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Sample records for conservation par irradiation

  1. A Conserved Mode of Protein Recognition and Binding in a ParD−ParE Toxin−Antitoxin Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, Kevin M.; Crosson, Sean

    2010-05-06

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems form a ubiquitous class of prokaryotic proteins with functional roles in plasmid inheritance, environmental stress response, and cell development. ParDE family TA systems are broadly conserved on plasmids and bacterial chromosomes and have been well characterized as genetic elements that promote stable plasmid inheritance. We present a crystal structure of a chromosomally encoded ParD-ParE complex from Caulobacter crescentus at 2.6 {angstrom} resolution. This TA system forms an {alpha}{sub 2}{beta}{sub 2} heterotetramer in the crystal and in solution. The toxin-antitoxin binding interface reveals extensive polar and hydrophobic contacts of ParD antitoxin helices with a conserved recognition and binding groove on the ParE toxin. A cross-species comparison of this complex structure with related toxin structures identified an antitoxin recognition and binding subdomain that is conserved between distantly related members of the RelE/ParE toxin superfamily despite a low level of overall primary sequence identity. We further demonstrate that ParD antitoxin is dimeric, stably folded, and largely helical when not bound to ParE toxin. Thus, the paradigmatic model in which antitoxin undergoes a disorder-to-order transition upon toxin binding does not apply to this chromosomal ParD-ParE TA system.

  2. A conserved mode of protein recognition and binding in a ParD-ParE toxin-antitoxin complex†

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Kevin M.; Crosson, Sean

    2010-01-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems form a ubiquitous class of prokaryotic proteins with functional roles in plasmid inheritance, environmental stress response, and cell development. ParDE-family TA systems are broadly conserved on plasmids and bacterial chromosomes, and have been well characterized as genetic elements that promote stable plasmid inheritance. We present a crystal structure of a chromosomally-encoded ParD-ParE complex from Caulobacter crescentus at 2.6 Å resolution. This TA system forms an α2β2 heterotetramer in the crystal and in solution. The toxin-antitoxin binding interface reveals extensive polar and hydrophobic contacts of ParD antitoxin helices with a conserved recognition and binding groove on the ParE toxin. A cross-species comparison of this complex structure with related toxin structures identified an antitoxin recognition and binding sub-domain that is conserved between distantly-related members of the RelE/ParE toxin superfamily despite low overall primary sequence identity. We further demonstrate that ParD antitoxin is dimeric, stably folded, and largely helical when not bound to ParE toxin. Thus, the paradigmatic model in which antitoxin undergoes a disorder-to-order transition upon toxin binding does not apply to this chromosomal ParD-ParE TA system. PMID:20143871

  3. Breast conservation treatment with perioperative interstitial irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, L.; Mansfield, C.M.; Jewell, W.R.; Reddy, E.K.; Thomas, J.H.; Krishnan, E.C.

    1987-10-01

    Limited resection of the breast combined with radiation has proved to be as effective as more radical surgery in treating early breast cancer. At the University of Kansas Medical Center, the radiotherapy consists of an interstitial implant at the time of lumpectomy to deliver an interstitial boost dose to the tumor bed with iridium-192 immediately following the surgical procedure. An axillary node dissection is also performed at the time of lumpectomy. A dose of 2000 cGy is delivered to the tumor bed between 40 and 60 h. Two to three weeks later, 4500-5000 cGy is delivered to the entire breast with external beam radiation over 5-5.5 weeks. One hundred breasts in 98 patients were so treated between June 1982 and February 1986, with 2 carcinomas in situ, 40 stage I, 51 stage II, and 7 stage III cancers, consisting of 2 TIS, 54 T1, 39 T2, and 5 T3 lesions. Locoregional control with a median follow-up of 31 months was 98%. One recurrence was in a different quadrant, and the other revealed predominantly the in situ component. Immediate implant did not compromise wound healing or cosmesis. The cosmetic result was graded as good to excellent in 88% of the breasts. Our preliminary results appear to suggest a better local control with immediate interstitial irradiation.

  4. Caenorhabditis elegans PIG-1/MELK acts in a conserved PAR-4/LKB1 polarity pathway to promote asymmetric neuroblast divisions.

    PubMed

    Chien, Shih-Chieh; Brinkmann, Eva-Maria; Teuliere, Jerome; Garriga, Gian

    2013-03-01

    Asymmetric cell divisions produce daughter cells with distinct sizes and fates, a process important for generating cell diversity during development. Many Caenorhabditis elegans neuroblasts, including the posterior daughter of the Q cell (Q.p), divide to produce a larger neuron or neuronal precursor and a smaller cell that dies. These size and fate asymmetries require the gene pig-1, which encodes a protein orthologous to vertebrate MELK and belongs to the AMPK-related family of kinases. Members of this family can be phosphorylated and activated by the tumor suppressor kinase LKB1, a conserved polarity regulator of epithelial cells and neurons. In this study, we present evidence that the C. elegans orthologs of LKB1 (PAR-4) and its partners STRAD (STRD-1) and MO25 (MOP-25.2) regulate the asymmetry of the Q.p neuroblast division. We show that PAR-4 and STRD-1 act in the Q lineage and function genetically in the same pathway as PIG-1. A conserved threonine residue (T169) in the PIG-1 activation loop is essential for PIG-1 activity, consistent with the model that PAR-4 (or another PAR-4-regulated kinase) phosphorylates and activates PIG-1. We also demonstrate that PIG-1 localizes to centrosomes during cell divisions of the Q lineage, but this localization does not depend on T169 or PAR-4. We propose that a PAR-4-STRD-1 complex stimulates PIG-1 kinase activity to promote asymmetric neuroblast divisions and the generation of daughter cells with distinct fates. Changes in cell fate may underlie many of the abnormal behaviors exhibited by cells after loss of PAR-4 or LKB1. PMID:23267054

  5. Row orientation effect on UV-B, UV-A and PAR solar irradiation components in vineyards at Tuscany, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grifoni, D.; Carreras, G.; Zipoli, G.; Sabatini, F.; Dalla Marta, A.; Orlandini, S.

    2008-11-01

    Besides playing an essential role in plant photosynthesis, solar radiation is also involved in many other important biological processes. In particular, it has been demonstrated that ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation plays a relevant role in grapevines ( Vitis vinifera) in the production of certain important chemical compounds directly responsible for yield and wine quality. Moreover, the exposure to UV-B radiation (280-320 nm) can affect plant-disease interaction by influencing the behaviour of both pathogen and host. The main objective of this research was to characterise the solar radiative regime of a vineyard, in terms of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and UV components. In this analysis, solar spectral UV irradiance components, broadband UV (280-400 nm), spectral UV-B and UV-A (320-400 nm), the biological effective UVBE, as well as the PAR (400-700 nm) component, were all considered. The diurnal patterns of these quantities and the UV-B/PAR and UV-B/UV-A ratios were analysed to investigate the effect of row orientation of the vineyard in combination with solar azimuth and elevation angles. The distribution of PAR and UV irradiance at various heights of the vertical sides of the rows was also studied. The results showed that the highest portion of plants received higher levels of daily radiation, especially the UV-B component. Row orientation of the vines had a pronounced effect on the global PAR received by the two sides of the rows and, to a lesser extent, UV-A and UV-B. When only the diffused component was considered, this geometrical effect was greatly attenuated. UV-B/PAR and UV-A/PAR ratios were also affected, with potential consequences on physiological processes. Because of the high diffusive capacity of the UV-B radiation, the UV-B/PAR ratio was significantly lower on the plant portions exposed to full sunlight than on those in the shade.

  6. Interdiffusion de puits quantiques controlee par irradiation laser excimere pour l'integration de composants photoniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genest, Jonathan

    L'integration de composants discrets sur un systeme unique, tel une puce electronique, augmente les performances totales du systeme, fait apparaitre de nouvelles fonctionnalites et diminue les couts associes a la fabrication des dispositifs. Ces ameliorations, appliquees au secteur de la microelectronique, sont grandement responsables des avancements importants qu'ont connus les technologies de l'information et des communications au cours des dernieres annees. Puisque la fabrication de circuits photoniques integres necessite l'integration de structures ayant des bandes interdites differentes a partir d'une meme puce semiconductrice, leur niveau d'integration est bien inferieur que celui atteint pour un microprocesseur standard. Parmi les techniques ayant le potentiel de fabriquer des circuits photoniques integres monolithiquement, l'interdiffusion de puits quantique post-expitaxial controlee spatialement augmente la bande interdite d'une heterostructure semiconductrice a l'interieur de regions definies. Le processus d'interdiffusion, active thermiquement, est accelere par la diffusion d'impuretes et de defauts ponctuels tels que les lacunes et les interstitiels. L'hypothese de depart de mes travaux de doctorat suppose que la radiation laser ultra-violette module la diffusion et la generation de defauts ponctuels dans les heterostructures reposant sur les technologies a base de GaAs et d'InP et, consequemment, controle spatialement l'interdiffusion de puits quantiques. Nous avons demontre que lorsque appliquee sur des heterostructures a base de GaAs, l'irradiation laser excimere l'interdiffusion en favorisant la croissance d'un stresseur de surface qui empeche la diffusion des defauts ponctuels vers les puits quantiques. Nous avons souligne l'influence de la vapeur d'eau physisorbee sur la croissance du stresseur et avons determine la resolution spatiale de la technique. Dans les heterostructures basees sur les technologies InP, meme sous le seuil d'ablation, l

  7. Irradiation treatment for the protection and conservation of cultural heritage artefacts in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katušin-Ražem, Branka; Ražem, Dušan; Braun, Mario

    2009-07-01

    The application of irradiation treatment for the protection of cultural heritage artefacts in Croatia was made possible by the development of radiation processing procedures at the Radiation Chemistry and Dosimetry Laboratory of the Ruđer Bo\\vsković Institute. After the upgrading of the 60Co gamma irradiation source in the panoramic irradiation facility in 1983 it became possible to perform both research and pilot plant-scale irradiations for sterilization, pasteurization and decontamination of various materials, including medical supplies, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and foods, but also for disinfestation of cultural heritage artefects. The demand for irradiation treatment of cultural heritage objects has particularly increased as the increasing number of these objects, especially polychromic wooden sculptures, were requiring salvation, restauration and conservation as a consequence of direct and indirect damages inflicted to them during the war in Croatia, 1991-1995. The irradiation facility at the Ruđer Bo\\vsković Institute is briefly described and an account of its fifteen years' activities in the irradiation treatment of cultural heritage objects is given. Some case studies performed in cooperation with the Croatian Conservation Institute and other interested parties are presented, as well as some cases of protective and curative treatments for disinfestation and decontamination. International cooperations and activities are also mentioned.

  8. Nonconsecutive Pars Interarticularis Defects.

    PubMed

    Elgafy, Hossein; Hart, Ryan C; Tanios, Mina

    2015-12-01

    Lumbar spondylolysis is a well-recognized condition occurring in adolescents because of repetitive overuse in sports. Nonconsecutive spondylolysis involving the lumbar spine is rare. In contrast to single-level pars defects that respond well to conservative treatment, there is no consensus about the management of multiple-level pars fractures; a few reports indicated that conservative management is successful, and the majority acknowledged that surgery is often required. The current study presents a rare case of pars fracture involving nonconsecutive segments and discusses the management options. In this case report, we review the patient's history, clinical examination, radiologic findings, and management, as well as the relevant literature. An 18-year-old man presented to the clinic with worsening lower back pain related to nonconsecutive pars fractures at L2 and L5. After 6 months of conservative management, diagnostic computed tomography-guided pars block was used to localize the symptomatic level at L2, which was treated surgically; the L5 asymptomatic pars fracture did not require surgery. At the last follow-up 2 years after surgery, the patient was playing baseball and basketball, and denied any back pain. This article reports a case of rare nonconsecutive pars fractures. Conservative management for at least 6 months is recommended. Successful management depends on the choice of appropriate treatment for each level. Single-photon emission computed tomography scan, and computed tomography-guided pars block are valuable preoperative tools to identify the symptomatic level in such a case. PMID:26665257

  9. Perioperative interstitial irradiation in the conservative management of early breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, L.; Jewell, W.R.; Mansfield, C.M.; Reddy, E.K.; Thomas, J.H.; Krishnan, E.C.

    1987-11-01

    Conservation of the breast in early breast cancer with limited resection and radiation is proving to be as effective as modified radical mastectomy in survival and in loco-regional control. Management at the University of Kansas Medical Center consists of an interstitial implant at the time of lumpectomy to facilitate perioperative irradiation with Iridium-192 to the tumor bed. An axillary node dissection is also performed at that time. Two to 3 weeks later external beam irradiation is delivered to the entire breast. One hundred and twenty-three breasts in 120 patients have been treated between June 1982 and June 1986. There were 49 pathological Stage I, 63 Stage II, 8 Stage III carcinomas, and 3 carcinomas in situ, consisting of 72 T1, 43 T2, 5 T3, and 3 TIS lesions. Patients have been followed for a median of 30 months. One patient had a ''true'' recurrence in the breast. Another patient developed recurrence in a different quadrant. Ninety percent of the patients had good to excellent cosmetic results, 7% were considered fair, and 3% had poor results. Seven patients developed mild arm edema, 4 were found to have moderate edema, and 1 had severe arm edema. Our preliminary results indicate that interstitial irradiation immediately after excision results in excellent local control, with very satisfactory cosmesis and no morbidity due to the simultaneous excision and irradiation.

  10. Secondary bremsstrahlung and the energy-conservation aspects of kerma in photon-irradiated media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sudhir; Nahum, Alan E.

    2016-02-01

    Kerma, collision kerma and absorbed dose in media irradiated by megavoltage photons are analysed with respect to energy conservation. The user-code DOSRZnrc was employed to compute absorbed dose D, kerma K and a special form of kerma, K ncpt, obtained by setting the charged-particle transport energy cut-off very high, thereby preventing the generation of ‘secondary bremsstrahlung’ along the charged-particle paths. The user-code FLURZnrc was employed to compute photon fluence, differential in energy, from which collision kerma, K col and K were derived. The ratios K/D, K ncpt/D and K col/D have thereby been determined over a very large volumes of water, aluminium and copper irradiated by broad, parallel beams of 0.1 to 25 MeV monoenergetic photons, and 6, 10 and 15 MV ‘clinical’ radiotherapy qualities. Concerning depth-dependence, the ‘area under the kerma, K, curve’ exceeded that under the dose curve, demonstrating that kerma does not conserve energy when computed over a large volume. This is due to the ‘double counting’ of the energy of the secondary bremsstrahlung photons, this energy being (implicitly) included in the kerma ‘liberated’ in the irradiated medium, at the same time as this secondary bremsstrahlung is included in the photon fluence which gives rise to kerma elsewhere in the medium. For 25 MeV photons this ‘violation’ amounts to 8.6%, 14.2% and 25.5% in large volumes of water, aluminium and copper respectively but only 0.6% for a ‘clinical’ 6 MV beam in water. By contrast, K col/D and K ncpt/D, also computed over very large phantoms of the same three media, for the same beam qualities, are equal to unity within (very low) statistical uncertainties, demonstrating that collision kerma and the special type of kerma, K ncpt, do conserve energy over a large volume. A comparison of photon fluence spectra for the 25 MeV beam at a depth of  ≈51 g cm-2 for both very high and very low charged-particle transport cut

  11. Outcome After Conservative Surgery and Breast Irradiation in 5,717 Patients With Breast Cancer: Implications for Supraclavicular Nodal Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Livi, Lorenzo; Scotti, Vieri; Saieva, Calogero; Meattini, Icro; Detti, Beatrice; Simontacchi, Gabriele; Cardillo, Carla Deluca; Paiar, Fabiola; Mangoni, Monica; Marrazzo, Livia; Agresti, Benedetta; Cataliotti, Luigi; Bianchi, Simonetta; Biti, Giampaolo

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome and predictive factors of patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy to the whole breast only, without supraclavicular nodal irradiation. Methods and Materials: A total of 5,717 patients with pT1-T4 breast cancer were treated at the University of Florence. The median age of the patient population was 55 years (range, 30-80 years). All patients were followed for a median of 6.8 years (range, 1-27 years). Adjuvant chemotherapy was recommended in 1,535 patients (26.9%). Tamoxifen was prescribed in 2,951 patients (51.6%). The patients were split into three groups according to number of positive axillary nodes (PAN): P1, negative axillary lymph nodes; P2, one to three PAN; P3, more than three PAN. Results: The P3 patients had a higher incidence of supraclavicular fossa recurrence (SFR) compared with P2 and P1 patients. However, the incidence of SFR in P3 patients was low (only 5.5%), whereas the incidence of distant metastases (DM) was 27.2%. Distant metastasis was the only independent prognostic factor for breast cancer survival. Additionally, in the subgroup of patients who developed local recurrence, DM was the most important death predictor. Conclusion: Our series suggests that isolated SFR in patients who did not receive supraclavicular radiotherapy is infrequent, as well as in those patients who have more than three PAN, and SFR seems not to influence the outcome, which depends on DM occurrence.

  12. Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

  13. Par Pond water balance

    SciTech Connect

    Hiergesell, R.A.; Dixon, K.L.

    1996-06-01

    A water budget for the Par Pond hydrologic system was established in order to estimate the rate of groundwater influx to Par Pond. This estimate will be used in modeling exercises to predict Par Pond reservoir elevation and spillway discharge in the scenario where Savannah River water is no longer pumped and discharged into Par Pond. The principal of conservation of mass was used to develop the water budget, where water inflow was set equal to water outflow. Components of the water budget were identified, and the flux associated with each was determined. The water budget was considered balanced when inflow and outflow summed to zero. The results of this study suggest that Par Pond gains water from the groundwater system in the upper reaches of the reservoir, but looses water to the groundwater system near the dam. The rate of flux of groundwater from the water table aquifer into Par Pond was determined to be 13 cfs. The rate of flux from Par Pond to the water table aquifer near the dam was determined to be 7 cfs.

  14. Urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator Receptor (uPAR)-mediated Regulation of WNT/β-Catenin Signaling Is Enhanced in Irradiated Medulloblastoma Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Asuthkar, Swapna; Gondi, Christopher S.; Nalla, Arun Kumar; Velpula, Kiran Kumar; Gorantla, Bharathi; Rao, Jasti S.

    2012-01-01

    Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is known to promote invasion, migration, and metastasis in cancer cells. In this report, we showed that ionizing radiation (IR)-induced uPAR has a role in WNT-β-catenin signaling and mediates induction of cancer stem cell (CSC)-like properties in medulloblastoma cell lines UW228 and D283. We observed that IR induced the expression of uPAR and CSC markers, such as Musashi-1 and CD44, and activated WNT-7a-β-catenin signaling molecules. Overexpression of uPAR alone or with IR treatment led to increased WNT-7a-β-catenin-TCF/LEF-mediated transactivation, thereby promoting cancer stemness. In contrast, treatment with shRNA specific for uPAR (pU) suppressed WNT-7a-β-catenin-TCF/LEF-mediated transactivation both in vitro and in vivo. Quercetin, a potent WNT/β-catenin inhibitor, suppressed uPAR and uPAR-mediated WNT/β-catenin activation, and furthermore, addition of recombinant human WNT-7a protein induced uPAR, indicating the existence of a mutual regulatory relationship between uPAR and WNT/β-catenin signaling. We showed that uPAR was physically associated with the WNT effector molecule β-catenin on the membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus of IR-treated cells and CSC. Most interestingly, we demonstrated for the first time that localization of uPAR in the nucleus was associated with transcription factors (TF) and their specific response elements. We observed from uPAR-ChIP, TF protein, and protein/DNA array analyses that uPAR associates with activating enhancer-binding protein 2α (AP2a) and mediates β-catenin gene transcription. Moreover, association of uPAR with the β-catenin·TCF/LEF complex and various other TF involved during embryonic development and cancer indicates that uPAR is a potent activator of stemness, and targeting of uPAR in combination with radiation has significant therapeutic implications. PMID:22511755

  15. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR)-mediated regulation of WNT/β-catenin signaling is enhanced in irradiated medulloblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Asuthkar, Swapna; Gondi, Christopher S; Nalla, Arun Kumar; Velpula, Kiran Kumar; Gorantla, Bharathi; Rao, Jasti S

    2012-06-01

    Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is known to promote invasion, migration, and metastasis in cancer cells. In this report, we showed that ionizing radiation (IR)-induced uPAR has a role in WNT-β-catenin signaling and mediates induction of cancer stem cell (CSC)-like properties in medulloblastoma cell lines UW228 and D283. We observed that IR induced the expression of uPAR and CSC markers, such as Musashi-1 and CD44, and activated WNT-7a-β-catenin signaling molecules. Overexpression of uPAR alone or with IR treatment led to increased WNT-7a-β-catenin-TCF/LEF-mediated transactivation, thereby promoting cancer stemness. In contrast, treatment with shRNA specific for uPAR (pU) suppressed WNT-7a-β-catenin-TCF/LEF-mediated transactivation both in vitro and in vivo. Quercetin, a potent WNT/β-catenin inhibitor, suppressed uPAR and uPAR-mediated WNT/β-catenin activation, and furthermore, addition of recombinant human WNT-7a protein induced uPAR, indicating the existence of a mutual regulatory relationship between uPAR and WNT/β-catenin signaling. We showed that uPAR was physically associated with the WNT effector molecule β-catenin on the membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus of IR-treated cells and CSC. Most interestingly, we demonstrated for the first time that localization of uPAR in the nucleus was associated with transcription factors (TF) and their specific response elements. We observed from uPAR-ChIP, TF protein, and protein/DNA array analyses that uPAR associates with activating enhancer-binding protein 2α (AP2a) and mediates β-catenin gene transcription. Moreover, association of uPAR with the β-catenin·TCF/LEF complex and various other TF involved during embryonic development and cancer indicates that uPAR is a potent activator of stemness, and targeting of uPAR in combination with radiation has significant therapeutic implications. PMID:22511755

  16. Optimisation of UV irradiation as a binding site conserving method for crosslinking collagen-based scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Davidenko, Natalia; Bax, Daniel V; Schuster, Carlos F; Farndale, Richard W; Hamaia, Samir W; Best, Serena M; Cameron, Ruth E

    2016-01-01

    Short wavelength (λ = 254 nm) UV irradiation was evaluated over a range of intensities (0.06 to 0.96 J/cm(2)) as a means of cross-linking collagen- and gelatin-based scaffolds, to tailor their material characteristics whilst retaining biological functionality. Zero-link carbodiimide treatments are commonly applied to collagen-based materials, forming cross-links from carboxylate anions (for example the acidic E of GFOGER) that are an essential part of integrin binding sites on collagen. Cross-linking these amino acids therefore disrupts the bioactivity of collagen. In contrast, UV irradiation forms bonds from less important aromatic tyrosine and phenylalanine residues. We therefore hypothesised that UV cross-linking would not compromise collagen cell reactivity. Here, highly porous (~99 %) isotropic, collagen-based scaffolds were produced via ice-templating. A series of scaffolds (pore diameters ranging from 130-260 μm) with ascending stability in water was made from gelatin, two different sources of collagen I, or blends of these materials. Glucose, known to aid UV crosslinking of collagen, was added to some lower-stability formulations. These scaffolds were exposed to different doses of UV irradiation, and the scaffold morphology, dissolution stability in water, resistance to compression and cell reactivity was assessed. Stabilisation in aqueous media varied with both the nature of the collagen-based material employed and the UV intensity. Scaffolds made from the most stable materials showed the greatest stability after irradiation, although the levels of cross-linking in all cases were relatively low. Scaffolds made from pure collagen from the two different sources showed different optimum levels of irradiation, suggesting altered balance between stabilisation from cross-linking and destabilisation from denaturation. The introduction of glucose into the scaffold enhanced the efficacy of UV cross-linking. Finally, as hypothesized, cell attachment, spreading and

  17. Hypofractionated whole breast irradiation: new standard in early breast cancer after breast-conserving surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Su; Shin, Kyung Hwan; Choi, Noorie; Lee, Sea-Won

    2016-01-01

    Hypofractionated whole breast irradiation (HF-WBI) has been proved effective and safe and even better for late or acute radiation toxicity for early breast cancer. Moreover, it improves patient convenience, quality of life and is expected to be advantageous in the medical care system by reducing overall cost. In this review, we examined key randomized trials of HF-WBI, focusing on adequate patient selection as suggested by the American Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) guideline and the radiobiologic aspects of HF-WBI in relation to its adoption into clinical settings. Further investigation to identify the current practice pattern or cost effectiveness is warranted under the national health insurance service system in Korea. PMID:27306774

  18. Prone Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation After Breast-Conserving Surgery: Compliance to the Dosimetry Requirements of RTOG-0413

    SciTech Connect

    Wen Bixiu; Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080 ; Hsu, Howard; Formenti-Ujlaki, George F.; Lymberis, Stella; Magnolfi, Chiara; Zhao Xuan; Chang Jenghwa; DeWyngaert, J. Keith; Jozsef, Gabor; Formenti, Silvia C.

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: The dosimetric results from our institution's trials of prone accelerated partial breast irradiation are compared with the dosimetric requirements of RTOG-0413. Methods and Materials: Trial 1 and Trial 2 are 2 consecutive trials of prone-accelerated partial breast irradiation. Eligible for both trials were stage I breast cancer patients with negative margins after breast-conserving surgery. The planning target tumor volume (PTV) was created by extending the surgical cavity 2.0 cm for Trial 1 and 1.5 cm for Trial 2, respectively. Contralateral breast, heart, lungs, and thyroid were contoured. Thirty Gray was delivered in five daily fractions of 6 Gy by a three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy technique in Trial 1 and were by image-guided radiation therapy/intensity-modulated radiation therapy in Trial 2. Dosimetric results from the trials are reported and compared with RTOG 0413 requirements. Results: One hundred forty-six consecutive plans were analyzed: 67 left and 79 right breast cancers. The plans from the trials complied with the required >90% of prescribed dose covering 90% of PTV{sub E}VAL (=generated from the PTV by cropping 0.5 cm from the skin edge and excluding the chest wall): V90% was 98.1 {+-} 3.0% (with V100% and V95%, 89.4 {+-} 12.8%, 96.4 {+-} 5.1%, respectively). No significant difference between laterality was found (Student's t test). The dose constraints criteria of the RTOG-0413 protocol for ipsilateral and contralateral lung (V30 <15% and Dmax <3%), heart (V5 <40%), and thyroid (Dmax <3%) were satisfied because the plans showed an average V5% of 0.6% (range, 0-13.4) for heart, an average V30% of 0.6% (range, 0-9.1%) for ipsilateral lung, and <2% maximum dose to the thyroid. However, our partial breast irradiation plans demonstrated a higher dose to contralateral breast than that defined by RTOG constraints, with a median value of maximum doses of 4.1% (1.2 Gy), possibly as a result of contouring differences. Conclusions: Our

  19. Treatment Techniques to Reduce Cardiac Irradiation for Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Breast-Conserving Surgery and Radiation Therapy: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Robert E.; Kim, Leonard; Yue, Ning J.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Khan, Atif J.; Goyal, Sharad

    2014-01-01

    Thousands of women diagnosed with breast cancer each year receive breast-conserving surgery followed by adjuvant radiation therapy. For women with left-sided breast cancer, there is risk of potential cardiotoxicity from the radiation therapy. As data have become available to quantify the risk of cardiotoxicity from radiation, strategies have also developed to reduce the dose of radiation to the heart without compromising radiation dose to the breast. Several broad categories of techniques to reduce cardiac radiation doses include breath hold techniques, prone positioning, intensity-modulated radiation therapy, and accelerated partial breast irradiation, as well as many small techniques to improve traditional three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy. This review summarizes the published scientific literature on the various techniques to decrease cardiac irradiation in women treated to the left breast for breast cancer after breast-conserving surgery. PMID:25452938

  20. Low dose γ-irradiation as a suitable solution for chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller) conservation: effects on sugars, fatty acids, and tocopherols.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ângela; Antonio, Amilcar L; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C M; Bento, Albino; Botelho, M Luisa; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-09-28

    Along with dehydration, the development of insects and microorganisms is the major drawback in chestnut conservation. Irradiation has been regaining interest as an alternative technology to increase food product shelf life. In the present work, the effects of low dose gamma irradiation on the sugar, fatty acid, and tocopherol composition of chestnuts stored at 4 °C for different storage periods (0, 30, and 60 days) was evaluated. The irradiations were performed in a 60Co experimental equipment, for 1 h (0.27±0.04 kGy) and 2 h (0.54±0.04 kGy). Changes in sugars and tocopherols were determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to refraction index and fluorescence detections, respectively, while changes in fatty acids were analyzed by gas-chromatography coupled to flame ionization detection. Regarding sugar composition, storage time proved to have a higher effect than irradiation treatment. Fructose and glucose increased after storage, with the corresponding decrease of sucrose. Otherwise, the tocopherol content was lower in nonirradiated samples, without a significant influence of storage. Saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were not affected, either by storage or irradiation. Nevertheless, some individual fatty acid concentrations were influenced by one of two factors, such as the increase of palmitic acid in irradiated samples or the decrease of oleic acid after 60 days of storage. Overall, the assayed irradiation doses seem to be a promising alternative treatment to increase chestnut shelf life, without affecting the profile and composition in important nutrients. PMID:21823582

  1. A Single parS Sequence from the Cluster of Four Sites Closest to oriC Is Necessary and Sufficient for Proper Chromosome Segregation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Jecz, Paulina; Bartosik, Aneta A.; Glabski, Krzysztof; Jagura-Burdzy, Grazyna

    2015-01-01

    Among the mechanisms that control chromosome segregation in bacteria are highly-conserved partitioning systems comprising three components: ParA protein (a deviant Walker-type ATPase), ParB protein (a DNA-binding element) and multiple cis-acting palindromic centromere-like sequences, designated parS. Ten putative parS sites have been identified in the P. aeruginosa PAO1 genome, four localized in close proximity of oriC and six, diverged by more than one nucleotide from a perfect palindromic sequence, dispersed along the chromosome. Here, we constructed and analyzed P. aeruginosa mutants deprived of each single parS sequence and their different combinations. The analysis included evaluation of a set of phenotypic features, chromosome segregation, and ParB localization in the cells. It was found that ParB binds specifically to all ten parS sites, although with different affinities. The P. aeruginosa parS mutant with all ten parS sites modified (parSnull) is viable however it demonstrates the phenotype characteristic for parAnull or parBnull mutants: slightly slower growth rate, high frequency of anucleate cells, and defects in motility. The genomic position and sequence of parS determine its role in P. aeruginosa biology. It transpired that any one of the four parS sites proximal to oriC (parS1 to parS4), which are bound by ParB with the highest affinity, is necessary and sufficient for the parABS role in chromosome partitioning. When all these four sites are mutated simultaneously, the strain shows the parSnull phenotype, which indicates that none of the remaining six parS sites can substitute for these four oriC-proximal sites in this function. A single ectopic parS2 (inserted opposite oriC in the parSnull mutant) facilitates ParB organization into regularly spaced condensed foci and reverses some of the mutant phenotypes but is not sufficient for accurate chromosome segregation. PMID:25794281

  2. Étude des dommages induits dans l'ADN par irradiation laser X-UV à 21.2 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassou, K.; Ros, D.; Kazamias, S.; Klisnick, A.; Jamelot, G.; Guilbaud, O.; Rus, B.; Kozlová, M.; Polan, J.; Präg, A. R.; Stupka, M.; Eot-Houllier, G.; Sage, E.; Begusová, M.; Stísová, V.; Du Penhoat, M.-A. H.; Touati, A.; Chétioui, A.

    2005-06-01

    We report the preliminary result of the application of the collisional Ne-like soft x-ray laser as radiation source to induce DNA damage. The goal of this experiment was a test bed study of the damage yields induced by soft x-ray radiation in dried plasmid DNA sample. The saturated Ne-like soft x-ray laser available at the PALS facility, delivering several millijoules in a single 100 ps pulse at 21.2 nm was used to irradiate two different plasmids: pSP189 and pBS. The study is centered on the dose effect leading to single and double strand break in DNA.

  3. PAR-3 and PAR-1 Inhibit LET-99 Localization to Generate a Cortical Band Important for Spindle Positioning in Caenorhabditis elegans Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jui-Ching

    2007-01-01

    The conserved PAR proteins are localized in asymmetric cortical domains and are required for the polarized localization of cell fate determinants in many organisms. In Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, LET-99 and G protein signaling act downstream of the PARs to regulate spindle positioning and ensure asymmetric division. PAR-3 and PAR-2 localize LET-99 to a posterior cortical band through an unknown mechanism. Here we report that LET-99 asymmetry depends on cortically localized PAR-1 and PAR-4 but not on cytoplasmic polarity effectors. In par-1 and par-4 embryos, LET-99 accumulates at the entire posterior cortex, but remains at low levels at the anterior cortex occupied by PAR-3. Further, PAR-3 and PAR-1 have graded cortical distributions with the highest levels at the anterior and posterior poles, respectively, and the lowest levels of these proteins correlate with high LET-99 accumulation. These results suggest that PAR-3 and PAR-1 inhibit the localization of LET-99 to generate a band pattern. In addition, PAR-1 kinase activity is required for the inhibition of LET-99 localization, and PAR-1 associates with LET-99. Finally, examination of par-1 embryos suggests that the banded pattern of LET-99 is critical for normal posterior spindle displacement and to prevent spindle misorientation caused by cell shape constraints. PMID:17761536

  4. Calibration of the Odyssey Photosynthetic Irradiance Recorder for Absolute Irradiance Measures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Researchers are increasingly interested in measuring hotosynthetically active radiation (PAR) because of its importance in determining the structure and function of lotic ecosystems. The Odyssey Photosynthetic Irradiance Recorder is an affordable PAR meter gaining popularity am...

  5. Participation of Chromosome Segregation Protein ParAI of Vibrio cholerae in Chromosome Replication▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Kadoya, Ryosuke; Baek, Jong Hwan; Sarker, Arnab; Chattoraj, Dhruba K.

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae carries homologs of plasmid-borne parA and parB genes on both of its chromosomes. The par genes help to segregate many plasmids and chromosomes. Here we have studied the par genes of V. cholerae chromosome I. Earlier studies suggested that ParBI binds to the centromeric site parSI near the origin of replication (oriI), and parSI-ParBI complexes are placed at the cell poles by ParAI. Deletion of parAI and parSI caused the origin-proximal DNA to be less polar. Here we found that deletion of parBI also resulted in a less polar localization of oriI. However, unlike the deletion of parAI, the deletion of parBI increased the oriI number. Replication was normal when both parAI and parBI were deleted, suggesting that ParBI mediates its action through ParAI. Overexpression of ParAI in a parABI-deleted strain also increased the DNA content. The results are similar to those found for Bacillus subtilis, where ParA (Soj) stimulates replication and this activity is repressed by ParB (SpoOJ). As in B. subtilis, the stimulation of replication most likely involves the replication initiator DnaA. Our results indicate that control of chromosomal DNA replication is an additional function of chromosomal par genes conserved across the Gram-positive/Gram-negative divide. PMID:21257772

  6. Pars Injuries in Athletes.

    PubMed

    Oren, Jonathan H; Gallina, Jason M

    2016-03-01

    Pars injuries are common causes of low back pain in adolescent athletes. Workup traditionally has included lumbar radiographs with oblique views and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). However, recent literature has demonstrated the accuracy of MRI as a diagnostic modality. Acute injuries may be amenable to bracing with the goal of a healed lesion. Most cases of spondylolysis will result in asymptomatic non-union, though pars repair is an option for symptomatic pars defects without spondylolisthesis. PMID:26977552

  7. Utilisation de l'essai comete et du biomarqueur gamma-H2AX pour detecter les dommages induits a l'ADN cellulaire par le 5-bromodeoxyuridine post-irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Madeleine, Carole

    Ce memoire est presente a la Faculte de medecine et des sciences de la sante de l'Universite de Sherbrooke en vue de l'obtention du grade de maitre es sciences (M.Sc.) en radiobiologie (2009). Un jury a revise les informations contenues dans ce memoire. Il etait compose de professeurs de la Faculte de medecine et des sciences de la sante soit : Darel Hunting PhD, directeur de recherche (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie), Leon Sanche PhD, directeur de recherche (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie), Richard Wagner PhD, membre du programme (departement de medecine nucleaire et radiobiologie) et Guylain Boissonneault PhD, membre exterieur au programme (departement de biochimie). Le 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), un analogue halogene de la thymidine reconnu depuis les annees 60 comme etant un excellent radiosensibilisateur. L'hypothese la plus repandue au sujet de l'effet radio sensibilisant du BrdU est qu'il augmente le nombre de cassures simple et double brin lorsqu'il est incorpore dans l'ADN de la cellule et expose aux radiations ionisantes. Toutefois, de nouvelles recherches semblent remettre en question les observations precedentes. Ces dernieres etudes ont confirme que le BrdU est un bon radiosensibilisateur, car il augmente les dommages radio-induits dans l'ADN. Mais, c'est en etant incorpore dans une region simple brin que le BrdU radiosensibilise l'ADN. Ces recherches ont egalement revele pour la premiere fois un nouveau type de dommages produits lors de l'irradiation de l'ADN contenant du BrdU : les dimeres interbrins. Le but de ces travaux de recherche est de determiner si la presence de bromodeoxyuridine dans l'ADN augmente l'induction de bris simple et / ou double brin chez les cellules irradiees en utilisant de nouvelles techniques plus sensibles et specifiques que celles utilisees auparavant. Pour ce faire, les essais cometes et la detection des foci H2AX phosphorylee pourraient permettre d'etablir les effets engendres par

  8. Prone Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation After Breast-Conserving Surgery: Five-year Results of 100 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Formenti, Silvia C.; Hsu, Howard; Fenton-Kerimian, Maria; Roses, Daniel; Guth, Amber; Jozsef, Gabor; Goldberg, Judith D.; DeWyngaert, J. Keith

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To report the 5-year results of a prospective trial of three-dimensional conformal external beam radiotherapy (3D-CRT) to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation in the prone position. Methods and Materials: Postmenopausal patients with Stage I breast cancer with nonpalpable tumors <2 cm, negative margins and negative nodes, positive hormone receptors, and no extensive intraductal component were eligible. The trial was offered only after eligible patients had refused to undergo standard whole-breast radiotherapy. Patients were simulated and treated on a dedicated table for prone setup. 3D-CRT was delivered at a dose of 30 Gy in five 6-Gy/day fractions over 10 days with port film verification at each treatment. Rates of ipsilateral breast failure, ipsilateral nodal failure, contralateral breast failure, and distant failure were estimated using the cumulative incidence method. Rates of disease-free, overall, and cancer-specific survival were recorded. Results: One hundred patients were enrolled in this institutional review board-approved prospective trial, one with bilateral breast cancer. One patient withdrew consent after simulation, and another patient elected to interrupt radiotherapy after receiving two treatments. Ninety-eight patients were evaluable for toxicity, and, in 1 case, both breasts were treated with partial breast irradiation. Median patient age was 68 years (range, 53-88 years); in 55% of patients the tumor size was <1 cm. All patients had hormone receptor-positive cancers: 87% of patients underwent adjuvant antihormone therapy. At a median follow-up of 64 months (range, 2-125 months), there was one local recurrence (1% ipsilateral breast failure) and one contralateral breast cancer (1% contralateral breast failure). There were no deaths due to breast cancer by 5 years. Grade 3 late toxicities occurred in 2 patients (one breast edema, one transient breast pain). Cosmesis was rated good/excellent in 89% of patients with at least 36

  9. Time Interval From Breast-Conserving Surgery to Breast Irradiation in Early Stage Node-Negative Breast Cancer: 17-Year Follow-Up Results and Patterns of Recurrence

    SciTech Connect

    Vujovic, Olga; Yu, Edward; Cherian, Anil; Dar, A. Rashid; Stitt, Larry; Perera, Francisco

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: A retrospectivechart review was conducted to determine whether the time interval from breast-conserving surgery to breast irradiation (surgery-radiation therapy interval) in early stage node-negative breast cancer had any detrimental effects on recurrence rates. Methods and Materials: There were 566 patients with T1 to T3, N0 breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery and breast irradiation and without adjuvant systemic treatment between 1985 and 1992. The surgery-to-radiation therapy intervals used for analysis were 0 to 8 weeks (201 patients), >8 to 12 weeks (233 patients), >12 to 16 weeks (91 patients), and >16 weeks (41 patients). Kaplan-Meier estimates of time to local recurrence, disease-free survival, distant disease-free survival, cause-specific survival, and overall survival rates were calculated. Results: Median follow-up was 17.4 years. Patients in all 4 time intervals were similar in terms of characteristics and pathologic features. There were no statistically significant differences among the 4 time groups in local recurrence (P=.67) or disease-free survival (P=.82). The local recurrence rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 4.9%, 11.5%, and 15.0%, respectively. The distant disease relapse rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 10.6%, 15.4%, and 18.5%, respectively. The disease-free failure rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 20%, 32.3%, and 39.8%, respectively. Cause-specific survival rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 92%, 84.6%, and 79.8%, respectively. The overall survival rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 89.3%, 79.2%, and 66.9%, respectively. Conclusions: Surgery-radiation therapy intervals up to 16 weeks from breast-conserving surgery are not associated with any increased risk of recurrence in early stage node-negative breast cancer. There is a steady local recurrence rate of 1% per year with adjuvant radiation alone.

  10. uPAR

    PubMed Central

    Uhrin, Pavel; Breuss, Johannes M.

    2013-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-initiated angiogenesis requires both coordinated proteolytic degradation of extracellular matrix provided by the urokinase plasminogen activator/urokinase receptor (uPA/uPAR) system and regulation of cell-migration provided by integrin–matrix interaction. Previously we have shown that stimulation of pericellular proteolysis induced by VEGF occurs via the VEGF receptor-2 leading to redistribution of uPAR to focal adhesions at the leading edge of endothelial cells. In our recent work published in Cardiovascular Research, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the uPAR-dependent modulation of VEGF-induced endothelial migration. By applying a micropatterning technique we described that VEGF stimulation results in complex formation between uPAR and α5β1-integrin on the cell surface. The subsequent internalization of this complex, important for receptor redistribution, was demonstrated by flow-cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Targeting of the interaction site between uPAR and α5β1 impairs receptor internalization and leads to the inhibition of endothelial cell migration in vitro and in an angiogenesis model in vivo. This proof-of-principle that the interface of uPAR and α5β1-integrin may represent a promising site to therapeutically target tumor angiogenesis raises hope for the development of an anti-angiogenic approach that is limited to only the mobilizing effect of VEGF to endothelial cells, and does not interfere with the inarguably positive effect of VEGF as survival factor. PMID:23076213

  11. THE MEASURES PAR PROJECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frouin, R. J.; Franz, B.

    2009-12-01

    The solar energy available for photosynthesis, known as PAR, controls the growth of phytoplankton and, therefore, regulates the composition and evolution of marine ecosystems. Knowing the spatial and temporal distribution of PAR over the oceans is critical to understanding biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nutrients, and oxygen, and to address important climate and global change issues such as the fate of anthropogenic atmospheric carbon dioxide. In view of this, a 12-year time series of PAR at the ocean surface, starting in September 1997, is being produced by the NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group from SeaWiFS, MODIS-Terra, and MODIS-Aqua data. The product covers the global oceans, with a spatial resolution of about 9.3x9.3 km (equal area grid) and a temporal resolution of one day. PAR is computed as the difference between the 400-700 nm solar flux incident on the top of the atmosphere (known) and reflected back to space by the atmosphere and surface (derived from satellite radiance), taking into account atmospheric absorption (modeled). Knowledge of pixel composition is not required, eliminating the need for cloud screening and arbitrary assumptions about sub-pixel cloudiness. Combining data from satellite sensors with different equatorial crossing times accounts for the diurnal variability of clouds and, therefore, increases accuracy on a daily time scale. The processing system, including routine check of accuracy and control of quality, is designed to operate during the entire lifetime of SeaWiFS and MODIS, and to accommodate future sensors with ocean-color capabilities. Maps of daily, weekly, and monthly PAR obtained from individual sensors are presented, as well as merged products. Accuracy is quantified in comparisons with other satellite estimates, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction reanalysis product, and in-situ measurements from fixed buoys and platforms. The good statistical performance makes the satellite PAR product suitable for large

  12. Par3 regulates invasion of pancreatic cancer cells via interaction with Tiam1.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xingjun; Wang, Min; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Xin; Shen, Ming; Zhu, Feng; Shi, Chengjian; Xu, Meng; Li, Xu; Peng, Feng; Zhang, Hang; Feng, Yechen; Xie, Yu; Xu, Xiaodong; Jia, Wei; He, Ruizhi; Jiang, Jianxin; Hu, Jun; Tian, Rui; Qin, Renyi

    2016-08-01

    The conserved polarity complex, which comprises partitioning-defective proteins Par3, Par6, and the atypical protein kinase C, affects various cell-polarization events, including assembly of tight junctions. Control of tight junction assembly is closely related to invasion and migration potential. However, as the importance of conserved polarity complexes in regulating pancreatic cancer invasion and metastasis is unclear, we investigated their role and mechanism in pancreatic cancers. We first detect that the key protein of the conserved polarity complex finds that only Par3 is down-regulated in pancreatic cancer tissues while Par6 and aPKC show no difference. What is more, Par3 tissues level was significantly and positively associated with patient overall survival. Knocking-down Par3 promotes pancreatic cancer cells invasion and migration. And Par3 requires interaction with Tiam1 to affect tight junction assembly, and then affect invasion and migration of pancreatic cancer cells. Then, we find that tight junction marker protein ZO-1 and claudin-1 are down-regulated in pancreatic cancer tissues. And the relationship of the expression of Par3 and ZO-1 in pancreatic cancer tissue is linear correlation. We establish liver metastasis model of human pancreatic cancer cells in Balb/c nude mice and find that knocking down Par3 promotes invasion and metastasis and disturbs tight junction assembly in vivo. Taken together, these results suggest that the Par3 regulates invasion and metastasis in pancreatic cancers by controlling tight junction assembly. PMID:26084985

  13. La pelade par plaques

    PubMed Central

    Spano, Frank; Donovan, Jeff C.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille des renseignements de base pour faire comprendre l’épidémiologie, la pathogenèse, l’histologie et l’approche clinique au diagnostic de la pelade par plaques. Sources des données Une recension a été effectuée dans PubMed pour trouver des articles pertinents concernant la pathogenèse, le diagnostic et le pronostic de la pelade par plaques. Message principal La pelade par plaques est une forme de perte pileuse auto-immune dont la prévalence durant une vie est d’environ 2 %. Des antécédents personnels ou familiaux de troubles auto-immuns concomitants, comme le vitiligo ou une maladie de la thyroïde, peuvent être observés dans un petit sous-groupe de patients. Le diagnostic peut souvent être posé de manière clinique en se fondant sur la perte de cheveux non cicatricielle et circulaire caractéristique, accompagnée de cheveux en « point d’exclamation » en périphérie chez ceux dont le problème en est aux premiers stades. Le diagnostic des cas plus complexes ou des présentations inhabituelles peut être facilité par une biopsie et un examen histologique. Le pronostic varie largement et de mauvais résultats sont associés à une apparition à un âge précoce, une perte importante, la variante ophiasis, des changements aux ongles, des antécédents familiaux ou des troubles auto-immuns concomitants. Conclusion La pelade par plaques est une forme auto-immune de perte de cheveux périodiquement observée en soins primaires. Les médecins de famille sont bien placés pour identifier la pelade par plaques, déterminer la gravité de la maladie et poser le diagnostic différentiel approprié. De plus, ils sont en mesure de renseigner leurs patients à propos de l’évolution clinique de la maladie ainsi que du pronostic général selon le sous-type de patients.

  14. La pelade par plaques

    PubMed Central

    Spano, Frank; Donovan, Jeff C.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille des renseignements de base pour faire comprendre les schémas thérapeutiques et les résultats des traitements pour la pelade par plaques, de même que les aider à identifier les patients pour qui une demande de consultation en dermatologie pourrait s’imposer. Sources des données Une recension a été effectuée dans PubMed pour trouver des articles pertinents concernant le traitement de la pelade par plaques. Message principal La pelade par plaques est une forme auto-immune de perte pileuse qui touche à la fois les enfants et les adultes. Même s’il n’y a pas de mortalité associée à la maladie, la morbidité découlant des effets psychologiques de la perte des cheveux peut être dévastatrice. Lorsque la pelade par plaques et le sous-type de la maladie sont identifiés, un schéma thérapeutique approprié peut être amorcé pour aider à arrêter la chute des cheveux et possiblement faire commencer la repousse. Les traitements de première intention sont la triamcinolone intralésionnelle avec des corticostéroïdes topiques ou du minoxidil ou les 2. Les médecins de famille peuvent prescrire ces traitements en toute sécurité et amorcer ces thérapies. Les cas plus avancés ou réfractaires pourraient avoir besoin de diphénylcyclopropénone topique ou d’anthraline topique. On peut traiter la perte de cils avec des analogues de la prostaglandine. Les personnes ayant subi une perte de cheveux abondante peuvent recourir à des options de camouflage ou à des prothèses capillaires. Il est important de surveiller les troubles psychiatriques en raison des effets psychologiques profonds de la perte de cheveux. Conclusion Les médecins de famille verront de nombreux patients qui perdent leurs cheveux. La reconnaissance de la pelade par plaques et la compréhension du processus pathologique sous-jacent permettent d’amorcer un schéma thérapeutique approprié. Les cas plus graves ou r

  15. ParB Partition Proteins: Complex Formation and Spreading at Bacterial and Plasmid Centromeres

    PubMed Central

    Funnell, Barbara E.

    2016-01-01

    In bacteria, active partition systems contribute to the faithful segregation of both chromosomes and low-copy-number plasmids. Each system depends on a site-specific DNA binding protein to recognize and assemble a partition complex at a centromere-like site, commonly called parS. Many plasmid, and all chromosomal centromere-binding proteins are dimeric helix-turn-helix DNA binding proteins, which are commonly named ParB. Although the overall sequence conservation among ParBs is not high, the proteins share similar domain and functional organization, and they assemble into similar higher-order complexes. In vivo, ParBs “spread,” that is, DNA binding extends away from the parS site into the surrounding non-specific DNA, a feature that reflects higher-order complex assembly. ParBs bridge and pair DNA at parS and non-specific DNA sites. ParB dimers interact with each other via flexible conformations of an N-terminal region. This review will focus on the properties of the HTH centromere-binding protein, in light of recent experimental evidence and models that are adding to our understanding of how these proteins assemble into large and dynamic partition complexes at and around their specific DNA sites. PMID:27622187

  16. ParB Partition Proteins: Complex Formation and Spreading at Bacterial and Plasmid Centromeres.

    PubMed

    Funnell, Barbara E

    2016-01-01

    In bacteria, active partition systems contribute to the faithful segregation of both chromosomes and low-copy-number plasmids. Each system depends on a site-specific DNA binding protein to recognize and assemble a partition complex at a centromere-like site, commonly called parS. Many plasmid, and all chromosomal centromere-binding proteins are dimeric helix-turn-helix DNA binding proteins, which are commonly named ParB. Although the overall sequence conservation among ParBs is not high, the proteins share similar domain and functional organization, and they assemble into similar higher-order complexes. In vivo, ParBs "spread," that is, DNA binding extends away from the parS site into the surrounding non-specific DNA, a feature that reflects higher-order complex assembly. ParBs bridge and pair DNA at parS and non-specific DNA sites. ParB dimers interact with each other via flexible conformations of an N-terminal region. This review will focus on the properties of the HTH centromere-binding protein, in light of recent experimental evidence and models that are adding to our understanding of how these proteins assemble into large and dynamic partition complexes at and around their specific DNA sites. PMID:27622187

  17. Model parameterization to simulate and compare the PAR absorption potential of two competing plant species

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Brenner; Roos, Kristin; Göttlicher, Dietrich Otto; Rollenbeck, Rütger; Nauß, Thomas; Beck, Erwin

    2009-01-01

    Mountain pastures dominated by the pasture grass Setaria sphacelata in the Andes of southern Ecuador are heavily infested by southern bracken (Pteridium arachnoideum), a major problem for pasture management. Field observations suggest that bracken might outcompete the grass due to its competitive strength with regard to the absorption of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). To understand the PAR absorption potential of both species, the aims of the current paper are to (1) parameterize a radiation scheme of a two-big-leaf model by deriving structural (LAI, leaf angle parameter) and optical (leaf albedo, transmittance) plant traits for average individuals from field surveys, (2) to initialize the properly parameterized radiation scheme with realistic global irradiation conditions of the Rio San Francisco Valley in the Andes of southern Ecuador, and (3) to compare the PAR absorption capabilities of both species under typical local weather conditions. Field data show that bracken reveals a slightly higher average leaf area index (LAI) and more horizontally oriented leaves in comparison to Setaria. Spectrometer measurements reveal that bracken and Setaria are characterized by a similar average leaf absorptance. Simulations with the average diurnal course of incoming solar radiation (1998–2005) and the mean leaf–sun geometry reveal that PAR absorption is fairly equal for both species. However, the comparison of typical clear and overcast days show that two parameters, (1) the relation of incoming diffuse and direct irradiance, and (2) the leaf–sun geometry play a major role for PAR absorption in the two-big-leaf approach: Under cloudy sky conditions (mainly diffuse irradiance), PAR absorption is slightly higher for Setaria while under clear sky conditions (mainly direct irradiance), the average bracken individual is characterized by a higher PAR absorption potential. (∼74 MJ m−2 year−1). The latter situation which occurs if the maximum daily

  18. Model parameterization to simulate and compare the PAR absorption potential of two competing plant species.

    PubMed

    Bendix, Jörg; Silva, Brenner; Roos, Kristin; Göttlicher, Dietrich Otto; Rollenbeck, Rütger; Nauss, Thomas; Beck, Erwin

    2010-05-01

    Mountain pastures dominated by the pasture grass Setaria sphacelata in the Andes of southern Ecuador are heavily infested by southern bracken (Pteridium arachnoideum), a major problem for pasture management. Field observations suggest that bracken might outcompete the grass due to its competitive strength with regard to the absorption of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). To understand the PAR absorption potential of both species, the aims of the current paper are to (1) parameterize a radiation scheme of a two-big-leaf model by deriving structural (LAI, leaf angle parameter) and optical (leaf albedo, transmittance) plant traits for average individuals from field surveys, (2) to initialize the properly parameterized radiation scheme with realistic global irradiation conditions of the Rio San Francisco Valley in the Andes of southern Ecuador, and (3) to compare the PAR absorption capabilities of both species under typical local weather conditions. Field data show that bracken reveals a slightly higher average leaf area index (LAI) and more horizontally oriented leaves in comparison to Setaria. Spectrometer measurements reveal that bracken and Setaria are characterized by a similar average leaf absorptance. Simulations with the average diurnal course of incoming solar radiation (1998-2005) and the mean leaf-sun geometry reveal that PAR absorption is fairly equal for both species. However, the comparison of typical clear and overcast days show that two parameters, (1) the relation of incoming diffuse and direct irradiance, and (2) the leaf-sun geometry play a major role for PAR absorption in the two-big-leaf approach: Under cloudy sky conditions (mainly diffuse irradiance), PAR absorption is slightly higher for Setaria while under clear sky conditions (mainly direct irradiance), the average bracken individual is characterized by a higher PAR absorption potential. (approximately 74 MJ m(-2) year(-1)). The latter situation which occurs if the maximum daily

  19. PAR-1 phosphorylates Mind bomb to promote vertebrate neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ossipova, Olga; Ezan, Jerome; Sokol, Sergei Y.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Generation of neurons in the vertebrate central nervous system requires complex transcriptional regulatory network and signaling processes in polarized neuroepithelial progenitor cells. Here we demonstrate that neurogenesis in the Xenopus neural plate in vivo and mammalian neural progenitors in vitro involves intrinsic antagonistic activities of the polarity proteins PAR-1 and aPKC. Furthermore, we show that Mind bomb (Mib), a ubiquitin ligase that promotes Notch ligand trafficking and activity, is a crucial molecular substrate for PAR-1. The phosphorylation of Mib by PAR-1 results in Mib degradation, repression of Notch signaling and stimulation of neuronal differentiation. These observations suggest a conserved mechanism for neuronal fate determination that might operate during asymmetric divisions of polarized neural progenitor cells. PMID:19686683

  20. Protease-activated receptor (PAR)1, PAR2 and PAR4 expressions in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    LI, Si-Man; JIANG, Ping; XIANG, Yang; WANG, Wei-Wei; ZHU, Yue-Chun; FENG, Wei-Yang; LI, Shu-De; YU, Guo-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Here, we used reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and western blot to detect protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1, PAR 2 and PAR 4 expression in cancer tissues and cell lines of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and investigated the co-relationship between PAR expression and clinic-pathological data for esophageal cancer. The methylation of PAR4 gene promoter involved in esophageal carcinoma was also analyzed. By comparing the mRNA expressions of normal esophageal tissue and human esophageal epithelial cells (HEEpiC), we found that among the 28 cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, PAR1 (60%) and PAR2 (71%) were elevated in 17 and 20 cases, respectively, and PAR4 (68%) expression was lowered in 19 cases. Whereas, in human esophageal squamous cells (TE-1 and TE-10), PAR1 and PAR2 expression was increased but PAR4 was decreased. Combined with clinical data, the expression of PAR1 in poorly differentiated (P=0.016) and middle and lower parts of the esophagus (P=0.016) was higher; expression of PAR4 in poorly differentiated carcinoma was lower (P=0.049). Regarding TE-1 and TE-10 protein expression, we found that in randomized esophageal carcinoma, PAR1 (P=0.027) and PAR2 (P=0.039) expressions were increased, but lowered for PAR4 (P=0.0001). In HEEpiC, TE-1, TE-10, esophageal and normal esophagus tissue samples (case No. 7), the frequency of methylation at the 19 CpG loci of PAR4 was 35.4%, 95.2%, 83.8%, 62.6% and 48.2%, respectively. Our results indicate that the expression of PAR1 and PAR2 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is increased but PAR4 is decreased. Hypermethylation of the promoter of the PAR4 gene may contribute to reduced expression of PAR4 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25297082

  1. The 14-3-3 protein PAR-5 regulates the asymmetric localization of the LET-99 spindle positioning protein.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jui-Ching; Espiritu, Eugenel B; Rose, Lesilee S

    2016-04-15

    PAR proteins play important roles in establishing cytoplasmic polarity as well as regulating spindle positioning during asymmetric division. However, the molecular mechanisms by which the PAR proteins generate asymmetry in different cell types are still being elucidated. Previous studies in Caenorhabditis elegans revealed that PAR-3 and PAR-1 regulate the asymmetric localization of LET-99, which in turn controls spindle positioning by affecting the distribution of the conserved force generating complex. In wild-type embryos, LET-99 is localized in a lateral cortical band pattern, via inhibition at the anterior by PAR-3 and at the posterior by PAR-1. In this report, we show that the 14-3-3 protein PAR-5 is also required for cortical LET-99 asymmetry. PAR-5 associated with LET-99 in pull-down assays, and two PAR-5 binding sites were identified in LET-99 using the yeast two-hybrid assay. Mutation of these sites abolished binding in yeast and altered LET-99 localization in vivo: LET-99 was present at the highest levels at the posterior pole of the embryo instead of a band in par-5 embryos. Together the results indicate that PAR-5 acts in a mechanism with PAR-1 to regulate LET-99 cortical localization. PMID:26921457

  2. Par Pond vegetation status 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1996-12-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995, and into the early spring and late summer of 1996. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities continue to become re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, watershield, and Pontederia are extensive and well developed. Measures of percent cover, width of beds, and estimates of area of coverage with satellite data indicate regrowth within two years of from 40 to 60% of levels prior to the draw down. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer of 1996, especially in the former warm arm of Par Pond, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the draw down still have not formed. Lotus has invaded and occupies many of the areas formerly dominated by cattail beds. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys through the summer and early fall of 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  3. Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation: 5-Year Results of the German-Austrian Multicenter Phase II Trial Using Interstitial Multicatheter Brachytherapy Alone After Breast-Conserving Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Strnad, Vratislav; Hildebrandt, Guido; Poetter, Richard; Hammer, Josef; Hindemith, Marion; Resch, Alexandra; Spiegl, Kurt; Lotter, Michael; Uter, Wolfgang; Bani, Mayada; Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Fietkau, Rainer; Ott, Oliver J.

