Science.gov

Sample records for constrained k-t blast

  1. Plants and the K-T Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Douglas J.; Johnson, Kirk R.

    In Plants and the K--T Boundary, two of the world's leading experts in palynology and paleobotany provide a comprehensive account of the fate of land plants during the 'great extinction' about 65 million years ago. They describe how the time boundary between the Cretaceous and Paleogene Periods (the K--T boundary) is recognized in the geological record, and how fossil plants can be used to understand global events of that time. There are case studies from over 100 localities around the world, including North America, China, Russia and New Zealand. The book concludes with an evaluation of possible causes of the K--T boundary event and its effects on floras of the past and present. This book is written for researchers and students in paleontology, botany, geology and Earth history, and everyone who has been following the course of the extinction debate and the K--T boundary paradigm shift.

  2. Shocked Minerals in the K-T Boundary: Implications for Obliquity of Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, J.; Lana, C.; Artemieva, N. A.

    2006-03-01

    This study combines observational data on the distribution of the coarse ejecta within the global K-T boundary layer with numerical modeling of vertical and oblique impacts, in an attempt to constrain the direction and angle of impact at Chicxulub.

  3. Accelerating free breathing myocardial perfusion MRI using multi coil radial k - t SLR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goud Lingala, Sajan; DiBella, Edward; Adluru, Ganesh; McGann, Christopher; Jacob, Mathews

    2013-10-01

    The clinical utility of myocardial perfusion MR imaging (MPI) is often restricted by the inability of current acquisition schemes to simultaneously achieve high spatio-temporal resolution, good volume coverage, and high signal to noise ratio. Moreover, many subjects often find it difficult to hold their breath for sufficiently long durations making it difficult to obtain reliable MPI data. Accelerated acquisition of free breathing MPI data can overcome some of these challenges. Recently, an algorithm termed as k - t SLR has been proposed to accelerate dynamic MRI by exploiting sparsity and low rank properties of dynamic MRI data. The main focus of this paper is to further improve k - t SLR and demonstrate its utility in considerably accelerating free breathing MPI. We extend its previous implementation to account for multi-coil radial MPI acquisitions. We perform k - t sampling experiments to compare different radial trajectories and determine the best sampling pattern. We also introduce a novel augmented Lagrangian framework to considerably improve the algorithm’s convergence rate. The proposed algorithm is validated using free breathing rest and stress radial perfusion data sets from two normal subjects and one patient with ischemia. k - t SLR was observed to provide faithful reconstructions at high acceleration levels with minimal artifacts compared to existing MPI acceleration schemes such as spatio-temporal constrained reconstruction and k - t SPARSE/SENSE.

  4. Chicxulub impact predates the K-T boundary mass extinction

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Gerta; Adatte, Thierry; Stinnesbeck, Wolfgang; Rebolledo-Vieyra, Mario; Urrutia Fucugauchi, Jaime; Kramar, Utz; Stüben, Doris

    2004-01-01

    Since the early l990s the Chicxulub crater on Yucatan, Mexico, has been hailed as the smoking gun that proves the hypothesis that an asteroid killed the dinosaurs and caused the mass extinction of many other organisms at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 65 million years ago. Here, we report evidence from a previously uninvestigated core, Yaxcopoil-1, drilled within the Chicxulub crater, indicating that this impact predated the K-T boundary by ≈300,000 years and thus did not cause the end-Cretaceous mass extinction as commonly believed. The evidence supporting a pre-K-T age was obtained from Yaxcopoil-1 based on five independent proxies, each with characteristic signals across the K-T transition: sedimentology, biostratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, stable isotopes, and iridium. These data are consistent with earlier evidence for a late Maastrichtian age of the microtektite deposits in northeastern Mexico. PMID:15004276

  5. K-T impact(s): Continental, oceanic or both

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpton, V. L.; Schuraytz, B. C.; Murali, A. V.; Ryder, G.; Burke, K.

    1988-01-01

    Although geochemical and mineralogical evidence indicate that a major accretionary event occurred at the K-T boundary, no impact crater of suitable size and age was recognized. The 35 km Manson Structure, Iowa, was suggested recently as a possibility and Ar-40/Ar-39 determinations indicate that its formation age is indistinguishable from that of the K-T boundary. In order to test a possible association between Manson and the K-T boundary clay, the geochemistry and mineralogy of the K-T boundary clays at the Scollard Canyon section, Alberta and the Starkville South section, Colorado are compared with three dominant lithologies affected by the Manson impact: Proterozoic red clastics, underlying late-state granites, and gneisses. The chemical and mineralogical makeup of the Scollard Canyon boundary clay and its clastic constituents are presented, commenting on the implications for impact models. An impact into crystalline material of continental affinity appears to be required to explain the mineralogy and chemistry of the Scollard Canyon (and other Western N. American K-T sections). The low REE abundances of some K-T boundary layers are unusual but perhaps attempts should be made to understand the contributions of individual crustal components (e.g., carbonates, arkoses) as well as the potential for alteration involving these and other elements during and after impact-induced vaporization, before mantle excavation is invoked. If further studies confirm the results of published studies of marine boundary clays that indicate an oceanic target, attention must be paid to the possibility that multiple impacts occurred at the K-T boundary - one or more on the continents and one or more in the ocean.

  6. Detritus in K/T boundary clays of western North America - Evidence against a single oceanic impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpton, V. L.; Schuraytz, B. C.; Burke, K.; Murali, A. V.; Ryder, G.

    1990-01-01

    Understanding the crustal signature of impact ejecta contained in the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary layer is crucial to constraining the possible site(s) of the postulated K/T impact event. The relatively unaltered clastic constituents of the boundary layer at widely separated outcrops within the western interior of North America are not compatible with a single oceanic impact but require instead an impact site on a continent or continental margin. On the other hand, chemical compositions of highly altered K/T boundary layer components in some marine sections have suggested to others an impact into oceanic crust. We suspect that post-depositional alteration within the marine setting accounts for this apparent oceanic affinity. If, however, this is not the case, multiple simultaneous impacts, striking continent as well as ocean floor, would seem to be required.

  7. Explosive volcanism, shock metamorphism and the K-T boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desilva, S. L.; Sharpton, V. L.

    1988-01-01

    The issue of whether shocked quartz can be produced by explosive volcanic events is important in understanding the origin of the K-T boundary constituents. Proponents of a volcanic origin for the shocked quartz at the K-T boundary cite the suggestion of Rice, that peak overpressures of 1000 kbars can be generated during explosive volcanic eruptions, and may have occurred during the May, 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens. Attention was previously drawn to the fact that peak overpressures during explosive eruptions are limited by the strength of the rock confining the magma chamber to less than 8 kbars even under ideal conditions. The proposed volcanic mechanisms for generating pressures sufficient to shock quartz are further examined. Theoretical arguments, field evidence and petrographic data are presented showing that explosive volcanic eruptions cannot generate shock metamorphic features of the kind seen in minerals at the K-T boundary.

  8. XAFS Study of As in K-T Boundary Clays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Shunsuke; Yoshiasa, Akira; Arima, Hiroshi; Okube, Maki; Numako, Chiya; Sato, Tsutomu

    2007-02-01

    Local structure around arsenic atoms in K-T boundary clays was studied by As K-edge XAFS spectroscopy. The threshold E0 energy of As and the characterization of the white peak of XANES spectra agree well with the values of As(+5) minerals like Zn2(AsO4)2(OH)22H2O and CaCu(AsO4)(OH) according to the comparison with several types of arsenic minerals. This indicates that arsenic is in a high oxidation state As(+5) and occupies the AsO4 tetrahedral site of a mineral in K-T boundary clays.

  9. Deccan volcanism and K-T boundary signatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murali, A. V.; Schuraytz, B. C.; Parekh, P. P.

    1988-01-01

    The Deccan Traps in the Indian subcontinent represent one of the most extensive flood basalt provinces in the world. These basalts occur mainly as flat-lying, subaerially erupted tholeiitic lava flows, some of which are traceable for distances of more than 100 km. Offshore drilling and geophysical surveys indicate that a part of the Deccan subsided or was downfaulted to the west beneath the Arabian Sea. The presence of 1 to 5 m thick intertrappean sediments deposited by lakes and rivers indicates periods of quiescence between eruptions. The occurrence of numerous red bole beds among the flows suggests intense weathering of flow tops between eruptive intervals. Although the causative relationship of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) biotic extinctions to Deccan volcanism is debatable, the fact that the main Deccan eruptions straddle the K-T event appears beyond doubt from the recent Ar-40/Ar-39 ages of various Deccan flows. This temporal relationship of the K-T event with Deccan volcanism makes the petrochemical signatures of the entire Deccan sequence (basalt flows, intercalated intertrappean sediments, infratrappean Lameta beds (with dinosaur fossils), and the bole beds) pertinent to studies of the K-T event. The results of ongoing study is presented.

  10. Mexican site for K/T impact crater?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, Kevin O.; Ocampo, Adriana C.; Duller, Charles E.

    1991-01-01

    Research throughout the Caribbean suggests that the geophysical anomalies in the Yucatan first noted by Penfield and Camargo (1981) and called the Chicxulub crater could be the site of the impact purported to have caused the K/T extinctions. A semicircular ring of sink holes, known locally as cenotes, which correlates with the geophysical anomalies has been identified, and it is argued that the origin of the cenote ring is related to postimpact subsidence of the Chicxulub crater rim. If there is indeed a crater, the region within the cenote ring corresponds to its floor and the crater rim diameter is probably larger than 200 km. If confirmed as a site of impact, the Chicxulub crater would be the largest terrestrial impact crater known, which is consistent with the uniqueness of the K/T global catastrophe.

  11. Mexican site for K/T impact crater?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, K. O.; Ocampo, A. C.; Duller, C. E.

    1991-05-01

    Research throughout the Caribbean suggests that the geophysical anomalies in the Yucatan first noted by Penfield and Camargo (1981) and called the Chicxulub crater could be the site of the impact purported to have caused the K/T extinctions. A semicircular ring of sink holes, known locally as cenotes, which correlates with the geophysical anomalies has been identified, and it is argued that the origin of the cenote ring is related to postimpact subsidence of the Chicxulub crater rim. If there is indeed a crater, the region within the cenote ring corresponds to its floor and the crater rim diameter is probably larger than 200 km. If confirmed as a site of impact, the Chicxulub crater would be the largest terrestrial impact crater known, which is consistent with the uniqueness of the K/T global catastrophe.

  12. Marine and continental K-T boundary clays compared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, B.

    1988-01-01

    Detailed geochemical and mineralogical studies (1 to 5) of sediments across the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary at Stevns Klint, Karlstrup, Nye Klov, Dania, and Kjolby Gaard in Denmark, at Limhamn in Sweden, at Caravaca in Spain, at Waipara and Woodside Creek in New Zealand, at Trinidad in Colorado, and at various sites in Montana, have induced conclusions and reflections which are given and briefly discussed.

  13. The K-T Transition in Meghalaya, NE India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gertsch, B.; Keller, G.; Adatte, T.; Garg, R.; Prasad, V.; Berner, Z.; Ateequzzaman, K.; Stueben, D.

    2008-12-01

    produced in the hypolimnion. Sedimentological, mineralogical, geochemical, biostratigraphic and paleoecological studies of the Um Sohryngkew Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) transition in the Khasi Hills of Meghalaya, India, reveal biotic and environmental changes about 800 km from the Deccan volcanic province (DVP). Upper Cretaceous sediments consist mainly of conglomerates, glauconitic sandstone, sandy shale, calcareous shale with a few shell beds and rare coal pockets, all of which indicate deposition in a shallow marine environment with high detrital influx from nearby continental terrains. High kaolinite and illite indicate high humidity and high runoff. The K-T transition is in calcareous silty shale and marked by a 1 cm thin "rust colored" layer with high anomalies in Ir (11.8 ppb), Ru (108 ppb), Rh (93 ppb) and Pd (75 pbb). In the Danian, kaolinite remains the dominant clay mineral, suggesting humid climatic conditions. In contrast, semi-arid climate conditions prevailed in the contemporaneous Deccan Traps province, which appears to be linked to "mock aridity" (Harris and Van Couvering, 1995, Khadkikar et al., 1999). Microfossil assemblages define the K-T boundary. Nannofossils are common throughout the Upper Maastrichtian interval. Assemblages dominated by Micula decussata and Watzenueria barnesae along with common Ceratolithioides kampteneri and Lithraphidites quadratus are typical of the low latitude Tethys and Micula prinsii attests to the presence of the terminal Maastrichtian. Dinoflagellate cysts are common to abundant with increased frequencies of peridiniods, terrestrial organic matter and framboidal pyrite in the uppermost Maastrichtian. This suggests high nutrient loading possibly leading to stressful eutrophic conditions. Dinogymnium and Alisogymnium species have their last occurrences at the K-T boundary. The first appearence of Danian nannofossil species Neobiscutum romeinii and Biantholithus sparsus appear at 5 cm and 15 cm above the K-T boundary

  14. K-t sparse GROWL: sequential combination of partially parallel imaging and compressed sensing in k-t space using flexible virtual coil.

    PubMed

    Huang, Feng; Lin, Wei; Duensing, George R; Reykowski, Arne

    2012-09-01

    Because dynamic MR images are often sparse in x-f domain, k-t space compressed sensing (k-t CS) has been proposed for highly accelerated dynamic MRI. When a multichannel coil is used for acquisition, the combination of partially parallel imaging and k-t CS can improve the accuracy of reconstruction. In this work, an efficient combination method is presented, which is called k-t sparse Generalized GRAPPA fOr Wider readout Line. One fundamental aspect of this work is to apply partially parallel imaging and k-t CS sequentially. A partially parallel imaging technique using a Generalized GRAPPA fOr Wider readout Line operator is adopted before k-t CS reconstruction to decrease the reduction factor in a computationally efficient way while preserving temporal resolution. Channel combination and relative sensitivity maps are used in the flexible virtual coil scheme to alleviate the k-t CS computational load with increasing number of channels. Using k-t FOCUSS as a specific example of k-t CS, the experiments with Cartesian and radial data sets demonstrate that k-t sparse Generalized GRAPPA fOr Wider readout Line can produce results with two times lower root-mean-square error than conventional channel-by-channel k-t CS while consuming up to seven times less computational cost. PMID:22162191

  15. Deccan Volcanism likely cause for K-T Mass Extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, G.; Reddy, A. N.; Jaiprakash, B. C.; Adatte, T.; Gertsch, B.; Bajpai, S.; Garg, R.; Prasad, V.; Upadhyay, H.; Bhowmick, P. K.

    2009-04-01

    Recent advances in Deccan volcanic studies suggest that the main phase of eruptions occurred rapidly over tens of thousands of years near the end of the Maastrichtian (Chenet et al. 2007, 2008) and may have caused the mass extinction as initially discovered in intertrappean sediments exposed in quarries of Rajahmundry, SE India. In these shallow marine sediments early Danian zone P1a planktic foraminifera were deposited in C29r immediately above the last mega eruption of the main volcanic phase (Keller et al. (2008). At Jhilmili in central India (Madhya Pradesh), early Danian zone P1a assemblages were also discovered in intertrappean sediments, which mark a marine incursion in a predominantly terrestrial sequence which signals a major seaway existed at K-T time. In Meghalaya, NE India, about 600 km from the Deccan volcanic province the K-T boundary and mass extinction identified from planktic foraminifera, calcareous nannofossils and palynomorphs is marked by very large Ir (11.8 ppb), Ru, Rh and Pd anomalies. High biotic stress conditions precede the KTB. Critical new data linking Deccan volcanism to the K-T mass extinction comes also from investigations of subsurface cores drilled in the Krishna-Godavari Basin, eastern India, by the Oil and Natural Gas Corporation of India (ONGC). In eight subsurface cores examined, a total of 4 volcanic megaflows have been identified as occurring in very rapid succession near the end of the Maastrichtian. These megaflows span a 1000 km across India and out to the Gulf of Bengal. They are the longest lava flows known in Earth's history. Preliminary evaluation of the biotic effects of these megaflows on planktic foraminifera indicate that after the first megaflow up to 50% of the species disappeared and with each new megaflow more species died out culminating in near total mass extinction coincident with the last megaflow by K-T boundary time. After the mass extinction, no megaflows reached the Krishna-Godavari Basin for about 250

  16. Large meteorite impacts: The K/T model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohor, B. F.

    1992-01-01

    The Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary event represents probably the largest meteorite impact known on Earth. It is the only impact event conclusively linked to a worldwide mass extinction, a reflection of its gigantic scale and global influence. Until recently, the impact crater was not definitively located and only the distal ejecta of this impact was available for study. However, detailed investigations of this ejecta's mineralogy, geochemistry, microstratigraphy, and textures have allowed its modes of ejection and dispersal to be modeled without benefit of a source crater of known size and location.

  17. Darkness after the K-T impact: Effects of soot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolbach, Wendy S.; Anders, Edward; Orth, Charles J.

    1988-01-01

    Dust from the K-T impact apparently settled from the atmosphere in less than 6 months, restoring sunlight to minimum photosynthesis levels in about 4 months. However, the discovery of a global soot component in the boundary clay makes it necessary to reconsider the problem, as soot particles not only are smaller (0.1 vs. about 0.5 micrometer) and thus settle more slowly, but also are better light absorbers (optical depth of 13 mg soot cm(-2) about 1800; and are more resistant to rainout. Still, the darkness cannot have lasted very much longer than 6 months, else no larger animals would have survived. Perhaps the soot coagulated with the rock dust and fell out with it. Evidence on this point may be sought at a relatively undisturbed K-T boundary site, such as Woodside Creek, N.Z. There the boundary clay and lowermost Tertiary strata are finely laminated and show large chemical and isotopic differences on a millimeter scale, apparently representing a detailed time sequence. Researchers studied a 3 m section across the boundary at this site, analyzing the principal forms of carbon (soot, elemental C, kerogen, and carbonate) as well as 33 elements. Correlations among the elements were sought. Apparently soot came early and coagulated with the ejecta, staying with them for the primary fallout and in the next 5 cm, but then parting company, perhaps due to size sorting.

  18. Blast Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Service Members & Veterans Family & Caregivers Medical Providers Blast Injuries U.S. Army photo by Sgt. Gustavo Olgiati How ... tertiary injury Does a blast cause different brain injuries than blunt trauma? There currently is no evidence ...

  19. Mineralogical and geochemical anomalous data of the K-T boundary samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miura, Y.; Shibya, G.; Imai, M.; Takaoka, N.; Saito, S.

    1988-01-01

    Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary problem has been discussed previously from the geological research, mainly by fossil changes. Although geochemical bulk data of Ir anomaly suggest the extraterrestrial origin of the K-T boundary, the exact formation process discussed mainly by mineralogical and geochemical study has been started recently, together with noble gas contents. The K-T boundary sample at Kawaruppu River, Hokkaido was collected, in order to compare with the typical K-T boundary samples of Bubbio, Italy, Stevns Klint, Denmark, and El Kef, Tunisia. The experimental data of the silicas and calcites in these K-T boundary samples were obtained from the X-ray unit-cell dimension (i.e., density), ESR signal and total linear absorption coefficient, as well as He and Ne contents. The K-T boundary samples are usually complex mixture of the terrestrial activities after the K-T boundary event. The mineralogical and geochemical anomalous data indicate special terrestrial atmosphere at the K-T boundary formation probably induced by asteroid impact, followed the many various terrestrial activities (especially the strong role of sea-water mixture, compared with terrestrial highland impact and impact craters in the other earth-type planetary bodies).

  20. Geochemical evidence for combustion of hydrocarbons during the K-T impact event

    PubMed Central

    Belcher, Claire M.; Finch, Paul; Collinson, Margaret E.; Scott, Andrew C.; Grassineau, Nathalie V.

    2009-01-01

    It has been proposed that extensive wildfires occurred after the Cretaceous–Tertiary (K-T) impact event. An abundance of soot and pyrosynthetic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAHs) in marine K-T boundary impact rocks (BIRs) have been considered support for this hypothesis. However, nonmarine K-T BIRs, from across North America, contain only rare occurrences of charcoal yet abundant noncharred plant remains. pPAHs and soot can be formed from a variety of sources, including partial combustion of vegetation and hydrocarbons whereby modern pPAH signatures are traceable to their source. We present results from multiple nonmarine K-T boundary sites from North America and reveal that the K-T BIRs have a pPAH signature consistent with the combustion of hydrocarbons and not living plant biomass, providing further evidence against K-T wildfires and compelling evidence that a significant volume of hydrocarbons was combusted during the K-T impact event. PMID:19251660

  1. Origin of the kT smearing in direct photon production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Hung-Liang; Li, Hsiang-Nan

    1998-12-01

    We show that the Sudakov factor from the resummation of double logarithms ln(s/k2T) contained in the distribution functions is responsible for the kT smearing mechanism employed in the next-to-leading-order QCD (αα2s) calculations of direct photon production. s is the center-of-mass energy, and kT the transverse momentum carried by a parton in a colliding hadron. This factor exhibits the appropriate s-dependent Gaussian width in kT, such that our predictions are in good agreement with experimental data.

  2. An extended Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) stable isotope record. Implications for paleoclimate and the nature of the K/T boundary event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhondt, Steven

    1988-01-01

    In order to obtain a detailed single site record of marine productivity and temperature across the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) boundary, both delta C-13 and delta O-18 values were measured in paired surface and deep water microfossil and nannofossil samples of mid-latitude South Atlantic Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Site 528. Additionally, the percent sedimentary carbonate content of the rock samples from which the analyzed fossil samples were taken, were determined. The analyzed interval spanned the last approximately 1 million years of the Cretaceous (the Abathomphalus mayaroensis foraminiferal zone) and the first approximately 9 million years of the Tertiary (the Paleocene). Paired samples were analyzed every 150 cm of the entire 165 m sampled interval (1 sample per recovered DSDP section), every 20 cm for 2.0 m below and 2.5 m above the K/T boundary, and every 0.25 cm immediately below, at, and above the K/T boundary clay. The Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary and earliest Paleocene record of DSDP Site 528 is marked by at least two strong decreases in the surface-to-deep delta C-13 gradient (one at the K/T boundary (66.4 mybp1) and one approximately 150,000 to 200,000 years later). Both of these decreases co-occur with radical decreases in percent carbonate content and appear to indicate not one, but two, strong decreases in marine primary productivity during the analyzed interval.

  3. Carbon isotopic compositions of organic matter across continental Cretaceous Tertiary (K T) boundary sections: Implications for paleoenvironment after the K T impact event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruoka, Teruyuki; Koeberl, Christian; Bohor, Bruce F.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the environmental perturbation induced by the impact event that marks the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary, concentrations and isotopic compositions of bulk organic carbon were determined in sedimentary rocks that span the terrestrial K-T boundary at Dogie Creek, Montana, and Brownie Butte, Wyoming in the Western Interior of the United States. The boundary clays at both sites are not bounded by coals. Although coals consist mainly of organic matter derived from plant tissue, siliceous sedimentary rocks, such as shale and clay, may contain organic matter derived from microbiota as well as plants. Coals record δ13C values of plant-derived organic matter, reflecting the δ13C value of atmospheric CO 2, whereas siliceous sedimentary rocks record the δ13C values of organic matter derived from plants and microbiota. The microbiota δ13C value reflects not only the δ13C value of atmospheric CO 2, but also biological productivity. Therefore, the siliceous rocks from these sites yields information that differs from that obtained previously from coal beds. Across the freshwater K-T boundary at Brownie Butte, the δ13C values decrease by 2.6‰ (from - 26.15‰ below the boundary clay to - 28.78‰ above the boundary clay), similar to the trend in carbonate at marine K-T sites. This means that the organic δ13C values reflect the variation of δ13C of atmospheric CO 2, which is in equilibrium with carbon isotopes at the ocean surface. Although a decrease in δ13C values is observed across the K-T boundary at Dogie Creek (from - 25.32‰ below the boundary clay to - 26.11‰ above the boundary clay), the degree of δ13C-decrease at Dogie Creek is smaller than that at Brownie Butte and that for marine carbonate. About 2‰ decrease in δ13C of atmospheric CO 2 was expected from the δ13C variation of marine carbonate at the K-T boundary. This δ13C-decrease of atmospheric CO 2 should affect the δ13C values of organic matter derived from plant tissue. As such a

  4. Carbon isotopic compositions of organic matter across continental Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary sections: Implications for paleoenvironment after the K-T impact event

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maruoka, T.; Koeberl, C.; Bohor, B.F.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the environmental perturbation induced by the impact event that marks the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary, concentrations and isotopic compositions of bulk organic carbon were determined in sedimentary rocks that span the terrestrial K-T boundary at Dogie Creek, Montana, and Brownie Butte, Wyoming in the Western Interior of the United States. The boundary clays at both sites are not bounded by coals. Although coals consist mainly of organic matter derived from plant tissue, siliceous sedimentary rocks, such as shale and clay, may contain organic matter derived from microbiota as well as plants. Coals record ??13C values of plant-derived organic matter, reflecting the ??13C value of atmospheric CO2, whereas siliceous sedimentary rocks record the ??13C values of organic matter derived from plants and microbiota. The microbiota ??13C value reflects not only the ??13C value of atmospheric CO2, but also biological productivity. Therefore, the siliceous rocks from these sites yields information that differs from that obtained previously from coal beds. Across the freshwater K-T boundary at Brownie Butte, the ??13C values decrease by 2.6??? (from - 26.15??? below the boundary clay to - 28.78??? above the boundary clay), similar to the trend in carbonate at marine K-T sites. This means that the organic ??13C values reflect the variation of ??13C of atmospheric CO2, which is in equilibrium with carbon isotopes at the ocean surface. Although a decrease in ??13C values is observed across the K-T boundary at Dogie Creek (from - 25.32??? below the boundary clay to - 26.11??? above the boundary clay), the degree of ??13C-decrease at Dogie Creek is smaller than that at Brownie Butte and that for marine carbonate. About 2??? decrease in ??13C of atmospheric CO2 was expected from the ??13C variation of marine carbonate at the K-T boundary. This ??13C-decrease of atmospheric CO2 should affect the ??13C values of organic matter derived from plant tissue. As such a

  5. A high resolution, one million year record of extraterrestrial 3Helium from the Shatsky Rise (site 1209) following the K/T impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Hull, P. M.; Norris, R. D.

    2010-12-01

    Located in the North Pacific Ocean, site 1209 on the Shatsky rise offers one of the best-preserved sections for studying biological, oceanographic and climatic events in the aftermath of the K-T impact at ~65 Ma. At this site, the first 450 kyrs after the boundary is represented by an extended carbonate section [1]. The expanded section, also known as the ‘strange interval’ [1] is in direct contrast to sites in the Atlantic and Indian Ocean that have low carbonate deposition during this interval. The strange interval is important for evaluating the immediate changes in climate, ocean circulation, and evolutionary dynamics that accompanied K-T impact in the Pacific Ocean. Here we present measurements of extraterrestrial 3He at site 1209 for the first one million year following the K-T impact event at a resolution of 2.5 cm. Our goal is to better constrain the timescale of climatic and biotic events during this interval of time. Accumulation rates of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), as traced by extraterrestrial 3He [2], provide a tool with which to investigate sedimentation rates at high resolution. Prior work has shown that the accretion rate of IDPs across the K-T boundary is constant [2], allowing us to invert the extraterrestrial 3He flux for instantaneous sedimentation rates. Sedimentation rates derived from extraterrestrial 3He for the first 1.91 meters i.e. 261.60-259.72 revised composite meters depth (rmcd) following the K-T impact are on an average 0.48 cm/kyr- a factor of 1.6 lower than previously suggested [1]. For a brief period, between 259.69-259.44 rmcd after the K/T boundary, 3He-based sedimentation rates increase sharply to 2.88cm/kyr—a factor of 4.23 higher than has been reported for the same time interval [1]. The short lived increase in sedimentation rate may be explained by higher productivity and/or better carbonate preservation through a deepening lysocline. The 3He based sedimentation rates indicate that the duration of the

  6. Analysis of exclusive kT jet algorithms in electron-positron annihilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chay, Junegone; Kim, Chul; Kim, Inchol

    2015-10-01

    We study the factorization of the dijet cross section in e+e- annihilation using the generalized exclusive jet algorithm which includes the cone-type, the JADE, the kT, the anti-kT and the Cambridge/Aachen jet algorithms as special cases. In order to probe the characteristics of the jet algorithms in a unified way, we consider the generalized kT jet algorithm with an arbitrary weight of the energies, in which various types of the kT-type algorithms are included for specific values of the parameter. We show that the jet algorithm respects the factorization property for the parameter α <2 . The factorized jet function and the soft function are well defined and infrared safe for all the jet algorithms except the kT algorithm. The kT algorithm (α =2 ) breaks the factorization since the jet and the soft functions are infrared divergent and are not defined for α =2 , though the dijet cross section is infrared finite. In the jet algorithms which enable factorization, we give a phenomenological analysis using the resummed and the fixed-order results.

  7. The Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) impact: One or more source craters?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koeberl, Christian

    1992-01-01

    The Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) boundary is marked by signs of a worldwide catastrophe, marking the demise of more than 50 percent of all living species. Ever since Alvarez et al. found an enrichment of IR and other siderophile elements in rocks marking the K/T boundary and interpreted it as the mark of a giant asteroid (or comet) impact, scientists have tried to understand the complexities of the K/T boundary event. The impact theory received a critical boost by the discovery of shocked minerals that have so far been found only in association with impact craters. One of the problems of the K/T impact theory was, and still is, the lack of an adequate large crater that is close to the maximum abundance of shocked grains in K/T boundary sections, which was found to occur in sections in Northern America. The recent discovery of impact glasses from a K/T section in Haiti has been crucial in establishing a connection with documented impact processes. The location of the impact-glass findings and the continental nature of detritus found in all K/T sections supports at least one impact site near the North American continent. The Manson Impact Structure is the largest recognized in the United States, 35 km in diameter, and has a radiometric age indistinguishable from that of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) boundary. Although the Manson structure may be too small, it may be considered at least one element of the events that led to the catastrophic loss of life and extinction of many species at that time. A second candidate for the K/T boundary crater is the Chicxulub structure, which was first suggested to be an impact crater more than a decade ago. Only recently, geophysical studies and petrological (as well as limited chemical) analyses have indicated that this buried structure may in fact be of impact origin. At present we can conclude that the Manson crater is the only confirmed crater of K/T age, but Chicxulub is becoming a strong contender; however, detailed geochemical

  8. The Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) impact: One or more source craters?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeberl, Christian

    The Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) boundary is marked by signs of a worldwide catastrophe, marking the demise of more than 50 percent of all living species. Ever since Alvarez et al. found an enrichment of IR and other siderophile elements in rocks marking the K/T boundary and interpreted it as the mark of a giant asteroid (or comet) impact, scientists have tried to understand the complexities of the K/T boundary event. The impact theory received a critical boost by the discovery of shocked minerals that have so far been found only in association with impact craters. One of the problems of the K/T impact theory was, and still is, the lack of an adequate large crater that is close to the maximum abundance of shocked grains in K/T boundary sections, which was found to occur in sections in Northern America. The recent discovery of impact glasses from a K/T section in Haiti has been crucial in establishing a connection with documented impact processes. The location of the impact-glass findings and the continental nature of detritus found in all K/T sections supports at least one impact site near the North American continent. The Manson Impact Structure is the largest recognized in the United States, 35 km in diameter, and has a radiometric age indistinguishable from that of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) boundary. Although the Manson structure may be too small, it may be considered at least one element of the events that led to the catastrophic loss of life and extinction of many species at that time. A second candidate for the K/T boundary crater is the Chicxulub structure, which was first suggested to be an impact crater more than a decade ago. Only recently, geophysical studies and petrological (as well as limited chemical) analyses have indicated that this buried structure may in fact be of impact origin. At present we can conclude that the Manson crater is the only confirmed crater of K/T age, but Chicxulub is becoming a strong contender; however, detailed geochemical

  9. Faunal and erosional events in the Eastern Tethyan Sea across the K/T boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, G.; Benjamini, C.

    1988-01-01

    A regional pattern of three closely spaced erosional events at and above the K/T boundary was determined from six Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary sections in the Negev of Israel. The sections were collected from locations throughout the central and northern Negev. All sections are lithologically similar. The Maastrichtian consists of a sequence of limestone beds intercalated with thin marly beds. In some sections, the last limestone bed is followed by 1 to 2 m of calcareous marls grading upwards into several meters of grey shale. In other sections the limestone bed is followed directly by grey shale with the contact containing particles of limestone and marl. A 5 to 20 cm thick dark grey organic-rich clay layer is present about 1.5 to 2.5 m above the base of the grey shale. The grey shale grades upwards into increasingly carbonate rich marls. No unconformities are apparent in field outcrops. During field collection the dark grey clay layer was believed to represent the K/T boundary clay. Microfossil analysis however identified the boundary at the base of the grey shale. The black shale represents a low productivity anoxic event similar to, but younger than, the K/T boundary clay in other K/T boundary sections. High resolution planktic foraminiferal and carbonate analysis of these sections (at 5 to 10 cm intervals) yield surprising results. The K/T boundary is marked by an erosional event which removed part or all of the uppermost Maastrichtian marls above the last limestone bed. Percent carbonate data for four Negev sections are illustrated and show the regional similarities in carbonate sedimentation. Faunal and carbonate data from the Negev sections thus show three closely spaced short erosional events at the K/T boundary and within the first 50,000 to 100,000 years of the Danian. These K/T boundary erosional events may represent global climatic or paleoceanographic events.

  10. Magnetic microspherules associated with the K/T and upper Eocene extinction events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cisowski, Stanley M.

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic microspherules were identified in over 20 K/T boundary sites, and in numerous Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) cores from the Caribbean and Pacific, synchronous with the extinction of several radiolarian species near the end of the Eocene. The K/T magnetic spherules are of particular interest as carriers of Ir and other siderophiles generally found in abundance in K/T boundary clay. Furthermore the textures and unusual chemistry of their component magnetic phases indicate an origin at high temperature, possibly related to (an) unusual event(s) marking the end of the Cretaceous and Eocene periods. Their origin, along with the non-magnetic (sanidine) spheules, is generally ascribed directly to megaimpact events hypothesized to have periodically disrupted life on Earth. A survey of microspherical forms associated with known meteorite and impact derived materials reveals fundamental differences from the extinction related spherules. Low temperature magnetic experiments on the K/T and Upper Eocene spheroids indicate that, unlike tektites, extremely small superparamagnetic carriers are not present in abundance. The extensive subaerial exposure of Cretaceous combustible black shale during sea level regression in the latest Cretaceous represents a potential source for the magnetic spheroids found in certain K/T boundary clays. The recent discovery of high Ir abundances distributed above and below the K/T boundary within shallow water sediments in Israel, which also contain the most extensive known zones of combustion metamorphism, the so called Mottled Zone, adds a further dramatic footnote to the proposed association between the magnetic spheroids and combustion of organic shales. Interestingly, the Mottled Zone also contains the rare mineral magnesioferrite, which was identified both within the K/T magnetic spheroids and as discrete crystals in boundary clay from marine and continental sites.

  11. Impact and extinction signatures in complete Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smit, J.; Groot, H.; Dejonge, R.; Smit, P.

    1988-01-01

    The Zumaya, Caravaca and Agost sections in Spain, the El Kef section in Tunisia and the Negev (Nahal Avdat) sections in Israel are among the most continuous, expanded and complete K-T boundary sections. The distribution patterns of the planktic faunas were quantitatively analyzed in closely spaced samples across the K-T boundary in these sections, in conjuction with the geochemistry, stable isotopes, mineralogy and magnetostratigraphy. Three hundred foraminiferal specimens were randomly selected and determined. Reliable estimates for the foraminiferal productivity changes across the K-T boundary and for the 1 to 2 Ma interval preceding the K-T boundary were made from the numbers of individuals/gram of sediment corrected for the sedimentation rates (calculated from magnetic reversals and lithology). No gradual or stepwise extinction is seen below the K-T boundary nor any productivity decrease. Stable isotope analyses show a warming just after deposition of the ejecta layer, not cooling as predicted by nuclear winter scenarios, although the duration of such cooling may be too short to be observed even in these complete sections. Low REE values and cpx spherules with quench textures idential to quench-textures in diagenetically altered spherules, strongly indicate an oceanic site of (one of) the impactor(s).

  12. Stratigraphy and sedimentology of the K/T boundary deposit in Haiti

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carey, S.; Sigurdsson, H.; Dhondt, S.; Espindola, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    The K/T boundary sequence is exposed in uplifted carbonate sediments of the southwest peninsula of Haiti. It is found at 15 localities within the Beloc formation, a sequence of limestone and marls interpreted as a monoclinal nappe structure thrust to the north. This tectonic deformation has affected the K/T boundary deposit to varying degrees. In some cases the less competent K/T deposit has acted as a slip plane leading to extensive shearing of the boundary layer, as well as duplication of the section. The presence of glassy tektites, shocked quartz, and an Ir anomaly directly link the deposit to a bolide impact. Stratigraphic and sedimentological features of the tripartite sequence indicate that it was formed by deposition from ballistic fallout of coarse tektites, emplacement of particle gravity flows and fine grained fallout of widely dispersed impact ejecta.

  13. Extended period of K/T boundary mass extinction in the marine realm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, G.

    1988-01-01

    The Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary mass extinction has been widely recognized as a nearly instantaneous catastrophy among marine plankton such as foraminifera. However, the suddenness of this extinction event may have been overemphasized because most pelagic K/T boundary sequences are stratigraphically incomplete and generally lack the earliest Tertiary (Zones P0 and P1a) either due to carbonate dissolution and/or non-deposition. Stratigraphically complete sections appear to be restricted to continental shelf regions with high sedimentation rates and deposition well above the CCD. Such sections have been recovered from El Kef, Tunisia (1) and Brazos River, Texas. Quantitative foraminiferal analysis of these sections indicate an extinction pattern beginning below the K/T boundary and ending above the boundary. These data imply that the mass extinction event was not geologically instantaneous, but occurred over an extended period of time. Evidence supporting this conclusion is discussed.

  14. Shocked quartz and more: Impact signatures in K-T boundary clays and claystones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohor, Bruce F.

    1988-01-01

    Quartz grains displaying multiple sets of planar features are described from numerous Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary clays and claystones at both marine and nonmarine depositional sites around the world. All these sites also show anomalously high amounts of iridium and enrichments of other siderophile elements in cosmic ratios within these boundary units. This combination of mineralogical and geochemical features are used in support of an impact hypothesis for the end-Cretaceous event. Recently, it was suggested that some combination of explosive and nonexplosive volcanism associated with the formation of the Deccan traps in India could be responsible for the mineralogy and geochemistry seen in the K-T boundary units. Besides the obvious contradition of simultaneous explosive and nonexplosive volcanism from one locality during an instant of geologic time, there remains the difficulty of spreading both iridium (and trace elements in cosmic proportions) and quartz grains around the world by volcanic (atmospheric) transport. In addition, the ability of volcanism to produce the type of shock metamorphism seen in minerals at the K-T boundary was not demonstrated. Multiple sets of shock lamellae in quartz are considered characteristic of shock metamorphism in rocks at the sites of known impact craters and are the type of deformation seen in quartz from K-T boundary clays and claystones. Single sets of poorly defined lamellae described from rare quartz grains in certain volcanic deposits are characteristic of tectonic deformation and do not correspond to the shock lamellae in quartz from K-T sediments and impact structures. So-called shock mosaicism in quartz and feldspar grains described from volcanic deposits can result from many processes other than shock metamorphism, and therefore is not considered to be an effect characteristic solely of shock. The mineralogy of shock-metamorphosed grains at the K-T boundary also argues against a volcanic origin.

  15. Major Marine Seaway Across India During the K-T Transition: Evidence From Deccan Traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunil, B.; Keller, G.; Adatte, T.; Mohabey, D.; Widdowson, M.; Khosla, A.; Sharma, R.; Khosla, S. C.; Gertsch, B.; Fleitmann, D.; Sahni, A.

    2008-12-01

    Intertrappean beds in the main part of the Deccan Traps volcanic province of peninsular India are generally considered to be terrestrial deposits of late Maastrichtian age, lthough the precise position of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary event has remained speculative. Recent investigations of the outlying Deccan Traps exposures around Rajahmundry near the southeastern coast, however, revealed the K-T event in intertrappean beds overlying the end of the main Deccan volcanic phase with the last phase of volcanic eruptions at the C29R/C29N transition (Keller et al., 2008). Further investigations in central India confirm these results and indicate that a major marine seaway existed across India during the K-T transition. The new evidence is from Deccan Traps at Jhilmili, Chhindwara District of central India, located about 800 km from the nearest ocean. Intertrappean sediments in this area have been considered as terrestrial deposition. Our multi-disciplinary investigations, including biostratigraphic, sedimentologic, mineralogic, chemo- and magnetostratigraphic analyses of the Deccan Traps and intertrappean sediments revealed: i) predominantly terrestrial to fresh water (lacustrine, palustrine) deposition with short marine incursions transporting planktic foraminifera and forming brackish-marine environments; ii) planktic foraminiferal assemblages that indicate an early Danian zone P1a age for these marine incursions; iii) the K-T boundary is above the last reversely magnetized (C29R) basalt flow, and iv) the upper basalt flow occurs near the C29R/C29N transition. These biostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic ages corroborate the previous results from Rajahmundry and place the K-T boundary at the end of the main phase of Deccan Traps volcanism. Deposition at Jhilmili during the K/T transition thus occurred in predominantly terrestrial semi-humid to arid environmental settings with short aquatic intervals of fresh water ponds and lakes, followed by shallow

  16. k-t FASTER: Acceleration of functional MRI data acquisition using low rank constraints

    PubMed Central

    Chiew, Mark; Smith, Stephen M; Koopmans, Peter J; Graedel, Nadine N; Blumensath, Thomas; Miller, Karla L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In functional MRI (fMRI), faster sampling of data can provide richer temporal information and increase temporal degrees of freedom. However, acceleration is generally performed on a volume-by-volume basis, without consideration of the intrinsic spatio-temporal data structure. We present a novel method for accelerating fMRI data acquisition, k-t FASTER (FMRI Accelerated in Space-time via Truncation of Effective Rank), which exploits the low-rank structure of fMRI data. Theory and Methods Using matrix completion, 4.27× retrospectively and prospectively under-sampled data were reconstructed (coil-independently) using an iterative nonlinear algorithm, and compared with several different reconstruction strategies. Matrix reconstruction error was evaluated; a dual regression analysis was performed to determine fidelity of recovered fMRI resting state networks (RSNs). Results The retrospective sampling data showed that k-t FASTER produced the lowest error, approximately 3–4%, and the highest quality RSNs. These results were validated in prospectively under-sampled experiments, with k-t FASTER producing better identification of RSNs than fully sampled acquisitions of the same duration. Conclusion With k-t FASTER, incoherently under-sampled fMRI data can be robustly recovered using only rank constraints. This technique can be used to improve the speed of fMRI sampling, particularly for multivariate analyses such as temporal independent component analysis. Magn Reson Med 74:353–364, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25168207

  17. K-T transition in Deccan Traps of central India marks major marine Seaway across India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, G.; Adatte, T.; Bajpai, S.; Mohabey, D. M.; Widdowson, M.; Khosla, A.; Sharma, R.; Khosla, S. C.; Gertsch, B.; Fleitmann, D.; Sahni, A.

    2009-05-01

    Deccan intertrappean sediments in central India are generally considered as terrestrial deposits of Maastrichtian age, but the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) position is still unknown. Here we report the discovery of the K-T transition, a marine incursion and environmental changes preserved within the intertrappean sediments at Jhilmili, Chhindwara District, Madhya Pradesh. Integrative biostratigraphic, sedimentologic, mineralogic and chemostratigraphic analyses reveal the basal Danian in the intertrappean sediments between lower and upper trap basalts that regionally correspond to C29r and the C29R/C29N transition, respectively. Intertrappean deposition occurred in predominantly terrestrial semi-humid to arid environments. But a short aquatic interval of fresh water ponds and lakes followed by shallow coastal marine conditions with brackish marine ostracods and early Danian zone P1a planktic foraminifera mark this interval very close to the K-T boundary. This marine incursion marks the existence of a nearby seaway, probably extending inland from the west through the Narmada and Tapti rift valleys. The Jhilmili results thus identify the K-T boundary near the end of the main phase of Deccan eruptions and indicate that a major seaway extended at least 800 km across India.

  18. Chicxulub Impact Predates K-T Boundary: new evidence from Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, G.; Adatte, T.; Harting, M.; Berner, Z.; Baum, G. R.; Stueben, D.

    2006-05-01

    In March 2005 NSF-EAR supported the drilling of three holes by DOSECC, along the Brazos River, Falls County, Texas, about 1000 km from the impact crater in order to test earlier observations in NE Mexico and the Chicxulub crater that this impact predates the K-T boundary by about 300,000 years. The new Texas Mullinax cores and new outcrops recovered the most complete K-T sequences known in this area and a stratigraphic record which revealed: (1) the K-T boundary 90 cm above the event deposit that is commonly interpreted as impact tsunami, and (2) the discovery of the original Chicxulub impact ejecta layer 40 cm below the event deposit. Multidisciplinary biostratigraphic, sedimentological, geochemical and mineralogical analyses reveal that in the new Mullinax-1 core and the outcrop the K-T boundary is marked by the global K-T negative /?13C excursion, a major faunal turnover from Cretaceous to Tertiary dominated assemblages and the first appearances of Tertiary species in all microfossil groups (planktic foraminifera, nannofossils, palynomorphs). A major iridium anomaly was earlier reported coincident with these K-T characteristics at the classic Brazos-1 outcrop only 150 m to the east. The underlying 45 cm thick event deposit, interbedded in late Maastrichtian sediments, contains multiple depositional events with burrows, and near the base reworked and altered Chicxulub impact glass spherules in a clast-rich, shelly, glauconitic sandstone. The event deposits infill a channel and overlie an erosional surface. The original impact ejecta layer is in a claystone 40 cm below the event deposit and consists of a 3 cm thick layer of altered impact glass in the lower part of chron 29R and near the base of biozone CF1, which marks the last 300,000 years of the Cretaceous. The new Brazos results confirm the earlier results from NE Mexico and the crater core Yaxcopoil-1 that the Chicxulub impact predates the K-T boundary by about 300,000 years.

  19. Chicxulub Impact Predates K-T Boundary in Texas and Caused no Mass Extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.; Soler-Arechalde, A. M.; Rebolledo-Vieyra, M.; Keller, G.; Adatte, T.; Berner, Z.; Baum, G.; Stueben, D.

    2005-05-01

    In the Chicxulub crater and throughout NE Mexico the impact breccia and spherule ejecta layer, respectively, predate the K-T boundary by about 300,000 years (Keller et al., 2003, 2004). The stratigraphic separation between the K-T boundary and the Chicxulub impact ejecta varies from 50 cm in the Chicxulub crater, to over 14 m in NE Mexico, with the variation due to erosion, non-deposition and paloetopography. New studies from drilling and exposures along the Brazos River, Texas, confirm these findings based on biostratigraphy, paleomagnetic stratigraphy, geochemistry, stable isotopes, and faunal assemblages. In this area, the spherule ejecta is reworked near the base of a series of `event beds' representing variable storm deposits separated by repeated colonization of the ocean floor by invertebrates. The base of these storm beds overlies an undulating erosion surface of latest Maastrichtian claystone. The original spherule ejecta layer appears to be within the underlying claystone, in the lower part of chron 29R and near the base of biozone CF1, which marks the last 300,000 years of the Cretaceous. Above the `event beds' latest Maastrichtian claystone sedimentation continues up to the K-T boundary, which is characterized by a sharp (1.4 ng/g) iridium anomaly that marks the K-T as a second major impact. The distance between the top of the `event beds' and the K-T boundary varies from 20 cm to 1.6 m depending on local tectonics and erosion. Evaluation of the biotic effects of the Chicxulub and K-T impacts upon planktic foraminifera, which suffered most severely of all marine organisms, reveals no species extinctions associated with the Chicxulub impact and no significant species population changes, except for species dwarfing as a result of increased biotic stress. These Brazos results confirm the 65.3 Ma age for the Chicxulub impact determined from NE Mexico and the crater core Yaxcopoil-1. They also show that the Chicxulub impact did not cause a mass extinction

  20. Did Deccan Volcanism or the Chicxulub Impact Cause the K-T Mass Extinction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, G.; Reddy, A. N.; Jaiprakash, B. C.; Gertsch, B.; Adatte, T.; Upadhyay, H.; Bhowmick, P. K.; Pande, D. K.

    2008-12-01

    It is generally believed that the Chicxulub impact caused the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) mass extinction. However, strong evidence from Mexico and Texas shows that this impact predates the K-T boundary and caused no species extinctions or any other significant environmental effects (Keller et al., 2003, 2007). The Chicxulub impact and K-T mass extinction are thus two separate and unrelated events and the biotic effects of this impact have been vastly overestimated. The real cause for the K-T mass extinction may now have been discovered in the Deccan volcanic eruptions of India. Recent discoveries reveal Deccan volcanism as the most likely cause for the K-T mass extinction for several reasons detailed in Chenet et al. (2007), Keller et al. (2008) and Self et al. (2008): (1) The main phase of Deccan Trap eruptions may have occurred over as little as 10,000 to 100,000 years. (2) The K-T mass extinction coincides with the end of this main phase of volcanism. (3) The longest lava flows (megaflows), spanning 1000 km across India and out to the Gulf of Bengal, mark this phase of Deccan volcanism and the mass extinction. (4) SO2 emissions associated with just one of these major volcanic pulses, or megaflows, are on the order of SO2 emissions estimated from the Chicxulub impact. (5) The total SO2 emissions during the main phase of Deccan volcanism are estimated at 30 to 100 times that of the Chicxulub impact. Thus, the short duration of volcanism and the repeated massive SO2 injections may have caused a deadly runaway effect that lead to the K-T mass extinction. Critical new data on the K-T mass extinction comes from investigations of Deccan Traps outcrops at Jhilmili, Madhya Pradesh, central India, quarry outcrops in Rajahmundry and subsurface cores drilled in the Krishna-Godavari Basin, eastern India, by the Oil and Natural Gas Corporation of India (ONGC). In eight subsurface cores examined, a total of 9 volcanic megaflows have been identified as occurring in very rapid

  1. Dinosaur bone beds and mass mortality: Implications for the K-T extinction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth

    1988-01-01

    Mass accumulations of fossilized large terrestrial vertebrate skeletons (bone beds: BB) provide a test for K-T catastrophic extinction hypotheses. The two major factors contributing to BB formation are mode of death and sedimentation rate. Catastrophic mass mortality (CMM) is the sudden death of numerous individuals where species, age, health, gender, or social ranking offer no survivorship advantage. Noncatastrophic mass mortality (NCMM) occurs over time and is strongly influenced by species, age, or gender. In addition to cause of death, sedimentation rate is also important in BB formation. Models of BBs can be made. The CMM drops all individuals in their tracks, therefore, the BB should reflect the living population with respect to species, age, or gender. The NCMM results in monospecific BBs skewed in the direction of the less fit, usually the very young or very old, or towards a specific gender. The NCMM and AM BBs may become more similar the more spread out over time NCMM deaths occur because carcasses are widely scattered requiring hydraulic accumulation, and the greater time allows for more disarticulation and weathering. The CMM and NCMM BB appear to be dominated by social animals. Applying this and the characteristics of mortality patterns to the uppermost Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation indicates that only NCMM and AM BB occur. Furthermore, NCMM BB are rare in the upper third of the Hell Creek. Near the K-T boundary, only AM BB are known. The absence of CMM and NCMM BB appears to be real reflecting a decrease in population levels of some dinosaurs prior to the K-T event. The absence of CMM suggests that the K-T event did not lead to an instantaneous extinction of dinosaurs. Nor was there a protracted die-off due to an asteroid impact winter, because no NCMM BB are known at or near the K-T boundary.

  2. Impact wave deposits provide new constraints on the location of the K/T boundary impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, A. R.; Boynton, W. V.

    1988-01-01

    All available evidence is consistent with an impact into oceanic crust terminating the Cretaceous Period. Although much of this evidence is incompatible with an endogenic origin, some investigators still feel that a volcanic origin is possible for the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary clay layers. The commonly cited evidence for a large impact stems from delicate clay layers and their components and the impact site has not yet been found. Impact sites have been suggested all over the globe. The impact is felt to have occurred near North America by: the occurrence of a 2 cm thick ejecta layer only at North American locales, the global variation of shocked quartz grain sizes peaking in North America, the global variation of spinel compositions with most refractory compositions occurring in samples from the Pacific region and possibly uniquely severe plant extinctions in the North American region. The K/T boundary interval was investigated as preserved on the banks of the Brazos River, Texas. The K/T fireball and ejecta layers with associated geochemical anomalies were found interbedded with this sequence which apparently allows a temporal resolution 4 orders of magnitude greater than typical K/T boundary sections. A literature search reveals that such coarse deposits are widely preserved at the K/T boundary. Impact wave deposits have not been found elsewhere on the globe, suggesting the impact occurred between North and South America. The coarse deposits preserved in Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) holes 151-3 suggest the impact occurred nearby. Subsequent tectonism has complicated the picture.

  3. Osmium Isotopic Composition of the K/T Boundary Sediments from Sumbar: A Progress Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisel, T.; Krahenbuhl, U.; Nazarov, M. A.

