrestin-mediated Akt activation.  

PubMed

It is now well accepted that protease activated receptor (PAR) 1 and PAR4 have differential roles in platelet activation. PAR4, a low-affinity thrombin receptor in human platelets, participates in sustained platelet activation in a P2Y12-dependent manner; however, the mechanisms are not defined. Our previous studies demonstrated that thrombin induces the association of PAR4 with P2Y12, together with arrestin recruitment to the complex. Here we show that PAR4 and P2Y12 directly interact to coregulate Akt signaling after PAR4 activation. We observed direct and specific interaction of P2Y12 with PAR4 but not PAR1 by bioluminescent resonance energy transfer when the receptors were coexpressed in human embryonic kidney 293T cells. PAR4-P2Y12 dimerization was promoted by PAR4-AP and inhibited by P2Y12 antagonist. By using sequence comparison of the transmembrane domains of PAR1 and PAR4, we designed a mutant form of PAR4, "PAR4SFT," by replacing LGL194-196 at the base of transmembrane domain 4 with the corresponding aligned PAR1 residues SFT 220-222. PAR4SFT supported only 8.74% of PAR4-P2Y12 interaction, abolishing P2Y12-dependent arrestin recruitment to PAR4 and Akt activation. Nonetheless, PAR4SFT still supported homodimerization with PAR4. PAR4SFT failed to induce a calcium flux when expressed independently; however, coexpression of increasing concentrations of PAR4SFT, together with PAR4 potentiated PAR4-mediated calcium flux, suggested that PAR4 act as homodimers to signal to Gq-coupled calcium responses. In conclusion, PAR4 LGL (194-196) governs agonist-dependent association of PAR4 with P2Y12 and contributes to Gq-coupled calcium responses. PAR4-P2Y12 association supports arrestin-mediated sustained signaling to Akt. Hence, PAR4-P2Y12 dimerization is likely to be important for the PAR4-P2Y12 dependent stabilization of platelet thrombi. PMID:24723492

Khan, Aasma; Li, Dongjun; Ibrahim, Salam; Smyth, Emer; Woulfe, Donna S

2014-07-01