    2011-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of accelerated partial breast irradiation on local control, side effects, and cosmesis using multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy as the sole method for the adjuvant local treatment of patients with low-risk breast cancer. Methods and Materials: 274 patients with low-risk breast cancer were treated on protocol. Patients were eligible for the study if the tumor size was < 3 cm, resection margins were clear by at least 2 mm, no lymph node metastases existed, age was >35 years, hormone receptors were positive, and histologic grades were 1 or 2. Of the 274 patients, 175 (64%) received pulse-dose-rate brachytherapy (D{sub ref} = 50 Gy). and 99 (36%) received high-dose-rate brachytherapy (D{sub ref} = 32.0 Gy). Results: Median follow-up was 63 months (range, 9-103). Only 8 of 274 (2.9%) patients developed an ipsilateral in-breast tumor recurrence at the time of analysis. The 5-year actuarial local recurrence-free survival probability was 98%. The 5- year overall and disease-free survival probabilities of all patients were 97% and 96%, respectively. Contralateral in-breast malignancies were detected in 2 of 274 (0.7%) patients, and distant metastases occurred in 6 of 274 (2.2%). Late side effects {>=}Grade 3 (i.e., breast tissue fibrosis and telangiectasia) occurred in 1 patient (0.4%, 95%CI:0.0-2.0%) and 6 patients (2.2%, 95%CI:0.8-4.7%), respectively. Cosmetic results were good to excellent in 245 of 274 patients (90%). Conclusions: The long-term results of this prospective Phase II trial confirm that the efficacy of accelerated partial breast irradiation using multicatheter brachytherapy is comparable with that of whole breast irradiation and that late side effects are negligible.

  4. Immunopathogenic Background of Pars Planitis.

    PubMed

    Przeździecka-Dołyk, Joanna; Węgrzyn, Agnieszka; Turno-Kręcicka, Anna; Misiuk-Hojło, Marta

    2016-04-01

    Pars planitis is defined as an intermediate uveitis of unknown background of systemic disease with characteristic formations such as vitreous snowballs, snowbanks and changes in peripheral retina. The incidence of pars planitis varies 2.4-15.4 % of the uveitis patients. The pathogenesis of the disease is to be determined in future. Clinical and histopathological findings suggest an autoimmune etiology, most likely as a reaction to endogenous antigen of unknown source, with T cells predominant in both vitreous and pars plana infiltrations. T cells subsets play an important role as a memory-effector peripheral cell. Snowbanks are formed as an effect of post inflammatory glial proliferation of fibrous astrocytes. There is also a genetic predisposition for pars planitis by human leukocyte antigen and several other genes. A coexistence of multiple sclerosis and optic neuritis has been described in numerous studies. Epiretinal membrane, cataract, cystoid macular edema, retinal detachment, retinal vasculitis, neovascularization, vitreous peripheral traction, peripheral hole formation, vitreous hemorrhage, disc edema are common complications observed in pars planitis. There is a need to expand the knowledge of the pathogenic and immunologic background of the pars planitis to create an accurate pharmacological treatment. PMID:26438050

  5. Results of a conservative treatment combining induction (neoadjuvant) and consolidation chemotherapy, hormonotherapy, and external and interstitial irradiation in 98 patients with locally advanced breast cancer (IIIA-IIIB)

    SciTech Connect

    Jacquillat, C.; Baillet, F.; Weil, M.; Auclerc, G.; Housset, M.; Auclerc, M.; Sellami, M.; Jindani, A.; Thill, L.; Soubrane, C.

    1988-05-15

    Ninety-eight patients with locally advanced breast cancer (Stage IIIA-IIIB) were entered into a pilot study combining intensive induction (neoadjuvant) chemotherapy (VTMFAP) with or without hormonochemotherapy, external and interstitial radiotherapy, and consolidation chemotherapy with or without hormonochemotherapy. Tumor regression over 50% was observed in 91% patients after chemotherapy, and complete clinical remission occurred in 100% patients after irradiation. The rate of local relapse is 13%. The 3-year disease-free survival is 62% and 3-year global survival is 77%. Initial chemotherapeutic tumor regression greater than 75% is the main predictive factor for disease-free survival.

  6. Exploration of locomotion in the ParA/ParB system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindal, Lavisha; Emberly, Eldon

    2015-03-01

    In many bacteria the ParA/ParB system is responsible for actively segregating DNA during replication. ParB precessively moves by hydrolyzing DNA bound ParA-ATP forming a depleted ParA region in its wake. Recent in-vitro experiments have shown that a ParB covered bead can traverse a ParA bound DNA substrate. It has been suggested that the formation of a gradient in ParA leads to diffusion-ratchet like motion of the ParB bead but its origin and potential consequences requires investigation. We have developed a deterministic model for the in-vitro ParA/ParB system and show that any amount of spatial noise in ParA can lead to the spontaneous formation of its gradient. The velocity of the bead is independent of this noise but depends on the scale over which ParA exerts a force on the bead and the scale over which ParB hydrolyzes ParA from the substrate. There is a particular ratio of these scales at which the velocity is a maximum. We also explore the effects of cooperative vs independent rebinding of ParA to the substrate. Our model shows how the driving force for ParB originates and highlights necessary conditions for directed motion in the in-vitro system that may provide insight into the in-vivo behaviour of the ParA/ParB system.

  7. Evidence for a DNA-relay mechanism in ParABS-mediated chromosome segregation

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hoong Chuin; Surovtsev, Ivan Vladimirovich; Beltran, Bruno Gabriel; Huang, Fang; Bewersdorf, Jörg; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The widely conserved ParABS system plays a major role in bacterial chromosome segregation. How the components of this system work together to generate translocation force and directional motion remains uncertain. Here, we combine biochemical approaches, quantitative imaging and mathematical modeling to examine the mechanism by which ParA drives the translocation of the ParB/parS partition complex in Caulobacter crescentus. Our experiments, together with simulations grounded on experimentally-determined biochemical and cellular parameters, suggest a novel 'DNA-relay' mechanism in which the chromosome plays a mechanical function. In this model, DNA-bound ParA-ATP dimers serve as transient tethers that harness the elastic dynamics of the chromosome to relay the partition complex from one DNA region to another across a ParA-ATP dimer gradient. Since ParA-like proteins are implicated in the partitioning of various cytoplasmic cargos, the conservation of their DNA-binding activity suggests that the DNA-relay mechanism may be a general form of intracellular transport in bacteria. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02758.001 PMID:24859756

  8. Breast conserving therapy with accelerated partial breast versus external beam whole breast irradiation: comparison of imaging sequela and complications in a matched population.

    PubMed

    Monticciolo, Debra L; Biggs, Kelly; Gist, Ashley K; Sincleair, Spencer T; Hajdik, Rodney L; Nipper, Michael L; Schnitker, James B

    2011-01-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate and compare the imaging sequela and complications of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) with those occurring in patients treated with standard external beam therapy. Patient selection included those who met the criteria for possible ABPI: age 45 or older; cancer stage T1N0M0 or ductal carcinoma in situ 3 cm or less, and negative surgical margins. One hundred and ninety seven had complete records and films available for review. Ninety-seven (49%) were treated with APBI (MammoSite) and 100(51%) were treated with external beam. Image findings for APBI versus external beam were: distortion 90(93%) versus 83(83%), seroma 67(69%) versus 7(7%), skin edema 52(54%) versus 47(47%), increased stroma 75(77%) versus 66(66%), calcifications 10(10%) versus 6(6%), and fat necrosis 12(12%) versus 6(6%). For APBI, skin and stromal edema was more commonly focal. At imaging, the seroma rate was statistically and significantly different between the two treatment modes (p < 0.0001). For patients treated with APBI, seroma formation was not related to balloon size and only weakly related to lumpectomy cavity size. The complication rate was significantly higher for those treated with APBI (36 versus 20%) and the types and treatment of complications differed. There were three recurrences among the APBI group and none among those treated with external beam radiation. PMID:21306469

  9. [Physiology of protease-activated receptors (PARs): involvement of PARs in digestive functions].

    PubMed

    Kawabata, A; Kuroda, R; Hollenberg, M D

    1999-10-01

    The protease-activated receptor (PAR), a G protein-coupled receptor present on cell surface, mediates cellular actions of extracellular proteases. Proteases cleave the extracellular N-terminal of PAR molecules at a specific site, unmasking and exposing a novel N-terminal, a tethered ligand, that binds to the body of receptor molecules resulting in receptor activation. Amongst four distinct PARs that have been cloned, PARs 1, 3 and 4 are activated by thrombin, but PAR-2 is activated by trypsin or mast cell tryptase. Human platelets express two distinct thrombin receptors, PAR-1 and PAR-4, while murine platelets express PAR-3 and PAR-4. Apart from roles of PARs in platelet activation, PARs are distributed to a number of organs in various species, predicting their physiological importance. We have been evaluating agonists specific for each PAR, using multiple procedures including a HEK cell calcium signal receptor desensitization assay. Using specific agonists that we developed, we found the following: 1) the salivary glands express PAR-2 mRNA and secret saliva in response to PAR-2 activation; 2) pancreatic juice secretion occurs following in vivo PAR-2 activation; 3) PAR-1 and PAR-2 modulate duodenal motility. Collectively, PAR plays various physiological and/or pathophysiological roles, especially in the digestive systems, and could be a novel target for drug development. PMID:10629876

  10. Collections Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCandido, Robert

    Collections conservation is an approach to the preservation treatment of books and book-like materials that is conceptualized and organized in terms of large groups of materials. This guide is intended to enable a library to evaluate its current collections conservation activities. The introduction describes collections conservation and gives…

  11. A cost comparison analysis of partial versus whole-breast irradiation after breast-conserving surgery for early-stage breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, W. . E-mail: wsuh@lroc.harvard.edu; Pierce, Lori J.; Vicini, Frank A.; Hayman, James A.

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: To assess, if and for whom, there are cost savings associated with alternate breast radiotherapy (RT) techniques when compared with the conventional external beam-based whole-breast RT with a boost (WBRT-B). Methods and Materials: Treatment planning and delivery utilization data were modeled for eight different breast RT techniques: (1) WBRT-B: 60 Gy in 30 fractions; (2) WBRT: 50 Gy in 25 fractions; (3) WBRT-accelerated (AC): 42.5 Gy in 16 fractions; (4) WBRT-intensity-modulated RT (IMRT): 60 Gy in 30 fractions; (5) accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI)-IC, MammoSite: 34 Gy in 10 twice-daily fractions; (6) APBI-IT, HDR interstitial: 34 Gy in 10 twice-daily fractions; (7) APBI three-dimensional conformal RT (3D-CRT): 38.5 Gy in 10 twice-daily fractions; or (8) APBI-IMRT: 38.5 Gy in 10 twice-daily fractions. Costs incurred by payer (i.e., direct medical costs; 2003 Medicare Fee Schedule) and patient (i.e., direct nonmedical costs; time and travel) were estimated. Total societal costs were then calculated for each treatment approach. Results: Not all efforts to reduce overall treatment time result in total cost savings. The least expensive partial breast-based RT approaches were the external beam techniques (APBI-3D-CRT, APBI-IMRT). Any reduced cost to patients for the HDR brachytherapy-based APBI regimens were overshadowed by substantial increases in cost to payers, resulting in higher total societal costs; the cost of HDR treatment delivery was primarily responsible for the increased direct medical cost. For the whole breast-based RT approaches, treating without a boost (WBRT) or with WBRT-AC reduced total costs. Overall, WBRT-AC was the least costly of all the regimens, in terms of costs to society; APBI approaches, in general, were favored over whole-breast techniques when only considering costs to patients. Conclusions: Based on societal cost considerations, WBRT-AC appears to be the preferred approach. If one were to pursue a partial-breast RT

  12. Simultaneous Integrated Boost Irradiation After Breast-Conserving Surgery: Physician-Rated Toxicity and Cosmetic Outcome at 30 Months' Follow-Up

    SciTech Connect

    Bantema-Joppe, Enja J.; Schilstra, Cornelis; Bock, Geertruida H. de; Dolsma, Wil V.; Busz, Dianne M.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Maduro, John H.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate toxicity and cosmetic outcome (CO) in breast cancer survivors treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy with a hypofractionated, simultaneous integrated boost (3D-CRT-SIB) and to identify risk factors for toxicity, with special focus on the impact of age. Methods and Materials: Included were 940 consecutive disease-free patients treated for breast cancer (Stage 0-III) with 3D-CRT-SIB, after breast-conserving surgery, from 2005 to 2010. Physician-rated toxicity (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0) and CO were prospectively assessed during yearly follow-up, up to 5 years after radiotherapy. Multivariate logistic regression analyses using a bootstrapping method were performed. Results: At 3 years, toxicity scores of 436 patients were available. Grade {>=}2 fibrosis in the boost area was observed in 8.5%, non-boost fibrosis in 49.4%, pain to the chest wall in 6.7%, and fair/poor CO in 39.7% of cases. Radiotherapy before chemotherapy was significantly associated with grade {>=}2 boost fibrosis at 3 years (odds ratio [OR] 2.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-6.0). Non-boost fibrosis was associated with re-resection (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.0) and larger tumors (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.1). At 1 year, chest wall pain was significantly associated with high boost dosage (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.7) and younger age (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.7). A fair/poor CO was observed more often after re-resection (OR 4.5, 95% CI 2.4-8.5), after regional radiotherapy (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.2-7.1), and in larger tumors (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.1). Conclusions: Toxicity and CO are not impaired after 3D-CRT-SIB. Fibrosis was not significantly associated with radiotherapy parameters. Independent risk factors for fibrosis were chemotherapy after radiotherapy, re-resection, and larger tumor size. Re-resection was most predictive for worse CO. Age had an impact on chest wall pain occurrence.

  13. Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.

    1996-06-01

    The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond.

  14. Directed and persistent movement arises from mechanochemistry of the ParA/ParB system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Longhua; Vecchiarelli, Anthony G.; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi; Neuman, Keir C.; Liu, Jian

    The segregation of DNA prior to cell division is essential for faithful genetic inheritance. In many bacteria, segregation of the low-copy-number plasmids involves an active partition system composed of ParA ATPase and its stimulator protein ParB. Recent experiments suggest that ParA/ParB system motility is driven by a diffusion-ratchet mechanism in which ParB-coated plasmid both creates and follows a ParA gradient on the nucleoid surface. However, the detailed mechanism of ParA/ParB-mediated directed and persistent movement remains unknown. We develop a theoretical model describing ParA/ParB-mediated motility. We show that the ParA/ParB system can work as a Brownian ratchet, which effectively couples the ATPase-dependent cycling of ParA-nucleoid affinity to the motion of the ParB bound cargo. Paradoxically, the resulting processive motion relies on quenching diffusive plasmid motion through a large number of transient ParA/ParB-mediated tethers to the nucleoid surface. Our work sheds light on a new emergent phenomenon in which non-motor proteins work collectively via mechanochemical coupling to propel cargos -- an ingenious solution shaped by evolution to cope with the lack of processive motor proteins in bacteria.

  15. The ParB-parS Chromosome Segregation System Modulates Competence Development in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Attaiech, Laetitia; Minnen, Anita; Kjos, Morten; Gruber, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT ParB proteins bind centromere-like DNA sequences called parS sites and are involved in plasmid and chromosome segregation in bacteria. We previously showed that the opportunistic human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae contains four parS sequences located close to the origin of replication which are bound by ParB. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), we found here that ParB spreads out from one of these parS sites, parS(−1.6°), for more than 5 kb and occupies the nearby comCDE operon, which drives competence development. Competence allows S. pneumoniae to take up DNA from its environment, thereby mediating horizontal gene transfer, and is also employed as a general stress response. Mutating parS(−1.6°) or deleting parB resulted in transcriptional up-regulation of comCDE and ssbB (a gene belonging to the competence regulon), demonstrating that ParB acts as a repressor of competence. However, genome-wide transcription analysis showed that ParB is not a global transcriptional regulator. Different factors, such as the composition of the growth medium and antibiotic-induced stress, can trigger the sensitive switch driving competence. This work shows that the ParB-parS chromosome segregation machinery also influences this developmental process. PMID:26126852

  16. Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit (ParCAT)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-06-30

    The parallel analysis toolkit (ParCAT) provides parallel statistical processing of large climate model simulation datasets. ParCAT provides parallel point-wise average calculations, frequency distributions, sum/differences of two datasets, and difference-of-average and average-of-difference for two datasets for arbitrary subsets of simulation time. ParCAT is a command-line utility that can be easily integrated in scripts or embedded in other application. ParCAT supports CMIP5 post-processed datasets as well as non-CMIP5 post-processed datasets. ParCAT reads and writes standard netCDF files.

  17. Directed and persistent movement arises from mechanochemistry of the ParA/ParB system.

    PubMed

    Hu, Longhua; Vecchiarelli, Anthony G; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi; Neuman, Keir C; Liu, Jian

    2015-12-22

    The segregation of DNA before cell division is essential for faithful genetic inheritance. In many bacteria, segregation of low-copy number plasmids involves an active partition system composed of a nonspecific DNA-binding ATPase, ParA, and its stimulator protein ParB. The ParA/ParB system drives directed and persistent movement of DNA cargo both in vivo and in vitro. Filament-based models akin to actin/microtubule-driven motility were proposed for plasmid segregation mediated by ParA. Recent experiments challenge this view and suggest that ParA/ParB system motility is driven by a diffusion ratchet mechanism in which ParB-coated plasmid both creates and follows a ParA gradient on the nucleoid surface. However, the detailed mechanism of ParA/ParB-mediated directed and persistent movement remains unknown. Here, we develop a theoretical model describing ParA/ParB-mediated motility. We show that the ParA/ParB system can work as a Brownian ratchet, which effectively couples the ATPase-dependent cycling of ParA-nucleoid affinity to the motion of the ParB-bound cargo. Paradoxically, this resulting processive motion relies on quenching diffusive plasmid motion through a large number of transient ParA/ParB-mediated tethers to the nucleoid surface. Our work thus sheds light on an emergent phenomenon in which nonmotor proteins work collectively via mechanochemical coupling to propel cargos-an ingenious solution shaped by evolution to cope with the lack of processive motor proteins in bacteria. PMID:26647183

  18. Directed and persistent movement arises from mechanochemistry of the ParA/ParB system

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Longhua; Vecchiarelli, Anthony G.; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi; Neuman, Keir C.; Liu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The segregation of DNA before cell division is essential for faithful genetic inheritance. In many bacteria, segregation of low-copy number plasmids involves an active partition system composed of a nonspecific DNA-binding ATPase, ParA, and its stimulator protein ParB. The ParA/ParB system drives directed and persistent movement of DNA cargo both in vivo and in vitro. Filament-based models akin to actin/microtubule-driven motility were proposed for plasmid segregation mediated by ParA. Recent experiments challenge this view and suggest that ParA/ParB system motility is driven by a diffusion ratchet mechanism in which ParB-coated plasmid both creates and follows a ParA gradient on the nucleoid surface. However, the detailed mechanism of ParA/ParB-mediated directed and persistent movement remains unknown. Here, we develop a theoretical model describing ParA/ParB-mediated motility. We show that the ParA/ParB system can work as a Brownian ratchet, which effectively couples the ATPase-dependent cycling of ParA–nucleoid affinity to the motion of the ParB-bound cargo. Paradoxically, this resulting processive motion relies on quenching diffusive plasmid motion through a large number of transient ParA/ParB-mediated tethers to the nucleoid surface. Our work thus sheds light on an emergent phenomenon in which nonmotor proteins work collectively via mechanochemical coupling to propel cargos—an ingenious solution shaped by evolution to cope with the lack of processive motor proteins in bacteria. PMID:26647183

  19. Small-arc volumetric-modulated arc therapy: A new approach that is superior to fixed-field IMRT in optimizing dosimetric and treatment-relevant parameters for patients undergoing whole-breast irradiation following breast-conserving surgery.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; Hu, Tao; Chen, Yeshan

    2016-08-01

    Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is considered to deliver a better dose distribution and to shorten treatment time. There is a lack of research regarding breast irradiation after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) using VMAT with prone positioning. We developed a new small-arc VMAT methodology and compared it to conventional (fixed-field) intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in the dosimetric and treatment relevant parameters for breast cancer patients in the prone position.Ten early-stage breast cancer patients were included in this exploratory study. All patients underwent computed tomography (CT) simulation scan in the prone position and for each patient, IMRT and VMAT plans were generated using the Monaco planning system. Two symmetrical partial arcs were applied in the VMAT plans. The angle ranges of the 2 arcs were set to approximately 60° to 100° and 220° to 260°, with small adjustments to maximize target coverage, while minimizing lung and heart exposure. The IMRT plans used 4 fixed fields. Prescribed doses were 50 Gy in 25 fractions. The target coverage, homogeneity, conformity, dose to organs at risk (OAR), treatment time, and monitor units (MU) were evaluated.Higher median conformal index (CI) and lower homogeneity index (HI) of the planning target volume (PTV) were respectively observed in VMAT and plans group (CI, 95% vs 91%; HI, 0.09 vs 0.12; P < 0.001). The volumes of ipsilateral lung receiving 30, 20, 10, and 5 Gy were lower for VMAT (P < 0.01), being 10%, 14.9%, 25.9%, and 44.9%, respectively, compared to 11.79%, 17.32%, 30.27%, and 50.58% for the IMRT plans. The mean lung dose was also reduced from 10.6 ± 1.8 to 9.6 ± 1.4 Gy (P = 0.001). The volumes of the heart receiving 30 and 40 Gy were similar for the 2 methods. In addition, the median treatment time (161 vs 412 seconds; P < 0.001) and the mean MU (713 vs 878; P < 0.001) were lower for VMAT.Small-arc VMAT plan improved CI and HI for the

  20. Role of PAR-4 in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Meynier, Sonia; Kramer, Marianne; Ribaux, Pascale; Tille, Jean-Christophe; Delie, Florence; Petignat, Patrick; Cohen, Marie

    2015-09-01

    Prostate apoptosis response-4 (PAR-4) is considered as a tumour suppressor due to its ability to selectively induce cell apoptosis in most cancer cells. However little is known about the role of PAR-4 in ovarian cancer. In this study, we investigated for the first time the role of PAR-4 in ovarian carcinogenesis. We showed that PAR-4 mRNA level is not significantly different between healthy and cancer ovarian cells. Immunohistochemistry on ovarian tissue showed that ovarian cancer cells are positive for PAR-4 nuclear and cytoplasmic staining whereas ovarian healthy cells are negative for PAR-4 nuclear staining. We then studied the role of PAR-4 in cell apoptosis. We determined that PAR-4 induces cell apoptosis in response to stimuli, in vitro, but is also involved in the relocation of GRP78 from endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface of ovarian cancer cell line (SKOV-3 cells). In ovo, PAR-4 decreases ovarian tumour development and increases the response to taxol treatment. These observations suggest that PAR-4 is a very interesting therapeutic target against ovarian carcinogenesis. PMID:26246468

  1. Role of PAR-4 in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Meynier, Sonia; Kramer, Marianne; Ribaux, Pascale; Tille, Jean-Christophe; Delie, Florence; Petignat, Patrick; Cohen, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Prostate apoptosis response-4 (PAR-4) is considered as a tumour suppressor due to its ability to selectively induce cell apoptosis in most cancer cells. However little is known about the role of PAR-4 in ovarian cancer. In this study, we investigated for the first time the role of PAR-4 in ovarian carcinogenesis. We showed that PAR-4 mRNA level is not significantly different between healthy and cancer ovarian cells. Immunohistochemistry on ovarian tissue showed that ovarian cancer cells are positive for PAR-4 nuclear and cytoplasmic staining whereas ovarian healthy cells are negative for PAR-4 nuclear staining. We then studied the role of PAR-4 in cell apoptosis. We determined that PAR-4 induces cell apoptosis in response to stimuli, in vitro, but is also involved in the relocation of GRP78 from endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface of ovarian cancer cell line (SKOV-3 cells). In ovo, PAR-4 decreases ovarian tumour development and increases the response to taxol treatment. These observations suggest that PAR-4 is a very interesting therapeutic target against ovarian carcinogenesis. PMID:26246468

  2. Objective and Longitudinal Assessment of Dermatitis After Postoperative Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using High-Dose-Rate Interstitial Brachytherapy in Patients With Breast Cancer Treated With Breast Conserving Therapy: Reduction of Moisture Deterioration by APBI

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Eiichi; Yamazaki, Hideya; Yoshida, Ken; Takenaka, Tadashi; Masuda, Norikazu; Kotsuma, Tadayuki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Inoue, Takehiro

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To objectively evaluate the radiation dermatitis caused by accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy. Patients and Methods: The skin color and moisture changes were examined using a newly installed spectrophotometer and corneometer in 22 patients who had undergone APBI using open cavity implant high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (36 Gy in six fractions) and compared with the corresponding values for 44 patients in an external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) control group (50-60 Gy in 25-30 fractions within 5-6 weeks) after breast conserving surgery. Results: All values changed significantly as a result of APBI. The extent of elevation in a Asterisk-Operator (reddish) and reduction in L Asterisk-Operator (black) values caused by APBI were similar to those for EBRT, with slightly delayed recovery for 6-12 months after treatment owing to the surgical procedure. In contrast, only APBI caused a change in the b Asterisk-Operator values, and EBRT did not, demonstrating that the reduction in b Asterisk-Operator values (yellowish) depends largely on the surgical procedure. The changes in moisture were less severe after APBI than after EBRT, and the recovery was more rapid. The toxicity assessment using the Common Toxicity Criteria, version 3, showed that all dermatitis caused by APBI was Grade 2 or less. Conclusion: An objective analysis can quantify the effects of APBI procedures on color and moisture cosmesis. The radiation dermatitis caused by APBI using the present schedule showed an equivalent effect on skin color and a less severe effect on moisture than the effects caused by standard EBRT.

  3. Evaluation of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the p53 Binding Protein 1 (TP53BP1) Gene in Breast Cancer Patients Treated With Breast-Conserving Surgery and Whole-Breast Irradiation (BCS + RT)

    SciTech Connect

    Haffty, Bruce G.; Goyal, Sharad; Kulkarni, Diptee; Green, Camille; Vazquez, Alexi; Schiff, Devora; Moran, Meena S.; Yang Qifeng; Ganesan, Shridar; Hirsfield, Kim M.

    2011-06-01

    Purpose: TP53BP1 is a key component of radiation-induced deoxyribonucleic acid damage repair. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the significance of a known common single nucleotide polymorphism in this gene (rs560191) in patients treated with breast-conserving surgery and whole-breast irradiation (BCS + RT). Methods and Materials: The population consisted of 176 premenopausal women treated with BCS + RT (median follow-up, 12 years). Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid was processed by use of TaqMan assays. Each allele for rs560191 was either C or G, so each patient was therefore classified as CC, CG, or GG. Patients were grouped as GG if they were homozygous for the variant G allele or CC-CG if they carried at least one copy of the common C allele (CC or CG). Results: Of the 176 women, 124 (71%) were CC-CG and 52 (29%) were GG. The mean age was 44 years for GG vs. 38 years for CC-CG (p < 0.001). GG was more common in African-American women than white women (69% vs. 13%, p < 0.001) and more commonly estrogen receptor negative (70% vs. 49%, p = 0.02). There were no significant correlations of rs560191 with other critical variables. Despite the fact that GG patients were older, the 10-year rate of local relapses was higher (22% for GG vs. 12% for CC-CG, p = 0.04). Conclusions: This novel avenue of investigation of polymorphisms in radiation repair/response genes in patients treated with BCS + RT suggests a correlation to local relapse. Additional evaluation is needed to assess the biological and functional significance of these single nucleotide polymorphisms, and larger confirmatory validation studies will be required to determine the clinical implications.

  4. Interim Cosmetic Results and Toxicity Using 3D Conformal External Beam Radiotherapy to Deliver Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation in Patients With Early-Stage Breast Cancer Treated With Breast-Conserving Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Vicini, Frank A. Chen, Peter; Wallace, Michelle; Mitchell, Christina; Hasan, Yasmin; Grills, Inga; Kestin, Larry; Schell, Scott; Goldstein, Neal S.; Kunzman, Jonathan; Gilbert, Sam; Martinez, Alvaro

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: We present our ongoing clinical experience utilizing three-dimensional (3D)-conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) to deliver accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) in patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy. Methods and Materials: Ninety-one consecutive patients were treated with APBI using our previously reported 3D-CRT technique. The clinical target volume consisted of the lumpectomy cavity plus a 10- to 15 -mm margin. The prescribed dose was 34 or 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions given over 5 consecutive days. The median follow-up was 24 months. Twelve patients have been followed for {>=}4 years, 20 for {>=}3.5 years, 29 for >3.0 years, 33 for {>=}2.5 years, and 46 for {>=}2.0 years. Results: No local recurrences developed. Cosmetic results were rated as good/excellent in 100% of evaluable patients at {>=} 6 months (n = 47), 93% at 1 year (n = 43), 91% at 2 years (n = 21), and in 90% at {>=}3 years (n = 10). Erythema, hyperpigmentation, breast edema, breast pain, telangiectasias, fibrosis, and fat necrosis were evaluated at 6, 24, and 36 months after treatment. All factors stabilized by 3 years posttreatment with grade I or II rates of 0%, 0%, 0%, 0%, 9%, 18%, and 9%, respectively. Only 2 patients (3%) developed grade III toxicity (breast pain), which resolved with time. Conclusions: Delivery of APBI with 3D-CRT resulted in minimal chronic ({>=}6 months) toxicity to date with good/excellent cosmetic results. Additional follow-up is needed to assess the long-term efficacy of this form of APBI.

  5. Pars triangularis asymmetry and language dominance.

    PubMed Central

    Foundas, A L; Leonard, C M; Gilmore, R L; Fennell, E B; Heilman, K M

    1996-01-01

    The pars triangular is a portion of Broca's area. The convolutions that form the inferior and caudal extent of the pars triangularis include the anterior horizontal and anterior ascending rami of the sylvian fissure, respectively. To learn if there are anatomic asymmetries of the pars triangularis, these convolutions were measured on volumetric magnetic resonance imaging scans of 11 patients who had undergone selective hemispheric anesthesia (Wada testing) to determine hemispheric speech and language lateralization. Of the 10 patients with language lateralized to the left hemisphere, 9 had a leftward asymmetry of the pars triangularis. The 1 patient with language lateralized to the right hemisphere had a significant rightward asymmetry of the pars triangularis. Our data suggest that asymmetries of the pars triangularis may be related to speech-language lateralization. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8570622

  6. Conservation Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friday, Gerald

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a project in which students teach about the importance of recycling and conservation by presenting demonstrations. Includes demonstrations on water, plastic, and other recycling products such as steel. (YDS)

  7. PAR for the Course: A Congruent Pedagogical Approach for a PAR Methods Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Joyce D.; Hicks, Maria; Kalman, Rowenn; Miller, Jason

    2005-01-01

    In the past two years, three graduate students and a senior faculty member have co-taught a participatory action research (PAR) course to undergraduate and graduate students. In this article the co-teachers advocate a set of pedagogical principles and practices in a PAR-oriented classroom that establishes congruency with community PAR projects in…

  8. Breaking the epithelial polarity barrier in cancer: the strange case of LKB1/PAR-4

    PubMed Central

    Partanen, Johanna I.; Tervonen, Topi A.; Klefström, Juha

    2013-01-01

    The PAR clan of polarity regulating genes was initially discovered in a genetic screen searching for genes involved in asymmetric cell divisions in the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo. Today, investigations in worms, flies and mammals have established PAR proteins as conserved and fundamental regulators of animal cell polarization in a broad range of biological phenomena requiring cellular asymmetries. The human homologue of invertebrate PAR-4, a serine–threonine kinase LKB1/STK11, has caught attention as a gene behind Peutz–Jeghers polyposis syndrome and as a bona fide tumour suppressor gene commonly mutated in sporadic cancer. LKB1 functions as a master regulator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and 12 other kinases referred to as the AMPK-related kinases, including four human homologues of PAR-1. The role of LKB1 as part of the energy sensing LKB1-AMPK module has been intensively studied, whereas the polarity function of LKB1, in the context of homoeostasis or cancer, has gained less attention. Here, we focus on the PAR-4 identity of LKB1, discussing the weight of evidence indicating a role for LKB1 in regulation of cell polarity and epithelial integrity across species and highlight recent investigations providing new insight into the old question: does the PAR-4 identity of LKB1 matter in cancer? PMID:24062587

  9. Organization, evolution and functions of the human and mouse Ly6/uPAR family genes.

    PubMed

    Loughner, Chelsea L; Bruford, Elspeth A; McAndrews, Monica S; Delp, Emili E; Swamynathan, Sudha; Swamynathan, Shivalingappa K

    2016-01-01

    Members of the lymphocyte antigen-6 (Ly6)/urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) superfamily of proteins are cysteine-rich proteins characterized by a distinct disulfide bridge pattern that creates the three-finger Ly6/uPAR (LU) domain. Although the Ly6/uPAR family proteins share a common structure, their expression patterns and functions vary. To date, 35 human and 61 mouse Ly6/uPAR family members have been identified. Based on their subcellular localization, these proteins are further classified as GPI-anchored on the cell membrane, or secreted. The genes encoding Ly6/uPAR family proteins are conserved across different species and are clustered in syntenic regions on human chromosomes 8, 19, 6 and 11, and mouse Chromosomes 15, 7, 17, and 9, respectively. Here, we review the human and mouse Ly6/uPAR family gene and protein structure and genomic organization, expression, functions, and evolution, and introduce new names for novel family members. PMID:27098205

  10. aPKC Inhibition by Par3 CR3 Flanking Regions Controls Substrate Access and Underpins Apical-Junctional Polarization.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Erika V; Ivanova, Marina E; Fletcher, Georgina; Riou, Philippe; Knowles, Philip P; Barnouin, Karin; Purkiss, Andrew; Kostelecky, Brenda; Saiu, Peter; Linch, Mark; Elbediwy, Ahmed; Kjær, Svend; O'Reilly, Nicola; Snijders, Ambrosius P; Parker, Peter J; Thompson, Barry J; McDonald, Neil Q

    2016-08-22

    Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) is a key apical-basal polarity determinant and Par complex component. It is recruited by Par3/Baz (Bazooka in Drosophila) into epithelial apical domains through high-affinity interaction. Paradoxically, aPKC also phosphorylates Par3/Baz, provoking its relocalization to adherens junctions (AJs). We show that Par3 conserved region 3 (CR3) forms a tight inhibitory complex with a primed aPKC kinase domain, blocking substrate access. A CR3 motif flanking its PKC consensus site disrupts the aPKC kinase N lobe, separating P-loop/αB/αC contacts. A second CR3 motif provides a high-affinity anchor. Mutation of either motif switches CR3 to an efficient in vitro substrate by exposing its phospho-acceptor site. In vivo, mutation of either CR3 motif alters Par3/Baz localization from apical to AJs. Our results reveal how Par3/Baz CR3 can antagonize aPKC in stable apical Par complexes and suggests that modulation of CR3 inhibitory arms or opposing aPKC pockets would perturb the interaction, promoting Par3/Baz phosphorylation. PMID:27554858

  11. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are extensive and well developed. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Estimates from SPOT HRV, remote sensing satellite data indicated that as much as 120 hectares of emergent wetlands vegetation may have been present along the Par Pond shoreline by early October, 1995. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  12. Marketing Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, William B.

    1987-01-01

    In 1986, Northeast Utilities began helping shool administrators combat school building energy wastage through a program called Energy Alliance. The typical school can reduce its energy bill by 30 percent by adopting a wide range of conservation measures, including cogeneration, relamping, and energy audits. (MLH)

  13. Colorful Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Some people only think about conservation on Earth Day. Being in the "art business" however, this author is always conscious of the many products she thinks get wasted when they could be reused, recycled, and restored--especially in a school building and art room. In this article, she describes an art lesson that allows students to paint…

  14. [Conservation Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Instructional units deal with each aspect of conservation: forests, wildlife, rangelands, water, minerals, and soil. The area of the secondary school curriculum with which each is correlated is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the topic, questions to…

  15. [Conservation Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  16. ParAB Partition Dynamics in Firmicutes: Nucleoid Bound ParA Captures and Tethers ParB-Plasmid Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Lioy, Virginia S.; Volante, Andrea; Soberón, Nora E.; Lurz, Rudi; Ayora, Silvia; Alonso, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    In Firmicutes, small homodimeric ParA-like (δ2) and ParB-like (ω2) proteins, in concert with cis-acting plasmid-borne parS and the host chromosome, secure stable plasmid inheritance in a growing bacterial population. This study shows that (ω:YFP)2 binding to parS facilitates plasmid clustering in the cytosol. (δ:GFP)2 requires ATP binding but not hydrolysis to localize onto the cell’s nucleoid as a fluorescent cloud. The interaction of (δ:CFP)2 or δ2 bound to the nucleoid with (ω:YFP)2 foci facilitates plasmid capture, from a very broad distribution, towards the nucleoid and plasmid pairing. parS-bound ω2 promotes redistribution of (δ:GFP)2, leading to the dynamic release of (δ:GFP)2 from the nucleoid, in a process favored by ATP hydrolysis and protein-protein interaction. (δD60A:GFP)2, which binds but cannot hydrolyze ATP, also forms unstable complexes on the nucleoid. In the presence of ω2, (δD60A:GFP)2 accumulates foci or patched structures on the nucleoid. We propose that (δ:GFP)2 binding to different nucleoid regions and to ω2-parS might generate (δ:GFP)2 gradients that could direct plasmid movement. The iterative pairing and unpairing cycles may tether plasmids equidistantly on the nucleoid to ensure faithful plasmid segregation by a mechanism compatible with the diffusion-ratchet mechanism as proposed from in vitro reconstituted systems. PMID:26161642

  17. Conservation physiology

    PubMed Central

    Kronfeld-Schor, Noga

    2014-01-01

    Global change presents a huge and exciting challenge to the study of thermal physiology. The implication of thermoregulatory strategies and abilities for the survival of individuals and species, are of high importance for predicting species response to global change challenges and ways to mitigate them, and for conservation acts. A good example of such a study is the paper by Cooper and Withers in this issue.1

  18. Heron conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2000-01-01

    Herons are large, popular and, in many cases, spectacular birds found in wetlands world-wide, both tropical and temperate, natural and man-made. Some populations are very small and localized, some have decreased, some have expanded their ranges, and a few are pests of human activities. In the fifteen years since the publication of the latest monographic treatment of the family, The Herons Handbook, there has been a tremendous increase in our knowledge of heron status and conservation requirements, set against a backdrop of increasing concern about the future of the world?s wetland habitats. This book provides a comprehensive update following two distinct threads. The status and conservation needs of herons are first presented on a regional basis, in a series of chapters set at a continental or subcontinental scale. Over 200 biologists and heron conservationists have contributed to the data summarized here, and the very latest census and survey results provide the most up-to-date and detailed picture of heron populations currently available. Chapters discussing several critical issues in heron conservation follow, tending to focus on the international nature of the problems.

  19. Architecture and Assembly of a Divergent Member of the ParM Family of Bacterial Actin-like Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Christopher R.; Kollman, Justin M.; Polka, Jessica K.; Agard, David A.; Mullins, R. Dyche

    2011-01-01

    Eubacteria and archaea contain a variety of actin-like proteins (ALPs) that form filaments with surprisingly diverse architectures, assembly dynamics, and cellular functions. Although there is much data supporting differences between ALP families, there is little data regarding conservation of structure and function within these families. We asked whether the filament architecture and biochemical properties of the best-understood prokaryotic actin, ParM from plasmid R1, are conserved in a divergent member of the ParM family from plasmid pB171. Previous work demonstrated that R1 ParM assembles into filaments that are structurally distinct from actin and the other characterized ALPs. They also display three biophysical properties thought to be essential for DNA segregation: 1) rapid spontaneous nucleation, 2) symmetrical elongation, and 3) dynamic instability. We used microscopic and biophysical techniques to compare and contrast the architecture and assembly of these related proteins. Despite being only 41% identical, R1 and pB171 ParMs polymerize into nearly identical filaments with similar assembly dynamics. Conservation of the core assembly properties argues for their importance in ParM-mediated DNA segregation and suggests that divergent DNA-segregating ALPs with different assembly properties operate via different mechanisms. PMID:21339292

  20. Comparative cactus architecture and par interception

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, G.N.; Nobel, P.S. )

    1987-07-01

    Because CO{sup 2} uptake by cacti can be limited by low levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and because plant form affects PAR interception, various cactus forms were studied using a computer model, field measurements, and laboratory phototropic studies. Model predictions indicated that CO{sub 2} uptake by individual stems at an equinox was greatest when the stem were vertical, but at the summer and the winter solstice CO{sub 2} uptake was greatest for stems titled 30{degree} away from the equator. Stem tilting depended on form and taxonomic group. Not only can the shape of cacti be affected by PAR, but also shape influences PAR interception and hence CO{sub 2} uptake.

  1. Radioecological implications of the Par Pond drawdown

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, H.; Whicker, F.W.

    1991-12-05

    The drawdown of the Par Pond reservoir created dramatic alterations in this formerly stable lentic ecosystem. In addition, the radiation environment at Par Pond has changed significantly because of the exposure of Cesium 137-contaminated sediments and the appearance of new transport pathways to the terrestrial environment. In response to this situation, SREL was asked to study the radioecological implications of the reservoir drawdown. This report contains the objectives, methods, and results of the SREL study.

  2. Optical engineering application of modeled photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) for high-speed digital camera dynamic range optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, James; Gueymard, Christian A.

    2009-08-01

    As efforts to create accurate yet computationally efficient estimation models for clear-sky photosynthetically active solar radiation (PAR) have succeeded, the range of practical engineering applications where these models can be successfully applied has increased. This paper describes a novel application of the REST2 radiative model (developed by the second author) in optical engineering. The PAR predictions in this application are used to predict the possible range of instantaneous irradiances that could impinge on the image plane of a stationary video camera designed to image license plates on moving vehicles. The overall spectral response of the camera (including lens and optical filters) is similar to the 400-700 nm PAR range, thereby making PAR irradiance (rather than luminance) predictions most suitable for this application. The accuracy of the REST2 irradiance predictions for horizontal surfaces, coupled with another radiative model to obtain irradiances on vertical surfaces, and to standard optical image formation models, enable setting the dynamic range controls of the camera to ensure that the license plate images are legible (unsaturated with adequate contrast) regardless of the time of day, sky condition, or vehicle speed. A brief description of how these radiative models are utilized as part of the camera control algorithm is provided. Several comparisons of the irradiance predictions derived from the radiative model versus actual PAR measurements under varying sky conditions with three Licor sensors (one horizontal and two vertical) have been made and showed good agreement. Various camera-to-plate geometries and compass headings have been considered in these comparisons. Time-lapse sequences of license plate images taken with the camera under various sky conditions over a 30-day period are also analyzed. They demonstrate the success of the approach at creating legible plate images under highly variable lighting, which is the main goal of this

  3. Structural analysis of the ParR/parC plasmid partition complex.

    PubMed

    Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Ringgaard, Simon; Mercogliano, Christopher P; Gerdes, Kenn; Löwe, Jan

    2007-10-17

    Accurate DNA partition at cell division is vital to all living organisms. In bacteria, this process can involve partition loci, which are found on both chromosomes and plasmids. The initial step in Escherichia coli plasmid R1 partition involves the formation of a partition complex between the DNA-binding protein ParR and its cognate centromere site parC on the DNA. The partition complex is recognized by a second partition protein, the actin-like ATPase ParM, which forms filaments required for the active bidirectional movement of DNA replicates. Here, we present the 2.8 A crystal structure of ParR from E. coli plasmid pB171. ParR forms a tight dimer resembling a large family of dimeric ribbon-helix-helix (RHH)2 site-specific DNA-binding proteins. Crystallographic and electron microscopic data further indicate that ParR dimers assemble into a helix structure with DNA-binding sites facing outward. Genetic and biochemical experiments support a structural arrangement in which the centromere-like parC DNA is wrapped around a ParR protein scaffold. This structure holds implications for how ParM polymerization drives active DNA transport during plasmid partition. PMID:17898804

  4. Conservative Remapper

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-03-31

    Conservative Remapper (CORE) is a C++ language software library for remapping cell masses and cell-averaged densities on unstructured two dimensional grids, maintaining conservation of total mass in the process. CORE contains implementation of two remapping algorithms: a new, efficient "swept region" algorithm, and a more traditional algorithm basedon the computation of cell intersections. Grids may be Cartesian or cylindrical, and cells may have three or more vertices, with no upper limit. CORE can run inmore » serial and in parallel, but in order to achieve wide applicability, CORE used no particular parallel communication library. Instead it achieves parallel communication through strategically placed, user defined callbacks. Users can also provide callbacks to redefine different parts or subcomponents of the remapping process. CORE allows the use of different data types, e.g. single-, double-, and quadruple- precision floating-point numbers, through the use of C++ templates. Using CORE is simple, and requires no configuration scripts or makefiles.« less

  5. Techniques for measuring intercepted and absorbed PAR in corn canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallo, K. P.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

    1984-01-01

    The quantity of radiation potentially available for photosynthesis that is captured by the crop is best described as absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Absorbed PAR (APAR) is the difference between descending and ascending fluxes. The four components of APAR were measured above and within two planting densities of corn (Zea mays L.) and several methods of measuring and estimating APAR were examined. A line quantum sensor that spatially averages the photosynthetic photon flux density provided a rapid and portable method of measuring APAR. PAR reflectance from the soil (Typic Argiaquoll) surface decreased from 10% to less than 1% of the incoming PAR as the canopy cover increased. PAR reflectance from the canopy decreased to less than 3% at maximum vegetative cover. Intercepted PAR (1 - transmitted PAR) generally overestimated absorbed PAR by less than 4% throughout most of the growing season. Thus intercepted PAR appears to be a reasonable estimate of absorbed PAR.

  6. Comparative analysis of a plant pseudoautosomal region (PAR) in Silene latifolia with the corresponding S. vulgaris autosome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The sex chromosomes of Silene latifolia are heteromorphic as in mammals, with females being homogametic (XX) and males heterogametic (XY). While recombination occurs along the entire X chromosome in females, recombination between the X and Y chromosomes in males is restricted to the pseudoautosomal region (PAR). In the few mammals so far studied, PARs are often characterized by elevated recombination and mutation rates and high GC content compared with the rest of the genome. However, PARs have not been studied in plants until now. In this paper we report the construction of a BAC library for S. latifolia and the first analysis of a > 100 kb fragment of a S. latifolia PAR that we compare to the homologous autosomal region in the closely related gynodioecious species S. vulgaris. Results Six new sex-linked genes were identified in the S. latifolia PAR, together with numerous transposable elements. The same genes were found on the S. vulgaris autosomal segment, with no enlargement of the predicted coding sequences in S. latifolia. Intergenic regions were on average 1.6 times longer in S. latifolia than in S. vulgaris, mainly as a consequence of the insertion of transposable elements. The GC content did not differ significantly between the PAR region in S. latifolia and the corresponding autosomal region in S. vulgaris. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the usefulness of the BAC library developed here for the analysis of plant sex chromosomes and indicate that the PAR in the evolutionarily young S. latifolia sex chromosomes has diverged from the corresponding autosomal region in the gynodioecious S. vulgaris mainly with respect to the insertion of transposable elements. Gene order between the PAR and autosomal region investigated is conserved, and the PAR does not have the high GC content observed in evolutionarily much older mammalian sex chromosomes. PMID:22681719

  7. ParCAT: Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Brian E.; Steed, Chad A.; Shipman, Galen M.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Thornton, Peter E.; Wehner, Michael; Williams, Dean N.

    2013-01-01

    Climate science is employing increasingly complex models and simulations to analyze the past and predict the future of Earth s climate. This growth in complexity is creating a widening gap between the data being produced and the ability to analyze the datasets. Parallel computing tools are necessary to analyze, compare, and interpret the simulation data. The Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit (ParCAT) provides basic tools to efficiently use parallel computing techniques to make analysis of these datasets manageable. The toolkit provides the ability to compute spatio-temporal means, differences between runs or differences between averages of runs, and histograms of the values in a data set. ParCAT is implemented as a command-line utility written in C. This allows for easy integration in other tools and allows for use in scripts. This also makes it possible to run ParCAT on many platforms from laptops to supercomputers. ParCAT outputs NetCDF files so it is compatible with existing utilities such as Panoply and UV-CDAT. This paper describes ParCAT and presents results from some example runs on the Titan system at ORNL.

  8. [Attenuation of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) in Meiliang Bay under different winds and waves].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunlin; Qin, Boqiang; Chen, Weimin; Hu, Weiping; Gao, Guang; Zhu, Guangwei; Luo, Liancong

    2005-06-01

    Based on the successive underwater irradiance measurement in situ from Jul. 12 to 17 in 2003, the attenuation of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) and euphotic depth in Meiliang Bay were analyzed under different winds and waves. The results showed that the downward PAR attenuation coefficients ranged from 2.63 to 4.7 m(-1), with an average of 3.63 +/- 0.47 x m(-1), and the corresponding euphotic depth ranged from 0.98 to 1.75 m, with an average of 1.29 +/- 0.18 m, which demonstrated that phytoplankton and macrophyte could not grow below 1.5 m due to the lack of adequate solar radiation. The total suspended solids resulted from wind and wave increased the attenuation of light, with the downward attenuation coefficients of PAR being 2.63, 3.72 and 4.37 x m(-1) under small, medium and large wind and wave, respectively. Significant linear correlations were found between transparence, PAR attenuation coefficient, euphotic depth and total suspended solid, especially inorganic suspended solid, while chlorophyll a was the most nonsignificant light attenuator. Multiple stepwise linear regressions showed that inorganic suspended solid was the most important light attenuator dominating the light attenuation in wind-exposed Meiliang Bay. PMID:16180769

  9. ParA and ParB coordinate chromosome segregation with cell elongation and division during Streptomyces sporulation.

    PubMed

    Donczew, Magdalena; Mackiewicz, Paweł; Wróbel, Agnieszka; Flärdh, Klas; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta; Jakimowicz, Dagmara

    2016-04-01

    In unicellular bacteria, the ParA and ParB proteins segregate chromosomes and coordinate this process with cell division and chromosome replication. During sporulation of mycelial Streptomyces, ParA and ParB uniformly distribute multiple chromosomes along the filamentous sporogenic hyphal compartment, which then differentiates into a chain of unigenomic spores. However, chromosome segregation must be coordinated with cell elongation and multiple divisions. Here, we addressed the question of whether ParA and ParB are involved in the synchronization of cell-cycle processes during sporulation in Streptomyces To answer this question, we used time-lapse microscopy, which allows the monitoring of growth and division of single sporogenic hyphae. We showed that sporogenic hyphae stop extending at the time of ParA accumulation and Z-ring formation. We demonstrated that both ParA and ParB affect the rate of hyphal extension. Additionally, we showed that ParA promotes the formation of massive nucleoprotein complexes by ParB. We also showed that FtsZ ring assembly is affected by the ParB protein and/or unsegregated DNA. Our results indicate the existence of a checkpoint between the extension and septation of sporogenic hyphae that involves the ParA and ParB proteins. PMID:27248800

  10. ParA and ParB coordinate chromosome segregation with cell elongation and division during Streptomyces sporulation

    PubMed Central

    Donczew, Magdalena; Mackiewicz, Paweł; Wróbel, Agnieszka; Flärdh, Klas; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    In unicellular bacteria, the ParA and ParB proteins segregate chromosomes and coordinate this process with cell division and chromosome replication. During sporulation of mycelial Streptomyces, ParA and ParB uniformly distribute multiple chromosomes along the filamentous sporogenic hyphal compartment, which then differentiates into a chain of unigenomic spores. However, chromosome segregation must be coordinated with cell elongation and multiple divisions. Here, we addressed the question of whether ParA and ParB are involved in the synchronization of cell-cycle processes during sporulation in Streptomyces. To answer this question, we used time-lapse microscopy, which allows the monitoring of growth and division of single sporogenic hyphae. We showed that sporogenic hyphae stop extending at the time of ParA accumulation and Z-ring formation. We demonstrated that both ParA and ParB affect the rate of hyphal extension. Additionally, we showed that ParA promotes the formation of massive nucleoprotein complexes by ParB. We also showed that FtsZ ring assembly is affected by the ParB protein and/or unsegregated DNA. Our results indicate the existence of a checkpoint between the extension and septation of sporogenic hyphae that involves the ParA and ParB proteins. PMID:27248800

  11. Par-4: A New Activator of Myosin Phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Vetterkind, Susanne; Lee, Eunhee; Sundberg, Eric; Poythress, Ransom H.; Tao, Terence C.; Preuss, Ute

    2010-01-01

    Myosin phosphatase (MP) is a key regulator of myosin light chain (LC20) phosphorylation, a process essential for motility, apoptosis, and smooth muscle contractility. Although MP inhibition is well studied, little is known about MP activation. We have recently demonstrated that prostate apoptosis response (Par)-4 modulates vascular smooth muscle contractility. Here, we test the hypothesis that Par-4 regulates MP activity directly. We show, by proximity ligation assays, surface plasmon resonance and coimmunoprecipitation, that Par-4 interacts with the targeting subunit of MP, MYPT1. Binding is mediated by the leucine zippers of MYPT1 and Par-4 and reduced by Par-4 phosphorylation. Overexpression of Par-4 leads to increased phosphatase activity of immunoprecipitated MP, whereas small interfering RNA knockdown of endogenous Par-4 significantly decreases MP activity and increases MYPT1 phosphorylation. LC20 phosphorylation assays demonstrate that overexpression of Par-4 reduces LC20 phosphorylation. In contrast, a phosphorylation site mutant, but not wild-type Par-4, interferes with zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK)-mediated MP inhibition. We conclude from our results Par-4 operates through a “padlock” model in which binding of Par-4 to MYPT1 activates MP by blocking access to the inhibitory phosphorylation sites, and inhibitory phosphorylation of MYPT1 by ZIPK requires “unlocking” of Par-4 by phosphorylation and displacement of Par-4 from the MP complex. PMID:20130087

  12. suPAR and Team Nephrology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) accounts for nearly 10 % of patients who require renal replacement therapy. Elevated circulating levels of soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) have been identified as a biomarker to discriminate primary FSGS from other glomerulopathies. Subsequent reports have questioned the diagnostic utility of this test. In a study in BMC Medicine, Huang et al. demonstrate that urinary soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) excretion assists in distinguishing primary FSGS from other glomerular diseases, and that high plasma suPAR concentrations are not directly linked to a decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). This observation suggests that further investigation of suPAR is warranted in patients with FSGS. It should be interpreted in light of a recent report that B7-1 is expressed in the podocytes of a subset of patients with FSGS, and that blocking this molecule may represent the first successful targeted intervention for this disease. These advances highlight the rapid pace of scientific progress in the field of nephrology. Nephrologists should work together, share resources, and expedite the design of protocols to evaluate these novel biomarkers in a comprehensive and scientifically valid manner. Please see related article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/12/81. PMID:24885021

  13. suPAR and Team Nephrology.

    PubMed

    Trachtman, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) accounts for nearly 10 % of patients who require renal replacement therapy. Elevated circulating levels of soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) have been identified as a biomarker to discriminate primary FSGS from other glomerulopathies. Subsequent reports have questioned the diagnostic utility of this test. In a study in BMC Medicine, Huang et al. demonstrate that urinary soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) excretion assists in distinguishing primary FSGS from other glomerular diseases, and that high plasma suPAR concentrations are not directly linked to a decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). This observation suggests that further investigation of suPAR is warranted in patients with FSGS. It should be interpreted in light of a recent report that B7-1 is expressed in the podocytes of a subset of patients with FSGS, and that blocking this molecule may represent the first successful targeted intervention for this disease. These advances highlight the rapid pace of scientific progress in the field of nephrology. Nephrologists should work together, share resources, and expedite the design of protocols to evaluate these novel biomarkers in a comprehensive and scientifically valid manner. PMID:24885021

  14. Peroxynitrite-induced thymocyte apoptosis: the role of caspases and poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase (PARS) activation.