    1993-07-01

    the basal layer. (3) The local sediments have an Os concentration of 80 pg/g and the ^187Re/^186Os increases with time. Rhenium concentration has not been determined. The Re abundance is a not very sensitive parameter, since the long decay time of ^187Re (42.3 Ga) cannot account for the higher ratios within 65 Ma. It has been observed that Re is highly enriched above the basal layer [9] of the Caravaca section. This might also be true for the Sumbar section, and thus point 3 is plausible. Further analysis of Maastrichtian samples will give additional constraints on the concentration and isotopic composition of the terrigenous source material. References: [1] Luck J. M. and Turekian K. K. (1983) Science, 222, 613-615. [2] Lichte F. E. et al. (1986) Nature, 322, 816-817. [3] Esser B. K. and Turekian K. K. (1989) EOS, 70, 717. [4] Kraehenbuehl U. et al. (1988) Meteoritics, 23, 282. [5] Smitt R. A. (1990) LPS XXI, 1085-1086. [6] Turekian K. K. (1982) Geol. Bull. Am. Spec. Pap., 190, 243-249. [7] Alekseyev A. S. et al. (1988) Int. Geol. Rev., 30, 121-135. [9] Kyte F. T. et al. (1985) EPSL, 73, 183-195. Fig. 1, which appears here in the hard copy, shows the distribution of Ir concentration and Os-isotope ratio over the Sumbar K/T boundary section. Iridium data are from [7].

  4. Blast injury.

    PubMed

    de Candole, C A

    1967-01-28

    The shock wave generated by an explosion ("blast wave") may cause injury in any or all of the following: (1) direct impact on the tissues of variations in environmental pressure; (2) flying glass and other debris set in motion by it; (3) propulsion of the body. Injuries in the first category affect gas-containing organs (ears, lungs and intestines), and acute death is attributed to air forced into the coronary vessels via damaged pulmonary alveoli. It is estimated that overpressure sufficient to cause lung injury may occur up to five miles from a 20-megaton nuclear explosion. The greatest single hazard from blast is, however, flying glass, and serious wounding from this cause is possible up to 12 miles from an explosion of this magnitude. PMID:6015742

  5. Blast Injury

    PubMed Central

    de Candole, C. A.

    1967-01-01

    The shock wave generated by an explosion (“blast wave”) may cause injury in any or all of the following: (1) direct impact on the tissues of variations in environmental pressure; (2) flying glass and other debris set in motion by it; (3) propulsion of the body. Injuries in the first category affect gas-containing organs (ears, lungs and intestines), and acute death is attributed to air forced into the coronary vessels via damaged pulmonary alveoli. It is estimated that overpressure sufficient to cause lung injury may occur up to five miles from a 20-megaton nuclear explosion. The greatest single hazard from blast is, however, flying glass, and serious wounding from this cause is possible up to 12 miles from an explosion of this magnitude. PMID:6015742

  6. Chicxulub Impact and the Stratigraphy, Nature and Origin of Near-K-T Breccia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adatte, T.; Keller, G.; Berner, Z.; Stüben, D.

    2007-05-01

    Breccias with altered impact glass and located at or near the K-T boundary in Texas (USA), northern and southern Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, Haiti and Brazil are investigated to determine their age, stratigraphy and origin. Ages are variable. The oldest breccia deposit is within the uppermost Maastrichtian in the southern USA (Brazos, Texas), NE Mexico (e.g., Loma Cerca, El Penon) and in the Chicxulub impact crater cores on Yucatan (e.g., cores Yaxcopoil-1, Y6, C1). In all these sections, the geochemistry of glass within the breccias is identical and consistent with Chicxulub impact ejecta. The K-T boundary, Ir anomaly and mass extinction is located well above these impact breccia layers. This strongly supports a pre-K-T age for the Chicxulub impact, as also determined based on sedimentology, stratigraphy and paleontology. In NE Mexico and Texas the oldest Chicxulub impact spherule ejecta layer is interbedded in normal marine sedimentation in the upper Maastrichtian (base of CF1 Zone), about 300'000 year prior to the K-T boundary. All stratigraphically younger spherule ejecta layers represent repeated episodes of reworking and transport of the original layer during a sea-level regression and re- deposition in incised valleys in shallow environments (e.g., Brazos, Texas, La Popa Basin NE Mexico) and submarine canyons in deeper environments via mass flows and turbidites (e.g. Mimbral, Penon, Loma Cerca and many other section throughout NE Mexico). In southern Mexico, Belize and eastern Guatemala, the widespread thick microspherule and larger spheroid deposits are interbedded with breccia, microbreccias and conglomerates in the early Danian as a result of erosion in shallow carbonate platform sediments. The presence of early Danian planktic foraminifera in the matrix of the breccia, as well as within spherule clasts, indicate that redeposition occurred during the early Danian Parvularugoglobigerina eugubina (P1a) zone. In Haiti (Beloc sections), spherule deposits and

  7. Chicxulub Impact and K-T Mass Extinction in Mexico and Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, G.; Adatte, T.; Berner, Z.; Stueben, D.

    2007-05-01

    New cores and outcrops from El Penon, NE Mexico, and the Brazos River, Falls County, Texas, reveal the stratigraphic and temporal separation between the Chicxulub impact, the sandstone complex (commonly interpreted as "impact-tsunami") and the K-T mass extinction. In NE Mexico, where deposition occurred in about 500 m water depth, the original Chicxulub impact ejecta was discovered in a 1.8 m thick impact glass spherule layer within undisturbed pelagic marls more than 4 m below the base of the sandstone complex. At Brazos, Texas, where deposition occurred in shallow waters (20-80 m), the original spherule ejecta layer was found in a 3 cm thick clay-altered impact spherule layer within undisturbed late Maastrichtian claystones, about 60 cm below the sandstone complex. In both localities, the base of the sandstone complex contains spherules and clasts from shallow nearshore areas, which were eroded from the original impact spherule layer and transported into deeper waters during the latest Maastrichtian sea level lowstand. The K-T mass extinction and Ir anomaly occurred at a much later time. The Chicxulub impact is dated at 300 ky before the K-T boundary and the sea level lowstand about 100 ky before. These data reveal that the K-T mass extinction was not directly related to either the Chicxulub impact, or the sea level lowstand. The discovery of the original Chicxulub impact ejecta spherule layer in Mexico and Texas permits evaluation of the biotic effects of this large impact upon marine faunas and floras in both deep and shallow water environments at 1000 km and 1700 km from the impact crater, respectively. Quantitative analysis of planktic foraminifera reveals a major surprise: No species extinctions or significant species population changes occurred at the time of the Chicxulub impact. The impact coincides with greenhouse warming associated with Deccan volcanism, but appears to have caused no significant environmental stress even within 1000 km, let alone

  8. Automated Blast Cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, Isaiah R.; Yulfo, Alyce R.

    1992-01-01

    Automatic grit-blasting machine removes melted-layer residue from electrical-discharge-machined surfaces of turbine blades. Automatic control system of machine provides steady flow of grit and maintains blast nozzles at proper distance and in correct orientation perpendicular to surface being blasted, regardless of contour. Eliminates localized excessive blasting and consequent excessive removal of underlying material, blasting of adjacent surfaces, and missed areas.

  9. K/T boundary stratigraphy: Evidence for multiple impacts and a possible comet stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoemaker, E. M.; Izett, G. A.

    1992-01-01

    A critical set of observations bearing on the K/T boundary events were obtained from several dozen sites in western North America. Thin strata at and adjacent to the K/T boundary are locally preserved in association with coal beds at these sites. The strata were laid down in local shallow basins that were either intermittently flooded or occupied by very shallow ponds. Detailed examination of the stratigraphy at numerous sites led to the recognition of two distinct strata at the boundary. From the time that the two strata were first recognized, E.M. Shoemaker has maintained that they record two impact events. We report some of the evidence that supports this conclusion.

  10. Evidence for a K/T impact event in the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, E.; Froget, L.; Jehanno, C.; Rocchia, R.

    1993-06-01

    The spinel-bearing material recovered from K/T boundary deposits at site 577 in the Pacific Ocean has been examined, and two distinct populations of particles are found: spherules with dendritic spinel textures dispersed throughout the grains and irregularly shaped fragments with spinels essentially confined to the rim. The morphology and composition of the particles are characteristic of melted and partially melted meteoritic ablation debris, but their location is difficult to reconcile with an impact on the Yucatan peninsula, some 10,000 km away. It is suggested instead that the spinel-bearing particles at site 577 are derived from the impact of a 2-km asteroid in the Pacific Ocean, and that several accretionary events of this type are required to explain the local distribution of spinel-bearing spherules at the K/T boundary.

  11. Mass extinctions, atmospheric sulphur and climatic warming at the K/T boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampino, Michael R.; Volk, Tyler

    1988-01-01

    The possible climatic effects of a drastic decrease in cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) associated with a severe reduction in the global marine phytoplankton abundance are investigated. Calculations suggest that a reduction in CCN of more than 80 percent and the resulting decrease in marine cloud albedo could have produced a rapid global warming of 6 C or more. Oxygen isotope analyses of marine sediments from many parts of the world have been interpreted as indicating a marked warming coincident with the demise of calcareous nannoplankton at the K/T boundary. Decreased marine cloud albedo and resulting high sea surface temperatures could have been a factor in the maintenance of low productivity in the 'Strangelove Ocean' period following the K/T extinctions.

  12. K/T spherules from Haiti and Wyoming: Origin, diagenesis, and similarity to some microtektites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohor, B. F.; Glass, B. P.; Betterton, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    Spherules with relict glass cores in the K/T boundary bed of Haiti allow for a comparison of these bodies with hollow goyazite shells in the K/T boundary claystone of Wyoming and with younger microtektites of the Ivory Coast strewn field. Samples of the Haitian beds from undisturbed sections at Beloc, as determined by Jehanno et al., contain both hollow shells and relict glass cores rimmed by palagonite that has been partially converted to smectite. These palagonite rims developed from hydration zones formed when hot, splash-form droplets of andesitic impact glass were deposited into water. Mutual collisions between these droplets in the ejecta curtain may have formed point-source stresses on their surfaces. Initiation of hydration would be facilitated at these surface stress points and propagated radially into the glass. The inner surface of these merged hemispherical fronts appears mammillary, which is reflected as scalloping in Haitian relict glass cores.

  13. Transverse-momentum-dependent quark splitting functions in k T -factorization: real contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gituliar, Oleksandr; Hentschinski, Martin; Kutak, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    We calculate transverse momentum dependent quark splitting kernels P gq and P qq within k T -factorization, completing earlier results which concentrated on gluon splitting functions P gg and P qg . The complete set of splitting kernels is an essential requirement for the formulation of a complete set of evolution equations for transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions and the development of corresponding parton shower algorithms.

  14. Monitoring oil displacement processes with k-t accelerated spin echo SPI.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Xiao, Dan; Romero-Zerón, Laura; Balcom, Bruce J

    2016-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a robust tool to monitor oil displacement processes in porous media. Conventional MRI measurement times can be lengthy, which hinders monitoring time-dependent displacements. Knowledge of the oil and water microscopic distribution is important because their pore scale behavior reflects the oil trapping mechanisms. The oil and water pore scale distribution is reflected in the magnetic resonance T2 signal lifetime distribution. In this work, a pure phase-encoding MRI technique, spin echo SPI (SE-SPI), was employed to monitor oil displacement during water flooding and polymer flooding. A k-t acceleration method, with low-rank matrix completion, was employed to improve the temporal resolution of the SE-SPI MRI measurements. Comparison to conventional SE-SPI T2 mapping measurements revealed that the k-t accelerated measurement was more sensitive and provided higher-quality results. It was demonstrated that the k-t acceleration decreased the average measurement time from 66.7 to 20.3 min in this work. A perfluorinated oil, containing no (1) H, and H2 O brine were employed to distinguish oil and water phases in model flooding experiments. High-quality 1D water saturation profiles were acquired from the k-t accelerated SE-SPI measurements. Spatially and temporally resolved T2 distributions were extracted from the profile data. The shift in the (1) H T2 distribution of water in the pore space to longer lifetimes during water flooding and polymer flooding is consistent with increased water content in the pore space. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26626141

  15. Bio-, Magneto- and event-stratigraphy across the K-T boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preisinger, A.; Stradner, H.; Mauritsch, H. J.

    1988-01-01

    Determining the time and the time structure of rare events in geology can be accomplished by applying three different and independent stratigraphic methods: Biostratigraphy, magneto-stratigraphy and event-stratigraphy. The optimal time resolution of the two former methods is about 1000 years, while by means of event-stratigraphy a resolution of approximately one year can be achieved. For biostratigraphy across the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary micro- and nannofossils have been found best suited. The qualitative and quantitative analyses of minerals and trace elements across the K-T boundary show anomalies on a millimeter scale and permit conclusions regarding the time structure of the K-T event itself. The results of the analyses find a most consistent explanation by the assumption of an extraterrestrial impact. The main portion of the material rain from the atmosphere evidently was deposited within a short time. The long-time components consist of the finest portion of the material rain from the atmosphere and the transported and redeposited fall-out.

  16. The Koshak section: Evidence for element fractionation and an oxidation event at the K/T boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nazarov, M. A.; Badjukov, D. D.; Barsukova, L. D.; Kolesov, G. M.; Naidin, D. P.

    1993-01-01

    The Koshak site is a new K/T section located about 125 km EEN of the Fort Shevchenko city, Mangyshlak, Kazakhstan. In this paper, we report results of geochemical and mineralogical studies of this section which indicate a deep element fractionation and an oxidation event at the K/T boundary.

  17. Astronomical age of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runnegar, B.; Varadi, F.; Jögi, P.; Ghil, M.

    2007-12-01

    Recent refinements of models for the motions of the planets, including the Earth-Moon system, have led to the realization that the calculated cyclical changes in Earth's orbital eccentricity may be approximately correct for the whole of the Cenozoic. This raises the possibility of an astronomically-tuned geological timescale that extends to, and perhaps beyond, the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary. In order to test the validity of these long numerical integrations, we compare calculations of Earth's orbital eccentricity 62-67 million years (Ma) ago with a well-documented succession of basinal limestones and marlstones at Zumaia in the Basque region of Spain. Previous work has shown that each limestone-marlstone couplet records one axial precession cycle (~21 ka). An obvious bundling of couplets defines 36 "short" (~100-ka) eccentricity cycles between a carbonate-rich interval, used previously to tie the Zumaia section to our calculations, and the K-T boundary. If we assume an uninterrupted succession of couplets, each 20.8 ka in duration, and step the amplitudes of the time series according to the color (white, pink, or red) of the carbonates, we retrieve a strong 102-ka eccentricity signal with spectral analysis. This permits other ties to be made between prominent features of the calculated time series and the observed rock record. On this basis, the K-T boundary is >65.83 or >65.84 Ma using the ~100 ka cycles, >65.88 Ma using the 20.8-ka precessional cycles, and ≥65.95 Ma using the metronomic 406-ka eccentricity cycle line frequency, all significantly older than the current consensus age of 65.5 Ma.

  18. Geochemical comparison of K-T boundaries from the Northern and Southern Hemispheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tredous, M.; Verhagen, B. TH.; Hart, R. J.; Dewit, C. B.; Smith, C. B.; Perch-Nielsen, K.; Sellschop, J. P. F.

    1988-01-01

    Closely spaced (cm-scale) traverses through the K-T boundary at Stevns Klint (Denmark), Woodside Creek (New Zealand) and a new Southern Hemisphere site at Richards Bay (South Africa) were subjected to trace element and isotopic (C, O, Sr) investigation. Intercomparison between these data-sets, and correlation with the broad K-T database available in the literature, indicate that the chemistry of the boundary clays is not globally constant. Variations are more common than similarities, both of absolute concentrations, and interelement ratios. For example, the chondrite normalized platinum-group elements (PGE) patterns of Stevns Klint are not like those of Woodside Creek, with the Pt/Os ratios showing the biggest variation. These differences in PGE patterns are difficult to explain by secondary alteration of a layer that was originally chemically homogeneous, especially for elements of such dubious crustal mobility as Os and Ir. The data also show that enhanced PGE concentrations, with similar trends to those of the boundary layers, occur in the Cretaceous sediments below the actual boundary at Stevns Klint and all three the New Zealand localities. This confirms the observations of others that the geochemistry of the boundary layers apparently does not record a unique component. It is suggested that terrestrial processes, eg. an extended period of Late Cretaceous volcanism can offer a satisfactory explanation for the features of the K-T geochemical anomaly. Such models would probably be more consistent with the observed stepwise, or gradual, palaeontological changes across this boundary, than the instant catastrophe predicated by the impact theory.

  19. Magnetic properties and Moessbauer analyses of glass from the K-T boundary, Beloc, Haiti

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senftle, F. E.; Thorpe, A. N.; May, L.; Barkatt, A.; Adel-Hadadi, M. A.; Marbury, G. S.; Izett, G.; Sigurdsson, H.; Maurasse, F. J.-M. R.

    1993-01-01

    The experimental magnetic susceptibility, the temperature-independent component of the magnetic susceptibility, the magnetization, and the Curie constant have been measured for a number of specimens of glass from the K-T boundary found at Beloc, Haiti, and the results are compared with those of similar measurements of tektites. Because the Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) ratio is needed to calculate the magnetic parameters, Moessbauer spectroscopic measurements were also made. The data were consistent with the classification of the Beloc glasses as tektites.

  20. Chicxulub impact predates K T boundary: New evidence from Brazos, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Gerta; Adatte, Thierry; Berner, Zsolt; Harting, Markus; Baum, Gerald; Prauss, Michael; Tantawy, Abdel; Stueben, Doris

    2007-03-01

    Multidisciplinary studies, including stratigraphy, sedimentology, mineralogy and geochemistry, of the new core Mullinax-1 and outcrops along the Brazos River and Cottonmouth Creek, Falls County, Texas, reveal the complex history of the Chicxulub impact, the event deposit and the K-T boundary event. The K-T boundary, as identified by the negative δ13C shift, first occurrence of Danian planktic foraminifera and palynomorphs occurs 80 cm above the event deposit in core Mullinax-1. The underlying 80 cm interval was deposited in a shallow low oxygen environment during the latest Maastrichtian, as indicated by high stress microfossil assemblages, small shells and burrows infilled with framboidal pyrite. The underlying event deposit, commonly interpreted as K-T impact tsunami, consists of a basal conglomerate with clasts containing Chicxulub impact spherules, repeated upward fining units of spherule-rich sands, followed by hummocky cross-bedded and laminated sands, which are burrowed by Thalassinoides, Planolites and Ophiomorpha and truncated by erosion. This suggests a series of temporally separated storm events with re-colonization of the ocean floor by invertebrates between storms, rather than a series of waning tsunami-generated waves. The lithified clasts with impact spherules at the base of the event deposit provide strong evidence that the Chicxulub impact ejecta layer predates the event deposit, but was eroded and re-deposited during the latest Maastrichtian sea level lowstand. The original Chicxulub ejecta layer was discovered in a 3 cm thick yellow clay layer interbedded in undisturbed late Maastrichtian clay- and mudstones 40 cm below the base of the event deposit and near the base of planktic foraminiferal zone CF1, which spans the last 300 kyr of the Maastrichtian. The yellow clay consists of cheto smectite derived from alteration of impact glass, as indicated by rare altered glass spherules with similar chemical compositions as reworked spherules from the

  1. Trace-element composition of Chicxulub crater melt rock, K/T tektites and Yucatan basement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, A. R.; Gregoire, D. C.; Attrep, M., Jr.; Claeys, P.; Thompson, C. M.; Boynton, W. V.

    1993-01-01

    The Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary Chicxulub impact is the best preserved large impact in the geologic record. The Chicxulub crater has been buried with no apparent erosion of its intracrater deposits, and its ejecta blanket is known and is well preserved at hundreds of localities globally. Although most of the molten material ejected from the crater has been largely altered, a few localities still preserve tektite glass. Availability of intra- and extracrater impact products as well as plausible matches to the targeted rocks allows the comparison of compositions of the different classes of impact products to those of the impacted lithologies. Determination of trace-element compositions of the K/T tektites, Chicxulub melt rock, and the targeted Yucatan silicate basement and carbonate/evaporite lithologies have been made using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Some sample splits were studied with both techniques to ensure that inter-laboratory variation was not significant or could be corrected. The concentration of a few major and minor elements was also checked against microprobe results. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) was used to determine Ir abundances in some samples.

  2. First evidence for a massive extinction event affecting bees close to the K-T boundary.

    PubMed

    Rehan, Sandra M; Leys, Remko; Schwarz, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Bees and eudicot plants both arose in the mid-late Cretaceous, and their co-evolutionary relationships have often been assumed as an important element in the rise of flowering plants. Given the near-complete dependence of bees on eudicots we would expect that major extinction events affecting the latter would have also impacted bees. However, given the very patchy distribution of bees in the fossil record, identifying any such extinctions using fossils is very problematic. Here we use molecular phylogenetic analyses to show that one bee group, the Xylocopinae, originated in the mid-Cretaceous, coinciding with the early radiation of the eudicots. Lineage through time analyses for this bee subfamily show very early diversification, followed by a long period of seemingly no radiation and then followed by rapid diversification in each of the four constituent tribes. These patterns are consistent with both a long-fuse model of radiation and a massive extinction event close to the K-T boundary. We argue that massive extinction is much more plausible than a long fuse, given the historical biogeography of these bees and the diversity of ecological niches that they occupy. Our results suggest that events near the K-T boundary would have disrupted many plant-bee relationships, with major consequences for the subsequent evolution of eudicots and their pollinators. PMID:24194843

  3. The K-T boundary in Oman: identified using magnetic susceptibility field measurements with geochemical confirmation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellwood, Brooks B.; MacDonald, William D.; Wheeler, Christopher; Benoist, Stephen L.

    2003-02-01

    Recognizing distal ejecta marker horizons and correlating these among widely separated sections is typically difficult in the absence of visually distinctive marker beds. Here we propose a magnetic susceptibility (MS) field method to locate such horizons, and explore the K-T boundary interval at Abat, Oman, as a test of the method. A distinctive pattern of high MS values was used to approximately locate the K-T boundary interval in a sequence of platform carbonates, which were then sampled in detail. Whole-rock geochemical enrichments in Ir, V, As, Ni, Co, Zn and Zr and a large negative carbon isotope anomaly confirmed the inferred boundary location. Common microspherules whose chemistry reflects the whole-rock geochemistry are associated with the boundary interval. The association suggests that the microspherules formed during or as a result of the impact. The geochemical record at the Abat locality shows two levels where Ir is high (>1 ppb) suggesting input from two impacts, separated in the section by 1.35 m. The upper level is chosen as the boundary interval based on the high Ir (1.19 ppb), δ 13C negative excursion (˜7‰), and distinctive MS pattern.

  4. Fires at the K/T boundary - Carbon at the Sumbar, Turkmenia, site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolbach, Wendy S.; Anders, Edward; Nazarov, Michael A.

    1990-01-01

    Results are reported on carbon analysis and on C and Ir correlations in samples from the marine K-T boundary site SM-4 at the Sumbar River in Turkmenia (USSR), which has the largest known Ir anomaly (580 ng/cq cm). In addition, the boundary clay is thick, and is undisturbed by bioturbation. Kerogen and delta-C-13 elemental carbon in the boundary clay were resolved using a Cr2O7(2-) oxidation method of Wolbach and Anders (1989). It was found that Ir and shocked quartz, both representing impact ejecta, rise sharply at the boundary, peak in the basal layer, and then decline. On the other hand, soot and total elemental C show a similar spike in the basal layer but then rise rather than fall, peking at 7 cm. Results indicate that fires at the SM-4 K-T boundary site started before the basal layer had settled, implying that ignition and spreading of major fires became possible at the time of or very soon after the meteorite impact.

  5. A new measure of molecular attractions between nanoparticles near kT adhesion energy.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Kevin; Dhir, Aman; Du, Shangfeng

    2009-07-01

    The weak molecular attractions of nanoparticles are important because they drive self-assembly mechanisms, allow processing in dispersions e.g. of pigments, catalysts or device structures, influence disease through the attraction of viruses to cells and also cause potential toxic effects through nanoparticle interference with biomolecules and organs. The problem is to understand these small forces which pull nanoparticles into intimate contact; forces which are comparable with 3kT/2z the thermal impact force experienced by an average Brownian particle hitting a linear repulsive potential of range z. Here we describe a new method for measuring the atomic attractions of nanoparticles based on the observation of aggregates produced by these small forces. The method is based on the tracking of individual monosize nanoparticles whose diameter can be calculated from the Stokes-Einstein analysis of the tracks in aqueous suspensions. Then the doublet aggregates are distinguished because they move slower and are also very much brighter than the dispersed nanoparticles. By finding the ratio of doublets to singlets, the adhesive energy between the particles can be calculated from known statistical thermodynamic theory using assumptions about the shape of the interaction potential. In this way, very small adhesion energies of 2kT have been measured, smaller than those seen previously by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). PMID:19531867

  6. First Evidence for a Massive Extinction Event Affecting Bees Close to the K-T Boundary

    PubMed Central

    Rehan, Sandra M.; Leys, Remko; Schwarz, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Bees and eudicot plants both arose in the mid-late Cretaceous, and their co-evolutionary relationships have often been assumed as an important element in the rise of flowering plants. Given the near-complete dependence of bees on eudicots we would expect that major extinction events affecting the latter would have also impacted bees. However, given the very patchy distribution of bees in the fossil record, identifying any such extinctions using fossils is very problematic. Here we use molecular phylogenetic analyses to show that one bee group, the Xylocopinae, originated in the mid-Cretaceous, coinciding with the early radiation of the eudicots. Lineage through time analyses for this bee subfamily show very early diversification, followed by a long period of seemingly no radiation and then followed by rapid diversification in each of the four constituent tribes. These patterns are consistent with both a long-fuse model of radiation and a massive extinction event close to the K-T boundary. We argue that massive extinction is much more plausible than a long fuse, given the historical biogeography of these bees and the diversity of ecological niches that they occupy. Our results suggest that events near the K-T boundary would have disrupted many plant-bee relationships, with major consequences for the subsequent evolution of eudicots and their pollinators. PMID:24194843

  7. Terrestrial ecosystem destabilization at the K/T boundary in southwestern North Dakota, USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bercovici, Antoine; Pearson, Dean; Villanueva-Amadoz, Uxue

    2010-05-01

    Much of the debate regarding mass extinction events tend to discuss the relationship between such events relative to the moment and timing of internal or external factors (such as volcanism, impact(s), climate, sea-level changes and so on). However, the details of the extinction process itself is still poorly understood, and most of the analysis are based on biodiversity patterns without integrating the biogeographic and environmental context. Another way of approaching the problem would be to propose precise paleoenvironment reconstructions and analyzing their evolution through time, which allows for the understanding of such processes. The badlands of southwestern North Dakota provides some of the most prolific exposures of the continental Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary in the world. The stratigraphical context indicates that the K/T boundary is coincident or lies in close proximity to the contact between the Hell Creek and the Fort Union Formations. In this area, a series of eight stratigraphical sections across a 40 km north-south transect were studied. These sections bracket the formational contact on a 10 m stratigraphical interval. Reconstruction of the depositional environment was undertaken at a centimeter scale by using sedimentological data, as well as palynological, paleobotanical and palaeontological content of the strata, using the K/T boundary as a precise chronological datum of correlation between the sections. Results shows a consistent evolution of pattern across the entire study area : 1) The uppermost 10 to 20 cm of the Hell Creek Formation always corresponds to a sequence of dark rooted mudstone. Pollen content is consistent with a Cretaceous age and displays a diversity of terrestrial taxa. 2) Immediately above, the formation contact lies at the lower part of the first laterally traceable lignite horizon. The K/T boundary indicators (iridium anomaly, shocked quartz, fern spike and boundary claystone) are located at or adjacent to this

  8. Kara and Ust-Kara impact structures (USSR) and their relevance to the K/T boundary event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koeberl, Christian; Sharpton, Virgil; Murali, A. V.; Burke, Kevin

    1990-01-01

    Ample evidence exists for at least one major meteorite impact event at the time of the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary, and it is therefore important to establish if any recognized terrestrial impact craters are K/T in age. The Kara, USSR, impact structure consists of two adjacent large impact craters (a rare and interesting geologic phenomenon), and it has been suggested that this twin impact structure might be related to the K/T boundary event. However, newly determined (Ar-40)/(Ar-39) and K-Ar ages presented here suggest that these structures are slightly older than 70 Ma, and may thus be too old for a 66 Ma K/T boundary event. Still, these two craters represent a substantial impact event that could have initiated regional, if not global, degradation of the biosphere. Their age suggests a possible relation with the Campanian/Maastrichtian boundary.

  9. Isotopic comparison of K/T boundary impact glass with melt rock from the Chicxulub and Manson impact structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, Joel D.; Chamberlain, C. P.; Hingston, Michael P.; Koeberl, Christian; Marin, Luis E.; Schuraytz, Benjamin C.; Sharpton, Virgil L.

    1993-07-01

    Strontium, neodymium, and oxygen isotopic compositions are reported for core samples of impact melt rock recovered from drill holes into the Chicxulub and Manson craters, which are candidate source craters for the catastrophic impact that occurred at the boundary between the Cretaceous and Tertiary periods (K/T boundary). The data are compared with previously published isotopic data from impact glasses from the K/T boundary of the Beloc formation in Haiti. It is found that the Chicxulub melt rocks are isotopically indistinguishable from the K/T impact glass, supporting the hypothesis that Chicxulub is a source crater for the K/T catastrophe. In contrast, the Manson melt rocks have a clearly different isotopic composition.

  10. Iridium contents in the Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary clays in relation to the K/T boundary, North Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abboud, Iyad Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    The mineralogy, lithology, and geochemistry of five discrete laminations across the K/T boundary of clayey shale at the Yarmouk River area, Jordan, were examined. There were no marked changes in the mineralogy of the clayey shale within the K/T boundary. This outcrop consists of more than 100 m of Maastrichtian oil shale overlying about 20 m limestone. Marly limestone included many clay laminations from organic and volcanic origins, which are considered an evidence of the K/T boundary through detected iridium anomalies. Any of these particular lamellae range from 2 mm to 5 mm in thickness. Smectite was the predominant clay mineral in smectitic shale laminations. It was located at eight meters above the K/T boundary and includes some anomalous concentrations of iridium and traces of other elements. The analysis of geochemical platinum group at the K/T boundary clays showed anomalous enrichments of iridium, compared with other carbonate rocks as a result of weathering processes of oil shale, or through concentration from weathering of basalt flows, but not pointing to an impact process. The clays in late Maastrichtian have Ir-Sc prevailed anomalies and synchronize with increasing of terrigenous and volcanogenic traced elements. Kaolin, smectite, and volkonskoite were the dominant clay minerals at the K/T boundary with high concentrations of iridium. The concentration levels of iridium in some laminations of the Yarmouk sediments ranged between 1.6 and 7.8 ppb.

  11. Reconsideration of the inclusive prompt photon production at the LHC with kT-factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipatov, A. V.; Malyshev, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    We reconsider the inclusive production of isolated prompt photons in p p collisions at the LHC energies in the framework of kT-factorization approach. Our analysis is based on the O (α αs) off-shell (depending on the transverse momenta of initial quarks and gluons) production amplitudes of q*g*→γ q and q*q¯*→γ g partonic subprocesses and transverse momentum dependent (or unintegrated) quark and gluon densities in a proton, which are chosen in accordance with the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin prescription. We show that the subleading high-order O (α αs2) contributions, not covered by the noncollinear evolution of parton densities, are important to describe latest LHC data.

  12. Twelve-year trail of clues leads to impact crater from the K-T boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Levi, B.G.

    1992-12-01

    In 1980, scientists at the University of California, Berkeley proposed that a massive comet or asteroid might have struck the earth about 65 million years ago, changing the earth's climate so drastically that dinosaurs and other creatures could no longer survive. This article describes the evidence for the elusive crater required to support this theory. The structure in question is 180 km in diameter and is submeged beneath the Yucatan peninsula and centered on the Mexican village of Chicxulub. Material drilled from this crater has been linked chemically and geologically to pellets found in Northeast Mexico and Haiti. The link between this ejecta material and the crater was confirmed by a report that the Chicxulub melt rock and pellets are coeval, all having ages consistent with 65 million years. This puts the possible impact at the K-T boundary -- the dividing line between the Cretaceous period of the dinosaurs and the Tertiary period of the mammals. 13 refs.

  13. An asteroid breakup 160 Myr ago as the probable source of the K/T impactor.

    PubMed

    Bottke, William F; Vokrouhlický, David; Nesvorný, David

    2007-09-01

    The terrestrial and lunar cratering rate is often assumed to have been nearly constant over the past 3 Gyr. Different lines of evidence, however, suggest that the impact flux from kilometre-sized bodies increased by at least a factor of two over the long-term average during the past approximately 100 Myr. Here we argue that this apparent surge was triggered by the catastrophic disruption of the parent body of the asteroid Baptistina, which we infer was a approximately 170-km-diameter body (carbonaceous-chondrite-like) that broke up 160(-20)+30Myr ago in the inner main asteroid belt. Fragments produced by the collision were slowly delivered by dynamical processes to orbits where they could strike the terrestrial planets. We find that this asteroid shower is the most likely source (>90 per cent probability) of the Chicxulub impactor that produced the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) mass extinction event 65 Myr ago. PMID:17805288

  14. Geochemistry of K/T boundaries in India and contributions of Deccan volcanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhandari, N.; Gupta, M.; Pandey, J.; Shukla, P. N.

    1988-01-01

    Three possible Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary sections in the Indian subcontinent were studied for their geochemical and fossil characteristics. These include two marine sections of Meghalaya and Zanskar and one continental section of Nagpur. The Um Sohryngkew river section of Meghalaya shows a high iridium, osmium, iron, cobalt, nickel and chromium concentration in a 1.5 cm thick limonitic layer about 30 cm below the planktonic Cretaceous-Palaeocene boundary identified by the characteristic fossils. The Bottaccione and Contessa sections at Gubbio were also analyzed for these elements. The geochemical pattern at the boundary at the Um Sohryngkew river and Gubbio sections are similar but the peak concentrations and the enrichment factors are different. The biological boundary is not as sharp as the geochemical boundary and the extinction appears to be a prolonged process. The Zanskar section shows, in general, similar concentration of the siderophile, lithophile and rare earth elements but no evidence of enrichment of siderophiles has so far been observed. The Takli section is a shallow inter-trappean deposit within the Deccan province, sandwiched between flow 1 and flow 2. The geochemical stratigraphy of the inter-trappeans is presented. The various horizons of ash, clay and marl show concentration of Fe and Co, generally lower than the adjacent basalts. Two horizons of slight enrichment of iridium are found within the ash layers, one near the contact of flow 1 and other near the contact of flow 2, where iridium occurs at 170 and 260 pg/g. These levels are lower by a factor of 30 compared to Ir concentration in the K/T boundary in Meghalaya section. If the enhanced level of some elements in a few horizons of the ash layer are considered as volcanic contribution by some fractionation processes than the only elements for which it occurs are REE, Ir and possibly Cr.

  15. Blasting and blast effects in cold regions. Part 1. Air blast. Special report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-12-01

    Contents include: ideal blast waves in free air; the shock equations for air blast; scaling procedures for comparison of explosions; reflection and refraction of airblast; effect of charge height, or height of burst; attenuation of air blast and variation of shock-front properties; air blast from nuclear explosions; air blast from underground explosions; air blast from underwater explosions; air blast damage criteria; effects of ambient pressure and temperature; explosions in vacuum or in space; air blast attenuation over snow surfaces; shock reflection from snow surfaces; shock velocity over snow; variation of shock pressure with charge height over snow; release of avalanches by air blast.

  16. Blast assessment and optimization for high quarry face-blasting

    SciTech Connect

    Sames, F.; O`Meara, R.

    1996-12-01

    Where applicable, high production benches can improve efficiency in quarrying. Quality control, geological, cost or other considerations might result in the development of quarry benches higher than 30 m and sometimes up to 60 m. Production blasts on high quarry faces require a confident blast design with respect to safety, cost efficiency and minimized environmental effects. Careful pre-blast assessment of the design parameters, blast monitoring of the product performance and the environmental effects and post-blast assessment of the overall blast performance are essential for the successful implementation of the blast design. The blast geometry for high quarry faces and a blast design that often includes multiple explosive charges in a blasthole, make a reliable assessment of the blast parameters difficult. Assessment techniques, their applications and limitations are described and discussed. This will include such methods as blast surveying using laser profiling and borehole deviation measurements, blast monitoring using continuous velocity of detonation measurement systems, high speed photography and seismographs for blast performance and environmental effects. Observations of low frequency airblast and high standard deviations in ground vibration measurements are described and discussed against a background of timing assessment and frequency spectra analysis. Approaches where an optimized design was implemented based on the blast parameter assessment and modeling are presented. An improvement in blast efficiency lies in the combination of blast assessment and blast modeling, whilst adequate documentation supports the process of designing and implementing successful blasts.

  17. Mineralogical Data of Shocked Quartz Materials from K/T Boundary and Impact Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Y.; Kato, T.; Imai, M.

    1992-07-01

    Shocked quartz minerals from the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) boundary and impact craters have been mainly discussed from distribution of optical directions, mean optical refractive index, and X-ray data (1). The purpose of the present study is presentation of the detailed mineralogical data of shocked quartz found in the K/T boundaries and terrestrial impact craters (2,3,4,5). X-ray powder diffraction pattern of shocked quartz aggregate reveals that all Xray peaks are split into major three peaks composed of low-density quartz (LQ), normal quartz (Q), and shocked quartz with high density (SQ). X-ray peaks of (110), (200), (201), (202), and (211) in the hexagonal cell are also split into many peaks. The X-ray intensity among LQ, Q, and SQ phases indicates that the SQ phase shows 36% to 53% in six K/T boundary samples (5). The relative X-ray intensity ratio of shocked quartz to standard rock crystal decreases into 13% to 37%, which suggests that shocked quartz materials contain major parts of diaplectic amorphous phases (G1) in the K/T boundary and impact crater. Although the LQ and Q type quartz phases, which can be also obtained at artificial impact processes (2,3,4,5), could not be distinguished from magmatic terrestrial origins, the SQ type quartz with high density has been selected for X-ray structure analysis to obtain the atomic arrangement of shocked quartz crystal. The detailed X-ray structural analyses of the SQ type shocked quartz indicate that atomic distance between oxygen and oxygen is shrunk largely (-0.8% than standard quartz Q), but that between silicon and oxygen is shrunk relatively small (-0.3%). The structural shrinkage is considered to be major causes of high density value of the SQ parts (up to +0.8% of the density deviation) (4,5). The chemical composition of shocked quartz phase (SQ) from electron and ion microprobe analyzers shows almost pure silica without Al element, though amorphous silica glassy phases (G2) contain Al contamination (ca. 0

  18. Explosively driven air blast in a conical shock tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Joel B.; Pecora, Collin

    2015-03-01

    Explosively driven shock tubes present challenges in terms of safety concerns and expensive upkeep of test facilities but provide more realistic approximations to the air blast resulting from free-field detonations than those provided by gas-driven shock tubes. Likewise, the geometry of conical shock tubes can naturally approximate a sector cut from a spherically symmetric blast, leading to a better agreement with the blast profiles of free-field detonations when compared to those provided by shock tubes employing constant cross sections. The work presented in this article documents the design, fabrication, and testing of an explosively driven conical shock tube whose goal was to closely replicate the blast profile seen from a larger, free-field detonation. By constraining the blast through a finite area, large blasts (which can add significant damage and safety constraints) can be simulated using smaller explosive charges. The experimental data presented herein show that a close approximation to the free-field air blast profile due to a 1.5 lb charge of C4 at 76 in. can be achieved by using a 0.032 lb charge in a 76-in.-long conical shock tube (which translates to an amplification factor of nearly 50). Modeling and simulation tools were used extensively in designing this shock tube to minimize expensive fabrication costs.

  19. Explosively driven air blast in a conical shock tube.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Joel B; Pecora, Collin

    2015-03-01

    Explosively driven shock tubes present challenges in terms of safety concerns and expensive upkeep of test facilities but provide more realistic approximations to the air blast resulting from free-field detonations than those provided by gas-driven shock tubes. Likewise, the geometry of conical shock tubes can naturally approximate a sector cut from a spherically symmetric blast, leading to a better agreement with the blast profiles of free-field detonations when compared to those provided by shock tubes employing constant cross sections. The work presented in this article documents the design, fabrication, and testing of an explosively driven conical shock tube whose goal was to closely replicate the blast profile seen from a larger, free-field detonation. By constraining the blast through a finite area, large blasts (which can add significant damage and safety constraints) can be simulated using smaller explosive charges. The experimental data presented herein show that a close approximation to the free-field air blast profile due to a 1.5 lb charge of C4 at 76 in. can be achieved by using a 0.032 lb charge in a 76-in.-long conical shock tube (which translates to an amplification factor of nearly 50). Modeling and simulation tools were used extensively in designing this shock tube to minimize expensive fabrication costs. PMID:25832276

  20. Explosively driven air blast in a conical shock tube

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Joel B. Pecora, Collin

    2015-03-15

    Explosively driven shock tubes present challenges in terms of safety concerns and expensive upkeep of test facilities but provide more realistic approximations to the air blast resulting from free-field detonations than those provided by gas-driven shock tubes. Likewise, the geometry of conical shock tubes can naturally approximate a sector cut from a spherically symmetric blast, leading to a better agreement with the blast profiles of free-field detonations when compared to those provided by shock tubes employing constant cross sections. The work presented in this article documents the design, fabrication, and testing of an explosively driven conical shock tube whose goal was to closely replicate the blast profile seen from a larger, free-field detonation. By constraining the blast through a finite area, large blasts (which can add significant damage and safety constraints) can be simulated using smaller explosive charges. The experimental data presented herein show that a close approximation to the free-field air blast profile due to a 1.5 lb charge of C4 at 76 in. can be achieved by using a 0.032 lb charge in a 76-in.-long conical shock tube (which translates to an amplification factor of nearly 50). Modeling and simulation tools were used extensively in designing this shock tube to minimize expensive fabrication costs.

  1. Synchroneity of the K-T oceanic mass extinction and meteorite impact: Blake Nose, western North Atlantic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norris, R.D.; Huber, B.T.; Self-Trail, J.

    1999-01-01

    A 10-cm-thick layer of green spherules occurs precisely at the biostratigraphic boundary between the Cretaceous and Paleogene (K-T boundary) at Ocean Drilling Program Site 1049 (lat 30??08???N, long 76??06???W). The spherulitic layer contains abundant rock fragments (chalk, limestone, dolomite, chert, mica books, and schist) as well as shocked quartz, abundant large Cretaceous planktic foraminifera, and rounded clasts of clay as long as 4 mm interpreted as altered tektite glass probably derived from the Chicxulub impact structure. Most of the Cretaceous foraminifera present above the spherule layer are not survivors since small specimens are conspicuously rare compared to large individuals. Instead, the Cretaceous taxa in Paleocene sediments are thought to be reworked. The first Paleocene planktic foraminifera and calcareous nannofossil species are recorded immediately above the spherule bed, the upper part of which contains an iridium anomaly. Hence, deposition of the impact ejecta exactly coincided with the biostratigraphic K-T boundary and demonstrates that the impact event was synchronous with the evolutionary turnover in the oceans. These results are consistent with a reanalysis of the biostratigraphy of the K-T boundary stratotype, which argues that shallow-marine K-T boundary sections are not biostratigraphically more complete than deep-sea K-T boundary sites.

  2. Style, Magnitude, and Rate of Deccan Lava Super-eruptions at K-T Boundary Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Self, S.; Jay, A. E.; Widdowson, M.; Kelley, S. P.

    2005-12-01

    A study of 100s of individual lava flow units exposed in sections through the upper part of the main Deccan basaltic lava pile includes flow fields that were being erupted across the K-T boundary, about 65 Ma ago. Pahoehoe flow fields (the products of one eruption), each commonly 50 m, and exceptionally 80 m, thick, dominate the pile in the central Western Ghats region. The main landscape-builders are inflated sheet lobes between 15-30 m (occasionally 50 m) thick, with subordinate smaller inflated lobes and units down to the size of toes. These are typical tholeiitic pahoehoe sheet lobes, similar to those found in many other flood basalt provinces. Defining flow fields by several criteria permits an estimate of how many eruptions built up this portion of the Deccan pile, which is 30-40 in number. Based on the extent of the formations, some of the lava fields may be the longest yet described on Earth (1000 km). All formations studied have the same style lava flows, and, thus, fissure-fed, pahoehoe-flow-forming effusive volcanism dominated. Evidence from inter-flow horizons suggests extensive explosive activity also accompanied some eruptions (cf. Icelandic eruptions such as Eldgja AD 934). The 1,200-m-thick lava pile can be assigned to Deccan Group formations in the Wai Sub-group (WSG) by compositional fingerprinting, to the paleomagnetic timescale by polarity and declination measurements, and, by cross-correlation, to the radiometric time scale. During eruptions that built up the WSG lavas, which encompass the K-T boundary and the slightly younger paleomagnetic chron 29R-N boundary, the widespread nature of the formations attests that enormous volumes of lava were produced during each eruption. Volumes of eruptive units (flow fields) exceeded 2,000, and probably 5,000, cubic km of lava, and this was likely repeated in most eruptive events, each lasting many years. The age span of the WSG series of lava eruptions was so short that it falls within the errors of

  3. The Western North American Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary interval and its content of shock-metamorphosed minerals: Implications concerning the K-T boundary impact-extinction theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izett, G. A.

    1988-01-01

    At 20 sites in the Raton Basin of Colorado and New Mexico, and at several other sites in Wyoming, Montana, and Canada, a pair of claystone units, an Ir abundance anomaly, and a concentration of shock-metamorphosed minerals mark the palynological K-T boundary. The K-T boundary claystone, which is composed of kaolinite and small amounts of illite/smectite mixed-layer clay, is similar in most respects to kaolinite tonstein layers in coal beds. At some, but not all, K-T boundary localities, the boundary claystone contains solid kaolinite and hollow and solid goyazite spherules, 0.05 to 1.2 mm in diameter. The upper unit, the K-T boundary impact layer, consists chiefly of kaolinite and various amounts of illite/smectite mixed-layer clay. The impact layer and boundary claystone are similar chemically, except that the former has slightly more Fe, K, Ba, Cr, Cu, Li, V, and Zn than the latter. The facts that the boundary claystone and impact layer contain anomalous amounts of Ir, comprise a stratigraphic couplet at Western North American sites, and form thin, discrete layers, similar to air-fall units (volcanic or impact), suggest that the claystone units are of impact origin. Significantly, the impact layer contains as much as 2 percent clastic mineral grains, about 30 percent of which contain multiple sets of shock lamellae. Only one such concentration of shocked minerals has been found near the K-T boundary. The type of K-T boundary shock-metamorphosed materials (quartzite and metaquartzite) in the impact layer and the lack of shock lamellae in quartz and feldspar of pumice lapilli and granitic xenoliths in air-fall pumice units of silicic tuffs, such as the Bishop Tuff, eliminate the possibility that the shock-metamorphosed minerals in the K-T impact layer are of volcanic origin. The global size distribution and abundance of shock-metamorphosed mineral grains suggest that the K-T impact occurred in North America.

  4. Blast furnace stove control

    SciTech Connect

    Muske, K.R.; Hansen, G.A.; Howse, J.W.; Cagliostro, D.J.; Chaubal, P.C.

    1998-12-31

    This paper outlines the process model and model-based control techniques implemented on the hot blast stoves for the No. 7 Blast Furnace at the Inland Steel facility in East Chicago, Indiana. A detailed heat transfer model of the stoves is developed. It is then used as part of a predictive control scheme to determine the minimum amount of fuel necessary to achieve the blast air requirements. The controller also considers maximum and minimum temperature constraints within the stove.

  5. Blast injury research models

    PubMed Central

    Kirkman, E.; Watts, S.; Cooper, G.

    2011-01-01

    Blast injuries are an increasing problem in both military and civilian practice. Primary blast injury to the lungs (blast lung) is found in a clinically significant proportion of casualties from explosions even in an open environment, and in a high proportion of severely injured casualties following explosions in confined spaces. Blast casualties also commonly suffer secondary and tertiary blast injuries resulting in significant blood loss. The presence of hypoxaemia owing to blast lung complicates the process of fluid resuscitation. Consequently, prolonged hypotensive resuscitation was found to be incompatible with survival after combined blast lung and haemorrhage. This article describes studies addressing new forward resuscitation strategies involving a hybrid blood pressure profile (initially hypotensive followed later by normotensive resuscitation) and the use of supplemental oxygen to increase survival and reduce physiological deterioration during prolonged resuscitation. Surprisingly, hypertonic saline dextran was found to be inferior to normal saline after combined blast injury and haemorrhage. New strategies have therefore been developed to address the needs of blast-injured casualties and are likely to be particularly useful under circumstances of enforced delayed evacuation to surgical care. PMID:21149352

  6. Laboratory Blast Testing Methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Needham, C.; Rule, G.

    Blast-induced injuries remain a critical problem facing US Forces during combat operations. As the nature of modern warfare has evolved, it is likely that the Improvised Explosive Device (IED) will remain a common battlefield threat for the foreseeable future. Thus, research devoted to improving protection, and characterizing the physiological response of people and equipment to blast exposure is and will remain a major thrust area for the DOD. Unfortunately, exact reproduction or simulation of the blast environment is technically challenging, while measuring and characterizing blast exposures is even more complex.

  7. Shock-induced devolatilization of calcium sulfate and implications for K-T extinctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Guangqing; Tyburczy, James A.; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1994-01-01

    The devolatilization of calcium sulfate, which is present in the target rock of the Chicxulub, Mexico impact structure, and dispersal in the stratosphere of the resultant sulfuric acid aerosol have been suggested as a possible mechanism for the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinctions. We measured the amount of SO2 produced from two shock-induced devolatilization reactions of calcium sulfate up to 42 GPa in the laboratory. We found both to proceed to a much lower extent than calculated by equilibrium thermodynamic calculations. Reaction products are found to be approx. 10(exp -2) times those calculated for equilibrium. Upon modeling the quantity of sulfur oxides degassed into the atmosphere from shock devolatilization of CaSO4 in the Chicxulub lithographic section, the resulting 9 x 10(exp 16) to 6 x 10(exp 17) g (in sulfur mass) is lower by a factor of 10-100 than previous upper limit estimates, the related environmental stress arising from the resultant global cooling and fallout of acid rain is insufficient to explain the widespread K-T extinctions.

  8. Shock-induced devolatization of calcium sulfate and implications for K-T extinctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Guangqing; Tyburczy, James A.; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1993-01-01

    Calcium sulfate devolatization during the impact at Chicxulub, Mexico and dispersal in the stratosphere of the resultant sulfuric acid aerosol have been suggested as a possible mechanism for the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinctions. In this paper, we investigated two shock-induced devolatization reactions of calcium sulfate up to 42 GPa in the laboratory: CaSO4 + SiO2 yields CaSiO3 + SO3(degassed) and CaSO4 yields CaO + SO2(degassed) + 1/2 O2(degassed). We found both to proceed to a much less extent than calculated by equilibrium thermodynamic calculations. Reaction products are found to be 10(exp -2) times those calculated for equilibrium. Consequently our estimate of the amount of sulfur oxides degassed into the atmosphere from shock devolatization of CaS04 in the Chicxulub lithographic section (6x10(exp 15)-2x10(exp 16)g in sulfur mass) is lower by a factor of 70 to 400 than previous estimates; the related environmental stress arising from the resultant global cooling of approximately 4 K and fallout of acid rain does not appear to suffice to explain the widespread K-T extinctions.

  9. Accelerated dynamic MRI exploiting sparsity and low-rank structure: k-t SLR.

    PubMed

    Lingala, Sajan Goud; Hu, Yue; DiBella, Edward; Jacob, Mathews

    2011-05-01

    We introduce a novel algorithm to reconstruct dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from under-sampled k-t space data. In contrast to classical model based cine MRI schemes that rely on the sparsity or banded structure in Fourier space, we use the compact representation of the data in the Karhunen Louve transform (KLT) domain to exploit the correlations in the dataset. The use of the data-dependent KL transform makes our approach ideally suited to a range of dynamic imaging problems, even when the motion is not periodic. In comparison to current KLT-based methods that rely on a two-step approach to first estimate the basis functions and then use it for reconstruction, we pose the problem as a spectrally regularized matrix recovery problem. By simultaneously determining the temporal basis functions and its spatial weights from the entire measured data, the proposed scheme is capable of providing high quality reconstructions at a range of accelerations. In addition to using the compact representation in the KLT domain, we also exploit the sparsity of the data to further improve the recovery rate. Validations using numerical phantoms and in vivo cardiac perfusion MRI data demonstrate the significant improvement in performance offered by the proposed scheme over existing methods. PMID:21292593

  10. Neutron activation of natural zinc samples at kT=25 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reifarth, R.; Dababneh, S.; Heil, M.; Käppeler, F.; Plag, R.; Sonnabend, K.; Uberseder, E.

    2012-03-01

    The neutron-capture cross sections of 64Zn, 68Zn, and 70Zn have been measured with the activation technique in a quasistellar neutron spectrum corresponding to a thermal energy of kT=25 keV. By a series of repeated irradiations with different experimental conditions, an uncertainty of 3% could be achieved for the 64Zn(n,γ)65Zn cross section and for the partial cross section 68Zn(n,γ)69Znm feeding the isomeric state in 69Zn. For the partial cross sections 70Zn(n,γ)71Znm and 70Zn(n,γ)71Zng, which had not been measured so far, uncertainties of only 16% and 6% could be reached because of limited counting statistics and decay intensities. Compared to previous measurements on 64,68Zn, the uncertainties could be significantly improved, while the 70Zn cross section was found to be two times smaller than existing model calculations. From these results Maxwellian average cross sections were determined between 5 and 100 keV. Additionally, the β-decay half-life of 71Znm could be determined with significantly improved accuracy. The consequences of these data have been studied by network calculations for convective core He burning and convective shell C burning in massive stars.

  11. Dynamics of exploding magma chambers: Implications for K-T volcanism and mass extinctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, A. R.

