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Sample records for conservation policy avaliacao

  1. Value basis for conservation policy

    SciTech Connect

    Leiss, W.

    1981-01-01

    This paper is a case study in attempting to apply a particular value (caring) to the domain of social policy, specifically resource conservation policy. The argument is that our consumer society erodes the social basis for the development by individuals of a sense of well-being and personal identity, and that a conservation ethic based on the concept of caring could provide a foundation in practical morality and public policy for a viable sense of well-being. Conservation, then, goes beyond eliminating wasteful consumption to encompass a public commitment that can further economic and social goals. 11 references.

  2. Preferred conservation policies of shark researchers.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, David S; Hammerschlag, Neil

    2016-08-01

    There is increasing concern about the conservation status of sharks. However, the presence of numerous different (and potentially mutually exclusive) policies complicates management implementation and public understanding of the process. We distributed an online survey to members of the largest professional shark and ray research societies to assess member knowledge of and attitudes toward different conservation policies. Questions covered society member opinions on conservation and management policies, personal histories of involvement in advocacy and management, and perceptions of the approach of conservation nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to shark conservation. One hundred and two surveys were completed (overall response rate 21%). Respondents considered themselves knowledgeable about and actively involved in conservation and management policy; a majority believed scientists have a responsibility to advocate for conservation (75%), and majorities have sent formal public comments to policymakers (54%) and included policy suggestions in their papers (53%). They believe sustainable shark fisheries are possible, are currently happening today (in a few places), and should be the goal instead of banning fisheries. Respondents were generally less supportive of newer limit-based (i.e., policies that ban exploitation entirely without a species-specific focus) conservation policy tools, such as shark sanctuaries and bans on the sale of shark fins, than of target-based fisheries management tools (i.e., policies that allow for sustainable harvest of species whose populations can withstand it), such as fishing quotas. Respondents were generally supportive of environmental NGO efforts to conserve sharks but raised concerns about some NGOs that they perceived as using incorrect information and focusing on the wrong problems. Our results show there is an ongoing debate in shark conservation and management circles relative to environmental policy on target-based natural

  3. Macroeconomic policy, growth, and biodiversity conservation.

    PubMed

    Lawn, Philip

    2008-12-01

    To successfully achieve biodiversity conservation, the amount of ecosystem structure available for economic production must be determined by, and subject to, conservation needs. As such, the scale of economic systems must remain within the limits imposed by the need to preserve critical ecosystems and the regenerative and waste assimilative capacities of the ecosphere. These limits are determined by biophysical criteria, yet macroeconomics involves the use of economic instruments designed to meet economic criteria that have no capacity to achieve biophysically based targets. Macroeconomic policy cannot, therefore, directly solve the biodiversity erosion crisis. Nevertheless, good macroeconomic policy is still important given that bad macroeconomy policy is likely to reduce human well-being and increase the likelihood of social upheaval that could undermine conservation efforts. PMID:19076875

  4. The analytical foundations of conservation policy

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, R.J.

    1994-03-01

    The conservation paradigm is described here as: (1) reflecting the policy goal of energy efficiency, (2) the investment model that market barrier inhibit energy efficiency investments and (3) the emphasis of engineering estimates of market efficiency. In contrast, the economics paradigm emphasizes: (1) economic efficiency and equity, (2) market failures or market imperfections as impediments to achieving economic efficiency and (3) the behavior of markets to make efficient choices. Market barriers discourage investments in energy efficiency, but this is irrelevant for policy purposes where energy efficiency differs from economic efficiency. Where market barriers discourage economically efficient investments, they are of dubious significance for policy purposes unless they are market failures. The market barriers alleged in the conservation literature typically do not coincide with market failures. In a competitive and efficient market economy, investments judged efficient by engineering and present value calculations will not instantaneously achieve a market share of 100 percent. Barriers that delay diffusion are not necessarily appropriate for Government policy.

  5. 41 CFR 101-25.112 - Energy conservation policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Energy conservation...-General Policies § 101-25.112 Energy conservation policy. (a) Agency officials responsible for procurement..., which has been established pursuant to Public Law 94-163, Energy Policy and Conservation Act. (b)...

  6. 41 CFR 101-25.112 - Energy conservation policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Energy conservation...-General Policies § 101-25.112 Energy conservation policy. (a) Agency officials responsible for procurement..., which has been established pursuant to Public Law 94-163, Energy Policy and Conservation Act. (b)...

  7. 41 CFR 101-25.112 - Energy conservation policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Energy conservation...-General Policies § 101-25.112 Energy conservation policy. (a) Agency officials responsible for procurement..., which has been established pursuant to Public Law 94-163, Energy Policy and Conservation Act. (b)...

  8. 41 CFR 101-25.112 - Energy conservation policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Energy conservation...-General Policies § 101-25.112 Energy conservation policy. (a) Agency officials responsible for procurement..., which has been established pursuant to Public Law 94-163, Energy Policy and Conservation Act. (b)...

  9. 41 CFR 101-25.112 - Energy conservation policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Energy conservation...-General Policies § 101-25.112 Energy conservation policy. (a) Agency officials responsible for procurement..., which has been established pursuant to Public Law 94-163, Energy Policy and Conservation Act. (b)...

  10. Conservation focus on Europe: major conservation policy issues that need to be informed by conservation science.

    PubMed

    Pullin, Andrew S; Báldi, András; Can, Ozgun Emre; Dieterich, Martin; Kati, Vassiliki; Livoreil, Barbara; Lövei, Gabor; Mihók, Barbara; Nevin, Owen; Selva, Nuria; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel

    2009-08-01

    Europe is one of the world's most densely populated continents and has a long history of human-dominated land- and seascapes. Europe is also at the forefront of developing and implementing multinational conservation efforts. In this contribution, we describe some top policy issues in Europe that need to be informed by high-quality conservation science. These include evaluation of the effectiveness of the Natura 2000 network of protected sites, implications of rapid economic and subsequent land-use change in Central and Eastern Europe, conservation of marine biodiversity and sustainability of fisheries, the effect of climate change on movement of species in highly fragmented landscapes, and attempts to assess the economic value of ecosystem services and biodiversity. Broad policy issues such as those identified are not easily amenable to scientific experiment. A key challenge at the science-policy interface is to identify the research questions underlying these problem areas so that conservation science can provide evidence to underpin future policy development. PMID:19627313

  11. Conservation policy and the measurement of forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sexton, Joseph O.; Noojipady, Praveen; Song, Xiao-Peng; Feng, Min; Song, Dan-Xia; Kim, Do-Hyung; Anand, Anupam; Huang, Chengquan; Channan, Saurabh; Pimm, Stuart L.; Townshend, John R.

    2016-02-01

    Deforestation is a major driver of climate change and the major driver of biodiversity loss. Yet the essential baseline for monitoring forest cover--the global area of forests--remains uncertain despite rapid technological advances and international consensus on conserving target extents of ecosystems. Previous satellite-based estimates of global forest area range from 32.1 × 106 km2 to 41.4 × 106 km2. Here, we show that the major reason underlying this discrepancy is ambiguity in the term `forest’. Each of the >800 official definitions that are capable of satellite measurement relies on a criterion of percentage tree cover. This criterion may range from >10% to >30% cover under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Applying the range to the first global, high-resolution map of percentage tree cover reveals a discrepancy of 19.3 × 106 km2, some 13% of Earth’s land area. The discrepancy within the tropics alone involves a difference of 45.2 Gt C of biomass, valued at US$1 trillion. To more effectively link science and policy to ecosystems, we must now refine forest monitoring, reporting and verification to focus on ecological measurements that are more directly relevant to ecosystem function, to biomass and carbon, and to climate and biodiversity.

  12. Energy Conservation Guidebook : to be Used in Conjunction with the Energy Conservation Policies October 1993.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-11-01

    This guidebook is an instrument for implementing BPA`s Energy Conservation Policies established through the concensus of the four Area Office Managers and the Assistant Administrator for the Office of Energy Resources. As technical support for, and elaboration of, the Energy Conservation Policies, the Guidebook follows the format of the Policies themselves. The Guidebook tackles each section of the Policies in order, again assigning roles and responsibilities where appropriate, enlarging on policy issues and, where appropriate, outlining data considerations. The sections in order are: conservation load reduction, cost-effectiveness limits, BA management targets, consumer contributions, utility contribution, program verification, and program evaluation.

  13. Conservation science and forest service policy for roadless areas.

    PubMed

    Turner, James Morton

    2006-06-01

    Questions persist regarding whether the science of conservation biology can successfully affect environmental decision making. One of the most prominent fields of intersection between conservation science and environmental policy is public-lands debates in the United States. I reviewed the role of conservation science in the roadless-area policies of the U.S. Forest Service. Since 1971, the Forest Service has systematically evaluated roadless areas on national forests three times, most recently during the Clinton administration's Roadless Area Conservation Review (1998-2000) (U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service 2000b). Drawing on the agency's environmental impact statements and supporting documents and the internal records of conservation organizations, I examined the changing goals, methodology, and outcome of roadless-area advocacy and policy Since the 1970s, conservation science has successfully informed public and administrative concern for roadless-area protection. Conservation science has transformed public discourse regarding roadless areas and has changed the scope and rationale of national conservation organizations' goals for roadless-area policy from protecting some to protecting all remaining national forest roadless areas. The Forest Service has increasingly drawn on the lessons of conservation biology to justify its methodology and its administrative recommendations to protect roadless areas. The 2000 Roadless Area Conservation Review resulted in a recommendation to protect all remaining national forest roadless areas, up from 22% of roadless areas in the first roadless review. Despite the scientific merits of recent roadless-area advocacy and policy, however such initiatives have faced political difficulties. The emphasis on large-scale, top-down, national approaches to conservation policy has rendered such policies politically problematic. PMID:16909564

  14. Economic analysis of water conservation policies in the Texas Panhandle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to declining water availability from the Ogallala Aquifer, management policy alternatives for extending the life of the aquifer to sustain rural economies in the Texas Panhandle are evaluated. The study concludes that water conservation policies for the region significantly impact crop mix, reso...

  15. International Conservation Policy Delivers Benefits for Birds in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donald, Paul F.; Sanderson, Fiona J.; Burfield, Ian J.; Bierman, Stijn M.; Gregory, Richard D.; Waliczky, Zoltan

    2007-08-01

    Conservation of the planet's biodiversity will depend on international policy intervention, yet evidence-based assessment of the success of such intervention is lacking. Poor understanding of the effectiveness of international policy instruments exposes them to criticism or abandonment and reduces opportunities to improve them. Comparative analyses of population trends provide strong evidence for a positive impact of one such instrument, the European Union's Birds Directive, and we identify positive associations between the rate of provision of certain conservation measures through the directive and the response of bird populations. The results suggest that supranational conservation policy can bring measurable conservation benefits, although future assessments will require the setting of quantitative objectives and an increase in the availability of data from monitoring schemes.

  16. The case for policy-relevant conservation science.

    PubMed

    Rose, David C

    2015-06-01

    Drawing on the "evidence-based" (Sutherland et al. 2013) versus "evidence-informed" debate (Adams & Sandbrook 2013), which has become prominent in conservation science, I argue that science can be influential if it holds a dual reference (Lentsch & Weingart 2011) that contributes to the needs of policy makers whilst maintaining technical rigor. In line with such a strategy, conservation scientists are increasingly recognizing the usefulness of constructing narratives through which to enhance the influence of their evidence (Leslie et al. 2013; Lawton & Rudd 2014). Yet telling stories alone is rarely enough to influence policy; instead, these narratives must be policy relevant. To ensure that evidence is persuasive alongside other factors in a complex policy-making process, conservation scientists could follow 2 steps: reframe within salient political contexts and engage more productively in boundary work, which is defined as the ways in which scientists "construct, negotiate, and defend the boundary between science and policy" (Owens et al. 2006:640). These will both improve the chances of evidence-informed conservation policy. PMID:25545991

  17. Effects of conservation policy on China's forest recovery.

    PubMed

    Viña, Andrés; McConnell, William J; Yang, Hongbo; Xu, Zhenci; Liu, Jianguo

    2016-03-01

    Forest loss is one of the most pervasive land surface transformations on Earth, with drastic effects on global climate, ecosystems, and human well-being. As part of biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation efforts, many countries, including China, have been implementing large-scale policies to conserve and restore forests. However, little is known about the effectiveness of these policies, and information on China's forest dynamics at the national level has mainly relied on official statistics. In response to international calls for improved reliability and transparency of information on biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation efforts, it is crucial to independently verify government statistics. Furthermore, if forest recovery is verified, it is essential to assess the degree to which this recovery is attributable to policy, within the context of other relevant factors. We assess the dynamics of forest cover in China between 2000 and 2010 and evaluate the effectiveness of one of the largest forest conservation programs in the world-the Natural Forest Conservation Program (NFCP). Results indicate that forest cover has significantly increased in around 1.6% of China's territory and that the areas exhibiting forest gain experienced a combined increase in net primary productivity (ca. 0.9 Tg of carbon). Among the variables evaluated at county level, the NFCP exhibited a significantly positive relation with forest gain, whereas reduction in rural labor showed a negative relationship with both forest loss and gain. Findings such as these have global implications for forest conservation and climate change mitigation efforts. PMID:27034980

  18. Skating on Thin Ice: Evolution of Conservation in Energy Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, Jack

    2009-05-01

    Why are we physicists so often drawn into the nexus of energy policy and governance? There are several explanations. First, we are quite accustomed to this phenomenon of ``cause and effect,'' so we instinctively examine those two ends as well as the connections between them (i.e., what happens between a lump of coal and a light bulb). That way of thinking makes energy production and consumption intiminately connected and ``conservation'' naturally becomes a technological strategy rather than an appendage. Strangely, however, ``conservation'' in our society (called ``The Cowboy Economy'' by economist Kenneth Boulding) has been widely interpreted as competitive with supply and ridiculed as only a minor option, entailing denial of an amenity. After nearly a half-century of dialogue, innovation, and frustration, the rationality of what I call the ``physics'' perspective seems to have come of age. The evolution of relevant science and technology and public policy has advanced markedly, reflected and sustained at the national level by a succession of organizations. The Congressional Office of Technology Assessment, the Federal Office of Energy Conservation, the Federal Energy Administration, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the Office of Science and Technology Policy. Not surprisingly, physicists continue to play key roles in the inculcation of science and analysis into the policy and governance. This requires, as implied by C.P. Snow, a bridging and strengthening of the thin ice between science and society. We still have a long road to travel.

  19. Effects of conservation policy on China’s forest recovery

    PubMed Central

    Viña, Andrés; McConnell, William J.; Yang, Hongbo; Xu, Zhenci; Liu, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    Forest loss is one of the most pervasive land surface transformations on Earth, with drastic effects on global climate, ecosystems, and human well-being. As part of biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation efforts, many countries, including China, have been implementing large-scale policies to conserve and restore forests. However, little is known about the effectiveness of these policies, and information on China’s forest dynamics at the national level has mainly relied on official statistics. In response to international calls for improved reliability and transparency of information on biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation efforts, it is crucial to independently verify government statistics. Furthermore, if forest recovery is verified, it is essential to assess the degree to which this recovery is attributable to policy, within the context of other relevant factors. We assess the dynamics of forest cover in China between 2000 and 2010 and evaluate the effectiveness of one of the largest forest conservation programs in the world—the Natural Forest Conservation Program (NFCP). Results indicate that forest cover has significantly increased in around 1.6% of China’s territory and that the areas exhibiting forest gain experienced a combined increase in net primary productivity (ca. 0.9 Tg of carbon). Among the variables evaluated at county level, the NFCP exhibited a significantly positive relation with forest gain, whereas reduction in rural labor showed a negative relationship with both forest loss and gain. Findings such as these have global implications for forest conservation and climate change mitigation efforts. PMID:27034980

  20. Phylodiversity to inform conservation policy: An Australian example.

    PubMed

    Laity, Tania; Laffan, Shawn W; González-Orozco, Carlos E; Faith, Daniel P; Rosauer, Dan F; Byrne, Margaret; Miller, Joseph T; Crayn, Darren; Costion, Craig; Moritz, Craig C; Newport, Karl

    2015-11-15

    Phylodiversity measures summarise the phylogenetic diversity patterns of groups of organisms. By using branches of the tree of life, rather than its tips (e.g., species), phylodiversity measures provide important additional information about biodiversity that can improve conservation policy and outcomes. As a biodiverse nation with a strong legislative and policy framework, Australia provides an opportunity to use phylogenetic information to inform conservation decision-making. We explored the application of phylodiversity measures across Australia with a focus on two highly biodiverse regions, the south west of Western Australia (SWWA) and the South East Queensland bioregion (SEQ). We analysed seven diverse groups of organisms spanning five separate phyla on the evolutionary tree of life, the plant genera Acacia and Daviesia, mammals, hylid frogs, myobatrachid frogs, passerine birds, and camaenid land snails. We measured species richness, weighted species endemism (WE) and two phylodiversity measures, phylogenetic diversity (PD) and phylogenetic endemism (PE), as well as their respective complementarity scores (a measure of gains and losses) at 20 km resolution. Higher PD was identified within SEQ for all fauna groups, whereas more PD was found in SWWA for both plant groups. PD and PD complementarity were strongly correlated with species richness and species complementarity for most groups but less so for plants. PD and PE were found to complement traditional species-based measures for all groups studied: PD and PE follow similar spatial patterns to richness and WE, but highlighted different areas that would not be identified by conventional species-based biodiversity analyses alone. The application of phylodiversity measures, particularly the novel weighted complementary measures considered here, in conservation can enhance protection of the evolutionary history that contributes to present day biodiversity values of areas. Phylogenetic measures in conservation

  1. Suggestions for Forest Conservation Policy under Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choe, H.; Thorne, J. H.; Lee, D. K.; Seo, C.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change and the destruction of natural habitats by land-use change are two main factors in decreasing terrestrial biodiversity. Studying land-use and climate change and their impact under different scenarios can help suggest policy directions for future events. This study explores the spatial results of different land use and climate models on the extent of species rich areas in South Korea. We built land use models of forest conversion and created four 2050 scenarios: (1) a loss trend following current levels, resulting in 15.5% lost; (2) similar loss, but with forest conservation in areas with suitable future climates; (3) a reduction of forest loss by 50%; and (4) a combination of preservation of forest climate refugia and overall reduction of loss by 50%. Forest climate refugia were identified through the use of species distribution models run on 1,031 forest plant species to project current and 2050 distributions. We calculated change in species richness under four climate projections, permitting an assessment of forest refugia zones. We then crossed the four land use models with the climate-driven change in species richness. Forest areas predominantly convert to agricultural areas, while climate-suitable extents for forest plants decline and move northward, especially to higher elevations. Scenario 2, that has the higher level of deforestation but protects future species rich areas, conserves nearly as much future biodiversity as scenario 3, which reduced deforestation rates by 50%. This points to the importance of including biogeographic climate dynamics in forest policy. Scenario 4 was the most effective at conserving forest biodiversity. We suggest conserving forest areas with suitable climates for biodiversity conservation and the establishment of monoculture plantations targeted to areas where species richness will decline based on our results.

  2. Evaluating Interactions of Forest Conservation Policies on Avoided Deforestation

    PubMed Central

    Robalino, Juan; Sandoval, Catalina; Barton, David N.; Chacon, Adriana; Pfaff, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the effects on deforestation that have resulted from policy interactions between parks and payments and between park buffers and payments in Costa Rica between 2000 and 2005. We show that the characteristics of the areas where protected and unprotected lands are located differ significantly. Additionally, we find that land characteristics of each of the policies and of the places where they interact also differ significantly. To adequately estimate the effects of the policies and their interactions, we use matching methods. Matching is implemented not only to define adequate control groups, as in previous research, but also to define those groups of locations under the influence of policies that are comparable to each other. We find that it is more effective to locate parks and payments away from each other, rather than in the same location or near each other. The high levels of enforcement inside both parks and lands with payments, and the presence of conservation spillovers that reduce deforestation near parks, significantly reduce the potential impact of combining these two policies. PMID:25909323

  3. Evaluating interactions of forest conservation policies on avoided deforestation.

    PubMed

    Robalino, Juan; Sandoval, Catalina; Barton, David N; Chacon, Adriana; Pfaff, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the effects on deforestation that have resulted from policy interactions between parks and payments and between park buffers and payments in Costa Rica between 2000 and 2005. We show that the characteristics of the areas where protected and unprotected lands are located differ significantly. Additionally, we find that land characteristics of each of the policies and of the places where they interact also differ significantly. To adequately estimate the effects of the policies and their interactions, we use matching methods. Matching is implemented not only to define adequate control groups, as in previous research, but also to define those groups of locations under the influence of policies that are comparable to each other. We find that it is more effective to locate parks and payments away from each other, rather than in the same location or near each other. The high levels of enforcement inside both parks and lands with payments, and the presence of conservation spillovers that reduce deforestation near parks, significantly reduce the potential impact of combining these two policies. PMID:25909323

  4. Shrinking tropical forests, human agents of change, and conservation policy.

    PubMed

    Rudel, Thomas K

    2006-12-01

    Human agents of landscape transformation in the tropics affect forests differently as the forests decline in size. Five agents of change--road builders, corporate concession holders, community forest managers, park advocates, and urban consumers--have different effects on large forests in remote tropical regions than they do on remnant forests in settled agricultural regions. Because forests vary so much in size across tropical regions, these differences in the effects of agents on forests have important implications for regional conservation efforts. To make these implications explicit, I compared the effects of the five agents in regions with large forests with their effects in regions with small forests. The comparisons indicated that, as forests declined in size, new roads no longer destroyed forests, corporate loggers left the forests, community forest managers became more effective, parks became less feasible as a means of conservation, and urban consumers initiated tree planting. My results suggest that awareness about the changing effects of humans on landscapes with shrinking forests can serve as a useful tool in formulating regionally appropriate policies for conserving tropical forests. PMID:17181795

  5. Think Tanks and the Media: How the Conservative Movement Gained Entry into the Education Policy Arena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    This research examines how the conservative movement has used both conservative think tanks and the media to gain entry into the field of education policy. The study examines how the conservative movement has attempted to use think tanks as legitimating organizations to enter the education policy arena by (a) measuring the historical growth in the…

  6. The case for policy-relevant conservation science

    PubMed Central

    Rose, David C

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the “evidence-based” (Sutherland et al. 2013) versus “evidence-informed” debate (Adams & Sandbrook 2013), which has become prominent in conservation science, I argue that science can be influential if it holds a dual reference (Lentsch & Weingart 2011) that contributes to the needs of policy makers whilst maintaining technical rigor. In line with such a strategy, conservation scientists are increasingly recognizing the usefulness of constructing narratives through which to enhance the influence of their evidence (Leslie et al. 2013; Lawton & Rudd 2014). Yet telling stories alone is rarely enough to influence policy; instead, these narratives must be policy relevant. To ensure that evidence is persuasive alongside other factors in a complex policy-making process, conservation scientists could follow 2 steps: reframe within salient political contexts and engage more productively in boundary work, which is defined as the ways in which scientists “construct, negotiate, and defend the boundary between science and policy” (Owens et al. 2006:640). These will both improve the chances of evidence-informed conservation policy. El Caso para la Ciencia de la Conservación con Relevancia Política Resumen A partir del debate “con base en evidencia” (Sutherland et al. 2013) versus “informado con evidencia” (Adams & Sandbrook 2013), debate que se ha vuelto prominente en la ciencia de la conservación, argumento que la ciencia puede ser influyente si mantiene una referencia dual (Lentsch & Weingart 2011) que contribuya a las necesidades de quienes hacen la política a la vez que mantiene un rigor técnico. En línea con dicha estrategia, los científicos de la conservación cada vez reconocen más la utilidad de construir narrativas con las cuales pueden mejorar la influencia de sus evidencias (Leslie et al. 2013; Lawton & Rudd 2014). Sin embargo, sólo contar historias rara vez es suficiente para influir sobre la política; en su lugar, estas

  7. Modelling the effects of sanitary policies on European vulture conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margalida, Antoni; Colomer, M.A. Àngels

    2012-10-01

    Biodiversity losses are increasing as a consequence of negative anthropogenic effects on ecosystem dynamics. However, the magnitude and complexity of these effects may still be greatly underestimated. Most Old World vultures have experienced rapid population declines in recent years. In Europe, their immediate conservation depends on changes in health regulations affecting the availability of food provided by domestic carcasses. Information is lacking on the effects of a hypothetical food shortage on the population dynamics of vultures, and is necessary to assess the potential impacts of policy decisions on future changes in biodiversity and ecosystem services. A novel computational model (P-systems) was used to model these effects, forecasting a rapid decline in the Eurasian griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus). By contrast, vulture species with greater plasticity in their dietary range appeared less sensitive to declining food availability. This study extends our understanding of vulture ecosystem services, which have social and economic implications.