    PubMed Central

    Virág, L; Scott, G S; Cuzzocrea, S; Marmer, D; Salzman, A L; Szabó, C

    1998-01-01

    The mechanisms by which immature thymocyte apoptosis is induced during negative selection are poorly defined. Reports demonstrated that cross-linking of T-cell receptor leads to stromal cell activation, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and, subsequently, to thymocyte apoptosis. Therefore we examined, whether NO directly or indirectly, through peroxynitrite formation, causes thymocyte apoptosis. Immuno-histochemical detection of nitrotyrosine revealed in vivo peroxynitrite formation in the thymi of naive mice. Nitrotyrosine, the footprint of peroxynitrite, was predominantly found in the corticomedullary junction and the medulla of naive mice. In the thymi of mice deficient in the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase, considerably less nitrotyrosine was found. Exposure of thymocytes in vitro to low concentrations (10 microM) of peroxynitrite led to apoptosis, whereas higher concentrations (50 microM) resulted in intense cell death with the characteristics of necrosis. We also investigated the effect of poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase (PARS) inhibition on thymocyte apoptosis. Using the PARS inhibitor 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB), or thymocytes from PARS-deficient animals, we established that PARS determines the fate of thymocyte death. Suppression of cellular ATP levels, and the cellular necrosis in response to peroxynitrite were prevented by PARS inhibition. Therefore, in the absence of PARS, cells are diverted towards the pathway of apoptotic cell death. Similar results were obtained with H2O2 treatment, while apoptosis induced by non-oxidative stimuli such as dexamethasone or anti-FAS antibody was unaffected by PARS inhibition. In conclusion, we propose that peroxynitrite-induced apoptosis may play a role in the process of thymocyte negative selection. Furthermore, we propose that the physiological role of PARS cleavage by apopain during apoptosis may serve as an energy-conserving step, enabling the cell to complete the process of apoptosis

  15. Elevated CO2 alleviates high PAR and UV stress in the unicellular chlorophyte Dunaliella tertiolecta.

    PubMed

    García-Gómez, Candela; Gordillo, Francisco J L; Palma, Armando; Lorenzo, M Rosario; Segovia, María

    2014-09-01

    The effects of increased CO2 and irradiance on the physiological performance of the chlorophyte Dunaliella tertiolecta were studied at different PAR and UVR (UVA + UVB) irradiances, simulating the solar radiation at different depths, at present (390 ppmv, LC) and predicted CO2 levels for the year 2100 (1000 ppmv, HC). Elevated CO2 resulted in higher optimum and effective quantum yields (F(v)/F(m) and ϕPSII, respectively), electron transport rates (ETR) and specific growth rates (μ). Cell stress was alleviated in HC with respect to LC as evidenced by a decrease in reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. DNA damage showed a 42-fold increase in cyclobutane-pyrimidine dimer (CPD) formation under the highest irradiance (1100 μmol quanta m(-2) s(-1)) in LC with respect to the lowest irradiance (200 μmol quanta m(-2) s(-1)). Photolyase (CII-PCD-PL) gene expression was upregulated under HC resulting in a drastic decrease in CPD accumulation to only 25% with respect to LC. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) accumulation was always higher in HC and the accumulation pattern indicated its involvement in repair or growth depending on the irradiance dose. The repressor of silencing (ROS1) was only marginally involved in the response, suggesting that photoreactivation was the most relevant mechanism to overcome UVR damage. Our results demonstrate that future scenarios of global change result in alleviation of irradiance stress by CO2-induced photoprotection in D. tertiolecta. PMID:25043601

  16. [Food irradiation].

    PubMed

    Migdał, W

    1995-01-01

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by Codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and the World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19MeV, 1 kW) and an industrial unit Elektronika (10MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permission for irradiation for: spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables. PMID:8619113

  17. Tissue irradiator

    DOEpatents

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1975-12-16

    A tissue irradiator is provided for the in-vivo irradiation of body tissue. The irradiator comprises a radiation source material contained and completely encapsulated within vitreous carbon. An embodiment for use as an in- vivo blood irradiator comprises a cylindrical body having an axial bore therethrough. A radioisotope is contained within a first portion of vitreous carbon cylindrically surrounding the axial bore, and a containment portion of vitreous carbon surrounds the radioisotope containing portion, the two portions of vitreous carbon being integrally formed as a single unit. Connecting means are provided at each end of the cylindrical body to permit connections to blood- carrying vessels and to provide for passage of blood through the bore. In a preferred embodiment, the radioisotope is thulium-170 which is present in the irradiator in the form of thulium oxide. A method of producing the preferred blood irradiator is also provided, whereby nonradioactive thulium-169 is dispersed within a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin which is carbonized and fired to form the integral vitreous carbon body and the device is activated by neutron bombardment of the thulium-169 to produce the beta-emitting thulium-170.

  18. View from east to west of PAR site storage building; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from east to west of PAR site storage building; formerly PAR dispensary - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Storage Building, Across street from Family Housing Units 110 & 111, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  19. View from west to east of PAR site resident engineer's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from west to east of PAR site resident engineer's office building (REOB) - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Resident Engineers Office Building, Southeast of intersection of PAR Access Road & Fourth Avenue, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  20. A Combined Global and Local Approach to Elucidate Spatial Organization of the Mycobacterial ParB-parS Partition Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    B Chaudhuri; S Gupta; V Urban; M Chance; R DMello; L Smith; K Lyons; J Gee

    2011-12-31

    Combining diverse sets of data at global (size, shape) and local (residue) scales is an emerging trend for elucidating the organization and function of the cellular assemblies. We used such a strategy, combining data from X-ray and neutron scattering with H/D-contrast variation and X-ray footprinting with mass spectrometry, to elucidate the spatial organization of the ParB-parS assembly from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The ParB-parS participates in plasmid and chromosome segregation and condensation in predivisional bacterial cells. ParB polymerizes around the parS centromere(s) to form a higher-order assembly that serves to recruit cyto-skeletal ParA ATPases and SMC proteins for chromosome segregation. A hybrid model of the ParB-parS was built by combining and correlating computational models with experiment-derived information about size, shape, position of the symmetry axis within the shape, internal topology, DNA-protein interface, exposed surface patches, and prior knowledge. This first view of the ParB-parS leads us to propose how ParB spread on the chromosome to form a larger assembly.

  1. A Combined Global and Local Approach to Elucidate Spatial Organization of the Mycobacterial ParB-parS Partition

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhuri, Barnali; Gupta, Sayan; Urban, Volker S; Chance, Mark; D'Mello, Rhijuta; Smith, Lauren; Lyons, Kelly; Gee, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Combining diverse sets of data at global (size, shape) and local (residue) scales is an emerging trend for elucidating the organization and function of the cellular assemblies. We used such a strategy, combining data from X-ray and neutron scattering with H/D-contrast variation and X-ray footprinting with mass spectrometry, to elucidate the spatial organization of the ParB-parS assembly from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The ParB-parS participates in plasmid and chromosome segregation and condensation in predivisional bacterial cells. ParB polymerizes around the parS centromere(s) to form a higher-order assembly that serves to recruit cyto-skeletal ParA ATPases and SMC proteins for chromosome segregation. A hybrid model of the ParB-parS was built by combining and correlating computational models with experiment-derived information about size, shape, position of the symmetry axis within the shape, internal topology, DNA-protein interface, exposed surface patches, and prior knowledge. This first view of the ParB-parS leads us to propose how ParB spread on the chromosome to form a larger assembly.

  2. Healing in the irradiated wound

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.H.; Rudolph, R. )

    1990-07-01

    Poor or nonhealing of irradiated wounds has been attributed to progressive obliterative endarteritis. Permanently damaged fibroblasts may also play an important part in poor healing. Regardless of the cause, the key to management of irradiated skin is careful attention to prevent its breakdown and conservative, but adequate, treatment when wounds are minor. When wounds become larger and are painful, complete excision of the wound or ulcer is called for and coverage should be provided by a well-vascularized nonparasitic distant flap.16 references.

  3. A unique hetero-hexadecameric architecture displayed by the Escherichia coli O157 PaaA2-ParE2 antitoxin-toxin complex.

    PubMed

    Sterckx, Yann G-J; Jové, Thomas; Shkumatov, Alexander V; Garcia-Pino, Abel; Geerts, Lieselotte; De Kerpel, Maia; Lah, Jurij; De Greve, Henri; Van Melderen, Laurence; Loris, Remy

    2016-04-24

    Many bacterial pathogens modulate their metabolic activity, virulence and pathogenicity through so-called "toxin-antitoxin" (TA) modules. The genome of the human pathogen Escherichia coli O157 contains two three-component TA modules related to the known parDE module. Here, we show that the toxin EcParE2 maps in a branch of the RelE/ParE toxin superfamily that is distinct from the branches that contain verified gyrase and ribosome inhibitors. The structure of EcParE2 closely resembles that of Caulobacter crescentus ParE but shows a distinct pattern of conserved surface residues, in agreement with its apparent inability to interact with GyrA. The antitoxin EcPaaA2 is characterized by two α-helices (H1 and H2) that serve as molecular recognition elements to wrap itself around EcParE2. Both EcPaaA2 H1 and H2 are required to sustain a high-affinity interaction with EcParE2 and for the inhibition of EcParE2-mediated killing in vivo. Furthermore, evidence demonstrates that EcPaaA2 H2, but not H1, determines specificity for EcParE2. The initially formed EcPaaA2-EcParE2 heterodimer then assembles into a hetero-hexadecamer, which is stable in solution and is formed in a highly cooperative manner. Together these findings provide novel data on quaternary structure, TA interactions and activity of a hitherto poorly characterized family of TA modules. PMID:26996937

  4. Examination of the abscission-associated transcriptomes for soybean, tomato, and Arabidopsis highlights the conserved biosynthesis of an extensible extracellular matrix and boundary layer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PAR1, photoassimilate-responsive-1, was originally identified in a subtraction library prepared from leaves of transgenic tobacco plants, ppa-1, that accumulate high concentrations of sucrose in source leaves. PAR1 genes are highly conserved in both dicots and monocots. All appear to have a signal...

  5. Irradiation subassembly

    DOEpatents

    Seim, O.S.; Filewicz, E.C.; Hutter, E.

    1973-10-23

    An irradiation subassembly for use in a nuclear reactor is described which includes a bundle of slender elongated irradiation -capsules or fuel elements enclosed by a coolant tube and having yieldable retaining liner between the irradiation capsules and the coolant tube. For a hexagonal bundle surrounded by a hexagonal tube the yieldable retaining liner may consist either of six segments corresponding to the six sides of the tube or three angular segments each corresponding in two adjacent sides of the tube. The sides of adjacent segments abut and are so cut that metal-tometal contact is retained when the volume enclosed by the retaining liner is varied and Springs are provided for urging the segments toward the center of the tube to hold the capsules in a closely packed configuration. (Official Gazette)

  6. Lens implant surgery in pars planitis.

    PubMed

    Michelson, J B; Friedlaender, M H; Nozik, R A

    1990-08-01

    Intraocular lens (IOL) implantation is usually contraindicated in eyes with active inflammation, but patients with "burned-out" pars planitis also may be considered as candidates. Fifteen of 16 eyes in eight patients underwent extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) with posterior chamber IOL (PC IOL) implantation combined with pars plana vitrectomy for both cataracts and chronic cystoid macular edema (CME); 60% achieved visual acuity of 20/40 or better. Even with "low-grade" inflammation in these patients, however, a persistent veil of debris accumulated over the posterior and anterior surface of the IOL. One patient (patient 2) required 27 YAG procedures for two eyes, and another required 11 YAG procedures and eventual removal of the IOL. Another patient required surgical "brushing-off" of the IOL and vitrectomy. Even in eyes with "burned-out" uveitis, a continual low-grade inflammation may complicate the use of IOL implantation. PMID:2402411

  7. Par Pond refill water quality sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Westbury, H.M.

    1996-08-01

    This study was designed to document anoxia and its cause in the event that the anoxia caused a fish kill. However, no fish kill was observed during this study, and dissolved oxygen and nutrient concentrations generally remained within the range expected for southeastern reservoirs. Par Pond water quality monitoring will continue during the second summer after refill as the aquatic macrophytes become reestablished and nutrients in the sediments are released to the water column.

  8. Combined DSEK and Transconjunctival Pars Plana Vitrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Sane, Mona; Shaikh, Naazli

    2016-01-01

    We report here three patients who underwent combined Descemet's stripping with endothelial keratoplasty and transconjunctival pars plana vitrectomy for bullous keratopathy and posterior segment pathology. A surgical technique and case histories are described. Anatomic and visual outcomes of combined Descemet's stripping with endothelial keratoplasty and vitrectomy were excellent. Our experience provides technical guidelines and limitations. The combined minimally invasive techniques allow for rapid anatomical recovery and return of function and visual acuity in a single sitting. PMID:27413563

  9. Project Plan 7930 Cell G PaR Remote Handling System Replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, Kathryn A

    2009-10-01

    For over 40 years the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have made Californium-252 ({sup 252}Cf) available for a wide range of industries including medical, nuclear fuels, mining, military and national security. The Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) located within the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) processes irradiated production targets from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Operations in Building 7930, Cell G provide over 70% of the world's demand for {sup 252}Cf. Building 7930 was constructed and equipped in the mid-1960s. Current operations for {sup 252}Cf processing in Building 7930, Cell G require use of through-the-wall manipulators and the PaR Remote Handling System. Maintenance and repairs for the manipulators is readily accomplished by removal of the manipulator and relocation to a repair shop where hands-on work can be performed in glove boxes. Contamination inside cell G does not currently allow manned entry and no provisions were created for a maintenance area inside the cell. There has been no maintenance of the PaR system or upgrades, leaving operations vulnerable should the system have a catastrophic failure. The Cell G PaR system is currently being operated in a run to failure mode. As the manipulator is now 40+ years old there is significant risk in this method of operation. In 2006 an assessment was completed that resulted in recommendations for replacing the manipulator operator control and power centers which are used to control and power the PaR manipulator in Cell G. In mid-2008 the chain for the bridge drive failed and subsequent examinations indicated several damaged links (see Figure 1). To continue operations the PaR manipulator arm is being used to push and pull the bridge as a workaround. A retrieval tool was fabricated, tested and staged inside Cell G that will allow positioning of the bridge and manipulator arm for removal from the cell should the PaR system completely fail. A fully

  10. Irradiance gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, G.J. Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne ); Heckbert, P.S. . School of Computer Science Technische Hogeschool Delft . Dept. of Technical Mathematics and Informatics)

    1992-04-01

    A new method for improving the accuracy of a diffuse interreflection calculation is introduced in a ray tracing context. The information from a hemispherical sampling of the luminous environment is interpreted in a new way to predict the change in irradiance as a function of position and surface orientation. The additional computation involved is modest and the benefit is substantial. An improved interpolation of irradiance resulting from the gradient calculation produces smoother, more accurate renderings. This result is achieved through better utilization of ray samples rather than additional samples or alternate sampling strategies. Thus, the technique is applicable to a variety of global illumination algorithms that use hemicubes or Monte Carlo sampling techniques.

  11. Mechanisms of apoptosis by the tumor suppressor Par-4.

    PubMed

    Hebbar, Nikhil; Wang, Chi; Rangnekar, Vivek M

    2012-12-01

    Par-4 is a pro-apoptotic, tumor suppressor protein that induces apoptosis selectively in cancer cells. Endoplasmic reticulum-stress and higher levels of protein kinase A in tumor cells confer the coveted feature of cancer selective response to extracellular and intracellular Par-4, respectively. Recent studies have shown that systemic Par-4 confers resistance to tumor growth in mice, and that tumor-resistance is transferable by bone-marrow transplantation. Moreover, recombinant Par-4 inhibits the growth of tumors in mice. As systemic Par-4 induces apoptosis via cell surface GRP78, strategies that promote GRP78 trafficking to the cell surface are expected sensitize cancer cells to circulating levels of Par-4. This review illustrates the domains and mechanisms by which Par-4 orchestrates the apoptotic process in both cell culture models and in physiological settings. PMID:22552839

  12. Irradiated foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... it reduces the risk of food poisoning . Food irradiation is used in many countries. It was first approved in the U.S. to prevent sprouts on white potatoes, and to control insects on wheat and in certain spices and seasonings.

  13. Helicobacter pylori CagA Inhibits PAR1-MARK Family Kinases by Mimicking Host Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Nesic, D.; Miller, M; Quinkert, Z; Stein, M; Chait, B; Stebbins, C

    2010-01-01

    The CagA protein of Helicobacter pylori interacts with numerous cellular factors and is associated with increased virulence and risk of gastric carcinoma. We present here the cocrystal structure of a subdomain of CagA with the human kinase PAR1b/MARK2, revealing that a CagA peptide mimics substrates of this kinase family, resembling eukaryotic protein kinase inhibitors. Mutagenesis of conserved residues central to this interaction renders CagA inactive as an inhibitor of MARK2.

  14. Escherichia coli low-copy-number plasmid R1 centromere parC forms a U-shaped complex with its binding protein ParR

    PubMed Central

    Hoischen, C.; Bussiek, M.; Langowski, J.; Diekmann, S.

    2008-01-01

    The Escherichia coli low-copy-number plasmid R1 contains a segregation machinery composed of parC, ParR and parM. The R1 centromere-like site parC contains two separate sets of repeats. By atomic force microscopy (AFM) we show here that ParR molecules bind to each of the 5-fold repeated iterons separately with the intervening sequence unbound by ParR. The two ParR protein complexes on parC do not complex with each other. ParR binds with a stoichiometry of about one ParR dimer per each single iteron. The measured DNA fragment lengths agreed with B-form DNA and each of the two parC 5-fold interon DNA stretches adopts a linear path in its complex with ParR. However, the overall parC/ParR complex with both iteron repeats bound by ParR forms an overall U-shaped structure: the DNA folds back on itself nearly completely, including an angle of ∼150°. Analysing linear DNA fragments, we never observed dimerized ParR complexes on one parC DNA molecule (intramolecular) nor a dimerization between ParR complexes bound to two different parC DNA molecules (intermolecular). This bacterial segrosome is compared to other bacterial segregation complexes. We speculate that partition complexes might have a similar overall structural organization and, at least in part, common functional properties. PMID:18056157

  15. Multi-waveband solar irradiance on tree-shaded vertical and horizontal surfaces: cloud-free and partly cloudy skies.

    PubMed

    Grant, R H; Heisler, G M

    2001-01-01

    Irradiance measurements of short wave (SW), photosynthetically active (PAR), ultraviolet-A (UVA) and ultraviolet-B (UVB) solar radiations were made on horizontal and vertical surfaces in the shade of trees under cloud-free and partly cloudy skies. All measurements were referenced to the irradiance of a horizontal surface above the canopy. For horizontal shaded surfaces under cloud-free skies, the values of the ratio (Rh) of below- to above-canopy horizontal irradiance were similar for the UVA and UVB wavebands and for the SW and PAR wavebands. However, Rh for the UV wavebands differed from that for the PAR and SW wavebands. Overall, values of Rh in the shade typically varied as PAR < SW < UVA < UVB. The irradiance ratios for vertical surface in the shade typically varied as UVB > UVA = SW > PAR. In absolute terms, UVB irradiance (Ih) on tree-shaded horizontal surfaces increased relative to a cloud-free sky when a translucent cirroform cloud was in front of the sun, but decreased when the cloud was in a region of sky away from the sun. Translucent cirroform cloud cover also tended to decrease the UVB irradiance (Iv) for a shaded vertical surface (either facing the sun or south) relative to that under cloud-free skies, regardless of where the clouds were in the sky. In all other wavebands the shaded Ih and Iv increased under translucent cirroform cloud cover relative to cloud-free skies, regardless of where the clouds were in the sky. PMID:11202362

  16. Society of Surgical Oncology–American Society for Radiation Oncology Consensus Guideline on Margins for Breast-Conserving Surgery With Whole-Breast Irradiation in Stages I and II Invasive Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, Meena S.; Schnitt, Stuart J.; Giuliano, Armando E.; Harris, Jay R.; Khan, Seema A.; Horton, Janet; Klimberg, Suzanne; Chavez-MacGregor, Mariana; Freedman, Gary; Houssami, Nehmat; Johnson, Peggy L.; Morrow, Monica

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To convene a multidisciplinary panel of breast experts to examine the relationship between margin width and ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) and develop a guideline for defining adequate margins in the setting of breast conserving surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A multidisciplinary consensus panel used a meta-analysis of margin width and IBTR from a systematic review of 33 studies including 28,162 patients as the primary evidence base for consensus. Results: Positive margins (ink on invasive carcinoma or ductal carcinoma in situ) are associated with a 2-fold increase in the risk of IBTR compared with negative margins. This increased risk is not mitigated by favorable biology, endocrine therapy, or a radiation boost. More widely clear margins than no ink on tumor do not significantly decrease the rate of IBTR compared with no ink on tumor. There is no evidence that more widely clear margins reduce IBTR for young patients or for those with unfavorable biology, lobular cancers, or cancers with an extensive intraductal component. Conclusions: The use of no ink on tumor as the standard for an adequate margin in invasive cancer in the era of multidisciplinary therapy is associated with low rates of IBTR and has the potential to decrease re-excision rates, improve cosmetic outcomes, and decrease health care costs.

  17. Modelisation par elements finis du muscle strie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Mathieu

    Ce present projet de recherche a permis. de creer un modele par elements finis du muscle strie humain dans le but d'etudier les mecanismes engendrant les lesions musculaires traumatiques. Ce modele constitue une plate-forme numerique capable de discerner l'influence des proprietes mecaniques des fascias et de la cellule musculaire sur le comportement dynamique du muscle lors d'une contraction excentrique, notamment le module de Young et le module de cisaillement de la couche de tissu conjonctif, l'orientation des fibres de collagene de cette membrane et le coefficient de poisson du muscle. La caracterisation experimentale in vitro de ces parametres pour des vitesses de deformation elevees a partir de muscles stries humains actifs est essentielle pour l'etude de lesions musculaires traumatiques. Le modele numerique developpe est capable de modeliser la contraction musculaire comme une transition de phase de la cellule musculaire par un changement de raideur et de volume a l'aide des lois de comportement de materiau predefinies dans le logiciel LS-DYNA (v971, Livermore Software Technology Corporation, Livermore, CA, USA). Le present projet de recherche introduit donc un phenomene physiologique qui pourrait expliquer des blessures musculaires courantes (crampes, courbatures, claquages, etc.), mais aussi des maladies ou desordres touchant le tissu conjonctif comme les collagenoses et la dystrophie musculaire. La predominance de blessures musculaires lors de contractions excentriques est egalement exposee. Le modele developpe dans ce projet de recherche met ainsi a l'avant-scene le concept de transition de phase ouvrant la porte au developpement de nouvelles technologies pour l'activation musculaire chez les personnes atteintes de paraplegie ou de muscles artificiels compacts pour l'elaboration de protheses ou d'exosquelettes. Mots-cles Muscle strie, lesion musculaire, fascia, contraction excentrique, modele par elements finis, transition de phase

  18. Evaluation of the PAR corneal topography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindal, Prateek; Cheung, Susan; Pirouzian, Amir; Keates, Richard H.; Ren, Qiushi

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the raster photogrammetry based Corneal Topography System by determining: inter-operator variability, reproducibility of images, effects of defocused and decentered images, and the precision of data at different optical zones. 4 human cadaver eyes were used to study the inter-operator variability. To study the reproducibility of images, 3 human cadaver eyes and a test surface doped with flourescine (provided by PAR Vision Systems Corporation) were focused and their images taken four successive times. Defocused and decentered images were taken of 4 human cadaver eyes and four times of the test surface mentioned above. The precision of defocused/decentered cadaver eyes was evaluated at the following optical zones: 3 mm, 4 mm, 5 mm, and 6 mm. All human cadaver eyes used in the above experiments had their epithelial layer removed before imaging. Average inter-operator variability was 0.06 D. In reproducibility attempts, there was an average deviation of 0.28 D for the human cadaver eyes and 0.04 D for the test surface. The defocused and decentered test surface gave an average deviation of 0.09 D. Defocused and decentered cadaver eyes resulted in an average deviation of 0.52 D, 0.37 D, 0.24 D, and 0.22 D at optical zones of 3 mm, 4 mm, 5 mm, and 6 mm, respectively. The imaging method employed by PAR Vision Systems Corporation virtually eliminates inter-operator variability. The PAR Corneal Topography System's clinical usefulness, however, could be improved by improving the reproducibility of images, decreasing the sensitivity to spatial alignment, and increasing accuracy over smaller optical zones.

  19. Allosteric activation of the Par-6 PDZ via a partial unfolding transition

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, Dustin S.; Peterson, Francis C.; Kovrigin, Evgenii L.; Volkman, Brian F.

    2013-01-01

    Proteins exist in a delicate balance between the native and unfolded states, where thermodynamic stability may be sacrificed to attain the flexibility required for efficient catalysis, binding or allosteric control. Par-6 regulates the Par polarity complex by transmitting a GTPase signal through the CRIB-PDZ module that alters PDZ lig-and binding. Allosteric activation of the PDZ is achieved by local rearrangement of the L164 and K165 side chains to stabilize the interdomain CRIB-PDZ interface and reposition a conserved element of the ligand binding pocket. However, microsecond to millisecond dynamics measurements revealed that L164/K165 exchange requires a larger rearrangement than expected. The margin of thermodynamic stability for the PDZ domain is modest (~3 kcal/mol) and further reduced by transient interactions with the disordered CRIB domain. Measurements of local structural stability revealed that tertiary contacts within the PDZ are disrupted by a partial unfolding transition that enables interconversion of the L/K switch. The unexpected participation of partial PDZ unfolding in the allosteric mechanism of Par-6 suggests that native-state unfolding may be essential for the function of other marginally stable proteins. PMID:23705660

  20. Prone Whole-Breast Irradiation Using Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy in Women Undergoing Breast Conservation for Early Disease Yields High Rates of Excellent to Good Cosmetic Outcomes in Patients With Large and/or Pendulous Breasts

    PubMed Central

    Bergom, Carmen; Kelly, Tracy; Morrow, Natalya; Wilson, J. Frank; Walker, Alonzo; Xiang, Qun; Ahn, Kwang Woo; White, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To report our institution’s experience using prone positioning for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) to deliver post-lumpectomy whole breast irradiation (WBI) in a cohort of women with large and/or pendulous breasts, to determine the rate of acute and late toxicities and, more specifically, cosmetic outcomes. We hypothesized that using 3D-CRT for WBI in the prone position would reduce or eliminate patient and breast size as negative prognostic indicators for toxicities associated with WBI. Methods and Materials From 1998 to 2006, 110 cases were treated with prone WBI using 3D-CRT. The lumpectomy, breast target volumes, heart, and lung were contoured on all computed tomography scans. A dose of 45–50 Gy was prescribed to the breast volume using standard fractionation schemes. The planning goals were ≥95% of prescription to 95% of the breast volume, and 100% of boost dose to 95% of lumpectomy planning target volume. Toxicities and cosmesis were prospectively scored using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Effects Version 3.0 and the Harvard Scale. The median follow-up was 40 months. Results The median body mass index (BMI) was 33.6 kg/m2, and median breast volume was 1396 cm3. The worst toxicity encountered during radiation was Grade 3 dermatitis in 5% of our patient population. Moist desquamation occurred in 16% of patients, with only 2% of patients with moist desquamation outside the inframammary/axillary folds. Eleven percent of patients had Grade ≥2 late toxicities, including Grade 3 induration/fibrosis in 2%. Excellent to good cosmesis was achieved in 89%. Higher BMI was associated with moist desquamation and breast pain, but BMI and breast volume did not impact fibrosis or excellent to good cosmesis. Conclusion In patients with higher BMI and/or large–pendulous breasts, delivering prone WBI using 3D-CRT results in favorable toxicity profiles and high excellent to good cosmesis rates. Higher BMI was associated with moist

  1. Prone Whole-Breast Irradiation Using Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy in Women Undergoing Breast Conservation for Early Disease Yields High Rates of Excellent to Good Cosmetic Outcomes in Patients With Large and/or Pendulous Breasts

    SciTech Connect

    Bergom, Carmen; Kelly, Tracy; Morrow, Natalya; Wilson, J. Frank; Walker, Alonzo; Xiang Qun; Ahn, Kwang Woo; White, Julia

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To report our institution's experience using prone positioning for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) to deliver post-lumpectomy whole breast irradiation (WBI) in a cohort of women with large and/or pendulous breasts, to determine the rate of acute and late toxicities and, more specifically, cosmetic outcomes. We hypothesized that using 3D-CRT for WBI in the prone position would reduce or eliminate patient and breast size as negative prognostic indicators for toxicities associated with WBI. Methods and Materials: From 1998 to 2006, 110 cases were treated with prone WBI using 3D-CRT. The lumpectomy, breast target volumes, heart, and lung were contoured on all computed tomography scans. A dose of 45-50 Gy was prescribed to the breast volume using standard fractionation schemes. The planning goals were {>=}95% of prescription to 95% of the breast volume, and 100% of boost dose to 95% of lumpectomy planning target volume. Toxicities and cosmesis were prospectively scored using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Effects Version 3.0 and the Harvard Scale. The median follow-up was 40 months. Results: The median body mass index (BMI) was 33.6 kg/m{sup 2}, and median breast volume was 1396 cm{sup 3}. The worst toxicity encountered during radiation was Grade 3 dermatitis in 5% of our patient population. Moist desquamation occurred in 16% of patients, with only 2% of patients with moist desquamation outside the inframammary/axillary folds. Eleven percent of patients had Grade {>=}2 late toxicities, including Grade 3 induration/fibrosis in 2%. Excellent to good cosmesis was achieved in 89%. Higher BMI was associated with moist desquamation and breast pain, but BMI and breast volume did not impact fibrosis or excellent to good cosmesis. Conclusion: In patients with higher BMI and/or large-pendulous breasts, delivering prone WBI using 3D-CRT results in favorable toxicity profiles and high excellent to good cosmesis rates. Higher BMI was

  2. Historic macrophyte development in Par Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, J.B.

    1985-08-01

    Aerial photographs from 1975, 1980, and 1983 were examined to evaluate the changes that have occurred in the wetland vegetation of Par Pond, a reactor-cooling reservoir. Evaluation of the aerial photographs was based on comparisons with ground-level vegetation maps made during July 1984. Comparisons of photographs from August and December of 1983 revealed the main seasonal change in the aerial coverage of wetland vegetation to be the wintertime loss of non-persistent emergent species such as Nelumbo lutea and Nymphaea odorata. Comparisons between September 1980 and August 1983 revealed that the lakeward extent of non-persistent macrophytes has increased by an average of 8.2 m, though not all sites have changed equally. For persistent macrophytes (principally Typha), the average increase in lakeward extent between December 1975 and August 1983 was 3.48 m. The extensive development of wetland vegetation in Par Pond as well as the substantial spread of vegetation over only a few years time indicates the high suitability of this habitat for the growth of wetland plants.

  3. A Par-1-Par-3-Centrosome Cell Polarity Pathway and Its Tuning for Isotropic Cell Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tao; McKinley, R F Andrew; McGill, Melanie A; Angers, Stephane; Harris, Tony J C

    2015-10-19

    To form regulated barriers between body compartments, epithelial cells polarize into apical and basolateral domains and assemble adherens junctions (AJs). Despite close links with polarity networks that generate single polarized domains, AJs distribute isotropically around the cell circumference for adhesion with all neighboring cells [1-3]. How AJs avoid the influence of polarity networks to maintain their isotropy has been unclear. In established epithelia, trans cadherin interactions could maintain AJ isotropy [4], but AJs are dynamic during epithelial development and remodeling [5, 6], and thus specific mechanisms may control their isotropy. In Drosophila, aPKC prevents hyper-polarization of junctions as epithelia develop from cellularization to gastrulation [7]. Here, we show that aPKC does so by inhibiting a positive feedback loop between Bazooka (Baz)/Par-3, a junctional organizer [5, 8-10], and centrosomes. Without aPKC, Baz and centrosomes lose their isotropic distributions and recruit each other to single plasma membrane (PM) domains. Surprisingly, our loss- and gain-of-function analyses show that the Baz-centrosome positive feedback loop is driven by Par-1, a kinase known to phosphorylate Baz and inhibit its basolateral localization [8, 11, 12]. We find that Par-1 promotes the positive feedback loop through both centrosome microtubule effects and Baz phosphorylation. Normally, aPKC attenuates the circuit by expelling Par-1 from the apical domain at gastrulation. The combination of local activation and global inhibition is a common polarization strategy [13-16]. Par-1 seems to couple both effects for a potent Baz polarization mechanism that is regulated for the isotropy of Baz and AJs around the cell circumference. PMID:26455305

  4. An Explanation for Increasing PAR Reflectance When Plants Are Water Stressed: Implication for Remote/Nondestructive Measurement of Plant Photoprotective Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zygielbaum, A. I.; Arkebauer, T. J.; Walter-Shea, E. A.; Scoby, D. L.; Gitelson, A. A.

    2011-12-01

    Optical reflectance from leaf surfaces has been known for decades to increase with decreasing leaf water content. Experimental results show this increase consistently in maize in the visible (photosynthetically active radiation - PAR) and middle infrared (MIR) spectral regions and with weaker correlation in the near infrared (NIR) region. Changes in chlorophyll concentration have been shown to be too small to substantially contribute to increasing reflectance during the duration of these experiments. Therefore, the reflectance responses to water deficit are perplexing since reflectance in the PAR region is dominated by pigment absorption while reflectance in the MIR region is dominated by water molecule absorption. We report on recent experiments with maize which indicate that the reflectance changes during water stress in the PAR and MIR regions are due to changing optical absorption whilst those in the NIR region are due to changing optical scatter and, moreover, that reflectance in PAR and MIR is influenced by down-welling irradiance. The implication is that reflectance in PAR is influenced by both pigment absorption and plant stress level. These findings, with confirmation by microscopy, establish that increasing PAR reflectance induced by water stress results, primarily, from chloroplast avoidance movement, a plant photoprotective response, which decreases light absorption by pigments. We discuss the potential for using this phenomenon to detect and measure the level of plant stress.

  5. 2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) BARRACKS WITH RADAR ATTACHED. - Nike Hercules Missile Battery Summit Site, Battery Control Administration & Barracks Building, Anchorage, Anchorage, AK

  6. Culture and conservation

    SciTech Connect

    McNeely, J.A.; Pitt, D.

    1985-01-01

    The threat posed by human activity in the natural environment is one of the major global problems of the present time. Much has been done throughout the world to promote conservation, but one theme that has generally been neglected is the contribution that local culture can make to conservation. Many people pass on from one generation to the next traditional lore and customs which amount to effective conservation policies. This book identifies such traditional conservation measures, examines their extent, and judges their effectiveness.

  7. Conservation in Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Edward

    1991-01-01

    Discussed is the physical concept of conservation as it is framed within the laws of conservation of mass, of momentum, and of energy. The derivation of Ohm's Law as a generalization of the relationship between the observed measurements of voltage and current serves as the exemplar of how conservation theories are formed. (JJK)

  8. Conservation Action Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Rifle Association, Washington, DC.

    Conservation problems are identified, with some suggestions for action. General areas covered are: Wildlife Conservation, Soil Conservation, Clean Water, Air Pollution Action, and Outdoor Recreation Action. Appendices list private organizations or agencies concerned with natural resource use and/or management, congressional committees considering…

  9. Enhancement effect of irradiation by methotrexate

    SciTech Connect

    Shehata, W.M.; Meyer, R.L.

    1980-09-15

    Three cases are described in which complications developed which were believed to be due to the enhancement effect of irradiation by methotrexate during the course of therapy for lung, kidney, and bladder cancer. These included esophageal and large bowel complications. In two of these cases, the patients improved with conservative therapy.

  10. Identification of a Novel Regulatory Mechanism of Nutrient Transport Controlled by TORC1-Npr1-Amu1/Par32.

    PubMed

    Boeckstaens, Mélanie; Merhi, Ahmad; Llinares, Elisa; Van Vooren, Pascale; Springael, Jean-Yves; Wintjens, René; Marini, Anna Maria

    2015-07-01

    Fine-tuning the plasma-membrane permeability to essential nutrients is fundamental to cell growth optimization. Nutritional signals including nitrogen availability are integrated by the TORC1 complex which notably regulates arrestin-mediated endocytosis of amino-acid transporters. Ammonium is a ubiquitous compound playing key physiological roles in many, if not all, organisms. In yeast, it is a preferred nitrogen source transported by three Mep proteins which are orthologues of the mammalian Rhesus factors. By combining genetic, kinetic, biochemical and cell microscopy analyses, the current study reveals a novel mechanism enabling TORC1 to regulate the inherent activity of ammonium transport proteins, independently of arrestin-mediated endocytosis, identifying the still functional orphan Amu1/Par32 as a selective regulator intermediate. We show that, under poor nitrogen supply, the TORC1 effector kinase' Npr1' promotes phosphorylation of Amu1/Par32 which appears mainly cytosolic while ammonium transport proteins are active. Upon preferred nitrogen supplementation, like glutamine or ammonium addition, TORC1 upregulation enables Npr1 inhibition and Amu1/Par32 dephosphorylation. In these conditions, as in Npr1-lacking cells, hypophosphorylated Amu1/Par32 accumulates at the cell surface and mediates the inhibition of specific ammonium transport proteins. We show that the integrity of a conserved repeated motif of Amu1/Par32 is required for the interaction with these transport proteins. This study underscores the diversity of strategies enabling TORC1-Npr1 to selectively monitor cell permeability to nutrients by discriminating between transporters to be degraded or transiently inactivated and kept stable at the plasma membrane. This study further identifies the function of Amu1/Par32 in acute control of ammonium transport in response to variations in nitrogen availability. PMID:26172854

  11. Identification of a Novel Regulatory Mechanism of Nutrient Transport Controlled by TORC1-Npr1-Amu1/Par32

    PubMed Central

    Boeckstaens, Mélanie; Merhi, Ahmad; Llinares, Elisa; Van Vooren, Pascale; Springael, Jean-Yves; Wintjens, René; Marini, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    Fine-tuning the plasma-membrane permeability to essential nutrients is fundamental to cell growth optimization. Nutritional signals including nitrogen availability are integrated by the TORC1 complex which notably regulates arrestin-mediated endocytosis of amino-acid transporters. Ammonium is a ubiquitous compound playing key physiological roles in many, if not all, organisms. In yeast, it is a preferred nitrogen source transported by three Mep proteins which are orthologues of the mammalian Rhesus factors. By combining genetic, kinetic, biochemical and cell microscopy analyses, the current study reveals a novel mechanism enabling TORC1 to regulate the inherent activity of ammonium transport proteins, independently of arrestin-mediated endocytosis, identifying the still functional orphan Amu1/Par32 as a selective regulator intermediate. We show that, under poor nitrogen supply, the TORC1 effector kinase' Npr1' promotes phosphorylation of Amu1/Par32 which appears mainly cytosolic while ammonium transport proteins are active. Upon preferred nitrogen supplementation, like glutamine or ammonium addition, TORC1 upregulation enables Npr1 inhibition and Amu1/Par32 dephosphorylation. In these conditions, as in Npr1-lacking cells, hypophosphorylated Amu1/Par32 accumulates at the cell surface and mediates the inhibition of specific ammonium transport proteins. We show that the integrity of a conserved repeated motif of Amu1/Par32 is required for the interaction with these transport proteins. This study underscores the diversity of strategies enabling TORC1-Npr1 to selectively monitor cell permeability to nutrients by discriminating between transporters to be degraded or transiently inactivated and kept stable at the plasma membrane. This study further identifies the function of Amu1/Par32 in acute control of ammonium transport in response to variations in nitrogen availability. PMID:26172854

  12. Exactly conservative integrators

    SciTech Connect

    Shadwick, B.A.; Bowman, J.C.; Morrison, P.J.

    1995-07-19

    Traditional numerical discretizations of conservative systems generically yield an artificial secular drift of any nonlinear invariants. In this work we present an explicit nontraditional algorithm that exactly conserves invariants. We illustrate the general method by applying it to the Three-Wave truncation of the Euler equations, the Volterra-Lotka predator-prey model, and the Kepler problem. We discuss our method in the context of symplectic (phase space conserving) integration methods as well as nonsymplectic conservative methods. We comment on the application of our method to general conservative systems.

  13. Conservation: Toward firmer ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The following aspects of energy conservation were reviewed in order to place the problems in proper perspective: history and goals, conservation accounting-criteria, and a method to overcome obstacles. The effect of changing prices and available supplies of energy sources and their causes on consumption levels during the last few decades were described. Some examples of attainable conservation goals were listed and justified. A number of specific criteria applicable to conservation accounting were given. Finally, a discussion was presented to relate together the following aspects of energy conservation: widespread impact, involvement of government, industry, politics, moral and ethical aspects, urgency and time element.

  14. Transcriptome profiling reveals links between ParS/ParR, MexEF-OprN, and quorum sensing in the regulation of adaptation and virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The ParS/ParR two component regulatory system plays critical roles for multidrug resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It was demonstrated that in the presence of antimicrobials, ParR enhances bacterial survival by distinct mechanisms including activation of the mexXY efflux genes, enhancement of lipopolysaccharide modification through the arn operon, and reduction of the expression of oprD porin. Results In this study, we report on transcriptomic analyses of P. aeruginosa PAO1 wild type and parS and parR mutants growing in a defined minimal medium. Our transcriptomic analysis provides the first estimates of transcript abundance for the 5570 coding genes in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Comparative transcriptomics of P. aeruginosa PAO1 and par mutants identified a total of 464 genes regulated by ParS and ParR. Results also showed that mutations in the parS/parR system abolished expression of the mexEF-oprN operon by down-regulating the regulatory gene mexS. In addition to the known effects on drug resistance genes, transcript abundances of the quorum sensing genes (rhlIR and pqsABCDE-phnAB) were higher in both parS and parR mutants. In accordance with these results, a significant portion of the ParS/ParR regulated genes belonged to the MexEF-OprN and quorum sensing regulons. Deletion of the par genes also led to increased phenazine production and swarming motility, consistent with the up-regulation of the phenazine and rhamnolipid biosynthetic genes, respectively. Conclusion Our results link the ParS/ParR two component signal transduction system to MexEF-OprN and quorum sensing systems in P. aeruginosa. These results expand our understanding of the roles of the ParS/ParR system in the regulation of gene expression in P. aeruginosa, especially in the absence of antimicrobials. PMID:24034668

  15. Taare Zameen Par and dyslexic savants.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Ambar

    2009-04-01

    The film Taare Zameen Par (Stars upon the Ground) portrays the tormented life at school and at home of a child with dyslexia and his eventual success after his artistic talents are discovered by his art teacher at the boarding school. The film hints at a curious neurocognitive phenomenon of creativity in the midst of language disability, as exemplified in the lives of people like Leonardo da Vinci and Albert Einstein, both of whom demonstrated extraordinary creativity even though they were probably affected with developmental learning disorders. It has been hypothesized that a developmental delay in the dominant hemisphere most likely 'disinhibits' the nondominant parietal lobe, unmasking talents-artistic or otherwise-in some such individuals. It has been suggested that, in remedial training, children with learning disorders be encouraged to develop such hidden talents to full capacity, rather than be subjected to the usual overemphasis on the correction of the disturbed coded symbol operations. PMID:20142854

  16. Taare Zameen Par and dyslexic savants

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Ambar

    2009-01-01

    The film Taare Zameen Par (Stars upon the Ground) portrays the tormented life at school and at home of a child with dyslexia and his eventual success after his artistic talents are discovered by his art teacher at the boarding school. The film hints at a curious neurocognitive phenomenon of creativity in the midst of language disability, as exemplified in the lives of people like Leonardo da Vinci and Albert Einstein, both of whom demonstrated extraordinary creativity even though they were probably affected with developmental learning disorders. It has been hypothesized that a developmental delay in the dominant hemisphere most likely ‘disinhibits’ the nondominant parietal lobe, unmasking talents—artistic or otherwise—in some such individuals. It has been suggested that, in remedial training, children with learning disorders be encouraged to develop such hidden talents to full capacity, rather than be subjected to the usual overemphasis on the correction of the disturbed coded symbol operations. PMID:20142854

  17. Biased signaling: potential agonist and antagonist of PAR2.

    PubMed

    Kakarala, Kavita Kumari; Jamil, Kaiser

    2016-06-01

    Protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2) has emerged as one of the promising therapeutic targets to inhibit rapidly metastasizing breast cancer cells. However, its elusive molecular mechanism of activation and signaling has made it a difficult target for drug development. In this study, in silico methods were used to unfold PAR2 molecular mechanism of signaling based on the concept of GPCR receptor plasticity. Although, there are no conclusive evidences of the presence of specific endogenous ligands for PAR2, the efficacy of synthetic agonist and antagonist in PAR2 signaling has opened up the possibilities of ligand-mediated signaling. Furthermore, it has been proved that ligands specific for one GPCR can induce signaling in GPCRs belonging to other subfamilies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify potential agonists and antagonists from the GPCR ligand library (GLL), which may induce biased signaling in PAR2 using the concept of existence of multiple ligand-stabilized receptor conformations. The results of our in silico study suggest that PAR2 may show biased signaling mainly with agonists of serotonin type 1, β-adrenergic type 1,3 and antagonists of substance K (NK1), serotonin type 2, dopamine type 4, and thromboxane receptors. Further, this study also throws light on the putative ligand-specific conformations of PAR2. Thus, the results of this study provide structural insights to putative conformations of PAR2 and also gives initial clues to medicinal chemists for rational drug design targeting this challenging receptor. PMID:26295578

  18. Proteases in agricultural dust induce lung inflammation through PAR-1 and PAR-2 activation.

    PubMed

    Romberger, Debra J; Heires, Art J; Nordgren, Tara M; Souder, Chelsea P; West, William; Liu, Xiang-de; Poole, Jill A; Toews, Myron L; Wyatt, Todd A

    2015-08-15

    Workers exposed to aerosolized dust present in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are susceptible to inflammatory lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Extracts of dust collected from hog CAFOs [hog dust extract (HDE)] are potent stimulators of lung inflammatory responses in several model systems. The observation that HDE contains active proteases prompted the present study, which evaluated the role of CAFO dust proteases in lung inflammatory processes and tested whether protease-activated receptors (PARs) are involved in the signaling pathway for these events. We hypothesized that the damaging proinflammatory effect of HDE is due, in part, to the proteolytic activation of PARs, and inhibiting the proteases in HDE or disrupting PAR activation would attenuate HDE-mediated inflammatory indexes in bronchial epithelial cells (BECs), in mouse lung slices in vitro, and in a murine in vivo exposure model. Human BECs and mouse lung slice cultures stimulated with 5% HDE released significantly more of each of the cytokines measured (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, keratinocyte-derived chemokine/CXC chemokine ligand 1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2/CXC chemokine ligand 2) than controls, and these effects were markedly diminished by protease inhibition. Inhibition of PARs also blunted the HDE-induced cytokine release from BECs. In addition, protease depletion inhibited HDE-induced BEC intracellular PKCα and PKCε activation. C57BL/6J mice administered 12.5% HDE intranasally, either once or daily for 3 wk, exhibited increased total cellular and neutrophil influx, bronchial alveolar fluid inflammatory cytokines, lung histopathology, and inflammatory scores compared with mice receiving protease-depleted HDE. These data suggest that proteases in dust from CAFOs are important mediators of lung inflammation, and these proteases and their receptors may provide novel targets for therapeutic intervention in CAFO dust-induced airways disease. PMID

  19. Cancer-selective apoptosis by tumor suppressor par-4.

    PubMed

    Hebbar, Nikhil; Shrestha-Bhattarai, Tripti; Rangnekar, Vivek M

    2014-01-01

    Tumor suppressor genes play an important role in preventing neoplastic transformation and maintaining normal tissue homeostasis. Par-4 is one such tumor suppressor which is unique in its ability to selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells while leaving the normal cells unaffected. The cancer cell specific activity of Par-4 is elicited through intracellular as well as extracellular mechanisms. Intracellularly Par-4 acts through the inhibition of pro-survival pathways and activation of Fas mediated apoptosis whereas extracellular (secreted Par-4) acts by binding to cell surface GRP78 leading to activation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Many studies have highlighted the importance of Par-4 not only in preventing cancer development/recurrence but also as a promising anticancer therapeutic agent. PMID:25001535

  20. 7 CFR 12.23 - Conservation plans and conservation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conservation plans and conservation systems. 12.23 Section 12.23 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION Highly Erodible Land Conservation § 12.23 Conservation plans and conservation systems. (a) Use of field office technical guide. A...

  1. Recombination in the Human Pseudoautosomal Region PAR1

    PubMed Central

    Hinch, Anjali G.; Altemose, Nicolas; Noor, Nudrat; Donnelly, Peter; Myers, Simon R.

    2014-01-01

    The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) is a short region of homology between the mammalian X and Y chromosomes, which has undergone rapid evolution. A crossover in the PAR is essential for the proper disjunction of X and Y chromosomes in male meiosis, and PAR deletion results in male sterility. This leads the human PAR with the obligatory crossover, PAR1, to having an exceptionally high male crossover rate, which is 17-fold higher than the genome-wide average. However, the mechanism by which this obligatory crossover occurs remains unknown, as does the fine-scale positioning of crossovers across this region. Recent research in mice has suggested that crossovers in PAR may be mediated independently of the protein PRDM9, which localises virtually all crossovers in the autosomes. To investigate recombination in this region, we construct the most fine-scale genetic map containing directly observed crossovers to date using African-American pedigrees. We leverage recombination rates inferred from the breakdown of linkage disequilibrium in human populations and investigate the signatures of DNA evolution due to recombination. Further, we identify direct PRDM9 binding sites using ChIP-seq in human cells. Using these independent lines of evidence, we show that, in contrast with mouse, PRDM9 does localise peaks of recombination in the human PAR1. We find that recombination is a far more rapid and intense driver of sequence evolution in PAR1 than it is on the autosomes. We also show that PAR1 hotspot activities differ significantly among human populations. Finally, we find evidence that PAR1 hotspot positions have changed between human and chimpanzee, with no evidence of sharing among the hottest hotspots. We anticipate that the genetic maps built and validated in this work will aid research on this vital and fascinating region of the genome. PMID:25033397

  2. Recombination in the human Pseudoautosomal region PAR1.

    PubMed

    Hinch, Anjali G; Altemose, Nicolas; Noor, Nudrat; Donnelly, Peter; Myers, Simon R

    2014-07-01

    The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) is a short region of homology between the mammalian X and Y chromosomes, which has undergone rapid evolution. A crossover in the PAR is essential for the proper disjunction of X and Y chromosomes in male meiosis, and PAR deletion results in male sterility. This leads the human PAR with the obligatory crossover, PAR1, to having an exceptionally high male crossover rate, which is 17-fold higher than the genome-wide average. However, the mechanism by which this obligatory crossover occurs remains unknown, as does the fine-scale positioning of crossovers across this region. Recent research in mice has suggested that crossovers in PAR may be mediated independently of the protein PRDM9, which localises virtually all crossovers in the autosomes. To investigate recombination in this region, we construct the most fine-scale genetic map containing directly observed crossovers to date using African-American pedigrees. We leverage recombination rates inferred from the breakdown of linkage disequilibrium in human populations and investigate the signatures of DNA evolution due to recombination. Further, we identify direct PRDM9 binding sites using ChIP-seq in human cells. Using these independent lines of evidence, we show that, in contrast with mouse, PRDM9 does localise peaks of recombination in the human PAR1. We find that recombination is a far more rapid and intense driver of sequence evolution in PAR1 than it is on the autosomes. We also show that PAR1 hotspot activities differ significantly among human populations. Finally, we find evidence that PAR1 hotspot positions have changed between human and chimpanzee, with no evidence of sharing among the hottest hotspots. We anticipate that the genetic maps built and validated in this work will aid research on this vital and fascinating region of the genome. PMID:25033397

  3. Circulating suPAR in Two Cohorts of Primary FSGS

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Changli; Trachtman, Howard; Li, Jing; Dong, Chuanhui; Friedman, Aaron L.; Gassman, Jennifer J.; McMahan, June L.; Radeva, Milena; Heil, Karsten M.; Trautmann, Agnes; Anarat, Ali; Emre, Sevinc; Ghiggeri, Gian M.; Ozaltin, Fatih; Haffner, Dieter; Gipson, Debbie S.; Kaskel, Frederick; Fischer, Dagmar-Christiane; Schaefer, Franz

    2012-01-01

    Overexpression of soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) causes pathology in animal models similar to primary FSGS, and one recent study demonstrated elevated levels of serum suPAR in patients with the disease. Here, we analyzed circulating suPAR levels in two cohorts of children and adults with biopsy-proven primary FSGS: 70 patients from the North America–based FSGS clinical trial (CT) and 94 patients from PodoNet, the Europe-based consortium studying steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. Circulating suPAR levels were elevated in 84.3% and 55.3% of patients with FSGS patients in the CT and PodoNet cohorts, respectively, compared with 6% of controls (P<0.0001); inflammation did not account for this difference. Multiple regression analysis suggested that lower suPAR levels associated with higher estimated GFR, male sex, and treatment with mycophenolate mofetil. In the CT cohort, there was a positive association between the relative reduction of suPAR after 26 weeks of treatment and reduction of proteinuria, with higher odds for complete remission (P=0.04). In the PodoNet cohort, patients with an NPHS2 mutation had higher suPAR levels than those without a mutation. In conclusion, suPAR levels are elevated in geographically and ethnically diverse patients with FSGS and do not reflect a nonspecific proinflammatory milieu. The associations between a change in circulating suPAR with different therapeutic regimens and with remission support the role of suPAR in the pathogenesis of FSGS. PMID:23138488

  4. Circulating suPAR in two cohorts of primary FSGS.

    PubMed

    Wei, Changli; Trachtman, Howard; Li, Jing; Dong, Chuanhui; Friedman, Aaron L; Gassman, Jennifer J; McMahan, June L; Radeva, Milena; Heil, Karsten M; Trautmann, Agnes; Anarat, Ali; Emre, Sevinc; Ghiggeri, Gian M; Ozaltin, Fatih; Haffner, Dieter; Gipson, Debbie S; Kaskel, Frederick; Fischer, Dagmar-Christiane; Schaefer, Franz; Reiser, Jochen

    2012-12-01

    Overexpression of soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) causes pathology in animal models similar to primary FSGS, and one recent study demonstrated elevated levels of serum suPAR in patients with the disease. Here, we analyzed circulating suPAR levels in two cohorts of children and adults with biopsy-proven primary FSGS: 70 patients from the North America-based FSGS clinical trial (CT) and 94 patients from PodoNet, the Europe-based consortium studying steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. Circulating suPAR levels were elevated in 84.3% and 55.3% of patients with FSGS patients in the CT and PodoNet cohorts, respectively, compared with 6% of controls (P<0.0001); inflammation did not account for this difference. Multiple regression analysis suggested that lower suPAR levels associated with higher estimated GFR, male sex, and treatment with mycophenolate mofetil. In the CT cohort, there was a positive association between the relative reduction of suPAR after 26 weeks of treatment and reduction of proteinuria, with higher odds for complete remission (P=0.04). In the PodoNet cohort, patients with an NPHS2 mutation had higher suPAR levels than those without a mutation. In conclusion, suPAR levels are elevated in geographically and ethnically diverse patients with FSGS and do not reflect a nonspecific proinflammatory milieu. The associations between a change in circulating suPAR with different therapeutic regimens and with remission support the role of suPAR in the pathogenesis of FSGS. PMID:23138488

  5. Condensation and localization of the partitioning protein ParB on the bacterial chromosome.

    PubMed

    Broedersz, Chase P; Wang, Xindan; Meir, Yigal; Loparo, Joseph J; Rudner, David Z; Wingreen, Ned S

    2014-06-17

    The ParABS system mediates chromosome segregation and plasmid partitioning in many bacteria. As part of the partitioning mechanism, ParB proteins form a nucleoprotein complex at parS sites. The biophysical basis underlying ParB-DNA complex formation and localization remains elusive. Specifically, it is unclear whether ParB spreads in 1D along DNA or assembles into a 3D protein-DNA complex. We show that a combination of 1D spreading bonds and a single 3D bridging bond between ParB proteins constitutes a minimal model for a condensed ParB-DNA complex. This model implies a scaling behavior for ParB-mediated silencing of parS-flanking genes, which we confirm to be satisfied by experimental data from P1 plasmids. Furthermore, this model is consistent with experiments on the effects of DNA roadblocks on ParB localization. Finally, we show experimentally that a single parS site is necessary and sufficient for ParB-DNA complex formation in vivo. Together with our model, this suggests that ParB binding to parS triggers a conformational switch in ParB that overcomes a nucleation barrier. Conceptually, the combination of spreading and bridging bonds in our model provides a surface tension ensuring the condensation of the ParB-DNA complex, with analogies to liquid-like compartments such as nucleoli in eukaryotes. PMID:24927534

  6. Anti-Urokinase Receptor Antisense Oligonucleotide (uPAR-aODN) to Prevent and Cure Long-Term Space Exploration-Related Retinal Pathological Angiogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzarano, Stefano; Lulli, Matteo; Fibbi, Gabriella; Margheri, Francesca; Papucci, Laura; Serrati, Simona; Witort, Ewa; Chilla, Anastasia; Lapucci, Andrea; Donnini, Martino; Quaglierini, Paolo; Romiti, Alice; Specogna, Rebecca; Del Rosso, Mario; Capaccioli, Sergio

    2008-06-01

    Angiogenesis underlies a variety of physiological processes and its possible deregulation during long term space exploration needs to be investigated. Angiogenesis is a multistep process of new blood capillary formation, where degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) by proteolytic enzymes, including uPA (urokinase plasminogen activator) and opening the way to migration of endothelial cells (EC), is critical. Plasminogen activation system regulates angiogenesis by both uPA-driven ECM degradation and uPA receptor (uPAR). Microgravity and low dose irradiations promote tissue neoangiogeenesis and neovascularization is often common occurence in ophthalmologic pathologies. We have designed and patented the uPAR antisense oligonucleotide (aODN) and evaluated its antiangiogenetic activity by EC cellular migration and capillary morphogenesis assays. The uPAR aODN treatment caused a 75% inhibition of human microvascular EC migration and a complete inhibition of capillary morphogenesis, suggesting its therapeutic application to prevent neoangiogenesis-related ophthalmologic pathologies during space exploration.