    1988-01-01

    Although it is well known that unconfined chemical explosives may yield pressures to several megabars on detonation in air, the explosive literature has yet to be accessed by some contributors to the volcanological literature who've indicated that pressures in excess of the overburden and/or tensile cannot be obtained. Idealized ballistic assessments of pressures internal to volcanoes yield pressures in the hundreds of kilobar range upon correction by addition of friction, etc. Previous assessments of exploding magma chamber pressure have been made from the characteristics of the Mt. St. Helens explosion. A variety of methods yield pressures of similar value: at least hundreds of kilobars. Such results are consistent with free energy requirements for quench supersaturation explosion, a process occurring in solidifying industrial melts. Several reviews of geochemical literature emphasize the carbon event at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary as being an indicator of a massive dump of CO2 derived from the mantle and entering the atmosphere by extensive global volcanism. Oxygen isotope data indicates extreme warming at the end of the Cretaceous which is consistent with a greenhouse effect attending the CO2 event. Reaction rate equations for the quench supersaturation explosion mechanism indicated, are consistent with the rise in pressure to 30 kbar on solidification of magmatic melts, these pressures limited by the strength of the experimental apparatus.

  12. Mechanics performance test and feasibility analysis to replace the rigid sucker rod for 6K T300

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Changhong

    2015-07-01

    A experiment plan was designed according to the working conditions of sucker rod and the requirements for pump depth in 3000 m in the oil field, the tensile strength for 6K T300 under a normal temperature and high temperature was measured by using universal testing machine, and then, the resistance to corrosion for a crude oil was verified by measuring the tensile strength for 6K T300 after crude oil immersion at a certain time, and the conclusions are that the material is sensitive relatively to corrosion of crude oil and that the tensile strength of the 6K T300 compared with similar products is lower, a proposal to the GH company that to meet the need of oil field production instead of the rigid rod the tensile strength and corrosion resistant for a crude of the T300 6 k materials have to do further efforts was pointed out.

  13. Main Deccan volcanism phase ends near the K-T boundary: Evidence from the Krishna-Godavari Basin, SE India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, G.; Adatte, T.; Gardin, S.; Bartolini, A.; Bajpai, S.

    2008-04-01

    Recent studies indicate that the bulk (80%) of the Deccan trap eruptions occurred over less than 0.8 m.y. in magnetic polarity C29r spanning the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary. Determining where within this major eruptive phase the K-T mass extinction occurred has remained problematic. For this reason, models estimating the biotic and environmental consequences have generally underestimated the rate and quantity of Deccan gas emissions by orders of magnitude leading to conclusions that volcanism could not have been one of the major causes for the K-T mass extinction. In this study we report that the most massive Deccan trap eruption occurred near the K-T mass extinction. These results are based on sedimentologic, microfacies and biostratigraphic data of 4-9 m thick intertrappean sediments in four quarry outcrops in the Rajahmundry area of the Krishna-Godavari Basin of southeastern India. In this area two Deccan basalt flows, known as the Rajahmundry traps, mark the longest lava flows extending 1500 km across the Indian continent and into the Bay of Bengal. The sediments directly overlying the lower Rajahmundry trap contain early Danian planktic foraminiferal assemblages of zone P1a, which mark the evolution in the aftermath of the K-T mass extinction. The upper Rajahmundry trap was deposited in magnetic polarity C29n, preceding full biotic recovery. These results suggest that volcanism may have played critical roles in both the K-T mass extinction and the delayed biotic recovery.

  14. General view of blast furnace plant, with blast furnace "A" ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of blast furnace plant, with blast furnace "A" (built in 1907) to the left; in the foreground is the turbo-blower and blast furnace gas-powered electric generating station (built in 1919), looking northwest - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Blast Furnace "A", Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  15. Chondritic ratios of Fe/Cr/Ir in Kerguelen Plateau (Hole 738C) K/T carbonate-rich sediments support asteroid-cometary impact at K/T time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Y. G.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    In the study of marine carbonate sediments from Holes 577 and 577B, Shatsky Plateau (Rise), a net extraterrestrial Fe/Ir = C1 chondritic ratio at the K/T boundary was reported. Applying a similar procedure to Hole 738C (Kerguelen Plateau) data reported, Fe/Cr/Ir ratios similar to C1 or C2 chondritic ratios were obtained.

  16. Lightweight blast shield

    DOEpatents

    Mixon, Larry C.; Snyder, George W.; Hill, Scott D.; Johnson, Gregory L.; Wlodarski, J. Frank; von Spakovsky, Alexis P.; Emerson, John D.; Cole, James M.; Tipton, John P.

    1991-01-01

    A tandem warhead missile arrangement that has a composite material housing structure with a first warhead mounted at one end and a second warhead mounted near another end of the composite structure with a dome shaped composite material blast shield mounted between the warheads to protect the second warhead from the blast of the first warhead.

  17. Robotic Water Blast Cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpe, M. H.; Roberts, M. L.; Hill, W. E.; Jackson, C. H.

    1983-01-01

    Water blasting system under development removes hard, dense, extraneous material from surfaces. High pressure pump forces water at supersonic speed through nozzle manipulated by robot. Impact of water blasts away unwanted material from workpiece rotated on air bearing turntable. Designed for removing thermal-protection material, system is adaptable to such industrial processes as cleaning iron or steel castings.

  18. Seismic Refraction Mapping of the K-T Boundary Complex Near the Brazos River, Falls County, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowan, J. S.; Everett, M. E.

    2007-12-01

    The relationship between the Chicxulub impact and the paleontologically defined boundary between the Cretaceous and Tertiary periods is a hotly debated subject. The K-T complex, with its distinctive yellow spherule- rich clay layer, is capped by sandstone beds in streambed exposures along the Brazos River in Falls County, TX. Studies of the microfossils in the Falls Co. location show that the paleontological K-T boundary is stratigraphically removed from the yellow clay layer associated with Chicxulub. This study is an attempt to construct a 3-D image of the top of "event complex" by the use of geophysical methods. A near surface seismic refraction survey was completed in an area near the exposed K-T sections. Our seismic images may shed some light on competing theories as to the depositional environment at the time the sandstone bed was formed. Important seismically-resolved topographic features such as undulations and discontinuities could play a large role in shaping a better understanding of the K-T boundary complex origins.

  19. Rocks, resolution, and the record at the terrestrial K/T boundary, eastern Montana and western North Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fastovsky, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    Reconstructions of mass extinction events are based upon faunal patterns, reconstructed from numerical and diversity data ultimately derived from rocks. It follows that geological complexity must not be subsumed in the desire to establish patterns. This is exemplified at the Terrestrial Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) boundary in eastern Montana and western North Dakota, where there are represented all of the major indicators of the terrestrial K/T transition: dinosaurian and non-dinosaurian vertebrate faunas, pollen, a megaflora, iridium, and shocked quartz. It is the patterns of these indicators that shape ideas about the terrestrial K/T transition. In eastern Montana and western North Dakota, the K/T transition is represented lithostratigraphically by the Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation, and the Tertiary Tullock Formation. Both of these are the result of aggrading, meandering, fluvial systems, a fact that has important consequences for interpretations of fossils they contain. Direct consequences of the fluvial depositional environments are: facies are lenticular, interfingering, and laterally discontinuous; the occurrence of fossils in the Hell Creek and Tullock formations is facies-dependent; and the K/T sequence in eastern Montana and western North Dakota is incomplete, as indicated by repetitive erosional contacts and soil successions. The significance for faunal patterns of lenticular facies, facies-dependent preservation, and incompleteness is discussed. A project attempting to reconstruct vertebrate evolution in a reproducible manner in Hell Creek-type sediments must be based upon a reliable scale of correlations, given the lenticular nature of the deposits, and a recognition of the fact that disparate facies are not comparable in terms of either numbers of preserved vertebrates or depositional rates.

  20. Remanence Acquisition in Marine Carbonates: a Lesson from the K-T Boundary Interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrajevitch, A.; Kodama, K.

    2008-12-01

    An apparently complete carbonate-rich Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary interval in ODP section 119-738C- 20R-5 from the southern Kerguelen Plateau provides a unique insight into processes of magnetization acquisition in marine carbonates. The boundary interval is characterized by a 1-m-thick clay-rich zone. The basal 15 cm of this zone is finely laminated, the upper part is bioturbated. It has been inferred that the clay- rich zone formed over a long time interval, and the bulk of the clay in this zone has a local provenance. Although the elevated Ir concentration and the evolutionary change in the nannofossil assemblage are spread over the laminated interval, there is no recognizable change in the composition of the clay mineral assemblage between the laminated and bioturbated zones. No faunal, mineralogical, or chemical evidence for anoxic/sulfate-reducing conditions within the clay-rich zone was found. The total iron content of the clay-rich zone co-varies with the alumosilicate content, indicating detrital source for iron. Normalized by the alumosilicate content, the laminated and bioturbated intervals have comparable total iron values, yet strikingly different magnetic properties. The initial susceptibility and NRM intensities are approximately an order of magnitude higher in the bioturbated interval compared to the laminated one. Our detailed rock magnetic study indicates that PSD magnetite grains likely of biogenic origin are the dominant iron-bearing phase in the bioturbated interval. In the laminated interval, apart from a small ferromagnetic fraction with MD-like behavior, non-silicate-bound iron is mainly sequestered in paramagnetic phases, probably (poorly crystalline) oxyhydroxides. It appears that a shut-down of biological productivity after the K-T event allowed preservation of the initial detrital/early authigenic iron phases that are dominated by reactive iron oxyhydroxides. With the recovery of normal biological activity as evidenced by the resumption

  1. Geochemistry of K/T-boundary Chicxulub ejecta of NE-Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harting, M.; Deutsch, A.; Rickers, K.

    2003-12-01

    Many K/T sections all over the world contain impact spherules supposed related to the Chicxulub event. This study focus on ejecta layers in NE-Mexican profiles. We carried out systematic XRF and synchrotron radiation measurements on such spherules at the HASYLAB and ANKA facilities as well as microprobe analyses (CAMECA SX50). Area scans on tektite-like material of the Bochil section reveal a pronounced zonation in the inner part, dominated by Ba and Sr whereas secondary CaCO3 dominates in the altered margin. The composition of the spherules from the Mesa-Juan Perez section differ significantly from the Beloc (Haiti) and Bochil tektite glasses. At Mesa-Juan Perez, spherules are either extremely rich in Fe and Ca or consist of smectite, some of those carry carbonate inclusions. Yttrium, La and Ce are zoned within the smectite with concentrations below the detection limit and up to 20 æg/g The Ca-rich inclusions are enriched in Y (up to 35 æg/g) and La (18 æg/g) and, compared to the surrounding smectite, also in Ce (up to 34 æg/g). The Ce enrichment in spherules from the Mesa-Juan Perez section indicates impact-melted carbonates of the Yucatan carbonate platform as possible precursor rocks. Recent investigations focus on the chemistry of melt rock samples from the PEMEX wells Yucatan-6 and Chicxulub-1: Their average composition (mean of 250 data points in wt-percent ) is 61.6 for SiO2, 0.16 for TiO2, 18.07 for Al2O3, 0.01 for Cr2O3, 1.98 for Na2O, 1.5 for FeO, 0.05 for MnO, 0.01 for NiO, 0.31 for MgO, 9.14 for K2O, 3.44 for CaO, and 0.01 for SO2. These results are in some cases comparable to the geochemistry of ejecta glasses, e.g. from Beloc (Haiti).

  2. Passive blast pressure sensor

    DOEpatents

    King, Michael J.; Sanchez, Roberto J.; Moss, William C.

    2013-03-19

    A passive blast pressure sensor for detecting blast overpressures of at least a predetermined minimum threshold pressure. The blast pressure sensor includes a piston-cylinder arrangement with one end of the piston having a detection surface exposed to a blast event monitored medium through one end of the cylinder and the other end of the piston having a striker surface positioned to impact a contact stress sensitive film that is positioned against a strike surface of a rigid body, such as a backing plate. The contact stress sensitive film is of a type which changes color in response to at least a predetermined minimum contact stress which is defined as a product of the predetermined minimum threshold pressure and an amplification factor of the piston. In this manner, a color change in the film arising from impact of the piston accelerated by a blast event provides visual indication that a blast overpressure encountered from the blast event was not less than the predetermined minimum threshold pressure.

  3. The 600K T9 dwarfs: analysis of the spectral energy distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Saumon, Didier; Leggett, Sandy K; Burningham, Ben; Cushing, Michael C; Marley, Mark S; Pinfield, David J; Smart, Richard L; Warren, Stephen J

    2008-01-01

    We present 8--15 {mu}m spectra of ULAS J003402.77-005206.7, and extremely late-type T dwarf. We fit synthetic spectra to the near- through mid-infrared energy distribution of this dwarf, as well as to the near-infrared spectra of two similar dwarfs, ULAS J133553.45+113005.2 and CFBDS J005910.82-011401.3. The fit to ULAS J133553.45+113005.2 is constrained using mid-infrared photometry. We derive effective temperatures of 550--600 K for all three of these T9 dwarfs; ULAS J003402.77-005206.7 appears to be the least massive (5--30 M{sub Jup}), and CFBDS J005910.82-011401.3 the most massive (30--50 M{sub Jup}).

  4. Magmatic model for the Mount St. Helens blast of May 18, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Eichelberger, J.C.; Hayes, D.B.

    1982-09-10

    Analytical and numerical solutions to the hydrodynamic equations of motion, constrained by physical properties of juvenile ejecta in the Mount St. Helens blast deposit, were used to investigate magmatic conditions required to produce the initial devastating blast phase of the eruption of May 18, 1980. Evidence that the blast was magmatic includes equivalence in volume of juvenile blast ejecta to preeruption inflation of the cone, substantial vesicularity of this ejecta, and continued vesiculation of large juvenile clasts after eruption. Observed or inferred ejecta velocities of 100 to 250 m/s are shown to require 0.2 to 0.7 wt% water vapor preexisting in magma unloaded by a landslide 200 to 900 m thick. These conditions imply total magmatic water contents of 0.7 to 1.7 wt%, respectively. Such low required water content suggests that volcanic blasts may be regarded as a normal consequence of magma intrusion into an unstable edifice.

  5. Carbon and Oxygen Isotopic Measurements of K/T Boundary Spherules from Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hough, R. M.; Sigurdsson, H.; Franchi, I. A.; Wright, I. P.; Pillinger, C. T.; Gilmour, I.

    1993-07-01

    Glass spherules thought to be tektites from Haiti have previously been analyzed for their mineralogy and chemical composition to identify their origin and mode of formation [1]. They contain bubbles and occur in various colors dependent upon the original target rock. To investigate these spherules and the nature of any gas phase, several dark brown glasses have been analyzed for their carbon content and isotope composition, using stepped combustion analysis and static mass spectrometry. Both brown and yellow spherules were analyzed for oxygen isotope composition using laser fluorination and conventional dynamic gas-source mass spectrometry. Some spherules were analyzed whole for carbon but one was broken into fragments for the purpose of replication. Individual fragments were initially analyzed and found to yield a total of 0.2 wt% carbon in two components of different isotopic composition. The first, released between 350-400 degrees C had a delta^13C of -22 per mil whereas the second, between 500-600 degrees C had a delta^13C of -6.3 per mil. As the lower temperature release was presumed to be contaminated, other spherule fragments were pre- treated with 0.1M chromic acid to remove organic and carbonate components. Analyses of cleaned fragments indicated a variable carbon content from 0.005 to 2.6 wt% carbon but still with two isotopically different components. The first with a delta^13C of -0.8 per mil and the second, a delta^13C of -19.0 per mil. The spherules are both variable and heterogeneous. The -19 per mil component is apparently present in most of the spherules and released by 600 degrees C. A component with a similar combustion temperature and delta^13C has been encountered in K/T residues containing nanodiamonds [2]. There is currently no information available confirming its identity, but it does not appear to be surficial or an oxidizable organic. Identification of these carbon components by future work may reveal a possible source and mode of

  6. The role of Deccan volcanism during the K-T mass extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adatte, T.; Keller, G.; Gertsch, B.

    2012-12-01

    The potential role of major volcanic provinces has long been neglected as potential cause for major mass extinctions in Earth's history. This is despite the fact that volcanic activity is implicated in four of the five Phanerozoic mass extinctions, whereas a large asteroid impact is only associated with the K-T mass extinction. After 28 years of nearly unchallenged perception that a large impact (Chicxulub) on Yucatan caused the end-Cretaceous mass extinction, this theory is facing its most serious challenge from Deccan volcanism in India. Recent advances in Deccan volcanic studies show that Deccan Trap volcanism began with a relatively minor eruption phase (~6% of total volume) during the late Maastrichtian magnetic polarity C30n. The main eruption phase (~80%) occurred over a short period in C29r just below the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (KTB) and the last Deccan phase (~14%) erupted in the early Danian C29n. Multiproxy studies from sections in Meghalaya (NE India), Jhilmili in central India (Madhya Pradesh), 6 quarry outcrops from Rajahmundry (SE India), 10 deep wells from the Krishna-Godavari Basin (K-G) (Andhra Pradesh) place the KTB mass extinction near the end of the main Deccan phase coincident with the mass extinction. These studies show that the second and third phase of eruptions each produced the world's largest and longest lava megaflows ~1500 km across India through the K-G Basin into the Bay of Bengal. These megaflows are separated by sand, silt and shale which record the mass extinction across an interval that spans zones CF1-CF2 and most of the nannofossil Micula prinsii zone and is correlative with the rapid global warming and subsequent cooling near the end of the Maastrichtian. The mass extinction began preceding the first of the four mega-flows in C29r. Planktic foraminifera suffered a 50% drop in species richness. Survivors suffered another 50% drop after the first mega-flow, leaving just 7 to 8 survivor species. No recovery occurred between

  7. Meteorite impact, cryptoexplosion, and shock metamorphism - A perspective on the evidence at the K/T boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpton, V. L.; Grieve, R. A. F.

    1990-01-01

    A perspective on the evidence of a major impact event at the K/T boundary is proposed using field and laboratory studies of terrestrial impact craters. Recent assertions that diagnostic indications of shock metamorphism are also produced in volcanic environments are challenged. A general geological framework of impact structures is developed and the issue of volcanically induced shock metamorphism is examined. Cryptoexplosion is addressed by assessing the geology of two structures: the Slate Islands and Manson, which are often cited by advocates of an internal origin for shock metamorphism as volcanic structures. It is concluded that the link between shock metamorphism and meteorite impact is now established beyond reasonable doubt. The occurrence and worldwide distribution of shocked minerals at the K/T boundary is considered to be the conclusive evidence for a major impact event.

  8. Geochemical evidences for two chondritic-like cometary or asteroidal impacts before and at the K/T boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Y.-G.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    A number of geological and palaeontological evidences support multiple impacts of cometary showers within a short time (approximately 1-3 Ma) and their connection with mass extinctions. Observations include clustered crater ages, stratigraphic horizons of impact ejecta closely spaced in time, and evidence for stepwise mass extinctions spanning intervals of 1-3 Ma. For the K/T boundary, three candidates, Popigai, Manson, and Yucatan, have been proposed as impact craters. Two distinct strata at the K/T boundary in western North America have been interpreted as evidence for two sequential impacts. If multiple impacts occurred within a time span of about 1 Ma then multiple Ir enrichments should be observed. DSDP Hole 577B on the Shatsky Plateau in the northern Pacific at K/T time is the first site. Samples contain approximately greater than 97 percent CaCO3, which exhibit clear chemical signals associated with asteroidal/cometary impact. Ir, Fe, and Cr data are presented. From the Th-normalized data, two satellite peaks below the major peak at 78 cm and 81 cm of 577B-1-4 are clearly shown. The major Ir peak (K/T boundary) is at 72 cm. Fe and Cr, from C1-like impactor ejecta fallout, also show two peaks at the same positions. For hole 738C on the southern Kerguelen Plateau, Ir values reach a peak concentration of 18 ppb in the clay layer at 96.0-96.2 cm in section 20R-5, and gradually tail off. In the sample 115 cm above the boundary, Ir concentrations have still not reached background levels. From the Ir peak downward to the lowermost sample analyzed at 102 cm, the Ir concentration is still as high as 1.7 ppb. From the Th-normalized data, we observe a small Ir/Th peak at 100-101 cm. Though this peak is within the error margin, the trend is clear. Fe and Cr exhibit the same pattern. The third case is Hole 690C on the Queen Maud Ridge. Again, the Ir/Th plot indicates the strong possibility of satellite peaks at approximately 52 cm. The main peak is at 39-40 cm. For the

  9. Meteorite impact, cryptoexplosion, and shock metamorphism - A perspective on the evidence at the K/T boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpton, V. L.; Grieve, R. A. F.

    A perspective on the evidence of a major impact event at the K/T boundary is proposed using field and laboratory studies of terrestrial impact craters. Recent assertions that diagnostic indications of shock metamorphism are also produced in volcanic environments are challenged. A general geological framework of impact structures is developed and the issue of volcanically induced shock metamorphism is examined. Cryptoexplosion is addressed by assessing the geology of two structures: the Slate Islands and Manson, which are often cited by advocates of an internal origin for shock metamorphism as volcanic structures. It is concluded that the link between shock metamorphism and meteorite impact is now established beyond reasonable doubt. The occurrence and worldwide distribution of shocked minerals at the K/T boundary is considered to be the conclusive evidence for a major impact event.

  10. Geochemical evidences for two chondritic-like cometary or asteroidal impacts before and at the K/T boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.-G.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1993-03-01

    A number of geological and palaeontological evidences support multiple impacts of cometary showers within a short time (approximately 1-3 Ma) and their connection with mass extinctions. Observations include clustered crater ages, stratigraphic horizons of impact ejecta closely spaced in time, and evidence for stepwise mass extinctions spanning intervals of 1-3 Ma. For the K/T boundary, three candidates, Popigai, Manson, and Yucatan, have been proposed as impact craters. Two distinct strata at the K/T boundary in western North America have been interpreted as evidence for two sequential impacts. If multiple impacts occurred within a time span of about 1 Ma then multiple Ir enrichments should be observed. DSDP Hole 577B on the Shatsky Plateau in the northern Pacific at K/T time is the first site. Samples contain approximately greater than 97 percent CaCO3, which exhibit clear chemical signals associated with asteroidal/cometary impact. Ir, Fe, and Cr data are presented. From the Th-normalized data, two satellite peaks below the major peak at 78 cm and 81 cm of 577B-1-4 are clearly shown. The major Ir peak (K/T boundary) is at 72 cm. Fe and Cr, from C1-like impactor ejecta fallout, also show two peaks at the same positions. For hole 738C on the southern Kerguelen Plateau, Ir values reach a peak concentration of 18 ppb in the clay layer at 96.0-96.2 cm in section 20R-5, and gradually tail off. In the sample 115 cm above the boundary, Ir concentrations have still not reached background levels. From the Ir peak downward to the lowermost sample analyzed at 102 cm, the Ir concentration is still as high as 1.7 ppb. From the Th-normalized data, we observe a small Ir/Th peak at 100-101 cm. Though this peak is within the error margin, the trend is clear. Fe and Cr exhibit the same pattern. The third case is Hole 690C on the Queen Maud Ridge.

  11. Environments and extinctions at the K-T boundary in eastern Montana are compatible with an asteroid impact

    SciTech Connect

    Fastovsky, D.E. ); Sheehan, P.M. )

    1992-01-01

    In the terrestrial latest Cretaceous Hell Creek (HC) Formation, both non-biotic events and patterns of extinction and survivorship are consistent with an asteroid impact causing the extinctions. Environments through the last 2--3 million-year interval represented by the HC remained relatively constant: an aggrading coastal lowland dissected by meandering rivers. The K-T boundary occurred during an abrupt change to impeded drainage represented by coals and pond deposits formed under low-energy conditions. Because of the close temporal proximity of the sediments of the Paleocene Cannonball Sea to the K-T boundary in South Dakota, impeded drainage in the earliest Paleocene in eastern Montana may be attributable to riverine base-level changes associated with a renewed transgression of the western interior sea during the K-T transition. Patterns within the biota mirror those of the paleoenvironments. The ecological diversity of HC dinosaurs remains statistically unchanged through HC time. Analyses of vertebrates at the species level indicate a differential extinction in which the terrestrial biota underwent far more extinction than its aquatic counterpart. There is no evidence for changing environments in the upper HC, and there is circumstantial evidence that the latest Cretaceous was a time of renewed transgression rather than regression. Likewise, biotic patterns do not accord with gradual, environmentally driven extinctions. While the paleoenvironmental change that marks the K-T transition in eastern Montana accounts for some of the extinctions, the pattern of differential extinction is concordant with an asteroid impact. In this scenario, aquatic ecosystems and some land-based food chains would be buffered by detritus-based feeding. Terrestrial systems, dependent upon primary productivity, would undergo a short-term loss of resources causing extinctions.

  12. [Blast lung injuries].

    PubMed

    Clapson, P; Pasquier, P; Perez, J-P; Debien, B

    2010-09-01

    In armed conflicts and during terrorist attacks, explosive devices are a major cause of mortality. The lung is one of the organs most sensitive to blasts. Thus, today it is important that every GP at least knows the basics and practices regarding treatment of blast victims. We suggest, following a review of the explosions and an assessment of the current threats, detailing the lung injuries brought about by the explosions and the main treatments currently recommended. PMID:20933166

  13. Computer cast blast modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, S.; McGill, M.; Preece, D.S.

    1994-07-01

    Cast blasting can be designed to utilize explosive energy effectively and economically for coal mining operations to remove overburden material. The more overburden removed by explosives, the less blasted material there is left to be transported with mechanical equipment, such as draglines and trucks. In order to optimize the percentage of rock that is cast, a higher powder factor than normal is required plus an initiation technique designed to produce a much greater degree of horizontal muck movement. This paper compares two blast models known as DMC (Distinct Motion Code) and SABREX (Scientific Approach to Breaking Rock with Explosives). DMC, applies discrete spherical elements interacted with the flow of explosive gases and the explicit time integration to track particle motion resulting from a blast. The input to this model includes multi-layer rock properties, and both loading geometry and explosives equation-of-state parameters. It enables the user to have a wide range of control over drill pattern and explosive loading design parameters. SABREX assumes that heave process is controlled by the explosive gases which determines the velocity and time of initial movement of blocks within the burden, and then tracks the motion of the blocks until they come to a rest. In order to reduce computing time, the in-flight collisions of blocks are not considered and the motion of the first row is made to limit the motion of subsequent rows. Although modelling a blast is a complex task, the DMC can perform a blast simulation in 0.5 hours on the SUN SPARCstation 10--41 while the new SABREX 3.5 produces results of a cast blast in ten seconds on a 486-PC computer. Predicted percentage of cast and face velocities from both computer codes compare well with the measured results from a full scale cast blast.

  14. Climatic changes resulting from mass extinctions at the K-T boundary (and other bio-events)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampino, Michael R.; Volk, Tyler

    1988-01-01

    The mass extinctions at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary include about 90 percent of marine calcareous nannoplankton (coccoliths), and carbon-isotope data show that marine primary productivity was drastically reduced for about 500,000 years after the boundary event, the so-called Strangelove Ocean effect. One result of the elimination of most marine phytoplankton would have been a severe reduction in production of dimethyl sulfide (DMS), a biogenic gas that is believed to be the major precursor of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) over the oceans. A drastic reduction in marine CCN should lead to a cloud canopy with significantly lower reflectivity, and hence cause a significant warming at the earth's surface. Calculations suggest that, all other things being held constant, a reduction in CCN of more than 80 percent (a reasonable value for the K-T extinctions) could have produced a rapid global warming of 6 C or more. Oxygen-isotope analyses of marine sediments, and other kinds of paleoclimatic data, have provided for a marked warming, and a general instability of climate coincident with the killoff of marine plankton at the K-T boundary. Similar reductions in phytoplankton abundance at other boundaries, as indicated by marked shifts in carbon-isotope curves, suggest that severe temperature changes may have accompanied other mass extinctions, and raises the intriguing possibility that the extinction events themselves could have contributed to the climatic instabilities at critical bio-events in the geologic record.

  15. Curved characteristics behind blast waves.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laporte, O.; Chang, T. S.

    1972-01-01

    The behavior of nonisentropic flow behind a propagating blast wave is theoretically studied. Exact solutions, expressed in closed form in terms of elementary functions, are presented for three sets of curved characteristicseind a self-similar, strong blast wave.

  16. Computer cast blast modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, S.; McGill, M.; Preece, D.S.

    1994-12-31

    Cast blasting can be designed to utilize explosive energy effectively and economically for coal mining operations to remove overburden material. This paper compares two blast models known as DMC (Distinct Motion Code) and SABREX (Scientific Approach to Breaking Rock with Explosives). DMC applies discrete spherical elements interacted with the flow of explosive gases and the explicit time integration to track particle motion resulting from a blast. The input to this model includes multi-layer rock properties, and both loading geometry and explosives equation-of-state parameters. It enables the user to have a wide range of control over drill pattern and explosive loading design parameters. SABREX assumes that heave process is controlled by the explosive gases which determines the velocity and time of initial movement of blocks within the burden, and then tracks the motion of the blocks until they come to a rest. In order to reduce computing time, the in-flight collisions of blocks are not considered and the motion of the first row is made to limit the motion of subsequent rows. Although modelling a blast is a complex task, the advance in computer technology has increased the computing power of small work stations as well as PC (personal computers) to permit a much shorter turn-around time for complex computations. The DMC can perform a blast simulation in 0.5 hours on the SUN SPARC station 10-41 while the new SABREX 3.5 produces results of a cast blast in ten seconds on a 486-PC. Predicted percentage of cast and face velocities from both computer codes compare well with the measured results from a full scale cast blast.

  17. BLAST: The Balloon-Borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devlin, Mark; Ade, Peter; Bock, Jamie; Dicker, Simon; Griffin, Matt; Gunderson, Josh; Halpern, Mark; Hargrave, Peter; Hughes, David; Klein, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    BLAST is the Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Sub-millimeter Telescope. It will fly from a Long Duration Balloon (LDB) platform from Antarctica. The telescope design incorporates a 2 m primary mirror with large-format bolometer arrays operating at 250, 350 and 500 microns. By providing the first sensitive large-area (10 sq. deg.) sub-mm surveys at these wavelengths, BLAST will address some of the most important galactic and cosmological questions regarding the formation and evolution of stars, galaxies and clusters. Galactic and extragalactic BLAST surveys will: (1) identify large numbers of high-redshift galaxies; (2) measure photometric redshifts, rest-frame FIR luminosities and star formation rates thereby constraining the evolutionary history of the galaxies that produce the FIR and sub-mm background; (3) measure cold pre-stellar sources associated with the earliest stages of star and planet formation; (4) make high-resolution maps of diffuse galactic emission over a wide range of galactic latitudes. In addition to achieving the above scientific goals, the exciting legacy of the BLAST LDB experiment will be a catalogue of 3000-5000 extragalactic sub-mm sources and a 100 sq. deg. sub-mm galactic plane survey. Multi-frequency follow-up observations from SIRTF, ASTRO-F, and Herschel, together with spectroscopic observations and sub-arcsecond imaging from ALMA are essential to understand the physical nature of the BLAST sources.

  18. Constraining Galileon inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, Donough; Anderson, Gemma J.; Hull, Matthew; Seery, David E-mail: G.Anderson@sussex.ac.uk E-mail: D.Seery@sussex.ac.uk

    2015-02-01

    In this short paper, we present constraints on the Galileon inflationary model from the CMB bispectrum. We employ a principal-component analysis of the independent degrees of freedom constrained by data and apply this to the WMAP 9-year data to constrain the free parameters of the model. A simple Bayesian comparison establishes that support for the Galileon model from bispectrum data is at best weak.

  19. Multiproxy Approach of the K-T and Chicxulub Ejecta Layers Along the Brazos River, Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adatte, T.; Keller, G.

    2006-05-01

    We report the results of preliminary investigations of four K-T boundary sections, which are located in small tributaries (Cottonmouth and Darting Minnow creeks) of the Brazos River and the recently drilled Mullinax-1 core. The study is based on high-resolution sampling, sedimentological observations, biostratigraphy, bulk rock and clay mineralogy, major and trace elements geochemistry and granulometry. The Cottonmouth Creek exposure is characterized by Late Maastrichtian dark grey fossiliferous claystone, interrupted by laterally variable channel fill storm deposits, which previously have been erroneously interpreted as impact tsunami deposits. These deposits consist of a basal shell hash (10cm), followed by glauconitic sand with altered impact spherules (10cm), laminated sandstones, and 4 to 5 hummocky cross-bedded sandstone layers separated by burrowed erosion surfaces that mark repeated colonization of the ocean floor between storm events. Above and below these storm events are dark grey fossiliferous claystones of the late Maastrichtian zone CF1, which spans the last 300,000 years of the Cretaceous. The observed sedimentary succession correspond therefore to incised valley infillings linked to a sea-level drop with a possible emersion, followed by a transgression which culminates at the K-T boundary. More specifically, the storms beds overlying the sequence boundary would correspond to late LST sediments which infill the incised valley, the overlying Maastrichtian claystone corresponds to the Early TST with a maximum at KTB (MFS). The K-T boundary is 40 cm and 90 cm above the storm deposits in the outcrop and Mullinax-1 core respectively. In the Mullinax-1 core, high resolution granulometric analyses of this interval reveal the event bed as repeated thinning upwards sequences, from the spherule- and glauconite-rich sandstones with HCS to fine laminated carbonated sandstones and finally thick bedded mudstone. But the last thinning upwards sequence is separated

  20. The Manson impact structure, a possible site for a Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartung, J. B.; Kunk, M. J.; Anderson, R. R.

    1988-01-01

    The Manson impact structure, about 35 km in diameter, is the largest impact crater recognized in the United States. Its center is located near the town of Manson, 29 km west of Fort Dodge, Iowa. The structure is not well known geologically because it is covered by tens of meters of glacial deposits. What is known about the structure was learned mostly from the study of water well cuttings. At Manson the normal Phanerozoic and Proterozoic sedimentary rocks were replaced by centrally uplifted Proterozoic crystalline rocks that are representative of the normal basement: This central uplift is surrounded by completely disrupted rocks which are roughly encircled by peripherally faulted and slumped sequences of normal sedimentary strata. Radially outward normal sedimentary strata are uplifted slightly. Manson, once interpreted as a cryptovolcanic structure, is now considered an impact structure based on its circular shape, its central uplift and the presence of multiple intersecting sets of shock lamellae in quartz grains from the central uplift. The Ar-40/Ar-39 age spectrum dating results for a microcline separate from the Manson 2-A core in the central uplift is shown. This spectrum is interpreted to indicate a nearly complete degassing of the microcline at the time of the Manson impact. The remainder of the gas released climbs in age with increasing temperature of release. This pattern of the age spectrum is interpreted to represent diffusional loss due to reheating at the time of the impact and during subsequent cooling. Shocked quartz grains, present in the iridium-bearing layer at the K-T boundary throughout the world, have a significantly larger size and are more abundant in the western interior of North America than elsewhere in the world. Furthermore, shocked feldspar and granitic fragments are found at the K-T boundary in North America. These observations indicate the K-T boundary impact must have penetrated continental crust in North America.

  1. The Manson impact structure, a possible site for a Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartung, J. B.; Kunk, M. J.; Anderson, R. R.

    The Manson impact structure, about 35 km in diameter, is the largest impact crater recognized in the United States. Its center is located near the town of Manson, 29 km west of Fort Dodge, Iowa. The structure is not well known geologically because it is covered by tens of meters of glacial deposits. What is known about the structure was learned mostly from the study of water well cuttings. At Manson the normal Phanerozoic and Proterozoic sedimentary rocks were replaced by centrally uplifted Proterozoic crystalline rocks that are representative of the normal basement: This central uplift is surrounded by completely disrupted rocks which are roughly encircled by peripherally faulted and slumped sequences of normal sedimentary strata. Radially outward normal sedimentary strata are uplifted slightly. Manson, once interpreted as a cryptovolcanic structure, is now considered an impact structure based on its circular shape, its central uplift and the presence of multiple intersecting sets of shock lamellae in quartz grains from the central uplift. The Ar-40/Ar-39 age spectrum dating results for a microcline separate from the Manson 2-A core in the central uplift is shown. This spectrum is interpreted to indicate a nearly complete degassing of the microcline at the time of the Manson impact. The remainder of the gas released climbs in age with increasing temperature of release. This pattern of the age spectrum is interpreted to represent diffusional loss due to reheating at the time of the impact and during subsequent cooling. Shocked quartz grains, present in the iridium-bearing layer at the K-T boundary throughout the world, have a significantly larger size and are more abundant in the western interior of North America than elsewhere in the world. Furthermore, shocked feldspar and granitic fragments are found at the K-T boundary in North America. These observations indicate the K-T boundary impact must have penetrated continental crust in North America.

  2. U-Pb provenance ages of shocked zircons from the K-T boundary, Raton Basin, Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Premo, W. R.; Izett, G. A.

    1993-01-01

    U-Pb isotopic systematics from analyses of single zircons identify at least two provenance ages, approximately 575 Ma and approximately 330 Ma, for zircons from the impact layer of the K-T boundary, Raton Basin, Colorado. These data are a preliminary confirmation of results reported from the same layer. The zircon provenance ages provide a unique signature for identification of the source crater since igneous rocks of these ages (or sedimentary rocks derived from them) must characterize part of the impact stratigraphy.

  3. The Disposition of Pt, Pd, Ir, Os, and Ru in Marine Sediments and the K/T Boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Cin-Ty; Wasserburg, Gerald; Kyte, Frank

    2003-01-01

    The marine record of platinum group elements (PGEs) and Os isotopic compositions provides information on different inputs of PGEs into the oceans. Some studies based on a smaller subset of the PGEs suggest that the PGEs may suffer post-depositional mobility during diagenesis. In some K/T boundary clays, Kyte and others showed that the relative abundances of Pt, Pd, Ir, and Os can differ significantly from chondritic, which is the signature expected from fallout of the meteorite impact. In some K/T boundary sections, elevated Ir concentrations are observed as far as 1 meter from the cm-thick boundary clay containing the meteoritic ejecta. The purpose of this study was to characterize Pt, Pd, Ir, Os, and Ru abundances in zones including the K/T boundary. We determined PGE abundances of boundary clays at two hemipelagic sites (Stevns Klint, Denmark and Caravaca, Spain) in which previous studies by Kyte and others showed that the Ir anomaly is confined to within a few cm. We also analyzed two pelagic Pacific sites: a boundary clay from the north Pacific (Hole 465A) characterized by a 0.5 m thick Ir anomaly and a transect across the K/T boundary from the south Pacific (Hole 596) where the Ir anomaly spans 2 m. The Stevns Klint, Caravaca, and north Pacific sites are characterized by abundant marls and limestones in the section, whereas the south Pacific site is dominated by clays. Samples were spiked with isotopic tracers, mixed with a flux, S and Ni, and equilibrated by fusion. PGEs were extracted from the Ni and analyzed on a Finnigan Element ICP-MS. We find that the narrow Caravaca and Stevns Klint boundary clays have relative PGE abundance patterns indistinguishable from chondritic values. The two Pacific sites were found to have nearly identical PGE patterns but have ratios at the peak, which differ from chondritic values as found earlier by Evans et al. The Pacific sites were found to have nearly identical PGE patterns but are extremely depleted in OS (Os/Ir = 0

  4. K-T magmatism of western Rajasthan, India: Manifestation of Reunion plume activity or extensional lithospheric tectonics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, K.

    2004-12-01

    A number of alkaline plutons have been recorded at the K-T (Cretaceous-Tertiary) boundary in western Rajasthan, India. Significant magmatism occurred at Mundwara, Barmer, Sarnu-Dandali and Tavider. The evolution of the Cambay-Sanchor-Barmer rift during the K-T period resulted in these alkaline complexes at the rift margins. Sedimentary basins are developed in the Barmer and Jaiselmer regions. The magmatism of Mundwara and Sarnu-Dandali is dated at 68.50 Ma and considered as an early pulse of Deccan volcanism. Several workers correlated K-T sedimentary basin evolution, magmatism and other tectonic features of western Rajasthan with the Reunion plume-interaction in the northwestern Indian shield. Alkaline igneous complexes along the rift from the southern part are reported from Phenai Mata, Amba Dongar and Seychelles. The Seychelles was part of the northwestern Indian shield prior to Deccan volcanism. The Mundwara igneous complex represents three distinct circular plutonic bodies - Toa, Mer and Mushala, which are situated in the periphery of an area three kilometers in radius. Besides these, there are numerous concentric and radial dykes of lamprophyre, carbonatite, dolerite and amphibolite. All these three bodies represent different phases of intrusion and are not similar to each other. The alkaline rocks of Sarnu-Dandali occur as dykes and isolated plugs in the desert sand. Carbonatite dykes are also reported from southeast of Barmer. The Tavider outcrop is devoid of any plutonic rock and consists of rhyolite, andesite and basalt. These rocks occur along the Precambrian Malani magmatic lineaments. The development of the Cambay-Sanchor-Barmer rift caused reactivation of Precambrian fractures and resulted in magmatism at the basin margin. The Gondwanaland fragmentation during the Mesozoic era caused extensional tectonics in the northwestern Indian shield. This led to the development of rift basins in Gujarat and western Rajasthan. Deccan volcanism, separation of the

  5. Iridium enrichment in volcanic dust from blue ice fields, Antarctica, and possible relevance to the K/T boundary event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koeberl, Christian

    1989-01-01

    The analysis of samples of volcanic ash dust layers from the Lewis Cliff/Beardmore Glacier in Antarctica shows that some of the samples contain Ir concentrations up to 7.5 ppb. It is shown that the Ir is positively correlated with Se, As, Sb, and other volcanogenic elements. The results show that Ir may be present in some volcanic ash deposits, suggesting that the Ir in the K/T boundary clays is not necessarily of cosmic origin, but may have originated from mantle reservoirs tapped during extensive volcanic eruptions possibly triggered by impact events.

  6. The Global K-T Ejecta layer - Is it Diagnostic of Impact Angle, and was There More Than one Impact Site?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lana, C.; Morgan, J.

    2005-05-01

    We have collected samples from the Chicxulub impact breccias in Yaxcopoil-1, from the global K-T iridium-rich layer found at distances greater that ~1400 km from Chicxulub, and also from the proximal spherule layer close to Chicxulub. We will use these samples to: try to determine the angle and direction of impact at Chicxulub, provide the compelling evidence that Chicxulub is K-T, and ascertain whether there were multiple impacts at the K-T boundary. The clearest indicator of angle of impact for circular craters on other planetary bodies is in the ejecta pattern. Experiments, numerical modelling and field observations all indicate that the plumes of oblique impacts expand initially in the downrange direction. We are currently documenting how the size of the coarse-grained ejecta particles and the geochemistry of spinels varies with geographical location. If the distribution of the size and/or geochemistry of the ejecta is asymmetric it is likely to be diagnostic of the direction of vapour plume expansion, and hence an indicator of impact direction. The majority of planetary scientists agree that Chicxulub is the K-T impact crater - but dissenters argue that the evidence is not yet compelling. To link Chicxulub unequivocally to the K-T boundary we must be able to prove that components of this global K-T ejecta layer originate from the target rocks at the Chicxulub impact site. All the evidence presented so far (the dating of melt rocks, the change in ejecta size with distance from Chicxulub, the dating of zircons,) is compatible with a genetic link but does not prove it. Dating of melt-rich rocks at Chicxulub at ~64.98 Myr show that the Chicxulub impact occurred at about K-T time. Zircons dates at Chicxulub (main age of ~545 Myr, minor component of ~420 Myr) are similar to those found at a few North American K-T sites, suggesting that these zircons could have originated from Yucatan basement rocks. However, some of the ages found within the global K-T ejecta layer

  7. Blasting: Another environmental woe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Thomas A.

    1989-03-01

    The much increased use of explosives to move and extract rock masses in construction and mining over the past two decades has resulted in a plethora of complaints from the general public in areas of close proximity to public facilities, communication, and transportation systems. Air blasts and ground vibrations caused by explosive detonation can have desultory and damaging effects to public and private property, impose adverse effects on underground mining operations, and change the course of flow or effect the availability of surface and groundwater. Attempts to prevent damage and alleviate problems from blasting have been initiated by the federal and state governments by the promulgation of rules and regulations to prevent against vagrant and negligent blasting procedures. The Office of Surface Mining, Reclamation and Enforcement (OSMRE) provided regulations in the Federal Register on March 8, 1983, with particular reference to surface mining practices. Most of the states have adopted the OSMRE guidelines to enforce these rules and regulations.

  8. k-t acceleration in pure phase encode MRI to monitor dynamic flooding processes in rock core plugs.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Dan; Balcom, Bruce J

    2014-06-01

    Monitoring the pore system in sedimentary rocks with MRI when fluids are introduced is very important in the study of petroleum reservoirs and enhanced oil recovery. However, the lengthy acquisition time of each image, with pure phase encode MRI, limits the temporal resolution. Spatiotemporal correlations can be exploited to undersample the k-t space data. The stacked frames/profiles can be well approximated by an image matrix with rank deficiency, which can be recovered by nonlinear nuclear norm minimization. Sparsity of the x-t image can also be exploited for nonlinear reconstruction. In this work the results of a low rank matrix completion technique were compared with k-t sparse compressed sensing. These methods are demonstrated with one dimensional SPRITE imaging of a Bentheimer rock core plug and SESPI imaging of a Berea rock core plug, but can be easily extended to higher dimensionality and/or other pure phase encode measurements. These ideas will enable higher dimensionality pure phase encode MRI studies of dynamic flooding processes in low magnetic field systems. PMID:24809307

  9. k-t Acceleration in pure phase encode MRI to monitor dynamic flooding processes in rock core plugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Dan; Balcom, Bruce J.

    2014-06-01

    Monitoring the pore system in sedimentary rocks with MRI when fluids are introduced is very important in the study of petroleum reservoirs and enhanced oil recovery. However, the lengthy acquisition time of each image, with pure phase encode MRI, limits the temporal resolution. Spatiotemporal correlations can be exploited to undersample the k-t space data. The stacked frames/profiles can be well approximated by an image matrix with rank deficiency, which can be recovered by nonlinear nuclear norm minimization. Sparsity of the x-t image can also be exploited for nonlinear reconstruction. In this work the results of a low rank matrix completion technique were compared with k-t sparse compressed sensing. These methods are demonstrated with one dimensional SPRITE imaging of a Bentheimer rock core plug and SESPI imaging of a Berea rock core plug, but can be easily extended to higher dimensionality and/or other pure phase encode measurements. These ideas will enable higher dimensionality pure phase encode MRI studies of dynamic flooding processes in low magnetic field systems.

  10. Expanded rock blast modeling capabilities of DMC{_}BLAST, including buffer blasting

    SciTech Connect

    Preece, D.S.; Tidman, J.P.; Chung, S.H.

    1996-12-31

    A discrete element computer program named DMC{_}BLAST (Distinct Motion Code) has been under development since 1987 for modeling rock blasting. This program employs explicit time integration and uses spherical or cylindrical elements that are represented as circles in 2-D. DMC{_}BLAST calculations compare favorably with data from actual bench blasts. The blast modeling capabilities of DMC{_}BLAST have been expanded to include independently dipping geologic layers, top surface, bottom surface and pit floor. The pit can also now be defined using coordinates based on the toe of the bench. A method for modeling decked explosives has been developed which allows accurate treatment of the inert materials (stemming) in the explosive column and approximate treatment of different explosives in the same blasthole. A DMC{_}BLAST user can specify decking through a specific geologic layer with either inert material or a different explosive. Another new feature of DMC{_}BLAST is specification of an uplift angle which is the angle between the normal to the blasthole and a vector defining the direction of explosive loading on particles adjacent to the blasthole. A buffer (choke) blast capability has been added for situations where previously blasted material is adjacent to the free face of the bench preventing any significant lateral motion during the blast.

  11. Choosing health, constrained choices.

    PubMed

    Chee Khoon Chan

    2009-12-01

    In parallel with the neo-liberal retrenchment of the welfarist state, an increasing emphasis on the responsibility of individuals in managing their own affairs and their well-being has been evident. In the health arena for instance, this was a major theme permeating the UK government's White Paper Choosing Health: Making Healthy Choices Easier (2004), which appealed to an ethos of autonomy and self-actualization through activity and consumption which merited esteem. As a counterpoint to this growing trend of informed responsibilization, constrained choices (constrained agency) provides a useful framework for a judicious balance and sense of proportion between an individual behavioural focus and a focus on societal, systemic, and structural determinants of health and well-being. Constrained choices is also a conceptual bridge between responsibilization and population health which could be further developed within an integrative biosocial perspective one might refer to as the social ecology of health and disease. PMID:20028669

  12. Constraining the dark fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, Martin; Liddle, Andrew R.; Parkinson, David; Gao Changjun

    2009-10-15

    Cosmological observations are normally fit under the assumption that the dark sector can be decomposed into dark matter and dark energy components. However, as long as the probes remain purely gravitational, there is no unique decomposition and observations can only constrain a single dark fluid; this is known as the dark degeneracy. We use observations to directly constrain this dark fluid in a model-independent way, demonstrating, in particular, that the data cannot be fit by a dark fluid with a single constant equation of state. Parametrizing the dark fluid equation of state by a variety of polynomials in the scale factor a, we use current kinematical data to constrain the parameters. While the simplest interpretation of the dark fluid remains that it is comprised of separate dark matter and cosmological constant contributions, our results cover other model types including unified dark energy/matter scenarios.

  13. Constrained Canonical Correlation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSarbo, Wayne S.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A variety of problems associated with the interpretation of traditional canonical correlation are discussed. A response surface approach is developed which allows for investigation of changes in the coefficients while maintaining an optimum canonical correlation value. Also, a discrete or constrained canonical correlation method is presented. (JKS)

  14. Altered spherules of impact melt and associated relic glass from the K/T boundary sediments in Haiti

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kring, David A.; Boynton, William V.

    1991-01-01

    Partially to wholly altered glass spherules produced by impact-induced shock melting have been found in the K/T boundary sediments of Haiti which also contain grains of shocked quartz. The relic glass has an approximately dacitic composition, and although grossly similar in composition to most previously described tektite glasses, it is slightly enriched in Ca and slightly depleted in Si, suggesting the Haitian glass was produced either from a target with a greater fraction of carbonate and anhydrite lithologies and fewer silicate units than the targets from which most other tektites were produced, and/or from one with a significant mafic component. The composition of the glass can best be reconciled with a continental margin terrane, consistent with studies of shocked mineral phases reported elsewhere. The thickness of the deposit in which the impact spherules occur indicates the source of the ejecta was in the proto-Caribbean region.

  15. Altered spherules of impact melt and associated relic glass from the K/T boundary sediments in Haiti

    SciTech Connect

    Kring, D.A.; Boynton, W.V. )

    1991-06-01

    Partially to wholly altered glass spherules produced by impact-induced shock melting have been found in the K/T boundary sediments of Haiti which also contain grains of shocked quartz. The relic glass has an approximately dacitic composition, and although grossly similar in composition to most previously described tektite glasses, it is slightly enriched in Ca and slightly depleted in Si, suggesting the Haitian glass was produced either from a target with a greater fraction of carbonate and anhydrite lithologies and fewer silicate units than the targets from which most other tektites were produced, and/or from one with a significant mafic component. The composition of the glass can best be reconciled with a continental margin terrane, consistent with studies of shocked mineral phases reported elsewhere. The thickness of the deposit in which the impact spherules occur indicates the source of the ejecta was in the proto-Caribbean region.

  16. Search for optimal conditions for exploring double-parton scattering in four-jet production: kT -factorization approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutak, Krzysztof; Maciuła, Rafał; Serino, Mirko; Szczurek, Antoni; van Hameren, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    In the present paper, we discuss how to maximize the double-parton scattering (DPS) contribution in four-jet production by selecting kinematical cuts. Here both single-parton and double-parton scattering effects are calculated in the kT -factorization approach, following our recent developments of relevant methods and tools. Several differential distributions are shown and discussed in the context of future searches for DPS effects, such as rapidity of jets, rapidity distance, and azimuthal correlations between jets. The dependence of the relative DPS amount is studied as a function of those observables. The regions with an enhanced DPS contribution are identified. Future experimental explorations could extract more precise values of σeff and its potential dependence on kinematical variables.

  17. Catastrophic volcanism as a cause of shocked features found at the K/T boundary and in cryptoexplosion structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loper, D. E.; Mccartney, K.

    1988-01-01

    The presence of quartz grains containing shock lamellae at the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary is viewed by many as the single most compelling evidence of meteoritic or cometary impact because there is no known endogenous mechanism for producing these features. Similarly the presence of shocked quartz, shatter cones, coesite and stishovite at cryptoexplosion structures is comonly taken as conclusive evidence of impact. However, several recent studies have cast doubt on this interpretation. It is argued that basaltic volcanism, although not normally explosive, can under exceptional circumstances produce overpressures sufficiently high to produce shock features. The exceptional circumstances include a high content of volatiles, usually CO2, and no preestablished pathway to the surface. Rapid cooling of the saturated basaltic magma can occur if it underlies a cooler more evolved magma in a chamber. Initial slow cooling and partial exsolution of the volatiles will cause the density of the basaltic magma to become less than that of the overlying magma, leading to overturning and mixing. Gas will escape the magma chamber along planar cracks once the pressure becomes sufficiently high. In the vicinity of the crack tip there is a smallscale deviatoric stress pattern which is thought to be sufficiently high to produce transient cracks along secondary axes in the quartz crystals, causing the planar features. The CO2-rich fluid inclusions which have been found along planar elements of quartz in basement rocks of the Vredefort Dome were likely to have been emplaced by such a process. If the mechanism described is capable of producing shocked features as above, it would require a reassessment of the origin of many cryptoexplosion structures as well as seriously weakening the case for an impact origin of the K/T event.