  8. Modelling the effects of sanitary policies on European vulture conservation

    PubMed Central

    Margalida, Antoni; Colomer, Ma Àngels

    2012-01-01

    Biodiversity losses are increasing as a consequence of negative anthropogenic effects on ecosystem dynamics. However, the magnitude and complexity of these effects may still be greatly underestimated. Most Old World vultures have experienced rapid population declines in recent years. In Europe, their immediate conservation depends on changes in health regulations affecting the availability of food provided by domestic carcasses. Information is lacking on the effects of a hypothetical food shortage on the population dynamics of vultures, and is necessary to assess the potential impacts of policy decisions on future changes in biodiversity and ecosystem services. A novel computational model (P-systems) was used to model these effects, forecasting a rapid decline in the Eurasian griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus). By contrast, vulture species with greater plasticity in their dietary range appeared less sensitive to declining food availability. This study extends our understanding of vulture ecosystem services, which have social and economic implications. PMID:23082243

  9. Conservative litigation against sexual and reproductive health policies in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Peñas Defago, María Angélica; Morán Faúndes, José Manuel

    2014-11-01

    In Argentina, campaigns for the recognition of sexual and reproductive rights have sparked opposition through litigation in which the dynamics of legal action have come from self-proclaimed "pro-life" NGOs, particularly since 1998, when the conservative NGO Portal de Belén successfully achieved the banning of emergency contraception through the courts. The activities of these groups, acting as a "civil arm" of religion, are focused primarily on obstructing access to legally permissible abortions and bringing about the withdrawal of a number of recognized public policies on sexual and reproductive health, particularly the 2002 National Programme for Sexual Health and Responsible Procreation. This paper analyzes the litigation strategies of these conservative NGOs and how their use of the courts in Argentina has changed over the years. It gives examples of efforts in local courts to block individual young women from accessing legal abortion following rape, despite a ruling by the National Supreme Court of Justice in 2012 that no judicial permission is required. In spite of major advances, the renewed influence of the Catholic hierarchy in the Argentine political scene with the accession of the new Pope poses challenges to the work by feminists and women's movements to extend and consolidate sexual and reproductive rights. PMID:25555765

  10. The Bureau of Reclamation's new mandate for irrigation water conservation: Purposes and policy alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, M.R. )

    1991-02-01

    Although the Bureau of Reclamation adopted a new mission as a water management agency, social purposes of the mission and methods of accomplishing the purposes remain undefined. A broad consensus agrees that a central feature of the agency's management program should be irrigation water conservation. This paper describes three purposes of irrigation water conservation: achieving economic efficiency of water allocation, improving environmental quality of western river systems, and satisfying outstanding Native American water claims. Five policy instruments are described as alternative methods of inducing conservation: quantity-based regulation, price-based regulation, transferable water use permits, conservation subsidies, and decentralization of ownership of Reclamation facilities. Two findings are: (1) price-based regulation may not produce water conservation and (2) conservation policy instruments should be chosen with reference to their ability to achieve the purposes of federal water conservation policy. An example illustrates quantitative effects on farm income of the alternative instruments.

  11. The Conservative Counter-Revolution in Economic Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, James

    1983-01-01

    Reaganomics is a counter-revolution to the synthesis of Keynesian and neo-classical doctrine that became orthodoxy in the 1960s. The program is replacing macroeconomic stabilization and economic inequality policies. The new policies cannot cure inflation and unemployment or revive productivity, investment, hard work, and thrift. (Author/AM)

  12. National Energy Conservation Policy Act. Public Law 95-619, 95th Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    This publication is the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (P.L. 95-619). The purposes of this act are to provide for the regulation of interstate commerce, to reduce the growth in demand for energy in the United States, and to conserve nonrenewable energy resources produced in this nation and elsewhere, without inhibiting beneficial economic…

  13. Energy conservation: Policies, programs, and general studies. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hundemann, A. S.

    1980-08-01

    National policies, programs, and general studies of ways to conserve energy are presented. Topic areas cover such subjects as electric load management, effects of price and taxation on energy conservation, public attitudes and behavior toward energy saving, energy savings through reduction in hot water consumption, and telecommunications substitutability for travel.

  14. Energy conservation: Policies, programs, and general studies. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hundemann, A. S.

    1980-08-01

    National policies, programs, and general studies or ways to conserve energy are presented. Topic areas cover such subjects as electric load management, effects of price and taxation on energy conservation, public attitudes and behavior toward energy saving, energy savings through reduction in hot water consumption, and telecommunications substitutability for travel.

  15. How the Conservative Restoration is Justified: Leadership and Subordination in Educational Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apple, Michael W.

    1998-01-01

    Neo-liberal and neo-conservative groups have become allies committed to redefining our ideas about democracy, equality, and the common good. This article examines how moral and biological arguments are being used to justify conservative policies in education and the larger society. Alternative progressive models are advocated. (26 references) (MLH)

  16. Conserving energy in new buildings: analysis of nonregulatory policies

    SciTech Connect

    Scheer, R.M.; Nieves, L.A.; Mazzucchi, R.P.

    1981-05-01

    The costs and effectiveness of non-regulatory options relative to those of a regulatory approach are analyzed. Nonregulatory program alternatives identified are: information and education programs, tax incentives and disincentives, and mortage and finance programs. Chapter 2 briefly reviews survey data to assess present public awareness of energy issues and energy-efficient building design. Homebuyer and homebuilder surveys are reviewed and conservation motivations are discussed. Chapter 3 examines the provision of technical and economic information to various factors affecting building design decisions. This approach assumes that the economic incentives and technical means to achieve energy conservation goals already exist but that critical information is lacking. Chapter 4 examines how adjustments to the tax structure could enhance economic incentives and counter economic disincentives for energy conservation. Qualifying buildings for tax benefits would almost certainly require certification of design energy consumption. The effectiveness of tax incentives would depend in part on dissemination of public information regarding the incentives. Chapter 5 examines subsidies, such as subsidized mortgages and loan guarantees, which lower the cost of money or other costs but do not change the market structure facing the consumer. Certification that buildings qualify for such treatment would probably be required. Chapter 6 presents recommendations based on the study's findings. (MCW)

  17. Integrating regional conservation priorities for multiple objectives into national policy

    PubMed Central

    Beger, Maria; McGowan, Jennifer; Treml, Eric A.; Green, Alison L.; White, Alan T.; Wolff, Nicholas H.; Klein, Carissa J.; Mumby, Peter J.; Possingham, Hugh P.

    2015-01-01

    Multinational conservation initiatives that prioritize investment across a region invariably navigate trade-offs among multiple objectives. It seems logical to focus where several objectives can be achieved efficiently, but such multi-objective hotspots may be ecologically inappropriate, or politically inequitable. Here we devise a framework to facilitate a regionally cohesive set of marine-protected areas driven by national preferences and supported by quantitative conservation prioritization analyses, and illustrate it using the Coral Triangle Initiative. We identify areas important for achieving six objectives to address ecosystem representation, threatened fauna, connectivity and climate change. We expose trade-offs between areas that contribute substantially to several objectives and those meeting one or two objectives extremely well. Hence there are two strategies to guide countries choosing to implement regional goals nationally: multi-objective hotspots and complementary sets of single-objective priorities. This novel framework is applicable to any multilateral or global initiative seeking to apply quantitative information in decision making. PMID:26364769

  18. Integrating regional conservation priorities for multiple objectives into national policy.

    PubMed

    Beger, Maria; McGowan, Jennifer; Treml, Eric A; Green, Alison L; White, Alan T; Wolff, Nicholas H; Klein, Carissa J; Mumby, Peter J; Possingham, Hugh P

    2015-01-01

    Multinational conservation initiatives that prioritize investment across a region invariably navigate trade-offs among multiple objectives. It seems logical to focus where several objectives can be achieved efficiently, but such multi-objective hotspots may be ecologically inappropriate, or politically inequitable. Here we devise a framework to facilitate a regionally cohesive set of marine-protected areas driven by national preferences and supported by quantitative conservation prioritization analyses, and illustrate it using the Coral Triangle Initiative. We identify areas important for achieving six objectives to address ecosystem representation, threatened fauna, connectivity and climate change. We expose trade-offs between areas that contribute substantially to several objectives and those meeting one or two objectives extremely well. Hence there are two strategies to guide countries choosing to implement regional goals nationally: multi-objective hotspots and complementary sets of single-objective priorities. This novel framework is applicable to any multilateral or global initiative seeking to apply quantitative information in decision making. PMID:26364769

  19. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Procedures, Interpretations and Policies for Consideration of New or Revised Energy Conservation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Procedures, Interpretations and Policies for Consideration of New or Revised Energy Conservation Standards for Consumer Products A Appendix A to Subpart C of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Energy and Water Conservation Standards...

  20. Effects of Conservation Policies on Forest Cover Change in Giant Panda Habitat Regions, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu; Viña, Andrés; Yang, Wu; Chen, Xiaodong; Zhang, Jindong; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Liang, Zai; Liu, Jianguo

    2014-01-01

    After long periods of deforestation, forest transition has occurred globally, but the causes of forest transition in different countries are highly variable. Conservation policies may play important roles in facilitating forest transition around the world, including China. To restore forests and protect the remaining natural forests, the Chinese government initiated two nationwide conservation policies in the late 1990s -- the Natural Forest Conservation Program (NFCP) and the Grain-To-Green Program (GTGP). While some studies have discussed the environmental and socioeconomic effects of each of these policies independently and others have attributed forest recovery to both policies without rigorous and quantitative analysis, it is necessary to rigorously quantify the outcomes of these two conservation policies simultaneously because the two policies have been implemented at the same time. To fill the knowledge gap, this study quantitatively evaluated the effects of the two conservation policies on forest cover change between 2001 and 2008 in 108 townships located in two important giant panda habitat regions -- the Qinling Mountains region in Shaanxi Province and the Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuary in Sichuan Province. Forest cover change was evaluated using a land-cover product (MCD12Q1) derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). This product proved to be highly accurate in the study region (overall accuracy was ca. 87%, using 425 ground truth points collected in the field), thus suitable for the forest change analysis performed. Results showed that within the timeframe evaluated, most townships in both regions exhibited either increases or no changes in forest cover. After accounting for a variety of socioeconomic and biophysical attributes, an Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression model suggests that the two policies had statistically significant positive effects on forest cover change after seven years of implementation, while

  1. The alignment of agricultural and nature conservation policies in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Ian; Hauck, Jennifer; Bonn, Aletta

    2015-08-01

    Europe is a region of relatively high population density and productive agriculture subject to substantial government intervention under the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Many habitats and species of high conservation interest have been created by the maintenance of agricultural practices over long periods. These practices are often no longer profitable, and nature conservation initiatives require government support to cover the cost for them to be continued. The CAP has been reformed both to reduce production of agricultural commodities at costs in excess of world prices and to establish incentives for landholders to adopt voluntary conservation measures. A separate nature conservation policy has established an extensive series of protected sites (Natura 2000) that has, as yet, failed to halt the loss of biodiversity. Additional broader scale approaches have been advocated for conservation in the wider landscape matrix, including the alignment of agricultural and nature conservation policies, which remains a challenge. Possibilities for alignment include further shifting of funds from general support for farmers toward targeted payments for biodiversity goals at larger scales and adoption of an ecosystem approach. The European response to the competing demands for land resources may offer lessons globally as demands on rural land increase. PMID:25998969

  2. Policy challenges and approaches for the conservation of mangrove forests in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Friess, Daniel A; Thompson, Benjamin S; Brown, Ben; Amir, A Aldrie; Cameron, Clint; Koldewey, Heather J; Sasmito, Sigit D; Sidik, Frida

    2016-10-01

    Many drivers of mangrove forest loss operate over large scales and are most effectively addressed by policy interventions. However, conflicting or unclear policy objectives exist at multiple tiers of government, resulting in contradictory management decisions. To address this, we considered four approaches that are being used increasingly or could be deployed in Southeast Asia to ensure sustainable livelihoods and biodiversity conservation. First, a stronger incorporation of mangroves into marine protected areas (that currently focus largely on reefs and fisheries) could resolve some policy conflicts and ensure that mangroves do not fall through a policy gap. Second, examples of community and government comanagement exist, but achieving comanagement at scale will be important in reconciling stakeholders and addressing conflicting policy objectives. Third, private-sector initiatives could protect mangroves through existing and novel mechanisms in degraded areas and areas under future threat. Finally, payments for ecosystem services (PES) hold great promise for mangrove conservation, with carbon PES schemes (known as blue carbon) attracting attention. Although barriers remain to the implementation of PES, the potential to implement them at multiple scales exists. Closing the gap between mangrove conservation policies and action is crucial to the improved protection and management of this imperiled coastal ecosystem and to the livelihoods that depend on them. PMID:27341487

  3. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Policy Statement for Electric Motors Covered Under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy Statement for Electric Motors Covered Under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 431 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Electric Motors Pt. 431, Subpt. B, App. A Appendix A...

  4. Energy Conservation: Policies, Programs, and General Studies. 1979-July, 1980 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hundemann, Audrey S.

    The 135 abstracts presented pertain to national policies, programs, and general strategies for conserving energy. In addition to the abstract, each citation lists the title, author, sponsoring agency, subject categories, number of pages, date, descriptors, identifiers, and ordering information for each document. Topics covered in this compilation…

  5. Liberals, Conservatives and Romantic Nationalists in Interwar Education Policy in Greece: "The High Mountains" Episode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanasiades, Harris

    2015-01-01

    Greek historiography of interwar education policy unproblematically accepts the assumption that the bone of contention between the "Liberal demoticists" and the "Conservative purists" was the language issue; particularly whether "demotic" or "katharevousa" should be the language of instruction in schooling.…

  6. SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION POLICY APPROACHES IN NORTH AMERICA, EUROPE, AND AUSTRALIA. (R825761)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Soil and water conservation policies and programs in developed countries in North America, Europe, and Australia are examined in the context of their effectiveness for addressing environmental degradation associated with technology-intensive agricultural syste...

  7. Understanding Public Engagement in Water Conservation Behaviors and Knowledge of Water Policy: Promising Hints for Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Pei-wen; Lamm, Alexa J.

    2015-01-01

    Sustaining water resources is a primary issue facing Florida Extension. The study reported here identified how experience with water issues and familiarity with water policies affected individuals' engagement in water conservation behaviors. A public opinion survey was conducted online to capture Florida residents' responses. The findings…

  8. P.L. 94-163, "Energy Policy and Conservation Act" (EPCA) (1975)

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-13

    Energy Policy and Conservation Act. Bill Summary & Status 94th Congress. Issue orders prohibiting power plants and major fuel burning installations from using natural gas or petroleum products as fuel if they had been capable on June 22, 1974, of burning coal.

  9. Policies with Varying Costs and Benefits: A Land Conservation Classroom Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissanayake, Sahan T. M.; Jacobson, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    Some policies try to maximize net benefits by targeting different individuals to participate. This is difficult when costs and benefits of participation vary independently, such as in land conservation. The authors share a classroom game that explores cases in which minimizing costs may not maximize benefits and vice versa. The game is a…

  10. Efficiency and equity in land conservation: the effects of policy scale.

    PubMed

    Ay, Jean-Sauveur; Napoléone, Claude

    2013-11-15

    This paper studies the effects of policy scale for land conservation schemes based on global objectives but implemented at local levels. They are explored in the classical reserve site selection framework for policy efficiency, to which we add the common social objective of equity between spatial units. We first analyze the role of the biophysical attributes of land available for conservation. These natural endowments are then combined with different implementation scales to improve a particular land-based social function: natural habitats for biodiversity. An empirical illustration, based on data from the Provence region of France, is used to explore what we identify as a policy scale trade-off between administrative units. This shows the importance of land availability in predicting the distribution of the costs and benefits of conservation schemes. In terms of equity, we find an interior solution that minimizes an inequality metric (the Gini coefficient) along policy scales. Our approach should lead to more socially acceptable conservation objectives, between the usual two extreme cases of autarky and specialization. PMID:23939138

  11. Spatial overlap between environmental policy instruments and areas of high conservation value in forest.

    PubMed

    Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Søgaard, Gunnhild; Rusch, Graciela M; Barton, David N

    2014-01-01

    In order to safeguard biodiversity in forest we need to know how forest policy instruments work. Here we use a nationwide network of 9400 plots in productive forest to analyze to what extent large-scale policy instruments, individually and together, target forest of high conservation value in Norway. We studied both instruments working through direct regulation; Strict Protection and Landscape Protection, and instruments working through management planning and voluntary schemes of forest certification; Wilderness Area and Mountain Forest. As forest of high conservation value (HCV-forest) we considered the extent of 12 Biodiversity Habitats and the extent of Old-Age Forest. We found that 22% of productive forest area contained Biodiversity Habitats. More than 70% of this area was not covered by any large-scale instruments. Mountain Forest covered 23%, while Strict Protection and Wilderness both covered 5% of the Biodiversity Habitat area. A total of 9% of productive forest area contained Old-Age Forest, and the relative coverage of the four instruments was similar as for Biodiversity Habitats. For all instruments, except Landscape Protection, the targeted areas contained significantly higher proportions of HCV-forest than areas not targeted by these instruments. Areas targeted by Strict Protection had higher proportions of HCV-forest than areas targeted by other instruments, except for areas targeted by Wilderness Area which showed similar proportions of Biodiversity Habitats. There was a substantial amount of spatial overlap between the policy tools, but no incremental conservation effect of overlapping instruments in terms of contributing to higher percentages of targeted HCV-forest. Our results reveal that although the current policy mix has an above average representation of forest of high conservation value, the targeting efficiency in terms of area overlap is limited. There is a need to improve forest conservation and a potential to cover this need by better

  12. Spatial Overlap between Environmental Policy Instruments and Areas of High Conservation Value in Forest

    PubMed Central

    Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Søgaard, Gunnhild; Rusch, Graciela M.; Barton, David N.

    2014-01-01

    In order to safeguard biodiversity in forest we need to know how forest policy instruments work. Here we use a nationwide network of 9400 plots in productive forest to analyze to what extent large-scale policy instruments, individually and together, target forest of high conservation value in Norway. We studied both instruments working through direct regulation; Strict Protection and Landscape Protection, and instruments working through management planning and voluntary schemes of forest certification; Wilderness Area and Mountain Forest. As forest of high conservation value (HCV-forest) we considered the extent of 12 Biodiversity Habitats and the extent of Old-Age Forest. We found that 22% of productive forest area contained Biodiversity Habitats. More than 70% of this area was not covered by any large-scale instruments. Mountain Forest covered 23%, while Strict Protection and Wilderness both covered 5% of the Biodiversity Habitat area. A total of 9% of productive forest area contained Old-Age Forest, and the relative coverage of the four instruments was similar as for Biodiversity Habitats. For all instruments, except Landscape Protection, the targeted areas contained significantly higher proportions of HCV-forest than areas not targeted by these instruments. Areas targeted by Strict Protection had higher proportions of HCV-forest than areas targeted by other instruments, except for areas targeted by Wilderness Area which showed similar proportions of Biodiversity Habitats. There was a substantial amount of spatial overlap between the policy tools, but no incremental conservation effect of overlapping instruments in terms of contributing to higher percentages of targeted HCV-forest. Our results reveal that although the current policy mix has an above average representation of forest of high conservation value, the targeting efficiency in terms of area overlap is limited. There is a need to improve forest conservation and a potential to cover this need by better

  13. Evaluating Water Conservation and Reuse Policies Using a Dynamic Water Balance Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qaiser, Kamal; Ahmad, Sajjad; Johnson, Walter; Batista, Jacimaria R.

    2013-02-01

    A dynamic water balance model is created to examine the effects of different water conservation policies and recycled water use on water demand and supply in a region faced with water shortages and significant population growth, the Las Vegas Valley (LVV). The model, developed using system dynamics approach, includes an unusual component of the water system, return flow credits, where credits are accrued for returning treated wastewater to the water supply source. In LVV, Lake Mead serves as, both the drinking water source and the receiving body for treated wastewater. LVV has a consumptive use allocation from Lake Mead but return flow credits allow the water agency to pull out additional water equal to the amount returned as treated wastewater. This backdrop results in a scenario in which conservation may cause a decline in the available water supply. Current water use in LVV is 945 lpcd (250 gpcd), which the water agency aims to reduce to 752 lpcd (199 gpcd) by 2035, mainly through water conservation. Different conservation policies focused on indoor and outdoor water use, along with different population growth scenarios, are modeled for their effects on the water demand and supply. Major contribution of this study is in highlighting the importance of outdoor water conservation and the effectiveness of reducing population growth rate in addressing the future water shortages. The water agency target to decrease consumption, if met completely through outdoor conservation, coupled with lower population growth rate, can potentially satisfy the Valley's water demands through 2035.

  14. Population viability analysis as a tool in wildlife conservation policy: With reference to Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindenmayer, David B.; Clark, Tim W.; Lacy, Robert C.; Thomas, Virginia C.

    1993-11-01

    Wildlife conservation policy for endangered species restoration follows a six-phase process. Population viability analysis (PVA) can play a major contributing role in four of these. PVA, as discussed here, is a technique where extinction vulnerabilities of small populations are estimated using computer simulation modeling. The benefits and limitations of using PVA in wildlife decision and policy processes are reviewed based on our direct experience. PVA permits decision makers to set time frames for management, estimate the required magnitude of restoration efforts, identify quantitative targets for species recovery, and select, implement, monitor, and evaluate management strategies. PVA is of greatest value for rare species policy and management. However, a limitation of PVA simulation models is that they are constrained by the amount of biological data available, and such data are difficult to obtain from small populations that are at immediate risk of extinction. These problems may be overcome with improved models and more data. Our experience shows benefits of PVA far outweigh its limitations, and applications of the approach are most useful when integrated with decision analysis and completed within an adaptive management philosophy. PVAs have been carried out for 14 Victorian species and less used elsewhere in Australia. Management and recovery plans are developed from these PVAs. We recommend that PVA be used to guide research programs, develop conservation strategies, and inform decision and policy making for both endangered and nonendangered species because it can significantly improve many aspects of natural resource policy and management.