  7. SPRY1 promotes the degradation of uPAR and inhibits uPAR-mediated cell adhesion and proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiufeng; Lan, Yan; Zhang, Di; Wang, Kai; Wang, Yao; Hua, Zi-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a GPI anchored cell surface protein that is closely associated with invasion, migration, and metastasis of cancer cells. Many functional extracellular proteins and transmembrane receptors interact with uPAR. However, few studies have examined the association of uPAR with cytoplasm proteins. We previously used yeast two-hybrid screening to isolate several novel uPAR-interacting cytoplasmic proteins, including Sprouty1 (SPRY1), an inhibitor of the (Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase) MAPK pathway. In this study, we show that SPRY1 interacts with uPAR and directs it toward lysosomal-mediated degradation. Overexpression of SPRY1 decreased the cell surface and cytoplasmic uPAR protein level. Moreover, SPRY1 overexpression augmented uPAR-induced cell adhesion to vitronectin as well as proliferation of cancer cells. Our results also further support the critical role of SPRY1 contribution to tumor growth. In a subcutaneous tumor model, overexpression of SPRY1 in HCT116 or A549 xenograft in athymic nude mice led to great suppression of tumor growth. These results show that SPRY1 may affect tumor cell function through direct interaction with uPAR and promote its lysosomal degradation. PMID:25520860

  8. Conservation: Toward firmer ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The following aspects of energy conservation were discussed: conservation history and goals, conservation modes, conservation accounting-criteria, and a method to overcome obstacles. The conservation modes tested fall into one of the following categories: reduced energy consumption, increased efficiency of energy utilization, or substitution of one or more forms of energy for another which is in shorter supply or in some sense thought to be of more value. The conservation accounting criteria include net energy reduction, economic, and technical criteria. A method to overcome obstacles includes (approaches such as: direct personal impact (life style, income, security, aspiration), an element of crisis, large scale involvement of environmental, safety, and health issues, connections to big government, big business, big politics, involvement of known and speculative science and technology, appeal to moral and ethical standards, the transient nature of opportunities to correct the system.

  9. Traitement des fractures des plateaux externes par vissage percutané assisté par arthroscopie

    PubMed Central

    Abouchane, Merouane; Belmoubarik, Amine; Benameur, Hamza; Haddoun, Ahmed Reda; Nechad, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Le but de notre étude est d'évaluer les résultats de fractures des plateaux tibiaux externes traitées par ostéosynthèse percutanée assistée par arthroscopie. Dix patients (8 hommes et 2 femmes) de 32 ans en moyenne ont subi cette intervention afin de réparer des fractures des plateaux tibiaux Schatzker I-III. Après avoir appliqué un garrot pneumatique, nous avons réduit et fixé la fracture au moyen de vis cannelées souschondrales. Lésions associées retrouvent deux lésions partielles du ménisque externe ont été retrouvé, traitées par résection partielle. Une orthèse de genou été de mise à but antalgique et protectrice pendant six semaines avec béquillage et interdiction de l'appui pour une durée de douze semaines avec reprise d'appui partiel au delà. La durée d'hospitalisation été d'une moyenne de cinq jours. La rééducation passive a été commence le lendemain de l'intervention et continuait dans chez un kinésithérapeute à la sortie du patient du service. Le suivi été à J7, J15, 1mois, 3mois, 6 mois puis tous les 6 mois. Neuf de nos patients ont été revu régulièrement sauf un perdu de vue. Le recul moyen de notre série été de 16 mois (10 et 24 mois). Le score de Lysholm a été utilisé pour évaluer les résultats cliniques chez nos neuf patients: excellent chez trois patients bons chez trois moyen chez un seul et mauvais chez deux patients. Tous nos neuf patients ont consolidé (figure 10 contrôle scopique d un article). Aucune gonarthrose n'a été note chez nos neuf patients due essentiellement au recul moyen faible de 16 mois. Le traitement des fractures des plateaux tibiaux externes assisté par arthroscopie produit des résultats satisfaisants et peut être accepté comme solution de rechange efficace au traitement des fractures des plateaux tibiaux causées par un choc de faible énergie. PMID:26587137

  10. Control of cleavage spindle orientation in Caenorhabditis elegans: The role of the genes par-2 and par-3

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, N.N.; Kirby, C.M.; Kemphues, K.J.

    1995-02-01

    Polarized asymmetric divisions play important roles in the development of plants and animals. The first two embryonic cleavages of Caenorhabditis elegans provide an opportunity to study the mechanisms controlling polarized asymmetric divisions. The first cleavage is unequal, producing daughters with different sizes and fates. The daughter blastomeres divide with different orientations at the second cleavage; the anterior blastomere divides equally across the long axis of the egg, whereas the posterior blastomere divides unequally along the long axis. We report here the results of our analysis of the genes par-2 and par-3 with respect to their contribution to the polarity of these divisions. Strong loss-of-function mutations in both genes lead to an equal first cleavage and an altered second cleavage. Interestingly, the mutations exhibit striking gene-specific differences at the second cleavage. The par-2 mutations lead to transverse spindle orientations in both blastomeres, whereas par-3 mutations lead to longitudinal spindle orientations in both blastomeres. The spindle orientation defects correlate with defects in centrosome movements during both the first and the second cell cycle. Temperature shift experiments with par-2 (it5ts) indicate that the par-2(+) activity is not required after the two-cell stage. Analysis of double mutants shows that par-3 is epistatic to par-2. We propose a model wherein par-2(+) and par-3(+) act in concert during the first cell cycle to affect asymmetric modification of the cytoskeleton. This polar modification leads to different behaviors of centrosomes in the anterior and posterior and leads ultimately to blastomere-specific spindle orientations at the second cleavage. 44 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymer is a death signal

    PubMed Central

    Andrabi, Shaida A.; Kim, No Soo; Yu, Seong-Woon; Wang, Hongmin; Koh, David W.; Sasaki, Masayuki; Klaus, Judith A.; Otsuka, Takashi; Zhang, Zhizheng; Koehler, Raymond C.; Hurn, Patricia D.; Poirier, Guy G.; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.

    2006-01-01

    Excessive activation of the nuclear enzyme, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) plays a prominent role in various of models of cellular injury. Here, we identify poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymer, a product of PARP-1 activity, as a previously uncharacterized cell death signal. PAR polymer is directly toxic to neurons, and degradation of PAR polymer by poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) or phosphodiesterase 1 prevents PAR polymer-induced cell death. PARP-1-dependent, NMDA excitotoxicity of cortical neurons is reduced by neutralizing antibodies to PAR and by overexpression of PARG. Neuronal cultures with reduced levels of PARG are more sensitive to NMDA excitotoxicity than WT cultures. Transgenic mice overexpressing PARG have significantly reduced infarct volumes after focal ischemia. Conversely, mice with reduced levels of PARG have significantly increased infarct volumes after focal ischemia compared with WT littermate controls. These results reveal PAR polymer as a signaling molecule that induces cell death and suggests that interference with PAR polymer signaling may offer innovative therapeutic approaches for the treatment of cellular injury. PMID:17116882

  12. Biodiversity Conservation and Conservation Biotechnology Tools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This special issue is dedicated to the in vitro tools and methods used to conserve the genetic diversity of rare and threatened species from around the world. Species that are on the brink of extinction, due to the rapid loss of genetic diversity and habitat, come mainly from resource poor areas the...

  13. Multi-scale photoacoustic remote sensing (PARS) (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haji Reza, Parsin; Bell, Kevan; Shi, W.; Zemp, Roger J.

    2016-03-01

    We introduce a novel multi-scale photoacoustic remote sensing (PARS) imaging system. Our system can provide optical resolution details for superficial structures as well as acoustic resolution for deep-tissue imaging down to 5 cm, in a non-contact setting. PARS system does not require any contact with the sample or ultrasound coupling medium. The optical resolution PARS (OR-OARS) system uses optically focused pulsed excitation with optical detection of photoacoustic signatures using a long-coherence interrogation beam co-focused and co-scanned with the excitation spot. In the OR-PARS initial pressures are sampled right at their subsurface origin where acoustic pressures are largest. The Acoustic resolution PARS (AR-PARS) picks up the surface oscillation of the tissue caused by generated photoacoustic signal using a modified version of Michelson interferometry. By taking advantage of 4-meters polarization maintaining single-mode fiber and a green fiber laser we have generated a multi-wavelength source using stimulated Raman scattering. Remote functional imaging using this multi-wavelength excitation source and PARS detection mechanism has been demonstrated. The oxygen saturation estimations are shown for both phantom and in vivo studies. Images of blood vessel structures for an In vivo chicken embryo model is demonstrated. The Phantom studies indicates ~3µm and ~300µm lateral resolution for OR-PARS and AR-PARS respectively. To the best of our knowledge this is the first dual modality non-contact optical and acoustic resolution system used for in vivo imaging.

  14. Protease-Activated Receptor (PAR)2, but Not PAR1, Is Involved in Collateral Formation and Anti-Inflammatory Monocyte Polarization in a Mouse Hind Limb Ischemia Model

    PubMed Central

    Nossent, Anne Yael; van Oeveren-Rietdijk, Annemarie M.; de Vries, Margreet R.; Spek, C. Arnold; van Zonneveld, Anton Jan; Reitsma, Pieter H.; Hamming, Jaap F.; de Boer, Hetty C.; Versteeg, Henri H.; Quax, Paul H. A.

    2013-01-01

    Aims In collateral development (i.e. arteriogenesis), mononuclear cells are important and exist as a heterogeneous population consisting of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory/repair-associated cells. Protease-activated receptor (PAR)1 and PAR2 are G-protein-coupled receptors that are both expressed by mononuclear cells and are involved in pro-inflammatory reactions, while PAR2 also plays a role in repair-associated responses. Here, we investigated the physiological role of PAR1 and PAR2 in arteriogenesis in a murine hind limb ischemia model. Methods and Results PAR1-deficient (PAR1-/-), PAR2-deficient (PAR2-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice underwent femoral artery ligation. Laser Doppler measurements revealed reduced post-ischemic blood flow recovery in PAR2-/- hind limbs when compared to WT, while PAR1-/- mice were not affected. Upon ischemia, reduced numbers of smooth muscle actin (SMA)-positive collaterals and CD31-positive capillaries were found in PAR2-/- mice when compared to WT mice, whereas these parameters in PAR1-/- mice did not differ from WT mice. The pool of circulating repair-associated (Ly6C-low) monocytes and the number of repair-associated (CD206-positive) macrophages surrounding collaterals in the hind limbs were increased in WT and PAR1-/- mice, but unaffected in PAR2-/- mice. The number of repair-associated macrophages in PAR2-/- hind limbs correlated with CD11b- and CD115-expression on the circulating monocytes in these animals, suggesting that monocyte extravasation and M-CSF-dependent differentiation into repair-associated cells are hampered. Conclusion PAR2, but not PAR1, is involved in arteriogenesis and promotes the repair-associated response in ischemic tissues. Therefore, PAR2 potentially forms a new pro-arteriogenic target in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. PMID:23637930

  15. Novel Role for Proteinase-activated Receptor 2 (PAR2) in Membrane Trafficking of Proteinase-activated Receptor 4 (PAR4)*

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Margaret R.; McIntosh, Kathryn A.; Pediani, John D.; Robben, Joris; Cooke, Alexandra E.; Nilsson, Mary; Gould, Gwyn W.; Mundell, Stuart; Milligan, Graeme; Plevin, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Proteinase-activated receptors 4 (PAR4) is a class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) recognized through the ability of serine proteases such as thrombin and trypsin to mediate receptor activation. Due to the irreversible nature of activation, a fresh supply of receptor is required to be mobilized to the cell surface for responsiveness to agonist to be sustained. Unlike other PAR subtypes, the mechanisms regulating receptor trafficking of PAR4 remain unknown. Here, we report novel features of the intracellular trafficking of PAR4 to the plasma membrane. PAR4 was poorly expressed at the plasma membrane and largely retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in a complex with the COPI protein subunit β-COP1. Analysis of the PAR4 protein sequence identified an arginine-based (RXR) ER retention sequence located within intracellular loop-2 (R183AR → A183AA), mutation of which allowed efficient membrane delivery of PAR4. Interestingly, co-expression with PAR2 facilitated plasma membrane delivery of PAR4, an effect produced through disruption of β-COP1 binding and facilitation of interaction with the chaperone protein 14-3-3ζ. Intermolecular FRET studies confirmed heterodimerization between PAR2 and PAR4. PAR2 also enhanced glycosylation of PAR4 and activation of PAR4 signaling. Our results identify a novel regulatory role for PAR2 in the anterograde traffic of PAR4. PAR2 was shown to both facilitate and abrogate protein interactions with PAR4, impacting upon receptor localization and cell signal transduction. This work is likely to impact markedly upon the understanding of the receptor pharmacology of PAR4 in normal physiology and disease. PMID:22411985

  16. Novel role for proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) in membrane trafficking of proteinase-activated receptor 4 (PAR4).

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Margaret R; McIntosh, Kathryn A; Pediani, John D; Robben, Joris; Cooke, Alexandra E; Nilsson, Mary; Gould, Gwyn W; Mundell, Stuart; Milligan, Graeme; Plevin, Robin

    2012-05-11

    Proteinase-activated receptors 4 (PAR(4)) is a class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) recognized through the ability of serine proteases such as thrombin and trypsin to mediate receptor activation. Due to the irreversible nature of activation, a fresh supply of receptor is required to be mobilized to the cell surface for responsiveness to agonist to be sustained. Unlike other PAR subtypes, the mechanisms regulating receptor trafficking of PAR(4) remain unknown. Here, we report novel features of the intracellular trafficking of PAR(4) to the plasma membrane. PAR(4) was poorly expressed at the plasma membrane and largely retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in a complex with the COPI protein subunit β-COP1. Analysis of the PAR(4) protein sequence identified an arginine-based (RXR) ER retention sequence located within intracellular loop-2 (R(183)AR → A(183)AA), mutation of which allowed efficient membrane delivery of PAR(4). Interestingly, co-expression with PAR(2) facilitated plasma membrane delivery of PAR(4), an effect produced through disruption of β-COP1 binding and facilitation of interaction with the chaperone protein 14-3-3ζ. Intermolecular FRET studies confirmed heterodimerization between PAR(2) and PAR(4). PAR(2) also enhanced glycosylation of PAR(4) and activation of PAR(4) signaling. Our results identify a novel regulatory role for PAR(2) in the anterograde traffic of PAR(4). PAR(2) was shown to both facilitate and abrogate protein interactions with PAR(4), impacting upon receptor localization and cell signal transduction. This work is likely to impact markedly upon the understanding of the receptor pharmacology of PAR(4) in normal physiology and disease. PMID:22411985

  17. Predicted PAR1 inhibitors from multiple computational methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Jinfeng; Zhu, Tong; Zhang, Lujia; He, Xiao; Zhang, John Z. H.

    2016-08-01

    Multiple computational approaches are employed in order to find potentially strong binders of PAR1 from the two molecular databases: the Specs database containing more than 200,000 commercially available molecules and the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) database. By combining the use of popular docking scoring functions together with detailed molecular dynamics simulation and protein-ligand free energy calculations, a total of fourteen molecules are found to be potentially strong binders of PAR1. The atomic details in protein-ligand interactions of these molecules with PAR1 are analyzed to help understand the binding mechanism which should be very useful in design of new drugs.

  18. Conservation Science Fair Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    Included are ideas, suggestions, and examples for selecting and designing conservation science projects. Over 70 possible conservation subject areas are presented with suggested projects. References are cited with each of these subject areas, and a separate list of annotated references is included. The references pertain to general subject…

  19. Creative Soil Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Martha

    2010-01-01

    Take plant lessons outdoors with this engaging and inquiry-based activity in which third-grade students learn how to apply soil conservation methods to growing plants. They also collect data and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of their method of soil conservation. An added benefit to this activity is that the third-grade students played…

  20. On exactly conservative integrators

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, J.C.; Shadwick, B.A.; Morrison, P.J.

    1997-06-01

    Traditional explicit numerical discretizations of conservative systems generically predict artificial secular drifts of nonlinear invariants. These algorithms are based on polynomial functions of the time step. The authors discuss a general approach for developing explicit algorithms that conserve such invariants exactly. They illustrate the method by applying it to the truncated two-dimensional Euler equations.

  1. Introducing Conservation of Momentum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunt, Marjorie; Brunt, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    The teaching of the principle of conservation of linear momentum is considered (ages 15 + ). From the principle, the momenta of two masses in an isolated system are considered. Sketch graphs of the momenta make Newton's laws appear obvious. Examples using different collision conditions are considered. Conservation of momentum is considered…

  2. Conservation in perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, A.; Goldsmith, F.B.; Goldsmith, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book reflects the changes that have taken place in the nature conservation movement over the last decade. It includes essays on issues of nature conservation itself, rather than on environmental issues. Habitats, elements of the ecosystem, and some of the political and organizational activity currently of interest are covered.

  3. Resource Conservation Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    This glossary is a composite of terms selected from 13 technologies, and is the expanded revision of the original 1952 edition of "The Soil and Water Conservation Glossary." The terms were selected from these areas: agronomy, biology, conservation, ecology, economics, engineering, forestry, geology, hydrology, range, recreation, soils, and…

  4. The Syntax of Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargis, Charles H.

    This paper outlines the syntactic structures which represent a stage in the cognitive development of children, and focusses on an aspect of cognitive development known as conservation. The cognitive components of conservation are presented as the primordial base for the set of syntactic structures which map or mirror them. Piaget proposed four…

  5. Conservation and Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backus, Mary Giafagleone

    In this study it was hypothesized that those students classified as conservers would score significantly higher on cloze passages related to the concepts of number, quantity, and volume than would those students classified as non-conservers. The subjects consisted of a group of 42 sixth grade urban public school students judged to be of low socio…

  6. Conservation in transportation

    SciTech Connect

    1980-05-30

    A nationwide examination was made of grassroots energy conservation programs related to transportation. Information compiled from civic groups, trade associations, and corporations is included on driver awareness/mass transit; travel; and ride sharing. It is concluded that a willingness by the public to cooperate in transportation energy conservation exists and should be exploited. (LCL)

  7. Water Conservation Resource List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NJEA Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Alarmed by the growing water shortage, the New Jersey State Office of Dissemination has prepared this annotated list of free or inexpensive instructional materials for teaching about water conservation, K-l2. A tipsheet for home water conservation is appended. (Editor/SJL)

  8. Conservation--Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Conservation Foundation, Parkville, Victoria.

    Developed by the Australian Conservation Foundation to meet the need for a general conservation bibliography, this booklet offers resources for a wide spectrum of possible users. Material selected is that which is relevant and helpful for conservationists in their various fields of activity and what is likely to be in print and obtainable without…

  9. Home Energy Conservation Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLuca, V. William; And Others

    This guide was prepared to support a program of training for community specialists in contemporary and practical techniques of home energy conservation. It is designed to assist professionals in efficient operation of energy conservation programs and to provide ideas for expanding education operations. Eight major sections are presented: (1)…

  10. Conservation: Threatened by Luxury.

    PubMed

    Webb, Thomas J

    2016-06-20

    When animals are traded in lucrative international luxury markets, individuals really do matter to conservation. Identifying the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that make some species especially vulnerable to this kind of threat helps set guidelines for more effective conservation. PMID:27326710

  11. Ecologically relevant UV-B dose combined with high PAR intensity distinctly affect plant growth and accumulation of secondary metabolites in leaves of Centella asiatica L. Urban.

    PubMed

    Müller, Viola; Albert, Andreas; Barbro Winkler, J; Lankes, Christa; Noga, Georg; Hunsche, Mauricio

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the effects of environmentally relevant dose of ultraviolet (UV)-B and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) on saponin accumulation in leaves on the example of Centella asiatica L. Urban. For this purpose, plants were exposed to one of four light regimes i.e., two PAR intensities with or without UV-B radiation. The experiment was conducted in technically complex sun simulators under almost natural irradiance and climatic conditions. As observed, UV-B radiation increased herb and leaf production as well as the content of epidermal flavonols, which was monitored by non-destructive fluorescence measurements. Specific fluorescence indices also indicate an increase in the content of anthocyanins under high PAR; this increase was likewise observed for the saponin concentrations. In contrast, UV-B radiation had no distinct effects on saponin and sapogenin concentrations. Our findings suggest that besides flavonoids, also saponins were accumulated under high PAR protecting the plant from oxidative damage. Furthermore, glycosylation of sapogenins seems to be important either for the protective function and/or for compartmentalization of the compounds. Moreover, our study revealed that younger leaves contain higher amounts of saponins, while in older leaves the sapogenins were the most abundant constituents. Concluding, our results proof that ambient dose of UV-B and high PAR intensity distinctly affect the accumulation of flavonoids and saponins, enabling the plant tissue to adapt to the light conditions. PMID:24044900

  12. Conservative mastectomies: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Nava, Maurizio Bruno; Catanuto, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Conservative mastectomies provide removal of the entire breast parenchyma, saving the outer covering of the mammary gland with the possibility of performing an immediate reconstruction preserving women body image. We rationalised and systematically organized our reconstructive algorythms giving a new different light to mastectomies, the so-called “conservative mastectomies”, an oxymoron indicating skin-sparing mastectomies (SSM), nipple-areola complex-sparing mastectomies (NSM) and skin-reducing mastectomies (SRM). Eventhough randomized controlled trials comparing conservative mastectomies with traditional mastectomy and breast conserving surgery would be auspicable in order to achieve higher levels of evidence, we could confidently conclude that conservative mastectomies offer the psychological advantages of good cosmesis and maintenance of woman body image without compromising the oncological safety of mastectomy. PMID:26645000

  13. Wilderness and biodiversity conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittermeier, R. A.; Mittermeier, C. G.; Brooks, T. M.; Pilgrim, J. D.; Konstant, W. R.; da Fonseca, G. A. B.; Kormos, C.

    2003-09-01

    Human pressure threatens many species and ecosystems, so conservation efforts necessarily prioritize saving them. However, conservation should clearly be proactive wherever possible. In this article, we assess the biodiversity conservation value, and specifically the irreplaceability in terms of species endemism, of those of the planet's ecosystems that remain intact. We find that 24 wilderness areas, all > 1 million hectares, are > 70% intact and have human densities of less than or equal to five people per km2. This wilderness covers 44% of all land but is inhabited by only 3% of people. Given this sparse population, wilderness conservation is cost-effective, especially if ecosystem service value is incorporated. Soberingly, however, most wilderness is not speciose: only 18% of plants and 10% of terrestrial vertebrates are endemic to individual wildernesses, the majority restricted to Amazonia, Congo, New Guinea, the Miombo-Mopane woodlands, and the North American deserts. Global conservation strategy must target these five wildernesses while continuing to prioritize threatened biodiversity hotspots.

  14. Use of Irradiated Foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brynjolfsson, A.

    1985-01-01

    The safety of irradiated foods is reviewed. Guidelines and regulations for processing irradiated foods are considered. The radiolytic products formed in food when it is irradiated and its wholesomeness is discussed. It is concluded that food irradiation processing is not a panacea for all problems in food processing but when properly used will serve the space station well.

  15. Protection des ions organiques contre les dommages induits a l'ADN par les electrons de basse energie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, Ariane

    'ADN de differentes epaisseurs, possedant entre 0 et 32 ions organiques/ nucleotide, ont ete irradies avec des electrons de 10eV. Les dommages induits par les electrons, sous forme de cassures, ont ete detectes par electrophorese. Nous avons demontre que le rendement de cassure simple brin diminuait de facon dramatique en fonction du nombre d'ions organiques/ nucleotide. Aussi peu que 2 ions organiques/ nucleotide sont suffisant pour decroitre le rendement de SSB de 70%. Cet effet radioprotecteur est en partie explique par l'augmentation de l'epaisseur des films, mais surtout par la modification du champ electrique a proximite de l'ADN, due a l'ajout de molecules chargees positivement. La modification du champ electrique pres de l'ADN altere les parametres de resonance comme le temps de vie de l'anion transitoire et la limite de dissociation, qui influent directement sur la section efficace d'attachement dissociatif. L'effet protecteur peut egalement etre explique par la restauration des bases anioniques deshydrogenees induites par l'attachement dissociatif de l'electron sur une base (G(-H)-). Ce sont les molecules Tris qui, en transferant un atome d'hydrogene ou un proton, restaurent les bases deshydrogenees et inhibent par le fait meme la formation de cassures simple brin. Ces resultats indiquent que les histones peuvent egalement participer a la reparation de dommages precoces induits a l'ADN avant qu'elles ne menent a des dommages encore plus nocifs et difficiles a reparer, comme les cassures simples brins. Mots cles : Electrons de basse energie, dommage a l'ADN, ions organiques, attachement dissociatif de l'electron.

  16. Paradigms for parasite conservation.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Eric R; Carlson, Colin J; Bueno, Veronica M; Burgio, Kevin R; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Clements, Christopher F; Seidel, Dana P; Harris, Nyeema C

    2016-08-01

    Parasitic species, which depend directly on host species for their survival, represent a major regulatory force in ecosystems and a significant component of Earth's biodiversity. Yet the negative impacts of parasites observed at the host level have motivated a conservation paradigm of eradication, moving us farther from attainment of taxonomically unbiased conservation goals. Despite a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of parasite-inclusive conservation, most parasite species remain understudied, underfunded, and underappreciated. We argue the protection of parasitic biodiversity requires a paradigm shift in the perception and valuation of their role as consumer species, similar to that of apex predators in the mid-20th century. Beyond recognizing parasites as vital trophic regulators, existing tools available to conservation practitioners should explicitly account for the unique threats facing dependent species. We built upon concepts from epidemiology and economics (e.g., host-density threshold and cost-benefit analysis) to devise novel metrics of margin of error and minimum investment for parasite conservation. We define margin of error as the risk of accidental host extinction from misestimating equilibrium population sizes and predicted oscillations, while minimum investment represents the cost associated with conserving the additional hosts required to maintain viable parasite populations. This framework will aid in the identification of readily conserved parasites that present minimal health risks. To establish parasite conservation, we propose an extension of population viability analysis for host-parasite assemblages to assess extinction risk. In the direst cases, ex situ breeding programs for parasites should be evaluated to maximize success without undermining host protection. Though parasitic species pose a considerable conservation challenge, adaptations to conservation tools will help protect parasite biodiversity in the face of

  17. Detection of irradiated liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shengchu, Qi; Jilan, Wu; Rongyao, Yuan

    D-2,3-butanediol is formed by irradiation processes in irradiated liquors. This radiolytic product is not formed in unirradiated liquors and its presence can therefore be used to identify whether a liquor has been irradiated or not. The relation meso/dl≈1 for 2,3-butanediol and the amount present in irradiated liquors may therefore be used as an indication of the dose used in the irradiation.

  18. Fishers' knowledge and seahorse conservation in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Ierecê ML; Alves, Rômulo RN; Bonifácio, Kallyne M; Mourão, José S; Osório, Frederico M; Oliveira, Tacyana PR; Nottingham, Mara C

    2005-01-01

    From a conservationist perspective, seahorses are threatened fishes. Concomitantly, from a socioeconomic perspective, they represent a source of income to many fishing communities in developing countries. An integration between these two views requires, among other things, the recognition that seahorse fishers have knowledge and abilities that can assist the implementation of conservation strategies and of management plans for seahorses and their habitats. This paper documents the knowledge held by Brazilian fishers on the biology and ecology of the longsnout seahorse Hippocampus reidi. Its aims were to explore collaborative approaches to seahorse conservation and management in Brazil; to assess fishers' perception of seahorse biology and ecology, in the context evaluating potential management options; to increase fishers' involvement with seahorse conservation in Brazil. Data were obtained through questionnaires and interviews made during field surveys conducted in fishing villages located in the States of Piauí, Ceará, Paraíba, Maranhão, Pernambuco and Pará. We consider the following aspects as positive for the conservation of seahorses and their habitats in Brazil: fishers were willing to dialogue with researchers; although captures and/or trade of brooding seahorses occurred, most interviewees recognized the importance of reproduction to the maintenance of seahorses in the wild (and therefore of their source of income), and expressed concern over population declines; fishers associated the presence of a ventral pouch with reproduction in seahorses (regardless of them knowing which sex bears the pouch), and this may facilitate the construction of collaborative management options designed to eliminate captures of brooding specimens; fishers recognized microhabitats of importance to the maintenance of seahorse wild populations; fishers who kept seahorses in captivity tended to recognize the condtions as poor, and as being a cause of seahorse mortality. PMID

  19. View from northeast to southwest of PAR site sentry station; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from northeast to southwest of PAR site sentry station; formerly the bachelor's enlisted men's quarter (BEQ) - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Sentry Station, North of Second Avenue & West of Electrical Switch Station No. 2, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  20. View from southwest to northeast of PAR site fresh water ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from southwest to northeast of PAR site fresh water pump house - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Fresh Water Pump House, In Limited Access Area, on Patrol Road next to Open Storage Reservoir No. 736, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  1. PARS: Programs for Analysis and Resizing of Structures, user manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haftka, R. T.; Prasad, B.; Tsach, U.

    1979-01-01

    PARS processors and their use, flutter analysis, sensitivity analysis for stresses, and resizing are presented. Design variable definition and interface with finite element model, static constraints and their derivatives, flutter derivatives, and optimization are discussed.

  2. Urban Water Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moomaw, Ronald L.

    According to its abstract, this book attempts ‘an assessment of various water conservation measures aimed at reducing residential water usage.’ Its intent is to develop a research program whose ‘ultimate goal is to engender a conservation ethic among water users and managers and develop a predictable array of conservation methodologies. …’ Professor Flack indeed has presented an excellent assessment of conservation methodologies, but I believe that the proposed research program is too limited.Following a brief introductory chapter, chapter II presents an extensive review of the water conservation literature published in the 1970's and earlier. It and chapter III, which describes Flack's systematic comparison of the technical, economic, and political aspects of each conservation methodology, are the heart of the book. Chapter IV is a brief discussion and analysis of conservation programs (with examples) that a water utility might adopt. Chapter V is essentially a pilot study of methods of assessing political and social feasibility. Finally, a set of recommendations is presented in chapter VI. All in all, this book is a nice blend of literature review and original research that deals with an important issue.

  3. Conservation by design.

    PubMed

    Root-Bernstein, Meredith; Ladle, Richard J

    2010-10-01

    Conservation researchers are increasingly aware of the need to conduct interdisciplinary research and to engage nonscientists in practical applications of conservation biology. But so far, industrial designers have been left out of such collaboration and outreach efforts. Conservation of wildlife often depends on products such as nest boxes, feeders, barriers, and corridors, all of which have a designed component that is frequently overlooked. Furthermore, many products are adopted without testing on short or long time scales. We argue that the design of products for conservation, and hence their functionality, effectiveness, and value, can be improved through collaboration with industrial designers. We see four key benefits that can arise from interactions with industrial designers: improvement of product quality and value, innovation and improvement in functionality of products, harmonization of conservation products with local values, and development of a psychological biomimesis approach to design. The role of industrial designers in conservation projects would be to improve factors such as product durability, affordability, functionality, and aesthetic appeal to local people. Designers can also help to create multiple product options whose success can be tested in the field. We propose that collaborations with industrial designers can contribute to the development of improvements to existing products and innovations in the practice of animal conservation. PMID:20408866

  4. Conservation and economic development

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, M.J.

    1992-05-01

    This oral presentation is about the Espanola Power Savers Project which involves both the utility and for the community. I`m going to spend much of my time today discussing why this project makes sense for the community, but I would like to start with a brief word about why community-based conservation makes sense for utilities. A number of reasons are listed to show why conservation is today`s energy resource of choice. But if, for a moment, we take that as a given and ask why community-based conservation programs are the right way to develop that resource, the answer is simple: They work!

  5. Conservation and economic development

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, M.J.

    1992-05-01

    This oral presentation is about the Espanola Power Savers Project which involves both the utility and for the community. I'm going to spend much of my time today discussing why this project makes sense for the community, but I would like to start with a brief word about why community-based conservation makes sense for utilities. A number of reasons are listed to show why conservation is today's energy resource of choice. But if, for a moment, we take that as a given and ask why community-based conservation programs are the right way to develop that resource, the answer is simple: They work

  6. Commitment and energy conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Pallak, M.S.; Cook, D.A.; Sullivan, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    The authors discuss the process of becoming committed to energy conservation research, then describe practical issues of field research and several data sets on household energy conservation. Their results show that taking a stand affected behavior in reducing the levels of natural gas and electricity usage, with the effect continuing even after the study ended. Although based on the assumption that homeowners were initially favorable toward energy conservation, the studies suggest that energy-related behavior is malleable and amenable to approaches familiar to psychologists. The study indicates that feedback on energy use during peak seasons could help to avoid power shortages. 16 references, 6 tables.

  7. Par-4 secretion: stoichiometry of 3-arylquinoline binding to vimentin.

    PubMed

    Sviripa, Vitaliy M; Burikhanov, Ravshan; Obiero, Josiah M; Yuan, Yaxia; Nickell, Justin R; Dwoskin, Linda P; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Liu, Chunming; Tsodikov, Oleg V; Rangnekar, Vivek M; Watt, David S

    2016-01-01

    Advanced prostate tumors usually metastasize to the lung, bone, and other vital tissues and are resistant to conventional therapy. Prostate apoptosis response-4 protein (Par-4) is a tumor suppressor that causes apoptosis in therapy-resistant prostate cancer cells by binding specifically to a receptor, Glucose-regulated protein-78 (GRP78), found only on the surface of cancer cells. 3-Arylquinolines or "arylquins" induce normal cells to release Par-4 from the intermediate filament protein, vimentin and promote Par-4 secretion that targets cancer cells in a paracrine manner. A structure-activity study identified arylquins that promote Par-4 secretion, and an evaluation of arylquin binding to the hERG potassium ion channel using a [(3)H]-dofetilide binding assay permitted the identification of structural features that separated this undesired activity from the desired Par-4 secretory activity. A binding study that relied on the natural fluorescence of arylquins and that used the purified rod domain of vimentin (residues 99-411) suggested that the mechanism behind Par-4 release involved arylquin binding to multiple sites in the rod domain. PMID:26548370

  8. Croissance epitaxiale de GaAs sur substrats de Ge par epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belanger, Simon

    La situation energetique et les enjeux environnementaux auxquels la societe est confrontee entrainent un interet grandissant pour la production d'electricite a partir de l'energie solaire. Parmi les technologies actuellement disponibles, la filiere du photovoltaique a concentrateur solaire (CPV pour concentrator photovoltaics) possede un rendement superieur et mi potentiel interessant a condition que ses couts de production soient competitifs. La methode d'epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques (CBE pour chemical beam epitaxy) possede plusieurs caracteristiques qui la rendent interessante pour la production a grande echelle de cellules photovoltaiques a jonctions multiples a base de semi-conducteurs III-V. Ce type de cellule possede la meilleure efficacite atteinte a ce jour et est utilise sur les satellites et les systemes photovoltaiques a concentrateur solaire (CPV) les plus efficaces. Une des principales forces de la technique CBE se trouve dans son potentiel d'efficacite d'utilisation des materiaux source qui est superieur a celui de la technique d'epitaxie qui est couramment utilisee pour la production a grande echelle de ces cellules. Ce memoire de maitrise presente les travaux effectues dans le but d'evaluer le potentiel de la technique CBE pour realiser la croissance de couches de GaAs sur des substrats de Ge. Cette croissance constitue la premiere etape de fabrication de nombreux modeles de cellules solaires a haute performance decrites plus haut. La realisation de ce projet a necessite le developpement d'un procede de preparation de surface pour les substrats de germanium, la realisation de nombreuses sceances de croissance epitaxiale et la caracterisation des materiaux obtenus par microscopie optique, microscopie a force atomique (AFM), diffraction des rayons-X a haute resolution (HRXRD), microscopie electronique a transmission (TEM), photoluminescence a basse temperature (LTPL) et spectrometrie de masse des ions secondaires (SIMS). Les experiences ont permis

  9. Mammalian aPKC/Par polarity complex mediated regulation of epithelial division orientation and cell fate

    SciTech Connect

    Vorhagen, Susanne; Niessen, Carien M.

    2014-11-01

    Oriented cell division is a key regulator of tissue architecture and crucial for morphogenesis and homeostasis. Balanced regulation of proliferation and differentiation is an essential property of tissues not only to drive morphogenesis but also to maintain and restore homeostasis. In many tissues orientation of cell division is coupled to the regulation of differentiation producing daughters with similar (symmetric cell division, SCD) or differential fate (asymmetric cell division, ACD). This allows the organism to generate cell lineage diversity from a small pool of stem and progenitor cells. Division orientation and/or the ratio of ACD/SCD need to be tightly controlled. Loss of orientation or an altered ratio can promote overgrowth, alter tissue architecture and induce aberrant differentiation, and have been linked to morphogenetic diseases, cancer and aging. A key requirement for oriented division is the presence of a polarity axis, which can be established through cell intrinsic and/or extrinsic signals. Polarity proteins translate such internal and external cues to drive polarization. In this review we will focus on the role of the polarity complex aPKC/Par3/Par6 in the regulation of division orientation and cell fate in different mammalian epithelia. We will compare the conserved function of this complex in mitotic spindle orientation and distribution of cell fate determinants and highlight common and differential mechanisms in which this complex is used by tissues to adapt division orientation and cell fate to the specific properties of the epithelium.

  10. Potential conservation laws

    SciTech Connect

    Kunzinger, Michael; Popovych, Roman O.

    2008-10-15

    We prove that potential conservation laws have characteristics depending only on local variables if and only if they are induced by local conservation laws. Therefore, characteristics of pure potential conservation laws have to essentially depend on potential variables. This statement provides a significant generalization of results of the recent paper by Bluman et al. [J. Math. Phys. 47, 113505 (2006)]. Moreover, we present extensions to gauged potential systems, Abelian and general coverings, and general foliated systems of differential equations. An example illustrating possible applications of these results is given. A special version of the Hadamard lemma for fiber bundles and the notions of weighted jet spaces are proposed as new tools for the investigation of potential conservation laws.

  11. Conservation among Elderly Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughston, George A.; Protinsky, Howard O.

    1979-01-01

    The majority of 63 elderly women were able to pass tests in the conservation of mass (98 percent), volume (100 percent), and surface area (65 percent). These results conflict with previous research about Piagetian abilities of elderly people. (RL)

  12. Reasons to Conserve Nature.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Richard G

    2016-05-01

    Is it sufficient to base arguments for conservation on the intrinsic value of nature, regardless of the services and economic benefits that biodiversity provides for humans? This question underlies much recent debate that has been at times acrimonious and has led to calls for a more inclusive approach to conservation. Yet melding different ideologies within a unified conceptual framework has proven difficult. Here I describe an approach that recognizes the importance of the level of biological organization and spatial extent in determining the strength of alternative arguments for why we should conserve nature. I argue that the framework helps reconcile contrasting viewpoints and brings clarity to when different conservation management approaches (for instance, regulation versus monetary valuation) are most appropriate. PMID:26936225

  13. Conservation of wading birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kushlan, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The conservation and management of wading birds has received considerable attention over the past twenty years, through research, population monitoring, habitat protection, and through activities of specialist groups devoted to all three groups, the herons, ibises and allies, and flamingos. While populations are best known in North America, greatest advances in knowledge may have come in Australasia. The status of most species and many populations is now sufficiently known to allow assessment of risk. Conservation and management techniques allow creation of global and regional action plans for conservation of many species. Global action plans are being developed, but few regional plans have been undertaken. Management of nesting sites is now particularly well appreciated. Although known in broad stroke, much remains to be learned about managing feeding habitat. Problems related to disturbance, conflict with humans, habitat loss, contaminants and other environmental stresses remain for some species and many populations. New challenges lie in creating conservation action that account for genetic stocks.

  14. Energy: Conservation, Energy Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation's Schools and Colleges, 1975

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive energy conservation program at College of the Holy Cross has saved nearly one-third of the fuel oil and one-fifth of the electricity used at the college; briefs on boilers, lights, design. (Author/MLF)

  15. Latitudinal UVR-PAR measurements in Argentina: extent of the 'ozone hole'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luis Orce, V.; Walter Helbling, E.

    1997-10-01

    The UVR-PAR Argentinean Monitoring Network started its operation in September 1994 recording ultraviolet (UVR) and Photosynthetic Available Radiation (PAR) at a frequency of once per minute, at four sites, throughout the entire year. Four spectroradiometers (GUV-511, Biospherical Instruments, Inc.) were installed at research centers separated by about 8-12 degrees of latitude, extending from the Subantarctic-Fueguian region to the Tropic of Capricorn. The instruments are located in populated areas ranging from 30,000 to 11 million people and with extremely different climate regimes and conditions of tropospheric pollution. Our ground-based data indicated that the irradiance increased steadily from south to north. This increase was also observed in the calculated daily doses of UV-B (280-320 nm); however, daily integrated values for UV-A (320-400 nm) and PAR (400-700 nm) were higher at mid-latitudes (Puerto Madryn, 42°47'S). A similar south-to-north increase was evident in the ratio of the energy at 305 nm and 340 nm wavelengths (with low 305/340 ratios indicating high total ozone column concentration), with low values at Ushuaia (55°01'S) and high values at Jujuy (24°10'S). However, the 305/340 ratios increased significantly over their normal spring values at two sites, Ushuaia and Puerto Madryn, for variable time periods during October-December. Our data suggest that the ozone hole was over South America extending to about 38°S for at least a week during October and about two weeks during November-December of the years of 1994 and 1995. However, it should be noted that the erythemal irradiance, in the area influenced by the ozone hole, was at all times lower than that in Buenos Aires and well below the value at Jujuy (tropical station). This study also indicates that when assessing the impact of solar UVR upon organisms, other variables such as cloud cover, solar zenith angle, day length, latitude, and atmospheric pollution should be considered in addition to

  16. Conservation Kickstart- Catalyzing Conservation Initiatives Worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treinish, G.

    2014-12-01

    Adventurers and Scientists for Conservation (ASC) is a nonprofit organization that collects environmental data to catalyze conservation initiatives worldwide. Adventure athletes have the skills and motivation to reach the most remote corners of the world. ASC utilizes those skills to provide the scientific community with data while providing the outdoor community with purpose beyond the personal high of reaching a summit or rowing across an ocean. We carefully select projects, choosing partnerships that will maximize the impact of ASC volunteers. Each project must have a clear path to a tangible conservation outcome and demonstrate a clear need for our brand of volunteers. We partner with government agencies, universities, and independant reseachers to kickstart data collection efforts around the world. Last year, through a partnership with the Olympic National Forest, 20 volunteers from the Seattle area set up and monitored camera traps in an effort to survey for costal Pacific marten. Our work led to the species' listing as "critically imperiled" with NatureServe. A partnership with the inaugural Great Pacific Race, engaging trans-Pacific rowing teams, searched for microplastics in the Pacific Ocean as part of our ongoing microplastics campaign. In a multi-year partnership with the American Prairie Reserve (APR), ASC volunteer crews live and work on the Reserve collecting wildlife data year round. The data we obtain directly informs the Reserve's wildlife management decisions. On this project, our crews have safely and effectively navigated temperature extremes from -30 degrees to 100+ degrees while traveling in a remote location. We are currently scouting projects in the Okavango Delta of Botswana and the rainforest of Suriname where we will be able to cover large amounts of area in a short periord of time. ASC is at the crossroads of the adventure and coservation science communities. Our approach of answering specific questions by using highly skilled and

  17. Electron irradiation of YBa2CU3O7 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konczykowski, Marcin; Gilchrist, John

    1991-11-01

    Irradiation treatments generally have three effects on the superconducting properties of high T_c ceramics. The superconductivity of the grains is modified, as witnessed by a shift in T_c. The mixed-state properties of the grains are changed due to the additional pinning centres, and inter-granular links are modified by the accumulation of irradiation defects at the grain boundaries. These effects are discussed with particular reference to the irradiation of polycrystalline YBa2CU3O7 at low temperature with 2-3 MeV electrons, which initially produces a random distribution of Frenkel defects. We draw attention to several kinds of measurements which can be made in situ or after transferring the sample to a measuring cryostat : the transfer allows the defects to recombine or migrate. Various DC and AC measurement methods are compared, and the three effects of irradiation are demonstrated. The irreversibility line is found to shift with T_c. Les propriétés supraconductrices des céramiques à haut T_c, sont généralement influencées dans trois domaines distincts par les irradiations. D'une part la supraconductivité des grains est modifiée, comme en témoigne le changement de T_c. D'autre part les propriétés à l'état mixte des grains sont modifiées par la présence de nouveaux centres de piégeage. Enfin les liaisons inter-granulaires sont altérées par l'accumulation de défauts d'irradiation aux joints de grains. Nous insistons particulièrement sur l'irradiation de YBa2CU3O7 polycristallin à basse température avec des électrons de 2 à 3 MeV, ce qui produit, en premier lieu, des défauts de Frenkel à répartition aléatoire. Plusieurs types de mesures peuvent être faites soit in situ, soit après transfert de l'échantillon dans un cryostat de mesures: le transfert permet la recombinaison ou la migration des défauts. Différentes méthodes en courant continu et en alternatif sont comparées, et les effets de l'irradiation sur les trois domaines ci

  18. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- June survey descriptive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-06-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the shoreline aquatic plant communities in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level, indicated that much of the original plant communities and the intermediate shoreline communities present on the exposed sediments have been lost. The extensive old-field and emergent marsh communities that were present on the exposed shoreline during the drawdown have been flooded and much of the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities have not had sufficient time for re-establishment. The shoreline does, however, have extensive beds of maidencane which extend from the shoreline margin to areas as deep as 2 and perhaps 3 meters. Scattered individual plants of lotus and watershield are common and may indicate likely directions of future wetland development in Par Pond. In addition, within isolated coves, which apparently received ground water seepage and/or stream surface flows during the period of the Par Pond draw down, extensive beds of waterlilies and spike rush are common. Invasion of willow and red maple occurred along the lake shoreline as well. Although not absent from this survey, evidence of the extensive redevelopment of the large cattail and eel grass beds was not observed in this first survey of Par Pond. Future surveys during the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997 along with the evaluation of satellite date to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond are planned.

  19. Pars Planitis: Epidemiology, Clinical Characteristics, Management and Visual Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Ozdal, Pinar Cakar; Berker, Nilufer; Tugal-Tutkun, Ilknur

    2015-01-01

    Pars planitis is an idiopathic chronic intermediate uveitis which predominantly affects children and adolescents, and accounts for 5-26.7% of pediatric uveitis. Although an autoimmune process with a genetic predisposition has been suggested, its etiology still remains unknown. The most common presenting symptoms are floaters and blurred vision. Diffuse vitreous cells, haze, snowballs and snowbanks are typical findings of pars planitis. Peripheral retinal vasculitis, optic disc edema and anterior segment inflammation are other well-known findings. Although pars planitis is known to be a benign form of uveitis in most cases, it may become a potentially blinding disease due to complications including cataract, cystoid macular edema, vitreous opacities and optic disc edema. Cystoid macular edema is the most common cause of visual morbidity. Band keratopathy, epiretinal membrane formation, vitreous condensation, neovascularizations, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment, cyclitic membranes, glaucoma and amblyopia may develop as a consequence of the chronic course of the disease. Exclusion of infectious and non-infectious causes which may present with intermediate uveitis is of utmost importance before starting treatment. Treatment of pars planitis has been a controversial issue. There is no consensus specifically for treatment of cases with minimal inflammation and relatively good visual acuity. However, current experience shows that pars planitis may cause severe inflammation and needs an aggressive treatment. A stepladder approach including corticosteroids, immunosupressive agents, anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha and pars plana vitrectomy and/or laser photocoagulation is the most commonly used method for treatment of pars planitis. Adequate control of inflammation and prompt detection of associated complications are crucial in order to improve the overall prognosis of the disease. PMID:27051493

  20. Physiology in conservation translocations

    PubMed Central

    Tarszisz, Esther; Dickman, Christopher R.; Munn, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Conservation translocations aim to restore species to their indigenous ranges, protect populations from threats and/or reinstate ecosystem functions. They are particularly important for the conservation and management of rare and threatened species. Despite tremendous efforts and advancement in recent years, animal conservation translocations generally have variable success, and the reasons for this are often uncertain. We suggest that when little is known about the physiology and wellbeing of individuals either before or after release, it will be difficult to determine their likelihood of survival, and this could limit advancements in the science of translocations for conservation. In this regard, we argue that physiology offers novel approaches that could substantially improve translocations and associated practices. As a discipline, it is apparent that physiology may be undervalued, perhaps because of the invasive nature of some physiological measurement techniques (e.g. sampling body fluids, surgical implantation). We examined 232 publications that dealt with translocations of terrestrial vertebrates and aquatic mammals and, defining ‘success’ as high or low, determined how many of these studies explicitly incorporated physiological aspects into their protocols and monitoring. From this review, it is apparent that physiological evaluation before and after animal releases could progress and improve translocation/reintroduction successes. We propose a suite of physiological measures, in addition to animal health indices, for assisting conservation translocations over the short term and also for longer term post-release monitoring. Perhaps most importantly, we argue that the incorporation of physiological assessments of animals at all stages of translocation can have important welfare implications by helping to reduce the total number of animals used. Physiological indicators can also help to refine conservation translocation methods. These approaches fall

  1. Combined pars plana vitrectomy-scleral buckle versus pars plana vitrectomy for proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Lai, Frank H P; Lo, Ernie C F; Chan, Vesta C K; Brelen, Mårten; Lo, Wai Ling; Young, Alvin L

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the surgical outcomes of combined pars plana vitrectomy-scleral buckle (PPV-SB) versus pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment complicated with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). One thousand one hundred and seventy four patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment surgery between January 2002 and December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with grade C PVR treated with either combined PPV-SB or PPV alone were included in the study. Study outcomes included single surgery anatomic success rate and postoperative visual outcome at 12 months postoperatively. Seventy-seven patients with grade C PVR were identified for analysis. At the end of 12-month follow-up, 80.5 % eyes (33/41) in the PPV-SB group and 58.3 % eyes (21/36) in the PPV group achieved single surgery anatomical success. In a multiple logistic regression model, none of the baseline variables (age, gender, macula status, grade of PVR, extent of detachment, presence of vitreous hemorrhage, lens status, status of high myopia) nor types of retinal detachment surgery (use of scleral buckle, barrier endolaser, 360 degree endolaser, cryopexy, retinectomy, tamponade agent, phacoemulsification) had significant effect on single surgery anatomical success. The post-treatment mean logMAR visual acuity of the PPV-SB group was 1.58 ± 0.58 and the PPV group was 1.57 ± 0.61. There was no significant difference in the postoperative visual acuity between the two groups (P = 0.849). For patients with grade C PVR, PPV-SB did not demonstrate a superiority over PPV alone in achieving single surgery anatomical success. PMID:26260357

  2. Hydrology and Conservation Ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2006-12-01

    Responses to change in the behavior of ecological systems are largely governed by interactions at different levels. Research is essential and is to be necessarily designed to gain insights into various interactions at the community level. Sustainable resource management is only possible if conservation of biodiversity can be accomplished by properly using the knowledge discovered. It is well known that the United States Department of Agriculture provides technical information, resources, and data necessary to assist the researchers in addressing their conservation needs. Conservation aims to protect, preserve and conserve the earth's natural resources. These include, but not limited to the conservation of soil, water, minerals, air, plants and all living beings. The United States Department of Agriculture also encourages farmers and ranchers to voluntarily address threats to soil and water. Protection of wetlands and wildlife habitat has been on the radar screen of conservation experts for a very long time. The main objective has always been to help farmers and landowners conform and comply with federal and state environmental laws. During the implementation phase, farmers should be encouraged to make beneficial, cost-effective changes to methods of irrigation systems. In some cases, the hydrologic regime of the project area can be thought of as principally an issue of river flow regimes for floodplain forests. In this presentation, the author tries to focus on the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology on global warming. He also discusses the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology global air concerns such as greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. References: Chow, V. T, D. R. Maidment, and L. W. Mays. 1988. Applied Hydrology. McGraw-Hill, Inc. U.S. Soil Conservation Service. Technical Release 55: Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds. USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture). June 1986. Lehner, B. and P. Döll (2004). Development and validation

  3. Estimation of the Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient KdPAR Using MERIS Satellite Reflections for European Coastal Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saulquin, Bertand; Hamdi, Anouar; Populus, Jacques; Loutier, Romain; Demaria, Julien; Mangin, Antoine; D'Andon, Odile Fanton

    2010-12-01

    Accurate estimations of the diffuse attenuation coefficient is critical to understand physical processes such as the heat transfer in the upper layer of the ocean and also biological processes such as phytoplankton photosynthesis in the ocean euphotic zone. Light availability in the water column and the seabed determine the euphotic zone and constraints the type and distribution of the algae species. The EuSeaMap project's aim is to characterize at a resolution of 250m the European infralitoral benthic zone, according to biology, physic and geology criteriums and using observations and models. Satellite observations of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of the downwelling spectral irradiance at wavelength 490 nm (Kd490) or the diffuse attenuation coefficient for the downwelling photosynthetically available radiation (KdPAR) is an effective method to provide large scale maps of these parameters at high spatial and temporal resolution. Several empirical and semi-analytical models are commonly used to derive the Kd490 and KdPAR maps from ocean colour satellite sensors such as the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer Instrument (MERIS), the Sea- viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Most of these existing empirical or semi- analytical models have been calibrated on open ocean waters and provide good results in these areas, but tend to underestimate the attenuation of light in coastal waters, our area of interest. We propose here a new estimation of the euphotic depth and the KdPAR for coastal European waters using MERIS reflectances at the resolution of 1km and 250 m. First, a semi-analytical model is used to estimate the Kd490, and in a second step, two relationships have been developed between the KdPAR and the Kd490 for respectively clear and turbid waters. Satellite-derived fields of Kd490 and the deduced KdPAR are validated using matchups collected over the world. Distribution maps of seabed

  4. Par6G suppresses cell proliferation and is targeted by loss-of-function mutations in multiple cancers

    PubMed Central

    Marques, E; Englund, J I; Tervonen, T A; Virkunen, E; Laakso, M; Myllynen, M; Mäkelä, A; Ahvenainen, M; Lepikhova, T; Monni, O; Hautaniemi, S; Klefström, J

    2016-01-01

    Differentiated epithelial structure communicates with individual constituent epithelial cells to suppress their proliferation activity. However, the pathways linking epithelial structure to cessation of the cell proliferation machinery or to unscheduled proliferation in the context of tumorigenesis are not well defined. Here we demonstrate the strong impact of compromised epithelial integrity on normal and oncogenic Myc-driven proliferation in three-dimensional mammary epithelial organoid culture. Systematic silencing of 34 human homologs of Drosophila genes, with previously established functions in control of epithelial integrity, demonstrates a role for human genes of apico-basal polarity, Wnt and Hippo pathways and actin dynamics in regulation of the size, integrity and cell proliferation in organoids. Perturbation of these pathways leads to diverse functional interactions with Myc: manifested as a RhoA-dependent synthetic lethality and Par6-dependent effects on the cell cycle. Furthermore, we show a role for Par6G as a negative regulator of the phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase/phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1/Akt pathway and epithelial cell proliferation and evidence for frequent inactivation of Par6G gene in epithelial cancers. The findings demonstrate that determinants of epithelial structure regulate the cell proliferation activity via conserved and cancer-relevant regulatory circuitries, which are important for epithelial cell cycle restriction and may provide new targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26073086

  5. Wilderness and biodiversity conservation

    PubMed Central

    Mittermeier, R. A.; Mittermeier, C. G.; Brooks, T. M.; Pilgrim, J. D.; Konstant, W. R.; da Fonseca, G. A. B.; Kormos, C.

    2003-01-01

    Human pressure threatens many species and ecosystems, so conservation efforts necessarily prioritize saving them. However, conservation should clearly be proactive wherever possible. In this article, we assess the biodiversity conservation value, and specifically the irreplaceability in terms of species endemism, of those of the planet's ecosystems that remain intact. We find that 24 wilderness areas, all > 1 million hectares, are > 70% intact and have human densities of less than or equal to five people per km2. This wilderness covers 44% of all land but is inhabited by only 3% of people. Given this sparse population, wilderness conservation is cost-effective, especially if ecosystem service value is incorporated. Soberingly, however, most wilderness is not speciose: only 18% of plants and 10% of terrestrial vertebrates are endemic to individual wildernesses, the majority restricted to Amazonia, Congo, New Guinea, the Miombo-Mopane woodlands, and the North American deserts. Global conservation strategy must target these five wildernesses while continuing to prioritize threatened biodiversity hotspots. PMID:12930898

  6. The Data Conservancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, S.; Duerr, R. E.

    2009-12-01

    NSF's Sustainable Digital Data Preservation and Access Network Partners program is an ambitious attempt to integrate a wide variety of expertise and infrastructure into a network for providing "reliable digital preservation, access, integration, and analysis capabilities for science." One of the first two DataNet award recipients, the Data Conservancy, is itself a network of widely diverse partners led by the libraries at the Johns Hopkins University. The Data Conservancy is built on existing exemplar scientific projects, communities, and virtual organizations that have deep engagement with their user communities, and extensive experience with large-scale distributed system development. Data Conservancy members embrace a shared vision that data curation is not an end, but rather a means to collect, organize, validate, and preserve data needed to address the grand research challenges that face society. Data Conservancy members holdings encompass the entire range of earth, life, and space science data. New to the Data Conservancy is the concept that University libraries will be part of the distributed network of data centers and that data science will become a path in the library and information science curricula. As noted by Winston Tabb (JHU Dean of Libraries) "Data Centers are the new library stacks."