  18. A possible K-T boundary bolide impact site offshore near Bombay and triggering of rapid Deccan volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negi, J. G.; Agrawal, P. K.; Pandey, O. P.; Singh, A. P.

    1993-03-01

    The temporal coincidence of a major biological mass extinction (including dinosaurs), the well-known iridium excess anomaly at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary and the eruption of Deccan flood basalts at about 65 Ma has aroused global interest among geologists and biologists. It is widely debated whether the mass extinction and iridium anomaly are due to an asteroid impact or the massive outpouring of extensive Deccan volcanism. An oval shaped unusual positive gravity anomaly (10 000 km 2 in area) near Bombay has attracted our attention during a search for an impact site near Deccan basalts. A detailed gravity interpretation indicates the presence of a fossil conduit structure of 12 km height extending from a shallow crust-mantle boundary (at 18 km) to an approximate depth of 6 km from the surface. The conduit structure, with a maximum diameter of about 35 km at its base, may originate from cracking of a weak pre-Deccan trap shallow upwarped mantle. The structure may have been caused by a bolide impact which triggered the eruption of massive flood basalts (Deccan traps) on the western margin of the fast-moving Indian plate. An impact in this locality can explain the sudden detachment of the arcuate Seychelles block from India as well as the large-scale reorganisation of plate boundaries in the Indian Ocean. Our hypothesis of impact-triggered volcanism at 65 Ma advocates a bimodal cause for the mass extinction at the K-T boundary. Extraordinary geothermal and structural conditions of the nearby region are also discussed as circumstantial evidence to support the twin-cause mechanism by weakened features and the presence of partial melt at subcrustal depth.

  19. Programmable Grit-Blasting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard K.

    1988-01-01

    In programmable grit-blasting system undergoing design, controller moves blasting head to precise positions to shape or remove welding defects from parts. Controller holds head in position for preset dwell time and moves head to new position along predetermined path. Position of articulated head established by pair of servomotors according to programmed signals from controller. Head similar to video borescope. Used to remove welding defects in blind holes. Suited for repetitive production operations in grit-blast box.

  20. Electromagnetic emissions during rock blasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keefe, S. G.; Thiel, D. V.

    1991-05-01

    Radio emissions during quarry blasting have been recorded in the audio frequency band. Three distinct mechanisms are suggested to explain the observed results; rock fracture at the time of the explosion, charged rocks discharging on impact with the pit floor and micro-fracture of the remaining rock wall due to pressure adjustment of the bench behind the blast. The last mechanism was evident by a train of discrete impulses recorded for up to one minute after the blast. It is assumed that during this time the rock behind the blast was subjected to a significant change in pressure. This may be related to ELF observations during earthquakes.

  1. Testing the blast wave model with Swift GRBs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curran, P. A.; Starling, R. L. C.; van der Horst, A. J.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; de Pasquale, M.; Page, M.

    2011-04-01

    The complex structure of the light curves of Swift GRBs (e.g. superimposed flares and shallow decay) has made their interpretation and that of the blast wave caused by the burst, more difficult than in the pre-Swift era. We aim to constrain the blast wave parameters: electron energy distribution, p, density profile of the circumburst medium, k, and the continued energy injection index, q. We do so by comparing the observed multi-wavelength light curves and X-ray spectra of a Swift sample to the predictions of the blast wave model.We can successfully interpret all of the bursts in our multi-wavelength sample of 10, except two, within the framework of the blast wave model, and we can estimate with confidence the electron energy distribution index for 6 of the sample. Furthermore we identify jet breaks in almost half of the bursts. The values of k suggest that the circumburst density profiles are not drawn from only one of the constant density or wind-like media populations. A statistical analysis of the distribution of p reveals that, even in the most conservative case of least scatter, the values are not consistent with a single, universal value. This is in agreement with our results for a larger sample of X-ray only afterglows which we summarise here.

  2. Performance of blasting caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J. (Inventor); Schimmel, Morry L. (Inventor); Perry, Ronnie B. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Common blasting caps are made from an aluminum shell in the form of a tube which is closed at both ends. One end, which is called the output end, terminates in a principal side or face, and contains a detonating agent which communicates with a means for igniting the detonating agent. The improvement of the present invention is a flat, steel foil bonded to the face in a position which is aligned perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of the tube.

  3. Weathering and precipitation after meteorite impact of Ni, Cr, Fe, Ca and Mn in K-T boundary clays from Stevns Klint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyano, Yumiko; Yoshiasa, Akira; Tobase, Tsubasa; Isobe, Hiroshi; Hongu, Hidetomo; Okube, Maki; Nakatsuka, Akihiko; Sugiyama, Kazumasa

    2016-05-01

    Ni, Cr, Fe, Ca and Mn K-edge XANES and EXAFS spectra were measured on K-T boundary clays from Stevns Klint in Denmark. According to XANES spectra and EXAFS analyses, the local structures of Ni, Cr and Fe in K-T boundary clays is similar to Ni(OH)2, Cr2O3 and FeOOH, respectively. It is assumed that the Ni, Cr and Fe elements in impact related glasses is changing into stable hydrate and oxide by the weathering and diagenesis at the surface of the Earth. Ca in K-T boundary clays maintains the diopside-like structure. Local structure of Ca in K-T clays seems to keep information on the condition at meteorite impact. Mn has a local structure like MnCO3 with divalent state. It is assumed that the origin on low abundant of Mn in the Fe-group element in K-T clays was the consumption by life activity and the diffusion to other parts.

  4. Arroyo el Mimbral, Mexico, K/T unit: Origin as debris flow/turbidite, not a tsunami deposit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohor, Bruce F.; Betterton, William J.

    1993-01-01

    Coarse, spherule-bearing, elastic units have been discovered at 10 marine sites that span the K/T boundary in northeastern Mexico. We examined one of the best exposed sites in Arroyo el Mimbral, northwest of Tampico. The Mimbral outcrop displays a layered elastic unit up to 3 m thick enclosed by marly limestones of the Mendez (Latest Maastrichian) and Velasco (Earliest Danian) Formations. At its thickest point, this channelized elastic unit is comprised of 3 subunits: (1) a basal, poorly-sorted, ungraded calcareous spherule bed 1 m thick containing relict impact glass and shocked mineral grains, (2) a massive set of laminated calcite-cemented sandstones up to 2 m thick with plant debris at its base, (3) capped by a thin (up to 20 cm) set of rippled sandstone layers separated by silty mudstone drapes containing a small (921 pg/g) iridium anomaly. This tripartite elastic unit is conformably overlain by marls of the Velasco Formation. We also visited the La Lajilla site east of Ciudad Victoria; its stratigraphy is similar to Mimbral's, but its elastic beds are thinner and less extensive laterally. The Mimbral elastic unit has been interpreted previously as being deposited by a megawave or tsunami produced by an asteroid impact on nearby Yucatan (Chicxulub crater). However, a presumed 400-m paleodepth of water at the Mimbral site, channeling of the spherule subunit into the underlying Mendez Formation marls, and the overtopping of the basal, spherule-bearing subunit by the laminated sandstone subunit, all suggest a combined debris flow/turbidite origin for this elastic unit similar to that proposed for Upper Pleistocene sand/silt beds occurring elsewhere in the Gulf of Mexico. In this latter model, the sediment source region for the elastic unit is the lower continental shelf and slope escarpment. For the K/T unit at Mimbral, we propose that thick ejecta blanket deposits composed mostly of spherules were rapidly loaded onto the lower shelf and slope from an impact

  5. 30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Blasting circuits shall be protected from sources of stray electric current. (b) Detonators made by different manufacturers shall not be combined in the same blasting circuit. (c) Detonator leg wires shall be shunted until connected into the blasting circuit. (d) Blasting cables shall be— (1) Well...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Blasting circuits shall be protected from sources of stray electric current. (b) Detonators made by different manufacturers shall not be combined in the same blasting circuit. (c) Detonator leg wires shall be shunted until connected into the blasting circuit. (d) Blasting cables shall be— (1) Well...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Blasting circuits. 75.1323 Section 75.1323 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1323 Blasting circuits. (a) Blasting circuits shall be protected...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Blasting circuits. 75.1323 Section 75.1323 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1323 Blasting circuits. (a) Blasting circuits shall be protected...

  9. 30 CFR 56.6312 - Secondary blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secondary blasting. 56.6312 Section 56.6312... Secondary blasting. Secondary blasts fired at the same time in the same work area shall be initiated from one source. Electric Blasting...

  10. 30 CFR 56.6803 - Blasting lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting lines. 56.6803 Section 56.6803 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Blasting lines. Permanent blasting lines shall be properly supported. All blasting lines shall be...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.912 - Underwater blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underwater blasting. 1926.912 Section 1926.912 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Blasting and the Use of Explosives § 1926.912 Underwater blasting. (a) A blaster shall conduct all blasting operations, and no shot shall be fired...

  12. 30 CFR 57.6803 - Blasting lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting lines. 57.6803 Section 57.6803 Mineral... and Underground § 57.6803 Blasting lines. Permanent blasting lines shall be properly supported. All blasting lines shall be insulated and kept in good repair. General Requirements—Surface and Underground...

  13. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. M.A. Ebadian

    2000-01-13

    The purpose of the project is to increase the productivity and economics of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCB's and lead-base paint and provides worker and environmental protection by continuously recycling the blast media and the full containment of the dust generated in the process.

  14. Computer assisted blast design and assessment tools

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, A.R.; Kleine, T.H.; Forsyth, W.W.

    1995-12-31

    In general the software required by a blast designer includes tools that graphically present blast designs (surface and underground), can analyze a design or predict its result, and can assess blasting results. As computers develop and computer literacy continues to rise the development of and use of such tools will spread. An example of the tools that are becoming available includes: Automatic blast pattern generation and underground ring design; blast design evaluation in terms of explosive distribution and detonation simulation; fragmentation prediction; blast vibration prediction and minimization; blast monitoring for assessment of dynamic performance; vibration measurement, display and signal processing; evaluation of blast results in terms of fragmentation; and risk and reliability based blast assessment. The authors have identified a set of criteria that are essential in choosing appropriate software blasting tools.

  15. Prompt charmonia production and polarization at LHC in the NRQCD with kT-factorization. II. χc mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, S. P.; Lipatov, A. V.; Zotov, N. P.

    2016-05-01

    In the framework of the kT-factorization approach, the production of prompt ψ (2 S ) mesons in p p collisions at the LHC energies is studied. Our consideration is based on the off-shell amplitudes for hard partonic subprocesses g*g*→χc J and nonrelativistic QCD formalism for bound states. The transverse-momentum-dependent (unintegrated) gluon densities in a proton were derived from the Ciafaloni-Catani-Fiorani-Marchesini evolution equation or, alternatively, were chosen in accordance with the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin prescription. Taking into account both color-singlet and color-octet contributions, we deduce the corresponding nonperturbative long-distance matrix elements from the fits to the latest ATLAS data on χc 1 and χc 2 transverse-momentum distributions at √{s }=7 TeV . We find that these distributions at small and moderate pT are formed mainly by the color-singlet components. We successfully described the data on the relative production rates σ (χc 2)/σ (χc 1) presented by the ATLAS, CMS, and LHCb Collaborations. We find that the fit points to unequal wave functions of χc 1 and χc 2 states.

  16. Performance of the NOνA Data Acquisition and Trigger Systems for the full 14 kT Far Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, A.; Davies, G. S.; Ding, P. F.; Dukes, E. C.; Duyan, H.; Frank, M. J.; R. C. Group; Habig, A.; Henderson, W.; Niner, E.; Mina, R.; Moren, A.; Mualem, L.; Oksuzian, Y.; Rebel, B.; Shanahan, P.; Sheshukov, A.; Tamsett, M.; Tomsen, K.; Vinton, L.; Wang, Z.; Zamorano, B.; Zirnstien, J.

    2015-12-01

    The NOvA experiment uses a continuous, free-running, dead-timeless data acquisition system to collect data from the 14 kT far detector. The DAQ system readouts the more than 344,000 detector channels and assembles the information into an raw unfiltered high bandwidth data stream. The NOvA trigger systems operate in parallel to the readout and asynchronously to the primary DAQ readout/event building chain. The data driven triggering systems for NOvA are unique in that they examine long contiguous time windows of the high resolution readout data and enable the detector to be sensitive to a wide range of physics interactions from those with fast, nanosecond scale signals up to processes with long delayed coincidences between hits which occur at the tens of milliseconds time scale. The trigger system is able to achieve a true 100% live time for the detector, making it sensitive to both beam spill related and off-spill physics.

  17. Impact-induced devolatilization of CaSO4 anhydrite and implications for K-T extinctions: Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyburczy, James A.; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1993-01-01

    The recent suggestions that the target area for the K-T bolide may have been a sulfate-rich evaporite and that the resulting sulfuric acid-rich aerosol was responsible for the subsequent cooling of the Earth and the resulting biological extinctions has prompted us to experimentally examine the impact-induced devolatization of the sulfate minerals anhydrite (CaSO4) and gypsum (CaSO4(2H2O)). Preliminary results for anhydrite are reported. Up to 42 GPa peak shock pressure, little or no devolatilization occurs, consistent with chemical thermodynamic calculations. Calculation of the influence of the partial pressure of the gas species on impact-induced devolatilization suggests that an even greater amount of sulfur than that proposed by Brett could have been released to the atmosphere by an impact into a sulfate-rich layer. Solid recovery, impact-induced devolatilization experiments were performed on the Caltech 20mm gun using vented, stainless steel sample assemblies.

  18. Isotopic signatures of black tektites from the K-T boundary on Haiti - Implications for the age and type of source material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Premo, W. R.; Izett, G. A.

    1992-01-01

    An isotopic study was carried out to characterize the type of black tektites from the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary on Haiti (the first reasonably well-preserved impact-derived material recovered from the K-T boundary), in order to help characterize the tektite source material (i.e., the type of rocks that were melted and ejected during the impact event(s) at around 64.5 Ma). Results show that the isotopic data and all of the element concentration data obtained are consistent with an andesitic-dacitic composition for the tektites and their source material. The Nd isotopic data suggest that the source rocks were not older than Silurian (T(chur) = 400 Ma) in age, and were composed largely of young (less than 1080 Ma) crustal material. Of the suspected K-T boundary impact sites, both the Manson (Iowa) and Chicxulub (Yucatan) structures occur in suitable lithologies to yield the Haitian black tektites.

  19. Isotopic signatures of black tektites from the K-T boundary on Haiti - Implications for the age and type of source material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premo, W. R.; Izett, G. A.

    1992-09-01

    An isotopic study was carried out to characterize the type of black tektites from the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary on Haiti (the first reasonably well-preserved impact-derived material recovered from the K-T boundary), in order to help characterize the tektite source material (i.e., the type of rocks that were melted and ejected during the impact event(s) at around 64.5 Ma). Results show that the isotopic data and all of the element concentration data obtained are consistent with an andesitic-dacitic composition for the tektites and their source material. The Nd isotopic data suggest that the source rocks were not older than Silurian (T(chur) = 400 Ma) in age, and were composed largely of young (less than 1080 Ma) crustal material. Of the suspected K-T boundary impact sites, both the Manson (Iowa) and Chicxulub (Yucatan) structures occur in suitable lithologies to yield the Haitian black tektites.

  20. NCBI BLAST: a better web interface

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Mark; Zaretskaya, Irena; Raytselis, Yan; Merezhuk, Yuri; McGinnis, Scott; Madden, Thomas L.

    2008-01-01

    Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) is a sequence similarity search program. The public interface of BLAST, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/blast, at the NCBI website has recently been reengineered to improve usability and performance. Key new features include simplified search forms, improved navigation, a list of recent BLAST results, saved search strategies and a documentation directory. Here, we describe the BLAST web application's new features, explain design decisions and outline plans for future improvement. PMID:18440982

  1. Measurement of the MACS of {sup 159}Tb(n, γ) at kT=30 keV by Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Praena, J.; Mastinu, P.F.; Pignatari, M.; Quesada, J.M.; Capote, R.; Morilla, Y.

    2014-06-15

    The measurement of the Maxwellian-Averaged Cross-Section (MACS) of the {sup 159}Tb(n, γ) reaction at kT=30 keV by the activation technique is presented. An innovative method for the generation of Maxwellian neutron spectra at kT=30 keV is used. An experimental value of 2166±181 mb agrees well with the MACS value derived from the ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluation, but is higher than KADoNiS recommended value of 1580±150 mb. Astrophysical implications are studied.

  2. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    William S. McPhee

    1999-05-31

    The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint and provides worker protection by continuously recycling the material and dust for the decontamination tasks. The proposed work would increase the cleaning rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites. This work focuses on redesigning and improving existing vacuum blasting technology including blast head nozzles, ergonomic handling of the blast head by reducing its weight; brush-ring design, vacuum level regulator, efficiency of the dust separator, and operational control sensors. The redesign is expected to enhance the productivity and economy of the vacuum blasting system by at least 50% over current vacuum blasting systems. There are three phases in the project. Phase I consists of developing and testing mathematical models. Phase II consists of pre-prototype design and fabrication and pre-prototype unit testing. Phase III consists of prototype design and field verification testing. In phase I, mathematical models are developed and analyzed for the nozzle, blast head, wind curtain, and dust separator, first as individual devices and then combined as an integrated model. This allows study of respective airflow and design parameters. The Contractor shall, based on the results of the mathematical modeling studies, design experimental models of the components and test these models. In addition, the Contractor shall develop sensors to detect the relationship of the blast head to the blast surfaces and controls to minimize the dependency on an operator's skill and judgment to obtain optimum positioning, as well as real-time characterization sensors to determine as the blast head is moving the depth to which coatings must be removed, thereby improving production and minimizing waste. In phase II, the Contractor shall design and

  3. Astrophysical blast wave data

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Nathan; Geissel, Matthias; Lewis, Sean M; Porter, John L.

    2015-03-01

    The data described in this document consist of image files of shadowgraphs of astrophysically relevant laser driven blast waves. Supporting files include Mathematica notebooks containing design calculations, tabulated experimental data and notes, and relevant publications from the open research literature. The data was obtained on the Z-Beamlet laser from July to September 2014. Selected images and calculations will be published as part of a PhD dissertation and in associated publications in the open research literature, with Sandia credited as appropriate. The authors are not aware of any restrictions that could affect the release of the data.

  4. Constrained space camera assembly

    DOEpatents

    Heckendorn, Frank M.; Anderson, Erin K.; Robinson, Casandra W.; Haynes, Harriet B.

    1999-01-01

    A constrained space camera assembly which is intended to be lowered through a hole into a tank, a borehole or another cavity. The assembly includes a generally cylindrical chamber comprising a head and a body and a wiring-carrying conduit extending from the chamber. Means are included in the chamber for rotating the body about the head without breaking an airtight seal formed therebetween. The assembly may be pressurized and accompanied with a pressure sensing means for sensing if a breach has occurred in the assembly. In one embodiment, two cameras, separated from their respective lenses, are installed on a mounting apparatus disposed in the chamber. The mounting apparatus includes means allowing both longitudinal and lateral movement of the cameras. Moving the cameras longitudinally focuses the cameras, and moving the cameras laterally away from one another effectively converges the cameras so that close objects can be viewed. The assembly further includes means for moving lenses of different magnification forward of the cameras.

  5. Biochemical vs. detrital mechanism of remanence acquisition in marine carbonates: A lesson from the K-T boundary interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrajevitch, Alexandra; Kodama, Kazuto

    2009-08-01

    An apparently complete carbonate-rich Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary interval in ODP section 119-738C-20R-5 from the southern Kerguelen Plateau provides a unique insight into processes of magnetization acquisition in marine carbonates. The boundary interval is characterized by a 1-m-thick clay-rich zone. Distinct depositional lamina are preserved within the basal 15 cm of this zone; the upper part is bioturbated. Previous studies have demonstrated that the bulk of the detrital fraction in the laminated and bioturbated carbonates has the same local source, and hence, the two intervals likely had similar initial detrital assemblages. Magnetic properties of these rocks, however, differ significantly. The laminated sediments have a higher content of non-silicate-bound iron, yet approximately an order of magnitude lower intensity of the natural remanent magnetization compared to the bioturbated rocks. Our detailed rock magnetic study indicates that in the bioturbated interval the dominant iron-bearing phase is single-domain magnetite, likely of biogenic origin. In the laminated interval, apart from a small ferromagnetic fraction with multi-domain-like behavior, non-silicate-bound iron is mainly sequestered in paramagnetic phases, likely poorly-crystalline oxyhydroxides. It appears that a shut-down of biological productivity after the K-T event allowed preservation of the initial detrital/early authigenic iron phases that are dominated by reactive iron oxyhydroxides. With recovery of the normal biological activity as evidenced by resumption of bioturbation, the oxyhydroxides had been replaced with biogenic magnetite. Thus produced biochemical magnetization led to a several-fold increase in the remanence. Our results suggest that in areas where bioavailable iron constitutes a significant part of the detrital input, such as in pelagic marine environments distant from clastic sources, the biochemical remanent magnetization may be the dominant process of magnetization

  6. Centrifugal shot blast system

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    This report describes a demonstration of Concrete cleaning, Inc., modified centrifugal shot blast technology to remove the paint coating from concrete flooring. This demonstration is part of the Chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), office of Science and Technology (OST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) CP-5 Research Reactor. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that using innovative and improved decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources can result in significant benefits, such as decreased cost and increased health and safety, as compared with baseline D and D technologies. Potential markets exist for the innovative centrifugal shot blast system at the following sites: Fernald Environmental Management Project, Los Alamos, Nevada, Oak Ridge Y-12 and K-25, Paducah, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion site, and the Savannah River Site. This information is based on a revision to the OST Linkage Tables dated August 4, 1997.

  7. Portable convertible blast effects shield

    DOEpatents

    Pastrnak, John W.; Hollaway, Rocky; Henning, Carl D.; Deteresa, Steve; Grundler, Walter; Hagler, Lisle B.; Kokko, Edwin; Switzer, Vernon A

    2007-05-22

    A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

  8. Portable convertible blast effects shield

    DOEpatents

    Pastrnak, John W.; Hollaway, Rocky; Henning, Carl D.; Deteresa, Steve; Grundler, Walter; Hagler, Lisle B.; Kokko, Edwin; Switzer, Vernon A.

    2011-03-15

    A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more frusto-conically-tapered telescoping rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration by the friction fit of adjacent pairs of frusto-conically-tapered rings to each other.

  9. Portable convertible blast effects shield

    DOEpatents

    Pastrnak, John W.; Hollaway, Rocky; Henning, Carl D.; Deteresa, Steve; Grundler, Walter; Hagler,; Lisle B.; Kokko, Edwin; Switzer, Vernon A

    2010-10-26

    A rapidly deployable portable convertible blast effects shield/ballistic shield includes a set two or more telescoping cylindrical rings operably connected to each other to convert between a telescopically-collapsed configuration for storage and transport, and a telescopically-extended upright configuration forming an expanded inner volume. In a first embodiment, the upright configuration provides blast effects shielding, such as against blast pressures, shrapnel, and/or fire balls. And in a second embodiment, the upright configuration provides ballistic shielding, such as against incoming weapons fire, shrapnel, etc. Each ring has a high-strength material construction, such as a composite fiber and matrix material, capable of substantially inhibiting blast effects and impinging projectiles from passing through the shield. And the set of rings are releasably securable to each other in the telescopically-extended upright configuration, such as by click locks.

  10. Constrained space camera assembly

    DOEpatents

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Anderson, E.K.; Robinson, C.W.; Haynes, H.B.

    1999-05-11

    A constrained space camera assembly which is intended to be lowered through a hole into a tank, a borehole or another cavity is disclosed. The assembly includes a generally cylindrical chamber comprising a head and a body and a wiring-carrying conduit extending from the chamber. Means are included in the chamber for rotating the body about the head without breaking an airtight seal formed therebetween. The assembly may be pressurized and accompanied with a pressure sensing means for sensing if a breach has occurred in the assembly. In one embodiment, two cameras, separated from their respective lenses, are installed on a mounting apparatus disposed in the chamber. The mounting apparatus includes means allowing both longitudinal and lateral movement of the cameras. Moving the cameras longitudinally focuses the cameras, and moving the cameras laterally away from one another effectively converges the cameras so that close objects can be viewed. The assembly further includes means for moving lenses of different magnification forward of the cameras. 17 figs.

  11. Power-constrained supercomputing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Peter E.

    As we approach exascale systems, power is turning from an optimization goal to a critical operating constraint. With power bounds imposed by both stakeholders and the limitations of existing infrastructure, achieving practical exascale computing will therefore rely on optimizing performance subject to a power constraint. However, this requirement should not add to the burden of application developers; optimizing the runtime environment given restricted power will primarily be the job of high-performance system software. In this dissertation, we explore this area and develop new techniques that extract maximum performance subject to a particular power constraint. These techniques include a method to find theoretical optimal performance, a runtime system that shifts power in real time to improve performance, and a node-level prediction model for selecting power-efficient operating points. We use a linear programming (LP) formulation to optimize application schedules under various power constraints, where a schedule consists of a DVFS state and number of OpenMP threads for each section of computation between consecutive message passing events. We also provide a more flexible mixed integer-linear (ILP) formulation and show that the resulting schedules closely match schedules from the LP formulation. Across four applications, we use our LP-derived upper bounds to show that current approaches trail optimal, power-constrained performance by up to 41%. This demonstrates limitations of current systems, and our LP formulation provides future optimization approaches with a quantitative optimization target. We also introduce Conductor, a run-time system that intelligently distributes available power to nodes and cores to improve performance. The key techniques used are configuration space exploration and adaptive power balancing. Configuration exploration dynamically selects the optimal thread concurrency level and DVFS state subject to a hardware-enforced power bound

  12. Constraining Dark Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahamse, Augusta

    2010-12-01

    Future advances in cosmology will depend on the next generation of cosmological observations and how they shape our theoretical understanding of the universe. Current theoretical ideas, however, have an important role to play in guiding the design of such observational programs. The work presented in this thesis concerns the intersection of observation and theory, particularly as it relates to advancing our understanding of the accelerated expansion of the universe (or the dark energy). Chapters 2 - 4 make use of the simulated data sets developed by the Dark Energy Task Force (DETF) for a number of cosmological observations currently in the experimental pipeline. We use these forecast data in the analysis of four quintessence models of dark energy: the PNGB, Exponential, Albrecht-Skordis and Inverse Power Law (IPL) models. Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling techniques we examine the ability of each simulated data set to constrain the parameter space of these models. We examine the potential of the data for differentiating time-varying models from a pure cosmological constant. Additionally, we introduce an abstract parameter space to facilitate comparison between models and investigate the ability of future data to distinguish between these quintessence models. In Chapter 5 we present work towards understanding the effects of systematic errors associated with photometric redshift estimates. Due to the need to sample a vast number of deep and faint galaxies, photometric redshifts will be used in a wide range of future cosmological observations including gravitational weak lensing, baryon accoustic oscillations and type 1A supernovae observations. The uncertainty in the redshift distributions of galaxies has a significant potential impact on the cosmological parameter values inferred from such observations. We introduce a method for parameterizing uncertainties in modeling assumptions affecting photometric redshift calculations and for propagating these

  13. Constrained Vapor Bubble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, J.; Karthikeyan, M.; Plawsky, J.; Wayner, P. C., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The nonisothermal Constrained Vapor Bubble, CVB, is being studied to enhance the understanding of passive systems controlled by interfacial phenomena. The study is multifaceted: 1) it is a basic scientific study in interfacial phenomena, fluid physics and thermodynamics; 2) it is a basic study in thermal transport; and 3) it is a study of a heat exchanger. The research is synergistic in that CVB research requires a microgravity environment and the space program needs thermal control systems like the CVB. Ground based studies are being done as a precursor to flight experiment. The results demonstrate that experimental techniques for the direct measurement of the fundamental operating parameters (temperature, pressure, and interfacial curvature fields) have been developed. Fluid flow and change-of-phase heat transfer are a function of the temperature field and the vapor bubble shape, which can be measured using an Image Analyzing Interferometer. The CVB for a microgravity environment, has various thin film regions that are of both basic and applied interest. Generically, a CVB is formed by underfilling an evacuated enclosure with a liquid. Classification depends on shape and Bond number. The specific CVB discussed herein was formed in a fused silica cell with inside dimensions of 3x3x40 mm and, therefore, can be viewed as a large version of a micro heat pipe. Since the dimensions are relatively large for a passive system, most of the liquid flow occurs under a small capillary pressure difference. Therefore, we can classify the discussed system as a low capillary pressure system. The studies discussed herein were done in a 1-g environment (Bond Number = 3.6) to obtain experience to design a microgravity experiment for a future NASA flight where low capillary pressure systems should prove more useful. The flight experiment is tentatively scheduled for the year 2000. The SCR was passed on September 16, 1997. The RDR is tentatively scheduled for October, 1998.

  14. Environmental effects of blast induced immissions

    SciTech Connect

    Schillinger, R.R.

    1996-12-01

    The subject of the paper is blasting vibrations as sources of environmental molestations including acceptance level, complaint level and damage level, as well. In addition, the paper shows a comparison of international regulations and their problematical aspects. In consideration of blast induced immissions the subject shows that human annoyance has become an important place in blasting works. It provides a solution proposal how to minimize environmental effects of blasting works.

  15. Membrane characteristics for biological blast overpressure testing using blast simulators.

    PubMed

    Alphonse, Vanessa D; Siva Sai Sujith Sajja, Venkata; Kemper, Andrew R; Rizel, Dave V; Duma, Stefan M; VandeVord, Pamela J

    2014-01-01

    Blast simulators often use passive-rupture membranes to generate shock waves similar to free-field blasts. The purpose of this study was to compare rupture patterns and pressure traces of three distinct membrane materials for biological and biomechanical blast studies. An Advanced Blast Simulator (ABS) located at the Center for Injury Biomechanics at Virginia Tech was used to test membrane characteristics. Acetate, Mylar, and aluminum sheets with different thicknesses were used to obtain pressures between 70–210 kPa. Static pressure was measured inside the tube at the test section using piezoelectric pressure sensors. Peak overpressure, positive duration, and positive impulse were calculated for each test. Rupture patterns and characteristic pressure traces were unique to each membrane type and thickness. Shock wave speed ranged between 1.2-1.8 Mach for static overpressures of 70–210 kPa. Acetate membranes fragmented sending pieces down the tube, but produced ideal (Friedlander) pressure traces. Mylar membranes bulged without fragmenting, but produced less-than-ideal pressure traces. Aluminum membranes did not fragment and produced ideal pressure traces. However, the cost of manufacturing and characterizing aluminum membranes should be considered during membrane selection. This study illustrates the advantages and disadvantages of using Mylar, acetate, and aluminum for passive rupture membranes for blast simulators. PMID:25405432

  16. Repeated Mine Blasts Recorded on a Dense Broadband Array, Ruby Mountains, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheevel, C.; Litherland, M.; Klemperer, S. L.

    2012-12-01

    The Ruby Mountains Core Complex (RMCC) in the Basin-and-Range region of northeastern Nevada has been well studied, but as of yet no consensus has been reached about its deep structure. To address this, we deployed the Ruby Mountains Seismic Experiment, a 50-station broadband array that operated from June 2010 to June 2012 as part of Earthcope's Flexible Array. In addition to teleseismic events, the array recorded daily mine blasts at several sites near the RMCC. The waveforms studied here come principally from two separate gold mines located in the Carlin Trend, c. 100 km west of the Ruby Mountains. Both mines are roughly in line with a WNW-ESE, 18-station line of seismometers that crosses the southern part of the Ruby Mountains, one of our three lines of recorders across the RMCC. We treat these blasts as if they were active sources and search for directly arriving P and S phases, as well as reflected arrivals, to better constrain the structure beneath the RMCC. The major difficulty for all attempts to utilize mine blasts as seismic sources is that mine blasts are "ripple-fired": the many tens of shot-holes detonated during a single blast are fired with planned delays over hundreds of milliseconds, since the blasts are designed to move rock, not produce a compact seismic source. This blast signal is long and not known to us. To mitigate this problem, we stack multiple blasts from close to the same site (successive blasts on subsequent days are fired close by, but not at identical locations) that occurred on different days, with the hope that the onset of the blast will stack constructively between blasts, but the later part of the source signatures will interfere destructively. The first arrivals of the stacked traces exhibit a larger signal-to-noise ratio than any single, particularly good trace at a majority of the stations, by a typical ratio of 2.5-3.5. The S-wave arrival is also more clearly visible on the stacked trace; its first clear appearance is about

  17. Simulation of Blast Waves with Headwind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Michael E.; Lawrence, Scott W.; Klopfer, Goetz H.; Mathias, Dovan; Onufer, Jeff T.

    2005-01-01

    The blast wave resulting from an explosion was simulated to provide guidance for models estimating risks for human spacecraft flight. Simulations included effects of headwind on blast propagation, Blasts were modelled as an initial value problem with a uniform high energy sphere expanding into an ambient field. Both still air and cases with headwind were calculated.

  18. 29 CFR 1926.912 - Underwater blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Underwater blasting. 1926.912 Section 1926.912 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Blasting and the Use of Explosives § 1926.912 Underwater blasting. (a) A blaster...

  19. 30 CFR 57.6312 - Secondary blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secondary blasting. 57.6312 Section 57.6312... Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6312 Secondary blasting. Secondary blasts fired at the same time in the same work area shall be initiated from one source. Electric Blasting—Surface and Underground...

  20. Sub-kT/q Subthreshold-Slope Using Negative Capacitance in Low-Temperature Polycrystalline-Silicon Thin-Film Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae Hyo; Jang, Gil Su; Kim, Hyung Yoon; Seok, Ki Hwan; Chae, Hee Jae; Lee, Sol Kyu; Joo, Seung Ki

    2016-04-01

    Realizing a low-temperature polycrystalline-silicon (LTPS) thin-film transistor (TFT) with sub-kT/q subthreshold slope (SS) is significantly important to the development of next generation active-matrix organic-light emitting diode displays. This is the first time a sub-kT/q SS (31.44 mV/dec) incorporated with a LTPS-TFT with polycrystalline-Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT)/ZrTiO4 (ZTO) gate dielectrics has been demonstrated. The sub-kT/q SS was observed in the weak inversion region at ‑0.5 V showing ultra-low operating voltage with the highest mobility (250.5 cm2/Vsec) reported so far. In addition, the reliability of DC negative bias stress, hot carrier stress and self-heating stress in LTPS-TFT with negative capacitance was investigated for the first time. It was found that the self-heating stress showed accelerated SS degradation due to the PZT Curie temperature.

  1. Sub-kT/q Subthreshold-Slope Using Negative Capacitance in Low-Temperature Polycrystalline-Silicon Thin-Film Transistor

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae Hyo; Jang, Gil Su; Kim, Hyung Yoon; Seok, Ki Hwan; Chae, Hee Jae; Lee, Sol Kyu; Joo, Seung Ki

    2016-01-01

    Realizing a low-temperature polycrystalline-silicon (LTPS) thin-film transistor (TFT) with sub-kT/q subthreshold slope (SS) is significantly important to the development of next generation active-matrix organic-light emitting diode displays. This is the first time a sub-kT/q SS (31.44 mV/dec) incorporated with a LTPS-TFT with polycrystalline-Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT)/ZrTiO4 (ZTO) gate dielectrics has been demonstrated. The sub-kT/q SS was observed in the weak inversion region at −0.5 V showing ultra-low operating voltage with the highest mobility (250.5 cm2/Vsec) reported so far. In addition, the reliability of DC negative bias stress, hot carrier stress and self-heating stress in LTPS-TFT with negative capacitance was investigated for the first time. It was found that the self-heating stress showed accelerated SS degradation due to the PZT Curie temperature. PMID:27098115

  2. Optimization of Resin Infusion Processing for Composite Pipe Key-Part and K/T Type Joints Using Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Changchun; Bai, Guanghui; Yue, Guangquan; Wang, Zhuxi; Li, Jin; Zhang, Boming

    2016-05-01

    In present study, the optimization injection processes for manufacturing the composite pipe key-part and K/T type joints in vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) were determined by estimating the filling time and flow front shape of four kinds of injection methods. Validity of the determined process was proved with the results of a scaling-down composite pipe key-part containing of the carbon fiber four axial fabrics and a steel core with a complex surface. In addition, an expanded-size composite pipe part was also produced to further estimate the effective of the determined injection process. Moreover, the resin injection method for producing the K/T type joints via VARTM was also optimized with the simulation method, and then manufactured on a special integrated mould by the determined injection process. The flow front pattern and filling time of the experiments show good agreement with that from simulation. Cross-section images of the cured composite pipe and K/T type joints parts prove the validity of the optimized injection process, which verify the efficiency of simulation method in obtaining a suitable injection process of VARTM.

  3. Sub-kT/q Subthreshold-Slope Using Negative Capacitance in Low-Temperature Polycrystalline-Silicon Thin-Film Transistor.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Hyo; Jang, Gil Su; Kim, Hyung Yoon; Seok, Ki Hwan; Chae, Hee Jae; Lee, Sol Kyu; Joo, Seung Ki

    2016-01-01

    Realizing a low-temperature polycrystalline-silicon (LTPS) thin-film transistor (TFT) with sub-kT/q subthreshold slope (SS) is significantly important to the development of next generation active-matrix organic-light emitting diode displays. This is the first time a sub-kT/q SS (31.44 mV/dec) incorporated with a LTPS-TFT with polycrystalline-Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT)/ZrTiO4 (ZTO) gate dielectrics has been demonstrated. The sub-kT/q SS was observed in the weak inversion region at -0.5 V showing ultra-low operating voltage with the highest mobility (250.5 cm(2)/Vsec) reported so far. In addition, the reliability of DC negative bias stress, hot carrier stress and self-heating stress in LTPS-TFT with negative capacitance was investigated for the first time. It was found that the self-heating stress showed accelerated SS degradation due to the PZT Curie temperature. PMID:27098115

  4. Blast wave parameters at diminished ambient pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silnikov, M. V.; Chernyshov, M. V.; Mikhaylin, A. I.

    2015-04-01

    Relation between blast wave parameters resulted from a condensed high explosive (HE) charge detonation and a surrounding gas (air) pressure has been studied. Blast wave pressure and impulse differences at compression and rarefaction phases, which traditionally determine damage explosive effect, has been analyzed. An initial pressure effect on a post-explosion quasi-static component of the blast load has been investigated. The analysis is based on empirical relations between blast parameters and non-dimensional similarity criteria. The results can be directly applied to flying vehicle (aircraft or spacecraft) blast safety analysis.

  5. Management of primary blast injury.

    PubMed

    Argyros, G J

    1997-07-25

    Blast waves are produced following the detonation of munitions, the firing of large caliber guns, or from any type of explosion. These blast waves can be powerful enough to injure the individuals exposed to them. This type of injury is called primary blast injury (PBI) and the organs most vulnerable to PBI are the gas-filled organs, namely the ear, the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract. The approach to the casualty with PBI is the same as it would be for any trauma victim, i.e. the initiation of life support measures. Attention should be directed to the common life-threatening manifestation of thoracic and abdominal PBI. Pulmonary manifestations would include hemorrhage, barotrauma and arterial air embolism, while abdominal manifestations would include hemorrhage and hollow organ rupture. Therapy is directed at the specific manifestations as well as avoiding additional iatrogenic injury. PMID:9217319

  6. Mask materials for powder blasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wensink, Henk; Jansen, Henri V.; Berenschot, J. W.; Elwenspoek, Miko C.

    2000-06-01

    Powder blasting, or abrasive jet machining (AJM), is a technique in which a particle jet is directed towards a target for mechanical material removal. It is a fast, cheap and accurate directional etch technique for brittle materials such as glass, silicon and ceramics. The particle jet (which expands to about 1 cm in diameter) can be optimized for etching, while the mask defines the small and complex structures. The quality of the mask influences the performance of powder blasting. In this study we tested and compared several mask types and added a new one: electroplated copper. The latter combines a highly resistant mask material for powder blasting with the high-resolution capabilities of lithography, which makes it possible to obtain an accurate pattern transfer and small feature sizes (<50 µm).

  7. Blasting, graphical interfaces and Unix

    SciTech Connect

    Knudsen, S.

    1993-11-01

    A discrete element computer program, DMC (Distinct Motion Code) was developed to simulate blast-induced rock motion. To simplify the complex task of entering material and explosive design parameters as well as bench configuration, a full-featured graphical interface has been developed. DMC is currently executed on both Sun SPARCstation 2 and Sun SPARCstation 10 platforms and routinely used to model bench and crater blasting problems. This paper will document the design and development of the full-featured interface to DMC. The development of the interface will be tracked through the various stages, highlighting the adjustments made to allow the necessary parameters to be entered in terms and units that field blasters understand. The paper also discusses a novel way of entering non-integer numbers and the techniques necessary to display blasting parameters in an understandable visual manner. A video presentation will demonstrate the graphics interface and explains its use.

  8. Blasting, graphical interfaces and Unix

    SciTech Connect

    Knudsen, S.

    1994-12-31

    A discrete element computer program, DMC (Distinct Motion Code) was developed to simulate blast-induced rock motion. To simplify the complex task of entering material and explosive design parameters as well as bench configuration, a full-featured graphical interface has been developed. DMC is currently executed on both Sun SPARCstation 2 and Sun SPARCstation 10 platforms and routinely used to model bench and crater blasting problems. This paper will document the design and development of the full-featured interface to DMC. The development of the interface will be tracked through the various stages, highlighting the adjustments made to allow the necessary parameters to be entered in terms and units that field blasters understand. The paper also discusses a novel way of entering non-integer numbers and the techniques necessary to display blasting parameters in an understandable visual manner. A video presentation will demonstrate the graphics interface and explains its use.

  9. Blast optimization for improved dragline productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, M.; Baldwin, G.

    1994-12-31

    A project aimed at blast optimization for large open pit coal mines is utilizing blast monitoring and analysis techniques, advanced dragline monitoring equipment, and blast simulation software, to assess the major controlling factors affecting both blast performance and subsequent dragline productivity. This has involved collaborative work between the explosives supplier, mine operator, monitoring equipment manufacturer, and a mining research organization. The results from trial blasts and subsequently monitored dragline production have yielded promising results and continuing studies are being conducted as part of a blast optimization program. It should be stressed that the optimization of blasting practices for improved dragline productivity is a site specific task, achieved through controlled and closely monitored procedures. The benefits achieved at one location can not be simply transferred to another minesite unless similar improvement strategies are first implemented.

  10. 30 CFR 75.1326 - Examination after blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Examination after blasting. 75.1326 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1326 Examination after blasting. (a) After blasting, the blasting area shall not be entered until it is clear of...

  11. Gun muzzle blast and flash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingenberg, Guenter; Heimerl, Joseph M.

    A repository of fundamental experimental and analytical data concerning the complex phenomena associated with gun-muzzle blast and flash effects is presented, proceeding from gun muzzle signatures to modern gun-propulsion concepts, interior and transitional ballistics, and characterizations of blast-wave research and muzzle flash. Data are presented in support of a novel hypothesis which explains the ignition of secondary flash and elucidates the means for its suppression. Both chemical and mechanical (often competing) methods of flash suppression are treated. The historical work of Kesslau and Ladenburg is noted, together with French, British, Japanese and American research efforts and current techniques of experimental characterization for gun muzzle phenomena.

  12. Blast waves in rotating media.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossner, L. F.

    1972-01-01

    The model investigated involves a cylindrically symmetric blast wave generated by an infinitely long line explosion in a cold and homogeneous gas rotating rigidly in its self-gravitational field. It is found that within the context of rotation in a gravitational field a blast wave will not adopt the one-zone form familiar from similarity solutions but, rather, a two-zone form. The inner compression zone arises as a response to the presence of the restoring force, which drives a rarefaction wave into the outer compression zone.

  13. Numerical study of rock blasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanov, Yu. P.; Bakeev, R. A.; Yudin, A. S.; Kuznetsova, N. S.

    2015-10-01

    The paper presents numerical simulation results on fracture of a concrete block due to dynamic explosive loads applied to the walls of a blast hole. Considered in the study is the influence of the pulse shape and rock properties on the pattern of irreversible deformation and cracking. It is found that a fractured zone bounded by a plastically deformed contour always arises around the explosion site. Comparison of elastoplastic deformation and fracture induced in the concrete block by explosion pulses of different durations and amplitudes shows that shorter pulses with higher amplitudes and steeper rise times provide a higher blasting efficiency.

  14. Porcine Head Response to Blast

    PubMed Central

    Shridharani, Jay K.; Wood, Garrett W.; Panzer, Matthew B.; Capehart, Bruce P.; Nyein, Michelle K.; Radovitzky, Raul A.; Bass, Cameron R. ‘Dale’

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposes porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110 to 740 kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3 to 6.9 ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. Instrumentation was placed on the porcine head to measure bulk acceleration, pressure at the surface of the head, and pressure inside the cranial cavity. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within 30 s and the remaining two recovered within 8 min following respiratory assistance and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80 to 390 kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300–2830 kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385 to 3845 G’s and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R2 = 0.90). One SD corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure (ICP), and head acceleration are

  15. Blast vulnerability detected in novel blast-resistant germplasm.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research in artificially inoculated greenhouse tests and field nurseries identified new rice germplasm accession as being resistant to the common blast (Pyricularia grisea) races found in Arkansas (IB-1, IB-49, IC-17, IE-1, IE-1k, IG-1, and IH-1) and eliminated those accessions with major b...

  16. The Next Generation BLAST Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galitzki, Nicholas; Ade, Peter A. R.; Angilè, Francesco E.; Ashton, Peter; Beall, James A.; Becker, Dan; Bradford, Kristi J.; Che, George; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Devlin, Mark J.; Dober, Bradley J.; Fissel, Laura M.; Fukui, Yasuo; Gao, Jiansong; Groppi, Christopher E.; Hillbrand, Seth; Hilton, Gene C.; Hubmayr, Johannes; Irwin, Kent D.; Klein, Jeffrey; van Lanen, Jeff; Li, Dale; Li, Zhi-Yun; Lourie, Nathan P.; Mani, Hamdi; Martin, Peter G.; Mauskopf, Philip; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Novak, Giles; Pappas, David P.; Pascale, Enzo; Pisano, Giampaolo; Santos, Fabio P.; Savini, Giorgio; Scott, Douglas; Stanchfield, Sara; Tucker, Carole; Ullom, Joel N.; Underhill, Matthew; Vissers, Michael R.; Ward-Thompson, Derek

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) was a suborbital experiment designed to map magnetic fields in order to study their role in star formation processes. BLASTPol made detailed polarization maps of a number of molecular clouds during its successful flights from Antarctica in 2010 and 2012. We present the next-generation BLASTPol instrument (BLAST-TNG) that will build off the success of the previous experiment and continue its role as a unique instrument and a test bed for new technologies. With a 16-fold increase in mapping speed, BLAST-TNG will make larger and deeper maps. Major improvements include a 2.5-m carbon fiber mirror that is 40% wider than the BLASTPol mirror and 3000 polarization sensitive detectors. BLAST-TNG will observe in three bands at 250, 350, and 500 μm. The telescope will serve as a pathfinder project for microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) technology, as applied to feedhorn-coupled submillimeter detector arrays. The liquid helium cooled cryostat will have a 28-day hold time and will utilize a closed-cycle 3He refrigerator to cool the detector arrays to 270 mK. This will enable a detailed mapping of more targets with higher polarization resolution than any other submillimeter experiment to date. BLAST-TNG will also be the first balloon-borne telescope to offer shared risk observing time to the community. This paper outlines the motivation for the project and the instrumental design.

  17. Rice blast disease in Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice is an important agricultural commodity in Texas, with an economic impact of more than $1 billion annually. Rice blast, caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, is one of the most devastating diseases in rice. Texas Rice Belt provides a warm, humid climate favorable for the infection and reproduction of M....

  18. 30 CFR 56.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and blasting lines shall be... sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be protected from any contact...

  19. 30 CFR 56.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and blasting lines shall be... sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be protected from any contact...

  20. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, CAST HOUSE OF BLAST FURNACE NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, CAST HOUSE OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 1 AND BLAST FURNACE NO. 2. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  1. Looking southwest at blast furnaces no. 5 and no. 6 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking southwest at blast furnaces no. 5 and no. 6 with blast furnace trestle and Gondola Railroad cars in foreground. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  2. Looking southeast at blast furnaces no. 5 and no. 6 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking southeast at blast furnaces no. 5 and no. 6 with blast furnace trestle and Gondola Railroad cars in foreground. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  3. 30 CFR 56.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and blasting lines shall be... sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be protected from any contact...

  4. 30 CFR 56.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and blasting lines shall be... sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be protected from any contact...

  5. GENERAL VIEW OF TURBOBLOWER BUILDING (LEFT), BLAST FURNACE (CENTER), AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF TURBO-BLOWER BUILDING (LEFT), BLAST FURNACE (CENTER), AND HOT BLAST STOVES (RIGHT). - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Haselton Blast Furnaces, West of Center Street Viaduct, along Mahoning River, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  6. 30 CFR 57.20031 - Blasting underground in hazardous areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting underground in hazardous areas. 57... MINES Miscellaneous § 57.20031 Blasting underground in hazardous areas. In underground areas where... removed to safe places before blasting....

  7. A regional perspective on the palynofloral response to K-T boundary event(s) with emphasis on variations imposed by the effects of sedimentary facies and latitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweet, A. R.

    1988-01-01

    Palynological studies deal with fossil reproductive bodies that were produced by fully functioning plants, whereas most faunal studies are based on death assemblages. Therefore, changes in pollen and spore assemblages cannot be used directly as evidence of catastrophic mass killings but only to indicate changes in ecological conditions. The impact of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary event on terrestrial plant communities is illustrated by the degree, rate and selectivity of change. As in most classical palynological studies, the degree of change is expressed in terms of relative abundance and changes in species diversity. It is recognized that sampling interval and continuity of the rock record within individual sections can affect the percieved rate of change. Even taking these factors into account, a gradual change in relative abundance and multiple levels of apparent extinctions, associated with the interval bounding the K-T boundary, can be demonstrated. Climatic change, which locally exceeds the tolerance of individual species, and the possible loss of a group of pollinating agents are examined as possible explanations for the selectivity of apparent extinctions and/or locally truncated occurrences. The aspects of change are demonstrated with data from four different K-T boundary localities in Western Canada between paleolatitudes 60 and 75 deg north. Together, the four localities discussed allow changes imposed by latitude and differences in the depositional environment be isolated from the boundary event itself which is reflected by the truncated ranges of several species throughout the region of study. What must be recognized is that variations in the response of vegetation to the K-T boundary event(s) occurred throughout the Western Interior basin.

  8. Fingerprinting the K/T impact site and determining the time of impact by UPb dating of single shocked zircons from distal ejecta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krogh, T.E.; Kamo, S.L.; Bohor, B.F.

    1993-01-01

    UPb isotopic dating of single 1-3 ??g zircons from K/T distal ejecta from a site in the Raton Basin, Colorado provides a powerful new tool with which to determine both the time of the impact event and the age of the basement at the impact site. Data for the least shocked zircons are slightly displaced from the 544 ?? 5 Ma primary age for a component of the target site, white those for highly shocked and granular grains are strongly displaced towards the time of impact at 65.5 ?? 3.0 Ma. Such shocked and granular zircons have never been reported from any source, including explosive volcanic rocks. Zircon is refractory and has one of the highest thermal blocking temperatures; hence, it can record both shock features and primary and secondary ages without modification by post-crystallization processes. Unlike shocked quartz, which can come from almost anywhere on the Earth's crust, shocked zircons can be shown to come from a specific site because basement ages vary on the scale of meters to kilometers. With UPb zircon dating, it is now possible to correlate ejecta layers derived from the same target site, test the single versus multiple impact hypothesis, and identify the target source of impact ejecta. The ages obtained in this study indicate that the Manson impact site, Iowa, which has basement rocks that are mid-Proterozoic in age, cannot be the source of K/T distal ejecta. The K/T distal ejecta probably originated from a single impact site because most grains have the same primary age. ?? 1993.

  9. Fingerprinting the K/T impact site and determining the time of impact by U-Pb dating of single shocked zircons from distal ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krogh, T. E.; Kamo, S. L.; Bohor, B. F.

    1993-09-01

    U-Pb isotopic dating of single 1 - 3 micrograms zircons from K/T distal ejecta from a site in the Raton Basin, Colorado provides a powerful new tool with which to determine both the time of the impact event and the age of the basement at the impact site. Data for the least shocked zircons are slightly displaced from the 544 +/- 5 Ma primary age for a component of the target site, while those for highly shocked and granular grains are strongly displaced towards the time of impact at 65.5 +/- 3.0 Ma. Such shocked and granular zircons have never been reported from any source, including explosive volcanic rocks. Zircon is refractory and has one of the highest thermal blocking temperatures; hence, it can record both shock features and primary and secondary ages without modification by post-crystallization processes. Unlike shocked quartz, which can come from almost anywhere on the Earth's crust, shocked zircons can be shown to come from a specific site because basement ages vary on the scale of meters to kilometers. With U-Pb zircon dating, it is now possible to correlate ejecta layers derived from the same target site, test the single versus multiple impact hypothesis, and identify the target source of impact ejecta. The ages obtained in this study indicate that the Manson impact site, Iowa, which has basement rocks that are mid-Proterozoic in age, cannot be the source of K/T distal ejecta. The K/T distal ejecta probably originated from a single impact site because most grains have the same primary age.

  10. Fingerprinting the K/T impact site and determining the time of impact by U-Pb dating of single shocked zircons from distal ejecta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krogh, T. E.; Kamo, S. L.; Bohor, B. F.