  15. Generation of Priority Research Questions to Inform Conservation Policy and Management at a National Level

    PubMed Central

    Rudd, Murray A; Beazley, Karen F; Cooke, Steven J; Fleishman, Erica; Lane, Daniel E; Mascia, Michael B; Roth, Robin; Tabor, Gary; Bakker, Jiselle A; Bellefontaine, Teresa; Berteaux, Dominique; Cantin, Bernard; Chaulk, Keith G; Cunningham, Kathryn; Dobell, Rod; Fast, Eleanor; Ferrara, Nadia; Findlay, C Scott; Hallstrom, Lars K; Hammond, Thomas; Hermanutz, Luise; Hutchings, Jeffrey A; Lindsay, Kathryn E; Marta, Tim J; Nguyen, Vivian M; Northey, Greg; Prior, Kent; Ramirez-Sanchez, Saudiel; Rice, Jake; Sleep, Darren J H; Szabo, Nora D; Trottier, Geneviève; Toussaint, Jean-Patrick; Veilleux, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Integrating knowledge from across the natural and social sciences is necessary to effectively address societal tradeoffs between human use of biological diversity and its preservation. Collaborative processes can change the ways decision makers think about scientific evidence, enhance levels of mutual trust and credibility, and advance the conservation policy discourse. Canada has responsibility for a large fraction of some major ecosystems, such as boreal forests, Arctic tundra, wetlands, and temperate and Arctic oceans. Stressors to biological diversity within these ecosystems arise from activities of the country's resource-based economy, as well as external drivers of environmental change. Effective management is complicated by incongruence between ecological and political boundaries and conflicting perspectives on social and economic goals. Many knowledge gaps about stressors and their management might be reduced through targeted, timely research. We identify 40 questions that, if addressed or answered, would advance research that has a high probability of supporting development of effective policies and management strategies for species, ecosystems, and ecological processes in Canada. A total of 396 candidate questions drawn from natural and social science disciplines were contributed by individuals with diverse organizational affiliations. These were collaboratively winnowed to 40 by our team of collaborators. The questions emphasize understanding ecosystems, the effects and mitigation of climate change, coordinating governance and management efforts across multiple jurisdictions, and examining relations between conservation policy and the social and economic well-being of Aboriginal peoples. The questions we identified provide potential links between evidence from the conservation sciences and formulation of policies for conservation and resource management. Our collaborative process of communication and engagement between scientists and decision makers for

  16. Phylogenetic diversity meets conservation policy: small areas are key to preserving eucalypt lineages.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Laura J; Rosauer, Dan F; Thornhill, Andrew H; Kujala, Heini; Crisp, Michael D; Miller, Joseph T; McCarthy, Michael A

    2015-02-19

    Evolutionary and genetic knowledge is increasingly being valued in conservation theory, but is rarely considered in conservation planning and policy. Here, we integrate phylogenetic diversity (PD) with spatial reserve prioritization to evaluate how well the existing reserve system in Victoria, Australia captures the evolutionary lineages of eucalypts, which dominate forest canopies across the state. Forty-three per cent of remaining native woody vegetation in Victoria is located in protected areas (mostly national parks) representing 48% of the extant PD found in the state. A modest expansion in protected areas of 5% (less than 1% of the state area) would increase protected PD by 33% over current levels. In a recent policy change, portions of the national parks were opened for development. These tourism development zones hold over half the PD found in national parks with some species and clades falling entirely outside of protected zones within the national parks. This approach of using PD in spatial prioritization could be extended to any clade or area that has spatial and phylogenetic data. Our results demonstrate the relevance of PD to regional conservation policy by highlighting that small but strategically located areas disproportionally impact the preservation of evolutionary lineages. PMID:25561668

  17. Phylogenetic diversity meets conservation policy: small areas are key to preserving eucalypt lineages

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Laura J.; Rosauer, Dan F.; Thornhill, Andrew H.; Kujala, Heini; Crisp, Michael D.; Miller, Joseph T.; McCarthy, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary and genetic knowledge is increasingly being valued in conservation theory, but is rarely considered in conservation planning and policy. Here, we integrate phylogenetic diversity (PD) with spatial reserve prioritization to evaluate how well the existing reserve system in Victoria, Australia captures the evolutionary lineages of eucalypts, which dominate forest canopies across the state. Forty-three per cent of remaining native woody vegetation in Victoria is located in protected areas (mostly national parks) representing 48% of the extant PD found in the state. A modest expansion in protected areas of 5% (less than 1% of the state area) would increase protected PD by 33% over current levels. In a recent policy change, portions of the national parks were opened for development. These tourism development zones hold over half the PD found in national parks with some species and clades falling entirely outside of protected zones within the national parks. This approach of using PD in spatial prioritization could be extended to any clade or area that has spatial and phylogenetic data. Our results demonstrate the relevance of PD to regional conservation policy by highlighting that small but strategically located areas disproportionally impact the preservation of evolutionary lineages. PMID:25561668

  18. Incorporating social and cultural significance of large old trees in conservation policy.

    PubMed

    Blicharska, Malgorzata; Mikusiński, Grzegorz

    2014-12-01

    In addition to providing key ecological functions, large old trees are a part of a social realm and as such provide numerous social-cultural benefits to people. However, their social and cultural values are often neglected when designing conservation policies and management guidelines. We believe that awareness of large old trees as a part of human identity and cultural heritage is essential when addressing the issue of their decline worldwide. Large old trees provide humans with aesthetic, symbolic, religious, and historic values, as well as concrete tangible benefits, such as leaves, branches, or nuts. In many cultures particularly large trees are treated with reverence. Also, contemporary popular culture utilizes the image of trees as sentient beings and builds on the ancient myths that attribute great powers to large trees. Although the social and cultural role of large old trees is usually not taken into account in conservation, accounting for human-related values of these trees is an important part of conservation policy because it may strengthen conservation by highlighting the potential synergies in protecting ecological and social values. PMID:25115905

  19. Cooperative Drought Adaptation: Integrating Infrastructure Development, Conservation, and Water Transfers into Adaptive Policy Pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeff, H. B.; Characklis, G. W.; Reed, P. M.; Herman, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Water supply policies that integrate portfolios of short-term management decisions with long-term infrastructure development enable utilities to adapt to a range of future scenarios. An effective mix of short-term management actions can augment existing infrastructure, potentially forestalling new development. Likewise, coordinated expansion of infrastructure such as regional interconnections and shared treatment capacity can increase the effectiveness of some management actions like water transfers. Highly adaptable decision pathways that mix long-term infrastructure options and short-term management actions require decision triggers capable of incorporating the impact of these time-evolving decisions on growing water supply needs. Here, we adapt risk-based triggers to sequence a set of potential infrastructure options in combination with utility-specific conservation actions and inter-utility water transfers. Individual infrastructure pathways can be augmented with conservation or water transfers to reduce the cost of meeting utility objectives, but they can also include cooperatively developed, shared infrastructure that expands regional capacity to transfer water. This analysis explores the role of cooperation among four water utilities in the 'Research Triangle' region of North Carolina by formulating three distinct categories of adaptive policy pathways: independent action (utility-specific conservation and supply infrastructure only), weak cooperation (utility-specific conservation and infrastructure development with regional transfers), and strong cooperation (utility specific conservation and jointly developed of regional infrastructure that supports transfers). Results suggest that strong cooperation aids the utilities in meeting their individual objections at substantially lower costs and with fewer irreversible infrastructure options.

  20. Emotion Regulation as the Foundation of Political Attitudes: Does Reappraisal Decrease Support for Conservative Policies?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jooa Julia; Sohn, Yunkyu; Fowler, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive scientists, behavior geneticists, and political scientists have identified several ways in which emotions influence political attitudes, and psychologists have shown that emotion regulation can have an important causal effect on physiology, cognition, and subjective experience. However, no work to date explores the possibility that emotion regulation may shape political ideology and attitudes toward policies. Here, we conduct four studies that investigate the role of a particular emotion regulation strategy – reappraisal in particular. Two observational studies show that individual differences in emotion regulation styles predict variation in political orientations and support for conservative policies. In the third study, we experimentally induce disgust as the target emotion to be regulated and show that use of reappraisal reduces the experience of disgust, thereby decreasing moral concerns associated with conservatism. In the final experimental study, we show that use of reappraisal successfully attenuates the relationship between trait-level disgust sensitivity and support for conservative policies. Our findings provide the first evidence of a critical link between emotion regulation and political attitudes. PMID:24367583

  1. Measuring the Effectiveness of Conservation: A Novel Framework to Quantify the Benefits of Sage-Grouse Conservation Policy and Easements in Wyoming

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, Holly E.; Pocewicz, Amy; Naugle, David E.; Griffiths, Tim; Keinath, Doug; Evans, Jeffrey; Platt, James

    2013-01-01

    Increasing energy and housing demands are impacting wildlife populations throughout western North America. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a species known for its sensitivity to landscape-scale disturbance, inhabits the same low elevation sage-steppe in which much of this development is occurring. Wyoming has committed to maintain sage-grouse populations through conservation easements and policy changes that conserves high bird abundance “core” habitat and encourages development in less sensitive landscapes. In this study, we built new predictive models of oil and gas, wind, and residential development and applied build-out scenarios to simulate future development and measure the efficacy of conservation actions for maintaining sage-grouse populations. Our approach predicts sage-grouse population losses averted through conservation action and quantifies return on investment for different conservation strategies. We estimate that without conservation, sage-grouse populations in Wyoming will decrease under our long-term scenario by 14–29% (95% CI: 4–46%). However, a conservation strategy that includes the “core area” policy and $250 million in targeted easements could reduce these losses to 9–15% (95% CI: 3–32%), cutting anticipated losses by roughly half statewide and nearly two-thirds within sage-grouse core breeding areas. Core area policy is the single most important component, and targeted easements are complementary to the overall strategy. There is considerable uncertainty around the magnitude of our estimates; however, the relative benefit of different conservation scenarios remains comparable because potential biases and assumptions are consistently applied regardless of the strategy. There is early evidence based on a 40% reduction in leased hectares inside core areas that Wyoming policy is reducing potential for future fragmentation inside core areas. Our framework using build-out scenarios to anticipate species declines

  2. Measuring the effectiveness of conservation: a novel framework to quantify the benefits of sage-grouse conservation policy and easements in Wyoming.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Holly E; Pocewicz, Amy; Naugle, David E; Griffiths, Tim; Keinath, Doug; Evans, Jeffrey; Platt, James

    2013-01-01

    Increasing energy and housing demands are impacting wildlife populations throughout western North America. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a species known for its sensitivity to landscape-scale disturbance, inhabits the same low elevation sage-steppe in which much of this development is occurring. Wyoming has committed to maintain sage-grouse populations through conservation easements and policy changes that conserves high bird abundance "core" habitat and encourages development in less sensitive landscapes. In this study, we built new predictive models of oil and gas, wind, and residential development and applied build-out scenarios to simulate future development and measure the efficacy of conservation actions for maintaining sage-grouse populations. Our approach predicts sage-grouse population losses averted through conservation action and quantifies return on investment for different conservation strategies. We estimate that without conservation, sage-grouse populations in Wyoming will decrease under our long-term scenario by 14-29% (95% CI: 4-46%). However, a conservation strategy that includes the "core area" policy and $250 million in targeted easements could reduce these losses to 9-15% (95% CI: 3-32%), cutting anticipated losses by roughly half statewide and nearly two-thirds within sage-grouse core breeding areas. Core area policy is the single most important component, and targeted easements are complementary to the overall strategy. There is considerable uncertainty around the magnitude of our estimates; however, the relative benefit of different conservation scenarios remains comparable because potential biases and assumptions are consistently applied regardless of the strategy. There is early evidence based on a 40% reduction in leased hectares inside core areas that Wyoming policy is reducing potential for future fragmentation inside core areas. Our framework using build-out scenarios to anticipate species declines provides estimates

  3. An Investigation into the Socio-Psychological Determinants of Farmers' Conservation Decisions: Method and Implications for Policy, Extension and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wauters, E.; Mathijs, E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to present and apply a method to investigate farmers' socio-psychological determinants of conservation practice adoption, as an aid in extension, policy and conservation practice design. Design/methodology/approach: We use a sequential mixed method, starting with qualitative semi-structured interviews (n = 24),…

  4. Biodiversity and Habitat Markets—Policy, Economic, and Ecological implications of Market-Based Conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pindilli, Emily; Casey, Frank

    2015-01-01

    This report is a primer on market-like and market-based mechanisms designed to conserve biodiversity and habitat. The types of markets and market-based approaches that were implemented or are emerging to benefit biodiversity and habitat in the United States are examined. The central approaches considered in this report include payments for ecosystem services, conservation banks, habitat exchanges, and eco-labels. Based on literature reviews and input from experts and practitioners, the report characterizes each market-based approach including policy context and structure; the theoretical basis for applying market-based approaches; the ecological effectiveness of practices and tools for measuring performance; and the future outlook for biodiversity and habitat markets. This report draws from previous research and serves as a summary of pertinent information associated with biodiversity and habitat markets while providing references to materials that go into greater detail on specific topics.

  5. Leveraging Carbon Cycling in Coastal Wetlands for Habitat Conservation: Blue Carbon Policy Opportunities (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton-Grier, A.

    2013-12-01

    Recent scientific studies suggest that the carbon sequestered and stored in coastal wetlands (specifically mangroves, salt marshes, and seagrass meadows) is an important, previously not well-recognized service provided by these ecosystems. Coastal wetlands have unique characteristics that make them incredibly efficient, natural carbon sinks with most carbon stored belowground in soils. Based on this new scientific evidence, there is growing interest in leveraging the carbon services of these habitats (termed 'blue carbon') to develop new policy opportunities to protect and restore coastal wetlands around the globe. The overall goal is to take full advantage of the carbon services of these habitats in order to ensure and maintain the many benefits provided to society by these habitats - including natural climate, food security, and storm protection benefits - and to enhance the resiliency of coastal communities and economies around the world. This presentation will give an update on some of the policy opportunities including: (1) examining how the implementation of U.S. federal policies can be expanded to include carbon services of ecosystems in order to improve management and decision making; (2) developing an international blue carbon community of science and practice to provide best practice guidance for protection and restoration of blue carbon habitats; and (3) developing innovative financing mechanisms for coastal conservation including carbon market credits for wetlands. Finally, the presentation will conclude by highlighting some of the most pressing blue carbon scientific gaps that need to be filled in order to support these developing policies.

  6. Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

  7. Checkerspot Butterflies, Science, and Conservation Policy: A Grassroots View of Nitrogen Overdose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, S. B.

    2009-12-01

    Educating policy makers and the general public about the global “Nitrogen Overdose” has proved challenging because of the complexities of the global nitrogen cycle and its effect on terrestrial, freshwater, estuarine, and marine ecosystems. In this presentation, I present my grassroots experience as a scientist who transitioned into a scientist/activist, working with elected officials, regulators, private industry, activist groups, and the general public, to conserve the rare, beautiful, and charismatic Bay checkerspot butterfly in the San Francisco Bay Area. The butterfly is threatened by atmospheric nitrogen deposition (5-20 kg-N/ha/year) that enriches nutrient poor soils derived from serpentinite rock. This eutrophication allows nitrophilous grasses to invade and displace the dazzling wildflower displays that provide essential food and nectar for the butterfly. Over the past 25 years, I have been involved in all phases of the conservation of this ecosystem, drawing on long-term scientific investigations (literally hundreds of papers by dozens of researchers) on the population dynamics and conservation of the butterfly, and the biogeochemistry of the serpentine grassland ecosystem. Publication of a 1999 paper on N-deposition impacts on the butterfly led to consultations with government agencies and a powerplant company, and development of precedent setting N-deposition mitigation through habitat acquisition and grazing management. This process has evolved into a regional-scale Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP) that is nearing completion in 2010. A key to the success of this ongoing endeavor is education about biodiversity and N-deposition. Field-tours during spring wildflower season put diverse groups of people in direct contact with the obvious beauty of the ecosystem, creating an opening to learning about the complexities of N-deposition, the population biology of the butterfly, and the convoluted conservation history of the sites. Informal tours have

  8. Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) contributions to wildlife habitat, management issues, challenges and policy choices--an annotated bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Arthur W.; Vandever, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The following bibliography presents brief summaries of documents relevant to Conservation Reserve Program relations to wildlife habitat, habitat management in agriculturally dominated landscapes, and conservation policies potentially affecting wildlife habitats in agricultural ecosystems. Because the literature summaries furnished provide only sweeping overviews, users are urged to obtain and evaluate those papers appearing useful to obtain a more complete understanding of study findings and their implications to conservation in agricultural ecosystems. The bibliography contains references to reports that reach beyond topics that directly relate to the Conservation Reserve Program. Sections addressing grassland management and landowner surveys/opinions, for example, furnish information useful for enhancing development and administration of conservation policies affecting lands beyond those enrolled in conservation programs. Some sections of the bibliography (for example, agricultural conservation policy, economics, soils) are far from inclusive of all relevant material written on the subject. Hopefully, these sections will serve as fundamental introductions to related issues. In a few instances, references may be presented in more than one section of the bibliography. For example, individual papers specifically addressing both non-game and game birds are included in respective sections of the bibliography. Duplication of citations and associated notes has, however, been kept to a minimum.

  9. The conservation genetics juggling act: integrating genetics and ecology, science and policy.

    PubMed

    Haig, Susan M; Miller, Mark P; Bellinger, Renee; Draheim, Hope M; Mercer, Dacey M; Mullins, Thomas D

    2016-01-01

    The field of conservation genetics, when properly implemented, is a constant juggling act integrating molecular genetics, ecology, and demography with applied aspects concerning managing declining species or implementing conservation laws and policies. This young field has grown substantially since the 1980s following the development of polymerase chain reaction and now into the genomics era. Our laboratory has 'grown up' with the field, having worked on these issues for over three decades. Our multidisciplinary approach entails understanding the behavior and ecology of species as well as the underlying processes that contribute to genetic viability. Taking this holistic approach provides a comprehensive understanding of factors that influence species persistence and evolutionary potential while considering annual challenges that occur throughout their life cycle. As a federal laboratory, we are often addressing the needs of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in their efforts to list, de-list, or recover species. Nevertheless, there remains an overall communication gap between research geneticists and biologists who are charged with implementing their results. Therefore, we outline the need for a National Center for Small Population Biology to ameliorate this problem and provide organizations charged with making status decisions firmer ground from which to make their critical decisions. PMID:27087847

  10. The conservation genetics juggling act: Integrating genetics and ecology, science and policy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haig, Susan M.; Miller, Mark P.; Bellinger, Renee; Draheim, Hope M.; Mercer, Dacey; Mullins, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The field of conservation genetics, when properly implemented, is a constant juggling act integrating molecular genetics, ecology, and demography with applied aspects concerning managing declining species or implementing conservation laws and policies. This young field has grown substantially since the 1980’s following development of the polymerase chain reaction and now into the genomics era. Our lab has “grown up” with the field, having worked on these issues for over three decades. Our multi-disciplinary approach entails understanding the behavior and ecology of species as well as the underlying processes that contribute to genetic viability. Taking this holistic approach provides a comprehensive understanding of factors that influence species persistence and evolutionary potential while considering annual challenges that occur throughout their life cycle. As a federal lab, we are often addressing the needs of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in their efforts to list, de-list or recover species. Nevertheless, there remains an overall communication gap between research geneticists and biologists who are charged with implementing their results. Therefore, we outline the need for a National Center for Small Population Biology to ameliorate this problem and provide organizations charged with making status decisions firmer ground from which to make their critical decisions. 

  11. The push and pull of land use policy: reconstructing 150 years of development and conservation land acquisition.

    PubMed

    Santos, Maria João; Watt, Terry; Pincetl, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The growth of human populations and their resource needs have stressed the conservation of natural land resources. Many policies and programs have been implemented to address the pressures on land resources and notwithstanding this pressure, significant acquisition of land for conservation has occurred throughout history in the U.S., and internationally. Here we assess the on-the-ground result of the evolution of land use policies in California as a pioneer forerunner, in the form of acquisition of land for conservation (i.e. Open Space), and its impact on the rest of the U.S. and beyond. To this end we describe the timeline and spatial representation of the growth of California's conservation network over the last 150 years, and link it to the history of land use policies. We then assess whether conservation land acquisition has consistently grown through time or occurred in specific decades. About ¼ of the state is now designated Open Space. Fewer and larger areas conserved and acquired at the beginning of the 20th century; the conservation network was complemented with a larger number of smaller sized properties. Despite acquisition of land in every decade, the process was uneven (E = 0.3 for California, E = 0.14 ± 0.08 average for the state's counties), mostly due to the large acquisitions and land set asides in the 1900s, followed by 1930s and 1940s. This process was a result of a comprehensive set of legislation that evolved through time, and resulted from the competing needs for development and conservation. Even with the impressive 174,000 km2 of public lands in California, the future of California's natural infrastructure and natural heritage cannot rely solely on these public lands, nor public agencies and their resources. Critically a future course of land preservation relying on the purchase of new lands - in California and beyond - for conservation is tremendously expensive. PMID:25075611

  12. Projecting Urban Water Demand in California: Effects of Climate, Demographics, Technology, Conservation, and Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heberger, M. G.; Christian-Smith, J.

    2010-12-01

    California's growing population is increasingly urban, with 98% of its 38 million people currently living in cities and suburbs. The state has added an estimated 4.5 million people since 2000, with Los Angeles, San Diego, and Sacramento among the 12 fastest-growing cities in the United States. While agriculture continues to use the majority of the state's water supply, urban water demand is growing rapidly and straining available supplies. Warming due to climate change is causing increases in water demand for landscape irrigation and commercial and industrial cooling. We have developed an easy-to-use planning tool to create spatial and temporal forecasts of future urban water demand out to the year 2100. It allows the user to estimate future water demand under a number of scenarios of climate change and demographic change. We use downscaled climate model output to estimate landscape and cooling water demand for each decade from 1950 to 2100 (Maurer and Hidalgo 2007). Planners can use the model to estimate the water-use impacts of urban growth and future land use, as well as water conservation programs and regulations. One may also examine economic effects such as changes in water prices or rate structures. The model includes the effects of building codes, plumbing and appliance standards in bringing about "passive savings" over time. Our modeling work to date suggests that current conservation strategies and efficiency gains already underway in California will increase urban water-use efficiency over the next two decades. While per-capita water use decreases, overall demand is likely to increase due to population growth. Under current policies and trends, statewide urban water demand may increase from 9 million acre-feet in 2005 (11 billion m3) to 12 maf (15 billion m3) in 2050. Implementing aggressive conservation strategies allows for continued population growth without increasing water use. This type of scenario-based planning aids water planners and managers in

  13. Strategic Grassland Bird Conservation throughout the annual cycle: Linking policy alternatives, landowner decisions, and biological population outcomes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drum, Ryan G.; Ribic, Christine; Koch, Katie; Lonsdorf, Eric V.; Grant, Edward C.; Ahlering, Marissa; Barnhill, Laurel; Dailey, Thomas; Lor, Socheata; Mueller, Connie; Pavlacky, D.C., Jr.; Rideout, Catherine; Sample, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Grassland bird habitat has declined substantially in the United States. Remaining grasslands are increasingly fragmented, mostly privately owned, and vary greatly in terms of habitat quality and protection status. A coordinated strategic response for grassland bird conservation is difficult, largely due to the scope and complexity of the problem, further compounded by biological, sociological, and economic uncertainties. We describe the results from a collaborative Structured Decision Making (SDM) workshop focused on linking social and economic drivers of landscape change to grassland bird population outcomes. We identified and evaluated alternative strategies for grassland bird conservation using a series of rapid prototype models. We modeled change in grassland and agriculture cover in hypothetical landscapes resulting from different landowner decisions in response to alternative socio-economic conservation policy decisions. Resulting changes in land cover at all three stages of the annual cycle (breeding, wintering, and migration) were used to estimate changes in grassland bird populations. Our results suggest that successful grassland bird conservation may depend upon linkages with ecosystem services on working agricultural lands and grassland-based marketing campaigns to engage the public. With further development, spatial models that link landowner decisions with biological outcomes can be essential tools for making conservation policy decisions. A coordinated non-traditional partnership will likely be necessary to clearly understand and systematically respond to the many conservation challenges facing grassland birds.