  7. Creative Conservation Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houston, Jason

    2015-04-01

    I am a fellow with the International League of Conservation photographers (iLCP) and have been focused on photographing conservation dynamics at the intersection of social and environmental issues for a decade. Subjects have included traditional concerns such as deforestation, water conservation, endangered species, and fisheries. However, I rarely make photographs of the traditional nature, wildlife, landscapes, or environmental atrocities that most people think of when they think about environmentalism. Instead, I photograph people and how they live on the planet, as I believe passionately that without also considering social and cultural concerns, we will not be able to effectively and sustainably do conservation work or achieve positive environmental change. My presentation will share recent photography projects on forest conservation in Indonesian Borneo and fisheries management in Central America where I used a 'stakeholder profile-based' process to broadly survey the complexity of the issues while also making personal connections for these projects' diverse audiences. Through these case studies I will explore the opportunities and challenges of combining the authenticity, accuracy, and scientific validity of journalistic and documentary work with the emotional impact of the conventions of art and storytelling.

  8. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- September survey descriptive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-09-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this mid-September survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys during the late growing seasons of 1995, and throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  9. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- October survey descriptive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-11-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this late October survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maiden cane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned.

  10. Genetic polymorphisms of PAI-1 and PAR-1 are associated with acute normal tissue toxicity in Chinese rectal cancer patients treated with pelvic radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Mengyun; Shi, Tingyan; Shen, Lijun; Zhu, Ji; Sun, Menghong; Deng, Yun; Liang, Liping; Li, Guichao; Wu, Yongxin; Fan, Ming; Wei, Qingyi; Zhang, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) and protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) are crucial mediators of the intestinal microenvironment and are involved in radiation-induced acute and chronic injury. To evaluate whether genetic polymorphisms of PAI-1 and PAR-1 were predictors of radiation-induced injury in patients with rectal cancer, we retrospectively evaluated 356 rectal cancer patients who had received pelvic radiotherapy and analyzed the association of genetic polymorphisms of PAI-1 and PAR-1 with acute toxicities after radiotherapy. Acute adverse events were scored, including dermatitis, fecal incontinence (anal toxicity), hematological toxicity, diarrhea, and vomiting. The patients were grouped into grade ≥2 and grade 0–1 toxicity groups to analyze the acute toxicities. Genotyping of six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of PAI-1 and PAR-1 was performed using TaqMan assays. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Of the 356 individuals, 264 (72.5%) had grade ≥2 total toxicities; within this group, there were 65 (18.3%) individuals who reached grade ≥3 toxicities. There were 19.5% (69/354) and 36.9% (130/352) patients that developed grade ≥2 toxicities for diarrhea and fecal incontinence, respectively. The variant genotype GG of rs1050955 in PAI-1 was found to be negatively associated with the risk of diarrhea and incontinence (P<0.05), whereas the AG and GG genotypes of rs2227631 in PAI-1 were associated with an increased risk of incontinence. The CT genotype of PAR-1 rs32934 was associated with an increased risk of total toxicity compared with the CC allele. Our results demonstrated that SNPs in the PAI-1 and PAR-1 genes were associated with acute injury in rectal cancer patients treated with pelvic irradiation. These SNPs may be useful biomarkers for predicting acute radiotoxicity in patients with rectal cancer if validated in future studies. PMID:26347502

  11. Genetic polymorphisms of PAI-1 and PAR-1 are associated with acute normal tissue toxicity in Chinese rectal cancer patients treated with pelvic radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Mengyun; Shi, Tingyan; Shen, Lijun; Zhu, Ji; Sun, Menghong; Deng, Yun; Liang, Liping; Li, Guichao; Wu, Yongxin; Fan, Ming; Wei, Qingyi; Zhang, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) and protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) are crucial mediators of the intestinal microenvironment and are involved in radiation-induced acute and chronic injury. To evaluate whether genetic polymorphisms of PAI-1 and PAR-1 were predictors of radiation-induced injury in patients with rectal cancer, we retrospectively evaluated 356 rectal cancer patients who had received pelvic radiotherapy and analyzed the association of genetic polymorphisms of PAI-1 and PAR-1 with acute toxicities after radiotherapy. Acute adverse events were scored, including dermatitis, fecal incontinence (anal toxicity), hematological toxicity, diarrhea, and vomiting. The patients were grouped into grade ≥2 and grade 0-1 toxicity groups to analyze the acute toxicities. Genotyping of six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of PAI-1 and PAR-1 was performed using TaqMan assays. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Of the 356 individuals, 264 (72.5%) had grade ≥2 total toxicities; within this group, there were 65 (18.3%) individuals who reached grade ≥3 toxicities. There were 19.5% (69/354) and 36.9% (130/352) patients that developed grade ≥2 toxicities for diarrhea and fecal incontinence, respectively. The variant genotype GG of rs1050955 in PAI-1 was found to be negatively associated with the risk of diarrhea and incontinence (P<0.05), whereas the AG and GG genotypes of rs2227631 in PAI-1 were associated with an increased risk of incontinence. The CT genotype of PAR-1 rs32934 was associated with an increased risk of total toxicity compared with the CC allele. Our results demonstrated that SNPs in the PAI-1 and PAR-1 genes were associated with acute injury in rectal cancer patients treated with pelvic irradiation. These SNPs may be useful biomarkers for predicting acute radiotoxicity in patients with rectal cancer if validated in future studies. PMID:26347502

  12. Energy Conservation Simplified

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2008-02-01

    The standard formulation of energy conservation involves the subsidiary ideas of kinetic energy (KE), work (W), thermal energy, internal energy, and a half-dozen different kinds of potential energy (PE): elastic, chemical, nuclear, gravitational, and so forth. These quantities came to be recognized during the centuries over which the principle developed. The final conservation law, although rich in specificity, is fairly involved. More significantly, it obscures a fundamental underlying simplicity, which could only be appreciated post-relativity (1905). Energy is the scalar measure of physical change. Using the special theory it will be shown that there are only two all-encompassing classifications of energy—energy of rest and energy of motion—and that we can apply the idea of conservation of energy to all physical processes using only these two energy types as quantified by mass and KE.

  13. Conservation reaches new heights.

    PubMed

    Pepall, J; Khanal, P

    1992-10-01

    The conservation program with the management assistance of the Woodlands Mountain Institute in 2 contiguous parks, the Mount Everest National Park in Nepal and the Qomolangma Nature Reserve in China, in 2 countries is described. The focus is on conservation of the complex ecosystem with sustainable development by showing local people how to benefit from the park without environmental damage. Cultural diversity is as important as biological diversity. The area has been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site with the "last pure ecological seed" of the Himalayas. The regional geography and culture are presented. Population growth has impacted natural resources through overgrazing, cultivation of marginal land, and deforestation; future plans to build a dam and road bordering the nature reserve pose other threats. Proposed management plans for the Makalu-Barun Nature Park (established in November 1991) and Conservation Area include a division of the park into nature reserve areas free of human activity, protected areas which permit traditional land use, and special sites and trail for tourists and religious pilgrims. The conservation area will act as a buffer for the park and provide economic opportunities; further subdivisions include land use for biodiversity protection, community forest and pasture, agroforestry, and agriculture and settlement. Efforts will be made to increase the welfare of women and local people; proposed projects include the introduction of higher milk-producing animals for stall feeding. Also proposed is a cultural and natural history museum. 70% of the project's resources will be directed to local community participation in consultation and park maintenance. The project is a model of how conservation and protection of natural resources can coexist with local economic development and participation; an integration of preservation of biological diversity, mountain wisdom, and the value of local people as resources for conservation. PMID

  14. Conservation of tidal marshes

    SciTech Connect

    Daiber, F.C.

    1986-01-01

    This book is the first attempt to examine collectively the various uses and the consequences of marsh conservation efforts. Author Franklin Daiber emphasizes tidal marsh conservation from a holistic perspective rather than from the perspective of a single purpose or special economic interest. He addresses a topic receiving increasing attention, namely the concept of open marsh management as a means of controlling mosquito production without harmful effects on other marsh organisms. Topics considered include: water management; dikes, impoundments, ponds and ditches; reclaimed land and impoundments; ditching and ponding for mosquito control; sewage disposal and waste treatment; dredge material for wetland restoration; insecticides; oil pollution; and petroleum hydrocarbon interactions.

  15. Two Centuries of Soil Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Douglas

    1991-01-01

    Narrates U.S. soil conservation history since the late eighteenth century. Discusses early practices such as contour plowing. Profiles individuals who promoted soil conservation and were largely responsible for the creation of the Soil Conservation Service. Explains the causes of erosion and how soil conservation districts help farmers prevent…

  16. LAKE PONTCHARTRAIN ESTUARY CONSERVATION PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Nature Conservancy will conduct a series of a least four science expert workshops to develop a Site Conservation Plan for the Lake Pontchartrain Estuary and adjacent wetlands. The objective of the Site Conservation Plan is to identify conservation targets, threats or stresse...

  17. Bacterial actin: architecture of the ParMRC plasmid DNA partitioning complex.

    PubMed

    Salje, Jeanne; Löwe, Jan

    2008-08-20

    The R1 plasmid employs ATP-driven polymerisation of the actin-like protein ParM to move newly replicated DNA to opposite poles of a bacterial cell. This process is essential for ensuring accurate segregation of the low-copy number plasmid and is the best characterised example of DNA partitioning in prokaryotes. In vivo, ParM only forms long filaments when capped at both ends by attachment to a centromere-like region parC, through a small DNA-binding protein ParR. Here, we present biochemical and electron microscopy data leading to a model for the mechanism by which ParR-parC complexes bind and stabilise elongating ParM filaments. We propose that the open ring formed by oligomeric ParR dimers with parC DNA wrapped around acts as a rigid clamp, which holds the end of elongating ParM filaments while allowing entry of new ATP-bound monomers. We propose a processive mechanism by which cycles of ATP hydrolysis in polymerising ParM drives movement of ParR-bound parC DNA. Importantly, our model predicts that each pair of plasmids will be driven apart in the cell by just a single double helical ParM filament. PMID:18650930

  18. [A case of cutaneous mammary re-irradiation].

    PubMed

    Jacob, J; Pierga, J-Y; Fourchotte, V; Kirova, Y M; Bollet, M-A

    2012-10-01

    In early-stage breast cancer, radiotherapy delivered after conservative surgery leads to a reduction in the risk of local recurrences by approximately two thirds. However, some local recurrences can occur in a previously irradiated region and be relevant for a second radiotherapy, exposing to an increased risk of adverse effects. We describe here the observation of a 66-year-old woman treated for a triple negative ductal infiltrative carcinoma of the left breast, who presented an early locoregional recurrence, notably as skin nodules, developed within the irradiated volume and progressing on chemotherapy. The patient was treated by re-irradiation performed concomitantly to oral chemotherapy by capecitabine. PMID:23092807

  19. Conservation Commissions in Massachusetts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheffey, Andrew J. W.

    The Conservation Foundation reported on the experience of a resource development specialist in the state of Massachusetts on the public's growing concern for environmental quality. After tracing the origins of the Massachusetts movement, the report draws upon a variety of specific state experiences to illustrate the commission's growing pains and…

  20. Conservation Awareness Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Rosa County Board of Public Instruction, Milton, FL.

    Recommendations for incorporating conservation education into the K-5 curriculum comprise this teacher's guide. Examined are eight natural resources: air, energy, forests and plant life, human resources, minerals, soil, water, and wildlife. Each of these topics is considered in two ways: (1) a chart depicts concepts basic to understanding the…

  1. Conservation and gene banking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant conservation has several objectives the main ones include safeguarding our food supply, preserving crop wild relatives for breeding and selection of new cultivars, providing material for industrial and pharmaceutical uses and preserving the beauty and diversity of our flora for generations to ...

  2. Foundry energy conservation workbook

    SciTech Connect

    1990-10-01

    This report discusses methods for promoting energy conservation in foundries. Use of electric power, natural gas, and coke are evaluated. Waste heat recovery systems are considered. Energy consumption in the specific processes of electric melting, natural gas melting, heat treatments, ladle melting, and coke fuel melting is described. An example energy analysis is included. (GHH)

  3. Foundry energy conservation workbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    This report discusses methods for promoting energy conservation in foundries. Use of electric power, natural gas, and coke are evaluated. Waste heat recovery systems are considered. Energy consumption in the specific processes of electric melting, natural gas melting, heat treatments, ladle melting, and coke fuel melting is described. An example energy analysis is included. (GHH)

  4. Introduction to conservative mastectomies

    PubMed Central

    Gercovich, F. Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Conservative mastectomy (CM) has become an established alternative in the treatment of breast cancer, offering by different techniques a good cosmetic outcome, as well as oncologic control. The different options to achieve these goals are presented. Oncoplastic treatment of breast cancer needs planning and knowledge of well-established plastic surgery techniques. PMID:26644998

  5. Scale in conservation planning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation planning has been widely embraced as a method to efficiently allocate limited resources to those aspects of biodiversity most in need of protection or management. However, in order to create successful strategies for long-term biodiversity protection and sustainability, explicit conside...

  6. Conservation Is Job One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatzai, Glen

    1998-01-01

    The University of Michigan, winner of a federal award for its campus energy conservation, has developed a building automation system that uses direct-digital-control technology to manage energy use. The project, undertaken in partnership with an energy management company, has saved over $10 million since its inception, and includes a revolving…

  7. Soil: Conservation practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary source to meet global food and fiber demands is production agriculture, but accelerated soil erosion threatens its sustainability. Soil erosion is an important contributor to the normal soil formation process, but erosion becomes problematic when it is accelerated. Soil conservation prac...

  8. Energy Conservation Simplified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    The standard formulation of energy conservation involves the subsidiary ideas of kinetic energy ("KE"), work ("W"), thermal energy, internal energy, and a half-dozen different kinds of potential energy ("PE"): elastic, chemical, nuclear, gravitational, and so forth. These quantities came to be recognized during the centuries over which the…

  9. WATER CONSERVATION IN SOIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water conservation is important for agricultural, residential, industrial, and recreational users in all climatic regions, but becomes increasingly important when going from humid to semiarid and arid regions. This report briefly describes techniques that can be used to increase the storage of water...

  10. Energy Conservation for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Dept. of Education, Toronto.

    Information intended for those concerned with the administration, planning, financing, operation, and maintenance of school facilities applies to both new and existing building. An examination of motivation and policies relating to energy conservation is followed by the methods used for quantitative assessment of energy savings relative to extra…

  11. Communities, Cameras, and Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Communities, Cameras, and Conservation (CCC) is the most exciting and valuable program the author has seen in her 30 years of teaching field science courses. In this citizen science project, students and community volunteers collect data on mountain lions ("Puma concolor") at four natural areas and public parks along the Front Range of Colorado.…

  12. Conservative Public Interest Litigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pell, Terence J.

    2007-01-01

    The idea that lawsuits can move a public as well as a legal agenda is not new. In recent years, conservatives have brought high profile lawsuits designed both to vindicate the rights of an individual plaintiff and to educate the public about an important issue. For example, lawsuits filed nearly 10 years ago against the University of Michigan's…

  13. Counting and Number Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tollefsrud-Anderson, Linda

    This study assessed estimation skills on both static and transformation (conservation) tasks on numerosities ranging from 3 to 16, and included addition and subtraction trials to control for response bias. A total of 148 four- and five-year-old children estimated the number of balls of yarn sewn on elastic straps, and participated in 1 addition, 1…

  14. Conservation of fern spores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ferns are a diverse and important group of plants, but diversity of species and populations are at risk from increasing social pressures, loss of habitat and climate change. Ex situ conservation is a useful strategy to limit decline in genetic diversity and requires technologies to preserve fern ger...

  15. Conservation of Library Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Libraries, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Twelve articles cover books as artifacts; workstations for conservation of library materials; care of scrapbooks, albums, and photographs; map preservation; library environment; flood recovery; disaster prevention and preparedness; incorporating preservation into library organization; and bibliography of Chester Public Library (Illinois) First…

  16. Hearing Conservation Medical Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on hearing impairment is presented including causes and criteria for safe noise levels. The purpose of the Hearing Conservation Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Hearing Impairment at LeRC are discussed.

  17. "Conservative" views of abortion.

    PubMed

    Devine, P E

    1997-01-01

    The introduction to this essay, which presents and defends the "conservative" position on abortion, explains that this position holds that 1) abortion is wrong because it destroys the fetus; 2) the fetus has full personhood from conception (or very near conception); 3) abortion is only justified under special circumstances, such as when the pregnancy poses a threat to the woman's life; and 4) these conclusions should be reflected in law and public policy. Part 2 sets forth the moral foundations for this position. The third part considers the status of the fetus and reviews the various arguments that have been forwarded to resolve the question, such as the species principle, the potentiality principle, the sentience principle, and the conventionalist principle. Part 4 applies the conservative position to problems posed by hard cases, determines that abortion is a form of homicide from two weeks after fertilization (at the latest), reviews circumstances in which various legal definitions of homicide are applicable, argues for the denial of abortion funding by the state, and notes that violent militancy is not the appropriate response to a belief that abortion should be illegal. Section 5 refutes objections to the conservative position based on the fact that some opponents of abortion also oppose contraception, based on feminist ideals, and based on calls for religious freedom in a pluralistic society. In conclusion, the labels applied to the abortion debate are examined, and it is suggested that "communitarian" is the best term for the conservative position. PMID:12348327

  18. Energy Conservation Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilman, John G., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Seven papers suggest ways in which theory informs evaluation research in the area of energy conservation. Perspectives of epistemology and methodology and political and bureaucratic issues are addressed. Examples show how theoretically informed concepts and propositions about personal choice and organizational process contribute to knowledge about…

  19. La projection par plasma : une revue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauchais, P.; Grimaud, A.; Vardelle, A.; Vardelle, M.

    are presented in the fields of aeronautics and mechanics. La qualité d'un dépôt projete par plasma dépend de nombreux paramètres que l'on commence à mieux appréhender du fait des progrès de la modélisation et de la métrologie tant des écoulements plasmas que des transferts plasma-particules ou que des conditions d'écrasement et de refroidissement des particules lors de leur impact sur le substrat ou les couches déjà déposées. Les techniques de mesure utilisdes et leurs limitations sont d'abord rappelées tant pour les jets de plasma que pour les particules en vol et l'importance des différents phénomènes intervenant dans les transferts plasma-particules est soulignée : gradients de température et de concentration d'espèces chimiques très élevés autour des particules, effets de propagation de la chaleur, notamment pour les particules céramiques, effet d'évaporation, effet de raréfaction sensible dès la pression atmosphérique. Les problèmes de distribution de taille et de vitesse d'injection des particules sont également abordés car ils conditionnent les distributions de trajectoires et donc le traitement des particules dans le jet de plasma. La génération du plasma montre d'une part 1'influence considérable de l'injection du gaz, de sa nature, du dessin de la chambre d'arc et de la tuyère ainsi que du pompage de l'air ambiant sur la longueur des jets de plasma d'arc et d'autre part les problèmes d'injection pour éviter le couplage avec la décharge dans les jets de plasmas R.E Tout ceci est illustré avec des exemples de dépôt d'alumine, de zircone, de cermet carbure et de nickel. L'écrasement des particules est ensuite abordé avec les problèmes de réactions chimiques, de trempe ultra-rapide et donc de structure cristalline des dépôts, d'adhdsion mais aussi de containtes résiduelles et de leur contrôle via les gradients de température dans les dépôts pendant le tir. Enfin quelques applications actuelles sont pr

  20. Satellite-derived photosynthetically available and total solar irradiance at the surface during FIFE's intensive field campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frouin, Robert; Mcpherson, J.

    1993-01-01

    Satellite-derived photosynthetically available and total solar irradiance at the surface during First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment's (FIFE) intensive field compaigns are addressed. Graphs showing photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) vs. Julian Day and insolation vs. Julian Day are included.

  1. PH motifs in PAR1&2 endow breast cancer growth

    PubMed Central

    Kancharla, A.; Maoz, M.; Jaber, M.; Agranovich, D.; Peretz, T.; Grisaru-Granovsky, S.; Uziely, B.; Bar-Shavit, R.

    2015-01-01

    Although emerging roles of protease-activated receptor1&2 (PAR1&2) in cancer are recognized, their underlying signalling events are poorly understood. Here we show signal-binding motifs in PAR1&2 that are critical for breast cancer growth. This occurs via the association of the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain with Akt/PKB as a key signalling event of PARs. Other PH-domain signal-proteins such as Etk/Bmx and Vav3 also associate with PAR1 and PAR2 through their PH domains. PAR1 and PAR2 bind with priority to Etk/Bmx. A point mutation in PAR2, H349A, but not in R352A, abrogates PH-protein association and is sufficient to markedly reduce PAR2-instigated breast tumour growth in vivo and placental extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invasion in vitro. Similarly, the PAR1 mutant hPar1-7A, which is unable to bind the PH domain, reduces mammary tumours and EVT invasion, endowing these motifs with physiological significance and underscoring the importance of these previously unknown PAR1 and PAR2 PH-domain-binding motifs in both pathological and physiological invasion processes. PMID:26600192

  2. PH motifs in PAR1&2 endow breast cancer growth.

    PubMed

    Kancharla, A; Maoz, M; Jaber, M; Agranovich, D; Peretz, T; Grisaru-Granovsky, S; Uziely, B; Bar-Shavit, R

    2015-01-01

    Although emerging roles of protease-activated receptor1&2 (PAR1&2) in cancer are recognized, their underlying signalling events are poorly understood. Here we show signal-binding motifs in PAR1&2 that are critical for breast cancer growth. This occurs via the association of the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain with Akt/PKB as a key signalling event of PARs. Other PH-domain signal-proteins such as Etk/Bmx and Vav3 also associate with PAR1 and PAR2 through their PH domains. PAR1 and PAR2 bind with priority to Etk/Bmx. A point mutation in PAR2, H349A, but not in R352A, abrogates PH-protein association and is sufficient to markedly reduce PAR2-instigated breast tumour growth in vivo and placental extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invasion in vitro. Similarly, the PAR1 mutant hPar1-7A, which is unable to bind the PH domain, reduces mammary tumours and EVT invasion, endowing these motifs with physiological significance and underscoring the importance of these previously unknown PAR1 and PAR2 PH-domain-binding motifs in both pathological and physiological invasion processes. PMID:26600192

  3. Aqueous misdirection following pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil injection

    PubMed Central

    Ghoraba, Hammouda H; Ghali, Ali Ahmed; Mansour, Hosam Othman

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report a retrospective series of seven phakic eyes of seven patients suffering from a malignant glaucoma-like syndrome following pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil (SO) injection. Materials and methods Seven eyes with retinal detachment treated with pars plana vitrectomy with or without scleral buckling with SO tamponade. This was followed by cataract extraction to manage the elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). Results This was a retrospective review of seven cases that received pars plana vitrectomy and SO with or without scleral buckling for different causes of retinal detachment (three were rhegmatogenous and four were tractional). After a period ranging from 1 week to 1 month, they presented with malignant glaucoma-like manifestations; high IOP, shallow axial anterior chamber, and remarkable decrease of visual acuity. Atropine eye drops and anti-glaucoma medical treatment (topical and systemic) had been tried but failed to improve the condition. Dramatic decrease of IOP and deepening of the axial anterior chamber was observed in all cases in the first postoperative day after phacoemulsification and posterior chamber foldable intraocular lens implantation with posterior capsulotomy. Conclusion Aqueous misdirection syndrome may be observed following pars plana vitrectomy and SO tamponade. This must be differentiated from other causes of post vitrectomy glaucoma. Cataract extraction with posterior capsulotomy controls the condition. PMID:26056429

  4. The Pars Triangularis in Dyslexia and ADHD: A Comprehensive Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibby, Michelle Y.; Kroese, Judith M.; Krebbs, Hillery; Hill, Crystal E.; Hynd, George W.

    2009-01-01

    Limited research has been conducted on the structure of the pars triangularis (PT) in dyslexia despite functional neuroimaging research finding it may play a role in phonological processing. Furthermore, research to date has not examined PT size in ADHD even though the right inferior frontal region has been implicated in the disorder. Hence, one…

  5. Radiological impact of Par Pond drawdown from liquid effluent pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, W.H.; Hamby, D.M.

    1991-10-25

    The water level of Par Pond has been lowered over the past several months to reduce the effects in the event of catastrophic dam failure while assessing the condition of the dam and determining if repairs are necessary. In lowering the level of Par Pond, 60 billion liters of water containing low levels of tritium and cesium-137 were discharged to several onsite streams. SRS surface streams flow to the Savannah River. An assessment made to determine the total amount of tritium and Cs-137 discharged and to estimate the consequences to downstream Savannah River users. It is estimated that a total of 160 curies of tritium were displaced from Par Pond to the Savannah River between June 28, 1991 and September 19, 1991. This release could hypothetically result in a maximum individual dose of 3. 2{times}10{sup {minus}4} mrem and a total (80-km and drinking water populations) population dose of 1.4{times}10{sup {minus}2} person-rem. Likewise, a maximum individual dose of 5.0{times}10{sup {minus}2} mrem and a total population dose of 1.7{times}10{sup {minus}1} person- rem are predicted as a result of an estimated 0.21 curies of Cs-137 being discharged from Par Pond to the Savannah River.

  6. Par Pond vegetation status summer 1995 - July survey descriptive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-07-01

    A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant, communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet (61 meters) above mean sea level, and continued with this July survey. Aquatic plant communities, similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond communities, are becoming reestablished. Beds of maidencane (Panicum hemitomon), lotus (Nelumbo lutea), water lily (Nymphaea odorata), and watershield (Brasenia schreberi) are now extensive and well established. In addition, within isolated coves, extensive beds of water lilies and spike-rush (Eleocharis sp.) are common. Cattail occurrence has increased since refill, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Invasion of willow (Salix sp.) and red maple (Acer rubrum) occurred along the lake shoreline during drawdown. The red maples along the present shoreline are beginning to show evidence of stress and mortality from flooding over the past four months. Some of the willows appear to be stressed as well. The loblolly pines (Pinus taeda), which were flooded in all but the shallow shoreline areas, are now dead. Future surveys are planned for the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data for mapping the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond.

  7. BOREAS RSS-10 TOMS Circumpolar One-Degree PAR Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dye, Dennis G.; Holben, Brent; Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Remote Sensing Science (RSS)-10 team investigated the magnitude of daily, seasonal, and yearly variations of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) from ground and satellite observations. This data set contains satellite estimates of surface-incident PAR (400-700 nm, MJ/sq m) at one-degree spatial resolution. The spatial coverage is circumpolar from latitudes of 41 to 66 degrees north. The temporal coverage is from May through September for years 1979 through 1989. Eleven-year statistics are also provided: (1) mean, (2) standard deviation, and (3) coefficient of variation for 1979-89. The PAR estimates were derived from the global gridded ultraviolet reflectivity data product (average of 360, 380 nm) from the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). Image mask data are provided for identifying the boreal forest zone, and ocean/land and snow/ice-covered areas. The data are available as binary image format data files. The PAR data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  8. Three strategies for conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The three strategies considered as energy conservation oriented were given: national energy conservation, electrification, and diversification. The first one applies to the near term period (now-1985), the second one to the mid term (1985-2000), and the third one to the far term (2000- ). The rest of this section was focussed on the near term period. The following proposed actions were considered: (1) roll back the price of newly discovered oil, (2) force conversion of many power plants from gas and oil to coal, (3) freeze gasoline production for three years at 1972 levels, (4) mandate automobile mileage requirements, (5) require industry to improve energy efficiency, and (6) require manufacture of household appliances with greater efficiency. Each of these six actions was described and discussed in more detail.

  9. Conservative entropic forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, Matt

    2011-10-01

    Entropic forces have recently attracted considerable attention as ways to reformulate, retrodict, and perhaps even "explain" classical Newtonian gravity from a rather specific thermodynamic perspective. In this article I point out that if one wishes to reformulate classical Newtonian gravity in terms of an entropic force, then the fact that Newtonian gravity is described by a conservative force places significant constraints on the form of the entropy and temperature functions. (These constraints also apply to entropic reinterpretations of electromagnetism, and indeed to any conservative force derivable from a potential.) The constraints I will establish are sufficient to present real and significant problems for any reasonable variant of Verlinde's entropic gravity proposal, though for technical reasons the constraints established herein do not directly impact on either Jacobson'sor Padmanabhan's versions of entropic gravity. In an attempt to resolve these issues, I will extend the usual notion of entropic force to multiple heat baths with multiple "temperatures" and multiple "entropies".

  10. Energy-conservation indicators

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, D.B.

    1982-06-01

    A series of Energy Conservation Indicators were developed for the Department of Energy to assist in the evaluation of current and proposed conservation strategies. As descriptive statistics that signify current conditions and trends related to efficiency of energy use, indicators provide a way of measuring, monitoring, or inferring actual responses by consumers in markets for energy services. Related sets of indicators are presented in some 30 one-page indicator summaries. Indicators are shown graphically, followed by several paragraphs that explain their derivation and highlight key findings. Indicators are classified according to broad end-use sectors: Aggregate (economy), Residential, Commercial, Industrial, and transportation. In most cases annual time series information is presented covering the period 1960 through 1981.

  11. Results of peripheral laser photocoagulation in pars planitis.

    PubMed Central

    Pulido, J S; Mieler, W F; Walton, D; Kuhn, E; Postel, E; Hartz, A; Jampol, L M; Weinberg, D V; Logani, S

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the effect of peripheral retinal laser photocoagulation (PLP) on visual acuity, intraocular inflammation, and other ocular findings, including retinal neovascularization in eyes with pars planitis. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of eyes with pars planitis that had undergone PLP. RESULTS: Twenty-two eyes in 17 patients with pars planitis had undergone treatment with PLP at 2 centers. The mean age at the time of treatment was 19.3 years. Following treatment, mean follow-up was 16.3 months (range, 6 to 37 months). Mean visual acuity was 20/60 preoperatively and 20/50 postoperatively. This level of improvement was not statistically significant (P > .10), but there was a statistically significant decrease in the use of corticosteroids between the preoperative examination and the last postoperative examination (86% versus 27%, P < .05). There was also a statistically significant decrease in vitritis at the last follow-up (P = .0008) and a decrease in neovascularization of the vitreous base (P = .03) and in clinically apparent cystoid macular edema (P = .02). Epiretinal membranes were noted in 23% of eyes preoperatively and in 45% of eyes postoperatively. Only one of these epiretinal membranes was considered to be visually significant. One eye developed a tonic dilated pupil, which slowly improved. CONCLUSIONS: Although the long-term natural history of clinical findings in pars planitis is not well documented, PLP appears to decrease the need for corticosteroids while stabilizing visual acuity. It also appears to decrease vitreous inflammation. PLP has few complications and should be considered in patients with pars planitis who are unresponsive or have adverse reactions to corticosteroids. PMID:10360286

  12. Motor Energy Conservation Measures

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple motor inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: High Efficiency Motor retrofit and Cogged V-belts retrofit. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  13. Landscapes, tourism, and conservation

    PubMed

    Burger

    2000-04-17

    One key aspect of global change is a decrease in ecological integrity as more and more landscapes are developed, leaving a mosaic of intact refuges and degraded patches that may not be sufficient for conserving biodiversity. While increases in human population and shifts in the distribution of people affect land use, the temporary movement of people can have major implications for conservation and biodiversity. Three examples are presented where recreation/tourism can enhance the conservation of land on a landscape scale, leading to habitat protection and biodiversity preservation: (1) Shorebirds often require a matrix of different habitat types during migratory stopovers, and ecotourism can serve as a catalyst for landscape scale protection of habitat. (2) Riparian habitats can serve as corridors to link diverse habitat patches, as well as serving as biodiversity hotspots. (3) Remediation and rehabilitation of contaminated lands, such as those of the US Department of Energy, aimed at developing recreational activities on the uncontaminated portions, can be the most economical form of re-development with no increase in human or ecological risk. Since large areas on many DOE sites have been undisturbed since the Second World War, when they were acquired, they contain unique or valuable ecosystems that serve an important role within their regional landscapes. In all three cases the judicious development of recreational/tourist interests can encourage both the conservation of habitats and the wise management of habitats on a landscape scale. While some species or habitats are too fragile for sustained tourism, many can be managed so that species, ecosystems and ecotourists flourish. By contributing to the economic base of regions, ecotourists/recreationists can influence the protection of land and biodiversity on a landscape scale, contributing to ecosystem management. The human dimensions of land preservation and biodiversity protection are key to long

  14. The role of pars flaccida in human middle ear sound transmission.

    PubMed

    Aritomo, H; Goode, R L; Gonzalez, J

    1988-04-01

    The role of the pars flaccida in middle ear sound transmission was studied with the use of twelve otoscopically normal, fresh, human temporal bones. Peak-to-peak umbo displacement in response to a constant sound pressure level at the tympanic membrane was measured with a noncontacting video measuring system capable of repeatable measurements down to 0.2 micron. Measurements were made before and after pars flaccida modifications at 18 frequencies between 100 and 4000 Hz. Four pars flaccida modifications were studied: (1) acoustic insulation of the pars flaccida to the ear canal with a silicone rubber baffle, (2) stiffening the pars flaccida with cyanoacrylate cement, (3) decreasing the tension of the pars flaccida with a nonperforating incision, and (4) perforation of the pars flaccida. All of the modifications (except the perforation) had a minimal effect on umbo displacement; this seems to imply that the pars flaccida has a minor acoustic role in human beings. PMID:3132684

  15. Mesure du taux de la capture radiative du muon par l'hydrogene liquide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonkmans, Guy

    À basse énergie, l'interaction faible entre leptons et quarks est décrite par une interaction de la forme courant × courant de type V - A. La présence de l'interaction forte induit des couplages additionnels qui doivent être déterminés expérimentalement. De ceux-ci, le couplage pseudoscalaire induit, gp , est mesuré avec la plus grande incertitude et fait l'objet de la présente recherche. L'hypothèse du Courant Axial Partiellement Conservé (CAPC) et l'usage de la relation de Goldberger-Treiman relie gp au couplage axial ga . Cette relation a été vérifiée traditionnellement par la Capture Ordinaire du Muon (COM) à une valeur fixe du moment de transfert q. La Capture Radiative du Muon (CRM), m- p-->nnmg , est un meilleur outil pour l'étude de gp à cause de sa dépendance variable en q2 qui offre une plus grande sensibilité dans la partie à haute énergie du spectre des photons. Toutefois, le petit rapport d'embranchement (~10-8) de la CRM par rapport à la désintégration du muon a retardé cette mesure jusqu'à ce jour. La théorie et les difficultés expérimentales associées à la détection des photons de CRM sont présentées au deuxième chapitre. On décrit ensuite, au troisième chapitre, les composantes du système de détection. Ce détecteur est un spectromètre à paires de grand angle solide (~3p) et qui permet l'observation des photons par l'analyse des électrons et des positrons de photo-conversion. Ainsi, le bruit de fond important des neutrons de la COM ne constitue pas un problème pour cette mesure. Nous décrivons, au quatrième chapitre, toutes les étapes de l'analyse, nécessaires pour la réduction des multiples bruits de fond. Le cinquième chapitre présente le calcul des efficacités ainsi que l'estimation des erreurs systématiques. Le sixième chapitre démontre comment l'on extrait le rapport d'embranchement pour la CRM ainsi que la valeur ae gp . On insiste sur la dépendance de gp en fonction de la valeur de

  16. Conservation and Education in Murchison Falls Conservation Area, Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordahl, Mark D.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis forms the foundation for a conservation education training manual to help guides in Murchison Falls National Park, Uganda, communicate to foreign visitors about conservation issues. For background information I used a combination of text-based research and interviews to examine the application of community conservation and…

  17. Conservation businesses and conservation planning in a biological diversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    Di Minin, Enrico; Macmillan, Douglas Craig; Goodman, Peter Styan; Escott, Boyd; Slotow, Rob; Moilanen, Atte

    2013-08-01

    The allocation of land to biological diversity conservation competes with other land uses and the needs of society for development, food, and extraction of natural resources. Trade-offs between biological diversity conservation and alternative land uses are unavoidable, given the realities of limited conservation resources and the competing demands of society. We developed a conservation-planning assessment for the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal, which forms the central component of the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany biological diversity hotspot. Our objective was to enhance biological diversity protection while promoting sustainable development and providing spatial guidance in the resolution of potential policy conflicts over priority areas for conservation at risk of transformation. The conservation-planning assessment combined spatial-distribution models for 646 conservation features, spatial economic-return models for 28 alternative land uses, and spatial maps for 4 threats. Nature-based tourism businesses were competitive with other land uses and could provide revenues of >US$60 million/year to local stakeholders and simultaneously help meeting conservation goals for almost half the conservation features in the planning region. Accounting for opportunity costs substantially decreased conflicts between biological diversity, agricultural use, commercial forestry, and mining. Accounting for economic benefits arising from conservation and reducing potential policy conflicts with alternative plans for development can provide opportunities for successful strategies that combine conservation and sustainable development and facilitate conservation action. PMID:23565917

  18. Oncologic safety of conservative mastectomy in the therapeutic setting.

    PubMed

    Benson, John R; Dumitru, Dorin; Malata, Charles M

    2016-02-01

    Conservative mastectomy is a form of nipple-sparing mastectomy which is emerging as a surgical option for selected breast cancer patients. This technique differs from subcutaneous mastectomy which is well established as a technique for risk reduction but leaves behind a finite remnant of retro-areolar breast tissue. Clinical trials have confirmed the efficacy and safety of breast conservation therapy for smaller localised breast tumors whereby a variable amount of surrounding normal tissue is excised with administration of breast radiotherapy post-operatively. Conservative mastectomy aims to remove all breast tissue with dissection continued into the core of the nipple. However, the indication for conservative mastectomy remains to be defined but generally includes tumors of modest size located at least 2 cm away from the nipple. Patients undergoing conservative mastectomy do not necessarily receive adjuvant radiotherapy and this may only be intra-operative irradiation of the nipple-areola complex (NAC). Preservation of the NAC as part of a skin-sparing mastectomy in patients who might otherwise require standard mastectomy is of unproven safety from an oncologic perspective but is associated with enhanced cosmetic outcomes and quality-of-life. The advent of conservative mastectomy has coincided with a trend for "maximal surgery" with bilateral extirpation of all breast tissue in conjunction with immediate breast reconstruction. It is essential there is no compromise of local recurrence and survival in terms of ipsilateral breast cancer treatment. Further studies are required to clarify the indications for conservative mastectomy and confirm oncologic equivalence to either wide local excision and breast irradiation or conventional/skin-sparing mastectomy with sacrifice of the nipple areola complex. PMID:26855907

  19. Oncologic safety of conservative mastectomy in the therapeutic setting

    PubMed Central

    Dumitru, Dorin; Malata, Charles M.

    2016-01-01

    Conservative mastectomy is a form of nipple-sparing mastectomy which is emerging as a surgical option for selected breast cancer patients. This technique differs from subcutaneous mastectomy which is well established as a technique for risk reduction but leaves behind a finite remnant of retro-areolar breast tissue. Clinical trials have confirmed the efficacy and safety of breast conservation therapy for smaller localised breast tumors whereby a variable amount of surrounding normal tissue is excised with administration of breast radiotherapy post-operatively. Conservative mastectomy aims to remove all breast tissue with dissection continued into the core of the nipple. However, the indication for conservative mastectomy remains to be defined but generally includes tumors of modest size located at least 2 cm away from the nipple. Patients undergoing conservative mastectomy do not necessarily receive adjuvant radiotherapy and this may only be intra-operative irradiation of the nipple-areola complex (NAC). Preservation of the NAC as part of a skin-sparing mastectomy in patients who might otherwise require standard mastectomy is of unproven safety from an oncologic perspective but is associated with enhanced cosmetic outcomes and quality-of-life. The advent of conservative mastectomy has coincided with a trend for “maximal surgery” with bilateral extirpation of all breast tissue in conjunction with immediate breast reconstruction. It is essential there is no compromise of local recurrence and survival in terms of ipsilateral breast cancer treatment. Further studies are required to clarify the indications for conservative mastectomy and confirm oncologic equivalence to either wide local excision and breast irradiation or conventional/skin-sparing mastectomy with sacrifice of the nipple areola complex. PMID:26855907

  20. Reversibility and Discrimination in Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Jeffrey P.

    1974-01-01

    Five-year-old children who failed pretests of conservation of Number, Length, Mass, and Liquid Amount, but who possessed counting ability and knowledge of the terms "same" and "different" underwent Training and Conservation Posttests. (Author/CS)

  1. Conservation Level and Category Clustering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, C. Rayfield; Kulhavy, Raymond W.

    1976-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that category recall is related to the quantity conservation of mass, weight, and volume. The predicted association between conservation level and category recall was observed. (JMB)

  2. Adaptation: Conservation for any budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, Joshua J.

    2011-10-01

    Deciding where and how to allocate scarce funding to conserve plants and animals in a changing and uncertain climate is a thorny issue. Numerical modelling identifies the most effective mix of conservation measures based on the level of expenditure available.

  3. The Role of Prostate Apoptosis Response-4 (Par-4) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infected Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Han, Ji-Ye; Lim, Yun-Ji; Choi, Ji-Ae; Lee, Jung-Hwan; Jo, Sung-Hee; Oh, Sung-Man; Song, Chang-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) is a tumor suppressor protein that forms a complex with glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) to induce apoptosis. Previously, we reported that ER stress-induced apoptosis is a critical host defense mechanism against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). We sought to understand the role of Par-4 during ER stress-induced apoptosis in response to mycobacterial infection. Par-4 and GRP78 protein levels increased in response Mtb (strain: H37Ra) infection. Furthermore, Par-4 and GRP78 translocate to the surface of Mtb H37Ra-infected macrophages and induce apoptosis via caspase activation. NF-κB activation, Mtb-mediated ER stress, and Par-4 production were significantly diminished in macrophages with inhibited ROS production. To test Par-4 function during mycobacterial infection, we analyzed intracellular survival of Mtb H37Ra in macrophages with Par-4 overexpression or knockdown. Mtb H37Ra growth was significantly reduced in Par-4 overexpressing macrophages and increased in knockdown macrophages. We also observed increased Par-4, GRP78, and caspases activation in Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-infected prostate cancer cells. Our data demonstrate that Par-4 is associated with ER stress-induced apoptosis resulting in reduced intracellular survival of mycobacteria. BCG treatment increases Par-4-dependent caspase activation in prostate cancer cells. These results suggest ER stress-induced Par-4 acts as an important defense mechanism against mycobacterial infection and regulates cancer. PMID:27552917

  4. The Role of Prostate Apoptosis Response-4 (Par-4) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infected Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ji-Ye; Lim, Yun-Ji; Choi, Ji-Ae; Lee, Jung-hwan; Jo, Sung-Hee; Oh, Sung-Man; Song, Chang-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) is a tumor suppressor protein that forms a complex with glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) to induce apoptosis. Previously, we reported that ER stress-induced apoptosis is a critical host defense mechanism against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). We sought to understand the role of Par-4 during ER stress-induced apoptosis in response to mycobacterial infection. Par-4 and GRP78 protein levels increased in response Mtb (strain: H37Ra) infection. Furthermore, Par-4 and GRP78 translocate to the surface of Mtb H37Ra-infected macrophages and induce apoptosis via caspase activation. NF-κB activation, Mtb-mediated ER stress, and Par-4 production were significantly diminished in macrophages with inhibited ROS production. To test Par-4 function during mycobacterial infection, we analyzed intracellular survival of Mtb H37Ra in macrophages with Par-4 overexpression or knockdown. Mtb H37Ra growth was significantly reduced in Par-4 overexpressing macrophages and increased in knockdown macrophages. We also observed increased Par-4, GRP78, and caspases activation in Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-infected prostate cancer cells. Our data demonstrate that Par-4 is associated with ER stress-induced apoptosis resulting in reduced intracellular survival of mycobacteria. BCG treatment increases Par-4-dependent caspase activation in prostate cancer cells. These results suggest ER stress-induced Par-4 acts as an important defense mechanism against mycobacterial infection and regulates cancer. PMID:27552917

  5. Is There an "F" in Your PAR? Understanding, Teaching and Doing Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzetti, Liza; Walsh, Christine Ann

    2014-01-01

    Participatory Action Research (PAR) is increasingly recognized within academic research and pedagogy. What are the benefits of including feminism within participatory action research and teaching? In responding to this question, we discuss the similarities and salient differences between PAR and feminist informed PAR (FPAR). There are eight themes…

  6. ParA resolvase catalyzes site-specific excision of DNA from the Arabidopsis genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The small serine resolvase ParA from bacterial plasmids RK2 and RP4 catalyzes the recombination of two identical 133 bp recombination sites known as MRS. Previously, we reported that ParA is active in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In this work, the parA recombinase gene was placed un...

  7. Detection of suPAR in the Saliva of Healthy Young Adults: Comparison with Plasma Levels

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Anna; Ajeti, Vjosa; Ljunggren, Lennart

    2011-01-01

    The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has been detected in blood, plasma, serum, urine, ovarian cystic fluid, and cerebrospinal fluid. Elevated suPAR levels in plasma have been associated with negative outcomes in various diseases, such as bacteremia, sepsis, SIRS, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and tuberculosis. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether suPAR can be detected in saliva from healthy individuals and thus, if saliva suPAR can be related to plasma suPAR, CRP, BMI, or gender. Blood and unstimulated whole saliva was collected from 20 healthy individuals (10 female and 10 male, median age of 28 years; range 21–41). CRP and suPAR were measured with ELISA in saliva and serum/plasma. suPAR was detected in all saliva samples in the 5.2–28.1 ng/mL range, with a median value of 17.1 ng/mL. Saliva suPAR was significantly higher (P < 0.001) but not correlated to plasma suPAR in healthy young adults with normal plasma suPAR levels. suPAR and CRP levels were correlated in blood but not in saliva. No correlation was found between BMI, age, or gender and suPAR in saliva. PMID:22084570

  8. Springtime size-fractionated primary production across hydrographic and PAR-light gradients in Chilean Patagonia (41-50°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Bárbara G.; Tapia, Fabián J.; Daneri, Giovanni; Iriarte, Jose L.; Montero, Paulina; Sobarzo, Marcus; Quiñones, Renato A.

    2014-12-01

    We combined on-deck and in situ measurements and satellite-derived data to study the spatial variability of springtime size-fractionated primary production and chlorophyll-a biomass along gradients of hydrographic conditions and surface PAR in central and northern Chilean Patagonia (41-50°S). This extensive and fragmented region encompasses numerous fjords and channels, as well as the northern and southern icefields (46-47°S, 48-52°S). Primary production displayed a latitudinal pattern decreasing southwards (6-fold lower), particularly toward areas influenced by rivers with a nival regime. Micro-phytoplankton (>20 μm) dominated the primary production (57-93%) and chlorophyll-a (43-91%) of northern sites, where warmer and more saline surface waters exhibit greater PAR irradiance. Small phytoplankton cells (<2 μm; 2-20 μm) contributed > 50% of carbon fixation and chlorophyll-a in the southernmost sites, especially those located near glaciers and major rivers, where surface temperature, salinity, and PAR irradiance were lowest. The long-term (2002-2012) average field of springtime PAR derived from satellite imagery showed a southward increase in longitudinal gradients, which indicates that spatial changes in surface light attenuation along this region are largely driven by glacier-derived freshwater inputs. A principal component analysis of surface temperature, salinity, and PAR produced an ordination of sites that was consistent with spatial changes in the balance of oceanic versus riverine influence on surface conditions along this region. Total primary production was significantly correlated (r = 0.61, p = 0.007) with the first principal component, which explained 65% of joint variability in hydrographic conditions and PAR. The same principal component clearly separated sites in northern Patagonia where micro-phytoplankton dominated total primary production - along the Reloncavi fjord and Inner Sea of Chiloe - from those located further south where other size

  9. Water Savings Through Conservation Tillage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Through a partnership with the University of Georgia – College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, USDA-Agricultural Research Service, USDA-Natural Resource Conservation Service, Soil and Water Conservation Society and Resource Conservation and Development Councils to name a few, research and...

  10. Approved Practices in Soil Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Albert B.

    This book is written for individuals who wish to apply conservation practices, especially those of soil and water conservation, without technical assistance, to meet one's own conditions, and within his own capability to apply them. To meet these needs, the book includes a discussion and description of soil and water conservation methods for the…

  11. Estimating Conservation Thresholds on Rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) is a multi-agency effort designed to quantify the environmental and economic impacts of land conservation practices. One of USDA’s goals is to identify Conservation Thresholds, the point at which accelerated erosion occurs, and to examine the usefu...

  12. Teaching Conservation in Developing Nations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brace, Judith; And Others

    This manual is designed to provide Peace Corps volunteers and other field workers with ideas, activities, and resources for incorporating conservation education into their day-to-day community activities. It begins with a chapter dealing with a self-contained conservation center. Other chapters tell of ways in which a conservation education…

  13. Saving Money Through Energy Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presley, Michael H.; And Others

    This publication is an introduction to personal energy conservation. The first chapter presents a rationale for conserving energy and points out that private citizens control about one third of this country's energy consumption. Chapters two and three show how to save money by saving energy. Chapter two discusses energy conservation methods in the…

  14. Conservation of tropical plant species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book is designed to provide a review of the methods and current status of conservation of many tropical plant species. Future perspectives of conservation of tropical species will also be discussed. The section on methods covers the range of conservation techniques, in situ, seed banking, in vi...

  15. Conservation systems in the Southeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation describes how conservation systems that include non-inversion tillage and cover crops, a key component of conservation systems, are managed in the Southeast to maximize benefits. Benefits include weed suppression, moisture conservation, and increased organic matter contents. Mana...

  16. Conservation Education: A Position Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    The Soil Conservation Society of America's (SCSA) aim is to advance the science and art of good land and water use. Conservation education has a significant role in achieving the wise use of these resources. In this report, perspectives are offered on: (1) the requirements for effective conservation education programs; (2) rationale for…

  17. Aging-like Changes in the Transcriptome of Irradiated Microglia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Matthew D.; Burns, Terry C.; Kumar, Sunny; Morgan, Alexander A.; Sloan, Steven A.; Palmer, Theo D.

    2014-01-01

    Whole brain irradiation remains important in the management of brain tumors. Although necessary for improving survival outcomes, cranial irradiation also results in cognitive decline in long-term survivors. A chronic inflammatory state characterized by microglial activation has been implicated in radiation-induced brain injury. We here provide the first comprehensive transcriptional profile of irradiated microglia. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) was used to isolate CD11b+ microglia from the hippocampi of C57BL/6 and Balb/c mice 1 month after 10Gy cranial irradiation. Affymetrix gene expression profiles were evaluated using linear modeling, rank product analyses. One month after irradiation, a conserved irradiation signature across strains was identified, comprising 448 and 85 differentially up- and down-regulated genes, respectively. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) demonstrated enrichment for inflammation, including M1 macrophage-associated genes, but also an unexpected enrichment for extracellular matrix and blood coagulation-related gene sets, in contrast previously described microglial states. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) confirmed these findings and further revealed alterations in mitochondrial function. The RNA-seq transcriptome of microglia 24h post-radiation proved similar to the 1-month transcriptome, but additionally featured alterations in apoptotic and lysosomal gene expression. Re-analysis of published aging mouse microglia transcriptome data demonstrated striking similarity to the 1 month irradiated microglia transcriptome, suggesting that shared mechanisms may underlie aging and chronic irradiation-induced cognitive decline. PMID:25690519

  18. ParCAT: A Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugen, B.; Smith, B.; Steed, C.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Thornton, P. E.; Shipman, G.

    2012-12-01

    Climate science has employed increasingly complex models and simulations to analyze the past and predict the future of our climate. The size and dimensionality of climate simulation data has been growing with the complexity of the models. This growth in data is creating a widening gap between the data being produced and the tools necessary to analyze large, high dimensional data sets. With single run data sets increasing into 10's, 100's and even 1000's of gigabytes, parallel computing tools are becoming a necessity in order to analyze and compare climate simulation data. The Parallel Climate Analysis Toolkit (ParCAT) provides basic tools that efficiently use parallel computing techniques to narrow the gap between data set size and analysis tools. ParCAT was created as a collaborative effort between climate scientists and computer scientists in order to provide efficient parallel implementations of the computing tools that are of use to climate scientists. Some of the basic functionalities included in the toolkit are the ability to compute spatio-temporal means and variances, differences between two runs and histograms of the values in a data set. ParCAT is designed to facilitate the "heavy lifting" that is required for large, multidimensional data sets. The toolkit does not focus on performing the final visualizations and presentation of results but rather, reducing large data sets to smaller, more manageable summaries. The output from ParCAT is provided in commonly used file formats (NetCDF, CSV, ASCII) to allow for simple integration with other tools. The toolkit is currently implemented as a command line utility, but will likely also provide a C library for developers interested in tighter software integration. Elements of the toolkit are already being incorporated into projects such as UV-CDAT and CMDX. There is also an effort underway to implement portions of the CCSM Land Model Diagnostics package using ParCAT in conjunction with Python and gnuplot. Par

  19. Plug Loads Conservation Measures

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple plug loads inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: Vending Machine Misers, Delamp Vending Machine, Desktop to Laptop retrofit, CRT to LCD monitors retrofit, Computer Power Management Settings, and Energy Star Refrigerator retrofit. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings tomore » investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.« less

  20. Energy conservation technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Courtright, H.A.

    1993-12-31

    The conservation of energy through the efficiency improvement of existing end-uses and the development of new technologies to replace less efficient systems is an important component of the overall effort to reduce greenhouse gases which may contribute to global climate change. Even though uncertainties exist on the degree and causes of global warming, efficiency improvements in end-use applications remain in the best interest of utilities, their customers and society because efficiency improvements not only reduce environmental exposures but also contribute to industrial productivity, business cost reductions and consumer savings in energy costs.

  1. On integrable conservation laws

    PubMed Central

    Arsie, Alessandro; Lorenzoni, Paolo; Moro, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    We study normal forms of scalar integrable dispersive (not necessarily Hamiltonian) conservation laws, via the Dubrovin–Zhang perturbative scheme. Our computations support the conjecture that such normal forms are parametrized by infinitely many arbitrary functions that can be identified with the coefficients of the quasi-linear part of the equation. Moreover, in general, we conjecture that two scalar integrable evolutionary partial differential equations having the same quasi-linear part are Miura equivalent. This conjecture is also consistent with the tensorial behaviour of these coefficients under general Miura transformations. PMID:25568614

  2. Water Conservation Measures

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple water fixture inventory information and calculates the water/energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes water conservation measures for: Low-flow Toilets, Low-flow Urinals, Low-flow Faucets, and Low-flow Showheads. This tool calculates water savings, energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits ofmore » a project.« less

  3. Integrating Agriculture and Conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandever, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    The USGS produces the needed science-based information to guide management actions and policy decisions that support wildlife habitat and other environmental services compatible with USDA conservation goals and farm operations. The Policy Analysis and Science Assistance Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) has conducted research involving a national landowner survey and numerous short- and long-term evaluations regarding vegetation responses to land management practices. This research helps land and resource managers to make informed decisions and resolve resource management conflicts.

  4. Water Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Metzger, Jesse Dean

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple water fixture inventory information and calculates the water/energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes water conservation measures for: Low-flow Toilets, Low-flow Urinals, Low-flow Faucets, and Low-flow Showheads. This tool calculates water savings, energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  5. Plug Loads Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Metzger, Jesse Dean

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple plug loads inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: Vending Machine Misers, Delamp Vending Machine, Desktop to Laptop retrofit, CRT to LCD monitors retrofit, Computer Power Management Settings, and Energy Star Refrigerator retrofit. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  6. Comminuting irradiated ferritic steel

    DOEpatents

    Bauer, Roger E.; Straalsund, Jerry L.; Chin, Bryan A.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of comminuting irradiated ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other irradiated components.

  7. Irradiation Creep in Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Ubic, Rick; Butt, Darryl; Windes, William

    2014-03-13

    An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of irradiation creep in graphite material is required to correctly interpret experimental data, explain micromechanical modeling results, and predict whole-core behavior. This project will focus on experimental microscopic data to demonstrate the mechanism of irradiation creep. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy should be able to image both the dislocations in graphite and the irradiation-induced interstitial clusters that pin those dislocations. The team will first prepare and characterize nanoscale samples of virgin nuclear graphite in a transmission electron microscope. Additional samples will be irradiated to varying degrees at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) facility and similarly characterized. Researchers will record microstructures and crystal defects and suggest a mechanism for irradiation creep based on the results. In addition, the purchase of a tensile holder for a transmission electron microscope will allow, for the first time, in situ observation of creep behavior on the microstructure and crystallographic defects.