    1993-01-01

    U-Pb isotopic dating of single 1 - 3 micrograms zircons from K/T distal ejecta from a site in the Raton Basin, Colorado provides a powerful new tool with which to determine both the time of the impact event and the age of the basement at the impact site. Data for the least shocked zircons are slightly displaced from the 544 +/- 5 Ma primary age for a component of the target site, while those for highly shocked and granular grains are strongly displaced towards the time of impact at 65.5 +/- 3.0 Ma. Such shocked and granular zircons have never been reported from any source, including explosive volcanic rocks. Zircon is refractory and has one of the highest thermal blocking temperatures; hence, it can record both shock features and primary and secondary ages without modification by post-crystallization processes. Unlike shocked quartz, which can come from almost anywhere on the Earth's crust, shocked zircons can be shown to come from a specific site because basement ages vary on the scale of meters to kilometers. With U-Pb zircon dating, it is now possible to correlate ejecta layers derived from the same target site, test the single versus multiple impact hypothesis, and identify the target source of impact ejecta. The ages obtained in this study indicate that the Manson impact site, Iowa, which has basement rocks that are mid-Proterozoic in age, cannot be the source of K/T distal ejecta. The K/T distal ejecta probably originated from a single impact site because most grains have the same primary age.

  11. Late Paleocene to Early Eocene marine vertebrates from the Uppermost Aruma Formation (northern Saudi Arabia): implications for the K-T transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Herbert; Roger, Jack; Halawani, Mohammed; Memesh, Abdallah; Lebret, Patrick; Bourdillon, Chantal; Buffetaut, Eric; Cappetta, Henri; Cavelier, Claude; Dutheil, Didier; Tonge, Haiyan; Vaslet, Denis

    1999-12-01

    A new assemblage of marine vertebrates from northern Saudi Arabia, east of the Nafud, leads us to reconsider the age of the top unit of the Aruma Formation, the Lina Member, hitherto referred to the Maastrichtian. This assemblage contains the remains of a dozen selachian and actinopterygian fishes, as well as those of a giant sea turtle representing a new dermochelyid taxon. It suggests a Late Paleocene to Early Eocene age for this unit. This new dating and a revision of the stratigraphic position of the Lina Member demonstrate the existence, on a regional scale, of an important hiatus at the K-T boundary.

  12. Rapidity and kT dependence of HBT correlations in Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV with PHOBOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzman, Burt; PHOBOS Collaboration; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holynski, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wyslouch, B.

    2004-08-01

    Two-particle correlations of identical charged pion pairs from Au+Au collisions at \\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}} = 200 GeV were measured by the PHOBOS experiment at RHIC. Data for the most central (0 15%) events were analysed with Bertsch Pratt (BP) and Yano Koonin Podgoretskii (YKP) parametrizations using pairs with rapidities of 0.4 < y < 1.3 and transverse momenta 0.1 < kT < 1.4 GeV/c. The Bertsch Pratt radii decrease as a function of pair transverse momentum. The pair rapidity Ypgrpgr roughly scales with the source rapidity YYKP, indicating strong dynamical correlations.

  13. Primary and secondary skeletal blast trauma.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Angi M; Smith, Victoria A; Ramos, Vanessa; Shegogue, Candie; Whitworth, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This study examines primary (resulting from blast wave) and secondary (resulting from disintegrated, penetrating fragments) blast trauma to the skeleton. Eleven pigs were exposed to semi-controlled blast events of varying explosive type, charge size, and distance, including some cases with shrapnel. Skeletal trauma was found to be extensive, presenting as complex, comminuted fractures with numerous small, displaced bone splinters and fragments. Traumatic amputation of the limbs and cranium was also observed. Fractures were concentrated in areas nearer the blast, but there was generally no identifiable point of impact. Fractures were more random in appearance and widespread than those typically associated with gunshot or blunt force injury events. These patterns appear to be uniquely associated with blast trauma and may therefore assist forensic anthropologists and other forensic examiners in the interpretation of skeletal trauma by enabling them to differentiate between blast trauma and trauma resulting from some other cause. PMID:21981586

  14. The generation of tens kT magnetic fields by transport instability of laser generated electrons in a near critical preformed plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toncian, Toma; Hegelich, Bjorn Manuel; Willi, Oswald; Lehmann, Goetz

    2014-10-01

    First direct measurements of the electron transport along extended wire targets by Quinn et al. [PRL 102 (2009)] revealed a charging current and associated magnetic field moving close to the speed of light away from focal volume of the employed heating laser. The motion of the electrons is bound electrostatic to the proximity of the solid. A return current compensating the escaping charge is formed at the surface of the solid, the overall current loop sustaining kT magnetic fields, with traversal decay lengths of μm. In our study we show by means of numerical 2 dimensional particle in cell simulations that the motion of the hot electrons and dynamic of the charge compensating return current can be dramatically affected by a preformed μm scale length plasma gradient on the solid surface. In particularly the two velocities distribution and two antiparallel currents developing in the near critical plasma are unstable in respect of two stream and Kevin Helmholtz instability. The particle motion becomes locally magnetized resulting in current eddies trapping particles and localized magnetic and electric fields with values of tens of kT and TV/m sustained on μm scales and with characteristic decay times of ps.

  15. Evidence of volcanic ash at a K-T boundary section: Ocean drilling program hole 690 C, Maud Rise, Weddell Sea off East Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, S. W.; Hamilton, N.; Pospichal, J.; Barker, P. F.; Kennett, James P.; Oconnell, S.; Bryant, W. R.; Burckle, L. H.; Egeberg, P. K.; Futterer, D. K.

    1988-01-01

    Rare vitric volcanogenic ash but more abundant clay minerals considered volcanogenic in origin are associated with an expanded and essentially complete K-T boundary sequence from Ocean Drilling Project (ODP) Hole 690 C on Maud Rise in the Weddell Sea off East Antarctica. Results at this writing are preliminary and are still based to some extent on shipboard descriptions. Further shore-based studies are in progress. It would appear, however, that the presence of volcanic ash and altered ash in the Danian section beginning at the biostratigraphically and paleomagnetically determined K-T boundary on Maud Rise can be cited as evidence of significant volcanic activity within the South Atlantic-Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean coincident with the time of biotic crises at the end of the Maestrichtian. This is a postulated time of tectonic and volcanic activity within this Southern Hemisphere region, including possible initiation of the Reunion hot spot and a peak in explosive volcanism on Walvis Ridge (1) among other events. A causal relationship with the biotic crisis is possible and volcanism should be given serious consideration as a testable working hypothesis to explain these extinctions.

  16. Constrained Clustering With Imperfect Oracles.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiatian; Loy, Chen Change; Gong, Shaogang

    2016-06-01

    While clustering is usually an unsupervised operation, there are circumstances where we have access to prior belief that pairs of samples should (or should not) be assigned with the same cluster. Constrained clustering aims to exploit this prior belief as constraint (or weak supervision) to influence the cluster formation so as to obtain a data structure more closely resembling human perception. Two important issues remain open: 1) how to exploit sparse constraints effectively and 2) how to handle ill-conditioned/noisy constraints generated by imperfect oracles. In this paper, we present a novel pairwise similarity measure framework to address the above issues. Specifically, in contrast to existing constrained clustering approaches that blindly rely on all features for constraint propagation, our approach searches for neighborhoods driven by discriminative feature selection for more effective constraint diffusion. Crucially, we formulate a novel approach to handling the noisy constraint problem, which has been unrealistically ignored in the constrained clustering literature. Extensive comparative results show that our method is superior to the state-of-the-art constrained clustering approaches and can generally benefit existing pairwise similarity-based data clustering algorithms, such as spectral clustering and affinity propagation. PMID:25622327

  17. Generalized Constrained Multiple Correspondence Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Heungsun; Takane, Yoshio

    2002-01-01

    Proposes a comprehensive approach, generalized constrained multiple correspondence analysis, for imposing both row and column constraints on multivariate discrete data. Each set of discrete data is decomposed into several submatrices and then multiple correspondence analysis is applied to explore relationships among the decomposed submatrices.…

  18. Modeling Coal Seam Damage in Cast Blasting

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, S.H.; Preece, D.S.

    1998-11-23

    A discrete element computer program named DMC_BLAST (Distinct Motion Code) has been under development since 1987 for modeling rock blasting (Preece & Taylor, 1989). This program employs explicit time integration and uses spherical or cylindrical elements that are represented as circles in two dimensions. DMC_BLAST calculations compare favorably with data from actual bench blasts (Preece et al, 1993). Coal seam chilling refers to the shattering of a significant portion of the coal leaving unusable fines. It is also refereed to as coal damage. Chilling is caused during a blast by a combination of explosive shock energy and movement of the adjacent rock. Chilling can be minimized by leaving a buffer zone between the bottom of the blastholes and the coal seam or by changing the blast design to decrease the powder factor or by a combination of both. Blast design in coal mine cast blasting is usually a compromise between coal damage and rock fragmentation and movement (heave). In this paper the damage to coal seams from rock movement is examined using the discrete element computer code DMC_BLAST. A rock material strength option has been incorporated into DMC_BLAST by placing bonds/links between the spherical particles used to model the rock. These bonds tie the particles together but can be broken when the tensile, compressive or shear stress in the bond exceeds the defined strength. This capability has been applied to predict coal seam damage, particularly at the toe of a cast blast where drag forces exerted by movement of the overlying rock can adversely effect the top of the coal at the bench face. A simulation of coal mine cast blasting has been performed with special attention being paid to the strength of the coal and its behavior at t he bench face during movement of the overlying material.

  19. Human Injury Criteria for Underwater Blasts.

    PubMed

    Lance, Rachel M; Capehart, Bruce; Kadro, Omar; Bass, Cameron R

    2015-01-01

    Underwater blasts propagate further and injure more readily than equivalent air blasts. Development of effective personal protection and countermeasures, however, requires knowledge of the currently unknown human tolerance to underwater blast. Current guidelines for prevention of underwater blast injury are not based on any organized injury risk assessment, human data or experimental data. The goal of this study was to derive injury risk assessments for underwater blast using well-characterized human underwater blast exposures in the open literature. The human injury dataset was compiled using 34 case reports on underwater blast exposure to 475 personnel, dating as early as 1916. Using severity ratings, computational reconstructions of the blasts, and survival information from a final set of 262 human exposures, injury risk models were developed for both injury severity and risk of fatality as functions of blast impulse and blast peak overpressure. Based on these human data, we found that the 50% risk of fatality from underwater blast occurred at 302±16 kPa-ms impulse. Conservatively, there is a 20% risk of pulmonary injury at a kilometer from a 20 kg charge. From a clinical point of view, this new injury risk model emphasizes the large distances possible for potential pulmonary and gut injuries in water compared with air. This risk value is the first impulse-based fatality risk calculated from human data. The large-scale inconsistency between the blast exposures in the case reports and the guidelines available in the literature prior to this study further underscored the need for this new guideline derived from the unique dataset of actual injuries in this study. PMID:26606655

  20. Human Injury Criteria for Underwater Blasts

    PubMed Central

    Lance, Rachel M.; Capehart, Bruce; Kadro, Omar; Bass, Cameron R.

    2015-01-01

    Underwater blasts propagate further and injure more readily than equivalent air blasts. Development of effective personal protection and countermeasures, however, requires knowledge of the currently unknown human tolerance to underwater blast. Current guidelines for prevention of underwater blast injury are not based on any organized injury risk assessment, human data or experimental data. The goal of this study was to derive injury risk assessments for underwater blast using well-characterized human underwater blast exposures in the open literature. The human injury dataset was compiled using 34 case reports on underwater blast exposure to 475 personnel, dating as early as 1916. Using severity ratings, computational reconstructions of the blasts, and survival information from a final set of 262 human exposures, injury risk models were developed for both injury severity and risk of fatality as functions of blast impulse and blast peak overpressure. Based on these human data, we found that the 50% risk of fatality from underwater blast occurred at 302±16 kPa-ms impulse. Conservatively, there is a 20% risk of pulmonary injury at a kilometer from a 20 kg charge. From a clinical point of view, this new injury risk model emphasizes the large distances possible for potential pulmonary and gut injuries in water compared with air. This risk value is the first impulse-based fatality risk calculated from human data. The large-scale inconsistency between the blast exposures in the case reports and the guidelines available in the literature prior to this study further underscored the need for this new guideline derived from the unique dataset of actual injuries in this study. PMID:26606655

  1. ScalaBLAST 2.0: Rapid and robust BLAST calculations on multiprocessor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Oehmen, Christopher S.; Baxter, Douglas J.

    2013-03-15

    BLAST remains one of the most widely used tools in computational biology. The rate at which new sequence data is available continues to grow exponentially, driving the emergence of new fields of biological research. At the same time multicore systems and conventional clusters are more accessible. ScalaBLAST has been designed to run on conventional multiprocessor systems with an eye to extreme parallelism, enabling parallel BLAST calculations using over 16,000 processing cores with a portable, robust, fault-resilient design. ScalaBLAST 2.0 source code can be freely downloaded from http://omics.pnl.gov/software/ScalaBLAST.php.

  2. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    William S. McPhee

    2001-08-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) needs improved technologies to decontaminate large areas of both concrete and steel surfaces. The technology should have high operational efficiency, minimize exposures to workers, and produce low levels of secondary waste. In order to meet the DOE's needs, an applied research and development project for the improvement of a current decontamination technology, Vacuum Blasting, is proposed. The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of the existing vacuum blasting technology which has been widely used in DOE sites for removing radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint. The proposed work would increase the productivity rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites.

  3. Mining Data, What a Blast!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulder, T. L.

    2007-12-01

    Seismic network data processing involves a number of critical decisions which are a balance of available funding and manpower vs the amount and extent of data being processed. In an ideal world, any event detected by a given network would have associated arrivals and usually an associated origin. In this world of decreasing telecommunications costs, that has resulted in an ever increasing number of sensors and stations along with accessibility to ever expanding real-time data flow, this complete human data review is no longer a feasible reality with the existing personnel support. Decisions on catalogue inclusiveness are being made based on expediency and budget constraints rather than on a scientific or technical basis. One of the critical time sinks for an analyst is the location and discrimination of the large number of daily man-made blasts, whether they be from road construction, quarries, or mines. Given that mines exist in a given location it is possible to first, automatically assign event locations to blast sites in real-time, and second, to provide quick mine site associations on the post-real-time processing level. This reduces the analyst's job from a complete event location to simply verifying and correcting automatic detections. A study has been carried out using a grid of mine locations and running an event associator with automatic detections over this grid. Mine blasts are automatically located at the grid mine sites. This has been particularly successful with large blasts outside the network which were previously creating poor locations and necessitated analyst involvement to ensure that these events were not a seismic event within or near the boundaries of the network.

  4. Concussive brain injury from explosive blast

    PubMed Central

    de Lanerolle, Nihal C; Hamid, Hamada; Kulas, Joseph; Pan, Jullie W; Czlapinski, Rebecca; Rinaldi, Anthony; Ling, Geoffrey; Bandak, Faris A; Hetherington, Hoby P

    2014-01-01

    Objective Explosive blast mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is associated with a variety of symptoms including memory impairment and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Explosive shock waves can cause hippocampal injury in a large animal model. We recently reported a method for detecting brain injury in soldiers with explosive blast mTBI using magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). This method is applied in the study of veterans exposed to blast. Methods The hippocampus of 25 veterans with explosive blast mTBI, 20 controls, and 12 subjects with PTSD but without exposure to explosive blast were studied using MRSI at 7 Tesla. Psychiatric and cognitive assessments were administered to characterize the neuropsychiatric deficits and compare with findings from MRSI. Results Significant reductions in the ratio of N-acetyl aspartate to choline (NAA/Ch) and N-acetyl aspartate to creatine (NAA/Cr) (P < 0.05) were found in the anterior portions of the hippocampus with explosive blast mTBI in comparison to control subjects and were more pronounced in the right hippocampus, which was 15% smaller in volume (P < 0.05). Decreased NAA/Ch and NAA/Cr were not influenced by comorbidities – PTSD, depression, or anxiety. Subjects with PTSD without blast had lesser injury, which tended to be in the posterior hippocampus. Explosive blast mTBI subjects had a reduction in visual memory compared to PTSD without blast. Interpretation The region of the hippocampus injured differentiates explosive blast mTBI from PTSD. MRSI is quite sensitive in detecting and localizing regions of neuronal injury from explosive blast associated with memory impairment. PMID:25493283

  5. Rodent model of direct cranial blast injury.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Reed; Simard, Philippe F; Driscoll, Ian; Keledjian, Kaspar; Ivanova, Svetlana; Tosun, Cigdem; Williams, Alicia; Bochicchio, Grant; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J Marc

    2011-10-01

    Traumatic brain injury resulting from an explosive blast is one of the most serious wounds suffered by warfighters, yet the effects of explosive blast overpressure directly impacting the head are poorly understood. We developed a rodent model of direct cranial blast injury (dcBI), in which a blast overpressure could be delivered exclusively to the head, precluding indirect brain injury via thoracic transmission of the blast wave. We constructed and validated a Cranium Only Blast Injury Apparatus (COBIA) to deliver blast overpressures generated by detonating .22 caliber cartridges of smokeless powder. Blast waveforms generated by COBIA replicated those recorded within armored vehicles penetrated by munitions. Lethal dcBI (LD(50) ∼ 515 kPa) was associated with: (1) apparent brainstem failure, characterized by immediate opisthotonus and apnea leading to cardiac arrest that could not be overcome by cardiopulmonary resuscitation; (2) widespread subarachnoid hemorrhages without cortical contusions or intracerebral or intraventricular hemorrhages; and (3) no pulmonary abnormalities. Sub-lethal dcBI was associated with: (1) apnea lasting up to 15 sec, with transient abnormalities in oxygen saturation; (2) very few delayed deaths; (3) subarachnoid hemorrhages, especially in the path of the blast wave; (4) abnormal immunolabeling for IgG, cleaved caspase-3, and β-amyloid precursor protein (β-APP), and staining for Fluoro-Jade C, all in deep brain regions away from the subarachnoid hemorrhages, but in the path of the blast wave; and (5) abnormalities on the accelerating Rotarod that persisted for the 1 week period of observation. We conclude that exposure of the head alone to severe explosive blast predisposes to significant neurological dysfunction. PMID:21639724

  6. Characterization of the K-T and Chicxulub Ejecta Layers along the Brazos River, Texas: Correlation with NE Mexico and Yucatan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thierry, A.; Gerta, K.

    2005-05-01

    We report the results of preliminary investigations of four K-T boundary sections, which are located in small tributaries (Cottonmouth and Darting Minnow creeks) of the Brazos River. The study is based on high-resolution sampling, sedimentological observations, biostratigraphy, bulk rock and clay mineralogy, geochemistry and granulometry. The Cottonmouth Creek exposure is characterized by Late Maastrichtian dark grey fossiliferous claystone, interrupted by laterally variable channel fill storm deposits, which previously have been erroneously interpreted as impact tsunami deposits. These deposits consist of a basal shell hash (10cm), followed by glauconitic sand with altered impact spherules (10cm), laminated sandstones, and 4 to 5 hummocky cross-bedded sandstone layers separated by burrowed erosion surfaces that mark repeated colonization of the ocean floor between storm events. Above and below these storm events are dark grey fossiliferous claystones of the late Maastrichtian zone CF1, which spans the last 300,000 years of the Cretaceous. The K-T boundary is 40 cm above the storm deposits. Granulometric analyses of this interval reveal no size grading due to suspension settling from storm or tsunami waves, but rather indicate normal hemipelagic sedimentation. The Chicxulub spherule ejecta in the glauconitic sand near the base of the storm beds is reworked from an older original ejecta layer, as indicated by abundant reworked fossil shells. This is similar to the reworked spherule layers at the base of the siliclastic deposits throughout NE Mexico, where the original layer is within marls up to 5 m below (base of CF1) and predating the K-T by 300,000 years. We may have discovered the original ejecta layer in Cottonmouth Creek 60 cm below the basal unconformity of the storm beds and within claystones near the base of zone CF1. This layer consists of a prominent 3-4 cm thick yellow clay of pure and well-crystallized smectite (Cheto Mg-smectite) that possibly

  7. Open pit blasting in India

    SciTech Connect

    Wasson, D.A.; Garg, D.D.

    1995-12-31

    Open pit blasting in India uses two types of explosives. First there are bulk explosives for wet and dry holes, and there are packaged explosives. The Indian open pit coal mining is projected to use 190 thousand metric tons of explosives in 1995. This volume is projected to grow for the next ten years, whereas the underground coal mining will hold fairly constant. Bulk explosives started in about 1977 with watergels. In the late 1980s, bulk emulsions and heavy ANFOs were introduced. This system is still being expanded and is replacing packaged products in the larger mines. Packaged products are still popular where the annual consumption is less than 2,000 metric tons per year. Also, packaged products are used in small wet shots. Porous ammonium nitrate prill have recently become available but ANFO is not very common because of the high cost of the prill and the wet blasting conditions. As the market expands there will be a continuing demand for packaged products but an increasing demand for bulk waterproof products, particularly in the larger operations. Dynamites are produced at four plants in India. The annual production of about 45,000 metric tons per year is holding fairly constant, but is likely to decrease in the future. The future blasting in India will primarily use pumped emulsions and heavy ANFO on an increasing basis, but the packaged products will maintain their position.

  8. Constrained Multiobjective Biogeography Optimization Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Hongwei; Xu, Zhidan; Xu, Lifang; Wu, Zhou; Ma, Haiping

    2014-01-01

    Multiobjective optimization involves minimizing or maximizing multiple objective functions subject to a set of constraints. In this study, a novel constrained multiobjective biogeography optimization algorithm (CMBOA) is proposed. It is the first biogeography optimization algorithm for constrained multiobjective optimization. In CMBOA, a disturbance migration operator is designed to generate diverse feasible individuals in order to promote the diversity of individuals on Pareto front. Infeasible individuals nearby feasible region are evolved to feasibility by recombining with their nearest nondominated feasible individuals. The convergence of CMBOA is proved by using probability theory. The performance of CMBOA is evaluated on a set of 6 benchmark problems and experimental results show that the CMBOA performs better than or similar to the classical NSGA-II and IS-MOEA. PMID:25006591

  9. Constrained multiobjective biogeography optimization algorithm.

    PubMed

    Mo, Hongwei; Xu, Zhidan; Xu, Lifang; Wu, Zhou; Ma, Haiping

    2014-01-01

    Multiobjective optimization involves minimizing or maximizing multiple objective functions subject to a set of constraints. In this study, a novel constrained multiobjective biogeography optimization algorithm (CMBOA) is proposed. It is the first biogeography optimization algorithm for constrained multiobjective optimization. In CMBOA, a disturbance migration operator is designed to generate diverse feasible individuals in order to promote the diversity of individuals on Pareto front. Infeasible individuals nearby feasible region are evolved to feasibility by recombining with their nearest nondominated feasible individuals. The convergence of CMBOA is proved by using probability theory. The performance of CMBOA is evaluated on a set of 6 benchmark problems and experimental results show that the CMBOA performs better than or similar to the classical NSGA-II and IS-MOEA. PMID:25006591

  10. Air blasts generated by rockfall impacts: Analysis of the 1996 Happy Isles event in Yosemite National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrissey, M.M.; Savage, W.Z.; Wieczorek, G.F.

    1999-01-01

    The July 10, 1996, Happy Isles rockfall in Yosemite National Park, California, released 23,000 to 38,000 m3 of granite in four separate events. The impacts of the first two events which involved a 550-m free fall, generated seismic waves and atmospheric pressure waves (air blasts). We focus on the dynamic behavior of the second air blast that downed over 1000 trees, destroyed a bridge, demolished a snack bar, and caused one fatality and several injuries. Calculated velocities for the air blast from a two-phase, finite difference model are compared to velocities estimated from tree damage. From tornadic studies of tree damage, the air blast is estimated to have traveled <108-120 m/s within 50 m from the impact and decreased to <10-20 m/s within 500 m from the impact. The numerical model simulates the two-dimensional propagation of an air blast through a dusty atmosphere with initial conditions defined by the impact velocity and pressure. The impact velocity (105-107 m/s) is estimated from the Colorado Rockfall Simulation Program that simulates rockfall trajectories. The impact pressure (0.5 MPa) is constrained by the kinetic energy of the impact (1010-1012 J) estimated from the seismic energy generated by the impact. Results from the air blast simulations indicate that the second Happy Isles air blast (weak shock wave) traveled with an initial velocity above the local sound speed. The size and location of the first impact are thought to have injected <50 wt % dust into the atmosphere. This amount of dust lowered the local atmospheric sound speed to ???220 m/s. The discrepancy between calculated velocity data and field estimated velocity data (???220 m/s versus ???110 m/s) is attributed to energy dissipated by the downing of trees and additional entrainment of debris into the atmosphere not included in the calculations. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Laboratory blast wave driven instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuranz, Carolyn

    2008-04-01

    This presentation discusses experiments well-scaled to the blast wave driven instabilities during the explosion phase of SN1987A. Blast waves occur following a sudden, finite release of energy, and consist of a shock front followed by a rarefaction wave. When a blast wave crosses an interface with a decrease in density, hydrodynamic instabilities will develop. These experiments include target materials scaled in density to the He/H layer in SN1987A. About 5 kJ of laser energy from the Omega Laser facility irradiates a 150 μm plastic layer that is followed by a low density foam layer. A blast wave structure similar to those in supernovae, is created in the plastic layer. The blast wave crosses a perturbed interface, which produces nonlinear, unstable growth dominated by the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability. Recent experiments have been performed using complex initial conditions featuring a three-dimensional interface structure with a wavelength of 71 μm in two orthogonal directions, at times supplemented by an additional sinusoidal mode of 212 μm or 424 μm. We have detected the interface structure under these conditions, using dual orthogonal radiographs on some shots, and will show some of the resulting data. Recent advancements in our x-ray backlighting techniques have greatly improved the resolution of our x-ray radiographic images. Under certain conditions, the improved images show some mass extending beyond the RT spike and penetrating further than previously observed. Current simulations do not show this phenomenon. This presentation will discuss the amount of mass in these spike extensions as well as the error analysis of this calculation. Future experiments will also be discussed. They will be focusing on realistic initial conditions based on 3D stellar evolution models. This research was sponsored by the Stewardship Science Academic Alliances Program through DOE Research Grants DE-FG52-07NA28058, DE-FG52-04NA00064, and other grants and contracts.

  12. Osmium, tungsten, and chromium isotopes in sediments and in Ni-rich spinel at the K-T boundary: Signature of a chondritic impactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quitté, Ghylaine; Robin, Eric; Levasseur, Sylvain; Capmas, Françoise; Rocchia, Robert; Birck, Jean-Louis; Allègre, Claude Jean

    It is now established that a large extraterrestrial object hit the Earth at the end of the Cretaceous period, about 65 Ma ago. We have investigated Re-Os, Hf-W, and Mn-Cr isotope systems in sediments from the Cretaceous and the Paleogene in order to characterize the type of impactor. Within the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary layer, extraterrestrial material is mixed with terrestrial material, causing a dilution of the extraterrestrial isotope signature that is difficult to quantify. A phase essentially composed of Ni-rich spinel, formed in the atmosphere mainly from melted projectile material, is likely to contain the extraterrestrial isotopic signature of the impactor. We show that the analysis of spinel is indeed the best approach to determine the initial isotope composition of the impactor, and that W and Cr isotopes confirm that the projectile was a carbonaceous chondrite.

  13. Measurement of the k(T) distribution of particles in jets produced in pp collisions at sqrt(s)=1.96 TeV.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, T; Adelman, J; Akimoto, T; Alvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Azzurri, P; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P-H; Bedeschi, F; Beecher, D; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bridgeman, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burke, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Calancha, C; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Chwalek, T; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Dagenhart, D; Datta, M; Davies, T; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'orso, M; Deluca, C; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; Derwent, P F; di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Elagin, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garberson, F; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Genser, K; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Gessler, A; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heijboer, A; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Hussein, M; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jha, M K; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kar, D; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kephart, R; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, H W; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kurata, M; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lecompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, S W; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C-S; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Lovas, L; Lucchesi, D; Luci, C; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Macqueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Mathis, M; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyake, H; Moggi, N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlok, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Neubauer, S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norman, M; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Pagan Griso, S; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Peiffer, T; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Pueschel, E; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Renton, P; Renz, M; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Saltó, O; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M A; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sforza, F; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shiraishi, S; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Strycker, G L; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Ttito-Guzmán, P; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Tourneur, S; Trovato, M; Tsai, S-Y; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Vallecorsa, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, M; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vogel, M; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, W; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Weinelt, J; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Wilbur, S; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Würthwein, F; Wynne, S M; Xie, S; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zhang, X; Zheng, Y; Zucchelli, S

    2009-06-12

    We present a measurement of the transverse momentum with respect to the jet axis (k(t)) of particles in jets produced in pp collisions at sqrt(s)=1.96 TeV. Results are obtained for charged particles in a cone of 0.5 radians around the jet axis in events with dijet invariant masses between 66 and 737 GeV/c(2). The experimental data are compared to theoretical predictions obtained for fragmentation partons within the framework of resummed perturbative QCD using the modified leading log and next-to-modified leading log approximations. The comparison shows that trends in data are successfully described by the theoretical predictions, indicating that the perturbative QCD stage of jet fragmentation is dominant in shaping basic jet characteristics. PMID:19658924

  14. Geochemistry of impact glasses from the K/T boundary in Haiti - Relation to smectites and a new type of glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koeberl, Christian; Sigurdsson, Haraldur

    1992-01-01

    Detailed element analyses were carried out on 12 black and seven yellow glasses from the K/T boundary section at Beloc (Haiti), and of three samples from smectite mantles around black glasses. The results obtained for bulk black and yellow glasses show differences between these, confirming the results of Sigurdsson et al. (1991) and Izett (1991), and the results obtained on individual spherules and shards are in agreement with bulk data. The present data also demonstrate, for the first time, the existence of yellow glass samples with high CaO but low S contents, which might have formed by fusion of various proportions of carbonates and evaporites or carbonates alone. One of the black glasses was found to have higher than average SiO2 and K2O abundances but lower concentrations of all other major elements. This suggests the existence of a third glass type, named the high Si-K variety (HSi,K) glass.

  15. 30 CFR 77.1300 - Explosives and blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosives and blasting. 77.1300 Section 77... Explosives and Blasting § 77.1300 Explosives and blasting. (a) No explosives, blasting agent, detonator, or... accordance with the provisions of §§ 77.1301 through 77.1304, inclusive. (b) The term “explosives” as used...

  16. 30 CFR 77.1300 - Explosives and blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosives and blasting. 77.1300 Section 77... Explosives and Blasting § 77.1300 Explosives and blasting. (a) No explosives, blasting agent, detonator, or... accordance with the provisions of §§ 77.1301 through 77.1304, inclusive. (b) The term “explosives” as used...

  17. 30 CFR 77.1300 - Explosives and blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosives and blasting. 77.1300 Section 77... Explosives and Blasting § 77.1300 Explosives and blasting. (a) No explosives, blasting agent, detonator, or... accordance with the provisions of §§ 77.1301 through 77.1304, inclusive. (b) The term “explosives” as used...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.909 - Firing the blast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Blasting and the Use of Explosives § 1926.909 Firing the blast. (a) A code of blasting signals equivalent to Table U-1, shall be posted on one or more... to stop traffic during blasting operations. (d) It shall be the duty of the blaster to fix the...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1320 - Multiple-shot blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Multiple-shot blasting. 75.1320 Section 75.1320... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1320 Multiple-shot blasting... periods of 1,000 milliseconds or less shall be used. (d) When blasting in anthracite mines, each...

  20. Characterization of novel blast resistant genes for US rice breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blast resistance genes, such as Pi-ta, conveying resistance up to 8 common US races of the blast pathogen (Magnaporthe oryzae), have been used for 20 years in the US rice (Oryza sativa) industry. However, Pi-ta is susceptible to two known US races of blast. Race IE-1K has caused blast outbreaks in A...

  1. 7 CFR 3201.78 - Blast media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Blast media. 3201.78 Section 3201.78 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.78 Blast media. (a)...

  2. Existing and prospective blast-furnace conditions

    SciTech Connect

    I.G. Tovarovskii; V.I. Bol'shakov; V.P. Lyalyuk; A.E. Merkulov; D. V. Pinchuk

    2009-07-15

    Blast-furnace conditions are investigated by means of a multizone model. The expected performance of prospective technologies is assessed, as well as the trends in blast-furnace processes. The model permits the identification of means of overcoming practical difficulties.

  3. What a gas: Blasting under pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, J.

    1996-12-31

    This project consisted of blasting for expansion of a major interstate natural gas transmission pipeline pump station. The pump station handled 400--500 million cubic feet (11--14 million cubic meters) of gas per day. Site work blasting for the new 4,000 horsepower 200 ton (3,000 kW 180 tonnes) compressor engine and pump took place to within 24 feet (7.5 meters) of the existing operating unit. All trenching operations were within 20 feet (6 meters) of existing apparatus and lines, some of which were 30 inches (0,75 meter) diameter and carried 700 psi (4,800 kPa) pressure. This was the first time the owner had allowed blasting in such close proximity to large pressurized lines while the compressor station pump-engine continued operating. Two off-site incidents occurred between the time the blasting option was accepted and the start of operations that heightened valid owner and regulatory agency concerns. The first was a line break and resultant 10 acre (4 hectare) fire approximately 400 mile s(65 km) from the project site. The second was the bombing of the federal building in Oklahoma City. As a result, the owner and the local Fire Marshal`s office required an extensive, revised blasting safety and transportation plan. Blasting began furthest from the highest hazard. Vibration data and blast results were continually analyzed as blasting progressed, with necessary changes made prior to moving into the next zone.

  4. Highly concentrated foam formulation for blast mitigation

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Mark D.; Gao, Huizhen

    2010-12-14

    A highly concentrated foam formulation for blast suppression and dispersion mitigation for use in responding to a terrorism incident involving a radiological dispersion device. The foam formulation is more concentrated and more stable than the current blast suppression foam (AFC-380), which reduces the logistics burden on the user.

  5. On the Propagation and Interaction of Spherical Blast Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max; Freeman, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics and the scaling laws of isolated spherical blast waves have been briefly reviewed. Both self-similar solutions and numerical solutions of isolated blast waves are discussed. Blast profiles in the near-field (strong shock region) and the far-field (weak shock region) are examined. Particular attention is directed at the blast overpressure and shock propagating speed. Consideration is also given to the interaction of spherical blast waves. Test data for the propagation and interaction of spherical blast waves emanating from explosives placed in the vicinity of a solid propellant stack are presented. These data are discussed with regard to the scaling laws concerning the decay of blast overpressure.

  6. Back yard blasting on the quiet

    SciTech Connect

    Chironis, N.P.

    1983-06-01

    When R and F Coal Company of Ohio ''sweeps out the corners'' of many of its old sites, it often blasts ''literally in some family's back yard.'' Sequential blasting patterns allow for such work without unduly disturbing the residents. Four basic delay patterns are detailed in this article. Sequential timers, EB caps, HDP blast boosts, and bulk ANFO are used in the sequences. Electric blasting caps can be tested by means of a galvanometer for continuity and resistance whenever possible. The flexibility of programming firing times, in the four patterns, allows operators to fine tune the blasting techniques. End or back break are reduced, fragmentation is optimized, and vibration is held to a minimum.

  7. Aspects of blast resistant masonry design

    SciTech Connect

    Volkman, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    Blast resistant design should be examined for building code incorporation, due to the potential of explosions occurring in an industrial society. Specifically, public and commercial structures of concrete masonry construction need additional building code criteria, since these buildings have high density populations to protect. Presently, blast resistant design is accomplished by using government published manuals, but these do not address industry standard construction. A design air blast load of 4.54 kg (10 lbs) of TNT, located 0.91 m (3 ft) above ground surface and 30.48 m (100 ft) from a structure should be considered standard criteria. This loading would be sufficient to protect against blast, resist progressive failure, and yet not be an economic impediment. Design details and adequate inspection must be observed to ensure blast resistant integrity. 10 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. 27 CFR 555.220 - Table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Department of Transportation (49 CFR part 173). (5) Earth or sand dikes, or enclosures filled with the... distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents. 555.220 Section 555... ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents. Table: Department of...

  9. 27 CFR 555.220 - Table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Department of Transportation (49 CFR part 173). (5) Earth or sand dikes, or enclosures filled with the... distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents. 555.220 Section 555... ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents. Table: Department of...

  10. 27 CFR 555.220 - Table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Department of Transportation (49 CFR part 173). (5) Earth or sand dikes, or enclosures filled with the... distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents. 555.220 Section 555... ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents. Table: Department of...

  11. Correlations in the (Sub)Mil1imeter Background from ACT x BLAST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajian, Amir; Battaglia,Nick; Bock, James J.; Bond, J. Richard; Nolta, Michael R.; Sievers, Jon; Wollack, Ed

    2011-01-01

    We present measurements of the auto- and cross-frequency correlation power spectra of the cosmic (sub)millimeter background at: 250, 350, and 500 microns (1200, 860, and 600 GHz) from observations made with the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope, BLAST; and at 1380 and 2030 microns (218 and 148 GHz) from observations made with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, ACT. The overlapping observations cover 8.6 deg(sup 2) in an area relatively free of Galactic dust near the south ecliptic pole (SEP). The ACT bands are sensitive to radiation from the CMB, the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect from galaxy clusters, and to emission by radio and dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs), while the dominant contribution to the BLAST bands is from DSFGs. We confirm and extend the BLAST analysis of clustering with an independent pipeline, and also detect correlations between the ACT and BLAST maps at over 25(sigma) significance, which we interpret as a detection of the DSFGs in the ACT maps. In addition to a Poisson component in the cross-frequency power spectra, we detect a clustered signal at 4(sigma), and using a model for the DSFG evolution and number counts, we successfully fit all our spectra with a linear clustering model and a bias that depends only on red shift and not on scale. Finally, the data are compared to, and generally agree with, phenomenological models for the DSFG population. This study represents a first of its kind, and demonstrates the constraining power of the cross-frequency correlation technique to constrain models for the DSFGs. Similar analyses with more data will impose tight constraints 011 future models.

  12. CORRELATIONS IN THE (SUB)MILLIMETER BACKGROUND FROM ACT Multiplication-Sign BLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Hajian, Amir; Battaglia, Nick; Bond, J. Richard; Viero, Marco P.; Bock, James J.; Addison, Graeme; Aguirre, Paula; Appel, John William; Duenner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fowler, Joseph W.; Hincks, Adam D.; Das, Sudeep; Dunkley, Joanna; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Hughes, John P.; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hilton, Matt; and others

    2012-01-01

    We present measurements of the auto- and cross-frequency correlation power spectra of the cosmic (sub)millimeter background at 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m (1200, 860, and 600 GHz) from observations made with the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST); and at 1380 and 2030 {mu}m (218 and 148 GHz) from observations made with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). The overlapping observations cover 8.6 deg{sup 2} in an area relatively free of Galactic dust near the south ecliptic pole. The ACT bands are sensitive to radiation from the cosmic microwave background, to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect from galaxy clusters, and to emission by radio and dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs), while the dominant contribution to the BLAST bands is from DSFGs. We confirm and extend the BLAST analysis of clustering with an independent pipeline and also detect correlations between the ACT and BLAST maps at over 25{sigma} significance, which we interpret as a detection of the DSFGs in the ACT maps. In addition to a Poisson component in the cross-frequency power spectra, we detect a clustered signal at 4{sigma}, and using a model for the DSFG evolution and number counts, we successfully fit all of our spectra with a linear clustering model and a bias that depends only on redshift and not on scale. Finally, the data are compared to, and generally agree with, phenomenological models for the DSFG population. This study demonstrates the constraining power of the cross-frequency correlation technique to constrain models for the DSFGs. Similar analyses with more data will impose tight constraints on future models.

  13. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in blast-exposed military veterans and a blast neurotrauma mouse model.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Lee E; Fisher, Andrew M; Tagge, Chad A; Zhang, Xiao-Lei; Velisek, Libor; Sullivan, John A; Upreti, Chirag; Kracht, Jonathan M; Ericsson, Maria; Wojnarowicz, Mark W; Goletiani, Cezar J; Maglakelidze, Giorgi M; Casey, Noel; Moncaster, Juliet A; Minaeva, Olga; Moir, Robert D; Nowinski, Christopher J; Stern, Robert A; Cantu, Robert C; Geiling, James; Blusztajn, Jan K; Wolozin, Benjamin L; Ikezu, Tsuneya; Stein, Thor D; Budson, Andrew E; Kowall, Neil W; Chargin, David; Sharon, Andre; Saman, Sudad; Hall, Garth F; Moss, William C; Cleveland, Robin O; Tanzi, Rudolph E; Stanton, Patric K; McKee, Ann C

    2012-05-16

    Blast exposure is associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI), neuropsychiatric symptoms, and long-term cognitive disability. We examined a case series of postmortem brains from U.S. military veterans exposed to blast and/or concussive injury. We found evidence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a tau protein-linked neurodegenerative disease, that was similar to the CTE neuropathology observed in young amateur American football players and a professional wrestler with histories of concussive injuries. We developed a blast neurotrauma mouse model that recapitulated CTE-linked neuropathology in wild-type C57BL/6 mice 2 weeks after exposure to a single blast. Blast-exposed mice demonstrated phosphorylated tauopathy, myelinated axonopathy, microvasculopathy, chronic neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration in the absence of macroscopic tissue damage or hemorrhage. Blast exposure induced persistent hippocampal-dependent learning and memory deficits that persisted for at least 1 month and correlated with impaired axonal conduction and defective activity-dependent long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission. Intracerebral pressure recordings demonstrated that shock waves traversed the mouse brain with minimal change and without thoracic contributions. Kinematic analysis revealed blast-induced head oscillation at accelerations sufficient to cause brain injury. Head immobilization during blast exposure prevented blast-induced learning and memory deficits. The contribution of blast wind to injurious head acceleration may be a primary injury mechanism leading to blast-related TBI and CTE. These results identify common pathogenic determinants leading to CTE in blast-exposed military veterans and head-injured athletes and additionally provide mechanistic evidence linking blast exposure to persistent impairments in neurophysiological function, learning, and memory. PMID:22593173

  14. Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in Blast-Exposed Military Veterans and a Blast Neurotrauma Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Lee E.; Fisher, Andrew M.; Tagge, Chad A.; Zhang, Xiao-Lei; Velisek, Libor; Sullivan, John A.; Upreti, Chirag; Kracht, Jonathan M.; Ericsson, Maria; Wojnarowicz, Mark W.; Goletiani, Cezar J.; Maglakelidze, Giorgi M.; Casey, Noel; Moncaster, Juliet A.; Minaeva, Olga; Moir, Robert D.; Nowinski, Christopher J.; Stern, Robert A.; Cantu, Robert C.; Geiling, James; Blusztajn, Jan K.; Wolozin, Benjamin L.; Ikezu, Tsuneya; Stein, Thor D.; Budson, Andrew E.; Kowall, Neil W.; Chargin, David; Sharon, Andre; Saman, Sudad; Hall, Garth F.; Moss, William C.; Cleveland, Robin O.; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Stanton, Patric K.; McKee, Ann C.

    2013-01-01

    Blast exposure is associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI), neuropsychiatric symptoms, and long-term cognitive disability. We examined a case series of postmortem brains from U.S. military veterans exposed to blast and/or concussive injury. We found evidence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a tau protein–linked neurodegenerative disease, that was similar to the CTE neuropathology observed in young amateur American football players and a professional wrestler with histories of concussive injuries. We developed a blast neurotrauma mouse model that recapitulated CTE-linked neuropathology in wild-type C57BL/6 mice 2 weeks after exposure to a single blast. Blast-exposed mice demonstrated phosphorylated tauopathy, myelinated axonopathy, microvasculopathy, chronic neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration in the absence of macroscopic tissue damage or hemorrhage. Blast exposure induced persistent hippocampal-dependent learning and memory deficits that persisted for at least 1 month and correlated with impaired axonal conduction and defective activity-dependent long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission. Intracerebral pressure recordings demonstrated that shock waves traversed the mouse brain with minimal change and without thoracic contributions. Kinematic analysis revealed blast-induced head oscillation at accelerations sufficient to cause brain injury. Head immobilization during blast exposure prevented blast-induced learning and memory deficits. The contribution of blast wind to injurious head acceleration may be a primary injury mechanism leading to blast-related TBI and CTE. These results identify common pathogenic determinants leading to CTE in blast-exposed military veterans and head-injured athletes and additionally provide mechanistic evidence linking blast exposure to persistent impairments in neurophysiological function, learning, and memory. PMID:22593173

  15. Rapidly evolving R genes in diverse grass species confer resistance to rice blast disease

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sihai; Li, Jing; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Qijun; Huang, Ju; Chen, Jian-Qun; Hartl, Daniel L.; Tian, Dacheng

    2013-01-01

    We show that the genomes of maize, sorghum, and brachypodium contain genes that, when transformed into rice, confer resistance to rice blast disease. The genes are resistance genes (R genes) that encode proteins with nucleotide-binding site (NBS) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains (NBS–LRR proteins). By using criteria associated with rapid molecular evolution, we identified three rapidly evolving R-gene families in these species as well as in rice, and transformed a randomly chosen subset of these genes into rice strains known to be sensitive to rice blast disease caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. The transformed strains were then tested for sensitivity or resistance to 12 diverse strains of M. oryzae. A total of 15 functional blast R genes were identified among 60 NBS–LRR genes cloned from maize, sorghum, and brachypodium; and 13 blast R genes were obtained from 20 NBS–LRR paralogs in rice. These results show that abundant blast R genes occur not only within species but also among species, and that the R genes in the same rapidly evolving gene family can exhibit an effector response that confers resistance to rapidly evolving fungal pathogens. Neither conventional evolutionary conservation nor conventional evolutionary convergence supplies a satisfactory explanation of our findings. We suggest a unique mechanism termed “constrained divergence,” in which R genes and pathogen effectors can follow only limited evolutionary pathways to increase fitness. Our results open avenues for R-gene identification that will help to elucidate R-gene vs. effector mechanisms and may yield new sources of durable pathogen resistance. PMID:24145399

  16. Spacetime-constrained oblivious transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitalúa-García, Damián

    2016-06-01

    In 1-out-of-2 oblivious transfer (OT), Alice inputs numbers x0,x1 , Bob inputs a bit b and outputs xb. Secure OT requires that Alice and Bob learn nothing about b and xb ¯, respectively. We define spacetime-constrained oblivious transfer (SCOT) as OT in Minkowski spacetime in which Bob must output xb within Rb, where R0 and R1 are fixed spacelike separated spacetime regions. We show that unconditionally secure SCOT is impossible with classical protocols in Minkowski (or Galilean) spacetime, or with quantum protocols in Galilean spacetime. We describe a quantum SCOT protocol in Minkowski spacetime, and we show it unconditionally secure.

  17. Constraining Lorentz violation with cosmology.

    PubMed

    Zuntz, J A; Ferreira, P G; Zlosnik, T G

    2008-12-31

    The Einstein-aether theory provides a simple, dynamical mechanism for breaking Lorentz invariance. It does so within a generally covariant context and may emerge from quantum effects in more fundamental theories. The theory leads to a preferred frame and can have distinct experimental signatures. In this Letter, we perform a comprehensive study of the cosmological effects of the Einstein-aether theory and use observational data to constrain it. Allied to previously determined consistency and experimental constraints, we find that an Einstein-aether universe can fit experimental data over a wide range of its parameter space, but requires a specific rescaling of the other cosmological densities. PMID:19113765

  18. Constraining relativistic viscous hydrodynamical evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Mauricio; Strickland, Michael

    2009-04-15

    We show that by requiring positivity of the longitudinal pressure it is possible to constrain the initial conditions one can use in second-order viscous hydrodynamical simulations of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. We demonstrate this explicitly for (0+1)-dimensional viscous hydrodynamics and discuss how the constraint extends to higher dimensions. Additionally, we present an analytic approximation to the solution of (0+1)-dimensional second-order viscous hydrodynamical evolution equations appropriate to describe the evolution of matter in an ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collision.

  19. Constraining Lorentz Violation with Cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Zuntz, J. A.; Ferreira, P. G.; Zlosnik, T. G

    2008-12-31

    The Einstein-aether theory provides a simple, dynamical mechanism for breaking Lorentz invariance. It does so within a generally covariant context and may emerge from quantum effects in more fundamental theories. The theory leads to a preferred frame and can have distinct experimental signatures. In this Letter, we perform a comprehensive study of the cosmological effects of the Einstein-aether theory and use observational data to constrain it. Allied to previously determined consistency and experimental constraints, we find that an Einstein-aether universe can fit experimental data over a wide range of its parameter space, but requires a specific rescaling of the other cosmological densities.

  20. Image compression using constrained relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhihai

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we develop a new data representation framework, called constrained relaxation for image compression. Our basic observation is that an image is not a random 2-D array of pixels. They have to satisfy a set of imaging constraints so as to form a natural image. Therefore, one of the major tasks in image representation and coding is to efficiently encode these imaging constraints. The proposed data representation and image compression method not only achieves more efficient data compression than the state-of-the-art H.264 Intra frame coding, but also provides much more resilience to wireless transmission errors with an internal error-correction capability.

  1. Constrained Stochastic Extended Redundancy Analysis.

    PubMed

    DeSarbo, Wayne S; Hwang, Heungsun; Stadler Blank, Ashley; Kappe, Eelco

    2015-06-01

    We devise a new statistical methodology called constrained stochastic extended redundancy analysis (CSERA) to examine the comparative impact of various conceptual factors, or drivers, as well as the specific predictor variables that contribute to each driver on designated dependent variable(s). The technical details of the proposed methodology, the maximum likelihood estimation algorithm, and model selection heuristics are discussed. A sports marketing consumer psychology application is provided in a Major League Baseball (MLB) context where the effects of six conceptual drivers of game attendance and their defining predictor variables are estimated. Results compare favorably to those obtained using traditional extended redundancy analysis (ERA). PMID:24327066

  2. Neuro-glial and systemic mechanisms of pathological responses in rat models of primary blast overpressure compared to "composite" blast.

    PubMed

    Svetlov, Stanislav I; Prima, Victor; Glushakova, Olena; Svetlov, Artem; Kirk, Daniel R; Gutierrez, Hector; Serebruany, Victor L; Curley, Kenneth C; Wang, Kevin K W; Hayes, Ronald L

    2012-01-01

    A number of experimental models of blast brain injury have been implemented in rodents and larger animals. However, the variety of blast sources and the complexity of blast wave biophysics have made data on injury mechanisms and biomarkers difficult to analyze and compare. Recently, we showed the importance of rat position toward blast generated by an external shock tube. In this study, we further characterized blast producing moderate traumatic brain injury and defined "composite" blast and primary blast exposure set-ups. Schlieren optics visualized interaction between the head and a shock wave generated by external shock tube, revealing strong head acceleration upon positioning the rat on-axis with the shock tube (composite blast), but negligible skull movement upon peak overpressure exposure off-axis (primary blast). Brain injury signatures of a primary blast hitting the frontal head were assessed and compared to damage produced by composite blast. Low to negligible levels of neurodegeneration were found following primary blast compared to composite blast by silver staining. However, persistent gliosis in hippocampus and accumulation of GFAP/CNPase in circulation was detected after both primary and composite blast. Also, markers of vascular/endothelial inflammation integrin alpha/beta, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and L-selectin along with neurotrophic factor nerve growth factor-beta were increased in serum within 6 h post-blasts and persisted for 7 days thereafter. In contrast, systemic IL-1, IL-10, fractalkine, neuroendocrine peptide Orexin A, and VEGF receptor Neuropilin-2 (NRP-2) were raised predominantly after primary blast exposure. In conclusion, biomarkers of major pathological pathways were elevated at all blast set-ups. The most significant and persistent changes in neuro-glial markers were found after composite blast, while primary blast instigated prominent systemic cytokine/chemokine, Orexin A, and Neuropilin-2 release

  3. Explosive signatures: Pre & post blast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernier, Evan Thomas

    Manuscripts 1 and 2 of this dissertation both involve the pre-blast detection of trace explosive material. The first manuscript explores the analysis of human hair as an indicator of exposure to explosives. Field analysis of hair for trace explosives is quick and non-invasive, and could prove to be a powerful linkage to physical evidence in the form of bulk explosive material. Individuals tested were involved in studies which required handling or close proximity to bulk high explosives such as TNT, PETN, and RDX. The second manuscript reports the results of research in the design and application of canine training aids for non-traditional, peroxide-based explosives. Organic peroxides such as triacetonetriperoxide (TATP) and hexamethylenetriperoxidediamine (HMTD) can be synthesized relatively easily with store-bought ingredients and have become popular improvised explosives with many terrorist groups. Due to the hazards of handling such sensitive compounds, this research established methods for preparing training aids which contained safe quantities of TATP and HMTD for use in imprinting canines with their characteristic odor. Manuscripts 3 and 4 of this dissertation focus on research conducted to characterize pipe bombs during and after an explosion (post-blast). Pipe bombs represent a large percentage of domestic devices encountered by law enforcement. The current project has involved the preparation and controlled explosion of over 90 pipe bombs of different configurations in order to obtain data on fragmentation patterns, fragment velocity, blast overpressure, and fragmentation distance. Physical data recorded from the collected fragments, such as mass, size, and thickness, was correlated with the relative power of the initial device. Manuscript 4 explores the microstructural analysis of select pipe bomb fragments. Shock-loading of the pipe steel led to plastic deformation and work hardening in the steel grain structure as evidenced by optical microscopy and

  4. Quantum Annealing for Constrained Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hen, Itay; Spedalieri, Federico M.