  14. Strategic Grassland Bird Conservation throughout the Annual Cycle: Linking Policy Alternatives, Landowner Decisions, and Biological Population Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Drum, Ryan G; Ribic, Christine A; Koch, Katie; Lonsdorf, Eric; Grant, Evan; Ahlering, Marissa; Barnhill, Laurel; Dailey, Thomas; Lor, Socheata; Mueller, Connie; Pavlacky, David C; Rideout, Catherine; Sample, David

    2015-01-01

    Grassland bird habitat has declined substantially in the United States. Remaining grasslands are increasingly fragmented, mostly privately owned, and vary greatly in terms of habitat quality and protection status. A coordinated strategic response for grassland bird conservation is difficult, largely due to the scope and complexity of the problem, further compounded by biological, sociological, and economic uncertainties. We describe the results from a collaborative Structured Decision Making (SDM) workshop focused on linking social and economic drivers of landscape change to grassland bird population outcomes. We identified and evaluated alternative strategies for grassland bird conservation using a series of rapid prototype models. We modeled change in grassland and agriculture cover in hypothetical landscapes resulting from different landowner decisions in response to alternative socio-economic conservation policy decisions. Resulting changes in land cover at all three stages of the annual cycle (breeding, wintering, and migration) were used to estimate changes in grassland bird populations. Our results suggest that successful grassland bird conservation may depend upon linkages with ecosystem services on working agricultural lands and grassland-based marketing campaigns to engage the public. With further development, spatial models that link landowner decisions with biological outcomes can be essential tools for making conservation policy decisions. A coordinated non-traditional partnership will likely be necessary to clearly understand and systematically respond to the many conservation challenges facing grassland birds. PMID:26569108

  15. Strategic Grassland Bird Conservation throughout the Annual Cycle: Linking Policy Alternatives, Landowner Decisions, and Biological Population Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Drum, Ryan G.; Ribic, Christine A.; Koch, Katie; Lonsdorf, Eric; Grant, Evan; Ahlering, Marissa; Barnhill, Laurel; Dailey, Thomas; Lor, Socheata; Mueller, Connie; Pavlacky, David C.; Rideout, Catherine; Sample, David

    2015-01-01

    Grassland bird habitat has declined substantially in the United States. Remaining grasslands are increasingly fragmented, mostly privately owned, and vary greatly in terms of habitat quality and protection status. A coordinated strategic response for grassland bird conservation is difficult, largely due to the scope and complexity of the problem, further compounded by biological, sociological, and economic uncertainties. We describe the results from a collaborative Structured Decision Making (SDM) workshop focused on linking social and economic drivers of landscape change to grassland bird population outcomes. We identified and evaluated alternative strategies for grassland bird conservation using a series of rapid prototype models. We modeled change in grassland and agriculture cover in hypothetical landscapes resulting from different landowner decisions in response to alternative socio-economic conservation policy decisions. Resulting changes in land cover at all three stages of the annual cycle (breeding, wintering, and migration) were used to estimate changes in grassland bird populations. Our results suggest that successful grassland bird conservation may depend upon linkages with ecosystem services on working agricultural lands and grassland-based marketing campaigns to engage the public. With further development, spatial models that link landowner decisions with biological outcomes can be essential tools for making conservation policy decisions. A coordinated non-traditional partnership will likely be necessary to clearly understand and systematically respond to the many conservation challenges facing grassland birds. PMID:26569108

  16. Impacts of conservation and human development policy across stakeholders and scales

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cong; Zheng, Hua; Li, Shuzhuo; Chen, Xiaoshu; Li, Jie; Zeng, Weihong; Liang, Yicheng; Polasky, Stephen; Feldman, Marcus W.; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Daily, Gretchen C.

    2015-01-01

    Ideally, both ecosystem service and human development policies should improve human well-being through the conservation of ecosystems that provide valuable services. However, program costs and benefits to multiple stakeholders, and how they change through time, are rarely carefully analyzed. We examine one of China’s new ecosystem service protection and human development policies: the Relocation and Settlement Program of Southern Shaanxi Province (RSP), which pays households who opt voluntarily to resettle from mountainous areas. The RSP aims to reduce disaster risk, restore important ecosystem services, and improve human well-being. We use household surveys and biophysical data in an integrated economic cost–benefit analysis for multiple stakeholders. We project that the RSP will result in positive net benefits to the municipal government, and to cross-region and global beneficiaries over the long run along with environment improvement, including improved water quality, soil erosion control, and carbon sequestration. However, there are significant short-run relocation costs for local residents so that poor households may have difficulty participating because they lack the resources to pay the initial costs of relocation. Greater subsidies and subsequent supports after relocation are necessary to reduce the payback period of resettled households in the long run. Compensation from downstream beneficiaries for improved water and from carbon trades could be channeled into reducing relocation costs for the poor and sharing the burden of RSP implementation. The effectiveness of the RSP could also be greatly strengthened by early investment in developing human capital and environment-friendly jobs and establishing long-term mechanisms for securing program goals. These challenges and potential solutions pervade ecosystem service efforts globally. PMID:26082546

  17. Impacts of conservation and human development policy across stakeholders and scales.

    PubMed

    Li, Cong; Zheng, Hua; Li, Shuzhuo; Chen, Xiaoshu; Li, Jie; Zeng, Weihong; Liang, Yicheng; Polasky, Stephen; Feldman, Marcus W; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Daily, Gretchen C

    2015-06-16

    Ideally, both ecosystem service and human development policies should improve human well-being through the conservation of ecosystems that provide valuable services. However, program costs and benefits to multiple stakeholders, and how they change through time, are rarely carefully analyzed. We examine one of China's new ecosystem service protection and human development policies: the Relocation and Settlement Program of Southern Shaanxi Province (RSP), which pays households who opt voluntarily to resettle from mountainous areas. The RSP aims to reduce disaster risk, restore important ecosystem services, and improve human well-being. We use household surveys and biophysical data in an integrated economic cost-benefit analysis for multiple stakeholders. We project that the RSP will result in positive net benefits to the municipal government, and to cross-region and global beneficiaries over the long run along with environment improvement, including improved water quality, soil erosion control, and carbon sequestration. However, there are significant short-run relocation costs for local residents so that poor households may have difficulty participating because they lack the resources to pay the initial costs of relocation. Greater subsidies and subsequent supports after relocation are necessary to reduce the payback period of resettled households in the long run. Compensation from downstream beneficiaries for improved water and from carbon trades could be channeled into reducing relocation costs for the poor and sharing the burden of RSP implementation. The effectiveness of the RSP could also be greatly strengthened by early investment in developing human capital and environment-friendly jobs and establishing long-term mechanisms for securing program goals. These challenges and potential solutions pervade ecosystem service efforts globally. PMID:26082546

  18. The impact of conservative discourses in family policies, population politics, and gender rights in Poland and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Korkut, Umut; Eslen-Ziya, Hande

    2011-01-01

    This article uses childcare as a case study to test the impact of ideas that embody a traditional understanding of gender relations in relation to childcare. Conservative ideas regard increasing female labor market participation as a cause of decreasing fertility on the functioning of a set of general policies to increase fertility rates. It looks into the Polish and Turkish contexts for empirical evidence. The Polish context shows a highly institutionalized system of family policies in contrast to almost unessential institutions in Turkey. Formally, the labor market participation of women is much lower in Turkey than in Poland. Yet, given the size of the informal market in Turkey, women's labor participation is obviously higher than what appears in the statistics. Bearing in mind this divergence, the article suggests Poland and Turkey as two typologies for studying population politics in contexts where socially conservative ideas regarding gender remain paramount. We qualify ideas as conservative if they enforce a traditional understanding of gender relations in care-giving and underline women's role in the labor market as an element of declining fertility. In order to delineate ideational impact, this article looks into how ideas (a) supplant and (b) substitute formal institutions. Therefore, we argue that there are two mechanisms pertaining to the dominance of conservative conventions: conservative ideas may either supplant the institutional impact on family policies, or substitute them thanks to a superior reasoning which societies assign to them. Furthermore, conservative conventions prevail alongside women's customary unpaid work as care-givers regardless of the level of their formal workforce participation. We propose as our major findings for the literature of population politics that ideas, as ubiquitous belief systems, are more powerful than institutions since they provide what is perceived as legitimate, acceptable, and good for the societies under study

  19. National energy conservation policy under the Reagan administration: Analysis of hearings on the Department of Energy authorization for fiscal year 1982

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sissine, F. J.

    1982-03-01

    Some of the major issues in energy conservation policy are summarized, including the significance of energy conservation to the national economy, foreign competition, and the prospects for increased private and local government participation. The role of the Federal Government in energy conservation, outreach, and information dissemination is discussed.

  20. The Push and Pull of Land Use Policy: Reconstructing 150 Years of Development and Conservation Land Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Maria João; Watt, Terry; Pincetl, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The growth of human populations and their resource needs have stressed the conservation of natural land resources. Many policies and programs have been implemented to address the pressures on land resources and notwithstanding this pressure, significant acquisition of land for conservation has occurred throughout history in the U.S., and internationally. Here we assess the on-the-ground result of the evolution of land use policies in California as a pioneer forerunner, in the form of acquisition of land for conservation (i.e. Open Space), and its impact on the rest of the U.S. and beyond. To this end we describe the timeline and spatial representation of the growth of California’s conservation network over the last 150 years, and link it to the history of land use policies. We then assess whether conservation land acquisition has consistently grown through time or occurred in specific decades. About ¼ of the state is now designated Open Space. Fewer and larger areas conserved and acquired at the beginning of the 20th century; the conservation network was complemented with a larger number of smaller sized properties. Despite acquisition of land in every decade, the process was uneven (E = 0.3 for California, E = 0.14±0.08 average for the state’s counties), mostly due to the large acquisitions and land set asides in the 1900s, followed by 1930s and 1940s. This process was a result of a comprehensive set of legislation that evolved through time, and resulted from the competing needs for development and conservation. Even with the impressive 174,000 km2 of public lands in California, the future of California’s natural infrastructure and natural heritage cannot rely solely on these public lands, nor public agencies and their resources. Critically a future course of land preservation relying on the purchase of new lands – in California and beyond – for conservation is tremendously expensive. PMID:25075611

  1. Indirect Effects of Conservation Policies on the Coupled Human-Natural Ecosystem of the Upper Gulf of California

    PubMed Central

    Morzaria-Luna, Hem Nalini; Ainsworth, Cameron H.; Kaplan, Isaac C.; Levin, Phillip S.; Fulton, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    High bycatch of non-target species and species of conservation concern often drives the implementation of fisheries policies. However, species- or fishery-specific policies may lead to indirect consequences, positive or negative, for other species or fisheries. We use an Atlantis ecosystem model of the Northern Gulf of California to evaluate the effects of fisheries policies directed at reducing bycatch of vaquita (Phocoena sinus) on other species of conservation concern, priority target species, and metrics of ecosystem function and structure. Vaquita, a Critically Endangered porpoise endemic to the Upper Gulf of California, are frequently entangled by finfish gillnets and shrimp driftnets. We tested five fishery management scenarios, projected over 30 years (2008 to 2038), directed at vaquita conservation. The scenarios consider progressively larger spatial restrictions for finfish gillnets and shrimp driftnets. The most restrictive scenario resulted in the highest biomass of species of conservation concern; the scenario without any conservation measures in place resulted in the lowest. Vaquita experienced the largest population increase of any functional group; their biomass increased 2.7 times relative to initial (2008) levels under the most restrictive spatial closure scenario. Bycatch of sea lions, sea turtles, and totoaba decreased > 80% in shrimp driftnets and at least 20% in finfish gillnet fleets under spatial management. We found indirect effects on species and ecosystem function and structure as a result of vaquita management actions. Biomass and catch of forage fish declined, which could affect lower-trophic level fisheries, while other species such as skates, rays, and sharks increased in both biomass and catch. When comparing across performance metrics, we found that scenarios that increased ecosystem function and structure resulted in lower economic performance indicators, underscoring the need for management actions that consider ecological and

  2. Indirect effects of conservation policies on the coupled human-natural ecosystem of the upper Gulf of California.

    PubMed

    Morzaria-Luna, Hem Nalini; Ainsworth, Cameron H; Kaplan, Isaac C; Levin, Phillip S; Fulton, Elizabeth A

    2013-01-01

    High bycatch of non-target species and species of conservation concern often drives the implementation of fisheries policies. However, species- or fishery-specific policies may lead to indirect consequences, positive or negative, for other species or fisheries. We use an Atlantis ecosystem model of the Northern Gulf of California to evaluate the effects of fisheries policies directed at reducing bycatch of vaquita (Phocoena sinus) on other species of conservation concern, priority target species, and metrics of ecosystem function and structure. Vaquita, a Critically Endangered porpoise endemic to the Upper Gulf of California, are frequently entangled by finfish gillnets and shrimp driftnets. We tested five fishery management scenarios, projected over 30 years (2008 to 2038), directed at vaquita conservation. The scenarios consider progressively larger spatial restrictions for finfish gillnets and shrimp driftnets. The most restrictive scenario resulted in the highest biomass of species of conservation concern; the scenario without any conservation measures in place resulted in the lowest. Vaquita experienced the largest population increase of any functional group; their biomass increased 2.7 times relative to initial (2008) levels under the most restrictive spatial closure scenario. Bycatch of sea lions, sea turtles, and totoaba decreased > 80% in shrimp driftnets and at least 20% in finfish gillnet fleets under spatial management. We found indirect effects on species and ecosystem function and structure as a result of vaquita management actions. Biomass and catch of forage fish declined, which could affect lower-trophic level fisheries, while other species such as skates, rays, and sharks increased in both biomass and catch. When comparing across performance metrics, we found that scenarios that increased ecosystem function and structure resulted in lower economic performance indicators, underscoring the need for management actions that consider ecological and

  3. Income level and regional policies, underlying factors associated with unwarranted variations in conservative breast cancer surgery in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Geographical variations in medical practice are expected to be small when the evidence about the effectiveness and safety of a particular technology is abundant. This would be the case of the prescription of conservative surgery in breast cancer patients. In these cases, when variation is larger than expected by need, socioeconomic factors have been argued as an explanation. Objectives: Using an ecologic design, our study aims at describing the variability in the use of surgical conservative versus non-conservative treatment. Additionally, it seeks to establish whether the socioeconomic status of the healthcare area influences the use of one or the other technique. Methods 81,868 mastectomies performed between 2002 and 2006 in 180 healthcare areas were studied. Standardized utilization rates of breast cancer conservative (CS) and non-conservative (NCS) procedures were estimated as well as the variation among areas, using small area statistics. Concentration curves and dominance tests were estimated to determine the impact of income and instruction levels in the healthcare area on surgery rates. Multilevel analyses were performed to determine the influence of regional policies. Results Variation in the use of CS was massive (4-fold factor between the highest and the lowest rate) and larger than in the case of NCS (2-fold), whichever the age group. Healthcare areas with higher economic and instruction levels showed highest rates of CS, regardless of the age group, while areas with lower economic and educational levels yielded higher rates of NCS interventions. Living in a particular Autonomous Community (AC), explained a substantial part of the CS residual variance (up to a 60.5% in women 50 to 70). Conclusion The place where a woman lives -income level and regional policies- explain the unexpectedly high variation found in utilization rates of conservative breast cancer surgery. PMID:21504577

  4. AGRICULTURAL WATER CONSERVATION POLICY IN AN URBANIZING ENVIRONMENT: THE ARIZONA BMP PROGRAM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Arizona legislature authorized in 2002 an agricultural water conservation program based on best management practices. The program is voluntary and an alternative to one based on allotments that have been in operation since 1980. The program requires the farmers to adopt conservation practices f...

  5. Will farmers save water? A theoretical analysis of groundwater conservation policies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of agricultural irrigation systems has generated significant increases in food production and farm income. However, unplanned and unconstrained groundwater use could also cause serious consequences. To extend the economic life of groundwater, water conservation issues have become the...

  6. Changing Ecological and Cultural States and Preferences of Nature Conservation Policy: The Case of Nature Values Trade in South-Western Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paloniemi, Riikka; Vilja, Varho

    2009-01-01

    We present a rural Finnish case of nature conservation called the nature values trade (NVT) as an example of the process of changing ecological and cultural states and preferences of environmental policy. We emphasise the importance of local ecological and cultural circumstances for the formulation of environmental policy. The study shows how…

  7. Energy efficiency and conservation in the developing world. World Bank policy paper

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, R.J.; Gandhi, S.

    1993-01-01

    Contents: evolution of energy efficiency; forces driving increased energy efficiency; why is energy efficiency performance in developing countries so poor; what can be done: country policy priorities; what can be done: sector priorities; strategy for the world bank.

  8. Ecological solidarity as a conceptual tool for rethinking ecological and social interdependence in conservation policy for protected areas and their surrounding landscape.

    PubMed

    Thompson, John D; Mathevet, Raphaël; Delanoë, Olivia; Gil-Fourrier, Chantal; Bonnin, Marie; Cheylan, Marc

    2011-05-01

    Policy for biodiversity conservation must evolve to cope with the increasing human footprint on natural systems. A major issue here is the need for policy for protected areas, which integrates their surrounding landscape and local human populations in the construction of socially grounded measures. To illustrate current conceptual thinking in this direction we present and provide a conceptual basis for a recent initiative in national park policy in France that is based on "ecological solidarity". In the light of other policy ideas and tools that have recently emerged for the co-construction of conservation policy, we argue that this concept provides an imaginative step towards consolidating ecological and social interdependence in biodiversity policy that goes beyond statutory park boundaries. PMID:21640950

  9. Comparison of Drosophilidae (Diptera) assemblages from two highland Araucaria Forest fragments, with and without environmental conservation policies.

    PubMed

    Cavasini, R; Buschini, M L T; Machado, L P B; Mateus, R P

    2014-11-01

    Flies from the Drosophilidae family are model organisms for biological studies and are often suggested as bioindicators of environmental quality. The Araucaria Forest, one of Atlantic Forest phyto-physiognomy, displays a highly fragmented distribution due to the expansion of agriculture and urbanization. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate and compare the drosophilid assemblages from two highland Araucaria Forest fragments, one a conservation unit (PMA - Parque Municipal das Araucárias) and the other a private property without any conservational policy (FBL - Fazenda Brandalise), in space and time, using species abundances and richness, ecological indexes and Neotropical and exotic species proportions as parameters to establish the level of environmental quality of these fragments. Our results showed that the observed diversity in PMA (H' = 2.221) was approximately 40% higher than in FBL (H' = 1.592). This could be due to higher preservation quality and habitat diversity in PMA, indicating the importance of conservation units. However, richness were similar for these areas, with PMA (Dmg = 6.602) only 8% higher than FBL (Dmg = 6.128), which suggest that the larger distance from city limits and the larger size of FBL forested area could be compensating the higher disturbance caused by antrophic extractive exploitation of this fragment. This points out that, besides the quality of presevertion, the size and/or connection with other fragments should be considered for areas destined for biodiversity conservation. In general, both areas presented similar drosophilid assemblages, and the expressive abundance of both Neotropical species (mostly of the subgroup willistoni) and the exotic species D. kikkawai suggests that these areas are in intermediate stages of conservation. PMID:25627584

  10. Use of monitoring data to support conservation management and policy decisions in Micronesia.

    PubMed

    Montambault, Jensen Reitz; Wongbusarakum, Supin; Leberer, Trina; Joseph, Eugene; Andrew, Wayne; Castro, Fran; Nevitt, Brooke; Golbuu, Yimnang; Oldiais, Noelle W; Groves, Craig R; Kostka, Willy; Houk, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Adaptive management implies a continuous knowledge-based decision-making process in conservation. Yet, the coupling of scientific monitoring and management frameworks remains rare in practice because formal and informal communication pathways are lacking. We examined 4 cases in Micronesia where conservation practitioners are using new knowledge in the form of monitoring data to advance marine conservation. These cases were drawn from projects in Micronesia Challenge jurisdictions that received funding for coupled monitoring-to-management frameworks and encompassed all segments of adaptive management. Monitoring in Helen Reef, Republic of Palau, was catalyzed by coral bleaching and revealed evidence of overfishing that led to increased enforcement and outreach. In Nimpal Channel, Yap, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), monitoring the recovery of marine food resources after customary restrictions were put in place led to new, more effective enforcement approaches. Monitoring in Laolao Bay, Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, was catalyzed by observable sediment loads from poor land-use practices and resulted in actions that reduced land-based threats, particularly littering and illegal burning, and revealed additional threats from overfishing. Pohnpei (FSM) began monitoring after observed declines in grouper spawning aggregations. This data led to adjusting marine conservation area boundaries and implementing market-based size class restrictions. Two themes emerged from these cases. First, in each case monitoring was conducted in a manner relevant to the social and ecological systems and integrated into the decision-making process. Second, conservation practitioners and scientists in these cases integrated culturally appropriate stakeholder engagement throughout all phases of the adaptive management cycle. More broadly, our study suggests, when describing adaptive management, providing more details on how monitoring and management activities are

  11. Conservation of resources for sustainable ecosystems: a dialogue on connecting science, policy,and management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For over a century rangeland science has focused, with varying degrees of success, on issues of sustainable goods and services. Our goal in this paper is to analyze this research history for insights into how best to link science, policy, and management of natural resources. We describe three broad ...

  12. Conservation of Resources for Sustainable Ecosystems: A Dialogue on Connecting Science, Policy, and Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For over a century rangeland science has focused, with varying degrees of success, on issues of sustainable goods and services. Our goal in this paper is to analyze this research history for insights into how best to link science, policy, and management of natural resources. We describe three broa...

  13. Watershed land use and aquatic ecosystem response: Ecohydrologic approach to conservation policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randhir, Timothy O.; Hawes, Ashley G.

    2009-01-01

    SummaryLand use activities change the natural functions of a watershed impacting the flow of water and water quality, and impair aquatic ecosystems. Optimal allocation of land use depends on attributes related to terrestrial and aquatic environments. A dynamic model that links land use, overland flow, suspended sediment, and an aquatic species is used to evaluate alternate land use policies. The dwarf wedge mussel that is classified as endangered in the region is used as an indicator species of aquatic health in a watershed in Massachusetts. The simulation model is used to evaluate spatial nature of processes and land use policies. Spatial and temporal changes in runoff, sediment loading, and mussel population are modeled over a period of 4 years. Ten policy scenarios represent combinations of best management practices and development of agriculture and urban land at spatial locations of headwaters, main stem regions, riparian, and entire watershed. Increasing the proportion of agriculture and high density residential land use increased runoff, while increasing the frequency and magnitude of peak flows in the watershed. Sediment loading increased with an increased proportion of agriculture area and decreased with an expansion of high density residential area. Scenarios with an increase in sediment loading above the baseline mean exhibited an irregular recovery of the mussel population from high loading events. Policy implications include the need for best management practices to decrease runoff and sediment loading in the watershed, through education and incentive programs.

  14. POLICY ADVOCACY IN SCIENCE: PREVALENCE, PERSPECTIVES, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR CONSERVATION BIOLOGISTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Much debate and discussion has focused on the relationship between science and advocacy, and the role of scientists in influencing public policy. Some argue that advocacy is widespread within scientific literature, however, data to evaluate that contention are lacking. We examine...