  8. Minimally invasive pars approach for foraminal disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Hitchon, Patrick W; Awe, Olatilewa O; Close, Liesl; Sukkarieh, Hamdi G

    2015-07-01

    We present a retrospective cohort study on the outcome of patients with foraminal disc herniations (FDH) treated with partial pars resections using minimally invasive surgery (MIS) through a tube. FDH present a challenge due to the more lateral trajectory needed for their excision and thereby more muscle dissection and possibly facet resection. Forty patients, 19 women and 21 men with a mean age ± standard deviation of 58 ± 12 years, underwent MIS for FDH. Data on length of hospital stay, body mass index and outcomes were collected prospectively and reviewed retrospectively. Average length of stay following surgery was 1 ± 1 days. There was one wound infection and four unsatisfactory results. Using the Macnab score, good to excellent results were achieved in 89% of the patients. Based on these results, MIS surgery with partial pars resection is an attractive option in the treatment of FDH with low morbidity and short hospital stays. PMID:25882259

  9. Defining biocultural approaches to conservation.

    PubMed

    Gavin, Michael C; McCarter, Joe; Mead, Aroha; Berkes, Fikret; Stepp, John Richard; Peterson, Debora; Tang, Ruifei

    2015-03-01

    We contend that biocultural approaches to conservation can achieve effective and just conservation outcomes while addressing erosion of both cultural and biological diversity. Here, we propose a set of guidelines for the adoption of biocultural approaches to conservation. First, we draw lessons from work on biocultural diversity and heritage, social-ecological systems theory, integrated conservation and development, co-management, and community-based conservation to define biocultural approaches to conservation. Second, we describe eight principles that characterize such approaches. Third, we discuss reasons for adopting biocultural approaches and challenges. If used well, biocultural approaches to conservation can be a powerful tool for reducing the global loss of both biological and cultural diversity. PMID:25622889

  10. Beyond conservation agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Giller, Ken E.; Andersson, Jens A.; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture. PMID:26579139

  11. Beyond conservation agriculture.

    PubMed

    Giller, Ken E; Andersson, Jens A; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture. PMID:26579139

  12. Selling energy conservation.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, D

    1995-01-01

    This article concerns the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) crisis and its impact on energy efficiency measures in the US. In 1985, when the OPEC collapsed, the US government had avoided the need to construct 350 gigawatts of new electric capacity. The most successful efficiency improvements, especially in household appliances and equipment, lighting and tightened energy efficiency standards in new buildings, resulted from the OPEC event. The real innovation of that time was the change in profit rules for utilities. This revolution and the way some US utilities view energy have not caught on elsewhere. Despite the initiative toward improving energy efficiency in homes, offices and industries, the change has been slow. Partly to blame are the big development banks, which pointed out that short-term conservation and efficiency measures could save at least 15% of the total energy demand without the need for major investment. The benefits of energy conservation was shown during the oil shock when per capita energy consumption fell by 5% in the member states of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, while the per capita gross domestic product grew by a third. There has been a decrease in energy expenditure worldwide, and the scope for further energy savings is enormous, but governments need to recognize and seize the opportunity. PMID:12295818

  13. Molecular contributions to conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haig, Susan M.

    1998-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular technology have opened a new chapter in species conservation efforts, as well as population biology. DNA sequencing, MHC (major histocompatibility complex), minisatellite, microsatellite, and RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) procedures allow for identification of parentage, more distant relatives, founders to new populations, unidentified individuals, population structure, effective population size, population-specific markers, etc. PCR (polymerase chain reaction) amplification of mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA, ribosomal DNA, chloroplast DNA, and other systems provide for more sophisticated analyses of metapopulation structure, hybridization events, and delineation of species, subspecies, and races, all of which aid in setting species recovery priorities. Each technique can be powerful in its own right but is most credible when used in conjunction with other molecular techniques and, most importantly, with ecological and demographic data collected from the field. Surprisingly few taxa of concern have been assayed with any molecular technique. Thus, rather than showcasing exhaustive details from a few well-known examples, this paper attempts to present a broad range of cases in which molecular techniques have been used to provide insight into conservation efforts.

  14. Lyme disease and conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, H.

    1994-01-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness that is wide-spread in North America, especially in the northeastern and northcentral United States. This disease could negatively influence efforts to conserve natural populations in two ways: (1) the disease could directly affect wild animal health; and (2) tick control efforts could adversely affect natural populations and communities. Lyme disease affects several domestic animals, but symptoms have been reported in only a few wild species. Direct effects of Lyme disease on wild animal populations have not been reported, but the disease should be considered as a possible cause in cases of unexplained population declines in endemic areas. Methods available to manage ticks and Lyme disease include human self-protection techniques, manipulation of habitats and hosts species populations, biological control, and pesticide applications. The diversity of available techniques allows selection of approaches to minimize environmental effects by (1) emphasizing personal protection techniques, (2) carefully targeting management efforts to maximize efficiency, and (3) integrating environmentally benign techniques to improve management while avoiding broad-scale environmentally destructive approaches. The environmental effects of Lyme disease depend, to a large extent, on the methods chosen to minimize human exposure to infected ticks. Conservation biologists can help design tick management programs that effectively lower the incidence of human Lyme disease while simultaneously minimizing negative effects on natural populations.

  15. Energy conservation in museums

    SciTech Connect

    Ucar, M.; Doering, G.C.

    1980-07-01

    An overall assessment of energy conservation in museums in New York is made in view of the special environmental considerations involved. The special relative humidity, temperature, and lighting requirements of museums were studied extensively. An energy consumption data base was formed with actual energy use data obtained from over fifty institutions across the state. The computerized energy consumption data base compiled covers an extremely wide range of energy usage levels. On-site energy consumption ranged from approximately 20,000 to 400,000 Btu/ft/sup 2/ year. The data base includes small rural institutions and large metropolitan museums, historic and modern structures, seasonal and year-round museums, single buildings and collections of buildings, single-story buildings and multiple-story buildings, an aquarium, and a zoo. Thus, it is difficult to identify trends in the energy consumption data and to make correlations with such parameters as age, type, size, etc. Walk-through or mini energy audits were performed on ten museums located in various parts of New York State. This project also included a thorough study of all potential funding sources to which museums can apply for financing energy conservation measures. Sources of technical assistance and information were also identified. (MCW)

  16. Integrable viscous conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsie, Alessandro; Lorenzoni, Paolo; Moro, Antonio

    2015-06-01

    We propose an extension of the Dubrovin-Zhang perturbative approach to the study of normal forms for non-Hamiltonian integrable scalar conservation laws. The explicit computation of the first few corrections leads to the conjecture that such normal forms are parameterized by one single functional parameter, named the viscous central invariant. A constant valued viscous central invariant corresponds to the well-known Burgers hierarchy. The case of a linear viscous central invariant provides a viscous analog of the Camassa-Holm equation, that formerly appeared as a reduction of two-component Hamiltonian integrable systems. We write explicitly the negative and positive hierarchy associated with this equation and prove the integrability showing that they can be mapped respectively into the heat hierarchy and its negative counterpart, named the Klein-Gordon hierarchy. A local well-posedness theorem for periodic initial data is also proven. We show how transport equations can be used to effectively construct asymptotic solutions via an extension of the quasi-Miura map that preserves the initial datum. The method is alternative to the method of the string equation for Hamiltonian conservation laws and naturally extends to the viscous case. Using these tools we derive the viscous analog of the Painlevé I2 equation that describes the universal behaviour of the solution at the critical point of gradient catastrophe.

  17. Traumatismes Oculaires par Petards: Bilan sur Trois Annees

    PubMed Central

    Zouaoui-Kesraoui, N.; Derdour, A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Les accidents dus aux pétards sont des accidents graves. Leur recrudescence ces dernières années en Algérie, essentiellement durant les fêtes du Mawlid Ennabaoui (fête de la naissance du prophète), mérite à notre sens d'entreprendre des bilans exhaustifs dont celui-ci dans le but d'une sensibilisation de toutes les compétences concernées. Nous avons réuni sur trois années consécutives (2002, 2003, 2004) 60 dossiers de malades ayant subi des accidents oculaires par pétards. Nos patients sont répartis en 42 consultations pour blessures légères et 18 hospitalisations pour blessures graves. Parmi ces derniers, neuf ont présenté des complications et séquelles graves (cinq cas de cécité par atrophie du globe oculaire, trois cas de cécité cornéenne et un cas de cécité par trou maculaire). Dans tous ces cas l'incapacité permanente partielle est au minimum de 30%. Au vu de ces données nous proposons des mesures d'éducation sanitaire et une sensibilisation du grand public aux traumatismes oculaires, par le biais de mé dias appropriés: radio, télévision, affiches. PMID:21991157

  18. The Pars Interarticularis Stress Reaction, Spondylolysis, and Spondylolisthesis Progression

    PubMed Central

    Motley, Gina; Nyland, John; Jacobs, Jake; Caborn, David N. M.

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To review the classification, etiology, clinical and radiologic evaluation, and management of the pars interarticularis stress reaction, spondylolysis, and spondylolisthesis progression. Data Sources: Grateful Med was searched from 1980 to 1998 using the terms “spondylolysis,” “spondylolisthesis,” “female athlete” “spondylogenic,” and “pars interarticularis.” Data Synthesis: The progression from pars interarticularis stress reaction through spondylolysis to spondylolisthesis is common in adolescent athletes, and, because of hormonal influences and cheerleading and gymnastic maneuvers, females are particularly at risk. Proper diagnosis and management include a thorough evaluation, radiographs (possibly with technetium bone scan or single-photon emission computed tomography), activity modification, dietary counseling, a therapeutic exercise program focusing on proper trunk and hip muscle strength and extensibility balances, and education regarding proper back postures, positioning, lifting mechanics, and jump landings. Conclusions/Recommendations: The athletic trainer plays an integral part in managing this injury progression, particularly with identifying at-risk individuals and intervening appropriately. ImagesFigure 4. PMID:16558534

  19. Dynamic Filament Formation by a Divergent Bacterial Actin-Like ParM Protein

    PubMed Central

    Brzoska, Anthony J.; Jensen, Slade O.; Barton, Deborah A.; Davies, Danielle S.; Overall, Robyn L.; Skurray, Ronald A.; Firth, Neville

    2016-01-01

    Actin-like proteins (Alps) are a diverse family of proteins whose genes are abundant in the chromosomes and mobile genetic elements of many bacteria. The low-copy-number staphylococcal multiresistance plasmid pSK41 encodes ParM, an Alp involved in efficient plasmid partitioning. pSK41 ParM has previously been shown to form filaments in vitro that are structurally dissimilar to those formed by other bacterial Alps. The mechanistic implications of these differences are not known. In order to gain insights into the properties and behavior of the pSK41 ParM Alp in vivo, we reconstituted the parMRC system in the ectopic rod-shaped host, E. coli, which is larger and more genetically amenable than the native host, Staphylococcus aureus. Fluorescence microscopy showed a functional fusion protein, ParM-YFP, formed straight filaments in vivo when expressed in isolation. Strikingly, however, in the presence of ParR and parC, ParM-YFP adopted a dramatically different structure, instead forming axial curved filaments. Time-lapse imaging and selective photobleaching experiments revealed that, in the presence of all components of the parMRC system, ParM-YFP filaments were dynamic in nature. Finally, molecular dissection of the parMRC operon revealed that all components of the system are essential for the generation of dynamic filaments. PMID:27310470

  20. Structure of the ParM filament at 8.5 Å resolution

    PubMed Central

    Gayathri, Pananghat; Fujii, Takashi; Namba, Keiichi; Löwe, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The actin-like protein ParM forms the cytomotive filament of the ParMRC system, a type II plasmid segregation system encoded by Escherichia coli R1 plasmid. We report an 8.5 Å resolution reconstruction of the ParM filament, obtained using cryo-electron microscopy. Fitting of the 3D density reconstruction with monomeric crystal structures of ParM provides insights into dynamic instability of ParM filaments. The structural analysis suggests that a ParM conformation, corresponding to a metastable state, is held within the filament by intrafilament contacts. This filament conformation of ParM can be attained only from the ATP-bound state, and induces a change in conformation of the bound nucleotide. The structural analysis also provides a rationale for the observed stimulation of hydrolysis upon polymerisation into the filament. PMID:23462100

  1. ParA resolvase catalyzes site-specific excision of DNA from the Arabidopsis genome.

    PubMed

    Thomson, James G; Yau, Yuan-Yeu; Blanvillain, Robert; Nunes, Wylla M; Chiniquy, Dawn; Thilmony, Roger; Ow, David W

    2009-04-01

    The small serine resolvase ParA from bacterial plasmids RK2 and RP4 catalyzes the recombination of two identical 133 bp recombination sites known as MRS. Previously, we reported that ParA is active in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In this work, the parA recombinase gene was placed under the control of the Arabidopsis OXS3 promoter and introduced into Arabidopsis lines harboring a chromosomally integrated MRS-flanked target. The ParA recombinase excised the MRS-flanked DNA and the excision event was detected in subsequent generations in the absence of ParA, indicating germinal transmission of the excision event. The precise site-specific deletion by the ParA recombination system in planta demonstrates that the ParA recombinase can be used to remove transgenic DNA, such as selectable markers or other introduced transgenes that are no longer desired in the final product. PMID:18704739

  2. Irradiation-Induced Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Birtcher, R.C.; Ewing, R.C.; Matzke, Hj.; Meldrum, A.; Newcomer, P.P.; Wang, L.M.; Wang, S.X.; Weber, W.J.

    1999-08-09

    This paper summarizes the results of the studies of the irradiation-induced formation of nanostructures, where the injected interstitials from the source of irradiation are not major components of the nanophase. This phenomena has been observed by in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in a number of intermetallic compounds and ceramics during high-energy electron or ion irradiations when the ions completely penetrate through the specimen. Beginning with single crystals, electron or ion irradiation in a certain temperature range may result in nanostructures composed of amorphous domains and nanocrystals with either the original composition and crystal structure or new nanophases formed by decomposition of the target material. The phenomenon has also been observed in natural materials which have suffered irradiation from the decay of constituent radioactive elements and in nuclear reactor fuels which have been irradiated by fission neutrons and other fission products. The mechanisms involved in the process of this nanophase formation are discussed in terms of the evolution of displacement cascades, radiation-induced defect accumulation, radiation-induced segregation and phase decomposition, as well as the competition between irradiation-induced amorphization and recrystallization.

  3. Solar ultraviolet-B and photosynthetically active irradiance in the urban sub-canopy: A survey of influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Richard H.; Heisler, Gordon M.

    1996-12-01

    Stratospheric ozone loss in mid-latitudes is expected to increase the ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation at the earth's surface. Impacts of this expected increase will depend on many factors, including the distribution of light in other wavelengths. Measurements of the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and UVB irradiance were made under clear skies at an open field and under the canopy of scattered trees in a suburban area in W. Lafayette, Indiana, USA (latitude 40.5°). Results showed that when there was significant sky view, the UVB penetration into sub-canopy spaces differs greatly from that of PAR. The UVB T canopy (transmittance; irradiance below canopy/irradiance in open) was inversely related to sky view. The UVB irradiance did not vary as greatly between shaded and sunlit areas as did PAR. Analysis of measurements made near a brick wall indicated that the leaf area of a canopy and the brick wall primarily acted to block fractions of the sky radiance and contributed little scattered UVB to the horizontal plant. A model was developed to predict the UVB and PAR T canopy based on diffuse fraction, sky view, and porosity of the crown(s) through which the beam is penetrating. The model accounted for the UVB and PAR T canopy to within 0.13 and 0.05 root mean squared error (RMSE), respectively. Analysis of the errors due to model assumptions indicated that care must be taken in describing the sky radiance distribution, the porosity of trees, the penetration of diffuse radiation through porous trees, and the location of sky-obstructing trees and buildings.

  4. Supply Curves of Conserved Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan Kevin

    1982-05-01

    Supply curves of conserved energy provide an accounting framework that expresses the potential for energy conservation. The economic worthiness of a conservation measure is expressed in terms of the cost of conserved energy, and a measure is considered economical when the cost of conserved energy is less than the price of the energy it replaces. A supply curve of conserved energy is independent of energy prices; however, the economical reserves of conserved energy will depend on energy prices. Double-counting of energy savings and error propagation are common problems when estimating conservation potentials, but supply curves minimize these difficulties and make their consequences predictable. The sensitivity of the cost of conserved energy is examined, as are variations in the optimal investment strategy in response to changes in inputs. Guidelines are presented for predicting the consequences of such changes. The conservation supply curve concept can be applied to peak power, water, pollution, and other markets where consumers demand a service rather than a particular good.

  5. Superradiance and flux conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boonserm, Petarpa; Ngampitipan, Tritos; Visser, Matt

    2014-09-01

    The theoretical foundations of the phenomenon known as superradiance still continue to attract considerable attention. Despite many valiant attempts at pedagogically clear presentations, the effect nevertheless still continues to generate some significant confusion. Part of the confusion arises from the fact that superradiance in a quantum field theory context is not the same as superradiance (superfluorescence) in some condensed matter contexts; part of the confusion arises from traditional but sometimes awkward normalization conventions, and part is due to sometimes unnecessary confusion between fluxes and probabilities. We shall argue that the key point underlying the effect is flux conservation (and, in the presence of dissipation, a controlled amount of flux nonconservation), and that attempting to phrase things in terms of reflection and transmission probabilities only works in the absence of superradiance. To help clarify the situation we present a simple exactly solvable toy model exhibiting both superradiance and damping.

  6. National energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A set of energy conservation actions that cut across all sectors of the economy were analyzed so that all actions under consideration be analyzed systematically and as a whole. The actions considered were as follows: (1) roll back the price of newly discovered oil, (2) freeze gasoline production for 3 years at 1972 levels, (3) mandate automobile mileage improvements, (4) require industry to improve energy efficiency, (5) require manufacture of household appliances with greater efficiency, (6) force conversion of many power plants from gas and oil to coal. The results showed that considerable gas and oil would be saved by forcing switches to coal. However, the large scale switch to coal was shown to require greatly increased outputs from many other industries that in turn require more energy. It was estimated that nearly 2.5 quads of additional coal were needed to produce these additional requirements. Also, the indirect requirements would create more jobs.

  7. Energy Conservation Code Decoded

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Pam C.; Taylor, Zachary T.

    2006-09-01

    Designing an energy-efficient, affordable, and comfortable home is a lot easier thanks to a slime, easier to read booklet, the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC), published in March 2006. States, counties, and cities have begun reviewing the new code as a potential upgrade to their existing codes. Maintained under the public consensus process of the International Code Council, the IECC is designed to do just what its title says: promote the design and construction of energy-efficient homes and commercial buildings. Homes in this case means traditional single-family homes, duplexes, condominiums, and apartment buildings having three or fewer stories. The U.S. Department of Energy, which played a key role in proposing the changes that resulted in the new code, is offering a free training course that covers the residential provisions of the 2006 IECC.

  8. The Total Irradiance Monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Greg

    2015-08-01

    The first Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) launched on NASA’s Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment in 2003 and quickly proved to be the most accurate and stable instrument on orbit for measuring the total solar irradiance (TSI). The TIM’s design improvements over the older classical radiometers helped its selection on many subsequent missions, including NASA’s Glory, NOAA’s TSI Calibration Transfer Experiment, and the series of NASA’s Total and Spectral Solar Irradiance Sensor instruments currently underway. I will summarize the status of and differences between each of the TIMs currently on-orbit or in production.

  9. Test reactor irradiation coordination

    SciTech Connect

    Heartherly, D.W.; Siman Tov, I.I.; Sparks, D.W.

    1995-10-01

    This task was established to supply and coordinate irradiation services needed by NRC contractors other than ORNL. These services include the design and assembly of irradiation capsules as well as arranging for their exposure, disassembly, and return of specimens. During this period, the final design of the facility and specimen baskets was determined through an iterative process involving the designers and thermal analysts. The resulting design should permit the irradiation of all test specimens to within 5{degrees}C of their desired temperature. Detailing of all parts is ongoing and should be completed during the next reporting period. Procurement of the facility will also be initiated during the next review period.

  10. Alaskan Commodities Irradiation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Zarling, J.P.; Swanson, R.B.; Logan, R.R.; Das, D.K.; Lewis, C.E.; Workman, W.G.; Tumeo, M.A.; Hok, C.I.; Birklid, C.A.; Bennett, F.L.

    1988-12-01

    The ninety-ninth US Congress commissioned a six-state food irradiation research and development program to evaluate the commercial potential of this technology. Hawaii, Washington, Iowa, Oklahoma and Florida as well as Alaska have participated in the national program; various food products including fishery products, red meats, tropical and citrus fruits and vegetables have been studied. The purpose of the Alaskan study was to review and evaluate those factors related to the technical and economic feasibility of an irradiator in Alaska. This options analysis study will serve as a basis for determining the state's further involvement in the development of food irradiation technology. 40 refs., 50 figs., 53 tabs.

  11. Why not energy conservation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    Energy conservation is a deep principle that is obeyed by all of the fundamental forces of nature. It puts stringent constraints on all systems, particularly systems that are ‘isolated,’ meaning that no energy can enter or escape. Notwithstanding the success of the principle of stationary action, it is fair to wonder to what extent physics can be formulated from the principle of stationary energy. We show that if one interprets mechanical energy as a state function, then its stationarity leads to a novel formulation of classical mechanics. However, unlike Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics, which deliver their state functions via algebraic proscriptions (i.e., the Lagrangian is always the difference between a system’s kinetic and potential energies), this new formalism identifies its state functions as the solutions to a differential equation. This is an important difference because differential equations can generate more general solutions than algebraic recipes. When applied to Newtonian systems for which the energy function is separable, these state functions are always the mechanical energy. However, while the stationary state function for a charged particle moving in an electromagnetic field proves not to be energy, the function nevertheless correctly encodes the dynamics of the system. Moreover, the stationary state function for a free relativistic particle proves not to be the energy either. Rather, our differential equation yields the relativistic free-particle Lagrangian (plus a non-dynamical constant) in its correct dynamical context. To explain how this new formalism can consistently deliver stationary state functions that give the correct dynamics but that are not always the mechanical energy, we propose that energy conservation is a specific realization of a deeper principle of stationarity that governs both relativistic and non-relativistic mechanics.

  12. Effects of gamma irradiation on deteriorated paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicchieri, Marina; Monti, Michela; Piantanida, Giovanna; Sodo, Armida

    2016-08-01

    -10-2008-Istituto.pdf), it has been evaluated that the modifications induced by γ-rays irradiation are not acceptable as safe conservation treatment (http://www.icpal.beniculturali.it/allegati/Nota_uso_raggi_gamma.pdf).

  13. Magi is associated with the par complex and functions antagonistically with bazooka to regulate the apical polarity complex

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Padash Barmchi, Mojgan; Samarasekera, Gayathri; Gilbert, Mary; Auld, Vanessa J.; Zhang, Bing; Nam, Sang -Chul

    2016-04-13

    The mammalian MAGI proteins play important roles in the maintenance of adherens and tight junctions. The MAGI family of proteins contains modular domains such as WW and PDZ domains necessary for scaffolding of membrane receptors and intracellular signaling components. Loss of MAGI leads to reduced junction stability while overexpression of MAGI can lead to increased adhesion and stabilization of epithelial morphology. However, how Magi regulates junction assembly in epithelia is largely unknown. We investigated the single Drosophila homologue of Magi to study the in vivo role of Magi in epithelial development. Magi is localized at the adherens junction and formsmore » a complex with the polarity proteins, Par3/Bazooka and aPKC. We generated a Magi null mutant and found that Magi null mutants were viable with no detectable morphological defects even though the Magi protein is highly conserved with vertebrate Magi homologues. However, overexpression of Magi resulted in the displacement of Baz/Par3 and aPKC and lead to an increase in the level of PIP3. Interestingly, we found that Magi and Baz functioned in an antagonistic manner to regulate the localization of the apical polarity complex. As a result, maintaining the balance between the level of Magi and Baz is an important determinant of the levels and localization of apical polarity complex.« less

  14. Magi Is Associated with the Par Complex and Functions Antagonistically with Bazooka to Regulate the Apical Polarity Complex

    PubMed Central

    Padash Barmchi, Mojgan; Samarasekera, Gayathri; Gilbert, Mary; Auld, Vanessa J.; Zhang, Bing

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian MAGI proteins play important roles in the maintenance of adherens and tight junctions. The MAGI family of proteins contains modular domains such as WW and PDZ domains necessary for scaffolding of membrane receptors and intracellular signaling components. Loss of MAGI leads to reduced junction stability while overexpression of MAGI can lead to increased adhesion and stabilization of epithelial morphology. However, how Magi regulates junction assembly in epithelia is largely unknown. We investigated the single Drosophila homologue of Magi to study the in vivo role of Magi in epithelial development. Magi is localized at the adherens junction and forms a complex with the polarity proteins, Par3/Bazooka and aPKC. We generated a Magi null mutant and found that Magi null mutants were viable with no detectable morphological defects even though the Magi protein is highly conserved with vertebrate Magi homologues. However, overexpression of Magi resulted in the displacement of Baz/Par3 and aPKC and lead to an increase in the level of PIP3. Interestingly, we found that Magi and Baz functioned in an antagonistic manner to regulate the localization of the apical polarity complex. Maintaining the balance between the level of Magi and Baz is an important determinant of the levels and localization of apical polarity complex. PMID:27074039

  15. Kinase Associated-1 Domains Drive MARK/PAR1 Kinases to Membrane Targets by Binding Acidic Phospholipids

    SciTech Connect

    Moravcevic, Katarina; Mendrola, Jeannine M.; Schmitz, Karl R.; Wang, Yu-Hsiu; Slochower, David; Janmey, Paul A.; Lemmon, Mark A.

    2011-09-28

    Phospholipid-binding modules such as PH, C1, and C2 domains play crucial roles in location-dependent regulation of many protein kinases. Here, we identify the KA1 domain (kinase associated-1 domain), found at the C terminus of yeast septin-associated kinases (Kcc4p, Gin4p, and Hsl1p) and human MARK/PAR1 kinases, as a membrane association domain that binds acidic phospholipids. Membrane localization of isolated KA1 domains depends on phosphatidylserine. Using X-ray crystallography, we identified a structurally conserved binding site for anionic phospholipids in KA1 domains from Kcc4p and MARK1. Mutating this site impairs membrane association of both KA1 domains and intact proteins and reveals the importance of phosphatidylserine for bud neck localization of yeast Kcc4p. Our data suggest that KA1 domains contribute to coincidence detection, allowing kinases to bind other regulators (such as septins) only at the membrane surface. These findings have important implications for understanding MARK/PAR1 kinases, which are implicated in Alzheimer's disease, cancer, and autism.

  16. Is PAR a Good Investment? Understanding the Costs and Benefits of Teacher Peer Assistance and Review Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papay, John P.; Johnson, Susan Moore

    2012-01-01

    Peer Assistance and Review (PAR) is a local labor-management initiative designed to improve teacher quality. In PAR, expert "consulting teachers" mentor, support, and evaluate novice and underperforming veteran teachers. Evaluations under PAR can lead to dismissals. The authors examine the costs and benefits of PAR, both financial and…

  17. Food irradiation in perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henon, Y. M.

    1995-02-01

    Food irradiation already has a long history of hopes and disappointments. Nowhere in the world it plays the role that it should have, including in the much needed prevention of foodborne diseases. Irradiated food sold well wherever consumers were given a chance to buy them. Differences between national regulations do not allow the international trade of irradiated foods. While in many countries food irradiation is still illegal, in most others it is regulated as a food additive and based on the knowledge of the sixties. Until 1980, wholesomeness was the big issue. Then the "prerequisite" became detection methods. Large amounts of money have been spent to design and validate tests which, in fact, aim at enforcing unjustified restrictions on the use of the process. In spite of all the difficulties, it is believed that the efforts of various UN organizations and a growing legitimate demand for food safety should in the end lead to recognition and acceptance.

  18. Economics of food irradiation.

    PubMed

    Deitch, J

    1982-01-01

    This article examines the cost competitiveness of the food irradiation process. An analysis of the principal factors--the product, physical plant, irradiation source, and financing--that impact on cost is made. Equations are developed and used to calculate the size of the source for planned product throughput, efficiency factors, power requirements, and operating costs of sources, radionuclides, and accelerators. Methods of financing and capital investment are discussed. A series of tables show cost breakdowns of sources, buildings, equipment, and essential support facilities for both a cobalt-60 and a 10-MeV electron accelerator facility. Additional tables present irradiation costs as functions of a number of parameters--power input, source size, dose, and hours of annual operation. The use of the numbers in the tables are explained by examples of calculations of the irradiation costs for disinfestation of grains and radicidation of feed. PMID:6759046

  19. Irradiation of biliary carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Herskovic, A.; Heaston, D.; Engler, M.J.; Fishburn, R.I.; Jones, R.S.; Noell, K.T.

    1981-04-01

    External and interstitial irradiation have effected the disappearance of biliary lesions. The use of indwelling catheters in the biliary tract makes the technique more appealing. Iridium 192 implants were used.

  20. Tailless and Atrophin control Drosophila aggression by regulating neuropeptide signalling in the pars intercerebralis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Shaun M.; Thomas, Amanda L.; Nomie, Krystle J.; Huang, Longwen; Dierick, Herman A.

    2014-02-01

    Aggressive behaviour is widespread throughout the animal kingdom. However, its mechanisms are poorly understood, and the degree of molecular conservation between distantly related species is unknown. Here we show that knockdown of tailless (tll) increases aggression in Drosophila, similar to the effect of its mouse orthologue Nr2e1. Tll localizes to the adult pars intercerebralis (PI), which shows similarity to the mammalian hypothalamus. Knockdown of tll in the PI is sufficient to increase aggression and is rescued by co-expressing human NR2E1. Knockdown of Atrophin, a Tll co-repressor, also increases aggression, and both proteins physically interact in the PI. tll knockdown-induced aggression is fully suppressed by blocking neuropeptide processing or release from the PI. In addition, genetically activating PI neurons increases aggression, mimicking the aggression-inducing effect of hypothalamic stimulation. Together, our results suggest that a transcriptional control module regulates neuropeptide signalling from the neurosecretory cells of the brain to control aggressive behaviour.

  1. Priorities for global felid conservation.

    PubMed

    Dickman, Amy J; Hinks, Amy E; Macdonald, Ewan A; Burnham, Dawn; Macdonald, David W

    2015-06-01

    Conservation resources are limited, necessitating prioritization of species and locations for action. Most prioritization approaches are based solely on biologically relevant characteristics of taxa or areas and ignore geopolitical realities. Doing so risks a poor return on conservation investment due to nonbiological factors, such as economic or political instability. We considered felids, a taxon which attracts intense conservation attention, to demonstrate a new approach that incorporates both intrinsic species traits and geopolitical characteristics of countries. We developed conservation priority scores for wild felids based on their International Union for Conservation of Nature status, body mass, habitat, range within protected area, evolutionary distinctiveness, and conservation umbrella potential. We used published data on governance, economics and welfare, human population pressures, and conservation policy to assign conservation-likelihood scores to 142 felid-hosting countries. We identified 71 countries as high priorities (above median) for felid conservation. These countries collectively encompassed all 36 felid species and supported an average of 96% of each species' range. Of these countries, 60.6% had below-average conservation-likelihood scores, which indicated these countries are relatively risky conservation investments. Governance was the most common factor limiting conservation likelihood. It was the major contributor to below-median likelihood scores for 62.5% of the 32 felid species occurring in lower-likelihood countries. Governance was followed by economics for which scores were below median for 25% of these species. An average of 58% of species' ranges occurred in 43 higher-priority lower-likelihood countries. Human population pressure was second to governance as a limiting factor when accounting for percentage of species' ranges in each country. As conservation likelihood decreases, it will be increasingly important to identify relevant

  2. Floristic and phytosociology in dense "terra firme" rainforest in the Belo Monte Hydroelectric Plant influence area, Pará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lemos, D A N; Ferreira, B G A; Siqueira, J D P; Oliveira, M M; Ferreira, A M

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterise the floristic and phytosociological composition on a stretch of dense "Terra Firme" rainforest located in the Belo Monte hydroelectric plant area of influence, located in the state of Pará, Brazil. All trees with DAP >10 cm situated in 75 permanent plots of 1 ha were inventoried. 27,126 individuals trees (361 ind.ha-1), distributed in 59 botanical families, comprising 481 species were observed. The families with the largest number of species were Fabaceae (94), Araceae (65) and Arecaceae (43), comprising 43.7% of total species. The species Alexa grandiflora (4.41), Cenostigma tocantinum (2.50) and Bertholletia excelsa (2.28) showed the highest importance values (IV). The ten species with greater IV are concentrated (22%). The forest community has high species richness and can be classified as diverse age trees, heterogeneous and of medium conservation condition. PMID:26691099

  3. An ELISA method detecting the active form of suPAR.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaolei; Xu, Mingming; Huang, Hailong; Mazar, Andrew; Iqbal, Zafar; Yuan, Cai; Huang, Mingdong

    2016-11-01

    Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) exists in a number of formats in human plasma, including soluble uPAR (suPAR) and uPAR fragments. We developed an ELISA method to detect specifically the active form suPAR, which binds to its natural ligand uPA. The intra CV and inter CV of this ELISA assay is 8.5% and 9.6% respectively, and the assay can recover 99.74% of added recombinant suPAR from 10% plasma. This assay is quite sensitive, capable of detecting down to 15pg/ml of suPAR, and can measure suPAR concentrations in the range of 0.031-8ng/ml with high linear relationship. Plasma samples from pregnant women were also measured for the active form of suPAR with this assay, giving an averaged level of 1.39ng/ml, slightly higher than the level of pooled plasma from healthy donors (0.96ng/ml). This study demonstrates the feasibility to measure the active form of suPAR, which will likely have value in clinical applications. PMID:27591605

  4. Precompaction irradiation of meteorites

    SciTech Connect

    Caffee, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    In the four meteorites studied, the nonirradiated grains show the nominal amount of spallogenic Ne and Ar expected from recent galactic cosmic ray exposure. Two conclusions follow from these observations: (1) the quality of spallogenic Ne and Ar in the irradiated grains is far more than can be explained by reasonable precompaction exposures to galactic cosmic rays. If the pre-compaction irradiation occurred in a regolith, the exposure to galactic cosmic rays would have to last several hundred m.y. for some of the grains. Similarly long ages would result if the source of the protons were solar flares with a particle flux similar to modern-day solar flares. These exposure durations are incompatible with current models for the pre-compaction irradiation of gas rich meteorites. (2) There is always a correlation between solar flare tracks and precompaction spallogenic Ne and Ar. This correlation is surprising, considering the difference in range of these two effects. Galactic cosmic rays have a range of meters whereas solar flare heavy ions have a range of less than a millimeter. This difference should largely decouple these two effects, as was shown in studies on lunar soil 60009, where both irradiated and non-irradiated grains contain large quantities of spallogenic Ne. If galactic cosmic rays are responsible for the spallogenic Ne and Ar in the irradiated grains, the authors would similarly expect the nonirradiated grains to contain large amounts of spallogenic Ne and Ar.

  5. Total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-05-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen.

  6. PAR1 is selectively over expressed in high grade breast cancer patients: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Norma A; Correa, Elma; Avila, Esther P; Vela, Teresa A; Pérez, Víctor M

    2009-01-01

    Background The protease-activated receptor (PAR1) expression is correlated with the degree of invasiveness in cell lines. Nevertheless it has never been directed involved in breast cancer patients progression. The aim of this study was to determine whether PAR1 expression could be used as predictor of metastases and mortality. Methods In a cohort of patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma studied longitudinally since 1996 and until 2007, PAR1 over-expression was assessed by immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, and flow citometry. Chi-square and log rank tests were used to determine whether there was a statistical association between PAR1 overexpression and metastases, mortality, and survival. Multivariate analysis was performed including HER1, stage, ER and nodes status to evaluate PAR1 as an independent prognostic factor. Results Follow up was 95 months (range: 2–130 months). We assayed PAR1 in a cohort of patients composed of 136 patients; we found PAR1 expression assayed by immunoblotting was selectively associated with high grade patients (50 cases of the study cohort; P = 0.001). Twenty-nine of 50 (58%) patients overexpressed PAR1, and 23 of these (46%) developed metastases. HER1, stage, ER and PAR1 overexpression were robustly correlated (Cox regression, P = 0.002, P = 0.024 and P = 0.002 respectively). Twenty-one of the 50 patients (42%) expressed both receptors (PAR1 and HER1 P = 0.0004). We also found a statistically significant correlation between PAR1 overexpression and increased mortality (P = 0.0001) and development of metastases (P = 0.0009). Conclusion Our data suggest PAR1 overexpression may be involved in the development of metastases in breast cancer patient and is associated with undifferentiated cellular progression of the tumor. Further studies are needed to understand PAR1 mechanism of action and in a near future assay its potential use as risk factor for metastasis development in high grade breast cancer patients. PMID:19538737

  7. Irradiance optimization of outdoor microalgal cultures using solar tracked photobioreactors.

    PubMed

    Hindersin, Stefan; Leupold, Marco; Kerner, Martin; Hanelt, Dieter

    2013-03-01

    Photosynthetic activity and temperature regulation of microalgal cultures (Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus) under different irradiances controlled by a solar tracker and different cell densities were studied in outdoor flat panel photobioreactors. An automated process control unit regulated light and temperature as well as pH value and nutrient concentration in the culture medium. CO2 was supplied using flue gas from an attached combined block heat and power station. Photosynthetic activity was determined by pulse amplitude modulation fluorometry. Compared to the horizontal irradiance of 55 mol photons m(-2) d(-1) on a clear day, the solar tracked photobioreactors enabled a decrease and increase in the overall light absorption from 19 mol photons m(-2) d(-1) (by rotation out of direct irradiance) to 79 mol photons m(-2) d(-1) (following the position of the sun). At biomass concentrations below 1.1 g cell dry weight (CDW) L(-1), photoinhibition of about 35 % occurred at irradiances of ≥1,000 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). Using solar tracked photobioreactors, photoinhibition can be reduced and at optimum biomass concentration (≥2.3 g CDW L(-1)), the culture was irradiated up to 2,000 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) to overcome light limitation with biomass yields of 0.7 g CDW mol photons(-1) and high photosynthetic activities indicated by an effective quantum yield of 0.68 and a maximum quantum yield of 0.80 (F v/F m). Overheating due to high irradiance was avoided by turning the PBR out of the sun or using a cooling system, which maintained the temperature close to the species-specific temperature optima. PMID:22847362

  8. Blood irradiation: Rationale and technique

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.C. )

    1990-01-01

    Upon request by the local American Red Cross, the Savannah Regional Center for Cancer Care irradiates whole blood or blood components to prevent post-transfusion graft-versus-host reaction in patients who have severely depressed immune systems. The rationale for blood irradiation, the total absorbed dose, the type of patients who require irradiated blood, and the regulations that apply to irradiated blood are presented. A method of irradiating blood using a linear accelerator is described.

  9. Emerging Roles of PAR-1 and PAFR in Melanoma Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Melnikova, Vladislava O.; Villares, Gabriel J.

    2008-01-01

    Melanoma growth, angiogenesis and metastatic progression are strongly promoted by the inflammatory tumor microenvironment due to high levels of cytokine and chemokine secretion by the recruited inflammatory and stromal cells. In addition, platelets and molecular components of procoagulant pathways have been recently emerging as critical players of tumor growth and metastasis. In particular, thrombin, through the activity of its receptor protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1), regulates tumor cell adhesion to platelets and endothelial cells, stimulates tumor angiogenesis, and promotes tumor growth and metastasis. Notably, in many tumor types including melanoma, PAR-1 expression directly correlates with their metastatic phenotype and is directly responsible for the expression of interleukin-8, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and integrins. Another proinflammatory receptor–ligand pair, platelet-activating factor (PAF) and its receptor (PAFR), have been shown to act as important modulators of tumor cell adhesion to endothelial cells, angiogenesis, tumor growth and metastasis. PAF is a bioactive lipid produced by a variety of cells from membrane glycerophospholipids in the same reaction that releases arachidonic acid, and can be secreted by platelets, inflammatory cells, keratinocytes and endothelial cells. We have demonstrated that in metastatic melanoma cells, PAF stimulates the phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB) and activating transcription factor 1 (ATF-1), which results in overexpression of MMP-2 and membrane type 1-MMP (membrane type 1-MMP). Since only metastatic melanoma cells overexpress CREB/ATF-1, we propose that metastatic melanoma cells are better equipped than their non-metastatic counterparts to respond to PAF within the tumor microenvironment. The evidence supporting the hypothesis that the two G-protein coupled receptors, PAR-1

  10. Emerging roles of PAR-1 and PAFR in melanoma metastasis.

    PubMed

    Melnikova, Vladislava O; Villares, Gabriel J; Bar-Eli, Menashe

    2008-12-01

    Melanoma growth, angiogenesis and metastatic progression are strongly promoted by the inflammatory tumor microenvironment due to high levels of cytokine and chemokine secretion by the recruited inflammatory and stromal cells. In addition, platelets and molecular components of procoagulant pathways have been recently emerging as critical players of tumor growth and metastasis. In particular, thrombin, through the activity of its receptor protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1), regulates tumor cell adhesion to platelets and endothelial cells, stimulates tumor angiogenesis, and promotes tumor growth and metastasis. Notably, in many tumor types including melanoma, PAR-1 expression directly correlates with their metastatic phenotype and is directly responsible for the expression of interleukin-8, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and integrins. Another proinflammatory receptor-ligand pair, platelet-activating factor (PAF) and its receptor (PAFR), have been shown to act as important modulators of tumor cell adhesion to endothelial cells, angiogenesis, tumor growth and metastasis. PAF is a bioactive lipid produced by a variety of cells from membrane glycerophospholipids in the same reaction that releases arachidonic acid, and can be secreted by platelets, inflammatory cells, keratinocytes and endothelial cells. We have demonstrated that in metastatic melanoma cells, PAF stimulates the phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB) and activating transcription factor 1 (ATF-1), which results in overexpression of MMP-2 and membrane type 1-MMP (membrane type 1-MMP). Since only metastatic melanoma cells overexpress CREB/ATF-1, we propose that metastatic melanoma cells are better equipped than their non-metastatic counterparts to respond to PAF within the tumor microenvironment. The evidence supporting the hypothesis that the two G-protein coupled receptors, PAR-1

  11. Intergenerational equity and conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otoole, R. P.; Walton, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    The issue of integenerational equity in the use of natural resources is discussed in the context of coal mining conversion. An attempt to determine if there is a clear-cut benefit to future generations in setting minimum coal extraction efficiency standards in mining is made. It is demonstrated that preserving fossil fuels beyond the economically efficient level is not necessarily beneficial to future generations even in terms of their own preferences. Setting fossil fuel conservation targets for intermediate products (i.e. energy) may increase the quantities of fossil fuels available to future generations and hence lower the costs, but there may be serious disadvantages to future generations as well. The use of relatively inexpensive fossil fuels in this generation may result in more infrastructure development and more knowledge production available to future generations. The value of fossil fuels versus these other endowments in the future depends on many factors which cannot possibly be evaluated at present. Since there is no idea of whether future generations are being helped or harmed, it is recommended that integenerational equity not be used as a factor in setting coal mine extraction efficiency standards, or in establishing requirements.

  12. A systematic computation scheme of PAR-WIG cruising performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Shigenori

    1993-08-01

    A systematic computation scheme is presented for PAR-WIG cruising performance, on a FORTRAN program. It is suitable for implementation on PCs. Effects of many parameters on the transportation efficiency are explored. Two concepts are presented in three views and artist impressions. One is a smallest single-crewman vehicle for experiment, sports, or pleasure. The other is a large vehicle for civil transportation. Both have twin hulls, which are quite suitable for installing a 'SMALL-TAIL-WIG' or 'WIG-let' to establish longitudinal attitude stability.

  13. BOREAS TE-12 Incoming PAR Through the Forest Canopy Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor); Walter-Shea, Elizabeth A.; Mesarch, Mark A.

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-12 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on shoot geometry, leaf optical properties, leaf water potential, and leaf gas exchange. The data were collected at the Southern Study Area-Old Black Spruce (SSA-OBS) site from 04-Jul-1996 to 25-Jul-1996. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  14. Educating Astronauts About Conservation Biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews the training of astronauts in the interdisciplinary work of conservation biology. The primary responsibility of the conservation biologist at NASA is directing and supporting the photography of the Earth and maintaining the complete database of the photographs. In order to perform this work, the astronauts who take the pictures must be educated in ecological issues.

  15. Youth Development and Conservation Corps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Parks and Recreation Commission, Olympia.

    Created in 1961 by the Washington State Legislature, the Youth Development and Conservation Corps (YDCC) affords youth and young men aged 14-21 employment opportunities in conservation programs that entail developing, improving, and maintaining natural and artificial recreation areas for the general public. It is designed to help young…

  16. Conservation Concepts in Elementary Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, John Ruthven

    1973-01-01

    Studied effectiveness of teaching conservation of chemical identity, composition, and mass to 12 boys and 11 girls of ages ranging from 11.11 to 12.10, using techniques analogous to Piaget's. Indicated the necessity of course re-examination to facilitate attainment of conservation concepts. (CC)

  17. Piagetian Conservation in Navajo Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odell, Sandra J.; Ferraro, Douglas P.

    In order to determine the cognitive development of Navajo children in terms of Piagetian conservation of number, mass, and continuous quantity, 168 Navajo children at seven different age levels from 5 to adult were presented with a series of three conservation tasks. The tasks consisted of a standard object and an equivalent object that could be…

  18. How Academe Shortchanges Conservative Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauerlein, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Notwithstanding the outcome of the recent election, in one respect, the last few decades mark a breakthrough era for conservative intellectuals. Their visibility has soared. Thirty years ago, the only place to find conservatives on television was Firing Line, William F. Buckley's urbane talk show. Today they appear on Meet the Press and 60…

  19. Recology: Material Conservation Program Fieldbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanwood, Bill

    Recology is the combination of teaching and learning through the interaction of conservation (waste management and recycling) and ecology. This fieldbook is designed to provide an overview of the development of a Recology environmental education program. The program facilitates infusion of material conservation education into existing curriculum.…

  20. Orchid conservation: making the links.

    PubMed

    Fay, Michael F; Pailler, Thierry; Dixon, Kingsley W

    2015-09-01

    Orchidaceae, one of the largest families of flowering plants, present particular challenges for conservation, due in great part to their often complex interactions with mycorrhizal fungi, pollinators and host trees. In this Highlight, we present seven papers focusing on orchids and their interactions and other factors relating to their conservation. PMID:26311710

  1. Creative Learning Experiences in Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is a collection of ten short articles originally published in "Soil Conservation" from 1964-1968. The articles are written for the teacher and are concerned with recent innovations in conservation education in various schools in the eastern United States. Innovations include school land laboratories, soil monolith tours for teachers,…

  2. Communication Skills for Conservation Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Susan K.

    This book provides in-depth guidance for students, scientists, managers, and professionals in achieving conservation goals through better communication. It introduces communication approaches--marketing and mass media, citizen participation, public information, environmental interpretation, and conservation education activities--and offers scores…

  3. Energy conservation and air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Air transportation demand and passenger energy demand are discussed, in relation to energy conservation. Alternatives to air travel are reviewed, along with airline advertising and ticket pricing. Cargo energy demand and airline systems efficiency are also examined, as well as fuel conservation techniques. Maximum efficiency of passenger aircraft, from B-747 to V/STOL to British Concorde, is compared.

  4. TECHNIQUES FOR TEACHING CONSERVATION EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROWN, ROBERT E.; MOUSER, G.W.

    CONSERVATION PRINCIPLES, FIELD METHODS AND TECHNIQUES, AND SPECIFIC FIELD LEARNING ACTIVITIES ARE INCLUDED IN THIS REFERENCE VOLUME FOR TEACHERS. CONSERVATION PRINCIPLES INCLUDE STATEMENTS PERTAINING TO (1) SOIL, (2) WATER, (3) FOREST, AND (4) WILDLIFE. FIELD METHODS AND TECHNIQUES INCLUDE (1) PREPARING FOR A FIELD TRIP, (2) GETTING STUDENT…

  5. Effects of PAR and UV Radiation on the Structural and Functional Integrity of Phycocyanin, Phycoerythrin and Allophycocyanin Isolated from the Marine Cyanobacterium Lyngbya sp. A09DM.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Rajesh Prasad; Sonani, Ravi Raghav; Madamwar, Datta

    2015-01-01

    An in vitro analysis of the effects of photosynthetically active and ultraviolet radiations was executed to assess the photostability of biologically relevant pigments phycocyanin (PC), phycoerythrin (PE) and allophycocyanin (APC) isolated from Lyngbya sp. A09DM. Ultraviolet (UV) irradiances significantly affected the integrity of PC, PE and APC; however, PAR showed least effect. UV radiation affected the bilin chromophores covalently attached to phycobiliproteins (PBPs). Almost complete elimination of the chromophore bands associated with α- and β-subunit of PE and APC occurred after 4 h of UV-B exposure. After 5 h of UV-B exposure, the content of PC, PE and APC decreased by 51.65%, 96.8% and 96.53%, respectively. Contrary to PAR and UV-A radiation, a severe decrease in fluorescence of all PBPs was observed under UV-B irradiation. The fluorescence activity of extracted PBP was gradually inhibited immediately after 15-30 min of UV-B exposure. In comparison to the PC, the fluorescence properties of PE and APC were severely lost under UV-B radiation. Moreover, the present study indicates that UV-B radiation can damage the structural and functional integrity of phycobiliproteins leading to the loss of their ecological and biological functions. PMID:25763657

  6. Estimating Photosynthetically Available Radiation (PAR) at the Earth's surface from satellite observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frouin, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Current satellite algorithms to estimate photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) at the earth' s surface are reviewed. PAR is deduced either from an insolation estimate or obtained directly from top-of-atmosphere solar radiances. The characteristics of both approaches are contrasted and typical results are presented. The inaccuracies reported, about 10 percent and 6 percent on daily and monthly time scales, respectively, are useful to model oceanic and terrestrial primary productivity. At those time scales variability due to clouds in the ratio of PAR and insolation is reduced, making it possible to deduce PAR directly from insolation climatologies (satellite or other) that are currently available or being produced. Improvements, however, are needed in conditions of broken cloudiness and over ice/snow. If not addressed properly, calibration/validation issues may prevent quantitative use of the PAR estimates in studies of climatic change. The prospects are good for an accurate, long-term climatology of PAR over the globe.

  7. Is international conservation aid enough?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Elizabeth A.

    2016-02-01

    Bare et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 125010) ask an important question: is international conservation enough? Since the 1990’s international conservation donors have spent over 3.4 billion on biodiversity conservation related projects in sub-Saharan Africa. Both donors and recipients have a right to know if this is effective. Surprisingly, this question is rarely asked. It is a difficult question—involving many rival social, environmental, and economic explanations. Bare, Kauffman and Miller uncover some interesting associations, supporting existing hypotheses and proposing their own: that conservation aid alone is insufficient to mitigate drivers of deforestation (and in some cases may even exacerbate forest loss). This controversial result warrants further investigation—but what is needed now is nuance and robustness in further analyses, to have more confidence in the critique and it’s implications for international conservation aid.

  8. Optimal Conservation of Migratory Species

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Tara G.; Chadès, Iadine; Arcese, Peter; Marra, Peter P.; Possingham, Hugh P.; Norris, D. Ryan

    2007-01-01

    Background Migratory animals comprise a significant portion of biodiversity worldwide with annual investment for their conservation exceeding several billion dollars. Designing effective conservation plans presents enormous challenges. Migratory species are influenced by multiple events across land and sea–regions that are often separated by thousands of kilometres and span international borders. To date, conservation strategies for migratory species fail to take into account how migratory animals are spatially connected between different periods of the annual cycle (i.e. migratory connectivity) bringing into question the utility and efficiency of current conservation efforts. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we report the first framework for determining an optimal conservation strategy for a migratory species. Employing a decision theoretic approach using dynamic optimization, we address the problem of how to allocate resources for habitat conservation for a Neotropical-Nearctic migratory bird, the American redstart Setophaga ruticilla, whose winter habitat is under threat. Our first conservation strategy used the acquisition of winter habitat based on land cost, relative bird density, and the rate of habitat loss to maximize the abundance of birds on the wintering grounds. Our second strategy maximized bird abundance across the entire range of the species by adding the constraint of maintaining a minimum percentage of birds within each breeding region in North America using information on migratory connectivity as estimated from stable-hydrogen isotopes in feathers. We show that failure to take into account migratory connectivity may doom some regional populations to extinction, whereas including information on migratory connectivity results in the protection of the species across its entire range. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that conservation strategies for migratory animals depend critically upon two factors: knowledge of migratory

  9. Fluoroquinolone Resistance Mutations in the parC, parE, and gyrA Genes of Clinical Isolates of Viridans Group Streptococci

    PubMed Central

    González, Irene; Georgiou, Marios; Alcaide, Fernando; Balas, Delia; Liñares, Josefina; de la Campa, Adela G.

    1998-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of the parC and gyrA genes from seven ciprofloxacin-resistant (Cpr) isolates of viridans group streptococci (two high-level Cpr Streptococcus oralis and five low-level Cpr Streptococcus mitis isolates) were determined and compared with those obtained from susceptible isolates. The nucleotide sequences of the QRDRs of the parE and gyrB genes from the five low-level Cpr S. mitis isolates and from the NCTC 12261 type strain were also analyzed. Four of these low-level Cpr isolates had changes affecting the subunits of DNA topoisomerase IV: three in Ser-79 (to Phe or Ile) of ParC and one in ParE at a position not previously described to be involved in quinolone resistance (Pro-424). One isolate did not show any mutation. The two high-level Cpr S. oralis isolates showed mutations affecting equivalent residue positions of ParC and GyrA, namely, Ser-79 to Phe and Ser-81 to Phe or Tyr, respectively. The parC mutations were able to transform Streptococcus pneumoniae to ciprofloxacin resistance, while the gyrA mutations transformed S. pneumoniae only when mutations in parC were present. These results suggest that DNA topoisomerase IV is a primary target of ciprofloxacin in viridans group streptococci, DNA gyrase being a secondary target. PMID:9797205

  10. Saving money with energy conservation: economic analysis of conservation measures

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, J.E.; Roller, D.A.; Moor, W.C.

    1980-01-01

    The basic tools for performing simple economic analyses of energy-conservation measures are reviewed. Energy accounting establishes energy-utilization patterns and performance goals. Directions for analyzing the utility bill are presented. Part 2 introduces ways to calculate the payback period, return on investment, and present worth of energy-conservation measures. Examples are given for reducing parking lot and indoor lighting, adding storm windows, reducing ventilation-fan running time, recycling boiler condensate, and shifting electrical-demand peak. A discussion of the inflation, depreciation, and income-tax ramifications of energy conservation is offered.

  11. PAR2-dependent activation of GSK3β regulates the survival of colon stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Nasri, Imen; Bonnet, Delphine; Zwarycz, Bailey; d'Aldebert, Emilie; Khou, Sokchea; Mezghani-Jarraya, Raoudha; Quaranta, Muriel; Rolland, Corinne; Bonnart, Chrystelle; Mas, Emmanuel; Ferrand, Audrey; Cenac, Nicolas; Magness, Scott; Van Landeghem, Laurianne; Vergnolle, Nathalie; Racaud-Sultan, Claire

    2016-08-01

    Protease-activated receptors PAR1 and PAR2 play an important role in the control of epithelial cell proliferation and migration. However, the survival of normal and tumor intestinal stem/progenitor cells promoted by proinflammatory mediators may be critical in oncogenesis. The glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) pathway is overactivated in colon cancer cells and promotes their survival and drug resistance. We thus aimed to determine PAR1 and PAR2 effects on normal and tumor intestinal stem/progenitor cells and whether they involved GSK3β. First, PAR1 and PAR2 were identified in colon stem/progenitor cells by immunofluorescence. In three-dimensional cultures of murine crypt units or single tumor Caco-2 cells, PAR2 activation decreased numbers and size of normal or cancerous spheroids, and PAR2-deficient spheroids showed increased proliferation, indicating that PAR2 represses proliferation. PAR2-stimulated normal cells were more resistant to stress (serum starvation or spheroid passaging), suggesting prosurvival effects of PAR2 Accordingly, active caspase-3 was strongly increased in PAR2-deficient normal spheroids. PAR2 but not PAR1 triggered GSK3β activation through serine-9 dephosphorylation in normal and tumor cells. The PAR2-triggered GSK3β activation implicates an arrestin/PP2A/GSK3β complex that is dependent on the Rho kinase activity. Loss of PAR2 was associated with high levels of GSK3β nonactive form, strengthening the role of PAR2 in GSK3β activation. GSK3 pharmacological inhibition impaired the survival of PAR2-stimulated spheroids and serum-starved cells. Altogether our data identify PAR2/GSK3β as a novel pathway that plays a critical role in the regulation of stem/progenitor cell survival and proliferation in normal colon crypts and colon cancer. PMID:27313176

  12. Brulure par Foudre. A Propos d’une Observation

    PubMed Central

    Mradmi, W.; Fassi-Fihri, J.; Mehaji, G.; Ezzoubi, M.; Diouri, M.; Bahechar, N.; Boukind, E.H.

    2005-01-01

    Summary Aussi loin que l’on remonte dans la littérature, on retrouve des récits relatant des accidents consécutifs à la fulguration chez l’homme. La foudre était alors associée à la colère des dieux ou à la notion de châtiment. La fulguration correspond à un transfert d’énergie entre un cumulonimbus de charge négative et un objet de charge positive se trouvant au niveau du sol. Les lésions déterminées sont à la fois thermiques et électrothermiques. Bien que l’arrêt cardiorespiratoire soit une cause bien documentée de décès, la plupart des cas rapportés dans la littérature décrivent un éventail très disparate des séquelles qui surviennent suite à cet accident. Les Auteurs rapportent le cas d’un patient atteint par la foudre en insistant particulièrement sur les complications neurologiques qui sont survenues en cours d’évolution. Se basant sur cette observation et sur une revue de la littérature, les Auteurs soulignent que le pronostic des patients atteints par la foudre est plus favorable que généralement rapporté. PMID:21990993

  13. Solar Irradiance Changes and Phytoplankton Productivity in Earth's Ocean Following Astrophysical Ionizing Radiation Events.