    2016-03-01

    Recent advances in quantum technology have led to the development and manufacturing of experimental programmable quantum annealers that promise to solve certain combinatorial optimization problems of practical relevance faster than their classical analogues. The applicability of such devices for many theoretical and real-world optimization problems, which are often constrained, is severely limited by the sparse, rigid layout of the devices' quantum bits. Traditionally, constraints are addressed by the addition of penalty terms to the Hamiltonian of the problem, which, in turn, requires prohibitively increasing physical resources while also restricting the dynamical range of the interactions. Here, we propose a method for encoding constrained optimization problems on quantum annealers that eliminates the need for penalty terms and thereby reduces the number of required couplers and removes the need for minor embedding, greatly reducing the number of required physical qubits. We argue the advantages of the proposed technique and illustrate its effectiveness. We conclude by discussing the experimental feasibility of the suggested method as well as its potential to appreciably reduce the resource requirements for implementing optimization problems on quantum annealers and its significance in the field of quantum computing.

  5. Quantum Annealing for Constrained Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hen, Itay; Spedalieri, Federico

    Recent advances in quantum technology have led to the development and manufacturing of experimental programmable quantum annealers that could potentially solve certain quadratic unconstrained binary optimization problems faster than their classical analogues. The applicability of such devices for many theoretical and practical optimization problems, which are often constrained, is severely limited by the sparse, rigid layout of the devices' quantum bits. Traditionally, constraints are addressed by the addition of penalty terms to the Hamiltonian of the problem, which in turn requires prohibitively increasing physical resources while also restricting the dynamical range of the interactions. Here we propose a method for encoding constrained optimization problems on quantum annealers that eliminates the need for penalty terms and thereby removes many of the obstacles associated with the implementation of these. We argue the advantages of the proposed technique and illustrate its effectiveness. We then conclude by discussing the experimental feasibility of the suggested method as well as its potential to boost the encodability of other optimization problems.

  6. Investigation of atmospheric blasts by fast radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Dov, R.; Bushlin, Y.; Devir, A. D.; Lessin, A. B.; Mendelewicz, I.; Shvebelman, M.

    2014-06-01

    Blasts and detonations release large amount of energy in short time duration. Some of this energy is released through radiation in the whole optical spectrum. Measurement of this radiation may serve as a base for investigation of the blast phenomena. A fast multispectral radiometer that operates in proper chosen spectral bands provides extensive information on the physical processes that govern the blast. This information includes the time dependence of the temperature, area of the blast as-well-as of the aerosols and gases that are generated. Analysis of this data indicates the order of the detonation and provides good estimation on the masses and types of the high-explosives (HE) materials and their casing. This paper presents the methodology and instrumentation of fast multispectral radiometry in application to the blast measurement and analysis in a Near-ground Explosion Test (NET). In NET, the flash radiation of the blast was measured for two HE materials: TNT and composition B (CB). The investigation includes charges of different masses (0.25 - 20.0 kg) and of various casing materials (steel, Al, PVC), thickness (2 - 6 mm) and various casing type (open on both face ends and hermetically closed). Analysis of the data demonstrates the power of fast radiometry methodology and reveals the governing characteristics of atmospheric blasts.

  7. LTC vacuum blasting machine (concrete): Baseline report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure during maintenance activities was minimal, but due to mechanical difficulties dust monitoring could not be conducted during operation. Noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. This may cause the results to be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed environment. In addition, other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration.

  8. Blast Injuries: From Improvised Explosive Device Blasts to the Boston Marathon Bombing.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajay K; Ditkofsky, Noah G; York, John D; Abujudeh, Hani H; Avery, Laura A; Brunner, John F; Sodickson, Aaron D; Lev, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Although most trauma centers have experience with the imaging and management of gunshot wounds, in most regions blast wounds such as the ones encountered in terrorist attacks with the use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are infrequently encountered outside the battlefield. As global terrorism becomes a greater concern, it is important that radiologists, particularly those working in urban trauma centers, be aware of the mechanisms of injury and the spectrum of primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injury patterns. Primary blast injuries are caused by barotrauma from the initial increased pressure of the explosive detonation and the rarefaction of the atmosphere immediately afterward. Secondary blast injuries are caused by debris carried by the blast wind and most often result in penetrating trauma from small shrapnel. Tertiary blast injuries are caused by the physical displacement of the victim and the wide variety of blunt or penetrating trauma sustained as a result of the patient impacting immovable objects such as surrounding cars, walls, or fences. Quaternary blast injuries include all other injuries, such as burns, crush injuries, and inhalational injuries. Radiography is considered the initial imaging modality for assessment of shrapnel and fractures. Computed tomography is the optimal test to assess penetrating chest, abdominal, and head trauma. The mechanism of blast injuries and the imaging experience of the victims of the Boston Marathon bombing are detailed, as well as musculoskeletal, neurologic, gastrointestinal, and pulmonary injury patterns from blast injuries. PMID:26761543

  9. Gun blast - Its propagation and determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, E. M.; Kahl, G. D.; Shear, D. D.

    1980-06-01

    Muzzle blast overpressure levels are limiting the operation of high performance gun systems. The pressures at crew stations are of particular concern and have not been well defined either experimentally or analytically. The present paper presents measurement and analysis of the blast fields about a range of weapons from small arms through artillery. The effects of near muzzle flow upon the blast wave are discussed and a scaling relationship is developed from experimental data which is extended to various weapons and shown to predict pressure acceptably.

  10. CO{sub 2} pellet blasting studies

    SciTech Connect

    Archibald, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Initial tests with CO{sub 2} pellet blasting as a decontamination technique were completed in 1993 at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). During 1996, a number of additional CO{sub 2} pellet blasting studies with Alpheus Cleaning Technologies, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pennsylvania State University were conducted. After the testing with Alpheus was complete, an SDI-5 shaved CO{sub 2} blasting unit was purchased by the ICPP to test and determine its capabilities before using in ICPP decontamination efforts. Results of the 1996 testing will be presented in this report.

  11. Joint Spatial-Spectral Reconstruction and k-t Spirals for Accelerated 2D Spatial/1D Spectral Imaging of 13C Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Jeremy W.; Niles, David J.; Fain, Sean B.; Johnson, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To develop a novel imaging technique to reduce the number of excitations and required scan time for hyperpolarized 13C imaging. Methods A least-squares based optimization and reconstruction is developed to simultaneously solve for both spatial and spectral encoding. By jointly solving both domains, spectral imaging can potentially be performed with a spatially oversampled single echo spiral acquisition. Digital simulations, phantom experiments, and initial in vivo hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate experiments were performed to assess the performance of the algorithm as compared to a multi-echo approach. Results Simulations and phantom data indicate that accurate single echo imaging is possible when coupled with oversampling factors greater than six (corresponding to a worst case of pyruvate to metabolite ratio < 9%), even in situations of substantial T2* decay and B0 heterogeneity. With lower oversampling rates, two echoes are required for similar accuracy. These results were confirmed with in vivo data experiments, showing accurate single echo spectral imaging with an oversampling factor of 7 and two echo imaging with an oversampling factor of 4. Conclusion The proposed k-t approach increases data acquisition efficiency by reducing the number of echoes required to generate spectroscopic images, thereby allowing accelerated acquisition speed, preserved polarization, and/or improved temporal or spatial resolution. Magn Reson Med PMID:23716402

  12. Exclusive photoproduction of charmonia in γ p → V p and pp → pV p reactions within k t -factorization approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisek, Anna; Schäfer, Wolfgang; Szczurek, Antoni

    2015-04-01

    The amplitude for γ p → J/ψp (γ p → ψ ' p) is calculated in a pQCD k T -factorization approach. The total cross section for this process is calculated for different unintegrated gluon distributions and compared with the HERA data and the data extracted recently by the LHCb collaboration. The amplitude for γ p → J/ψp (γ p → ψ ' p) is used to predict the cross section for exclusive photoproduction of J/ψ ( ψ ') mesons in proton-proton collisions. Compared to earlier calculations we include both Dirac and Pauli electromagnetic form factors. The effect of the Pauli form factor is quantified. We discuss the role of the J/ψ and ψ ' wave functions for differential distributions and corresponding ratios for ψ ' and J/ψ. Absorption effects are taken into account and their role is discussed in detail. Different differential distributions e.g. in J/ψ ( ψ ') rapidity and transverse momentum are presented and compared with existing experimental data. The unintegrated gluon distribution with nonlinear effects built in and Gaussian wave functions better describe recent experimental data of the LHCb collaboration but no definite conclusion on onset of saturation can be drawn. We present our results also for the Tevatron. A good agreement with the CDF experimental data points at the midrapidity for both J/ψ and ψ ' is achieved.

  13. The high oxygen atmosphere toward the end-Cretaceous; a possible contributing factor to the K/T boundary extinctions and to the emergence of C(4) species.

    PubMed

    Gale, J; Rachmilevitch, S; Reuveni, J; Volokita, M

    2001-04-01

    Angiosperm plants were grown under either the present day 21 kPa O(2) atmosphere or 28 kPa, as estimated for the end-Cretaceous (100-65 MyBP). CO(2) was held at different levels, within the 24-60 Pa range, as also estimated for the same period. In C(3) Xanthium strumarium and Atriplex prostrata, leaf area and net photosynthesis per unit leaf area, were reduced by the high O(2), while the whole-plant respiration/photosynthesis ratio increased. The high O(2) effects were strongest under 24 Pa, but still significant under 60 Pa CO(2). Growth was reduced by high O(2) in these C(3) species, but not in Flaveria sp., whether C(3), C(4), or intermediary grown under light intensities <350 micromol m(-2) s(-1) PPF. Photosynthesis of C(3) Flaveria sp. was reduced by high O(2), but only at light intensities >350 micromol m(-2) s(-1) PPF. It is concluded that the high O(2) atmosphere at the end-Cretaceous would have reduced growth of at least some of the vegetation, thus adversely affecting dependent fauna. The weakened biota would have been predisposed to the consequences of volcanism and the K/T boundary bolide impact. Conversely, photosynthesis and growth of C(4) Zea mays and Atriplex halimus were little affected by high, 28 kPa, O(2). This suggests an environmental driver for the evolution of C(4) physiology. PMID:11413216

  14. 29 CFR 1926.912 - Underwater blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... nonsparking metal loading tube when tube is necessary. (d) No blast shall be fired while any vessel under way... device shall be attached to an element of each charge in such manner that it will be released by...

  15. 29 CFR 1926.912 - Underwater blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... nonsparking metal loading tube when tube is necessary. (d) No blast shall be fired while any vessel under way... device shall be attached to an element of each charge in such manner that it will be released by...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.912 - Underwater blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... nonsparking metal loading tube when tube is necessary. (d) No blast shall be fired while any vessel under way... device shall be attached to an element of each charge in such manner that it will be released by...

  17. 30 CFR 72.610 - Abrasive blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... respirators approved for abrasive blasting by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84, or the operation shall be performed... mines. Silica sand or other materials containing more than 1 percent free silica shall not be used as...

  18. 30 CFR 72.610 - Abrasive blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... respirators approved for abrasive blasting by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84, or the operation shall be performed... mines. Silica sand or other materials containing more than 1 percent free silica shall not be used as...

  19. 30 CFR 72.610 - Abrasive blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... respirators approved for abrasive blasting by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84, or the operation shall be performed... mines. Silica sand or other materials containing more than 1 percent free silica shall not be used as...

  20. 30 CFR 72.610 - Abrasive blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... respirators approved for abrasive blasting by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84, or the operation shall be performed... mines. Silica sand or other materials containing more than 1 percent free silica shall not be used as...

  1. Material Systems for Blast-Energy Dissipation

    SciTech Connect

    James Schondel; Henry S. Chu

    2010-10-01

    Lightweight panels have been designed to protect buildings and vehicles from blast pressures by activating energy dissipation mechanisms under the influence of blast loading. Panels were fabricated which featured a variety of granular materials and hydraulic dissipative deformation mechanisms and the test articles were subjected to full-scale blast loading. The force time-histories transmitted by each technology were measured by a novel method that utilized inexpensive custom-designed force sensors. The array of tests revealed that granular materials can effectively dissipate blast energy if they are employed in a way that they easily crush and rearrange. Similarly, hydraulic dissipation can effectively dissipate energy if the panel features a high fraction of porosity and the panel encasement features low compressive stiffness.

  2. Perfluorocarbon vapor tagging of blasting cap detonators

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, R.N.; Senum, G.I.

    A plug for a blasting cap is made of an elastomer in which is dissolved a perfluorocarbon. The perfluorocarbon is released as a vapor into the ambient over a long period of time to serve as a detectable taggant.

  3. Interactions of Blast Waves with Perturbed Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry de Frahan, Marc; Johnsen, Eric

    2015-11-01

    Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities induce hydrodynamic mixing in many important physical systems such as inertial confinement fusion, supernova collapse, and scramjet combustion. Blast waves interacting with perturbed interfaces are prevelant in such applications and dictate the mixing dynamics. This study increases our understanding of blast-driven hydrodynamic instabilities by providing models for the time-dependent perturbation growth and vorticity production mechanisms. The strength and length of the blast wave determine the different growth regimes and the importance of the Richtmyer-Meshkov or Rayleigh-Taylor growth. Our analysis is based on simulations of a 2D planar blast wave, modeled by a shock (instantaneous acceleration) followed by a rarefaction (time-dependent deceleration), interacting with a sinusoidal perturbation at an interface between two fluids. A high-order accurate Discontinuous Galerkin method is used to solve the multifluid Euler equations.

  4. 30 CFR 72.610 - Abrasive blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... respirators approved for abrasive blasting by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84, or the operation shall be performed... mines. Silica sand or other materials containing more than 1 percent free silica shall not be used as...

  5. Energy aspects of a lead blast furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowperthwaite, Janice E.; Dugdale, Peter J.; Landry, Christian J. F.; R. Morris, David; Steward, Frank R.; Wilson, Timothy C. W.

    1980-06-01

    The energy effects accompanying the processing of the feed material to a lead blast furnace are considered in terms of a reversible model. Relative to this model the efficiencies of operating furnaces are found to be in the range 18 to 35 pct. The effects of the effluent gas CO2/CO ratio and temperature and oxygen enrichment of the blast air in the thermodynamic efficiency are quantified. Improvements in efficiency achieved in industrial furnaces as a result of oxygen enrichment of the blast air are substantially greater than those predicted. Mass and enthalpy balances on an industrial lead blast furnace are presented from which it is estimated that approximately 9 pct of the carbon charged to the furnace is lost due to the solution loss reaction in the upper regions of the furnace.

  6. Perfluorocarbon vapor tagging of blasting cap detonators

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, Russell N.; Senum, Gunnar I.

    1981-01-01

    A plug for a blasting cap is made of an elastomer in which is dissolved a perfluorocarbon. The perfluorocarbon is released as a vapor into the ambient over a long period of time to serve as a detectable taggant.

  7. Lightweight Energy Absorbers for Blast Containers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balles, Donald L.; Ingram, Thomas M.; Novak, Howard L.; Schricker, Albert F.

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic-energy-absorbing liners made of aluminum foam have been developed to replace solid lead liners in blast containers on the aft skirt of the solid rocket booster of the space shuttle. The blast containers are used to safely trap the debris from small explosions that are initiated at liftoff to sever frangible nuts on hold-down studs that secure the spacecraft to a mobile launch platform until liftoff.

  8. Detecting Residues On Grit-Blasted Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, H. L.; Zook, L. M.

    1989-01-01

    Addition of fluorescent or iridescent material to plastic grit particles proposed for detection of grit residues after grit-blast cleaning. Residual films visible by observing grit-blasted surfaces under infrared or ultraviolet light. Plastic grit contains fluorescent or iridescent additive in core and coating. Wherever grit material becomes embedded, additive makes it visible under infrared or ultraviolet light. Applicable to other grit materials, for example fluorescent or iridescent materials added to particles of glass, silicon carbide, aluminum oxide, or zirconium silicate.

  9. Blast injuries: mechanics and wounding patterns.

    PubMed

    Covey, Dana C; Born, Christopher T

    2010-01-01

    Blast and fragment injuries are the most frequently encountered wounds in modern warfare. Explosive devices have become the preferred weapon of domestic and foreign terrorists because they are relatively inexpensive to manufacture and can cause substantial casualties. Although blast injuries have traditionally been associated with the battlefield, this type of trauma is being seen more commonly today among noncombatants due to increasing worldwide terrorism. PMID:20371000

  10. Localized coating removal using plastic media blasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, Howard L.; Wyckoff, Michael G.; Zook, Lee M.

    1988-01-01

    Steps taken to qualify the use of plastic media blasting for safely and effectively removing paint and other coatings from solid rocket booster aluminum structures are described. As a result of the effort, an improvement was made in the design of surface finishing equipment for processing flight hardware, in addition to a potentially patentable idea on improved plastic media composition. The general arrangement of the blast equipment and the nozzle configuration are presented.

  11. Space shuttle holddown post blast shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larracas, F. B.

    1991-01-01

    The original and subsequent designs of the Solid Rocket Booster/Holddown Post blast shield assemblies and their associated hardware are described. It presents the major problems encountered during their early use in the Space Shuttle Program, during the Return-to-Flight Modification Phase, and during their fabrication and validation testing phases. The actions taken to correct the problems are discussed, along with the various concepts now being considered to increase the useful life of the blast shield.

  12. Cygnus Loop Supernova Blast Wave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This is an image of a small portion of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant, which marks the edge of a bubble-like, expanding blast wave from a colossal stellar explosion, occurring about 15,000 years ago. The HST image shows the structure behind the shock waves, allowing astronomers for the first time to directly compare the actual structure of the shock with theoretical model calculations. Besides supernova remnants, these shock models are important in understanding a wide range of astrophysical phenomena, from winds in newly-formed stars to cataclysmic stellar outbursts. The supernova blast is slamming into tenuous clouds of insterstellar gas. This collision heats and compresses the gas, causing it to glow. The shock thus acts as a searchlight revealing the structure of the interstellar medium. The detailed HST image shows the blast wave overrunning dense clumps of gas, which despite HST's high resolution, cannot be resolved. This means that the clumps of gas must be small enough to fit inside our solar system, making them relatively small structures by interstellar standards. A bluish ribbon of light stretching left to right across the picture might be a knot of gas ejected by the supernova; this interstellar 'bullet' traveling over three million miles per hour (5 million kilometres) is just catching up with the shock front, which has slowed down by ploughing into interstellar material. The Cygnus Loop appears as a faint ring of glowing gases about three degrees across (six times the diameter of the full Moon), located in the northern constellation, Cygnus the Swan. The supernova remnant is within the plane of our Milky Way galaxy and is 2,600 light-years away. The photo is a combination of separate images taken in three colors, oxygen atoms (blue) emit light at temperatures of 30,000 to 60,000 degrees Celsius (50,000 to 100,000 degrees Farenheit). Hydrogen atoms (green) arise throughout the region of shocked gas. Sulfur atoms (red) form when the gas cools to

  13. Ultra Safe And Secure Blasting System

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, M M

    2009-07-27

    The Ultra is a blasting system that is designed for special applications where the risk and consequences of unauthorized demolition or blasting are so great that the use of an extraordinarily safe and secure blasting system is justified. Such a blasting system would be connected and logically welded together through digital code-linking as part of the blasting system set-up and initialization process. The Ultra's security is so robust that it will defeat the people who designed and built the components in any attempt at unauthorized detonation. Anyone attempting to gain unauthorized control of the system by substituting components or tapping into communications lines will be thwarted in their inability to provide encrypted authentication. Authentication occurs through the use of codes that are generated by the system during initialization code-linking and the codes remain unknown to anyone, including the authorized operator. Once code-linked, a closed system has been created. The system requires all components connected as they were during initialization as well as a unique code entered by the operator for function and blasting.

  14. Neuropathology of explosive blast traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Magnuson, John; Leonessa, Fabio; Ling, Geoffrey S F

    2012-10-01

    During the conflicts of the Global War on Terror, which are Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) in Afghanistan and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), there have been over a quarter of a million diagnosed cases of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The vast majority are due to explosive blast. Although explosive blast TBI (bTBI) shares many clinical features with closed head TBI (cTBI) and penetrating TBI (pTBI), it has unique features, such as early cerebral edema and prolonged cerebral vasospasm. Evolving work suggests that diffuse axonal injury (DAI) seen following explosive blast exposure is different than DAI from focal impact injury. These unique features support the notion that bTBI is a separate and distinct form of TBI. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge pertaining to bTBI. Areas of discussion are: the physics of explosive blast generation, blast wave interaction with the bony calvarium and brain tissue, gross tissue pathophysiology, regional brain injury, and cellular and molecular mechanisms of explosive blast neurotrauma. PMID:22836523

  15. Underwater blast injury: a review of standards.

    PubMed

    Lance, Rachel M; Bass, Cameron R

    2015-09-01

    The first cases of underwater blast injury appeared in the scientific literature in 1917, and thousands of service members and civilians were injured or killed by underwater blast during WWII. The prevalence of underwater blast injuries and occupational blasting needs led to the development of many safety standards to prevent injury or death. Most of these standards were not supported by experimental data or testing. In this review, we describe existing standards, discuss their origins, and we comprehensively compare their prescriptions across standards. Surprisingly, we found that most safety standards had little or no scientific basis, and prescriptions across standards often varied by at least an order of magnitude. Many published standards traced back to a US Navy 500 psi guideline, which was intended to provide a peak pressure at which injuries were likely to occur. This standard itself seems to have been based upon a completely unfounded assertion that has propagated throughout the literature in subsequent years. Based on the limitations of the standards discussed, we outline future directions for underwater blast injury research, such as the compilation of epidemiological data to examine actual injury risk by human beings subjected to underwater blasts. PMID:26415071

  16. Optimization of a Steel Plant with Multiple Blast Furnaces Under Biomass Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiklund, Carl-Mikael; Pettersson, Frank; Saxén, Henrik

    2013-04-01

    The allocation of resources between several blast furnaces in an integrated steelmaking plant is studied with the aim of finding the lowest specific operation cost for steel production. In order to reduce the use of fossil fuels, biomass was considered as an auxiliary reductant in the furnace after partial pyrolysis in an external unit, as a complement to heavy fuel oil. The optimization considers raw material, energy, and emission costs and a possible credit for sold power and heat. To decrease computational requirements and to guarantee that the global optimum is found, a piecewise linearized model of the blast furnace was used in combination with linear models of the sinter-, coke-, and power plants, hot stoves, and basic oxygen furnace. The optimization was carried out under different constraints on the availability of some raw materials as well as for different efficiencies of the hot stoves of the blast furnaces. The results indicate that a non-uniform distribution of the production between the furnaces can be advantageous, and some surprising findings concerning the optimal resource allocation under constrained operation are reported.

  17. Comparison of Some Blast Vibration Predictors for Blasting in Underground Drifts and Some Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhagwat, Vaibhab Pramod; Dey, Kaushik

    2016-04-01

    Drilling and blasting are the most economical excavation techniques in underground drifts driven through hard rock formation. Burn cut is the most popular drill pattern, used in this case, to achieve longer advance per blast round. The ground vibration generated due to the propagation of blast waves on the detonation of explosive during blasting is the principal cause for structural and rock damage. Thus, ground vibration is a point of concern for the blasting engineers. The ground vibration from a blast is measured using a seismograph placed at the blast monitoring station. The measured vibrations, in terms of peak particle velocity, are related to the maximum charge detonated at one instant and the distance of seismograph from the blast point. The ground vibrations from a number of blast rounds of varying charge/delay and distances are monitored. A number of scaling factors of these dependencies (viz. Distance and maximum charge/delay) have been proposed by different researchers, namely, square root, cube root, CMRI, Langefors and Kihlstrom, Ghosh-Daemon, Indian standard etc. Scaling factors of desired type are computed for all the measured blast rounds. Regression analysis is carried out between the scaling factors and peak particle velocities to establish the coefficients of the vibration predictor equation. Then, the developed predictor equation is used for designing the blast henceforth. Director General of Mine Safety, India, specified that ground vibrations from eight to ten blast rounds of varying charge/delay and distances should be monitored to develop a predictor equation; however, there is no guideline about the type of scaling factor to be used. Further to this, from the statistical point of view, a regression analysis on a small sample population cannot be accepted without the testing of hypothesis. To show the importance of the above, in this paper, seven scaling factors are considered for blast data set of a hard-rock underground drift using burn

  18. Causal Link Between Flood Basalts and Large Impacts: Were The K-t and P-tr Impactors `verneshots' Fired From Terrestrial Plume-fed Co2-guns?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phipps Morgan, J.; Reston, T.; Ranero, C.

    Both bolide impacts (Alvarez et al., 1980) and Continental Flood Basalt (CFB) events (Courtillot, 1996; Courtillot et al., 1994; Morgan, 1986) have been proposed to be the cause of the three largest Phanerozoic mass-extinctions. The Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary is the age of both one of the largest known terrestrial impact struc- tures (the Chixculub site on the Yucatan peninsula) and a very large continental flood basalt (the Deccan Traps event, the first well-documented trace of the Reunion plume- hotspot). In the past year, two papers (Becker et al., 2001; Kaiho et al., 2001) have suggested that the Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) boundary, the age of the largest well- documented CFB (the Siberian Traps), is also marked, in some marine sediments, by the geochemical signature of a large bolide impact. If correct, this would require that both a bolide impact and a CFB occurred at the P-Tr boundary. Finally, the Frasnian- Famennian (Late Devonian) event appears to be contemporaneous with an impact or impacts (e.g. Siljan Ring - Grieve and Robertson, 1987), the eruption of both a Siberian Kimberlite field (Agashev et al., 2001), and the Dniepr-Donets CFB (Wilson et al., 1996). Both large bolide impacts (K-T anomaly appears to occur well within the flood-basalt stratigraphy (Bhandari et al., 1994). Therefore, here we examine whether terrestrial processes can produce the `signal' of an extraterrestrial impact event. We explore a physical model where sub-cratonic plume

  19. Modelling of blast loading on aboveground structures - II. Internal blast and ground shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beshara, F. B. A.

    1994-06-01

    Recent studies of the nature and structural effects of confined explosions, contact blast and explosion-induced ground shock are presented. High explosive blast is distinguished from that due to a gaseous deflagration. The effects of confinement and venting are considered in the evaluation of dynamic loads. Maxima for the initial internal blast pressure can be estimated from the scaled blast data or theoretical analyses of normal blast wave reflection from a rigid wall. Semi-empirical relations and prediction methods for gas pressures for many types of internal explosions including high explosives, gas mixtures and dust suspensions are given on the basis of pseudo-static character. The loading of a contact explosion and the associated effects on a concrete target are determined as functions of charge weight, concrete strength and member thickness. In the final part, the evaluation of both airblast-induced ground shock and directly transmitted motion are included in simple form without considering the soil-structure interaction.

  20. Blast Resistance and Damage Modelling of Fibre Metal Laminates to Blast Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Galal F. A.; Soutis, Costas; Hodzic, Alma

    2012-06-01

    A robust and efficient computational model has been developed which is capable of modelling the dynamic non-linear behaviour of GLARE panels subjected to blast loadings. Numerical model validation have been performed considering case studies of GLARE panels subjected to a blast-type pressure pulse for which experimental data on the back-face deflection and post-damage observations were available. Excellent agreement of mid-point deflections and evidence of severe yield line deformation were shown and discussed against the performed blast tests. A further parametric study identified GLARE as a potential blast attenuating structure, exhibiting superior blast potential against monolithic aluminium plates. It was concluded that further work needed to be carried out to take into account the influence of geometry (cylindrical structures), pre-pressurisation effects and boundary conditions

  1. Blast traumatic brain injury in the rat using a blast overpressure model.

    PubMed

    Yarnell, Angela M; Shaughness, Michael C; Barry, Erin S; Ahlers, Stephen T; McCarron, Richard M; Grunberg, Neil E

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious health concern for civilians and military populations, and blast-induced TBI (bTBI) has become an increasing problem for military personnel over the past 10 years. To understand the biological and psychological effects of blast-induced injuries and to examine potential interventions that may help to prevent, attenuate, and treat effects of bTBI, it is valuable to conduct controlled animal experiments. This unit discusses available paradigms to model traumatic brain injury in animals, with an emphasis on the relevance of these various models to study blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI). This paper describes the detailed methods of a blast overpressure (BOP) paradigm that has been used to conduct experiments with rats to model blast exposure. This particular paradigm models the pressure wave created by explosions, including improvised explosive devices (IEDs). PMID:23315947

  2. How close to ideal is the photon gas Corrections to Planck's laws at kT. much lt. m sub e

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, G. )

    1991-01-01

    At temperatures well below the electron rest mass, the electron-positron concentrations in black-body radiation (BBR) are negligible, and deviations from Planck's laws are due to the photon-photon coupling described (in natural units) by the classic Euler-Heisenberg local interaction Lagrangean density ({alpha}{sup 2}/360{pi}{sup 2}m{sub e}{sup 4})((E{sup 2}{minus}B{sup 2}){sup 2}+7(E{center dot}B){sup 2}). Though unobservably small, these corrections answer the question in the title. They are best expressed in terms of the (frequency-independent) shift in the refractive index {kappa} = (1+{Delta}{kappa}) of BBR, where {Delta}{kappa} = {alpha}{sup 2}(kT/m{sub e}){sup 4}44{pi}{sup 2}/2025 {approx} 7.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}35}(T/300){sup 4}. There are fractional changes of 3 {Delta}{kappa}/2 in the free-energy density and the pressure; 7 {Delta}{kappa}/2 in the energy density; and 2 {Delta}{kappa} in the mean-square electric field in any frequency range, whence only the intensity of the Planck spectrum is shifted but not its shape. The dielectric constant {var epsilon} = (1 + {Delta}{var epsilon}) and magnetic susceptibility {mu} = (1 + {Delta}{mu}) of BBR are equal, with {Delta}{var epsilon} = {Delta}{mu} = {Delta}{kappa}, whence the author compares the BBR shifts with those in an ordinary linear nondispersive medium having {var epsilon} = {mu} = {kappa} {triple bond} {radical}{epsilon}{mu}.

  3. Gyrification from constrained cortical expansion

    PubMed Central

    Tallinen, Tuomas; Chung, Jun Young; Biggins, John S.; Mahadevan, L.

    2014-01-01

    The exterior of the mammalian brain—the cerebral cortex—has a conserved layered structure whose thickness varies little across species. However, selection pressures over evolutionary time scales have led to cortices that have a large surface area to volume ratio in some organisms, with the result that the brain is strongly convoluted into sulci and gyri. Here we show that the gyrification can arise as a nonlinear consequence of a simple mechanical instability driven by tangential expansion of the gray matter constrained by the white matter. A physical mimic of the process using a layered swelling gel captures the essence of the mechanism, and numerical simulations of the brain treated as a soft solid lead to the formation of cusped sulci and smooth gyri similar to those in the brain. The resulting gyrification patterns are a function of relative cortical expansion and relative thickness (compared with brain size), and are consistent with observations of a wide range of brains, ranging from smooth to highly convoluted. Furthermore, this dependence on two simple geometric parameters that characterize the brain also allows us to qualitatively explain how variations in these parameters lead to anatomical anomalies in such situations as polymicrogyria, pachygyria, and lissencephalia. PMID:25136099

  4. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mori, Matteo; Hwa, Terence; Martin, Olivier C; De Martino, Andrea; Marinari, Enzo

    2016-06-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an "ensemble averaging" procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferred at fast growth). In addition, CAFBA allows for quantitatively accurate predictions on the rate of acetate excretion and growth yield based on only 3 parameters determined by empirical growth laws. PMID:27355325

  5. BICEP2 constrains composite inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Channuie, Phongpichit

    2014-07-01

    In light of BICEP2, we re-examine single field inflationary models in which the inflation is a composite state stemming from various four-dimensional strongly coupled theories. We study in the Einstein frame a set of cosmological parameters, the primordial spectral index ns and tensor-to-scalar ratio r, predicted by such models. We confront the predicted results with the joint Planck data, and with the recent BICEP2 data. We constrain the number of e-foldings for composite models of inflation in order to obtain a successful inflation. We find that the minimal composite inflationary model is fully consistent with the Planck data. However it is in tension with the recent BICEP2 data. The observables predicted by the glueball inflationary model can be consistent with both Planck and BICEP2 contours if a suitable number of e-foldings are chosen. Surprisingly, the super Yang-Mills inflationary prediction is significantly consistent with the Planck and BICEP2 observations.

  6. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Matteo; Hwa, Terence; Martin, Olivier C.

    2016-01-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an “ensemble averaging” procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferred at fast growth). In addition, CAFBA allows for quantitatively accurate predictions on the rate of acetate excretion and growth yield based on only 3 parameters determined by empirical growth laws. PMID:27355325

  7. 30 CFR 57.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and... shall be protected from sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be...

  8. 30 CFR 57.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and... shall be protected from sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be...

  9. EXTERIOR VIEW, BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE) CENTER, NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW, BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE) CENTER, NO. 3 CAST HOUSE TO THE LEFT, WEST ORE BRIDGE TO THE RIGHT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  10. 3. VIEW OF DUQUESNE'S RAIL LINES AND BLAST FURNACE PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF DUQUESNE'S RAIL LINES AND BLAST FURNACE PLANT LOOKING NORTH. DOROTHY SIX IS THE CLOSEST FURNACE IN THE PHOTOGRAPH. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  11. 56. LOOKING NORTH AT DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH CAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. LOOKING NORTH AT DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH CAST HOUSE IN FOREGROUND AND DUSTCATCHER AT RIGHT OF FURNACE (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  12. June 7 Ballistic Blast Results in Solar Tsunami

    NASA Video Gallery

    In addition to the magnificent blast, SDO detected a shadowy shock wave issuing from the blast site on the June 7, 2011 event. The 'solar tsunami' propagated more than halfway across the sun, visib...

  13. 6. Photocopy of a drawing of the lead blast furnace ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of a drawing of the lead blast furnace from J.L. Bray, The Principles of Metallurgy, Ginn & Co. New York, 1929. - International Smelting & Refining Company, Tooele Smelter, Blast Furnace Building, State Route 178, Tooele, Tooele County, UT

  14. 30 CFR 77.1304 - Blasting agents; special provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ammonium nitrate blasting agents, and the components thereof prior to mixing, shall be mixed and stored in... Sensitized Ammonium Nitrate Blasting Agents,” or subsequent revisions. (b) Where pneumatic loading...

  15. 30 CFR 77.1304 - Blasting agents; special provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ammonium nitrate blasting agents, and the components thereof prior to mixing, shall be mixed and stored in... Sensitized Ammonium Nitrate Blasting Agents,” or subsequent revisions. (b) Where pneumatic loading...

  16. 30 CFR 77.1304 - Blasting agents; special provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ammonium nitrate blasting agents, and the components thereof prior to mixing, shall be mixed and stored in... Sensitized Ammonium Nitrate Blasting Agents,” or subsequent revisions. (b) Where pneumatic loading...

  17. Constrained Peptides as Miniature Protein Structures

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Hang

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the recent developments of protein engineering using both covalent and noncovalent bonds to constrain peptides, forcing them into designed protein secondary structures. These constrained peptides subsequently can be used as peptidomimetics for biological functions such as regulations of protein-protein interactions. PMID:25969758

  18. Modeling and simulation of explosion effectiveness as a function of blast and crowd characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usmani, Zeeshan-Ul-Hassan

    Suicide bombing has become one of the most lethal and favorite modus operandi of terrorist organizations around the world. On average, there is a suicide bombing attack every six days somewhere in the world. While various attempts have been made to assess the impact of explosions on structures and military personnel, little has been done on modeling the impact of a blast wave on a crowd in civilian settings. The assessment of an explosion's effect on a crowd can lead to better management of disasters, triage of patients, locating blast victims under the debris, development of protective gear, and safe distance recommendations to reduce the casualties. The overall goal of this work is to predict the magnitude of injuries and lethality on humans from a blast-wave with various explosive and crowd characteristics, and to compare, contrast, and analyze the performance of explosive and injury models against the real-life data of suicide bombing incidents. This thesis introduces BlastSim---a physics based stationary multi-agent simulation platform to model and simulate a suicide bombing event. The agents are constrained by the physical characteristics and mechanics of the blast wave. The BlastSim is programmed to test, analyze, and validate the results of different model combinations under various conditions with different sets of parameters, such as the crowd and explosive characteristics, blockage and human shields, fragmentation and the bomber's position, in 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional environments. The suicide bombing event can be re-created for forensic analysis. The proposed model combinations show a significant performance---the Harold Brode explosive model with Catherine Lee injury model using the blockage stands out consistently to be the best with an overall cumulative accuracy of 87.6%. When comparing against actual data, overall, prediction accuracy can be increased by 71% using this model combination. The J. Clutter with Reflection explosive model using

  19. Blast-wave characteristics near Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Sang-Wook; Kleiber, J.C. Jr.

    1993-08-01

    The blast-wave overpressures propagating in the atmosphere near the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300 have been measured at selected locations to determine whether the Site 300 blast operations will be hindered by the proposed construction of a residential development adjacent to its border.We tested high-explosives (HE) weights ranging from 14 to 545 lb under various weather conditions. Although more tests should be conducted before a definitive statement can be made on the blast propagation near Site 300, we offer the following preliminary interpretation of the results obtained to date. The readings at the closest locations show that the blast-wave overpressures exceed the 126-decibel (dB) level established by LLNL at about 250 lb of HE detonation. The weather conditions do not materially affect the pressure levels at these locations. Insufficient test data exist along the Corral Hollow Road perimeter, making it difficult to reasonably predict HE blast effects along the southern border. Therefore, we recommend that additional measurements be made along this and other boundaries in future tests, to provide more comprehensive data to help determine the blast-wave propagation characteristics in the proposed development areas. Blast-wave focusing may occur in the proposed residential development area under certain weather conditions. We recommend that this possibility should be addressed for its potentially adverse impact on the proposed residential area. Because the testing ground controlled by Physics International, Inc. (PI) is adjacent to Site 300, it is important to be aware of PI`s detonation activities. Peak overpressure measurements near PI`s Corral Hollow Road entrance reveal that PI shots over 25 lb HE have exceeded 126 dB, the limit established by LLNL for safe operations.

  20. 30 CFR 816.64 - Use of explosives: Blasting schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use of explosives: Blasting schedule. 816.64... ACTIVITIES § 816.64 Use of explosives: Blasting schedule. (a) General requirements. (1) The operator shall... specific areas in which blasting will take place; (3) Dates and time periods when explosives are to...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1310 - Explosives and blasting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosives and blasting equipment. 75.1310... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1310 Explosives and blasting equipment. (a) Only permissible explosives, approved sheathed explosive units,...

  2. VIEW LOOKING NORTH, VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 2 (LEFT) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING NORTH, VIEW OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 2 (LEFT) SHARING THE SAME CAST HOUSE WITH BLAST FURNACE NO. 1. ORE BRIDGE & BLOWER HOUSE TO RIGHT, HULETT CAR DUMPER IS IN LEFT FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  3. Test of Some Hybrid Combinations to Rice Blast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most devastating rice diseases worldwide. Blast resistant cultivars are recognized as the most efficacious and economical way to control this disease. Genetic resistance to rice blast is generally governed by a few major genes, often in c...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1310 - Explosives and blasting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosives and blasting equipment. 75.1310... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1310 Explosives and blasting equipment. (a) Only permissible explosives, approved sheathed explosive units,...

  5. 30 CFR 75.1310 - Explosives and blasting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives and blasting equipment. 75.1310... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1310 Explosives and blasting equipment. (a) Only permissible explosives, approved sheathed explosive units,...

  6. 30 CFR 816.64 - Use of explosives: Blasting schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use of explosives: Blasting schedule. 816.64... ACTIVITIES § 816.64 Use of explosives: Blasting schedule. (a) General requirements. (1) The operator shall... specific areas in which blasting will take place; (3) Dates and time periods when explosives are to...

  7. 30 CFR 77.1910 - Explosives and blasting; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosives and blasting; general. 77.1910... COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1910 Explosives and blasting; general. (a) Light and power... explosive materials, detonators, and any other related blasting material employed in the development of...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1310 - Explosives and blasting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosives and blasting equipment. 75.1310... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1310 Explosives and blasting equipment. (a) Only permissible explosives, approved sheathed explosive units,...

  9. 30 CFR 816.64 - Use of explosives: Blasting schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use of explosives: Blasting schedule. 816.64... ACTIVITIES § 816.64 Use of explosives: Blasting schedule. (a) General requirements. (1) The operator shall... specific areas in which blasting will take place; (3) Dates and time periods when explosives are to...

  10. 30 CFR 816.64 - Use of explosives: Blasting schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of explosives: Blasting schedule. 816.64... ACTIVITIES § 816.64 Use of explosives: Blasting schedule. (a) General requirements. (1) The operator shall... specific areas in which blasting will take place; (3) Dates and time periods when explosives are to...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1310 - Explosives and blasting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosives and blasting equipment. 75.1310... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1310 Explosives and blasting equipment. (a) Only permissible explosives, approved sheathed explosive units,...

  12. 30 CFR 816.64 - Use of explosives: Blasting schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use of explosives: Blasting schedule. 816.64... ACTIVITIES § 816.64 Use of explosives: Blasting schedule. (a) General requirements. (1) The operator shall... specific areas in which blasting will take place; (3) Dates and time periods when explosives are to...

  13. 30 CFR 56.6300 - Control of blasting operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control of blasting operations. 56.6300 Section... § 56.6300 Control of blasting operations. (a) Only persons trained and experienced in the handling and use of explosive material shall direct blasting operations and related activities. (b) Trainees...

  14. 30 CFR 57.6300 - Control of blasting operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control of blasting operations. 57.6300 Section... Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6300 Control of blasting operations. (a) Only persons trained and experienced in the handling and use of explosive material shall direct blasting operations and...

  15. 29 CFR 1926.910 - Inspection after blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... disconnected from the blasting machine, or where power switches are used, they shall be locked open or in the... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Inspection after blasting. 1926.910 Section 1926.910 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Blasting and the Use of Explosives §...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.910 - Inspection after blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... disconnected from the blasting machine, or where power switches are used, they shall be locked open or in the... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inspection after blasting. 1926.910 Section 1926.910 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Blasting and the Use of Explosives §...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.910 - Inspection after blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... disconnected from the blasting machine, or where power switches are used, they shall be locked open or in the... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inspection after blasting. 1926.910 Section 1926.910 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Blasting and the Use of Explosives §...

  18. Effectiveness of eye armor during blast loading.

    PubMed

    Bailoor, Shantanu; Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Nguyen, Thao D

    2015-11-01

    Ocular trauma is one of the most common types of combat injuries resulting from the interaction of military personnel with improvised explosive devices. Ocular blast injury mechanisms are complex, and trauma may occur through various injury mechanisms. However, primary blast injuries (PBI) are an important cause of ocular trauma that may go unnoticed and result in significant damage to internal ocular tissues and visual impairment. Further, the effectiveness of commonly employed eye armor, designed for ballistic and laser protection, in lessening the severity of adverse blast overpressures (BOP) is unknown. In this paper, we employed a three-dimensional (3D) fluid-structure interaction computational model for assessing effectiveness of the eye armor during blast loading on human eyes and validated results against free field blast measurements by Bentz and Grimm (2013). Numerical simulations show that the blast waves focused on the ocular region because of reflections from surrounding facial features and resulted in considerable increase in BOP. We evaluated the effectiveness of spectacles and goggles in mitigating the pressure loading using the computational model. Our results corroborate experimental measurements showing that the goggles were more effective than spectacles in mitigating BOP loading on the eye. Numerical results confirmed that the goggles significantly reduced blast wave penetration in the space between the armor and the eyes and provided larger clearance space for blast wave expansion after penetration than the spectacles. The spectacles as well as the goggles were more effective in reducing reflected BOP at higher charge mass because of the larger decrease in dynamic pressures after the impact. The goggles provided greater benefit of reducing the peak pressure than the spectacles for lower charge mass. However, the goggles resulted in moderate, sustained elevated pressure loading on the eye, that became 50-100% larger than the pressure loading

  19. Computational modeling of human head under blast in confined and open spaces: primary blast injury.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, A; Salimi Jazi, M; Karami, G

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a computational modeling for biomechanical analysis of primary blast injuries is presented. The responses of the brain in terms of mechanical parameters under different blast spaces including open, semi-confined, and confined environments are studied. In the study, the effect of direct and indirect blast waves from the neighboring walls in the confined environments will be taken into consideration. A 50th percentile finite element head model is exposed to blast waves of different intensities. In the open space, the head experiences a sudden intracranial pressure (ICP) change, which vanishes in a matter of a few milliseconds. The situation is similar in semi-confined space, but in the confined space, the reflections from the walls will create a number of subsequent peaks in ICP with a longer duration. The analysis procedure is based on a simultaneous interaction simulation of the deformable head and its components with the blast wave propagations. It is concluded that compared with the open and semi-confined space settings, the walls in the confined space scenario enhance the risk of primary blast injuries considerably because of indirect blast waves transferring a larger amount of damaging energy to the head. PMID:23996897

  20. Modelling human eye under blast loading.

    PubMed

    Esposito, L; Clemente, C; Bonora, N; Rossi, T

    2015-01-01

    Primary blast injury (PBI) is the general term that refers to injuries resulting from the mere interaction of a blast wave with the body. Although few instances of primary ocular blast injury, without a concomitant secondary blast injury from debris, are documented, some experimental studies demonstrate its occurrence. In order to investigate PBI to the eye, a finite element model of the human eye using simple constitutive models was developed. The material parameters were calibrated by a multi-objective optimisation performed on available eye impact test data. The behaviour of the human eye and the dynamics of mechanisms occurring under PBI loading conditions were modelled. For the generation of the blast waves, different combinations of explosive (trinitrotoluene) mass charge and distance from the eye were analysed. An interpretation of the resulting pressure, based on the propagation and reflection of the waves inside the eye bulb and orbit, is proposed. The peculiar geometry of the bony orbit (similar to a frustum cone) can induce a resonance cavity effect and generate a pressure standing wave potentially hurtful for eye tissues. PMID:23521031

  1. Blasting response of the Eiffel Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horlyck, Lachlan; Hayes, Kieran; Caetano, Ryan; Tahmasebinia, Faham; Ansourian, Peter; Alonso-Marroquin, Fernando

    2016-08-01

    A finite element model of the Eiffel Tower was constructed using Strand7 software. The model replicates the existing tower, with dimensions justified through the use of original design drawings. A static and dynamic analysis was conducted to determine the actions of the tower under permanent, imposed and wind loadings, as well as under blast pressure loads and earthquake loads due to an explosion. It was observed that the tower utilises the full axial capacity of individual members by acting as a `truss of trusses'. As such, permanent and imposed loads are efficiently transferred to the primary columns through compression, while wind loads induce tensile forces in the windward legs and compressive forces in the leeward. Under blast loading, the tower experienced both ground vibrations and blast pressures. Ground vibrations induced a negligibly small earthquake loading into the structure which was ignored in subsequent analyses. The blast pressure was significant, and a dynamic analysis of this revealed that further research is required into the damping qualities of the structure due to soil and mechanical properties. In the worst case scenario, the blast was assumed to completely destroy several members in the adjacent leg. Despite this weakened condition, it was observed that the tower would still be able to sustain static loads, at least for enough time for occupant evacuation. Further, an optimised design revealed the structure was structurally sound under a 46% reduction of the metal tower's mass.

  2. Densification of pond ash by blasting

    SciTech Connect

    Gandhi, S.R.; Dey, A.K.; Selvam, S.

    1999-10-01

    Fly ash from thermal power plants is disposed, in huge quantities in ash ponds, which occupy large land areas otherwise useful for agriculture, housing, or other development. For effective rehabilitation of ash ponds, densification of the slurry deposit is essential to increase the bearing capacity and to improve its resistance to liquefaction. Extensive field trials were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of deep blasting for densification of deposited fly ash. Ninety explosions comprising 15 single blasts, with varying depths and quantities of charges, and 3 group blasts, each having 25 charges placed at various spacings, were carried out. The compaction achieved in terms of an increase in relative density was evaluated from surface settlement measurements. Extensive field monitoring was undertaken through pore-water pressure measurements, vibration measurements, penetration tests, and block vibration tests. For the average charge of 2--4 g of explosive per cubic meter of untreated deposit, the average relative density was found to improve from 50% to 56--58%. Analysis of the test results indicates that deep blasting may be an effective technique for modest compaction of loose fly ash deposits. The field testing program presented in this paper provides valuable information that can be used for planning blast densification of fly ash deposits.

  3. Bayesian detection of acoustic muzzle blasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Kenneth D., Jr.; Collins, Leslie

    2009-05-01

    Acoustic detection of gunshots has many security and military applications. Most gunfire produces both an acoustic muzzle-blast signal as well as a high-frequency shockwave. However some guns do not propel bullets with the speed required to cause shockwaves, and the use of a silencer can significantly reduce the energy of muzzle blasts; thus, although most existing commercial and military gunshot detection systems are based on shockwave detection, reliable detection across a wide range of applications requires the development of techniques which incorporate both muzzle-blast and shockwave phenomenologies. The detection of muzzle blasts is often difficult due to the presence of non-stationary background signals. Previous approaches to muzzle blast detection have applied pattern recognition techniques without specifically considering the non-stationary nature of the background signals and thus these techniques may perform poorly under realistic operating conditions. This research focuses on time domain modeling of the non-stationary background using Bayesian auto-regressive models. Bayesian parameter estimation can provide a principled approach to non-stationary modeling while also eliminating the stability concerns associated with standard adaptive procedures. Our proposed approach is tested on a synthetic dataset derived from recordings of actual background signals and a database of isolated gunfire. Detection results are compared to a standard adaptive approach, the least-mean squares (LMS) algorithm, across several signal to background ratios in both indoor and outdoor conditions.

  4. ARL Explosive Blast Bar Gauge Response Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Gerrit; Boyle, Vincent; Benjamin, Richard

    2013-06-01

    Simulations allow us to optimize the design of a bar gauge. The incident blast wave imparts a wave that travels down the metal bar. Strain gauges positioned along the bar measure the strain produced by the bar wave, allowing determination of pressure and impulse at the bar face. The measured pressure history depends on the arrangement of the bar gauge. If a large metal plate surrounds the bar face, a reflected blast pressure is measured. If a metal fixture that forms a nozzle surrounds the bar face, the initial pressure will be the same as above. In time, release waves emanating from the nozzle edge will decrease the pressure at the bar face. The bar diameter and size of strain gauges control the time response or gauge bandwidth. CTH hydrocode simulations allow optimization of bar gauge features for various size explosive charges. The simulations predicted the response of the metal plate arrangement to a blast from a spherical composition C4 charge. The simulations predicted the proper metal plate diameter for a reflected pressure measurement. Other simulations compared the response of the bar gauge for both configurations (nozzle or plate surround) when subjected to the same blast loading. Pressure histories from simulations were compared to those from experiment and those predicted by the CONWEP blast code. The initial experimental and CONWEP pressures were in reasonable agreement.

  5. Evolution of blast wave profiles in simulated air blasts: experiment and computational modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, N.; Ganpule, S.; Kleinschmit, N. N.; Feng, R.; Holmberg, A. D.; Sundaramurthy, A.; Selvan, V.; Alai, A.

    2012-09-01

    Shock tubes have been extensively used in the study of blast traumatic brain injury due to increased incidence of blast-induced neurotrauma in Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts. One of the important aspects in these studies is how to best replicate the field conditions in the laboratory which relies on reproducing blast wave profiles. Evolution of the blast wave profiles along the length of the compression-driven air shock tube is studied using experiments and numerical simulations with emphasis on the shape and magnitude of pressure time profiles. In order to measure dynamic pressures of the blast, a series of sensors are mounted on a cylindrical specimen normal to the flow direction. Our results indicate that the blast wave loading is significantly different for locations inside and outside of the shock tube. Pressure profiles inside the shock tube follow the Friedlander waveform fairly well. Upon approaching exit of the shock tube, an expansion wave released from the shock tube edges significantly degrades the pressure profiles. For tests outside the shock tube, peak pressure and total impulse reduce drastically as we move away from the exit and majority of loading is in the form of subsonic jet wind. In addition, the planarity of the blast wave degrades as blast wave evolves three dimensionally. Numerical results visually and quantitatively confirm the presence of vortices, jet wind and three-dimensional expansion of the planar blast wave near the exit. Pressure profiles at 90° orientation show flow separation. When cylinder is placed inside, this flow separation is not sustained, but when placed outside the shock tube this flow separation is sustained which causes tensile loading on the sides of the cylinder. Friedlander waves formed due to field explosives in the intermediate-to far-field ranges are replicated in a narrow test region located deep inside the shock tube.