  15. Government conservation policies on Mexican coastal areas: is "top-down" management working?

    PubMed

    Nava, Héctor; Ramírez-Herrera, M Teresa

    2011-12-01

    Marine and terrestrial ecosystems are declining globally due to environmental degradation and poorly planned resource use. Traditionally, local government agencies have been responsible of the management of natural reserves to preserve biodiversity. Nonetheless, much of these approaches have failed, suggesting the development of more integrative strategies. In order to discuss the importance of a holistic approach in conservation initiatives, coastal and underwater landscape value and biological/environmental indicators of coral reef degradation were assessed using the study case of Zihuatanejo, Guerrero coastal area. This area shelters representative coral reef structures of the Eastern Pacific coast and its terrestrial biodiversity and archaeology enhance the high value of its coastal area. This study explored the landscape value of both terrestrial and marine ecosystems using the geomorphosite approach in two sites on the Zihuatanejo coastal area: Caleta de Chon and Manzanillo Beach. Sedimentation rate, water transparency, chlorophyll and total suspended solids were recorded underwater in each site for environmental characterization. 50 photo-quadrants on five transects were surveyed between 3-4m depth to record coverage (%) of living corals, dead corals, algae, sand and rocks. The conservation status of coral reefs was assessed by the coral mortality index (MI). Landscape values showed that both terrestrial and marine ecosystems had important scientific and aesthetic values, being Manzanillo Beach the site with the highest potential for conservation initiatives (TtV = 14.2). However, coral reefs face elevated sedimentation rates (up to 1.16 kg/m2d) and low water transparency (less of 5m) generated by coastal land use changes that have increased soil erosion in the adjacent coastal area. High coverage of dead corals (23.6%) and algae (up to 29%) confirm the low values in conservation status of coral reefs (MI = 0.5), reflecting a poorly-planned management

  16. Relevance of genetics for conservation policies: the case of Minorcan cork oaks

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo, Zaida; Burgarella, Concetta; de Heredia, Unai López; Lumaret, Roselyne; Petit, Rémy J.; Soto, Álvaro; Gil, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Marginal populations of widely distributed species can be of high conservation interest when they hold a significant or unique portion of the genetic diversity of the species. However, such genetic information is frequently lacking. Here the relevance of genetic surveys to develop efficient conservation strategies for such populations is illustrated using cork oak (Quercus suber) from Minorca (Balearic Islands, Spain) as a case study. Cork oak is highly endangered on the island, where no more than 67 individuals live in small, isolated stands in siliceous sites. As a consequence, it was recently granted protected status. Methods Two Bayesian clustering approaches were used to analyse the genetic structure of the Minorcan population, on the basis of nuclear microsatellite data. The different groups within the island were also compared with additional island and continental populations surrounding Minorca. Key Results Very high genetic diversity was found, with values comparable with those observed in continental parts of the species' range. Furthermore, the Minorcan oak stands were highly differentiated from one another and were genetically related to different continental populations of France and Spain. Conclusions The high levels of genetic diversity and inter-stands differentiation make Minorcan cork oak eligible for specific conservation efforts. The relationship of Minorcan stands to different continental populations in France and Spain probably reflects multiple colonization events. However, discrepancy between chloroplast DNA- and nuclear DNA-based groups does not support a simple scenario of recent introduction. Gene exchanges between neighbouring cork oak stands and with holm oak have created specific and exceptional genetic combinations. They also constitute a wide range of potential genetic resources for research on adaptation to new environmental conditions. Conservation guidelines that take into account these findings are provided

  17. Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue is devoted to discussions of early childhood policy issues. "Creating a Shared Vision: How Policy Affects Early Childhood Care and Development" (Judith L. Evans) defines policy, discusses the motivation for changing or creating national policy and the process for changing such policies, and provides a sample design for an early…

  18. Alternative energy sources II; Proceedings of the Second Miami International Conference, Miami Beach, Fla., December 10-13, 1979. Volume 9 - Conservation, economics, and policy; Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veziroglu, T. N.

    The book examines the topics of waste utilization, conservation, and energy economics and policy. Energy supply and demand, energy economics and planning, and energy strategies and policies are reviewed. Papers are presented on the contributions to the energy supply of the industrialized countries from nuclear energy and regenerative energy flows, a method for estimating escalation and interest during construction, and a comparison of the incentives used to stimulate energy production between the United States and Japan.

  19. Securing water for wetland conservation: a comparative analysis of policy options to protect a national nature reserve in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Wu, Junjie; Wang, Xiaoxia; Zhong, Ma

    2012-02-01

    This study evaluates four policy options to secure the water supply needed for wetland conservation in Qixinghe--a national wetland nature reserve in China--using four criteria: cost effectiveness, probability of success in achieving the water-saving goal, political feasibility, and farmer acceptance. This multi-criteria analysis framework reveals the ecological, economic, and socio-political trade-offs for policymakers when choosing among the four policy options. Results suggest that upgrading irrigation infrastructure in the area surrounding the wetland (Option I) is the most politically feasible option, but it is the second best option in terms of cost effectiveness. Constructing a dam to store and control floodwater (Option II) is the most reliable for achieving the water-saving goal. It is also the farmers' most favored strategy. But this option is the least cost effective and receives little support from local governments. Promoting farmers' adoption of water-saving practices (Option III) is the most cost effective, but it is less reliable for achieving the water-saving goal than Options I or II. Converting paddy crops to dry-land crops (Option IV) is politically infeasible and least reliable for achieving the water-saving goal. The overall ranking of the four options is determined using the policymakers' revealed weights on the four criteria. Option I is ranked first, followed by Options II, III, and IV. PMID:21925786

  20. Comparing the cost-effectiveness of water conservation policies in a depleting aquifer:A dynamic analysis of the Kansas High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research analyzes two groundwater conservation policies in the Kansas High Plains located within the Ogallala aquifer: 1) cost-share assistance to increase irrigation efficiency; and 2) incentive payments to convert irrigated crop production to dryland crop production. To compare the cost-effec...

  1. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Procedures, Interpretations and Policies for Consideration of New or Revised Energy Conservation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of New or Revised Energy Conservation Standards for Consumer Products A Appendix A to Subpart C of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Energy and Water Conservation Standards Pt. 430, Subpt. C, App. A Appendix A to Subpart C of...

  2. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Procedures, Interpretations and Policies for Consideration of New or Revised Energy Conservation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of New or Revised Energy Conservation Standards for Consumer Products A Appendix A to Subpart C of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Energy and Water Conservation Standards Pt. 430, Subpt. C, App. A Appendix A to Subpart C of...

  3. Summary of science, activities, programs, and policies that influence the rangewide conservation of Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manier, D.J.; Wood, D.J.A.; Bowen, Z.H.; Donovan, R.M.; Holloran, M.J.; Juliusson, L.M.; Mayne, K.S.; Oyler-McCance, S.J.; Quamen, F.R.; Saher, D.J.; Titolo, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    habitat condition, and finally the connection between habitat quality and sage-grouse population dynamics remains an important goal for science, management, and conservation. This effort is necessary, despite the perception that these complicated, indirect relations are difficult to characterize and manage, and the many advances in understanding and application developed toward this end have been documented here to help inform regional planning and policy decisions.

  4. Evolution of models to support community and policy action with science: Balancing pastoral livelihoods and wildlife conservation in savannas of East Africa.

    PubMed

    Reid, R S; Nkedianye, D; Said, M Y; Kaelo, D; Neselle, M; Makui, O; Onetu, L; Kiruswa, S; Kamuaro, N Ole; Kristjanson, P; Ogutu, J; BurnSilver, S B; Goldman, M J; Boone, R B; Galvin, K A; Dickson, N M; Clark, W C

    2016-04-26

    We developed a "continual engagement" model to better integrate knowledge from policy makers, communities, and researchers with the goal of promoting more effective action to balance poverty alleviation and wildlife conservation in 4 pastoral ecosystems of East Africa. The model involved the creation of a core boundary-spanning team, including community facilitators, a policy facilitator, and transdisciplinary researchers, responsible for linking with a wide range of actors from local to global scales. Collaborative researcher-facilitator community teams integrated local and scientific knowledge to help communities and policy makers improve herd quality and health, expand biodiversity payment schemes, develop land-use plans, and fully engage together in pastoral and wildlife policy development. This model focused on the creation of hybrid scientific-local knowledge highly relevant to community and policy maker needs. The facilitation team learned to be more effective by focusing on noncontroversial livelihood issues before addressing more difficult wildlife issues, using strategic and periodic engagement with most partners instead of continual engagement, and reducing costs by providing new scientific information only when deemed essential. We conclude by examining the role of facilitation in redressing asymmetries in power in researcher-community-policy maker teams, the role of individual values and character in establishing trust, and how to sustain knowledge-action links when project funding ends. PMID:19887640

  5. The "Puerto Rican Exception": Persistent Poverty and the Conservative Social Policy of Linda Chavez. IPR Policy Forums Proceedings (New York, New York, November 6, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falcon, Angelo, Ed.; Santiago, John, Ed.

    A policy forum featured a presentation by Linda Chavez on the public policy needs of the Puerto Rican community. The forum also included a panel of experts from the Puerto Rican community to provide critical feedback on Chavez's presentation. Chavez argued that Hispanic Americans can move into the mainstream of United States society, and that…

  6. Co-evolution of soil and water conservation policy and human-environment linkages in the Yellow River Basin since 1949.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Mu, Xingmin; Li, Rui; Fleskens, Luuk; Stringer, Lindsay C; Ritsema, Coen J

    2015-03-01

    Policy plays a very important role in natural resource management as it lays out a government framework for guiding long-term decisions, and evolves in light of the interactions between human and environment. This paper focuses on soil and water conservation (SWC) policy in the Yellow River Basin (YRB), China. The problems, rural poverty, severe soil erosion, great sediment loads and high flood risks, are analyzed over the period of 1949-present using the Driving force-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework as a way to organize analysis of the evolution of SWC policy. Three stages are identified in which SWC policy interacts differently with institutional, financial and technology support. In Stage 1 (1949-1979), SWC policy focused on rural development in eroded areas and on reducing sediment loads. Local farmers were mainly responsible for SWC. The aim of Stage 2 (1980-1990) was the overall development of rural industry and SWC. A more integrated management perspective was implemented taking a small watershed as a geographic interactional unit. This approach greatly improved the efficiency of SWC activities. In Stage 3 (1991 till now), SWC has been treated as the main measure for natural resource conservation, environmental protection, disaster mitigation and agriculture development. Prevention of new degradation became a priority. The government began to be responsible for SWC, using administrative, legal and financial approaches and various technologies that made large-scale SWC engineering possible. Over the historical period considered, with the implementation of the various SWC policies, the rural economic and ecological system improved continuously while the sediment load and flood risk decreased dramatically. The findings assist in providing a historical perspective that could inform more rational, scientific and effective natural resource management going forward. PMID:25478653

  7. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Policy Statement for Electric Motors Covered Under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Electric..., et seq., establishes energy efficiency standards and test procedures for certain commercial and... that follows is based upon input from motor manufacturers and energy efficiency advocates, and...

  8. Adjusting Educational Policies: Conserving Resources while Raising School Quality. World Bank Discussion Papers, Africa Technical Department Series, No. 132.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Bruce, Ed.; Habte, Aklilu, Ed.

    Progress made by African governments toward improving their educational policies is described in this collection of papers, which were presented at a conference cosponsored by the World Bank and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). Since the mid-1980s, several educational policy adjustment programs have been initiated in…

  9. Diversifying Schools and Leveraging School Improvement: A Comparative Analysis of the English Radical, and Singapore Conservative, Specialist Schools' Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmock, Clive

    2011-01-01

    Within the context of fierce global economic competition, school diversification and specialist schools have been seen by governments as cornerstones of education policy to engineer school improvement in both England and Singapore for more than a decade. In both systems, the policy has manifested in different school types, school names and…

  10. Global population genetic structure of the starlet anemone Nematostella vectensis: multiple introductions and implications for conservation policy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distinguishing natural versus anthropogenic dispersal of organisms is essential for determining the native range of a species and implementing an effective conservation strategy. For cryptogenic species with limited historical records, molecular data can help to identify introduc...

  11. Is there a need for a '100 questions exercise' to enhance fisheries and aquatic conservation, policy, management and research? Lessons from a global 100 questions exercise on conservation of biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Cooke, S J; Danylchuk, A J; Kaiser, M J; Rudd, M A

    2010-06-01

    Recent global and regional exercises have been undertaken to identify 100 questions of relevance to policy makers that, if answered, would improve decision making and conservation actions. These were intentionally broad, but all included themes and questions of relevance to aquatic and fisheries professionals (e.g. exploitation, habitat alteration, effectiveness of protected areas, migratory connectivity and environmental effects of aquaculture). Here, the content of the global 100 question exercise relevant to aquatic and fisheries issues is summarized and a critical analysis is provided. Many of the questions addressed in apparently unrelated themes and topics (e.g. terrestrial, agriculture and energy policy) have potential relevance to fisheries and aquatic habitats, which underlines the connectivity between terrestrial and aquatic realms. Given the intimate link between aquatic environmental problems and human activities (including culture and economics), greater understanding of the human dimension is required to inform decision making. Stakeholder perspectives need to be included as a core component of the fisheries management triangle (i.e. managing fish, habitat and people). The benefits and risks of conducting a global 100 questions exercise with an exclusive focus on questions of relevance to fisheries and aquatic practitioners are also considered. There is no question that evidence-based approaches to conservation are essential for addressing the many threats that face aquatic ecosystems and reverse the imperilment trends among ichthyofauna. It is still unclear, however, as to the extent to which 100 questions exercises will help to achieve conservation and management targets for aquatic resources. A global 100 questions exercise that focused on fisheries and aquatic issues would certainly help to generate interest and awareness sufficient to justify such an exercise. PMID:20557662

  12. An analysis of the feasibility of carbon management policies as a mechanism to influence water conservation using optimization methods.

    PubMed

    Wright, Andrew; Hudson, Darren

    2014-10-01

    Studies of how carbon reduction policies would affect agricultural production have found that there is a connection between carbon emissions and irrigation. Using county level data we develop an optimization model that accounts for the gross carbon emitted during the production process to evaluate how carbon reducing policies applied to agriculture would affect the choices of what to plant and how much to irrigate by producers on the Texas High Plains. Carbon emissions were calculated using carbon equivalent (CE) calculations developed by researchers at the University of Arkansas. Carbon reduction was achieved in the model through a constraint, a tax, or a subsidy. Reducing carbon emissions by 15% resulted in a significant reduction in the amount of water applied to a crop; however, planted acreage changed very little due to a lack of feasible alternative crops. The results show that applying carbon restrictions to agriculture may have important implications for production choices in areas that depend on groundwater resources for agricultural production. PMID:24905638

  13. Culture and conservation

    SciTech Connect

    McNeely, J.A.; Pitt, D.

    1985-01-01

    The threat posed by human activity in the natural environment is one of the major global problems of the present time. Much has been done throughout the world to promote conservation, but one theme that has generally been neglected is the contribution that local culture can make to conservation. Many people pass on from one generation to the next traditional lore and customs which amount to effective conservation policies. This book identifies such traditional conservation measures, examines their extent, and judges their effectiveness.

  14. Identifying and Reconciling Risk Across Sectors: The implications of differing views of risk in climate policy, environmental conservation, and the finance sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johns, T.; Henderson, I.; Thoumi, G.

    2014-12-01

    The presence and valuation of risk are commonalities that link the diverse fields of climate change science and policy, environmental conservation, and the financial/investment sector. However, the definition and perception of risks vary widely across these critically linked fields. The "Stranded Asset" concept developed by organizations like the Carbon Tracker Initiative begins to elucidate the links between climate change risk and financial risk. Stranded assets are those that may lose some or all value from climate disruption, changes in demand-side dynamics and/or a more stringent regulatory environment. In order to shift financial flows toward climate change mitigation, emissions-heavy activities that present finance and investment opportunities must also be assessed for their GHG-asset risk attributes in terms of their contribution and vulnerability to climate disruption, as well as other environmental externalities. Until the concept of GHG-asset risk in investment is reconciled with the risks of climate change and environmental conservation, it will not be possible to shift business and financial practices, and unlock private sector resources to address the climate change and conservation challenge. UNEP-FI is researching the application of the concept of Value-atRisk (VaR) to explore links between the financial sector and deforestation/REDD+. The research will test the hypothesis that climate risk is a financial risk, and propose tools to identify and quantify risks associated with unsustainable land-use investments. The tools developed in this research will help investors, managers and governments assess their exposures to the material REDD-related risks in their portfolios. This will inform the development of 'zero net deforestation' investment indices to allow investors to lower the 'deforestation' exposure of 'benchmark' financial indices used by many of the largest money managers. A VaR analysis will be performed, combining the notion of externality

  15. Energy Conservation for Public Office Buildings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roush, Larry F.

    1973-01-01

    The energy conservation policy for public office buildings includes experimental designs of new federal office buildings in Manchester, New Hampshire and Saginaw, Michigan, as well as immediate energy conservation efforts. (Author/MF)

  16. Conservation businesses and conservation planning in a biological diversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    Di Minin, Enrico; Macmillan, Douglas Craig; Goodman, Peter Styan; Escott, Boyd; Slotow, Rob; Moilanen, Atte

    2013-08-01

    The allocation of land to biological diversity conservation competes with other land uses and the needs of society for development, food, and extraction of natural resources. Trade-offs between biological diversity conservation and alternative land uses are unavoidable, given the realities of limited conservation resources and the competing demands of society. We developed a conservation-planning assessment for the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal, which forms the central component of the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany biological diversity hotspot. Our objective was to enhance biological diversity protection while promoting sustainable development and providing spatial guidance in the resolution of potential policy conflicts over priority areas for conservation at risk of transformation. The conservation-planning assessment combined spatial-distribution models for 646 conservation features, spatial economic-return models for 28 alternative land uses, and spatial maps for 4 threats. Nature-based tourism businesses were competitive with other land uses and could provide revenues of >US$60 million/year to local stakeholders and simultaneously help meeting conservation goals for almost half the conservation features in the planning region. Accounting for opportunity costs substantially decreased conflicts between biological diversity, agricultural use, commercial forestry, and mining. Accounting for economic benefits arising from conservation and reducing potential policy conflicts with alternative plans for development can provide opportunities for successful strategies that combine conservation and sustainable development and facilitate conservation action. PMID:23565917

  17. Energy Conservation for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Dept. of Education, Toronto.

    Information intended for those concerned with the administration, planning, financing, operation, and maintenance of school facilities applies to both new and existing building. An examination of motivation and policies relating to energy conservation is followed by the methods used for quantitative assessment of energy savings relative to extra…

  18. I think that I shall never see {hor_ellipsis} a lovely forestry policy: Land use programs for conservation of forests

    SciTech Connect

    Rayner, S.F.; Richards, K.R.

    1994-01-01

    Forestry programs are frequently invoked as having potential for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. Most studies have attempted to quantify the potential impact of forest programs on carbon uptake and the potential costs of such programs. In this paper, we will attempt instead to focus on the institutional issues of the implementation of forestry programs for carbon sequestration. In particular, we explore the challenges for implementing forest programs that are: of increasing technological complexity; and in settings that depart significantly from the idealized conditions of economic models. We start in Section 1 by examining a suite of instruments that are commonly employed to implement a given policy. Section 2 examines a relatively simple case -- a tree-planting program in the US -- and demonstrates that there are significant difficulties involved in implementing a carbon sequestration program, even in a well-developed market economy. Section 3 focuses on other technologies in the US and why the choice of policy instruments and program design is more difficult than for the simple tree-planting case. Section 4 considers implementation of forestry policies in other countries where the economies may bear less resemblance to the ideal market economy than the US. In those settings, the choice of policy instruments may be very sensitive to non-market considerations that are often missed in conventional policy and cost analysis.

  19. Multicultural Challenges in Educational Policies within a Non-Conservative Scenario: The Case of the Emerging Reforms in Higher Education in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canen, Ana

    2005-01-01

    The article discusses the extent to which multiculturalism has had an impact in the emerging reforms in higher education in Brazil, against the backdrop of the rise of a new non-Conservative, Labour-oriented government whose political agenda is marked by a discursive stand against conservatism, neo-liberalism and neocolonialism. Building on a…

  20. Habermas, O'Connor, and Wolfe, and the Crisis of the Welfare-Capitalist State: Conservative Politics and the Roots of Educational Policy in the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, H. Svi

    1983-01-01

    The works of Jurgen Habermas, James O'Connor, and Alan Wolfe, key authors in the field of current U.S. educational policies, are reviewed to further understanding of current educational change in the present politics of capitalist society. (CJB)

  1. Collections Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCandido, Robert

    Collections conservation is an approach to the preservation treatment of books and book-like materials that is conceptualized and organized in terms of large groups of materials. This guide is intended to enable a library to evaluate its current collections conservation activities. The introduction describes collections conservation and gives…

  2. Quantitative simulation tools to analyze up- and downstream interactions of soil and water conservation measures: supporting policy making in the Green Water Credits program of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Hunink, J E; Droogers, P; Kauffman, S; Mwaniki, B M; Bouma, J

    2012-11-30

    Upstream soil and water conservation measures in catchments can have positive impact both upstream in terms of less erosion and higher crop yields, but also downstream by less sediment flow into reservoirs and increased groundwater recharge. Green Water Credits (GWC) schemes are being developed to encourage upstream farmers to invest in soil and water conservation practices which will positively effect upstream and downstream water availability. Quantitative information on water and sediment fluxes is crucial as a basis for such financial schemes. A pilot design project in the large and strategically important Upper-Tana Basin in Kenya has the objective to develop a methodological framework for this purpose. The essence of the methodology is the integration and use of a collection of public domain tools and datasets: the so-called Green water and Blue water Assessment Toolkit (GBAT). This toolkit was applied in order to study different options to implement GWC in agricultural rainfed land for the pilot study. Impact of vegetative contour strips, mulching, and tied ridges were determined for: (i) three upstream key indicators: soil loss, crop transpiration and soil evaporation, and (ii) two downstream indicators: sediment inflow in reservoirs and groundwater recharge. All effects were compared with a baseline scenario of average conditions. Thus, not only actual land management was considered but also potential benefits of changed land use practices. Results of the simulations indicate that especially applying contour strips or tied ridges significantly reduces soil losses and increases groundwater recharge in the catchment. The model was used to build spatial expressions of the proposed management practices in order to assess their effectiveness. The developed procedure allows exploring the effects of soil conservation measures in a catchment to support the implementation of GWC. PMID:22922092

  3. Energy conservation in typical Asian countries

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, M.; Rumsey, P.

    1997-06-01

    Various policies and programs have been created to promote energy conservation in Asia. Energy conservation centers, energy conservation standards and labeling, commercial building codes, industrial energy use regulations, and utility demand-side management (DSM) are but a few of them. This article attempts to analyze the roles of these different policies and programs in seven typical Asian countries: China, Indonesia, Japan, Pakistan, South Korea, the Philippines, and Thailand. The conclusions show that the two most important features behind the success policies and programs are (1) government policy support and (2) long-run self-sustainability of financial support to the programs.

  4. Integrating Agriculture and Conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandever, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    The USGS produces the needed science-based information to guide management actions and policy decisions that support wildlife habitat and other environmental services compatible with USDA conservation goals and farm operations. The Policy Analysis and Science Assistance Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) has conducted research involving a national landowner survey and numerous short- and long-term evaluations regarding vegetation responses to land management practices. This research helps land and resource managers to make informed decisions and resolve resource management conflicts.

  5. Comparative Cost-Effectiveness of Conservative or Intensive Blood Pressure Treatment Guidelines in Adults Aged 35-74 Years: The Cardiovascular Disease Policy Model.