    PubMed

    Neale, Patrick J; Thomas, Brian C

    2016-04-01

    Two atmospheric responses to simulated astrophysical ionizing radiation events significant to life on Earth are production of odd-nitrogen species, especially NO2, and subsequent depletion of stratospheric ozone. Ozone depletion increases incident short-wavelength ultraviolet radiation (UVB, 280-315 nm) and longer (>600 nm) wavelengths of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm). On the other hand, the NO2 haze decreases atmospheric transmission in the long-wavelength UVA (315-400 nm) and short-wavelength PAR. Here, we use the results of previous simulations of incident spectral irradiance following an ionizing radiation event to predict changes in terran productivity focusing on photosynthesis of marine phytoplankton. The prediction is based on a spectral model of photosynthetic response, which was developed for the dominant genera in central regions of the ocean (Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus), and on remote-sensing-based observations of spectral water transparency, temperature, wind speed, and mixed layer depth. Predicted productivity declined after a simulated ionizing event, but the effect integrated over the water column was small. For integrations taking into account the full depth range of PAR transmission (down to 0.1% of utilizable PAR), the decrease was at most 2-3% (depending on strain), with larger effects (5-7%) for integrations just to the depth of the surface mixed layer. The deeper integrations were most affected by the decreased utilizable PAR at depth due to the NO2 haze, whereas shallower integrations were most affected by the increased surface UV. Several factors tended to dampen the magnitude of productivity responses relative to increases in surface-damaging radiation, for example, most inhibition in the modeled strains is caused by UVA and PAR, and the greatest relative increase in damaging exposure is predicted to occur in the winter when UV and productivity are low. PMID:27027533

  14. The polarity protein Par3 regulates APP trafficking and processing through the endocytic adaptor protein Numb.

    PubMed

    Sun, Miao; Asghar, Suwaiba Z; Zhang, Huaye

    2016-09-01

    The processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) into β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) is a key step in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and trafficking dysregulations of APP and its secretases contribute significantly to altered APP processing. Here we show that the cell polarity protein Par3 plays an important role in APP processing and trafficking. We found that the expression of full length Par3 is significantly decreased in AD patients. Overexpression of Par3 promotes non-amyloidogenic APP processing, while depletion of Par3 induces intracellular accumulation of Aβ. We further show that Par3 functions by regulating APP trafficking. Loss of Par3 decreases surface expression of APP by targeting APP to the late endosome/lysosome pathway. Finally, we show that the effects of Par3 are mediated through the endocytic adaptor protein Numb, and Par3 functions by interfering with the interaction between Numb and APP. Together, our studies show a novel role for Par3 in regulating APP processing and trafficking. PMID:27072891

  15. Stress fractures of the lumbar pars interarticularis in athletes: a review based on long-term results of 18 professional cricketers.

    PubMed

    Ranawat, V S; Dowell, J K; Heywood-Waddington, M B

    2003-12-01

    The physical demand of the modern game of cricket on the fast bowler is known to cause stress fractures of the lumbar spine. Between 1983 and 2001, we diagnosed pars interarticularis defects in 18 professional cricketers contracted to a single English County Cricket Club. Eight of these players were treated conservatively, with rest, supervised rehabilitation, bowling action analysis and re-education where necessary. The remaining 10 were treated operatively, 9 by Buck's repair of the spondylolytic lesion. All 18 players returned to professional sport.We recommend treatment of this select group of sportsmen in a unit consisting of a specialist physiotherapist, a bowling coach and a spinal surgeon. Should conservative measures fail, we recommend Buck's repair as the operation of choice. PMID:14636734

  16. Nanoparticules d'or: De l'imagerie par resonance magnetique a la radiosensibilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebert, Etienne M.

    Cette thèse approfondit l'étude de nanoparticules d'or de 5 nm de diamètre recouvertes de diamideéthanethioldiethylènetriaminepentacétate de gadolinium (DTDTPA:Gd), un agent de contraste pour l'imagerie par résonance magnétique (IRM). En guise de ciblage passif, la taille des nanoparticules a été contrôlée afin d'utiliser le réseau de néovaisseaux poreux et perméable des tumeurs. De plus les tumeurs ont un drainage lymphatique déficient qui permet aux nanoparticules de demeurer plus longtemps dans le milieu interstitiel de la tumeur. Les expériences ont été effectuées sur des souris Balb/c femelles portant des tumeurs MC7-L1. La concentration de nanoparticules a pu être mesurée à l'IRM in vivo. La concentration maximale se retrouvait à la fin de l'infusion de 10 min. La concentration s'élevait à 0.3 mM dans la tumeur et de 0.12 mM dans le muscle environnant. Les nanoparticules étaient éliminées avec une demi-vie de 22 min pour les tumeurs et de 20 min pour le muscle environnant. Les nanoparticules ont été fonctionnalisées avec le peptide Tat afin de leur conférer des propriétés de ciblage actif La rétention de ces nanoparticules a ainsi été augmentée de 1600 %, passant d'une demi-vie d'élimination de 22 min à 350 min. La survie des souris a été mesurée à l'aide de courbes Kaplan-Meier et d'un modèle mathématique évalue l'efficacité de traitements. Le modèle nous permet, à l'aide de la vitesse de croissance des tumeurs et de l'efficacité des traitements, de calculer la courbe de survie des spécimens. Un effet antagoniste a été observé au lieu de l'effet synergétique attendu entre une infusion de Au@DTDTPA:Gd et l'irradiation aux rayons X. L'absence d'effet synergétique a été attribuée à l'épaisseur du recouvrement de DTDTPA:Gd qui fait écran aux électrons produits par l'or. De plus, le moyen d'ancrage du recouvrement utilise des thiols qui peuvent s'avérer être des capteurs de radicaux. De plus

  17. FOOD IRRADIATION REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Leyse, C.F.; Putnam, G.E.

    1961-05-01

    An irradiation apparatus is described. It comprises a pressure vessel, a neutronic reactor active portion having a substantially greater height than diameter in the pressure vessel, an annular tank surrounding and spaced from the pressure vessel containing an aqueous indium/sup 1//sup 1//sup 5/ sulfate solution of approximately 600 grams per liter concentration, means for circulating separate coolants through the active portion and the space between the annular tank and the pressure vessel, radiator means adapted to receive the materials to be irradiated, and means for flowing the indium/sup 1//sup 1//sup 5/ sulfate solution through the radiator means.

  18. Fuel or irradiation subassembly

    DOEpatents

    Seim, O.S.; Hutter, E.

    1975-12-23

    A subassembly for use in a nuclear reactor is described which incorporates a loose bundle of fuel or irradiation pins enclosed within an inner tube which in turn is enclosed within an outer coolant tube and includes a locking comb consisting of a head extending through one side of the inner sleeve and a plurality of teeth which extend through the other side of the inner sleeve while engaging annular undercut portions in the bottom portion of the fuel or irradiation pins to prevent movement of the pins.

  19. Discuss the testing problems of ultraviolet irradiance meters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jun'an; Lin, Fangsheng

    2014-09-01

    Ultraviolet irradiance meters are widely used in many areas such as medical treatment, epidemic prevention, energy conservation and environment protection, computers, manufacture, electronics, ageing of material and photo-electric effect, for testing ultraviolet irradiance intensity. So the accuracy of value directly affects the sterile control in hospital, treatment, the prevention level of CDC and the control accuracy of curing and aging in manufacturing industry etc. Because the display of ultraviolet irradiance meters is easy to change, in order to ensure the accuracy, it needs to be recalibrated after being used period of time. By the comparison with the standard ultraviolet irradiance meters, which are traceable to national benchmarks, we can acquire the correction factor to ensure that the instruments working under accurate status and giving the accurate measured data. This leads to an important question: what kind of testing device is more accurate and reliable? This article introduces the testing method and problems of the current testing device for ultraviolet irradiance meters. In order to solve these problems, we have developed a new three-dimensional automatic testing device. We introduce structure and working principle of this system and compare the advantages and disadvantages of two devices. In addition, we analyses the errors in the testing of ultraviolet irradiance meters.

  20. Common variants in the human platelet PAR4 thrombin receptor alter platelet function and differ by race

    PubMed Central

    Edelstein, Leonard C.; Simon, Lukas M.; Lindsay, Cory R.; Kong, Xianguo; Teruel-Montoya, Raúl; Tourdot, Benjamin E.; Chen, Edward S.; Ma, Lin; Coughlin, Shaun; Nieman, Marvin; Holinstat, Michael; Shaw, Chad A.

    2014-01-01

    Human platelets express 2 thrombin receptors: protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 and PAR4. Recently, we reported 3.7-fold increased PAR4-mediated aggregation kinetics in platelets from black subjects compared with white subjects. We now show that platelets from blacks (n = 70) express 14% more PAR4 protein than those from whites (n = 84), but this difference is not associated with platelet PAR4 function. Quantitative trait locus analysis identified 3 common single nucleotide polymorphisms in the PAR4 gene (F2RL3) associated with PAR4-induced platelet aggregation. Among these single nucleotide polymorphisms, rs773902 determines whether residue 120 in transmembrane domain 2 is an alanine (Ala) or threonine (Thr). Compared with the Ala120 variant, Thr120 was more common in black subjects than in white subjects (63% vs 19%), was associated with higher PAR4-induced human platelet aggregation and Ca2+ flux, and generated greater inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate in transfected cells. A second, less frequent F2RL3 variant, Phe296Val, was only observed in blacks and abolished the enhanced PAR4-induced platelet aggregation and 1,4,5-triphosphate generation associated with PAR4-Thr120. PAR4 genotype did not affect vorapaxar inhibition of platelet PAR1 function, but a strong pharmacogenetic effect was observed with the PAR4-specific antagonist YD-3 [1-benzyl-3(ethoxycarbonylphenyl)-indazole]. These findings may have an important pharmacogenetic effect on the development of new PAR antagonists. PMID:25293779

  1. Value basis for conservation policy

    SciTech Connect

    Leiss, W.

    1981-01-01

    This paper is a case study in attempting to apply a particular value (caring) to the domain of social policy, specifically resource conservation policy. The argument is that our consumer society erodes the social basis for the development by individuals of a sense of well-being and personal identity, and that a conservation ethic based on the concept of caring could provide a foundation in practical morality and public policy for a viable sense of well-being. Conservation, then, goes beyond eliminating wasteful consumption to encompass a public commitment that can further economic and social goals. 11 references.

  2. Acid rain and electricity conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, H.; Miller, E.; Ledbetter, M.; Miller, P.

    1987-01-01

    Conservation directly lowers the emissions of SO/sub 2/ and other pollutants by reducing the amount of coal and other fuels that must be burned to meet electricity demand. This book is the first report to provide an integrated analysis of electricity supply, acid raid abatement, and conservation opportunities. The authors use a utility simulation model to examine SO/sub 2/ emissions, electric rates, and overall costs to consumers for different load growth and emissions control scenarios. The study also suggests how acid rain legislation can be designed to encourage electricity conservation.

  3. Conservation genetics in the USGS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobs, Ruth; Haig, Susan; Talbot, Sandy; Winton, James; King, Tim; Kendall, Kate

    2006-01-01

    Conservation genetics is the application of the tools and concepts of genetics to the conservation of biological resources. Once too sophisticated and expensive for routine use, the tools of conservation genetics are now widely used to address many complex management questions. These novel methods of analysis can augment assessments made with traditional methods and can bring new information to light. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is well suited to provide scientific information and expertise using these tools to support the management of biological resources.

  4. Influence d'une substitution partielle du ciment par du laitier de hauts fourneaux sur la résistance des mortiers en milieu acide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achoura, D.; Lanos, Ch.; Jauberthie, R.; Redjel, B.

    2004-11-01

    Le stockage de produits chimiques dans du béton présente souvent des problèmes de durabilité dus aux attaques chimiques. Inévitablement les concentrations élevées sont les plus dangereuses. Le but de notre étude est de déterminer les changements de phases qui apparaissent dans le béton lorsqu'on substitue une partie du ciment par du laitier de haut fourneaux. Les échantillons sont conservés dans des solutions acides différents anions (HCl, H{2}SO{4}, H{3}PO{4} et CH{3}COOH) et différentes concentrations (0,1; 0,25 et 0,5M). Les formations qui apparaissent sont déterminées par diffraction X et observées au MEB. Les solutions sulfatiques conduisent à une formation de gypse en surface et d'ettringite au contact de la matrice cimentaire. Avec l'acide acétique, il y a formation de calcium acétate hydrate sous forme spongieuse tandis que, avec l'acide phosphatique, la formation de calcium hydrogeno phosphate hydrate est très superficielle. Enfin, avec l'acide chlorhydrique, la surface du mortier est recouverte de chlorure de calcium dihydrate et d'hydroxyde de fer. Les résistances mécaniques sont plus ou moins affectées par la concentration mais aussi et surtout par la nature des acides avec dans l'ordre le plus agressif H{2}SO{4} puis HCl et CH{3}COOH enfin peu de modification pour H{3}PO{4}.

  5. Local Responses to Participatory Conservation in Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadka, Damodar; Nepal, Sanjay K.

    2010-02-01

    Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for participation. In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the barriers encountered in its implementation, a questionnaire survey of 188 households was employed in the communities of the Upper Mustang extension of Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. The study provides a comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers between Non-Tourist (NT) and Tourist (TV) villages. The results revealed important differences between the two groups in terms of their participation in community programs, barriers to participation, and perception of benefits from participation. Owing to their distinct spatial, demographic and attitudinal differences, the two village groups have their own sets of needs, values and motivation factors which cannot be generalized and treated as such. The research clearly identifies the need for the conservation agency to be creative in devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific social groups so as to optimize their input in participatory conservation.

  6. Local responses to participatory conservation in Annapurna conservation area, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Khadka, Damodar; Nepal, Sanjay K

    2010-02-01

    Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for participation. In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the barriers encountered in its implementation, a questionnaire survey of 188 households was employed in the communities of the Upper Mustang extension of Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. The study provides a comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers between Non-Tourist (NT) and Tourist (TV) villages. The results revealed important differences between the two groups in terms of their participation in community programs, barriers to participation, and perception of benefits from participation. Owing to their distinct spatial, demographic and attitudinal differences, the two village groups have their own sets of needs, values and motivation factors which cannot be generalized and treated as such. The research clearly identifies the need for the conservation agency to be creative in devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific social groups so as to optimize their input in participatory conservation. PMID:19967362

  7. Performance and breakdown characteristics of irradiated vertical power GaN P-i-N diodes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    King, M. P.; Armstrong, A. M.; Dickerson, J. R.; Vizkelethy, G.; Fleming, R. M.; Campbell, J.; Wampler, W. R.; Kizilyalli, I. C.; Bour, D. P.; Aktas, O.; et al

    2015-10-29

    Electrical performance and defect characterization of vertical GaN P-i-N diodes before and after irradiation with 2.5 MeV protons and neutrons is investigated. Devices exhibit increase in specific on-resistance following irradiation with protons and neutrons, indicating displacement damage introduces defects into the p-GaN and n- drift regions of the device that impact on-state device performance. The breakdown voltage of these devices, initially above 1700 V, is observed to decrease only slightly for particle fluence <; 1013 cm-2. Furthermore, the unipolar figure of merit for power devices indicates that while the on-resistance and breakdown voltage degrade with irradiation, vertical GaN P-i-Ns remainmore » superior to the performance of the best available, unirradiated silicon devices and on-par with unirradiated modern SiC-based power devices.« less

  8. Contests In Conservation and Horticulture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Richard D.

    1977-01-01

    Growing interest in conservation and horticulture in New York State has caused the addition of these specialized areas to the annual statewide agricultural education contests. Contest categories in both areas are listed. (MF)

  9. Energy conservation in quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prentis, Jeffrey J.; Fedak, William A.

    2004-05-01

    In the classical mechanics of conservative systems, the position and momentum evolve deterministically such that the sum of the kinetic energy and potential energy remains constant in time. This canonical trademark of energy conservation is absent in the standard presentations of quantum mechanics based on the Schrödinger picture. We present a purely canonical proof of energy conservation that focuses exclusively on the time-dependent position x(t) and momentum p(t) operators. This treatment of energy conservation serves as an introduction to the Heisenberg picture and illuminates the classical-quantum connection. We derive a quantum-mechanical work-energy theorem and show explicitly how the time dependence of x and p and the noncommutivity of x and p conspire to bring about a perfect temporal balance between the evolving kinetic and potential parts of the total energy operator.

  10. Conservative smoothing versus artificial viscosity

    SciTech Connect

    Guenther, C.; Hicks, D.L.; Swegle, J.W.

    1994-08-01

    This report was stimulated by some recent investigations of S.P.H. (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method). Solid dynamics computations with S.P.H. show symptoms of instabilities which are not eliminated by artificial viscosities. Both analysis and experiment indicate that conservative smoothing eliminates the instabilities in S.P.H. computations which artificial viscosities cannot. Questions were raised as to whether conservative smoothing might smear solutions more than artificial viscosity. Conservative smoothing, properly used, can produce more accurate solutions than the von Neumann-Richtmyer-Landshoff artificial viscosity which has been the standard for many years. The authors illustrate this using the vNR scheme on a test problem with known exact solution involving a shock collision in an ideal gas. They show that the norms of the errors with conservative smoothing are significantly smaller than the norms of the errors with artificial viscosity.

  11. 76 FR 22785 - Wetland Conservation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... Water Act (CWA) and Title XII of the Food Security Act of 1985 (FSA). The MOA was developed to... Subjects in 7 CFR Part 12 Administrative practices and procedures, Soil conservation, Wetlands. For...

  12. The NASA Energy Conservation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffney, G. P.

    1977-01-01

    Large energy-intensive research and test equipment at NASA installations is identified, and methods for reducing energy consumption outlined. However, some of the research facilities are involved in developing more efficient, fuel-conserving aircraft, and tradeoffs between immediate and long-term conservation may be necessary. Major programs for conservation include: computer-based systems to automatically monitor and control utility consumption; a steam-producing solid waste incinerator; and a computer-based cost analysis technique to engineer more efficient heating and cooling of buildings. Alternate energy sources in operation or under evaluation include: solar collectors; electric vehicles; and ultrasonically emulsified fuel to attain higher combustion efficiency. Management support, cooperative participation by employees, and effective reporting systems for conservation programs, are also discussed.

  13. Activation of protease-activated receptors (PARs)-1 and -2 promotes alpha-smooth muscle actin expression and release of cytokines from human lung fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Asokananthan, Nithiananthan; Lan, Rommel S; Graham, Peter T; Bakker, Anthony J; Tokanović, Ana; Stewart, Geoffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that protease-activated receptors (PARs) play an important role in various physiological processes. In the present investigation, we determined the expression of PARs on human lung fibroblasts (HLF-1) and whether they were involved in cellular differentiation and pro-inflammatory cytokine and prostaglandin (PGE2) secretion. PAR-1, PAR-2, PAR-3, and PAR-4 were detected in fibroblasts using RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, and flow cytometry. Increased expression of PAR-4, but not other PARs, was observed in fibroblasts stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate. The archetypical activators of PARs, namely, thrombin and trypsin, as well as PAR-1 and PAR-2 agonist peptides, stimulated transient increases in intracellular Ca2+, and promoted increased α-smooth muscle actin expression. The proteolytic and peptidic PAR activators also stimulated the release of IL-6 and IL-8, as well as PGE2, with a rank order of potency of PAR-1 > PAR-2. The combined stimulation of PAR-1 and PAR-2 resulted in an additive release of both IL-6 and IL-8. In contrast, PAR-3 and PAR-4 agonist peptides, as well as all the PAR control peptides examined, were inactive. These results suggest an important role for PARs associated with fibroblasts in the modulation of inflammation and remodeling in the airway. PMID:25663523

  14. Conservation Planning for Ecosystem Services

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kai M. A; Shaw, M. Rebecca; Cameron, David R; Underwood, Emma C; Daily, Gretchen C

    2006-01-01

    Despite increasing attention to the human dimension of conservation projects, a rigorous, systematic methodology for planning for ecosystem services has not been developed. This is in part because flows of ecosystem services remain poorly characterized at local-to-regional scales, and their protection has not generally been made a priority. We used a spatially explicit conservation planning framework to explore the trade-offs and opportunities for aligning conservation goals for biodiversity with six ecosystem services (carbon storage, flood control, forage production, outdoor recreation, crop pollination, and water provision) in the Central Coast ecoregion of California, United States. We found weak positive and some weak negative associations between the priority areas for biodiversity conservation and the flows of the six ecosystem services across the ecoregion. Excluding the two agriculture-focused services—crop pollination and forage production—eliminates all negative correlations. We compared the degree to which four contrasting conservation network designs protect biodiversity and the flow of the six services. We found that biodiversity conservation protects substantial collateral flows of services. Targeting ecosystem services directly can meet the multiple ecosystem services and biodiversity goals more efficiently but cannot substitute for targeted biodiversity protection (biodiversity losses of 44% relative to targeting biodiversity alone). Strategically targeting only biodiversity plus the four positively associated services offers much promise (relative biodiversity losses of 7%). Here we present an initial analytical framework for integrating biodiversity and ecosystem services in conservation planning and illustrate its application. We found that although there are important potential trade-offs between conservation for biodiversity and for ecosystem services, a systematic planning framework offers scope for identifying valuable synergies. PMID

  15. Energy Conservation vs. Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Somasundaram, Sriram

    2010-09-30

    Energy conservation is considered by some as synonymous with energy efficiency, but to others, it has a meaning of getting fewer or lower quality energy services. The degree of confusion between these meanings varies widely by individual, culture, historic period and language spoken. In the context of this document, energy conservation means to keep from being lost or wasted; saved, and energy efficiency means the ability to produce a desired effect or product with a minimum of effort, expense or waste.

  16. [Conservative restoration of pulpectomized teeth].

    PubMed

    Lasfargues, J J

    1990-04-01

    In endodontic treatment of teeth, partial or "conservative" crown reconstructions are clinically acceptable where loss of substance is limited and recourse to radicular pivots is contraindicated. Such reconstructions bring into play a variety of currently available biomaterials, including those inserted in the plastic phase. They make it possible to delay a prosthetic solution (full crown restoration) without impinging on the conservation of the devitalized tooth. PMID:2135781

  17. Conservation of helicity in superfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedia, Hridesh; Kleckner, Dustin; Proment, Davide; Irvine, William T. M.

    2015-03-01

    Helicity arises as a special conserved quantity in ideal fluids, in addition to energy, momentum and angular momentum. As a measure of the knottedness of vortex lines, Helicity provides an important tool for studying a wide variety of physical systems such as plasmas and turbulent fluids. Superfluids flow without resistance just like ideal (Euler) fluids, making it natural to ask whether their knottedness is similarly preserved. We address the conservation of helicity in superfluids theoretically and examine its consequences in numerical simulations.

  18. The political economy of conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A political economic purview of energy conservation in the United States was delineated. The concepts of substitution and elasticity are distinguished, and further distinctions are made between short run price elasticity, cross price elasticity, and available fund elasticity. An assessment of the role which cost factors can play in conservation is given. The structure of the petroleum industry and foreign petroleum resources is discussed. Also discussed is the role of government, industry and the consumer with the economic sphere.

  19. Update on meat irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.G.

    1997-12-01

    The irradiation of meat and poultry in the United States is intended to eliminate pathogenic bacteria from raw product, preferably after packaging to prevent recontamination. Irradiation will also increase the shelf life of raw meat and poultry products approximately two to three times the normal shelf life. Current clearances in the United States are for poultry (fresh or frozen) at doses from 1.5 to 3.0 kGy and for fresh pork at doses from 0.3 to 1.0 kGy. A petition for the clearance of all red meat was submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in July 1994. The petition is for clearances of fresh meat at doses from 1.5 to 4.5 kGy and for frozen meat at {approximately}2.5 to 7.5 kGy. Clearance for red meat is expected before the end of 1997. There are 28 countries that have food irradiation clearances, of which 18 countries have clearances for meat or poultry. However, there are no uniform categories or approved doses for meat and poultry among the countries that could hamper international trade of irradiated meat and poultry.

  20. Irradiating insect pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a non-technical article focusing on phytosanitary uses of irradiation. In a series of interview questions, I present information on the scope of the invasive species problem and the contribution of international trade in agricultural products to the movement of invasive insects. This is foll...

  1. Phytosanitary applications of irradiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytosanitary treatments are used to disinfest agricultural commodities of quarantine pests so the commodities can be shipped across quarantine barriers to trade. Ionizing irradiation is a promising treatment that is increasing in use. Almost 19,000 tons of sweet potatoes and several fruits, plus ...

  2. Generic phytosanitary irradiation treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The history of the development of generic phytosanitary irradiation (PI) treatments is discussed beginning with its initial proposal in 1986. Generic PI treatments in use today are 150 Gy for all hosts of Tephritidae, 250 Gy for all arthropods on mango and papaya shipped from Australia to New Zeala...

  3. NSUF Irradiated Materials Library

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, James Irvin

    2015-09-01

    The Nuclear Science User Facilities has been in the process of establishing an innovative Irradiated Materials Library concept for maximizing the value of previous and on-going materials and nuclear fuels irradiation test campaigns, including utilization of real-world components retrieved from current and decommissioned reactors. When the ATR national scientific user facility was established in 2007 one of the goals of the program was to establish a library of irradiated samples for users to access and conduct research through competitively reviewed proposal process. As part of the initial effort, staff at the user facility identified legacy materials from previous programs that are still being stored in laboratories and hot-cell facilities at the INL. In addition other materials of interest were identified that are being stored outside the INL that the current owners have volunteered to enter into the library. Finally, over the course of the last several years, the ATR NSUF has irradiated more than 3500 specimens as part of NSUF competitively awarded research projects. The Logistics of managing this large inventory of highly radioactive poses unique challenges. This document will describe materials in the library, outline the policy for accessing these materials and put forth a strategy for making new additions to the library as well as establishing guidelines for minimum pedigree needed to be included in the library to limit the amount of material stored indefinitely without identified value.

  4. Secreted uPAR isoform 2 (uPAR7b) is a novel direct target of miR-221.

    PubMed

    Falkenberg, Natalie; Anastasov, Nataša; Schaub, Annalisa; Radulovic, Vanja; Schmitt, Manfred; Magdolen, Viktor; Aubele, Michaela

    2015-04-10

    miR-221/-222 and components of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator system (uPAS) are associated with metastasis and poor prognosis in breast cancer, including the triple-negative subtype (TNBC). Modification of components of uPAS and involved miRNAs may contribute to targeted therapy for breast cancer patients. miR-221-/-222-overexpressing or miR-221-depleted cells were employed for qRT-PCR and Western blots to show associations of uPAR with miR-221/-222. To substantiate direct targeting of miR-221/-222 within 3' UTR of the uPAR isoform 2, in silico analysesand in vitro assays were conducted. Significant associations between miR-221 and uPAR isoform 2 expressions were observed at the mRNA and protein levels in breast cancer cells representing TNBC. For the first time, the uPAR isoform 2 was demonstrated as direct target for miR-221/-222. Inhibition of miR-221 reduced uPAR protein expression and expression of the tumor cell invasion markers vimentin and RHOC. These results demonstrate a direct and positive regulation of the secreted uPAR isoform 2 by miR-221, increasing its protein expression, a prerequisite for malignancy, while the other uPAR isoforms (1, 3 and 4) are indirectly regulated through miR-10b and miR-221/-222. By targeting uPAR isoforms and/or miRNA-221/-222, the diagnosis and therapy of breast cancer, in particular in TNBC, could be significantly improved. PMID:25797271

  5. Comparative genomics for biodiversity conservation

    PubMed Central

    Grueber, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    Genomic approaches are gathering momentum in biology and emerging opportunities lie in the creative use of comparative molecular methods for revealing the processes that influence diversity of wildlife. However, few comparative genomic studies are performed with explicit and specific objectives to aid conservation of wild populations. Here I provide a brief overview of comparative genomic approaches that offer specific benefits to biodiversity conservation. Because conservation examples are few, I draw on research from other areas to demonstrate how comparing genomic data across taxa may be used to inform the characterisation of conservation units and studies of hybridisation, as well as studies that provide conservation outcomes from a better understanding of the drivers of divergence. A comparative approach can also provide valuable insight into the threatening processes that impact rare species, such as emerging diseases and their management in conservation. In addition to these opportunities, I note areas where additional research is warranted. Overall, comparing and contrasting the genomic composition of threatened and other species provide several useful tools for helping to preserve the molecular biodiversity of the global ecosystem. PMID:26106461

  6. Targeted gene flow for conservation.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Ella; Phillips, Ben L

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic threats often impose strong selection on affected populations, causing rapid evolutionary responses. Unfortunately, these adaptive responses are rarely harnessed for conservation. We suggest that conservation managers pay close attention to adaptive processes and geographic variation, with an eye to using them for conservation goals. Translocating pre-adapted individuals into recipient populations is currently considered a potentially important management tool in the face of climate change. Targeted gene flow, which involves moving individuals with favorable traits to areas where these traits would have a conservation benefit, could have a much broader application in conservation. Across a species' range there may be long-standing geographic variation in traits or variation may have rapidly developed in response to a threatening process. Targeted gene flow could be used to promote natural resistance to threats to increase species resilience. We suggest that targeted gene flow is a currently underappreciated strategy in conservation that has applications ranging from the management of invasive species and their impacts to controlling the impact and virulence of pathogens. PMID:26332195

  7. Poly (ADP-ribose) (PAR) Binding to Apoptosis-Inducing Factor Is Critical For PAR Polymerase-1-Dependent Cell Death (Parthanatos)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yingfei; Kim, No Soo; Haince, Jean-Francois; Kang, HoChul; David, Karen K.; Andrabi, Shaida A.; Poirier, Guy G.; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.

    2011-01-01

    The mitochondrial protein apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) plays a pivotal role in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1)-mediated cell death (parthanatos), during which it is released from the mitochondria and translocates to the nucleus. Here, we show that AIF is a high affinity poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR)–binding protein and that PAR binding to AIF is required for parthanatos both in vitro and in vivo. AIF bound PAR at a site distinct from AIF’s DNA binding site and this interaction triggered AIF release from the cytosolic side of the mitochondrial outer membrane. Mutation of the PAR binding site in AIF did not affect its NADH oxidase activity, its ability to bind FAD or DNA, or its ability to induce nuclear condensation. However, this AIF mutant was not released from mitochondria and did not translocate to the nucleus or mediate cell death following PARP-1 activation. These results suggest a mechanism for PARP-1 to initiate AIF-mediated cell death and indicate that AIF’s bioenergetic cell survival-promoting functions are separate from its effects as a mitochondrially-derived death effector. Interference with the PAR-AIF interaction or PAR signaling may provide unique opportunities for preventing cell death following activation of PARP-1. PMID:21467298

  8. Clinical outcomes of pars plicata anterior vitrectomy: 2-year results

    PubMed Central

    Narang, Priya; Agarwal, Amar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the safety and outcome of a surgical approach that uses pars plicata site for anterior vitrectomy during phacoemulsification procedure complicated by posterior capsule rupture and residual cortical matter. Design: Single center, retrospective, interventional, noncomparative study. Materials and Methods: Medical records of a consecutive series of 35 eyes of 35 patients who underwent pars plicata anterior vitrectomy (PPAV) were reviewed. The main outcome measures were corrected and uncorrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, UDVA), early and late postoperative complications and intraocular pressure (IOP). Ultrasound biomicroscopic (UBM) evaluation of sclerotomy site and spectral domain optical coherence tomography analysis for central macular thickness (CMT) was performed. The final visual outcome at 2 years was evaluated. Results: At 2 years follow-up, the mean postoperative UDVA (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR]) and CDVA (logMAR) was 0.49 ± 0.26 and 0.19 ± 0.14, respectively. There was no significant change in the IOP (P = 0.061) and the mean CMT at 2 years was 192.5 ± 5.54 μm. The postoperative UBM image of the sclerotomy site at 8 weeks demonstrated a clear wound without any vitreous adhesion or incarceration. Intraoperative hyphema was seen in 1 (2.8%) case and postoperative uveitis was seen in 2 (5.7%) cases, which resolved with medications. No case of an iatrogenic retinal break or retinal detachment was reported. Conclusions: PPAV enables a closed chamber approach, allows thorough cleanup of vitreous in the pupillary plane and anterior chamber and affords better access to the subincisional and retropupillary cortical remnant with a significant visual outcome and an acceptable complication rate. PMID:26632124

  9. Nanoparticle production by UV irradiation of combustion generated soot particles

    SciTech Connect

    Stipe, Christopher B.; Choi, Jong Hyun; Lucas, Donald; Koshland, Catherine P.; Sawyer, Robert F.

    2004-07-01

    Laser ablation of surfaces normally produce high temperature plasmas that are difficult to control. By irradiating small particles in the gas phase, we can better control the size and concentration of the resulting particles when different materials are photofragmented. Here, we irradiate soot with 193 nm light from an ArF excimer laser. Irradiating the original agglomerated particles at fluences ranging from 0.07 to 0.26 J/cm{sup 2} with repetition rates of 20 and 100 Hz produces a large number of small, unagglomerated particles, and a smaller number of spherical agglomerated particles. Mean particle diameters from 20 to 50 nm are produced from soot originally having a mean electric mobility diameter of 265nm. We use a non-dimensional parameter, called the photon/atom ratio (PAR), to aid in understanding the photofragmentation process. This parameter is the ratio of the number of photons striking the soot particles to the number of the carbon atoms contained in the soot particles, and is a better metric than the laser fluence for analyzing laser-particle interactions. These results suggest that UV photofragmentation can be effective in controlling particle size and morphology, and can be a useful diagnostic for studying elements of the laser ablation process.

  10. Targeting Melanoma Growth and Metastasis with Systemic Delivery of Liposomal Incorporated PAR-1 siRNA

    PubMed Central

    Villares, Gabriel J.; Zigler, Maya; Wang, Hua; Melnikova, Vladislava O.; Wu, Hong; Friedman, Ran; Leslie, Michael C.; Vivas-Mejia, Pablo E.; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Sood, Anil K.; Bar-Eli, Menashe

    2008-01-01

    The thrombin receptor (PAR-1, Protease-Activated-Receptor-1) is over-expressed in highly metastatic melanoma cell lines and in patients with metastatic lesions. Activation of PAR-1 leads to cell signaling and upregulation of genes involved in adhesion, invasion and angiogenesis. Herein, we stably silence PAR-1 through the use of lentiviral shRNA and found significant decreases in both tumor growth (P<.01) and metastasis (P<.001) of highly metastatic melanoma cell lines in vivo. The use of viruses for therapy is not ideal as it can induce toxic immune responses and possible gene alterations following viral integration. Therefore, we also utilized systemic delivery of PAR-1 siRNA incorporated into neutral liposomes (DOPC) to decrease melanoma growth and metastasis in vivo. Significant decreases in tumor growth, weight and metastatic lung colonies (P<.001 for all) were found in mice treated with PAR-1-siRNA-DOPC. The in vivo effects of PAR-1 on invasion and angiogenesis were analyzed via immunohistochemistry. Concomitant decreases in VEGF, IL-8, and MMP-2 expression levels, as well as decreased blood-vessel density (CD31), were found in tumor samples from PAR-1 siRNA-treated mice, suggesting that PAR-1 is a regulator of melanoma cell growth and metastasis by affecting angiogenic and invasive factors. We propose that siRNA incorporated into DOPC nanoparticles could be delivered systemically and used as a new modality for melanoma treatment. PMID:18974154

  11. 12 CFR 925.19 - Par value and price of stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Par value and price of stock. 925.19 Section 925.19 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK MEMBERS AND HOUSING ASSOCIATES MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Stock Requirements § 925.19 Par value and price of stock. The capital...

  12. Solar PAR and UVR modify the community composition and photosynthetic activity of sea ice algae.

    PubMed

    Enberg, Sara; Piiparinen, Jonna; Majaneva, Markus; Vähätalo, Anssi V; Autio, Riitta; Rintala, Janne-Markus

    2015-10-01

    The effects of increased photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on species diversity, biomass and photosynthetic activity were studied in fast ice algal communities. The experimental set-up consisted of nine 1.44 m(2) squares with three treatments: untreated with natural snow cover (UNT), snow-free (PAR + UVR) and snow-free ice covered with a UV screen (PAR). The total algal biomass, dominated by diatoms and dinoflagellates, increased in all treatments during the experiment. However, the smaller biomass growth in the top 10-cm layer of the PAR + UVR treatment compared with the PAR treatment indicated the negative effect of UVR. Scrippsiella complex (mainly Scrippsiella hangoei, Biecheleria baltica and Gymnodinium corollarium) showed UV sensitivity in the top 5-cm layer, whereas Heterocapsa arctica ssp. frigida and green algae showed sensitivity to both PAR and UVR. The photosynthetic activity was highest in the top 5-cm layer of the PAR treatment, where the biomass of the pennate diatom Nitzschia frigida increased, indicating the UV sensitivity of this species. This study shows that UVR is one of the controlling factors of algal communities in Baltic Sea ice, and that increased availability of PAR together with UVR exclusion can cause changes in algal biomass, photosynthetic activity and community composition. PMID:26310455

  13. The parA resolvase performs site-specific genomic excision in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have designed a site-specific excision detection system in Arabidopsis to study the in planta activity of the small serine recombinase ParA. Using a transient expression assay as well as stable transgenic plant lines, we show that the ParA recombinase is catalytically active and capable of perfo...

  14. The tumor suppressor Par-4 activates an extrinsic pathway for apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Burikhanov, Ravshan; Zhao, Yanming; Goswami, Anindya; Qiu, Shirley; Schwarze, Steven R; Rangnekar, Vivek M

    2009-07-23

    Prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) is a proapoptotic protein with intracellular functions in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Unexpectedly, we noted Par-4 protein is spontaneously secreted by normal and cancer cells in culture, and by Par-4 transgenic mice that are resistant to spontaneous tumors. Short exposure to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-inducing agents further increased cellular secretion of Par-4 by a brefeldin A-sensitive pathway. Secretion occurred independently of caspase activation and apoptosis. Interestingly, extracellular Par-4 induced apoptosis by binding to the stress response protein, glucose-regulated protein-78 (GRP78), expressed at the surface of cancer cells. The interaction of extracellular Par-4 and cell surface GRP78 led to apoptosis via ER stress and activation of the FADD/caspase-8/caspase-3 pathway. Moreover, apoptosis inducible by TRAIL, which also exerts cancer cell-specific effects, is dependent on extracellular Par-4 signaling via cell surface GRP78. Thus, Par-4 activates an extrinsic pathway involving cell surface GRP78 receptor for induction of apoptosis. PMID:19632185

  15. Questioning Our Questions: Assessing Question Asking Practices to Evaluate a yPAR Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Sarah; Langhout, Regina Day

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine question asking practices in a youth participatory action research (yPAR) after school program housed at an elementary school. The research question was: In which ways did the adult question asking practices in a yPAR setting challenge and/or reproduce conventional models of power in educational…

  16. Participatory Action Research (PAR) cum Action Research (AR) in Teacher Professional Development: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Marie Paz E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews Participatory Action Research as an approach to teacher professional development. It maps the origins of Participatory Action Research (PAR) and discusses the benefits and challenges that have been identified by other researchers in utilizing PAR approaches in conducting research. It draws ideas of combining the features of…

  17. Manual for the Use of the Pupil Activities Record--Revised (PAR-R).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ligon, Glynn; And Others

    A comprehensive guide for observers using the Pupil Activities Record--Revised (PAR-R), this manual covers procedures followed in systematic observation of a student's classroom activities for the period of one instructional day. The manual provides general information about the purpose and design of the PAR and explains the revisions, which were…

  18. Chemometric characterization of gamma irradiated chestnuts from Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreira, João C. M.; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Günaydi, Tugba; Alkan, Hasan; Bento, Albino; Luisa Botelho, M.; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2012-09-01

    Chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller) is a valuable natural resource, with high exportation levels. Due to their water content, chestnuts are susceptible to storage problems like dehydration or development of insects and microorganisms. Irradiation has been revealing interesting features to be considered as an alternative conservation technology, increasing food products shelf-life. Any conservation methodology should have a wide application range. Hence, and after evaluating Portuguese cultivars, the assessment of irradiation effects in foreign cultivars might act as an important indicator of the versatility of this technology. In this work, the effects of gamma irradiation (0.0, 0.5 and 3.0 kGy) on proximate composition, sugars, fatty acids (FA) and tocopherols composition of Turkish chestnuts stored at 4 °C for different periods (0, 15 and 30 days) were evaluated. Regarding proximate composition, the storage time (ST) had higher influence than the irradiation dose (ID), especially on fat, ash, carbohydrates and energetic value. Sucrose exhibited similar behavior in response to the assayed ST and ID. The prevalence of ST influence was also verified for FA, tocopherols and sucrose. Lauric, palmitoleic and linolenic acids were the only FA that underwent some differences with ID. Saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were not affected either by storage or irradiation. α-Tocopherol was the only vitamer with significant differences among the assayed ST and ID. Overall, Turkish cultivars showed a compositional profile closely related with Portuguese cultivars, and seemed to confirm that gamma irradiation in the applied doses did not change chestnut chemical and nutritional composition.

  19. Evaluating local benefits from conservation in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area.

    PubMed

    Spiteri, Arian; Nepal, Sanjay K

    2008-09-01

    Protected areas are integral to the global effort to conserve biodiversity, and, over the past two decades, protected area managers have begun to recognize that conservation objectives are next to impossible to achieve without considering the needs and concerns of local communities. Incentive-based programs (IBPs) have become a favored approach to protected area management, geared at fostering local stewardship by delivering benefits tied to conservation to local people. Effective IBPs require benefits to accrue to and be recognized by those experiencing the greatest consequences as a result of the protected area, and those likely to continue extractive activities if their livelihood needs are compromised. This research examines dispersal of IBP benefits, as perceived by local residents in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area. Results reported here are based on questionnaire interviews with 188 households conducted between September and December 2004. Results indicate that local residents primarily identify benefits from social development activities, provisions for resource extraction, and economic opportunities. Overall, benefits have been dispersed equally to households in villages on and off the main tourist route, and regardless of a household's participation in tourism. However, benefits are not effectively targeted to poorer residents, those highly dependent on natural resources, and those experiencing the most crop damage and livestock loss from protected wildlife. This article provides several suggestions for improving the delivery of conservation incentives. PMID:18458999

  20. Compression Myelopathy due to Proliferative Changes around C2 Pars Defects without Instability.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Tetsuya; Sakai, Toshinori; Tezuka, Fumitake; Abe, Mitsunobu; Yamashita, Kazuta; Takata, Yoichiro; Higashino, Kosaku; Sairyo, Koichi

    2016-06-01

    We report a case with compression myelopathy due to proliferative changes around the C2 pars defects without instability. A 69-year-old man presented with progressive clumsy hands and spastic gait. Plain radiographs showed bilateral spondylolysis (pars defects) at C2 and fusion between C2 and C3 spinous processes. Dynamic views revealed mobility through the pars defects, but there was no apparent instability. Computed tomography showed proliferative changes at the pars defects, which protruded into spinal canal. On magnetic resonance imaging, the spinal cord was compressed and intramedullary high signal change was found. A diagnosis of compression myelopathy due to proliferative changes around the C2 pars defects was made. We performed posterior decompression. Postoperatively, symptoms have been alleviated and images revealed sufficient decompression and no apparent instability. In patients with the cervical spondylolysis, myelopathy caused by instability or slippage have been periodically reported. The present case involving C2 spondylolysis is extremely rare. PMID:27340539

  1. Compression Myelopathy due to Proliferative Changes around C2 Pars Defects without Instability

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Tetsuya; Tezuka, Fumitake; Abe, Mitsunobu; Yamashita, Kazuta; Takata, Yoichiro; Higashino, Kosaku; Sairyo, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    We report a case with compression myelopathy due to proliferative changes around the C2 pars defects without instability. A 69-year-old man presented with progressive clumsy hands and spastic gait. Plain radiographs showed bilateral spondylolysis (pars defects) at C2 and fusion between C2 and C3 spinous processes. Dynamic views revealed mobility through the pars defects, but there was no apparent instability. Computed tomography showed proliferative changes at the pars defects, which protruded into spinal canal. On magnetic resonance imaging, the spinal cord was compressed and intramedullary high signal change was found. A diagnosis of compression myelopathy due to proliferative changes around the C2 pars defects was made. We performed posterior decompression. Postoperatively, symptoms have been alleviated and images revealed sufficient decompression and no apparent instability. In patients with the cervical spondylolysis, myelopathy caused by instability or slippage have been periodically reported. The present case involving C2 spondylolysis is extremely rare. PMID:27340539

  2. Water Conservation and Water Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2014-12-01

    Water storage can be a viable part of the solution to water conservation. This means that we should include reservoirs. Regardless, one should evaluate all aspects of water conservation principles. Recent drought in California indicates that there is an urgent need to re-visit the techniques used to maintain the water supply-chain mechanism in the entire state. We all recognize the fact that fish and wildlife depend on the streams, rivers and wetlands for survival. It is a well-known fact that there is an immediate need to provide solid protection to all these resources. Laws and regulations should help meet the needs of natural systems. Farmers may be forced to drilling wells deeper than ever. But, they will be eventually depleting groundwater reserves. Needless to say that birds, fish and wildlife cannot access these groundwater table. California is talking a lot about conservation. Unfortunately, the conservation efforts have not established a strong visible hold. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN (Narayanan, 2012). It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The author has previously reported these in detail at the 2012 AGU fall meeting. References: Ziegler, Jay (15 JUNE 2014). The Conversation: Water conservation efforts aren't taking hold, but there are encouraging signs. THE SACRAMENTO BEE. California. Narayanan, Mysore. (2012). The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century. 72nd AGU International Conference. Eos Transactions: American Geophysical Union, Vol. 92, No. 56, Fall Meeting Supplement, 2012. H31I - 1255.http://www.sacbee.com/2014/06/15/6479862/jay-ziegler-water-conservation.html#storylink=cpy

  3. Trends in Ocean Irradiance using a Radiative Model Forced with Terra Aerosols and Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Watson; Casey, Nancy; Romanou, Anastasia

    2010-01-01

    Aerosol and cloud information from MODIS on Terra provide enhanced capability to understand surface irradiance over the oceans and its variability. These relationships can be important for ocean biology and carbon cycles. An established radiative transfer model, the Ocean-Atmosphere Spectral Irradiance Model (OASIM) is used to describe ocean irradiance variability on seasonal to decadal time scales. The model is forced with information on aerosols and clouds from the MODIS sensor on Terra and Aqua. A 7-year record (2000-2006) showed no trends in global ocean surface irradiance or photosynthetic available irradiance (PAR). There were significant (P<0.05) negative trends in the Mediterranean Sea, tropical Pacific) and tropical Indian Oceans, of -7.0, -5.0 and -2.7 W/sq m respectively. Global interannual variability was also modest. Regional interannual variability was quite large in some ocean basins, where monthly excursions from climatology were often >20 W/sq m. The trends using MODIS data contrast with results from OASIM using liquid water path estimates from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). Here, a global trend of -2 W/sq m was observed, largely dues to a large negative trend in the Antarctic -12 W/sq m. These results suggest the importance of the choice of liquid water path data sets in assessments of medium-length trends in ocean surface irradiance. The choices also impact the evaluation of changes in ocean biogeochemistry.

  4. Forest conservation delivers highly variable coral reef conservation outcomes.

    PubMed

    Klein, Carissa J; Jupiter, Stacy D; Selig, Elizabeth R; Watts, Matthew E; Halpern, Benjamin S; Kamal, Muhammad; Roelfsema, Chris; Possingham, Hugh P

    2012-06-01

    Coral reefs are threatened by human activities on both the land (e.g., deforestation) and the sea (e.g., overfishing). Most conservation planning for coral reefs focuses on removing threats in the sea, neglecting management actions on the land. A more integrated approach to coral reef conservation, inclusive of land-sea connections, requires an understanding of how and where terrestrial conservation actions influence reefs. We address this by developing a land-sea planning approach to inform fine-scale spatial management decisions and test it in Fiji. Our aim is to determine where the protection of forest can deliver the greatest return on investment for coral reef ecosystems. To assess the benefits of conservation to coral reefs, we estimate their relative condition as influenced by watershed-based pollution and fishing. We calculate the cost-effectiveness of protecting forest and find that investments deliver rapidly diminishing returns for improvements to relative reef condition. For example, protecting 2% of forest in one area is almost 500 times more beneficial than protecting 2% in another area, making prioritization essential. For the scenarios evaluated, relative coral reef condition could be improved by 8-58% if all remnant forest in Fiji were protected rather than deforested. Finally, we determine the priority of each coral reef for implementing a marine protected area when all remnant forest is protected for conservation. The general results will support decisions made by the Fiji Protected Area Committee as they establish a national protected area network that aims to protect 20% of the land and 30% of the inshore waters by 2020. Although challenges remain, we can inform conservation decisions around the globe by tackling the complex issues relevant to integrated land-sea planning. PMID:22827132

  5. Decentralizing conservation and diversifying livelihoods within Kanchenjunga Conservation Area, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Parker, Pete; Thapa, Brijesh; Jacob, Aerin

    2015-12-01

    To alleviate poverty and enhance conservation in resource dependent communities, managers must identify existing livelihood strategies and the associated factors that impede household access to livelihood assets. Researchers increasingly advocate reallocating management power from exclusionary central institutions to a decentralized system of management based on local and inclusive participation. However, it is yet to be shown if decentralizing conservation leads to diversified livelihoods within a protected area. The purpose of this study was to identify and assess factors affecting household livelihood diversification within Nepal's Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project, the first protected area in Asia to decentralize conservation. We randomly surveyed 25% of Kanchenjunga households to assess household socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and access to livelihood assets. We used a cluster analysis with the ten most common income generating activities (both on- and off-farm) to group the strategies households use to diversify livelihoods, and a multinomial logistic regression to identify predictors of livelihood diversification. We found four distinct groups of household livelihood strategies with a range of diversification that directly corresponded to household income. The predictors of livelihood diversification were more related to pre-existing socioeconomic and demographic factors (e.g., more landholdings and livestock, fewer dependents, receiving remittances) than activities sponsored by decentralizing conservation (e.g., microcredit, training, education, interaction with project staff). Taken together, our findings indicate that without direct policies to target marginalized groups, decentralized conservation in Kanchenjunga will continue to exclude marginalized groups, limiting a household's ability to diversify their livelihood and perpetuating their dependence on natural resources. PMID:26363256

  6. Plant Photosynthesis-Irradiance Curve Responses to Pollution Show Non-Competitive Inhibited Michaelis Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Maozi; Wang, Zhiwei; He, Lingchao; Xu, Kang; Cheng, Dongliang; Wang, Genxuan

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthesis-irradiance (PI) curves are extensively used in field and laboratory research to evaluate the photon-use efficiency of plants. However, most existing models for PI curves focus on the relationship between the photosynthetic rate (Pn) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and do not take account of the influence of environmental factors on the curve. In the present study, we used a new non-competitive inhibited Michaelis-Menten model (NIMM) to predict the co-variation of Pn, PAR, and the relative pollution index (I). We then evaluated the model with published data and our own experimental data. The results indicate that the Pn of plants decreased with increasing I in the environment and, as predicted, were all fitted well by the NIMM model. Therefore, our model provides a robust basis to evaluate and understand the influence of environmental pollution on plant photosynthesis. PMID:26561863

  7. Wastewater treatment using gamma irradiation: Tétouan pilot station, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahri, Loubna; Elgarrouj, Driss; Zantar, Said; Mouhib, Mohamed; Azmani, Amina; Sayah, Fouad

    2010-04-01

    The increasing demand on limited water supplies has accelerated the wastewater reuse and reclamation. We investigated gamma irradiation effects on wastewater by measuring differences in the legislated parameters, aiming to reuse the wastewater. Effluents samples were collected at the urban wastewater treatment station of Tetouan and were irradiated at different doses ranging from 0 to 14 kGy using a Co 60 gamma source. The results showed an elimination of bacterial flora, a decrease of biochemical and chemical oxygen demand, and higher conservation of nutritious elements. The results of this study indicated that gamma irradiation might be a good choice for the reuse of wastewater for agricultural activities.

  8. The status of conservation of urban forests in eastern Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Amaral, D D; Vieira, I C G; Salomão, R P; Almeida, S S; Jardim, M A G

    2012-05-01

    This study aims to identify the remnant tree flora in six forest fragments in the metropolitan area of Belém and to analyze these fragments in terms of biological conservation, species richness and diversity in the local urban landscape. The fragments and their respective sampling areas were as follows: Amafrutas reserve (15 ha), Trambioca Is. reserve (2 ha), Bosque Rodrigues Alves city park (15 ha), Combu Is. reserve (10 ha), Gunma Park reserve (10 ha) and Mocambo reserve (5 ha). Inventories were built from lineal plots of 250 m² and included trees with DBH equal to or greater than 10 cm at a height of 1.3 m above ground. Sixty-nine families and 759 species, of which eight were officially listed as endangered (Brazilian National Flora: Ministry of Environment, Normative Instruction of September, 2008; Pará State Flora: Decree Nº. 802 of February 2008) were recorded. These endangered species are: Aspidosperma desmanthum Benth. ex Müll. Arg. (Apocynaceae), Cedrela odorata L. (Meliaceae), Eschweilera piresii S.A Mori (Lecythidaceae), Euxylophora paraensis Huber (Rutaceae), Hymenolobium excelsum Ducke (Leguminosae), Manilkara huberi (Ducke) Chevalier (Sapotaceae), Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. ex DC.) Standl. (Bignoniaceae), Mezilaurus itauba (Meisn.) Taub. ex Mez (Lauraceae) and Qualea coerulea Aubl. (Vochysiaceae). Emergency actions such as implementing management plans for already existing Conservation Units, the creation of new such units in areas of primary forest fragments (as in the case of the Amafrutas reserve), as well as the intensification of actions of surveillance and monitoring, should be undertaken by Federal, State, and Municipal environmental agencies so as to ensure the conservation of these last primary forest remnants in the metropolitan area of Belém. PMID:22735132

  9. ELECTRON IRRADIATION OF SOLIDS

    DOEpatents

    Damask, A.C.

    1959-11-01

    A method is presented for altering physical properties of certain solids, such as enhancing the usefulness of solids, in which atomic interchange occurs through a vacancy mechanism, electron irradiation, and temperature control. In a centain class of metals, alloys, and semiconductors, diffusion or displacement of atoms occurs through a vacancy mechanism, i.e., an atom can only move when there exists a vacant atomic or lattice site in an adjacent position. In the process of the invention highenergy electron irradiation produces additional vacancies in a solid over those normally occurring at a given temperature and allows diffusion of the component atoms of the solid to proceed at temperatures at which it would not occur under thermal means alone in any reasonable length of time. The invention offers a precise way to increase the number of vacancies and thereby, to a controlled degree, change the physical properties of some materials, such as resistivity or hardness.

  10. Irradiation direction from texture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenderink, Jan J.; Pont, Sylvia C.

    2003-10-01

    We present a theory of image texture resulting from the shading of corrugated (three-dimensional textured) surfaces, Lambertian on the micro scale, in the domain of geometrical optics. The derivation applies to isotropic Gaussian random surfaces, under collimated illumination, in normal view. The theory predicts the structure tensors from either the gradient or the Hessian of the image intensity and allows inferences of the direction of irradiation of the surface. Although the assumptions appear prima facie rather restrictive, even for surfaces that are not at all Gaussian, with the bidirectional reflectance distribution function far from Lambertian and vignetting and multiple scattering present, we empirically recover the direction of irradiation with an accuracy of a few degrees.

  11. BIOLOGICAL IRRADIATION FACILITY

    DOEpatents

    McCorkle, W.H.; Cern, H.S.

    1962-04-24

    A facility for irradiating biological specimens with neutrons is described. It includes a reactor wherein the core is off center in a reflector. A high-exposure room is located outside the reactor on the side nearest the core while a low-exposure room is located on the opposite side. Means for converting thermal neutrons to fast neutrons are movably disposed between the reactor core and the high and low-exposure rooms. (AEC)

  12. Profiling Gene Expression Induced by Protease-Activated Receptor 2 (PAR2) Activation in Human Kidney Cells

    PubMed Central

    Suen, Jacky Y.; Gardiner, Brooke; Grimmond, Sean; Fairlie, David P.

    2010-01-01

    Protease-Activated Receptor-2 (PAR2) has been implicated through genetic knockout mice with cytokine regulation and arthritis development. Many studies have associated PAR2 with inflammatory conditions (arthritis, airways inflammation, IBD) and key events in tumor progression (angiogenesis, metastasis), but they have relied heavily on the use of single agonists to identify physiological roles for PAR2. However such probes are now known not to be highly selective for PAR2, and thus precisely what PAR2 does and what mechanisms of downstream regulation are truly affected remain obscure. Effects of PAR2 activation on gene expression in Human Embryonic Kidney cells (HEK293), a commonly studied cell line in PAR2 research, were investigated here by comparing 19,000 human genes for intersecting up- or down-regulation by both trypsin (an endogenous protease that activates PAR2) and a PAR2 activating hexapeptide (2f-LIGRLO-NH2). Among 2,500 human genes regulated similarly by both agonists, there were clear associations between PAR2 activation and cellular metabolism (1,000 genes), the cell cycle, the MAPK pathway, HDAC and sirtuin enzymes, inflammatory cytokines, and anti-complement function. PAR-2 activation up-regulated four genes more than 5 fold (DUSP6, WWOX, AREG, SERPINB2) and down-regulated another six genes more than 3 fold (TXNIP, RARG, ITGB4, CTSD, MSC and TM4SF15). Both PAR2 and PAR1 activation resulted in up-regulated expression of several genes (CD44, FOSL1, TNFRSF12A, RAB3A, COPEB, CORO1C, THBS1, SDC4) known to be important in cancer. This is the first widespread profiling of specific activation of PAR2 and provides a valuable platform for better understanding key mechanistic roles of PAR2 in human physiology. Results clearly support the development of both antagonists and agonists of human PAR2 as potential disease modifying therapeutic agents. PMID:21072196

  13. Water conservation behavior in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

    2012-01-01

    Ensuring a nation's long term water supply requires the use of both supply-sided approaches such as water augmentation through water recycling, and demand-sided approaches such as water conservation. Conservation behavior can only be increased if the key drivers of such behavior are understood. The aim of this study is to reveal the main drivers from a comprehensive pool of hypothesized factors. An empirical study was conducted with 3094 Australians. Data was analyzed using multivariate linear regression analysis and decision trees to determine which factors best predict self-reported water conservation behavior. Two key factors emerge: high level of pro-environmental behavior; and pro-actively seeking out information about water. A number of less influential factors are also revealed. Public communication strategy implications are derived. PMID:22522412

  14. Conservative treatment for anal incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Anal incontinence (AI) in adults is a troublesome condition that negatively impacts upon quality of life and results in significant embarrassment and social isolation. The conservative management of AI is the first step and targets symptomatic relief. The reported significant improvement with conservative treatments for AI is close to 25% and involves prescribed changes in lifestyle habits, a reduced intake of foods that may cause or aggravate diarrhea or rectal urgency, and the use of specific anti-diarrheal agents. The use of a mechanical barrier in the form of an anal plug and the outcomes and principles of pelvic kinesitherapies and biofeedback options are outlined. This review discusses a gastroenterologist's approach towards conservative therapy in patients referred with anal incontinence. PMID:24759347

  15. Conservation laws in embedding theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo, Oscar; Mustafaev, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    In this work is considered embedding theory, a theory in which independent variables which describe gravity are functions of the space-time embedding into a ten-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean space. Neother's theorem is used to find conservation laws for energy and angular momentum as a result from the action's invariance in relation to the rotation and translation of the system. The form of these conservation laws and their consequences depending on the different formulations of embedding theory is discussed. It is also analyzed a transition from embedding theory to a field theory in a flat space-time with a number of dimensions greater than four. The same procedure is followed in this case to find conservation laws, resulting in the solution of the problem of time present in Einstein's theory of general relativity.