  6. Constrained Deformable-Layer Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, H.

    2006-12-01

    The improvement on traveltime tomography depends on improving data coverage and tomographic methodology. The data coverage depends on the spatial distribution of sources and stations, as well as the extent of lateral velocity variation that may alter the raypaths locally. A reliable tomographic image requires large enough ray hit count and wide enough angular range between traversing rays over the targeted anomalies. Recent years have witnessed the advancement of traveltime tomography in two aspects. One is the use of finite frequency kernels, and the other is the improvement on model parameterization, particularly that allows the use of a priori constraints. A new way of model parameterization is the deformable-layer tomography (DLT), which directly inverts for the geometry of velocity interfaces by varying the depths of grid points to achieve a best traveltime fit. In contrast, conventional grid or cell tomography seeks to determine velocity values of a mesh of fixed-in-space grids or cells. In this study, the DLT is used to map crustal P-wave velocities with first arrival data from local earthquakes and two LARSE active surveys in southern California. The DLT solutions along three profiles are constrained using known depth ranges of the Moho discontinuity at 21 sites from a previous receiver function study. The DLT solutions are generally well resolved according to restoration resolution tests. The patterns of 2D DLT models of different profiles match well at their intersection locations. In comparison with existing 3D cell tomography models in southern California, the new DLT models significantly improve the data fitness. In comparison with the multi-scale cell tomography conducted for the same data, while the data fitting levels of the DLT and the multi-scale cell tomography models are compatible, the DLT provides much higher vertical resolution and more realistic description of the undulation of velocity discontinuities. The constraints on the Moho depth

  7. The effect of explosive blast loading on human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zander, Nicole E; Piehler, Thuvan; Banton, Rohan; Boggs, Mary

    2016-07-01

    Diagnosis of mild to moderate traumatic brain injury is challenging because brain tissue damage progresses slowly and is not readily detectable by conventional imaging techniques. We have developed a novel in vitro model to study primary blast loading on dissociated neurons using nitroamine explosives such as those used on the battlefield. Human neuroblastoma cells were exposed to single and triple 50-psi explosive blasts and single 100-psi blasts. Changes in membrane permeability and oxidative stress showed a significant increase for the single and triple 100-psi blast conditions compared with single 50-psi blast and controls. PMID:27033003

  8. The blast wave mitigation effects of a magnetogasdynamic decelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Baty, Roy S; Lundgren, Ronald G; Tucker, Don H

    2009-01-01

    This work computes shock wave jump functions for viscous blast waves propagating in a magnetogasdynamic decelerator. The decelerator is assumed to be a one-dimensional channel with sides that are perfect conductors. An electric field applied on the walls of the channel produces a magnetogasdynamic pump, which decelerates the flow field induced by a blast wave. The blast wave jump functions computed here are compared to magnetogasdynamic results for steady supersonic channel flow to quantify potential blast mitigation effects. Theoretical shock wave jump functions are also presented for inviscid blast waves propagating in a one-dimensional channel with an electromagnetic field.

  9. Blast noise impacts on sleep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nykaza, Edward T.; Pater, Larry L.

    2005-04-01

    Firing large guns during the hours of darkness is essential to combat readiness for the military. At the same time most people are particularly sensitive to noise when sleeping or trying to fall asleep. Laboratory studies done by Griefahn [J. Sound and Vib. 128, 109-119 (1989)] and Luz [see Luz et al., ERDC/CERL, TR-04-26 (2004)] suggest that a time period at night may exist where people are more tolerant to large weapon impulse noise (blast noise) and therefore, are less likely to be awakened from noise events. In the fall of 2004, a field study was conducted around a military installation to determine if such a time period(s) exists. Noise monitors were set up inside and outside of residents homes to record noise levels from live military training activities and actimeters were worn by participants sleeping their natural environment to measure sleep disturbance and awakening. The method and results of this study will be presented. [Work supported by US Army Engineer Research and Development Center CERL.

  10. Isothermal blast wave model of supernova remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solinger, A.; Buff, J.; Rappaport, S.

    1975-01-01

    The validity of the 'adiabatic' assumption in supernova-remnant calculations is examined, and the alternative extreme of an isothermal blast wave is explored. It is concluded that, because of thermal conductivity, the large temperature gradients predicted by the adiabatic model probably are not maintained in nature. Self-similar solutions to the hydrodynamic equations for an isothermal blast wave have been found and studied. These solutions are then used to determine the relationship between X-ray observations and inferred parameters of supernova remnants. A comparison of the present results with those for the adiabatic model indicates differences which are less than present observational uncertainties. It is concluded that most parameters of supernova remnants inferred from X-ray measurements are relatively insensitive to the specifics of the blast-wave model.

  11. Computation of blast wave-obstacle interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Champney, J. M.; Chaussee, D. S.; Kutler, P.

    1982-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the interaction of a planar blast wave with various obstacles are presented. These obstacles are either ground structures or vehicles flying in the atmosphere. For a structure on the ground, the blast wave encounter is side-on, while for the flying vehicles the encounter is either head-on or oblique. Second-order accurate, finite-difference, and shock-capturing procedures are employed to solve the two-dimensional, axisymmetric, and three-dimensional unsteady Euler equations. Results are presented for the flow field consisting of blast wave striking obstacles that are at rest, moving subsonically and moving supersonically. Comparison of the numerical results with experimental data for a configuration at rest substantiates the validity of this approach and its potential as a flow analysis tool.

  12. Low-Cost Blast Wave Generator for Studies of Hearing Loss and Brain Injury: Blast Wave Effects in Closed Spaces

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Andrew J.; Hayes, Sarah H.; Rao, Abhiram S.; Allman, Brian L.; Manohar, Senthilvelan; Ding, Dalian; Stolzberg, Daniel; Lobarinas, Edward; Mollendorf, Joseph C.; Salvi, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background Military personnel and civilians living in areas of armed conflict have increased risk of exposure to blast overpressures that can cause significant hearing loss and/or brain injury. The equipment used to simulate comparable blast overpressures in animal models within laboratory settings is typically very large and prohibitively expensive. New Method To overcome the fiscal and space limitations introduced by previously reported blast wave generators, we developed a compact, low-cost blast wave generator to investigate the effects of blast exposures on the auditory system and brain. Results The blast wave generator was constructed largely from off the shelf components, and reliably produced blasts with peak sound pressures of up to 198 dB SPL (159.3 kPa) that were qualitatively similar to those produced from muzzle blasts or explosions. Exposure of adult rats to 3 blasts of 188 dB peak SPL (50.4 kPa) resulted in significant loss of cochlear hair cells, reduced outer hair cell function and a decrease in neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Comparison to existing methods Existing blast wave generators are typically large, expensive, and are not commercially available. The blast wave generator reported here provides a low-cost method of generating blast waves in a typical laboratory setting. Conclusions This compact blast wave generator provides scientists with a low cost device for investigating the biological mechanisms involved in blast wave injury to the rodent cochlea and brain that may model many of the damaging effects sustained by military personnel and civilians exposed to intense blasts. PMID:25597910

  13. Comparative analysis of SV40 17kT and LT function in vivo demonstrates that LT's C-terminus re-programs hepatic gene expression and is necessary for tumorigenesis in the liver

    PubMed Central

    Comerford, S A; Schultz, N; Hinnant, E A; Klapproth, S; Hammer, R E

    2012-01-01

    Transformation by Simian Virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen (LT) is mediated in large part by its interaction with a variety of cellular proteins at distinct binding domains within LT. While the interaction of LT's N-terminus with the tumor suppressor Rb is absolutely required for LT-dependent transformation, the requirement for the interaction of LT's C-terminus with p53 is less clear and cell- and context-dependent. Here, we report a line of transgenic mice expressing a doxycycline-inducible liver-specific viral transcript that produces abundant 17kT, a naturally occurring SV40 early product that is co-linear with LT for the first 131 amino acids and that binds to Rb, but not p53. Comparative analysis of livers of transgenic mice expressing either 17kT or full length LT demonstrates that 17kT stimulates cell proliferation and induces hepatic hyperplasia but is incapable of inducing hepatic dysplasia or promoting hepatocarcinogenesis. Gene expression profiling demonstrates that 17kT and LT invoke a set of shared molecular signatures consistent with the action of LT's N-terminus on Rb-E2F-mediated control of hepatocyte transcription. However, 17kT also induces a unique set of genes, many of which are known transcriptional targets of p53, while LT actively suppresses them. LT also uniquely deregulates the expression of a subset of genes within the imprinted network and rapidly re-programs hepatocyte gene expression to a more fetal-like state. Finally, we provide evidence that the LT/p53 complex provides a gain-of-function for LT-dependent transformation in the liver, and confirm the absolute requirement for LT's C-terminus for liver tumor development by demonstrating that phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-deficiency readily cooperates with LT, but not 17kT, for tumorigenesis. These results confirm independent and inter-dependent functions for LT's N- and C-terminus and emphasize differences in the requirements for LT's C-terminus in cell-type dependent

  14. Study of High Mach Number Laser Driven Blast Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Edens, A; Ditmire, T; Hansen, J F; Edwards, M J; Adams, R G; Rambo, P; Ruggles, L; Smith, I C; Porter, J L

    2004-02-26

    The study of blast waves produced by intense lasers in gases is motivated by the desire to explore astrophysically relevant hydrodynamic phenomena in the laboratory. We have performed a systematic scan of laser produced blast waves and have examined the blast wave structure over a wide range of drive laser energy. Lasers with energies ranging from 10J-1000J illuminated a pin target in either xenon or nitrogen gas, creating a spherical blast wave. We observe a strongly radiating blast wave in xenon gas while blast waves in nitrogen more closely approximate a pure Taylor-Sedov wave. We also find that at all laser energies, blast waves traveling through xenon gas had their hydrodynamic evolution significantly affected by the passage of the illumination laser.

  15. The design, implementation, and evaluation of mpiBLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Darling, A. E.; Carey, L.; Feng, W. C.

    2003-01-01

    mpiBLAST is an open-source parallelization of BLAST that achieves superlinear speed-up by segmenting a BLAST database and then having each node in a computational cluster search a unique portion of the database. Database segmentation permits each node to search a smaller portion of the database, eliminating disk I/O and vastly improving BLAST performance. Because database segmentation does not create heavy communication demands, BLAST users can take advantage of low-cost and efficient Linux cluster architectures such as the bladed Beowulf. In addition to presenting the software architecture of mpiBLAST we present a detailed performance analysis of mpiBLAST to demonstrate its scalability.

  16. A computational model of blast loading on the human eye.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Ziegler, Kimberly; Seo, Jung Hee; Ramesh, K T; Nguyen, Thao D

    2014-01-01

    Ocular injuries from blast have increased in recent wars, but the injury mechanism associated with the primary blast wave is unknown. We employ a three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction computational model to understand the stresses and deformations incurred by the globe due to blast overpressure. Our numerical results demonstrate that the blast wave reflections off the facial features around the eye increase the pressure loading on and around the eye. The blast wave produces asymmetric loading on the eye, which causes globe distortion. The deformation response of the globe under blast loading was evaluated, and regions of high stresses and strains inside the globe were identified. Our numerical results show that the blast loading results in globe distortion and large deviatoric stresses in the sclera. These large deviatoric stresses may be indicator for the risk of interfacial failure between the tissues of the sclera and the orbit. PMID:23591604

  17. Process control techniques for the Sidmar blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Vandenberghe, D.; Bonte, L.; Nieuwerburgh, H. van

    1995-12-01

    The major challenge for modern blast furnace operation is the achievement of a very high productivity, excellent hot metal quality, low fuel consumption and longer blast furnace campaigns. The introduction of predictive models, decision supporting software and expert systems has reduced the standard deviation of the hot metal silicon content. The production loss due to the thermal state of the blast furnace has decreased three times since 1990. An appropriate control of the heat losses with high pulverized coal injection rates, is of the utmost importance for the life of the blast furnace. Different rules for the burden distribution of both blast furnaces are given. At blast furnace A, a peripheral gas flow is promoted, while at blast furnace B a more central gas flow is promoted.

  18. LTC American`s, Inc. vacuum blasting machine: Baseline report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise.

  19. Nineteen-Foot Diameter Explosively Driven Blast Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    VIGIL,MANUEL G.

    2001-07-01

    This report describes the 19-foot diameter blast tunnel at Sandia National Laboratories. The blast tunnel configuration consists of a 6 foot diameter by 200 foot long shock tube, a 6 foot diameter to 19 foot diameter conical expansion section that is 40 feet long, and a 19 foot diameter test section that is 65 feet long. Therefore, the total blast tunnel length is 305 feet. The development of this 19-foot diameter blast tunnel is presented. The small scale research test results using 4 inch by 8 inch diameter and 2 foot by 6 foot diameter shock tube facilities are included. Analytically predicted parameters are compared to experimentally measured blast tunnel parameters in this report. The blast tunnel parameters include distance, time, static, overpressure, stagnation pressure, dynamic pressure, reflected pressure, shock Mach number, flow Mach number, shock velocity, flow velocity, impulse, flow duration, etc. Shadowgraphs of the shock wave are included for the three different size blast tunnels.

  20. Numerical Simulation of Shock/Detonation-Deformable-Particle Interaction with Constrained Interface Reinitialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ju; Jackson, Thomas; Balachandar, Sivaramakrishnan

    2015-06-01

    We will develop a computational model built upon our verified and validated in-house SDT code to provide improved description of the multiphase blast wave dynamics where solid particles are considered deformable and can even undergo phase transitions. Our SDT computational framework includes a reactive compressible flow solver with sophisticated material interface tracking capability and realistic equation of state (EOS) such as Mie-Gruneisen EOS for multiphase flow modeling. The behavior of diffuse interface models by Shukla et al. (2010) and Tiwari et al. (2013) at different shock impedance ratio will be first examined and characterized. The recent constrained interface reinitialization by Shukla (2014) will then be developed to examine if conservation property can be improved. This work was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy and by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency.

  1. Blast From the Past: A Retrospective Analysis of Blast-induced Head Injury.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kristin E; Murphy, Justin M; Tsao, Jack W

    2016-03-01

    Because of the sharp increase in the number of military personnel exposed to explosive blasts in combat, research has been dedicated toward understanding the impact of explosions on the brain. It is important to consider that potential injuries that military personnel sustain may be both in the form of physical injury as well as "invisible" neuronal and psychological damage. Since the inception of the study of blast science in the Medieval and Renaissance eras, significant improvements have been made in the historical record keeping and biomedical analysis of blast injuries. This editorial comments on the evolution of blast science and the recognition of neurological sequelae from both the historical and scientific perspectives. PMID:26926849

  2. Constrained crosstalk resistant adaptive noise canceller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsa, V.; Parker, P.

    1994-08-01

    The performance of an adaptive noise canceller (ANC) is sensitive to the presence of signal `crosstalk' in the reference channel. The authors propose a novel approach to crosstalk resistant adaptive noise cancellation, namely the constrained crosstalk resistant adaptive noise canceller (CCRANC). The theoretical analysis of the CCRANC along with the constrained algorithm is presented. The performance of the CCRANC in recovering somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) from myoelectric interference is then evaluated through simulations.

  3. Paleoenvironmental Changes linked to Deccan Volcanism and the K-T Mass Extinction across India and their Correlations with more distant Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adatte, T.; Keller, G.; Gerstch, B.; Gardin, S.; Bartolini, A.; Bajpai, S.

    2009-04-01

    valley estuarine system. At Jhilmili, multidisciplinary analyses reveal the KT boundary at or close to the lower trap basalt in C29R and the upper trap near the C29R/C29N transition. Intertrappean deposition occurred in predominantly terrestrial environments. But a short aquatic interval of fresh water ponds and lakes followed by shallow estuarine marine conditions with brackish ostracods and early Danian zone P1a planktic foraminifera mark this interval close to the K-T boundary. Clays from paleosoils and sediments consist of smectite and palygorskyte and indicate sub-humid to semi-arid conditions. In Meghalaya to the northeast, the KT transition consists of Upper Cretaceous sediments dominated by sandstone, shale, sandy shale and rare coal layers, which indicate deposition in a shallow marine environment with high detrital influx from nearby continental areas. The KTB is characterized by major PGE anomalies in Ir (11.8 ppb), Ru (108 ppb), Rh (93 ppb) and Pd (75 pbb). Contrary to the sections located in the Deccan traps, dominant kaolinite in clay mineral assemblages indicates high humidity and high runoff, which is likely linked with increased warming (greenhouse effect) due to Deccan activity on the mainland. Such climatic conditions have been observed worldwide (e.g. Tunisia, Kazakhstan, South Atlantic). The contemporaneous semi-arid climate conditions that are observed in the Deccan Traps province are not observed elsewhere and therefore appear to be restricted to areas of volcanic activity.

  4. OsGF14b Positively Regulates Panicle Blast Resistance but Negatively Regulates Leaf Blast Resistance in Rice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Yang, Jianyuan; Zhang, Shaohong; Zhao, Junliang; Feng, Aiqing; Yang, Tifeng; Wang, Xiaofei; Mao, Xinxue; Dong, Jingfang; Zhu, Xiaoyuan; Leung, Hei; Leach, Jan E; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Although 14-3-3 proteins have been reported to be involved in responses to biotic stresses in plants, their functions in rice blast, the most destructive disease in rice, are largely unknown. Only GF14e has been confirmed to negatively regulate leaf blast. We report that GF14b is highly expressed in seedlings and panicles during blast infection. Rice plants overexpressing GF14b show enhanced resistance to panicle blast but are susceptible to leaf blast. In contrast, GF14b-silenced plants show increased susceptibility to panicle blast but enhanced resistance to leaf blast. Yeast one-hybrid assays demonstrate that WRKY71 binds to the promoter of GF14b and modulates its expression. Overexpression of GF14b induces expression of jasmonic acid (JA) synthesis-related genes but suppresses expression of salicylic acid (SA) synthesis-related genes. In contrast, suppressed GF14b expression causes decreased expression of JA synthesis-related genes but activation of SA synthesis-related genes. These results suggest that GF14b positively regulates panicle blast resistance but negatively regulates leaf blast resistance, and that GF14b-mediated disease resistance is associated with the JA- and SA-dependent pathway. The different functions for 14-3-3 proteins in leaf and panicle blast provide new evidence that leaf and panicle blast resistance are controlled by different mechanisms. PMID:26467468

  5. 87Sr/86Sr anomalies in Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary strata of the Cauvery basin, south India: Constraints on nature and rate of environmental changes across K-T boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramkumar, Mu; Stüben, Doris; Berner, Zsolt; Schneider, Jens

    2010-02-01

    The Ariyalur-Pondicherry sub-basin of the Cauvery basin comprises a near complete stratigraphic record of Upper Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary periods. Earlier studies have documented variations of clay mineral assemblages, change in microtexture of siliciclasts and many geochemical and stable isotopic anomalies far below the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (KTB) in these strata. This paper documents the occurrences of two positive 87Sr/86Sr anomalies preceding K-T boundary in this basin and discusses plausible causes. Analysis of trace elemental and stable isotopic profiles, sedimentation history, petrography and mineralogy of the rocks reveal that while both the anomalies may be due to increased detrital influx caused by sea level and climatic changes, the second anomaly might have been influenced by Deccan volcanism which in turn predated KTB. Record of such anomalies preceding K-T boundary supports the view of multi-causal step-wise extinction of biota across KTB.

  6. Strontium and oxygen isotope study of M-1, M-3 and M-4 drill core samples from the Manson impact structure, Iowa: Comparison with Haitian K-T impact glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blum, Joel D.; Chamberlain, C. Page; Hingston, Michael P.; Koeberl, Christian

    1993-01-01

    Strontium and oxygen isotope analyses were performed on 8 samples from the M-1, M-3, and M-4 cores recently drilled at the Manson impact structure. The samples were three elastic sedimentary rocks (of probable Cretaceous age) which occurred as clasts within the sedimentary clast breccia, two samples of crystalline rock breccia matrix, and three samples of dolomite and limestone. The Sr-87/Sr-86 (corrected to 65 Ma) ratios were much higher than those in impact glasses from the Haitian Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary. Isotope mixing calculations demonstrate that neither the silicate or carbonate rocks analyzed from the Manson crater, or mixtures of these rocks are appropriate source materials for the Haitian impact glasses. However, the Sr-87/Sr-86 (65Ma) ratio and delta O-18 value of the Ca-rich Haitian glasses are well reproduced by mixtures of Si-rich Haitian glass with platform carbonate of K-T age.

  7. Strontium and oxygen isotope study of M-1, M-3 and M-4 drill core samples from the Manson impact structure, Iowa: Comparison with Haitian K-T impact glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, Joel D.; Chamberlain, C. Page; Hingston, Michael P.; Koeberl, Christian

    1993-03-01

    Strontium and oxygen isotope analyses were performed on 8 samples from the M-1, M-3, and M-4 cores recently drilled at the Manson impact structure. The samples were three elastic sedimentary rocks (of probable Cretaceous age) which occurred as clasts within the sedimentary clast breccia, two samples of crystalline rock breccia matrix, and three samples of dolomite and limestone. The Sr-87/Sr-86 (corrected to 65 Ma) ratios were much higher than those in impact glasses from the Haitian Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary. Isotope mixing calculations demonstrate that neither the silicate or carbonate rocks analyzed from the Manson crater, or mixtures of these rocks are appropriate source materials for the Haitian impact glasses. However, the Sr-87/Sr-86 (65Ma) ratio and delta O-18 value of the Ca-rich Haitian glasses are well reproduced by mixtures of Si-rich Haitian glass with platform carbonate of K-T age.

  8. Distinguishing Realistic Military Blasts from Firecrackers in Mitigation Studies of Blast Induced Traumatic Brain Injury

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, W C; King, M J; Blackman, E G

    2011-01-21

    In their Contributed Article, Nyein et al. (1,2) present numerical simulations of blast waves interacting with a helmeted head and conclude that a face shield may significantly mitigate blast induced traumatic brain injury (TBI). A face shield may indeed be important for future military helmets, but the authors derive their conclusions from a much smaller explosion than typically experienced on the battlefield. The blast from the 3.16 gm TNT charge of (1) has the following approximate peak overpressures, positive phase durations, and incident impulses (3): 10 atm, 0.25 ms, and 3.9 psi-ms at the front of the head (14 cm from charge), and 1.4 atm, 0.32 ms, and 1.7 psi-ms at the back of a typical 20 cm head (34 cm from charge). The peak pressure of the wave decreases by a factor of 7 as it traverses the head. The blast conditions are at the threshold for injury at the front of the head, but well below threshold at the back of the head (4). The blast traverses the head in 0.3 ms, roughly equal to the positive phase duration of the blast. Therefore, when the blast reaches the back of the head, near ambient conditions exist at the front. Because the headform is so close to the charge, it experiences a wave with significant curvature. By contrast, a realistic blast from a 2.2 kg TNT charge ({approx} an uncased 105 mm artillery round) is fatal at an overpressure of 10 atm (4). For an injury level (4) similar to (1), a 2.2 kg charge has the following approximate peak overpressures, positive phase durations, and incident impulses (3): 2.1 atm, 2.3 ms, and 18 psi-ms at the front of the head (250 cm from charge), and 1.8 atm, 2.5 ms, and 16.8 psi-ms at the back of the head (270 cm from charge). The peak pressure decreases by only a factor of 1.2 as it traverses the head. Because the 0.36 ms traversal time is much smaller than the positive phase duration, pressures on the head become relatively uniform when the blast reaches the back of the head. The larger standoff implies

  9. 30 CFR 58.610 - Abrasive blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... miners shall use in accordance with 30 CFR 56.5005 or 57.5005 respirators approved for abrasive blasting by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84, or the operation shall be performed in a totally enclosed device with the miner outside the device. (b) Underground areas of underground mines. Silica sand or...

  10. 30 CFR 58.610 - Abrasive blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... miners shall use in accordance with 30 CFR 56.5005 or 57.5005 respirators approved for abrasive blasting by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84, or the operation shall be performed in a totally enclosed device with the miner outside the device. (b) Underground areas of underground mines. Silica sand or...

  11. 30 CFR 58.610 - Abrasive blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... miners shall use in accordance with 30 CFR 56.5005 or 57.5005 respirators approved for abrasive blasting by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84, or the operation shall be performed in a totally enclosed device with the miner outside the device. (b) Underground areas of underground mines. Silica sand or...

  12. 30 CFR 58.610 - Abrasive blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... miners shall use in accordance with 30 CFR 56.5005 or 57.5005 respirators approved for abrasive blasting by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84, or the operation shall be performed in a totally enclosed device with the miner outside the device. (b) Underground areas of underground mines. Silica sand or...

  13. Global efforts in managing rice blast disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice blast disease caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is a major destructive disease threatening global food security. Resistance (R) genes to M. oryzae are effective in preventing infections by strains of M. oryzae carry the corresponding avirulence (AVR) genes. Effectiveness of genetic resist...

  14. Blast-induced neurotrauma in whales.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Siri K; Øen, Egil O

    2003-07-01

    A majority of investigations on primary blast injuries have focused on gas-containing organs, while the likelihood of blast-induced neurotrauma remains underrated. In Norway minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) are hunted using small fishing boats rigged with harpoon guns, which fire harpoons tipped with a grenade containing a charge of 30-g penthrite. The grenade detonates 60-70 cm inside the animal. The present study was undertaken to characterize the neuropathological changes caused by the penthrite blast and evaluate its role in the loss of consciousness and death in hunted whales. The study included 37 minke whales that were examined shipboard. The brains were later subjected to gross and light microscopy examination. The results showed that intra-body detonation of the grenade in near vicinity of the brain resulted in trauma similar to severe traumatic brain injury associated with a direct blow to the head. Detonation in more distant areas of the body resulted in injuries resembling acceleration-induced diffuse traumatic brain injury. The authors conclude that even if several vital organs were fatally injured in most whales, the neurotrauma induced by the blast-generated pressure waves were the primary cause for the immediate or very rapid loss of consciousness and death. PMID:12804799

  15. 7 CFR 3201.78 - Blast media.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... purchasing programs. The designation can be found in the Comprehensive Procurement Guideline, 40 CFR 247.17. ... based on the amount of qualifying biobased carbon in the product as a percent of the weight (mass) of... with similar blasting grit products with recycled content. Under the Resource Conservation and...

  16. Glass-Bead Blasting Alters Antenna Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortenberry, James W.; Jilka, Richard L.; Kimmel, Boyce; Garcia, Ramon D.; Cofield, Richard E.; Klose, Gerhardt J.; O'Toole, Thomas

    1987-01-01

    Thermal-emissivity properties improved, and focal length adjusted. Experiments show gentle blasting with glass beads produces beneficial changes in macroscopic surface shapes and in microscopic surface features of lightweight microwave reflectors made of thin metal reflective surfaces on deformable substrates of aluminum honeycomb.

  17. 30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting circuits. 75.1323 Section 75.1323 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH..., copper wire of a diameter not smaller than 18-gauge; and (2) Long enough to permit the round to be...

  18. 30 CFR 58.610 - Abrasive blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... miners shall use in accordance with 30 CFR 56.5005 or 57.5005 respirators approved for abrasive blasting by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84, or the operation shall be performed in a totally enclosed device with the miner outside the device. (b) Underground areas of underground mines. Silica sand or...

  19. Rice blast evaluation of newly introduced germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic resistance to the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae (anamorph Pyricularia grisea oryzae) was identified in newly introduced rice germplasm through quarantine when tested in artificially inoculated greenhouse and field nursery tests during the 2007 growing season. Of 229 accessions, 31 we...

  20. People Interview: Solar physics blasts into space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-09-01

    INTERVIEW Solar physics blasts into space Lucie Green's physics and astrophysics degree has taken her to the Crimea to study binary stars and to the Mullard Space Science Laboratory. David Smith talks to her about her career as a solar physicist and her involvement in outreach activities.

  1. Acute blast injury reduces brain abeta in two rodent species.

    PubMed

    De Gasperi, Rita; Gama Sosa, Miguel A; Kim, Soong Ho; Steele, John W; Shaughness, Michael C; Maudlin-Jeronimo, Eric; Hall, Aaron A; Dekosky, Steven T; McCarron, Richard M; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P; Gandy, Sam; Ahlers, Stephen T; Elder, Gregory A

    2012-01-01

    Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. How the primary blast wave affects the brain is not well understood. In particular, it is unclear whether blast injures the brain through mechanisms similar to those found in non-blast closed impact injuries (nbTBI). The β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide associated with the development of Alzheimer's disease is elevated acutely following TBI in humans as well as in experimental animal models of nbTBI. We examined levels of brain Aβ following experimental blast injury using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for Aβ 40 and 42. In both rat and mouse models of blast injury, rather than being increased, endogenous rodent brain Aβ levels were decreased acutely following injury. Levels of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) were increased following blast exposure although there was no evidence of axonal pathology based on APP immunohistochemical staining. Unlike the findings in nbTBI animal models, levels of the β-secretase, β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1, and the γ-secretase component presenilin-1 were unchanged following blast exposure. These studies have implications for understanding the nature of blast injury to the brain. They also suggest that strategies aimed at lowering Aβ production may not be effective for treating acute blast injury to the brain. PMID:23267342

  2. A laboratory model for studying blast overpressure injury.

    PubMed

    Jaffin, J H; McKinney, L; Kinney, R C; Cunningham, J A; Moritz, D M; Kraimer, J M; Graeber, G M; Moe, J B; Salander, J M; Harmon, J W

    1987-04-01

    Blast injury remains an important source of trauma in both civilian and military settings. We have studied a recently developed blast wave generator to evaluate its effectiveness for laboratory study of blast injury. In order to determine the reliability of the device and the pathology of the lesions caused by the short duration (0.5-1.0 msec), and high intensity (60-375 psi) pressure wave, laboratory rats were exposed to the pressure waves generated by the machine. The animals were divided into three groups: the first exposed to midthoracic blasts, the second to abdominal blasts, and a group of controls exposed to a gentle stream of gas. Group I showed gross and microscopic evidence of lung blast injury of "rib imprint" hemorrhages, intra-alveolar hemorrhage, marked increase in lung weight, prolonged apnea, and bradycardia. Group II showed typical blunt abdominal trauma at the closest ranges, but characteristic submucosal hemorrhages up to 4.0 cm from the blast nozzle. In both groups, a protective effect was seen in heavier animals. The blast wave generator permits reproducible blast injury in the laboratory that is safer and faster than current methods. The lung and bowel lesions induced are grossly and microscopically similar to injuries of blast exposure seen in clinical patients. PMID:3494851

  3. Blast waves and how they interact with structures.

    PubMed

    Cullis, I G

    2001-02-01

    The paper defines and describes blast waves, their interaction with a structure and its subsequent response. Explosions generate blast waves, which need not be due to explosives. A blast wave consists of two parts: a shock wave and a blast wind. The paper explains how shock waves are formed and their basic properties. The physics of blast waves is non-linear and therefore non-intuitive. To understand how an explosion generates a blast wave a numerical modelling computer code, called a hydrocode has to be employed. This is briefly explained and the cAst Eulerian hydrocode is used to illustrate the formation and propagation of the blast wave generated by a 1 kg sphere of TNT explosive detonated 1 m above the ground. The paper concludes with a discussion of the response of a structure to a blast wave and shows that this response is governed by the structures natural frequency of vibration compared to the duration of the blast wave. The basic concepts introduced are illustrated in a second simulation that introduces two structures into the blast field of the TNT charge. PMID:11307674

  4. Patterns in Blast Injuries to the Hand

    PubMed Central

    Buntic, Rudolf F.; Brooks, Darrell

    2008-01-01

    Blast injuries to the hand are not just a wartime phenomenon but also quite common in rural communities throughout northern California. The purpose of this study is to review our experience with blast injuries in the community and review the most common patterns in an attempt to identify the pathomechanics of the hand injury and the reconstructive procedures that are required. This is a retrospective study of blast injuries to the hand treated between 1978 and 2006. Medical records, X-rays, and photos were reviewed to compile standard patient demographics and characterize the injury pattern. Explosives were classified based on their rate of decomposition. Reconstructive solutions were reviewed and characterized based on whether damaged tissues were repaired or replaced. Sixty-two patients were identified with blast injuries to their hand. Patients were predominantly male (92%) with an average age of 27 years. Firecrackers were the most commonly encountered explosives. Thirty-seven patients were identified as holding a low explosive in their dominant hand and were used for characterization of the injury pattern. The apparent pattern of injury was hyperextension and hyperabduction of the hand and digits. Common injuries were metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joint hyperextension with associated soft tissue avulsion, hyperabduction at the web spaces with associated palmar soft tissue tears, and finger disarticulation amputations worse at radial digits. Given the mechanisms of injury with tissue loss, surgical intervention generally involved tissue replacement rather than tissue repair. Blast injuries to the hand represent a broad spectrum of injuries that are associated with the magnitude of explosion and probably, the proximity to the hand. We were able to identify a repetitive pattern of injury and demonstrate the predominant use for delayed tissue replacement rather than microsurgical repair at the acute setting. PMID:18780004

  5. Note: Device for underwater laboratory simulation of unconfined blast waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtney, Elijah; Courtney, Amy; Courtney, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Shock tubes simulate blast waves to study their effects in air under laboratory conditions; however, few experimental models exist for simulating underwater blast waves that are needed for facilitating experiments in underwater blast transmission, determining injury thresholds in marine animals, validating numerical models, and exploring mitigation strategies for explosive well removals. This method incorporates an oxy-acetylene driven underwater blast simulator which creates peak blast pressures of about 1860 kPa. Shot-to-shot consistency was fair, with an average standard deviation near 150 kPa. Results suggest that peak blast pressures from 460 kPa to 1860 kPa are available by adjusting the distance from the source.

  6. Towards weakly constrained double field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kanghoon

    2016-08-01

    We show that it is possible to construct a well-defined effective field theory incorporating string winding modes without using strong constraint in double field theory. We show that X-ray (Radon) transform on a torus is well-suited for describing weakly constrained double fields, and any weakly constrained fields are represented as a sum of strongly constrained fields. Using inverse X-ray transform we define a novel binary operation which is compatible with the level matching constraint. Based on this formalism, we construct a consistent gauge transform and gauge invariant action without using strong constraint. We then discuss the relation of our result to the closed string field theory. Our construction suggests that there exists an effective field theory description for massless sector of closed string field theory on a torus in an associative truncation.

  7. Constraining weak annihilation using semileptonic D decays

    SciTech Connect

    Ligeti, Zoltan; Luke, Michael; Manohar, Aneesh V.

    2010-08-01

    The recently measured semileptonic D{sub s} decay rate can be used to constrain weak annihilation (WA) effects in semileptonic D and B decays. We revisit the theoretical predictions for inclusive semileptonic D{sub (s)} decays using a variety of quark mass schemes. The most reliable results are obtained if the fits to B decay distributions are used to eliminate the charm quark mass dependence, without using any specific charm mass scheme. Our fit to the available data shows that WA is smaller than commonly assumed. There is no indication that the WA octet contribution (which is better constrained than the singlet contribution) dominates. The results constrain an important source of uncertainty in the extraction of |V{sub ub}| from inclusive semileptonic B decays.

  8. Constrained simultaneous stitching measurement for aspheric surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weibo; Fan, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Significant errors could be result from multiple data sets due to error transfer and accumulation in each sub-aperture. The constrained simultaneous stitching method with error calibration is proposed to increase the stability of the numerical solution of the stitching algorithm. Global averaging error and constrained optimization are applied to simultaneous stitching after alignment errors calibrated. The goal of optimization and merit function is the minimization of the discrepancy between multiple data sets by including components related to various alignment errors. The values for stitching coefficients that fall within the unit sphere and minimize the mean square difference between and overlapping values can be found by iterative constrained optimization. At last, the full aperture wave-front was reconstructed by simultaneous stitching with the stitching coefficients required to remain within meaningful bounds.

  9. Pattern Search Algorithms for Bound Constrained Minimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Robert Michael; Torczon, Virginia

    1996-01-01

    We present a convergence theory for pattern search methods for solving bound constrained nonlinear programs. The analysis relies on the abstract structure of pattern search methods and an understanding of how the pattern interacts with the bound constraints. This analysis makes it possible to develop pattern search methods for bound constrained problems while only slightly restricting the flexibility present in pattern search methods for unconstrained problems. We prove global convergence despite the fact that pattern search methods do not have explicit information concerning the gradient and its projection onto the feasible region and consequently are unable to enforce explicitly a notion of sufficient feasible decrease.

  10. Pattern Search Methods for Linearly Constrained Minimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Robert Michael; Torczon, Virginia

    1998-01-01

    We extend pattern search methods to linearly constrained minimization. We develop a general class of feasible point pattern search algorithms and prove global convergence to a Karush-Kuhn-Tucker point. As in the case of unconstrained minimization, pattern search methods for linearly constrained problems accomplish this without explicit recourse to the gradient or the directional derivative. Key to the analysis of the algorithms is the way in which the local search patterns conform to the geometry of the boundary of the feasible region.

  11. Spacecraft inertia estimation via constrained least squares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keim, Jason A.; Acikmese, Behcet A.; Shields, Joel F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new formulation for spacecraft inertia estimation from test data. Specifically, the inertia estimation problem is formulated as a constrained least squares minimization problem with explicit bounds on the inertia matrix incorporated as LMIs [linear matrix inequalities). The resulting minimization problem is a semidefinite optimization that can be solved efficiently with guaranteed convergence to the global optimum by readily available algorithms. This method is applied to data collected from a robotic testbed consisting of a freely rotating body. The results show that the constrained least squares approach produces more accurate estimates of the inertia matrix than standard unconstrained least squares estimation methods.

  12. The Blast Survey of the Vela Molecular Cloud: Physical Properties of the Dense Cores in Vela-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmi, Luca; Ade, Peter A. R.; Anglés-Alcázar, Daniel; Bock, James J.; Chapin, Edward L.; De Luca, Massimo; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon; Elia, Davide; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Giannini, Teresa; Griffin, Matthew; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Halpern, Mark; Hargrave, Peter C.; Hughes, David H.; Klein, Jeff; Lorenzetti, Dario; Marengo, Massimo; Marsden, Gaelen; Martin, Peter G.; Massi, Fabrizio; Mauskopf, Philip; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Patanchon, Guillaume; Rex, Marie; Salama, Alberto; Scott, Douglas; Semisch, Christopher; Smith, Howard A.; Strafella, Francesco; Thomas, Nicholas; Truch, Matthew D. P.; Tucker, Carole; Tucker, Gregory S.; Viero, Marco P.; Wiebe, Donald V.

    2009-12-01

    The Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) carried out a 250, 350, and 500 μm survey of the galactic plane encompassing the Vela Molecular Ridge, with the primary goal of identifying the coldest dense cores possibly associated with the earliest stages of star formation. Here, we present the results from observations of the Vela-D region, covering about 4 deg2, in which we find 141 BLAST cores. We exploit existing data taken with the Spitzer MIPS, IRAC, and SEST-SIMBA instruments to constrain their (single-temperature) spectral energy distributions, assuming a dust emissivity index β = 2.0. This combination of data allows us to determine the temperature, luminosity, and mass of each BLAST core, and also enables us to separate starless from protostellar sources. We also analyze the effects that the uncertainties on the derived physical parameters of the individual sources have on the overall physical properties of starless and protostellar cores, and we find that there appear to be a smooth transition from the pre- to the protostellar phase. In particular, for protostellar cores we find a correlation between the MIPS24 flux, associated with the central protostar, and the temperature of the dust envelope. We also find that the core mass function of the Vela-D cores has a slope consistent with other similar (sub)millimeter surveys.

  13. A computational study on brain tissue under blast: primary and tertiary blast injuries.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, A; Salimi Jazi, M; Karami, G; Ziejewski, M

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, a biomechanical study of a human head model exposed to blast shock waves followed by a blunt impact with the surface of the enclosing walls of a confined space is carried out. Under blast, the head may experience primary blast injury (PBI) due to exposure to the shockwaves and tertiary blast injury (TeBI) due to a possible blunt impact. We examine the brain response data in a deformable finite element head model in terms of the inflicted stress/pressure, velocity, and acceleration on the brain for several blast scenarios with different intensities. The data will be compared for open space and confined spaces. Following the initial impact of the shock front in the confined space, one can see the fluctuations in biomechanical data due to wave reflections. Although the severity of the PBI and TeBI is dependent on the situation, for the cases studied here, PBI is considerably more pronounced than TeBI in confined spaces. PMID:24515869

  14. Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Blast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Blast Deflector Fences, Northeast & Southwest sides of Operational Apron, Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  15. WU-Blast2 server at the European Bioinformatics Institute

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Rodrigo; Silventoinen, Ville; Robinson, Stephen; Kibria, Asif; Gish, Warren

    2003-01-01

    Since 1995, the WU-BLAST programs (http://blast.wustl.edu) have provided a fast, flexible and reliable method for similarity searching of biological sequence databases. The software is in use at many locales and web sites. The European Bioinformatics Institute's WU-Blast2 (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/blast2/) server has been providing free access to these search services since 1997 and today supports many features that both enhance the usability and expand on the scope of the software. PMID:12824421

  16. Mechanisms of hearing loss after blast injury to the ear.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung-Il; Gao, Simon S; Xia, Anping; Wang, Rosalie; Salles, Felipe T; Raphael, Patrick D; Abaya, Homer; Wachtel, Jacqueline; Baek, Jongmin; Jacobs, David; Rasband, Matthew N; Oghalai, John S

    2013-01-01

    Given the frequent use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) around the world, the study of traumatic blast injuries is of increasing interest. The ear is the most common organ affected by blast injury because it is the body's most sensitive pressure transducer. We fabricated a blast chamber to re-create blast profiles similar to that of IEDs and used it to develop a reproducible mouse model to study blast-induced hearing loss. The tympanic membrane was perforated in all mice after blast exposure and found to heal spontaneously. Micro-computed tomography demonstrated no evidence for middle ear or otic capsule injuries; however, the healed tympanic membrane was thickened. Auditory brainstem response and distortion product otoacoustic emission threshold shifts were found to be correlated with blast intensity. As well, these threshold shifts were larger than those found in control mice that underwent surgical perforation of their tympanic membranes, indicating cochlear trauma. Histological studies one week and three months after the blast demonstrated no disruption or damage to the intra-cochlear membranes. However, there was loss of outer hair cells (OHCs) within the basal turn of the cochlea and decreased spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) and afferent nerve synapses. Using our mouse model that recapitulates human IED exposure, our results identify that the mechanisms underlying blast-induced hearing loss does not include gross membranous rupture as is commonly believed. Instead, there is both OHC and SGN loss that produce auditory dysfunction. PMID:23840874

  17. Brain injury from explosive blast: description and clinical management.

    PubMed

    Ling, G; Ecklund, J M; Bandak, F A

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating clinical experience is indicating that explosive blast brain injury is becoming recognized as a disease distinct from the penetrating form of blast injury as well as the classic closed head injury (CHI). In recent US conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, over 60% of combat casualties were from explosive blast with the hallmark explosive weapon being the improvised explosive device (IED). Explosive blast TBI is a condition afflicting many combat injured warfighters potentially constituting another category of TBI. Clinically, it shares many features with conventional TBI but possesses some unique aspects. In its mild form, it also shares many clinical features with PTSD but here again has distinct aspects. Although military medical providers depend on civilian standard of care guidelines when managing explosive blast mTBI, they are continually adapting their medical practice in order to optimize the treatment of this disease, particularly in a theater of war. It is clear that further rigorous scientific study of explosive blast mTBI at both the basic science and clinical levels is needed. This research must include improved understanding of the causes and mechanisms of explosive blast TBI as well as comprehensive epidemiologic studies to determine the prevalence of this disease and its risk factors. A widely accepted unambiguous clinical description of explosive blast mTBI with diagnostic criteria would greatly improve diagnosis. It is hoped that through appropriate research meaningful prevention, mitigation, and treatment strategies for explosive blast mTBI can be speedily realized. PMID:25702216

  18. On the Interaction and Coalescence if Spherical Blast Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max; Freeman, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    The scaling and similarity laws concerning the propagation of isolated spherical blast waves are briefly reviewed. Both point source explosions and high pressure gas explosions are considered. Test data on blast overpressure from the interaction and coalescence of spherical blast waves emanating from explosives in the form of shaped charges of different strength placed in the vicinity of a solid propellant stack are presented. These data are discussed with regard to the scaling laws concerning the decay of blast overpressure. The results point out the possibility of detecting source explosions from far-field pressure measurements.

  19. Mechanisms of Hearing Loss after Blast Injury to the Ear

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung-Il; Gao, Simon S.; Xia, Anping; Wang, Rosalie; Salles, Felipe T.; Raphael, Patrick D.; Abaya, Homer; Wachtel, Jacqueline; Baek, Jongmin; Jacobs, David; Rasband, Matthew N.; Oghalai, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the frequent use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) around the world, the study of traumatic blast injuries is of increasing interest. The ear is the most common organ affected by blast injury because it is the body’s most sensitive pressure transducer. We fabricated a blast chamber to re-create blast profiles similar to that of IEDs and used it to develop a reproducible mouse model to study blast-induced hearing loss. The tympanic membrane was perforated in all mice after blast exposure and found to heal spontaneously. Micro-computed tomography demonstrated no evidence for middle ear or otic capsule injuries; however, the healed tympanic membrane was thickened. Auditory brainstem response and distortion product otoacoustic emission threshold shifts were found to be correlated with blast intensity. As well, these threshold shifts were larger than those found in control mice that underwent surgical perforation of their tympanic membranes, indicating cochlear trauma. Histological studies one week and three months after the blast demonstrated no disruption or damage to the intra-cochlear membranes. However, there was loss of outer hair cells (OHCs) within the basal turn of the cochlea and decreased spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) and afferent nerve synapses. Using our mouse model that recapitulates human IED exposure, our results identify that the mechanisms underlying blast-induced hearing loss does not include gross membranous rupture as is commonly believed. Instead, there is both OHC and SGN loss that produce auditory dysfunction. PMID:23840874

  20. Mechanisms and Treatment of Blast Induced Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to provide an overview of the basic mechanisms of blast induced hearing loss and review pharmacological treatments or interventions that can reduce or inhibit blast induced hearing loss. The mechanisms of blast induced hearing loss have been studied in experimental animal models mimicking features of damage or injury seen in human. Blast induced hearing loss is characterized by perforation and rupture of the tympanic membrane, ossicular damage, basilar membrane damage, inner and outer hair cell loss, rupture of round window, changes in chemical components of cochlear fluid, vasospasm, ischemia, oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, hematoma, and hemorrhage in both animals and humans. These histopathological consequences of blast exposure can induce hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, and headache. The pharmacological approaches to block or inhibit some of the auditory pathological consequences caused by blast exposure have been developed with antioxidant drugs such as 2,4-disulfonyl α-phenyl tertiary butyl nitrone (HXY-059, now called HPN-07) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC). A combination of antioxidant drugs (HPN-07 and NAC) was administered to reduce blast induced cochlear damage and hearing loss. The combination of the antioxidant drugs can prevent or treat blast induced hearing loss by reducing damage to the mechanical and neural component of the auditory system. Although information of the underlying mechanisms and treatment of blast induced hearing loss are provided, further and deep research should be achieved due to the limited and controversial knowledge. PMID:24653882

  1. Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows as Probes of Environment and Blast Wave Physics. II. The Distribution of rho and Structure of the Circumburst Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starling, R. L. C.; vanderHorst, A. J.; Rol, E.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Wiersema, K.; Curran, P. A.; Weltervrede, P.

    2008-01-01

    We constrain blast wave parameters and the circumburst media ofa subsample of 10 BeppoSAX gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). For this sample we derive the values of the injected electron energy distribution index, p, and the density structure index of the circumburst medium, k, from simultaneous spectral fits to their X-ray, optical, and NIR afterglow data. The spectral fits have been done in count space and include the effects ofmetallicity, and are compared with the previously reported optical and X-ray temporal behavior. Using the blast wave model and some assumptions which include on-axis viewing and standard jet structure, constant blast wave energy, and no evolution of the microphysical parameters, we find a mean value ofp for the sample as a whole of 9.... oa -0.003.0" 2 a_ statistical analysis of the distribution demonstrates that the p-values in this sample are inconsistent with a single universal value forp at the 3 _ level or greater, which has significant implications for particle acceleration models. This approach provides us with a measured distribution ofcircumburst density structures rather than considering only the cases of k ----0 (homogeneous) and k - 2 (windlike). We find five GRBs for which k can be well constrained, and in four of these cases the circumburst medium is clearly windlike. The fifth source has a value of 0 < k < 1, consistent with a homogeneous circumburst medium.

  2. BLAST: A FAR-INFRARED MEASUREMENT OF THE HISTORY OF STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Pascale, Enzo; Ade, Peter A. R.; Dye, Simon; Eales, Steve A.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Bock, James J.; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; Ngo, Henry; Devlin, Mark J.; Klein, Jeff; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hughes, David H.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Olmi, Luca; Patanchon, Guillaume

    2009-12-20

    We directly measure redshift evolution in the mean physical properties (far-infrared luminosity, temperature, and mass) of the galaxies that produce the cosmic infrared background (CIB), using measurements from the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST), and Spitzer which constrain the CIB emission peak. This sample is known to produce a surface brightness in the BLAST bands consistent with the full CIB, and photometric redshifts are identified for all of the objects. We find that most of the 70 mum background is generated at z approx< 1 and the 500 mum background generated at z approx> 1. A significant growth is observed in the mean luminosity from approx10{sup 9}-10{sup 12} L{sub sun}, and in the mean temperature by 10 K, from redshifts 0 < z < 3. However, there is only weak positive evolution in the comoving dust mass in these galaxies across the same redshift range. We also measure the evolution of the far-infrared luminosity density, and the star formation rate history for these objects, finding good agreement with other infrared studies up to z approx 1, exceeding the contribution attributed to optically selected galaxies.

  3. Constrained tri-sphere kinematic positioning system

    DOEpatents

    Viola, Robert J

    2010-12-14

    A scalable and adaptable, six-degree-of-freedom, kinematic positioning system is described. The system can position objects supported on top of, or suspended from, jacks comprising constrained joints. The system is compatible with extreme low temperature or high vacuum environments. When constant adjustment is not required a removable motor unit is available.

  4. Rhythmic Grouping Biases Constrain Infant Statistical Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Jessica F.; Saffran, Jenny R.

    2012-01-01

    Linguistic stress and sequential statistical cues to word boundaries interact during speech segmentation in infancy. However, little is known about how the different acoustic components of stress constrain statistical learning. The current studies were designed to investigate whether intensity and duration each function independently as cues to…

  5. Constrained Subjective Assessment of Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saliu, Sokol

    2005-01-01

    Student learning is a complex incremental cognitive process; assessment needs to parallel this, reporting the results in similar terms. Application of fuzzy sets and logic to the criterion-referenced assessment of student learning is considered here. The constrained qualitative assessment (CQA) system was designed, and then applied in assessing a…

  6. Automation of constrained-value business forms

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, M.L.; Beaumariage, T.G.; Greitzer, F.L.

    1993-05-01

    Expert systems can improve many business tasks. However, the nature of a constrained-value business form can result in a rule base that contains circular reasoning, unsuitable for expert system implementation. A methodology is presented for restructuring such a rule base for compatibility with a backward-chaining expert system.

  7. Analytical solutions to constrained hypersonic flight trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Ping

    1992-01-01

    The flight trajectory of aerospace vehicles subject to a class of path constraints is considered. The constrained dynamics is shown to be a natural two-time-scale system. Asymptotic analytical solutions are obtained. Problems of trajectory optimization and guidance can be dramatically simplified with these solutions. Applications in trajectory design for an aerospace plane strongly support the theoretical development.

  8. Blast Dynamics in a Dissipative Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbier, M.; Villamaina, D.; Trizac, E.

    2015-11-01

    The blast caused by an intense explosion has been extensively studied in conservative fluids, where the Taylor-von Neumann-Sedov hydrodynamic solution is a prototypical example of self-similarity driven by conservation laws. In dissipative media, however, energy conservation is violated, yet a distinctive self-similar solution appears. It hinges on the decoupling of random and coherent motion permitted by a broad class of dissipative mechanisms. This enforces a peculiar layered structure in the shock, for which we derive the full hydrodynamic solution, validated by a microscopic approach based on molecular dynamics simulations. We predict and evidence a succession of temporal regimes, as well as a long-time corrugation instability, also self-similar, which disrupts the blast boundary. These generic results may apply from astrophysical systems to granular gases, and invite further cross-fertilization between microscopic and hydrodynamic approaches of shock waves.

  9. Blasting-induced damage in coal

    SciTech Connect

    Kabongo, K.K.

    1995-12-31

    The paper is drawn from a project intended to explore a technique of prediction, control and optimization of fracture in coal induced by blasting. It evaluates the fines generated in coal submitted to dynamic loading stresses in an impact stamp mortar. The aim is to analyze a complex phenomenon of coal response to blast-generated stresses from a series of discrete simulations of shock and gas actions in controllable processes. It is learned that despite the nucleation of primary crushing and fractures to originate from the point of impact energy in coal, a secondary crushing appears to depart from within the burden progressing towards the free boundaries. The extension of the secondary crushing zone appears to be influenced by the magnitude of the breaking stresses generated and the coal burden distance. A strong dependence of fines on the coal`s innate discontinuities (strength) and the energy input is highlighted.

  10. A Phased Array Approach to Rock Blasting

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie Gertsch; Jason Baird

    2006-07-01

    A series of laboratory-scale simultaneous two-hole shots was performed in a rock simulant (mortar) to record the shock wave interference patterns produced in the material. The purpose of the project as a whole was to evaluate the usefulness of phased array techniques of blast design, using new high-precision delay technology. Despite high-speed photography, however, we were unable to detect the passage of the shock waves through the samples to determine how well they matched the expected interaction geometry. The follow-up mine-scale tests were therefore not conducted. Nevertheless, pattern analysis of the vectors that would be formed by positive interference of the shockwaves from multiple charges in an ideal continuous, homogeneous, isotropic medium indicate the potential for powerful control of blast design, given precise characterization of the target rock mass.

  11. Blast Dynamics in a Dissipative Gas.

    PubMed

    Barbier, M; Villamaina, D; Trizac, E

    2015-11-20

    The blast caused by an intense explosion has been extensively studied in conservative fluids, where the Taylor-von Neumann-Sedov hydrodynamic solution is a prototypical example of self-similarity driven by conservation laws. In dissipative media, however, energy conservation is violated, yet a distinctive self-similar solution appears. It hinges on the decoupling of random and coherent motion permitted by a broad class of dissipative mechanisms. This enforces a peculiar layered structure in the shock, for which we derive the full hydrodynamic solution, validated by a microscopic approach based on molecular dynamics simulations. We predict and evidence a succession of temporal regimes, as well as a long-time corrugation instability, also self-similar, which disrupts the blast boundary. These generic results may apply from astrophysical systems to granular gases, and invite further cross-fertilization between microscopic and hydrodynamic approaches of shock waves. PMID:26636851

  12. Boundary-layer theory for blast waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, K. B.; Berger, S. A.; Kamel, M. M.; Korobeinikov, V. P.; Oppenheim, A. K.