    PubMed

    Moise, Nathalie; Huang, Chen; Rodgers, Anthony; Kohli-Lynch, Ciaran N; Tzong, Keane Y; Coxson, Pamela G; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Goldman, Lee; Moran, Andrew E

    2016-07-01

    The population health effect and cost-effectiveness of implementing intensive blood pressure goals in high-cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk adults have not been described. Using the CVD Policy Model, CVD events, treatment costs, quality-adjusted life years, and drug and monitoring costs were simulated over 2016 to 2026 for hypertensive patients aged 35 to 74 years. We projected the effectiveness and costs of hypertension treatment according to the 2003 Joint National Committee (JNC)-7 or 2014 JNC8 guidelines, and then for adults aged ≥50 years, we assessed the cost-effectiveness of adding an intensive goal of systolic blood pressure <120 mm Hg for patients with CVD, chronic kidney disease, or 10-year CVD risk ≥15%. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios <$50 000 per quality-adjusted life years gained were considered cost-effective. JNC7 strategies treat more patients and are more costly to implement compared with JNC8 strategies. Adding intensive systolic blood pressure goals for high-risk patients prevents an estimated 43 000 and 35 000 annual CVD events incremental to JNC8 and JNC7, respectively. Intensive strategies save costs in men and are cost-effective in women compared with JNC8 alone. At a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50 000 per quality-adjusted life years gained, JNC8+intensive had the highest probability of cost-effectiveness in women (82%) and JNC7+intensive the highest probability of cost-effectiveness in men (100%). Assuming higher drug and monitoring costs, adding intensive goals for high-risk patients remained consistently cost-effective in men, but not always in women. Among patients aged 35 to 74 years, adding intensive blood pressure goals for high-risk groups to current national hypertension treatment guidelines prevents additional CVD deaths while saving costs provided that medication costs are controlled. PMID:27181996

  6. H. J. RES. 431: A Joint Resolution to establish that it is the policy of the United States to encourage and support conservation efforts initiated by Brazil to protect the Amazon forest, and that the United States should redouble its efforts to reduce its pollution of the global environment. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth First Congress, First Session, November 2, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    H.J.RES.431: A Joint Resolution to establish that it is the policy of the United States to encourage and support conservation efforts initiated by Brazil to protect the Amazon forest, and that the United States should redouble its efforts to reduce its pollution of the global environment.

  7. Rural Development Reorganization Act of 1984; and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Rural Development Policy Report. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Conservation, Credit, and Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture, House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session on H.R. 5024.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Agriculture.

    Testimonies were heard in reference to the administration's annual rural development policy report and H.R. 5024, the Rural Development Reorganization Act of 1984. The bill provides that the Department of Agriculture shall be known as the Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, transfers the administration of certain conservation programs…

  8. 18 CFR 420.21 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Policy. 420.21 Section 420.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-WATER SUPPLY CHARGES Water Supply Policy § 420.21 Policy. The provisions of this...

  9. 18 CFR 420.21 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Policy. 420.21 Section 420.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-WATER SUPPLY CHARGES Water Supply Policy § 420.21 Policy. The provisions of this...

  10. 18 CFR 420.21 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Policy. 420.21 Section 420.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-WATER SUPPLY CHARGES Water Supply Policy § 420.21 Policy. The provisions of this...

  11. 18 CFR 420.21 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Policy. 420.21 Section 420.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-WATER SUPPLY CHARGES Water Supply Policy § 420.21 Policy. The provisions of this...

  12. 18 CFR 420.21 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Policy. 420.21 Section 420.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-WATER SUPPLY CHARGES Water Supply Policy § 420.21 Policy. The provisions of this...

  13. Conservation Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friday, Gerald

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a project in which students teach about the importance of recycling and conservation by presenting demonstrations. Includes demonstrations on water, plastic, and other recycling products such as steel. (YDS)

  14. 75 FR 80292 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Electric Motors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ...). 74 FR 12058 (March 23, 2009) It was recently discovered that the efficiency levels under 10 CFR 431... Part 431 RIN 1904-AB71 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Electric Motors..., promulgating energy conservation standards for certain electric motors as prescribed in the Energy Policy...

  15. US Policy approaches for assessing soil health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is worldwide recognition for a more holistic vision of soil health and tools to guide soil conservation policy, management and restoration. To meet this need, U.S. conservation programs in the US Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (the farm bill), including the Conservation Stewardship...

  16. "Conservative" views of abortion.

    PubMed

    Devine, P E

    1997-01-01

    The introduction to this essay, which presents and defends the "conservative" position on abortion, explains that this position holds that 1) abortion is wrong because it destroys the fetus; 2) the fetus has full personhood from conception (or very near conception); 3) abortion is only justified under special circumstances, such as when the pregnancy poses a threat to the woman's life; and 4) these conclusions should be reflected in law and public policy. Part 2 sets forth the moral foundations for this position. The third part considers the status of the fetus and reviews the various arguments that have been forwarded to resolve the question, such as the species principle, the potentiality principle, the sentience principle, and the conventionalist principle. Part 4 applies the conservative position to problems posed by hard cases, determines that abortion is a form of homicide from two weeks after fertilization (at the latest), reviews circumstances in which various legal definitions of homicide are applicable, argues for the denial of abortion funding by the state, and notes that violent militancy is not the appropriate response to a belief that abortion should be illegal. Section 5 refutes objections to the conservative position based on the fact that some opponents of abortion also oppose contraception, based on feminist ideals, and based on calls for religious freedom in a pluralistic society. In conclusion, the labels applied to the abortion debate are examined, and it is suggested that "communitarian" is the best term for the conservative position. PMID:12348327

  17. Marketing Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, William B.

    1987-01-01

    In 1986, Northeast Utilities began helping shool administrators combat school building energy wastage through a program called Energy Alliance. The typical school can reduce its energy bill by 30 percent by adopting a wide range of conservation measures, including cogeneration, relamping, and energy audits. (MLH)

  18. [Conservation Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Instructional units deal with each aspect of conservation: forests, wildlife, rangelands, water, minerals, and soil. The area of the secondary school curriculum with which each is correlated is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the topic, questions to…

  19. [Conservation Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  20. Colorful Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Some people only think about conservation on Earth Day. Being in the "art business" however, this author is always conscious of the many products she thinks get wasted when they could be reused, recycled, and restored--especially in a school building and art room. In this article, she describes an art lesson that allows students to paint…

  1. 43 CFR 10010.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... NEPA; (d) To consider and give significant weight to environmental factors, along with other essential... CONSERVATION COMMISSION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Protection and Enhancement of Environmental Quality § 10010.2 Policy. It is the policy of the Commission:...

  2. Efficiency of incentives to jointly increase carbon sequestration and species conservation on a landscape

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Erik; Polasky, Stephen; Lewis, David J.; Plantinga, Andrew J.; Lonsdorf, Eric; White, Denis; Bael, David; Lawler, Joshua J.

    2008-01-01

    We develop an integrated model to predict private land-use decisions in response to policy incentives designed to increase the provision of carbon sequestration and species conservation across heterogeneous landscapes. Using data from the Willamette Basin, Oregon, we compare the provision of carbon sequestration and species conservation under five simple policies that offer payments for conservation. We evaluate policy performance compared with the maximum feasible combinations of carbon sequestration and species conservation on the landscape for various conservation budgets. None of the conservation payment policies produce increases in carbon sequestration and species conservation that approach the maximum potential gains on the landscape. Our results show that policies aimed at increasing the provision of carbon sequestration do not necessarily increase species conservation and that highly targeted policies do not necessarily do as well as more general policies. PMID:18621703

  3. Water Conservation : The Struggle Over Definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Duane D.; Boland, John J.; Sims, John H.

    1984-04-01

    During the 1970's much attention was focused on the role of water conservation in the planning and management of urban water supplies, and actions to implement water conservation were taken at all levels of government. Yet many policies and programs appear to rely on conceptions of water conservation which confuse supply and demand oriented strategies or which inefficiently conserve water at the expense of other scarce resources. Through an analysis of the underlying concepts and values, a definition of water conservation is reached which is both precise and practical and which provides a sound basis for the development of water conservation policies. Examples drawn from recent field studies illustrate the application of the definition.

  4. Biological diversity conservation: A public policy perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipkin, James

    1996-11-01

    While extinctions of individual species are part of a normal cycle, the current rate of extinctions should be a concern to us all. The maintenance of biological diversity is important for utilitarian reasons, quality of life considerations, and because biodiversity is important to sustainable regional economies. Single-species approaches are too limited to protect biodiversity at the landscape, habitat, and watershed levels. New approaches are necessary to deal with the complexity of biological diversity. The administration is using provisions in the Endangered Species Act to bring about broader multispecies habitat protection. The ecosystem approach provides a framework for ensuring that ecological considerations are taken into account, along with economic and social factors, and that all interested parties are able to participate in the decision-making process.

  5. Citizen Action Guide to Energy Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens Advisory Committee on Environmental Quality.

    This book is concerned with educating citizen leaders and public officials on matters of transportation energy, industrial and electrical energy, and residential and commercial energy usage. Also included are guidelines on developing a national energy conservation policy and mobilizing citizens for action in energy conservation concerns. A…

  6. Institutional Manager's Guide to Energy Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Office of State and Local Programs.

    The information provided in this guidebook is based on a field evaluation of grantees in the Institutional Conservation Program (ICP). The ICP, authorized by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978 and administered by the Department of Energy, provides energy audits and 50 percent matching grants for detailed energy analyses and for…

  7. Leadership: a new frontier in conservation science.

    PubMed

    Manolis, Jim C; Chan, Kai M; Finkelstein, Myra E; Stephens, Scott; Nelson, Cara R; Grant, Jacqualine B; Dombeck, Michael P

    2009-08-01

    Leadership is a critical tool for expanding the influence of conservation science, but recent advances in leadership concepts and practice remain underutilized by conservation scientists. Furthermore, an explicit conceptual foundation and definition of leadership in conservation science are not available in the literature. Here we drew on our diverse leadership experiences, our reading of leadership literature, and discussions with selected conservation science leaders to define conservation-science leadership, summarize an exploratory set of leadership principles that are applicable to conservation science, and recommend actions to expand leadership capacity among conservation scientists and practitioners. We define 2 types of conservation-science leadership: shaping conservation science through path-breaking research, and advancing the integration of conservation science into policy, management, and society at large. We focused on the second, integrative type of leadership because we believe it presents the greatest opportunity for improving conservation effectiveness. We identified 8 leadership principles derived mainly from the "adaptive leadership" literature: recognize the social dimension of the problem; cycle frequently through action and reflection; get and maintain attention; combine strengths of multiple leaders; extend your reach through networks of relationships; strategically time your effort; nurture productive conflict; and cultivate diversity. Conservation scientists and practitioners should strive to develop themselves as leaders, and the Society for Conservation Biology, conservation organizations, and academia should support this effort through professional development, mentoring, teaching, and research. PMID:19183215

  8. Conservation physiology

    PubMed Central

    Kronfeld-Schor, Noga

    2014-01-01

    Global change presents a huge and exciting challenge to the study of thermal physiology. The implication of thermoregulatory strategies and abilities for the survival of individuals and species, are of high importance for predicting species response to global change challenges and ways to mitigate them, and for conservation acts. A good example of such a study is the paper by Cooper and Withers in this issue.1

  9. Heron conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2000-01-01

    Herons are large, popular and, in many cases, spectacular birds found in wetlands world-wide, both tropical and temperate, natural and man-made. Some populations are very small and localized, some have decreased, some have expanded their ranges, and a few are pests of human activities. In the fifteen years since the publication of the latest monographic treatment of the family, The Herons Handbook, there has been a tremendous increase in our knowledge of heron status and conservation requirements, set against a backdrop of increasing concern about the future of the world?s wetland habitats. This book provides a comprehensive update following two distinct threads. The status and conservation needs of herons are first presented on a regional basis, in a series of chapters set at a continental or subcontinental scale. Over 200 biologists and heron conservationists have contributed to the data summarized here, and the very latest census and survey results provide the most up-to-date and detailed picture of heron populations currently available. Chapters discussing several critical issues in heron conservation follow, tending to focus on the international nature of the problems.

  10. Priorities for global felid conservation.

    PubMed

    Dickman, Amy J; Hinks, Amy E; Macdonald, Ewan A; Burnham, Dawn; Macdonald, David W

    2015-06-01

    Conservation resources are limited, necessitating prioritization of species and locations for action. Most prioritization approaches are based solely on biologically relevant characteristics of taxa or areas and ignore geopolitical realities. Doing so risks a poor return on conservation investment due to nonbiological factors, such as economic or political instability. We considered felids, a taxon which attracts intense conservation attention, to demonstrate a new approach that incorporates both intrinsic species traits and geopolitical characteristics of countries. We developed conservation priority scores for wild felids based on their International Union for Conservation of Nature status, body mass, habitat, range within protected area, evolutionary distinctiveness, and conservation umbrella potential. We used published data on governance, economics and welfare, human population pressures, and conservation policy to assign conservation-likelihood scores to 142 felid-hosting countries. We identified 71 countries as high priorities (above median) for felid conservation. These countries collectively encompassed all 36 felid species and supported an average of 96% of each species' range. Of these countries, 60.6% had below-average conservation-likelihood scores, which indicated these countries are relatively risky conservation investments. Governance was the most common factor limiting conservation likelihood. It was the major contributor to below-median likelihood scores for 62.5% of the 32 felid species occurring in lower-likelihood countries. Governance was followed by economics for which scores were below median for 25% of these species. An average of 58% of species' ranges occurred in 43 higher-priority lower-likelihood countries. Human population pressure was second to governance as a limiting factor when accounting for percentage of species' ranges in each country. As conservation likelihood decreases, it will be increasingly important to identify relevant

  11. Credibility and advocacy in conservation science

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Cristi C.; Peterson, Tarla Rai; Banerjee, Paulami

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Conservation policy sits at the nexus of natural science and politics. On the one hand, conservation scientists strive to maintain scientific credibility by emphasizing that their research findings are the result of disinterested observations of reality. On the other hand, conservation scientists are committed to conservation even if they do not advocate a particular policy. The professional conservation literature offers guidance on negotiating the relationship between scientific objectivity and political advocacy without damaging conservation science's credibility. The value of this guidance, however, may be restricted by limited recognition of credibility's multidimensionality and emergent nature: it emerges through perceptions of expertise, goodwill, and trustworthiness. We used content analysis of the literature to determine how credibility is framed in conservation science as it relates to apparent contradictions between science and advocacy. Credibility typically was framed as a static entity lacking dimensionality. Authors identified expertise or trustworthiness as important, but rarely mentioned goodwill. They usually did not identify expertise, goodwill, or trustworthiness as dimensions of credibility or recognize interactions among these 3 dimensions of credibility. This oversimplification may limit the ability of conservation scientists to contribute to biodiversity conservation. Accounting for the emergent quality and multidimensionality of credibility should enable conservation scientists to advance biodiversity conservation more effectively. PMID:26041036

  12. Credibility and advocacy in conservation science.

    PubMed

    Horton, Cristi C; Peterson, Tarla Rai; Banerjee, Paulami; Peterson, Markus J

    2016-02-01

    Conservation policy sits at the nexus of natural science and politics. On the one hand, conservation scientists strive to maintain scientific credibility by emphasizing that their research findings are the result of disinterested observations of reality. On the other hand, conservation scientists are committed to conservation even if they do not advocate a particular policy. The professional conservation literature offers guidance on negotiating the relationship between scientific objectivity and political advocacy without damaging conservation science's credibility. The value of this guidance, however, may be restricted by limited recognition of credibility's multidimensionality and emergent nature: it emerges through perceptions of expertise, goodwill, and trustworthiness. We used content analysis of the literature to determine how credibility is framed in conservation science as it relates to apparent contradictions between science and advocacy. Credibility typically was framed as a static entity lacking dimensionality. Authors identified expertise or trustworthiness as important, but rarely mentioned goodwill. They usually did not identify expertise, goodwill, or trustworthiness as dimensions of credibility or recognize interactions among these 3 dimensions of credibility. This oversimplification may limit the ability of conservation scientists to contribute to biodiversity conservation. Accounting for the emergent quality and multidimensionality of credibility should enable conservation scientists to advance biodiversity conservation more effectively. PMID:26041036

  13. Agricultural intensification escalates future conservation costs

    PubMed Central

    Phelps, Jacob; Carrasco, Luis Roman; Webb, Edward L.; Koh, Lian Pin; Pascual, Unai

    2013-01-01

    The supposition that agricultural intensification results in land sparing for conservation has become central to policy formulations across the tropics. However, underlying assumptions remain uncertain and have been little explored in the context of conservation incentive schemes such as policies for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation, conservation, sustainable management, and enhancement of carbon stocks (REDD+). Incipient REDD+ forest carbon policies in a number of countries propose agricultural intensification measures to replace extensive “slash-and-burn” farming systems. These may result in conservation in some contexts, but will also increase future agricultural land rents as productivity increases, creating new incentives for agricultural expansion and deforestation. While robust governance can help to ensure land sparing, we propose that conservation incentives will also have to increase over time, tracking future agricultural land rents, which might lead to runaway conservation costs. We present a conceptual framework that depicts these relationships, supported by an illustrative model of the intensification of key crops in the Democratic Republic of Congo, a leading REDD+ country. A von Thünen land rent model is combined with geographic information systems mapping to demonstrate how agricultural intensification could influence future conservation costs. Once postintensification agricultural land rents are considered, the cost of reducing forest sector emissions could significantly exceed current and projected carbon credit prices. Our analysis highlights the importance of considering escalating conservation costs from agricultural intensification when designing conservation initiatives. PMID:23589860

  14. Agricultural intensification escalates future conservation costs.

    PubMed

    Phelps, Jacob; Carrasco, Luis Roman; Webb, Edward L; Koh, Lian Pin; Pascual, Unai

    2013-05-01

    The supposition that agricultural intensification results in land sparing for conservation has become central to policy formulations across the tropics. However, underlying assumptions remain uncertain and have been little explored in the context of conservation incentive schemes such as policies for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation, conservation, sustainable management, and enhancement of carbon stocks (REDD+). Incipient REDD+ forest carbon policies in a number of countries propose agricultural intensification measures to replace extensive "slash-and-burn" farming systems. These may result in conservation in some contexts, but will also increase future agricultural land rents as productivity increases, creating new incentives for agricultural expansion and deforestation. While robust governance can help to ensure land sparing, we propose that conservation incentives will also have to increase over time, tracking future agricultural land rents, which might lead to runaway conservation costs. We present a conceptual framework that depicts these relationships, supported by an illustrative model of the intensification of key crops in the Democratic Republic of Congo, a leading REDD+ country. A von Thünen land rent model is combined with geographic information systems mapping to demonstrate how agricultural intensification could influence future conservation costs. Once postintensification agricultural land rents are considered, the cost of reducing forest sector emissions could significantly exceed current and projected carbon credit prices. Our analysis highlights the importance of considering escalating conservation costs from agricultural intensification when designing conservation initiatives. PMID:23589860

  15. Energy Conservation in Small Schools. Small Schools Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardener, Clark

    Information concerning methods and available materials for conserving energy is needed by small, rural schools to offset continued increasing energy costs and lack of financial support and technical assistance. The first step in developing an energy conservation policy is to obtain school board commitment and to establish an energy saving policy.…

  16. Conservative Remapper

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-03-31

    Conservative Remapper (CORE) is a C++ language software library for remapping cell masses and cell-averaged densities on unstructured two dimensional grids, maintaining conservation of total mass in the process. CORE contains implementation of two remapping algorithms: a new, efficient "swept region" algorithm, and a more traditional algorithm basedon the computation of cell intersections. Grids may be Cartesian or cylindrical, and cells may have three or more vertices, with no upper limit. CORE can run inmore » serial and in parallel, but in order to achieve wide applicability, CORE used no particular parallel communication library. Instead it achieves parallel communication through strategically placed, user defined callbacks. Users can also provide callbacks to redefine different parts or subcomponents of the remapping process. CORE allows the use of different data types, e.g. single-, double-, and quadruple- precision floating-point numbers, through the use of C++ templates. Using CORE is simple, and requires no configuration scripts or makefiles.« less

  17. Effective primate conservation education: gaps and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Susan K

    2010-05-01

    Conservation education goals generally include influencing people's conservation awareness, attitudes, and behaviors. Effective programs can help foster sustainable behavior, improve public support for conservation, reduce vandalism and poaching in protected areas, improve compliance with conservation regulations, increase recreation carrying capacities, and influence policies and decisions that affect the environment. Primate conservation problems cut across many disciplines, and primate conservation education must likewise address cross-disciplinary issues. Conservation educators must incorporate both theoretical and practical knowledge and skills to develop effective programs, and the skill set must stretch beyond pedagogy. Expertise needed comes from the areas of planning, collaboration, psychology, entertainment, and evaluation. Integration of these elements can lead to greater program success. PMID:20041471

  18. Science, Scientists, and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schooler, Dean, Jr.

    The politically relevant behavior of scientists in the formulation of public policy by the United States government from 1945-68 is studied. The following types of policy issues are treated: science, space, weather, weapons, deterrence and defense, health, fiscal and monetary, pollution, conservation, antitrust, transportation safety, trade and…

  19. Local Responses to Participatory Conservation in Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadka, Damodar; Nepal, Sanjay K.

    2010-02-01

    Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for participation. In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the barriers encountered in its implementation, a questionnaire survey of 188 households was employed in the communities of the Upper Mustang extension of Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. The study provides a comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers between Non-Tourist (NT) and Tourist (TV) villages. The results revealed important differences between the two groups in terms of their participation in community programs, barriers to participation, and perception of benefits from participation. Owing to their distinct spatial, demographic and attitudinal differences, the two village groups have their own sets of needs, values and motivation factors which cannot be generalized and treated as such. The research clearly identifies the need for the conservation agency to be creative in devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific social groups so as to optimize their input in participatory conservation.

  20. Local responses to participatory conservation in Annapurna conservation area, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Khadka, Damodar; Nepal, Sanjay K

    2010-02-01

    Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for participation. In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the barriers encountered in its implementation, a questionnaire survey of 188 households was employed in the communities of the Upper Mustang extension of Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. The study provides a comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers between Non-Tourist (NT) and Tourist (TV) villages. The results revealed important differences between the two groups in terms of their participation in community programs, barriers to participation, and perception of benefits from participation. Owing to their distinct spatial, demographic and attitudinal differences, the two village groups have their own sets of needs, values and motivation factors which cannot be generalized and treated as such. The research clearly identifies the need for the conservation agency to be creative in devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific social groups so as to optimize their input in participatory conservation. PMID:19967362

  1. 78 FR 23335 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ...The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA), as amended, prescribes energy conservation standards for various consumer products and certain commercial and industrial equipment, including distribution transformers. EPCA also requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine whether more-stringent standards would be technologically feasible and economically justified, and would......

  2. 76 FR 22324 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ...The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) prescribes energy conservation standards for various consumer products and commercial and industrial equipment, including residential clothes dryers and room air conditioners. EPCA also requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if amended standards for these products are technologically feasible and economically justified, and would......

  3. 14 CFR 313.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy. 313.2 Section 313.2 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT § 313.2 Policy. (a) General. It is...

  4. 14 CFR 313.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Policy. 313.2 Section 313.2 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT § 313.2 Policy. (a) General. It is...

  5. 7 CFR 14.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Policy. 14.4 Section 14.4 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINING THE PRIMARY PURPOSE OF CERTAIN PAYMENTS FOR FEDERAL TAX PURPOSES § 14.4 Policy. Federal tax, conservation, natural resource, and environmental policies should complement...

  6. 7 CFR 14.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy. 14.4 Section 14.4 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINING THE PRIMARY PURPOSE OF CERTAIN PAYMENTS FOR FEDERAL TAX PURPOSES § 14.4 Policy. Federal tax, conservation, natural resource, and environmental policies should complement...