  16. Understanding and managing conservation conflicts.

    PubMed

    Redpath, Steve M; Young, Juliette; Evely, Anna; Adams, William M; Sutherland, William J; Whitehouse, Andrew; Amar, Arjun; Lambert, Robert A; Linnell, John D C; Watt, Allan; Gutiérrez, R J

    2013-02-01

    Conservation conflicts are increasing and need to be managed to minimise negative impacts on biodiversity, human livelihoods, and human well-being. Here, we explore strategies and case studies that highlight the long-term, dynamic nature of conflicts and the challenges to their management. Conflict management requires parties to recognise problems as shared ones, and engage with clear goals, a transparent evidence base, and an awareness of trade-offs. We hypothesise that conservation outcomes will be less durable when conservationists assert their interests to the detriment of others. Effective conflict management and long-term conservation benefit will be enhanced by better integration of the underpinning social context with the material impacts and evaluation of the efficacy of alternative conflict management approaches. PMID:23040462

  17. Water conservation behavior in Australia.

    PubMed

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

    2012-08-30

    Ensuring a nation's long term water supply requires the use of both supply-sided approaches such as water augmentation through water recycling, and demand-sided approaches such as water conservation. Conservation behavior can only be increased if the key drivers of such behavior are understood. The aim of this study is to reveal the main drivers from a comprehensive pool of hypothesized factors. An empirical study was conducted with 3094 Australians. Data was analyzed using multivariate linear regression analysis and decision trees to determine which factors best predict self-reported water conservation behavior. Two key factors emerge: high level of pro-environmental behavior; and pro-actively seeking out information about water. A number of less influential factors are also revealed. Public communication strategy implications are derived. PMID:22522412

  18. Facteurs de risque de mortalité par tuberculose pulmonaire

    PubMed Central

    Janah, Hicham; Souhi, Hicham; Kouismi, Hatim; Mark, Karima; Zahraoui, Rachida; Benamor, Jouda; Soualhi, Mona; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine

    2014-01-01

    La tuberculose est une maladie infectieuse transmissible provoquée par myco-bacterium tuberculosis (bacille de Koch ou BK). Elle représente, selon les estimations del'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS), l'une des pathologies infectieuses causant le plus de décès au niveau mondial avec plus de 1 million de décès par an. Pour déterminer les facteurs de risque de mortalité au cours de la tuberculose pulmonaire à microscopie positive nous avons mené une étude rétrospective portant sur tous les cas de tuberculose pulmonaire à microscopie positive et qui étaient décédés au cours de leur hospitalisation. Cette étude a colligé 1803 cas de tuberculose sur une période de 2 ans et demi dont 46 sont décédés. La prévalence de décès est de 2,55%. La population se répartit en 32 hommes et 14 femmes. L’âge moyen était de 53ans ± 17 ans. Le tabagisme était retrouvé chez la moitié des cas. Une comorbidité était retrouvée dans 43%, avec 17% de diabète. Le délai de diagnostic avait une médiane de 60 jours avec percentile (30j; 105j). La symptomatologie clinique était dominée par la toux, la dyspnée et les expectorations soit respectivement: 97,8%, 69,6% et 67,4% des cas. Sur le plan radiologique les lésions étaient diffuses et bilatérales dans 76,1% des cas. Tous les patients étaient mis sous SRHZ. 11% avaient présenté une toxicité aux antibacillaires (de type hépatiques dans 3 cas et neurologiques dans 2 cas). Le délai médian de décès était de 8,5 jours (5j; 17j). Les causes de décès retrouvées étaient: Une hépatite fulminante (3 cas), une décompensation acido-cétosique (3 cas), un SDRA (2 cas), des hémoptysies foudroyantes (2 cas), et respectivement un cas secondaire à une décompensation de BPCO, une décompensation cardiaque, une hypoglycémie et un tableau d'anasarque. Cette étude suggère que le terrain, le retard diagnostique et les effets secondaires du traitement sont les principaux facteurs de risque de

  19. Agricultural Water Conservation via Conservation Tillage and Thermal Infrared

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Georgia water conservation is an issue that involves all citizens. Within the agricultural row crop community, water is a very important part of producing a harvestable and profitable product. Although irrigation is used only as a supplement to natural rainfall, it can greatly affect crop yield...

  20. Conservation Seeds Activities Book. An Early Childhood Conservation Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Sherri

    This activities book is used with an early childhood conservation education program. The activities are presented in four color-coded sections, each section representing one of the four seasons. Each activity includes a statement of purpose, list of materials needed, instructional strategies, and a list of supplementary activities. In addition to…

  1. Backyard Conservation: Bringing Conservation from the Countryside to Your Backyard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildlife Habitat Council, Silver Spring, MD.

    This guide highlights 10 conservation activities, adapted from farms and ranches, that can be used in the backyard. Each activity provides background information and instructions on how to complete the activity. The activities concern: (1) tree planting; (2) wildlife habitat; (3) backyard ponds; (4) nutrient management; (5) terracing; (6) water…

  2. Reasons for the Decalage between Identity Conservation and Equivalence Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Ron

    1983-01-01

    Two experiments investigated which of two factors is responsible for decalage between Piaget's equivalence and identity conservation tasks. Performance of 78 primary school students between 57 and 79 months of age was compared on equivalence and identity tasks and a third task, equivalence I, which retains transitivity requirement of Piaget's task…

  3. Gamma-irradiation depletes endogenous germ cells and increases donor cell distribution in chimeric chickens.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung Je; Kang, Seok Jin; Kim, Tae Min; Lee, Young Mok; Lee, Hyung Chul; Song, Gwonhwa; Han, Jae Yong

    2010-12-01

    The production of chimeric birds is an important tool for the investigation of vertebrate development, the conservation of endangered birds, and the development of various biotechnological applications. This study examined whether gamma (γ)-irradiation depletes endogenous primordial germ cells and enhances the efficiency of somatic chimerism in chickens. An optimal irradiation protocol for stage X embryos was determined after irradiation at various doses (0, 100, 300, 500, 600, 700, and 2,000 rad). Exposure to 500 rad of γ-irradiation for 73 s significantly decreased the number of primordial germ cells (P < 0.0001). Somatic chimera hatchlings were then produced by transferring blastodermal cells from a Korean Oge into either an irradiated (at 500 rad) or intact stage X White Leghorn embryo. An analysis of feather color pattern and polymerase chain reaction-based species-specific amplification of various tissues of the hatchlings confirmed chimerism in most organs of the chick produced from the irradiated recipient; a lesser degree of chimerism was observed in the non-irradiated control recipient. In conclusion, the exposure of chick embryos to an optimized dose of γ-irradiation effectively depleted germ cells and yielded greater somatic chimerism than non-irradiated control embryos. This technique can be applied to interspecies reproduction or the production of transgenic birds. PMID:21057980

  4. Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) – focus on receptor-receptor-interactions and their physiological and pathophysiological impact

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) are a subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) with four members, PAR1, PAR2, PAR3 and PAR4, playing critical functions in hemostasis, thrombosis, embryonic development, wound healing, inflammation and cancer progression. PARs are characterized by a unique activation mechanism involving receptor cleavage by different proteinases at specific sites within the extracellular amino-terminus and the exposure of amino-terminal “tethered ligand“ domains that bind to and activate the cleaved receptors. After activation, the PAR family members are able to stimulate complex intracellular signalling networks via classical G protein-mediated pathways and beta-arrestin signalling. In addition, different receptor crosstalk mechanisms critically contribute to a high diversity of PAR signal transduction and receptor-trafficking processes that result in multiple physiological effects. In this review, we summarize current information about PAR-initiated physical and functional receptor interactions and their physiological and pathological roles. We focus especially on PAR homo- and heterodimerization, transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and receptor serine/threonine kinases (RSTKs), communication with other GPCRs, toll-like receptors and NOD-like receptors, ion channel receptors, and on PAR association with cargo receptors. In addition, we discuss the suitability of these receptor interaction mechanisms as targets for modulating PAR signalling in disease. PMID:24215724

  5. Animal models and conserved processes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The concept of conserved processes presents unique opportunities for using nonhuman animal models in biomedical research. However, the concept must be examined in the context that humans and nonhuman animals are evolved, complex, adaptive systems. Given that nonhuman animals are examples of living systems that are differently complex from humans, what does the existence of a conserved gene or process imply for inter-species extrapolation? Methods We surveyed the literature including philosophy of science, biological complexity, conserved processes, evolutionary biology, comparative medicine, anti-neoplastic agents, inhalational anesthetics, and drug development journals in order to determine the value of nonhuman animal models when studying conserved processes. Results Evolution through natural selection has employed components and processes both to produce the same outcomes among species but also to generate different functions and traits. Many genes and processes are conserved, but new combinations of these processes or different regulation of the genes involved in these processes have resulted in unique organisms. Further, there is a hierarchy of organization in complex living systems. At some levels, the components are simple systems that can be analyzed by mathematics or the physical sciences, while at other levels the system cannot be fully analyzed by reducing it to a physical system. The study of complex living systems must alternate between focusing on the parts and examining the intact whole organism while taking into account the connections between the two. Systems biology aims for this holism. We examined the actions of inhalational anesthetic agents and anti-neoplastic agents in order to address what the characteristics of complex living systems imply for inter-species extrapolation of traits and responses related to conserved processes. Conclusion We conclude that even the presence of conserved processes is insufficient for inter

  6. A conserved germline multipotency program

    PubMed Central

    Juliano, Celina E.; Swartz, S. Zachary; Wessel, Gary M.

    2010-01-01

    The germline of multicellular animals is segregated from somatic tissues, which is an essential developmental process for the next generation. Although certain ecdysozoans and chordates segregate their germline during embryogenesis, animals from other taxa segregate their germline after embryogenesis from multipotent progenitor cells. An overlapping set of genes, including vasa, nanos and piwi, operate in both multipotent precursors and in the germline. As we propose here, this conservation implies the existence of an underlying germline multipotency program in these cell types that has a previously underappreciated and conserved function in maintaining multipotency. PMID:21098563

  7. Hadronic atoms and leptonic conservations

    SciTech Connect

    Kunselman, R.

    1989-01-01

    The major 1989 efforts have been mainly on two experiments at TRIUMF. One was a search for events where the leptonic flavor number conservation law would be violated. The second was an attempt to produce muonic hydrogen and muonic deuterium into a vacuum, and if there are found a adequate number of muons in the 2s state to measure precision energies. The minor efforts have been on the LAMPF experiment on lepton conservations which has consumed effort only in fabricating equipment, and on the completion of analyses from the experiments with hadronic atoms at LAMPF (pionic atoms) and BNL (kaonic and sigmonic atoms).

  8. Conservative management of voiding dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Anita

    2007-01-01

    This review article discusses the efficacy of various conservative therapies in the management of voiding dysfunction with special reference to urinary incontinence. The article emphasizes the fact that conservative therapies have limited side effects and they do not jeopardize future treatment options. Behaviour therapy, pelvic floor therapy and biofeedback; electrical and magnetic stimulation are discussed here individually. Though there is unanimous agreement that these therapies improve quality of life, complete cure is rare. All therapies work better in conjunction with each other rather than in isolation. The review also highlights the need for randomized controlled trials of better methodology. PMID:19675794

  9. 12 CFR 627.2770 - Conservators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conservators. 627.2770 Section 627.2770 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM TITLE IV CONSERVATORS, RECEIVERS, AND VOLUNTARY LIQUIDATIONS Conservators and Conservatorships § 627.2770 Conservators. (a) The...

  10. 7 CFR 1466.10 - Conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... practice implementation. (c) A participant will be eligible for payments for water conservation and... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conservation practices. 1466.10 Section 1466.10... Contracts and Payments § 1466.10 Conservation practices. (a) NRCS will determine the conservation...

  11. 43 CFR 418.31 - Conservation measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Conservation measures. 418.31 Section 418... THE INTERIOR OPERATING CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR THE NEWLANDS RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA Water Management and Conservation § 418.31 Conservation measures. (a) Specific conservation actions will be...

  12. 7 CFR 631.9 - Conservation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conservation plan. 631.9 Section 631.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING GREAT PLAINS CONSERVATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 631.9 Conservation plan. (a) An applicant...

  13. 43 CFR 418.31 - Conservation measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Conservation measures. 418.31 Section 418... THE INTERIOR OPERATING CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR THE NEWLANDS RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA Water Management and Conservation § 418.31 Conservation measures. (a) Specific conservation actions will be...

  14. 43 CFR 418.31 - Conservation measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conservation measures. 418.31 Section 418... THE INTERIOR OPERATING CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR THE NEWLANDS RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA Water Management and Conservation § 418.31 Conservation measures. (a) Specific conservation actions will be...

  15. 18 CFR 430.15 - Conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Conservation requirements. 430.15 Section 430.15 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA § 430.15 Conservation requirements....

  16. 7 CFR 1466.10 - Conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... practice implementation. (c) A participant will be eligible for payments for water conservation and... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conservation practices. 1466.10 Section 1466.10... Contracts and Payments § 1466.10 Conservation practices. (a) NRCS will determine the conservation...

  17. 18 CFR 430.15 - Conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conservation requirements. 430.15 Section 430.15 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA § 430.15 Conservation requirements....

  18. 18 CFR 430.15 - Conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Conservation requirements. 430.15 Section 430.15 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA § 430.15 Conservation requirements....

  19. 43 CFR 418.31 - Conservation measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Conservation measures. 418.31 Section 418... THE INTERIOR OPERATING CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR THE NEWLANDS RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA Water Management and Conservation § 418.31 Conservation measures. (a) Specific conservation actions will be...

  20. 7 CFR 1466.10 - Conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... practice implementation. (c) A participant will be eligible for payments for water conservation and... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conservation practices. 1466.10 Section 1466.10... Contracts and Payments § 1466.10 Conservation practices. (a) NRCS will determine the conservation...

  1. 7 CFR 1466.10 - Conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... practice implementation. (c) A participant will be eligible for payments for water conservation and... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conservation practices. 1466.10 Section 1466.10... Contracts and Payments § 1466.10 Conservation practices. (a) NRCS will determine the conservation...

  2. 18 CFR 430.15 - Conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Conservation requirements. 430.15 Section 430.15 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA § 430.15 Conservation requirements....

  3. 43 CFR 418.31 - Conservation measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conservation measures. 418.31 Section 418... THE INTERIOR OPERATING CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR THE NEWLANDS RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA Water Management and Conservation § 418.31 Conservation measures. (a) Specific conservation actions will be...

  4. 18 CFR 430.15 - Conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Conservation requirements. 430.15 Section 430.15 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA § 430.15 Conservation requirements....

  5. 7 CFR 1465.7 - Conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conservation practices. 1465.7 Section 1465.7... Provisions § 1465.7 Conservation practices. (a) The State Conservationist will determine the conservation practices eligible for AMA payments. To be considered eligible conservation practices, the practices...

  6. 7 CFR 1465.7 - Conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conservation practices. 1465.7 Section 1465.7... Provisions § 1465.7 Conservation practices. (a) The State Conservationist will determine the conservation practices eligible for AMA payments. To be considered eligible conservation practices, the practices...

  7. 7 CFR 1465.7 - Conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conservation practices. 1465.7 Section 1465.7... Provisions § 1465.7 Conservation practices. (a) The State Conservationist will determine the conservation practices eligible for AMA payments. To be considered eligible conservation practices, the practices...

  8. 76 FR 19683 - Conservation Program Recipient Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... Conservation Service 7 CFR Parts 622, 624 and 625 Commodity Credit Corporation 7 CFR Parts 1465 and 1470 RIN 0578-AA56 Conservation Program Recipient Reporting AGENCY: Natural Resources Conservation Service... Conservation Stewardship Program have application or plan due dates after October 1, 2010, and therefore,...

  9. 7 CFR 1465.7 - Conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conservation practices. 1465.7 Section 1465.7... Provisions § 1465.7 Conservation practices. (a) The State Conservationist will determine the conservation practices eligible for AMA payments. To be considered eligible conservation practices, the practices...

  10. 7 CFR 1465.7 - Conservation practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conservation practices. 1465.7 Section 1465.7... Provisions § 1465.7 Conservation practices. (a) The State Conservationist will determine the conservation practices eligible for AMA payments. To be considered eligible conservation practices, the practices...

  11. CERCLA interim action at the Par Pond unit: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, H.M.; Matthews, S.S.; Neal, L.W.; Weiss, W.R.

    1993-11-01

    The Par Pond unit designated under CERCLA consists of sediments within a Savannah River Site (SRS) cooling water reservoir. The sediments are contaminated with radionuclides and nonradioactive constituents from nuclear production reactor operations. The mercury in Par Pond is believed to have originated from the Savannah River. Because of Par Pond Dam safety Issues, the water level of the reservoir was drawn down, exposing more than 1300 acres of contaminated sediments and triggering the need for CERCLA interim remedial action. This paper presents the interim action approach taken with Par Pond as a case study. The approach considered the complexity of the Par Pond ecosystem, the large size of Par Pond, the volume of contaminated sediments, and the institutional controls existing at SRS. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considers units with large volumes of low-concentration wastes, as is the case with Par Pond, to be {open_quotes}special sites.{close_quotes} Accordingly, EPA guidance establishes that the range of alternatives developed focus primarily on containment options and other remedial approaches that mitigate potential risks associated with the {open_quotes}special site.{close_quotes} The remedial alternatives, according to EPA, are not to be prohibitively expensive or difficult to implement. This case study also is representative of the types of issues that will need to be addressed within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex as nuclear facilities are transitioned to inactive status and corrective/remedial actions are warranted.

  12. Improved Satellite-based Photosysnthetically Active Radiation (PAR) for Air Quality Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pour Biazar, A.; McNider, R. T.; Cohan, D. S.; White, A.; Zhang, R.; Dornblaser, B.; Doty, K.; Wu, Y.; Estes, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    One of the challenges in understanding the air quality over forested regions has been the uncertainties in estimating the biogenic hydrocarbon emissions. Biogenic volatile organic compounds, BVOCs, play a critical role in atmospheric chemistry, particularly in ozone and particulate matter (PM) formation. In southeastern United States, BVOCs (mostly as isoprene) are the dominant summertime source of reactive hydrocarbon. Despite significant efforts in improving BVOC estimates, the errors in emission inventories remain a concern. Since BVOC emissions are particularly sensitive to the available photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), model errors in PAR result in large errors in emission estimates. Thus, utilization of satellite observations to estimate PAR can help in reducing emission uncertainties. Satellite-based PAR estimates rely on the technique used to derive insolation from satellite visible brightness measurements. In this study we evaluate several insolation products against surface pyranometer observations and offer a bias correction to generate a more accurate PAR product. The improved PAR product is then used in biogenic emission estimates. The improved biogenic emission estimates are compared to the emission inventories over Texas and used in air quality simulation over the period of August-September 2013 (NASA's Discover-AQ field campaign). A series of sensitivity simulations will be performed and evaluated against Discover-AQ observations to test the impact of satellite-derived PAR on air quality simulations.

  13. PAR-1, -4, and the mTOR Pathway Following Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Lekic, Tim; Krafft, Paul R; Klebe, Damon; Flores, Jerry; Rolland, William B; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H

    2016-01-01

    Germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH) is the most common cause of neurological complications of prematurity and has lasting implications. PAR-1 and PAR-4 receptors are involved with upstream signaling pathways following brain hemorrhage in adult models of stroke, of which the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a potential downstream mediator. Therefore, we hypothesized a role for PAR-1, -4/ mTOR signaling following GMH brain injury. Postnatal day 7 Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to GMH through stereotactic infusion of collagenase into the right ganglionic eminence. Rodents were euthanized at 72 h (short term), or 4 weeks (long term). Short-term mTOR expression was evaluated by Western blot in the context of PAR-1 (SCH-79797) and PAR-4 (P4pal10) inhibition. Pups in the long-term group were administered the selective mTOR inhibitor (rapamycin) with neurobehavioral and brain pathological examinations performed at 4 weeks. Pharmacological PAR-1, -4 antagonism normalized the increased mTOR expression following GMH. Early inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin improved long-term outcomes in rats. Mammalian-TOR signaling plays an important role in brain injury following neonatal GMH, possibly involving upstream PAR-1, -4 mechanisms. PMID:26463951

  14. Cathepsin S Signals via PAR2 and Generates a Novel Tethered Ligand Receptor Agonist

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, Ethan A.

    2014-01-01

    Protease-activated receptor-2 is widely expressed in mammalian epithelial, immune and neural tissues. Cleavage of PAR2 by serine proteases leads to self-activation of the receptor by the tethered ligand SLIGRL. The contribution of other classes of proteases to PAR activation has not been studied in detail. Cathepsin S is a widely expressed cysteine protease that is upregulated in inflammatory conditions. It has been suggested that cathepsin S activates PAR2. However, cathepsin S activation of PAR2 has not been demonstrated directly nor has the potential mechanism of activation been identified. We show that cathepsin S cleaves near the N-terminus of PAR2 to expose a novel tethered ligand, KVDGTS. The hexapeptide KVDGTS generates downstream signaling events specific to PAR2 but is weaker than SLIGRL. Mutation of the cathepsin S cleavage site prevents receptor activation by the protease while KVDGTS retains activity. In conclusion, the range of actions previously ascribed to cysteine cathepsins in general, and cathepsin S in particular, should be expanded to include molecular signaling. Such signaling may link together observations that had been attributed previously to PAR2 or cathepsin S individually. These interactions may contribute to inflammation. PMID:24964046

  15. Quinolone-resistant mutants of escherichia coli DNA topoisomerase IV parC gene.

    PubMed Central

    Kumagai, Y; Kato, J I; Hoshino, K; Akasaka, T; Sato, K; Ikeda, H

    1996-01-01

    Escherichia coli quinolone-resistant strains with mutations of the parC gene, which codes for a subunit of topoisomerase IV, were isolated from a quinolone-resistant gyrA mutant of DNA gyrase. Quinolone-resistant parC mutants were also identified among the quinolone-resistant clinical strains. The parC mutants became susceptible to quinolones by introduction of a parC+ plasmid. Introduction of the multicopy plasmids carrying the quinolone-resistant parC mutant gene resulted in an increase in MICs of quinolones for the parC+ and quinolone-resistant gyrA strain. Nucleotide sequences of the quinolone-resistant parC mutant genes were determined, and missense mutations at position Gly-78, Ser-80, or Glu-84, corresponding to those in the quinolone-resistance-determining region of DNA gyrase, were identified. These results indicate that topoisomerase IV is a target of quinolones in E. coli and suggest that the susceptibility of E. coli cells to quinolones is determined by sensitivity of the targets, DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. PMID:8851598

  16. Par-4/NF-κB Mediates the Apoptosis of Islet β Cells Induced by Glucolipotoxicity.

    PubMed

    QiNan, Wu; XiaGuang, Gan; XiaoTian, Lei; WuQuan, Deng; Ling, Zhang; Bing, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis of islet β cells is a primary pathogenic feature of type 2 diabetes, and ER stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play important roles in this process. Previous research has shown that prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4)/NF-κB induces cancer cell apoptosis through endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. However, the mechanism by which Par-4/NF-κB induces islet β cell apoptosis remains unknown. We used a high glucose/palmitate intervention to mimic type 2 diabetes in vitro. We demonstrated that the high glucose/palmitate intervention induced the expression and secretion of Par-4. It also causes increased expression and activation of NF-κB, which induced NIT-1 cell apoptosis and dysfunction. Overexpression of Par-4 potentiates these effects, whereas downregulation of Par-4 attenuates them. Inhibition of NF-κB inhibited the Par-4-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, these effects occurred through the ER stress cell membrane and mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Our findings reveal a novel role for Par-4/NF-κB in islet β cell apoptosis and type 2 diabetes. PMID:27340675

  17. Par3A is dispensable for the function of the glomerular filtration barrier of the kidney.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Sybille; Tellkamp, Frederik; Niessen, Carien M; Bloch, Wilhelm; Kerjaschki, Dontscho; Schermer, Bernhard; Benzing, Thomas; Brinkkoetter, Paul T

    2016-07-01

    Polarity signaling through the atypical PKC (aPKC)-Par polarity complex is essential for the development and maintenance of the podocyte architecture and the function of the glomerular filtration barrier of the kidney. To study the contribution of Par3A in this complex, we generated a novel Pard3 podocyte-specific knockout mouse model by targeting exon 6 of the Pard3 gene. Genetic deletion of Pard3a did not impair renal function, neither at birth nor later in life. Even challenging the animals did not result in glomerular disease. Despite its well-established role in aPKC-mediated signaling, Par3A appears to be dispensable for the function of the glomerular filtration barrier. Moreover, its homolog Pard3b, and not Pard3a, is the dominant Par3 gene expressed in podocytes and found at the basis of the slit diaphragm, where it partially colocalizes with podocin. In conclusion, Par3A function is either dispensable for slit diaphragm integrity, or compensatory mechanisms and a high redundancy of the different polarity proteins, including Par3B, Lgl, or PALS1, maintain the function of the glomerular filtration barrier, even in the absence of Par3A. PMID:27122542

  18. Par-4/NF-κB Mediates the Apoptosis of Islet β Cells Induced by Glucolipotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    QiNan, Wu; XiaGuang, Gan; XiaoTian, Lei; WuQuan, Deng; Ling, Zhang; Bing, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis of islet β cells is a primary pathogenic feature of type 2 diabetes, and ER stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play important roles in this process. Previous research has shown that prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4)/NF-κB induces cancer cell apoptosis through endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. However, the mechanism by which Par-4/NF-κB induces islet β cell apoptosis remains unknown. We used a high glucose/palmitate intervention to mimic type 2 diabetes in vitro. We demonstrated that the high glucose/palmitate intervention induced the expression and secretion of Par-4. It also causes increased expression and activation of NF-κB, which induced NIT-1 cell apoptosis and dysfunction. Overexpression of Par-4 potentiates these effects, whereas downregulation of Par-4 attenuates them. Inhibition of NF-κB inhibited the Par-4-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, these effects occurred through the ER stress cell membrane and mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Our findings reveal a novel role for Par-4/NF-κB in islet β cell apoptosis and type 2 diabetes. PMID:27340675

  19. A predicted T4 secretion system and conserved DNA-repeats identified in a subset of related Arthrobacter plasmids.

    PubMed

    Mihăşan, Marius; Brandsch, Roderich

    2016-10-01

    BLAST analysis of pAO1 ORFs of Arthrobacter nicotinovorans revealed 12 ORFs, including the ORF of a transcriptional regulator, predicted to encode the components of a T4-secretion system involved in bacterial conjugation. These ORFs were conserved and showed synteny among 14 Arthrobacter plasmids. A DNA repeat of about 370 nucleotides was found to be present 5' to the pAO1 ORFs of DUF4192-, DprA- and ParB-like proteins. Similar repeats were present in identical positions on 12 additional Arthrobacter plasmids. The DNA repeats on a particular plasmid are highly identical duplications. The DNA repeats contain alternating GC and AT reach sequences, potential protein DNA-binding sites and purine reach stretches. The sequences end with 5'ATG.AAC3' which results in the amino terminal sequence methionine (M) and asparagine (N) for all predicted DprA, DUF4192 and ParB proteins. The presences of conserved ORFs of a T4-secretion system and of similar DNA repeats suggest that these Arthrobacter plasmids are related and evolved from a common ancestor. The functional significance of the DNA repeats in a coordinated common mechanism of regulation of expression of the dprA-(involved in natural competence), parB- (involved in plasmid partitioning) and duf4192- (unknown function in plasmid life cycle) genes remains to be established. PMID:27524651

  20. Effects of crown development on leaf irradiance, leaf morphology and photosynthetic capacity in a peach tree.

    PubMed

    Walcroft, Adrian; Le Roux, Xavier; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio; Dones, Nicolas; Sinoquet, Hervé

    2002-09-01

    The three-dimensional (3-D) architecture of a peach tree (Prunus persica L. Batsch) growing in an orchard near Avignon, France, was digitized in April 1999 and again four weeks later in May 1999 to quantify increases in leaf area and crown volume as shoots developed. A 3-D model of radiation transfer was used to determine effects of changes in leaf area density and canopy volume on the spatial distribution of absorbed quantum irradiance (PAR(a)). Effects of changes in PAR(a) on leaf morphological and physiological properties were determined. Leaf mass per unit area (M(a)) and leaf nitrogen concentration per unit leaf area (N(a)) were both nonlinearly related to PAR(a), and there was a weak linear relationship between leaf nitrogen concentration per unit leaf mass (N(m)) and PAR(a). Photosynthetic capacity, defined as maximal rates of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) carboxylation (V(cmax)) and electron transport (J(max)), was measured on leaf samples representing sunlit and shaded micro-environments at the same time that the tree crown was digitized. Both V(cmax) and J(max) were linearly related to N(a) during May, but not in April when the range of N(a) was low. Photosynthetic capacity per unit N(a) appeared to decline between April and May. Variability in leaf nitrogen partitioning between Rubisco carboxylation and electron transport was small, and the partitioning coefficients were unrelated to N(a). Spatial variability in photosynthetic capacity resulted from acclimation to varying PAR(a) as the crown developed, and acclimation was driven principally by changes in M(a) rather than the amount or partitioning of leaf nitrogen. PMID:12204849

  1. KSHV-Mediated Regulation of Par3 and SNAIL Contributes to B-Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Jha, Hem C; Sun, Zhiguo; Upadhyay, Santosh K; El-Naccache, Darine W; Singh, Rajnish K; Sahu, Sushil K; Robertson, Erle S

    2016-07-01

    Studies have suggested that Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and transformation is an important step in progression to cancer. Par3 (partitioning-defective protein) is a crucial factor in regulating epithelial cell polarity. However, the mechanism by which the latency associated nuclear antigen (LANA) encoded by Kaposi's Sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) regulates Par3 and EMTs markers (Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition) during viral-mediated B-cell oncogenesis has not been fully explored. Moreover, several studies have demonstrated a crucial role for EMT markers during B-cell malignancies. In this study, we demonstrate that Par3 is significantly up-regulated in KSHV-infected primary B-cells. Further, Par3 interacted with LANA in KSHV positive and LANA expressing cells which led to translocation of Par3 from the cell periphery to a predominantly nuclear signal. Par3 knockdown led to reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptotic induction. Levels of SNAIL was elevated, and E-cadherin was reduced in the presence of LANA or Par3. Interestingly, KSHV infection in primary B-cells led to enhancement of SNAIL and down-regulation of E-cadherin in a temporal manner. Importantly, knockdown of SNAIL, a major EMT regulator, in KSHV cells resulted in reduced expression of LANA, Par3, and enhanced E-cadherin. Also, SNAIL bound to the promoter region of p21 and can regulate its activity. Further a SNAIL inhibitor diminished NF-kB signaling through upregulation of Caspase3 in KSHV positive cells in vitro. This was also supported by upregulation of SNAIL and Par3 in BC-3 transplanted NOD-SCID mice which has potential as a therapeutic target for KSHV-associated B-cell lymphomas. PMID:27463802

  2. KSHV-Mediated Regulation of Par3 and SNAIL Contributes to B-Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Hem C.; Sun, Zhiguo; Upadhyay, Santosh K.; El-Naccache, Darine W.; Singh, Rajnish K.; Sahu, Sushil K.; Robertson, Erle S.

    2016-01-01

    Studies have suggested that Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and transformation is an important step in progression to cancer. Par3 (partitioning-defective protein) is a crucial factor in regulating epithelial cell polarity. However, the mechanism by which the latency associated nuclear antigen (LANA) encoded by Kaposi's Sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) regulates Par3 and EMTs markers (Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition) during viral-mediated B-cell oncogenesis has not been fully explored. Moreover, several studies have demonstrated a crucial role for EMT markers during B-cell malignancies. In this study, we demonstrate that Par3 is significantly up-regulated in KSHV-infected primary B-cells. Further, Par3 interacted with LANA in KSHV positive and LANA expressing cells which led to translocation of Par3 from the cell periphery to a predominantly nuclear signal. Par3 knockdown led to reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptotic induction. Levels of SNAIL was elevated, and E-cadherin was reduced in the presence of LANA or Par3. Interestingly, KSHV infection in primary B-cells led to enhancement of SNAIL and down-regulation of E-cadherin in a temporal manner. Importantly, knockdown of SNAIL, a major EMT regulator, in KSHV cells resulted in reduced expression of LANA, Par3, and enhanced E-cadherin. Also, SNAIL bound to the promoter region of p21 and can regulate its activity. Further a SNAIL inhibitor diminished NF-kB signaling through upregulation of Caspase3 in KSHV positive cells in vitro. This was also supported by upregulation of SNAIL and Par3 in BC-3 transplanted NOD-SCID mice which has potential as a therapeutic target for KSHV-associated B-cell lymphomas. PMID:27463802

  3. PAR-2 elicits afferent arteriolar vasodilation by NO-dependent and NO-independent actions.

    PubMed

    Trottier, Greg; Hollenberg, Morley; Wang, Xuemei; Gui, Yu; Loutzenhiser, Kathy; Loutzenhiser, Rodger

    2002-05-01

    Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) are a novel class of G protein-coupled receptors that respond to signals through endogenous proteinases. PAR activation involves enzymatic cleavage of the extracellular NH(2)-terminal domain and unmasking of a new NH(2) terminus, which serves as an anchored ligand to activate the receptor. At least four PAR subtypes have been identified. In the present study, we used the in vitro perfused hydronephrotic rat kidney to examine the effects of activating PAR-2 on the afferent arteriole. The synthetic peptide SLIGRL-NH(2), which corresponds to the exposed ligand sequence and selectively activates PAR-2, did not alter basal afferent arteriolar diameter but caused a concentration-dependent vasodilation (3-30 microM) of arterioles preconstricted by angiotensin II (0.1 nM). A modified peptide sequence (LSIGRL-NH(2), inactive at PAR-2) had no effect. This vasodilation was characterized by an initial transient component followed by a smaller sustained response. A similar pattern of vasodilation was seen when SLIGRL-NH(2) was administered to isolated perfused normal rat kidney. The sustained component of the PAR-2-induced afferent arteriolar vasodilation was eliminated by nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibition (100 microM nitro-L-arginine methyl ester). In contrast, the transient vasodilation persisted under these conditions. This transient response was not observed when afferent arterioles were preconstricted with elevated KCl, suggesting involvement of an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor. Finally, RT-PCR revealed the presence of PAR-2 mRNA in isolated afferent arterioles. These findings indicate that PAR-2 is expressed in the afferent arteriole and that its activation elicits afferent arteriolar vasodilation by NO-dependent and NO-independent mechanisms. PMID:11934700

  4. Par-complex aPKC and Par3 cross-talk with innate immunity NF-κB pathway in epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Forteza, Radia; Wald, Flavia A.; Mashukova, Anastasia; Kozhekbaeva, Zhanna; Salas, Pedro J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Components of the Par-complex, atypical PKC and Par3, have been found to be downregulated upon activation of NF-κB in intestinal epithelial cells. To determine their possible role in pro-inflammatory responses we transduced Caco-2 human colon carcinoma cells with constitutively active (ca) PKCι or anti-Par3 shRNA-expressing lentiviral particles. Contrary to previous reports in other cell types, ca-PKCι did not activate, but rather decreased, baseline NF-κB activity in a luminiscence reporter assay. An identical observation applied to a PB1 domain deletion PKCι, which fails to localize to the tight-junction. Conversely, as expected, the same ca-PKCι activated NF-κB in non-polarized HEK293 cells. Likewise, knockdown of Par3 increased NF-κB activity and, surprisingly, greatly enhanced its response to TNFα, as shown by transcription of IL-8, GRO-1, GRO-2 and GRO-3. We conclude that aPKC and Par3 are inhibitors of the canonical NF-κB activation pathway, although perhaps acting through independent pathways, and may be involved in pro-inflammatory responses. PMID:24244864

  5. Post-irradiation effects in polyethylenes irradiated under various atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suljovrujic, E.

    2013-08-01

    If a large amount of polymer free radicals remain trapped after irradiation of polymers, the post-irradiation effects may result in a significant alteration of physical properties during long-term shelf storage and use. In the case of polyethylenes (PEs) some failures are attributed to the post-irradiation oxidative degradation initiated by the reaction of residual free radicals (mainly trapped in crystal phase) with oxygen. Oxidation products such as carbonyl groups act as deep traps and introduce changes in carrier mobility and significant deterioration in the PEs electrical insulating properties. The post-irradiation behaviour of three different PEs, low density polyethylene (LDPE), linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and high density polyethylene (HDPE) was studied; previously, the post-irradiation behaviour of the PEs was investigated after the irradiation in air (Suljovrujic, 2010). In this paper, in order to investigate the influence of different irradiation media on the post-irradiation behaviour, the samples were irradiated in air and nitrogen gas, to an absorbed dose of 300 kGy. The annealing treatment of irradiated PEs, which can substantially reduce the concentration of free radicals, is used in this study, too. Dielectric relaxation behaviour is related to the difference in the initial structure of PEs (such as branching, crystallinity etc.), to the changes induced by irradiation in different media and to the post-irradiation changes induced by storage of the samples in air. Electron spin resonance (ESR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infra-red (IR) spectroscopy and gel measurements were used to determine the changes in the free radical concentration, crystal fraction, oxidation and degree of network formation, respectively.

  6. Aspergillus fumigatus Endophthalmitis with Necrotizing Scleritis following Pars Plana Vitrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Felicity; Graham, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of Aspergillus fumigatus endophthalmitis complicated by necrotizing scleritis in a 68-year-old man with diet-controlled diabetes, after retinal detachment repair. He was initially treated with systemic steroids for surgically induced necrotizing scleritis following routine pars plana vitrectomy. An additional diagnosis of endophthalmitis was made when the patient developed a hypopyon. Repeat vitreous culture isolated Aspergillus fumigatus. Symptoms improved following antifungal treatment leaving the patient with scleromalacia and an advanced postoperative cataract. Fungal scleritis and endophthalmitis are rare complications of intraocular surgery with sight-threatening consequences, and, as this case demonstrates, may even occur concomitantly. The overlapping features of both conditions can make differentiating one from the other difficult. A fungal aetiology should be considered in cases of postoperative scleritis and endophthalmitis that are protracted and refractory to standard therapy. Even in cases of early diagnosis and treatment, visual outcomes in Aspergillus endophthalmitis and scleritis are variable and often disappointing, not infrequently necessitating enucleation of a painful blind eye. PMID:27379189

  7. Aspergillus fumigatus Endophthalmitis with Necrotizing Scleritis following Pars Plana Vitrectomy.

    PubMed

    Gruener, Anna M; Allen, Felicity; Stanford, Miles R; Graham, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of Aspergillus fumigatus endophthalmitis complicated by necrotizing scleritis in a 68-year-old man with diet-controlled diabetes, after retinal detachment repair. He was initially treated with systemic steroids for surgically induced necrotizing scleritis following routine pars plana vitrectomy. An additional diagnosis of endophthalmitis was made when the patient developed a hypopyon. Repeat vitreous culture isolated Aspergillus fumigatus. Symptoms improved following antifungal treatment leaving the patient with scleromalacia and an advanced postoperative cataract. Fungal scleritis and endophthalmitis are rare complications of intraocular surgery with sight-threatening consequences, and, as this case demonstrates, may even occur concomitantly. The overlapping features of both conditions can make differentiating one from the other difficult. A fungal aetiology should be considered in cases of postoperative scleritis and endophthalmitis that are protracted and refractory to standard therapy. Even in cases of early diagnosis and treatment, visual outcomes in Aspergillus endophthalmitis and scleritis are variable and often disappointing, not infrequently necessitating enucleation of a painful blind eye. PMID:27379189

  8. Plaies des membres par agression: analyse de 245 dossiers

    PubMed Central

    Boufettal, Monsef; Mahfoud, Mustapha; Ismael, Farid; Kharmaz, Mohamed; Bardouni, Ahmed El; Berrada, Mohamed Saleh; Yaacoubi, Moradh El

    2015-01-01

    Il s'agit d'une étuderétrospective, analytique, monocentrique rentrant dans le cadre d'une étude épidémiologique s’étalant sur une période de trois années (de 2010 à 2012) durant laquelle nous avons revu les dossiers de 245 patients victimes de violence et d'agression. Nous avons exclu les lésions simples traitées en ambulatoire. Par conséquent, nous nous sommes limités aux cas de blessures ayant nécessité une prise en charge spécialisée au bloc opératoire. Les objectifs de notre travail étaient de connaitre la fréquence des agressions au service de traumatologie du CHU de Rabat, classer les différents types de lésions, évaluer leur gravité, mettre la lumière sur les populations les plus touchées et enfin montrer les différentes modalités de prise en charge thérapeutiques. PMID:26918078

  9. Energy Conservation through Architectural Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Robert C., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a teaching unit designed to create in students an awareness of and an appreciation for the possibilities for energy conservation as they relate to architecture. It is noted that the unit can be adapted for use in many industrial programs and with different teaching methods due to the variety of activities that can be used. (Editor/TA)

  10. CHICO BASIN CONSERVATION LEADERSHIP INITIATIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The workshops will occur between May 2002 and January 2003, (though timing is flexible depending on funding). Between workshops The Nature Conservancy will respond to information requests and generate the technical materials necessary to inform the sessions. The goals of the Ch...

  11. Conservatives, liberals, and "the negative".

    PubMed

    Charney, Evan

    2014-06-01

    The authors connect conservatism with aversion to negativity via the tendentious use of the language of threats to characterize conservatism, but not liberalism. Their reliance upon an objective conception of the negative ignores the fact that much of the disagreement between liberals and conservatives is over whether or not one and the same state of affairs is negative or positive. PMID:24970432

  12. Conservation Education Improvement. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diem, Kenneth L.; Hennebry, Howard M.

    In an attempt to improve the teaching of conservation in elementary and junior high schools, a set of integrated sequential core units was formulated and tested in five Wyoming school districts during the fall and early winter of 1968. Based on a total sample of 840 elementary students (38% usable response) and 960 junior high students (49% usable…

  13. Conservation Laws in Weak Interactions

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Lee, T. D.

    1957-03-01

    Notes are presented on four lectures given at Harvard University in March 1957 on elementary particle physics, the theta-tau problem, validity of parity conservation, tests for invariance under P, C, and T, and the two-component theory of the neutrino. (W.D.M.)

  14. Conserving Energy in School Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boice, John R.

    Educational Facilities Laboratories is developing a computer-based technical service--The Public Schools Energy Conservation Service (PSECS). As presently envisioned, PSECS would be capable of providing each participating district with information in five areas: (1) guidelines and instruction for establishing an energy usage data base; (2) a…

  15. Genetic Applications in Avian Conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haig, Susan M.; Bronaugh, Whitcomb M.; Crowhurst, Rachel S.; D'Elia, Jesse; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Epps, Clinton W.; Knaus, Brian; Miller, Mark P.; Moses, Michael L.; Oyler-McCance, Sara; Robinson, W. Douglas; Sidlauskas, Brian

    2011-01-01

    A fundamental need in conserving species and their habitats is defining distinct entities that range from individuals to species to ecosystems and beyond (Table 1; Ryder 1986, Moritz 1994, Mayden and Wood 1995, Haig and Avise 1996, Hazevoet 1996, Palumbi and Cipriano 1998, Hebert et al. 2004, Mace 2004, Wheeler et al. 2004, Armstrong and Ball 2005, Baker 2008, Ellis et al. 2010, Winker and Haig 2010). Rapid progression in this interdisciplinary field continues at an exponential rate; thus, periodic updates on theory, techniques, and applications are important for informing practitioners and consumers of genetic information. Here, we outline conservation topics for which genetic information can be helpful, provide examples of where genetic techniques have been used best in avian conservation, and point to current technical bottlenecks that prevent better use of genomics to resolve conservation issues related to birds. We hope this review will provide geneticists and avian ecologists with a mutually beneficial dialogue on how this integrated field can solve current and future problems.

  16. Energy Education/Conservation Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wert, Jonathan M.

    This examination is designed to measure the general awareness level of high school students, teachers, and citizens in the area of energy development and conservation. It is composed of 100 true-false statements concerning energy education concepts. A sample examinee answer sheet and an examiner key are included. Reproduction of the exam is…

  17. Distributed Relaxation for Conservative Discretizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.

    2001-01-01

    A multigrid method is defined as having textbook multigrid efficiency (TME) if the solutions to the governing system of equations are attained in a computational work that is a small (less than 10) multiple of the operation count in one target-grid residual evaluation. The way to achieve this efficiency is the distributed relaxation approach. TME solvers employing distributed relaxation have already been demonstrated for nonconservative formulations of high-Reynolds-number viscous incompressible and subsonic compressible flow regimes. The purpose of this paper is to provide foundations for applications of distributed relaxation to conservative discretizations. A direct correspondence between the primitive variable interpolations for calculating fluxes in conservative finite-volume discretizations and stencils of the discretized derivatives in the nonconservative formulation has been established. Based on this correspondence, one can arrive at a conservative discretization which is very efficiently solved with a nonconservative relaxation scheme and this is demonstrated for conservative discretization of the quasi one-dimensional Euler equations. Formulations for both staggered and collocated grid arrangements are considered and extensions of the general procedure to multiple dimensions are discussed.

  18. Tapir health and conservation medicine.

    PubMed

    Mangini, Paulo Rogerio; Medici, Emilia Patrícia; Fernandes-Santos, Renata Carolina

    2012-12-01

    Tapirs have unique nutritional needs, as well as anatomical, physiological, behavioral and ecological adaptations that must be considered when managing their health, both in the wild and in captivity. Information about how tapirs live in their natural habitats can provide crucial knowledge to prevent many of the health problems found in captivity such as infectious and parasitic diseases, reproductive issues and nutritional and behavioral disorders. Likewise, proper management in captivity can significantly contribute to in situ conservation programs. Conservation medicine is a science created to address the global health crisis that jeopardizes biodiversity causing imbalances among ecosystem, human, animal and vegetal health. In this context, common threats to tapir health and conservation, such as isolated and small populations surrounded by human activity, chemical pollution, domestic animals and their pathogenic agents, need to be better understood. This manuscript provides information about the health of tapirs both in captivity and in the wild and aims to encourage tapir conservationists worldwide to gather information about pathogen and disease dynamics and manifestation, as well as implications for tapir conservation. PMID:23253365

  19. Mass Conservation and Chemical Kinetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbara, Thomas M.; Corio, P. L.

    1980-01-01

    Presents a method for obtaining all mass conservation conditions implied by a given mechanism in which the conditions are used to simplify integration of the rate equations and to derive stoichiometric relations. Discusses possibilities of faulty inference of kinetic information from a given stoichiometry. (CS)

  20. Culture and Conservation in Chiapas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Brenda M.; Dunn, Lynne A.

    This study examined the impact of culture, language, and familiarity with materials on the ability to solve traditional conservation problems. A total of 80 Tzeltal speaking children from two traditional Mexican Indian (Mayan) villages participated in the study: 5 boys and 5 girls drawn from each of four age group (6-7, 8-9, 10-11, 12-13). The men…

  1. Electromagnetic momentum conservation in media

    SciTech Connect

    Brevik, Iver; Ellingsen, Simen A.

    2011-03-15

    That static electric and magnetic fields can store momentum may be perplexing, but is necessary to ensure total conservation of momentum. Simple situations in which such field momentum is transferred to nearby bodies and point charges have often been considered for pedagogical purposes, normally assuming vacuum surroundings. If dielectric media are involved, however, the analysis becomes more delicate, not least since one encounters the electromagnetic energy-momentum problem in matter, the 'Abraham-Minkowski enigma', of what the momentum is of a photon in matter. We analyze the momentum balance in three nontrivial examples obeying azimuthal symmetry, showing how the momentum conservation is satisfied as the magnetic field decays and momentum is transferred to bodies present. In the last of the examples, that of point charge outside a dielectric sphere in an infinite magnetic field, we find that not all of the field momentum is transferred to the nearby bodies; a part of the momentum appears to vanish as momentum flux towards infinity. We discuss this and other surprising observations which can be attributed to the assumption of magnetic fields of infinite extent. We emphasize how formal arguments of conserved quantities cannot determine which energy-momentum tensor is more 'correct', and each of our conservation checks may be performed equally well in the Minkowski or Abraham framework.

  2. MAINE MUSSEL SEED CONSERVATION AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SEED shows point locations of Maine mussel seed conservation areas at 1:24,000 scale. Data for this coverage were screen digitized on a 1:24000 scale base using descriptions contained in Maine Department of Marine Resources (MDMR) rules. Coastal arcs from Maine Office of GIS 1:24...

  3. Renewable energy and wildlife conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Khalil, Mona

    2016-01-01

    The renewable energy sector is rapidly expanding and diversifying the power supply of the country. Yet, as our Nation works to advance renewable energy and to conserve wildlife, some conflicts arise. To address these challenges, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting innovative research and developing workable solutions to reduce impacts of renewable energy production on wildlife.

  4. Conservative Operations in Genital Prolapse.

    PubMed

    Virkud, Ajit

    2016-06-01

    This review article highlights the contributions of various gynecologists from India toward surgical management of pelvic organ prolapse. It will provide an overview of the different sling operations for conservative treatment of genital prolapse. A new classification of the sling operations is put forth. The advantages and disadvantages of these operations will be discussed. PMID:27298521

  5. Arizona Conserve Water Educators Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This award-winning, 350-page, full-color book provides a thorough study of Arizona water resources from a water conservation perspective. Its background section contains maps, graphs, diagrams and photos that facilitate the teaching of 15 interactive, multi-disciplinary lessons to K-12 students. In addition, 10 Arizona case studies are highlighted…

  6. Energy conservation in swine buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.D.; Friday, W.H.

    1980-05-01

    Saving energy in confinement swine buildings can be achieved by conserving existing animal heat through both proper building construction and control of the environment. Environmental management practices considered include building insulation and modifications, heating and cooling system selection, ventilation system adjustments, and proper building temperature. (MCW)

  7. Conservation Agriculture in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation agriculture (CA) is a production paradigm that groups reduced tillage, mulching with crop residues or cover crops, and diversified crop rotations, especially those that incorporate leguminous crops. In North America, reduced tillage is the most widely-adopted practice that seeks the ide...

  8. Conservation Education in All Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Conservation education in Pennsylvania includes: (1) use of an animal character to teach environmental concepts; (2) a revolutionary war fort, and adjacent nature park that mixes nature with history; (3) a nature center that revives American Indian appreciation of nature; and (4) a watershed study to relate chemistry to the study of environmental…

  9. The National Conservation Training Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohn, Jeffrey P.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the National Conservation Training Center (NCTC) which provides a host of benefits for fish and wildlife pros and includes classrooms, laboratories, and residential lodges. Provides information about some of the courses offered such as how to use global positioning systems and water quality testing. (ASK)

  10. Science Activities in Energy: Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 14 activities relating to energy conservation. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades, which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a simple card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

  11. Understanding Conservation: A Playful Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kefaloukos, Mary-Anne; Bobis, Janette

    2011-01-01

    This article describes some aspects of Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development. It highlights the importance of giving young children specific access to explore conservation in measurement, which will give students invaluable experiences in measurement that in years to come will be regarded as their prior knowledge of the concept. This is…

  12. ENERGY CONSERVATION THROUGH SOURCE REDUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report deals with energy conservation through reduction in generation of post-consumer solid waste. The objective, scope, methodology and summary of the report are presented in Section 1. Section 2 contains the conclusions. Section 3 presents a review of output and input app...

  13. CURRICULUM GUIDE IN CONSERVATION EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HERRINGTON, EUGENE H.; ROBBINS, LARRY

    THIS CURRICULUM GUIDE PRESENTS CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES AS AN INTEGRATED NATURAL SCIENCE STUDY. NATURAL RESOURCES ARE SEEN AS BEING INORGANIC (MINERALS, AIR, WATER, AND SOIL) OR ORGANIC (PLANT, ANIMAL, AND HUMAN). THESE RESOURCES ARE PRESENTED AS SUGGESTED CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES DESIGNED FOR THE PRIMARY, INTERMEDIATE, AND JUNIOR HIGH…

  14. CONSERVATION EDUCATION, A SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARVAJAL, JOAN; MUNZER, MARTHA E.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY CONTAINS REFERENCES TO PRINTED MATERIALS COVERING VARIOUS ASPECTS OF CONSERVATION EDUCATION WHICH WERE PUBLISHED IN THE UNITED STATES FROM 1957 TO 1966, WHICH ARE STILL IN PRINT, AND WHICH CAN BE OBTAINED WITHOUT GREAT DIFFICULTY. SOME TITLES PUBLISHED BEFORE 1957 ALSO ARE INCLUDED. PUBLICATIONS OF GOVERNMENTAL AGENCIES OR OF…

  15. Conservation with underground power lines

    SciTech Connect

    Graneau, P.

    1980-01-01

    The following aspects of underground power transmission lines are discussed: their contribution to area beautification; line losses and their causes; the energy conservation potential of large-conductor underground cables; reliability and outage advantages as compared with overhead lines; the history of underground systems; problems with polyethylene insulation; and the development and performance of sodium conductors for underground cables. (LCL)

  16. Ecology for conserving our sirenians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonde, Robert K.

    2012-01-01

    Review of: Ecology and conservation of the sirenia: dugongs and manatees. Helene Marsh, Thomas J. O'Shea and John E. Reynolds III. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2012, 521 pp, ISBN 978-0-521-88828-8, US$135 and 978-0-521-71643-7, US$65.

  17. Cubication of Conservative Nonlinear Oscillators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belendez, Augusto; Alvarez, Mariela L.; Fernandez, Elena; Pascual, Immaculada

    2009-01-01

    A cubication procedure of the nonlinear differential equation for conservative nonlinear oscillators is analysed and discussed. This scheme is based on the Chebyshev series expansion of the restoring force, and this allows us to approximate the original nonlinear differential equation by a Duffing equation in which the coefficients for the linear…

  18. Conservative Ideology and Ambivalent Sexism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Andrew N.; Mull, Melinda S.

    2006-01-01

    To assess the relationship between different facets of conservative ideology and ambivalent sexism, 246 residents of two towns in southern Michigan completed a social dominance orientation scale (SDO), a right-wing authoritarianism scale (RWA), a Protestant work ethic scale (PWE), and the Glick and Fiske (1996) Ambivalent Sexism Inventory via a…

  19. Conservation of North American rallids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddleman, William R.; Knopf, Fritz L.; Manley, Brooke; Reid, Frederic A.; Zembal, Richard

    1988-01-01

    The Rallidae are a diverse group in their habitat selection, yet most North American species occur in or near wetlands As a consequence, most species are subject to habitat enhancement or perturbation from waterfowl management programs. The overall effects of these management programs relative to rallid conservation have been assessed for few species, and there is a need for synthesis of such information. In the cases of some species or raves, population status is not known, and suggested directions for conservation and management are needed. Rare, endangered, or status undetermined species or races often occur in areas where related species are classified as game birds, and the effects of such hunting on rarer forms are not known. Their generally secretive nature, the endangered status of several races and populations, and continued loss of habitat and threats to present habitat, warrant an examination of the conservation status of the North American taxa in this group. In 1977, a committee of the International Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies summarized available information on management and biology of American Coots (Fulica americana), rails, and gallinules in North America (Holliman 1977). That summary was intended to provide relatively complete information on conservation of these species, and also to provide guidance for research within the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's (FWS) Accelerated Research Program for Webless Migratory Shore and Upland Game Birds (ARP). Subsequently, a number of rallid studies were funded under this program. The program was eliminated in 1982, following substantial research activities on North American rallids. Since the demise of the ARP, additional research on rallids in North America has focused on an area the International Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies report failed to cover in detail--that of endangered rallids in the U.S. and their possessions. Most of these studies have been of threatened and endangered

  20. Incorporating geodiversity into conservation decisions.

    PubMed

    Comer, Patrick J; Pressey, Robert L; Hunter, Malcolm L; Schloss, Carrie A; Buttrick, Steven C; Heller, Nicole E; Tirpak, John M; Faith, Daniel P; Cross, Molly S; Shaffer, Mark L

    2015-06-01

    In a rapidly changing climate, conservation practitioners could better use geodiversity in a broad range of conservation decisions. We explored selected avenues through which this integration might improve decision making and organized them within the adaptive management cycle of assessment, planning, implementation, and monitoring. Geodiversity is seldom referenced in predominant environmental law and policy. With most natural resource agencies mandated to conserve certain categories of species, agency personnel are challenged to find ways to practically implement new directives aimed at coping with climate change while retaining their species-centered mandate. Ecoregions and ecological classifications provide clear mechanisms to consider geodiversity in plans or decisions, the inclusion of which will help foster the resilience of conservation to climate change. Methods for biodiversity assessment, such as gap analysis, climate change vulnerability analysis, and ecological process modeling, can readily accommodate inclusion of a geophysical component. We adapted others' approaches for characterizing landscapes along a continuum of climate change vulnerability for the biota they support from resistant, to resilient, to susceptible, and to sensitive and then summarized options for integrating geodiversity into planning in each landscape type. In landscapes that are relatively resistant to climate change, options exist to fully represent geodiversity while ensuring that dynamic ecological processes can change over time. In more susceptible landscapes, strategies aiming to maintain or restore ecosystem resilience and connectivity are paramount. Implementing actions on the ground requires understanding of geophysical constraints on species and an increasingly nimble approach to establishing management and restoration goals. Because decisions that are implemented today will be revisited and amended into the future, increasingly sophisticated forms of monitoring and