    1975-01-01

    It is profitable to consider the blast wave as a flow field consisting of two regions: the outer, which retains the properties of the inviscid solution, and the inner, which is governed by flow equations including terms expressing the effects of heat transfer and, concomitantly, viscosity. The latter region thus plays the role of a boundary layer. Reported here is an analytical method developed for the study of such layers, based on the matched asymptotic expansion technique combined with patched solutions.

  13. Centrifugal shot blasting. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-07-01

    At the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), the Facilities Closure and Demolition Projects Integrated Remedial Design/Remedial Action (RD/RA) work plan calls for the removal of one inch (1 in) depth of concrete surface in areas where contamination with technetium-99 has been identified. This report describes a comparative demonstration between two concrete removal technologies: an innovative system using Centrifugal Shot Blasting (CSB) and a modified baseline technology called a rotary drum planer.

  14. Data acquisition from blast overpressure trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, D. R.

    1993-03-01

    A Macintosh computer has been used to acquire data from blast overpressure trials on various weapons. The computer is connected to a multiple channel FM data recorder via a MacSCS1488 bus controller, allowing the computer to control the recorder and to acquire data from it through an analog to digital converter. Detailed instructions are given for connecting the hardware and operating the software involved.

  15. Developments in vapour cloud explosion blast modeling.

    PubMed

    Mercx, W P; van den Berg, A C; Hayhurst, C J; Robertson, N J; Moran, K C

    2000-01-01

    TNT Equivalency methods are widely used for vapour cloud explosion blast modeling. Presently, however, other types of models are available which do not have the fundamental objections TNT Equivalency models have. TNO Multi-Energy method is increasingly accepted as a more reasonable alternative to be used as a simple and practical method. Computer codes based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) like AutoReaGas, developed by TNO and Century Dynamics, could be used also in case a more rigorous analysis is required. Application of the Multi-Energy method requires knowledge of two parameters describing the explosion: a charge size and a charge strength. During the last years, research has led to an improved determination of the charge strength (i.e., the class number or source overpressure) to be chosen to apply the blast charts. A correlation has been derived relating the charge strength to a set of parameters describing the boundary conditions of the flammable cloud and the fuel in the cloud. A simple approach may not be satisfactory in all situations. The overpressure distribution inside a vapour cloud explosion is generally not homogeneous and the presence of obstructions causes directional blast propagation in the near field. A CFD approach, in which the actual situation is modeled, supplies case-specific results. An overview of the key aspects relevant to the application of the Multi-Energy method and CFD modeling is provided. Then the application of the two methods is demonstrated for an example problem involving the calculation of the explosion blast load on a structure at some distance from the explosion in an offshore platform complex. PMID:10677667

  16. Explosive parcel containment and blast mitigation container

    DOEpatents

    Sparks, Michael H.

    2001-06-12

    The present invention relates to a containment structure for containing and mitigating explosions. The containment structure is installed in the wall of the building and has interior and exterior doors for placing suspicious packages into the containment structure and retrieving them from the exterior of the building. The containment structure has a blast deflection chute and a blowout panel to direct over pressure from explosions away from the building, surrounding structures and people.

  17. Survival risk assessment for primary blast exposures to the head.

    PubMed

    Rafaels, Karin; Bass, Cameron R Dale; Salzar, Robert S; Panzer, Matthew B; Woods, William; Feldman, Sanford; Cummings, Thomas; Capehart, Bruce

    2011-11-01

    Many soldiers returning from the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan have had at least one exposure to an explosive event and a significant number have symptoms consistent with traumatic brain injury. Although blast injury risk functions have been determined and validated for pulmonary injury, there is little information on the blast levels necessary to cause blast brain injury. Anesthetized male New Zealand White rabbits were exposed to varying levels of shock tube blast exposure focused on the head, while their thoraces were protected. The specimens were euthanized and evaluated when the blast resulted in respiratory arrest that was non-responsive to resuscitation or at 4?h post-exposure. Injury was evaluated by gross examination and histological evaluation. The fatality data from brain injury were then analyzed using Fisher's exact test to determine a brain fatality risk function. Greater blast intensity was associated with post-blast apnea and the need for mechanical ventilation. Gross examination revealed multifocal subdural hemorrhages, most often near the brainstem, at more intense levels of exposure. Histological evaluation revealed subdural and subarachnoid hemorrhages in the non-responsive respiratory-arrested specimens. A fatality risk function from blast exposure to the head was determined for the rabbit specimens with an LD(50) at a peak overpressure of 750?kPa. Scaling techniques were used to predict injury risk at other blast overpressure/duration combinations. The fatality risk function showed that the blast level needed to cause fatality from an overpressure wave exposure to the head was greater than the peak overpressure needed to cause fatality from pulmonary injury. This risk function can be used to guide future research for blast brain injury by providing a realistic fatality risk to guide the design of protection or to evaluate injury. PMID:21463161

  18. Coke oven gas injection to blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Maddalena, F.L.; Terza, R.R.; Sobek, T.F.; Myklebust, K.L.

    1995-12-01

    U.S. Steel has three major facilities remaining in Pennsylvania`s Mon Valley near Pittsburgh. The Clairton Coke Works operates 12 batteries which produce 4.7 million tons of coke annually. The Edgar Thomson Works in Braddock is a 2.7 million ton per year steel plant. Irvin Works in Dravosburg has a hot strip mill and a range of finishing facilities. The coke works produces 120 mmscfd of coke oven gas in excess of the battery heating requirements. This surplus gas is used primarily in steel re-heating furnaces and for boiler fuel to produce steam for plant use. In conjunction with blast furnace gas, it is also used for power generation of up to 90 MW. However, matching the consumption with the production of gas has proved to be difficult. Consequently, surplus gas has been flared at rates of up to 50 mmscfd, totaling 400 mmscf in several months. By 1993, several changes in key conditions provided the impetus to install equipment to inject coke oven gas into the blast furnaces. This paper describes the planning and implementation of a project to replace natural gas in the furnaces with coke oven gas. It involved replacement of 7 miles of pipeline between the coking plants and the blast furnaces, equipment capable of compressing coke oven gas from 10 to 50 psig, and installation of electrical and control systems to deliver gas as demanded.

  19. Blast furnace injection developments in British Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Jukes, M.H.

    1996-12-31

    British Steel has four integrated steel works, i.e., Llanwern, Port Talbot, Scunthorpe, Teesside, with a total of ten blast furnaces, nine of which are currently operating. The furnaces range in size from the 14 meters (45 feet 11 inches) hearth diameter Redcar No. 1 furnace at Teesside (a single furnace works) to the 8.33 meters (27 feet 4 inches) hearth Queen Mary and Queen Bess furnaces at Schunthorpe, with a total of four furnaces at that works. All have injection systems installed, those at Scunthorpe being equipped with granular coal injection and all others currently working with oil injection. The driving force behind the development of blast furnace injection has been as a means for introducing reducing agents (British Steel now refers to coke plus hydrocarbon injectants as total reductants) into the process as a part substitute/supplement for top charged coke and the technology is still being developed and used for that purpose. By utilizing practical experience and observing the work of others, British Steel has been assessing blast furnace injection technology experimentally for purposes other than the introduction of reducing agents.

  20. Disability evaluation in acoustic blast trauma

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Ganesan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Acoustic blast trauma is different from Noise induced hearing loss. Blast trauma can damage the tympanic membrane, ossicles and cochlea singly or in combination. It produces immediate severe hearing loss and may be associated with tinnitus and vestibular symptoms. Hearing loss recovers spontaneously in many cases but may be permanent in 30-55% cases. Thirteen patients working in an explosive manufacturing unit in Andhra Pradesh were exposed to blast trauma at work place. All these workers complained of immediate hearing loss and were subjected to audiological investigations. Methods: Initial evaluation showed a severe sensorineural type of hearing loss 10 of the 13 cases (77%). They were referred to our Medical board for disability evaluation after 2-3 years of initial injury. Pure tone audiometry indicated severe hearing loss in 12 of 13 cases (92%) that was not correlating clinically. Re-evaluation with Acoustic reflex and ABR (BERA) tests were done and permanent disability was evaluated with the results of these investigations. Observations: No significant hearing loss was found in most patients and these patients had minimal disability. Conclusion: Objective hearing tests should be carried out after one year or more before evaluation of permanent disability. PMID:26957811

  1. Self-similar Ultrarelativistic Jetted Blast Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshet, Uri; Kogan, Dani

    2015-12-01

    Following a suggestion that a directed relativistic explosion may have a universal intermediate asymptotic, we derive a self-similar solution for an ultrarelativistic jetted blast wave. The solution involves three distinct regions: an approximately paraboloid head where the Lorentz factor γ exceeds ˜ 1/2 of its maximal, nose value; a geometrically self-similar, expanding envelope slightly narrower than a paraboloid; and an axial core in which the (cylindrically, henceforth) radial flow {{u}} converges inward toward the axis. Most (˜80%) of the energy lies well beyond the leading, head region. Here, a radial cross section shows a maximal γ (separating the core and the envelope), a sign reversal in {{u}}, and a minimal γ, at respectively ˜1/6, ˜1/4, and ˜3/4 of the shock radius. The solution is apparently unique, and approximately agrees with previous simulations, of different initial conditions, that resolved the head. This suggests that unlike a spherical relativistic blast wave, our solution is an attractor, and may thus describe directed blast waves such as in the external shock phase of a γ-ray burst.

  2. 29 CFR 1926.906 - Initiation of explosive charges-electric blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Initiation of explosive charges-electric blasting. 1926.906... Use of Explosives § 1926.906 Initiation of explosive charges—electric blasting. (a) Electric blasting caps shall not be used where sources of extraneous electricity make the use of electric blasting...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.906 - Initiation of explosive charges-electric blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Initiation of explosive charges-electric blasting. 1926.906... Use of Explosives § 1926.906 Initiation of explosive charges—electric blasting. (a) Electric blasting caps shall not be used where sources of extraneous electricity make the use of electric blasting...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.906 - Initiation of explosive charges-electric blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Initiation of explosive charges-electric blasting. 1926.906... Use of Explosives § 1926.906 Initiation of explosive charges—electric blasting. (a) Electric blasting caps shall not be used where sources of extraneous electricity make the use of electric blasting...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.906 - Initiation of explosive charges-electric blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Initiation of explosive charges-electric blasting. 1926.906... Use of Explosives § 1926.906 Initiation of explosive charges—electric blasting. (a) Electric blasting caps shall not be used where sources of extraneous electricity make the use of electric blasting...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.906 - Initiation of explosive charges-electric blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initiation of explosive charges-electric blasting. 1926.906... Use of Explosives § 1926.906 Initiation of explosive charges—electric blasting. (a) Electric blasting caps shall not be used where sources of extraneous electricity make the use of electric blasting...

  7. 7. Air Blast Circuit Breaker Compressors, view to the southeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Air Blast Circuit Breaker Compressors, view to the southeast. The air blast circuit breakers are visible in the left background of the photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  8. Identification of rice blast resistance genes using international monogenic differentials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice blast disease, caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae, is one of the most devastating diseases of rice that severely affects crop production in Jilin Province, Northeast China, where temperate japonica rice is primarily grown. In the present study, 44 representative local blast isolat...

  9. 2. View of blast deflector fences along northeast side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of blast deflector fences along northeast side of the operational apron. View to northwest. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Blast Deflector Fences, Northeast & Southwest sides of Operational Apron, Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  10. 1. View of blast deflector fences along southwest side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View of blast deflector fences along southwest side of the operational apron. View to west. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Blast Deflector Fences, Northeast & Southwest sides of Operational Apron, Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  11. EXTERIOR VIEW, NO. 3 CAST HOUSE CENTER AND BLAST FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW, NO. 3 CAST HOUSE CENTER AND BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE)/ORE BRIDGE TO THE RIGHT, WITH SINTERING PLANT CONVEYORS & TRANSFER HOUSE IN FOREGROUND. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  12. Repeated blast exposures cause brain DNA fragmentation in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Arun, Peethambaran; Wei, Yanling; Oguntayo, Samuel; Gharavi, Robert; Valiyaveettil, Manojkumar; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P; Long, Joseph B

    2014-03-01

    The pathophysiology of blast-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) and subsequent behavioral deficits are not well understood. Unraveling the mechanisms of injury is critical to derive effective countermeasures against this form of neurotrauma. Preservation of the integrity of cellular DNA is crucial for the function and survival of cells. We evaluated the effect of repeated blast exposures on the integrity of brain DNA and tested the utility of cell-free DNA (CFD) in plasma as a biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of blast-induced polytrauma. The results revealed time-dependent breakdown in cellular DNA in different brain regions, with the maximum damage at 24 h post-blast exposures. CFD levels in plasma showed a significant transient increase, which was largely independent of the timing and severity of brain DNA damage; maximum levels were recorded at 2 h after repeated blast exposure and returned to baseline at 24 h. A positive correlation was observed between the righting reflex time and CFD level in plasma at 2 h after blast exposure. Brain DNA damage subsequent to repeated blast was associated with decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, increased release of cytochrome C, and up-regulation of caspase-3, all of which are indicative of cellular apoptosis. Shock-wave-induced DNA damage and initiation of mitochondrial-driven cellular apoptosis in the brain after repeated blast exposures indicate that therapeutic strategies directed toward inhibition of DNA damage or instigation of DNA repair may be effective countermeasures. PMID:24074345

  13. Storage stability of flour-blasted brown rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brown rice was blasted with rice flour rather than sand in a sand blaster to make microscopic nicks and cuts so that water can easily penetrate into the brown rice endosperm and cook the rice in a shorter time. The flour-blasted American Basmati brown rice, long grain brown rice, and parboiled long...

  14. 30 CFR 56.6306 - Loading, blasting, and security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Loading, blasting, and security. 56.6306 Section 56.6306 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Use § 56.6306 Loading, blasting, and security....

  15. Blast Loading Experiments of Surrogate Models for Tbi Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alley, M. D.; Son, S. F.

    2009-12-01

    This study aims to characterize the interaction of explosive blast waves through simulated anatomical models. We have developed physical models and a systematic approach for testing traumatic brain injury (TBI) mechanisms and occurrences. A simplified series of models consisting of spherical PMMA shells housing synthetic gelatins as brain simulants have been utilized. A series of experiments was conducted to compare the sensitivity of the system response to mechanical properties of the simulants under high strain-rate explosive blasts. Small explosive charges were directed at the models to produce a realistic blast wave in a scaled laboratory test cell setting. Blast profiles were measured and analyzed to compare system response severity. High-speed shadowgraph imaging captured blast wave interaction with the head model while particle tracking captured internal response for displacement and strain correlation. The results suggest amplification of shock waves inside the head near material interfaces due to impedance mismatches. In addition, significant relative displacement was observed between the interacting materials suggesting large strain values of nearly 5%. Further quantitative results were obtained through shadowgraph imaging of the blasts confirming a separation of time scales between blast interaction and bulk movement. These results lead to the conclusion that primary blast effects could cause TBI occurrences.

  16. 30 CFR 780.13 - Operation plan: Blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE... SURFACE MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 780.13... proposed procedures and locations of monitoring. (c) Blasting near underground mines. Blasting...

  17. 30 CFR 780.13 - Operation plan: Blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE... SURFACE MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 780.13... proposed procedures and locations of monitoring. (c) Blasting near underground mines. Blasting...

  18. 30 CFR 57.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and blasting lines shall be isolated and insulated from power conductors, pipelines, and railroad tracks,...

  19. 30 CFR 57.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and blasting lines shall be isolated and insulated from power conductors, pipelines, and railroad tracks,...

  20. 30 CFR 57.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and blasting lines shall be isolated and insulated from power conductors, pipelines, and railroad tracks,...

  1. Current advances on genetic resistance to rice blast disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice blast disease caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most threatening fungal diseases resulting in significant annual crop losses worldwide. Blast disease has been effectively managed by a combination of resistant (R) gene deployment, application of fungicides, and suita...

  2. Identification of major blast resistance genes in the southern US

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance (R) genes in rice play important roles in preventing infections of rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae. In order to identify more R genes for different rice growing areas in the Southern US, an extensive field survey of the blast fungus was performed from 2012 to 2013. A total of 500 is...

  3. 29 CFR 1910.109 - Explosives and blasting agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives and blasting agents. 1910.109 Section 1910.109 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Hazardous Materials § 1910.109 Explosives and blasting agents. (a) Definitions applicable...

  4. VIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF THE #2 BLAST FURNACE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM THE SOUTH OF THE #2 BLAST FURNACE AND CASTING SEED ON THE LEFT, THE #1 BLAST FURNACE AND CASTING SHED ON THE RIGHT, AND THE STOVES, BOILERS, AND AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT IN THE CENTER. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  5. Constraining the braneworld with gravitational wave observations.

    PubMed

    McWilliams, Sean T

    2010-04-01

    Some braneworld models may have observable consequences that, if detected, would validate a requisite element of string theory. In the infinite Randall-Sundrum model (RS2), the AdS radius of curvature, l, of the extra dimension supports a single bound state of the massless graviton on the brane, thereby reproducing Newtonian gravity in the weak-field limit. However, using the AdS/CFT correspondence, it has been suggested that one possible consequence of RS2 is an enormous increase in Hawking radiation emitted by black holes. We utilize this possibility to derive two novel methods for constraining l via gravitational wave measurements. We show that the EMRI event rate detected by LISA can constrain l at the approximately 1 microm level for optimal cases, while the observation of a single galactic black hole binary with LISA results in an optimal constraint of l < or = 5 microm. PMID:20481929

  6. Elastic Domain Architectures in Constrained Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slutsker, J.; Artemev, A.; Roytburd, A. L.

    2002-08-01

    The formation of elastic domains in transforming constrained films is a mechanism of relaxation of internal stresses caused by the misfit between a film and a substrate. The formation and evolution of polydomain microstructure as a result of the cubic-tetragonal transformation in a constrained layer are investigated by phase-field simulation. It has been shown that the three-domain hierarchical structure can be formed in the epitaxial films. With changing a fraction of out-of-plane domain there are two types of morphological transitions: from the three-domain structure to the two-domain one and from the hierarchical three-domain structure to the cellular three-domain structure. The results of the phase-field simulation are compared with available experimental data on 90deg domain structures in epitaxial ferroelectric films.

  7. Constraining SUSY GUTs and Inflation with Cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Rocher, Jonathan

    2006-11-03

    In the framework of Supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories (SUSY GUTs), the universe undergoes a cascade of symmetry breakings, during which topological defects can be formed. We address the question of the probability of cosmic string formation after a phase of hybrid inflation within a large number of models of SUSY GUTs in agreement with particle and cosmological data. We show that cosmic strings are extremely generic and should be used to relate cosmology and high energy physics. This conclusion is employed together with the WMAP CMB data to strongly constrain SUSY hybrid inflation models. F-term and D-term inflation are studied in the SUSY and minimal SUGRA framework. They are both found to agree with data but suffer from fine tuning of their superpotential coupling ({lambda} (less-or-similar sign) 3 x 10-5 or less). Mass scales of inflation are also constrained to be less than M < or approx. 3 x 1015 GeV.

  8. Constrained optimization via artificial immune system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiwei; Yen, Gary G; He, Zhongshi

    2014-02-01

    An artificial immune system inspired by the fundamental principle of the vertebrate immune system, for solving constrained optimization problems, is proposed. The analogy between the mechanism of biological immune response and constrained optimization formulation is drawn. Individuals in population are classified into feasible and infeasible groups according to their constraint violations that closely match with the two states, inactivated and activated, of B-cells in the immune response. Feasible group focuses on exploitation in the feasible areas through clonal selection, recombination, and hypermutation, while infeasible group facilitates exploration along the feasibility boundary via location update. Direction information is extracted to promote the interactions between these two groups. This approach is validated by the benchmark functions proposed most recently and compared with those of the state of the art from various branches of evolutionary computation paradigms. The performance achieved is considered fairly competitive and promising. PMID:23757542

  9. A constrained supersymmetric left-right model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Martin; Krauss, Manuel E.; Opferkuch, Toby; Porod, Werner; Staub, Florian

    2016-03-01

    We present a supersymmetric left-right model which predicts gauge coupling unification close to the string scale and extra vector bosons at the TeV scale. The subtleties in constructing a model which is in agreement with the measured quark masses and mixing for such a low left-right breaking scale are discussed. It is shown that in the constrained version of this model radiative breaking of the gauge symmetries is possible and a SM-like Higgs is obtained. Additional CP-even scalars of a similar mass or even much lighter are possible. The expected mass hierarchies for the supersymmetric states differ clearly from those of the constrained MSSM. In particular, the lightest down-type squark, which is a mixture of the sbottom and extra vector-like states, is always lighter than the stop. We also comment on the model's capability to explain current anomalies observed at the LHC.

  10. Compilation for critically constrained knowledge bases

    SciTech Connect

    Schrag, R.

    1996-12-31

    We show that many {open_quotes}critically constrained{close_quotes} Random 3SAT knowledge bases (KBs) can be compiled into disjunctive normal form easily by using a variant of the {open_quotes}Davis-Putnam{close_quotes} proof procedure. From these compiled KBs we can answer all queries about entailment of conjunctive normal formulas, also easily - compared to a {open_quotes}brute-force{close_quotes} approach to approximate knowledge compilation into unit clauses for the same KBs. We exploit this fact to develop an aggressive hybrid approach which attempts to compile a KB exactly until a given resource limit is reached, then falls back to approximate compilation into unit clauses. The resulting approach handles all of the critically constrained Random 3SAT KBs with average savings of an order of magnitude over the brute-force approach.

  11. SURFACE PREPARATION OF STEEL SUBSTRATES USING GRIT-BLASTING

    SciTech Connect

    Donna Post Guillen; D. J. Varacalle, Jr.; D. Deason; W. Rhodaberger; E. Sampson

    2005-05-01

    The primary purpose of grit blasting for thermal spray applications is to ensure a strong mechanical bond between the substrate and the coating by the enhanced roughening of the substrate material. This study presents statistically designed experiments that were accomplished to investigate the effect of abrasives on roughness for A36/1020 steel. The experiments were conducted using a Box statistical design of experiment (SDE) approach. Three grit blasting parameters and their effect on the resultant substrate roughness were investigated. These include blast media, blast pressure, and working distance. The substrates were characterized for roughness using surface profilometry. These attributes were correlated with the changes in operating parameters. Twin-Wire Electric Arc (TWEA) coatings of aluminum and zinc/aluminum were deposited on the grit-blasted substrates. These coatings were then tested for bond strength. Bond strength studies were conducted utilizing a portable adhesion tester following ASTM standard D4541.

  12. Study of blasting vibrations in sarcheshmeh copper mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najm, K.; Javaherian, A.; Amnieh, H. B.

    2002-11-01

    Ground vibration is one of the side effects of blasting, in which way considerable amount of explosive energy is exhausted, and causes decrease in production and even decline in mine development workings. In this study, 57 recorded 3-C seismograms from 11 blasts in Sarcheshmeh copper mine, Kerman, Iran, are processed and analyzed. These data were recorded by digital seismograph PDAS-100 and analyzed by DADISP software. Finally, blasting parameters, such as explosive weight and type, distance between the structures and blasting site, blasting delays, affecting ground vibration are reviewed and their influence on peak particle velocity (PPV) are studied. Based on this study, suitable detonation delays and explosive type is determined. Considering these data, a graph of PPV versus scaled distance for Sarcheshmeh copper mine is prepared, by the help of which, safe distance for structures and accordingly explosive quantity could be determined.

  13. Note: A table-top blast driven shock tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtney, Michael W.; Courtney, Amy C.

    2010-12-01

    The prevalence of blast-induced traumatic brain injury in conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan has motivated laboratory scale experiments on biomedical effects of blast waves and studies of blast wave transmission properties of various materials in hopes of improving armor design to mitigate these injuries. This paper describes the design and performance of a table-top shock tube that is more convenient and widely accessible than traditional compression driven and blast driven shock tubes. The design is simple: it is an explosive driven shock tube employing a rifle primer that explodes when impacted by the firing pin. The firearm barrel acts as the shock tube, and the shock wave emerges from the muzzle. The small size of this shock tube can facilitate localized application of a blast wave to a subject, tissue, or material under test.

  14. Note: A table-top blast driven shock tube.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Michael W; Courtney, Amy C

    2010-12-01

    The prevalence of blast-induced traumatic brain injury in conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan has motivated laboratory scale experiments on biomedical effects of blast waves and studies of blast wave transmission properties of various materials in hopes of improving armor design to mitigate these injuries. This paper describes the design and performance of a table-top shock tube that is more convenient and widely accessible than traditional compression driven and blast driven shock tubes. The design is simple: it is an explosive driven shock tube employing a rifle primer that explodes when impacted by the firing pin. The firearm barrel acts as the shock tube, and the shock wave emerges from the muzzle. The small size of this shock tube can facilitate localized application of a blast wave to a subject, tissue, or material under test. PMID:21198058

  15. Studies of laser-driven radiative blast waves

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, M J; Hansen, J; Edens, A; Ditmire, T; Adams, R; Rambo, P; Ruggles, L; Smith, I; Porter, J

    2004-04-29

    We have performed two sets of experiments looking at laser-driven radiating blast waves. In one set of experiments the effect of a drive laser's passage through a background gas on the hydrodynamical evolution of blast waves was examined. It was found that the laser's passage heats a channel in the gas, creating a region where a portion of the blast wave front had an increased velocity, leading to the formation of a bump-like protrusion on the blast wave. The second set of experiments involved the use of regularly spaced wire arrays to induce perturbations on a blast wave surface. The decay of these perturbations as a function of time was measured for various wave number perturbations and found to be in good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  16. Synthesis of constrained analogues of tryptophan

    PubMed Central

    Negrato, Marco; Abbiati, Giorgio; Dell’Acqua, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Summary A Lewis acid-catalysed diastereoselective [4 + 2] cycloaddition of vinylindoles and methyl 2-acetamidoacrylate, leading to methyl 3-acetamido-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocarbazole-3-carboxylate derivatives, is described. Treatment of the obtained cycloadducts under hydrolytic conditions results in the preparation of a small library of compounds bearing the free amino acid function at C-3 and pertaining to the class of constrained tryptophan analogues. PMID:26664620

  17. Cosmicflows Constrained Local UniversE Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorce, Jenny G.; Gottlöber, Stefan; Yepes, Gustavo; Hoffman, Yehuda; Courtois, Helene M.; Steinmetz, Matthias; Tully, R. Brent; Pomarède, Daniel; Carlesi, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    This paper combines observational data sets and cosmological simulations to generate realistic numerical replicas of the nearby Universe. The latter are excellent laboratories for studies of the non-linear process of structure formation in our neighbourhood. With measurements of radial peculiar velocities in the local Universe (cosmicflows-2) and a newly developed technique, we produce Constrained Local UniversE Simulations (CLUES). To assess the quality of these constrained simulations, we compare them with random simulations as well as with local observations. The cosmic variance, defined as the mean one-sigma scatter of cell-to-cell comparison between two fields, is significantly smaller for the constrained simulations than for the random simulations. Within the inner part of the box where most of the constraints are, the scatter is smaller by a factor of 2 to 3 on a 5 h-1 Mpc scale with respect to that found for random simulations. This one-sigma scatter obtained when comparing the simulated and the observation-reconstructed velocity fields is only 104 ± 4 km s-1, i.e. the linear theory threshold. These two results demonstrate that these simulations are in agreement with each other and with the observations of our neighbourhood. For the first time, simulations constrained with observational radial peculiar velocities resemble the local Universe up to a distance of 150 h-1 Mpc on a scale of a few tens of megaparsecs. When focusing on the inner part of the box, the resemblance with our cosmic neighbourhood extends to a few megaparsecs (<5 h-1 Mpc). The simulations provide a proper large-scale environment for studies of the formation of nearby objects.

  18. Constrained simulation of the Bullet Cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Lage, Craig; Farrar, Glennys

    2014-06-01

    In this work, we report on a detailed simulation of the Bullet Cluster (1E0657-56) merger, including magnetohydrodynamics, plasma cooling, and adaptive mesh refinement. We constrain the simulation with data from gravitational lensing reconstructions and the 0.5-2 keV Chandra X-ray flux map, then compare the resulting model to higher energy X-ray fluxes, the extracted plasma temperature map, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect measurements, and cluster halo radio emission. We constrain the initial conditions by minimizing the chi-squared figure of merit between the full two-dimensional (2D) observational data sets and the simulation, rather than comparing only a few features such as the location of subcluster centroids, as in previous studies. A simple initial configuration of two triaxial clusters with Navarro-Frenk-White dark matter profiles and physically reasonable plasma profiles gives a good fit to the current observational morphology and X-ray emissions of the merging clusters. There is no need for unconventional physics or extreme infall velocities. The study gives insight into the astrophysical processes at play during a galaxy cluster merger, and constrains the strength and coherence length of the magnetic fields. The techniques developed here to create realistic, stable, triaxial clusters, and to utilize the totality of the 2D image data, will be applicable to future simulation studies of other merging clusters. This approach of constrained simulation, when applied to well-measured systems, should be a powerful complement to present tools for understanding X-ray clusters and their magnetic fields, and the processes governing their formation.

  19. Hybrid evolutionary programming for heavily constrained problems.

    PubMed

    Myung, H; Kim, J H

    1996-01-01

    A hybrid of evolutionary programming (EP) and a deterministic optimization procedure is applied to a series of non-linear and quadratic optimization problems. The hybrid scheme is compared with other existing schemes such as EP alone, two-phase (TP) optimization, and EP with a non-stationary penalty function (NS-EP). The results indicate that the hybrid method can outperform the other methods when addressing heavily constrained optimization problems in terms of computational efficiency and solution accuracy. PMID:8833746

  20. Constraining RRc candidates using SDSS colours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banyai, E.; Plachy, E.; Molnar, L.; Dobos, L.; Szabo, R.

    2016-05-01

    The light variations of first-overtone RR Lyrae stars and contact eclipsing binaries can be difficult to distinguish. The Catalina Periodic Variable Star catalog contains several misclassified objects, despite the classification efforts by Drake et al. (2014). They used metallicity and surface gravity derived from spectroscopic data (from the SDSS database) to rule out binaries. Our aim is to further constrain the catalog using SDSS colours to estimate physical parameters for stars that did not have spectroscopic data.

  1. A novel bridge wire model of blast traumatic brain injury - biomed 2013.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Carolyn E; Thorpe, Chevon N; Sholar, Christopher A; Rzigalinski, Beverly A; VandeVord, Pamela J

    2013-01-01

    Research into the mechanics of blast-induced traumatic brain injury requires a device capable of reproducing pressures of the same magnitude and time scale as a blast wave. A blast simulator based on the exploding bridge wire mechanism was created with these capabilities. Peak blast pressures in the range of 5 – 29 psi were generated with a positive phase duration less than 20 µs. A series of experiments using 0.008 inch diameter wires (10-20 psi) were used to demonstrate the ability of the blast simulator to injure in vitro primary brain cell cultures at 1, 24, and 48 hours following blast. Blast exposure caused a rapid loss of cells which was significant over controls. Propidium iodide uptake indicated limited injury to cellular membranes but the cytoskeletal structure showed signs of degeneration 1 hour following blast. These results indicate that the bridge wire blast simulator can serve as a suitable in vitro model of blast injury. PMID:23686215

  2. CONSTRAINING SOURCE REDSHIFT DISTRIBUTIONS WITH GRAVITATIONAL LENSING

    SciTech Connect

    Wittman, D.; Dawson, W. A.

    2012-09-10

    We introduce a new method for constraining the redshift distribution of a set of galaxies, using weak gravitational lensing shear. Instead of using observed shears and redshifts to constrain cosmological parameters, we ask how well the shears around clusters can constrain the redshifts, assuming fixed cosmological parameters. This provides a check on photometric redshifts, independent of source spectral energy distribution properties and therefore free of confounding factors such as misidentification of spectral breaks. We find that {approx}40 massive ({sigma}{sub v} = 1200 km s{sup -1}) cluster lenses are sufficient to determine the fraction of sources in each of six coarse redshift bins to {approx}11%, given weak (20%) priors on the masses of the highest-redshift lenses, tight (5%) priors on the masses of the lowest-redshift lenses, and only modest (20%-50%) priors on calibration and evolution effects. Additional massive lenses drive down uncertainties as N{sub lens}{sup -1/2}, but the improvement slows as one is forced to use lenses further down the mass function. Future large surveys contain enough clusters to reach 1% precision in the bin fractions if the tight lens-mass priors can be maintained for large samples of lenses. In practice this will be difficult to achieve, but the method may be valuable as a complement to other more precise methods because it is based on different physics and therefore has different systematic errors.

  3. An English language interface for constrained domains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, Brenda J.

    1989-01-01

    The Multi-Satellite Operations Control Center (MSOCC) Jargon Interpreter (MJI) demonstrates an English language interface for a constrained domain. A constrained domain is defined as one with a small and well delineated set of actions and objects. The set of actions chosen for the MJI is from the domain of MSOCC Applications Executive (MAE) Systems Test and Operations Language (STOL) directives and contains directives for signing a cathode ray tube (CRT) on or off, calling up or clearing a display page, starting or stopping a procedure, and controlling history recording. The set of objects chosen consists of CRTs, display pages, STOL procedures, and history files. Translation from English sentences to STOL directives is done in two phases. In the first phase, an augmented transition net (ATN) parser and dictionary are used for determining grammatically correct parsings of input sentences. In the second phase, grammatically typed sentences are submitted to a forward-chaining rule-based system for interpretation and translation into equivalent MAE STOL directives. Tests of the MJI show that it is able to translate individual clearly stated sentences into the subset of directives selected for the prototype. This approach to an English language interface may be used for similarly constrained situations by modifying the MJI's dictionary and rules to reflect the change of domain.

  4. Constrained optimum trajectories with specified range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, H.; Lee, H.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristics of optimum fixed-range trajectories whose structure is constrained to climb, steady cruise, and descent segments are derived by application of optimal control theory. The performance function consists of the sum of fuel and time costs, referred to as direct operating costs (DOC). The state variable is range-to-go and the independent variable is energy. In this formulation a cruise segment always occurs at the optimum cruise energy for sufficiently large range. At short ranges (500 n. mi. and less) a cruise segment may also occur below the optimum cruise energy. The existence of such a cruise segment depends primarily on the fuel flow vs thrust characteristics and on thrust constraints. If thrust is a free control variable along with airspeed, it is shown that such cruise segments will not generally occur. If thrust is constrained to some maximum value in climb and to some minimum in descent, such cruise segments generally will occur. The performance difference between free thrust and constrained thrust trajectories has been determined in computer calculations for an example transport aircraft.

  5. Constrained Implants in Total Knee Replacement.

    PubMed

    Touzopoulos, Panagiotis; Drosos, Georgios I; Ververidis, Athanasios; Kazakos, Konstantinos

    2015-05-01

    Total knee replacement (TKR) is a successful procedure for pain relief and functional restoration in patients with advanced osteoarthritis. The number of TKRs is increasing, and this has led to an increase in revision surgeries. The key to long-term success in both primary and revision TKR is stability, as well as adequate and stable fixation between components and underlying bone. In the vast majority of primary TKRs and in some revision cases, a posterior cruciate retaining or a posterior cruciate substituting device can be used. In some primary cases with severe deformity or ligamentous instability and in most of the revision cases, a more constrained implant is required. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature concerning the use of condylar constrained knee (CCK) and rotating hinge (RH) implants in primary and revision cases focusing on the indications and results. According to this review, although excellent and very good results have been reported, there are limitations of the existing literature concerning the indications for the use of constrained implants, the absence of long-term results, and the limited comparative studies. PMID:26055025

  6. The analysis of ground vibrations induced by bench blasting at Akyol quarry and practical blasting charts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozer, Umit; Kahriman, Ali; Aksoy, Mehmet; Adiguzel, Deniz; Karadogan, Abdulkadir

    2008-04-01

    Ground vibrations arising from excavation with blasting is one of the fundamental problems in the mining industry. Therefore, the prediction of ground vibration components plays an important role in the minimization of environmental complaints. In this study, 582 events were recorded during limestone production at a quarry (Akyol Quarry) during a period of time. The blasting parameters of these shots were also carefully recorded. During the statistical analysis of the collected data, three predictor equations proposed by the United States Bureau of Mines (USBM), Ambraseys Hendron and Langefors Kihlstrom were used to establish a relationship between peak particle velocity and scaled distance described by these prediction equations. As a result of this analysis, the most powerful relationship was determined and proposed to be used in this site. And also, this equation was used in the derivation of the practical blasting charts specific to this site as a practical way of predicting the peak particle velocity and maximum charge amount per delay for future blasting.

  7. Simulation of blast-induced, early-time intracranial wave physics leading to traumatic brain injury.

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Paul Allen; Ford, Corey C.

    2008-04-01

    U.S. soldiers are surviving blast and impacts due to effective body armor, trauma evacuation and care. Blast injuries are the leading cause of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in military personnel returning from combat. Understanding of Primary Blast Injury may be needed to develop better means of blast mitigation strategies. The objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of blast direction and strength on the resulting mechanical stress and wave energy distributions generated in the brain.

  8. BLAST: RESOLVING THE COSMIC SUBMILLIMETER BACKGROUND

    SciTech Connect

    Marsden, Gaelen; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Ngo, Henry; Ade, Peter A. R.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Pascale, Enzo; Bock, James J.; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Klein, Jeff; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hughes, David H.; Magnelli, Benjamin; Olmi, Luca; Patanchon, Guillaume

    2009-12-20

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) has made 1 deg{sup 2}, deep, confusion-limited maps at three different bands, centered on the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey South Field. By calculating the covariance of these maps with catalogs of 24 mum sources from the Far-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey, we have determined that the total submillimeter intensities are 8.60 +- 0.59, 4.93 +- 0.34, and 2.27 +- 0.20 nW m{sup -2} sr{sup -1} at 250, 350, and 500 mum, respectively. These numbers are more precise than previous estimates of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) and are consistent with 24 mum-selected galaxies generating the full intensity of the CIB. We find that the fraction of the CIB that originates from sources at z >= 1.2 increases with wavelength, with 60% from high-redshift sources at 500 mum. At all BLAST wavelengths, the relative intensity of high-z sources is higher for 24 mum-faint sources than that for 24 mum-bright sources. Galaxies identified as active galactic nuclei (AGNs) by their Infrared Array Camera colors are 1.6-2.6 times brighter than the average population at 250-500 mum, consistent with what is found for X-ray-selected AGNs. BzK-selected galaxies are found to be moderately brighter than typical 24 mum-selected galaxies in the BLAST bands. These data provide high-precision constraints for models of the evolution of the number density and intensity of star-forming galaxies at high redshift.

  9. Impact and Blast Resistance of Sandwich Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, George J.; Bahei-El-Din, Yehia A.; Suvorov, Alexander P.

    Response of conventional and modified sandwich plate designs is examined under static load, impact by a rigid cylindrical or flat indenter, and during and after an exponential pressure impulse lasting for 0.05 ms, at peak pressure of 100 MPa, simulating a nearby explosion. The conventional sandwich design consists of thin outer (loaded side) and inner facesheets made of carbon/epoxy fibrous laminates, separated by a thick layer of structural foam core. In the three modified designs, one or two thin ductile interlayers are inserted between the outer facesheet and the foam core. Materials selected for the interlayers are a hyperelas-tic rate-independent polyurethane;a compression strain and strain rate dependent, elastic-plastic polyurea;and an elastomeric foam. ABAQUS and LS-Dyna software were used in various response simulations. Performance comparisons between the enhanced and conventional designs show that the modified designs provide much better protection against different damage modes under both load regimes. After impact, local facesheet deflection, core compression, and energy release rate of delamination cracks, which may extend on hidden interfaces between facesheet and core, are all reduced. Under blast or impulse loads, reductions have been observed in the extent of core crushing, facesheet delaminations and vibration amplitudes, and in overall deflections. Similar reductions were found in the kinetic energy and in the stored and dissipated strain energy. Although strain rates as high as 10-4/s1 are produced by the blast pressure, peak strains in the interlayers were too low to raise the flow stress in the polyurea to that in the polyurethane, where a possible rate-dependent response was neglected. Therefore, stiff polyurethane or hard rubber interlayers materials should be used for protection of sandwich plate foam cores against both impact and blast-induced damage.

  10. Non-equilibrium ionized blast wave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    1974-01-01

    The structure of a cylindrical blast wave with ionization at non-LTE conditions was calculated using equations previously developed by Wu and Fu (1970). The degree of ionization was predicted by a modified Saha equation. Temperature profiles show that the temperature at non-LTE conditions is lower than at LTE near the shock front. This corresponds to a higher degree of ionization for the non-LTE limit, which indicates that the neutral gas absorption is much more efficient at non-LTE than at the LTE limit. The decaying velocity under non-LTE is approximately 15% less than under LTE.

  11. Blast furnace on-line simulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxén, Henrik

    1990-10-01

    A mathematical model of the ironmaking blast furnace (BF) is presented. The model describes the steady-state operation of the furnace in one spatial dimension using real process data sampled at the steelworks. The measurement data are reconciled by an interface routine which yields boundary conditions obeying the conservation laws of atoms and energy. The simulation model, which provides a picture of the internal conditions of the BF, can be used to evaluate the current state of the process and to predict the effect of operating actions on the performance of the furnace.

  12. Significance of blast wave studies to propulsion.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppenheim, A. K.

    1971-01-01

    Brief survey of experimental methods currently used for the study of blast wave phenomena with emphasis on high rate exothermic processes. The experimental techniques have used such devices as divergent test sections in shock or detonation tubes, employment of proper test gases, as in marginal detonations, and a variety of explosion systems from finite source explosion apparatus to devices where virtually point explosions are obtained by local breakdown initiated by means of focused laser irradiation. Other methods used are detonation tubes where pressure waves are generated by accelerating flames or by exothermic reactions developed behind reflected shocks, as well as a variety of converging shock and implosion vessels.

  13. NASA TEERM Project: Corn Based Blast Media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Chuck

    2009-01-01

    Coatings removal is a necessary part of the maintenance, repair, and overhaul activities at many NASA centers and contractor support sites. Sensitive substrates, such as composites and thin aluminum alloys require special handling such as the use of chemical stripping, pneumatic hand sanding, or softer blast media. Type V, acrylic based PMB is commonly used to de-coat, strip, or de-paint the delicate substrates of the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) currently used in support of the Shuttle and slated to be used in support of CxP.

  14. Blast energy mitigation in porous rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essink, Brittany C.

    Geo-materials are commonly used and sought after for blast mitigation applications due to their wide availability and low cost compared to industry trademarked materials. Characterization of these natural geo-materials such as volcanic rocks is of paramount importance in determining their blast mitigation capabilities. While there is a large amount of information available for materials such as concrete or sand blasts, information on the properties of volcanic rocks is far more scarce. This lack of data is due to the wide range of existing natural volcanic rocks and the variation in the minerals and pore structures of the rocks. In this thesis, silicate volcanic rock samples are characterized both through static and dynamic experimental methods. Initial X-ray powder diffraction scans have been conducted and analyzed to obtain the mineral composition information of the rock samples. Additional tomographic scans under quasi-static loading have been recorded to better understand the internal composition of the material pore structure and the material fracture. For this study, standard compression experiments were conducted at two separate strain rates for ten samples each on a UTM test frame to characterize the behavior of the rock under quasi-static conditions. High strain rate uniaxial compression tests were conducted for three strain rates using a split-Hopkinson pressure bar with pulse shaping to determine the dynamic response of the material. The stress-strain data from the experiments was used to determine the modulus of toughness of the material. Due to the high porosity and heterogeneity of the material, 25 samples were used for dynamic experimentation to attempt to capture and minimize the effects of scatter in the natural material. High speed photography was used to capture the sample deformation during two separate strain rates and to visualize crack propagation and strain rate in the samples. It was found that after an initial yielding, the material is

  15. Effect of cavitation on spherical blast waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.

    1984-09-01

    For spherical blast waves propagating through a self-gravitating gas with an energy input Eα = E0tβ, where Eα is the energy released up to time t, E0 is a functional constant, and β is a constant, kinetic, internal heat, and gravitational potential energies have been computed. Taking the parameter A2, which characterises the gravitational field, equal to 2, variations of the percentages of these energies for β = 0, 1/2, 4/3, and 3 with shock strength have been presented. For β = 3, the effect of cavitation on the percentages of kinetic energy and internal heat energies has been explored.

  16. Steel Foil Improves Performance Of Blasting Caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Perry, Ronnie; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1990-01-01

    Blasting caps, which commonly include deep-drawn aluminum cups, give significantly higher initiation performance by application of steel foils on output faces. Steel closures 0.005 in. (0.13 mm) thick more effective than aluminum. Caps with directly bonded steel foil produce fragment velocities of 9,300 ft/s (2.8 km/s) with large craters and unpredictable patterns to such degree that no attempts made to initiate explosions. Useful in military and aerospace applications and in specialized industries as mining and exploration for oil.

  17. 21 CFR 888.3230 - Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3230 Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device...

  18. 21 CFR 888.3230 - Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3230 Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device...

  19. 21 CFR 888.3780 - Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3780 Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device made...

  20. 21 CFR 888.3780 - Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3780 Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device made...

  1. 21 CFR 888.3720 - Toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888.3720... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3720 Toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device made of...

  2. 21 CFR 888.3720 - Toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888.3720... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3720 Toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device made of...

  3. 21 CFR 888.3720 - Toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888.3720... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3720 Toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device made of...

  4. 21 CFR 888.3780 - Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3780 Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device made...

  5. 21 CFR 888.3230 - Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3230 Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device...

  6. 21 CFR 888.3780 - Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3780 Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device made...

  7. 21 CFR 888.3720 - Toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888.3720... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3720 Toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device made of...

  8. 21 CFR 888.3780 - Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3780 Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device made...

  9. 21 CFR 888.3230 - Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3230 Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device...

  10. 21 CFR 888.3720 - Toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888.3720... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3720 Toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A toe joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device made of...

  11. White Matter Compromise in Veterans Exposed to Primary Blast Forces

    PubMed Central

    Taber, Katherine H.; Hurley, Robin A.; Haswell, Courtney C.; Rowland, Jared A.; Hurt, Susan D.; Lamar, Cory D.; Morey, Rajendra A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Use Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) to investigate white matter alterations associated with blast exposure with or without acute symptoms of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Participants Forty-five veterans of the recent military conflicts included twenty-three exposed to primary blast without TBI symptoms, six having primary blast mild TBI, and sixteen unexposed to blast. Design Cross-sectional case control study. Main Measures Neuropsychological testing and DTI metrics that quantified the number of voxel clusters with altered fractional anisotropy (FA) radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD), regardless of their spatial location. Results Significantly lower FA and higher RD was observed in veterans exposed to primary blast with and without mild TBI relative to blast unexposed veterans. Voxel clusters of lower FA were spatially dispersed and heterogeneous across affected individuals. Conclusion These results suggest that lack of clear TBI symptoms following primary blast exposure may not accurately reflect the extent of brain injury. If confirmed, our findings would argue for supplementing the established approach of making diagnoses based purely on clinical history and observable acute symptoms with novel neuroimaging-based diagnostic criteria that “look below the surface” for pathology. PMID:24590156

  12. LTC vacuum blasting maching (concrete): Baseline report: Greenbook (Chapter)

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjuction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure during maintenance activities was minimal, but due to mechanical difficulties dust monitoring could not be conducted during operation. Noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. This may cause the results to be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed environment. In addition, other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration.

  13. High speed BLASTN: an accelerated MegaBLAST search tool.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Ye, Weicai; Zhang, Yongdong; Xu, Yuesheng

    2015-09-18

    Sequence alignment is a long standing problem in bioinformatics. The Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) is one of the most popular and fundamental alignment tools. The explosive growth of biological sequences calls for speedup of sequence alignment tools such as BLAST. To this end, we develop high speed BLASTN (HS-BLASTN), a parallel and fast nucleotide database search tool that accelerates MegaBLAST--the default module of NCBI-BLASTN. HS-BLASTN builds a new lookup table using the FMD-index of the database and employs an accurate and effective seeding method to find short stretches of identities (called seeds) between the query and the database. HS-BLASTN produces the same alignment results as MegaBLAST and its computational speed is much faster than MegaBLAST. Specifically, our experiments conducted on a 12-core server show that HS-BLASTN can be 22 times faster than MegaBLAST and exhibits better parallel performance than MegaBLAST. HS-BLASTN is written in C++ and the related source code is available at https://github.com/chenying2016/queries under the GPLv3 license. PMID:26250111

  14. Simulations of Porcine Eye Exposure to Primary Blast Insult

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Richard; Gray, Walt; Sponsel, William E.; Lund, Brian J.; Glickman, Randolph D.; Groth, Sylvia L.; Reilly, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose A computational model of the porcine eye was developed to simulate primary blast exposure. This model facilitates understanding of blast-induced injury mechanisms. Methods A computational model of the porcine eye was used to simulate the effects of primary blast loading for comparison with experimental findings from shock tube experiments. The eye model was exposed to overpressure-time histories measured during physical experiments. Deformations and mechanical stresses within various ocular tissues were then examined for correlation with pathological findings in the experiments. Results Stresses and strains experienced in the eye during a primary blast event increase as the severity of the blast exposure increases. Peak stresses in the model occurred in locations in which damage was most often observed in the physical experiments. Conclusions Blast injuries to the anterior chamber may be due to inertial displacement of the lens and ciliary body while posterior damage may arise due to contrecoup interactions of the vitreous and retina. Correlation of modeling predictions with physical experiments lends confidence that the model accurately represents the conditions found in the physical experiments. Translational Relevance This computational model offers insights into the mechanisms of ocular injuries arising due to primary blast and may be used to simulate the effects of new protective eyewear designs. PMID:26336633

  15. Parameters controlling the sand blasting of substrates for plasma spraying

    SciTech Connect

    Mellali, M.; Grimaud, A.; Fauchais, P.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of this paper was to examine how the grit blasting process influences the surface roughness of different substrates: aluminum alloy, cast iron and hard steel 100C6. Alumina grits of different mean diameters (2, 1.48, 1. 0.5 mm) were chosen. Grit blasting was performed using either a suction type machine or a pressure type machine which were equipped with straight nozzles made of B{sub 4}C (internal diameters of 8 mm) and the influence of the following parameters was studied: sand blasting distance (50 to 200 mm), blasting time (3 to 30 s), angle between nozzle and blasted surface (30, 60, 90{degree}), blasting pressure (from 0.2 to 0.6 MPa). The roughness of the substrates was characterized by using either a perthometer or image analysis. The influence of the grit erosion was studied. The results show that the most influential parameter for the roughness is the grit size. An increase of the pressure increased slightly the Ra but increased drastically the burst of the grit. A blasting time comprised between 3 and 6 s was quite sufficient to obtain the highest roughness and limit the grit burst.

  16. Incomplete Dirac reduction of constrained Hamiltonian systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chandre, C.

    2015-10-15

    First-class constraints constitute a potential obstacle to the computation of a Poisson bracket in Dirac’s theory of constrained Hamiltonian systems. Using the pseudoinverse instead of the inverse of the matrix defined by the Poisson brackets between the constraints, we show that a Dirac–Poisson bracket can be constructed, even if it corresponds to an incomplete reduction of the original Hamiltonian system. The uniqueness of Dirac brackets is discussed. The relevance of this procedure for infinite dimensional Hamiltonian systems is exemplified.

  17. Equilibria of three constrained point charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khimshiashvili, G.; Panina, G.; Siersma, D.

    2016-08-01

    We study the critical points of Coulomb energy considered as a function on configuration spaces associated with certain geometric constraints. Two settings of such kind are discussed in some detail. The first setting arises by considering polygons of fixed perimeter with freely sliding positively charged vertices. The second one is concerned with triples of positive charges constrained to three concentric circles. In each of these cases the Coulomb energy is generically a Morse function. We describe the minima and other stationary points of Coulomb energy and show that, for three charges, a pitchfork bifurcation takes place accompanied by an effect of the Euler's Buckling Beam type.

  18. Constrained inflaton due to a complex scalar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budhi, Romy H. S.; Kashiwase, Shoichi; Suematsu, Daijiro

    2015-09-01

    We reexamine inflation due to a constrained inflaton in the model of a complex scalar. Inflaton evolves along a spiral-like valley of special scalar potential in the scalar field space just like single field inflation. Sub-Planckian inflaton can induce sufficient e-foldings because of a long slow-roll path. In a special limit, the scalar spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio has equivalent expressions to the inflation with monomial potential varphin. The favorable values for them could be obtained by varying parameters in the potential. This model could be embedded in a certain radiative neutrino mass model

  19. Local structure of equality constrained NLP problems

    SciTech Connect

    Mari, J.

    1994-12-31

    We show that locally around a feasible point, the behavior of an equality constrained nonlinear program is described by the gradient and the Hessian of the Lagrangian on the tangent subspace. In particular this holds true for reduced gradient approaches. Applying the same ideas to the control of nonlinear ODE:s, one can device first and second order methods that can be applied also to stiff problems. We finally describe an application of these ideas to the optimization of the production of human growth factor by fed-batch fermentation.

  20. Constrained inflaton due to a complex scalar

    SciTech Connect

    Budhi, Romy H. S.; Kashiwase, Shoichi; Suematsu, Daijiro

    2015-09-14

    We reexamine inflation due to a constrained inflaton in the model of a complex scalar. Inflaton evolves along a spiral-like valley of special scalar potential in the scalar field space just like single field inflation. Sub-Planckian inflaton can induce sufficient e-foldings because of a long slow-roll path. In a special limit, the scalar spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio has equivalent expressions to the inflation with monomial potential φ{sup n}. The favorable values for them could be obtained by varying parameters in the potential. This model could be embedded in a certain radiative neutrino mass model.