  7. 7 CFR 14.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Policy. 14.4 Section 14.4 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINING THE PRIMARY PURPOSE OF CERTAIN PAYMENTS FOR FEDERAL TAX PURPOSES § 14.4 Policy. Federal tax, conservation, natural resource, and environmental policies should complement...

  8. 7 CFR 14.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Policy. 14.4 Section 14.4 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINING THE PRIMARY PURPOSE OF CERTAIN PAYMENTS FOR FEDERAL TAX PURPOSES § 14.4 Policy. Federal tax, conservation, natural resource, and environmental policies should complement rather than conflict with one...

  9. 7 CFR 14.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Policy. 14.4 Section 14.4 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINING THE PRIMARY PURPOSE OF CERTAIN PAYMENTS FOR FEDERAL TAX PURPOSES § 14.4 Policy. Federal tax, conservation, natural resource, and environmental policies should complement...

  10. A conceptual framework for the emerging discipline of conservation physiology

    PubMed Central

    Coristine, Laura E.; Robillard, Cassandra M.; Kerr, Jeremy T.; O'Connor, Constance M.; Lapointe, Dominique; Cooke, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Current rates of biodiversity decline are unprecedented and largely attributed to anthropogenic influences. Given the scope and magnitude of conservation issues, policy and management interventions must maximize efficiency and efficacy. The relatively new field of conservation physiology reveals the physiological mechanisms associated with population declines, animal–environment relationships and population or species tolerance thresholds, particularly where these relate to anthropogenic factors that necessitate conservation action. We propose a framework that demonstrates an integrative approach between physiology, conservation and policy, where each can inform the design, conduct and implementation of the other. Each junction of the conservation physiology process has the capacity to foster dialogue that contributes to effective implementation, monitoring, assessment and evaluation. This approach enables effective evaluation and implementation of evidence-based conservation policy and management decisions through a process of ongoing refinement, but may require that scientists (from the disciplines of both physiology and conservation) and policy-makers bridge interdisciplinary knowledge gaps. Here, we outline a conceptual framework that can guide and lead developments in conservation physiology, as well as promote innovative research that fosters conservation-motivated policy. PMID:27293654

  11. On biodiversity conservation and poverty traps

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Christopher B.; Travis, Alexander J.; Dasgupta, Partha

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a special feature on biodiversity conservation and poverty traps. We define and explain the core concepts and then identify four distinct classes of mechanisms that define important interlinkages between biodiversity and poverty. The multiplicity of candidate mechanisms underscores a major challenge in designing policy appropriate across settings. This framework is then used to introduce the ensuing set of papers, which empirically explore these various mechanisms linking poverty traps and biodiversity conservation. PMID:21873176

  12. Social psychological aspects of energy conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aronson, Elliot; Yates, Suzanne

    1985-11-01

    Although some increases in the adoption of energy-efficient practices have been noted, only a small fraction of the potential savings are being realized, perhaps because human behavior is too complex for existing economic models. The rational-economic model is able to predict behavior in many situations, but it has limitations. To design effective public policy, the social, cognitive, and personal forces, that in addition to the economic realities define the situation, must be understood. This chapter examines one aspect of current energy conservation policy, the home energy audit program mandated by the Residential Conservation Service, and attempts to show how existing social psychological research might be beneficially applied.

  13. Citizens' preferences for the conservation of agricultural genetic resources

    PubMed Central

    Pouta, Eija; Tienhaara, Annika; Ahtiainen, Heini

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of conservation policies for agricultural genetic resources (AgGR) requires information on the use and non-use values of plant varieties and animal breeds, as well as on the preferences for in situ and ex situ conservation. We conducted a choice experiment to estimate citizens' willingness to pay (WTP) for AgGR conservation programmes in Finland, and used a latent class model to identify heterogeneity in preferences among respondent groups. The findings indicate that citizens have a high interest in the conservation of native breeds and varieties, but also reveal the presence of preference heterogeneity. Five respondent groups could be identified based on latent class modeling: one implying lexicographic preferences, two with reasoned choices, one indicating uncertain support and one with a preference for the current status of conservation. The results emphasize the importance of in situ conservation of native cattle breeds and plant varieties in developing conservation policies. PMID:25566324

  14. Application of a calibrated/validated Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender model to assess sediment and nutrient delivery from the Wildcat Creek Mississippi River Basin Initiative – Cooperative Conservation Partnership

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Wildcat Creek, a tributary to the Wabash River was identified by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) as a priority watershed for its high sediment and nutrient loading contributions to the Mississippi River. As part of the Mississippi River Basin Initiative (MRBI), the incorpo...

  15. Decentralizing conservation and diversifying livelihoods within Kanchenjunga Conservation Area, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Parker, Pete; Thapa, Brijesh; Jacob, Aerin

    2015-12-01

    To alleviate poverty and enhance conservation in resource dependent communities, managers must identify existing livelihood strategies and the associated factors that impede household access to livelihood assets. Researchers increasingly advocate reallocating management power from exclusionary central institutions to a decentralized system of management based on local and inclusive participation. However, it is yet to be shown if decentralizing conservation leads to diversified livelihoods within a protected area. The purpose of this study was to identify and assess factors affecting household livelihood diversification within Nepal's Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project, the first protected area in Asia to decentralize conservation. We randomly surveyed 25% of Kanchenjunga households to assess household socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and access to livelihood assets. We used a cluster analysis with the ten most common income generating activities (both on- and off-farm) to group the strategies households use to diversify livelihoods, and a multinomial logistic regression to identify predictors of livelihood diversification. We found four distinct groups of household livelihood strategies with a range of diversification that directly corresponded to household income. The predictors of livelihood diversification were more related to pre-existing socioeconomic and demographic factors (e.g., more landholdings and livestock, fewer dependents, receiving remittances) than activities sponsored by decentralizing conservation (e.g., microcredit, training, education, interaction with project staff). Taken together, our findings indicate that without direct policies to target marginalized groups, decentralized conservation in Kanchenjunga will continue to exclude marginalized groups, limiting a household's ability to diversify their livelihood and perpetuating their dependence on natural resources. PMID:26363256

  16. The Work of Teacher Educators: An English Policy Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Ann

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the Conservative-Liberal coalition government's policy in teacher education in England and its implications for the work of teacher educators. It does this by considering, for example, policy documents and the speeches of key politicians responsible for policy formulation. It argues that policies influenced by the…

  17. The Relationship between Conservation Policy and Aquatic Genetic Resources. In: T.R. Tiersch and C.C. Green (eds.) Cryopreservation in Aquatic Species, 2nd Edition. World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge, LA.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Globally there is an increased awareness of how important genetic resources are for all forms of agriculture. This awareness has resulted in questions concerning the policies countries and the international community should pursue to ensure the sustainable use of diverse genetic resources. For aquac...

  18. Conservative's program for the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, M.F.

    1981-04-01

    Environmental issues transcend ideology and assume a nonpartisan global view of the world that should include conservatives. Neglect of the conservative roots of environmentalism is partly due to the environmental movement's seeking quick action through the regulatory and policymaking approach. Political changes that came with the 1980 election could undo the progress made unless efforts are made to emphasize the underlying relationships between conservatism and environmentalism. The author explores these ties in light of current environmental issues and suggests four basic policies to pursue that would (1) integrate environmental goals with the marketplace, (2) stop or reduce federal resource use subsidies, (3) provide technical assistance and resource information to state and local governments and to the private sector, and (4) provide for broad public participation in analyzing and deciding upon federal proposals. 18 references. (DCK)

  19. Tropical forest conservation and development: A bibliography. Manual No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, J.

    1993-01-01

    Contents: forest resources; deforestation; conservation and sustainable development; indigenous peoples; management, policy, and planning; trade and industrial development; nontimber forest products; research, education, and training; history; bibliographies and general works; author index.

  20. Top priorities of Canadian and American policymakers for conservation science

    EPA Science Inventory

    We summarize the content of America's "top 40" conservation research questions and how they can inform policy and management needs that emerged from informal interviews with senior policymakers and other decision makers

  1. Collections Management, Collections Maintenance, and Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Museums, Washington, DC.

    This national survey of the state of the nation's museum collections investigates collection care policies and practices, conservation issues, and private sector and federal support for museum needs. It consists of two major projects and four additional information gathering projects. The Museum Collection Survey is designed to examine all major…

  2. Community Participation in Jamaican Conservation Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundy, Patricia

    1999-01-01

    In Jamaica, people most likely to be affected by environmental degradation are less likely to be involved in environmental nongovernmental organizations and community-based conservation projects. Funders, practitioners, and policy makers should work to remove barriers to participation and ensure equitable allocation of funding. (SK)

  3. Curriculum Leadership in a Conservative Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ylimaki, Rose M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose is to examine how recent conservative cultural political shifts have affected the meanings of curriculum leadership in schools. The author examines four principals in the wake of the No Child Left Behind Act and other related policies and trends. Design: This is a critical ethnographic study of principals' curriculum…

  4. Using perceptions as evidence to improve conservation and environmental management.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Nathan James

    2016-06-01

    The conservation community is increasingly focusing on the monitoring and evaluation of management, governance, ecological, and social considerations as part of a broader move toward adaptive management and evidence-based conservation. Evidence is any information that can be used to come to a conclusion and support a judgment or, in this case, to make decisions that will improve conservation policies, actions, and outcomes. Perceptions are one type of information that is often dismissed as anecdotal by those arguing for evidence-based conservation. In this paper, I clarify the contributions of research on perceptions of conservation to improving adaptive and evidence-based conservation. Studies of the perceptions of local people can provide important insights into observations, understandings and interpretations of the social impacts, and ecological outcomes of conservation; the legitimacy of conservation governance; and the social acceptability of environmental management. Perceptions of these factors contribute to positive or negative local evaluations of conservation initiatives. It is positive perceptions, not just objective scientific evidence of effectiveness, that ultimately ensure the support of local constituents thus enabling the long-term success of conservation. Research on perceptions can inform courses of action to improve conservation and governance at scales ranging from individual initiatives to national and international policies. Better incorporation of evidence from across the social and natural sciences and integration of a plurality of methods into monitoring and evaluation will provide a more complete picture on which to base conservation decisions and environmental management. PMID:26801337

  5. Conservation physiology across scales: insights from the marine realm

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Steven J.; Killen, Shaun S.; Metcalfe, Julian D.; McKenzie, David J.; Mouillot, David; Jørgensen, Christian; Peck, Myron A.

    2014-01-01

    As the field of conservation physiology develops and becomes increasingly integrated with ecology and conservation science, the fundamental concept of scale is being recognized as important, particularly for ensuring that physiological knowledge is contextualized in a manner most relevant to policy makers, conservation practitioners and stakeholders. Failure to consider the importance of scale in conservation physiology—both the challenges and the opportunities that it creates—will impede the ability of this discipline to generate the scientific understanding needed to contribute to meaningful conservation outcomes. Here, we have focused on five aspects of scale: biological, spatial, temporal, allometric and phylogenetic. We also considered the scale of policy and policy application relevant to those five types of scale as well as the merits of upscaling and downscaling to explore and address conservation problems. Although relevant to all systems (e.g. freshwater, terrestrial) we have used examples from the marine realm, with a particular emphasis on fishes, given the fact that there is existing discourse regarding scale and its relevance for marine conservation and management. Our synthesis revealed that all five aspects of scale are relevant to conservation physiology, with many aspects inherently linked. It is apparent that there are both opportunities and challenges afforded by working across scales but, to understand mechanisms underlying conservation problems, it is essential to consider scale of all sorts and to work across scales to the greatest extent possible. Moreover, given that the scales in biological processes will often not match policy and management scales, conservation physiology needs to show how it is relevant to aspects at different policy/management scales, change the scales at which policy/management intervention is applied or be prepared to be ignored. PMID:27293645

  6. Geography of conservation spending, biodiversity, and culture.

    PubMed

    McClanahan, T R; Rankin, P S

    2016-10-01

    We used linear and multivariate models to examine the associations between geography, biodiversity, per capita economic output, national spending on conservation, governance, and cultural traits in 55 countries. Cultural traits and social metrics of modernization correlated positively with national spending on conservation. The global distribution of this spending culture was poorly aligned with the distribution of biodiversity. Specifically, biodiversity was greater in the tropics where cultures tended to spend relatively less on conservation and tended to have higher collectivism, formalized and hierarchical leadership, and weaker governance. Consequently, nations lacking social traits frequently associated with modernization, environmentalism, and conservation spending have the largest component of Earth's biodiversity. This has significant implications for setting policies and priorities for resource management given that biological diversity is rapidly disappearing and cultural traits change slowly. Therefore, we suggest natural resource management adapt to and use characteristics of existing social organization rather than wait for or promote social values associated with conservation spending. Supporting biocultural traditions, engaging leaders to increase conservation commitments, cross-national efforts that complement attributes of cultures, and avoiding interference with nature may work best to conserve nature in collective and hierarchical societies. Spending in modernized nations may be a symbolic response to a symptom of economic development and environmental degradation, and here conservation actions need to ensure that biodiversity is not being lost. PMID:26991737

  7. Deconstructing Community for Conservation: Why Simple Assumptions are Not Sufficient.

    PubMed

    Waylen, Kerry Ann; Fischer, Anke; McGowan, Philip J K; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2013-01-01

    Many conservation policies advocate engagement with local people, but conservation practice has sometimes been criticised for a simplistic understanding of communities and social context. To counter this, this paper explores social structuring and its influences on conservation-related behaviours at the site of a conservation intervention near Pipar forest, within the Seti Khola valley, Nepal. Qualitative and quantitative data from questionnaires and Rapid Rural Appraisal demonstrate how links between groups directly and indirectly influence behaviours of conservation relevance (including existing and potential resource-use and proconservation activities). For low-status groups the harvesting of resources can be driven by others' preference for wild foods, whilst perceptions of elite benefit-capture may cause reluctance to engage with future conservation interventions. The findings reiterate the need to avoid relying on simple assumptions about 'community' in conservation, and particularly the relevance of understanding relationships between groups, in order to understand natural resource use and implications for conservation. PMID:23956483

  8. Policy Problematization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    This article places Michel Foucault's concept of "problematization" in relation to educational policy research. My goal is to examine a key assumption of policy related to "solving problems" through such technologies. I discuss the potential problematization has to alter conceptions of policy research; and, through this…

  9. Conservation Films in Elementary Schools. Bulletin, 1941, No. 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bathurst, Effie G.

    1941-01-01

    For the past 33 years, since Theodore Roosevelt, then President of the United States, called the first conference of governors in American History to be held at the White House, the conservation of natural resources has been a national policy. The purpose of conservation education is to develop attitudes and ways of living which contribute to the…

  10. From ignorance to evidence? The use of programme evaluation in conservation: Evidence from a Delphi survey of conservation experts.

    PubMed

    Curzon, Hannah Fay; Kontoleon, Andreas

    2016-09-15

    Persistent gaps in the evidence base regarding the performance of conservation policies has put pressure on the conservation policy field to adopt 'best practice' programme evaluation methods. These are methods that account for the counterfactual and are able to attribute causality between a conservation policy and specific observable environmental and social impacts. Despite this pressure, use of such methods continues to be rare. This paper uses the Delphi technique to provide the first systematic assessment of the reasons behind the apparent hesitation of conservation practitioners to adopt rigorous policy impact evaluation methods. The Delphi study consisted of two online questionnaires conducted on conservation policy experts. The results presented confirm that the use of rigorous impact evaluation methods in conservation is still very limited but this, crucially, is not because conservationists are ignorant of these methods or their advantages. In fact, considerable effort is being made to develop and improve evidence standards but these efforts have largely been thwarted by large financial and time related constraints that mean even elementary evaluations are hard to achieve. The results from this Delphi study allow us to provide more realistic recommendations on how impact evaluation studies can be more widely embraced and implemented in conservation practice. PMID:27280855

  11. Designing effective incentives for energy conservation in the public sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drezner, Jeffrey Alan

    Understanding why government officials behave in certain ways under particular circumstances is an important theme in political science. This research explores the design of policies and incentives targeted at public sector officials, in particular the use of market based policy tools in a non-market environment, and the influence of that organizational environment on the effectiveness of the policy. The research examines the case of Department of Defense (DoD) facility energy management. DoD energy policy includes a provision for the retention of savings generated by conservation activities: two-thirds of the savings is retained at the installation generating the savings, half to used for further investment in energy conservation, and half to be used for general morale, welfare, and recreation activities. This policy creates a financial incentive for installation energy managers to establish higher quality and more active conservation programs. A formal written survey of installation energy managers within DoD was conducted, providing data to test hypotheses regarding policy effectiveness and factors affecting policy implementation. Additionally, two detailed implementation case studies were conducted in order to gain further insights. Results suggest that policy design needs to account for the environment within which the policy will be implemented, particularly organizational culture and standard operating procedures. The retention of savings policy failed to achieve its intended outcome---retention of savings for re-investment in energy conservation---because the role required of the financial management community was outside its normal mode of operation and interests and the budget process for allocating resources did not include a mechanism for retention of savings. The policy design did not adequately address these start-up barriers to implementation. This analysis has shown that in order for retention of savings, or similar policies based on market

  12. Incorporating geodiversity into conservation decisions.

    PubMed

    Comer, Patrick J; Pressey, Robert L; Hunter, Malcolm L; Schloss, Carrie A; Buttrick, Steven C; Heller, Nicole E; Tirpak, John M; Faith, Daniel P; Cross, Molly S; Shaffer, Mark L

    2015-06-01

    In a rapidly changing climate, conservation practitioners could better use geodiversity in a broad range of conservation decisions. We explored selected avenues through which this integration might improve decision making and organized them within the adaptive management cycle of assessment, planning, implementation, and monitoring. Geodiversity is seldom referenced in predominant environmental law and policy. With most natural resource agencies mandated to conserve certain categories of species, agency personnel are challenged to find ways to practically implement new directives aimed at coping with climate change while retaining their species-centered mandate. Ecoregions and ecological classifications provide clear mechanisms to consider geodiversity in plans or decisions, the inclusion of which will help foster the resilience of conservation to climate change. Methods for biodiversity assessment, such as gap analysis, climate change vulnerability analysis, and ecological process modeling, can readily accommodate inclusion of a geophysical component. We adapted others' approaches for characterizing landscapes along a continuum of climate change vulnerability for the biota they support from resistant, to resilient, to susceptible, and to sensitive and then summarized options for integrating geodiversity into planning in each landscape type. In landscapes that are relatively resistant to climate change, options exist to fully represent geodiversity while ensuring that dynamic ecological processes can change over time. In more susceptible landscapes, strategies aiming to maintain or restore ecosystem resilience and connectivity are paramount. Implementing actions on the ground requires understanding of geophysical constraints on species and an increasingly nimble approach to establishing management and restoration goals. Because decisions that are implemented today will be revisited and amended into the future, increasingly sophisticated forms of monitoring and

  13. 18 CFR 1306.2 - Uniform real property acquisition policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Uniform real property acquisition policy. 1306.2 Section 1306.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY RELOCATION ASSISTANCE AND REAL PROPERTY ACQUISITION POLICIES Regulations and Procedures § 1306.2 Uniform...

  14. 18 CFR 1306.2 - Uniform real property acquisition policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Uniform real property acquisition policy. 1306.2 Section 1306.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY RELOCATION ASSISTANCE AND REAL PROPERTY ACQUISITION POLICIES Regulations and Procedures § 1306.2 Uniform...

  15. 18 CFR 701.200 - Statement of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Statement of policy. 701.200 Section 701.200 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Availability of Information § 701.200 Statement of policy. Water Resources Council records...

  16. 18 CFR 701.200 - Statement of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Statement of policy. 701.200 Section 701.200 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Availability of Information § 701.200 Statement of policy. Water Resources Council records...

  17. 18 CFR 701.200 - Statement of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Statement of policy. 701.200 Section 701.200 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Availability of Information § 701.200 Statement of policy. Water Resources Council records...

  18. 18 CFR 701.200 - Statement of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Statement of policy. 701.200 Section 701.200 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Availability of Information § 701.200 Statement of policy. Water Resources Council records...

  19. 18 CFR 701.200 - Statement of policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Statement of policy. 701.200 Section 701.200 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL COUNCIL ORGANIZATION Availability of Information § 701.200 Statement of policy. Water Resources Council records...

  20. 18 CFR 1306.2 - Uniform real property acquisition policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Uniform real property acquisition policy. 1306.2 Section 1306.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY RELOCATION ASSISTANCE AND REAL PROPERTY ACQUISITION POLICIES Regulations and Procedures § 1306.2 Uniform...

  1. 18 CFR 1306.2 - Uniform real property acquisition policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Uniform real property acquisition policy. 1306.2 Section 1306.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY RELOCATION ASSISTANCE AND REAL PROPERTY ACQUISITION POLICIES Regulations and Procedures § 1306.2 Uniform...

  2. 18 CFR 1306.2 - Uniform real property acquisition policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Uniform real property acquisition policy. 1306.2 Section 1306.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY RELOCATION ASSISTANCE AND REAL PROPERTY ACQUISITION POLICIES Regulations and Procedures § 1306.2 Uniform...

  3. National and International Policies for Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feather, John

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the preservation and conservation of materials in libraries and archives and describes national and international policies that have been developed to deal with preservation problems. Highlights include managerial responsibility; paper-making and book production standards; the role of national libraries; coordination of policies;…

  4. 48 CFR 923.101 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy. 923.101 Section 923.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, CONSERVATION, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Sustainable Acquisition 923.101 Policy....

  5. 7 CFR 650.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Policy. 650.3 Section 650.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SUPPORT ACTIVITIES COMPLIANCE WITH NEPA Procedures for NRCS-Assisted Programs § 650.3 Policy. (a) NRCS mission. The NRCS mission is...

  6. 7 CFR 652.31 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Policy. 652.31 Section 652.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SUPPORT ACTIVITIES TECHNICAL SERVICE PROVIDER ASSISTANCE Decertification § 652.31 Policy. In...

  7. 7 CFR 652.31 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Policy. 652.31 Section 652.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SUPPORT ACTIVITIES TECHNICAL SERVICE PROVIDER ASSISTANCE Decertification § 652.31 Policy. In...

  8. 7 CFR 657.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Policy. 657.2 Section 657.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SUPPORT ACTIVITIES PRIME AND UNIQUE FARMLANDS Important Farmlands Inventory § 657.2 Policy. It...

  9. 7 CFR 652.31 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Policy. 652.31 Section 652.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SUPPORT ACTIVITIES TECHNICAL SERVICE PROVIDER ASSISTANCE Decertification § 652.31 Policy. In...

  10. 7 CFR 652.31 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy. 652.31 Section 652.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SUPPORT ACTIVITIES TECHNICAL SERVICE PROVIDER ASSISTANCE Decertification § 652.31 Policy. In...

  11. 7 CFR 652.31 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Policy. 652.31 Section 652.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SUPPORT ACTIVITIES TECHNICAL SERVICE PROVIDER ASSISTANCE Decertification § 652.31 Policy. In...

  12. 7 CFR 657.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Policy. 657.2 Section 657.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SUPPORT ACTIVITIES PRIME AND UNIQUE FARMLANDS Important Farmlands Inventory § 657.2 Policy. It...

  13. 7 CFR 657.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Policy. 657.2 Section 657.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SUPPORT ACTIVITIES PRIME AND UNIQUE FARMLANDS Important Farmlands Inventory § 657.2 Policy. It...

  14. Conservation Action Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Rifle Association, Washington, DC.

    Conservation problems are identified, with some suggestions for action. General areas covered are: Wildlife Conservation, Soil Conservation, Clean Water, Air Pollution Action, and Outdoor Recreation Action. Appendices list private organizations or agencies concerned with natural resource use and/or management, congressional committees considering…

  15. Conservation in Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Edward

    1991-01-01

    Discussed is the physical concept of conservation as it is framed within the laws of conservation of mass, of momentum, and of energy. The derivation of Ohm's Law as a generalization of the relationship between the observed measurements of voltage and current serves as the exemplar of how conservation theories are formed. (JJK)

  16. A multidisciplinary conceptualization of conservation opportunity.

    PubMed

    Moon, Katie; Adams, Vanessa M; Januchowski-Hartley, Stephanie R; Polyakov, Maksym; Mills, Morena; Biggs, Duan; Knight, Andrew T; Game, Edward T; Raymond, Christopher M

    2014-12-01

    An opportunity represents an advantageous combination of circumstances that allows goals to be achieved. We reviewed the nature of opportunity and how it manifests in different subsystems (e.g., biophysical, social, political, economic) as conceptualized in other bodies of literature, including behavior, adoption, entrepreneur, public policy, and resilience literature. We then developed a multidisciplinary conceptualization of conservation opportunity. We identified 3 types of conservation opportunity: potential, actors remove barriers to problem solving by identifying the capabilities within the system that can be manipulated to create support for conservation action; traction, actors identify windows of opportunity that arise from exogenous shocks, events, or changes that remove barriers to solving problems; and existing, everything is in place for conservation action (i.e., no barriers exist) and an actor takes advantage of the existing circumstances to solve problems. Different leverage points characterize each type of opportunity. Thus, unique stages of opportunity identification or creation and exploitation exist: characterizing the system and defining problems; identifying potential solutions; assessing the feasibility of solutions; identifying or creating opportunities; and taking advantage of opportunities. These stages can be undertaken independently or as part of a situational analysis and typically comprise the first stage, but they can also be conducted iteratively throughout a conservation planning process. Four types of entrepreneur can be identified (business, policy, social, and conservation), each possessing attributes that enable them to identify or create opportunities and take advantage of them. We examined how different types of conservation opportunity manifest in a social-ecological system (the Great Barrier Reef) and how they can be taken advantage of. Our multidisciplinary conceptualization of conservation opportunity strengthens and

  17. Psychological research and energy policy

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, P.C.; Gardner, G.T.

    1981-04-01

    Psychologists have recently begun to show interest in energy policy issues and to conduct energy-related research. The authors argue that psychology can provide valuable input to energy policy, but that its contribution has been impeded by psychologists general unfamiliarity with world and national energy systems. A behaviorally oriented analysis of the US energy system is presented, and its implications for psychological research are discussed. The analysis identifies behaviors with major conservation potential that have been little studied by psychologists. It further suggests that subdisciplines which have not attended to energy issues could make major contributions, and that psychologists could move beyond energy-conservation concerns to make important policy contributions in areas affecting energy supply. Finally, emphasis is given to the need to conduct research with an awareness of major long-term trends in national and global energy systems. 52 references, 3 tables.

  18. Farmer Participation in U.S. Farm Bill Conservation Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, Adam P.; Prokopy, Linda S.

    2014-02-01

    Conservation policy in agricultural systems in the United States relies primarily on voluntary action by farmers. Federal conservation programs, including the Environmental Quality Incentives Program, offer incentives, both financial and technical, to farmers in exchange for adoption of conservation practices. Understanding motivations for (as well as barriers to) participation in voluntary programs is important for the design of future policy and effective outreach. While a significant literature has explored motivations and barriers to conservation practice adoption and participation in single programs, few studies in the U.S. context have explored general participation by farmers in one place and time. A mixed-methods research approach was utilized to explore farmer participation in all U.S. Farm Bill programs in Indiana. Current and past program engagement was high, with nearly half of survey respondents reporting participation in at least one program. Most participants had experience with the Conservation Reserve Program, with much lower participation rates in other programs. Most interview participants who had experience in programs were motivated by the environmental benefits of practices, with incentives primarily serving to reduce the financial and technical barriers to practice adoption. The current policy arrangement, which offers multiple policy approaches to conservation, offers farmers with different needs and motivations a menu of options. However, evidence suggests that the complexity of the system may be a barrier that prevents participation by farmers with scarce time or resources. Outreach efforts should focus on increasing awareness of program options, while future policy must balance flexibility of programs with complexity.

  19. Exactly conservative integrators

    SciTech Connect

    Shadwick, B.A.; Bowman, J.C.; Morrison, P.J.

    1995-07-19

    Traditional numerical discretizations of conservative systems generically yield an artificial secular drift of any nonlinear invariants. In this work we present an explicit nontraditional algorithm that exactly conserves invariants. We illustrate the general method by applying it to the Three-Wave truncation of the Euler equations, the Volterra-Lotka predator-prey model, and the Kepler problem. We discuss our method in the context of symplectic (phase space conserving) integration methods as well as nonsymplectic conservative methods. We comment on the application of our method to general conservative systems.

  20. Conservation: Toward firmer ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The following aspects of energy conservation were reviewed in order to place the problems in proper perspective: history and goals, conservation accounting-criteria, and a method to overcome obstacles. The effect of changing prices and available supplies of energy sources and their causes on consumption levels during the last few decades were described. Some examples of attainable conservation goals were listed and justified. A number of specific criteria applicable to conservation accounting were given. Finally, a discussion was presented to relate together the following aspects of energy conservation: widespread impact, involvement of government, industry, politics, moral and ethical aspects, urgency and time element.

  1. For God and Country: Conservatism and American School Policy. Counterpoints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lugg, Catherine A.

    The election of Ronald Reagan to President in 1980 marked the political zenith of modern American conservative ideology in the 20th century. This book presents a historical analysis of conservative ideology and its influence on federal school policies during Reagan's first administration, 1981-1984. It examines various conservative social agendas…

  2. Reconsidering Conceptualisations of Farm Conservation Activity: The Case of Conserving Hay Meadows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Changes to agri-environmental policy, with an emphasis on encouraging more environmentally friendly farming practices, have been paralleled in the last two decades by a body of research into agri-environment scheme adoption. To date much of this research has considered conservation behaviour as a static issue across whole farms, and viewed…

  3. Models for residential-and commercial-sector energy conservation analysis: Applications, limitations, and future potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, H. E.; Fuller, R. E.

    1980-09-01

    Four of the major models used by DOE for energy conservation analyses in the residential and commercial building sectors are reviewed and critically analyzed to determine how these models can serve as tools for DOE and its Conservation Policy Office in evaluating and quantifying their policy and program requirements. The most effective role for each model in addressing future issues of buildings energy conservation policy and analysis is assessed. The four models covered are: Oak Ridge Residential Energy Model; Micro Analysis of Transfers to Households/Comprehensive Human Resources Data System (MATH/CHRDS) Model; Oak Ridge Commercial Energy Model; and Brookhaven Buildings Energy Conservation Optimization Model (BECOM).

  4. Energy conservation and existing rental housing

    SciTech Connect

    Bleviss, D.L.; Gravitz, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    The authors take an in-depth look at the federal, state, and local policies affecting energy efficiency in US rental dwellings. They examine the incentives and barriers to conservation investments. Case studies show how federal, utility, non-profit energy service companies, and rental codes have approached the problems inherent in the housing market's failure to make energy conservation investment. The report recommends an evolutionary approach involving three phases that begins with the identification of needs and culminates in mandated retrofits. A major case study explores program options for North Carolina. 32 references, 3 figures, 18 tables.

  5. New priorities in energy-conservation R and D

    SciTech Connect

    Willke, T.L.; Ashton, W.B.; Hopp, W.J.; Hane, G.J.; Liberman, A.; Strasser, G.

    1981-12-01

    A study is presented that identified, screened, and provided information on various technologies which offer significant potential for energy conservation yet require applied research and development to achieve that potential. The scope of the study and the methodology used to identify and screen energy conservation R and D opportunities are discussed. Results of the R and D opportunities study are discussed, including a tabular summary of conservation potential and example R and D needs. General aspects of the new energy policy and its effects on the federal role in energy conservation are discussed. The potential effects of the new energy policy upon areas of applied R and D identified under previous criteria are illustrated and elements of the new federal role in energy conservation are summarized. (LEW)

  6. Balancing the Needs of China's Wetland Conservation and Rice Production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongjun; Wang, Guoping; Lu, Xianguo; Jiang, Ming; Mendelssohn, Irving A

    2015-06-01

    China's rice policy for protecting paddy fields and constructing rice production bases is in conflict with its wetland conservation strategy. The policy will increase the rice planting area, the loss of remaining wetlands, and environmental pollution, with intensive application of fertilizers and heavy use of pesticides. The key to resolving this conflict is to bring rice production in compliance with wetland conservation and sustainable agriculture. An operational, sound regulatory program is needed to improve China's wetland conservation. Using wetland conservation in the US as an example, we argue that more effective technical guidelines for wetland inventory and monitoring are necessary to support the implementation of the regulatory program. Agricultural conservation programs are also needed to stop further wetland loss from agricultural usages. An ecoagricultural strategy and practice should be adopted for rice production to reduce pollution and loss of remaining wetlands. Agroecological engineering tools can be used to reduce the impacts of nutrient- and pesticide-enriched agricultural runoff to wetlands. PMID:25955310

  7. The Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP): a national scale natural resources and conservation needs assessment and decision support tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M.-V. V.; Norfleet, M. L.; Atwood, J. D.; Behrman, K. D.; Kiniry, J. R.; Arnold, J. G.; White, M. J.; Williams, J.

    2015-07-01

    The Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) was initiated to quantify the impacts of agricultural conservation practices at the watershed, regional, and national scales across the United States. Representative cropland acres in all major U.S. watersheds were surveyed in 2003-2006 as part of the seminal CEAP Cropland National Assessment. Two process-based models, the Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender(APEX) and the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), were applied to the survey data to provide a quantitative assessment of current conservation practice impacts, establish a benchmark against which future conservation trends and efforts could be measured, and identify outstanding conservation concerns. The flexibility of these models and the unprecedented amount of data on current conservation practices across the country enabled Cropland CEAP to meet its Congressional mandate of quantifying the value of current conservation practices. It also enabled scientifically grounded exploration of a variety of conservation scenarios, empowering CEAP to not only inform on past successes and additional needs, but to also provide a decision support tool to help guide future policy development and conservation practice decision making. The CEAP effort will repeat the national survey in 2015-2016, enabling CEAP to provide analyses of emergent conservation trends, outstanding needs, and potential costs and benefits of pursuing various treatment scenarios for all agricultural watersheds across the United States.

  8. Canada: irrational energy policies

    SciTech Connect

    Paehlke, R.C.

    1982-09-01

    Despite energy shortages, recent weeks have seen the collapse or at least postponement of three major energy projects in Canada: the Cold Lake (Alberta) heavy oil plant, the Alsands oil sands plant, and the Alaska Highway natural gas pipeline. All have fallen victim to the combination of high interest rates and increasing doubts that oil prices will continue to rise at an annual rate of five percent in real terms. Current energy problems and policies are discussed including decline of oil reserves, expanded domestic use and export of Canadian natural gas, expansion of the nuclear energy program, demand for electricity, and energy conservation. (JMT)

  9. Paleontology to policy: the Quaternary history of Southeast Asian tapirs (Tapiridae) in relation to large mammal species turnover, with a proposal for conservation of Malayan tapir by reintroduction to Borneo.

    PubMed

    of Cranbrook, Earl; Piper, Philip J

    2013-03-01

    The Southeast Asian zoogeographical region is divided into Indochinese, Sundaic and Philippine subregions. Two clades of tapirs, Tapirus spp., have been recognized in Quaternary Southeast Asia. A review of sites at which they occurred shows that representatives of both clades, one of which was the ancestral Malayan tapir Tapirus indicus, co-existed with a diversity of other Pleistocene mammal megafauna. The process of replacement of archaic large mammals was progressive and prolonged through the Quaternary. Zooarcheological investigation has extended knowledge of the former occurrence and distribution of tapirs and other large mammals of the region, with discoveries beyond the outer limits of their previously known ranges. These large mammals were subjected to paleoenvironmental changes as a consequence of the Quaternary cycles of glacial and interglacial periods. Archeological evidence suggests that hunting pressure has intensified the effects of altered environments, leading ultimately to the local disappearance of the Malayan tapir in most of Southeast Asia, including Borneo. The survival of the Malayan tapir through the Quaternary until the present shows that the species is both resilient to environmental change and flexible in its ecological re'uirements and, given proper protection, could continue to inhabit tropical Southeast Asia. To assist the species conservation, reintroduction is proposed from the remaining range of Malayan tapir in the wild, to suitable sites of past occurrence in Borneo, where these ancient survivors of the Quaternary megafauna can be accommodated and safeguarded alongside other forms of land usage. PMID:23586564

  10. 7 CFR 12.23 - Conservation plans and conservation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conservation plans and conservation systems. 12.23 Section 12.23 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION Highly Erodible Land Conservation § 12.23 Conservation plans and conservation systems. (a) Use of field office technical guide. A...

  11. 10 CFR 440.17 - Policy Advisory Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Policy Advisory Council. 440.17 Section 440.17 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.17 Policy Advisory Council. (a) Prior to the expenditure of any grant funds, a State policy advisory council, or a State commission or council which...

  12. 10 CFR 440.17 - Policy Advisory Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Policy Advisory Council. 440.17 Section 440.17 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.17 Policy Advisory Council. (a) Prior to the expenditure of any grant funds, a State policy advisory council, or a State commission or council which...

  13. 10 CFR 440.17 - Policy Advisory Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Policy Advisory Council. 440.17 Section 440.17 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.17 Policy Advisory Council. (a) Prior to the expenditure of any grant funds, a State policy advisory council, or a State commission or council which...

  14. 10 CFR 440.17 - Policy Advisory Council.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Policy Advisory Council. 440.17 Section 440.17 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.17 Policy Advisory Council. (a) Prior to the expenditure of any grant funds, a State policy advisory council, or a State commission or council which...

  15. Waterfowl populations of conservation concern: learning from diverse challenges, models, and conservation strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, Jane E.; Slattery, Stuart; Clark, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    There are 30 threatened or endangered species of waterfowl worldwide, and several sub-populations are also threatened. Some of these species occur in North America, and others there are also of conservation concern due to declining population trends and their importance to hunters. Here we review conservation initiatives being undertaken for several of these latter species, along with conservation measures in place in Europe, to seek common themes and approaches that could be useful in developing broad conservation guidelines. While focal species may vary in their life histories, population threats and geopolitical context, most conservation efforts have used a systematic approach to understand factors limiting populations and o identify possible management or policy actions. This approach generally includes a priori identification of plausible hypotheses about population declines or status, incorporation of hypotheses into conceptual or quantitative planning models, and the use of some form of structured decision making and adaptive management to develop and implement conservation actions in the face of many uncertainties. A climate of collaboration among jurisdictions sharing these birds is important to the success of a conservation or management programme. The structured conservation approach exemplified herein provides an opportunity to involve stakeholders at all planning stages, allows for all views to be examined and incorporated into model structures, and yields a format for improved communication, cooperation and learning, which may ultimately be one of the greatest benefits of this strategy.

  16. 78 FR 8444 - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program Programmatic Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Rural Utilities Service 7 CFR Part 1710 Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program Programmatic... entitled ``Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program,'' which expands upon policies and procedures specific to loans for a new Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan program. The program would...

  17. 18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.78 Utilization and conservation of natural resources—natural gas. (a)(1) The national interests in the development and...

  18. 18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.78 Utilization and conservation of natural resources—natural gas. (a)(1) The national interests in the development and...

  19. 18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.78 Utilization and conservation of natural resources—natural gas. (a)(1) The national interests in the development and...

  20. 18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.78 Utilization and conservation of natural resources—natural gas. (a)(1) The national interests in the development and...

  1. 18 CFR 2.78 - Utilization and conservation of natural resources-natural gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... conservation of natural resources-natural gas. 2.78 Section 2.78 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... INTERPRETATIONS Statements of General Policy and Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.78 Utilization and conservation of natural resources—natural gas. (a)(1) The national interests in the development and...

  2. Some Ideas on Interrupting the Right: On Doing Critical Educational Work in Conservative Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apple, Michael W.

    2009-01-01

    In a considerable number of nations, "conservative modernization" has gained increasing influence. Neo-liberals, neo-conservatives, and new middle-class managerialists have defined the terrain of educational policy and practice. In some nations as well, authoritarian populist religious conservative movements and ideologies have also become major…

  3. Conservation: Toward firmer ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The following aspects of energy conservation were discussed: conservation history and goals, conservation modes, conservation accounting-criteria, and a method to overcome obstacles. The conservation modes tested fall into one of the following categories: reduced energy consumption, increased efficiency of energy utilization, or substitution of one or more forms of energy for another which is in shorter supply or in some sense thought to be of more value. The conservation accounting criteria include net energy reduction, economic, and technical criteria. A method to overcome obstacles includes (approaches such as: direct personal impact (life style, income, security, aspiration), an element of crisis, large scale involvement of environmental, safety, and health issues, connections to big government, big business, big politics, involvement of known and speculative science and technology, appeal to moral and ethical standards, the transient nature of opportunities to correct the system.

  4. Conservation caring: measuring the influence of zoo visitors' connection to wildlife on pro-conservation behaviors.

    PubMed

    Skibins, Jeffrey C; Powell, Robert B

    2013-01-01

    Zoos in the 21st century are striving to make effective contributions to conservation. Although zoos are extremely popular and host over 600 million visitors worldwide, one challenge zoos face is how to effectively engage visitors and raise awareness and action for conservation. To this end, zoos commonly rely on charismatic megafauna, which have been shown to elicit a connection with zoo visitors. However, little is known about how to measure a connection to a species or how this connection may influence conservation behaviors. This study had two sequential objectives. The first was to develop a scale to measure visitors' connection to a species (Conservation Caring). The second was to investigate the relationship of Conservation Caring to pro-conservation behaviors, following a zoo experience. Pre- (n = 411) and post-visit (n = 452) responses were collected from three sites in order to assess the reliability and validity of a scale to measure Conservation Caring. Structural equation modeling was used to explore the relationship between Conservation Caring and pro-conservation behaviors. Conservation Caring was deemed a valid and reliable scale and was a strong predictor of species oriented behaviors (β = 0.62), for example, "adopting" an animal, but a weak predictor for biodiversity oriented behaviors (β = 0.07), for example, supporting sustainability policies. Results support the role zoos can play in fostering a connection to wildlife and stimulating pro-conservation behaviors. Additionally, visitors connected to a wide array of animals. On the basis of these results, zoos may recruit a wider assemblage of species as potential flagships. PMID:23877958

  5. State industrial energy-conservation workshops

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, P.T.; Tatar, J.J.; Evans, A.R.; Anderson, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    DOE's Office of Industrial Programs, in cooperation with the Office of State and Local Programs, sponsored a series of four workshops on state industrial energy-conservation programs in September and October, 1980. The workshops provided it a forum in which Federal and state officials could discuss: Federal programs supporting the development and implementation of industrial energy-conservation technology; Federal assistance available for state and local energy-conservation programs; states' programs and policy efforts to encourage industrial energy conservation, and identification of states' needs and recommendations for actions to meet the states' needs more effectively. The basic focus of the workshops was on industrial programs developed by the states through funding by the State Energy-Conservation Program. The objectives, background, and format of the workshops are described in Section 2. A summary of state industrial programs in Section 3 includes a program measure matrix and a discussion of elements in program design. Section 4 describes factors affecting the development, implementation, and evaluation of state industrial conservation programs. In Section 5 state needs, as perceived by the state representatives, are presented and discussed. Section 6 summarizes the states' suggestions as developed in the third session of each workshop.

  6. Workforce Policies for the 1990s. A New Labor Market Agenda. The Possibilities of Employment Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Ray; Osterman, Paul

    The Economic Policy Institute (EPI) was founded in 1986 with the intent of widening the debate on U.S. economic policies by presenting analyses that provide an alternative point of view from those of various conservative research institutions. The two papers presented in this document were originally prepared for a seminar designed to identify…

  7. Think Tanks, "Policy Experts" and "Ideas for" Education Policy Making in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingard, Bob

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a case study of the Centre for Independent Studies (CIS) in Australia with a focus on its education policy work, specifically the report, "School funding on a budget" (SFoB). CIS is a conservative right wing advocacy think tank, established in 1976 in the aftermath of the Whitlam government's policy activism, framed…

  8. Linking knowledge to action in collaborative conservation.

    PubMed

    Lauber, T Bruce; Stedman, Richard C; Decker, Daniel J; Knuth, Barbara A

    2011-12-01

    Authors have documented a "research-implementation gap" in conservation. Research intended to inform conservation practice often does not, and practice often is not informed by the best science. We used the literature on policy learning (i.e., literature attributing policy change to learning) to structure a study of how practice is informed by science in collaborative conservation. We studied implementation by U.S. states of state wildlife action plans. On the basis of 60 interviews with government and nongovernmental organization representatives, we identified 144 implementation initiatives for State Wildlife Action Plans that were collaborative. We conducted case studies of 6 of these initiatives, which included interviews of key individuals and analysis of written documents. We coded interview transcripts and written documents to identify factors that influence availability and use of scientific information. We integrated these factors into a model of collaborative conservation. Although tangible factors such as funding and labor directly affected the availability of scientific information, practitioners' ability and willingness to use the information depended on less tangible factors such as the quality of interpersonal relationships and dialogue. Our work demonstrates empirically that relationships and dialogue led to: (1) the sharing of resources, such as funding and labor, that were needed to carry out research and produce information and (2) agreement among researchers and practitioners on conservation objectives, which was necessary for that new information to inform action. Our findings can be understood in the context of broader concepts articulated in the policy-learning literature, which establishes that social learning (improving relationships and dialogue) provides the foundation for conceptual learning (setting objectives) and technical learning (determining how to achieve these objectives). PMID:21967145

  9. Whereto with institutions and governance challenges in African wildlife conservation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muchapondwa, Edwin; Stage, Jesper

    2015-09-01

    African wildlife conservation has been transformed, shifting from a traditional, state-managed government approach to a broader governance approach with a wide range of actors designing and implementing wildlife policy. The most widely popularized approach has been that of community-managed nature conservancies. The knowledge of how institutions function in relation to humans and their use of the environment is critical to the design and implementation of effective conservation. This paper seeks to review the institutional and governance challenges faced in wildlife conservation in southern and eastern Africa. We discuss two different sets of challenges related to the shift in conservation practices: the practical implementation of wildlife governance, and the capacity of current governance structures to capture and distribute economic benefits from wildlife. To some extent, the issues raised by the new policies must be resolved through theoretical and empirical research addressed at wildlife conservation per se. However, many of these issues apply more broadly to a wide range of policy arenas and countries where similar policy shifts have taken place.

  10. Water conservation in irrigation can increase water use

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Frank A.; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Climate change, water supply limits, and continued population growth have intensified the search for measures to conserve water in irrigated agriculture, the world's largest water user. Policy measures that encourage adoption of water-conserving irrigation technologies are widely believed to make more water available for cities and the environment. However, little integrated analysis has been conducted to test this hypothesis. This article presents results of an integrated basin-scale analysis linking biophysical, hydrologic, agronomic, economic, policy, and institutional dimensions of the Upper Rio Grande Basin of North America. It analyzes a series of water conservation policies for their effect on water used in irrigation and on water conserved. In contrast to widely-held beliefs, our results show that water conservation subsidies are unlikely to reduce water use under conditions that occur in many river basins. Adoption of more efficient irrigation technologies reduces valuable return flows and limits aquifer recharge. Policies aimed at reducing water applications can actually increase water depletions. Achieving real water savings requires designing institutional, technical, and accounting measures that accurately track and economically reward reduced water depletions. Conservation programs that target reduced water diversions or applications provide no guarantee of saving water. PMID:19015510